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Sample records for making management decisions

  1. Navy Inventory Management Decision-Making

    MacDonald, Steven

    1997-01-01

    .... This thesis asserts that Navy inventory managers do not have a general tendency to overbuy items, but rather make rational purchasing decisions influenced and motivated by the environment of rewards...

  2. Probabilistic Analysis in Management Decision Making

    Delmar, M. V.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    1992-01-01

    The target group in this paper is people concerned with mathematical economic decision theory. It is shown how the numerically effective First Order Reliability Methods (FORM) can be used in rational management decision making, where some parameters in the applied decision basis are uncertainty...... quantities. The uncertainties are taken into account consistently and the decision analysis is based on the general decision theory in combination with reliability and optimization theory. Examples are shown where the described technique is used and some general conclusion are stated....

  3. Chinese business managers' moral decision-making

    LIN, NASA

    2011-01-01

    The topic of this thesis is about moral decision-making, and the main objective of this study is to research the moral decision-making of Chinese business managers based on the analysis of data. The study adopts systematic literature of qualitative research method and is constructed by means of qualitative analysis of 64 data articles. The 64 data articles are the journals from the Database of Chinese Academic Journals, Journal of Business Ethics and other leading business journals from the y...

  4. Handbook on Decision Making Vol 2 Risk Management in Decision Making

    Lu, Jie; Zhang, Guangquan

    2012-01-01

    This book presents innovative theories, methodologies, and techniques in the field of risk management and decision making. It introduces new research developments and provides a comprehensive image of their potential applications to readers interested in the area. The collection includes: computational intelligence applications in decision making, multi-criteria decision making under risk, risk modelling,forecasting and evaluation, public security and community safety, risk management in supply chain and other business decision making, political risk management and disaster response systems. The book is directed to academic and applied researchers working on risk management, decision making, and management information systems.

  5. Stakeholder Risk Management in Ethical Decision Making

    Lauesen, Linne Marie

    evidence from hybrid organizations as Publicly Owned Enterprises (POEs) mixed of private corporations and political administration. The model offers a new way of combining risk management with ethical decisionmaking processes by the inclusion of multiple stakeholders. Not only does the model apply...... to these kinds of hybrid organizations, but it is easily adopted and tested for other private business models too. The findings and the conceptualization of the model enhances business ethics in decision making by managing and balancing stakeholder concerns with the same concerns as the traditional risk......Stakeholder management has for the last three decades been concerned either with strategic business management or business ethics, values and quality. Many models have been developed, but recently the literature asks for more dynamic models instead of the staticism that characterizes some models...

  6. Merging paradigms: Decision Making, Management, and Cognitive Control

    Rasmussen, Jens

    1996-01-01

    The paper discusses the trend in paradigms within decision research, drifting from concepts of decision making in terms of normative models of 'rational decision making, through behavioral models in terms of 'biases' - deviations from rational models, toward models of actual decision making...... behavior, such as the SRK concept, naturalistic decision making, and dynamic decision making.In this evolution, concepts such as decision making, management, and behavioral control merge and a concurrent change in concepts underlying design of systems aiming at control of behavior is visible, from...

  7. Integrated Traffic Flow Management Decision Making

    Grabbe, Shon R.; Sridhar, Banavar; Mukherjee, Avijit

    2009-01-01

    A generalized approach is proposed to support integrated traffic flow management decision making studies at both the U.S. national and regional levels. It can consider tradeoffs between alternative optimization and heuristic based models, strategic versus tactical flight controls, and system versus fleet preferences. Preliminary testing was accomplished by implementing thirteen unique traffic flow management models, which included all of the key components of the system and conducting 85, six-hour fast-time simulation experiments. These experiments considered variations in the strategic planning look-ahead times, the replanning intervals, and the types of traffic flow management control strategies. Initial testing indicates that longer strategic planning look-ahead times and re-planning intervals result in steadily decreasing levels of sector congestion for a fixed delay level. This applies when accurate estimates of the air traffic demand, airport capacities and airspace capacities are available. In general, the distribution of the delays amongst the users was found to be most equitable when scheduling flights using a heuristic scheduling algorithm, such as ration-by-distance. On the other hand, equity was the worst when using scheduling algorithms that took into account the number of seats aboard each flight. Though the scheduling algorithms were effective at alleviating sector congestion, the tactical rerouting algorithm was the primary control for avoiding en route weather hazards. Finally, the modeled levels of sector congestion, the number of weather incursions, and the total system delays, were found to be in fair agreement with the values that were operationally observed on both good and bad weather days.

  8. Child-parent shared decision making about asthma management.

    Garnett, Victoria; Smith, Joanna; Ormandy, Paula

    2016-05-09

    Aim To explore and describe child-parent shared decision making for the management of childhood asthma. Methods A qualitative, descriptive, interview-based study was undertaken. Eight children and nine parents participated. The framework approach underpinned data analysis. Findings A dynamic model of the way children and parents transfer, shift and share asthma management decisions was uncovered. Asthma management decisions between children and parents were non-linear, with responsibility transferring from parent to child under different conditions. Children made a range of decisions about their asthma, often sharing decisions with their parents. However, during acute illness episodes, children often relied on parents to make decisions about their asthma. Conclusion Neither the child nor parent has complete autonomy over asthma management decisions. Decision making is a dynamic, shifting and shared process, dependent on contextual factors and child and parent decision preferences.

  9. Structured decision making for managing pneumonia epizootics in bighorn sheep

    Sells, Sarah N.; Mitchell, Michael S.; Edwards, Victoria L.; Gude, Justin A.; Anderson, Neil J.

    2016-01-01

    Good decision-making is essential to conserving wildlife populations. Although there may be multiple ways to address a problem, perfect solutions rarely exist. Managers are therefore tasked with identifying decisions that will best achieve desired outcomes. Structured decision making (SDM) is a method of decision analysis used to identify the most effective, efficient, and realistic decisions while accounting for values and priorities of the decision maker. The stepwise process includes identifying the management problem, defining objectives for solving the problem, developing alternative approaches to achieve the objectives, and formally evaluating which alternative is most likely to accomplish the objectives. The SDM process can be more effective than informal decision-making because it provides a transparent way to quantitatively evaluate decisions for addressing multiple management objectives while incorporating science, uncertainty, and risk tolerance. To illustrate the application of this process to a management need, we present an SDM-based decision tool developed to identify optimal decisions for proactively managing risk of pneumonia epizootics in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) in Montana. Pneumonia epizootics are a major challenge for managers due to long-term impacts to herds, epistemic uncertainty in timing and location of future epizootics, and consequent difficulty knowing how or when to manage risk. The decision tool facilitates analysis of alternative decisions for how to manage herds based on predictions from a risk model, herd-specific objectives, and predicted costs and benefits of each alternative. Decision analyses for 2 example herds revealed that meeting management objectives necessitates specific approaches unique to each herd. The analyses showed how and under what circumstances the alternatives are optimal compared to other approaches and current management. Managers can be confident that these decisions are effective, efficient, and

  10. COMMAND-AND-CONTROL AND MANAGEMENT DECISION MAKING,

    Reports that the development of command-and-con trol systems in support of decision making and action taking has been accomplished by military...methods applicable to management systems. Concludes that the command-and-control type system for top management decision making is a man-machine system having as its core an on going, dynamic operation. (Author)

  11. Frequencies of decision making and monitoring in adaptive resource management.

    Byron K Williams

    Full Text Available Adaptive management involves learning-oriented decision making in the presence of uncertainty about the responses of a resource system to management. It is implemented through an iterative sequence of decision making, monitoring and assessment of system responses, and incorporating what is learned into future decision making. Decision making at each point is informed by a value or objective function, for example total harvest anticipated over some time frame. The value function expresses the value associated with decisions, and it is influenced by system status as updated through monitoring. Often, decision making follows shortly after a monitoring event. However, it is certainly possible for the cadence of decision making to differ from that of monitoring. In this paper we consider different combinations of annual and biennial decision making, along with annual and biennial monitoring. With biennial decision making decisions are changed only every other year; with biennial monitoring field data are collected only every other year. Different cadences of decision making combine with annual and biennial monitoring to define 4 scenarios. Under each scenario we describe optimal valuations for active and passive adaptive decision making. We highlight patterns in valuation among scenarios, depending on the occurrence of monitoring and decision making events. Differences between years are tied to the fact that every other year a new decision can be made no matter what the scenario, and state information is available to inform that decision. In the subsequent year, however, in 3 of the 4 scenarios either a decision is repeated or monitoring does not occur (or both. There are substantive differences in optimal values among the scenarios, as well as the optimal policies producing those values. Especially noteworthy is the influence of monitoring cadence on valuation in some years. We highlight patterns in policy and valuation among the scenarios, and

  12. Frequencies of decision making and monitoring in adaptive resource management

    Williams, Byron K.; Johnson, Fred A.

    2017-01-01

    Adaptive management involves learning-oriented decision making in the presence of uncertainty about the responses of a resource system to management. It is implemented through an iterative sequence of decision making, monitoring and assessment of system responses, and incorporating what is learned into future decision making. Decision making at each point is informed by a value or objective function, for example total harvest anticipated over some time frame. The value function expresses the value associated with decisions, and it is influenced by system status as updated through monitoring. Often, decision making follows shortly after a monitoring event. However, it is certainly possible for the cadence of decision making to differ from that of monitoring. In this paper we consider different combinations of annual and biennial decision making, along with annual and biennial monitoring. With biennial decision making decisions are changed only every other year; with biennial monitoring field data are collected only every other year. Different cadences of decision making combine with annual and biennial monitoring to define 4 scenarios. Under each scenario we describe optimal valuations for active and passive adaptive decision making. We highlight patterns in valuation among scenarios, depending on the occurrence of monitoring and decision making events. Differences between years are tied to the fact that every other year a new decision can be made no matter what the scenario, and state information is available to inform that decision. In the subsequent year, however, in 3 of the 4 scenarios either a decision is repeated or monitoring does not occur (or both). There are substantive differences in optimal values among the scenarios, as well as the optimal policies producing those values. Especially noteworthy is the influence of monitoring cadence on valuation in some years. We highlight patterns in policy and valuation among the scenarios, and discuss management

  13. Influence of portofolio management in decision-making

    Rolney Baptestone

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to demonstrate how portfolio management influences the decision-making process in the projects of a financial organization. And to achieve this goal was used the single case study method. In order to reach this goal, the study began by means of bibliometric research on the subject of portfolio management and subsequent bibliographic research on the theme, decision making. Next, the relationships between portfolio management and decision making were studied. The results of the data collected confirmed the relationship between "the use of the project identification process in portfolio management to influence decision making" in order to add value to the business. It is also possible to demonstrate moderately that "the use of criteria for project selection influences the consequences of decision making", helping in the strategic management of the organization. One of the academic contributions was to note a migration of the portfolio management process, such as a tool that only controls the projects that will compose the portfolio of an organization, for a process that aims at a direct alignment with the strategic management of the organization. Regarding the practical implications, it was verified the importance of portfolio analysis for decision making, to the detriment of the evaluation of only one project. Taking into account the profitability and the return on investment of the projects, as the most important aspects for a decision making.

  14. Group decision-making techniques for natural resource management applications

    Coughlan, Beth A.K.; Armour, Carl L.

    1992-01-01

    This report is an introduction to decision analysis and problem-solving techniques for professionals in natural resource management. Although these managers are often called upon to make complex decisions, their training in the natural sciences seldom provides exposure to the decision-making tools developed in management science. Our purpose is to being to fill this gap. We present a general analysis of the pitfalls of group problem solving, and suggestions for improved interactions followed by the specific techniques. Selected techniques are illustrated. The material is easy to understand and apply without previous training or excessive study and is applicable to natural resource management issues.

  15. The impact of management science on political decision making

    White, M. J.

    1971-01-01

    The possible impact on public policy and organizational decision making of operations research/management science (OR/MS) is discussed. Criticisms based on the assumption that OR/MS will have influence on decision making and criticisms based on the assumption that it will have no influence are described. New directions in the analysis of analysis and in thinking about policy making are also considered.

  16. A dataset of human decision-making in teamwork management

    Yu, Han; Shen, Zhiqi; Miao, Chunyan; Leung, Cyril; Chen, Yiqiang; Fauvel, Simon; Lin, Jun; Cui, Lizhen; Pan, Zhengxiang; Yang, Qiang

    2017-01-01

    Today, most endeavours require teamwork by people with diverse skills and characteristics. In managing teamwork, decisions are often made under uncertainty and resource constraints. The strategies and the effectiveness of the strategies different people adopt to manage teamwork under different situations have not yet been fully explored, partially due to a lack of detailed large-scale data. In this paper, we describe a multi-faceted large-scale dataset to bridge this gap. It is derived from a game simulating complex project management processes. It presents the participants with different conditions in terms of team members' capabilities and task characteristics for them to exhibit their decision-making strategies. The dataset contains detailed data reflecting the decision situations, decision strategies, decision outcomes, and the emotional responses of 1,144 participants from diverse backgrounds. To our knowledge, this is the first dataset simultaneously covering these four facets of decision-making. With repeated measurements, the dataset may help establish baseline variability of decision-making in teamwork management, leading to more realistic decision theoretic models and more effective decision support approaches.

  17. Improving IT Portfolio Management Decision Confidence Using Multi-Criteria Decision Making and Hypervariate Display Techniques

    Landmesser, John Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Information technology (IT) investment decision makers are required to process large volumes of complex data. An existing body of knowledge relevant to IT portfolio management (PfM), decision analysis, visual comprehension of large volumes of information, and IT investment decision making suggest Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) and…

  18. A Multidimensional Ethics Scale for Indian Managers' Moral Decision Making

    Gupta, Seema

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the role of traditional moral theories in managers’ moral decision making using the multidimensional ethics scale (MES) developed and refined by Reidenbach and Robin (1988, 1990). This study extends their work by examining the applicability of the scale to subjects from India, other than the country in which the scale was developed. The research question is: what kind of ethical dimensions do Indian managers reveal when they are making moral decisions. Factor analysis is d...

  19. Decision-making methodology for management of hazardous waste

    Philbin, J.S.; Cranwell, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    A decision-making methodology is presented that combines systems and risk analysis techniques to evaluate hazardous waste management practices associated with DOE weapon production operations. The methodology provides a systematic approach to examining waste generation and waste handling practices in addition to the more visible disposal practices. Release-exposure scenarios for hazardous waste operations are identified and operational risk is determined. Comparisons may be made between existing and alternative waste management practices (and processes) on the basis of overall risk, cost and compliance with regulations. Managers can use this methodology to make and defend resource allocation decisions and to prioritize research needs

  20. Making Informed Decisions: Management Issues Influencing Computers in the Classroom.

    Strickland, James

    A number of noninstructional factors appear to determine the extent to which computers make a difference in writing instruction. Once computers have been purchased and installed, it is generally school administrators who make management decisions, often from an uninformed pedagogical orientation. Issues such as what hardware and software to buy,…

  1. Guidance Tools for Use in Nuclear Material Management Decisions Making

    Johnson, G. V.; Baker, D. J.; Sorenson, K. B.; Boeke, S. G.

    2002-02-26

    This paper describes the results of Recommendation 14 of the Integrated Nuclear Materials Management Plan (INMMP) which was the product of a management initiative at the highest levels of the Department of Energy responding to a congressional directive to accelerate the work of achieving integration and cutting long-term costs associated with the management of nuclear materials, with the principal focus on excess materials. The INMMP provided direction to ''Develop policy-level decision support tools to support long-term planning and decision making.'' To accomplish this goal a team from the Savannah River Site, Sandia National Laboratories, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), and the U.S. Department of Energy experienced in the decision-making process developed a Guidebook to Decision-Making Methods. The goal of the team organized to implement Recommendation 14 was to instill transparency, consistency, rigor, and discipline in the DOE decision process. The guidebook introduces a process and a selection of proven methods for disciplined decision-making so that the results are clearer, more transparent, and easier for reviewers to understand and accept. It was written to set a standard for a consistent decision process.

  2. Decision Making

    Pier Luigi Baldi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This article points out some conditions which significantly exert an influence upon decision and compares decision making and problem solving as interconnected processes. Some strategies of decision making are also examined.

  3. Decision making model and behavior of Iranian top managers

    Aliakbar Farhangi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aesthetics relates to felt meaning generated from sensory perceptions, and involves subjective,tacit knowledge rooted in feeling and emotion. We believe the aesthetics of management isimportant, but little understood, aspect of organizational life. We propose that followers use theiraesthetic senses in making these assessments.In this article we try to discover the role of aesthetic in management and then try to find out thestyle of about 130 industrial and governmental top managers in Iran using some technique such asquestionnaire and interview. The personality and character of them will be recognized by some testsuch as KAI, MBIT, CPS, Cooper-Smith self-esteem, management style, machiavellism, internaland external control, behavior, attitude and their methods in problem solving and decision making,and the effect of this ability in productivity of their organization.At the end of this study we find out that they are strongly thinking, judging and intuition but half ofthem are extraversion. their personality & character, attitude, skills, professions, perception are soimportant for management and in making a decision more than Two-thirds:-If they make a decision never change it.-Use their aesthetic to judge others and events or found out the right way if it is rational and there isenough evidence.-Uses his experience and knowledge for decision but asks others to suggest a solution or solve theproblem.

  4. Decision Making Based On Management Information System and Decision Support System

    Şükrü Ada

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Information hasbecome an essentialresource for managing modern organizations. This is so because today’sbusiness environment is volatile, dynamic, turbulent and necessitates the burgeoning demand for accurate, relevant, complete,timely and economical information needed to drive the decision-making process in order to accentuate organizational abilities to manage opportunities and threat. MIS work on online mode with an average processing speed. Generally, it is used by low level management. Decision support system are powerful tool that assist corporate executives, administrators and other senior officials in making decision regarding the problem. Management Information Systems is a useful tool that provided organized and summarized information in a proper time to decision makers and enable making accurate decision for managers in organizations. This paper will discuss the concept, characteristics, types of MIS, the MIS model, and in particular it will highlight the impact and role of MIS on decision making.

  5. Fleet Management Decision Making With Individual Aircraft Tracking Data

    Newcamp, Jeffrey; Verhagen, W.J.C.; Curran, R.

    2017-01-01

    Individual aircraft tracking data can be used by aircraft fleet managers to detect patterns in historical usage as a means to aid aging aircraft decision-making. This work tackles two aspects of applying these tracking data: investigating retirement patterns and assessing how base assignment can

  6. Information sources for decision making by senior managers in two ...

    Senior managers shoulder the responsibility of formulating policies that organization needs for the smooth running of their individuals establishments. The quality of decision made is also dependent on how current the sources of information utilized to make it. Much of policies formulated for national development have little ...

  7. Multiobjective decision-making in integrated water management

    Wind, H.G.; Pouwels, I.H.M.; Pouwels, I.H.M.; Witter, V.J.

    1995-01-01

    Traditionally, decision-making by water authorities in the Netherlands is largely based on intuition. Their tasks were, after all, relatively few and straight-forward. The growing number of tasks, together with the new integrated approach on water management issues, however, induces water

  8. Sport Management Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy

    Lumpkin, Angela; Franco, Dan; Multon, Karen; Achen, Rebecca M.

    2017-01-01

    Grounded in a social cognitive theoretical perspective, this study explores the career decision-making self-efficacy (CDSE) and vocational identity development process for college students interested or majoring in sport management. While a popular undergraduate major, little research has investigated the specific factors that influence different…

  9. Integrating environmental monitoring with cumulative effects management and decision making.

    Cronmiller, Joshua G; Noble, Bram F

    2018-05-01

    Cumulative effects (CE) monitoring is foundational to emerging regional and watershed CE management frameworks, yet monitoring is often poorly integrated with CE management and decision-making processes. The challenges are largely institutional and organizational, more so than scientific or technical. Calls for improved integration of monitoring with CE management and decision making are not new, but there has been limited research on how best to integrate environmental monitoring programs to ensure credible CE science and to deliver results that respond to the more immediate questions and needs of regulatory decision makers. This paper examines options for the integration of environmental monitoring with CE frameworks. Based on semistructured interviews with practitioners, regulators, and other experts in the Lower Athabasca, Alberta, Canada, 3 approaches to monitoring system design are presented. First, a distributed monitoring system, reflecting the current approach in the Lower Athabasca, where monitoring is delegated to different external programs and organizations; second, a 1-window system in which monitoring is undertaken by a single, in-house agency for the purpose of informing management and regulatory decision making; third, an independent system driven primarily by CE science and understanding causal relationships, with knowledge adopted for decision support where relevant to specific management questions. The strengths and limitations of each approach are presented. A hybrid approach may be optimal-an independent, nongovernment, 1-window model for CE science, monitoring, and information delivery-capitalizing on the strengths of distributed, 1-window, and independent monitoring systems while mitigating their weaknesses. If governments are committed to solving CE problems, they must invest in the long-term science needed to do so; at the same time, if science-based monitoring programs are to be sustainable over the long term, they must be responsive to

  10. Iowa pavement asset management decision-making framework.

    2015-10-01

    Most local agencies in Iowa currently make their pavement treatment decisions based on their limited experience due primarily to : lack of a systematic decision-making framework and a decision-aid tool. The lack of objective condition assessment data...

  11. Nuclear Waste Management Decision-Making Support with MCDA

    A. Schwenk-Ferrero

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA framework for a comparative evaluation of nuclear waste management strategies taking into account different local perspectives (expert and stakeholder opinions. Of note, a novel approach is taken using a multiple-criteria formulation that is methodologically adapted to tackle various conflicting criteria and a large number of expert/stakeholder groups involved in the decision-making process. The purpose is to develop a framework and to show its application to qualitative comparison and ranking of options in a hypothetical case of three waste management alternatives: interim storage at and/or away from the reactor site for the next 100 years, interim decay storage followed in midterm by disposal in a national repository, and disposal in a multinational repository. Additionally, major aspects of a decision-making aid are identified and discussed in separate paper sections dedicated to application context, decision supporting process, in particular problem structuring, objective hierarchy, performance evaluation modeling, sensitivity/robustness analyses, and interpretation of results (practical impact. The aim of the paper is to demonstrate the application of the MCDA framework developed to a generic hypothetical case and indicate how MCDA could support a decision on nuclear waste management policies in a “small” newcomer country embarking on nuclear technology in the future.

  12. Stepwise Decision Making for Long-Term Radioactive Waste Management

    Pescatore, Claudio; Vari, Anna

    2003-01-01

    Consideration is increasingly being given, in radioactive waste management (RWM), to concepts such as 'stepwise decision making' and 'adaptive staging' in which the public, and especially the local communities, are also meaningfully involved in the review and planning of developments. The key feature of these concepts is development by steps or stages that are reversible, within the limits of practicability and provided they meet the requirements of an acceptable safety case. Stepwise decisions are designed to provide reassurance that actions can be reversed if experience shows them to have adverse or unwanted effects. Stepwise decision making has thus come to the fore as being especially important for making progress for radioactive waste management in a manner which is acceptable to large sectors of society. Despite its early identification within the RWM community as an important means for reaching decision in which there is broad-based confidence, stepwise decision making has not been widely debated. Accepted guiding principles of any such process have not yet been formulated, its roots in empirical social science research have not been fully reviewed, nor the difficulties of its implementation analysed. This paper reviews the current developments regarding stepwise decision making in RWM with the aim to pinpoint where it stands, to highlight its societal dimension, to analyse its roots in social sciences, and to identify guiding principles and issues in implementation. It is observed that there is convergence between the approach taken by the practitioners of RWM and the indications received from field studies in social research, and that general guiding principles can be proposed at least as a basis for further discussion. A strong basis for dialogue across disciplines thus exists. General methodological issues are also identified. This paper was developed in the framework of the activities of the NEA Forum on Stakeholder Confidence, which is presented in a

  13. The Evidential Basis of Decision Making in Plant Disease Management.

    Hughes, Gareth

    2017-08-04

    The evidential basis for disease management decision making is provided by data relating to risk factors. The decision process involves an assessment of the evidence leading to taking (or refraining from) action on the basis of a prediction. The primary objective of the decision process is to identify-at the time the decision is made-the control action that provides the best predicted end-of-season outcome, calculated in terms of revenue or another appropriate metric. Data relating to disease risk factors may take a variety of forms (e.g., continuous, discrete, categorical) on measurement scales in a variety of units. Log 10 -likelihood ratios provide a principled basis for the accumulation of evidence based on such data and allow predictions to be made via Bayesian updating of prior probabilities.

  14. Decision making.

    Chambers, David W

    2011-01-01

    A decision is a commitment of resources under conditions of risk in expectation of the best future outcome. The smart decision is always the strategy with the best overall expected value-the best combination of facts and values. Some of the special circumstances involved in decision making are discussed, including decisions where there are multiple goals, those where more than one person is involved in making the decision, using trigger points, framing decisions correctly, commitments to lost causes, and expert decision makers. A complex example of deciding about removal of asymptomatic third molars, with and without an EBD search, is discussed.

  15. How customer relationship management influences making better decisions

    Fatemeh Izadi Manesh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Customers are the primary sources of making appropriate decisions and their feedbacks normally help us improve the quality of systems. In this paper, we present an empirical study to detect important factors influencing managers of banking industry make better decisions. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale consists of 32 questions, distributes it among some bank managers. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.805. In addition, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy and Approx. Chi-Square are 0.701 and 1675, respectively. Based on the results of our survey, we have derived nine factors including customers’ welfare strategy, systems integration, organizational culture assessment, corporate strategies, organizational development, intelligence data strategies, supporting strategies, resource planning as well as research and development.

  16. Shared decision making and medication management in the recovery process.

    Deegan, Patricia E; Drake, Robert E

    2006-11-01

    Mental health professionals commonly conceptualize medication management for people with severe mental illness in terms of strategies to increase compliance or adherence. The authors argue that compliance is an inadequate construct because it fails to capture the dynamic complexity of autonomous clients who must navigate decisional conflicts in learning to manage disorders over the course of years or decades. Compliance is rooted in medical paternalism and is at odds with principles of person-centered care and evidence-based medicine. Using medication is an active process that involves complex decision making and a chance to work through decisional conflicts. It requires a partnership between two experts: the client and the practitioner. Shared decision making provides a model for them to assess a treatment's advantages and disadvantages within the context of recovering a life after a diagnosis of a major mental disorder.

  17. Contingency Management and deliberative decision-making processes

    Paul S. Regier

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Contingency Management is an effective treatment for drug addiction. The current explanation for its success is rooted in alternative reinforcement theory. We suggest that alternative reinforcement theory is inadequate to explain the success of Contingency Management and produce a model based on demand curves that show how little the monetary rewards offered in this treatment would affect drug use. Instead, we offer an explanation of its success based on the concept that it accesses deliberative decision-making processes. We suggest that Contingency Management is effective because it offers a concrete and immediate alternative to using drugs, which engages deliberative processes, improves the ability of those deliberative processes to attend to non-drug options, and offsets more automatic action-selection systems. This theory makes explicit predictions that can be tested, suggests which users will be most helped by Contingency Management, and suggests improvements in its implementation.

  18. Contingency Management and Deliberative Decision-Making Processes.

    Regier, Paul S; Redish, A David

    2015-01-01

    Contingency management is an effective treatment for drug addiction. The current explanation for its success is rooted in alternative reinforcement theory. We suggest that alternative reinforcement theory is inadequate to explain the success of contingency management and produce a model based on demand curves that show how little the monetary rewards offered in this treatment would affect drug use. Instead, we offer an explanation of its success based on the concept that it accesses deliberative decision-making processes. We suggest that contingency management is effective because it offers a concrete and immediate alternative to using drugs, which engages deliberative processes, improves the ability of those deliberative processes to attend to non-drug options, and offsets more automatic action-selection systems. This theory makes explicit predictions that can be tested, suggests which users will be most helped by contingency management, and suggests improvements in its implementation.

  19. THE IMPORTANCE OF BENCHMARKING IN MAKING MANAGEMENT DECISIONS

    Adriana-Mihaela IONESCU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Launching a new business or project leads managers to make decisions and choose strategies that will then apply in their company. Most often, they take decisions only on instinct, but there are also companies that use benchmarking studies. Benchmarking is a highly effective management tool and is useful in the new competitive environment that has emerged from the need of organizations to constantly improve their performance in order to be competitive. Using this benchmarking process, organizations try to find the best practices applied in a business, learn from famous leaders and identify ways to increase their performance and competitiveness. Thus, managers gather information about market trends and about competitors, especially about the leaders in the field, and use these information in finding ideas and setting of guidelines for development. Benchmarking studies are often used in businesses of commerce, real estate, and industry and high-tech software.

  20. Resolving future fire management conflicts using multicriteria decision making.

    Driscoll, Don A; Bode, Michael; Bradstock, Ross A; Keith, David A; Penman, Trent D; Price, Owen F

    2016-02-01

    Management strategies to reduce the risks to human life and property from wildfire commonly involve burning native vegetation. However, planned burning can conflict with other societal objectives such as human health and biodiversity conservation. These conflicts are likely to intensify as fire regimes change under future climates and as growing human populations encroach farther into fire-prone ecosystems. Decisions about managing fire risks are therefore complex and warrant more sophisticated approaches than are typically used. We applied a multicriteria decision making approach (MCDA) with the potential to improve fire management outcomes to the case of a highly populated, biodiverse, and flammable wildland-urban interface. We considered the effects of 22 planned burning options on 8 objectives: house protection, maximizing water quality, minimizing carbon emissions and impacts on human health, and minimizing declines of 5 distinct species types. The MCDA identified a small number of management options (burning forest adjacent to houses) that performed well for most objectives, but not for one species type (arboreal mammal) or for water quality. Although MCDA made the conflict between objectives explicit, resolution of the problem depended on the weighting assigned to each objective. Additive weighting of criteria traded off the arboreal mammal and water quality objectives for other objectives. Multiplicative weighting identified scenarios that avoided poor outcomes for any objective, which is important for avoiding potentially irreversible biodiversity losses. To distinguish reliably among management options, future work should focus on reducing uncertainty in outcomes across a range of objectives. Considering management actions that have more predictable outcomes than landscape fuel management will be important. We found that, where data were adequate, an MCDA can support decision making in the complex and often conflicted area of fire management. © 2015

  1. Development of the decision make supporting system on incident management

    Kasamatsu, Mizuki; Hanada, Satoshi; Noda, Eisuke

    2017-01-01

    Decision Make Supporting System is designed to support appropriate decision made by top management in the nuclear severe conditions. With crisis response in nuclear power plant (NPP), information entanglement between sites and control centers during intense situations interfere with prompt and accurate decision making. This research started with that kind of background. In order to solve the issue of the information entanglement, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Inc. (MHI) carried out the development of the Decision Make Supporting System and the system applies the technology combining the human factors engineering (HFE) and information and communication technology (ICT). During the crisis response, various commands, reactions and communications in a human system need to be managed. Therefore, the combined HFE method including detailed task analysis, user experience (UX), graphic user interface (GUI) and related human-system interface (HSI) design method is applied to the design of the system. These design results systematize the functions that prevent interference with decision-making in the headquarters for incident management. This new solution as a system enhances the safety improvement of the NPP and contributes to develop the skills and abilities of the resources in the NPP. The system has three key features for supporting emergency situations: 'understanding the situation', 'planning the next action', and 'managing resources'. The system helps commanders and responders to grasp the whole situation and allows them to share information in real time to get a whole picture, and the system accumulates the data of the past events in the chronological order to understand correctly how they happened and plan the next action by using a knowledge database that MHI has been developed. If the unexpected event happens which are not in the incident scenario, the system provides support to formulate alternative strategies and measures. With this

  2. Navigating Sustainability Embeddedness in Management Decision-Making

    Catherine Le Roux

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is an essential theme for business. In order to compete, strategies need to be improvised and efficient and effective decisions need to be made for improved sustainability performance. Despite management’s apparent knowledge of this, it appears that challenges persist with sustainability’s embeddedness in decision-making and its implementation in practice. In this study we propose a metaphor applying an integrative view of sustainability as support for management. We offer six antecedents of sustainability embeddedness in decision-making that contribute to building and confirming theory, and also provide a better understanding of current practice around sustainability embeddedness so that strategies can be developed for improved sustainability performance. Employees on all management levels in a stock exchange listed company provided rich empirical data for the study. Through the analysis of data in a case study, antecedents were inductively identified, conceptualized, and presented as using descriptive labels, namely: A True North Destination—a vision of sustainability embeddedness; Mountains—three obstacles; Fog—confusion and complexity; Myopia—shortsightedness; Navigation Necessities—requirements for the journey; and finally, the Chosen Team—selected stakeholders. Sustainability embeddedness was found to be dependent on leadership, the strategy message and structures, performance measures, and policies that support a unified culture for sustainability embeddedness.

  3. Heuristics in Managing Complex Clinical Decision Tasks in Experts' Decision Making.

    Islam, Roosan; Weir, Charlene; Del Fiol, Guilherme

    2014-09-01

    Clinical decision support is a tool to help experts make optimal and efficient decisions. However, little is known about the high level of abstractions in the thinking process for the experts. The objective of the study is to understand how clinicians manage complexity while dealing with complex clinical decision tasks. After approval from the Institutional Review Board (IRB), three clinical experts were interviewed the transcripts from these interviews were analyzed. We found five broad categories of strategies by experts for managing complex clinical decision tasks: decision conflict, mental projection, decision trade-offs, managing uncertainty and generating rule of thumb. Complexity is created by decision conflicts, mental projection, limited options and treatment uncertainty. Experts cope with complexity in a variety of ways, including using efficient and fast decision strategies to simplify complex decision tasks, mentally simulating outcomes and focusing on only the most relevant information. Understanding complex decision making processes can help design allocation based on the complexity of task for clinical decision support design.

  4. Bring Your Own Device and Nurse Managers' Decision Making.

    Martinez, Karen; Borycki, Elizabeth; Courtney, Karen L

    2017-02-01

    The Bring Your Own Device phenomenon is important in the healthcare environment because this trend is changing the workplace in healthcare organizations, such as British Columbia. At present, there is little research that exists in Canada to provide a distinct understanding of the complexities and difficulties unique to this phenomenon within the nursing practice. This study focused on the experiences and perceptions of nurse managers regarding how they make decisions on the use of personal handheld devices in the workplace. Telephone interviews (N = 10) and qualitative descriptive analysis were used. Four major themes emerged: (1) management perspective, (2) opportunities, (3) disadvantages, and (4) solutions. Nurse managers and other executives in healthcare organizations and health information technology departments need to be aware of the practice and organizational implications of the Bring Your Own Device movement.

  5. Conceptualization of a Collaborative Decision Making for Flood Disaster Management

    Nur Aishah Zubir, Siti; Thiruchelvam, Sivadass; Nasharuddin Mustapha, Kamal; Che Muda, Zakaria; Ghazali, Azrul; Hakimie, Hazlinda; Razak, Normy Norfiza Abdul; Aziz Mat Isa, Abdul; Hasini, Hasril; Sahari, Khairul Salleh Mohamed; Mat Husin, Norhayati; Ezanee Rusli, Mohd; Sabri Muda, Rahsidi; Mohd Sidek, Lariyah; Basri, Hidayah; Tukiman, Izawati

    2016-03-01

    Flooding is the utmost major natural hazard in Malaysia in terms of populations affected, frequency, area extent, flood duration and social economic damage. The recent flood devastation towards the end of 2014 witnessed almost 250,000 people being displaced from eight states in Peninsular Malaysia. The affected victims required evacuation within a short period of time to the designated evacuation centres. An effective and efficient flood disaster management would assure non-futile efforts for life-saving. Effective flood disaster management requires collective and cooperative emergency teamwork from various government agencies. Intergovernmental collaborations among government agencies at different levels have become part of flood disaster management due to the need for sharing resources and coordinating efforts. Collaborative decision making during disaster is an integral element in providing prompt and effective response for evacuating the victims.

  6. Crisis Management: Psychological and Sociological Factors in Decision Making

    1975-03-01

    Section A. Cognitive Prooeaes While what has been a Ued the " rational model" of decision - making may not adequately account for the operation of the...obstacles blocking rational decision - making . 7. What part does fatigue play in reacting to a crisis? Fatigue results from two factors. First...further important question of the impact of these variables on decision - making . It is a difficult theoretical problem to link the maladaptive emotional

  7. The Influnce of Metacognition on Managerial Hiring Decision Making: Implications for Management Development

    Kumar, Angela Ewell

    1998-01-01

    THE INFLUENCE OF METACOGNITION ON MANAGERIAL HIRING DECISION MAKING: IMPLICATIONS FOR MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT by Angela Ewell Kumar (ABSTRACT) Cognitive processing has a primary role in decision making. In addition, metacognition, the regulation and knowledge of cognition, affects decision making in a consistent and predictable way. Novices explain situations in a simple way. Novices are more likely to make inappropriate decisions. Research suggests that train...

  8. Multi-criteria decision making for water resource management: a ...

    2010-01-04

    Jan 4, 2010 ... reliable information about the river basin in terms of physical, hydrological ... decision making (MCDM) methods to cope with water-related problems in .... tial tool to account for water availability and demand scenar- ios, and ...

  9. Marketing Decision Making and Decision Support: Challenges and Perspectives for Successful Marketing Management Support Systems

    G.H. van Bruggen (Gerrit); B. Wierenga (Berend)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractMarketing management support systems (MMSS) are computer-enabled devices that help marketers to make better decisions. Marketing processes can be quite complex, involving large numbers of variables and mostly outcomes are the results of the actions of many different stakeholders (e.g.,

  10. Management decision making for fisher populations informed by occupancy modeling

    Fuller, Angela K.; Linden, Daniel W.; Royle, J. Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Harvest data are often used by wildlife managers when setting harvest regulations for species because the data are regularly collected and do not require implementation of logistically and financially challenging studies to obtain the data. However, when harvest data are not available because an area had not previously supported a harvest season, alternative approaches are required to help inform management decision making. When distribution or density data are required across large areas, occupancy modeling is a useful approach, and under certain conditions, can be used as a surrogate for density. We collaborated with the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) to conduct a camera trapping study across a 70,096-km2 region of southern New York in areas that were currently open to fisher (Pekania [Martes] pennanti) harvest and those that had been closed to harvest for approximately 65 years. We used detection–nondetection data at 826 sites to model occupancy as a function of site-level landscape characteristics while accounting for sampling variation. Fisher occupancy was influenced positively by the proportion of conifer and mixed-wood forest within a 15-km2 grid cell and negatively associated with road density and the proportion of agriculture. Model-averaged predictions indicated high occupancy probabilities (>0.90) when road densities were low (0.50). Predicted occupancy ranged 0.41–0.67 in wildlife management units (WMUs) currently open to trapping, which could be used to guide a minimum occupancy threshold for opening new areas to trapping seasons. There were 5 WMUs that had been closed to trapping but had an average predicted occupancy of 0.52 (0.07 SE), and above the threshold of 0.41. These areas are currently under consideration by NYSDEC for opening a conservative harvest season. We demonstrate the use of occupancy modeling as an aid to management decision making when harvest-related data are unavailable and when budgetary

  11. Creative Accounting and Impact on Management Decision Making

    Sunday O. Effiok; Okon E. Eton

    2012-01-01

    The study was conducted to appraise the impact of creative accounting on management decisions of selected companies listed in the Nigerian Stock Exchange. With the background, the main objective of the study includes the examination of the extent to which macro-manipulation of financial statement affects management decisions; to examine the extent to which macro-manipulation of financial statement affects share price performance; and to determine the impact of misreported assets and liabiliti...

  12. Clinical decision-making by midwives: managing case complexity.

    Cioffi, J; Markham, R

    1997-02-01

    In making clinical judgements, it is argued that midwives use 'shortcuts' or heuristics based on estimated probabilities to simplify the decision-making task. Midwives (n = 30) were given simulated patient assessment situations of high and low complexity and were required to think aloud. Analysis of verbal protocols showed that subjective probability judgements (heuristics) were used more frequently in the high than low complexity case and predominated in the last quarter of the assessment period for the high complexity case. 'Representativeness' was identified more frequently in the high than in the low case, but was the dominant heuristic in both. Reports completed after each simulation suggest that heuristics based on memory for particular conditions affect decisions. It is concluded that midwives use heuristics, derived mainly from their clinical experiences, in an attempt to save cognitive effort and to facilitate reasonably accurate decisions in the decision-making process.

  13. Nurse manager cognitive decision-making amidst stress and work complexity.

    Shirey, Maria R; Ebright, Patricia R; McDaniel, Anna M

    2013-01-01

      The present study provides insight into nurse manager cognitive decision-making amidst stress and work complexity.   Little is known about nurse manager decision-making amidst stress and work complexity. Because nurse manager decisions have the potential to impact patient care quality and safety, understanding their decision-making processes is useful for designing supportive interventions.   This qualitative descriptive study interviewed 21 nurse managers from three hospitals to answer the research question: What decision-making processes do nurse managers utilize to address stressful situations in their nurse manager role? Face-to-face interviews incorporating components of the Critical Decision Method illuminated expert-novice practice differences. Content analysis identified one major theme and three sub-themes.   The present study produced a cognitive model that guides nurse manager decision-making related to stressful situations. Experience in the role, organizational context and situation factors influenced nurse manager cognitive decision-making processes.   Study findings suggest that chronic exposure to stress and work complexity negatively affects nurse manager health and their decision-making processes potentially threatening individual, patient and organizational outcomes.   Cognitive decision-making varies based on nurse manager experience and these differences have coaching and mentoring implications. This present study contributes a current understanding of nurse manager decision-making amidst stress and work complexity. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Game Methods of Collective Decision Making in Management Consulting.

    Prigozhin, Arkadii Il'ich

    1991-01-01

    Explores former Soviet management consultants' increased use of social psychological game methods. Identifies such games as means of involving segments of client organizations in accomplishing shared tasks. Proposes a "practical" business game, designed to shape the process of formulating new management decisions at a radical level.…

  15. Bayesian framework for managing preferences in decision-making

    Maes, Marc A.; Faber, Michael H.

    2006-01-01

    A rational decision-making process does not exclude the possibility of decision makers expressing different preferences and disagreeing regarding the effects of consequences and optimal course of actions. This point of view is explored in depth in this paper. A framework is developed that includes several decision makers (instead of just one) and allows for the variability of preferences among these decision makers. The information provided by the varying opinions of decision makers can be used to optimize our own decision-making. To achieve this, likelihood functions are developed for stated preferences among both discrete and continuous alternatives, and stated preference rankings of alternatives. Two applications are pursued: the optimization of the lifecycle utility of a structural system subject to consequences of failure proportional to the intensity of hazards exceeding a variable threshold, and to follow-up consequences. Also, the problem of tight decisions or close calls is investigated in order to explore the efficiency of a Bayesian approach using stated preferences and stated rankings

  16. Hospital managers' need for information in decision-making

    Kidholm, Kristian; Ølholm, Anne Mette; Birk-Olsen, Mette

    2015-01-01

    Assessments of new health technologies in Europe are often made at the hospital level. However, the guidelines for health technology assessment (HTA), e.g. the EUnetHTA Core Model, are produced by national HTA organizations and focus on decision-making at the national level. This paper describes ...

  17. Risk management in facility transition and management decision making: Needs and opportunities

    Stillwell, W.; Seaver, D.; Keller, J.; Smith, D.; Weaver, D.; Sanders, T.; Thullen, P.

    1993-02-01

    An overall approach to risk management is described in this paper. Many of these concepts have been developed and applied as part of Hanford Mission Planning (HMP) (Hanford Mission Plan, 1992). At Hanford, HMP provides a mechanism for integrating planning across all the missions and programs of the site. This paper discusses the decision context within which EM must make and defend decisions, the types of decisions that are being and will need to be made in order to progress with the cleanup of the DOE complex, and the resulting need for risk management. Risk management, in turn, requires quality health and ecological risk information to make these decisions. Other types of information are also needed, but the risk information is typically the most important and the most difficult to obtain. The paper then describes a general technical approach to risk management, including particular methods for developing the high quality of human health and ecological risk information that will be needed to support risk management. We next turn to several special issues that make risk management more complex than many other decisions. We discuss these issues and offer some practical suggestions with respect to addressing them in the risk management framework. Finally, we conclude with some discussion of other opportunities for applying risk management

  18. A queueing model of pilot decision making in a multi-task flight management situation

    Walden, R. S.; Rouse, W. B.

    1977-01-01

    Allocation of decision making responsibility between pilot and computer is considered and a flight management task, designed for the study of pilot-computer interaction, is discussed. A queueing theory model of pilot decision making in this multi-task, control and monitoring situation is presented. An experimental investigation of pilot decision making and the resulting model parameters are discussed.

  19. Using Personality Data to Make Decisions about Global Managers

    Ramesh, Anuradha; Hazucha, Joy F.; Bank, Jurgen

    2008-01-01

    A major challenge that decisions makers face in multi-national organizations is how to compare managers from different parts of the globe. This challenge is both psychometric and practical. We draw on the cross-cultural psychology literature to propose a three-step framework to compare personality data from different countries. The first step…

  20. Decision making model and behavior of Iranian top managers

    Aliakbar Farhangi; Seyed Reza Seyed Javadin; Majid balali; Seyed Badredin Ahmadi

    2010-01-01

    Aesthetics relates to felt meaning generated from sensory perceptions, and involves subjective,tacit knowledge rooted in feeling and emotion. We believe the aesthetics of management isimportant, but little understood, aspect of organizational life. We propose that followers use theiraesthetic senses in making these assessments.In this article we try to discover the role of aesthetic in management and then try to find out thestyle of about 130 industrial and governmental top managers in Iran u...

  1. Decision making and senior management: the implementation of change projects covering clinical management in SUS hospitals.

    Pacheco, José Márcio da Cunha; Gomes, Romeu

    2016-08-01

    This paper analyses the decision making process for senior management in public hospitals that are a part of the National Health Service in Brazil (hereafter SUS) in relation to projects aimed at changing clinical management. The methodological design of this study is qualitative in nature taking a hermeneutics-dialectics perspective in terms of results. Hospital directors noted that clinical management projects changed the state of hospitals through: improving their organizations, mobilizing their staff in order to increase a sense of order and systemizing actions and available resources. Technical rationality was the principal basis used in the decision making process for managers. Due to the reality of many hospitals having fragmented organizations, this fact impeded the use of aspects related to rationality, such as economic and financial factors in the decision making process. The incremental model and general politics also play a role in this area. We concluded that the decision making process embraces a large array of factors including rational aspects such as the use of management techniques and the ability to analyze, interpret and summarize. It also incorporates subjective elements such as how to select values and dealing with people's working experiences. We recognized that management problems are wide in scope, ambiguous, complex and do not come with a lot of structure in practice.

  2. Analysis of the decision-making process of nurse managers: a collective reflection.

    Eduardo, Elizabete Araujo; Peres, Aida Maris; de Almeida, Maria de Lourdes; Roglio, Karina de Dea; Bernardino, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    to analyze the decision-making model adopted by nurses from the perspective of some decision-making process theories. qualitative approach, based on action research. Semi-structured questionnaires and seminars were conducted from April to June 2012 in order to understand the nature of decisions and the decision-making process of nine nurses in position of managers at a public hospital in Southern Brazil. Data were subjected to content analysis. data were classified in two categories: the current situation of decision-making, which showed a lack of systematization; the construction and collective decision-making, which emphasizes the need to develop a decision-making model. the decision-making model used by nurses is limited because it does not consider two important factors: the limits of human rationality, and the external and internal organizational environments that influence and determine right decisions.

  3. Decision Making and Risk Management in Adventure Sports Coaching

    Collins, Loel; Collins, Dave

    2013-01-01

    Adventure sport coaches practice in environments that are dynamic and high in risk, both perceived and actual. The inherent risks associated with these activities, individuals' responses and the optimal exploitation of both combine to make the processes of risk management more complex and hazardous than the traditional sports where risk management…

  4. Connecting engineering operations to strategic management: a framework for decision making in engineering offshoring

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2012-01-01

    of the organisation. The Global Decision-Making (GDM) framework described here is a decision-making framework for engineering offshoring decisions for product development activities. The framework proposes that risks in engineering offshoring can be reduced by connecting engineering operations to strategic management...

  5. THE INFLUENCE OF TOP MANAGEMENT DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS ON DECISION MAKING APPROACHES

    Ivana Bulog

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Today’s organizational environment requires managers to be an excellent decision maker with the ability to make effective decisions which will shape business performance. Because of the role that managers have in today’s business settings, research interest in the relationship between individual characteristics and managerial decision making in all its aspects has increased over the last decade. This paper aims to provide an overview and discussion of how individuals make choices and decisions by examining the influence of top management demographic characteristics on decision making approaches. Findings suggest that demographic characteristics appear to be valuable for predicting which decision making approach managers prefer. The results of the study show that the average age and education level of decision makers is positively related to the rational decision making approach and negatively to the intuitive decision making approach. Tenure is positively related to the intuitive decision making approach, but the influence is not statistically significant. Also, a difference in the decision making approach was found with respect to gender. In light of the research findings, implications and limitations were discussed and some possibilities for future research are suggested.

  6. Decision making for wildfires: A guide for applying a risk management process at the incident level

    Mary A. Taber; Lisa M. Elenz; Paul G. Langowski

    2013-01-01

    This publication focuses on the thought processes and considerations surrounding a risk management process for decision making on wildfires. The publication introduces a six element risk management cycle designed to encourage sound risk-informed decision making in accordance with Federal wildland fire policy, although the process is equally applicable to non-Federal...

  7. Culinary Decision Making.

    Curtis, Rob

    1987-01-01

    Advises directors of ways to include day care workers in the decision-making process. Enumerates benefits of using staff to help focus and direct changes in the day care center and discusses possible pitfalls in implementation of a collective decision-making approach to management. (NH)

  8. Using basic geographic information systems functionality to support sustainable forest management decision making and post-decision assessments

    Ronald E. McRoberts; R. James Barbour; Krista M. Gebert; Greg C. Liknes; Mark D. Nelson; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; et al.

    2006-01-01

    Sustainable management of natural resources requires informed decision making and post-decision assessments of the results of those decisions. Increasingly, both activities rely on analyses of spatial data in the forms of maps and digital data layers. Fortunately, a variety of supporting maps and data layers rapidly are becoming available. Unfortunately, however, user-...

  9. Research on Group Decision-Making Mechanism of Internet Emergency Management

    Xie, Kefan; Chen, Gang; Qian, Wu; Shi, Zhao

    With the development of information technology, internet has become a popular term and internet emergency has an intensive influence on people's life. This article offers a short history of internet emergency management. It discusses the definition, characteristics, and factor of internet emergency management. A group decision-making mechanism of internet emergency is presented based on the discussion. The authors establish a so-called Rough Set Scenario Flow Graphs (RSSFG) of group decision-making mechanism of internet emergency management and make an empirical analysis based on the RSSFG approach. The experimental results confirm that this approach is effective in internet emergency decision-making.

  10. Rationales behind irrationality of decision making in groundwater quality management.

    Ronen, Daniel; Sorek, Shaul; Gilron, Jack

    2012-01-01

    This issue paper presents how certain policies regarding management of groundwater quality lead to unexpected and undesirable results, despite being backed by seemingly reasonable assumptions. This happened in part because the so-called reasonable decisions were not based on an integrative and quantitative methodology. The policies surveyed here are: (1) implementation of a program for aquifer restoration to pristine conditions followed, after failure, by leaving it to natural attenuation; (2) the "Forget About The Aquifer" (FATA) approach, while ignoring possible damage that contaminated groundwater can inflict on the other environmental systems; (3) groundwater recharge in municipal areas while neglecting the presence of contaminants in the unsaturated zone and conditions exerted by upper impervious surfaces; (4) the Soil Aquifer Treatment (SAT) practice considering aquifers to be "filters of infinite capacity"; and (5) focusing on well contamination vs. aquifer contamination to conveniently defer grappling with the problem of the aquifer as a whole. Possible reasons for the failure of these seemingly rational policies are: (1) the characteristic times of processes associated with groundwater that are usually orders of magnitude greater than the residence times of decision makers in their managerial position; (2) proliferation of improperly trained "groundwater experts" or policymakers with sectoral agendas alongside legitimate differences of opinion among groundwater scientists; (3) the neglect of the cyclic nature of natural phenomena; and (4) ignoring future long-term costs because of immediate costs. © 2011, The Author(s). Ground Water © 2011, National Ground Water Association.

  11. Phenology for science, resource management, decision making, and education

    Nolan, V.P.; Weltzin, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    Fourth USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN) Research Coordination Network (RCN) Annual Meeting and Stakeholders Workshop; Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 21-22 September 2010; Phenology, the study of recurring plant and animal life cycle events, is rapidly emerging as a fundamental approach for understanding how ecological systems respond to environmental variation and climate change. The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN; http://www.usanpn.org) is a large-scale network of governmental and nongovernmental organizations, academic institutions, resource management agencies, and tribes. The network is dedicated to conducting and promoting repeated and integrated plant and animal phenological observations, identifying linkages with other relevant biological and physical data sources, and developing and distributing the tools to analyze these data at local to national scales. The primary goal of the USA-NPN is to improve the ability of decision makers to design strategies for climate adaptation.

  12. Lone ranger decision making versus consensus decision making: Descriptive analysis

    Maite Sara Mashego

    2015-01-01

    Consensus decision making, concerns group members make decisions together with the requirement of reaching a consensus that is all members abiding by the decision outcome. Lone ranging worked for sometime in a autocratic environment. Researchers are now pointing to consensus decision-making in organizations bringing dividend to many organizations. This article used a descriptive analysis to compare the goodness of consensus decision making and making lone ranging decision management. This art...

  13. A novel sustainable decision making model for municipal solid waste management

    Hung, M.-L.; Ma Hwongwen; Yang, W.-F.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews several models developed to support decision making in municipal solid waste management (MSWM). The concepts underlying sustainable MSWM models can be divided into two categories: one incorporates social factors into decision making methods, and the other includes public participation in the decision-making process. The public is only apprised or takes part in discussion, and has little effect on decision making in most research efforts. Few studies have considered public participation in the decision-making process, and the methods have sought to strike a compromise between concerned criteria, not between stakeholders. However, the source of the conflict arises from the stakeholders' complex web of value. Such conflict affects the feasibility of implementing any decision. The purpose of this study is to develop a sustainable decision making model for MSWM to overcome these shortcomings. The proposed model combines multicriteria decision making (MCDM) and a consensus analysis model (CAM). The CAM is built up to aid in decision-making when MCDM methods are utilized and, subsequently, a novel sustainable decision making model for MSWM is developed. The main feature of CAM is the assessment of the degree of consensus between stakeholders for particular alternatives. A case study for food waste management in Taiwan is presented to demonstrate the practicality of this model

  14. Application of fuzzy inference system to increase efficiency of management decision-making in agricultural enterprises

    Balanovskаya, Tetiana Ivanovna; Boretska, Zoreslava Petrovna

    2014-01-01

    Application of fuzzy inference system to increase efficiency of management decision- making in agricultural enterprises. Theoretical and methodological issues, practical recommendations on improvement of management decision-making in agricultural enterprises to increase their competitiveness have been intensified and developed in the article. A simulation example of a quality management system for agricultural products on the basis of the theory of fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic has been proposed...

  15. The role of information systems in management decision making-an theoretical approach

    PhD. Associate Professor Department of Management & Informatics Mihane Berisha-Namani

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In modern conditions of globalisation and development of information technology, information processing activities have come to be seen as essential to successful of businesses and organizations. Information has become essential to make decisions and crucial asset in organisations, whereas information systems is technology required for information processing. The application of information systems technology in business and organisations has opened up new possibilities for running and managing organisations, as well as has improved management decision making. The purpose of this paper is to give an understanding of the role that information systems have in management decision making and to discuss the possibilities how managers of organisations can make best use of information systems. The paper starts with identifying the functions of management and managerial roles and continue with information systems usage in three levels of decision making. It specifically addresses the way how information systems can help managers reduce uncertainty in decision making and includes some important implications of information systems usage for managers. Thus, this study provide a framework of effective use of information systems generally and offers an alternative approach to investigate the impact that information systems technology have in management decision making specifically

  16. Smart Building: Decision Making Architecture for Thermal Energy Management.

    Uribe, Oscar Hernández; Martin, Juan Pablo San; Garcia-Alegre, María C; Santos, Matilde; Guinea, Domingo

    2015-10-30

    Smart applications of the Internet of Things are improving the performance of buildings, reducing energy demand. Local and smart networks, soft computing methodologies, machine intelligence algorithms and pervasive sensors are some of the basics of energy optimization strategies developed for the benefit of environmental sustainability and user comfort. This work presents a distributed sensor-processor-communication decision-making architecture to improve the acquisition, storage and transfer of thermal energy in buildings. The developed system is implemented in a near Zero-Energy Building (nZEB) prototype equipped with a built-in thermal solar collector, where optical properties are analysed; a low enthalpy geothermal accumulation system, segmented in different temperature zones; and an envelope that includes a dynamic thermal barrier. An intelligent control of this dynamic thermal barrier is applied to reduce the thermal energy demand (heating and cooling) caused by daily and seasonal weather variations. Simulations and experimental results are presented to highlight the nZEB thermal energy reduction.

  17. Smart Building: Decision Making Architecture for Thermal Energy Management

    Oscar Hernández Uribe

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Smart applications of the Internet of Things are improving the performance of buildings, reducing energy demand. Local and smart networks, soft computing methodologies, machine intelligence algorithms and pervasive sensors are some of the basics of energy optimization strategies developed for the benefit of environmental sustainability and user comfort. This work presents a distributed sensor-processor-communication decision-making architecture to improve the acquisition, storage and transfer of thermal energy in buildings. The developed system is implemented in a near Zero-Energy Building (nZEB prototype equipped with a built-in thermal solar collector, where optical properties are analysed; a low enthalpy geothermal accumulation system, segmented in different temperature zones; and an envelope that includes a dynamic thermal barrier. An intelligent control of this dynamic thermal barrier is applied to reduce the thermal energy demand (heating and cooling caused by daily and seasonal weather variations. Simulations and experimental results are presented to highlight the nZEB thermal energy reduction.

  18. Principles of Classroom Management: A Professional Decision-Making Model, 7th Edition

    Levin, James; Nolan, James F.

    2014-01-01

    This text takes a decision-making model approach to classroom management. It provides teachers with a very practical system to influence students to choose to behave productively and to strive for academic success. This widely used text presents an array of decision-making options that guide teachers in developing positive, pro-social classroom…

  19. Crisis decision making

    Holsti, O.R.

    1989-01-01

    This article presents evidence that the potential loss of control of events by officials who must operate under conditions that generate substantial stress is one of the central problems of crisis decision making. Examples of U.S. crises management and alliance management are reviewed, and possible tools for improving crisis management decisions are discussed. This article particularly focuses on crises which may lead to nuclear war

  20. A framework for modeling adaptive forest management and decision making under climate change

    Yousefpour, Rasoul; Temperli, Christian; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark; Meilby, Henrik; Lexer, Manfred J.; Lindner, Marcus; Bugmann, Harald; Borges, Jose G.; Palma, João H.N.; Ray, Duncan; Zimmermann, Niklaus E.; Delzon, Sylvain; Kremer, Antoine; Kramer, Koen; Reyer, Christopher P.O.; Lasch-Born, Petra; Garcia-Gonzalo, Jordi; Hanewinkel, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Adapting the management of forest resources to climate change involves addressing several crucial aspects to provide a valid basis for decision making. These include the knowledge and belief of decision makers, the mapping of management options for the current as well as anticipated future

  1. NASA Earth Observations Informing Energy Management Decision Making

    Eckman, Richard; Stackhouse, Paul

    2017-01-01

    The Energy Sector is experiencing increasing impacts from severe weather and shifting climatic trends, as well as facing a changing political climate, adding uncertainty for stakeholders as they make short- and long-term planning investments. Climate changes such as prolonged extreme heat and drought (leading to wildfire spread, for example), sea level rise, and extreme storms are changing the ways that utilities operate. Energy infrastructure located in coastal or flood-prone areas faces inundation risks, such as damage to energy facilities. The use of renewable energy resources is increasing, requiring more information about their intermittency and spatial patterns. In light of these challenges, public and private stakeholders have collaborated to identify potential data sources, tools, and programmatic ideas. For example, utilities across the country are using cutting-edge technology and data to plan for and adapt to these changes. In the Federal Government, NASA has invested in preliminary work to identify needs and opportunities for satellite data in energy sector application, and the Department of Energy has similarly brought together stakeholders to understand the landscape of climate vulnerability and resilience for utilities and others. However, have these efforts improved community-scale resilience and adaptation efforts? Further, some communities are more vulnerable to climate change and infrastructure impacts than others. This session has two goals. First, panelists seek to share existing and ongoing efforts related to energy management. Second, the session seeks to engage with attendees via group knowledge exchange to connect national energy management efforts to local practice for increased community resilience.

  2. STRATEGIC DECISION MAKING IN THE MANAGEMENT OF PROJECTS, AIMED AT THE BIM

    Burneo Valarezo Servio

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Decision making in the management of projects aimed at Building Information Modeling, represents the main action to be developed during the development of the investment lifecycle, from inception to the development of life, decision marking is present in all phases of project management. In the Fund's shares of the production system by projects, decision making integrated from the priorities of the projects play an important role in the success of the company. The present work has as objective the development of a procedure for decision making during the life cycle of the project, the conditions for its implementation and the process for its development, with the purpose of raising their quality, to ensure decision making effective, consistent with the current development of the techniques of management.

  3. Managing for climate change on protected areas: An adaptive management decision making framework.

    Tanner-McAllister, Sherri L; Rhodes, Jonathan; Hockings, Marc

    2017-12-15

    Current protected area management is becoming more challenging with advancing climate change and current park management techniques may not be adequate to adapt for effective management into the future. The framework presented here provides an adaptive management decision making process to assist protected area managers with adapting on-park management to climate change. The framework sets out a 4 step process. One, a good understanding of the park's context within climate change. Secondly, a thorough understanding of the park management systems including governance, planning and management systems. Thirdly, a series of management options set out as an accept/prevent change style structure, including a systematic assessment of those options. The adaptive approaches are defined as acceptance of anthropogenic climate change impact and attempt to adapt to a new climatic environment or prevention of change and attempt to maintain current systems under new climatic variations. Last, implementation and monitoring of long term trends in response to ecological responses to management interventions and assessing management effectiveness. The framework addresses many issues currently with park management in dealing with climate change including the considerable amount of research focussing on 'off-reserve' strategies, and threats and stress focused in situ park management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A framework for modeling adaptive forest management and decision making under climate change

    Yousefpour, Rasoul; Temperli, Christian; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl

    2017-01-01

    optimal for a certain climate change scenario. We describe four stylized types of decision-making processes that differ in how they (1) take into account uncertainty and new information on the state and development of the climate and (2) evaluate alternative management decisions: the “no......-change,” the “reactive,” the “trend-adaptive,” and the “forward-looking adaptive” decision-making types. Accordingly, we evaluate the experiences with alternative management strategies and recent publications on using Bayesian optimization methods that account for different simulated learning schemes based on varying......Adapting the management of forest resources to climate change involves addressing several crucial aspects to provide a valid basis for decision making. These include the knowledge and belief of decision makers, the mapping of management options for the current as well as anticipated future...

  5. Canada's imminent decision on nuclear fuel management: decision making at the intersection of science, politics, and society

    Isaacs, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California (United States)

    2005-07-01

    This paper outlines the science, politics and the decision making process in implementing a nuclear fuel management program. It discusses the issues in the light of Canada's imminent decision on nuclear fuel management. The paper discusses the technical as well as the institutional challenge in nuclear waste management. It discusses some of the key elements of the Canadian approach and concludes with some key recommendation in the way forward.

  6. Waste Management Decision-Making Process During a Homeland Security Incident Response

    A step-by-step guide on how to make waste management-related decisions including how waste can be minimized, collected and treated, as well as where waste can be sent for staging, storage and final disposal.

  7. Reconsidering information management roles and capabilities in disaster response decision-making units

    Bharosa, N.; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.

    2009-01-01

    When disaster strikes, the emerging task environment requires relief agencies to transform from autonomous mono-disciplinary organizations into interdependent multidisciplinary decision-making units. Evaluation studies reveal that adaptation of information management to the changing task environment

  8. EXPOSING THE FALSE PARADIGM USED IN MANAGEMENT DECISION MAKING

    Malan Smith

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This article discusses Economic Value Added (EVA which is a popular shareholder value measurement. The main driving factors that influence EVA can be deduced from a modification of the Du Pont financial model. However, if these drivers are communicated to the organisation, and goals are set around achieving specific components of the drivers, the results achieved might be suboptimal. This is a direct consequence of the fact that the organisation is a system, and that EVA is an emergent property of the system. Systems theory should therefore be applied to discover the reasons for these counterintuitive outcomes in an organisation. Dilemmas (conflicts in the system are a result of the paradigm used in understanding the system. A method to examine the conflicts that occur in a system is the three-cloud technique. By applying this technique, it is possible to find the root cause of suboptimal performance in organisations: the false underlying paradigm used in the decision making process. The incorrect paradigm is to assume that a local optimal outcome is equivalent to a global optimal outcome.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie artikel bespreek Ekonomiese Toegevoegde Waarde (ETW, 'n gewilde maatstaf van aandeel-houerwaarde. Die belangrikste drywers wat ETW beinvloed, kan afgelei word uit 'n gewysigde Du Pont model. Indien doelwitte in die organisasie rondom hierdie drywers in isolasie gestel word, kan die resultate suboptimaal wees. Die suboptimale resultate is 'n direkte gevolg van die feit dat die organisasie 'n stelsel is, en dat ETW 'n stelseleienskap is. Stelselteorie moet dus toegepas word am die onderliggende redes vir hierdie suboptimale resultate te vind. Dilemmas (konflikte binne ' n stelsel is 'n direkte resultaat van die paradigma wat gebruik word om die stelsel te verstaan. ' n Metode om die konflikte in 'n stelsel te ondersoek is die drie-wolk metode. Deur hierdie metode toe te pas, is dit moontlik om die

  9. Ethical Decision Making

    Lauesen, Linne Marie

    2012-01-01

    of the interaction between a corporation and its stakeholders. Methodology/approach: This paper offers a theoretical 'Organic Stakeholder Model' based on decision making theory, risk assessment and adaption to a rapidly changing world combined with appropriate stakeholder theory for ethical purposes in decision...... applicable): The Model is based on case studies, but the limited scope of the length of the paper did not leave room to show the empirical evidence, but only the theoretical study. Originality / value of a paper: The model offers a new way of combining risk management with ethical decision-making processes...... by the inclusion of multiple stakeholders. The conceptualization of the model enhances business ethics in decision making by managing and balancing stakeholder concerns with the same concerns as the traditional risk management models does – for the sake of the wider social responsibilities of the businesses...

  10. Enhancing Effective Decision Making by Information Management Techniques

    Breznitz, Shlomo

    1997-01-01

    .... Individual differences were tested using a battery of personality characteristics. The results indicated that initially encouraging information enhances the quality of decision processes, particularly during the first phase of the task...

  11. Information identification, evaluation and utilisation for decision-making by managers in South West Nigeria

    Omotola Osunrinde

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Managers’ organisational decisions and subsequent actions flow from their understanding of the business environment in which they operate. This study sought to understand how managers in various organisations identify, evaluate and use information for effective current and future decision-making. Objectives: The study focused on the types of information needed by managers for decision-making, the methods used to identify and acquire the information and the sources of information consulted, their satisfaction with the information used and their decision-making behaviours. Methods: The study employed descriptive study design. Simple random sampling was used. A pre-tested self-administered questionnaire was used to gather information from 219 managers, randomly selected from the registers of the Ibadan, Abeokuta and Lagos chapters of Nigerian Institute of Management. Results: Results indicated that the types of information considered very important for decision-making included industry information followed by government policies and economic development/forecasts. Conclusion: Investigation revealed the extent of information identification, information evaluation and information utilisation individually predict the perceived effectiveness of decision-making by the managers. Nevertheless, information evaluation was found to have greater predictive relationship with perceived effectiveness of decision-making than information use and information identification.

  12. Handbook on Decision Making

    Jain, Lakhmi C

    2010-01-01

    The present "Volume 1: Techniques and Applications" of the "Handbook on Decision Making" presents a useful collection of AI techniques, as well as other complementary methodologies, that are useful for the design and development of intelligent decision support systems. Application examples of how these intelligent decision support systems can be utilized to help tackle a variety of real-world problems in different domains, such as business, management, manufacturing, transportation and food industries, and biomedicine, are presented. The handbook includes twenty condensed c

  13. Managed care and clinical decision-making in child and adolescent behavioral health: provider perceptions.

    Yanos, Philip T; Garcia, Christine I; Hansell, Stephen; Rosato, Mark G; Minsky, Shula

    2003-03-01

    This study investigated how managed care affects clinical decision-making in a behavioral health care system. Providers serving children and adolescents under both managed and unmanaged care (n = 28) were interviewed about their awareness of differences between the benefit arrangements, how benefits affect clinical decision-making, outcomes and quality of care; and satisfaction with care. Quantitative and qualitative findings indicated that providers saw both advantages and disadvantages to managed care. Although most providers recognized the advantages of managed care in increasing efficiency, many were concerned that administrative pressures associated with managed care compromise service quality.

  14. Credible decision-making regarding the management of spent nuclear fuel -four key questions concerning the decision-making process

    Kaaberger, T. [Swedish Society for Nature Conservation (Sweden)

    1995-12-01

    The author starts by questioning the need for an EIA, since he sees a common attitude that the EIA is a tool for getting the community to accept the implementation of decisions that have already been made, and not a rational, organized way of achieving a basis for decision-making. A question of decisive importance for the relevancy of an EIA is whether (or not) the decisions already have been made, and the author points at indications which he believes support this view. Finally, arguments for delegating the EIA process to an external body are given.

  15. Credible decision-making regarding the management of spent nuclear fuel -four key questions concerning the decision-making process

    Kaaberger, T.

    1995-01-01

    The author starts by questioning the need for an EIA, since he sees a common attitude that the EIA is a tool for getting the community to accept the implementation of decisions that have already been made, and not a rational, organized way of achieving a basis for decision-making. A question of decisive importance for the relevancy of an EIA is whether (or not) the decisions already have been made, and the author points at indications which he believes support this view. Finally, arguments for delegating the EIA process to an external body are given

  16. Intelligent decision making in quality management theory and applications

    Yanık, Seda

    2016-01-01

      This book presents recently developed intelligent techniques with applications and theory in the area of quality management. The involved applications of intelligence include techniques such as fuzzy sets, neural networks, genetic algorithms, etc. The book consists of classical quality management topics dealing with intelligent techniques for solving the complex quality management problems. The book will serve as an excellent reference for quality managers, researchers, lecturers and postgraduate students in this area. The authors of the chapters are well-known researchers in the area of quality management.  .

  17. An Evaluation on Factors Influencing Decision making for Malaysia Disaster Management: The Confirmatory Factor Analysis Approach

    Zubir, S. N. A.; Thiruchelvam, S.; Mustapha, K. N. M.; Che Muda, Z.; Ghazali, A.; Hakimie, H.

    2017-12-01

    For the past few years, natural disaster has been the subject of debate in disaster management especially in flood disaster. Each year, natural disaster results in significant loss of life, destruction of homes and public infrastructure, and economic hardship. Hence, an effective and efficient flood disaster management would assure non-futile efforts for life saving. The aim of this article is to examine the relationship between approach, decision maker, influence factor, result, and ethic to decision making for flood disaster management in Malaysia. The key elements of decision making in the disaster management were studied based on the literature. Questionnaire surveys were administered among lead agencies at East Coast of Malaysia in the state of Kelantan and Pahang. A total of 307 valid responses had been obtained for further analysis. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) were carried out to analyse the measurement model involved in the study. The CFA for second-order reflective and first-order reflective measurement model indicates that approach, decision maker, influence factor, result, and ethic have a significant and direct effect on decision making during disaster. The results from this study showed that decision- making during disaster is an important element for disaster management to necessitate a successful collaborative decision making. The measurement model is accepted to proceed with further analysis known as Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) and can be assessed for the future research.

  18. Evaluating the best available social science for natural resource management decision-making

    Susan Charnley; Courtney Carothers; Terre Satterfield; Arielle Levine; Melissa R. Poe; Karma Norman; Jamie Donatuto; Sara Jo Breslow; Michael B. Mascia; Phillip S. Levin; Xavier Basurto; Christina C. Hicks; Carlos García-Quijano; Kevin St. Martin

    2017-01-01

    Increasing recognition of the human dimensions of natural resource management issues, and of social and ecological sustainability and resilience as being inter-related, highlights the importance of applying social science to natural resource management decision-making. Moreover, a number of laws and regulations require natural resource management agencies to consider...

  19. Decision Making Model for Business Process Outsourcing of Enterprise Content Management

    Zhuojun Yi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Business process outsourcing (BPO in enterprise content management (ECM is a growing though immature market. BPO in ECM focuses on pursuing market transactions in the process of managing all types of content being used in organizations. However, inadequate sourcing decisions lead to organizational sensitive content exposure, high transaction cost, poor outsourcer performance, low flexibility. ECM BPO in general is rarely discussed in the literature and no discussion was found on decision making strategies in ECM BPO. In this paper, we present a decision making model for ECM BPO that will fill the literature gap and guide industry practitioners with ECM sourcing decision making strategies. Our proposed decision making model includes two parts. Part one is an ECM functional framework that shows what functionality component or functionality combinations can be outsourced. Part two is a decision making model that provides guidance for decision making in ECM BPO. We apply the model in two case studies, and the results indicate that the model can guide the sourcing decision making process for organizations, and determine the factors when considering sourcing alternatives in ECM.

  20. Bayesian inference and decision theory - A framework for decision making in natural resource management

    Dorazio, R.M.; Johnson, F.A.

    2003-01-01

    Bayesian inference and decision theory may be used in the solution of relatively complex problems of natural resource management, owing to recent advances in statistical theory and computing. In particular, Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms provide a computational framework for fitting models of adequate complexity and for evaluating the expected consequences of alternative management actions. We illustrate these features using an example based on management of waterfowl habitat.

  1. Site-Based Management: Avoiding Disaster While Sharing Decision Making.

    Sorenson, Larry Dean

    This paper argues that many site-based management practices do not represent true empowerment and are not founded on a consensual framework of values, goals, and priorities developed by educational stakeholders. In addition, they often lack clearly stated operating principles. The paper distinguishes between site-based management (SBM) and…

  2. Decision Making in Action

    Orasanu, Judith; Statler, Irving C. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The importance of decision-making to safety in complex, dynamic environments like mission control centers and offshore installations has been well established. NASA-ARC has a program of research dedicated to fostering safe and effective decision-making in the manned spaceflight environment. Because access to spaceflight is limited, environments with similar characteristics, including aviation and nuclear power plants, serve as analogs from which space-relevant data can be gathered and theories developed. Analyses of aviation accidents cite crew judgement and decision making as causes or contributing factors in over half of all accidents. A similar observation has been made in nuclear power plants. Yet laboratory research on decision making has not proven especially helpful in improving the quality of decisions in these kinds of environments. One reason is that the traditional, analytic decision models are inappropriate to multidimensional, high-risk environments, and do not accurately describe what expert human decision makers do when they make decisions that have consequences. A new model of dynamic, naturalistic decision making is offered that may prove useful for improving decision making in complex, isolated, confined and high-risk environments. Based on analyses of crew performance in full-mission simulators and accident reports, features that define effective decision strategies in abnormal or emergency situations have been identified. These include accurate situation assessment (including time and risk assessment), appreciation of the complexity of the problem, sensitivity to constraints on the decision, timeliness of the response, and use of adequate information. More effective crews also manage their workload to provide themselves with time and resources to make good decisions. In brief, good decisions are appropriate to the demands of the situation. Effective crew decision making and overall performance are mediated by crew communication. Communication

  3. An Exploratory Study Investigating How and Why Managers Use Tablets to Support Managerial Decision-Making

    Meng Xiao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Managers are often mobile and a large proportion of their work is dealing with decisions. Although many managers currently use tablet computers in their work, there is little research on the use of tablets for managerial decision-support. This exploratory study aims to investigate the ways in which managers use tablets to support their decision-making and the reasons why they do so. Using Task-Technology Fit theory, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 managers, 17 of whom used tablets for their work-related decision-making. The study reveals managers’ tablet usage patterns in terms of location, tablet applications, decision activities and types. This study has also found that a range of tablet characteristics and decision-task characteristics affect managers’ use of tablets to support decision-making at work. This exploratory study contributes to both academia and industry by providing evidence on the tablet decision-support area, and affording organisations, tablet vendors and tablet application developers informative findings for further improvement in the provision of tablet-based decision support.

  4. Managing risk: clinical decision-making in mental health services.

    Muir-Cochrane, Eimear; Gerace, Adam; Mosel, Krista; O'Kane, Debra; Barkway, Patricia; Curren, David; Oster, Candice

    2011-01-01

    Risk assessment and management is a major component of contemporary mental health practice. Risk assessment in health care exists within contemporary perspectives of management and risk aversive practices in health care. This has led to much discussion about the best approach to assessing possible risks posed by people with mental health problems. In addition, researchers and commentators have expressed concern that clinical practice is being dominated by managerial models of risk management at the expense of meeting the patient's health and social care needs. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the risk assessment practices of a multidisciplinary mental health service. Findings indicate that mental health professionals draw on both managerial and therapeutic approaches to risk management, integrating these approaches into their clinical practice. Rather than being dominated by managerial concerns regarding risk, the participants demonstrate professional autonomy and concern for the needs of their clients.

  5. Managing wildfire events: risk-based decision making among a group of federal fire managers

    Robyn S. Wilson; Patricia L. Winter; Lynn A. Maguire; Timothy. Ascher

    2011-01-01

    Managing wildfire events to achieve multiple management objectives involves a high degree of decision complexity and uncertainty, increasing the likelihood that decisions will be informed by experience-based heuristics triggered by available cues at the time of the decision. The research reported here tests the prevalence of three risk-based biases among 206...

  6. Using structured decision making to manage disease risk for Montana wildlife

    Mitchell, Michael S.; Gude, Justin A.; Anderson, Neil J.; Ramsey, Jennifer M.; Thompson, Michael J.; Sullivan, Mark G.; Edwards, Victoria L.; Gower, Claire N.; Cochrane, Jean Fitts; Irwin, Elise R.; Walshe, Terry

    2013-01-01

    We used structured decision-making to develop a 2-part framework to assist managers in the proactive management of disease outbreaks in Montana, USA. The first part of the framework is a model to estimate the probability of disease outbreak given field observations available to managers. The second part of the framework is decision analysis that evaluates likely outcomes of management alternatives based on the estimated probability of disease outbreak, and applies managers' values for different objectives to indicate a preferred management strategy. We used pneumonia in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) as a case study for our approach, applying it to 2 populations in Montana that differed in their likelihood of a pneumonia outbreak. The framework provided credible predictions of both probability of disease outbreaks, as well as biological and monetary consequences of management actions. The structured decision-making approach to this problem was valuable for defining the challenges of disease management in a decentralized agency where decisions are generally made at the local level in cooperation with stakeholders. Our approach provides local managers with the ability to tailor management planning for disease outbreaks to local conditions. Further work is needed to refine our disease risk models and decision analysis, including robust prediction of disease outbreaks and improved assessment of management alternatives.

  7. "Making Do" Decisions: How Home Healthcare Personnel Manage Their Exposure to Home Hazards.

    Wills, Celia E; Polivka, Barbara J; Darragh, Amy; Lavender, Steven; Sommerich, Carolyn; Stredney, Donald

    2016-04-01

    This study describes the decision-making processes home healthcare personnel (HHP) use to manage their personal health and safety when managing hazards in client homes. A professionally diverse national sample of 68 HHP participated in individual semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions, and described their decision making and strategies for hazard management in their work environments. HHP described 353 hazard management dilemmas within 394 specifically identified hazards, which were clustered within three broader categories: electrical/fire, slip/trip/lift, and environmental exposures. HHP described multiple types of "making do" decisions for hazard management solutions in which perceived and actual resource limitations constrained response options. A majority of hazard management decisions in the broader hazards categories (72.5%, 68.5%, and 63.5%, respectively) were classifiable as less than optimal. These findings stress the need for more support of HHPs, including comprehensive training, to improve HHP decision making and hazard management strategies, especially in context of resource constraints. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Shared decision making

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000877.htm Shared decision making To use the sharing features on this page, ... treatment you both support. When to use Shared Decision Making Shared decision making is often used when you ...

  9. Managing cancer risk and decision making after kidney transplantation.

    Webster, A C; Wong, G; Craig, J C; Chapman, J R

    2008-11-01

    Kidney transplant recipients are at higher risk of cancer at most sites, and cancer after transplantation causes considerable morbidity and mortality. To optimize long-term patient outcomes, clinicians balance the prospect of graft failure and dialysis, with competing risks of diabetes, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease and the risk of malignancy. In this paper we critically examine the assumptions underpinning primary prevention, immunization, chemoprevention and screening programs, and highlight considerations when applying evidence to the kidney transplant population, and suggest a clinical research agenda that aims to define a rational approach to managing posttransplant cancer risk.

  10. Strategic management accounting and decision making: A survey of the Nigerian Banks

    Collins S. Oboh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts an empirical examination of the practicality of strategic management accounting (SMA adoption in banks in Nigeria, a developing country. It investigates the extent of practice and contributions of SMA to strategic decision making. Survey data were obtained from 71 bank managers across 20 registered banks in Nigeria. Simple regression estimation technique and Pearson Chi-square test were used for data analysis. The results suggest that SMA is distinct in its features and orientation towards the practice of management accounting. The study found out that banks in Nigeria practice SMA; not as a concept, but as a principle of operation, and that SMA contributes significantly to strategic decision making in the area of competitive advantage and increased market share. The study offers value for banks in other developing economies in that it supports the argument that they can benefit from SMA adoption as part of banking strategies. Keywords: Strategic management accounting, Decision making, Market share, Banks, Nigeria

  11. Balancing Data, Time, and Expectations: The Complex Decision-­Making Environment of Enrollment Management

    Johnson, Adam W.

    2016-01-01

    As a growing entity within higher education organizational structures, enrollment managers (EMs) are primarily tasked with projecting, recruiting, and retaining the student population of their campuses. Enrollment managers are expected by institutional presidents as well as through industry standards to make data-driven planning decisions to reach…

  12. Decision Making and Cancer

    Reyna, Valerie F.; Nelson, Wendy L.; Han, Paul K.; Pignone, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    We review decision-making along the cancer continuum in the contemporary context of informed and shared decision making, in which patients are encouraged to take a more active role in their health care. We discuss challenges to achieving informed and shared decision making, including cognitive limitations and emotional factors, but argue that understanding the mechanisms of decision making offers hope for improving decision support. Theoretical approaches to decision making that explain cogni...

  13. Healthcare managers' decision making: findings of a small scale exploratory study.

    Macdonald, Jackie; Bath, Peter A; Booth, Andrew

    2008-12-01

    Managers who work in publicly funded healthcare organizations are an understudied group. Some of the influences on their decisions may be unique to healthcare. This study considers how to integrate research knowledge effectively into healthcare managers' decision making, and how to manage and integrate information that will include community data. This first phase in a two-phase mixed methods research study used a qualitative, multiple case studies design. Nineteen semi-structured interviews were undertaken using the critical incident technique. Interview transcripts were analysed using the NatCen Framework. One theme represented ;information and decisions'. Cases were determined to involve complex multi-level, multi-situational decisions with participants in practical rather than ceremonial work roles. Most considered organizational knowledge in the first two decision phases and external knowledge, including research, in the third phase. All participants engaged in satisficing to some degree.

  14. Human factors issues in severe accident management: Training for decision-making under stress

    Mumaw, R.J.; Roth, E.M.; Schoenfeld, I.

    1994-01-01

    Training for operator and other technical positions in the commercial nuclear power industry traditionally has focused on mastery of the formal procedures used to control plant systems and processes. However, there is a growing awareness that the decision-making tasks required for selecting appropriate control actions, in addition to guidance from formal procedures, also involve cognitive activities commonly referred to as judgment or reasoning. A project was completed to address the nature of the cognitive skills that may be important to decision-making in the nuclear power plant environment, especially during severe accident management. The project identified a model of decision-making that could account for both rule-based and knowledge-based decision-making and used it to identify cognitive skills for both individuals and operational crews. This analysis was then used to identify existing training techniques for cognitive skills and the general characteristics of successful training techniques

  15. Fusion methodologies in crisis management higher level fusion and decision making

    Scott, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This book emphasizes a contemporary view on the role of higher level fusion in designing crisis management systems. It provides the formal foundations, architecture, and implementation strategies required for building dynamic current and future situational pictures. It goes on to discuss the state-of-the-art computational approaches to designing such processes and their inherent challenges. This book integrates recent advances in decision theory with those in fusion methodology to define an end-to-end framework for decision support in crisis management. The text discusses modern fusion and decision support methods for dealing with heterogeneous and often unreliable, low fidelity, contradictory, and redundant data and information, as well as rare, unknown, unconventional or even unimaginable critical situations. The book also examines the role of context in situation management, cognitive aspects of decision making and situation management, approaches to domain representation, visualization, as well as the rol...

  16. Medical decision making

    Stiggelbout, A.M.; Vries, M. de; Scherer, L.; Keren, G.; Wu, G.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter presents an overview of the field of medical decision making. It distinguishes the levels of decision making seen in health-care practice and shows how research in judgment and decision making support or improve decision making. Most of the research has been done at the micro level,

  17. Use of a fuzzy decision-making method in evaluating severe accident management strategies

    Jae, M.; Moon, J.H.

    2002-01-01

    In developing severe accident management strategies, an engineering decision would be made based on the available data and information that are vague, imprecise and uncertain by nature. These sorts of vagueness and uncertainty are due to lack of knowledge for the severe accident sequences of interest. The fuzzy set theory offers a possibility of handling these sorts of data and information. In this paper, the possibility to apply the decision-making method based on fuzzy set theory to the evaluation of the accident management strategies at a nuclear power plant is scrutinized. The fuzzy decision-making method uses linguistic variables and fuzzy numbers to represent the decision-maker's subjective assessments for the decision alternatives according to the decision criteria. The fuzzy mean operator is used to aggregate the decision-maker's subjective assessments, while the total integral value method is used to rank the decision alternatives. As a case study, the proposed method is applied to evaluating the accident management strategies at a nuclear power plant

  18. Using multi-species occupancy models in structured decision making on managed lands

    Sauer, John R.; Blank, Peter J.; Zipkin, Elise F.; Fallon, Jane E.; Fallon, Frederick W.

    2013-01-01

    Land managers must balance the needs of a variety of species when manipulating habitats. Structured decision making provides a systematic means of defining choices and choosing among alternative management options; implementation of a structured decision requires quantitative approaches to predicting consequences of management on the relevant species. Multi-species occupancy models provide a convenient framework for making structured decisions when the management objective is focused on a collection of species. These models use replicate survey data that are often collected on managed lands. Occupancy can be modeled for each species as a function of habitat and other environmental features, and Bayesian methods allow for estimation and prediction of collective responses of groups of species to alternative scenarios of habitat management. We provide an example of this approach using data from breeding bird surveys conducted in 2008 at the Patuxent Research Refuge in Laurel, Maryland, evaluating the effects of eliminating meadow and wetland habitats on scrub-successional and woodland-breeding bird species using summed total occupancy of species as an objective function. Removal of meadows and wetlands decreased value of an objective function based on scrub-successional species by 23.3% (95% CI: 20.3–26.5), but caused only a 2% (0.5, 3.5) increase in value of an objective function based on woodland species, documenting differential effects of elimination of meadows and wetlands on these groups of breeding birds. This approach provides a useful quantitative tool for managers interested in structured decision making.

  19. Judgment and decision making.

    Fischhoff, Baruch

    2010-09-01

    The study of judgment and decision making entails three interrelated forms of research: (1) normative analysis, identifying the best courses of action, given decision makers' values; (2) descriptive studies, examining actual behavior in terms comparable to the normative analyses; and (3) prescriptive interventions, helping individuals to make better choices, bridging the gap between the normative ideal and the descriptive reality. The research is grounded in analytical foundations shared by economics, psychology, philosophy, and management science. Those foundations provide a framework for accommodating affective and social factors that shape and complement the cognitive processes of decision making. The decision sciences have grown through applications requiring collaboration with subject matter experts, familiar with the substance of the choices and the opportunities for interventions. Over the past half century, the field has shifted its emphasis from predicting choices, which can be successful without theoretical insight, to understanding the processes shaping them. Those processes are often revealed through biases that suggest non-normative processes. The practical importance of these biases depends on the sensitivity of specific decisions and the support that individuals have in making them. As a result, the field offers no simple summary of individuals' competence as decision makers, but a suite of theories and methods suited to capturing these sensitivities. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Structured decision making as a conceptual framework to identify thresholds for conservation and management

    Martin, J.; Runge, M.C.; Nichols, J.D.; Lubow, B.C.; Kendall, W.L.

    2009-01-01

    Thresholds and their relevance to conservation have become a major topic of discussion in the ecological literature. Unfortunately, in many cases the lack of a clear conceptual framework for thinking about thresholds may have led to confusion in attempts to apply the concept of thresholds to conservation decisions. Here, we advocate a framework for thinking about thresholds in terms of a structured decision making process. The purpose of this framework is to promote a logical and transparent process for making informed decisions for conservation. Specification of such a framework leads naturally to consideration of definitions and roles of different kinds of thresholds in the process. We distinguish among three categories of thresholds. Ecological thresholds are values of system state variables at which small changes bring about substantial changes in system dynamics. Utility thresholds are components of management objectives (determined by human values) and are values of state or performance variables at which small changes yield substantial changes in the value of the management outcome. Decision thresholds are values of system state variables at which small changes prompt changes in management actions in order to reach specified management objectives. The approach that we present focuses directly on the objectives of management, with an aim to providing decisions that are optimal with respect to those objectives. This approach clearly distinguishes the components of the decision process that are inherently subjective (management objectives, potential management actions) from those that are more objective (system models, estimates of system state). Optimization based on these components then leads to decision matrices specifying optimal actions to be taken at various values of system state variables. Values of state variables separating different actions in such matrices are viewed as decision thresholds. Utility thresholds are included in the objectives

  1. Policy, practice and decision making for zoonotic disease management: water and Cryptosporidium.

    Austin, Zoë; Alcock, Ruth E; Christley, Robert M; Haygarth, Philip M; Heathwaite, A Louise; Latham, Sophia M; Mort, Maggie; Oliver, David M; Pickup, Roger; Wastling, Jonathan M; Wynne, Brian

    2012-04-01

    Decision making for zoonotic disease management should be based on many forms of appropriate data and sources of evidence. However, the criteria and timing for policy response and the resulting management decisions are often altered when a disease outbreak occurs and captures full media attention. In the case of waterborne disease, such as the robust protozoa, Cryptosporidium spp, exposure can cause significant human health risks and preventing exposure by maintaining high standards of biological and chemical water quality remains a priority for water companies in the UK. Little has been documented on how knowledge and information is translated between the many stakeholders involved in the management of Cryptosporidium, which is surprising given the different drivers that have shaped management decisions. Such information, coupled with the uncertainties that surround these data is essential for improving future management strategies that minimise disease outbreaks. Here, we examine the interplay between scientific information, the media, and emergent government and company policies to examine these issues using qualitative and quantitative data relating to Cryptosporidium management decisions by a water company in the North West of England. Our results show that political and media influences are powerful drivers of management decisions if fuelled by high profile outbreaks. Furthermore, the strength of the scientific evidence is often constrained by uncertainties in the data, and in the way knowledge is translated between policy levels during established risk management procedures. In particular, under or over-estimating risk during risk assessment procedures together with uncertainty regarding risk factors within the wider environment, was found to restrict the knowledge-base for decision-making in Cryptosporidium management. Our findings highlight some key current and future challenges facing the management of such diseases that are widely applicable to other

  2. A framework for modeling adaptive forest management and decision making under climate change

    Rasoul Yousefpour

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Adapting the management of forest resources to climate change involves addressing several crucial aspects to provide a valid basis for decision making. These include the knowledge and belief of decision makers, the mapping of management options for the current as well as anticipated future bioclimatic and socioeconomic conditions, and the ways decisions are evaluated and made. We investigate the adaptive management process and develop a framework including these three aspects, thus providing a structured way to analyze the challenges and opportunities of managing forests in the face of climate change. We apply the framework for a range of case studies that differ in the way climate and its impacts are projected to change, the available management options, and how decision makers develop, update, and use their beliefs about climate change scenarios to select among adaptation options, each being optimal for a certain climate change scenario. We describe four stylized types of decision-making processes that differ in how they (1 take into account uncertainty and new information on the state and development of the climate and (2 evaluate alternative management decisions: the "no-change," the "reactive," the "trend-adaptive," and the "forward-looking adaptive" decision-making types. Accordingly, we evaluate the experiences with alternative management strategies and recent publications on using Bayesian optimization methods that account for different simulated learning schemes based on varying knowledge, belief, and information. Finally, our proposed framework for identifying adaptation strategies provides solutions for enhancing forest structure and diversity, biomass and timber production, and reducing climate change-induced damages. They are spatially heterogeneous, reflecting the diversity in growing conditions and socioeconomic settings within Europe.

  3. Simulation and Modeling Efforts to Support Decision Making in Healthcare Supply Chain Management

    Eman AbuKhousa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, most healthcare organizations focus their attention on reducing the cost of their supply chain management (SCM by improving the decision making pertaining processes’ efficiencies. The availability of products through healthcare SCM is often a matter of life or death to the patient; therefore, trial and error approaches are not an option in this environment. Simulation and modeling (SM has been presented as an alternative approach for supply chain managers in healthcare organizations to test solutions and to support decision making processes associated with various SCM problems. This paper presents and analyzes past SM efforts to support decision making in healthcare SCM and identifies the key challenges associated with healthcare SCM modeling. We also present and discuss emerging technologies to meet these challenges.

  4. Emergency management: Does it have a sufficiently comprehensive understanding of decision-making, process and context?

    Niculae, C.; French, S.; Carter, E.

    2004-01-01

    It is widely recognised in the social and management sciences that the effective support of decision-making requires a multidisciplinary perspective. This trend is also clear in nuclear emergency management (EM). However, communication between disciplines is not easy to maintain in EM contexts when the decision makers (DMs) are likely to be highly stressed. Such circumstances can lead them to revert to the instinctive patterns of perception of their core disciplines, making communication between disciplines difficult and, perhaps, obscuring complex interactions that have not been rehearsed in practice exercises. This paper explores decision making in EM and the nature of the socio-technical issues that will arise, suggesting that despite the lessons of past accidents the research EM community is still not taking a broad enough view of what future incidents may entail. (authors)

  5. Simulation and modeling efforts to support decision making in healthcare supply chain management.

    AbuKhousa, Eman; Al-Jaroodi, Jameela; Lazarova-Molnar, Sanja; Mohamed, Nader

    2014-01-01

    Recently, most healthcare organizations focus their attention on reducing the cost of their supply chain management (SCM) by improving the decision making pertaining processes' efficiencies. The availability of products through healthcare SCM is often a matter of life or death to the patient; therefore, trial and error approaches are not an option in this environment. Simulation and modeling (SM) has been presented as an alternative approach for supply chain managers in healthcare organizations to test solutions and to support decision making processes associated with various SCM problems. This paper presents and analyzes past SM efforts to support decision making in healthcare SCM and identifies the key challenges associated with healthcare SCM modeling. We also present and discuss emerging technologies to meet these challenges.

  6. Risk-based decision making and risk management of European Union regional programs

    Michalopoulos Evangelos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a generalized method for management decision making incorporating risk assessment techniques. The risk based decision making methodology is applied to European Union expenditure programs used to implement its regional policy, such as the community support framework, community initiatives, special initiatives and other European policies. An example is presented for the development of an audit (inspection program in the region of West Macedonia, Greece, during the implementation of the 3rd Community Structural Support Framework Operational Program. The generic nature of the method permits its use in the management of similar European regional programs in Greece and other European countries. It is also applicable to many other industries interested in applying risk-based management decisions to physical or process based systems. .

  7. Keys to success for data-driven decision making: Lessons from participatory monitoring and collaborative adaptive management

    Recent years have witnessed a call for evidence-based decisions in conservation and natural resource management, including data-driven decision-making. Adaptive management (AM) is one prevalent model for integrating scientific data into decision-making, yet AM has faced numerous challenges and limit...

  8. Teenagers' perceptions of factors affecting decision-making competence in the management of type 1 diabetes.

    Viklund, Gunnel; Wikblad, Karin

    2009-12-01

    Decision-making is an important prerequisite for empowerment. The aim of this study was to explore teenagers' perceptions of factors affecting decision-making competence in diabetes management. A previous study that assessed an empowerment programme for teenagers with diabetes showed no effects on metabolic control or empowerment outcomes, which is not in accordance with results from studies on adult diabetes patients. The definition of empowerment highlights the patient's own responsibility for decision-making. Earlier studies have shown that many teenagers' may not be mature in decision-making competence until late adolescence. To explore the significance of decision-making competence on the effectiveness of empowerment education we wanted to explore teenagers' own view on factors affecting this competence. An explorative, qualitative interview study was conducted with 31 teenagers with type 1 diabetes, aged 12-17 years. The teenagers were interviewed two weeks after completing an empowerment education programme. The interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Five categories stood out as important for decision-making competence: cognitive maturity, personal qualities, experience, social network and parent involvement. Based on the content in the interviews and the five categories, we made an interpretation and formulated an overall theme: 'Teenagers deserve respect and support for their short-comings during the maturity process'. Our conclusion is that teenagers deserve respect for their immature decision-making competence. Decision-making competence was described as cognitive abilities, personal qualifications and experience. To compensate for the deficiencies the teenagers deserve constructive support from their social network and the essential support is expected to come from their parents. These findings can be useful for diabetes team members in supporting teenagers with diabetes and their parents both in individual meetings and when

  9. Patient understanding of diabetes self-management: participatory decision-making in diabetes care.

    Quinn, Charlene C; Royak-Schaler, Renee; Lender, Dan; Steinle, Nanette; Gadalla, Shahinaz; Zhan, Min

    2011-05-01

    Our aim was to determine whether patient participation in decision-making about diabetes care is associated with understanding of diabetes self-management and subsequent self-care practices. We also identified issues that would impact messaging for use in mobile diabetes communication. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted with type 2 diabetes patients (n = 81) receiving their care at the University of Maryland Joslin Diabetes Center. A convenience sample of patients were eligible to participate if they were aged 25-85 years, had type 2 diabetes, spoke English, and visited their physician diabetes manager within the past 6 months. In-person patient interviews were conducted at the time of clinic visits to assess patient understanding of diabetes management, self-care practices, and perceptions of participation in decision-making about diabetes care. African Americans reported fewer opportunities to participate in decision-making than Caucasians, after controlling for education [mean difference (MD) = -2.4, p = .02]. This association became insignificant after controlling for patient-physician race concordance (MD = -1.5, p = .21). Patient understanding of self-care was predicted by having greater than high school education (MD = 3.6, p = .001) and having physicians who involved them in decision-making about their care. For each unit increase in understanding of diabetes self-care, the mean patient self-care practice score increased by 0.16 (p = .003), after adjustment for patient race and education. Patient participation in decision-making is associated with better understanding of care. Participation in decision-making plays a key role in patient understanding of diabetes self-management and subsequent self-care practices. Patients with limited education need specific instruction in foot care, food choices, and monitoring hemoglobin A1c. © 2011 Diabetes Technology Society.

  10. STYLES OF DECISION MAKING AND MANAGEMENT AND DIMENSIONS OF PERSONALITY OF SCHOOL PRINCIPALS

    Anita Azeska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores preference to the style of decision making (managerial, analytical, conceptual and behavioural, (Alan Rowe, 1992, management styles (relationship-oriented leadership and management by objectives, (Fiedler, 1987 and personality traits (extraversion, neuroticism and psychoticism, (Eysenck, 1998. The convenience sample of 61 respondents (principals of primary and secondary schools from Macedonia were subjected to decision making style inventory (Decision Style Inventory - DSI of 20 claims, a questionnaire to assess the management style (Least preferred coworker - LPC composed of 18 bipolar adjectives, and a personality test (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire - EPQ composed of 90 items in the form of questions. Results show that schools lean towards directive style of decision making with a combination of democratic-participatory style that includes subordinates in the process of decision making. The results also demonstrate that school principals prefer management style motivated by relationships; they are more introverted and emotionally stable. The findings indicate a necessity for a new generation of managers who will be different from the traditional managers. It is evident that the future will require managers with leadership styles different from the traditional in Republic of Macedonia. Given that the school is a basic organisational cell on which the educational system of the country is based, the proposed findings present an occasion for developing new ideas and practices that may yield great results. This would increase the flexibility and adaptive capacity of the school as a modern organisation. Thus, these findings have practical implications as they may direct special training of principals in order to apply the best management style, or style that is most appropriate for certain situations, certainly through coordination of the desired profile of the principal and the business strategy, development and maturity of

  11. [Decision making in cariology

    Verdonschot, E.H.A.M.; Liem, S.L.; Palenstein Helderman, W.H. van

    2003-01-01

    By conducting an oral examination, during radiographic examination and in treatment planning procedures dentists make numerous decisions. A dentist will be required to make his decisions explicit. Decision trees and decision analyses may play an important role. In a decision analysis, the

  12. Decision-making and evacuation planning for flood risk management in the Netherlands.

    Kolen, Bas; Helsloot, Ira

    2014-07-01

    A traditional view of decision-making for evacuation planning is that, given an uncertain threat, there is a deterministic way of defining the best decision. In other words, there is a linear relation between threat, decision, and execution consequences. Alternatives and the impact of uncertainties are not taken into account. This study considers the 'top strategic decision-making' for mass evacuation owing to flooding in the Netherlands. It reveals that the top strategic decision-making process itself is probabilistic because of the decision-makers involved and their crisis managers (as advisers). The paper concludes that deterministic planning is not sufficient, and it recommends probabilistic planning that considers uncertainties in the decision-making process itself as well as other uncertainties, such as forecasts, citizens responses, and the capacity of infrastructure. This results in less optimistic, but more realistic, strategies and a need to pay attention to alternative strategies. © 2014 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2014.

  13. Nuclear regulatory decision making

    Wieland, Patricia; Almeida, Ivan Pedro Salati de

    2011-01-01

    The scientific considerations upon which the nuclear regulations are based provide objective criteria for decisions on nuclear safety matters. However, the decisions that a regulatory agency takes go far beyond granting or not an operating license based on assessment of compliance. It may involve decisions about hiring experts or research, appeals, responses to other government agencies, international agreements, etc.. In all cases, top management of the regulatory agency should hear and decide the best balance between the benefits of regulatory action and undue risks and other associated impacts that may arise, including issues of credibility and reputation. The establishment of a decision framework based on well established principles and criteria ensures performance stability and consistency, preventing individual subjectivity. This article analyzes the challenges to the decision-making by regulatory agencies to ensure coherence and consistency in decisions, even in situations where there is uncertainty, lack of reliable information and even divergence of opinions among experts. The article explores the basic elements for a framework for regulatory decision-making. (author)

  14. Adaptation pathways: ecoregion and land ownership influences on climate adaptation decision-making in forest management

    Todd A. Ontl; Chris Swanston; Leslie A. Brandt; Patricia R. Butler; Anthony W. D’Amato; Stephen D. Handler; Maria K. Janowiak; P. Danielle Shannon

    2018-01-01

    Climate adaptation planning and implementation are likely to increase rapidly within the forest sector not only as climate continues to change but also as we intentionally learn from real-world examples. We sought to better understand how adaptation is being incorporated in land management decision-making across diverse land ownership types in the Midwest by evaluating...

  15. Leaders on the Front Line--Managing Emotion for Ethical Decision Making

    Tenuto, Penny L.; Gardiner, Mary E.; Yamamoto, Julie K.

    2016-01-01

    To build capacity for students in educational leadership programs, we developed a teaching case study focused on managing emotion for ethical decision making in supervision of personnel. The case offers troubling encounters between a secondary assistant principal and a novice teacher, a veteran teacher, and a veteran administrator. Scenarios…

  16. Middle School Students' Decision-Making on Solid Waste Management in Taiwan.

    Wang, Kuo-Hua

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effectiveness of a HyperCard simulation upon student's concepts, opinions, and option-rankings on solid waste management, and to investigate what cognitive activities of the students were involved in the decision-making processes. One hundred eighth-grade students in Taiwan participated in this…

  17. Managers' implicit and explicit risk-attitudes in managerial decision making

    Bittner, Jenny; Landwehr, Julia; Hertel, Guido; Binnewies, Carmen; Krumm, Stefan; Holling, Heinz; Kleinmar, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We examined the contribution of implicit and explicit risk-attitudes to the prediction of risky management decisions. Indirect methods allow for the measurement of implicit attitudes, while self-report is typically used to measure explicit, reflective attitudes. Indirect methods make it

  18. Modalities of self-managing teams - The "must", "may", "can" and "will" of local decision making

    Molleman, E

    2000-01-01

    This paper deals with the leeway organizations have to develop and design self-managing teams by using a model containing four model verbs: must, may, can and will. ''Must'' refers to the need for local decision making and is considered to be the result of diversity in enviromental demand and

  19. A novel computer based expert decision making model for prostate cancer disease management.

    Richman, Martin B; Forman, Ernest H; Bayazit, Yildirim; Einstein, Douglas B; Resnick, Martin I; Stovsky, Mark D

    2005-12-01

    We propose a strategic, computer based, prostate cancer decision making model based on the analytic hierarchy process. We developed a model that improves physician-patient joint decision making and enhances the treatment selection process by making this critical decision rational and evidence based. Two groups (patient and physician-expert) completed a clinical study comparing an initial disease management choice with the highest ranked option generated by the computer model. Participants made pairwise comparisons to derive priorities for the objectives and subobjectives related to the disease management decision. The weighted comparisons were then applied to treatment options to yield prioritized rank lists that reflect the likelihood that a given alternative will achieve the participant treatment goal. Aggregate data were evaluated by inconsistency ratio analysis and sensitivity analysis, which assessed the influence of individual objectives and subobjectives on the final rank list of treatment options. Inconsistency ratios less than 0.05 were reliably generated, indicating that judgments made within the model were mathematically rational. The aggregate prioritized list of treatment options was tabulated for the patient and physician groups with similar outcomes for the 2 groups. Analysis of the major defining objectives in the treatment selection decision demonstrated the same rank order for the patient and physician groups with cure, survival and quality of life being more important than controlling cancer, preventing major complications of treatment, preventing blood transfusion complications and limiting treatment cost. Analysis of subobjectives, including quality of life and sexual dysfunction, produced similar priority rankings for the patient and physician groups. Concordance between initial treatment choice and the highest weighted model option differed between the groups with the patient group having 59% concordance and the physician group having only 42

  20. Achieving a Risk-Informed Decision-Making Environment at NASA: The Emphasis of NASA's Risk Management Policy

    Dezfuli, Homayoon

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the evolution of risk management (RM) at NASA. The aim of the RM approach at NASA is to promote an approach that is heuristic, proactive, and coherent across all of NASA. Risk Informed Decision Making (RIDM) is a decision making process that uses a diverse set of performance measures along with other considerations within a deliberative process to inform decision making. RIDM is invoked for key decisions such as architecture and design decisions, make-buy decisions, and budget reallocation. The RIDM process and how it relates to the continuous Risk Management (CRM) process is reviewed.

  1. Stepwise decision making for the long-term management of radioactive waste

    Pescatore, C.; Vari, A.

    2003-01-01

    The context of long-term radioactive waste management is being shaped by changes in modern society. Values such as health, environmental protection and safety are increasingly important. This changes in turn necessitate new forms of dialogue and decision-making processes that include a large number of stakeholders. This paper deals with the new features of a stepwise decision-making approach, taking into account the public involvement and social learning processes, and showing the complexity of the new situation. (A.L.B.)

  2. Social and behavioral research on risk: uses in risk management decision-making

    Covello, V.T.

    1984-01-01

    The overall objective of this paper is to describe the principal uses of social and behavioral research in risk management decision-making. Five such uses are identified and discussed, including uses in (1) identifying the nature and extent of public concern; (2) structuring public debate and resolving conflicts; (3) anticipating public responses to new technologies; (4) conducting and informing the public; and (5) designing and implementing risk management policies and systems. (author)

  3. Oil industry decision making

    Collier, T.S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the oil and gas business is undergoing a significant restructuring. In order to maintain control of our own destiny and succeed in an increasingly competitive business environment, the industry must set goals which are consistent with its continued success and focus on those goals in every aspect of its strategic management. By applying an approach to decision making which focuses on the achievement of the key goals required for success at every decision point and systematic follow-up, a firm can greatly increase its ability to succeed in the business environment of the future

  4. Quantification of a decision-making failure probability of the accident management using cognitive analysis model

    Yoshida, Yoshitaka; Ohtani, Masanori; Fujita, Yushi

    2002-01-01

    In the nuclear power plant, much knowledge is acquired through probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) of a severe accident, and accident management (AM) is prepared. It is necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of AM using the decision-making failure probability of an emergency organization, operation failure probability of operators, success criteria of AM and reliability of AM equipments in PSA. However, there has been no suitable qualification method for PSA so far to obtain the decision-making failure probability, because the decision-making failure of an emergency organization treats the knowledge based error. In this work, we developed a new method for quantification of the decision-making failure probability of an emergency organization using cognitive analysis model, which decided an AM strategy, in a nuclear power plant at the severe accident, and tried to apply it to a typical pressurized water reactor (PWR) plant. As a result: (1) It could quantify the decision-making failure probability adjusted to PSA for general analysts, who do not necessarily possess professional human factors knowledge, by choosing the suitable value of a basic failure probability and an error-factor. (2) The decision-making failure probabilities of six AMs were in the range of 0.23 to 0.41 using the screening evaluation method and in the range of 0.10 to 0.19 using the detailed evaluation method as the result of trial evaluation based on severe accident analysis of a typical PWR plant, and a result of sensitivity analysis of the conservative assumption, failure probability decreased about 50%. (3) The failure probability using the screening evaluation method exceeded that using detailed evaluation method by 99% of probability theoretically, and the failure probability of AM in this study exceeded 100%. From this result, it was shown that the decision-making failure probability was more conservative than the detailed evaluation method, and the screening evaluation method satisfied

  5. Quantification of a decision-making failure probability of the accident management using cognitive analysis model

    Yoshida, Yoshitaka; Ohtani, Masanori [Institute of Nuclear Safety System, Inc., Mihama, Fukui (Japan); Fujita, Yushi [TECNOVA Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-09-01

    In the nuclear power plant, much knowledge is acquired through probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) of a severe accident, and accident management (AM) is prepared. It is necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of AM using the decision-making failure probability of an emergency organization, operation failure probability of operators, success criteria of AM and reliability of AM equipments in PSA. However, there has been no suitable qualification method for PSA so far to obtain the decision-making failure probability, because the decision-making failure of an emergency organization treats the knowledge based error. In this work, we developed a new method for quantification of the decision-making failure probability of an emergency organization using cognitive analysis model, which decided an AM strategy, in a nuclear power plant at the severe accident, and tried to apply it to a typical pressurized water reactor (PWR) plant. As a result: (1) It could quantify the decision-making failure probability adjusted to PSA for general analysts, who do not necessarily possess professional human factors knowledge, by choosing the suitable value of a basic failure probability and an error-factor. (2) The decision-making failure probabilities of six AMs were in the range of 0.23 to 0.41 using the screening evaluation method and in the range of 0.10 to 0.19 using the detailed evaluation method as the result of trial evaluation based on severe accident analysis of a typical PWR plant, and a result of sensitivity analysis of the conservative assumption, failure probability decreased about 50%. (3) The failure probability using the screening evaluation method exceeded that using detailed evaluation method by 99% of probability theoretically, and the failure probability of AM in this study exceeded 100%. From this result, it was shown that the decision-making failure probability was more conservative than the detailed evaluation method, and the screening evaluation method satisfied

  6. Assessment of stormwater management options in urban contexts using Multiple Attribute Decision-Making

    Gogate, Nivedita G.; Kalbar, Pradip; Raval, Pratap M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of selecting the most sustainable stormwater management alternative in developing countries in a dense urban context. Firstly, suitable Low Impact Development (LID) stormwater management measures for dense urban areas in developing countries were identified based...... sustainable stormwater management options in densely populated areas of developing countries....... on critical review of literature. Alternatives have been formulated as varying percentages (degree of adoption) of these suitable measures to manage the stormwater sustainably. Further, a novel decision-making framework is developed which generates the hierarchy for selection of the most sustainable...

  7. A FINANCIAL AND ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES EFFECTIVENESS EVALUATION AS A CONDITION OF CORPORATE MANAGEMENT DECISIONS MAKING

    Nataliia Bieliaieva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to substantiate, on the real figures, the need for enterprise’s financial and economic activities analysis as a condition of management decisions making to achieve the success of the company. Methodology. The research is based on a comparison and analysis of data from the organization top management. So using matrix analysis in the paper, the financial and economic activities effectiveness is evaluated. Based on these calculations, it is possible to make conclusions about the necessity of an identified management decisions regarding the future activity of the company. Results. Daily managers of various function levels accept hundreds and thousands of decisions regarding seemingly slight problems of the organization in general. At the same time, every such a decision, especially relating to the activity of the whole structure, should be clearly justified. Such a need stems from the fact that every decision leads to certain consequences. If there is a need to make a decision relating to the future of the enterprise (e.g., embodiment, reorganization, etc., it should be based on the data of the entire structure. And that is generally very difficult to do. Many factors complicate the possibility of comprehensive evaluation of the company’s activity. At the same time, analysis of basic indicators will provide the specialist with some directions according to which the priority of the analysis can be indicated and appropriate management decision can be made. Practical implications. It is built an effectiveness matrix of financial and economic activities of the enterprise. Analysis of financial and economic activities makes it possible to design necessary strategic and tactical plan for the enterprise development, revealing its reserves of production efficiency increasing. So the aim of the paper is the assessment of the effectiveness of financial and economic activities of the company on the base of matrix analysis as a

  8. Decision Making Under Uncertainty

    2010-11-01

    A sound approach to rational decision making requires a decision maker to establish decision objectives, identify alternatives, and evaluate those...often violate the axioms of rationality when making decisions under uncertainty. The systematic description of such observations may lead to the...which leads to “anchoring” on the initial value. The fact that individuals have been shown to deviate from rationality when making decisions

  9. Categorization = Decision Making + Generalization

    Seger, Carol A; Peterson, Erik J.

    2013-01-01

    We rarely, if ever, repeatedly encounter exactly the same situation. This makes generalization crucial for real world decision making. We argue that categorization, the study of generalizable representations, is a type of decision making, and that categorization learning research would benefit from approaches developed to study the neuroscience of decision making. Similarly, methods developed to examine generalization and learning within the field of categorization may enhance decision making research. We first discuss perceptual information processing and integration, with an emphasis on accumulator models. We then examine learning the value of different decision making choices via experience, emphasizing reinforcement learning modeling approaches. Next we discuss how value is combined with other factors in decision making, emphasizing the effects of uncertainty. Finally, we describe how a final decision is selected via thresholding processes implemented by the basal ganglia and related regions. We also consider how memory related functions in the hippocampus may be integrated with decision making mechanisms and contribute to categorization. PMID:23548891

  10. Teachers' Grading Decision Making

    Isnawati, Ida; Saukah, Ali

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated teachers' grading decision making, focusing on their beliefs underlying their grading decision making, their grading practices and assessment types, and factors they considered in grading decision making. Two teachers from two junior high schools applying different curriculum policies in grade reporting in Indonesian…

  11. THE MAKING OF DECISION MAKING

    Leonardo Yuji Tamura

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Quantum Electronics was a Brazilian startup in the 1990's that was acquired by an American equity fund in 2012. They are currently the largest manufacturer of vehicle tracking and infotainment systems. The company was founded by three college friends, who are currently executives at the company: Camilo Santos, Pedro Barbosa and Luana Correa. Edward Hutter was sent by the equity fund to take over the company’s finances, but is having trouble making organizational decisions with his colleagues. As a consultant, I was called to help them improve their decision making process and project prioritization. I adapted and deployed our firm's methodology, but, in the end, its adequacy is shown to be very much in question. The author of this case study intends to explore how actual organizational decisions rely on different decision models and their assumptions, .as well as demonstrate that a decision model is neither absolutely good nor bad as its quality is context dependent.

  12. Search and Classification Using Multiple Autonomous Vehicles Decision-Making and Sensor Management

    Wang, Yue

    2012-01-01

    Search and Classification Using Multiple Autonomous Vehicles provides a comprehensive study of decision-making strategies for domain search and object classification using multiple autonomous vehicles (MAV) under both deterministic and probabilistic frameworks. It serves as a first discussion of the problem of effective resource allocation using MAV with sensing limitations, i.e., for search and classification missions over large-scale domains, or when there are far more objects to be found and classified than there are autonomous vehicles available. Under such scenarios, search and classification compete for limited sensing resources. This is because search requires vehicle mobility while classification restricts the vehicles to the vicinity of any objects found. The authors develop decision-making strategies to choose between these competing tasks and vehicle-motion-control laws to achieve the proposed management scheme. Deterministic Lyapunov-based, probabilistic Bayesian-based, and risk-based decision-mak...

  13. Evaluation of decision making in technical support center for effective severe accident management

    Huh, C.; Suh, N.

    2010-01-01

    We have evaluated the technical and organizational aspect of the current SAMG focusing on the decision making process in TSC. Technically, we found that the current SAMG is a good software kind of tool which can help operators to manage the severe accident. But the clear cutting of EOP and SAMG, shift of plant control from MCR to TSC seems to have no firm ground to be accepted as it is. Study on the organizational behavior shows that the group decision under risky situation will be inevitably polarized either toward risky or cautious way. Since the current SAMG makes TSC to evaluate the pros and cons of strategies to be implemented and choose one based on group decision, we are not free of this group polarization phenomenon. We propose that the proven organization of EOP needs to be maintained and also that the SAMG needs to be more proceduralized. (authors)

  14. Participation in decision making

    EG Valoyi

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the extent to which employees would like to participate in decision making concerning various organisational issues, especially those concerning: the work itself, working conditions, human resources issues, and corporate policy and planning. The sample consisted of 146 participants, including managers, middle managers, and junior officials from a South African development corporation. A questionnaire to measure employees' desire to participate in decision making was specially constructed for this investigation. It has found that employees with higher academic qualifications were more desirous to participate in decision-making at all levels than employees with lower academic qualifications. This was also true for employees in higher job grades than in lower job grades. Men were more desirous to participate in decision making than women. The implications of the findings are discussed. Opsomming Die doel van die huidige studie was om vas te stel in watter mate werknemers sal wil deelneem aan die besluit- nameproses van organisasies, veral rakende die volgende sake: die werk self, werksomstandighede, menslike hulpbronaangeleenthede en korporatiewe beleid en beplanning. Die steekproef het uit 146 deelnemers, insluitende bestuurders, middelvlakbestuurders en junior amptenare van'n Suid Afrikaanse ontwikkelingskorporasie, bestaan. nVraelys wat die begeerte van werknemers meet om aan die besluitnameproses deel te neem, is spesiaal vir die doel van hierdie ondersoek, ontwerp. Dit is bevind dat werknemers met hoer akademiese kwalifikasies meer begerig is om aan die besluitnameproses op alle vlakke deel te neem as werknemers met laer akademiese kwalifikasies. Dit was ook waar vir werknemers in hoervlakposte vergeleke met werknemers in laervlakposte. Mans was ook meer begerig om aan die besluitnameproses deel te neem as vroue. Die implikasies van die studie word bespreek.

  15. Strategic Aspects of Nuclear and Radiological Emergency Management. Planning for Effective Decision Making; Consequence Management and Transition to Recovery

    2010-01-01

    The collective experience of the NEA Working Party on Nuclear Emergency Matters (WPNEM), and in particular, the experience from the International Nuclear Emergency Exercise (INEX) series, has shown that it is important to plan and to implement emergency response actions based on a guiding strategic vision. Within this context, Strategic Aspects of Nuclear and Radiological Emergency Management presents a framework of strategic planning elements to be considered by national emergency management authorities when establishing or enhancing processes for decision making, and when developing or implementing protection strategies. The focus is on nuclear or radiological emergency situations leading to complex preparedness and response conditions, involving multiple jurisdictions and significant international interfaces. The report is aimed at national emergency management authorities, international organisations and those who are seeking to improve the effectiveness of emergency management. Its goal is to provide insights into decision-making processes within existing emergency planning arrangements. It also highlights common areas of good practice in decision making. Specific areas for improvement, identified during the INEX-3 consequence management exercise, are included, particularly in support of decision making for countermeasures for consequence management and the transition to recovery. (authors)

  16. Integrated Services Management System (ISMS): A management and decision making tool

    Barber, D.S.; Brockman, D.L.; Buxton, L.D. [and others

    1995-10-01

    This document provides information concerning the Integrated Services Management System (ISMS) that was developed for the Laboratories Services Division during the period February 1994 through May 1995. ISMS was developed as a formal method for centralized management of programs within the Division. With minor modifications, this system can be adapted for management of all overhead functions at SNL or for sector level program management. Included in this document are the reasons for the creation of this system as well as the resulting benefits. The ISMS consists of six interlinked processes; Issues Management, Task/Activity Planning, Work Decision, Commitment Management, Process/Project Management, and Performance Assessment. Those processes are described in detail within this document. Additionally, lessons learned and suggestions for future improvements are indicated.

  17. Effective dialogue: Enhanced public engagement as a legitimising tool for municipal waste management decision-making

    Garnett, Kenisha; Cooper, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A review of public engagement in waste management decision-making is undertaken. • Enhanced public engagement is explored as a means to legitimise waste decisions. • Analytical–deliberative processes are explored as a tool for effective dialogue. • Considerations for integrating public values with technical analysis are outlined. • Insights into the design of appropriate public engagement processes are provided. - Abstract: The complexity of municipal waste management decision-making has increased in recent years, accompanied by growing scrutiny from stakeholders, including local communities. This complexity reflects a socio-technical framing of the risks and social impacts associated with selecting technologies and sites for waste treatment and disposal facilities. Consequently there is growing pressure on local authorities for stakeholders (including communities) to be given an early opportunity to shape local waste policy in order to encourage swift planning, development and acceptance of the technologies needed to meet statutory targets to divert waste from landfill. This paper presents findings from a research project that explored the use of analytical–deliberative processes as a legitimising tool for waste management decision-making. Adopting a mixed methods approach, the study revealed that communicating the practical benefits of more inclusive forms of engagement is proving difficult even though planning and policy delays are hindering development and implementation of waste management infrastructure. Adopting analytical–deliberative processes at a more strategic level will require local authorities and practitioners to demonstrate how expert-citizen deliberations may foster progress in resolving controversial issues, through change in individuals, communities and institutions. The findings suggest that a significant shift in culture will be necessary for local authorities to realise the potential of more inclusive decision

  18. Effective dialogue: Enhanced public engagement as a legitimising tool for municipal waste management decision-making

    Garnett, Kenisha, E-mail: k.garnett@cranfield.ac.uk [Institute for Environment, Health, Risks and Futures, School of Environment, Energy and Agri-food, Cranfield University, Cranfield MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Cooper, Tim, E-mail: t.h.cooper@ntu.ac.uk [School of Architecture Design and the Built Environment, Nottingham Trent University, Burton Street, Nottingham NG1 4BU (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • A review of public engagement in waste management decision-making is undertaken. • Enhanced public engagement is explored as a means to legitimise waste decisions. • Analytical–deliberative processes are explored as a tool for effective dialogue. • Considerations for integrating public values with technical analysis are outlined. • Insights into the design of appropriate public engagement processes are provided. - Abstract: The complexity of municipal waste management decision-making has increased in recent years, accompanied by growing scrutiny from stakeholders, including local communities. This complexity reflects a socio-technical framing of the risks and social impacts associated with selecting technologies and sites for waste treatment and disposal facilities. Consequently there is growing pressure on local authorities for stakeholders (including communities) to be given an early opportunity to shape local waste policy in order to encourage swift planning, development and acceptance of the technologies needed to meet statutory targets to divert waste from landfill. This paper presents findings from a research project that explored the use of analytical–deliberative processes as a legitimising tool for waste management decision-making. Adopting a mixed methods approach, the study revealed that communicating the practical benefits of more inclusive forms of engagement is proving difficult even though planning and policy delays are hindering development and implementation of waste management infrastructure. Adopting analytical–deliberative processes at a more strategic level will require local authorities and practitioners to demonstrate how expert-citizen deliberations may foster progress in resolving controversial issues, through change in individuals, communities and institutions. The findings suggest that a significant shift in culture will be necessary for local authorities to realise the potential of more inclusive decision

  19. Study on the Decision-Making Process in Selecting Rail Infrastructure Managers

    Dăneci-Pătrau Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The current economic context led to a significant decline in job vacancies in parallel with the downsizing numerous organizations were forced to make. Some of them ceased the hiring process as in the case of the national company CFR SA, while those with available positions focus on multiple skills and abilities and expertise exhibited in certain fields. In the context of the research concluded by the author, the identified issue circled around the decision to select the most suitable manager possessing the necessary qualities to participate in a scientific activity within the railway sector. To deliver a scientifically based solution also objectively determined, we built a specific multicriterial tree pattern with utility functions for the professional performances assessment and used the DEXi expert system in view of reaching the optimum version and making the selection decision. This method is our own contribution for the assessment of managers' professional.

  20. CEOS Contributions to Informing Energy Management and Policy Decision Making Using Space-Based Earth Observations

    Eckman, Richard S.

    2009-01-01

    Earth observations are playing an increasingly significant role in informing decision making in the energy sector. In renewable energy applications, space-based observations now routinely augment sparse ground-based observations used as input for renewable energy resource assessment applications. As one of the nine Group on Earth Observations (GEO) societal benefit areas, the enhancement of management and policy decision making in the energy sector is receiving attention in activities conducted by the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS). CEOS has become the "space arm" for the implementation of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) vision. It is directly supporting the space-based, near-term tasks articulated in the GEO three-year work plan. This paper describes a coordinated program of demonstration projects conducted by CEOS member agencies and partners to utilize Earth observations to enhance energy management end-user decision support systems. I discuss the importance of engagement with stakeholders and understanding their decision support needs in successfully increasing the uptake of Earth observation products for societal benefit. Several case studies are presented, demonstrating the importance of providing data sets in formats and units familiar and immediately usable by decision makers. These projects show the utility of Earth observations to enhance renewable energy resource assessment in the developing world, forecast space-weather impacts on the power grid, and improve energy efficiency in the built environment.

  1. CEOS contributions to informing energy management and policy decision making using space-based Earth observations

    Eckman, Richard S.; Stackhouse, Paul W.

    2012-01-01

    Earth observations are playing an increasingly significant role in informing decision making in the energy sector. In renewable energy applications, space-based observations now routinely augment sparse ground-based observations used as input for renewable energy resource assessment applications. As one of the nine Group on Earth Observations (GEO) societal benefit areas, the enhancement of management and policy decision making in the energy sector is receiving attention in activities conducted by the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS). CEOS has become the “space arm” for the implementation of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) vision. It is directly supporting the space-based, near-term tasks articulated in the GEO three-year work plan. This paper describes a coordinated program of demonstration projects conducted by CEOS member agencies and partners to utilize Earth observations to enhance energy management end-user decision support systems. We discuss the importance of engagement with stakeholders and understanding their decision support needs in successfully increasing the uptake of Earth observation products for societal benefit. Several case studies are presented, demonstrating the importance of providing data sets in formats and units familiar and immediately usable by decision makers. These projects show the utility of Earth observations to enhance renewable energy resource assessment in the developing world, forecast space weather impacts on the power grid, and improve energy efficiency in the built environment.

  2. Decision making support of the management of technogenically contaminated territories basing on risk analysis with use of geographic information technology

    Yatsalo, B.I.; Demin, V.F.

    2002-01-01

    Overall questions of decision making support of the contaminated territories management on a basis of risk assessment were considered. Characteristics and possibilities of the applied geoinformation system of decision making support PRANA developed for the risk control and rehabilitation of contaminated territories are demonstrated. The PRANA system involves estimations of all fundamental characteristics of risk during analysis of results and contaminated territories management [ru

  3. Stepwise decision making for the long-term management of radioactive waste

    Pescatore, C.; Vari, A.

    2005-01-01

    The context of long-term radioactive waste management is being shaped by changes in modern society. Values such as health, environmental protection and safety are increasingly important, as are trends towards improved forms of participatory democracy that demand new forms of risk governance in dealing with hazardous activities. These changes in turn necessitate new forms of dialogue and decision-making processes that include a large number of stakeholders. The new dynamic of dialogue and decision-making process has been characterised as a shift from a more traditional 'decide, announce and defend' model, focused on technical assurance, to one of 'engage, interact and cooperate', for which both technical assurance and quality of the process are of comparable importance to a constructive outcome. Consequently, the scientific and engineering aspects of waste management safety are no longer of exclusive importance. Organisational ability to communicate and to adapt to the new context has emerged as a critical contributor to public confidence. In the new decision-making context it is clear that (a) any significant decisions regarding the long-term management of radioactive waste will be accompanied by a comprehensive public review with involvement of a diverse range of stakeholders; (b) the public, and especially the local public, are not willing to commit irreversibly to technical choices on which they have insufficient familiarity and understanding; and (c) any management options will take decades to be developed and implemented, which will involve stakeholders who have not yet been born. Thus, a 'decision' no longer means opting for, in one go and for all time, a complete package solution. Instead, a decision is one step in an overall, cautious process of examining and making choices that preserve the safety and well-being of the present generation and the coming ones while not needlessly depriving the latter of their right of choice. Consideration is thus

  4. Business making decisions

    Enrique Benjamín Franklin Fincowsky

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available People and organizations make better or get wrong as consequence of making decisions. Sometimes making decisions is just a trial and error process. Some others, decisions are good and the results profitable with a few of mistakes, most of the time because it’s considered the experience and the control of a specific field or the good intention of who makes them. Actually, all kinds of decisions bring learning. What is important is the intention, the attitude and the values considered in this process. People from different scenes face many facts and circumstances—almost always out of control—that affect the making decisions process. There is not a unique way to make decisions for all companies in many settings. The person who makes a decision should identify the problem, to solve it later using alternatives and solutions. Even though, follow all the steps it’s not easy as it seems. Looking back the conditions related to the decisions, we can mention the followings: uncertainty, risk and certainty. When people identify circumstances and facts, as well as its effects in a possible situation, they will make decisions with certainty. As long as the information decreases and it becomes ambiguous the risk becomes an important factor in the making decisions process because they are connected to probable objectives (clear or subjective (opinion judgment or intuition. To finish, uncertainty, involves people that make a decision with no or little information about circumstances or criteria with basis

  5. Approach of decision making based on the analytic hierarchy process for urban landscape management.

    Srdjevic, Zorica; Lakicevic, Milena; Srdjevic, Bojan

    2013-03-01

    This paper proposes a two-stage group decision making approach to urban landscape management and planning supported by the analytic hierarchy process. The proposed approach combines an application of the consensus convergence model and the weighted geometric mean method. The application of the proposed approach is shown on a real urban landscape planning problem with a park-forest in Belgrade, Serbia. Decision makers were policy makers, i.e., representatives of several key national and municipal institutions, and experts coming from different scientific fields. As a result, the most suitable management plan from the set of plans is recognized. It includes both native vegetation renewal in degraded areas of park-forest and continued maintenance of its dominant tourism function. Decision makers included in this research consider the approach to be transparent and useful for addressing landscape management tasks. The central idea of this paper can be understood in a broader sense and easily applied to other decision making problems in various scientific fields.

  6. Approach of Decision Making Based on the Analytic Hierarchy Process for Urban Landscape Management

    Srdjevic, Zorica; Lakicevic, Milena; Srdjevic, Bojan

    2013-03-01

    This paper proposes a two-stage group decision making approach to urban landscape management and planning supported by the analytic hierarchy process. The proposed approach combines an application of the consensus convergence model and the weighted geometric mean method. The application of the proposed approach is shown on a real urban landscape planning problem with a park-forest in Belgrade, Serbia. Decision makers were policy makers, i.e., representatives of several key national and municipal institutions, and experts coming from different scientific fields. As a result, the most suitable management plan from the set of plans is recognized. It includes both native vegetation renewal in degraded areas of park-forest and continued maintenance of its dominant tourism function. Decision makers included in this research consider the approach to be transparent and useful for addressing landscape management tasks. The central idea of this paper can be understood in a broader sense and easily applied to other decision making problems in various scientific fields.

  7. Applying BI Techniques To Improve Decision Making And Provide Knowledge Based Management

    Alexandra Maria Ioana FLOREA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on BI techniques and especially data mining algorithms that can support and improve the decision making process, with applications within the financial sector. We consider the data mining techniques to be more efficient and thus we applied several techniques, supervised and unsupervised learning algorithms The case study in which these algorithms have been implemented regards the activity of a banking institution, with focus on the management of lending activities.

  8. A new R-SWAT Decision Making Framework for the Efficient Allocation of Best Management Practices

    UDIAS MOINELO ANGEL; MALAGO ANNA; REYNAUD ARNAUD; PASTORI MARCO; VIGIAK OLGA; BOURAOUI Faycal

    2015-01-01

    The work presents and illustrates the application of R-SWAT-DM, a new R framework designed for Decision Making (DM), related to the implementation of Best Management Practices (BMPs), for restoring and protecting the good ecological status of freshwater bodies. R-SWAT-DM combines the use of the SWAT watershed model, the spatial representation of BMPs and an economic component. The SWAT model served as the nonpoint source pollution estimator for current conditions (base line) as well as for sc...

  9. The IT Impact in Management Decision Making in Romanian Companies: A Case Study

    Cornelia NOVAC-UDUDEC

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present a case study regarding the information technologies impact in decision making process on the management of some Romanian companies. The main parameters which can define the IT impact were established. The results of investigation and the most important correlations between the monitored parameters are also presented. At the end of the paper there are the conclusions on the impact of information technologies obtained from the case study.

  10. Reducing Biases in Cross-Cultural Top Management Team Decision-Making Processes

    David Strutton; William Carter

    2013-01-01

    Cross-cultural top-management-teams (cc-TMTs) are typically comprised of rational individuals. Yet cc-TMTs featuring uniformly wise and experienced executives often make irrational decisions (i.e., choices incompatible with reason or logic). Even most executives acknowledge this is true. Behavioral economics suggests a primary reason why is that iterative combinations of cultural and cognitive biases invariably arise and interact in cc-TMT settings. As they arise, these biases often undermine...

  11. Clinical Decision Making in the Management of Patients With Cervicogenic Dizziness: A Case Series.

    Jung, Francis C; Mathew, Sherin; Littmann, Andrew E; MacDonald, Cameron W

    2017-11-01

    Study Design Case series. Background Although growing recognition of cervicogenic dizziness (CGD) is emerging, there is still no gold standard for the diagnosis of CGD. The purpose of this case series is to describe the clinical decision making utilized in the management of 7 patients presenting with CGD. Case Description Patients presenting with neck pain and accompanying subjective symptoms, including dizziness, unsteadiness, light-headedness, and visual disturbance, were selected. Clinical evidence of a temporal relationship between neck pain and dizziness, with or without sensorimotor disturbances, was assessed. Clinical decision making followed a 4-step process, informed by the current available best evidence. Outcome measures included the numeric rating scale for dizziness and neck pain, the Dizziness Handicap Inventory, Patient-Specific Functional Scale, and global rating of change. Outcomes Seven patients (mean age, 57 years; range, 31-86 years; 7 female) completed physical therapy management at an average of 13 sessions (range, 8-30 sessions) over a mean of 7 weeks. Clinically meaningful improvements were observed in the numeric rating scale for dizziness (mean difference, 5.7; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.0, 7.5), neck pain (mean difference, 5.4; 95% CI: 3.8, 7.1), and the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (mean difference, 32.6; 95% CI: 12.9, 52.2) at discontinuation. Patients also demonstrated overall satisfaction via the Patient-Specific Functional Scale (mean difference, 9) and global rating of change (mean, +6). Discussion This case series describes the physical therapist decision making, management, and outcomes in patients with CGD. Further investigation is warranted to develop a valid clinical decision-making guideline to inform management of patients with CGD. Level of Evidence Diagnosis, therapy, level 4. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(11):874-884. Epub 9 Oct 2017. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.7425.

  12. Defining and Measuring Decision-Making for the Management of Trauma Patients.

    Madani, Amin; Gips, Amanda; Razek, Tarek; Deckelbaum, Dan L; Mulder, David S; Grushka, Jeremy R

    Effective management of trauma patients is heavily dependent on sound judgment and decision-making. Yet, current methods for training and assessing these advanced cognitive skills are subjective, lack standardization, and are prone to error. This qualitative study aims to define and characterize the cognitive and interpersonal competencies required to optimally manage injured patients. Cognitive and hierarchical task analyses for managing unstable trauma patients were performed using qualitative methods to map the thoughts, behaviors, and practices that characterize expert performance. Trauma team leaders and board-certified trauma surgeons participated in semistructured interviews that were transcribed verbatim. Data were supplemented with content from published literature and prospectively collected field notes from observations of the trauma team during trauma activations. The data were coded and analyzed using grounded theory by 2 independent reviewers. A framework was created based on 14 interviews with experts (lasting 1-2 hours each), 35 field observations (20 [57%] blunt; 15 [43%] penetrating; median Injury Severity Score 20 [13-25]), and 15 literary sources. Experts included 11 trauma surgeons and 3 emergency physicians from 7 Level 1 academic institutions in North America (median years in practice: 12 [8-17]). Twenty-nine competencies were identified, including 17 (59%) related to situation awareness, 6 (21%) involving decision-making, and 6 (21%) requiring interpersonal skills. Of 40 potential errors that were identified, root causes were mapped to errors in situation awareness (20 [50%]), decision-making (10 [25%]), or interpersonal skills (10 [25%]). This study defines cognitive and interpersonal competencies that are essential for the management of trauma patients. This framework may serve as the basis for novel curricula to train and assess decision-making skills, and to develop quality-control metrics to improve team and individual performance

  13. Studies on Interpretive Structural Model for Forest Ecosystem Management Decision-Making

    Liu, Suqing; Gao, Xiumei; Zen, Qunying; Zhou, Yuanman; Huang, Yuequn; Han, Weidong; Li, Linfeng; Li, Jiping; Pu, Yingshan

    Characterized by their openness, complexity and large scale, forest ecosystems interweave themselves with social system, economic system and other natural ecosystems, thus complicating both their researches and management decision-making. According to the theories of sustainable development, hierarchy-competence levels, cybernetics and feedback, 25 factors have been chosen from human society, economy and nature that affect forest ecosystem management so that they are systematically analyzed via developing an interpretive structural model (ISM) to reveal their relationships and positions in the forest ecosystem management. The ISM consists of 7 layers with the 3 objectives for ecosystem management being the top layer (the seventh layer). The ratio between agricultural production value and industrial production value as the bases of management decision-making in forest ecosystems becomes the first layer at the bottom because it has great impacts on the values of society and the development trends of forestry, while the factors of climatic environments, intensive management extent, management measures, input-output ratio as well as landscape and productivity are arranged from the second to sixth layers respectively.

  14. REASONS AND CONSEQUENCES OF APPLIED LEADERSHIP STYLES IN ETHICAL DILEMMAS WHEN NURSE MANAGERS MAKE DECISIONS.

    Zydziunaite, V; Suominen, T

    2014-09-21

    Abstract Background: Understanding the reasons and consequences of leadership styles in ethical dilemmas is fundamental to exploring nurse managers' abilities to influence outcomes for patients and nursing personnel. Purpose: To explain the associations between different leadership styles, reasons for their application and its consequences when nurse managers make decisions in ethical dilemmas. Methods: The data were collected between 15 October 2011 and 30 April 2012 by statistically validated questionnaire. The respondents (n=278) were nurse managers. The data were analyzed using SPSS 20.0, calculating Spearman's correlations, the Stepwise Regression and ANOVA. Results: The reasons for applying different leadership styles in ethical dilemmas include personal characteristics, years in work position, institutional factors, and the professional authority of nurse managers. The applied leadership styles in ethical dilemmas are associated with the consequences regarding the satisfaction of patients', relatives' and nurse managers' needs. Conclusions: Nurse managers exhibited leadership styles oriented to maintenance, focusing more on the "doing the job" than on managing the decision-making in ethical dilemmas.

  15. Management of carbon across sectors and scales: Insights from land use decision making

    Dilling, L.; Failey, E. L.

    2008-12-01

    Carbon management is increasingly becoming a topic of interest among policy circles and business entrepreneurs alike. In the United States, while no binding regulatory framework exists, carbon management is nonetheless being pursued both by voluntary actions at a variety of levels, from the individual to the national level, and through mandatory policies at state and local levels. Controlling the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere for climate purposes will ultimately require a form of governance that will ensure that the actions taken and being rewarded financially are indeed effective with respect to the global atmosphere on long time scales. Moreover, this new system of governance will need to interface with existing governance structures and decision criteria that have been established to arbitrate among various societal values and priorities. These existing institutions and expressed values will need to be examined against those proposed for effective carbon governance, such as the permanence of carbon storage, the additionality of credited activities, and the prevention of leakage, or displacement of prohibited activities to another region outside the governance boundary. The latter issue suggests that interactions among scales of decision making and governance will be extremely important in determining the ultimate success of any future system of carbon governance. The goal of our study is to understand the current context of land use decision making in different sectors and examine the potential for future carbon policy to be effective given this context. This study examined land use decision making in the U.S. state of Colorado from a variety of ownership perspectives, including US Federal land managers, individual private owners, and policy makers involved in land use at a number of different scales. This paper will report on the results of interviews with land managers and provide insight into the policy context for carbon management through land

  16. Integrated analysis for population estimation, management impact evaluation, and decision-making for a declining species

    Crawford, Brian A.; Moore, Clinton; Norton, Terry M.; Maerz, John C.

    2018-01-01

    A challenge for making conservation decisions is predicting how wildlife populations respond to multiple, concurrent threats and potential management strategies, usually under substantial uncertainty. Integrated modeling approaches can improve estimation of demographic rates necessary for making predictions, even for rare or cryptic species with sparse data, but their use in management applications is limited. We developed integrated models for a population of diamondback terrapins (Malaclemys terrapin) impacted by road-associated threats to (i) jointly estimate demographic rates from two mark-recapture datasets, while directly estimating road mortality and the impact of management actions deployed during the study; and (ii) project the population using population viability analysis under simulated management strategies to inform decision-making. Without management, population extirpation was nearly certain due to demographic impacts of road mortality, predators, and vegetation. Installation of novel flashing signage increased survival of terrapins that crossed roads by 30%. Signage, along with small roadside barriers installed during the study, increased population persistence probability, but the population was still predicted to decline. Management strategies that included actions targeting multiple threats and demographic rates resulted in the highest persistence probability, and roadside barriers, which increased adult survival, were predicted to increase persistence more than other actions. Our results support earlier findings showing mitigation of multiple threats is likely required to increase the viability of declining populations. Our approach illustrates how integrated models may be adapted to use limited data efficiently, represent system complexity, evaluate impacts of threats and management actions, and provide decision-relevant information for conservation of at-risk populations.

  17. Making the decision-making basis for nuclear waste management transparent - A pre-study report

    Andersson, Kjell

    2007-04-01

    in the safety assessment. A first event in this suggested series of activities within the transparency programme took place in March 2007, when KASAM arranged a hearing about deep bore holes as a possible alternative method for final disposal. Technical feasibility, long term safety and safety philosophy were among the topics addressed. The hearing will be reported in a KASAM report, to be published in 2007. Realistically, at most two issues can be covered per year, therefore maximum five issues can be dealt with until SKB has submitted its licence application, however, in principle the transparency programme can continue also during the licensing process. The timing of the KASAM activities will be crucial considering the SKB programme, the review work of the authorities as well as the municipality involvement. The transparency programme should prepare KASAM for its advisory role to the Swedish government but it should also be a resource for all stakeholders, the political decision makers and concerned citizens who wish to deepen their insight into the issues addressed. Besides contributing in a constructive way to the Swedish nuclear waste management programme, the KASAM transparency programme can contribute to the development of nuclear waste management in a wider context including research and development work that takes place in Europe about public participation and transparency, as well as to other sectors in society

  18. Nurse managers' decision-making in daily unit operation in peri-operative settings: a cross-sectional descriptive study.

    Siirala, Eriikka; Peltonen, Laura-Maria; Lundgrén-Laine, Heljä; Salanterä, Sanna; Junttila, Kristiina

    2016-09-01

    To describe the tactical and the operational decisions made by nurse managers when managing the daily unit operation in peri-operative settings. Management is challenging as situations change rapidly and decisions are constantly made. Understanding decision-making in this complex environment helps to develop decision support systems to support nurse managers' operative and tactical decision-making. Descriptive cross-sectional design. Data were collected from 20 nurse managers with the think-aloud method during the busiest working hours and analysed using thematic content analysis. Nurse managers made over 700 decisions; either ad hoc (n = 289), near future (n = 268) or long-term (n = 187) by nature. Decisions were often made simultaneously with many interruptions. Ad hoc decisions covered staff allocation, ensuring adequate staff, rescheduling surgical procedures, confirmation tangible resources and following-up the daily unit operation. Decisions in the near future were: planning of surgical procedures and tangible resources, and planning staff allocation. Long-term decisions were: human recourses, nursing development, supplies and equipment, and finances in the unit. Decision-making was vulnerable to interruptions, which sometimes complicated the managing tasks. The results can be used when planning decision support systems and when defining the nurse managers' tasks in peri-operative settings. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Merkel cell carcinoma: An algorithm for multidisciplinary management and decision-making.

    Prieto, Isabel; Pérez de la Fuente, Teresa; Medina, Susana; Castelo, Beatriz; Sobrino, Beatriz; Fortes, Jose R; Esteban, David; Cassinello, Fernando; Jover, Raquel; Rodríguez, Nuria

    2016-02-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare and aggressive neuroendocrine tumor of the skin. Therapeutic approach is often unclear, and considerable controversy exists regarding MCC pathogenesis and optimal management. Due to its rising incidence and poor prognosis, it is imperative to establish the optimal therapy for both the tumor and the lymph node basin, and for treatment to include sentinel node biopsy. Sentinel node biopsy is currently the most consistent predictor of survival for MCC patients, although there are conflicting views and a lack of awareness regarding node management. Tumor and node management involve different specialists, and their respective decisions and interventions are interrelated. No effective systemic treatment has been made available to date, and therefore patients continue to experience distant failure, often without local failure. This review aims to improve multidisciplinary decision-making by presenting scientific evidence of the contributions of each team member implicated in MCC management. Following this review of previously published research, the authors conclude that multidisciplinary team management is beneficial for care, and propose a multidisciplinary decision algorithm for managing this tumor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Lessons from COASST: How Does Citizen Science Contribute to Natural Resource Management & Decision-Making?

    Metes, J.; Ballard, H. L.; Parrish, J.

    2016-12-01

    As many scholars and practitioners in the environmental field turn to citizen science to collect robust scientific data as well as engage with wider audiences, it is crucial to build a more complete understanding of how citizen science influences and affects different interests within a social-ecological system. This research investigates how federal, state, and tribal natural resource managers interact with data from the Coastal Observation & Seabird Survey Team (COASST) project—a citizen science program that trains participants to monitor species and abundance of beach-cast birds on the Pacific Northwest Coast. Fifteen coastal and fisheries managers who previously requested COASST data were interviewed about how and why they used data from the project and were asked to describe how information gained from COASST affected their management decisions. Results suggest that broadly, managers value and learn from the program's capacity to gather data spanning a wide spatial-temporal range. This contribution to baseline monitoring helps managers signal and track both short- and long-term environmental change. More specifically, managers use COASST data in conjunction with other professional monitoring programs, such as the National Marine Fisheries Observer Program, to build higher degrees of reliability into management decisions. Although managers offered diverse perspectives and experiences about what the role of citizen science in natural resource management generally should be, there was agreement that agencies on their own often lack personnel and funding required to sufficiently monitor many crucial resources. Additionally, managers strongly suggested that COASST and other citizen science projects increased public awareness and support for agency decision-making and policies, and indirect yet important contribution to natural resource management.

  1. Use of evidence-based management in healthcare administration decision-making.

    Guo, Ruiling; Berkshire, Steven D; Fulton, Lawrence V; Hermanson, Patrick M

    2017-07-03

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine whether healthcare leaders use evidence-based management (EBMgt) when facing major decisions and what types of evidence healthcare administrators consult during their decision-making. This study also intends to identify any relationship that might exist among adoption of EBMgt in healthcare management, attitudes towards EBMgt, demographic characteristics and organizational characteristics. Design/methodology/approach A cross-sectional study was conducted among US healthcare leaders. Spearman's correlation and logistic regression were performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) 23.0. Findings One hundred and fifty-four healthcare leaders completed the survey. The study results indicated that 90 per cent of the participants self-reported having used an EBMgt approach for decision-making. Professional experiences (87 per cent), organizational data (84 per cent) and stakeholders' values (63 per cent) were the top three types of evidence consulted daily and weekly for decision-making. Case study (75 per cent) and scientific research findings (75 per cent) were the top two types of evidence consulted monthly or less than once a month. An exploratory, stepwise logistic regression model correctly classified 75.3 per cent of all observations for a dichotomous "use of EBMgt" response variable using three independent variables: attitude towards EBMgt, number of employees in the organization and the job position. Spearman's correlation indicated statistically significant relationships between healthcare leaders' use of EBMgt and healthcare organization bed size ( r s = 0.217, n = 152, p employees ( r s = 0.195, n = 152, p = 0.016). Originality/value This study generated new research findings on the practice of EBMgt in US healthcare administration decision-making.

  2. Developing a deliberative process for ethically informed radioactive waste management decision making in the UK

    Cotton, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    In the UK and internationally, there is widespread recognition that decision-making processes over long-term radioactive waste management are subject to a broad array of inherent technical, political, social, psychological and ethical issues. This paper seeks to specifically address the ethical aspects of long-term radioactive waste management and siting by proposing a framework for evaluating and integrating stakeholders' ethical values into a political decision-making process. Evaluation and integration of the ethical issues and related values takes place within the context of a comprehensive program of stakeholder engagement; a process necessary in fostering support amongst stakeholder groups and potentially affected communities - allowing legitimate and defensible political decisions to be made. In pluralistic democracies such as the UK, there is a recognition that a broad array of ethical values are held by the affected stakeholder groups, and the tools used to integrate ethical values into a stakeholder engagement process must be designed to reflect this pattern of moral diversity. This paper outlines the implications of this diversity for participatory decision making and addresses it by outlining a 'tool' or procedure for stakeholder deliberation as part of a broader 'toolbox' of deliberative methods: a tool that allows not only the elicitation of stakeholders' moral values, but also a critical re-evaluation of those values in light of ethical principles agreed upon by the participants themselves. Drawing upon the theoretical framework of ethical pragmatism, the goal is to turn what philosopher John Rawls has termed an ethical 'reflective equilibrium' into a practical procedure for stakeholder deliberation. The paper describes how the model of reflective equilibrium can be used as a basis for designing this deliberative procedure, in a way that is multi-staged and iterative in nature; with a goal to providing the means for stakeholder participants to

  3. Applying an ethical decision-making tool to a nurse management dilemma.

    Toren, Orly; Wagner, Nurith

    2010-05-01

    This article considers ethical dilemmas that nurse managers may confront and suggests an ethical decision-making model that could be used as a tool for resolving such dilemmas. The focus of the article is on the question: Can nurse managers choose the ethically right solution in conflicting situations when nurses' rights collide with patients' rights to quality care in a world of cost-effective and economic constraint? Managers' responsibility is to ensure and facilitate a safe and ethical working environment in which nurses are able to give quality care to their patients. In nursing it is frequently declared that managers' main obligations are to patients' needs and their rights to receive quality care. However, managers' ethical responsibilities are not only to patients but also to the nurses working in their institution. This article describes a real (but disguised) situation from an Israeli health care context to illustrate the dilemmas that may arise. The question is posed of whether nurse managers can maintain patients' and nurses' rights and, at the same time, fulfill their obligation to the conflicting demands of the organization. The article also offers a way to solve conflict by using an ethical decision-making model.

  4. Hospital managers' need for information in decision-making--An interview study in nine European countries.

    Kidholm, Kristian; Ølholm, Anne Mette; Birk-Olsen, Mette; Cicchetti, Americo; Fure, Brynjar; Halmesmäki, Esa; Kahveci, Rabia; Kiivet, Raul-Allan; Wasserfallen, Jean-Blaise; Wild, Claudia; Sampietro-Colom, Laura

    2015-11-01

    Assessments of new health technologies in Europe are often made at the hospital level. However, the guidelines for health technology assessment (HTA), e.g. the EUnetHTA Core Model, are produced by national HTA organizations and focus on decision-making at the national level. This paper describes the results of an interview study with European hospital managers about their need for information when deciding about investments in new treatments. The study is part of the AdHopHTA project. Face-to-face, structured interviews were conducted with 53 hospital managers from nine European countries. The hospital managers identified the clinical, economic, safety and organizational aspects of new treatments as being the most relevant for decision-making. With regard to economic aspects, the hospital managers typically had a narrower focus on budget impact and reimbursement. In addition to the information included in traditional HTAs, hospital managers sometimes needed information on the political and strategic aspects of new treatments, in particular the relationship between the treatment and the strategic goals of the hospital. If further studies are able to verify our results, guidelines for hospital-based HTA should be altered to reflect the information needs of hospital managers when deciding about investments in new treatments. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Panel: Eco-informatics and decision making managing our natural resources

    Gushing, J.B.; Wilson, T.; Martin, F.; Schnase, J.; Spengler, S.; Sugarbaker, L.; Pardo, T.

    2006-01-01

    This panel responds to the December 2004 workshop on Eco-Informatics and Decision Making [1], which addressed how informatics tools can help with better management of natural resources and policy making. The workshop was jointly sponsored by the NSF, NBII, NASA, and EPA. Workshop participants recommended that informatics research in four IT areas be funded: modeling and simulation, data quality, information integration and ontologies, and social and human aspects. Additionally, they recommend that funding agencies provide infrastructure and some changes in funding habits to assure cycles of innovation in the domain were addressed. This panel brings issues raised in that workshop to the attention of digital government researchers.

  6. What is the subject of decision-making in the management of development and operation of a nuclear power complex

    Drahny, M.

    1986-01-01

    Decision-making in the nuclear power complex is described in context with the respective process of management. Basic concepts are defined, the course of an elementary decision-making process described and basic knowledge is generalized for more complex actual cases. Conditions are studied which determine the quality of adopted decisions. Special attention is devoted to working papers for the decision-making process and to the compilers of such papers. Items of decision-making in the nuclear power complex are classified in time sequence and system hierarchy. (author)

  7. Integrating risk management and safety culture in a framework for risk informed decision making

    Nelson, W.R.

    2009-01-01

    Operators and regulators of nuclear power plants agree on the importance of maintaining safety and controlling accident risks. Effective safety and risk management requires treatment of both technical and organizational components. Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) provides tools for technical risk management. However, organizational factors are not treated in PRA, but are addressed using different approaches. To bring both components together, a framework of Risk Informed Decision Making (RIDM) is needed. The objective tree structure of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is a promising approach to combine both elements. Effective collaboration involving regulatory and industry groups is needed to accomplish the integration. (author)

  8. An analytical hierarchy process for decision making of high-level-waste management

    Wang, J.H.C.; Jang, W.

    1995-01-01

    To prove the existence value of nuclear technology for the world of post cold war, demonstration of safe rad-waste disposal is essential. High-level-waste (HLW) certainly is the key issue to be resolved. To assist a rational and persuasive process on various disposal options, an Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) for the decision making of HLW management is presented. The basic theory and rationale are discussed, and applications are shown to illustrate the usefulness of the AHP. The authors wish that the AHP can provide a better direction for the current doomed situations of Taiwan nuclear industry, and to exchange with other countries for sharing experiences on the HLW management

  9. Shared decision making in the management of children with newly diagnosed immune thrombocytopenia.

    Beck, Carolyn E; Boydell, Katherine M; Stasiulis, Elaine; Blanchette, Victor S; Llewellyn-Thomas, Hilary; Birken, Catherine S; Breakey, Vicky R; Parkin, Patricia C

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to examine the treatment decision-making process for children hospitalized with newly diagnosed immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). Using focus groups, we studied children with ITP, parents of children with ITP, and health care professionals, inquiring about participants' experience with decision support and decision making in newly diagnosed ITP. Data were examined using thematic analysis. Themes that emerged from children were feelings of "anxiety, fear, and confusion"; the need to "understand information"; and "treatment choice," the experience of which was age dependent. For parents, "anxiety, fear, and confusion" was a dominant theme; "treatment choice" revealed that participants felt directed toward intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) for initial treatment. For health care professionals, "comfort level" highlighted factors contributing to professionals' comfort with offering options; "assumptions" were made about parental desire for participation in shared decision making (SDM) and parental acceptance of treatment options; "providing information" was informative regarding modes of facilitating SDM; and "treatment choice" revealed a discrepancy between current practice (directed toward IVIG) and the ideal of SDM. At our center, families of children with newly diagnosed ITP are not experiencing SDM. Our findings support the implementation of SDM to facilitate patient-centered care for the management of pediatric ITP.

  10. Decision-making: Theory and practice

    SM Turpin; MA Marais

    2004-01-01

    This paper compares a number of theoretical models of decision-making with the way in which senior managers make decisions in practice. Six prominent decision-makers were interviewed about their own decision-making style, as well as their use of decision support technology. Significant variation was found in personal decision-making styles. However, some central themes emerged, such as the importance of sensitivity to the decision-making context, attention to the presentation of information, ...

  11. Shared decision making for psychiatric medication management: beyond the micro-social.

    Morant, Nicola; Kaminskiy, Emma; Ramon, Shulamit

    2016-10-01

    Mental health care has lagged behind other health-care domains in developing and applying shared decision making (SDM) for treatment decisions. This is despite compatibilities with ideals of modern mental health care such as self-management and recovery-oriented practice, and growing policy-level interest. Psychiatric medication is a mainstay of mental health treatment, but there are known problems with prescribing practices, and service users report feeling uninvolved in medication decisions and concerned about adverse effects. SDM has potential to produce better tailoring of psychiatric medication to individuals' needs. This conceptual review argues that several aspects of mental health care that differ from other health-care contexts (e.g. forms of coercion, questions about service users' insight and disempowerment) may impact on processes and possibilities for SDM. It is therefore problematic to uncritically import models of SDM developed in other health-care contexts. We argue that decision making for psychiatric medication is better understood in a broader way that moves beyond the micro-social focus of a medical consultation. Contextualizing specific medication-related consultations within longer term relationships, and broader service systems enables recognition of the multiple processes, actors and agendas that shape how psychiatric medication is prescribed, managed and used, and which may facilitate or impede SDM. A broad conceptualization of decision making for psychiatric medication that moves beyond the micro-social can account for why SDM in this domain remains a rarity. It has both conceptual and practical utility for evaluating research evidence, identifying future research priorities and highlighting fruitful ways of developing and implementing SDM in mental health care. © 2015 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Management of the geriatric trauma patient at risk of death: therapy withdrawal decision making.

    Trunkey, D D; Cahn, R M; Lenfesty, B; Mullins, R

    2000-01-01

    The management of geriatric injured patients admitted to a trauma center includes the selective decision to provide comfort care only, including withdrawal of therapy, and a choice to not use full application of standard therapies. The decision makers in this process include multiple individuals in addition to the patient. Retrospective review of documentation by 2 blinded reviewers of the cohort of patients over a recent 5-year period (1993-1997). Trauma service of a level I trauma center. A convenience sample of patients aged 65 years and older who died, and whose medical record was available for review. Patients were categorized as having withdrawal of therapy, and documentation in the medical record of who made the assessment decisions and recommendations, and to what extent the processes of care were documented. Among 87 geriatric trauma patients who died, 47 had documentation interpreted as indicating a decision was made to withdraw therapy. In only a few circumstances was the patient capable of actively participating in these decisions. The other individuals involved in recommendations for withdrawal of therapy were, in order of prevalence, the treating trauma surgeon, family members (as proxy reporting the patient's preferences), or a second physician. Documentation regarding the end-of-life decisions was often fragmentary, and in some cases ambiguous. Copies of legal advance directives were rarely available in the medical record, and ethics committee participation was used only once. Withdrawal of therapy is a common event in the terminal care of geriatric injured patients. The process for reaching a decision regarding withdrawal of therapy is complex because in most circumstances patients' injuries preclude their full participation. Standards for documentation of essential information, including patients' preferences and decision-making ability, should be developed to improve the process and assist with recording these complicated decisions that often

  13. Dialogue Police, Decision Making, and the Management of Public Order During Protest Crowd Events

    Gorringe, Hugo; Stott, Clifford; Rosie, Michael

    2012-01-01

    making and enhanced police proportionality. The subsequent impact upon crowd dynamics allowed for an improved capacity for proactive public order management, encouraged ‘self-regulation’ in the crowd, and avoided the unnecessary police use of force at moments of tension. The implications of the analysis......Following the major riots within England in August 2011, the efficacy of public order police decision making was brought into a sharp focus. None the less, the reform of this mode of policing within the UK was already underway with a strong emphasis upon policing through consent and the need...... in the north of England. This paper draws out lessons to be learned from what proved to be a highly successful dialogue-based approach to policing protests. We contend that dialogue and liaison were effective because they allowed for an ongoing dynamic risk assessment that improved command-level decision...

  14. Top Management Teams’ Characteristics and Strategic Decision-Making: A Mediation of Risk Perceptions and Mental Models

    Tungju Wu; Yenchun Jim Wu; Hsientang Tsai; Yibin Li

    2017-01-01

    Strategic decision-making is a key factor of sustainability and development in enterprises. Moreover, the top management team (TMT) of an enterprise constitutes the base for decision-making. This study employed structural equation modeling to analyze questionnaires regarding TMTs’ characteristics and strategic decision-making, and tested the mediating effects of risk perceptions and mental models and the moderating effects of psychological ownership. We investigated 289 valid questionnaires o...

  15. Electronic decision support for procurement management : evidence on whether computers can make better procurement decisions

    Snijders, C.C.P.; Tazelaar, F.; Batenburg, R.S.

    2003-01-01

    We analyse how well purchasing managers are able to judge the likelihood of problems for a given purchasing transaction. The literature on clinical versus statistical prediction suggests that humans in general, including purchasing managers, are often outperformed by relatively simple statistical

  16. Evaluating a multispecies adaptive management framework: Must uncertainty impede effective decision-making?

    Smith, David R.; McGowan, Conor P.; Daily, Jonathan P.; Nichols, James D.; Sweka, John A.; Lyons, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Application of adaptive management to complex natural resource systems requires careful evaluation to ensure that the process leads to improved decision-making. As part of that evaluation, adaptive policies can be compared with alternative nonadaptive management scenarios. Also, the value of reducing structural (ecological) uncertainty to achieving management objectives can be quantified.A multispecies adaptive management framework was recently adopted by the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission for sustainable harvest of Delaware Bay horseshoe crabs Limulus polyphemus, while maintaining adequate stopover habitat for migrating red knots Calidris canutus rufa, the focal shorebird species. The predictive model set encompassed the structural uncertainty in the relationships between horseshoe crab spawning, red knot weight gain and red knot vital rates. Stochastic dynamic programming was used to generate a state-dependent strategy for harvest decisions given that uncertainty. In this paper, we employed a management strategy evaluation approach to evaluate the performance of this adaptive management framework. Active adaptive management was used by including model weights as state variables in the optimization and reducing structural uncertainty by model weight updating.We found that the value of information for reducing structural uncertainty is expected to be low, because the uncertainty does not appear to impede effective management. Harvest policy responded to abundance levels of both species regardless of uncertainty in the specific relationship that generated those abundances. Thus, the expected horseshoe crab harvest and red knot abundance were similar when the population generating model was uncertain or known, and harvest policy was robust to structural uncertainty as specified.Synthesis and applications. The combination of management strategy evaluation with state-dependent strategies from stochastic dynamic programming was an informative approach to

  17. There is more to IT portfolio management than top-management making the right decisions: A review of the literature

    Hansen, Lars; Kræmmergaard, Pernille

    2011-01-01

    There is more to IT portfolio management than top-management making the right decisions: A review of the IT PPM literature. Organizations experience ongoing challenges in managing their portfolio of InformationTechnology (IT) as IT expenses are becoming a major part of the budget. Hence......, organizations implement a wide range of IT portfolio management (IT PPM) arrangements to increase value from IT. The literature vastly emphasizes the organizational benefits of establishing IT PPM, but only a minor part of the literature emphasizes the unintended and negative consequences of IT PPM....

  18. Local Management of Schools: Rationality and Decision-Making in the Employment of Teachers.

    Huckman, Lynda; Hill, Tim

    1994-01-01

    Examines the use of rational planning techniques in five English elementary schools. Discusses the decision-making processes used to determine the employment and remuneration of teachers. Finds that the decree of control over decision making was related closely to the extent to which decisions would contribute to solutions of other school…

  19. Evaluating the impact of HIA on urban reconstruction decision-making. Who manages whose risks?

    Bekker, Marleen P.M.; Putters, Kim; Grinten, Tom E.D. van der

    2005-01-01

    Practitioners and academic researchers increasingly look to evaluation of health impact assessment (HIA) to improve its practice, its efficiency and its legitimacy. Evaluation is also used to account to policy-makers, who express doubts that the benefits of HIA justify its costs. Until recently evaluation of HIA focused on instrument design and procedures but now the focus needs to shift to analysis of the interaction of HIA and decision-making. Multiple case studies have been applied to identify the conditions in which HIA produces the desired benefits. These studies used analytical concepts derived from the literature on evaluation, knowledge utilization, science of sociology and knowledge management. This paper describes a case study in which the strategic motives of the decision-makers affected the impact of an HIA. This HIA comprised of a quantitative environmental model 'City and Environment' that was used to assess environmental health impacts of an urban reconstruction plan in a Dutch city. The evaluation of the HIA shows that the decision to follow the recommendations of the HIA was part of a damage control strategy. The more HIA goals deviate from the policy problem and the less HIA is embedded in institutional procedures, then the more HIA impact will be subject to strategic decision-making behaviour. Appropriate cognitive and social strategies are needed to avoid 'negative learning' in those the HIA seeks to influence

  20. Multi-criteria decision making to support waste management: A critical review of current practices and methods.

    Goulart Coelho, Lineker M; Lange, Liséte C; Coelho, Hosmanny Mg

    2017-01-01

    Solid waste management is a complex domain involving the interaction of several dimensions; thus, its analysis and control impose continuous challenges for decision makers. In this context, multi-criteria decision-making models have become important and convenient supporting tools for solid waste management because they can handle problems involving multiple dimensions and conflicting criteria. However, the selection of the multi-criteria decision-making method is a hard task since there are several multi-criteria decision-making approaches, each one with a large number of variants whose applicability depends on information availability and the aim of the study. Therefore, to support researchers and decision makers, the objectives of this article are to present a literature review of multi-criteria decision-making applications used in solid waste management, offer a critical assessment of the current practices, and provide suggestions for future works. A brief review of fundamental concepts on this topic is first provided, followed by the analysis of 260 articles related to the application of multi-criteria decision making in solid waste management. These studies were investigated in terms of the methodology, including specific steps such as normalisation, weighting, and sensitivity analysis. In addition, information related to waste type, the study objective, and aspects considered was recorded. From the articles analysed it is noted that studies using multi-criteria decision making in solid waste management are predominantly addressed to problems related to municipal solid waste involving facility location or management strategy.

  1. Variation in decision making

    Dall, Sasha R. X.; Gosling, Samuel; Gordon D.A., Brown,; Dingemanse, Niels; Ido, Erev,; Martin, Kocher,; Laura, Schulz,; Todd, Peter M; Weissing, Franz; Wolf, Max; Hammerstein, Peter; Stevens, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    Variation in how organisms allocate their behavior over their lifetimes is key to determining Darwinian fitness., and thus the evolution of human and nonhuman decision making. This chapter explores how decision making varies across biologically and societally significant scales and what role such

  2. The effect of modelling expert knowledge and uncertainty on multicriteria decision making: a river management case study

    Janssen, Judith; Krol, Martinus S.; Schielen, Ralph Mathias Johannes; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2010-01-01

    To support decision making on complex environmental issues, models are often used to explore the potential impacts of different management alternatives on the environmental system. We explored how different model outcomes affect decision making. Two topics have our particular interest, namely (1)

  3. Organizational decision making

    Grandori, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis develops a heuristic approach to organizational decision-making by synthesizing the classical, neo-classical and contingency approaches to organization theory. The conceptual framework developed also integrates the rational and cybernetic approaches with cognitive processes underlying the decision-making process. The components of the approach address the role of environment in organizational decision-maki...

  4. Financial Management and Control for Decision Making in Urban Local Bodies in India Using Statistical Techniques

    Bhattacharyya, Sidhakam; Bandyopadhyay, Gautam

    2010-10-01

    The council of most of the Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) has a limited scope for decision making in the absence of appropriate financial control mechanism. The information about expected amount of own fund during a particular period is of great importance for decision making. Therefore, in this paper, efforts are being made to present set of findings and to establish a model of estimating receipts of own sources and payments thereof using multiple regression analysis. Data for sixty months from a reputed ULB in West Bengal have been considered for ascertaining the regression models. This can be used as a part of financial management and control procedure by the council to estimate the effect on own fund. In our study we have considered two models using multiple regression analysis. "Model I" comprises of total adjusted receipt as the dependent variable and selected individual receipts as the independent variables. Similarly "Model II" consists of total adjusted payments as the dependent variable and selected individual payments as independent variables. The resultant of Model I and Model II is the surplus or deficit effecting own fund. This may be applied for decision making purpose by the council.

  5. Emergency management: does it have a sufficiently comprehensive understanding of decision-making, process and context?

    Niculae, C.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: It is now widely recognized in the social and management sciences that the effective support of decision-making requires a multi-disciplinary perspective, with businesses increasingly using inter-disciplinary teams. This trend is also seen in nuclear emergency management, for example in the UK inter-disciplinary groups are formed to focus on specific topics such as remediation where their recommendations are feed to the decision makers. The necessity of taking a multi-disciplinary perspective is particularly important for contexts in which the decision makers are likely to be under high stress and so could revert to instinctive patterns of behaviour and modes of communication found in their core disciplines. Yet when we look at the design of the information systems produced to support emergency management, we find a very partial set of disciplinary perspectives providing a strongly rationalistic, technocratic view. These systems have been developed by the technical community with little consultation with non-expert decision makers and limited understanding of emergency management processes across Europe and the social systems with which they interact. In this paper we have considered the Cynefin model, developed by IBM, which draws together much of the work on decision making and decision context over the past 30-40 years, describing the possible contexts in which decision-making may take place, the known, the knowable, the complex and the chaotic space. The known space is the realm of scientific knowledge where the cause and effect are understood. Next, there is the knowable space the realm of scientific enquiry where the cause and effect can be determined with sufficient data. In the complex space there are many interacting cause and effects, to the extent that we do not have sufficiently refined models to predict what will happen as a consequence of any particular actions and the cause and effect may only be explained after the event. In the chaotic

  6. Business management practices in the power industry: Decision making in a market economy

    Brown, J.H. [Fieldstone Private Capital Group, New York, NY (United States); Rosel, V. [Fieldstone Private Capital Group, Prague (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    Management of a free market power industry, or managing the transition from a planned economy to a free market one, is driven by a fundamental economic premise - it is unrealistic (and economically unsound) to try to shelter end users (manufacturers or otherwise) from the true cost of energy: (i) energy prices are a function of fuel inputs (ii) fuel inputs are world priced (iii) end users must pay prices based on true costs Trying to counter any of these dictates will cause economic inefficiencies and misallocations. Managers of energy production in a free market economy must therefore learn to acquire data, and learn to extrapolate. As information is never complete, or perfect, managers must learn to consider contingencies, alternatives and options. In a free market economy, the decision to build a power facility is not controlled simply by the recognition of a perceived need for more power in an area. Because survival in a free market economy requires making a profit, as part for the decision process managers must: (i) talk to their customers to determine power needs into the future (ii) talk to their input suppliers, and arrange contracts (iii) make sure that there is a spread between cost and revenue As stated this is a simple recipe, but is difficult in practice. To perform any forecasting, managers must acquire control over cost, so as to have a base from which to judge the continued profitability or potential profitability, of any current activity or future ventures. It should be noted that planning for the future is difficult at any time but even more so when moving through an era where in the entire economy is undergoing systemic changes. Historic customer base, and historic supply arrangements, may not mean much. Therefore, managers must keep acquiring information, and updating forecasts.

  7. Evaluation of obstetricians' surgical decision making in the management of uterine rupture.

    Eze, Justus Ndulue; Anozie, Okechukwu Bonaventure; Lawani, Osaheni Lucky; Ndukwe, Emmanuel Okechukwu; Agwu, Uzoma Maryrose; Obuna, Johnson Akuma

    2017-06-08

    Uterine rupture is an obstetric calamity with surgery as its management mainstay. Uterine repair without tubal ligation leaves a uterus that is more prone to repeat rupture while uterine repair with bilateral tubal ligation (BTL) or (sub)total hysterectomy predispose survivors to psychosocial problems like marital disharmony. This study aims to evaluate obstetricians' perspectives on surgical decision making in managing uterine rupture. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study of obstetricians at the 46th annual scientific conference of Society of Gynaecology and Obstetrics of Nigeria in 2012. Data was analysed by descriptive and inferential statistics. Seventy-nine out of 110 obstetricians (71.8%) responded to the survey, of which 42 (53.2%) were consultants, 60 (75.9%) practised in government hospitals and 67 (84.8%) in urban hospitals, and all respondents managed women with uterine rupture. Previous cesarean scars and injudicious use of oxytocic are the commonest predisposing causes, and uterine rupture carries very high incidences of maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. Uterine repair only was commonly performed by 38 (48.1%) and uterine repair with BTL or (sub) total hysterectomy by 41 (51.9%) respondents. Surgical management is guided mainly by patients' conditions and obstetricians' surgical skills. Obstetricians' distribution in Nigeria leaves rural settings starved of specialist for obstetric emergencies. Caesarean scars are now a rising cause of ruptures. The surgical management of uterine rupture and obstetricians' surgical preferences vary and are case scenario-dependent. Equitable redistribution of obstetricians and deployment of medical doctors to secondary hospitals in rural settings will make obstetric care more readily available and may reduce the prevalence and improve the outcome of uterine rupture. Obstetrician's surgical decision-making should be guided by the prevailing case scenario and the ultimate aim should be to avert

  8. Decision making and cancer.

    Reyna, Valerie F; Nelson, Wendy L; Han, Paul K; Pignone, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    We review decision making along the cancer continuum in the contemporary context of informed and shared decision making in which patients are encouraged to take a more active role in their health care. We discuss challenges to achieving informed and shared decision making, including cognitive limitations and emotional factors, but argue that understanding the mechanisms of decision making offers hope for improving decision support. Theoretical approaches to decision making that explain cognition, emotion, and their interaction are described, including classical psychophysical approaches, dual-process approaches that focus on conflicts between emotion versus cognition (or reason), and modern integrative approaches such as fuzzy-trace theory. In contrast to the earlier emphasis on rote use of numerical detail, modern approaches emphasize understanding the bottom-line gist of options (which encompasses emotion and other influences on meaning) and retrieving relevant social and moral values to apply to those gist representations. Finally, research on interventions to support better decision making in clinical settings is reviewed, drawing out implications for future research on decision making and cancer. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. epiDMS: Data Management and Analytics for Decision-Making From Epidemic Spread Simulation Ensembles.

    Liu, Sicong; Poccia, Silvestro; Candan, K Selçuk; Chowell, Gerardo; Sapino, Maria Luisa

    2016-12-01

    Carefully calibrated large-scale computational models of epidemic spread represent a powerful tool to support the decision-making process during epidemic emergencies. Epidemic models are being increasingly used for generating forecasts of the spatial-temporal progression of epidemics at different spatial scales and for assessing the likely impact of different intervention strategies. However, the management and analysis of simulation ensembles stemming from large-scale computational models pose challenges, particularly when dealing with multiple interdependent parameters, spanning multiple layers and geospatial frames, affected by complex dynamic processes operating at different resolutions. We describe and illustrate with examples a novel epidemic simulation data management system, epiDMS, that was developed to address the challenges that arise from the need to generate, search, visualize, and analyze, in a scalable manner, large volumes of epidemic simulation ensembles and observations during the progression of an epidemic. epiDMS is a publicly available system that facilitates management and analysis of large epidemic simulation ensembles. epiDMS aims to fill an important hole in decision-making during healthcare emergencies by enabling critical services with significant economic and health impact. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. River Basin Information System: Open Environmental Data Management for Research and Decision Making

    Franziska Zander

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available An open, standardized data management and related service infrastructure is a crucial requirement for a seamless storage and exchange of data and information within research projects, for the dissemination of project results and for their application in decision making processes. However, typical project databases often refer to only one research project and are limited to specific purposes. Once implemented, those systems are often not further maintained and updated, rendering the stored information useless once the system stops operating. The River Basin Information System (RBIS presented here is designed to fit not only the requirements of one research project, but focuses on generic functions, extensibility and standards compliance typically found in interdisciplinary environmental research. Developed throughout more than 10 years of research cooperation worldwide, RBIS is designed to manage different types of environmental data with and without spatial context together with a rich set of metadata. Beside data management and storage, RBIS provides functions for the visualization, linking, analysis and processing of different types of data to support research, decision making, result dissemination and information discovery for all kinds of users. The focus of this paper is on the description of the technical implementation and the presentation of functions. This will be complemented by an overview of example applications and experiences during RBIS development and operation.

  11. Decision making using AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) and fuzzy set theory in waste management

    Chung, J.Y.; Lee, K.J.; Kim, C.D.

    1995-01-01

    The major problem is how to consider the differences in opinions, when many experts are involved in decision making process. This paper provides a simple general methodology to treat the differences in various opinions. The authors determined the grade of membership through the process of magnitude estimation derived from pairwise comparisons and AHP developed by Saaty. They used fuzzy set theory to consider the differences in opinions and obtain the priorities for each alternative. An example, which can be applied to radioactive waste management, also was presented. The result shows a good agreement with the results of averaging methods

  12. Managing the global commons decision making and conflict resolution in response to climate change

    Rayner, S. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Naegeli, W.; Lund, P. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA))

    1990-07-01

    A workshop was convened to develop a better understanding of decision-making matters concerning management of the global commons and to resolve conflicts in response to climate change. This workshop report does not provide a narrative of the proceedings. The workshop program is included, as are the abstracts of the papers that were presented. Only the introductory paper on social science research by William Riebsame and the closing summary by Richard Rockwell are reprinted here. This brief report focuses instead on the deliberations of the working groups that developed during the workshop. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Eutrophication of lakes and reservoirs: A framework for making management decisions

    Rast, W.; Holland, M.

    1988-01-01

    The development of management strategies for the protection of environmental quality usually involves consideration both of technical and nontechnical issues. A logical, step-by-step framework for development of such strategies is provided. Its application to the control of cultured eutrophication of lakes and reservoirs illustrates its potential usefulness. From the perspective of the policymaker, the main consideration is that the eutrophication-related water quality of a lake or reservoir can be managed for given water uses. The approach presented here allows the rational assessment of relevant water-quality parameters and establishment of water-quality goals, consideration of social and other nontechnical issues, the possibilities of public involvement in the decision-making process, and a reasonable economic analysis within a management framework.

  14. The Research in Top Management Team Strategic Decision-Making: evolution and intelectual basis

    Bernardo Paraiso de Campos Serra; Fernando Ribeiro Serra; Patricia Tomei

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to understand the intellectual structure that connects theories and authors that research strategic decision-making on upper echelons and propose a research agenda for future research on strategic decision-making. We used a bibliometric research of articles published in international journals. A bibliometric analysis of citation and cocitation was conducted on the content studied in the articles of decision making, identifying the most referenced works and the conceptual rel...

  15. Developing a deliberative process for ethically informed radioactive waste management decision making in the UK

    Cotton, Matthew [Univ. of East Anglia, Norwich (United Kingdom). Centre for Environmental Risk

    2006-09-15

    In the UK and internationally, there is widespread recognition that decision-making processes over long-term radioactive waste management are subject to a broad array of inherent technical, political, social, psychological and ethical issues. This paper seeks to specifically address the ethical aspects of long-term radioactive waste management and siting by proposing a framework for evaluating and integrating stakeholders' ethical values into a political decision-making process. Evaluation and integration of the ethical issues and related values takes place within the context of a comprehensive program of stakeholder engagement; a process necessary in fostering support amongst stakeholder groups and potentially affected communities - allowing legitimate and defensible political decisions to be made. In pluralistic democracies such as the UK, there is a recognition that a broad array of ethical values are held by the affected stakeholder groups, and the tools used to integrate ethical values into a stakeholder engagement process must be designed to reflect this pattern of moral diversity. This paper outlines the implications of this diversity for participatory decision making and addresses it by outlining a 'tool' or procedure for stakeholder deliberation as part of a broader 'toolbox' of deliberative methods: a tool that allows not only the elicitation of stakeholders' moral values, but also a critical re-evaluation of those values in light of ethical principles agreed upon by the participants themselves. Drawing upon the theoretical framework of ethical pragmatism, the goal is to turn what philosopher John Rawls has termed an ethical 'reflective equilibrium' into a practical procedure for stakeholder deliberation. The paper describes how the model of reflective equilibrium can be used as a basis for designing this deliberative procedure, in a way that is multi-staged and iterative in nature; with a goal to providing the

  16. Iowa pavement asset management decision-making framework : [tech transfer summary].

    2015-10-01

    A structured framework and tool that can reflect local requirements, : practices, and operational conditions would greatly assist local : agencies in making consistent and defensible pavement treatment : selection decisions.

  17. Many-Objective Robust Decision Making: Managing Water in a Deeply Uncertain World of Change (Invited)

    Reed, P. M.

    2013-12-01

    Water resources planning and management has always required the consideration of uncertainties and the associated system vulnerabilities that they may cause. Despite the long legacy of these issues, our decision support frameworks that have dominated the literature over the past 50 years have struggled with the strongly multiobjective and deeply uncertain nature of water resources systems. The term deep uncertainty (or Knightian uncertainty) refers to factors in planning that strongly shape system risks that maybe unknown and even if known there is a strong lack of consensus on their likelihoods over decadal planning horizons (population growth, financial stability, valuation of resources, ecosystem requirements, evolving water institutions, regulations, etc). In this presentation, I will propose and demonstrate the many-objective robust decision making (MORDM) framework for water resources management under deep uncertainty. The MORDM framework will be demonstrated using an urban water portfolio management test case. In the test case, a city in the Lower Rio Grande Valley managing population and drought pressures must cost effectively maintain the reliability of its water supply by blending permanent rights to reservoir inflows with alternative strategies for purchasing water within the region's water market. The case study illustrates the significant potential pitfalls in the classic Cost-Reliability conception of the problem. Moreover, the proposed MORDM framework exploits recent advances in multiobjective search, visualization, and sensitivity analysis to better expose these pitfalls en route to identifying highly robust water planning alternatives.

  18. Prioritization of water management under climate change and urbanization using multi-criteria decision making methods

    J.-S. Yang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper quantifies the transformed effectiveness of alternatives for watershed management caused by climate change and urbanization and prioritizes five options using multi-criteria decision making techniques. The climate change scenarios (A1B and A2 were obtained by using a statistical downscaling model (SDSM, and the urbanization scenario by surveying the existing urban planning. The flow and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD concentration duration curves were derived, and the numbers of days required to satisfy the environmental flow requirement and the target BOD concentration were counted using the Hydrological Simulation Program-Fortran (HSPF model. In addition, five feasible alternatives were prioritized by using multi-criteria decision making techniques, based on the driving force-pressure-state-impact-response (DPSIR framework and cost component. Finally, a sensitivity analysis approach for MCDM methods was conducted to reduce the uncertainty of weights. The result indicates that the most sensitive decision criterion is cost, followed by criteria response, driving force, impact, state and pressure in that order. As it is certain that the importance of cost component is over 0.127, construction of a small wastewater treatment plant will be the most preferred alternative in this application.

  19. Ethical aspect price decision making

    Grubor Aleksandar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Price decision making in a marketing program framework creatings is a complicated and delicated part of marketing management, especially to keep in sight culminating of mass external factors. In a market economies price policy as a marketing mix instrument rarely is regulated by the law, which opening the ethical aspect questions of price decision making process. The ethics in the price decision making means consideration of the inner law of the individual (marketing managers and/or consumers, whose irreverence does not entail any juridical sanctions, rather its application is sanctioned by the self - awareness. The acception and stability of the ethical aspect price decision making are determined by the characteristic of selected marketing environment.

  20. Ethical decision making

    Zsolnai, László

    2011-01-01

    The self-centeredness of modern organizations leads to environmental destruction and human deprivation. The principle of responsibility developed by Hans Jonas requires caring for the beings affected by our decisions and actions. Ethical decision-making creates a synthesis of reverence for ethical norms, rationality in goal achievement, and respect for the stakeholders. The maximin rule selects the "least worst alternative" in the multidimensional decision space of deontologica...

  1. A Robust Decision-Making Technique for Water Management under Decadal Scale Climate Variability

    Callihan, L.; Zagona, E. A.; Rajagopalan, B.

    2013-12-01

    Robust decision making, a flexible and dynamic approach to managing water resources in light of deep uncertainties associated with climate variability at inter-annual to decadal time scales, is an analytical framework that detects when a system is in or approaching a vulnerable state. It provides decision makers the opportunity to implement strategies that both address the vulnerabilities and perform well over a wide range of plausible future scenarios. A strategy that performs acceptably over a wide range of possible future states is not likely to be optimal with respect to the actual future state. The degree of success--the ability to avoid vulnerable states and operate efficiently--thus depends on the skill in projecting future states and the ability to select the most efficient strategies to address vulnerabilities. This research develops a robust decision making framework that incorporates new methods of decadal scale projections with selection of efficient strategies. Previous approaches to water resources planning under inter-annual climate variability combining skillful seasonal flow forecasts with climatology for subsequent years are not skillful for medium term (i.e. decadal scale) projections as decision makers are not able to plan adequately to avoid vulnerabilities. We address this need by integrating skillful decadal scale streamflow projections into the robust decision making framework and making the probability distribution of this projection available to the decision making logic. The range of possible future hydrologic scenarios can be defined using a variety of nonparametric methods. Once defined, an ensemble projection of decadal flow scenarios are generated from a wavelet-based spectral K-nearest-neighbor resampling approach using historical and paleo-reconstructed data. This method has been shown to generate skillful medium term projections with a rich variety of natural variability. The current state of the system in combination with the

  2. Strategic decision making

    Stokman, Frans N.; Assen, Marcel A.L.M. van; Knoop, Jelle van der; Oosten, Reinier C.H. van

    2000-01-01

    This paper introduces a methodology for strategic intervention in collective decision making.The methodology is based on (1) a decomposition of the problem into a few main controversial issues, (2) systematic interviews of subject area specialists to obtain a specification of the decision

  3. Repeated Causal Decision Making

    Hagmayer, York; Meder, Bjorn

    2013-01-01

    Many of our decisions refer to actions that have a causal impact on the external environment. Such actions may not only allow for the mere learning of expected values or utilities but also for acquiring knowledge about the causal structure of our world. We used a repeated decision-making paradigm to examine what kind of knowledge people acquire in…

  4. Designing for Decision Making

    Jonassen, David H.

    2012-01-01

    Decision making is the most common kind of problem solving. It is also an important component skill in other more ill-structured and complex kinds of problem solving, including policy problems and design problems. There are different kinds of decisions, including choices, acceptances, evaluations, and constructions. After describing the centrality…

  5. The Development of Social Perspective Taking and Leadership Decision-Making in City Government Managers

    Van Rossum, Zachary Johannes

    2013-01-01

    I examined the role of social perspective taking in leadership decision-making by investigating how a group of 70 leaders made sense of a hypothetical workplace dilemma in order to understand how they used their capacity for social perspective taking as part of their decision-making process. The majority of these leaders work in North America, are…

  6. Decision-making in product portfolios of pharmaceutical research and development – managing streams of innovation in highly regulated markets

    Jekunen A

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Antti Jekunen Vaasa Oncology Clinic, Vaasa, Finland Abstract: Decision-making is a core function of any drug development firm. Developing drugs demands a firm to be highly innovative, while at the same time the activity is strictly regulated. Successful drug development offers the right to apply for a long-term patent that confers exclusive marketing rights. This article addresses the issue of what constitutes an adequate portfolio of drugs for a drug development firm and how it might be managed successfully. The paper investigates decision-making in the industry and specifically in the development of oncology drugs from various perspectives: the need for decisions, their timing, decision-making at the project level, the optimal portfolio, tools for portfolio analysis, the evaluation of patents, and finally the importance of the drug portfolio. Drug development decisions as important organizational elements should get more emphasis, and decisions in drug portfolio using modern decision-making methods should be used more widely than what currently happens. Structured, informed decisions would help avoiding late terminations of drugs in Phase III development. An improved research and development pipeline and drug portfolio management are the major elements in the general strategy targeting success. Keywords: decision-making, drug development, clinical oncology, product management, pipeline, portfolio, portfolio analysis, company organization

  7. Risk-based decision making to manage water quality failures caused by combined sewer overflows

    Sriwastava, A. K.; Torres-Matallana, J. A.; Tait, S.; Schellart, A.

    2017-12-01

    Regulatory authorities set certain environmental permit for water utilities such that the combined sewer overflows (CSO) managed by these companies conform to the regulations. These utility companies face the risk of paying penalty or negative publicity in case they breach the environmental permit. These risks can be addressed by designing appropriate solutions such as investing in additional infrastructure which improve the system capacity and reduce the impact of CSO spills. The performance of these solutions is often estimated using urban drainage models. Hence, any uncertainty in these models can have a significant effect on the decision making process. This study outlines a risk-based decision making approach to address water quality failure caused by CSO spills. A calibrated lumped urban drainage model is used to simulate CSO spill quality in Haute-Sûre catchment in Luxembourg. Uncertainty in rainfall and model parameters is propagated through Monte Carlo simulations to quantify uncertainty in the concentration of ammonia in the CSO spill. A combination of decision alternatives such as the construction of a storage tank at the CSO and the reduction in the flow contribution of catchment surfaces are selected as planning measures to avoid the water quality failure. Failure is defined as exceedance of a concentration-duration based threshold based on Austrian emission standards for ammonia (De Toffol, 2006) with a certain frequency. For each decision alternative, uncertainty quantification results into a probability distribution of the number of annual CSO spill events which exceed the threshold. For each alternative, a buffered failure probability as defined in Rockafellar & Royset (2010), is estimated. Buffered failure probability (pbf) is a conservative estimate of failure probability (pf), however, unlike failure probability, it includes information about the upper tail of the distribution. A pareto-optimal set of solutions is obtained by performing mean

  8. Linking Effective Project Management to Business Strategy in Oil and Gas Industry through Decision-making Processes

    Adeleke, Adeyinka

    The construction project in the oil and gas industry covers the entire spectrum of hydrocarbon production from the wellhead (upstream) to downstream facilities. In each of these establishments, the activities in a construction project include: consulting, studies, front-end engineering, detail engineering, procurement, program management, construction, installation, commissioning and start-up. Efficient management of each of the activities involved in construction projects is one of the driving forces for the successful completion of the project. Optimizing the crucial factors in project management during each phase of a project in an oil and gas industry can assist managers to maximize the use of available resources and drive the project to successful conclusions. One of these factors is the decision-making process in the construction project. Current research effort investigated the relationship between decision-making processes and business strategy in oil and gas industry using employee surveys. I recruited employees of different races, age group, genders, and years of experience in order understand their influence on the implementation of the decision-making process in oil and gas industry through a quantitative survey. Decision-making was assessed using five decision measures: (a) rational, (b) intuitive, (c) dependent, (d) avoidant, and (e) spontaneous. The findings indicated gender, age, years of work experience and job titles as primary variables with a negative relationship with decision-making approach for employees working in a major oil and gas industry. The study results revealed that the two most likely decision-making methods in oil and gas industry include: making a decision in a logical and systematic way and seek assistance from others when making a decision. Additionally, the two leading management approaches to decision-making in the oil and gas industry include: decision analysis is part of organization culture and management is committed to

  9. Emotion and decision making.

    Lerner, Jennifer S; Li, Ye; Valdesolo, Piercarlo; Kassam, Karim S

    2015-01-03

    A revolution in the science of emotion has emerged in recent decades, with the potential to create a paradigm shift in decision theories. The research reveals that emotions constitute potent, pervasive, predictable, sometimes harmful and sometimes beneficial drivers of decision making. Across different domains, important regularities appear in the mechanisms through which emotions influence judgments and choices. We organize and analyze what has been learned from the past 35 years of work on emotion and decision making. In so doing, we propose the emotion-imbued choice model, which accounts for inputs from traditional rational choice theory and from newer emotion research, synthesizing scientific models.

  10. Ecological function as a target for ecosystem-based management: Defining when change matters in decision making

    Ecosystem-based management (EBM) accounts for both direct and indirect drivers of ecological change for decision making. Just as with direct management of a resource, EBM requires a definition of management thresholds that define when change in function is sufficient to merit ma...

  11. Management challenges at the intersection of public policy environments and strategic decision making in public hospitals.

    Longest, Beaufort B

    2012-01-01

    Hospitals in the United States are heavily impacted by public policies that affect them. For example, Medicare and Medicaid programs account for more than half the revenue in most of the nation's almost 5,000 community hospitals, including the almost 1,100 public hospitals controlled by state and local governments (American Hospital Association, 2012). The public hospitals are especially closely aligned with and controlled by governmental entities compared with hospitals with other kinds of sponsorship. This article addresses the management challenges at the intersection of the strategic management of public hospitals and their public policy environments. Public hospitals are complicated entities designed not only to provide health services but also in many cases to play key roles in health-related research and education and to play important general economic development roles in their communities. The multi-faceted strategic decision making in these organizations is as heavily affected by their public policy environments as by their business, demographic, technological or other external environments. Effectively managing the intersection of their public policy environments and their strategic management is indeed vital for contemporary public hospitals. This article is intended to clarify certain aspects of this intersection through a description and model of the strategic activity in public hospitals and the connection between this activity and their external environments. Specific attention is focused on the concept of public policy environments and their features. Attention is also given to how managers can assess public policy environments and incorporate the results into strategic activities.

  12. Judgment and decision making.

    Mellers, B A; Schwartz, A; Cooke, A D

    1998-01-01

    For many decades, research in judgment and decision making has examined behavioral violations of rational choice theory. In that framework, rationality is expressed as a single correct decision shared by experimenters and subjects that satisfies internal coherence within a set of preferences and beliefs. Outside of psychology, social scientists are now debating the need to modify rational choice theory with behavioral assumptions. Within psychology, researchers are debating assumptions about errors for many different definitions of rationality. Alternative frameworks are being proposed. These frameworks view decisions as more reasonable and adaptive that previously thought. For example, "rule following." Rule following, which occurs when a rule or norm is applied to a situation, often minimizes effort and provides satisfying solutions that are "good enough," though not necessarily the best. When rules are ambiguous, people look for reasons to guide their decisions. They may also let their emotions take charge. This chapter presents recent research on judgment and decision making from traditional and alternative frameworks.

  13. The role of public communication in decision making for waste management infrastructure.

    Kirkman, Richard; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2017-12-01

    Modern waste management provision seeks to meet challenging objectives and strategies while reflecting community aspirations and ensuring cost-effective compliance with statutory obligations. Its social acceptability, which affects both what systems (infrastructure) can be put in place and to what extent their implementation will be successful, is a multi-dimensional phenomenon, often not well understood. In light of the growing evidence that decisions to build new infrastructure are often contested by the public, there is a clear need to understand the role of scientific evidence in public perception, particularly as environmental infrastructure delivery is often objected to by the public on environmental grounds. In this paper the need for waste management infrastructure is reviewed, and the way its delivery in the UK has evolved is used as an example of the role of public perception in the planning and delivery of waste facilities. Findings demonstrate the vital role of public communication in waste management infrastructure delivery. Public perception must be taken into account early in the decision making process, with the public informed and engaged from the start. There is a pressing need for people not simply to accept but to understand and appreciate the need for infrastructure, the nature of infrastructure investments and development, the costs and the benefits involved, and the technological aspects. Scientific evidence and literacy have a critical role to play, facilitating public engagement in a process that empowers people, allowing them to define and handle challenges and influence decisions that will impact their lives. Problem ownership, and an increased probability of any solutions proposed being selected and implemented successfully are potential benefits of such approach. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of stochastic interest rates in decision making under risk: A Markov decision process model for forest management

    Mo Zhou; Joseph Buongiorno

    2011-01-01

    Most economic studies of forest decision making under risk assume a fixed interest rate. This paper investigated some implications of this stochastic nature of interest rates. Markov decision process (MDP) models, used previously to integrate stochastic stand growth and prices, can be extended to include variable interest rates as well. This method was applied to...

  15. Top Management Teams’ Characteristics and Strategic Decision-Making: A Mediation of Risk Perceptions and Mental Models

    Tungju Wu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Strategic decision-making is a key factor of sustainability and development in enterprises. Moreover, the top management team (TMT of an enterprise constitutes the base for decision-making. This study employed structural equation modeling to analyze questionnaires regarding TMTs’ characteristics and strategic decision-making, and tested the mediating effects of risk perceptions and mental models and the moderating effects of psychological ownership. We investigated 289 valid questionnaires on TMTs completed by representatives from enterprises in China and found risk perceptions and mental models that serve as a mediating factor and are affected by the TMTs’ characteristics and decision-making. We also found that psychological ownership exerts moderating effects between TMTs’ characteristics and decision-making. This paper concludes with a discussion of theoretical and managerial implications for enterprise owners.

  16. Governance, Sustainability and Decision Making in Water and Sanitation Management Systems

    Martín Alejandro Iribarnegaray

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We explore the connections between the concepts of governance and sustainability and discuss their possible roles in water and sanitation management systems (WSMS. We see governance as a decision-making process that drives the relationship between social institutions and the public affairs of a given society. We understand sustainability as a combination of spatial, temporal, and personal aspects, and we argue that this definition is more comprehensive than the traditional triple bottom line of economy, environment, and society. We combined these two concepts into a new conceptual framework of “governance for sustainability” that is theoretically sound and arguably appropriate to understand local WSMS. To illustrate this framework, we developed and estimated a Sustainable Water Governance Index (SWGI for the city of Salta, Argentina. This aggregated index was calculated with data from literature, information from the city’s water company and other local institutions, field visits, and interviews. The SWGI for Salta obtained an overall score of 49 on a 0–100 scale, which fell into the “danger” range. We discuss the advantages and limitations of the method and conclude that aggregated indices such as the SWGI, complemented with contextual information, can be a helpful decision-making tool to promote more sustainable WSMS.

  17. A non-linear decision making process for public involvement in environmental management activities

    Harper, M.R.; Kastenberg, W.

    1995-01-01

    The international industrial and governmental institutions involved in radioactive waste management and environmental remediation are now entering a new era in which they must significantly expand public involvement. Thus the decision making processes formerly utilized to direct and guide these institutions must now be shifted to take into consideration the needs of many more stakeholders than ever before. To meet this challenge, they now have the job of developing and creating a new set of accurate, sufficient and continuous self-regulating and self-correcting information pathways between themselves and the many divergent stakeholder groups in order to establish sustainable, trusting and respectful relationships. In this paper the authors introduce a new set of non-linear, practical and effective strategies for interaction. These self-regulating strategies provide timely feedback to a system, establishing trust and creating a viable vehicle for staying open and responsive to the needs out of which change and balanced adaptation can continually emerge for all stakeholders. The authors present a decision making process for public involvement which is congruent with the non-linear ideas of holographic and fractal relationships -- the mutual influence between related parts of the whole and the self-symmetry of systems at every level of complexity

  18. Managing uncertainty in multiple-criteria decision making related to sustainability assessment

    Dorini, Gianluca Fabio; Kapelan, Zoran; Azapagic, Adisa

    2011-01-01

    In real life, decisions are usually made by comparing different options with respect to several, often conflicting criteria. This requires subjective judgements on the importance of different criteria by DMs and increases uncertainty in decision making. This article demonstrates how uncertainty can......: (1) no uncertainty, (2) uncertainty in data/models and (3) uncertainty in models and decision-makers’ preferences. The results shows how characterising and propagating uncertainty can help increase the effectiveness of multi-criteria decision making processes and lead to more informed decision....... be handled in multi-criteria decision situations using Compromise Programming, one of the Multi-criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) techniques. Uncertainty is characterised using a probabilistic approach and propagated using a Monte Carlo simulation technique. The methodological approach is illustrated...

  19. Risk preferences in strategic wildfire decision making: A choice experiment with U.S. wildfire managers

    Matthew J. Wibbenmeyer; Michael S. Hand; David E. Calkin; Tyron J. Venn; Matthew P. Thompson

    2013-01-01

    Federal policy has embraced risk management as an appropriate paradigm for wildfire management. Economic theory suggests that over repeated wildfire events, potential economic costs and risks of ecological damage are optimally balanced when management decisions are free from biases, risk aversion, and risk seeking. Of primary concern in this article is how managers...

  20. DECISION MAKING STYLES AND PROFESSIONALIZATION OF SPORTS: EXPERIENCE OF MANAGERS OF THE OFFICES OF YOUTH AND SPORTS IN YAZD PROVINCE

    Nooshin Benar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Managers of the Offices of Youth and Sports are part of decision making processes in sports and play a significant role in the development of Professional Sports in the country; as such it seems the analysis of their decision making styles would have a significant importance in the better guidance of the country’s sports toward professionalism. The main objective of this research is to study and inspect the decision making styles of the managers of the Offices of Youth and Sports in Yazd Province in relation to the development of Professional Sports in that area. Population and respondents of this research were all the managers and vice managers of the Offices of Youth and Sports in Yazd province the total number of whom was 39. The research method was descriptive and in purpose an applicable one. Instrument for data gathering was the standard survey questionnaire of Scott and Bruce containing 25 questions in order to measure the 5 decision making styles (Rational, Intuitive, Dependent, Spontaneous and Avoidant. The gathered data were analysed using descriptive statistical methods (Mean, Standard Deviation, Charts/Figures and deductive (non-parametric methods (Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Friedman, Spearman and Pearson. The results showed that the Avoidant style of decision making has a greater significance and importance among managers and vice managers of the Offices of Youth and Sports in Yazd province while the Rational style has the least significance among them. It was also found out that there is a significant direct relationship between decision making styles of Rational and Spontaneous; Intuitive and Dependent and the decision making styles of Spontaneous and Avoidant of the managers and vice managers of the Offices of Youth and Sports in Yazd.

  1. Decision Making in the Airplane

    Orasanu, Judith; Shafto, Michael G. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The Importance of decision-making to safety in complex, dynamic environments like mission control centers, aviation, and offshore installations has been well established. NASA-ARC has a program of research dedicated to fostering safe and effective decision-making in the manned spaceflight environment. Because access to spaceflight is limited, environments with similar characteristics, including aviation and nuclear power plants, serve as analogs from which space-relevant data can be gathered and theories developed. Analyses of aviation accidents cite crew judgement and decision making as causes or contributing factors in over half of all accidents. Yet laboratory research on decision making has not proven especially helpful In improving the quality of decisions in these kinds of environments. One reason is that the traditional, analytic decision models are inappropriate to multi-dimensional, high-risk environments, and do not accurately describe what expert human decision makers do when they make decisions that have consequences. A new model of dynamic, naturalistic decision making is offered that may prove useful for improving decision making in complex, isolated, confined and high-risk environments. Based on analyses of crew performance in full-mission simulators and accident reports, features that define effective decision strategies in abnormal or emergency situations have been identified. These include accurate situation assessment (including time and risk assessment), appreciation of the complexity of the problem, sensitivity to constraints on the decision, timeliness of the response, and use of adequate information. More effective crews also manage their workload to provide themselves with time and resources to make good decisions. In brief, good decisions are appropriate to the demands of the situation. Effective crew decision making and overall performance are mediated by crew communication. Communication contributes to performance because it assures that

  2. Structured decision making: Chapter 5

    Runge, Michael C.; Grand, James B.; Mitchell, Michael S.; Krausman, Paul R.; Cain, James W. III

    2013-01-01

    Wildlife management is a decision-focused discipline. It needs to integrate traditional wildlife science and social science to identify actions that are most likely to achieve the array of desires society has surrounding wildlife populations. Decision science, a vast field with roots in economics, operations research, and psychology, offers a rich set of tools to help wildlife managers frame, decompose, analyze, and synthesize their decisions. The nature of wildlife management as a decision science has been recognized since the inception of the field, but formal methods of decision analysis have been underused. There is tremendous potential for wildlife management to grow further through the use of formal decision analysis. First, the wildlife science and human dimensions of wildlife disciplines can be readily integrated. Second, decisions can become more efficient. Third, decisions makers can communicate more clearly with stakeholders and the public. Fourth, good, intuitive wildlife managers, by explicitly examining how they make decisions, can translate their art into a science that is readily used by the next generation.

  3. Decision-making guide for management of agriculture in the case of a nuclear accident

    Fourrie, Laetitia; Grosjean, Francois; Adam, Didier; Pretet, Caroline; Michel, Aurelie; Fostier, Bernard; Bertrand, Sophie; Cessac, Bruno; Reales, Nicolas IRSN; Aubert, Claude

    2007-05-01

    For several years, agricultural and nuclear professionals in France have been working on how to manage the agricultural situation in the event of a nuclear accident. This work resulted in measures at both the national (Aube nuclear safety exercises in 2003, INEX3 in 2005) and international levels (EURATOM Programmes). Following on from the European FARMING (FP5) and EURANOS (FP6) works, ACTA', IRSN and six agricultural technical institutes which are specialized in agricultural production and processing network (arable crop [especially cereals, maize, pulses, potatoes and forage crops], fruits and vegetables, vine and wine, livestock farming [cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, poultry]), created a resource adapted to the French context: the Decision-aiding Tool for the Management of Agriculture in case of a Nuclear Accident. Devised for the Ministry of Agriculture services supporting state officials in a radiation emergency, this manual focuses on the early phase following the accident when the state of emergency would make discussion on countermeasures with a large stakeholder panel impossible. Supported by the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries and the French Nuclear Safety Authority, this project increased knowledge of post-accident management strategies and made an important contribution to the national think tank set up within the framework of the French Steering Committee for managing the post-event phase of a nuclear accident (CODIRPA). This article describes how the manual evolved throughout the project and the development of new resources

  4. Decision-making guide for management of agriculture in the case of a nuclear accident

    Reales, N.; Fourrie, L.; Quinio, C.; Grastilleur, Ch.

    2008-01-01

    For several years, agricultural and nuclear professionals in France have been working on how to manage the agricultural situation in the event of a nuclear accident. This work resulted in measures at both the national (Aube nuclear safety exercises in 2003, INEX3 in 2005) and international levels (EURATOM Programmes). Following on from the European FARMING (FP5) and EURANOS (FP6) works, ACTA', IRSN and six agricultural technical institutes which are specialized in agricultural production and processing network (arable crop [especially cereals, maize, pulses, potatoes and forage crops], fruits and vegetables, vine and wine, livestock farming [cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, poultry]), created a resource adapted to the French context: the Decision-aiding Tool for the Management of Agriculture in case of a Nuclear Accident. Devised for the Ministry of Agriculture services supporting state officials in a radiation emergency, this manual focuses on the early phase following the accident when the state of emergency would make discussion on countermeasures with a large stakeholder panel impossible. Supported by the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries and the French Nuclear Safety Authority, this project increased knowledge of post-accident management strategies and made an important contribution to the national think tank set up within the framework of the French Steering Committee for managing the post-event phase of a nuclear accident (CODIRPA). This article describes how the manual evolved throughout the project and the development of new resources. (authors)

  5. An intelligent system for helping petroleum industry risk management decision making

    Barreto, Mara M.G.; Ebecken, Nelson F.F. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia

    1998-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to present an intelligent system for helping in decision making about risk analysis in petroleum industry management. Such a system supports explicit inconsistencies in its knowledge bases, and is able to solve it by means of a decision's procedure, in which Fuzzy Logic is used. Expert Systems which knowledge bases carry out explicitly inconsistencies are called paraconsistent systems and were initially proposed by Da Costa and Subrahmanian. The defuzzyfication process of a paraconsistent model was already suggested by Barreto, Ebecken and Clement, and established by Barreto and Ebecken. In Barreto, Ebecken and Clemente show an application of this model for helping in decision making in a business situation. The system that will be presented here is a simulation of many possible applications of this model, and helps the analyses of risk business petroleum project's investment, and, it is desirable, can point out some possibilities of getting out difficulties when the risk is increased. In the introduction, we define some risk result's indicators to be considered, such as, petroleum business project duration, staffing, priority; and we define the system's logical structure. In the Overriding Part, firstly, we show the implemented system's , simulation, how it works, how to get outputs from the given and how to analyze the final results, and explicit the methods used in situations where the inconsistencies appear giving comments about the critical situations. Finally, in the conclusion, we comment the coherence of results, and give comments about some others applications of this kind of systems. (author)

  6. Defining “Adverse Environmental Impact” and Making § 316(b Decisions: A Fisheries Management Approach

    David E. Bailey

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The electric utility industry has developed an approach for decisionmaking that includes a definition of Adverse Environmental Impact (AEI and an implementation process. The definition of AEI is based on lessons from fishery management science and analysis of the statutory term “adverse environmental impact” and is consistent with current natural resource management policy. The industry has proposed a definition focusing on “unacceptable risk to the population’s ability to sustain itself, to support reasonably anticipated commercial or recreational harvests, or to perform its normal ecological function.” This definition focuses not on counting individual fish or eggs cropped by the various uses of a water body, but on preserving populations of aquatic organisms and their functions in the aquatic community. The definition recognizes that assessment of AEI should be site-specific and requires both a biological decision and a balancing of diverse societal values. The industry believes that the definition of AEI should be implemented in a process that will maximize the overall societal benefit of the § 316(b decision by considering the facility’s physical location, design, and operation, as well as the local biology. The approach considers effects on affected fish and shellfish populations and the benefits of any necessary best technology available (BTA alternatives. This is accomplished through consideration of population impacts, which conversely allows consideration of the benefits of any necessary BTA modifications. This in turn allows selection of BTAs that will protect potentially affected populations in a cost-effective manner. The process also employs risk assessment with stakeholder participation, in accordance with EPA’s Guidelines for Ecological Risk Assessment. The information and tools are now available to make informed decisions about site-specific impacts that will ensure protection of aquatic ecosystems and best serve

  7. Defining "adverse environmental impact" and making paragraph 316(b) decisions: a fisheries management approach.

    Bailey, David E; Bulleit, Kristy A N

    2002-05-17

    The electric utility industry has developed an approach for decisionmaking that includes a definition of Adverse Environmental Impact (AEI) and an implementation process. The definition of AEI is based on lessons from fishery management science and analysis of the statutory term "adverse environmental impact" and is consistent with current natural resource management policy. The industry has proposed a definition focusing on "unacceptable risk to the population"s ability to sustain itself, to support reasonably anticipated commercial or recreational harvests, or to perform its normal ecological function." This definition focuses not on counting individual fish or eggs cropped by the various uses of a water body, but on preserving populations of aquatic organisms and their functions in the aquatic community. The definition recognizes that assessment of AEI should be site-specific and requires both a biological decision and a balancing of diverse societal values. The industry believes that the definition of AEI should be implemented in a process that will maximize the overall societal benefit of the paragraph 316(b) decision by considering the facility"s physical location, design, and operation, as well as the local biology. The approach considers effects on affected fish and shellfish populations and the benefits of any necessary best technology available (BTA) alternatives. This is accomplished through consideration of population impacts, which conversely allows consideration of the benefits of any necessary BTA modifications. This in turn allows selection of BTAs that will protect potentially affected populations in a cost-effective manner. The process also employs risk assessment with stakeholder participation, in accordance with EPA's Guidelines for Ecological Risk Assessment. The information and tools are now available to make informed decisions about site-specific impacts that will ensure protection of aquatic ecosystems and best serve the public interest.

  8. Decision-making: Theory and practice

    SM Turpin

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares a number of theoretical models of decision-making with the way in which senior managers make decisions in practice. Six prominent decision-makers were interviewed about their own decision-making style, as well as their use of decision support technology. Significant variation was found in personal decision-making styles. However, some central themes emerged, such as the importance of sensitivity to the decision-making context, attention to the presentation of information, and the use of intuition. In terms of the use of decision support technology, the use of self-help tools, such as office software, was clearly favoured.

  9. Data needs and computational requirements for asset management decision making. Internal deliverable ID5.2.1

    Catrinu-Renstrom, Maria; Clement, Rémy; Tournebise, Pascal

    addressing to the requirements of RMAC criterion developed in work package 2. The report has been written by several partners, three of them being European TSOs, and the three other being academic partners. Special attention has been paid to address every topic in asset management decision making process......The objective of this deliverable is to present the requirements for adapting available tools/models and identifying data needs for reliability analysis and optimal decision-making for asset management decision making process. It will serve as a basis for the next tasks of GARPUR work package 5...... decision making process, as described in work package 2. Some advanced models exist in scientific literature to characterize the spatio-temporal variation and correlations of relevant factors. Some of these models have been proposed in academia, and offer improved representation with respect to those...

  10. Repeated causal decision making.

    Hagmayer, York; Meder, Björn

    2013-01-01

    Many of our decisions refer to actions that have a causal impact on the external environment. Such actions may not only allow for the mere learning of expected values or utilities but also for acquiring knowledge about the causal structure of our world. We used a repeated decision-making paradigm to examine what kind of knowledge people acquire in such situations and how they use their knowledge to adapt to changes in the decision context. Our studies show that decision makers' behavior is strongly contingent on their causal beliefs and that people exploit their causal knowledge to assess the consequences of changes in the decision problem. A high consistency between hypotheses about causal structure, causally expected values, and actual choices was observed. The experiments show that (a) existing causal hypotheses guide the interpretation of decision feedback, (b) consequences of decisions are used to revise existing causal beliefs, and (c) decision makers use the experienced feedback to induce a causal model of the choice situation even when they have no initial causal hypotheses, which (d) enables them to adapt their choices to changes of the decision problem. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Strategic decision making

    Stokman, Frans N.; Assen, Marcel A.L.M. van; Knoop, Jelle van der; Oosten, Reinier C.H. van

    2000-01-01

    This paper introduces a methodology for strategic intervention in collective decision making.The methodology is based on (1) a decomposition of the problem into a few main controversial issues, (2) systematic interviews of subject area specialists to obtain a specification of the decision setting,consisting of a list of stakeholders with their capabilities, positions, and salience on each of the issues; (3) computer simulation. The computer simulation models incorporate only the main processe...

  12. Nuclear regulatory decision making

    2005-01-01

    The fundamental objective of all nuclear safety regulatory bodies is to ensure that nuclear utilities operate their plants at all times in an acceptably safe manner. In meeting this objective, the regulatory body should strive to ensure that its regulatory decisions are technically sound, consistent from case to case, and timely. In addition, the regulator must be aware that its decisions and the circumstances surrounding those decisions can affect how its stakeholders, such as government policy makers, the industry it regulates, and the public, view it as an effective and credible regulator. In order to maintain the confidence of those stakeholders, the regulator should make sure that its decisions are transparent, have a clear basis in law and regulations, and are seen by impartial observers to be fair to all parties. Based on the work of a Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) expert group, this report discusses some of the basic principles and criteria that a regulatory body should consider in making decisions and describes the elements of an integrated framework for regulatory decision making. (author)

  13. Probabilistic scenario-based decision making for water resources planning and management

    Dong, C.

    2014-01-01

    Uncertainty is an unavoidable part of decision making. Decisions always have to be made before perfect knowledge on their consequences is known. However, there is no ‘perfect knowledge’ in hindsight. To research uncertainty and take actions proactively becomes the challenge to scientists and

  14. Self-management priority setting and decision-making in adults with multimorbidity: a narrative review of literature.

    Bratzke, Lisa C; Muehrer, Rebecca J; Kehl, Karen A; Lee, Kyoung Suk; Ward, Earlise C; Kwekkeboom, Kristine L

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this narrative review was to synthesize current research findings related to self-management, in order to better understand the processes of priority setting and decision-making among adults with multimorbidity. A narrative literature review was undertaken, synthesizing findings from published, peer-reviewed empirical studies that addressed priority setting and/or decision-making in self-management of multimorbidity. A search of PubMed, PsychINFO, CINAHL and SocIndex databases was conducted from database inception through December 2013. References lists from selected empirical studies and systematic reviews were evaluated to identify any additional relevant articles. Full text of potentially eligible articles were reviewed and selected for inclusion if they described empirical studies that addressed priority setting or decision-making in self-management of multimorbidity among adults. Two independent reviewers read each selected article and extracted relevant data to an evidence table. Processes and factors of multimorbidity self-management were identified and sorted into categories of priority setting, decision-making, and facilitators/barriers. Thirteen articles were selected for inclusion; most were qualitative studies describing processes, facilitators, and barriers of multimorbidity self-management. The findings revealed that patients prioritize a dominant chronic illness and re-prioritize over time as conditions and treatments change; that multiple facilitators (e.g. support programs) and barriers (e.g. lack of financial resources) impact individuals' self-management priority setting and decision-making ability; as do individual beliefs, preferences, and attitudes (e.g., perceived personal control, preferences regarding treatment). Health care providers need to be cognizant that individuals with multimorbidity engage in day-to-day priority setting and decision-making among their multiple chronic illnesses and respective treatments. Researchers

  15. Firm Readiness Level for Innovation Projects: A New Decision-Making Tool for Innovation Managers

    Daniel Galvez

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Innovation projects represent a major challenge for business managers due to their associated uncertainty degree. The already existing methodologies to support the innovation projects are aimed at piloting them and establishing the management stages in a flexible and agile way during their deployment. This paper proposes a complementary ex-ante methodology that seeks to aid the decision-making of companies to choose whether or not to launch a potential innovation project. This methodology evaluates to what extent the technological system of the company has the minimum required maturity degree of competencies to successfully achieve the innovation project. Thus, in first instance, an innovation project is characterized according to its novelty degree; both inside the company and in its environment. Subsequently, according to the previous characterization, the future project will have an impact on the technological system of the company. The capabilities of the firm are represented by a set of good practices associated with the innovation projects’ management that the company is able to deploy. Finally, the minimum maturity degree required by a particular project of these practices is determined. Then, the gap between the maturity requirement profile and the current profile of the company is established enabling to decide on the implementation of the project or not.

  16. On the perceived usefulness of risk descriptions for decision-making in disaster risk management

    Lin, Lexin; Nilsson, Anders; Sjölin, Johan; Abrahamsson, Marcus; Tehler, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Managing risk using an “all-hazards” and “whole of society”-approach involves extensive communication of risk descriptions among many stakeholders. In the present study we investigate how professionals working with disaster risk management in such contexts perceive the usefulness of different descriptions of risk. Empirical data from the Swedish disaster risk management system were used in an attempt to investigate the aspects of a risk description that affect its usefulness (as perceived by professionals). Thirty-three local municipal risk and vulnerability assessments (RVA documents) produced in the region of Scania in 2012 were analyzed in terms of six variables. The documents were then ranked by professionals based on their perceived usefulness for decision-making. Statistical analysis was conducted to identify any possible correlations between the overall ranking of the usefulness of the municipal RVA:s and each of the variables. We conclude that the way the likelihood and consequences of scenarios are described influence the perceived usefulness of a risk description. Furthermore, whether descriptions of scenarios are included in a risk description or not, and whether background information concerning the likelihood of scenarios are included also influence perceived usefulness of risk descriptions. - Highlights: • Written communication of risk between professionals is investigated. • The way likelihood is described influences a risk description's usefulness. • The way consequences are described influence a risk description's usefulness. • Whether background information is included in a risk description influences its usefulness

  17. Data for decision making: strategic information tools for hospital management during a pandemic.

    Farias, Daniel R; Raffo, Lucrecia; Bacigalupo, Silvia; Cremaschi, Maria; Vence, Liliana; Ramos, Susana; Salguero, Ana; Claudio, Martin; Meites, Elissa; Cubito, Alejandro

    2010-10-01

    During the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic, Argentina's Hospital Nacional Profesor Alejandro Posadas, a referral center in the capital province of Buenos Aires, treated a large urban patient population. Beginning in April, after severe influenza had been reported in North America but before any suspected cases of H1N1 had been reported in Argentina, the authors formed a pandemic planning committee to direct our hospital's response. An important strategy of the management team was to create a single daily monitoring tool that could integrate multiple information sources. We describe our pandemic planning strategy so that it may serve as a template for other hospitals. We describe our integrated data management system and the indicators it measured. We also describe the iterative process used to develop these tools and the current versions we use in surveillance for possible new waves of pandemic influenza. We present 3 examples of strategic decision making applied to data from our integrated information system. Daily pandemic surveillance data motivated the planning committee to reallocate hospital resources to care for patients during the peak pandemic period. This report illustrates the importance of pandemic planning and advanced integrated information tools for management of a health care facility during a pandemic.

  18. Large-scale hydrological modelling and decision-making for sustainable water and land management along the Tarim River

    Yu, Yang

    2017-01-01

    The debate over the effectiveness of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) in practice has lasted for years. As the complexity and scope of IWRM increases in practice, it is difficult for hydrological models to directly simulate the interactions among water, ecosystem and humans. This study presents the large-scale hydrological modeling (MIKE HYDRO) approach and a Decision Support System (DSS) for decision-making with stakeholders on the sustainable water and land management along the ...

  19. Decision making and imperfection

    Karny, Miroslav; Wolpert, David

    2013-01-01

    Decision making (DM) is ubiquitous in both natural and artificial systems. The decisions made often differ from those recommended by the axiomatically well-grounded normative Bayesian decision theory, in a large part due to limited cognitive and computational resources of decision makers (either artificial units or humans). This state of a airs is often described by saying that decision makers are imperfect and exhibit bounded rationality. The neglected influence of emotional state and personality traits is an additional reason why normative theory fails to model human DM process.   The book is a joint effort of the top researchers from different disciplines to identify sources of imperfection and ways how to decrease discrepancies between the prescriptive theory and real-life DM. The contributions consider:   ·          how a crowd of imperfect decision makers outperforms experts' decisions;   ·          how to decrease decision makers' imperfection by reducing knowledge available;   ...

  20. A decision-making framework for total ownership cost management of complex systems: A Delphi study

    King, Russel J.

    This qualitative study, using a modified Delphi method, was conducted to develop a decision-making framework for the total ownership cost management of complex systems in the aerospace industry. The primary focus of total ownership cost is to look beyond the purchase price when evaluating complex system life cycle alternatives. A thorough literature review and the opinions of a group of qualified experts resulted in a compilation of total ownership cost best practices, cost drivers, key performance factors, applicable assessment methods, practitioner credentials and potential barriers to effective implementation. The expert panel provided responses to the study questions using a 5-point Likert-type scale. Data were analyzed and provided to the panel members for review and discussion with the intent to achieve group consensus. As a result of the study, the experts agreed that a total ownership cost analysis should (a) be as simple as possible using historical data; (b) establish cost targets, metrics, and penalties early in the program; (c) monitor the targets throughout the product lifecycle and revise them as applicable historical data becomes available; and (d) directly link total ownership cost elements with other success factors during program development. The resultant study framework provides the business leader with incentives and methods to develop and implement strategies for controlling and reducing total ownership cost over the entire product life cycle when balancing cost, schedule, and performance decisions.

  1. Preventative disease management and grower decision making: A case study of California wine-grape growers

    We examined the adoption and timing of preventative grapevine trunk disease-management practices among agricultural decision-makers (growers) in California. These diseases (Botryosphaeria dieback, Esca, Eutypa dieback, Phomopsis dieback) significantly diminish vineyard productivity and longevity. Gi...

  2. Human factors influencing decision making

    Jacobs, Patricia A.

    1998-01-01

    This report supplies references and comments on literature that identifies human factors influencing decision making, particularly military decision making. The literature has been classified as follows (the classes are not mutually exclusive): features of human information processing; decision making models which are not mathematical models but rather are descriptive; non- personality factors influencing decision making; national characteristics influencing decision makin...

  3. Knowledge Management Implementation and the Tools Utilized in Healthcare for Evidence-Based Decision Making: A Systematic Review

    Shahmoradi, Leila; Safadari, Reza; Jimma, Worku

    2017-01-01

    Background Healthcare is a knowledge driven process and thus knowledge management and the tools to manage knowledge in healthcare sector are gaining attention. The aim of this systematic review is to investigate knowledge management implementation and knowledge management tools used in healthcare for informed decision making. Methods Three databases, two journals websites and Google Scholar were used as sources for the review. The key terms used to search relevant articles include: “Healthcar...

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF DECISION MAKING BY MANAGERS WITH FINANCIAL AND ACCOUNTING INFORMATION

    Boghean Florin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The quality conditioning of an accountant's job corresponds thus with the competitive level in the company. The operationalization of the used specialty language, on the one hand and on the other hand the efficient management of the financial situation acquire a significant role regarding a strategic partnership at the micro and macroeconomic level in business as long as the managerial structures of understanding the economic reality are put in correlation with the accountant's socio-professional training in the firm/concern. Even if the professional accountant is paid by a determined client, which is the final beneficiary of the development service or audit financial statements, the information drawn from these financial statements are used by those who form the public. In this way, the accounting profession is distinguished from the other profession by accepting its responsibility to the public. There are numerous studies on an international level, dealing with various methods of improving the decision making process. The most competitive multinational companies have already considered the opportunities favored by financial adjustments, directed at streamlining the accounting functions and they have also trained professionals in the field of accounting that would successfully perform as business partners, thus assisting the decision making process within the organization. The financial adjustments have become essential for many companies that have thus gained a significant competitive advantage. The plan for improving the efficiency of the financial function is very clear, but the training of the business partners who would provide assistance in making decisions still remains a challenge. The economic perspective on the account reality highlights a pragmatic materialization, at the company’s level, of some specific skills designed to support the important role that the financial situations have. So, the individual significations of the

  5. Ergonomics and risk management in high risk organizations: nuclear power plant operator decision making

    Carvalho, Paulo Victor Rodrigues de

    2003-08-01

    Nuclear power plants are high hazard environments where emergency situations can have devastating effects. The operator crew has the ultimate responsibility to control the energy production process with safety. The outcome of a crisis is consequently dependent on the crew's judgement, decision making and situation awareness. In such way we should know how operators make their decisions in order to develop safety strategies. The aim of this thesis is to examine the cognitive processes through which operators make decisions when dealing with micro incidents during their actual work, and to determine whether they use a naturalistic or normative decision making strategy. That is, do they try to recognize the micro incident as familiar and base decisions on condition-action rules (naturalistic), or do they need to concurrently compare and contrast options before selecting the best possible (normative). The method employed for data collection was the Cognitive Task Analysis (CTA) and Ergonomic Work Analysis (EWA). The main findings of this thesis were that decision making is primarily based on naturalistic strategies, such as condition-action rules and recognition. In new situations rules are created ad hoc. These rules appear derived from experience and training rather than from Standard Operating Procedures and contrast normative competence standards used by nuclear industry. (author)

  6. MULTICRITERIA DECISION-MAKING

    HENDRIKS, MMWB; DEBOER, JH; SMILDE, AK; DOORNBOS, DA

    1992-01-01

    Interest is growing in multicriteria decision making (MCDM) techniques and a large number of these techniques are now available. The purpose of this tutorial is to give a theoretical description of some of the MCDM techniques. Besides this we will give an overview of the differences and similarities

  7. Information support of decision-making in the early stages of new product development when approaching marketing management

    A. A. Tishhenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Goal. To create theoretical and practical approaches to information support of the decision making procedure at the initial stages of developing a new product with a marketing management approach that allows to improve the quality of management decisions on the product. Material and methods. The projected software package on the basis of expert assessments and fuzzy sets, allows to automate the decision to implement innovation at an early stage. The work used such scientific methods as generalization of scientific literature in the field of shaping and taking into account the features of innovation, Solutions in the initial stages of development, methods of expert evaluation and elements of fuzzy sets. Results and its discussion. The article presents the rationale and possibilities for informational support of the decision-making procedure for innovative products. The authors also proposed a methodology for making a decision when developing a new product based on expert and predictive assessments of innovation at the initial stages of its creation. A software package has been developed that automates the decision to manufacture a new product at the initial stages of production. Conclusion. Despite a large number of theoretical developments in innovative management, the risk associated with the release of new products remains quite high. The developed methodology of information support for decision-making at the initial stages of the development of a new product will reduce the risk of the lack of demand for innovation.

  8. Decision-making in product portfolios of pharmaceutical research and development--managing streams of innovation in highly regulated markets.

    Jekunen, Antti

    2014-01-01

    Decision-making is a core function of any drug development firm. Developing drugs demands a firm to be highly innovative, while at the same time the activity is strictly regulated. Successful drug development offers the right to apply for a long-term patent that confers exclusive marketing rights. This article addresses the issue of what constitutes an adequate portfolio of drugs for a drug development firm and how it might be managed successfully. The paper investigates decision-making in the industry and specifically in the development of oncology drugs from various perspectives: the need for decisions, their timing, decision-making at the project level, the optimal portfolio, tools for portfolio analysis, the evaluation of patents, and finally the importance of the drug portfolio. Drug development decisions as important organizational elements should get more emphasis, and decisions in drug portfolio using modern decision-making methods should be used more widely than what currently happens. Structured, informed decisions would help avoiding late terminations of drugs in Phase III development. An improved research and development pipeline and drug portfolio management are the major elements in the general strategy targeting success.

  9. Decision-making in product portfolios of pharmaceutical research and development – managing streams of innovation in highly regulated markets

    Jekunen, Antti

    2014-01-01

    Decision-making is a core function of any drug development firm. Developing drugs demands a firm to be highly innovative, while at the same time the activity is strictly regulated. Successful drug development offers the right to apply for a long-term patent that confers exclusive marketing rights. This article addresses the issue of what constitutes an adequate portfolio of drugs for a drug development firm and how it might be managed successfully. The paper investigates decision-making in the industry and specifically in the development of oncology drugs from various perspectives: the need for decisions, their timing, decision-making at the project level, the optimal portfolio, tools for portfolio analysis, the evaluation of patents, and finally the importance of the drug portfolio. Drug development decisions as important organizational elements should get more emphasis, and decisions in drug portfolio using modern decision-making methods should be used more widely than what currently happens. Structured, informed decisions would help avoiding late terminations of drugs in Phase III development. An improved research and development pipeline and drug portfolio management are the major elements in the general strategy targeting success. PMID:25364229

  10. HMIS and decision-making in Zambia: re-thinking information solutions for district health management in decentralized health systems.

    Mutemwa, Richard I

    2006-01-01

    At the onset of health system decentralization as a primary health care strategy, which constituted a key feature of health sector reforms across the developing world, efficient and effective health management information systems (HMIS) were widely acknowledged and adopted as a critical element of district health management strengthening programmes. The focal concern was about the performance and long-term sustainability of decentralized district health systems. The underlying logic was that effective and efficient HMIS would provide district health managers with the information required to make effective strategic decisions that are the vehicle for district performance and sustainability in these decentralized health systems. However, this argument is rooted in normative management and decision theory without significant unequivocal empirical corroboration. Indeed, extensive empirical evidence continues to indicate that managers' decision-making behaviour and the existence of other forms of information outside the HMIS, within the organizational environment, suggest a far more tenuous relationship between the presence of organizational management information systems (such as HMIS) and effective strategic decision-making. This qualitative comparative case-study conducted in two districts of Zambia focused on investigating the presence and behaviour of five formally identified, different information forms, including that from HMIS, in the strategic decision-making process. The aim was to determine the validity of current arguments for HMIS, and establish implications for current HMIS policies. Evidence from the eight strategic decision-making processes traced in the study confirmed the existence of different forms of information in the organizational environment, including that provided by the conventional HMIS. These information forms attach themselves to various organizational management processes and key aspects of organizational routine. The study results point

  11. Indigenous Perspectives and Knowledge Informing Freshwater Management, Planning and Decision Making in Aotearoa-New Zealand

    Harmsworth, G.

    2017-12-01

    Indigenous Māori have distinct cultural values and perspectives that establish their identity, responsibilities, and rights to manage and use freshwater in New Zealand. Recognition of the 1840 Treaty of Waitangi and its principles has culminated in an array of modern legislation, obligations, national policy statements, statutory requirements, holistic frameworks, and approaches that strengthens Māori participation and authority in resource management and environmental decision-making. We briefly explain indigenous Māori frameworks, knowledge, values, and perspectives used to grow indigenous research and capability, enrich western scientific research, and inform freshwater planning, policy, and management. We will discuss some important methods, indicators, and tools that Māori have developed, or are developing, to support environmental assessment and the monitoring and reporting of freshwater ecosystems, particularly to help sustain and enhance customary values and practice. These tools include, for example, the Cultural Health Index, the Wai Ora Wai Māori assessment tool, the mauri compass, the mauri model, Māori wetlands assessment, kaitiaki tools, taonga assessment, which are being used to build Māori capability and capacity in freshwater sciences and management and to provide innovative approaches based on integrative knowledge systems. Many of these indigenous-led initiatives are now being used next to science and technical approaches at local, regional, and national scale in New Zealand to guide policy and help understand complex and dynamic human-environmental interactions. Māori epistemologies provide a holistic worldview well aligned with current international thinking and approaches that stress the importance of systems thinking and understanding interconnections between sub-component parts; exploring the world and universe within holistic, integrative frameworks; taking into account different perspectives, values, and worldviews, measuring

  12. Work-life Balance Decision-making of Norwegian Students: Implications for Human Resources Management

    Remigiusz Gawlik

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The paper aims at identifying and assessing the significance of work-life balance determinants between the Youth of highly developed societies and its implications for human resources management on the example of Norway. Research Design & Methods: The research target group consists of 236 respondents recruited among Norwegian tertiary education students. It employed literature analysis, two-stage exploratory research: direct individual in-depth interviews, survey based on a self-administered, web-based questionnaire with single-answer, limited choice qualitative & quantitative, as well as explanatory research (informal moderated group discussions. Findings: The research on perceptions of determinants of quality of life and attractiveness of life strategies shows that in a country with relatively high socio-economic development level, such as Norway, differences in rankings do exist. They can be observed in relevance to both material and non-material QoL determinants. Implications & Recommendations: The study revealed a need for deeper research on individually driven early decision-making of future employees and entrepreneurs. This will result in closer modelling of socio-economic phenomena, including more accurate adaptation to trends on the labour market and creation of new business models. Contribution & Value Added: Research value added comes from the comparison of perceptions of quality of life determinants between countries at various stages of socio-economic development and its implications for human resource management.

  13. A Model to Support Decision Making in the Idea Management Domain

    Marina Carradore Sérgio

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account the global competitiveness, innovation has become a challenge for organizations. Idea management is an integral part of the innovation process and it is presented as an essential factor for achieving success. Due to the volume and sudden peaks in submissions of ideas, the appropriate analysis and the allocation of resources for investment are important issues to be addressed. The objective of this paper is to present a model for the management of ideas based on ontology and cluster analysis in order to maximize resources for investment in ideas. So as to demonstrate the model feasibility it was prepared a dataset comprised of fifty-five ideas collected from the Starbucks® site. These ideas were then stored in the domain ontology and were used as subsidies for the cluster analysis and for the building of a knowledge base. As a result, it was identified groups with similar ideas that, when analyzed, foster a greater potential for observation and may indicate patterns and trends that can assist in decision making.

  14. A decision-making framework to integrate maintenance contract conditions with critical spares management

    Godoy, David R.; Pascual, Rodrigo; Knights, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Maintenance outsourcing is a strategic driver for asset intensive industries pursuing to enhance supply chain performance. Spare parts management plays a relevant role in this premise since its significant impact on equipment availability, and hence on business success. Designing critical spares policies might therefore seriously affect maintenance contracts profitability, yet service receivers and external providers traditionally attempt to benefit separately. To coordinate both chain parties, we investigated whether the spare components pool should be managed in-house or contracted out. This paper provides a decision-making framework to efficiently integrate contractual conditions with critical spares stockholding. Using an imperfect maintenance strategy over a finite horizon, the scheme maximizes chain returns whilst evaluating the impact of an additional part to stock. As result, an original joint value – preventive interval and stock level – sets the optimal agreement to profitably allocate the components pool within the service contract. Subsidization bonuses on preventive interventions and pooling costs are also estimated to induce the service provider to adjust its policy when needed. The proposed contractual conditions motivate stakeholders to continuously improve maintenance performance and supply practices, thus obtaining higher joint benefits

  15. Conceptual framework of knowledge management for ethical decision-making support in neonatal intensive care.

    Frize, Monique; Yang, Lan; Walker, Robin C; O'Connor, Annette M

    2005-06-01

    This research is built on the belief that artificial intelligence estimations need to be integrated into clinical social context to create value for health-care decisions. In sophisticated neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), decisions to continue or discontinue aggressive treatment are an integral part of clinical practice. High-quality evidence supports clinical decision-making, and a decision-aid tool based on specific outcome information for individual NICU patients will provide significant support for parents and caregivers in making difficult "ethical" treatment decisions. In our approach, information on a newborn patient's likely outcomes is integrated with the physician's interpretation and parents' perspectives into codified knowledge. Context-sensitive content adaptation delivers personalized and customized information to a variety of users, from physicians to parents. The system provides structuralized knowledge translation and exchange between all participants in the decision, facilitating collaborative decision-making that involves parents at every stage on whether to initiate, continue, limit, or terminate intensive care for their infant.

  16. Title: A study of the relationship between managers\\' decision making styles and organizational health in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences

    S Bahrami

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available   Background and Aims: Managers decision making style can function effectively correct departments in universities and its positive impact on organizational health group will increase efficiency. The present study aims to examine the relationship between the decision-making styles and organizational health departments in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences.   Methods: A descriptive and survey research method was utilized. The statistical population included all 594 members of Isfahan Medical Science University Colleges from which a sample of 201 was selected though a classified random sampling   The data gathering instruments included, a researcher – made decision making questionnaire and the Ho & Feldmn (1990, organizational health questionnaire. The reliability of the instruments was estimated 0.86 and 0.92 respectively, though Cronbach Alpha coefficient. Utilizing SPSS (15 statistical software, both descriptive and inferential statistics were applied to analyze the data.   Results: Consultative decision making scored the highest average among the chairpersons, while the authoritative style scored the lowest average. The departments' organizational health was more than mean level in all dimensions except chairperson's influence. Moreover, a significant relationship was observed between decision making style and organizational health indices. Also a direct relationship was not observed between authoritarian decision makings and institutional integration, chairperson influence, consideration, initiating structure, and academic emphasis. A direct relationship was observed between Consultative decision making and chairperson influence, consideration, initiating structure, resource support, morale, and academic emphasis. A direct relationship was observed between Participative decision making and chairperson Influence, consideration, initiating structure.   Conclusion: Consultative and participative decision making can lead to enhancement

  17. Responsive Decision-Making

    Pedersen, Carsten Lund; Andersen, Torben Juul

    , the aim of this study is to gain deeper insights into the complex and multifaceted decision processes that take place in large complex organizations operating in dynamic high-velocity markets. It is proposed that the ability to obtain faster, more accurate and updated insights about ongoing environmental......Strategic decision making remains a focal point in the strategy field, but despite decades of rich conceptual and empirical research we still seem distant from a level of understanding that can guide corporate practices effectively under turbulent and unpredictable environmental conditions. Hence...

  18. Shared decision-making.

    Godolphin, William

    2009-01-01

    Shared decision-making has been called the crux of patient-centred care and identified as a key part of change for improved quality and safety in healthcare. However, it rarely happens, is hard to do and is not taught - for many reasons. Talking with patients about options is not embedded in the attitudes or communication skills training of most healthcare professionals. Information tools such as patient decision aids, personal health records and the Internet will help to shift this state, as will policy that drives patient and public involvement in healthcare delivery and training.

  19. Decision making under uncertainty

    Cyert, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on ways of improving the reliability of products and systems in this country if we are to survive as a first-rate industrial power. The use of statistical techniques have, since the 1920s, been viewed as one of the methods for testing quality and estimating the level of quality in a universe of output. Statistical quality control is not relevant, generally, to improving systems in an industry like yours, but certainly the use of probability concepts is of significance. In addition, when it is recognized that part of the problem involves making decisions under uncertainty, it becomes clear that techniques such as sequential decision making and Bayesian analysis become major methodological approaches that must be utilized

  20. Decision making in neonatologia.

    Paterlini, G; Tagliabue, P

    2010-06-01

    The field of neonatology presents a fascinating context in which hugely important decisions have to be made on the basis of physicians' assessments of the long term consequences of various possible choices. In many cases such assessments cannot be derived from a consensual professional opinion; the situation is characterized by a high level of uncertainty. A sample of neonatologists in different countries received a questionnaire including vignette cases for which no clear consensus exists regarding the (probabilistic) prognosis. They were asked to (I) assess the probability of various outcomes (death, severe impairment) and (II) choose a treatment to be offered to the parents. Information on the physicians' professional and socio-demographic characteristics and their ethical "values" was also collected. The goal of this international survey is to understand the prognosis and to analyze decision making by professionals in the context of life and death in medicine. The availability of an identical technology in different social and institutional contexts should help identifying the convergences and differences under consideration. Seventy percent of those invited responded to the questionnaire (International 60-80%). Italian neonatologists seem to be quite pessimistic about the prognosis of infants at high risk of death or long term disabilities, they show a pro-life attitude, but in a certain proportion are willing to change their minds if requested by parents. Furthermore personal opinions predominate in the decision-making process and the contribution of team meeting and/or ethic consultation seem not significantly modify the decisions.

  1. Robust Decision Making

    Christopher A. Dieckmann, PE, CSEP-Acq

    2010-07-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is funded through the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy and other customers who have direct contracts with the Laboratory. The people, equipment, facilities and other infrastructure at the laboratory require continual investment to maintain and improve the laboratory’s capabilities. With ever tightening federal and customer budgets, the ability to direct investments into the people, equipment, facilities and other infrastructure which are most closely aligned with the laboratory’s mission and customers’ goals grows increasingly more important. The ability to justify those investment decisions based on objective criteria that can withstand political, managerial and technical criticism also becomes increasingly more important. The Systems Engineering tools of decision analysis, risk management and roadmapping, when properly applied to such problems, can provide defensible decisions.

  2. The Perils of Democratic Decision Making

    Aalbers, H.L.; Whelan, E.; Parise, S.; Vialle, C.

    2016-01-01

    The article focuses on the organizational decision-making management. Topics mentioned include the development of enterprise social software (ESS), the online corporate communities management, and the project management. Also mentioned are the importance of customer services, the bankruptcy

  3. Information as a tool for management decision making: a case study of Singapore

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to develop an understanding of how Singapore's managers behave as information users and determine if their behavioural patterns are similar to their counterparts in other countries (as disclosed in the literature or if it differs, in what ways. A total of 369 questionnaires were mailed to individual members of Singapore's Institute of Management. Only twenty members responded. The main focus of the survey was the relative uses of the different types of information sources. The survey also touched briefly on the relative importance of domains, and the correlation between hierarchical and functional levels. Results indicated that the types of information considered very important for decision making included Competitor Trends followed by Regional Economic Trends. Types of information considered important included Business news followed by Political, Social, and Supplier trends, Regulatory information, Use of Information Technology, Demographic Trends and New Management methods. Sources given a very high preference rating were Personal Contact for Competitor Trends and the use of Government Publications for obtaining regulatory information. Respondents also preferred use of Government Publications for Local Economic information and the use of Newspapers for Political Trends and Business News. Internal computer printouts were used for forecasting information and company performance. Subordinate managers were referred to for information on the use of technology, Forecasting, and Company Performance. Because the Company Library provided access to newspapers (very high usage and business news, information about Political Trends, International and Local Economic Information and Competitor Trends were associated with it. However, the Company Library was perceived as a storage facility rather than a dynamic information resource. Local libraries were also used for Regional and International Economic information. Radio

  4. A conceptual framework for negotiating public involvement in municipal waste management decision-making in the UK.

    Garnett, Kenisha; Cooper, Tim; Longhurst, Philip; Jude, Simon; Tyrrel, Sean

    2017-08-01

    The technical expertise that politicians relied on in the past to produce cost-effective and environmentally sound solutions no longer provides sufficient justification to approve waste facilities. Local authorities need to find more effective ways to involve stakeholders and communities in decision-making since public acceptance of municipal waste facilities is integral to delivering effective waste strategies. This paper presents findings from a research project that explored attitudes towards greater levels of public involvement in UK waste management decision-making. The study addressed questions of perception, interests, the decision context, the means of engagement and the necessary resources and capacity for adopting a participatory decision process. Adopting a mixed methods approach, the research produced an empirical framework for negotiating the mode and level of public involvement in waste management decision-making. The framework captures and builds on theories of public involvement and the experiences of practitioners, and offers guidance for integrating analysis and deliberation with public groups in different waste management decision contexts. Principles in the framework operate on the premise that the decision about 'more' and 'better' forms of public involvement can be negotiated, based on the nature of the waste problem and wider social context of decision-making. The collection of opinions from the wide range of stakeholders involved in the study has produced new insights for the design of public engagement processes that are context-dependent and 'fit-for-purpose'; these suggest a need for greater inclusivity in the case of contentious technologies and high levels of uncertainty regarding decision outcomes. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Using multi-attribute decision-making approaches in the selection of a hospital management system.

    Arasteh, Mohammad Ali; Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Yee, Por Lip

    2018-01-01

    The most appropriate organizational software is always a real challenge for managers, especially, the IT directors. The illustration of the term "enterprise software selection", is to purchase, create, or order a software that; first, is best adapted to require of the organization; and second, has suitable price and technical support. Specifying selection criteria and ranking them, is the primary prerequisite for this action. This article provides a method to evaluate, rank, and compare the available enterprise software for choosing the apt one. The prior mentioned method is constituted of three-stage processes. First, the method identifies the organizational requires and assesses them. Second, it selects the best method throughout three possibilities; indoor-production, buying software, and ordering special software for the native use. Third, the method evaluates, compares and ranks the alternative software. The third process uses different methods of multi attribute decision making (MADM), and compares the consequent results. Based on different characteristics of the problem; several methods had been tested, namely, Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS), Elimination and Choice Expressing Reality (ELECTURE), and easy weight method. After all, we propose the most practical method for same problems.

  6. Making Better Re/Insurance Underwriting and Capital Management Decisions with Public-Private-Academic Partnerships

    Michel, G.; Gunasekera, R.; Werner, A.; Galy, H.

    2012-04-01

    Similar to 2001, 2004, and 2005, 2011 was another year of unexpected international catastrophe events, in which insured losses were more than twice the expected long-term annual average catastrophe losses of USD 30 to 40bn. Key catastrophe events that significantly contributed these losses included the Mw 9.0 Great Tohoku earthquake and tsunami, the Jan. 2011 floods in Queensland, the October 2011 floods in Thailand, the Mw 6.1 Christchurch earthquake and Convective system (Tornado) in United States. However, despite considerable progress in catastrophe modelling, the advent of global catastrophe models, increasing risk model coverage and skill in the detailed modelling, the above mentioned events were not satisfactorily modelled by the current mainstream Re/Insurance catastrophe models. This presentation therefore address problems in models and incomplete understanding identified from recent catastrophic events by considering: i) the current modelling environment, and ii) how the current processes could be improved via: a) the understanding of risk within science networks such as the Willis Research Network, and b) the integration of risk model results from available insurance catastrophe models and tools. This presentation aims to highlight the needed improvements in decision making and market practices, thereby advancing the current management of risk in the Re/Insurance industry. This also increases the need for better integration of Public-Private-Academic partnerships and tools to provide better estimates of not only financial loss but also humanitarian and infrastructural losses as well.

  7. Defining the drivers for accepting decision making automation in air traffic management.

    Bekier, Marek; Molesworth, Brett R C; Williamson, Ann

    2011-04-01

    Air Traffic Management (ATM) operators are under increasing pressure to improve the efficiency of their operation to cater for forecasted increases in air traffic movements. One solution involves increasing the utilisation of automation within the ATM system. The success of this approach is contingent on Air Traffic Control Operators' (ATCOs) willingness to accept increased levels of automation. The main aim of the present research was to examine the drivers underpinning ATCOs' willingness to accept increased utilisation of automation within their role. Two fictitious scenarios involving the application of two new automated decision-making tools were created. The results of an online survey revealed traditional predictors of automation acceptance such as age, trust and job satisfaction explain between 4 and 7% of the variance. Furthermore, these predictors varied depending on the purpose in which the automation was to be employed. These results are discussed from an applied and theoretical perspective. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Efficiency improvements in ATM are required to cater for forecasted increases in air traffic movements. One solution is to increase the utilisation of automation within Air Traffic Control. The present research examines the drivers underpinning air traffic controllers' willingness to accept increased levels of automation in their role.

  8. Engineering and management of IT-based service systems an intelligent decision-making support systems approach

    Gomez, Jorge; Garrido, Leonardo; Perez, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Intelligent Decision-Making Support Systems (i-DMSS) are specialized IT-based systems that support some or several phases of the individual, team, organizational or inter-organizational decision making process by deploying some or several intelligent mechanisms. This book pursues the following academic aims: (i) generate a compendium of quality theoretical and applied contributions in Intelligent Decision-Making Support Systems (i-DMSS) for engineering and management IT-based service systems (ITSS); (ii)  diffuse scarce knowledge about foundations, architectures and effective and efficient methods and strategies for successfully planning, designing, building, operating, and evaluating i-DMSS for ITSS, and (iii) create an awareness of, and a bridge between ITSS and i-DMSS academicians and practitioners in the current complex and dynamic engineering and management ITSS organizational. The book presents a collection of 11 chapters referring to relevant topics for both IT service systems and i-DMSS including: pr...

  9. Application of multi-criteria decision-making on strategic municipal solid waste management in Dalmatia, Croatia

    Vego, Goran; Kucar-Dragicevic, Savka; Koprivanac, Natalija

    2008-01-01

    The efficiency of providing a waste management system in the coastal part of Croatia consisting of four Dalmatian counties has been modelled. Two multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) methods, PROMETHEE and GAIA, were applied to assist with the systematic analysis and evaluation of the alternatives. The analysis covered two levels; first, the potential number of waste management centres resulting from possible inter-county cooperation; and second, the relative merits of siting of waste management centres in the coastal or hinterland zone was evaluated. The problem was analysed according to several criteria; and ecological, economic, social and functional criteria sets were identified as relevant to the decision-making process. The PROMETHEE and GAIA methods were shown to be efficient tools for analysing the problem considered. Such an approach provided new insights to waste management planning at the strategic level, and gave a reason for rethinking some of the existing strategic waste management documents in Croatia

  10. Application of multi-criteria decision-making on strategic municipal solid waste management in Dalmatia, Croatia.

    Vego, Goran; Kucar-Dragicević, Savka; Koprivanac, Natalija

    2008-11-01

    The efficiency of providing a waste management system in the coastal part of Croatia consisting of four Dalmatian counties has been modelled. Two multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) methods, PROMETHEE and GAIA, were applied to assist with the systematic analysis and evaluation of the alternatives. The analysis covered two levels; first, the potential number of waste management centres resulting from possible inter-county cooperation; and second, the relative merits of siting of waste management centres in the coastal or hinterland zone was evaluated. The problem was analysed according to several criteria; and ecological, economic, social and functional criteria sets were identified as relevant to the decision-making process. The PROMETHEE and GAIA methods were shown to be efficient tools for analysing the problem considered. Such an approach provided new insights to waste management planning at the strategic level, and gave a reason for rethinking some of the existing strategic waste management documents in Croatia.

  11. Adaptive management and environmental decision making. A case study application to water use planning

    Gregory, Robin; Failing, Lee; Higgins, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Adaptive management (AM) techniques are one of the principal tools proposed by environmental decision makers to provide flexible and responsive management approaches over time. However, the record of successful applications is surprisingly small. We believe that this in part reflects the lack of an intuitively plausible framework for evaluating AM initiatives. This paper outlines such a framework, based on the insights of decision analysis, for evaluating the use of AM as a technique to improve environmental management decisions. British Columbia's Water Use Plan (WUP) process, which has developed operating plans for more than 20 major hydroelectric facilities, is introduced as a case-study example. The discussion emphasizes that decisions to adopt adaptive management strategies involve judgments concerning tradeoffs across a variety of economic, environmental, and social objectives. As a result, adaptive management initiatives need to be carefully evaluated based on their merits relative to other alternatives. Within an AM framework, alternative experimental designs should be evaluated because the design of a preferred experiment involves choices among different levels of investment, the quality of available and desired future information, and different ecological, economic, and social risks. (author)

  12. Risk preferences in strategic wildfire decision making: a choice experiment with U.S. wildfire managers.

    Wibbenmeyer, Matthew J; Hand, Michael S; Calkin, David E; Venn, Tyron J; Thompson, Matthew P

    2013-06-01

    Federal policy has embraced risa management as an appropriate paradigm for wildfire management. Economic theory suggests that over repeated wildfire events, potential economic costs and risas of ecological damage are optimally balanced when management decisions are free from biases, risa aversion, and risa seeking. Of primary concern in this article is how managers respond to wildfire risa, including the potential effect of wildfires (on ecological values, structures, and safety) and the likelihood of different fire outcomes. We use responses to a choice experiment questionnaire of U.S. federal wildfire managers to measure attitudes toward several components of wildfire risa and to test whether observed risa attitudes are consistent with the efficient allocation of wildfire suppression resources. Our results indicate that fire managers' decisions are consistent with nonexpected utility theories of decisions under risa. Managers may overallocate firefighting resources when the likelihood or potential magnitude of damage from fires is low, and sensitivity to changes in the probability of fire outcomes depends on whether probabilities are close to one or zero and the magnitude of the potential harm. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  13. A NOVEL INVESTIGATION IN BLASTING OPERATION MANAGEMENT USING DECISION MAKING METHODS

    M. Yari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Blasting is one of the most important operations in the mining projects. Inappropriate blasting pattern may lead to unwanted events such as poor fragmentation, back break, fly rock etc. and affect the whole operation physically and economically. In fact selecting of the most suitable pattern among previously performed patterns can be considered as a Multi Attribute Decision Making.

  14. The Environmental Scanning Function of Public Relations Practitioners and Participation in Management Decision Making.

    Dozier, David M.

    Focusing on the concepts of scanning (gathering information about segments of the public, their reactions to the organization, and their opinions about issues important to the organization), decision making, and roles, a study examined the relationship between environmental scanning and the participation of public relations practitioners in…

  15. School Principals' Decision-Making Behaviour in the Management of Innovation.

    McGeown, Vincent

    1979-01-01

    A rating scale operationalized a model for the adoption and implementation of educational innovation. Phases were designated: creating a climate for change; analyzing antecedent conditions; generating alternatives; initiating change adoption; implementing change; and evaluating change outcomes. Principals' decision-making behavior was the best…

  16. Knowledge Management Implementation and the Tools Utilized in Healthcare for Evidence-Based Decision Making: A Systematic Review.

    Shahmoradi, Leila; Safadari, Reza; Jimma, Worku

    2017-09-01

    Healthcare is a knowledge driven process and thus knowledge management and the tools to manage knowledge in healthcare sector are gaining attention. The aim of this systematic review is to investigate knowledge management implementation and knowledge management tools used in healthcare for informed decision making. Three databases, two journals websites and Google Scholar were used as sources for the review. The key terms used to search relevant articles include: "Healthcare and Knowledge Management"; "Knowledge Management Tools in Healthcare" and "Community of Practices in healthcare". It was found that utilization of knowledge management in healthcare is encouraging. There exist numbers of opportunities for knowledge management implementation, though there are some barriers as well. Some of the opportunities that can transform healthcare are advances in health information and communication technology, clinical decision support systems, electronic health record systems, communities of practice and advanced care planning. Providing the right knowledge at the right time, i.e., at the point of decision making by implementing knowledge management in healthcare is paramount. To do so, it is very important to use appropriate tools for knowledge management and user-friendly system because it can significantly improve the quality and safety of care provided for patients both at hospital and home settings.

  17. Drug pricing and reimbursement information management: processes and decision making in the global economy

    Tsourougiannis, Dimitrios

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Cost-containment initiatives are re-shaping the pharmaceutical business environment and affecting market access as well as pricing and reimbursement decisions. Effective price management procedures are too complex to accomplish manually. Prior to February 2013, price management within Astellas Pharma Europe Ltd was done manually using an Excel database. The system was labour intensive, slow to update, and prone to error. An innovative web-based pricing information managem...

  18. Making training decisions proactively

    Hartman, R.F.

    1988-01-01

    The challenge of making training decisions with a high degree of confidence as to the results of those decisions face every DOD, Federal, State, and City agency. Training has historically been a very labor and paper intensive system with limited automation support. This paper outlines how one DOD component, the Air Force, is approaching that challenge. The Training Decision System (TDS) will provide the Air Force with an automated decision aid to help plan and estimate the consequences of various mixes of resident training, On-The-Job Training (OJT), and field training within a specialty such as security. The system described provides training from enlistment to separation and responds to hundreds of related security task needs. This system identifies what the tasks are, who should provide the training, what training setting should be used, what proficiency should be achieved, and through computer modeling provides an assessment of training effectiveness options and estimate the impact of implementing those options. With current budgetary constraints and with the possibility of further reductions in the future, the most cost effective training mix must be found to sustain required capabilities

  19. Structural Equation Models of Management and Decision-Making Styles with Job Satisfaction of Academic Staff in Malaysian Research University

    Amzat, Ismail Hussein; Idris, Datuk Abdul Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss the effect of management and decision-making styles on the job satisfaction of academic staff in a Malaysian Research University. Design/methodology/approach: The sample consisted of 218 respondents. The instruments used in the study were the Teacher Job Satisfaction Questionnaire and the Decision…

  20. Information Technology Process Improvement Decision-Making: An Exploratory Study from the Perspective of Process Owners and Process Managers

    Lamp, Sandra A.

    2012-01-01

    There is information available in the literature that discusses information technology (IT) governance and investment decision making from an executive-level perception, yet there is little information available that offers the perspective of process owners and process managers pertaining to their role in IT process improvement and investment…

  1. The Relationship of Business Intelligence Systems to Organizational Performance Benefits: A Structural Equation Modeling of Management Decision Making

    Sparks, Betsy H.

    2014-01-01

    Business Intelligence is a major expenditure in many organizations and necessary for competitive advantage. These expenditures do not result in maximum benefits for the organization if the information obtained from the Business Intelligence System (BIS) is not used in the management decision-making process. This quantitative research study used an…

  2. Research on the Decision-Making Process for the Selection of Managers in Branch "CREIR CF" Constanta

    Dăneci Pătrău Daniel

    2017-01-01

    In order to provide a solution scientifically fundamental and objectively determined for thisproblem, we used the hierarchic system based on merit order, as an appreciation method ofprofessional performances and global utility method used for making the decision for selectingrailroad managers in reliable conditions.

  3. Past career in future thinking: How career management practices shape entrepreneurial decision-making

    Engel, Y.; van Burg, J.C.; Kleijn, E.; Khapova, S.N.

    2017-01-01

    This study builds a grounded model of how careers shape entrepreneurs’ preference for causal and effectual decision logics when starting new ventures. Using both verbal protocol analysis and interviews, we adopt a qualitative research approach to induct career management practices germane to

  4. Past Career in Future Thinking : How Career Management Practices Shape Entrepreneurial Decision Making

    Engel, Y.; van Burg, E.; Kleijn, E.; Khapova, S.

    2017-01-01

    This study builds a grounded model of how careers shape entrepreneurs’ preferences for causal and effectual decision logics when starting new ventures. Using both verbal protocol analysis and interviews, we adopt a qualitative research approach to induct career management practices germane to

  5. Radioactive waste management: the decision-making process (Bure, Meuse, France)

    Dose, F.

    2005-01-01

    The author presents the historical aspects and the main contain of the acts on the management of radioactive waste, adopted by the french Parliament. She speaks then about her experience of mayor of a small french town involved in the decision of the implementation of an underground laboratory. Few suggestions are also presented at the end of this brief presentation. (A.L.B.)

  6. Patient and family involvement in decision making for management of cancer patients at a centre in Singapore.

    Chong, Jia An; Quah, Yan Ling; Yang, Grace Meijuan; Menon, Sumytra; Radha Krishna, Lalit Kumar

    2015-12-01

    The practice of patient autonomy within the prevailing bioethical framework in the West appears increasingly at odds with the prominent influence of the family in medical decision making in the Asian culture. The actual extent of involvement of patient versus the family in the decision making process for cancer management in clinical practice is largely unknown in Asia. (1) To describe patient and family involvement in healthcare decision making in actual practice, and to determine whether those practices are consistent with Singapore law; and (2) to act as a pilot for a larger prospective study examining the preferences of cancer patients on the decision making process, and the reasons for excluding patients from that process. A retrospective review of patients who died in an oncology ward in Singapore General Hospital from February to April 2011. Patient and family involvement in discussions on (1) disclosure of diagnosis, (2) initial treatment decisions and (3) initiation of a 'maximum ward management' order was evaluated by reviewing case notes completed by healthcare professionals. Data were collected for 55 patients. Involvement of patients and families at first disclosure of diagnosis was noted in 61% and 64% of cases, respectively. In 12% of cases, the family requested withholding of the diagnosis from the patient. 86% of patients were involved in the initial treatment decisions, and their family was involved in 65% of cases. Only 9% of the 32 alert patients were consulted in end of life decisions. Factors associated with lower patient involvement were advanced age and inability to speak English. While most cancer patients are involved in the healthcare decision making process during the early phase, familial involvement gains prominence as the disease progresses. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  7. Nurses' decision making in heart failure management based on heart failure certification status.

    Albert, Nancy M; Bena, James F; Buxbaum, Denise; Martensen, Linda; Morrison, Shannon L; Prasun, Marilyn A; Stamp, Kelly D

    Research findings on the value of nurse certification were based on subjective perceptions or biased by correlations of certification status and global clinical factors. In heart failure, the value of certification is unknown. Examine the value of certification based nurses' decision-making. Cross-sectional study of nurses who completed heart failure clinical vignettes that reflected decision-making in clinical heart failure scenarios. Statistical tests included multivariable linear, logistic and proportional odds logistic regression models. Of nurses (N = 605), 29.1% were heart failure certified, 35.0% were certified in another specialty/job role and 35.9% were not certified. In multivariable modeling, nurses certified in heart failure (versus not heart failure certified) had higher clinical vignette scores (p = 0.002), reflecting higher evidence-based decision making; nurses with another specialty/role certification (versus no certification) did not (p = 0.62). Heart failure certification, but not in other specialty/job roles was associated with decisions that reflected delivery of high-quality care. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Decision Making with Imperfect Decision Makers

    Guy, Tatiana Valentine; Wolpert, David H

    2012-01-01

    Prescriptive Bayesian decision making has reached a high level of maturity and is well-supported algorithmically. However, experimental data shows that real decision makers choose such Bayes-optimal decisions surprisingly infrequently, often making decisions that are badly sub-optimal. So prevalent is such imperfect decision-making that it should be accepted as an inherent feature of real decision makers living within interacting societies. To date such societies have been investigated from an economic and gametheoretic perspective, and even to a degree from a physics perspective. However, lit

  9. Using the Analytic Hierarchy Process for Decision-Making in Ecosystem Management

    Daniel L. Schmoldt; David L. Peterson

    1997-01-01

    Land management activities on public lands combine multiple objectives in order to create a plan of action over a finite time horizon. Because management activities are constrained by time and money, it is critical to make the best use of available agency resources. The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) offers a structure for multi-objective decisionmaking so that...

  10. Decision making process and emergency management in different phases of a nuclear accident

    Duranova, T.

    2005-01-01

    EVATECH, Information Requirements and Countermeasure Evaluation Techniques in Nuclear Emergency Management, was a research project in the key action 'Nuclear Fission' of the fifth EURATOM Framework Programme (FP5). The overall objective of the project was to enhance the quality and coherence of response to nuclear emergencies in Europe by improving the decision support methods, models and processes in ways that take into account the expectations and concern of the many different parties involved - stake holders both in managing the emergency response and those who are affected by the consequences of nuclear emergencies. The project had ten partners from seven European countries. The development of the real-time online decision support system RODOS has been one of the major items in the area of radiation protection within the European Commission's Framework Programmes. The main objectives of the RODOS project have been to develop a comprehensive and integrated decision support system that is generally applicable across Europe and to provide a common framework for incorporating the best features of existing decision support systems and future developments. Furthermore the objective has been to provide greater transparency in the decision process to: improve public understanding and acceptance of off-site emergency measures, to facilitate improved communication between countries of monitoring data, predictions of consequences, etc., in the event of any future accident, and to promote, through the development and use of the system, a more coherent, consistent and harmonised response to any future accident that may affect Europe. (authors)

  11. FINANCIAL STATEMENT UTILIZATION DURING DECISION MAKING PROCESS IN SMEs: A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON EUROPEAN AND TURKISH MANAGERS

    İbicioğlu, Hasan; Kocabıyık, Turan; Dalğar, Hüseyin

    2014-01-01

    This study examines financial information requirement for decision making in small and medium sized enterprises. 131 SME managers’ responses were collected from Turkey and 8 different European countries. According to both Turkish and European managers, financial statements are mostly important to foresee the probable liquidity and financial crisis. And they find experience more important than financial statement data. A comparative analysis of Turkish and European SME managers is stated. Smal...

  12. Heuristic decision making.

    Gigerenzer, Gerd; Gaissmaier, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    As reflected in the amount of controversy, few areas in psychology have undergone such dramatic conceptual changes in the past decade as the emerging science of heuristics. Heuristics are efficient cognitive processes, conscious or unconscious, that ignore part of the information. Because using heuristics saves effort, the classical view has been that heuristic decisions imply greater errors than do "rational" decisions as defined by logic or statistical models. However, for many decisions, the assumptions of rational models are not met, and it is an empirical rather than an a priori issue how well cognitive heuristics function in an uncertain world. To answer both the descriptive question ("Which heuristics do people use in which situations?") and the prescriptive question ("When should people rely on a given heuristic rather than a complex strategy to make better judgments?"), formal models are indispensable. We review research that tests formal models of heuristic inference, including in business organizations, health care, and legal institutions. This research indicates that (a) individuals and organizations often rely on simple heuristics in an adaptive way, and (b) ignoring part of the information can lead to more accurate judgments than weighting and adding all information, for instance for low predictability and small samples. The big future challenge is to develop a systematic theory of the building blocks of heuristics as well as the core capacities and environmental structures these exploit.

  13. METHOD OF STRATEGIC PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT DECISION-MAKING CONSIDERING THE LIFE CYCLE THEORY

    Tetiana Kniazieva

    2017-12-01

    are made. Results of the survey are to substantiate the methodology of strategic planning under conditions of external environment uncertainty with the consideration of the life cycle theory. Practical implications: the possibilities of using life-cycle models allow: 1. reasonably predicting sales and plan production program; 2. determining the basic strategies at different stages of development; 3. determining the sequence of stages of enterprise development; 4. ensuring harmonious interaction of organizational characteristics with the external environment factors that influence the process of organizational development. Increasing the sustainability of the organization’s development can be achieved by re-establishment of dynamic changes in the plan in terms of using effective methods for forecasting with the consideration of the life cycle theory. It is necessary to take into account the interconnection between all levels of life cycles: industry, technology, enterprises, product; ensuring the competitive advantage of the organization. Using the theory of optimal solutions making in uncertain conditions under the analysis of long-term projects allows transferring qualitative factors into quantitative indicators that can be used in the future to bring investment projects to the same kind and choose the best. In conditions of increased uncertainty of the external environment, it is necessary to develop the theory of enterprise management, taking into account its life cycle, as well as the life cycle of its separate elements and processes at all levels. Combination of strategic management with the life cycles theory will increase the objectivity and effectiveness of taken management decisions. The accounting of the organization life cycles in strategic planning allows choosing an effective strategy.

  14. Using multi-criteria decision making for selection of the optimal strategy for municipal solid waste management.

    Jovanovic, Sasa; Savic, Slobodan; Jovicic, Nebojsa; Boskovic, Goran; Djordjevic, Zorica

    2016-09-01

    Multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) is a relatively new tool for decision makers who deal with numerous and often contradictory factors during their decision making process. This paper presents a procedure to choose the optimal municipal solid waste (MSW) management system for the area of the city of Kragujevac (Republic of Serbia) based on the MCDM method. Two methods of multiple attribute decision making, i.e. SAW (simple additive weighting method) and TOPSIS (technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution), respectively, were used to compare the proposed waste management strategies (WMS). Each of the created strategies was simulated using the software package IWM2. Total values for eight chosen parameters were calculated for all the strategies. Contribution of each of the six waste treatment options was valorized. The SAW analysis was used to obtain the sum characteristics for all the waste management treatment strategies and they were ranked accordingly. The TOPSIS method was used to calculate the relative closeness factors to the ideal solution for all the alternatives. Then, the proposed strategies were ranked in form of tables and diagrams obtained based on both MCDM methods. As shown in this paper, the results were in good agreement, which additionally confirmed and facilitated the choice of the optimal MSW management strategy. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Event-based knowledge elicitation of operating room management decision-making using scenarios adapted from information systems data.

    Dexter, Franklin; Wachtel, Ruth E; Epstein, Richard H

    2011-01-07

    No systematic process has previously been described for a needs assessment that identifies the operating room (OR) management decisions made by the anesthesiologists and nurse managers at a facility that do not maximize the efficiency of use of OR time. We evaluated whether event-based knowledge elicitation can be used practically for rapid assessment of OR management decision-making at facilities, whether scenarios can be adapted automatically from information systems data, and the usefulness of the approach. A process of event-based knowledge elicitation was developed to assess OR management decision-making that may reduce the efficiency of use of OR time. Hypothetical scenarios addressing every OR management decision influencing OR efficiency were created from published examples. Scenarios are adapted, so that cues about conditions are accurate and appropriate for each facility (e.g., if OR 1 is used as an example in a scenario, the listed procedure is a type of procedure performed at the facility in OR 1). Adaptation is performed automatically using the facility's OR information system or anesthesia information management system (AIMS) data for most scenarios (43 of 45). Performing the needs assessment takes approximately 1 hour of local managers' time while they decide if their decisions are consistent with the described scenarios. A table of contents of the indexed scenarios is created automatically, providing a simple version of problem solving using case-based reasoning. For example, a new OR manager wanting to know the best way to decide whether to move a case can look in the chapter on "Moving Cases on the Day of Surgery" to find a scenario that describes the situation being encountered. Scenarios have been adapted and used at 22 hospitals. Few changes in decisions were needed to increase the efficiency of use of OR time. The few changes were heterogeneous among hospitals, showing the usefulness of individualized assessments. Our technical advance is the

  16. Event-based knowledge elicitation of operating room management decision-making using scenarios adapted from information systems data

    Epstein Richard H

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background No systematic process has previously been described for a needs assessment that identifies the operating room (OR management decisions made by the anesthesiologists and nurse managers at a facility that do not maximize the efficiency of use of OR time. We evaluated whether event-based knowledge elicitation can be used practically for rapid assessment of OR management decision-making at facilities, whether scenarios can be adapted automatically from information systems data, and the usefulness of the approach. Methods A process of event-based knowledge elicitation was developed to assess OR management decision-making that may reduce the efficiency of use of OR time. Hypothetical scenarios addressing every OR management decision influencing OR efficiency were created from published examples. Scenarios are adapted, so that cues about conditions are accurate and appropriate for each facility (e.g., if OR 1 is used as an example in a scenario, the listed procedure is a type of procedure performed at the facility in OR 1. Adaptation is performed automatically using the facility's OR information system or anesthesia information management system (AIMS data for most scenarios (43 of 45. Performing the needs assessment takes approximately 1 hour of local managers' time while they decide if their decisions are consistent with the described scenarios. A table of contents of the indexed scenarios is created automatically, providing a simple version of problem solving using case-based reasoning. For example, a new OR manager wanting to know the best way to decide whether to move a case can look in the chapter on "Moving Cases on the Day of Surgery" to find a scenario that describes the situation being encountered. Results Scenarios have been adapted and used at 22 hospitals. Few changes in decisions were needed to increase the efficiency of use of OR time. The few changes were heterogeneous among hospitals, showing the usefulness of

  17. Adaptive Management for Decision Making at the Program and Project Levels of the Missouri River Recovery Program

    Thom, Ronald M.; Anderson, Michael G.; Tyre, Drew; Fleming, Craig A.

    2009-02-28

    The paper, “Adaptive Management: Background for Stakeholders in the Missouri River Recovery Program,” introduced the concept of adaptive management (AM), its principles and how they relate to one-another, how AM is applied, and challenges for its implementation. This companion paper describes how the AM principles were applied to specific management actions within the Missouri River Recovery Program to facilitate understanding, decision-making, and stakeholder engagement. For context, we begin with a brief synopsis of the Missouri River Recovery Program (MRRP) and the strategy for implementing adaptive management (AM) within the program; we finish with an example of AM in action within Phase I of the MRPP.

  18. Decision Making: Rational, Nonrational, and Irrational.

    Simon, Herbert A.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the current state of knowledge about human decision-making and problem-solving processes, explaining recent developments and their implications for management and management training. Rational goal-setting is the key to effective decision making and accomplishment. Bounded rationality is a realistic orientation, because the world is too…

  19. MAREANO: The national seafloor mapping programme of Norway - providing new knowledge for making informed management decisions

    Thorsnes, T.; Bjarnadóttir, L. R.

    2017-12-01

    MAREANO (Marine AREA database for NOrwegian waters) is a state funded programme that has been mapping the seabed in Norwegian waters since 2005. Core datasets include detailed bathymetric data, video transect data and physical samples of the seabed. Integrated knowledge of the geology, habitats and the environmental status of the seabed is gained from the combined datasets and all results are presented on www.mareano.no. The results from MAREANO serve as a baseline of scientific information for decision-makers and which is actively used by ocean management agencies. Since 2005 the programme has grown and matured a great deal. Funding has increased twentyfold (now about 13 mill. USD), and the size of seabed mapped is now tenfold (about 22000 km2 annually). With this expansion the programme has evolved a more complex structure, regulating its activities more strictly and adhering to long-term plans. During this time the number of products has also increased, and so has the need for reviewing and improving methods. In 2015 MAREANO prepared a comprehensive report which documented and evaluated current methods and reviewed sampling/mapping standards based on management needs. Whilst the methods adopted by MAREANO to date have largely proved effective, several recent advances in technology within the various fields of seabed mapping offer great potential for improvements. Since 2014 MAREANO has been testing out some of this new technology such as acquisition of seabed data with improved resolution and autonomy in data collection, using AUVs equipped with synthetic aperture sonar and ROVs with underwater hyperspectral-sensors. Recently, MAREANO scientists have also been exploring new, more automated methods for data interpretation, classification and modelling. Preliminary results are promising and these new methods are expected to help to streamline the map production workflow in the future, thereby reducing production costs, while making even better maps that are both

  20. Understanding Managers Decision Making Process for Tools Selection in the Core Front End of Innovation

    Appio, Francesco P.; Achiche, Sofiane; McAloone, Tim C.

    2011-01-01

    New product development (NPD) describes the process of bringing a new product or service to the market. The Fuzzy Front End (FFE) of Innovation is the term describing the activities happening before the product development phase of NPD. In the FFE of innovation, several tools are used to facilita...... hypotheses are tested. A preliminary version of a theoretical model depicting the decision process of managers during tools selection in the FFE is proposed. The theoretical model is built from the constructed hypotheses....

  1. Knowledge, decision making, and uncertainty

    Fox, J.

    1986-01-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) systems depend heavily upon the ability to make decisions. Decisions require knowledge, yet there is no knowledge-based theory of decision making. To the extent that AI uses a theory of decision-making it adopts components of the traditional statistical view in which choices are made by maximizing some function of the probabilities of decision options. A knowledge-based scheme for reasoning about uncertainty is proposed, which extends the traditional framework but is compatible with it

  2. Dimensions of Decision-Making Process Quality and Company Performance: A Study of Top Managers in Slovenia

    Grušovnik Damjan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the relationship between the dimensions of the decisionmaking process quality and company performance of top managers’ in Slovenia. We found out that companies whose managers exhibit an above-average dimension of openness of spirit in the quality of the decision making process, on average, have a higher stance on foreign markets as companies in which managers show a below-average open spirit. For the managers who work in companies that are present in foreign markets, we could confirm that there is a low/weak correlation between the dimension of effort of the decision-making process quality and the number of employees in a company.

  3. Serotonin and decision making processes.

    Homberg, J.R.

    2012-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) is an important player in decision making. Serotonergic antidepressant, anxiolytic and antipsychotic drugs are extensively used in the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders characterized by impaired decision making, and exert both beneficial and harmful effects in patients.

  4. Greenhouse gas emissions control in integrated municipal solid waste management through mixed integer bilevel decision-making

    He, Li, E-mail: li.he@iseis.org [MOE Key Laboratory of Regional Energy Systems Optimization, S and C Academy of Energy and Environmental Research, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); Huang, G.H.; Lu, Hongwei [MOE Key Laboratory of Regional Energy Systems Optimization, S and C Academy of Energy and Environmental Research, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: {yields} We used bilevel analysis to treat two objectives at different levels. {yields} The model can identify allocation schemes for waste flows. {yields} The model can support waste timing, sizing, and siting for facility expansions. {yields} The model can estimate minimized total management cost and GHG emissions. - Abstract: Recent studies indicated that municipal solid waste (MSW) is a major contributor to global warming due to extensive emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). However, most of them focused on investigating impacts of MSW on GHG emission amounts. This study presents two mixed integer bilevel decision-making models for integrated municipal solid waste management and GHG emissions control: MGU-MCL and MCU-MGL. The MGU-MCL model represents a top-down decision process, with the environmental sectors at the national level dominating the upper-level objective and the waste management sectors at the municipal level providing the lower-level objective. The MCU-MGL model implies a bottom-up decision process where municipality plays a leading role. Results from the models indicate that: the top-down decisions would reduce metric tonne carbon emissions (MTCEs) by about 59% yet increase about 8% of the total management cost; the bottom-up decisions would reduce MTCE emissions by about 13% but increase the total management cost very slightly; on-site monitoring and downscaled laboratory experiments are still required for reducing uncertainty in GHG emission rate from the landfill facility.

  5. an analysis of perceived prominent decision making areas in ...

    p2333147

    Keywords: Game ranch management, decision making, risk perception, springbuck. ABSTRACT ..... environment, herd management (herd structure) and marketing and client satisfaction .... Prospect theory: An analysis of decision under risk.

  6. Decision-Making in Management of the Complex Trauma Patient: Changing the Mindset of the non-trauma Surgeon.

    Sonesson, Linda; Boffard, Kenneth; Lundberg, Lars; Rydmark, Martin; Karlgren, Klas

    2018-01-16

    European surgeons are frequently subspecialized and trained primarily in elective surgical techniques. As trauma leaders, they may occasionally have to deal with complex polytrauma, advanced management techniques, differing priorities, and the need for multidisciplinary care. There is a lack of expertise, experience, and a low trauma volume, as well as a lack of research, with limited support as to the decision-making and teaching challenges present. We studied what experienced trauma experts describe as the challenges that are specific to the advanced surgical decision-making required, whether civilian, humanitarian, or military. Design-based research using combined methods including interviews, reviews of authentic trauma cases, and video-recorded resuscitations performed at a high-volume civilian academic trauma center. Several educational dilemmas were identified: (1) thinking physiologically, (2) the application of damage control resuscitation and surgery, (3) differing priorities and time management, (4) impact of environment, (5) managing limited resources, (6) lack of general surgical skills, (7) different cultural behavior, and (8) ethical issues. The challenges presented, and the educational domains identified, constitute a basis for improved development of education and training in complex surgical decision-making. This study contributes new knowledge about the mindset required for decision-making in patients with complex multisystem trauma and competing priorities of care. This is, especially important in countries having a low intensity of trauma in both military and civilian environments, and consequential limited skills, and lack of expertise. Guidelines focused on the same decision-making process, using virtual patients and blended learning, can be developed.

  7. An ABC for decision making

    Garcia, Luiz Henrique Costa, E-mail: luiz_mogi@yahoo.com.br [Associacao de Medicina Intensiva Brasileira (AMIB), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Irmandade da Santa Casa de Misericordia de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ferreira, Bruna Cortez [Hospital de Base de Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2015-03-15

    The present study was aimed at proposing a systematic evaluation of cranial computed tomography, identifying the main aspects to be analyzed in order to facilitate the decision making process regarding diagnosis and management in emergency settings. The present descriptive study comprised a literature review at the following databases: Access Medicine and Access Emergency Medicine (McGraw-Hill Education); British Medical Journal Evidence Center; UptoDate; Bireme; PubMed; Lilacs; SciELO; ProQuest; Micromedex (Thomson Reuters); Embase. Once the literature review was completed, the authors identified the main diseases with tomographic repercussions and proposed the present system to evaluate cranial computed tomography images. An easy-to-memorize ABC system will facilitate the decision making in emergency settings, as it covers the main diseases encountered by intensivists and emergency physicians, and provides a sequential guidance about anatomical structures to be investigated as well as their respective alterations. (author)

  8. An ABC for decision making

    Luiz Henrique Costa Garcia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed at proposing a systematic evaluation of cranial computed tomography, identifying the main aspects to be analyzed in order to facilitate the decision making process regarding diagnosis and management in emergency settings. The present descriptive study comprised a literature review at the following databases: Access Medicine and Access Emergency Medicine (McGraw- Hill Education; British Medical Journal Evidence Center; UptoDate; Bireme; PubMed; Lilacs; SciELO; ProQuest; Micromedex (Thomson Reuters; Embase. Once the literature review was completed, the authors identified the main diseases with tomographic repercussions and proposed the present system to evaluate cranial computed tomography images. An easy-to-memorize ABC system will facilitate the decision making in emergency settings, as it covers the main diseases encountered by intensivists and emergency physicians, and provides a sequential guidance about anatomical structures to be investigated as well as their respective alterations.

  9. An ABC for decision making

    Garcia, Luiz Henrique Costa; Ferreira, Bruna Cortez

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed at proposing a systematic evaluation of cranial computed tomography, identifying the main aspects to be analyzed in order to facilitate the decision making process regarding diagnosis and management in emergency settings. The present descriptive study comprised a literature review at the following databases: Access Medicine and Access Emergency Medicine (McGraw-Hill Education); British Medical Journal Evidence Center; UptoDate; Bireme; PubMed; Lilacs; SciELO; ProQuest; Micromedex (Thomson Reuters); Embase. Once the literature review was completed, the authors identified the main diseases with tomographic repercussions and proposed the present system to evaluate cranial computed tomography images. An easy-to-memorize ABC system will facilitate the decision making in emergency settings, as it covers the main diseases encountered by intensivists and emergency physicians, and provides a sequential guidance about anatomical structures to be investigated as well as their respective alterations. (author)

  10. Inertia and Decision Making.

    Alós-Ferrer, Carlos; Hügelschäfer, Sabine; Li, Jiahui

    2016-01-01

    Decision inertia is the tendency to repeat previous choices independently of the outcome, which can give rise to perseveration in suboptimal choices. We investigate this tendency in probability-updating tasks. Study 1 shows that, whenever decision inertia conflicts with normatively optimal behavior (Bayesian updating), error rates are larger and decisions are slower. This is consistent with a dual-process view of decision inertia as an automatic process conflicting with a more rational, controlled one. We find evidence of decision inertia in both required and autonomous decisions, but the effect of inertia is more clear in the latter. Study 2 considers more complex decision situations where further conflict arises due to reinforcement processes. We find the same effects of decision inertia when reinforcement is aligned with Bayesian updating, but if the two latter processes conflict, the effects are limited to autonomous choices. Additionally, both studies show that the tendency to rely on decision inertia is positively associated with preference for consistency.

  11. A Method for Making Cross-Comparable Estimates of the Benefits of Decision Support Technologies for Air Traffic Management

    Lee, David; Long, Dou; Etheridge, Mel; Plugge, Joana; Johnson, Jesse; Kostiuk, Peter

    1998-01-01

    We present a general method for making cross comparable estimates of the benefits of NASA-developed decision support technologies for air traffic management, and we apply a specific implementation of the method to estimate benefits of three decision support tools (DSTs) under development in NASA's advanced Air Transportation Technologies Program: Active Final Approach Spacing Tool (A-FAST), Expedite Departure Path (EDP), and Conflict Probe and Trial Planning Tool (CPTP). The report also reviews data about the present operation of the national airspace system (NAS) to identify opportunities for DST's to reduce delays and inefficiencies.

  12. MANAGEMENT OF SELF-DEFENSE OF THE MUNICIPALITIES – PREPARATION FOR THE DECISION-MAKING PROCESS AT DISASTERS

    Marianna Dobó

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The research, which was started in 2013 focuses on the decision-making process after vis-mayor situations (Dobó, 2013. Disaster Management in Hungary is a less known and researched area. However, over the last years natural problems had great impact on the decision making process of the local government (Csefkó, 1997. The disasters transformed the processes that had been working so far. The examination of the changed decisions became very important. Researches were carried out by the Disaster Management Department of National University of Public Service. One of the most important projects is the Critical infrastructure protection that could provide practical knowledge about the topic. The decision-making process after the crisis had not been analysed in previous studies. This research can be divided into several parts. First, there is exploration of the theoretical frameworks, laws and regulations. The decisions of the local government and the disaster management process can be presented by becoming familiar with the previous disasters. The most important stage will be the examination of the post-disaster period when the roles and the transformation of the players can be demonstrated. The methodology is complex. In the first phase, after consideration of the literature, the focus is on the changes of the law. The second stage contains media monitoring, document and map examination as well as interviews with the actors. In the third stage, the observation comes as a new method to the second phase: cooperative decision making process, crisis communication replacement, social reconciliation. The topic at any time is up to date due to the fact that while the preparedness for a crisis has become more urgent, the prediction of vis-mayor situations and consequently, the preparation is almost impossible. In this context, the decision-making process of 15 municipalities, which are now live every day of their flood, pour of the river-wall or red mud

  13. Moral and Ethical Decision Making

    2007-07-01

    rational ones (i.e. Kohlberg’s influential model of decision making ). However, non- rational elements, such as affect, risk perception, risk preference...dread or anxiety) play a strong role in many types of decisions , and that the addition of decision makers’ emotions to models of choice may make ...White, 1994) agree that emotions are an integral part of ethical decision making as well. Emotions arise in the context of interpersonal

  14. Cognitive characteristics affecting rational decision making style

    Rosenberg, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Decision making is one of the most important and frequent tasks among managers and employees in an organization. Knowledge about more stable cognitive characteristics underlying decision making styles has been requested. This study aimed to examine the relationship between rational decision making style, cognitive style, self efficacy and locus of control. Possible interaction effects in relation to gender were also analyzed. 186 employees at the Ministry of Defence were surveyed...

  15. A Shared Decision-Making Approach to Telemedicine: Engaging Rural Patients in Glycemic Management

    Michelle L. Griffith

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Telemedicine can connect specialist health care providers with patients in remote and underserved areas. It is especially relevant in diabetes care, where a proliferation of treatment options has added further complexity to the care of an already complex, highly prevalent disease. Recent developments in health reform encourage delivery systems to use team-based models and engage patients in shared decision-making (SDM, where patients and providers together make health care decisions that are tailored to the specific characteristics and values of the patient. The goal of this project was to design, integrate, and evaluate a team-based, SDM approach delivered to patients with diabetes in a rural community, building upon the previously established telemedicine for reach, education, access, and treatment (TREAT model. Patients in this feasibility study demonstrated improvement in hemoglobin A1c values, and reported better understanding of diabetes. Providers reported the SDM aids increased cohesion among team members (including patients and facilitated patient education and behavioral goal setting. This project demonstrated that SDM could be integrated into the workflow of a telemedicine team visit with good provider and patient satisfaction.

  16. VALUE OF ECOLOGIC COMPONENT IN FOREST MANAGEMENT DECISION MAKING. CASE STUDY: FORESTS ADJACENT TO BUCHAREST, ROMANIA

    Carmen Valentina RADULESCU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To say environment management is, nowadays, of outmost importance for any ecosystem concerned in an understatement; nevertheless, in Romania, especially – as least, since the present paper analyses Romanian ecologic statu quo – improving forest management, so to speak, in Romania, is all the more important, since social and economic decisionmaking as to forests (e.g. forests close to Romania’s capital, Bucharest includes necessarily an ecologic component. The main issue is how to make this component as visible and important as posible, without simultaneously reducing the economic and social components.

  17. Impacts of Agricultural Decision Making and Adaptive Management on Food Security in Africa

    Caylor, K. K.; Evans, T. P.; Estes, L. D.; Sheffield, J.; Plale, B. A.; Attari, S.

    2014-12-01

    Despite massive investments in food aid, agricultural extension, and seed/fertilizer subsidies, nearly 1 billion people in the developing world are food insecure and vulnerable to climate variability. Sub-Saharan Africa is most vulnerable, as approximately 25% of its people are undernourished (FAO/FAOSTAT 2013) and 96% of its cropland is rainfed (FAO 2002). The ability of subsistence farmers to respond to changes in water availability involves both inter-and intra-seasonal adaptation. Adaptive capacity diminishes over the season as decisions are made, resources are used, and the set of possible futures becomes restricted. Assessing the intra-seasonal adaptive capacity of smallholders requires integrating physical models of hydrological and agricultural dynamics with farmer decision-making at fine temporal (e.g. weekly) and spatial (e.g. crop field) scales. However, there is an intrinsic challenge to modeling the dynamics of these sociohydrologic systems, because important and uncharacterized spatial and temporal scale mismatches exist between the level at which the water resource is best understood and the level at which human dynamics are more predictable. For example, the skill of current process-based land surface models is primarily confined to short-term (daily to weekly), national- to regional-scale assessments, and reliable agricultural yield estimates and forecasts for small-scale farming systems remain elusive. In contrast, process-based social science modeling has focused on agent-based approaches that generate fine-scale (individual to community) dynamics over rather coarse time scales (yearly to decadal). A major obstacle to addressing this mismatch is the fundamental fact that the highest skill domain of one framework is essentially unpredictable in the other. We present a coupled sociohydrological observation framework designed to addressing this gap, and demonstrate its utility to understand relationships between climate variability, decision making

  18. Efficient group decision making in workshop settings

    Daniel L. Schmoldt; David L. Peterson

    2001-01-01

    Public land managers must treat multiple values coincidentally in time and space, which requires the participation of multiple resource specialists and consideration of diverse clientele interests in the decision process. This implies decision making that includes multiple participants, both internally and externally. Decades of social science research on decision...

  19. Making Market Decisions in the Classroom.

    Rose, Stephen A.

    1986-01-01

    Computer software that will help intermediate and secondary social studies students learn to make rational decisions about personal and societal concerns are described. The courseware places students in the roles of business managers who make decisions about operating their firms. (RM)

  20. Hospice decision making: diagnosis makes a difference.

    Waldrop, Deborah P; Meeker, Mary Ann

    2012-10-01

    This study explored the process of decision making about hospice enrollment and identified factors that influence the timing of that decision. This study employed an exploratory, descriptive, cross-sectional design and was conducted using qualitative methods. In-depth in-person semistructured interviews were conducted with 36 hospice patients and 55 caregivers after 2 weeks of hospice care. The study was guided by Janis and Mann's conflict theory model (CTM) of decision making. Qualitative data analysis involved a directed content analysis using concepts from the CTM. A model of hospice enrollment decision making is presented. Concepts from the CTM (appraisal, surveying and weighing the alternatives, deliberations, adherence) were used as an organizing framework to illustrate the dynamics. Distinct differences were found by diagnosis (cancer vs. other chronic illness, e.g., heart and lung diseases) during the pre-encounter phase or before the hospice referral but no differences emerged during the post-encounter phase. Differences in decision making by diagnosis suggest the need for research about effective means for tailored communication in end-of-life decision making by type of illness. Recognition that decision making about hospice admission varies is important for clinicians who aim to provide person-centered and family-focused care.

  1. Ultrasonography for clinical decision-making and intervention in airway management: From the mouth to the lungs and pleurae

    Kristensen, M. S.; Teoh, W. H.; Graumann, O.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To create a state-of-the-art overview of the new and expanding role of ultrasonography in clinical decision-making, intervention and management of the upper and lower airways, that is clinically relevant, up-to-date and practically useful for clinicians. METHODS: This is a narrative...... and help guide timing of removal of chest tubes by quantification of residual pneumothorax size. CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasonography used in conjunction with hands-on management of the upper and lower airways has multiple advantages. There is a rapidly growing body of evidence showing its benefits. TEACHING...

  2. Decision-Making Strategy for Rectal Cancer Management Using Radiation Therapy for Elderly or Comorbid Patients.

    Wang, Shang-Jui; Hathout, Lara; Malhotra, Usha; Maloney-Patel, Nell; Kilic, Sarah; Poplin, Elizabeth; Jabbour, Salma K

    2018-03-15

    Rectal cancer predominantly affects patients older than 70 years, with peak incidence at age 80 to 85 years. However, the standard treatment paradigm for rectal cancer oftentimes cannot be feasibly applied to these patients owing to frailty or comorbid conditions. There are currently little information and no treatment guidelines to help direct therapy for patients who are elderly and/or have significant comorbidities, because most are not included or specifically studied in clinical trials. More recently various alternative treatment options have been brought to light that may potentially be utilized in this group of patients. This critical review examines the available literature on alternative therapies for rectal cancer and proposes a treatment algorithm to help guide clinicians in treatment decision making for elderly and comorbid patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A moral compass for management decision making: a healthcare CEO's reflections.

    Donnellan, John J

    2013-01-01

    Ethical behavior is good for business in any organization. In healthcare, it results in better patient care, a more committed and satisfied staff, more efficient care delivery, and increased market share. But it requires leaders who have a broad view of the role that ethics programs--and an effective, sustained ethical culture--play. Ethical organizations have integrated and shared ethical values and practices, an effective ethics infrastructure, ongoing ethics education for staff at every level, ethical and morally courageous leaders, and a culture that is consistent with the organization's values. The mission, vision, and values statements of these organizations have been successfully translated into a set of shared values--a moral compass that guides behavior and decision making.

  4. Social media monitoring model to guide decision making of destination management organization

    Guilherme Mendes Thomaz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The widespread adoption of social media by users and organizations has generated an exponential increase in data and content that offer opportunities to be processed into information and knowledge. However, dealing with such data is considered a challenge and requires the use of adequate resources. Considering this scenario, the aim of this study was to present a social media monitoring model to support decision making by DMOs. The model proposed has been tested before and during the 2014 FIFA World Cup, using Curitiba and Foz do Iguaçu (Paraná State as destinations, having a structured of seven stages. The results of the period were composed of about 50,000 messages, tours and associated ontology application. A large part of the frequency relations, between attractions or between host cities, have been com-patible with their reality in the tourist trade.

  5. Dynamic decision making for dam-break emergency management - Part 2: Application to Tangjiashan landslide dam failure

    Peng, M.; Zhang, L. M.

    2013-02-01

    Tangjiashan landslide dam, which was triggered by the Ms = 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake in 2008 in China, threatened 1.2 million people downstream of the dam. All people in Beichuan Town 3.5 km downstream of the dam and 197 thousand people in Mianyang City 85 km downstream of the dam were evacuated 10 days before the breaching of the dam. Making such an important decision under uncertainty was difficult. This paper applied a dynamic decision-making framework for dam-break emergency management (DYDEM) to help rational decision in the emergency management of the Tangjiashan landslide dam. Three stages are identified with different levels of hydrological, geological and social-economic information along the timeline of the landslide dam failure event. The probability of dam failure is taken as a time series. The dam breaching parameters are predicted with a set of empirical models in stage 1 when no soil property information is known, and a physical model in stages 2 and 3 when knowledge of soil properties has been obtained. The flood routing downstream of the dam in these three stages is analyzed to evaluate the population at risk (PAR). The flood consequences, including evacuation costs, flood damage and monetized loss of life, are evaluated as functions of warning time using a human risk analysis model based on Bayesian networks. Finally, dynamic decision analysis is conducted to find the optimal time to evacuate the population at risk with minimum total loss in each of these three stages.

  6. Drug pricing and reimbursement information management: processes and decision making in the global economy.

    Tsourougiannis, Dimitrios

    2017-01-01

    Background : Cost-containment initiatives are re-shaping the pharmaceutical business environment and affecting market access as well as pricing and reimbursement decisions. Effective price management procedures are too complex to accomplish manually. Prior to February 2013, price management within Astellas Pharma Europe Ltd was done manually using an Excel database. The system was labour intensive, slow to update, and prone to error. An innovative web-based pricing information management system was developed to address the shortcomings of the previous system. Development : A secure web-based system for submitting, reviewing and approving pricing requests was designed to: track all pricing applications and approval status; update approved pricing information automatically; provide fixed and customizable reports of pricing information; collect pricing and reimbursement rules from each country; validate pricing and reimbursement rules monthly. Several sequential phases of development emphasized planning, time schedules, target dates, budgets and implementation of the entire system. A test system was used to pilot the electronic (e)-pricing system with three affiliates (four users) in February 2013. Outcomes : The web-based system was introduced in March 2013, currently has about 227 active users globally and comprises more than 1000 presentations of 150 products. The overall benefits of switching from a manual to an e-pricing system were immediate and highly visible in terms of efficiency, transparency, reliability and compliance. Conclusions : The e-pricing system has improved the efficiency, reliability, compliance, transparency and ease of access to multinational drug pricing and approval information.

  7. Multiple stakeholders in multi-criteria decision-making in the context of Municipal Solid Waste Management: A review.

    Soltani, Atousa; Hewage, Kasun; Reza, Bahareh; Sadiq, Rehan

    2015-01-01

    Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) is a complicated process that involves multiple environmental and socio-economic criteria. Decision-makers look for decision support frameworks that can guide in defining alternatives, relevant criteria and their weights, and finding a suitable solution. In addition, decision-making in MSWM problems such as finding proper waste treatment locations or strategies often requires multiple stakeholders such as government, municipalities, industries, experts, and/or general public to get involved. Multi-criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) is the most popular framework employed in previous studies on MSWM; MCDA methods help multiple stakeholders evaluate the often conflicting criteria, communicate their different preferences, and rank or prioritize MSWM strategies to finally agree on some elements of these strategies and make an applicable decision. This paper reviews and brings together research on the application of MCDA for solving MSWM problems with more focus on the studies that have considered multiple stakeholders and offers solutions for such problems. Results of this study show that AHP is the most common approach in consideration of multiple stakeholders and experts and governments/municipalities are the most common participants in these studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Multi-criteria decision-making for flood risk management: a survey of the current state of the art

    Madruga de Brito, Mariana; Evers, Mariele

    2016-04-01

    This paper provides a review of multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) applications to flood risk management, seeking to highlight trends and identify research gaps. A total of 128 peer-reviewed papers published from 1995 to June 2015 were systematically analysed. Results showed that the number of flood MCDM publications has exponentially grown during this period, with over 82 % of all papers published since 2009. A wide range of applications were identified, with most papers focusing on ranking alternatives for flood mitigation, followed by risk, hazard, and vulnerability assessment. The analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was the most popular method, followed by Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to an Ideal Solution (TOPSIS), and Simple Additive Weighting (SAW). Although there is greater interest in MCDM, uncertainty analysis remains an issue and was seldom applied in flood-related studies. In addition, participation of multiple stakeholders has been generally fragmented, focusing on particular stages of the decision-making process, especially on the definition of criteria weights. Therefore, addressing the uncertainties around stakeholders' judgments and endorsing an active participation in all steps of the decision-making process should be explored in future applications. This could help to increase the quality of decisions and the implementation of chosen measures.

  9. Emotions, Mood and Decision Making

    Agnes Virlics

    2014-01-01

    Decisions are made according to a complex cognitive and emotional evaluation of the situation. The aim of the paper is to examine the effect of mood on risky investment decision making by using a mood induction procedure. The paper investigates how happy and sad mood affects risky investment decision making and whether there is a difference between the perception of fix investments and monetary investments. The analysis has been conducted focusing on individual investment decisions. Data for ...

  10. Trends in decision making for the siting of waste management facilities

    Vari, A.

    2000-01-01

    Over the last two decades a number of research studies on waste management facility siting have been produced. A Facility Siting Credo exists (Kunreuther et al., 1993). It identifies a comprehensive set of criteria for successful siting, but relationships between them (complementary, conflicting) have not been investigated. An attempt has been made to identify a conceptual framework which helps to structure siting criteria based on Competing Values Approach (CVA) to organisational analysis (Quinn and Rohrbaugh, 1983). Competing values include goal-centred, data-based, participatory, and adaptable processes, as well as efficient, accountable, supportable, and legitimate decisions. Case studies: Analysing LLRW disposal facility siting processes in the US (California, Illinois, Nebraska, New York, and Texas), Canada, France, the Netherlands, Sweden, and Switzerland (1980-1993) by using the CVA framework (Vari et al., 1994). Analysis of LALW siting processes in Hungary (1985-99) (Juhasz et al., 1993; Ormai et al., 1998; Ormai, 1999). (author)

  11. Radioactive waste management: a comparative study of national decision-making processes. Final report, September 15, 1978-December 31, 1979

    Zinberg, D.S.; Deese, D.

    1980-01-01

    A report is presented resulting from a comparative study of national decision-making processes in radioactive waste management. By seeking out the variations among the socio-political and institutional components of the nuclear power and radioactive waste policies in ten countries, the authors have attempted to identify means to improve national and international responses to a seemingly intractable problem, the management of wastes from military and commercial nuclear programs worldwide. Efforts were focused on evaluation of comparative national policy formulation processes. Mapping national programs in conjunction with social, political and administrative structure and comparing the similarities and differences among them has revealed six major issues: (1) technological bias in decision-making; (2) lack of natioal strategies for the RWM programs; (3) fragmentation of governmental power structures; (4) crippled national regulatory bodies; (5) complex and competing relations among local, state and federal levels of government; and (6) increased importance of non-governmental actors and public participation. The first two issues are overarching, encompassing the fundamental approach to policy, whereas the last four describe more specific aspects of the decision-making structures

  12. Regret in Decision Making

    Connolly, T.; Zeelenberg, M.

    2002-01-01

    Decision research has only recently started to take seriously the role of emotions in choices and decisions. Regret is the emotion that has received the most attention. In this article, we sample a number of the initial regret studies from psychology and economics, and trace some of the complexities

  13. [Interoception and decision-making].

    Ohira, Hideki

    2015-02-01

    We sometimes make decisions relying not necessarily on deliberative thoughts but on intuitive and emotional processes in uncertain situations. The somatic marker hypothesis proposed by Damasio argued that interoception, which means bodily responses such as sympathetic activity, can be represented in the insula and anterior cingulate cortex and can play critical roles in decision-making. Though this hypothesis has been criticized in its theoretical and empirical aspects, recent studies are expanding the hypothesis to elucidate multiple bodily responses including autonomic, endocrine, and immune activities that affect decision-making. In addition, cumulative findings suggest that the anterior insula where the inner model of interoception is represented can act as an interface between the brain and body in decision-making. This article aims to survey recent findings on the brain-body interplays underlying decision-making, and to propose hypotheses on the significance of the body in decision-making.

  14. Application of ANP and DEMATEL to evaluate the decision-making of municipal solid waste management in Metro Manila.

    Tseng, Ming-Lang

    2009-09-01

    A municipal solid waste management (MSW) expert group was consulted in order to mirror how government officials might reach an effective solution regarding municipal solid waste management in Metro Manila. A critical issue regarding this is how the expert group can better evaluate and select a favorable MSW management solution using a series of criteria. MSW management solution selection is a multiple criteria decision-making (MCDM) problem, which requires the consideration of a large number of complex criteria. A robust MCDM method should consider the interactions among these criteria. The analytic network process (ANP) is a relatively new MCDM method which can deal with all kinds of interactions systematically. The Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL) not only can convert the relations between cause and effect of criteria into a structural model, but also can be used as a way to handle the inner dependences within a set of criteria. Hence, this paper applies an effective solution based on a combined ANP and DEMATEL method to assist the expert group evaluating different MSW management solutions. According to the results, the best solution is for each city to have its own type of thermal process technology and resource recovery facility before landfill rather than entering a joint venture with enterprises or going into build-operate-transfer projects in order to be able to construct thermal process technologies and resource recovery facilities.

  15. Stepwise approach to decision making for long-term radioactive waste management. Experience, issues and guiding principles

    2004-01-01

    Radioactive waste exists as a result of both past and current practices. One of the most challenging tasks is the management of long-lived waste that must be isolated from the human environment for many thousands, or even hundreds of thousands, of years. Although significant technical progress has been made in developing management schemes that, according to technical experts, would ensure long-term safety (e.g. engineered geologic disposal), the rate of progress towards implementing such solutions has been slower than expected. The contrast between expected and observed rates may be partly attributable to an earlier technical optimism. More significant, however, are the setbacks, which have arisen mainly from an underestimation of the societal and political dimensions. In long-term radioactive waste management, consideration is increasingly being given to concepts such as stepwise decision making and adaptive staging in which the public, and especially the local public, are to be meaningfully involved in the review and planning of developments. The key feature of these concepts is development by steps or stages that are reversible, within the limits of practicability. This is designed to provide reassurance that decisions can be reversed if experience shows them to have adverse or unwanted effects. A stepwise approach to decision making has thus come to the fore as being of value in advancing long-term radioactive waste management solutions in a societally acceptable manner. Despite its early identification within the radioactive waste management community as an important means for reaching solutions and decisions in which there is broad-based confidence, the bases for and application of stepwise decision making has not been widely reviewed. Guiding principles of any such process are still being formulated, its roots in empirical social science research have not been fully reviewed, nor the difficulties of its implementation analysed. The report reviews current

  16. Positioning Model-Supported, Participatory, Water Management Decision Making under Uncertainty within the Western Philosphical Discourse on Knowledge and Governance

    Purkey, D. R.; Escobar, M.; Mehta, V. K.; Forni, L.

    2016-12-01

    Two important trends currently shape the manner in which water resources planning and decision making occurs. The first relates to the increasing reliance on participatory stakeholder processes as a forum for evaluating water management options and selecting the appropriate course of action. The second relates to the growing recognition that earlier deterministic approaches to this evaluation of options may no longer be appropriate, nor required. The convergence of these two trends poses questions as to the proper role of data, information, analysis and expertise in the inherently social and political process of negotiating water resources management agreements and implementing water resources management interventions. The question of how to discover the best or optimal option in the face of deep uncertainty related to climate change, demography, economic development, and regulatory reform is compelling. More fundamentally the question of whether the "perfect" option even exits to be discovered is perhaps more critical. While this existential question may be new to the water resource management community, it is not new to western political theory. This paper explores early classical philosophical writing related to issues of knowledge and governance as captured in the work of Plato and Aristotle; and then attempts to place a new approach to analysis-supported, stakeholder-driven water resources planning and decision making within this philosophical discourse. Using examples from river systems in California and the Andes, where the theory of Robust Decision Making has been used as an organizing construct for stakeholder processes, it is argued that the expectation that analysis will lead to the discovery of the perfect option is not warranted when stakeholders are engaged in the process of discovering a consensus option. This argument will touch upon issue of the diversity of values, model uncertainty and creditability, and the visualization of model output required

  17. Managing partnerships and impact on decision-making: the example of health technology assessment in genetics.

    Blancquaert, Ingeborg

    2006-01-01

    For an emerging field such as Public Health Genetics, the partnerships that will be developed with stakeholders are of strategic importance, since they may affect long-term impact on policy-making. A concrete example in the field of health technology assessment in genetics was chosen to illustrate how the context in which scientific advisory bodies operate and the nature of partnerships developed over time influence the impact on decision-making at different levels, from the micro (professional) level through the meso (institutional) level to the macro (policy) level. As pointed out in the knowledge transfer literature, impact is not only reflected by instrumental use of knowledge, but also by problem-framing and strategic use of knowledge. Solid partnerships at the micro level, with researchers and health care professionals, are essential to build credibility and trust, and they lay the groundwork for contextualized and relevant advice and potential impact at the policy level. Even though maintaining the necessary critical distance with respect to all stakeholders is easier for institutions that are at arm's length from government, achieving the right balance between an institution's independence and service relationship is a real challenge. Copyright (c) 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Multiple stakeholders in multi-criteria decision-making in the context of Municipal Solid Waste Management: A review

    Soltani, Atousa; Hewage, Kasun; Reza, Bahareh; Sadiq, Rehan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We review Municipal Solid Waste Management studies with focus on multiple stakeholders. • We focus on studies with multi-criteria decision analysis methods and discover their trends. • Most studies do not offer solutions for situations where stakeholders compete for more benefits or have unequal voting powers. • Governments and experts are the most participated stakeholders and AHP is the most dominant method. - Abstract: Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) is a complicated process that involves multiple environmental and socio-economic criteria. Decision-makers look for decision support frameworks that can guide in defining alternatives, relevant criteria and their weights, and finding a suitable solution. In addition, decision-making in MSWM problems such as finding proper waste treatment locations or strategies often requires multiple stakeholders such as government, municipalities, industries, experts, and/or general public to get involved. Multi-criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) is the most popular framework employed in previous studies on MSWM; MCDA methods help multiple stakeholders evaluate the often conflicting criteria, communicate their different preferences, and rank or prioritize MSWM strategies to finally agree on some elements of these strategies and make an applicable decision. This paper reviews and brings together research on the application of MCDA for solving MSWM problems with more focus on the studies that have considered multiple stakeholders and offers solutions for such problems. Results of this study show that AHP is the most common approach in consideration of multiple stakeholders and experts and governments/municipalities are the most common participants in these studies

  19. Multiple stakeholders in multi-criteria decision-making in the context of Municipal Solid Waste Management: A review

    Soltani, Atousa; Hewage, Kasun; Reza, Bahareh; Sadiq, Rehan, E-mail: Rehan.sadiq@ubc.ca

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • We review Municipal Solid Waste Management studies with focus on multiple stakeholders. • We focus on studies with multi-criteria decision analysis methods and discover their trends. • Most studies do not offer solutions for situations where stakeholders compete for more benefits or have unequal voting powers. • Governments and experts are the most participated stakeholders and AHP is the most dominant method. - Abstract: Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) is a complicated process that involves multiple environmental and socio-economic criteria. Decision-makers look for decision support frameworks that can guide in defining alternatives, relevant criteria and their weights, and finding a suitable solution. In addition, decision-making in MSWM problems such as finding proper waste treatment locations or strategies often requires multiple stakeholders such as government, municipalities, industries, experts, and/or general public to get involved. Multi-criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) is the most popular framework employed in previous studies on MSWM; MCDA methods help multiple stakeholders evaluate the often conflicting criteria, communicate their different preferences, and rank or prioritize MSWM strategies to finally agree on some elements of these strategies and make an applicable decision. This paper reviews and brings together research on the application of MCDA for solving MSWM problems with more focus on the studies that have considered multiple stakeholders and offers solutions for such problems. Results of this study show that AHP is the most common approach in consideration of multiple stakeholders and experts and governments/municipalities are the most common participants in these studies.

  20. Collaborative Decision Making in METOC

    2002-01-01

    desired effect (Eagly, & Chaiken, 1993). Arguably, artificial intelligence is representative of the best of approaches in rational decision - making ...2001), The quantum of social action and the function of emotion in decision - making , Emotional and Intelligent II: The Tangled Knot of Social...Collaborative decision making in METOC W.F. Lawless Paine College, Departments of Mathematics and Psychology Augusta, GA 30901-3182 ph: 706

  1. To what extent do they sway Australian water management decision making?

    Papas, Maureen

    2016-10-01

    At a time when the reliability of freshwater resources has become highly unpredictable, as a result of climate change and increased droughts frequency, the role of scientific evidence in forecasting the availability of seasonal water has become more critical. Australia is one of the driest inhabited continents. Its freshwater availability is highly variable, which poses unique problems for the management of the nation's water resources. Under Australia's federal system, water management challenges have been progressively dealt with through political institutions that rely on best available science to inform policy development. However, it could be argued that evidenced-based policy making is an impossible aim in a highly complex and uncertain political environment: that such a rational approach would be defeated by competing values and vested interests across stakeholders. This article demonstrates that, while science has a fundamental role to play in effective water resource management, the reality on the ground often diverges from the intended aim and does not always reflect efforts at reform. This article briefly reviews the Water Act 2007 (Cth) and comments on why policy makers need to manage rather than try to eliminate uncertainty to promote change.

  2. To what extent do they sway Australian water management decision making?

    M. Papas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available At a time when the reliability of freshwater resources has become highly unpredictable, as a result of climate change and increased droughts frequency, the role of scientific evidence in forecasting the availability of seasonal water has become more critical. Australia is one of the driest inhabited continents. Its freshwater availability is highly variable, which poses unique problems for the management of the nation's water resources. Under Australia's federal system, water management challenges have been progressively dealt with through political institutions that rely on best available science to inform policy development. However, it could be argued that evidenced-based policy making is an impossible aim in a highly complex and uncertain political environment: that such a rational approach would be defeated by competing values and vested interests across stakeholders. This article demonstrates that, while science has a fundamental role to play in effective water resource management, the reality on the ground often diverges from the intended aim and does not always reflect efforts at reform. This article briefly reviews the Water Act 2007 (Cth and comments on why policy makers need to manage rather than try to eliminate uncertainty to promote change.

  3. Bridging the gap between decision-making and emerging big data sources : an application of a model-based framework to disaster management in Brazil

    Horita, Flávio E.A.; Albuquerque, João Porto de; Marchezini, Victor; Mendiondo, Eduardo M.

    2017-01-01

    With the emergence of big data and new data sources, a challenge posed to today's organizations consists of identifying how to align their decision-making and organizational processes to data that could help them make better-informed decisions. This paper presents a study in the context of disaster management in Brazil that applies oDMN +, a framework that connects decision-making with data sources through an extended modeling notation and a modeling process. The study results revealed that t...

  4. The Perils of Democratic Decision Making

    Aalbers, H.L.; Whelan, E.; Parise, S.; Vialle, C.

    2016-01-01

    The article focuses on the organizational decision-making management. Topics mentioned include the development of enterprise social software (ESS), the online corporate communities management, and the project management. Also mentioned are the importance of customer services, the bankruptcy management, and the importance of online technology in business.

  5. Dementia, Decision Making, and Capacity.

    Darby, R Ryan; Dickerson, Bradford C

    After participating in this activity, learners should be better able to:• Assess the neuropsychological literature on decision making and the medical and legal assessment of capacity in patients with dementia• Identify the limitations of integrating findings from decision-making research into capacity assessments for patients with dementia ABSTRACT: Medical and legal professionals face the challenge of assessing capacity and competency to make medical, legal, and financial decisions in dementia patients with impaired decision making. While such assessments have classically focused on the capacity for complex reasoning and executive functions, research in decision making has revealed that motivational and metacognitive processes are also important. We first briefly review the neuropsychological literature on decision making and on the medical and legal assessment of capacity. Next, we discuss the limitations of integrating findings from decision-making research into capacity assessments, including the group-to-individual inference problem, the unclear role of neuroimaging in capacity assessments, and the lack of capacity measures that integrate important facets of decision making. Finally, we present several case examples where we attempt to demonstrate the potential benefits and important limitations of using decision-making research to aid in capacity determinations.

  6. Evidence informed decision making

    Sharma, Tarang; Choudhury, Moni; Kaur, Bindweep

    2015-01-01

    from the literature and a combined best practice checklist has been proposed. CONCLUSIONS: As decisions often need to be made in areas where there is a lack of published scientific evidence, CE is employed. Therefore to ensure its appropriateness the development of a validated CE data quality check......-list to assist decision makers is essential and further research in this area is a priority....

  7. Informed Decision Making Process for Managing Environmental Flows in Small River Basins

    Padikkal, S.; Rema, K. P.

    2013-03-01

    Numerous examples exist worldwide of partial or complete alteration to the natural flow regime of river systems as a consequence of large scale water abstraction from upstream reaches. The effects may not be conspicuous in the case of very large rivers, but the ecosystems of smaller rivers or streams may be completely destroyed over a period of time. While restoration of the natural flow regime may not be possible, at present there is increased effort to implement restoration by regulating environmental flow. This study investigates the development of an environmental flow management model at an icon site in the small river basin of Bharathapuzha, west India. To determine optimal environmental flow regimes, a historic flow model based on data assimilated since 1978 indicated a satisfactory minimum flow depth for river ecosystem sustenance is 0.907 m (28.8 m3/s), a value also obtained from the hydraulic model; however, as three of the reservoirs were already operational at this time a flow depth of 0.922 m is considered a more viable estimate. Analysis of daily stream flow in 1997-2006, indicated adequate flow regimes during the monsoons in June-November, but that sections of the river dried out in December-May with alarming water quality conditions near the river mouth. Furthermore, the preferred minimum `dream' flow regime expressed by stakeholders of the region is a water depth of 1.548 m, which exceeds 50 % of the flood discharge in July. Water could potentially be conserved for environmental flow purposes by (1) the de-siltation of existing reservoirs or (2) reducing water spillage in the transfer between river basins. Ultimately environmental flow management of the region requires the establishment of a co-ordinated management body and the regular assimilation of water flow information from which science based decisions are made, to ensure both economic and environmental concerns are adequately addressed.

  8. Constraint programming and decision making

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    2014-01-01

    In many application areas, it is necessary to make effective decisions under constraints. Several area-specific techniques are known for such decision problems; however, because these techniques are area-specific, it is not easy to apply each technique to other applications areas. Cross-fertilization between different application areas is one of the main objectives of the annual International Workshops on Constraint Programming and Decision Making. Those workshops, held in the US (El Paso, Texas), in Europe (Lyon, France), and in Asia (Novosibirsk, Russia), from 2008 to 2012, have attracted researchers and practitioners from all over the world. This volume presents extended versions of selected papers from those workshops. These papers deal with all stages of decision making under constraints: (1) formulating the problem of multi-criteria decision making in precise terms, (2) determining when the corresponding decision problem is algorithmically solvable; (3) finding the corresponding algorithms, and making...

  9. Decision making with environmental indices

    Hoag, Dana L.; Ascough, James C.; Keske-Handley, C.; Koontz, Lynne; Burk, A.R.

    2005-01-01

    Since Ott's seminal book on environmental indices (1978), the use of indices has expanded into several natural resource disciplines, including ecological studies, environmental policymaking, and agricultural economics. However, despite their increasing use in natural resource disciplines, researchers and public decision makers continue to express concern about validity of these instruments to capture and communicate multidimensional, and sometimes disparate, characteristics of research data and stakeholder interests. Our purpose is to demonstrate how useful indices can be for communicating environmental information to decision makers. We discuss how environmental indices have evolved over four stages: 1) simple; 2) compound multicriteria; 3) the impact matrix and 4) disparate stakeholder management. We provide examples of simple and compound indices that were used by policy decision makers. We then build a framework, called an Impact Matrix (IM), that comprehensively accounts for multiple indices but lets the user decide how to integrate them. The IM was shaped from the concept of a financial risk payoff matrix and applied to ecosystem risk. While the IM offers flexibility, it does not address stakeholder preferences about which index to use. Therefore, the last phase in our evolutionary ladder includes stakeholder indices to specifically address disparate stakeholder preferences. Finally, we assert that an environmental index has the potential to increase resource efficiency, since the number of decision making resources may be reduced, and hence improve upon resource productivity

  10. Value Tools in Managed Care Decision Making: Current Hurdles and Future Opportunities.

    Schafer, Jeremy; Galante, Dominic; Shafrin, Jason

    2017-06-01

    Organizations such as the National Comprehensive Cancer Network, American Society of Clinical Oncology, Institute for Clinical and Economic Review, and Memorial Sloan Kettering have created distinct tools to help different stakeholders assess the value of oncology treatments. However, the oncology value tools were not necessarily created for payers, and it is unclear whether payers are using these tools as part of their drug management process. To understand what value tools payers are using in oncology management and what benefits and shortcomings the tools may have from the payer perspective. A survey targeting drug coverage decision makers at health plans was conducted in August 2016. Respondents attesting to using 2 or more value tools in drug management were eligible for an additional in-depth interview to understand the respondents' perceived benefits and shortcomings of current value tools. Respondents also were asked to describe desired attributes of a hypothetical payer-centric value tool. A total of 28 respondents representing approximately 160 million commercially insured medical lives completed the survey. Twenty respondents (71%) reported using at least 1 value tool in their drug management process. Twelve respondents (43%) used at least 2 tools, and 4 respondents (14%) used at least 3 tools. A total of 6 respondents were selected for in-depth interviews. Interviewees praised value tools for advancing the discussion on drug value and incorporating clinical evidence. However, interviewees felt available value tools varied on providing firm recommendations and relevant price benchmarks. Respondents most commonly recommended the following attributes of a proposed payer-centric value framework: taking a firm position on product value; product comparisons in lieu of comparative clinical trials; web-based tool access; and tool updates at least quarterly. Interview respondents also expressed some support for allowing manipulation of inputs and inclusion of

  11. Making smarter decisions in urban environments

    Velthausz, D

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Increasing urbanisation has introduced and exacerbated challenges related to the management of service delivery, resources and hazards. Making informed decisions for a city and its inhabitants is difficult because a city is an extremely complex...

  12. Modeling aesthetics to support an ecosystem services approach for natural resource management decision making.

    Booth, Pieter N; Law, Sheryl A; Ma, Jane; Buonagurio, John; Boyd, James; Turnley, Jessica

    2017-09-01

    analysis in support of natural resource management decisions. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:926-938. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  13. The role of infectious disease impact in informing decision-making for animal health management in aquaculture systems in Bangladesh.

    Garza, Maria; Mohan, Chadag Vishnumurthy; Rahman, Meezanur; Wieland, Barbara; Häsler, Barbara

    2018-03-20

    The aquaculture sector in Bangladesh is an important employer and a significant source of foreign exchange. In addition, it contributes significantly to food security due to the role of fish in peoples' diets, the most important source of protein and micronutrients. However, infectious diseases represent an important barrier to sector development due to economic losses and vulnerability of smallholders. The aim of this study was to gain an overview of the impact of infectious diseases in the aquaculture sector, and to assess the usefulness and use of impact studies in decision making for animal health management and biosecurity governance in Bangladesh. A review of scientific and grey literature on infectious disease impact in different aquaculture systems was conducted and their methodologies and findings summarised. Subsequently, interviews with 28 stakeholders from the private and public sector were conducted to enquire about decision-making structures in animal health management. The data were analysed using the framework method to allow the development of themes, by using the information, experiences and opinions inductively obtained from interviewees, deductively through the reviewed literature. Results showed a substantial socio-economic impact of infectious diseases. The numerous stakeholders involved in the decision-making process explained that key barriers to effective aquaculture health management were insufficient resources to investigate and tackle infectious aquatic animal diseases, a dearth of legislation and capacity for disease surveillance, a reliance on reactive response, and a lack of impact and evidence-based approaches for prioritising problem-solving, commonly based on anecdotal evidence. Furthermore, communication among the multiple stakeholders involved was reported to be weak. This complex situation requires a multi-level response, which should span from strengthening the knowledge of farmers and professionals in the field to the

  14. Making an Informed Decision on Freshwater Management by Integrating Remote Sensing Data with Traditional Data

    Hyon, Jason J.

    2012-01-01

    The US National Research Council (NRC) recommended that: "The U.S. government, working in concert with the private sector, academe, the public, and its international partners, should renew its investment in Earth-observing systems and restore its leadership in Earth science and applications." in response to the NASA Earth Science Division's request to prioritize research areas, observations, and notional missions to make those objectives. In this presentation, we will discuss our approach to connect remote sensing science to decision support applications by establishing a framework to integrate direct measurements, earth system models, inventories, and other information to accurately estimate fresh water resources in global, regional, and local scales. We will discuss our demonstration projects and lessons learned from the experience. Deploying a monitoring system that offers sustained, accurate, transparent and relevant information represents a challenge and opportunity to a broad community spanning earth science, water resource accounting and public policy. An introduction to some of the scientific and technical infrastructure issues associated with monitoring systems is offered here to encourage future treatment of these topics by other contributors as a concluding remark.

  15. Decentralizing decision making in modularization strategies

    Israelsen, Poul; Jørgensen, Brian

    2011-01-01

    which distorts the economic effects of modularization at the level of the individual product. This has the implication that decisions on modularization can only be made by top management if decision authority and relevant information are to be aligned. To overcome this problem, we suggest a solution...... that aligns the descriptions of the economic consequences of modularization at the project and portfolio level which makes it possible to decentralize decision making while making sure that local goals are congruent with the global ones in order to avoid suboptimal behaviour. Keywords: Modularization......; Accounting; Cost allocation; Decision rule; Decentralization...

  16. Decision making on fitness landscapes

    Arthur, R.; Sibani, P.

    2017-04-01

    We discuss fitness landscapes and how they can be modified to account for co-evolution. We are interested in using the landscape as a way to model rational decision making in a toy economic system. We develop a model very similar to the Tangled Nature Model of Christensen et al. that we call the Tangled Decision Model. This is a natural setting for our discussion of co-evolutionary fitness landscapes. We use a Monte Carlo step to simulate decision making and investigate two different decision making procedures.

  17. Decision Making on Fitness Landscapes

    Arthur, Rudy; Sibani, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    We discuss fitness landscapes and how they can be modified to account for co-evolution. We are interested in using the landscape as a way to model rational decision making in a toy economic system. We develop a model very similar to the Tangled Nature Model of Christensen et. al. that we call...... the Tangled Decision Model. This is a natural setting for our discussion of co-evolutionary fitness landscapes. We use a Monte Carlo step to simulate decision making and investigate two different decision making procedures....

  18. Decision Making: The Underdeveloped Skill

    Phelps, Robert

    1974-01-01

    Business educators should give students specific training in a methodology which will enable them to make logical, systematic, and rational decisions. Kepner-Tregoe Analysis (KTA), a decision making model, is described and illustrated with an example of a student buying his first car. (SC)

  19. Emotional Intelligence and Decision Making

    A M Kustubayeva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of the experimental research of the connection between the efficiency of decision making and emotional intelligence are presented in the article. The empirical data indicate that the ability to regulate emotion is an important indicator of the efficiency of decision making in the conditions of psychological experiment.

  20. The changing nature of ICU charge nurses' decision making: from supervision of care delivery to unit resource management.

    Miller, Anne; Buerhaus, Peter I

    2013-01-01

    Recent findings that variations in nursing workload may affect inpatient outcomes now highlight nurse workload management and the need for an updated analysis of the role of the charge nurse (CN). Observational data for eight CNs, each at one of eight ICUs in a not-for-profit Level 1 Trauma Center, coded to capture interprofessional interactions, decision making, team coordination phases, and support tools. A researcher shadowed each participant for 12 hours. Each shift began and ended with a face-to-face handoff that included summaries of each patient's condition; the current bed census; anticipated admissions, discharges, and transfers; and the number of nurses available to work the current and coming two shifts. The researcher, using a notebook, recorded the substantive content of all work conversations initiated by or directed to the CN from physicians, staff nurses, allied health workers, other employees, and patients/families. The tools used to support conversations were collected as blank forms or computer screen prints and annotated to describe how they were used, when, and for what purpose. Statistically significant three-way interactions suggest that CNs' conversations with colleagues depend on the team coordination phase and the decision-making level, and that the support tools that CNs use when talking to colleagues depend on the decision-making level and the team coordination phase. The role of ICU CNs appears to be continuing to evolve, now encompassing unit resource management in addition to supervising care delivery. Effective support tools, together with education that would enhance communication and resource management skills, will be essential to CNs' ability to support unit resilience and adaptability in an increasingly complex environment.

  1. Stakeholder management in the local government decision-making area: evidences from a triangulation study with the English local government

    Ricardo Corrêa Gomes

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The stakeholder theory has been in the management agenda for about thirty years and reservations about its acceptance as a comprehensive theory still remains. It was introduced as a managerial issue by the Labour Party in 1997 aiming to make public management more inclusive. This article aims to contribute to the stakeholder theory adding descriptive issues to its theoretical basis. The findings are derived from an inductive investigationcarried out with English Local Authorities, which will most likely be reproduced in other contexts. Data collection and analysis is based on a data triangulation method that involves case-studies, interviews of validation and analysis of documents. The investigation proposes a model for representing the nature of therelationships between stakeholders and the decision-making process of such organizations. The decision-making of local government organizations is in fact a stakeholder-based process in which stakeholders are empowered to exert influences due to power over and interest in the organization’s operations and outcomes.

  2. Integrated climate and land change research to improve decision-making and resource management in Southern Africa: The SASSCAL approach

    Helmschrot, J.; Olwoch, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    The ability of countries in southern Africa to jointly respond to climate challenges with scientifically informed and evidence-based actions and policy decisions remains low due to limited scientific research capacity and infrastructure. The Southern African Science Service Centre for Climate Change and Adaptive Land Management (SASSCAL; www.sasscal.org) addresses this gap by implementing a high-level framework to guide research and innovation investments in climate change and adaptive land management interventions in Southern Africa. With a strong climate service component as cross-cutting topic, SASSCAL's focus is to improve the understanding of climate and land management change impacts on the natural and socio-economic environment in Southern Africa. The paper presents a variety of SASSCAL driven activities which contribute to better understand climate and long-term environmental change dynamics at various temporal and spatial scales in Southern Afrika and how these activities are linked to support research and decision-making to optimize agricultural practices as well as sustainable environmental and water resources management. To provide consistent and reliable climate information for Southern Africa, SASSCAL offers various climate services ranging from real-time climate observation across the region utilizing the SASSCAL WeatherNet to regional climate change analysis and modelling efforts at seasonal-to-decadal timescales using climate data from various sources. SASSCAL also offers the current state of the environment in terms of recent data on changes in the environment that are necessary for setting appropriate adaptation strategies . The paper will further demonstrate how these services are utilized for interdisciplinary research on the impact of climate change on natural resources and socio-economic development in the SASSCAL countries and how this knowledge can be effectively used to mitigate and adapt to climate change by informed decision-making from

  3. An integrated information management system based DSS for problem solving and decision making in open & distance learning institutions of India

    Pankaj Khanna

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An integrated information system based DSS is developed for Open and Distance Learning (ODL institutions in India. The system has been web structured with the most suitable newly developed modules. A DSS model has been developed for solving semi-structured and unstructured problems including decision making with regard to various programmes and activities operating in the ODLIs. The DSS model designed for problem solving is generally based on quantitative formulas, whereas for problems involving imprecision and uncertainty, a fuzzy theory based DSS is employed. The computer operated system thus developed would help the ODLI management to quickly identify programmes and activities that require immediate attention. It shall also provide guidance for obtaining the most appropriate managerial decisions without any loss of time. As a result, the various subsystems operating in the ODLI are able to administer its activities more efficiently and effectively to enhance the overall performance of the concerned ODL institution to a new level.

  4. Ensemble modelling and structured decision-making to support Emergency Disease Management

    Webb, Colleen T.; Ferrari, Matthew; Lindström, Tom; Carpenter, Tim; Dürr, Salome; Garner, Graeme; Jewell, Chris; Stevenson, Mark; Ward, Michael P.; Werkman, Marleen; Backer, Jantien; Tildesley, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiological models in animal health are commonly used as decision-support tools to understand the impact of various control actions on infection spread in susceptible populations. Different models contain different assumptions and parameterizations, and policy decisions might be improved by

  5. Managerial Decision Making in Traffic

    Teodor Perić

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making is defined as a selection of a certain actionamong several alternatives. It is the essence of planning, asin the managerial sense there is no plan until a decision of engagementof resources, reputation and direction of activities ismade. Decision-making is, in fact, only a step in planning, evenwhen it is performed quickly and without special consideration.It is what we all experience every day. It is one of the most fascinatingbiological activities and the subject of frightening implicationsfor the whole human race. Since various techniques improvethe system and the quality of managerial decision-making,they are classified into three assumptions: risk analysis, decision-making trees, and the theory of revealed preference. Allof these are based on the interaction of a certain number of importantvariables out of which many contain the elements ofuncertainty, but maybe also high level of probability.

  6. Rough multiple objective decision making

    Xu, Jiuping

    2011-01-01

    Rough Set TheoryBasic concepts and properties of rough sets Rough Membership Rough Intervals Rough FunctionApplications of Rough SetsMultiple Objective Rough Decision Making Reverse Logistics Problem with Rough Interval Parameters MODM based Rough Approximation for Feasible RegionEVRMCCRMDCRM Reverse Logistics Network Design Problem of Suji Renewable Resource MarketBilevel Multiple Objective Rough Decision Making Hierarchical Supply Chain Planning Problem with Rough Interval Parameters Bilevel Decision Making ModelBL-EVRM BL-CCRMBL-DCRMApplication to Supply Chain Planning of Mianyang Co., LtdStochastic Multiple Objective Rough Decision Multi-Objective Resource-Constrained Project Scheduling UnderRough Random EnvironmentRandom Variable Stochastic EVRM Stochastic CCRM Stochastic DCRM Multi-Objective rc-PSP/mM/Ro-Ra for Longtan Hydropower StationFuzzy Multiple Objective Rough Decision Making Allocation Problem under Fuzzy Environment Fuzzy Variable Fu-EVRM Fu-CCRM Fu-DCRM Earth-Rock Work Allocation Problem.

  7. Decision Making Styles and Progress in Occupational Decision Making.

    Phillips, Susan D.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Examined the role of rational, intuitive, and dependent decisional strategies in facilitating decisions about postcollege occupation among college students (N=71). Results indicated that the use of a dependent decision-making style was the single most powerful predictor of progress. (LLL)

  8. 24 CFR 55.20 - Decision making process.

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Decision making process. 55.20 Section 55.20 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT Procedures for Making Determinations on Floodplain Management § 55.20 Decision making process. The decision making...

  9. Human Errors in Decision Making

    Mohamad, Shahriari; Aliandrina, Dessy; Feng, Yan

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to identify human errors in decision making process. The study was focused on a research question such as: what could be the human error as a potential of decision failure in evaluation of the alternatives in the process of decision making. Two case studies were selected from the literature and analyzed to find the human errors contribute to decision fail. Then the analysis of human errors was linked with mental models in evaluation of alternative step. The results o...

  10. Top-Management Decision Making and Strategies : An Approach to a Theory of Leadership-Initiated Strategies(General Contribution)

    藤田, 東久夫; Tokuo, FUJITA; 株式会社サトー; Sato Corporation

    2006-01-01

    The article clarifies the relationship between top-management decisions and strategies. Whereas prior theoretical treatments of top-management strategies are both logical and managerial, the author recognizes the ad hoc nature of top-management decisions, which rely upon intuition and inspiration, and proposes a theory of strategies that emerge through top-management leadership. This theory of leadership-initiated strategies sees a balance between leadership and management functions as essent...

  11. Decision-Making for Risk Management in Sustainable Renewable Energy Facilities: A Case Study in the Dominican Republic

    Guido C. Guerrero-Liquet

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Today, Renewable Energy Sources (RES are a key pillar to achieving sustainable development, which is the main reason why energy projects are being carried out not only in developed countries but also in many emerging countries. Since the technical and financial risk remains a major barrier to financing renewable energy projects, several mechanisms are available to reduce risks on investment into clean energy projects. This paper discusses risk management tools in solar photovoltaic facilities based on the guide to the Project Management (PMBOK Guide. To do this, a combination of different decision-making methodologies will be carried out. These methodologies enable to not only extract the knowledge by experts but also to know the causes and effects that help to make the best decision. In order to do so, techniques to seek information (Delphi and Checklist as well as diagram techniques such as cause and effect diagrams or Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities and Threats (SWOT are applied. The categorization and prioritization of risks will be carried out through the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP. Finally, a sensitivity analysis will allow for providing consistency to the obtained results. A real case in the Dominican Republic will also be presented as case study.

  12. Gender and internet consumers' decision-making.

    Yang, Chyan; Wu, Chia-Chun

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this research is to provide managers of shopping websites information regarding consumer purchasing decisions based on the Consumer Styles Inventory (CSI). According to the CSI, one can capture what decision-making styles online shoppers use. Furthermore, this research also discusses the gender differences among online shoppers. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was used to understand the decision-making styles and discriminant analysis was used to distinguish the differences between female and male shoppers. The result shows that there are differences in purchasing decisions between online female and male Internet users.

  13. A strategic decision-making model considering the social costs of carbon dioxide emissions for sustainable supply chain management.

    Tseng, Shih-Chang; Hung, Shiu-Wan

    2014-01-15

    Incorporating sustainability into supply chain management has become a critical issue driven by pressures from governments, customers, and various stakeholder groups over the past decade. This study proposes a strategic decision-making model considering both the operational costs and social costs caused by the carbon dioxide emissions from operating such a supply chain network for sustainable supply chain management. This model was used to evaluate carbon dioxide emissions and operational costs under different scenarios in an apparel manufacturing supply chain network. The results showed that the higher the social cost rate of carbon dioxide emissions, the lower the amount of the emission of carbon dioxide. The results also suggested that a legislation that forces the enterprises to bear the social costs of carbon dioxide emissions resulting from their economic activities is an effective approach to reducing carbon dioxide emissions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Patient factors that influence clinicians' decision making in self-management support : A clinical vignette study

    Bos-Touwen, Irene D.; Trappenburg, Jaap C A; Van Der Wulp, Ineke; Schuurmans, Marieke J.; De Wit, Niek J.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Self-management support is an integral part of current chronic care guidelines. The success of self-management interventions varies between individual patients, suggesting a need for tailored self-management support. Understanding the role of patient factors in the current

  15. Psychological characteristics of managerial decision making in the management of agricultural enterprise

    BATYK B.B.; PENTSAK T.G.

    2011-01-01

    The article includes the personal qualities of the manager necessary for the effective management in the agro-industrial complex, different types of character of the manager and their impact on the administrative activity. The authors highlighted the main characteristics of leadership and emphasis on the psychological qualities as essential to building effective leadership.

  16. Using structured decision making with landowners to address private forest management and parcelization: balancing multiple objectives and incorporating uncertainty

    Paige F. B. Ferguson; Michael J. Conroy; John F. Chamblee; Jeffrey Hepinstall-Cymerman

    2015-01-01

    Parcelization and forest fragmentation are of concern for ecological, economic, and social reasons. Efforts to keep large, private forests intact may be supported by a decision-making process that incorporates landowners’ objectives and uncertainty. We used structured decision making (SDM) with owners of large, private forests in Macon County, North Carolina....

  17. Making Healthy Decisions About Sex

    ... For Teens: How to Make Healthy Decisions About Sex Page Content Article Body Before you decide to ... alcohol or use drugs. Are You Ready for Sex? Sex can change your life and relationships. Having ...

  18. Decide Now - Ditch Decision Making

    Campion, John

    2004-01-01

    .... The separation of psychology into sub-disciplines or paradigms that don't talk to one another. 3. The failure to distinguish between technical and common language usage when dealing with concepts such as decision making and command...

  19. Making the Connection between Environmental Science and Decision Making

    Woodhouse, C. A.; Crimmins, M.; Ferguson, D. B.; Garfin, G. M.; Scott, C. A.

    2011-12-01

    As society is confronted with population growth, limited resources, and the impacts of climate variability and change, it is vital that institutions of higher education promote the development of professionals who can work with decision-makers to incorporate scientific information into environmental planning and management. Skills for the communication of science are essential, but equally important is the ability to understand decision-making contexts and engage with resource managers and policy makers. It is increasingly being recognized that people who understand the linkages between science and decision making are crucial if science is to better support planning and policy. A new graduate-level seminar, "Making the Connection between Environmental Science and Decision Making," is a core course for a new post-baccalaureate certificate program, Connecting Environmental Science and Decision Making at the University of Arizona. The goal of the course is to provide students with a basic understanding of the dynamics between scientists and decision makers that result in scientific information being incorporated into environmental planning, policy, and management decisions. Through readings from the environmental and social sciences, policy, and planning literature, the course explores concepts including scientific information supply and demand, boundary organizations, co-production of knowledge, platforms for engagement, and knowledge networks. Visiting speakers help students understand some of the challenges of incorporating scientific information into planning and decision making within institutional and political contexts. The course also includes practical aspects of two-way communication via written, oral, and graphical presentations as well as through the interview process to facilitate the transfer of scientific information to decision makers as well as to broader audiences. We aspire to help students develop techniques that improve communication and

  20. Logical Reasoning and Decision Making

    Ong, D; Khaddaj, Souheil; Bashroush, Rabih

    2011-01-01

    Most intelligent systems have some form of \\ud decision making mechanisms built into their \\ud organisations. These normally include a logical \\ud reasoning element into their design. This paper reviews \\ud and compares the different logical reasoning strategies, \\ud and tries to address the accuracy and precision of \\ud decision making by formulating a tolerance to \\ud imprecision view which can be used in conjunction with \\ud the various reasoning strategies.

  1. Factors Influencing the Adoption of Cloud Computing by Decision Making Managers

    Ross, Virginia Watson

    2010-01-01

    Cloud computing is a growing field, addressing the market need for access to computing resources to meet organizational computing requirements. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the factors that influence an organization in their decision whether to adopt cloud computing as a part of their strategic information technology planning.…

  2. Managing Complexity: Exploring Decision Making on Medication by Young Adults with ADHD.

    Druedahl, Louise C; Kälvemark Sporrong, Sofia

    2018-04-19

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) causes difficulties with hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention. Treatment of ADHD includes both medication and non-pharmacological options. Knowledge of treatment preferences by young adults with ADHD is sparse. The objective of this study was to explore the beliefs and experiences of young adults with ADHD related to their medication treatment decisions. Data were collected in Denmark in 2016 through a focus group and individual in-depth interviews. Conventional content analysis was used. Ten young adults with ADHD (22-to 29-year-old) participated. Three major themes were identified: (1) the patient’s right to choose concerning ADHD medicine; (2) the patient’s decision of whether or not to treat ADHD with medication; and (3) factors affecting the patient’s decision on whether to take ADHD medication or not. The latter theme contained 15 factors, which were distributed across three levels: individual, between-individuals, and societal. The dominant factors were increasing quality of life and improving oneself e.g., improving social skills. For counselling at the pharmacy and by prescribers, it is important to be aware of the different factors that affect young adult patients’ decisions on whether to take ADHD medication or not. This knowledge will aid to understand reasons for non-adherence and to determine appropriate treatment for the individual patient.

  3. Serotonin and decision making processes.

    Homberg, Judith R

    2012-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) is an important player in decision making. Serotonergic antidepressant, anxiolytic and antipsychotic drugs are extensively used in the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders characterized by impaired decision making, and exert both beneficial and harmful effects in patients. Detailed insight into the serotonergic mechanisms underlying decision making is needed to strengthen the first and weaken the latter. Although much remains to be done to achieve this, accumulating studies begin to deliver a coherent view. Thus, high central 5-HT levels are generally associated with improved reversal learning, improved attentional set shifting, decreased delay discounting, and increased response inhibition, but a failure to use outcome representations. Based on 5-HT's evolutionary role, I hypothesize that 5-HT integrates expected, or changes in, relevant sensory and emotional internal/external information, leading to vigilance behaviour affecting various decision making processes. 5-HT receptor subtypes play distinctive roles in decision making. 5-HT(2A) agonists and 5-HT2c antagonists decrease compulsivity, whereas 5-HT(2A) antagonists and 5-HT(2C) agonists decrease impulsivity. 5-HT(6) antagonists univocally affect decision making processes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Optimal Decision-making Model of Integrated Water Resources Management - A Case of Hsinchu Water Resources Management

    Wang, S. Y.; Ho, C. C.; Chang, L. C.

    2017-12-01

    The public use water in Hsinchu are mainly supplied from Baoshan Reservoir, Second Baoshan Reservoir, Yongheshan Reservoir and Longen Weir. However, the increasing water demand, caused by development of the Hsinchu Science and Industrial Park, results in supply stable water getting more difficult. For stabilize water supply in Hsinchu, the study applies long-term and short-term plans to fulfill the water shortage. Developing an efficient methodology to define a cost-effective action portfolio is an important task. Hence, the study develops a novel decision model, the Stochastic Programming with Recourse Decision Model (SPRDM), to estimate a cost-effective action portfolio. The first-stage of SPRDM determine the long-term action portfolio and the portfolio accompany recourse information (the probability for water shortage event). The second-stage of SPRDM optimize the cost-effective action portfolio in response to the recourse information. In order to consider the uncertainty of reservoir sediment and demand growth, the study set 9 scenarios comprise optimistic, most likely, and pessimistic reservoir sediment and demand growth. The results show the optimal action portfolio consist of FengTain Lake and Panlon Weir, Hsinchu Desalination Plant, Domestic and Industrial Water long-term plans, and Emergency Backup Well, Irrigation Water Transference, Preliminary Water Rationing, Advanced Water Rationing and Water Transport from Other Districts short-term plans. The minimum expected cost of optimal action portfolio is NT$1.1002 billion. The results can be used as a reference for decision making because the results have considered the uncertainty of varied hydrology, reservoir sediment, and water demand growth.

  5. Informed multi-objective decision-making in environmental management using Pareto optimality

    Maureen C. Kennedy; E. David Ford; Peter Singleton; Mark Finney; James K. Agee

    2008-01-01

    Effective decisionmaking in environmental management requires the consideration of multiple objectives that may conflict. Common optimization methods use weights on the multiple objectives to aggregate them into a single value, neglecting valuable insight into the relationships among the objectives in the management problem.

  6. Democratic Leadership by Managing Meetings for Effective Group Decision-Making.

    Stephens, Mary; Forest, Robert

    Instrumental to successful democratic leadership is the use of committees to solve management problems. In democratic leadership, a leader encourages participation and uses a guidance approach to direct a group toward consensus. This document offers leaders guidelines in effective democratic management of meetings. The authors first discuss the…

  7. Achieving effective staffing through a shared decision-making approach to open-shift management.

    Valentine, Nancy M; Nash, Jan; Hughes, Douglas; Douglas, Kathy

    2008-01-01

    Managing costs while retaining qualified nurses and finding workforce solutions that ensure the delivery of high-quality patient care is of primary importance to nurse leaders and executive management. Leading healthcare organizations are using open-shift management technology as a strategy to improve staffing effectiveness and the work environment. In many hospitals, open-shift management technology has become an essential workforce management tool, nursing benefit, and recruitment and retention incentive. In this article, the authors discuss how a successful nursing initiative to apply automation to open-shift scheduling and fulfillment across a 3-hospital system had a broad enterprise-wide impact resulting in dramatic improvements in nurse satisfaction, retention, recruitment, and the bottom line.

  8. Quantum Type Indeterminacy in Dynamic Decision-Making: Self-Control through Identity Management

    Jerome Busemeyer

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Type Indeterminacy model is a theoretical framework that uses some elements of quantum formalism to model the constructive preference perspective suggested by Kahneman and Tversky. In a dynamic decision context, type indeterminacy induces a game with multiple selves associated with a state transition process. We define a Markov perfect equilibrium among the selves with individual identity (preferences as the state variable. The approach allows to characterize generic personality types and derive some comparative static results.

  9. Strategy in Regulatory Decision-Making for Management of Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy

    Segec, A; Keller-Stanislawski, B; Vermeer, N S

    2015-01-01

    Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) has been observed after the use of several medicines, including monoclonal antibodies. As these drugs play important roles in the therapeutic armamentarium, it is important to address the challenges that this severe adverse reaction poses to the safe...... use of medicines. Considering the need for consistent outcomes of regulatory decisions, the European Medicines Agency Pharmacovigilance Risk Assessment Committee (PRAC) used PML as an example to develop a systematic approach to labeling and risk minimization....

  10. Water supply management using an extended group fuzzy decision-making method: a case study in north-eastern Iran

    Minatour, Yasser; Bonakdari, Hossein; Zarghami, Mahdi; Bakhshi, Maryam Ali

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a group fuzzy multi-criteria decision-making method to be applied in rating problems associated with water resources management. Thus, here Chen's group fuzzy TOPSIS method extended by a difference technique to handle uncertainties of applying a group decision making. Then, the extended group fuzzy TOPSIS method combined with a consistency check. In the presented method, initially linguistic judgments are being surveyed via a consistency checking process, and afterward these judgments are being used in the extended Chen's fuzzy TOPSIS method. Here, each expert's opinion is turned to accurate mathematical numbers and, then, to apply uncertainties, the opinions of group are turned to fuzzy numbers using three mathematical operators. The proposed method is applied to select the optimal strategy for the rural water supply of Nohoor village in north-eastern Iran, as a case study and illustrated example. Sensitivity analyses test over results and comparing results with project reality showed that proposed method offered good results for water resources projects.

  11. Heuristic decision making in medicine

    Marewski, Julian N.; Gigerenzer, Gerd

    2012-01-01

    Can less information be more helpful when it comes to making medical decisions? Contrary to the common intuition that more information is always better, the use of heuristics can help both physicians and patients to make sound decisions. Heuristics are simple decision strategies that ignore part of the available information, basing decisions on only a few relevant predictors. We discuss: (i) how doctors and patients use heuristics; and (ii) when heuristics outperform information-greedy methods, such as regressions in medical diagnosis. Furthermore, we outline those features of heuristics that make them useful in health care settings. These features include their surprising accuracy, transparency, and wide accessibility, as well as the low costs and little time required to employ them. We close by explaining one of the statistical reasons why heuristics are accurate, and by pointing to psychiatry as one area for future research on heuristics in health care. PMID:22577307

  12. Heuristic decision making in medicine.

    Marewski, Julian N; Gigerenzer, Gerd

    2012-03-01

    Can less information be more helpful when it comes to making medical decisions? Contrary to the common intuition that more information is always better, the use of heuristics can help both physicians and patients to make sound decisions. Heuristics are simple decision strategies that ignore part of the available information, basing decisions on only a few relevant predictors. We discuss: (i) how doctors and patients use heuristics; and (ii) when heuristics outperform information-greedy methods, such as regressions in medical diagnosis. Furthermore, we outline those features of heuristics that make them useful in health care settings. These features include their surprising accuracy, transparency, and wide accessibility, as well as the low costs and little time required to employ them. We close by explaining one of the statistical reasons why heuristics are accurate, and by pointing to psychiatry as one area for future research on heuristics in health care.

  13. Decision making in urological surgery.

    Abboudi, Hamid; Ahmed, Kamran; Normahani, Pasha; Abboudi, May; Kirby, Roger; Challacombe, Ben; Khan, Mohammed Shamim; Dasgupta, Prokar

    2012-06-01

    Non-technical skills are important behavioural aspects that a urologist must be fully competent at to minimise harm to patients. The majority of surgical errors are now known to be due to errors in judgment and decision making as opposed to the technical aspects of the craft. The authors reviewed the published literature regarding decision-making theory and in practice related to urology as well as the current tools available to assess decision-making skills. Limitations include limited number of studies, and the available studies are of low quality. Decision making is the psychological process of choosing between alternative courses of action. In the surgical environment, this can often be a complex balance of benefit and risk within a variable time frame and dynamic setting. In recent years, the emphasis of new surgical curriculums has shifted towards non-technical surgical skills; however, the assessment tools in place are far from objective, reliable and valid. Surgical simulators and video-assisted questionnaires are useful methods for appraisal of trainees. Well-designed, robust and validated tools need to be implemented in training and assessment of decision-making skills in urology. Patient safety can only be ensured when safe and effective decisions are made.

  14. White-nose Syndrome management: Report on structured decision making initiative

    Szymanski, Jennifer A.; Runge, Michael C.; Parkin, Mary J.; Armstrong, Mike

    2009-01-01

    This report describes an analysis undertaken to assist state and federal natural resources managers in addressing the following question: What management measures should be taken this year within a given area to control the spread and minimize the effects of white-nose syndrome (WNS) on hibernating bats at the individual and population levels? The answer depends upon specific characteristics of the bat species, the hibernacula, and the syndrome itself, all of which could vary across the geographic extent of WNS and change over time. It also depends on a large number of agency and societal judgments concerning how to balance disease management against other objectives.

  15. Integration and Value of Earth Observations Data for Water Management Decision-Making in the Western U.S.

    Larsen, S. G.; Willardson, T.

    2017-12-01

    Some exciting new science and tools are under development for water management decision-making in the Western U.S. This session will highlight a number of examples where remotely-sensed observation data has been directly beneficial to water resource stakeholders, and discuss the steps needed between receipt of the data and their delivery as a finished data product or tool. We will explore case studies of how NASA scientists and researchers have worked with together with western state water agencies and other stakeholders as a team, to develop and interpret remotely-sensed data observations, implement easy-to-use software and tools, train team-members on their operation, and transition those tools into the insititution's workflows. The benefits of integrating these tools into stakeholder, agency, and end-user operations can be seen on-the-ground, when water is optimally managed for the decision-maker's objectives. These cases also point to the importance of building relationships and conduits for communication between researchers and their institutional counterparts.

  16. The Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (Dematel) and Analytic Network Process (ANP) for Safety Management System Evaluation Performance

    Rolita, Lisa; Surarso, Bayu; Gernowo, Rahmat

    2018-02-01

    In order to improve airport safety management system (SMS) performance, an evaluation system is required to improve on current shortcomings and maximize safety. This study suggests the integration of the DEMATEL and ANP methods in decision making processes by analyzing causal relations between the relevant criteria and taking effective analysis-based decision. The DEMATEL method builds on the ANP method in identifying the interdependencies between criteria. The input data consists of questionnaire data obtained online and then stored in an online database. Furthermore, the questionnaire data is processed using DEMATEL and ANP methods to obtain the results of determining the relationship between criteria and criteria that need to be evaluated. The study cases on this evaluation system were Adi Sutjipto International Airport, Yogyakarta (JOG); Ahmad Yani International Airport, Semarang (SRG); and Adi Sumarmo International Airport, Surakarta (SOC). The integration grades SMS performance criterion weights in a descending order as follow: safety and destination policy, safety risk management, healthcare, and safety awareness. Sturges' formula classified the results into nine grades. JOG and SMG airports were in grade 8, while SOG airport was in grade 7.

  17. Asset management as a strategic decision-making tool in DelDOT.

    2008-10-01

    Asset management has been receiving greater attention at both the state and national : levels. Escalating demands by the public for increased accountability, aging : infrastructure, increasingly constrained resources, new funding challenges, and incr...

  18. THE DECISION-MAKING SUBSYSTEM OF THE MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVES WITH FRAMEWORK PROCEDURE

    Munteanu Stolojanu Victoria-Ileana

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Management by objectives framwork- a management system based on strict targets to determine the executors, who participate directly in establishing their close correlation and that rewards and sanctions to achieve the predetermined objectives. The main goal of the article is represented by the goals as management elements but also as the nervous system of the managerial actions. The presence of the functional deviationism in organizations, the need of reconsidering the functional deviationism in organizations, the need of reconsidering the strategic planning, all these lead under economic and financial crisis to the need of elaborating a tool which should the manager find an optimum combination between the limited resources and carryng out the objectives with a minimum cost.

  19. Moral Decision-Making among Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) Case Managers

    Lerbæk, Birgitte; Aagaard, Jørgen; Andersen, Mette Braendstrup

    2015-01-01

    The context of care in assertive community treatment (ACT) can be precarious and generate ethical issues involving the principles of autonomy and paternalism. This focus group study examined case managers' situated accounts of moral reasoning. Our findings show how they expressed strong moral...... obligation towards helping the clients. Their moral reasoning reflected a paternalistic position where, on different occasions, the potential benefits of their interventions would be prioritised at the expense of protecting the clients' personal autonomy. The case managers' reasoning emphasised situational...

  20. Leveraging cloud based big data analytics in knowledge management for enhanced decision making in organizations

    Shorfuzzaman, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    In recent past, big data opportunities have gained much momentum to enhance knowledge management in organizations. However, big data due to its various properties like high volume, variety, and velocity can no longer be effectively stored and analyzed with traditional data management techniques to generate values for knowledge development. Hence, new technologies and architectures are required to store and analyze this big data through advanced data analytics and in turn generate vital real-t...

  1. 44 CFR 9.6 - Decision-making process.

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Decision-making process. 9.6... HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF WETLANDS § 9.6 Decision-making process... protection decision-making process to be followed by the Agency in applying the Orders to its actions. While...

  2. Strategy in Regulatory Decision-Making for Management of Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy.

    Segec, A; Keller-Stanislawski, B; Vermeer, N S; Macchiarulo, C; Straus, S M; Hidalgo-Simon, A; De Bruin, M L

    2015-11-01

    Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) has been observed after the use of several medicines, including monoclonal antibodies. As these drugs play important roles in the therapeutic armamentarium, it is important to address the challenges that this severe adverse reaction poses to the safe use of medicines. Considering the need for consistent outcomes of regulatory decisions, the European Medicines Agency Pharmacovigilance Risk Assessment Committee (PRAC) used PML as an example to develop a systematic approach to labeling and risk minimization. © 2015 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  3. Delft-FEWS:A Decision Making Platform to Intergrate Data, Model, Algorithm for Large-Scale River Basin Water Management

    Yang, T.; Welles, E.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we introduce a flood forecasting and decision making platform, named Delft-FEWS, which has been developed over years at the Delft Hydraulics and now at Deltares. The philosophy of Delft-FEWS is to provide water managers and operators with an open shell tool, which allows the integratation of a variety of hydrological, hydraulics, river routing, and reservoir models with hydrometerological forecasts data. Delft-FEWS serves as an powerful tool for both basin-scale and national-scale water resources management. The essential novelty of Delft-FEWS is to change the flood forecasting and water resources management from a single model or agency centric paradigm to a intergrated framework, in which different model, data, algorithm and stakeholders are strongly linked together. The paper will start with the challenges in water resources managment, and the concept and philosophy of Delft-FEWS. Then, the details of data handling and linkages of Delft-FEWS with different hydrological, hydraulic, and reservoir models, etc. Last, several cases studies and applications of Delft-FEWS will be demonstrated, including the National Weather Service and the Bonneville Power Administration in USA, and a national application in the water board in the Netherland.

  4. Hazardous Waste Management: The Role of Journalists in Decision Making Process

    Eerskov-Klika, M.; Lokner, V.; Subasiae, D.; Schaller, A.

    2002-02-28

    The journalists are crucial for informing and education of general public about facts related to hazardous and radioactive waste management. Radio programs, TV and newspapers are daily reporting on relevant facts and news. In general, it is true that the majority of journalists are interested more in so called daily politics than in educating general public on certain technical or scientific topics. Therefore, hazardous and radioactive waste management was introduced to Croatian general public in last ten years mainly through various news on site selection of radioactive waste disposal facilities and some problems related to hazardous waste management. This paper presents APO's experience with journalists in last ten years includes program and activities referring informing and educating of journalists from all media.

  5. Hazardous Waste Management: The Role of Journalists in Decision Making Process

    Eerskov-Klika, M.; Lokner, V.; Subasiae, D.; Schaller, A.

    2002-01-01

    The journalists are crucial for informing and education of general public about facts related to hazardous and radioactive waste management. Radio programs, TV and newspapers are daily reporting on relevant facts and news. In general, it is true that the majority of journalists are interested more in so called daily politics than in educating general public on certain technical or scientific topics. Therefore, hazardous and radioactive waste management was introduced to Croatian general public in last ten years mainly through various news on site selection of radioactive waste disposal facilities and some problems related to hazardous waste management. This paper presents APO's experience with journalists in last ten years includes program and activities referring informing and educating of journalists from all media

  6. Options in radioactive waste management revisited: a proposed framework for robust decision making.

    Flüeler, T

    2001-08-01

    Deregulation, with concurrent pressure on electricity utilities, has fundamentally changed the once-"closed" radioactive waste management system controlled by the so-called "nuclear establishment." Advocacy coalitions may change-who knows in which direction-but policy learning may also take place. This article presents a framework to evaluate the management options for a specified concept of "sustainability." When weighing the different objectives in view of the long-lasting potential danger of radiotoxic substances, the overall goal of a sound waste management system is to demonstrate safety. The first-priority objective of a disposal system, therefore, is its stability so that it can comply with the protection goal, that is, the long-term protection of humans and the environment from ionizing radiation. The complementary objective is flexibility, defined here as intervention potential. Because trade-offs within the "sustainability triangle" of ecology, economy, and society are unavoidable, the concept of "integral robustness"-both technical and societal-is introduced into radioactive waste management. A system is robust if it is not sensitive to significant parameter changes. In the present case, it has to have a conservative, passively stable design with built-in control and intervention mechanisms. With regard to technical implementation, a concept called "monitored long-term geological disposal" is presented. Such an "extended" final disposal concept emphasizes technical robustness, recognizes evaluation demands (for a potential break-off of a project), and enhances process-based transparency. This open approach admittedly sets high challenges with regard to technicalities as well as the institutional setting and the management process. It requires "mutual learning" by and from all stakeholders to achieve a truly sustainable radioactive waste management system.

  7. The Effects of Management Information System toward Decision Making in Food and Beverage Service Department in X Resorts and Hotels Bandung

    Agung Gita Subakti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In an organization, decision making hold an important role. That is why a decision made by managers should be a final decision that should be done by their subordinates or those who are related with the organization. In the effort to increase the quality of management information system, a research was held in X Resorts and Hotels Bandung to analyze management information system in the relation to decision making especially in Food and Beverage Service Department and recommendation of how to handle the problem occurred. From the questioner with data analyzing technique of spearman rank gained correlation result 0,84, with determination coefficient 71% which means the management information system has 71% level of influence to decision making, meanwhile the rest of the result (29% shows other factors, which also were related with the decision making other than management information system. To solve with the problem, it is recommended that X Resorts and Hotels decrease the level of information product error in management information used and fasten the delivery of provided information.

  8. Decision making regarding multifetal reduction.

    Maifeld, Michelle; Hahn, Sandra; Titler, Marita G; Mullen, Meredithe

    2003-01-01

    To identify salient variables that influence decision making regarding multifetal reduction (MFR) and describe their effect on individuals over time. Prospective, exploratory, descriptive design, using qualitative and quantitative methods. Midwestern tertiary care center. A convenience sample of 11 consecutive consenting couples with triplet or higher-order pregnancies who elected to undergo MFR. Semistructured audiotaped telephone interviews at three points: (a) 2 weeks postreduction, (b) 6 weeks postpartum, and (c) 6 months postpartum; a demographic and marital adjustment questionnaire. Themes identified by content analysis and compared via matrix analysis between males and females and at three points in time; trends in marital adjustment. Dominant variables influencing MFR decision making were risks associated with higher-order pregnancies and preservation of infants' and mothers' health. Most participants identified emotional issues, including moral and ethical dilemmas, as the most difficult aspect of reduction. Over time, participants reported feeling more positive about their decision; nonetheless, negative feelings emerged progressively. Risk aversion favored MFR decision making. Yet, both making and living with the decision were emotionally difficult for this sample. Interventions are needed to assist couples with this decision and its consequences.

  9. Regulatory decision making by decision analyses

    Holmberg, J.; Pulkkinen, U.

    1993-11-01

    The Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) has studied with the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) the applicability of decision analytic approach to the treatment of nuclear safety related problems at the regulatory body. The role of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) in decision making has also been discussed. In the study, inspectors from STUK exercised with a decision analytic approach by reoperationalizing two occurred and solved problems. The research scientist from VTT acted as systems analysts guiding the analysis process. The first case was related to a common cause failure phenomenon in solenoid valves controlling pneumatic valves important to safety of the plant. The problem of the regulatory body was to judge whether to allow continued operation or to require more detailed inspections and in which time chedule the inspections should be done. The latter problem was to evaluate design changes of external electrical grid connections after a fire incident had revealed weakness in the separation of electrical system. In both cases, the decision analysis was carried out several sessions in which decision makers, technical experts as well as experts of decision analysis participated. A multi-attribute value function was applied as a decision model so that attributes had to be defined to quantify the levels of achievements of the objectives. The attributes included both indicators related to the level of operational safety of the plant such as core damage frequency given by PSA, and indicators related to the safety culture, i.e., how well the chosen option fits on the regulatory policy. (24 refs., 6 figs., 9 tabs.)

  10. US strategy for forest management adaptation to climate change: building a framework for decision making

    V. Alaric Sample; Jessica E. Halofsky; David L. Peterson

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes methods developed to (1) assess current risks, vulnerabilities, and gaps in knowledge; (2) engage internal agency resources and external partners in the development of options and solutions; and (3) manage forest resources for resilience, not just in terms of natural ecosystems but in affected human communities as well. We describe an approach...

  11. Decentralization and Participatory Decision-Making: Implementing School-Based Management in the Abbott Districts.

    Walker, Elaine M.

    2000-01-01

    This study examined issues faced during implementation of school-based management (SBM) in New Jersey's special needs or Abbott districts, using a literature review, surveys of K-12 schools, and focus groups with central office administrators. The study examined forms of SBM, team operations, local autonomy versus state power, skills required to…

  12. Decision making under uncertainty in fisheries management: capital adjustment, fishermen behavior and stochasticity in fish stocks

    Dijk, van D.

    2013-01-01

    The world’s marine fisheries are characterized by declining global catch, an increasing number of overexploited stocks and high natural variability in fish stocks. Policy makers are becoming more aware that effective management systems have to be implemented to rebuild overexploited fish stocks. The

  13. Application of macro material flow modeling to the decision making process for integrated waste management systems

    Vigil, S.A.; Holter, G.M.

    1995-04-01

    Computer models have been used for almost a decade to model and analyze various aspects of solid waste management Commercially available models exist for estimating the capital and operating costs of landfills, waste-to-energy facilities and compost systems and for optimizing system performance along a single dimension (e.g. cost or transportation distance). An alternative to the use of currently available models is the more flexible macro material flow modeling approach in which a macro scale or regional level approach is taken. Waste materials are tracked through the complete integrated waste management cycle from generation through recycling and reuse, and finally to ultimate disposal. Such an approach has been applied by the authors to two different applications. The STELLA simulation language (for Macintosh computers) was used to model the solid waste management system of Puerto Rico. The model incorporated population projections for all 78 municipalities in Puerto Rico from 1990 to 2010, solid waste generation factors, remaining life for the existing landfills, and projected startup time for new facilities. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory has used the SimScript simulation language (for Windows computers) to model the management of solid and hazardous wastes produced during cleanup and remediation activities at the Hanford Nuclear Site

  14. Examining Moral Judgment and Ethical Decision-Making in Information Technology Managers and Their Relationship

    Shahand, Assadullah

    2010-01-01

    Growing incidences of corporate ethical misconducts have revived the debate over ethical reasoning and moral development of corporate managers. The role of information technology (IT) in the ethical dilemmas is becoming more evident as virtual environments become increasingly popular, organizations adopt digital form of record keeping, and the…

  15. Towards enhanced risk management: Planning, decision making and monitoring of US wildfire response

    Christopher J. Dunn; David E. Calkin; Matthew P. Thompson

    2017-01-01

    Wildfire’s economic, ecological and social impacts are on the rise, fostering the realisation that business-as-usual fire management in the United States is not sustainable. Current response strategies may be inefficient and contributing to unnecessary responder exposure to hazardous conditions, but significant knowledge gaps constrain clear and comprehensive...

  16. The urbanization of wildlife management:Social science, conflict, and decision making

    Michael E. Patterson; Jessica M. Montag; Daniel R. Williams

    2003-01-01

    Increasing urbanization of rural landscapes has created new challenges for wildlife management. In addition to changes in the physical landscape, urbanization has also produced changes in the socio-cultural landscape. The greater distancing from direct interaction with wildlife in urbanized societies has led to the emergence of a culture whose meanings for wildlife are...

  17. Risk assessment by client and case manager for shared decision making in outpatient forensic psychiatry

    van den Brink, Rob H. S.; Troquete, Nadine A. C.; Beintema, Harry; Mulder, Tamara; van Os, Titus W. D. P.; Schoevers, Robert A.; Wiersma, Durk

    2015-01-01

    Background: In outpatient forensic psychiatry, assessment of re-offending risk and treatment needs by case managers may be hampered by an incomplete view of client functioning. The client's appreciation of his own problem behaviour is not systematically used for these purposes. The current study

  18. Safety Assessment Approach for Decision Making Related to Remedial Measures and Radioactive Waste Management

    Rybalka, Nataliia; Kondratyev, Sergiy; Alekseeva, Zoya

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: At each particular case of “legacy” radioactive waste management facilities the optimized remedial measures should be justified taken into account: • results of facility investigations; • site status and characteristics; • safety assessment; • economical reasons; • societal factors; • timeframes; • available technologies and techniques

  19. The management of fever and petechiae: making sense of rash decisions.

    Brogan, P A; Raffles, A

    2000-12-01

    In a retrospective and prospective audit of 55 children presenting to the paediatric assessment unit of a district general hospital with fever and petechial rash, 9% had significant bacterial sepsis. The "ILL criteria" (irritability, lethargy, low capillary refill) for the management of children with fever and petechiae are proposed.

  20. How can knowledge exchange portals assist in knowledge management for evidence-informed decision making in public health?

    Quinn, Emma; Huckel-Schneider, Carmen; Campbell, Danielle; Seale, Holly; Milat, Andrew J

    2014-05-12

    Knowledge exchange portals are emerging as web tools that can help facilitate knowledge management in public health. We conducted a review to better understand the nature of these portals and their contribution to knowledge management in public health, with the aim of informing future development of portals in this field. A systematic literature search was conducted of the peer-reviewed and grey literature to identify articles that described the design, development or evaluation of Knowledge Exchange Portals KEPs in the public health field. The content of the articles was analysed, interpreted and synthesised in light of the objectives of the review. The systematic search yielded 2223 articles, of which fifteen were deemed eligible for review, including eight case studies, six evaluation studies and one commentary article. Knowledge exchange portals mainly included design features to support knowledge access and creation, but formative evaluation studies examining user needs suggested collaborative features supporting knowledge exchange would also be useful. Overall web usage statistics revealed increasing use of some of these portals over time; however difficulties remain in retaining users. There is some evidence to suggest that the use of a knowledge exchange portal in combination with tailored and targeted messaging can increase the use of evidence in policy and program decision making at the organisational level. Knowledge exchange portals can be a platform for providing integrated access to relevant content and resources in one location, for sharing and distributing information and for bringing people together for knowledge exchange. However more performance evaluation studies are needed to determine how they can best support evidence-informed decision making in public health.

  1. Decision-Making Autonomy and Subsidiary Innovation

    Van Vo, Dut; Beugelsdijk, Sjoerd; de Jong, Gjalt

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates how decision-making autonomy affects the possibility and intensity of innovation in subsidiaries of multinational enterprises (MNEs). Subsidiaries are increasingly identified as sources of innovation and as vehicles for cross-border transfer of new competences. The question...... of how much decision-making autonomy subsidiaries should have is a core issue in the management of headquarters-subsidiary relationships. Using two complementary theoretical perspectives, we hypothesize a non-linear relationship between subsidiary’s decision-making autonomy and innovation. We test our...... hypothesis in a multi-country and multiindustry database based on survey evidence of 134 subsidiaries located in five Central and Eastern European countries from 23 home countries. The empirical results provide support for a non-linear U shaped relationship between subsidiary decision-making autonomy...

  2. Geospatial decision support systems for societal decision making

    Bernknopf, R.L.

    2005-01-01

    While science provides reliable information to describe and understand the earth and its natural processes, it can contribute more. There are many important societal issues in which scientific information can play a critical role. Science can add greatly to policy and management decisions to minimize loss of life and property from natural and man-made disasters, to manage water, biological, energy, and mineral resources, and in general, to enhance and protect our quality of life. However, the link between science and decision-making is often complicated and imperfect. Technical language and methods surround scientific research and the dissemination of its results. Scientific investigations often are conducted under different conditions, with different spatial boundaries, and in different timeframes than those needed to support specific policy and societal decisions. Uncertainty is not uniformly reported in scientific investigations. If society does not know that data exist, what the data mean, where to use the data, or how to include uncertainty when a decision has to be made, then science gets left out -or misused- in a decision making process. This paper is about using Geospatial Decision Support Systems (GDSS) for quantitative policy analysis. Integrated natural -social science methods and tools in a Geographic Information System that respond to decision-making needs can be used to close the gap between science and society. The GDSS has been developed so that nonscientists can pose "what if" scenarios to evaluate hypothetical outcomes of policy and management choices. In this approach decision makers can evaluate the financial and geographic distribution of potential policy options and their societal implications. Actions, based on scientific information, can be taken to mitigate hazards, protect our air and water quality, preserve the planet's biodiversity, promote balanced land use planning, and judiciously exploit natural resources. Applications using the

  3. Review of experimental studies in social psychology of small groups when an optimal choice exists and application to operating room management decision-making.

    Prahl, Andrew; Dexter, Franklin; Braun, Michael T; Van Swol, Lyn

    2013-11-01

    Because operating room (OR) management decisions with optimal choices are made with ubiquitous biases, decisions are improved with decision-support systems. We reviewed experimental social-psychology studies to explore what an OR leader can do when working with stakeholders lacking interest in learning the OR management science but expressing opinions about decisions, nonetheless. We considered shared information to include the rules-of-thumb (heuristics) that make intuitive sense and often seem "close enough" (e.g., staffing is planned based on the average workload). We considered unshared information to include the relevant mathematics (e.g., staffing calculations). Multiple studies have shown that group discussions focus more on shared than unshared information. Quality decisions are more likely when all group participants share knowledge (e.g., have taken a course in OR management science). Several biases in OR management are caused by humans' limited abilities to estimate tails of probability distributions in their heads. Groups are more susceptible to analogous biases than are educated individuals. Since optimal solutions are not demonstrable without groups sharing common language, only with education of most group members can a knowledgeable individual influence the group. The appropriate model of decision-making is autocratic, with information obtained from stakeholders. Although such decisions are good quality, the leaders often are disliked and the decisions considered unjust. In conclusion, leaders will find the most success if they do not bring OR management operational decisions to groups, but instead act autocratically while obtaining necessary information in 1:1 conversations. The only known route for the leader making such decisions to be considered likable and for the decisions to be considered fair is through colleagues and subordinates learning the management science.

  4. A Multiswarm Optimizer for Distributed Decision Making in Virtual Enterprise Risk Management

    Yichuan Shao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We develop an optimization model for risk management in a virtual enterprise environment based on a novel multiswarm particle swarm optimizer called PS2O. The main idea of PS2O is to extend the single population PSO to the interacting multiswarms model by constructing hierarchical interaction topology and enhanced dynamical update equations. With the hierarchical interaction topology, a suitable diversity in the whole population can be maintained. At the same time, the enhanced dynamical update rule significantly speeds up the multiswarm to converge to the global optimum. With five mathematical benchmark functions, PS2O is proved to have considerable potential for solving complex optimization problems. PS2O is then applied to risk management in a virtual enterprise environment. Simulation results demonstrate that the PS2O algorithm is more feasible and efficient than the PSO algorithm in solving this real-world problem.

  5. Disaster management and social media use for decision making by humanitarian organizations

    Mukkamala, Alivelu Manga; Beck, Roman

    2016-01-01

    In times of a crisis, disasters or extreme events, affected people use social media solutions to share information about the situation. Hence, the use of this information for supporting humanitarian operations is becoming a valuable source to develop a real time understanding about the situation even before they arrive at the ground. From a scholarly perspective, the use of social media management during and after a disaster has hit has been researched, but no special focus has been given to ...

  6. Work-life Balance Decision-making of Norwegian Students: Implications for Human Resources Management

    Gawlik, Remigiusz; Jacobsen, Gorm

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The paper aims at identifying and assessing the significance of work-life balance determinants between the Youth of highly developed societies and its implications for human resources management on the example of Norway. Research Design & Methods: The research target group consists of 236 respondents recruited among Norwegian tertiary education students. It employed literature analysis , two-stage exploratory research: direct individual in-depth interviews, survey based on a se...

  7. Factors Influencing the Adoption of Biometric Security Technologies by Decision Making Information Technology and Security Managers

    Lease, David R.

    2005-01-01

    The research conducted under this study offers an understanding of the reasons why information technology (IT) and/or information assurance (IA) managers choose to recommend or not to recommend particular technologies, specifically biometric security, to their organizations. A review of the relevant literature provided the foundation to develop a set of research questions and factors for this research effort. The research questions became the basis of the study’s stated hypotheses for examini...

  8. Assessment of the Potential for Human Resource Accounting in Venezuelan Navy Management Decision Making.

    1981-12-01

    Accounting Association, 1957, op. cit, p. 6. 23. Horngren , Charles, " Cost Accounting : A Managerial Emphasis," Solutions Manual, Prentice-Hall...Model," Management Accounting , December 1977. Savich, R. S . and Ehrenreich, K. E., " Cost /Benefits Analysis of Human Resource Accounting Alternatives...A0A112 T40 NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA F/ S S / ASSESS1ENT OF THE POTENTIAL FOR HUMAN RESOURCE ACCOUNTING IN VE-ETC(Ul EC GS K FI MARN

  9. Managing for soil carbon sequestration: a modeling framework for decision-making

    Abramoff, Rose; Harden, Jennifer; Georgiou, Katerina; Tang, Jinyun; Torn, Margaret; Riley, William

    2017-04-01

    In order to plan for responsible soil carbon (C) management, it is important to know how site factors will affect C stabilization. For example, is mineral-associated C vulnerable to climate change, and how do management practices that modify plant inputs affect mineral-associated C? We applied a soil organic carbon (SOC) decomposition model that represents microbial physiology and mineral sorption. The model was able to reproduce large spatial gradients in SOC stocks; model predictions of SOC were highly correlated with SOC observations across an 4000 km transect (R2 > 0.9). We also used a Random Forest algorithm to compare our model predictions with transect data. We applied this model to explore expected changes to SOC across a range of mineral surface properties, mean annual temperature (MAT), and plant input rates. We found that SOC generally increased after plant amendments. Furthermore, the type of amendment (i.e., high vs. low lignin content), soil mineralogy, and climate all affected the sign and magnitude of SOC change over time. In particular, cold sites with low mineral surface availability were most vulnerable to SOC loss, and may benefit most from plant amendments. At all sites, mineral surface saturation reduced the SOC pool's sensitivity to changes in plant inputs. Saturated soils lost a smaller fraction of initial mineral-associated C following warming. We encourage the use of soil carbon models as frameworks to evaluate how particular sites may respond to changes in management and/or climate.

  10. Empowering the Legitimacy of Municipal Decision-Making - Three Swedish Municipalities Facing the Nuclear Waste Management Issue

    Soederberg, Olof

    2001-01-01

    This paper is focussed on how municipal elected leaders in three Swedish feasibility study municipalities - Nykoeping, Oskarshamn and Tierp - have tried to ensure that future decisions by their respective municipalities will be based both on factual knowledge and on existing opinions held by the general public. These efforts have contributed to an empowerment of the legitimacy of municipal decision-making within the nuclear waste management field and, probably, also served as a factor contributing to trust building with regard to these issues. The three cases show three ways to handle the problem, although there are also common features. The municipalities of Nykoeping and Oskarshamn have been facing these issues since 1995. In the case of Tierp, the municipality was confronted in late 1998 with the task to choose a strategy for its involvement in the site selection process and then, immediately, implement that strategy. A decision to construct a final repository for spent nuclear fuel has an obvious local dimension. It is not enough that an implementer is capable of developing a method that is considered to be safe enough by the regulatory authorities and by the Government. Nor is it enough that the implementer has succeeded to choose a site that these institutions consider to be suitable. A vital condition for a successful result is also that the general public, especially people living close to the site, have trust in the process leading up to the decision - and of course also that the general public is confident that the implementer and the regulator have agreed on a sound technical solution of the disposal problem. In other words, decisions in this area by Government and regulatory authorities do not only have to comply with existing legislation (obviously decisions by such bodies have to be 'legal'); they also should have a democratic legitimacy. In a representative democracy like Sweden, with high voting participation, it may seem self-evident that the

  11. Empowering the Legitimacy of Municipal Decision-Making - Three Swedish Municipalities Facing the Nuclear Waste Management Issue

    Soederberg, Olof [Ministry of the Environment, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2001-07-01

    This paper is focussed on how municipal elected leaders in three Swedish feasibility study municipalities - Nykoeping, Oskarshamn and Tierp - have tried to ensure that future decisions by their respective municipalities will be based both on factual knowledge and on existing opinions held by the general public. These efforts have contributed to an empowerment of the legitimacy of municipal decision-making within the nuclear waste management field and, probably, also served as a factor contributing to trust building with regard to these issues. The three cases show three ways to handle the problem, although there are also common features. The municipalities of Nykoeping and Oskarshamn have been facing these issues since 1995. In the case of Tierp, the municipality was confronted in late 1998 with the task to choose a strategy for its involvement in the site selection process and then, immediately, implement that strategy. A decision to construct a final repository for spent nuclear fuel has an obvious local dimension. It is not enough that an implementer is capable of developing a method that is considered to be safe enough by the regulatory authorities and by the Government. Nor is it enough that the implementer has succeeded to choose a site that these institutions consider to be suitable. A vital condition for a successful result is also that the general public, especially people living close to the site, have trust in the process leading up to the decision - and of course also that the general public is confident that the implementer and the regulator have agreed on a sound technical solution of the disposal problem. In other words, decisions in this area by Government and regulatory authorities do not only have to comply with existing legislation (obviously decisions by such bodies have to be 'legal'); they also should have a democratic legitimacy. In a representative democracy like Sweden, with high voting participation, it may seem self-evident that

  12. Decision Making Under Uncertain Categorization

    Stephanie Ying-Fen Chen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments investigated how category information is used in decision making under uncertainty and whether the framing of category information influences how it is used. Subjects were presented with vignettes in which the categorization of a critical item was ambiguous and were asked to choose among a set of actions with the goal of attaining the desired outcome for the main character in the story. The normative decision making strategy was to base the decision on all possible categories; however, research on a related topic, category-based induction, has found that people often only consider a single category when making predictions when categorization is uncertain. These experiments found that subjects tend to consider multiple categories when making decisions, but do so both when it is and is not appropriate, suggesting that use of multiple categories is not driven by an understanding of what categories are and are not relevant to the decision. Similarly, although a framing manipulation increased the rate of multiple-category use, it did so in situations in which multiple-category use was and was not appropriate.

  13. Unrealistic optimism and decision making

    Božović Bojana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the leading descriptive theories of decision-making under risk, Tversky & Kahneman's Prospect theory, reveals that normative explanation of decisionmaking, based only on principle of maximizing outcomes expected utility, is unsustainable. It also underlines the effect of alternative factors on decision-making. Framing effect relates to an influence that verbal formulation of outcomes has on choosing between certain and risky outcomes; in negative frame people tend to be risk seeking, whereas in positive frame people express risk averse tendencies. Individual decisions are not based on objective probabilities of outcomes, but on subjective probabilities that depend on outcome desirability. Unrealistically pessimistic subjects assign lower probabilities (than the group average to the desired outcomes, while unrealistically optimistic subjects assign higher probabilities (than the group average to the desired outcomes. Experiment was conducted in order to test the presumption that there's a relation between unrealistic optimism and decision-making under risk. We expected optimists to be risk seeking, and pessimist to be risk averse. We also expected such cognitive tendencies, if they should become manifest, to be framing effect resistant. Unrealistic optimism scale was applied, followed by the questionnaire composed of tasks of decision-making under risk. Results within the whole sample, and results of afterwards extracted groups of pessimists and optimists both revealed dominant risk seeking tendency that is resistant to the influence of subjective probabilities as well as to the influence of frame in which the outcome is presented.

  14. The Validation of the Mixedwood Growth Model (MGM for Use in Forest Management Decision Making

    Mike Bokalo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the Mixedwood Growth Model (MGM at a whole model scale for pure and mixed species stands of aspen and white spruce in the western boreal forest. MGM is an individual tree-based, distance-independent growth model, designed to evaluate growth and yield implications relating to the management of white spruce, black spruce, aspen, lodgepole pine, and mixedwood stands in Alberta, British Columbia, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba. Our validation compared stand-level model predictions against re-measured data (volume, basal area, diameter at breast height (DBH, average and top height and density from permanent sample plots using combined analysis of residual plots, bias statistics, efficiency and an innovative application of the equivalence test. For state variables, the model effectively simulated juvenile and mature stages of stand development for both pure and mixed species stands of aspen and white spruce in Alberta. MGM overestimates increment in older stands likely due to age-related pathology and weather-related stand damage. We identified underestimates of deciduous density and volume in Saskatchewan. MGM performs well for increment in postharvest stands less than 30 years of age. These results illustrate the comprehensive application of validation metrics to evaluate a complex model, and provide support for the use of MGM in management planning.

  15. Substituted decision making: elder guardianship.

    Leatherman, Martha E; Goethe, Katherine E

    2009-11-01

    The goal of this column is to help experienced clinicians navigate the judicial system when they are confronted with requests for capacity evaluations that involve guardianship (conservatorship). The interface between the growing elderly medical population and increasing requests for substituted decision making is becoming more complex. This column will help practicing psychiatrists understand the medical, legal, and societal factors involved in adult guardianship. Such understanding is necessary in order to effectively perform guardianship evaluations and adequately inform courts, patients, and families about the psychiatric diagnoses central to substituted decision making.

  16. A decision-making framework for effective maintenance management using life cycle costing (LCC in a rolling stock environment

    Fourie, Cornelius Jacobus

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a life cycle costing (LCC framework for effective maintenance management is investigated and developed for use in a railway rolling stock environment. The framework consists of combining typical mission-critical components together with their failure and maintenance history. All costs related to the operation and maintenance of these components throughout their life cycle are also determined. The next step involves considering different scenarios under which the components can be used in relation to operations, maintenance, and replacements. The decision about which scenario to take is based on the one with the most favourable net present value after life cycle costing is performed over a specified period of time. A typical railway rolling-stock maintenance organisation in South Africa was used to highlight the practical implications of such a framework and how the company could make informed and appropriate decisions. The conclusion of this study is that such a framework is useful, and that it can be used as a basis for estimating LCC across a spectrum of critical assets found in the rolling stock environment.

  17. Small and medium-sized firms top management teams’ decision making in global acquisitions

    Timothy Kiessling

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The new global marketplace has caused changes in some organizations’/industries’ forms and execution of strategy and reliance on international personnel. Entry and success through the accumulation of knowledge in the global marketplace have become the impetus for sustainable competitive/developmental advantage for many corporations. Many organizations choose a strategy focusing on international acquisitions in foreign markets to compete effectively in the current ever-changing dynamic competitive landscape. After acquisition, the monitoring of the operations of the new international subsidiary by US firms typically is an ethnocentric example of applying home-country standards and controls. We suggest that the top management team (TMT of a firm is a valuable resource, needs to be retained and that ethnocentric monitoring must be reconsidered. This research focuses on the TMT and their value to the firm to help explain the variation in acquisition success. Thus post-acquisition integration and monitoring must account for this valuable asset.

  18. Judicious management of uncertain risks : II. Simple rules and more intricate models for precautionary decision-making

    Vlek, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Rational decision theory could be more fully exploited for the prudent management of uncertain-risk situations. After an integrative circumscription of the precautionary principle (PP), 10 key issues are discussed covering assessment, decision and control. In view of this, a variety of

  19. Decision-making process related to treatment and management in Korean women with breast cancer: Finding the right individualized healthcare trajectory.

    Kim, Kkotbong; Yang, Jinhyang

    2017-06-01

    After being diagnosed with breast cancer, women must make a number of decisions about their treatment and management. When the decision-making process among breast cancer patients is ineffective, it results in harm to their health. Little is known about the decision-making process of breast cancer patients during the entire course of treatment and management. We investigated women with breast cancer to explore the decision-making processes related to treatment and management. Eleven women participated, all of whom were receiving treatment or management in Korea. The average participant age was 43.5years. For data collection and analysis, a grounded theory methodology was used. Through constant comparative analyses, a core category emerged that we referred to as "finding the right individualized healthcare trajectory." The decision-making process occurred in four phases: turmoil, exploration, balance, and control. The turmoil phase included weighing the credibility of information and lowering the anxiety level. The exploration phase included assessing the expertise/promptness of medical treatment and evaluating the effectiveness of follow-up management. The balance phase included performing analyses from multiple angles and rediscovering value as a human being. The control phase included constructing an individualized management system and following prescribed and other management options. It is important to provide patients with accurate information related to the treatment and management of breast cancer so that they can make effective decisions. Healthcare providers should engage with patients on issues related to their disease, understand the burden placed on patients because of issues related to their sex, and ensure that the patient has a sufficient support system. The results of this study can be used to develop phase-specific, patient-centered, and tailored interventions for breast cancer patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Impaired decision making among morbidly obese adults.

    Brogan, Amy

    2011-02-01

    The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) measures affective decision making and has revealed decision making impairments across a wide range of eating disorders. This study aimed to investigate affective decision making in severely obese individuals.

  1. Models of expert assessments and their study in problems of choice and decision-making in management of motor transport processes

    Belokurov, V. P.; Belokurov, S. V.; Korablev, R. A.; Shtepa, A. A.

    2018-05-01

    The article deals with decision making concerning transport tasks on search iterations in the management of motor transport processes. An optimal selection of the best option for specific situations is suggested in the management of complex multi-criteria transport processes.

  2. Genetic Engineering and Sustainable Crop Disease Management: Opportunities for Case-by-Case Decision-Making

    Paul Vincelli

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Genetic engineering (GE offers an expanding array of strategies for enhancing disease resistance of crop plants in sustainable ways, including the potential for reduced pesticide usage. Certain GE applications involve transgenesis, in some cases creating a metabolic pathway novel to the GE crop. In other cases, only cisgenessis is employed. In yet other cases, engineered genetic changes can be so minimal as to be indistinguishable from natural mutations. Thus, GE crops vary substantially and should be evaluated for risks, benefits, and social considerations on a case-by-case basis. Deployment of GE traits should be with an eye towards long-term sustainability; several options are discussed. Selected risks and concerns of GE are also considered, along with genome editing, a technology that greatly expands the capacity of molecular biologists to make more precise and targeted genetic edits. While GE is merely a suite of tools to supplement other breeding techniques, if wisely used, certain GE tools and applications can contribute to sustainability goals.

  3. Development of a district information system for water management planning and strategic decision making

    Loukas, A.; Tzabiras, J.; Spiliotopoulos, M.; Kokkinos, K.; Fafoutis, C.; Mylopoulos, N.

    2015-06-01

    The overall objective of this work is the development of a District Information System (DIS) which could be used by stakeholders for the purposes of a district day-to-day water management as well as for planning and strategic decisionmaking. The DIS was developed from a GIS-based modeling approach, which integrates a generic crop model and a hydraulic model of the transport/distribution system, using land use maps generated by Landsat TM imagery. The main sub-objectives are: (i) the development of an operational algorithm to retrieve crop evapotranspiration from remote sensing data, (ii) the development of an information system with friendly user interface for the data base, the crop module and the hydraulic module and (iii) the analysis and validation of management scenarios from model simulations predicting the respective behavior. The Lake Karla watershed is used in this study, but the overall methodology could be used as a basis for future analysis elsewhere. Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL) was used to derive monthly actual evapotranspiration (ET) values from Landsat TM imagery. Meteorological data from the archives of the Institute for Research and Technology, Thessaly (I.RE.TE.TH) has also been used. The methodology was developed using high quality Landsat TM images during 2007 growing season. Monthly ET values are used as an input to CROPWAT model. Outputs of CROPWAT model are then used as input for WEAP model. The developed scenario is based on the actual situation of the surface irrigation network of the Local Administration of Land Reclamation (LALR) of Pinios for the year of 2007. The DIS is calibrated with observed data of this year and the district parameterization is conducted based on the actual operation of the network. The operation of the surface irrigation network of Pinios LALR is simulated using Technologismiki Works, while the operation of closed pipe irrigation network of Lake Karla LALR is simulated using Watercad. Four

  4. The role and interest of local actors in HLW management decision-making

    Farin, Sebastien

    2011-01-01

    Ever since the mid-1990's, the French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (Andra) has been present on a site in Eastern France, which straddles two districts, the Meuse and the Haute-Marne, and two regions, the Lorraine and the Champagne-Ardenne. In that sector of the Paris Basin, the Agency is also conducting various studies on the geological and reversible disposal of high-level and intermediate-level long-lived waste resulting mainly from nuclear power plants. In the pursuit of its activities, Andra has already excavated and fitted an underground laboratory at a depth of 490 m in a clay formation at Bure, and built a public exhibition space at nearby Saudron to display its demonstrators and prototypes. Geological disposal forms an integral part of the French national management policy for all radioactive waste generated in France. It constitutes a broad national project, including legislation, national debates, etc. On the other hand, local actors, such as elected officials, consular chambers, etc., are also involved in the evolution of the project, as demonstrated by their participation in the debate on the reversibility of waste repositories. In general, all scientific, technical, environmental or socio-economic issues concern them very directly. At this stage in time, the project is entering into a more concrete phase, and local actors are likely to get involved even more, especially with regard to the location of surface installations or to potential land development incentives in relation to the implementation of the waste repository. The proposal for a more restricted zone in late 2009 in preparation for the implementation of the facility and of the public debate to be held in 2013, but before which Andra is required to propose an implementation site, should emphasise the implication of all stakeholders. Due to the fact that the project would be straddling the Meuse and Haute-Marne Districts, each pertaining to two different regions (Lorraine

  5. Pig farmers' perceptions, attitudes, influences and management of information in the decision-making process for disease control.

    Alarcon, Pablo; Wieland, Barbara; Mateus, Ana L P; Dewberry, Chris

    2014-10-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to explore the factors involved in the decision-making process used by pig farmers for disease control and (2) to investigate pig farmers' attitudes and perceptions about different information sources relating to disease control. In 2011 a qualitative study involving 20 face-to-face interviews with English pig farmers was conducted. The questionnaire was composed of three parts. The first part required farmers to identify two diseases they had experienced and which were difficult to recognize and/or control. They were asked to report how the disease problem was recognized, how the need for control was decided, and what affected the choice of control approach. For the latter, a structure related to the Theory of Planned Behaviour was used. Their verbal responses were classified as associated with: (1) attitude and beliefs, (2) subjective norms, or (3) perceived behavioural control (PBC). In the second part, five key sources of information for disease control (Defra, BPEX, research from academia, internet and veterinarians) and the factors related to barriers to knowledge were investigated. Interviews were recorded and transcribed. A qualitative analysis of the text of the interview transcripts was carried out using templates. Drivers for disease control were 'pig mortality', 'feeling of entering in an economically critical situation', 'animal welfare' and 'feeling of despair'. Veterinarians were perceived by several participating farmers as the most trusted information source on disease control. However, in particular non-sustainable situations, other producers, and especially experiences from abroad, seemed to considerably influence the farmers' decision-making. 'Lack of knowledge', 'farm structure and management barriers' and 'economic constrains' were identified in relation to PBC. Several negative themes, such as 'lack of communication', 'not knowing where to look', and 'information bias' were associated with research from

  6. Moral and Ethical Decision Making: Literature Review

    2005-08-08

    exploration and elaboration of both rational and intuitive decision making processes. In addition, emotions may also play an important role in...More specifically, it suggests that both rational and intuitive decision making processes are likely to play an important role in ethical decision ...and military literature related to ethical decision making more generally. Specifically, it suggests that both rational and intuitive decision making

  7. Science-policy interface in transformative adaptive flood risk management - decision-making in Austria

    Thaler, Thomas; Attems, Marie-Sophie; Rauter, Magdalena; Fuchs, Sven

    2016-04-01

    Facing the challenges of climate change, this paper aims to analyse and to evaluate the multiple use of flood alleviation schemes with respect to social transformation in communities exposed to flood hazards in Europe. The overall goals are: (1) the identification of indicators and parameters necessary for strategies to increase societal resilience, (2) an analysis of the institutional settings needed for societal transformation, and (3) perspectives of changing divisions of responsibilities between public and private actors necessary to arrive at more resilient societies. As such, governance is done by people interacting and defining risk mitigation measures as well as climate change adaptation are therefore simultaneously both outcomes of, and productive to, public and private responsibilities. Building off current knowledge this paper focussed on different dimensions of adaptation and mitigation strategies based on social, economic and institutional incentives and settings, centring on the linkages between these different dimensions and complementing existing flood risk governance arrangements. As such, the challenges of adaptation to flood risk will be tackled by converting scientific frameworks into practical assessment and policy advice. This paper used the Formative Scenario Analysis (FSA) as a method to construct well-defined sets of assumptions to gain insight into a system and its potential future development, based on qualitatively assessed impact factors and rated quantitative relations between these factors, such as impact and consistency analysis. The purpose of this approach was to develop scenarios, where participations develop their own strategies how to implement a transformative adaptation strategy in flood risk management. In particular, the interaction between researcher, the public and policy makers was analysed. Challenges and limitations were assessed, such as benefits on costs of adaptation measures, for the implementation of visions to

  8. Teaching Rational Decision-Making.

    Woolever, Roberts

    1978-01-01

    Presented is an outline of a college course, "Education in American Society," that focused on teaching students rational decision-making skills while examining current issues in American Education. The outline is followed by student comments, reactions, and evaluations of the course. (JMD)

  9. Decision Making in Biological Systems

    Tian, Chengzhe

    This thesis consists of five projects in three topics with a shared theme of understanding cellular decision-making processes with mathematical modeling. In the first topic, we address the possible interaction between bacterial Toxin-Antitoxin (TA) systems and stringent response alarmone guanosin...

  10. Decision Making and Revealed Preference

    de la Rosa, Leonidas Enrique

    If our decision-making processes are to some extent shaped by evolutionary pressures and our environment is different from that to which we adapted, some of our choices will not be in our best interest. But revealed preference is the only tool that we have so far to conduct a normative analysis...

  11. Individual decision making, group decision making and deliberation

    Radovanović Bojana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Each of us makes a number of decisions, from the less important to those with far-reaching consequences. As members of different groups, we are also actors of group decision making. In order to make a rational decision, a choice-making procedure must satisfy a number of assumptions (conditions of rationality. In addition, when it comes to group decisions, those procedures should also be “fair.” However, it is not possible to define a procedure of choice-making that would transform individual orders of alternatives based on preferences of perfectly rational individuals into a single social order and still meet conditions of rationality and ethics. The theory of deliberative democracy appeared in response to the impossibility of Social Choice theory. The basic assumption of deliberative democracy is that individuals adjust their preferences taking into account interests of the community. They are open for discussion with other group members and are willing to change their attitudes in order to achieve common interests. Ideally, group members come to an agreement during public discussion (deliberation. Still, this concept cannot completely over­come all the difficulties posed by the theory of social choice. Specifically, there is no solution for strategic and manipulative behavior of individuals. Also, the concept of deliberative democracy faces certain problems particular to this approach, such as, to name but a few, problems with the establishment of equality of participants in the debate and their motivation, as well as problems with the organization of public hearings. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47009: Evropske integracije i društveno-ekonomske promene privrede Srbije na putu ka EU i br. 179015: Izazovi i perspektive strukturnih promena u Srbiji: Strateški pravci ekonomskog razvoja i usklađivanje sa zahtevima EU

  12. Managing the 'gaps' in a regimen of control - operational decision making in nuclear power

    McDougall, S.J.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear power performance has significantly improved over the last thirty years. This improvement has been based on a philosophy of control. That is, for each issue that must be managed to achieve safe performance, a pre-determined constraint must be established. In addition to the barriers that were designed into the plant, a large range of programs, processes and procedures have been developed to direct the activities of anyone associated with the plant. The premise is that following pre-determined procedures, in a diligent way, will support ongoing plant safety. But what if an issue arises for which there is no procedure? For serious situations, emergency procedures exist to guide operations personnel to place the plant in a safe state. However, the vast majority of issues are much more mundane and form a part of the daily life in the plant. In these cases the nuclear industry has been encouraging the use of an 'Operational Decision Making' (ODM) process. This paper will review ODM as practiced within the context of the governing paradigm of control. The paper will show the strengths of the process and areas for development. ODM is an important tool for managers within the complex socio-technical system that is nuclear power today. This paper summarises key points from a research thesis completed by the author to meet the requirements of an MSc program in 'Human Factors and System Safety'. (author)

  13. Managing the 'gaps' in a regimen of control - operational decision making in nuclear power

    McDougall, S.J. [Leading Safety Culture Inc., Port Elgin, ON (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    Nuclear power performance has significantly improved over the last thirty years. This improvement has been based on a philosophy of control. That is, for each issue that must be managed to achieve safe performance, a pre-determined constraint must be established. In addition to the barriers that were designed into the plant, a large range of programs, processes and procedures have been developed to direct the activities of anyone associated with the plant. The premise is that following pre-determined procedures, in a diligent way, will support ongoing plant safety. But what if an issue arises for which there is no procedure? For serious situations, emergency procedures exist to guide operations personnel to place the plant in a safe state. However, the vast majority of issues are much more mundane and form a part of the daily life in the plant. In these cases the nuclear industry has been encouraging the use of an 'Operational Decision Making' (ODM) process. This paper will review ODM as practiced within the context of the governing paradigm of control. The paper will show the strengths of the process and areas for development. ODM is an important tool for managers within the complex socio-technical system that is nuclear power today. This paper summarises key points from a research thesis completed by the author to meet the requirements of an MSc program in 'Human Factors and System Safety'. (author)

  14. Making Sustainable Decisions Using the KONVERGENCE Framework

    Piet, Steven James; Gibson, Patrick Lavern; Joe, Jeffrey Clark; Kerr, Thomas A; Nitschke, Robert Leon; Dakins, Maxine Ellen

    2003-02-01

    Hundreds of contaminated facilities and sites must be cleaned up. “Cleanup” includes decommissioning, environmental restoration, and waste management. Cleanup can be complex, expensive, risky, and time-consuming. Decisions are often controversial, can stall or be blocked, and are sometimes re-done - some before implementation, some decades later. Making and keeping decisions with long time horizons involves special difficulties and requires new approaches, including: • New ways (mental model) to analyze and visualize the problem, • Awareness of the option to shift strategy or reframe from a single decision to an adaptable network of decisions, and • Improved tactical processes that account for several challenges. These include the following: • Stakeholder values are a more fundamental basis for decision making and keeping than “meeting regulations.” • Late-entry players and future generations will question decisions. • People may resist making “irreversible” decisions. • People need “compelling reasons” to take action in the face of uncertainties. Our project goal is to make cleanup decisions easier to make, implement, keep, and sustain. By sustainability, we mean decisions that work better over the entire time-period—from when a decision is made, through implementation, to its end point. That is, alternatives that can be kept “as is” or adapted as circumstances change. Increased attention to sustainability and adaptability may decrease resistance to making and implementing decisions. Our KONVERGENCE framework addresses these challenges. The framework is based on a mental model that states: where Knowledge, Values, and Resources converge (the K, V, R in KONVERGENCE), you will find a sustainable decision. We define these areas or universes as follows: • Knowledge: what is known about the problem and possible solutions? • Values: what is important to those affected by the decision? • Resources: what is available to implement

  15. A method to assess how interactive water simulation tools influence transdisciplinary decision-making processes in water management

    Leskens, Johannes

    2015-04-01

    In modern water management, often transdisciplinary work sessions are organized in which various stakeholders participate to jointly define problems, choose measures and divide responsibilities to take actions. Involved stakeholders are for example policy analysts or decision-makers from municipalities, water boards or provinces, representatives of pressure groups and researchers from knowledge institutes. Parallel to this increasing attention for transdisciplinary work sessions, we see a growing availability of interactive IT-tools that can be applied during these sessions. For example, dynamic flood risk maps have become recently available that allow users during a work sessions to instantaneously assess the impact of storm surges or dam breaches, displayed on digital maps. Other examples are serious games, realistic visualizations and participatory simulations. However, the question is if and how these interactive IT-tools contribute to better decision-making. To assess this, we take the process of knowledge construction during a work session as a measure for the quality of decision-making. Knowledge construction can be defined as the process in which ideas, perspectives and opinions of different stakeholders, all having their own expertise and experience, are confronted with each other and new shared meanings towards water management issues are created. We present an assessment method to monitor the process of knowledge construction during work sessions in water management in which interactive IT tools are being used. The assessment method is based on a literature review, focusing on studies in which knowledge construction was monitored in other contexts that water management. To test the applicability of the assessment method, we applied it during a multi-stakeholder work session in Westland, located in the southwest of the Netherlands. The discussions during the work session were observed by camera. All statements, expressed by the various members of a

  16. Application of the principles of evidence-based practice in decision making among senior management in Nova Scotia's addiction services agencies.

    Murphy, Matthew; MacCarthy, M Jayne; McAllister, Lynda; Gilbert, Robert

    2014-12-05

    Competency profiles for occupational clusters within Canada's substance abuse workforce (SAW) define the need for skill and knowledge in evidence-based practice (EBP) across all its members. Members of the Senior Management occupational cluster hold ultimate responsibility for decisions made within addiction services agencies and therefore must possess the highest level of proficiency in EBP. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge of the principles of EBP, and use of the components of the evidence-based decision making (EBDM) process in members of this occupational cluster from selected addiction services agencies in Nova Scotia. A convenience sampling method was used to recruit participants from addiction services agencies. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with eighteen Senior Management. The interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and checked by the participants. Interview transcripts were coded and analyzed for themes using content analysis and assisted by qualitative data analysis software (NVivo 9.0). Data analysis revealed four main themes: 1) Senior Management believe that addictions services agencies are evidence-based; 2) Consensus-based decision making is the norm; 3) Senior Management understand the principles of EBP and; 4) Senior Management do not themselves use all components of the EBDM process when making decisions, oftentimes delegating components of this process to decision support staff. Senior Management possess an understanding of the principles of EBP, however, when making decisions they often delegate components of the EBDM process to decision support staff. Decision support staff are not defined as an occupational cluster in Canada's SAW and have not been ascribed a competency profile. As such, there is no guarantee that this group possesses competency in EBDM. There is a need to advocate for the development of a defined occupational cluster and associated competency profile for this

  17. A brief history of decision making.

    Buchanan, Leigh; O'Connell, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Sometime around the middle of the past century, telephone executive Chester Barnard imported the term decision making from public administration into the business world. There it began to replace narrower terms, like "resource allocation" and "policy making," shifting the way managers thought about their role from continuous, Hamlet-like deliberation toward a crisp series of conclusions reached and actions taken. Yet, decision making is, of course, a broad and ancient human pursuit, flowing back to a time when people sought guidance from the stars. From those earliest days, we have strived to invent better tools for the purpose, from the Hindu-Arabic systems for numbering and algebra, to Aristotle's systematic empiricism, to friar Occam's advances in logic, to Francis Bacon's inductive reasoning, to Descartes's application of the scientific method. A growing sophistication with managing risk, along with a nuanced understanding of human behavior and advances in technology that support and mimic cognitive processes, has improved decision making in many situations. Even so, the history of decision-making strategies--captured in this time line and examined in the four accompanying essays on risk, group dynamics, technology, and instinct--has not marched steadily toward perfect rationalism. Twentieth-century theorists showed that the costs of acquiring information lead executives to make do with only good-enough decisions. Worse, people decide against their own economic interests even when they know better. And in the absence of emotion, it's impossible to make any decisions at all. Erroneous framing, bounded awareness, excessive optimism: The debunking of Descartes's rational man threatens to swamp our confidence in our choices. Is it really surprising, then, that even as technology dramatically increases our access to information, Malcolm Gladwell extols the virtues of gut decisions made, literally, in the blink of an eye?

  18. How organizational context affects bioethical decision-making: pharmacists' management of gatekeeping processes in retail and hospital settings.

    Chiarello, Elizabeth

    2013-12-01

    Social science studies of bioethics demonstrate that ethics are highly contextual, functioning differently across local settings as actors make daily decisions "on the ground." Sociological studies that demonstrate the key role organizations play in shaping ethical decision-making have disproportionately focused on physicians and nurses working in hospital settings where they contend with life and death issues. This study broadens our understanding of the contexts of ethical decision-making by empirically examining understudied healthcare professionals - pharmacists - working in two organizational settings, retail and hospital, where they act as gatekeepers to regulated goods and services as they contend with ethical issues ranging from the serious to the mundane. This study asks: How do organizations shape pharmacists' identification, negotiation, and resolution of ethical challenges; in other words, how do organizations shape pharmacists' gatekeeping processes? Based on 95 semi-structured interviews with U.S. pharmacists practicing in retail and hospital pharmacies conducted between September 2009 and May 2011, this research finds that organizations influence ethical decision-making by shaping how pharmacists construct four gatekeeping processes: medical, legal, fiscal, and moral. Each gatekeeping process manifests differently across organizations due to how these settings structure inter-professional power dynamics, proximity to patients, and means of accessing information. Findings suggest new directions for theorizing about ethical decision-making in medical contexts by drawing attention to new ethical actors, new organizational settings, an expanded definition of ethical challenges, and a broader conceptualization of gatekeeping. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Making Sustainable Decisions Using The KONVERGENCE Framework

    Piet, S. J.; Gibson, P. L.; Joe, J. C.; Kerr, T. A.; Nitschke, R. L.; Dakins, M. E.

    2003-02-25

    Hundreds of contaminated facilities and sites must be cleaned up. ''Cleanup'' includes decommissioning, environmental restoration, and waste management. Cleanup can be complex, expensive, risky, and time-consuming. Decisions are often controversial, can stall or be blocked, and are sometimes re-done--some before implementation, some decades later. Making and keeping decisions with long time horizons involves special difficulties and requires new approaches. Our project goal is to make cleanup decisions easier to make, implement, keep, and sustain. By sustainability, we mean decisions that work better over the entire time-period-from when a decision is made, through implementation, to its end point. That is, alternatives that can be kept ''as is'' or adapted as circumstances change. Increased attention to sustainability and adaptability may decrease resistance to making and implementing decisions. Our KONVERGENCE framework addresses these challenges. The framework is based on a mental model that states: where Knowledge, Values, and Resources converge (the K, V, R in KONVERGENCE), you will find a sustainable decision. We define these areas or universes as follows: (1) Knowledge: what is known about the problem and possible solutions? (2) Values: what is important to those affected by the decision? (3) Resources: what is available to implement possible solutions or improve knowledge? This mental model helps analyze and visualize what is happening as decisions are made and kept. Why is there disagreement? Is there movement toward konvergence? Is a past decision drifting out of konvergence? The framework includes strategic improvements, i.e., expand the spectrum of alternatives to include adaptable alternatives and decision networks. It includes tactical process improvements derived from experience, values, and relevant literature. This paper includes diagnosis and medication (suggested path forward) for intractable cases.

  20. Making Sustainable Decisions Using The KONVERGENCE Framework

    Piet, S. J.; Gibson, P. L.; Joe, J. C.; Kerr, T. A.; Nitschke, R. L.; Dakins, M. E.

    2003-01-01

    Hundreds of contaminated facilities and sites must be cleaned up. ''Cleanup'' includes decommissioning, environmental restoration, and waste management. Cleanup can be complex, expensive, risky, and time-consuming. Decisions are often controversial, can stall or be blocked, and are sometimes re-done--some before implementation, some decades later. Making and keeping decisions with long time horizons involves special difficulties and requires new approaches. Our project goal is to make cleanup decisions easier to make, implement, keep, and sustain. By sustainability, we mean decisions that work better over the entire time-period-from when a decision is made, through implementation, to its end point. That is, alternatives that can be kept ''as is'' or adapted as circumstances change. Increased attention to sustainability and adaptability may decrease resistance to making and implementing decisions. Our KONVERGENCE framework addresses these challenges. The framework is based on a mental model that states: where Knowledge, Values, and Resources converge (the K, V, R in KONVERGENCE), you will find a sustainable decision. We define these areas or universes as follows: (1) Knowledge: what is known about the problem and possible solutions? (2) Values: what is important to those affected by the decision? (3) Resources: what is available to implement possible solutions or improve knowledge? This mental model helps analyze and visualize what is happening as decisions are made and kept. Why is there disagreement? Is there movement toward konvergence? Is a past decision drifting out of konvergence? The framework includes strategic improvements, i.e., expand the spectrum of alternatives to include adaptable alternatives and decision networks. It includes tactical process improvements derived from experience, values, and relevant literature. This paper includes diagnosis and medication (suggested path forward) for intractable cases

  1. Recent developemts in multiple criteria decision making

    Z. Zionts

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Problems involving more than one criterion abound. To help in the solution of such problems, a field of management science and operations research known as multiple criteria decision making (MCDM has emerged to help solve such problems. In this paper we discuss some recent developments in this important field.

  2. Teaching Decision-Making in Multiple Dimensions

    Barneva, Reneta P.; Brimkov, Valentin E.; Walters, Lisa M.

    2018-01-01

    In all areas of human activity, decision-making based on data analysis is very important. As the availability of data grows, it becomes critical to educate not only traditional students but also those individuals who are now in the workforce, as many of them are expected to manage the complex data streams and to provide evidence and guidance for…

  3. Decision Making and Systems Thinking: Educational Issues

    Yurtseven, M. Kudret; Buchanan, Walter W.

    2016-01-01

    Decision making in most universities is taught within the conventional OR/MS (Operations Research/Management Science) paradigm. This paradigm is known to be "hard" since it is consisted of mathematical tools, and normally suitable for solving structured problems. In complex situations the conventional OR/MS paradigm proves to be…

  4. Interactive system for decision-making in power engineering

    Gabrzhinskij, I.; Skurovets, V.

    1988-01-01

    Classification of factors, affecting decision-making in the process of power engineering management is given. General formulation of the problem and main stages of decision-making are considered. Principle scheme of heuristic procedure of decision-making is suggested

  5. Developing a decision-making model based on an interdisciplinary oncological care group for the management of colorectal cancer.

    Genovesi, Domenico; Mazzilli, Lorenzo; Trignani, Marianna; DI Tommaso, Monica; Nuzzo, Antonio; Biondi, Edoardo; Tinari, Nicola; Martino, Maria Teresa; Innocenti, Paolo; DI Sebastiano, Pierluigi; Mazzola, Lorenzo; Lanci, Carmine; Neri, Matteo; Laterza, Francesco; Marino, Maria; Ferrini, Giovanni; Spadaccini, Antonio; Filippone, Antonella; DI Giandomenico, Enzo; Marulli, Antonio; Palombo, Giuseppe; Sparvieri, Antonio; Marchetti, Antonio; Pizzicannella, Giuseppe; Petrini, Flavia; DI Felice, Maria; Ottaviani, Floriana; Monteodorisio, Antonio; DI Nicola, Marta; Cefaro, Giampiero Ausili

    2014-05-01

    To report our experience on implementation and preliminary results of a decision-making model based on the recommendations of an Interdisciplinary Oncological Care Group developed for the management of colorectal cancer. The multidisciplinary team identified a reference guideline using appraisal of guidelines for research and evaluation (AGREE) tool based on a sequential assessment of the guideline quality. Thereafter, internal guidelines with diagnostic and therapeutic management for early, locally advanced and metastatic colonic and rectal cancer were drafted; organizational aspects, responsibility matrices, protocol actions for each area of specialty involved and indicators for performing audits were also defined. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) UK guideline was the reference for drafting the internal guideline document; from February to November 2013, 125 patients with colorectal cancer were discussed by and taken under the care of the Interdisciplinary Oncological Care Group. The first audit performed in December 2013 revealed optimal adherence to the internal guideline, mainly in terms of uniformity and accuracy of perioperative staging, coordination and timing of multi-modal therapies. To date, all patients under observation are within the diagnostic and therapeutic course, no patient came out from the multidisciplinary "path" and only in 14% of cases have the first recommendations proposed been changed. The selected indicators appear effective and reliable, while at the moment, it is not yet possible to assess the impact of the multidisciplinary team on clinical outcome. Although having a short observation period, our model seems capable of determining optimal uniformity of diagnostic and therapeutic management, to a high degree of patient satisfaction. A longer observation period is necessary in order to confirm these observations and for assessing the impact on clinical outcome.

  6. Acceptability, acceptance and decision making

    Ackerschott, H.

    2002-01-01

    There is a fundamental difference between the acceptability of a civilizatory or societal risk and the acceptability of the decision-making process that leads to a civilizatory or societal risk. The analysis of individual risk decisions - regarding who, executes when which indisputably hazardous, unhealthy or dangerous behaviour under which circumstances - is not helpful in finding solutions for the political decisions at hand in Germany concerning nuclear energy in particular or energy in general. The debt for implementation of any technology, in the sense of making the technology a success in terms of broad acceptance and general utilisation, lies with the particular industry involved. Regardless of the technology, innovation research identifies the implementation phase as most critical to the success of any innovation. In this sense, nuclear technology is at best still an innovation, because the implementation has not yet been completed. Fear and opposition to innovation are ubiquitous. Even the economy - which is often described as 'rational' - is full of this resistance. Innovation has an impact on the pivotal point between stability, the presupposition for the successful execution of decisions already taken and instability, which includes insecurity, but is also necessary for the success of further development. By definition, innovations are beyond our sphere of experience; not at the level of reliability and trust yet to come. Yet they are evaluated via the simplifying heuristics for making decisions proven not only to be necessary and useful, but also accurate in the familiar. The 'settlement of the debt of implementation', the accompanying communication, the decision-making procedures concerning the regulation of averse effects of the technology, but also the tailoring of the new technology or service itself must be directed to appropriate target groups. But the group often aimed at in the nuclear debate, the group, which largely determines political

  7. Managers' perception regarding information systems that provide decision making support: a case study in an organizational unit of a petroleum derivatives company

    Fabiano Raldi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In a globalization scenario, uncertainty and high competitive edge between the companies, every manager needs to make decisions that bring competitive advantage to his/her organization. These decisions are increasingly complex, which demands more rapid and precise information to allow efficient decision-making. It is in this scenario that Information Systems (IS have gained importance in the decision-making process. Yet, many of these IS may not be adequate to the manager’s needs. This study aims to identify the perception of the managers of an Organizational Unit at an oil and derivatives company about the support given by ISs regarding their decision making. To obtain the expected results, a questionnaire based on the critical factors involved in IS quality and directed to the managers of the Organizational Unit. Results of this study will enable professionals responsible for developing ISs, as well as managers and those working with these systems to identify strengths and weaknesses of existing systems.

  8. Development of a descriptive model of an integrated information system to support complex, dynamic, distributed decision making for emergency management in large organisations

    Andersen, V.; Andersen, H.B.; Axel, E.; Petersen, T.

    1990-01-01

    A short introduction will be given to the European (ESPRIT II) project, ''IT Support for Emergency Management - ISEM''. The project is aimed at the development of an integrated information system capable of supporting the complex, dynamic, distributed decision making in the management of emergencies. The basic models developed to describe and construct emergency management organisations and their preparedness have been illustrated, and it has been stated that similarities may be found even in emergency situations that originally are of quite different nature. (author)

  9. Implications of Decision Making Research for Decision Support and Displays

    Morrison, Jeffrey G.; Kelly, Richard T.; Moore, Ronald A.; Hutchins, Susan G.

    1998-01-01

    To appear in J. A. Cannon-Bowers & E. Salas (Eds.), Decision Making Under Stress: Implications for Training and Simulation. A prototype decision support system (DSS) was developed to enhance Navy tactical decision making based on naturalistic decision processes. Displays were developed to support critical decision making tasks through recognition-primed and explanation-based reasoning processes, and cognitive analysis was conducted of the decision making problems faced by Navy ...

  10. How well-run boards make decisions.

    Useem, Michael

    2006-11-01

    In the aftermath of seismic debacles like those that toppled Enron and WorldCom, corporate boards have been shaken up and made over. More directors are independent these days, for instance, and corporations now disclose directors' salaries and committee members' names. Research shows that most of the changes are having a positive effect on companies' performance. They are primarily structural, though, and don't go to the heart of a board's work: making the choices that shape a firm's future. Which decisions boards own and how those calls are made are largely hidden from the public. As a result, boards are often unable to learn from the best governance practices of their counterparts at other companies. This article pulls back the curtain and provides an inside look. Drawing on interviews with board members and executives at 31 companies, along with a close examination of three boardroom decisions, the author identifies several formal processes that can help companies improve their decision making: creating calendars that specify when the board and the standing committees will consider key items; drafting charters that define the decisions committees are responsible for; and developing decision protocols that divvy up responsibilities between directors and executives. The author also identifies a number of informal decision-making principles: Items that are strategically significant and touch on the firm's core values should go to the board. Large decisions should be divided into small pieces, so the board can devote sufficient attention to each one. Directors must remain vigilant to ensure that their decisions are effectively implemented. The CEO and either the nonexecutive chair or the lead director should engage in ongoing dialogue regarding which decisions to take to the full board and when. And directors should challenge assumptions before making yes-or-no decisions on management proposals.

  11. Argumentation and Multi-Agent Decision Making

    Parsons, S.; Jennings, N. R.

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarises our on-going work on mixed- initiative decision making which extends both classical decision theory and a symbolic theory of decision making based on argumentation to a multi-agent domain.

  12. NASA Risk-Informed Decision Making Handbook

    Dezfuli, Homayoon; Stamatelatos, Michael; Maggio, Gaspare; Everett, Christopher; Youngblood, Robert; Rutledge, Peter; Benjamin, Allan; Williams, Rodney; Smith, Curtis; Guarro, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    This handbook provides guidance for conducting risk-informed decision making in the context of NASA risk management (RM), with a focus on the types of direction-setting key decisions that are characteristic of the NASA program and project life cycles, and which produce derived requirements in accordance with existing systems engineering practices that flow down through the NASA organizational hierarchy. The guidance in this handbook is not meant to be prescriptive. Instead, it is meant to be general enough, and contain a sufficient diversity of examples, to enable the reader to adapt the methods as needed to the particular decision problems that he or she faces. The handbook highlights major issues to consider when making decisions in the presence of potentially significant uncertainty, so that the user is better able to recognize and avoid pitfalls that might otherwise be experienced.

  13. Human Factors Influencing Decision Making

    1998-07-01

    and Einhom (1991); Zeelenberg et al. (1997). This environmental context also makes it difficult to associate measured personality traits with specific... Zeelenberg and Beattie5 (1997): People are motivated to minimize post-decision regret. As a result people can become risk averse or risk seeking...188-201), Ablex, Norwood NJ, 1993. 5 Zeelenberg M. and J. Beattie. "Consequences of regret aversion 2: additional evidence for effects of feedback on

  14. Pricing decision-making units

    R F&aauml;re; S Grosskopf; D Margaritis

    2013-01-01

    In this note we extend the standard DEA paradigm to address the question of how one can price DMUs (decision-making units). To do this we use an adjoint transformation to the technology generated by these DMUs which links to traditional linear programming theory of the firm and is similar to pricing portfolios in financial markets. We also provide a numerical example illustrating the practicality of the proposed method.

  15. Decision making in geriatric oncology

    Hamaker, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    The studies in this thesis show that for older cancer patients, tailor-made care should be the standard of care, striking the golden mean between undertreatment and overtreatment and fully taking into account the heterogeneity of this patient population. The comprehensive geriatric assessment will provide valuable information about a patient’s overall health status, but its exact place within the decision-making process still remains to be defined.

  16. New tools and technologies to manage operational data and help in decision-making concerning shoreline pollution

    Gouriou, V.; Quintin, K.; Legrand, S.; Mazurier, A.; Le Junter, Y.; Gicquel, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper addressed the issue of effectively collecting and organizing all data related to an oil spill. It referred to lessons learned from the Erika and Prestige oil spills which polluted the French coastal waters. A user-friendly tool for data management and storage for shoreline pollution was developed following the 2 incidents. The tool was developed under the auspices of the Argepol project and has helped response teams and decision-makers use web technologies and interactive cartography to access, capture and make use of data about shoreline landings, collected waste, disposed waste, manpower, equipment requirements, evolution of the spill and cleaning. The tool has allowed maximum flexibility regarding connections and possible adaptations to other systems, particularly foreign ones. A prototype was tested and validated by simulating an exercise involving the marine pollution (POLMAR) response teams. The tool allows users to create and edit geographical information online, modify databases and shore information using a web browser. Improvements are still in progress and regular updates are scheduled in order to keep the tool in use for the long term. 11 refs., 6 figs

  17. Family decision-making during food buying

    Nørgaard, Maria Kümpel

    Decision-making during food buying is a joint family activity involving both parents and children. Children manage to achieve a high degree of influence on many decisions, among other things, because they participate actively and help out doing various tasks. These decisions may turn out...... to be a choice of unhealthy food. Many decisions are made at the supermarket or other food shops, and food packaging is often used in the comparison of food products. Only rarely do families use nutritional information on food labels due to several problems in the understanding of these labels; this may result...... in difficulties in distinguishing among healthy and unhealthy food. Both parents and children being active in the decision process may lead to conflicts due to gaps in preference such as between healthy and unhealthy food. Families solve these conflicts via open communication patterns and a use of various...

  18. Uncertain multi-attribute decision making methods and applications

    Xu, Zeshui

    2015-01-01

    This book introduces methods for uncertain multi-attribute decision making including uncertain multi-attribute group decision making and their applications to supply chain management, investment decision making, personnel assessment, redesigning products, maintenance services, military system efficiency evaluation. Multi-attribute decision making, also known as multi-objective decision making with finite alternatives, is an important component of modern decision science. The theory and methods of multi-attribute decision making have been extensively applied in engineering, economics, management and military contexts, such as venture capital project evaluation, facility location, bidding, development ranking of industrial sectors and so on. Over the last few decades, great attention has been paid to research on multi-attribute decision making in uncertain settings, due to the increasing complexity and uncertainty of supposedly objective aspects and the fuzziness of human thought. This book can be used as a ref...

  19. 5As Team obesity intervention in primary care: development and evaluation of shared decision-making weight management tools.

    Osunlana, A M; Asselin, J; Anderson, R; Ogunleye, A A; Cave, A; Sharma, A M; Campbell-Scherer, D L

    2015-08-01

    Despite several clinical practice guidelines, there remains a considerable gap in prevention and management of obesity in primary care. To address the need for changing provider behaviour, a randomized controlled trial with convergent mixed method evaluation, the 5As Team (5AsT) study, was conducted. As part of the 5AsT intervention, the 5AsT tool kit was developed. This paper describes the development process and evaluation of these tools. Tools were co-developed by the multidisciplinary research team and the 5AsT, which included registered nurses/nurse practitioners (n = 15), mental health workers (n = 7) and registered dieticians (n = 7), who were previously randomized to the 5AsT intervention group at a primary care network in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. The 5AsT tool development occurred through a practice/implementation-oriented, need-based, iterative process during learning collaborative sessions of the 5AsT intervention. Feedback during tool development was received through field notes and final provider evaluation was carried out through anonymous questionnaires. Twelve tools were co-developed with 5AsT. All tools were evaluated as either 'most useful' or 'moderately useful' in primary care practice by the 5AsT. Four key findings during 5AsT tool development were the need for: tools that were adaptive, tools to facilitate interdisciplinary practice, tools to help patients understand realistic expectations for weight loss and shared decision-making tools for goal setting and relapse prevention. The 5AsT tools are primary care tools which extend the utility of the 5As of obesity management framework in clinical practice. © 2015 The Authors. Clinical Obesity published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of World Obesity.

  20. Factors influencing smallholder cocoa production : a management analysis of behavioural decision-making processes of technology adoption and application

    Taher, S.

    1996-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to expand present knowledge on the technology adoption and application rates for production inputs and fermentation processing related to farmers' decision- making, and to formulate an optimal technology application policy, particularly for smallholder cocoa