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Sample records for making magnetic components

  1. An integrated magnetics component

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to an integrated magnetics component comprising a magnetically permeable core comprising a base member extending in a horizontal plane and first, second, third and fourth legs protruding substantially perpendicularly from the base member. First, second, third...... and fourth output inductor windings are wound around the first, second, third and fourth legs, respectively. A first input conductor of the integrated magnetics component has a first conductor axis and extends in-between the first, second, third and fourth legs to induce a first magnetic flux through a first...... flux path of the magnetically permeable core. A second input conductor of the integrated magnetics component has a second coil axis extending substantially perpendicularly to the first conductor axis to induce a second magnetic flux through a second flux path of the magnetically permeable core...

  2. The magnet components database system

    Baggett, M.J.; Leedy, R.; Saltmarsh, C.; Tompkins, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    The philosophy, structure, and usage MagCom, the SSC magnet components database, are described. The database has been implemented in Sybase (a powerful relational database management system) on a UNIX-based workstation at the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL); magnet project collaborators can access the database via network connections. The database was designed to contain the specifications and measured values of important properties for major materials, plus configuration information (specifying which individual items were used in each cable, coil, and magnet) and the test results on completed magnets. These data will facilitate the tracking and control of the production process as well as the correlation of magnet performance with the properties of its constituents. 3 refs., 10 figs

  3. The magnet components database system

    Baggett, M.J.; Leedy, R.; Saltmarsh, C.; Tompkins, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    The philosophy, structure, and usage of MagCom, the SSC magnet components database, are described. The database has been implemented in Sybase (a powerful relational database management system) on a UNIX-based workstation at the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL); magnet project collaborators can access the database via network connections. The database was designed to contain the specifications and measured values of important properties for major materials, plus configuration information (specifying which individual items were used in each cable, coil, and magnet) and the test results on completed magnets. The data will facilitate the tracking and control of the production process as well as the correlation of magnet performance with the properties of its constituents. 3 refs., 9 figs

  4. Radiation damage in CTR magnet components

    Ullmaier, H.

    1976-01-01

    Data are reviewed (already existing or to be acquired) which should allow prediction of the behavior of large superconducting coils in the radiation field of a future fusion reactor. The electrical and mechanical stability of such magnets is determined by the irradiation induced deterioration of the magnet components, i.e., (a) changes in critical current, field and temperature of the superconductor (NbTi, A-15 phases), (b) resistivity increase in the stabilizer (Cu, Al), and (c) changes in mechanical and dielectric properties of insulators and spacers. Recent low temperature simulation experiments (with fission neutrons and heavy ions) show that the superconductor will not be the critical component of a fusion magnet--at least as far as radiation damage is concerned. Much more severe is the loss of stability due to the resistivity increase of the stabilizing material. It seems, however, that the magnitude of this effect can be predicted rather reliably and therefore taken into account in the coil design. Almost no data exist about the low temperature behavior of insulator and spacer materials in a radiation field. Furthermore, very little is known about the nature of the radiation damage in non-metals, which makes extrapolations of the few existing data to other materials or to other doses highly speculative. Only future experiments can decide if the insulators will be the limiting component of a CTR magnet or not

  5. Making of Magnet Barium Ferit Anisotropic

    Idayati, Novrita; Dedi

    2003-01-01

    Barium Hexa ferrite (BaFe 12 O 19 ) is ceramic and materials which usually used for making of permanent magnet. In this research Barium Hexa ferrite were made Anisotropic, and applied for loudspeaker, electro motors, dynamo, KWh metre, etc. this Magnet is commonly used due to its high Induction of Remanen (Br) and coercivity (high Hc). Besides it applies a more simple and easier process technology, cheaper raw material, and easy to find it, hence the magnetic component is much cheaper. Powder Metallurgy was used for the process technology, by reacting all materials in the powder (oxide), with a certain size distribution and a tight preparation step. The next step was mixing ferrite and Barium Carbonate (in the form of oxide), calcination, compaction, cantering and characterisation. The Anisotropic particle effects a high Induce Remanen (Br) and of koersifitas (high Hc). All the process steps will is determine physical and chemical characteristics of the magnet. The best Magnet characteristic of the magnet produced in this research is Induction of Remanen (Br) = 4,27 kg, Coercivity (Hc) = 1,745 kOe, Energy Product max (BHmaks) = 2,31 MGOe

  6. High-frequency magnetic components

    Kazimierczuk, Marian K

    2013-01-01

    A unique text on the theory and design fundaments of inductors and transformers, updated with more coverage on the optimization of magnetic devices and many new design examples The first edition is popular among a very broad audience of readers in different areas of engineering and science. This book covers the theory and design techniques of the major types of high-frequency power inductors and transformers for a variety of applications, including switching-mode power supplies (SMPS) and resonant dc-to-ac power inverters and dc-to-dc power converters. It describes eddy-current phenomena (su

  7. Making High-Tensile-Strength Amalgam Components

    Grugel, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Structural components made of amalgams can be made to have tensile strengths much greater than previously known to be possible. Amalgams, perhaps best known for their use in dental fillings, have several useful attributes, including room-temperature fabrication, corrosion resistance, dimensional stability, and high compressive strength. However, the range of applications of amalgams has been limited by their very small tensile strengths. Now, it has been discovered that the tensile strength of an amalgam depends critically on the sizes and shapes of the particles from which it is made and, consequently, the tensile strength can be greatly increased through suitable choice of the particles. Heretofore, the powder particles used to make amalgams have been, variously, in the form of micron-sized spheroids or flakes. The tensile reinforcement contributed by the spheroids and flakes is minimal because fracture paths simply go around these particles. However, if spheroids or flakes are replaced by strands having greater lengths, then tensile reinforcement can be increased significantly. The feasibility of this concept was shown in an experiment in which electrical copper wires, serving as demonstration substitutes for copper powder particles, were triturated with gallium by use of a mortar and pestle and the resulting amalgam was compressed into a mold. The tensile strength of the amalgam specimen was then measured and found to be greater than 10(exp 4) psi (greater than about 69 MPa). Much remains to be done to optimize the properties of amalgams for various applications through suitable choice of starting constituents and modification of the trituration and molding processes. The choice of wire size and composition are expected to be especially important. Perusal of phase diagrams of metal mixtures could give insight that would enable choices of solid and liquid metal constituents. Finally, whereas heretofore, only binary alloys have been considered for amalgams

  8. Radiation effects on superconducting fusion magnet components

    Weber, H.W.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear fusion devices based on the magnetic confinement principle heavily rely on the existence and performance of superconducting magnets and have always significantly contributed to advancing superconductor and magnet technology to their limits. In view of the presently ongoing construction of the tokamak device ITER and the stellerator device Wendelstein 7X and their record breaking parameters concerning size, complexity of design, stored energy, amperage, mechanical and magnetic forces, critical current densities and stability requirements, it is deemed timely to review another critical parameter that is practically unique to these devices, namely the radiation response of all magnet components to the lifetime fluence of fast neutrons and gamma rays produced by the fusion reactions of deuterium and tritium. I will review these radiation effects in turn for the currently employed standard "technical" low temperature superconductors NbTi and Nb 3 Sn, the stabilizing material (Cu) as well as the magnet insulation materials and conclude by discussing the potential of high temperature superconducting materials for future generations of fusion devices, such as DEMO. (author)

  9. Laser cutting fabrication of magnetic components

    Neuenschwander, R.T.; Ricardo, A.; Rodrigues, D.; Talarico, F.W.B.; Goncalves da Silva, C.E.T.

    1992-01-01

    Dipole, quadrupole and sextupole prototypes for the LNLS storage ring have been fabricated using 1.5 mm thick, low carbon steel laminations, with the aid of CO 2 laser cutter, reaching an overall dimensional accuracy of ±0.02 mm (standard deviation). The relevant aspects of the technique are presented, together with the results of magnetic and dimensional measurements. The possibility of mass producing these components with the technique is also analyzed. (author) 2 refs.; 6 figs

  10. Failure cause analysis and improvement for magnetic component cabinet

    Ge Bing

    1999-01-01

    The magnetic component cabinet is an important thermal control device fitted on the nuclear power. Because it used a self-saturation amplifier as a primary component, the magnetic component cabinet has some boundness. For increasing the operation safety on the nuclear power, the author describes a new scheme. In order that the magnetic component cabinet can be replaced, the new type component cabinet is developed. Integrate circuit will replace the magnetic components of every function parts. The author has analyzed overall failure cause for magnetic component cabinet and adopted some measures

  11. Making components with controlled metal deposition

    Ribeiro, António Fernando

    1997-01-01

    Rapid Prototyping is a recent CAD/CAM/CIM based manufacturing technique which produces prototypes of components in a fraction of the time. This technique works by first drawing the part as a 3 Dimensional solid model using a CAD program and then ‘printing’ it in 3 Dimensions. The raw material can be a photopolymer or thermoplastic which solidifies when in contact with light. Other materials are available although 100% metal is not a very usual one. This paper presents a new approach for a ...

  12. Dual phase magnetic material component and method of forming

    Dial, Laura Cerully; DiDomizio, Richard; Johnson, Francis

    2017-04-25

    A magnetic component having intermixed first and second regions, and a method of preparing that magnetic component are disclosed. The first region includes a magnetic phase and the second region includes a non-magnetic phase. The method includes mechanically masking pre-selected sections of a surface portion of the component by using a nitrogen stop-off material and heat-treating the component in a nitrogen-rich atmosphere at a temperature greater than about 900.degree. C. Both the first and second regions are substantially free of carbon, or contain only limited amounts of carbon; and the second region includes greater than about 0.1 weight % of nitrogen.

  13. LTCC magnetic components for high density power converter

    Lebourgeois, Richard; Labouré, Eric; Lembeye, Yves; Ferrieux, Jean-Paul

    2018-04-01

    This paper deals with multilayer magnetic components for power electronics application and specifically for high frequency switching. New formulations based on nickel-zinc-copper spinel ferrites were developed for high power and high frequency applications. These ferrites can be sintered at low temperature (around 900°C) which makes them compatible with the LTCC (Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramics) technology. Metallic parts of silver or gold can be fully integrated inside the ferrite while guaranteeing the integrity of both the ferrite and the metal. To make inductors or transformers with the required properties, it is mandatory to have nonmagnetic parts between the turns of the winding. Then it is essential to find a dielectric material, which can be co-sintered both with the ferrite and the metal. We will present the solution we found to this problem and we will describe the results we obtained for a multilayer co-sintered transformer. We will see that these new components have good performance compared with the state of the art and are very promising for developing high density switching mode power supplies.

  14. Make way for the ATLAS magnet

    2007-01-01

    On 5 and 6 February, the first ATLAS End Cap Toroid magnet was transported to begin a two-month regime of cryogenic testing. The magnet is scheduled to be installed in the cavern the first week of June.

  15. Making magnetic recording commercial: 1920-1955

    Clark, Mark H.

    1999-03-01

    Although magnetic recording had been invented in 1898, it was not until the late 1920s that the technology was successfully marketed to the public. Firms in Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States developed and sold magnetic recorders for specialized markets in broadcasting and telephone systems through the 1930s. The demands of World War II considerably expanded the use of magnetic recording, and with the end of the war, firms in the United States sought to bring magnetic recording to home and professional music recording. Using a combination of captured German technology and American wartime research, American companies such as Ampex, Magnecord, 3M, the Brush Development Company, and others created a vast new industry. By the mid-1950s, magnetic recording was firmly established as a method for recording both sound and data.

  16. Applying Standard Industrial Components for Active Magnetic Bearings

    Bert-Uwe Koehler

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing number of active magnetic bearing applications, satisfying additional requirements is becoming increasingly more important. As for every technology, moving away from being a niche product and achieving a higher level of maturity, these requirements relate to robustness, reliability, availability, safety, security, traceability, certification, handling, flexibility, reporting, costs, and delivery times. Employing standard industrial components, such as those from flexible modular motion control drive systems, is an approach that allows these requirements to be satisfied while achieving rapid technological innovation. In this article, we discuss technical and non-technical aspects of using standard industrial components in magnetic bearing applications.

  17. Observational Evidences for Multi-component Magnetic Field ...

    explanation. The field strengths are about ±1.05kG in the background .... The simplest test of the presence of unresolved magnetic fields consists of a com- .... in the area of the strong field component the Doppler half width of the line profiles is.

  18. Multi-component quantitative magnetic resonance imaging by phasor representation

    Vergeldt, Frank J.; Prusova, Alena; Fereidouni, Farzad; Amerongen, Van Herbert; As, Van Henk; Scheenen, Tom W.J.; Bader, Arjen N.

    2017-01-01

    Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (qMRI) is a versatile, non-destructive and non-invasive tool in life, material, and medical sciences. When multiple components contribute to the signal in a single pixel, however, it is difficult to quantify their individual contributions and characteristic

  19. Multi-component quantitative magnetic resonance imaging by phasor representation

    Vergeldt, F.J.; Prusova, A.; Fereidouni, F.; Amerongen, H.V.; As, H. Van; Scheenen, T.W.J.; Bader, A.N.

    2017-01-01

    Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (qMRI) is a versatile, non-destructive and non-invasive tool in life, material, and medical sciences. When multiple components contribute to the signal in a single pixel, however, it is difficult to quantify their individual contributions and characteristic

  20. Magnetic field compatibility of components for ITER electrical distribution systems

    Hourtoule, J.; Van Houtte, D.; Hertout, P.; Fejoz, P.

    2004-01-01

    The electrical distribution boards and control cubicles, installed inside the ITER Tokamak building, can be subject to a constant or slowly variable magnetic field up to 70 mT, 10 mT/s induced by ITER coils. This is a very unusual environmental condition and there are almost no data available on static magnetic field compatibility for the standard industrial electrical and electronic components that might be used inside standard low voltage distribution boards and standard control boards. CEA has especially taken in charge the test of electronic, control and signal conditioning units. For this purpose a test bed composed of a solenoid and a 30 V, 800 A power supply, has been developed at CEA Cadarache. Its characteristics are the following: - Magnetic field capability: 40 mT; - Variation of field: up to 10 mT/s. Useful dimensions for equipment under test: 500 x 500 x 500 mm. The list of the components to be tested has been identified trying to find common and recent components of different manufacturers. Test procedures have been written following the most relevant IEC standards and manufacturing recommendations and procedures. Magnetic compatibility tests on the basic components of standard low voltage control boards has been performed. All components tested are more or less sensitive to magnetic fields and the effect varies from the simple perturbation of the output signals to the partial destruction of some electronic card. The most sensitive are the ferromagnetic components like small power supplies transformers, relays, on inductors. For power supplies the most important consequence is the increase of the consumption (primary current). For most of the conditioning units the operational limits were found in the range of 30 mT (destruction of materials and overload of the supply) For PLC (Programme Logic Control) central units tested, the limit is in the order of 40 mT (components permanently out of service) Relays are limited to 15 mT (outputs oscillations, no

  1. Development of Prototype HTS Components for Magnetic Suspension Applications

    Haldar, P.; Hoehn, J., Jr.; Selvamanickam, V.; Farrell, R. A.; Balachandran, U.; Iyer, A. N.; Peterson, E.; Salazar, K.

    1996-01-01

    We have concentrated on developing prototype lengths of bismuth and thallium based silver sheathed superconductors by the powder-in-tube approach to fabricate high temperature superconducting (HTS) components for magnetic suspension applications. Long lengths of mono and multi filament tapes are presently being fabricated with critical current densities useful for maglev and many other applications. We have recently demonstrated the prototype manufacture of lengths exceeding 1 km of Bi-2223 multi filament conductor. Long lengths of thallium based multi-filament conductor have also been fabricated with practical levels of critical current density and improved field dependence behavior. Test coils and magnets have been built from these lengths and characterized over a range of temperatures and background fields to determine their performance. Work is in progress to develop, fabricate and test HTS windings that will be suitable for magnetic suspension, levitation and other electric power related applications.

  2. Method for making an improved magnetic encoding device

    Fox, Richard J.

    1981-01-01

    A magnetic encoding device and method for making the same are provided for use as magnetic storage mediums in identification control applications which give output signals from a reader that are of shorter duration and substantially greater magnitude than those of the prior art. Magnetic encoding elements are produced by uniformly bending wire or strip stock of a magnetic material longitudinally about a common radius to exceed the elastic limit of the material and subsequently mounting the material so that it is restrained in an unbent position on a substrate of nonmagnetic material. The elements are spot weld attached to a substrate to form a binary coded array of elements according to a desired binary code. The coded substrate may be enclosed in a plastic laminate structure. Such devices may be used for security badges, key cards, and the like and may have many other applications.

  3. Vibration of fusion reactor components with magnetic damping

    D’Amico, Gabriele; Portone, Alfredo [Fusion for Energy – Torres Diagonal Litoral B3 – c/Josep Plá n.2, Barcelona (Spain); Rubinacci, Guglielmo [Department of Electrical Eng. and Information Technologies, Università di Napoli Federico II, Via Claudio, 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Testoni, Pietro, E-mail: pietro.testoni@f4e.europa.eu [Fusion for Energy – Torres Diagonal Litoral B3 – c/Josep Plá n.2, Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the importance of the magnetic damping in the dynamic response of the main plasma facing components of fusion machines, under the strong Lorentz forces due to Vertical Displacement Events. The additional eddy currents due to the vibration of the conducting structures give rise to volume loads acting as damping forces, a kind of viscous damping, being these additional loads proportional to the vibration speed. This effect could play an important role when assessing, for instance, the inertial loads associated to VV movements in case of VDEs. In this paper, we present the results of a novel numerical formulation, in which the field equations are solved by adopting a very effective fully 3D integral formulation, not limited to the analysis of thin shell structures, as already successfully done in several approaches previously published.

  4. Magnetic Processing of Structural Components for Transportation Vehicles

    Mackiewicz-Ludtka, G.; Ludtka, G. M.; Fleming, S. [Metalsa Roanoke, Inc.; del Prado Villasana, J. [Metalsa Roanoke, Inc.

    2011-09-30

    The specific goal of this project was to develop and evaluate the effect of magnetic processing as a viable and new technology to manufacture side‐rails for heavy trucks; and to demonstrate the applicability of this technology for an industrial truck/automotive process. The targeted performance enhancements for this project were to increase the hardness or strength of two families of alloys (comparable carbon contents but one alloy system incorporating hardenability improving additions of titanium and boron) by 15 to 20%. Thermomagnetic processing has been shown to make significant and unprecedented, simultaneous improvements in yield strength and ultimate tensile strength with no loss of ductility for the truck rail application investigated in this project. Improvements in the ultimate tensile strength and yield strength in the range 20 to 30% have been measured even for the lower hardenability alloy samples that only received a very low magnetic field tempering treatment at a tempering temperature that was 67% lower than the current non-magnetic field enhanced commercial process and for a brief tempering time of 20% of the time required in their current process at the higher temperature. These significant developments, that require further demonstration and investigation on current commercial and other alloy systems, promise the evolution of a much more energy efficient and lower-carbon footprint process to be used in the future to produce stronger, tougher, and lighter weight truck rails. The property increases in the truck rails themselves will enable lighter weight truck side-rails to be produced which will reduce the overall weight of heavy duty trucks which will reduce fuel consumption and be an enabler of the goals of the DOE EERE SuperTruck Program where fuel consumption reductions of 50% are targeted for the future generation of trucks.

  5. Automatic and controlled components of judgment and decision making.

    Ferreira, Mario B; Garcia-Marques, Leonel; Sherman, Steven J; Sherman, Jeffrey W

    2006-11-01

    The categorization of inductive reasoning into largely automatic processes (heuristic reasoning) and controlled analytical processes (rule-based reasoning) put forward by dual-process approaches of judgment under uncertainty (e.g., K. E. Stanovich & R. F. West, 2000) has been primarily a matter of assumption with a scarcity of direct empirical findings supporting it. The present authors use the process dissociation procedure (L. L. Jacoby, 1991) to provide convergent evidence validating a dual-process perspective to judgment under uncertainty based on the independent contributions of heuristic and rule-based reasoning. Process dissociations based on experimental manipulation of variables were derived from the most relevant theoretical properties typically used to contrast the two forms of reasoning. These include processing goals (Experiment 1), cognitive resources (Experiment 2), priming (Experiment 3), and formal training (Experiment 4); the results consistently support the author's perspective. They conclude that judgment under uncertainty is neither an automatic nor a controlled process but that it reflects both processes, with each making independent contributions.

  6. Making Management Skills a Core Component of Medical Education.

    Myers, Christopher G; Pronovost, Peter J

    2017-05-01

    Physicians are being called upon to engage in greater leadership and management in increasingly complex and dynamic health care organizations. Yet, management skills are largely undeveloped in medical education. Without formal management training in the medical curriculum, physicians are left to cultivate their leadership and management abilities through a haphazard array of training programs or simply through trial and error, with consequences that may range from frustration among staff to reduced quality of care and increased risk of patient harm. To address this issue, the authors posit that medical education needs a more systematic focus on topics related to management and organization, such as individual decision making, interpersonal communication, team knowledge sharing, and organizational culture. They encourage medical schools to partner with business school faculty or other organizational scholars to offer a "Management 101" course in the medical curriculum to provide physicians-in-training with an understanding of these topics and raise the quality of physician leadership and management in modern health care organizations.

  7. Effect of the interplanetary magnetic field azimuthal component on dynamics of magnetospheric substorms

    Troshichev, O.A.; Kotikov, A.L.; Bolotinskaya, B.D.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of azimuthal component of interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) on the dynamics of magnetospheric substorms is considered. The turning of the azimuthal component of IMF from the positive direction to the negative one and, vice versa, negative and positive impulses in B y -component at B z z -component to the North, positive impulses in B z -component, are investigated. The importance of corresponding variations in magnetic activity level is evaluated. It is shown that turning of B y -component from the positive direction to the negative one increases magnetic activity, whereas the reverse transition affects but slightly the level of magnetic activity in the Northern auroral zone. The turning of B z -component to the North also results in the increase of magnetic activity but with a less intensity than in the case of the negative turning in B y -component

  8. Dual aperture dipole magnet with second harmonic component

    Praeg, Walter F.

    1985-01-01

    An improved dual aperture dipole electromagnet includes a second-harmonic frequency magnetic guide field winding which surrounds first harmonic frequency magnetic guide field windings associated with each aperture. The second harmonic winding and the first harmonic windings cooperate to produce resultant magnetic waveforms in the apertures which have extended acceleration and shortened reset portions of electromagnet operation.

  9. Electrical Core Transformer for Grid Improvement Incorporating Wire Magnetic Components

    Harrie R. Buswell, PhD; Dennis Jacobs, PhD; Steve Meng

    2012-03-26

    The research reported herein adds to the understanding of oil-immersed distribution transformers by exploring and demonstrating potential improvements in efficiency and cost utilizing the unique Buswell approach wherein the unit is redesigned, replacing magnetic sheet with wire allowing for improvements in configuration and increased simplicity in the build process. Exploration of new designs is a critical component in our drive to assure reduction of energy waste, adequate delivery to the citizenry, and the robustness of U.S. manufacturing. By moving that conversation forward, this exploration adds greatly to our base of knowledge and clearly outlines an important avenue for further exploration. This final report shows several advantages of this new transformer type (outlined in a report signed by all of our collaborating partners and included in this document). Although materials development is required to achieve commercial potential, the clear benefits of the technology if that development were a given is established. Exploration of new transformer types and further work on the Buswell design approach is in the best interest of the public, industry, and the United States. Public benefits accrue from design alternatives that reduce the overall use of energy, but it must be acknowledged that new DOE energy efficiency standards have provided some assurance in that regard. Nonetheless the burden of achieving these new standards has been largely shifted to the manufacturers of oil-immersed distribution transformers with cost increasing up to 20% of some units versus 2006 when this investigation was started. Further, rising costs have forced the industry to look closely are far more expensive technologies which may threaten U.S. competitiveness in the distribution transformer market. This concern is coupled with the realization that many units in the nation's grid are beyond their optimal life which suggests that the nation may be headed for an infrastructure

  10. Field analysis and enhancement of multi-pole magnetic components fabricated on printed circuit board

    Chiu, K.-C.; Chen, C.-S.

    2007-01-01

    A multi-pole magnetic component magnetized with a fine magnetic pole pitch of less than 1 mm is very difficult to achieve by using traditional methods. Moreover, it requires a precise mechanical process and a complicated magnetization system. Different fine magnetic pole pitches of 300, 350 and 400 μm have been accomplished on 9-pole magnetic components through the printed circuit board (PCB) manufacturing technology. Additionally, another fine magnetic pole pitch of 500 μm was also fabricated on a dual-layered (DL) wire circuit structure to investigate the field enhancement. After measurements, a gain factor of 1.37 was obtained in the field strength. The field variations among different magnetic pole pitches were analyzed in this paper

  11. Release strategies for making transferable semiconductor structures, devices and device components

    Rogers, John A; Nuzzo, Ralph G; Meitl, Matthew; Ko, Heung Cho; Yoon, Jongseung; Menard, Etienne; Baca, Alfred J

    2014-11-25

    Provided are methods for making a device or device component by providing a multilayer structure having a plurality of functional layers and a plurality of release layers and releasing the functional layers from the multilayer structure by separating one or more of the release layers to generate a plurality of transferable structures. The transferable structures are printed onto a device substrate or device component supported by a device substrate. The methods and systems provide means for making high-quality and low-cost photovoltaic devices, transferable semiconductor structures, (opto-)electronic devices and device components.

  12. Improved application of independent component analysis to functional magnetic resonance imaging study via linear projection techniques.

    Long, Zhiying; Chen, Kewei; Wu, Xia; Reiman, Eric; Peng, Danling; Yao, Li

    2009-02-01

    Spatial Independent component analysis (sICA) has been widely used to analyze functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. The well accepted implicit assumption is the spatially statistical independency of intrinsic sources identified by sICA, making the sICA applications difficult for data in which there exist interdependent sources and confounding factors. This interdependency can arise, for instance, from fMRI studies investigating two tasks in a single session. In this study, we introduced a linear projection approach and considered its utilization as a tool to separate task-related components from two-task fMRI data. The robustness and feasibility of the method are substantiated through simulation on computer data and fMRI real rest data. Both simulated and real two-task fMRI experiments demonstrated that sICA in combination with the projection method succeeded in separating spatially dependent components and had better detection power than pure model-based method when estimating activation induced by each task as well as both tasks.

  13. A hybrid two-component Bose–Einstein condensate interferometer for measuring magnetic field gradients

    Xu, Fei [Key Laboratory of Fiber Optic Sensing Technology and Information Processing, Ministry of Education, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Huang, Jiahao, E-mail: hjiahao@mail2.sysu.edu.cn [TianQin Research Center & School of Physics and Astronomy, Sun Yat-Sen University, SYSU Zhuhai Campus, Zhuhai 519082 (China); Liu, Quan [Key Laboratory of Fiber Optic Sensing Technology and Information Processing, Ministry of Education, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2017-03-03

    Highlights: • A scheme for detecting magnetic field gradients via a double-well two-component Bose–Einstein condensate interferometer. • The magnetic field gradient can be extracted by either the spin population or the external state. • Our proposal is potentially sensitive to weak magnetic field inhomogeneity due to its small sensor size. - Abstract: We have proposed a scheme to detect magnetic field gradients via an interferometer based on a double-well two-component Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC). Utilizing a sequence of quantum control operations on both external and internal degree of the BEC, one can extract the magnetic field gradients by measuring either the population in one component or the fidelity between the final external state and the initial ground state. Our scheme can be implemented by current experimental techniques of manipulating ultracold atoms.

  14. VALUE OF ECOLOGIC COMPONENT IN FOREST MANAGEMENT DECISION MAKING. CASE STUDY: FORESTS ADJACENT TO BUCHAREST, ROMANIA

    Carmen Valentina RADULESCU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To say environment management is, nowadays, of outmost importance for any ecosystem concerned in an understatement; nevertheless, in Romania, especially – as least, since the present paper analyses Romanian ecologic statu quo – improving forest management, so to speak, in Romania, is all the more important, since social and economic decisionmaking as to forests (e.g. forests close to Romania’s capital, Bucharest includes necessarily an ecologic component. The main issue is how to make this component as visible and important as posible, without simultaneously reducing the economic and social components.

  15. Restrictions on the Ratio of Normal to Tangential Field Components in Magnetic Rubber Testing

    Burke, S. K; Ibrahim, M. E

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic Rubber Testing (MRT) is an extremely sensitive method for deteckng surface-breaking cracks in ferromagnetic materials, and is used extensively in critical inspections for D6ac steel components of the F-111 aircraft...

  16. Correlation between magnetic field quality and mechanical components of the Large Hadron Collider main dipoles

    Bellesia, B.

    2006-12-01

    The 1234 superconducting dipoles of the Large Hadron Collider, working at a cryogenic temperature of 1.9 K, must guarantee a high quality magnetic field to steer the particles inside the beam pipe. Magnetic field measurements are a powerful way to detect assembly faults that could limit magnet performances. The aim of the thesis is the analysis of these measurements performed at room temperature during the production of the dipoles. In a large scale production the ideal situation is that all the magnets produced were identical. However all the components constituting a magnet are produced with certain tolerance and the assembly procedures are optimized during the production; due to these the reality drifts away from the ideal situation. We recollected geometrical data of the main components (superconducting cables, coil copper wedges and austenitic steel coil collars) and coupling them with adequate electro-magnetic models we reconstructed a multipolar field representation of the LHC dipoles defining their critical components and assembling procedures. This thesis is composed of 3 main parts: 1) influence of the geometry and of the assembling procedures of the dipoles on the quality of the magnetic field, 2) the use of measurement performed on the dipoles in the assembling step in order to solve production issues and to understand the behaviour of coils during the assembling step, and 3) a theoretical study of the uncertain harmonic components of the magnetic field in order to assess the dipole production

  17. Correlation between magnetic field quality and mechanical components of the Large Hadron Collider main dipoles

    Bellesia, B

    2006-12-15

    The 1234 superconducting dipoles of the Large Hadron Collider, working at a cryogenic temperature of 1.9 K, must guarantee a high quality magnetic field to steer the particles inside the beam pipe. Magnetic field measurements are a powerful way to detect assembly faults that could limit magnet performances. The aim of the thesis is the analysis of these measurements performed at room temperature during the production of the dipoles. In a large scale production the ideal situation is that all the magnets produced were identical. However all the components constituting a magnet are produced with certain tolerance and the assembly procedures are optimized during the production; due to these the reality drifts away from the ideal situation. We recollected geometrical data of the main components (superconducting cables, coil copper wedges and austenitic steel coil collars) and coupling them with adequate electro-magnetic models we reconstructed a multipolar field representation of the LHC dipoles defining their critical components and assembling procedures. This thesis is composed of 3 main parts: 1) influence of the geometry and of the assembling procedures of the dipoles on the quality of the magnetic field, 2) the use of measurement performed on the dipoles in the assembling step in order to solve production issues and to understand the behaviour of coils during the assembling step, and 3) a theoretical study of the uncertain harmonic components of the magnetic field in order to assess the dipole production.

  18. Precise response function for the magnetic component of gravitational waves in scalar-tensor gravity

    Corda, Christian

    2011-01-01

    The important issue of the magnetic component of gravitational waves (GWs) has been considered in various papers in the literature. From such analyses, it has been found that such a magnetic component becomes particularly important in the high-frequency portion of the frequency range of ground based interferometers for GWs which arises from standard general theory of relativity (GTR). Recently, such a magnetic component has been extended to GWs arising from scalar-tensor gravity (STG) too. After a review of some important issues on GWs in STG, in this paper we reanalyze the magnetic component in the framework of STG from a different point of view, by correcting an error in a previous paper and by releasing a more precise response function. In this way, we also show that if one neglects the magnetic contribution considering only the low-frequency approximation of the electric contribution, an important part of the signal could be, in principle, lost. The determination of a more precise response function for the magnetic contribution is important also in the framework of the possibility of distinguishing other gravitational theories from GTR. At the conclusion of this paper, an expansion of the main results is also shown in order to recall the presence of the magnetic component in GTR too.

  19. Method of using triaxial magnetic fields for making particle structures

    Martin, James E.; Anderson, Robert A.; Williamson, Rodney L.

    2005-01-18

    A method of producing three-dimensional particle structures with enhanced magnetic susceptibility in three dimensions by applying a triaxial energetic field to a magnetic particle suspension and subsequently stabilizing said particle structure. Combinations of direct current and alternating current fields in three dimensions produce particle gel structures, honeycomb structures, and foam-like structures.

  20. Materials for 300 to 5000C magnetic components

    Weichold, M.H.; Pandey, R.K.; Palmer, D.W.

    1980-01-01

    Core materials and winding wire for audio and rf transformers have been investigated to 500 0 C. Audio cores of 2 V Permendur had parameter stability from 25 to 500 0 C and during aging at 450 0 C. High frequency ferrite material, Mix 63, displayed usefulness up to 300 0 C. Both anodized aluminum and ceramic-coated copper wire function to 500 0 C in low voltage or large gauge applications. Components based on these materials operate reliably to 500 0 C

  1. Conversion of the magnetic field measured in three components on the magnetic sensor body's random coordinate system into three components on geographical coordinate system through quaternion rotation.

    LIM, M.; PARK, Y.; Jung, H.; SHIN, Y.; Rim, H.; PARK, C.

    2017-12-01

    To measure all components of a physical property, for example the magnetic field, is more useful than to measure its magnitude only in interpretation and application thereafter. To convert the physical property measured in 3 components on a random coordinate system, for example on moving magnetic sensor body's coordinate system, into 3 components on a fixed coordinate system, for example on geographical coordinate system, by the rotations of coordinate system around Euler angles for example, we should have the attitude values of the sensor body in time series, which could be acquired by an INS-GNSS system of which the axes are installed coincident with those of the sensor body. But if we want to install some magnetic sensors in array at sea floor but without attitude acquisition facility of the magnetic sensors and to monitor the variation of magnetic fields in time, we should have also some way to estimate the relation between the geographical coordinate system and each sensor body's coordinate system by comparison of the vectors only measured on both coordinate systems on the assumption that the directions of the measured magnetic field on both coordinate systems are the same. For that estimation, we have at least 3 ways. The first one is to calculate 3 Euler angles phi, theta, psi from the equation Vgeograph = Rx(phi) Ry(theta) Rz(psi) Vrandom, where Vgeograph is the vector on geographical coordinate system etc. and Rx(phi) is the rotation matrix around the x axis by the angle phi etc. The second one is to calculate the difference of inclination and declination between the 2 vectors on spherical coordinate system. The third one, used by us for this study, is to calculate the angle of rotation along a great circle around the rotation axis, and the direction of the rotation axis. We installed no. 1 and no. 2 FVM-400 fluxgate magnetometers in array near Cheongyang Geomagnetic Observatory (IAGA code CYG) and acquired time series of magnetic fields for CYG and for

  2. Calculations of atomic magnetic nuclear shielding constants based on the two-component normalized elimination of the small component method

    Yoshizawa, Terutaka; Zou, Wenli; Cremer, Dieter

    2017-04-01

    A new method for calculating nuclear magnetic resonance shielding constants of relativistic atoms based on the two-component (2c), spin-orbit coupling including Dirac-exact NESC (Normalized Elimination of the Small Component) approach is developed where each term of the diamagnetic and paramagnetic contribution to the isotropic shielding constant σi s o is expressed in terms of analytical energy derivatives with regard to the magnetic field B and the nuclear magnetic moment 𝝁 . The picture change caused by renormalization of the wave function is correctly described. 2c-NESC/HF (Hartree-Fock) results for the σiso values of 13 atoms with a closed shell ground state reveal a deviation from 4c-DHF (Dirac-HF) values by 0.01%-0.76%. Since the 2-electron part is effectively calculated using a modified screened nuclear shielding approach, the calculation is efficient and based on a series of matrix manipulations scaling with (2M)3 (M: number of basis functions).

  3. A multi-criteria decision making system for damage assessment of critical components in power plants

    Jovanovic, A.; Auerkari, P.; Brear, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    A multi-criteria decision making tool for engineering applications has been developed in the European project BE5935. The tool has been developed and applied in the area of power plants, primarily for the decisions regarding the inspection and maintenance planning in the area of power plants. Practical application of the methodology and of the software is shown here for the damage assessment of critical components. (authors)

  4. Making the most of the magnetic and lattice entropy changes

    Pecharsky, V.K.; Gschneidner, K.A.; Mudryk, Ya.; Paudyal, Durga

    2009-01-01

    Recent discoveries of novel materials exhibiting a magnetocaloric effect that is strongly enhanced by the magnetoelastic coupling-the so-called giant magnetocaloric effect materials-stimulated an unprecedented expansion of research related both to the fundamentals of the phenomenon and potential future applications of these materials in continuous magnetic cooling near room temperature. The subject of this work is twofold. On one hand, systems exhibiting the giant magnetocaloric effect may be prone to hysteresis, and may exist in nonequilibrium, phase-separated states, thus requiring a special care when their intrinsic physical properties are of interest. On the other hand, in order to harvest most of the magnetocaloric potential of a specific compound, both the magnetic and lattice degrees of freedom of the material must be precisely controlled.

  5. Application of bonded NdFeB magnet for C-Band circulator component

    Kristiantoro, T.; Idayanti, N.; Sudrajat, N.; Septiani, A.; Dedi

    2016-11-01

    In this paper bonded NdFeB permanent magnets of the crashed-ribbon type were made as an alternative for circulator magnet to improve their magnetic performance. The fabrication process is also easier than the sintered NdFeB because there had no shrinkage of product (such as sintered barium ferrite magnet), with the others advantages as follows; large freeness of product shapes, high precision of dimension and good corrosion resistance. The dimension of the samples was measured to calculate its bulk densities and the magnetic properties were characterized by Permagraph to obtain values such as; Remanence induction (Br) in kG, Coercivity value (Hcj) in kOe, the Maximum energy product (BH max) in MGOe. Whereas the surface magnetic field strength (B) was observed by the Gauss-meter. The bonded NdFeB permanent magnets revealed 6.39 kG of Br, 6.974 kOe of Hcj and 7.13 MGOe of BHmax. The circulator performance was measured using Vector Network Analyzer (VNA). The optimum values of the circulator measurement at a frequency of 5 GHz show a VSWR value of 1.062 and insertion loss of -0.463 dB. The bonded magnet could be used as component of permanent magnets on the circulator that working on C-Band at a frequency range of 4 GHz - 8 GHz.

  6. 77 FR 51046 - Certain Sintered Rare Earth Magnets, Methods of Making Same and Products Containing Same; Notice...

    2012-08-23

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Docket No. 2908] Certain Sintered Rare Earth Magnets, Methods of... Certain Sintered Rare Earth Magnets, Methods of Making Same and Products Containing Same, DN 2908; the..., methods of making same and products [[Page 51047

  7. EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF LONGITUDINAL COMPONENT OF MAGNETIC FLUX IN FERROMAGNETIC WIRE OF SINGLE-CORE POWER CABLE ARMOUR

    I.A. Kostiukov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A problem of determination of effective longitudinal magnetic permeability of single core power cable armour is defined. A technique for experimental determination of longitudinal component of magnetic flux in armour spiral ferromagnetic wire is proposed.

  8. Method and apparatus for making superconductive magnet coils

    Borden, Albert R.

    1985-01-01

    A curved, shell-type magnet coil, adapted to be used in a superconducting magnet, is wound by providing a mandrel having a tubular cylindrical mid-portion terminating at both ends in tapered end portions formed with longitudinal slots having flexible fingers therebetween. An elongated electrical conductor is wound around an elongated oval-shaped pole island engaged with the outside of the cylindrical mid-portion, to form a multiplicity of oval-shaped turns engaged with a 180-degree segment of the mandrel. The coil turns have longitudinal portions with curved portions therebetween, engaging the tapered end portions of the mandrel. Upon completion of the winding, tapered expansion members are fully inserted into the tapered end portions, to displace the flexible fingers outwardly into a cylindrical form and to displace the curved portions of the turns into a shape conforming to such cylindrical form while also exerting increased tension upon the turns to minimize draping of the turns and to enhance the mechanical integrity of the coil. A half cylinder clamp may then be employed to clamp the coil, whereupon the coil may be solified by the use of an epoxy adhesive.

  9. Value of information in sequential decision making: Component inspection, permanent monitoring and system-level scheduling

    Memarzadeh, Milad; Pozzi, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    We illustrate how to assess the Value of Information (VoI) in sequential decision making problems modeled by Partially Observable Markov Decision Processes (POMDPs). POMDPs provide a general framework for modeling the management of infrastructure components, including operation and maintenance, when only partial or noisy observations are available; VoI is a key concept for selecting explorative actions, with application to component inspection and monitoring. Furthermore, component-level VoI can serve as an effective heuristic for assigning priorities to system-level inspection scheduling. We introduce two alternative models for the availability of information, and derive the VoI in each of those settings: the Stochastic Allocation (SA) model assumes that observations are collected with a given probability, while the Fee-based Allocation model (FA) assumes that they are available at a given cost. After presenting these models at component-level, we investigate how they perform for system-level inspection scheduling. - Highlights: • On the Value of Information in POMDPs, for optimal exploration of systems. • A method for assessing the Value of Information of permanent monitoring. • A method for allocating inspections in systems made up by parallel POMDPs.

  10. Magnetic field effects on runaway electron energy deposition in plasma facing materials and components

    Niemer, K.A.; Gilligan, J.G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports magnetic field effects on runaway electron energy deposition in plasma facing materials and components is investigated using the Integrated TIGER Series. The Integrated TIGER Series is a set of time-independent coupled electron/photon Monte Carlo transport codes which perform photon and electron transport, with or without macroscopic electric and magnetic fields. A three-dimensional computational model of 100 MeV electrons incident on a graphite block was used to simulate runawayelectrons striking a plasma facing component at the edge of a tokamak. Results show that more energy from runaway electrons will be deposited in a material that is in the presence of a magnetic field than in a material that is in the presence of no field. For low angle incident runaway electrons in a strong magnetic field, the majority of the increased energy deposition is near the material surface with a higher energy density. Electrons which would have been reflected with no field, orbit the magnetic field lines and are redeposited in the material surface, resulting in a substantial increase in surface energy deposition. Based on previous studies, the higher energy deposition and energy density will result in higher temperatures which are expected to cause more damage to a plasma facing component

  11. A configurable component-based software system for magnetic field measurements

    Nogiec, J.M.; DiMarco, J.; Kotelnikov, S.; Trombly-Freytag, K.; Walbridge, D.; Tartaglia, M.; /Fermilab

    2005-09-01

    A new software system to test accelerator magnets has been developed at Fermilab. The magnetic measurement technique involved employs a single stretched wire to measure alignment parameters and magnetic field strength. The software for the system is built on top of a flexible component-based framework, which allows for easy reconfiguration and runtime modification. Various user interface, data acquisition, analysis, and data persistence components can be configured to form different measurement systems that are tailored to specific requirements (e.g., involving magnet type or test stand). The system can also be configured with various measurement sequences or tests, each of them controlled by a dedicated script. It is capable of working interactively as well as executing a preselected sequence of tests. Each test can be parameterized to fit the specific magnet type or test stand requirements. The system has been designed with portability in mind and is capable of working on various platforms, such as Linux, Solaris, and Windows. It can be configured to use a local data acquisition subsystem or a remote data acquisition computer, such as a VME processor running VxWorks. All hardware-oriented components have been developed with a simulation option that allows for running and testing measurements in the absence of data acquisition hardware.

  12. Detailed Structural Analysis of Critical Wendelstein 7-X Magnet System Components

    Egorov, K.

    2006-01-01

    The Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) stellarator experiment is presently under construction and assembly in Greifswald, Germany. The goal of the experiment is to verify that the stellarator magnetic confinement concept is a viable option for a fusion reactor. The complex W7-X magnet system requires a multi-level approach to structural analysis for which two types of finite element models are used: Firstly, global models having reasonably coarse meshes with a number of simplifications and assumptions, and secondly, local models with detailed meshes of critical regions and elements. Widely known sub-modelling technique with boundary conditions extracted from the global models is one of the approaches for local analysis with high assessment efficiency. In particular, the winding pack (WP) of the magnet coils is simulated in the global model as a homogeneous orthotropic material with effective mechanical characteristic representing its real composite structure. This assumption allows assessing the whole magnet system in terms of general structural factors like forces and moments on the support elements, displacements of the main components, deformation and stress in the coil casings, etc. In a second step local models with a detailed description of more critical WP zones are considered in order to analyze their internal components like conductor jackets, turn insulation, etc. This paper provides an overview of local analyses of several critical W7-X magnet system components with particular attention on the coil winding packs. (author)

  13. Integration of Magnetic Components in a Step-Up Converter for Fuel Cell

    Klimczak, Pawel; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2009-01-01

    converter is a critical part. The input voltage of the converter decreases while the output power increases. It creates challenges in design of the converter's magnetic components. Scope of this paper is integration of the dc inductor and the transformer on a single core. Such integration improve...... utilization of the core and windings. It leads to size reduction of the converter....

  14. Collective modes of the quantum one-component plasma in a magnetic field

    John, P.; Suttorp, L.G.

    1993-01-01

    The authors derive the collective modes of a quantum one-component plasma in a magnetic field by using a projection operator technique. With the help of these modes the long-time behaviour of the time correlation functions for the charge density, the current density and the energy density is

  15. Equilibrium fluctuations formulas for the quantum one-component plasma in a magnetic field

    John, P.; Suttorp, L.G.

    1993-01-01

    The authors derive a complete set of equilibrium fluctuation formulae for the charge density, the current density and the energy density of the quantum one-component plasma in a magnetic field. The derivation is based on the use of imaginary-time-dependent Green functions and their Kubo transforms.

  16. Magnetic Actuator with Multiple Vibration Components Arranged at Eccentric Positions for Use in Complex Piping

    Hiroyuki Yaguchi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a magnetic actuator using multiple vibration components to perform locomotion in a complex pipe with a 25 mm inner diameter. Due to the desire to increase the turning moment in a T-junction pipe, two vibration components were attached off-center to an acrylic plate with an eccentricity of 2 mm. The experimental results show that the magnetic actuator was able to move at 40.6 mm/s while pulling a load mass of 20 g in a pipe with an inner diameter of 25 mm. In addition, this magnetic actuator was able to move stably in U-junction and T-junction pipes. If a micro-camera is implemented in the future, the inspection of small complex pipes can be enabled. The possibility of inspection in pipes with a 25 mm inner diameter was shown by equipping the pipe with a micro-camera.

  17. Nonlinear low frequency electrostatic structures in a magnetized two-component auroral plasma

    Rufai, O. R., E-mail: rajirufai@gmail.com [University of the Western Cape, Bellville 7535, Cape-Town (South Africa); Scientific Computing, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St John' s, Newfoundland and Labrador A1C 5S7 (Canada); Bharuthram, R., E-mail: rbharuthram@uwc.ac.za [University of the Western Cape, Bellville 7535, Cape-Town (South Africa); Singh, S. V., E-mail: satyavir@iigs.iigm.res.in; Lakhina, G. S., E-mail: lakhina@iigs.iigm.res.in [University of the Western Cape, Bellville 7535, Cape-Town (South Africa); Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, New Panvel (W), Navi Mumbai 410218 (India)

    2016-03-15

    Finite amplitude nonlinear ion-acoustic solitons, double layers, and supersolitons in a magnetized two-component plasma composed of adiabatic warm ions fluid and energetic nonthermal electrons are studied by employing the Sagdeev pseudopotential technique and assuming the charge neutrality condition at equilibrium. The model generates supersoliton structures at supersonic Mach numbers regime in addition to solitons and double layers, whereas in the unmagnetized two-component plasma case only, soliton and double layer solutions can be obtained. Further investigation revealed that wave obliqueness plays a critical role for the evolution of supersoliton structures in magnetized two-component plasmas. In addition, the effect of ion temperature and nonthermal energetic electron tends to decrease the speed of oscillation of the nonlinear electrostatic structures. The present theoretical results are compared with Viking satellite observations.

  18. Reduction of outgas from the components of the J-PARC kicker magnet

    Kamiya, Junichiro; Ogiwara, Norio; Kinsho, Michikazu; Takayanagi, Tomohiro

    2005-01-01

    The extraction kickers in Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS) of Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) are installed in the vacuum chamber against electrical discharge. Therefore, outgas from the components have large effects on the vacuum system of the accelerator. We have succeeded in reducing the outgas from the components, which are made of ferrite core and aluminum alloy, by baking them before construction of the magnet. The ferrite cores were baked at 200degC in the vacuum about 300 hours, while the components made of aluminum alloy at 150degC about 70 hours. Main outgas from both materials was known to be water by mass spectroscopy, and the pressure after baking has been decreased by two or three order of magnitude. We also report the reduction method for outgas while the magnet is stored in. (author)

  19. Dental magnetic resonance imaging: making the invisible visible.

    Idiyatullin, Djaudat; Corum, Curt; Moeller, Steen; Prasad, Hari S; Garwood, Michael; Nixdorf, Donald R

    2011-06-01

    Clinical dentistry is in need of noninvasive and accurate diagnostic methods to better evaluate dental pathosis. The purpose of this work was to assess the feasibility of a recently developed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique, called SWeep Imaging with Fourier Transform (SWIFT), to visualize dental tissues. Three in vitro teeth, representing a limited range of clinical conditions of interest, imaged using a 9.4T system with scanning times ranging from 100 seconds to 25 minutes. In vivo imaging of a subject was performed using a 4T system with a 10-minute scanning time. SWIFT images were compared with traditional two-dimensional radiographs, three-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scanning, gradient-echo MRI technique, and histological sections. A resolution of 100 μm was obtained from in vitro teeth. SWIFT also identified the presence and extent of dental caries and fine structures of the teeth, including cracks and accessory canals, which are not visible with existing clinical radiography techniques. Intraoral positioning of the radiofrequency coil produced initial images of multiple adjacent teeth at a resolution of 400 μm. SWIFT MRI offers simultaneous three-dimensional hard- and soft-tissue imaging of teeth without the use of ionizing radiation. Furthermore, it has the potential to image minute dental structures within clinically relevant scanning times. This technology has implications for endodontists because it offers a potential method to longitudinally evaluate teeth where pulp and root structures have been regenerated. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A Novel Choice Procedure of Magnetic Component Values for Phase Shifted Full Bridge Converters with a Variable Dead-Time Control Method

    Lei Zhao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic components are important parts of the phase shifted full bridge (PSFB converter. During the dead-time of switches located in the same leg, the converter can achieve zero-voltage-switching (ZVS by using the energies stored in magnetic components to discharge or charge the output capacitances of switches. Dead-time is usually calculated under a given set of pre-defined load condition which results in that the available energies are insufficient and ZVS capability is lost at light loads. In this paper, the PSFB converter is controlled by variable dead-time method and thus full advantage can be taken of the energies stored in magnetic components. Considering that dead-time has a great effect on ZVS, the relationship between available energies and magnetic component values is formulated by analyzing the equivalent circuits during dead-time intervals. Magnetic component values are chosen based on such relationship. The proposed choice procedure can make the available energies greater than the required energies for ZVS operation over a wide range of load conditions. Moreover, the burst mode control is adopted in order to reduce the standby power loss. Experimental results coincide with the theoretical analysis. The proposed method is a simple and practical solution to extend the ZVS range.

  1. Statistical Average of Spin Operators for Calculation of Three-Component Magnetization (II): Solution of Equation

    Wang Huaiyu; Long Yao; Chen Nanxian

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the solution of Chebyshev equation with its argument being greater than 1 is obtained. The initial value of the derivative of the solution is the expression of magnetization, which is valid for any spin quantum number S. The Chebyshev equation is transformed from an ordinary differential equation obtained when we dealt with Heisenberg model, in order to calculate all three components of magnetization, by many-body Green's function under random phase approximation. The Chebyshev functions with argument being greater than 1 are discussed. This paper shows that the Chebyshev polynomials with their argument being greater than 1 have their physical application.

  2. Integrable reductions of many component magnetic systems in (1,1) dimensions

    Makhankov, V.G.; Pashaev, O.K.

    1983-01-01

    A generalized many component Heisenberg spin chain with phonon interaction is proposed. Some reductions of the proposed model leading to different real magnetic systems such as many chained magnetic crystals with nontrivial interchain couplings, a mixture of many chained ferro and antiferromagnets, a ''colour'' generalized Pierels-Hubbard model, etc., are studied. It has been shown that the dynamics of all the above real models are close to some integrable systems and coincide with them in certain limits. Such integrable systems are the coupled generalised system of Yajima and Oikawa and U(p,q) nonlinear Schrodinger equation, already well studied. (Auth.)

  3. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex affects strategic decision-making.

    van 't Wout, Mascha; Kahn, René S; Sanfey, Alan G; Aleman, André

    2005-11-07

    Although decision-making is typically seen as a rational process, emotions play a role in tasks that include unfairness. Recently, activation in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during offers experienced as unfair in the Ultimatum Game was suggested to subserve goal maintenance in this task. This is restricted to correlational evidence, however, and it remains unclear whether the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is crucial for strategic decision-making. The present study used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in order to investigate the causal role of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in strategic decision-making in the Ultimatum Game. The results showed that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex resulted in an altered decision-making strategy compared with sham stimulation. We conclude that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is causally implicated in strategic decision-making in healthy human study participants.

  4. Multi-component fiber track modelling of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging data

    Yasser M. Kadah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In conventional diffusion tensor imaging (DTI based on magnetic resonance data, each voxel is assumed to contain a single component having diffusion properties that can be fully represented by a single tensor. Even though this assumption can be valid in some cases, the general case involves the mixing of components, resulting in significant deviation from the single tensor model. Hence, a strategy that allows the decomposition of data based on a mixture model has the potential of enhancing the diagnostic value of DTI. This project aims to work towards the development and experimental verification of a robust method for solving the problem of multi-component modelling of diffusion tensor imaging data. The new method demonstrates significant error reduction from the single-component model while maintaining practicality for clinical applications, obtaining more accurate Fiber tracking results.

  5. Survey of radiation damage effects in superconducting magnet components and systems

    Guess, J.F.; Boom, R.W.; Coltman, R.R. Jr.; Sekula, S.T.

    1975-12-01

    A study has been made of the published investigations of fast-particle irradiations at low temperatures on the properties of likely CTR magnet materials. The materials topics included in this survey are: (1) irradiation of Nb-Ti alloys with fast neutrons, protons, deuterons, and electrons; (2) irradiation of A-15 compounds (mainly Nb 3 Sn) with fast neutrons, deuterons, and oxygen ions; (3) irradiation of Cu and Al with fast and thermal neutrons; (4) irradiation of insulators with neutrons and gamma rays; and (5) irradiation of structural materials with neutrons. The study of the literature also included the available information on the effects of low-temperature irradiation on integrated components of the materials described above which might be envisaged in the construction of a CTR magnet system, since the ultimate problem is the operation of a magnet system in a radiation environment

  6. Procurement of the ITER magnet components supplied by F4E

    Sborchia, Carlo; Oliva, Alessandro Bonito; Rajainmaeki, Hannu; Vostner, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Fusion for Energy (F4E) will manage the in-kind contribution from Europe (EU) to ITER of about one quarter of the machine magnet components. This contribution will consist in 10 Toroidal Field (TF) coils, 5 (out of 6) Poloidal Field (PF) coils, 20% of the Nb3Sn conductor used in the TF coils and 15% of the PF coil NbTi conductor. In addition, 12 pre-compression fibreglass rings for the TF system will be procured. This paper presents the complex organization and status of the procurement activities of the F4E magnet components. The technical and managerial challenges, in terms of fabrication, quality assurance and schedule, are also highlighted.

  7. Existence of a component corotating with the earth in high-latitude disturbance magnetic fields

    Suzuki, A.; Kim, J. S.; Sugiura, M.

    1982-01-01

    A study of the data from the high-latitude North American IMS network of magnetic stations suggests that there is a component in substorm perturbations that corotates with the earth. It is as yet not certain whether the existence of this component stems from the corotation of a part of the magnetospheric plasma involved in the substorm mechanism or if it is a 'phase change' resulting from the control of the substorm manifestations by the earth's main magnetic field which is not axially symmetric. There are other geophysical phenomena showing a persistence of longitudinal variations corotating with the earth. These phenomena are of significance for a better understanding of ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling.

  8. Rotation and toroidal magnetic field effects on the stability of two-component jets

    Millas, Dimitrios; Keppens, Rony; Meliani, Zakaria

    2017-09-01

    Several observations of astrophysical jets show evidence of a structure in the direction perpendicular to the jet axis, leading to the development of 'spine and sheath' models of jets. Most studies focus on a two-component jet consisting of a highly relativistic inner jet and a slower - but still relativistic - outer jet surrounded by an unmagnetized environment. These jets are believed to be susceptible to a relativistic Rayleigh-Taylor-type instability, depending on the effective inertia ratio of the two components. We extend previous studies by taking into account the presence of a non-zero toroidal magnetic field. Different values of magnetization are examined to detect possible differences in the evolution and stability of the jet. We find that the toroidal field, above a certain level of magnetization σ, roughly equal to 0.01, can stabilize the jet against the previously mentioned instabilities and that there is a clear trend in the behaviour of the average Lorentz factor and the effective radius of the jet when we continuously increase the magnetization. The simulations are performed using the relativistic MHD module from the open source, parallel, grid adaptive, mpi-amrvac code.

  9. Morphology and the chemical make-up of the inorganic components of black corals

    Nowak, D.; Florek, M.; Nowak, J. [Department of Chemistry, John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, 20-718 Lublin (Poland); Kwiatek, W.; Lekki, J. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Chevallier, P. [former LPS, CEN Saclay et LURE, Universite Paris-Sud, Bat 209D, F-91405 Orsay (France); Hacura, A.; Wrzalik, R. [Institute of Physics, Silesian University, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Ben-Nissan, B. [Department of Chemistry, Materials and Forensic Sciences, University of Technology, Sydney, PO Box 123, Broadway 2007, NSW (Australia); Van Grieken, R. [Department of Chemistry, University of Antwerp, B-2610 Antwerp (Belgium); Kuczumow, A., E-mail: kuczon@kul.lublin.pl [Department of Chemistry, John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, 20-718 Lublin (Poland)

    2009-04-30

    Black corals (Cnidaria, Antipatharia) from three different sources were investigated with the aim of detecting inorganic components and their morphology. In general, the skeleton of black corals was composed of the chitin fibrils admixed with peptides and the chitin presence was confirmed by the X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectrometry (FTIR) and microRaman Microscopy, the latter giving the opportunity of tracing single fibrils and their location. The composition and concentrations of the inorganic components of the black corals were measured, using a scanning electron microprobe and micro-Particle Induced X-ray Emission ({mu}-PIXE). The application of such instruments enabled the estimation of the constituent distributions in a microscale. The mapping option was the most useful technique of making analyses in these studies, just to reveal the composition of chamber-like cells. Analysis of the morphology and microstructure showed that there were three distinct regions within the coral: a core and the cells encircled with adjacent interface gluing strips. The majority of the elements analyzed were selectively distributed and segregated in a striking way in mentioned distinctive zones of the skeleton and it was detected for the first time. The core area was characterized by the relatively elevated concentrations of Ca. The measurements gave extremely clear images of the distribution of particular elements in the skeletal tissue, with I, Ca, K and Fe much more concentrated in the gluing zones, while C, N, Na and Mg present in the interiors of particular skeletal cells. The distribution of some elements (Mg, Fe) and some compounds (chitin) and functional groups (S-S, C-I) allows differentiating the biological and mechanical functions of particular fragments of the rods. The kinds of elements and their concentrations measured were essentially in compliance with rare data available in the literature. The Raman technique gave the additional

  10. Morphology and the chemical make-up of the inorganic components of black corals

    Nowak, D.; Florek, M.; Nowak, J.; Kwiatek, W.; Lekki, J.; Chevallier, P.; Hacura, A.; Wrzalik, R.; Ben-Nissan, B.; Van Grieken, R.; Kuczumow, A.

    2009-01-01

    Black corals (Cnidaria, Antipatharia) from three different sources were investigated with the aim of detecting inorganic components and their morphology. In general, the skeleton of black corals was composed of the chitin fibrils admixed with peptides and the chitin presence was confirmed by the X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectrometry (FTIR) and microRaman Microscopy, the latter giving the opportunity of tracing single fibrils and their location. The composition and concentrations of the inorganic components of the black corals were measured, using a scanning electron microprobe and micro-Particle Induced X-ray Emission (μ-PIXE). The application of such instruments enabled the estimation of the constituent distributions in a microscale. The mapping option was the most useful technique of making analyses in these studies, just to reveal the composition of chamber-like cells. Analysis of the morphology and microstructure showed that there were three distinct regions within the coral: a core and the cells encircled with adjacent interface gluing strips. The majority of the elements analyzed were selectively distributed and segregated in a striking way in mentioned distinctive zones of the skeleton and it was detected for the first time. The core area was characterized by the relatively elevated concentrations of Ca. The measurements gave extremely clear images of the distribution of particular elements in the skeletal tissue, with I, Ca, K and Fe much more concentrated in the gluing zones, while C, N, Na and Mg present in the interiors of particular skeletal cells. The distribution of some elements (Mg, Fe) and some compounds (chitin) and functional groups (S-S, C-I) allows differentiating the biological and mechanical functions of particular fragments of the rods. The kinds of elements and their concentrations measured were essentially in compliance with rare data available in the literature. The Raman technique gave the additional

  11. Method of making active magnetic refrigerant, colossal magnetostriction and giant magnetoresistive materials based on Gd-Si-Ge alloys

    Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A.; Pecharsky, Alexandra O.; Pecharsky, Vitalij K.

    2003-07-08

    Method of making an active magnetic refrigerant represented by Gd.sub.5 (Si.sub.x Ge.sub.1-x).sub.4 alloy for 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1.0 comprising placing amounts of the commercially pure Gd, Si, and Ge charge components in a crucible, heating the charge contents under subambient pressure to a melting temperature of the alloy for a time sufficient to homogenize the alloy and oxidize carbon with oxygen present in the Gd charge component to reduce carbon, rapidly solidifying the alloy in the crucible, and heat treating the solidified alloy at a temperature below the melting temperature for a time effective to homogenize a microstructure of the solidified material, and then cooling sufficiently fast to prevent the eutectoid decomposition and improve magnetocaloric and/or the magnetostrictive and/or the magnetoresistive properties thereof.

  12. Magnet innovations for linacs

    Halbach, K.

    1986-01-01

    It is possible to produce large magnetic fields at the aperture of permanent magnet quadrupoles, even when the magnetic aperture is very small. That, combined with their compactness, makes permanent magnet quadrupoles very powerful components of small aperture linacs. Results of past and present work on both fixed and variable strength permanent magnets suitable for use in and around linacs are presented

  13. Magnet innovations for linacs

    Halbach, K.

    1986-06-01

    It is possible to produce large magnetic fields at the aperture of permanent magnet quadrupoles, even when the magnetic aperture is very small. That, combined with their compactness, makes permanent magnet quadrupoles very powerful components of small aperture linacs. Results will be presented about past and present work on both fixed and variable strength permanent magnets suitable for use in and around linacs

  14. Discovery Monday - The Power to attract: Magnets that make heads turn

    2004-01-01

    How do you steer particles round the LHC's 27 kilometre ring? How do you focus the particle beams in order to obtain collisions? How do you generate a magnetic field almost 200 000 times stronger than that of the Earth, using as little electricity as possible? By using superconducting magnets, of course! Come and discover the incredible properties of superconducting materials at Microcosm on Monday 7 June, where you will be able to try, among other things, to make a magnet levitate. You will also learn all you need to know about magnets and electromagnetism in general, thanks to some simple experiments. Come to the Microcosm on Monday 7 June, between 7.30 p.m. and 9.00 p.m. Entrance free. For further information see: http://www.cern.ch/microcosm

  15. Improved magnetic encoding device and method for making the same. [Patent application

    Fox, R.J.

    A magnetic encoding device and method for making the same are provided for use as magnetic storage media in identification control applications that give output signals from a reader that are of shorter duration and substantially greater magnitude than those of the prior art. Magnetic encoding elements are produced by uniformly bending wire or strip stock of a magnetic material longitudinally about a common radius to exceed the elastic limit of the material and subsequently mounting the material so that it is restrained in an unbent position on a substrate of nonmagnetic material. The elements are spot weld attached to a substrate to form a binary coded array of elements according to a desired binary code. The coded substrate may be enclosed in a plastic laminate structure. Such devices may be used for security badges, key cards, and the like and may have many other applications. 7 figures.

  16. Discovery Monday - The Power to attract: Magnets that make heads turn

    2004-01-01

    Model of a superconducting dipole magnet for the LHC project. How do you steer particles round the LHC's 27 kilometre ring? How do you focus the particle beams in order to obtain collisions? How do you generate a magnetic field almost 200 000 times stronger than that of the Earth, using as little electricity as possible? By using superconducting magnets, of course! Come and discover the incredible properties of superconducting materials at Microcosm on Monday 7 June, where you will be able to try, among other things, to make a magnet levitate. You will also learn all you need to know about magnets and electromagnetism in general, thanks to some simple experiments. Some 12 500 amperes, 30 000 times the strength of a 100-Watt electric light bulb, flow through the superconducting cable of the LHC's magnets without generating any resistance, and therefore with no loss of energy in the form of heat. There is just one problem. In order to function, the magnets have to be cooled to a temperature even colder than tha...

  17. Theory and Design of Tunable and Reconfigurable Microwave Passive Components on Partially Magnetized Ferrite Substrate

    Ghaffar, Farhan A.

    2016-11-01

    Typical microwave components such as antennas are large in size and occupy considerable space. Since multiple standards are utilized in modern day systems and thus multiple antennas are required, it is best if a single component can be reconfigured or tuned to various bands. Similarly phase shifters to provide beam scanning and polarization reconfigurable antennas are important for modern day congested wireless systems. Tunability of antennas or phase shifting between antenna elements has been demonstrated using various techniques which include magnetically tunable components on ferrite based substrates. Although this method has shown promising results it also has several issues due to the use of large external electromagnets and operation in the magnetically saturated state. These issues include the device being bulky, inefficient, non-integrable and expensive. In this thesis, we have tried to resolve the above mentioned issues of large size and large power requirement by replacing the large electromagnets with embedded bias windings and also by operating the ferrites in the partially magnetized state. New theoretical models and simulation methodology have been used to evaluate the performance of the microwave passive components in the partially magnetized state. A multilayer ferrite Low Temperature Cofired Ceramic (LTCC) tape system has been used to verify the performance experimentally. There exists a good agreement between the theoretical, simulation and measurement results. Tunable antennas with tuning range of almost 10 % and phase shifter with an FoM of 83.2/dB have been demonstrated in this work, however the major contribution is that this has been achieved with bias fields that are 90 % less than the typically reported values in the literature. Finally, polarization reconfigurability has also been demonstrated for a circular patch antenna using a low cost additive manufacturing technique. The results are promising and indicate that highly integrated

  18. The source of the intermediate wavelength component of the Earth's magnetic field

    Harrison, C. G. A.

    1985-01-01

    The intermediate wavelength component of the Earth's magnetic field has been well documented by observations made by MAGSAT. It has been shown that some significant fraction of this component is likely to be caused within the core of the Earth. Evidence for this comes from analysis of the intermediate wavelength component revealed by spherical harmonics between degrees 14 and 23, in which it is shown that it is unlikely that all of this signal is crustal. Firstly, there is no difference between average continental source strength and average oceanic source strength, which is unlikely to be the case if the anomalies reside within the crust, taking into account the very different nature and thickness of continental and oceanic crust. Secondly, there is almost no latitudinal variation in the source strength, which is puzzling if the sources are within the crust and have been formed by present or past magnetic fields with a factor of two difference in intensity between the equator and the poles. If however most of the sources for this field reside within the core, then these observations are not very surprising.

  19. A New Approach to Isolating External Magnetic Field Components in Spacecraft Measurements of the Earth's Magnetic Field Using Global Positioning System observables

    Raymond, C.; Hajj, G.

    1994-01-01

    We review the problem of separating components of the magnetic field arising from sources in the Earth's core and lithosphere, from those contributions arising external to the Earth, namely ionospheric and magnetospheric fields, in spacecraft measurements of the Earth's magnetic field.

  20. Precision modelling of M dwarf stars: the magnetic components of CM Draconis

    MacDonald, J.; Mullan, D. J.

    2012-04-01

    The eclipsing binary CM Draconis (CM Dra) contains two nearly identical red dwarfs of spectral class dM4.5. The masses and radii of the two components have been reported with unprecedentedly small statistical errors: for M, these errors are 1 part in 260, while for R, the errors reported by Morales et al. are 1 part in 130. When compared with standard stellar models with appropriate mass and age (≈4 Gyr), the empirical results indicate that both components are discrepant from the models in the following sense: the observed stars are larger in R ('bloated'), by several standard deviations, than the models predict. The observed luminosities are also lower than the models predict. Here, we attempt at first to model the two components of CM Dra in the context of standard (non-magnetic) stellar models using a systematic array of different assumptions about helium abundances (Y), heavy element abundances (Z), opacities and mixing length parameter (α). We find no 4-Gyr-old models with plausible values of these four parameters that fit the observed L and R within the reported statistical error bars. However, CM Dra is known to contain magnetic fields, as evidenced by the occurrence of star-spots and flares. Here we ask: can inclusion of magnetic effects into stellar evolution models lead to fits of L and R within the error bars? Morales et al. have reported that the presence of polar spots results in a systematic overestimate of R by a few per cent when eclipses are interpreted with a standard code. In a star where spots cover a fraction f of the surface area, we find that the revised R and L for CM Dra A can be fitted within the error bars by varying the parameter α. The latter is often assumed to be reduced by the presence of magnetic fields, although the reduction in α as a function of B is difficult to quantify. An alternative magnetic effect, namely inhibition of the onset of convection, can be readily quantified in terms of a magnetic parameter δ≈B2/4

  1. Relation of the Dsub(st) index to the azimuth component of the interplanetary magnetic field vector during separate storms

    Kovalevskij, I.V.; Levitin, A.E.; Fedoseeva, M.K.

    1984-01-01

    A relation between the index Dsub(st) and azimuthal component Bsub(y) of interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) vector during several magnetic storms with Dsub(st) > 100nT is discussed. It is established that the relation between Dsub(st) index and Bsub(y) and Esub(z) component of electric interplanetary field (EIF) is closed than the relation between Dsub(st) and Bsub(z) component of IMF and Esub(y) component of EIF. Correlation coefficients of Dsub(st) and Bsub(y) and Esub(z) differ but slightly from each other

  2. Induction of biogenic magnetization and redox control by a component of the target of rapamycin complex 1 signaling pathway.

    Keiji Nishida

    Full Text Available Most organisms are simply diamagnetic, while magnetotactic bacteria and migratory animals are among organisms that exploit magnetism. Biogenic magnetization not only is of fundamental interest, but also has industrial potential. However, the key factor(s that enable biogenic magnetization in coordination with other cellular functions and metabolism remain unknown. To address the requirements for induction and the application of synthetic bio-magnetism, we explored the creation of magnetism in a simple model organism. Cell magnetization was first observed by attraction towards a magnet when normally diamagnetic yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were grown with ferric citrate. The magnetization was further enhanced by genetic modification of iron homeostasis and introduction of ferritin. The acquired magnetizable properties enabled the cells to be attracted to a magnet, and be trapped by a magnetic column. Superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID magnetometry confirmed and quantitatively characterized the acquired paramagnetism. Electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy showed electron-dense iron-containing aggregates within the magnetized cells. Magnetization-based screening of gene knockouts identified Tco89p, a component of TORC1 (Target of rapamycin complex 1, as important for magnetization; loss of TCO89 and treatment with rapamycin reduced magnetization in a TCO89-dependent manner. The TCO89 expression level positively correlated with magnetization, enabling inducible magnetization. Several carbon metabolism genes were also shown to affect magnetization. Redox mediators indicated that TCO89 alters the intracellular redox to an oxidized state in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, we demonstrated that synthetic induction of magnetization is possible and that the key factors are local redox control through carbon metabolism and iron supply.

  3. Enhancement of nondestructive evaluation techniques for magnetic and nonmagnetic structural components (Final report for doctoral fellowship)

    Chen, Zhenmao

    2000-03-01

    In this report, research works performed in the Structural Safety Engineering Group of OEC/JNC are summarized as the final report of the doctoral fellowship. The main objective of this study is for the enhancement of the nondestructive evaluation techniques for structural components of both magnetic and nonmagnetic material. Studies in three topics have been carried out aiming at the quantitative evaluation of crack with the eddy current testing and the validation of a natural magnetic field based NDE method for detecting mechanical damages in a paramagnetic material. In the first part of the study, an approach to the reconstruction of the natural crack was proposed and implemented with an idealized crack model for its validation. In the second part, the correlation of the natural magnetization and the mechanical damages in the SUS304 stainless steel was investigated by using an experimental approach. In part 3, an inverse method of the measured magnetic fields is proposed for the reconstruction of magnetic charges in the inspected material by using an optimization method and wavelet. As the first work, an approach to the reconstruction of an idealized natural crack of non-vanishing conductivity is proposed with use of signals of eddy current testing. Two numerical models are introduced at first for modeling the natural crack in order to represented it with a set of crack parameters. A method for the rapid prediction of the eddy current testing signals coming from these idealized cracks is given then by extending a knowledge based fast forward solver to the case of a non-vanishing conductivity. Based on this fast forward solver, the inverse algorithm of conjugate gradient method is updated to identify the crack parameters. Several examples are presented finally as a validation of the proposed strategy. The results show that both the two numerical models can give reasonable reconstruction results for signal of low noise. The model concerning the touch of crack

  4. Magnetic Flux Leakage and Principal Component Analysis for metal loss approximation in a pipeline

    Ruiz, M; Mujica, L E; Quintero, M; Florez, J; Quintero, S

    2015-01-01

    Safety and reliability of hydrocarbon transportation pipelines represent a critical aspect for the Oil an Gas industry. Pipeline failures caused by corrosion, external agents, among others, can develop leaks or even rupture, which can negatively impact on population, natural environment, infrastructure and economy. It is imperative to have accurate inspection tools traveling through the pipeline to diagnose the integrity. In this way, over the last few years, different techniques under the concept of structural health monitoring (SHM) have continuously been in development.This work is based on a hybrid methodology that combines the Magnetic Flux Leakage (MFL) and Principal Components Analysis (PCA) approaches. The MFL technique induces a magnetic field in the pipeline's walls. The data are recorded by sensors measuring leakage magnetic field in segments with loss of metal, such as cracking, corrosion, among others. The data provide information of a pipeline with 15 years of operation approximately, which transports gas, has a diameter of 20 inches and a total length of 110 km (with several changes in the topography). On the other hand, PCA is a well-known technique that compresses the information and extracts the most relevant information facilitating the detection of damage in several structures. At this point, the goal of this work is to detect and localize critical loss of metal of a pipeline that are currently working. (paper)

  5. Magnetic Flux Leakage and Principal Component Analysis for metal loss approximation in a pipeline

    Ruiz, M.; Mujica, L. E.; Quintero, M.; Florez, J.; Quintero, S.

    2015-07-01

    Safety and reliability of hydrocarbon transportation pipelines represent a critical aspect for the Oil an Gas industry. Pipeline failures caused by corrosion, external agents, among others, can develop leaks or even rupture, which can negatively impact on population, natural environment, infrastructure and economy. It is imperative to have accurate inspection tools traveling through the pipeline to diagnose the integrity. In this way, over the last few years, different techniques under the concept of structural health monitoring (SHM) have continuously been in development. This work is based on a hybrid methodology that combines the Magnetic Flux Leakage (MFL) and Principal Components Analysis (PCA) approaches. The MFL technique induces a magnetic field in the pipeline's walls. The data are recorded by sensors measuring leakage magnetic field in segments with loss of metal, such as cracking, corrosion, among others. The data provide information of a pipeline with 15 years of operation approximately, which transports gas, has a diameter of 20 inches and a total length of 110 km (with several changes in the topography). On the other hand, PCA is a well-known technique that compresses the information and extracts the most relevant information facilitating the detection of damage in several structures. At this point, the goal of this work is to detect and localize critical loss of metal of a pipeline that are currently working.

  6. Numerical simulations of plasma equilibrium in a one-dimensional current sheet with a nonzero normal magnetic field component

    Mingalev, O. V.; Mingalev, I. V.; Malova, Kh. V.; Zelenyi, L. M.

    2007-01-01

    The force balance in a thin collisionless current sheet in the Earth's magnetotail with a given constant magnetic field component B z across the sheet is numerically studied for the first time in a self-consistent formulation of the problem. The current sheet is produced by oppositely directed plasma flows propagating from the periphery of the sheet toward the neutral plane. A substantially improved version of a macroparticle numerical model is used that makes it possible to simulate on the order of 10 7 macroparticles even with a personal computer and to calculate equilibrium configurations with a sufficiently low discrete noise level in the first-and second-order moments of the distribution function, which determine the stress tensor elements. Quasisteady configurations were calculated numerically for several sets of plasma parameters in some parts of the magnetotail. The force balance in the sheet was checked by calculating the longitudinal and transverse pressures as well as the elements of the full stress tensor. The stress tensor in the current sheet is found to be nondiagonal and to differ appreciably from the gyrotropic stress tensor in the Chew-Goldberger-Low model, although the Chew-Goldberger-Low theory and numerical calculations yield close results for large distances from the region of reversed magnetic field

  7. Compensation of the Persistent Current Multipoles in the LHC Dipoles by making the Coil Protection Sheet from Soft Magnetic Material

    Völlinger, C

    2000-01-01

    This note presents a scheme for compensating the persistent current multipole errors of the LHC dipoles by making the coil protection sheets from soft magnetic material of 0.5 mm thickness. The material properties assumed in this study are those of iron sheets with a very low content of impurities (99.99% pure Fe). The non-linearities in the upramp cycle on the b3 multipole component can be reduced by the factor of four (while decreasing the b5 variation by the factor of two. Using sheets of slightly different thicknesses offers a tuning possibility for the series magnet coils and can compensate deviations arising from cables of different suppliers. The calculation method is based on a semi-analytical hysteresis model for hard superconductors and an M(B) - iteration using the method of coupled boundary elements - finite elements (BEM - FEM). It is now possible to compute persistent current multipole errors of geometries with arbitrarily shaped iron yokes and thin layers of soft magnetic material such as tunin...

  8. Component deficits of visual neglect: "Magnetic" attraction of attention vs. impaired spatial working memory.

    Toba, Monica N; Rabuffetti, Marco; Duret, Christophe; Pradat-Diehl, Pascale; Gainotti, Guido; Bartolomeo, Paolo

    2018-01-31

    Visual neglect is a disabling consequence of right hemisphere damage, whereby patients fail to detect left-sided objects. Its precise mechanisms are debated, but there is some consensus that distinct component deficits may variously associate and interact in different patients. Here we used a touch-screen based procedure to study two putative component deficits of neglect, rightward "magnetic" attraction of attention and impaired spatial working memory, in a group of 47 right brain-damaged patients, of whom 33 had signs of left neglect. Patients performed a visual search task on three distinct conditions, whereby touched targets could (1) be tagged, (2) disappear or (3) show no change. Magnetic attraction of attention was defined as more left neglect on the tag condition than on the disappear condition, where right-sided disappeared targets could not capture patients' attention. Impaired spatial working memory should instead produce more neglect on the no change condition, where no external cue indicated that a target had already been explored, than on the tag condition. Using a specifically developed analysis algorithm, we identified significant differences of performance between the critical conditions. Neglect patients as a group performed better on the disappear condition than on the no change condition and also better in the tag condition comparing with the no change condition. No difference was found between the tag condition and the disappear condition. Some of our neglect patients had dissociated patterns of performance, with predominant magnetic attraction or impaired spatial working memory. Anatomical results issued from both grey matter analysis and fiber tracking were consistent with the typical patterns of fronto-parietal and occipito-frontal disconnection in neglect, but did not identify lesional patterns specifically associated with one or another deficit, thus suggesting the possible co-localization of attentional and working memory processes in

  9. Effect of the Hartmann number on phase separation controlled by magnetic field for binary mixture system with large component ratio

    Heping, Wang; Xiaoguang, Li; Duyang, Zang; Rui, Hu; Xingguo, Geng

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents an exploration for phase separation in a magnetic field using a coupled lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) with magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). The left vertical wall was kept at a constant magnetic field. Simulations were conducted by the strong magnetic field to enhance phase separation and increase the size of separated phases. The focus was on the effect of magnetic intensity by defining the Hartmann number (Ha) on the phase separation properties. The numerical investigation was carried out for different governing parameters, namely Ha and the component ratio of the mixed liquid. The effective morphological evolutions of phase separation in different magnetic fields were demonstrated. The patterns showed that the slant elliptical phases were created by increasing Ha, due to the formation and increase of magnetic torque and force. The dataset was rearranged for growth kinetics of magnetic phase separation in a plot by spherically averaged structure factor and the ratio of separated phases and total system. The results indicate that the increase in Ha can increase the average size of separated phases and accelerate the spinodal decomposition and domain growth stages. Specially for the larger component ratio of mixed phases, the separation degree was also significantly improved by increasing magnetic intensity. These numerical results provide guidance for setting the optimum condition for the phase separation induced by magnetic field.

  10. Survey of studies on the flow and heat transfer of two-component, two-phase flow of liquid metal in magnetic field

    Kumamaru, Hiroshige

    1980-01-01

    Brief review of the studies on the flow and heat transfer of two-component, two-phase flow of liquid metal in magnetic field is presented. R.J. Thome measured the distribution of void rate, slip ratio and pressure loss for the two-phase flow of NaK-N 2 under vertical magnetic field. The void rate distribution became even and the slip ratio increased with the increasing magnetic field. The experimental results of pressure loss was compared with the calculation by an equation derived from the homogeneous flow model. R.G. Owen et al. made the analytical studies of the MHD friction loss of two phase flow. Michiyoshi et al. made experimental studies on the hydrodynamic local properties of Hg-Ar two-phase flow of slug region in a vertically ascending tube under magnetic field, and Kimi et al. also made studies on the heat transfer of Hg-Ar flow under magnetic field. Saito et al. measured the slip ratio and pressure loss of NaK-N 2 flow. As a whole, it can be said that the average void rate decreases, and its distribution becomes even under magnetic field. The slip ratio increases, and the friction loss factor becomes nearly one. It was hard to make clear the heat transfer characteristics. (Kato, T.)

  11. Magnetic Resonance Evaluation of the Presence of an Extensive Intraductal Component in Breast Cancer

    Ikeda, O.; Nishimura, R.; Miyayama, H.; Yasunaga, T.; Ozaki, Y.; Tsuji, A.; Yamashita, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether the presence of extensive intraductal components (EIC) in breast carcinomas can be accurately evaluated on magnetic resonance (MR) images. Material and Methods: Ninety-three women with breast cancer, aged between 32 and 79 years (mean 54 years), underwent three-dimensional dynamic MR imaging (dyMRI) with fat suppression and magnetization transfer contrast before breast-conserving surgery. The tumors were classified on dyMRI as circumscribed, microlobulated, and/or speculated, and their size was measured. Spotty or linear continuous enhancement (SLE) from the main tumor to the nipple and segmental enhancement surrounding the main tumor (SE) were considered indicative of intraductal tumor spread. The correlation between preoperative MRI and macroscopic and microscopic findings was examined. Results: On MR images, the tumor sizes ranged from 0.8 to 3.4 cm. These measurements coincided with histologic measurements in circumscribed tumors. However, in tumors with microlobulated or spiculated borders, tumor size tended to be underestimated on MR images. Of 93 patients, 59 (63.4%) had histologically confirmed EIC; 42 of the 59 cancers (71.2%) manifested SLE or SE on MR images. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of MR imaging in detecting EIC were 71%, 85%, and 76%, respectively. Conclusion: MR imaging facilitates the detection of EIC in breast masses. This information is valuable for the planning of breast-conserving surgery

  12. Induced magnetic moment in stainless steel components of orthodontic appliances in 1.5 T MRI scanners

    Rollins, Nancy K.; Liang, Hui; Park, Yong Jong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Most orthodontic appliances are made of stainless steel materials and induce severe magnetic susceptibility artifacts in brain MRI. In an effort for correcting these artifacts, it is important to know the value of induced magnetic moments in all parts of orthodontic appliances. In this study, the induced magnetic moment of stainless steel orthodontic brackets, molar bands, and arch-wires from several vendors is measured. Methods: Individual stainless steel brackets, molar bands, and short segments of arch-wire were positioned in the center of spherical flask filled with water through a thin plastic rod. The induced magnetic moment at 1.5 T was determined by fitting the B0 map to the z-component of the magnetic dipole field using a computer routine. Results: The induced magnetic moment at 1.5 T was dominated by the longitudinal component mz, with a small contribution from the transverse components. The mz was insensitive to the orientation of the metal parts. The orthodontic brackets collectively dominated the magnetic dipole moment in orthodontic appliances. In brackets from six vendors, the total induced mz from 20 brackets for nonmolar teeth ranged from 0.108 to 0.158 (median 0.122) A ⋅ m2. The mz in eight molar bands with bracket attachment from two vendors ranged from 0.0004 to 0.0166 (median 0.0035) A ⋅ m2. Several full length arch wires had induced magnetic moment in the range of 0.006–0.025 (median 0.015) A ⋅ m2. Conclusions: Orthodontic brackets collectively contributed most to the total magnetic moment. Different types of brackets, molar bands, and arch wires all exhibit substantial variability in the induced magnetic moment. PMID:26429261

  13. Effectiveness of Drug Education Components: Knowledge, Attitudes, Decision Making, Motivations, and Self-Esteem.

    Roberts, Scott W.

    1995-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of school-based drug education in affecting knowledge, attitudes, decision making, motivation, and self-esteem. Pre- and postintervention surveys of fourth through eighth graders indicated that self-esteem did not improve significantly. Knowledge and attitude scores improved significantly, with a positive…

  14. Clinical decision - making review on magnetic attachments versus mechanical attachments in dental prosthetics

    Francesca Fabiano

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Conventional dentures in edentulous patients show some limitations due to the lack of retention, support and stability thus resulting in difficulty to chew. The modern implantology allows to use different implant overdentures and different attachment systems. The selection of the attachment by practitioners is mainly influenced by the clinical experience or technical preferences. Aims The aim of the present review is to provide an adequate background to the clinicians, in order to select the prosthetic attachments according to the current literature. The mechanical attachments have been compared to the magnetic devices, with the aim to guide the decision of the practitioners. Methods Articles topics selection was based on the use of magnetic attachments in dentistry and the comparison between them and mechanical connectors. The databases used were PubMed/MEDLINE, Google Scholar and ISI Web of Science. A critical evaluation of the selected paper has been made to choose the ones that matched the inclusion criteria. Results Nowadays, few studies have compared different attachments in a manner useful for clinical decision-making. The main problem limiting long-term durability of magnetic attachments in the oral fluid is the poor corrosion resistance of permanent magnets and the consequent leaching of cytotoxic ions. Conclusion Magnetic attachments in comparison with other attaching systems can be useful in patients with special needs, in patients with limited interocclusal space, or in patients with neuromuscular limitations, thanks to the automatic reseating properties. However, it’s important to highlight that the mechanical attachments still represent the best choice in common conditions requiring dental prostheses.

  15. Which Design Components of Nutrition Infographics Make Them Memorable and Compelling?

    Wansink, Brian; Robbins, Rebecca

    2016-11-01

    Which design features of nutrition infographics make them memorable and compelling? First, we conducted 3 focus groups with a total of 28 participants to understand preferred infographic characteristics of adults who were mostly in their early 20s. Second, using between subject design, a slide show of single-image infographics was displayed to an independent sample of college students and young career university employees (N = 50). We assigned participants randomly to either active or passive processing conditions. We conducted correlation and regression analyses to examine differences in recall and intention by infographic characteristics and processing conditions. Regardless of whether a person was actively or passively viewing the infographics, the most robust predictor of recall was an action-oriented title (p = .003). Surprisingly, infographics in color (vs black-and-white), humorous, or simply worded were no more memorable or effective than if they simply had actionable titles. Action-oriented titles make infographics memorable and compelling. Regardless of how involved a person is in processing an infographic, cartoon, or illustration, time spent on perfecting an action-oriented title will be time better spent than on making the infographic colorful, humorous, or detailed. Whereas content and detail of the infographic are important, effectiveness might be improved by the command given in its title or subtitle.

  16. The propagation of charged particles in a focussing magnetic field with random components

    Pauls, H.L.

    1993-01-01

    Boltzmann's equation which describes the evolution of the particle distribution function in a focussing magnetic field with finite helicity, is solved by expanding the distribution function in terms of orthogonal focussing eigenfunctions. The present work advances upon previous work by carrying the expansion of the particle distribution function to a higher order (Ν=7 compared to Ν=3), the adding of magnetic helicity, and the injection of a delta function instead of a Gaussian as initial distribution. Results from this model compare very well with those from other known numerical models, provided that a time constraint, which is a direct consequence of the truncation of the eigenfunction expansion, is satisfied. This model, which gives the solution of Boltzmann's equation to a very high degree of accuracy, is used to evaluate the densities predicted by three lower order (and hence easier to implement) models. Two of these models, where the anisotropic component of the distribution function is approximated to first and second order respectively, follow from the Born approximation technique, while the third follows from a truncated eigenfunction expansion of the particle distribution function. It is shown that the latter two models, which include the effect of the dispersion of the so-called coherent pulses, give a better description of the isotropic density than the model which ignores the effect. The main use of this dispersionless model is that it provides a zeroth order approximation to the speed of the coherent pulses in the presence of helicity and focussing. When the dispersion in the pulse is small, its speed is shown to be predicted quite well by this simple model. (author). 67 refs

  17. Stresses evolution at high temperature (200°C on the interface of thin films in magnetic components

    Doumit Nicole

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the field of electronics, the increase of operating temperatures is a major industrial and scientific challenge because it allows reducing mass and volume of components especially in the aeronautic domain. So minimizing our components reduce masses and the use of cooling systems. For that, the behaviours and interface stresses of our components (in particular magnetic inductors and transformers that are constituted of one magnetic layer (YIG or an alumina substrate (Al2O3 representing the substrate and a thin copper film are studied at high temperature (200°C. COMSOL Multiphysics is used to simulate our work and to validate our measurements results. In this paper, we will present stresses results according to the geometrical copper parameters necessary for the component fabrication. Results show that stresses increase with temperature and copper’s thickness while remaining always lower than 200MPa which is the rupture stress value.

  18. Emotional decision-making and its dissociable components in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder: a behavioural and MRI investigation.

    Premkumar, Preethi; Fannon, Dominic; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Simmons, Andrew; Frangou, Sophia; Kumari, Veena

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive decision-making is known to be deficient, but relatively less is known about emotional decision-making in schizophrenia. The Iowa gambling task (IGT) is considered a reliable probe of emotional decision-making and believed to reflect orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) function. The expectancy-valence model of IGT performance implicates three dissociable components, namely, attention to reward, memory for past, relative to recent, outcomes and impulsivity in emotional decision-making. We examined IGT performance, its three components, and their grey matter volume (GMV) correlates in 75 stable patients with schizophrenia, relative to 25 healthy individuals. Patients, relative to controls, showed impaired IGT performance and poor memory for past, relative to recent, outcomes. IGT performance correlated with GMV in the OFC in controls, but not patients. There were associations between (a) attention to reward and GMV in the frontal, temporal, parietal and striatal regions in controls, and in the temporal and thalamic regions in patients, (b) memory for past outcomes and GMV in the temporal region in controls, and the frontal and temporal regions in patients, and (c) low impulsivity and greater GMV in the frontal, temporal, posterior cingulate and occipital regions in controls, and in the frontal, temporal and posterior cingulate regions in patients. Most IGT-GMV associations were stronger in controls. It is concluded that (i) poor memory, rather than less attention to reward or impulsivity, contributes to IGT performance deficit, and (ii) the relationship of IGT performance and its components with GMVs especially in the frontal and temporal lobes is lost or attenuated in schizophrenia.

  19. Damage of actively cooled plasma facing components of magnetic confinement controlled fusion machines

    Chevet, G. [Association Euratom-CEA, DSM/DRFC, CEA Cadarache, Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France)], E-mail: gaelle.chevet@cea.fr; Schlosser, J. [Association Euratom-CEA, DSM/DRFC, CEA Cadarache, Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Martin, E.; Herb, V.; Camus, G. [Universite Bordeaux 1, UMR 5801 (CNRS-SAFRAN-CEA-UB1), Laboratoire des Composites Thermostructuraux, F-33600 Pessac (France)

    2009-03-31

    Plasma facing components (PFCs) of magnetic fusion machines have high manufactured residual stresses and have to withstand important stress ranges during operation. These actively cooled PFCs have a carbon fibre composite (CFC) armour and a copper alloy heat sink. Cracks mainly appear in the CFC near the composite/copper interface. In order to analyse damage mechanisms, it is important to well simulate the damage mechanisms both of the CFC and the CFC/Cu interface. This study focuses on the mechanical behaviour of the N11 material for which the scalar ONERA damage model was used. The damage parameters of this model were identified by similarity to a neighbour material, which was extensively analysed, according to the few characterization test results available for the N11. The finite elements calculations predict a high level of damage of the CFC at the interface zone explaining the encountered difficulties in the PFCs fabrication. These results suggest that the damage state of the CFC cells is correlated with a conductivity decrease to explain the temperature increase of the armour surface under fatigue heat load.

  20. Damage of actively cooled plasma facing components of magnetic confinement controlled fusion machines

    Chevet, G.; Schlosser, J.; Martin, E.; Herb, V.; Camus, G.

    2009-03-01

    Plasma facing components (PFCs) of magnetic fusion machines have high manufactured residual stresses and have to withstand important stress ranges during operation. These actively cooled PFCs have a carbon fibre composite (CFC) armour and a copper alloy heat sink. Cracks mainly appear in the CFC near the composite/copper interface. In order to analyse damage mechanisms, it is important to well simulate the damage mechanisms both of the CFC and the CFC/Cu interface. This study focuses on the mechanical behaviour of the N11 material for which the scalar ONERA damage model was used. The damage parameters of this model were identified by similarity to a neighbour material, which was extensively analysed, according to the few characterization test results available for the N11. The finite elements calculations predict a high level of damage of the CFC at the interface zone explaining the encountered difficulties in the PFCs fabrication. These results suggest that the damage state of the CFC cells is correlated with a conductivity decrease to explain the temperature increase of the armour surface under fatigue heat load.

  1. Damage of actively cooled plasma facing components of magnetic confinement controlled fusion machines

    Chevet, G.; Schlosser, J.; Martin, E.; Herb, V.; Camus, G.

    2009-01-01

    Plasma facing components (PFCs) of magnetic fusion machines have high manufactured residual stresses and have to withstand important stress ranges during operation. These actively cooled PFCs have a carbon fibre composite (CFC) armour and a copper alloy heat sink. Cracks mainly appear in the CFC near the composite/copper interface. In order to analyse damage mechanisms, it is important to well simulate the damage mechanisms both of the CFC and the CFC/Cu interface. This study focuses on the mechanical behaviour of the N11 material for which the scalar ONERA damage model was used. The damage parameters of this model were identified by similarity to a neighbour material, which was extensively analysed, according to the few characterization test results available for the N11. The finite elements calculations predict a high level of damage of the CFC at the interface zone explaining the encountered difficulties in the PFCs fabrication. These results suggest that the damage state of the CFC cells is correlated with a conductivity decrease to explain the temperature increase of the armour surface under fatigue heat load

  2. Cognitive and affective components of mental workload: Understanding the effects of each on human decision making behavior

    Nygren, Thomas E.

    1992-01-01

    Human factors and ergonomics researchers have recognized for some time the increasing importance of understanding the role of the construct of mental workload in flight research. Current models of mental workload suggest that it is a multidimensional and complex construct, but one that has proved difficult to measure. Because of this difficulty, emphasis has usually been placed on using direct reports through subjective measures such as rating scales to assess levels of mental workload. The NASA Task Load Index (NASA/TLX, Hart and Staveland) has been shown to be a highly reliable and sensitive measure of perceived mental workload. But a problem with measures like TLX is that there is still considerable disagreement as to what it is about mental workload that these subjective measures are actually measuring. The empirical use of subjective workload measures has largely been to provide estimates of the cognitive components of the actual mental workload required for a task. However, my research suggests that these measures may, in fact have greater potential in accurately assessing the affective components of workload. That is, for example, TLX may be more likely to assess the positive and negative feelings associated with varying workload levels, which in turn may potentially influence the decision making behavior that directly bears on performance and safety issues. Pilots, for example, are often called upon to complete many complex tasks that are high in mental workload, stress, and frustration, and that have significant dynamic decision making components -- often ones that involve risk as well.

  3. A comparison between highly resolved S-component observations and model calculations using force-free magnetic field extrapolations

    Seehafer, N.; Hildebrandt, J.; Krueger, A.; Akhmedov, Sh.; Gel'frejkh, G.B.

    1983-01-01

    Extensive model calculations of solar radio emission features were presented for the complex of solar active regions Hale No 16862, 16863, and 16864 on May 27, 1980 using force-free extrapolated magnetic fields with constant α and a treatment of radiative transfer of S-component emission. The photospheric magnetic field data were taken from magnetographic measurements whereas the required height distribution of temperature and electron density have been adopted from semi-empirical sunspot models based on recent X-, EUV-, optical, and radio observations. In contrast to the simpler magnetic field structure used in other studies, the complex source structure of the S-component emission is clearly represented by other characteristics. The results of the calculations are compared with the observations of the WRST (6 cm) and RATAN-600 (3.2 cm). (author)

  4. Dynamical properties of magnetized two-dimensional one-component plasma

    Dubey, Girija S.; Gumbs, Godfrey; Fessatidis, Vassilios

    2018-05-01

    Molecular dynamics simulation are used to examine the effect of a uniform perpendicular magnetic field on a two-dimensional interacting electron system. In this simulation we include the effect of the magnetic field classically through the Lorentz force. Both the Coulomb and the magnetic forces are included directly in the electron dynamics to study their combined effect on the dynamical properties of the 2D system. Results are presented for the velocity autocorrelation function and the diffusion constants in the presence and absence of an external magnetic field. Our simulation results clearly show that the external magnetic field has an effect on the dynamical properties of the system.

  5. A Three-Component Model for Magnetization Transfer. Solution by Projection-Operator Technique, and Application to Cartilage

    Adler, Ronald S.; Swanson, Scott D.; Yeung, Hong N.

    1996-01-01

    A projection-operator technique is applied to a general three-component model for magnetization transfer, extending our previous two-component model [R. S. Adler and H. N. Yeung,J. Magn. Reson. A104,321 (1993), and H. N. Yeung, R. S. Adler, and S. D. Swanson,J. Magn. Reson. A106,37 (1994)]. The PO technique provides an elegant means of deriving a simple, effective rate equation in which there is natural separation of relaxation and source terms and allows incorporation of Redfield-Provotorov theory without any additional assumptions or restrictive conditions. The PO technique is extended to incorporate more general, multicomponent models. The three-component model is used to fit experimental data from samples of human hyaline cartilage and fibrocartilage. The fits of the three-component model are compared to the fits of the two-component model.

  6. Task-evoked brain functional magnetic susceptibility mapping by independent component analysis (χICA).

    Chen, Zikuan; Calhoun, Vince D

    2016-03-01

    Conventionally, independent component analysis (ICA) is performed on an fMRI magnitude dataset to analyze brain functional mapping (AICA). By solving the inverse problem of fMRI, we can reconstruct the brain magnetic susceptibility (χ) functional states. Upon the reconstructed χ dataspace, we propose an ICA-based brain functional χ mapping method (χICA) to extract task-evoked brain functional map. A complex division algorithm is applied to a timeseries of fMRI phase images to extract temporal phase changes (relative to an OFF-state snapshot). A computed inverse MRI (CIMRI) model is used to reconstruct a 4D brain χ response dataset. χICA is implemented by applying a spatial InfoMax ICA algorithm to the reconstructed 4D χ dataspace. With finger-tapping experiments on a 7T system, the χICA-extracted χ-depicted functional map is similar to the SPM-inferred functional χ map by a spatial correlation of 0.67 ± 0.05. In comparison, the AICA-extracted magnitude-depicted map is correlated with the SPM magnitude map by 0.81 ± 0.05. The understanding of the inferiority of χICA to AICA for task-evoked functional map is an ongoing research topic. For task-evoked brain functional mapping, we compare the data-driven ICA method with the task-correlated SPM method. In particular, we compare χICA with AICA for extracting task-correlated timecourses and functional maps. χICA can extract a χ-depicted task-evoked brain functional map from a reconstructed χ dataspace without the knowledge about brain hemodynamic responses. The χICA-extracted brain functional χ map reveals a bidirectional BOLD response pattern that is unavailable (or different) from AICA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Method and apparatus from imaging target components in a biological sample using permanent magnets

    Tibbe, Arjan G.J.; Terstappen, Leonardus Wendelinus Mathias Marie

    2010-01-01

    The present invention is a method and means for positive selecting and imaging target entities. This includes a coated permanent magnetic device for magnetic manipulation in the system of the present invention. The system immunomagnetically concentrates the target entity, fluorescently labels,

  8. Make

    Frauenfelder, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The first magazine devoted entirely to do-it-yourself technology projects presents its 29th quarterly edition for people who like to tweak, disassemble, recreate, and invent cool new uses for technology. MAKE Volume 29 takes bio-hacking to a new level. Get introduced to DIY tracking devices before they hit the consumer electronics marketplace. Learn how to build an EKG machine to study your heartbeat, and put together a DIY bio lab to study athletic motion using consumer grade hardware.

  9. Radiocarbon dating of magnetic and non magnetic soil fractions as a method to estimate the heterotrophic component of soil respiration in a primary forest of Ghana.

    Chiti, T.; Certini, G.; Marzaioli, F.; Valentini, R.

    2012-04-01

    We estimated the heterotrophic component (Rh) of soil respiration in a primary forest of Ghana by radiocarbon dating, a method we already successfully applied in temperate and Mediterranean forests. In this case, given the advanced stage of alteration of tropical soils, which are thus rich in oxides, we implemented the method on soil fractions obtained by High Gradient Magnetic Separation (HGMS), hence based on different degrees of magnetic susceptibility. In particular, we separated an organic pool associated with magnetic minerals (e.g iron oxides) from an organic pool engaged with non-magnetic minerals. This non destructive method of fractionation, often applied to the finest fraction of soil (clay), is here attempted on the bulk fine earth (sieved at 2 mm and further at 0.5 mm ,so as to have two size fractions: 2 to 0.5 mm and aggregates. Surprisingly, the non magnetic fraction is not influenced at all by the bomb C (negative delta 14) already at a depth of 5-15 cm and, even, at 15-30 cm all the four fractions have pre-bomb C, which means relatively high radiocarbon age. The finest fractions are the main contributors to the Rh flux, particularly the magnetic fraction (analysis of the bulk soil alone, and only by means of a SOC fractionation the Rh flux can be estimated quite accurately. This alternative approach for estimating the Rh component of CO2 from soils of tropical areas is currently being applied in 10 tropical forest sites in western and central Africa in the context of the ERC Africa GHG project, and together with measurements of the C inputs annually entering the soil will allow determining the sink-source capacity of primary forest soils.

  10. An Approach to Integrating Tactical Decision-Making in Industrial Maintenance Balance Scorecards Using Principal Components Analysis and Machine Learning

    Néstor Rodríguez-Padial

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The uncertainty of demand has led production systems to become increasingly complex; this can affect the availability of the machines and thus their maintenance. Therefore, it is necessary to adequately manage the information that facilitates decision-making. This paper presents a system for making decisions related to the design of customized maintenance plans in a production plant. This paper addresses this tactical goal and aims to provide greater knowledge and better predictions by projecting reliable behavior in the medium-term, integrating this new functionality into classic Balance Scorecards, and making it possible to extend their current measuring function to a new aptitude: predicting evolution based on historical data. In the proposed Custom Balance Scorecard design, an exploratory data phase is integrated with another analysis and prediction phase using Principal Component Analysis algorithms and Machine Learning that uses Artificial Neural Network algorithms. This new extension allows better control over the maintenance function of an industrial plant in the medium-term with a yearly horizon taken over monthly intervals which allows the measurement of the indicators of strategic productive areas and the discovery of hidden behavior patterns in work orders. In addition, this extension enables the prediction of indicator outcomes such as overall equipment efficiency and mean time to failure.

  11. Values of the Earth's Magnetic Field Components X, Y, and Z Recorded in Finland

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set was generated by the Finish Academy of Science from magnetic data collected during the International Magnetospheric Study, 1976-1978. The data were...

  12. Interaction of z component of magnetic field between two samples of GO material in the round rotational single sheet tester (RRSST)

    Gorican, Viktor; Hamler, Anton; Jesenik, Marko; Stumberger, Bojan; Trlep, Mladen

    2006-01-01

    The magnetic properties of two grain-oriented (GO) samples of the same grade were measured under alternating and rotational magnetic flux conditions. Two samples were measured separately and then together in different arrangement to each other. The interaction of magnetic field between two samples were measured by using a coil, which was placed in between. The results show that the H z component influence measured magnetic properties in the x-y plane

  13. Application of Chebyshev Formalism to Identify Nonlinear Magnetic Field Components in Beam Transport Systems

    Spata, Michael [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2012-08-01

    An experiment was conducted at Jefferson Lab's Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility to develop a beam-based technique for characterizing the extent of the nonlinearity of the magnetic fields of a beam transport system. Horizontally and vertically oriented pairs of air-core kicker magnets were simultaneously driven at two different frequencies to provide a time-dependent transverse modulation of the beam orbit relative to the unperturbed reference orbit. Fourier decomposition of the position data at eight different points along the beamline was then used to measure the amplitude of these frequencies. For a purely linear transport system one expects to find solely the frequencies that were applied to the kickers with amplitudes that depend on the phase advance of the lattice. In the presence of nonlinear fields one expects to also find harmonics of the driving frequencies that depend on the order of the nonlinearity. Chebyshev polynomials and their unique properties allow one to directly quantify the magnitude of the nonlinearity with the minimum error. A calibration standard was developed using one of the sextupole magnets in a CEBAF beamline. The technique was then applied to a pair of Arc 1 dipoles and then to the magnets in the Transport Recombiner beamline to measure their multipole content as a function of transverse position within the magnets.

  14. Simplified analysis method for vibration of fusion reactor components with magnetic damping

    Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Horie, Tomoyoshi; Niho, Tomoya

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes two simplified analysis methods for the magnetically damped vibration. One is the method modifying the result of finite element uncoupled analysis using the coupling intensity parameter, and the other is the method using the solution and coupled eigenvalues of the single-degree-of-freedom coupled model. To verify these methods, numerical analyses of a plate and a thin cylinder are performed. The comparison between the results of the former method and the finite element tightly coupled analysis show almost satisfactory agreement. The results of the latter method agree very well with the finite element tightly coupled results because of the coupled eigenvalues. Since the vibration with magnetic damping can be evaluated using these methods without finite element coupled analysis, these approximate methods will be practical and useful for the wide range of design analyses taking account of the magnetic damping effect

  15. Systematic optimization of exterior measurement locations for the determination of interior magnetic field vector components in inaccessible regions

    Nouri, N.; Plaster, B.

    2014-12-11

    An experiment may face the challenge of real-time determination of the magnetic field vector components present within some interior region of the experimental apparatus over which it is impossible to directly measure the field components during the operation of the experiment. As a solution to this problem, we propose a general concept which provides for a unique determination of the field components within such an interior region solely from exterior measurements at fixed discrete locations. The method is general and does not require the field to possess any type of symmetry. We describe our systematic approach for optimizing the locations of these exterior measurements which maximizes their sensitivity to successive terms in a multipole expansion of the field.

  16. Method and apparatus for sensing a desired component of an incident magnetic field using magneto resistive elements biased in different directions

    Pant, Bharat B. (Inventor); Wan, Hong (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A method and apparatus for sensing a desired component of a magnetic field using an isotropic magnetoresistive material. This is preferably accomplished by providing a bias field that is parallel to the desired component of the applied magnetic field. The bias field is applied in a first direction relative to a first set of magnetoresistive sensor elements, and in an opposite direction relative to a second set of magnetoresistive sensor elements. In this configuration, the desired component of the incident magnetic field adds to the bias field incident on the first set of magnetoresistive sensor elements, and subtracts from the bias field incident on the second set of magnetoresistive sensor elements. The magnetic field sensor may then sense the desired component of the incident magnetic field by simply sensing the difference in resistance of the first set of magnetoresistive sensor elements and the second set of magnetoresistive sensor elements.

  17. Gadolinium chloride as a contrast agent for imaging wood composite components by magnetic resonance

    Thomas L. Eberhardt; Chi-Leung So; Andrea Protti; Po-Wah So

    2009-01-01

    Although paramagnetic contrast agents have an established track record in medical uses of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), only recently has a contrast agent been used for enhancing MRI images of solid wood specimens. Expanding on this concept, wood veneers were treated with a gadolinium-based contrast agent and used in a model system comprising three-ply plywood...

  18. Component masses of young, wide, non-magnetic white dwarf binaries in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7

    Baxter, R. B.; Dobbie, P. D.; Parker, Q. A.; Casewell, S. L.; Lodieu, N.; Burleigh, M. R.; Lawrie, K. A.; Külebi, B.; Koester, D.; Holland, B. R.

    2014-06-01

    We present a spectroscopic component analysis of 18 candidate young, wide, non-magnetic, double-degenerate binaries identified from a search of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 (DR7). All but two pairings are likely to be physical systems. We show SDSS J084952.47+471247.7 + SDSS J084952.87+471249.4 to be a wide DA + DB binary, only the second identified to date. Combining our measurements for the components of 16 new binaries with results for three similar, previously known systems within the DR7, we have constructed a mass distribution for the largest sample to date (38) of white dwarfs in young, wide, non-magnetic, double-degenerate pairings. This is broadly similar in form to that of the isolated field population with a substantial peak around M ˜ 0.6 M⊙. We identify an excess of ultramassive white dwarfs and attribute this to the primordial separation distribution of their progenitor systems peaking at relatively larger values and the greater expansion of their binary orbits during the final stages of stellar evolution. We exploit this mass distribution to probe the origins of unusual types of degenerates, confirming a mild preference for the progenitor systems of high-field-magnetic white dwarfs, at least within these binaries, to be associated with early-type stars. Additionally, we consider the 19 systems in the context of the stellar initial mass-final mass relation. None appear to be strongly discordant with current understanding of this relationship.

  19. Exploring liquid metal plasma facing component (PFC) concepts-Liquid metal film flow behavior under fusion relevant magnetic fields

    Narula, M.; Abdou, M.A.; Ying, A.; Morley, N.B.; Ni, M.; Miraghaie, R.; Burris, J.

    2006-01-01

    The use of fast moving liquid metal streams or 'liquid walls' as a plasma contact surface is a very attractive option and has been looked upon with considerable interest over the past several years, both by the plasma physics and fusion engineering programs. Flowing liquid walls provide an ever replenishing contact surface to the plasma, leading to very effective particle pumping and surface heat flux removal. A key feasibility issue for flowing liquid metal plasma facing component (PFC) systems, pertains to their magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) behavior under the spatially varying magnetic field environment, typical of a fusion device. MHD forces hinder the development of a smooth and controllable liquid metal flow needed for PFC applications. The present study builds up on the ongoing research effort at UCLA, directed towards providing qualitative and quantitative data on liquid metal free surface flow behavior under fusion relevant magnetic fields

  20. Gauge origin independent calculations of nuclear magnetic shieldings in relativistic four-component theory

    Ilias, Miroslav; Saue, Trond; Enevoldsen, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The use of perturbation-dependent London atomic orbitals, also called gauge including atomic orbitals, has proven efficient for calculations of NMR shielding constants and other magnetic properties in the nonrelativistic framework. In this paper, the theory of London atomic orbitals for NMR...... calculates the diamagnetic contribution as an expectation value, leads to significant errors and is not recommended. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3240198]...

  1. Photocatalytic/Magnetic Composite Particles

    Wu, Chang-Yu; Goswami, Yogi; Garretson, Charles; Andino, Jean; Mazyck, David

    2007-01-01

    Photocatalytic/magnetic composite particles have been invented as improved means of exploiting established methods of photocatalysis for removal of chemical and biological pollutants from air and water. The photocatalytic components of the composite particles are formulated for high levels of photocatalytic activity, while the magnetic components make it possible to control the movements of the particles through the application of magnetic fields. The combination of photocatalytic and magnetic properties can be exploited in designing improved air- and water treatment reactors.

  2. MAGNETIC FIELD COMPONENTS ANALYSIS OF THE SCUPOL 850 μm POLARIZATION DATA CATALOG

    Poidevin, Frédérick [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Kathleen Lonsdale Building, Gower Place, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Falceta-Gonçalves, Diego [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, St. Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Kowal, Grzegorz [Universidade de São Paulo, Escola de Artes, Ciências e Humanidades Rua Arlindo Béttio, No. 1000, Ermelino Matarazzo, São Paulo, SP 03828-000 (Brazil); De Gouveia Dal Pino, Elisabete; Magalhães, Antonio Mário, E-mail: poidevin@star.ucl.ac.uk, E-mail: dfalceta@usp.br, E-mail: kowal@astro.iag.usp.br, E-mail: dalpino@astro.iag.usp.br, E-mail: mario@astro.iag.usp.br [Universidade de São Paulo, Instituto de Astronomia, Geofísica e Cîenças Atmosféricas, Rua do Matão 1226, Butantã, São Paulo, SP 05508-900 (Brazil)

    2013-11-10

    We present an extensive analysis of the 850 μm polarization maps of the SCUBA Polarimeter Legacy (SCUPOL) Catalogue produced by Matthews et al., focusing exclusively on the molecular clouds and star-forming regions. For the sufficiently sampled regions, we characterize the depolarization properties and the turbulent-to-mean magnetic field ratio of each region. Similar sets of parameters are calculated from two-dimensional synthetic maps of dust-emission polarization produced with three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) numerical simulations scaled to the S106, OMC-2/3, W49, and DR21 molecular cloud polarization maps. For these specific regions, the turbulent MHD regimes retrieved from the simulations, as described by the turbulent Alfvén and Sonic Mach numbers, are consistent within a factor one to two with the values of the same turbulent regimes estimated from the analysis of Zeeman measurements data provided by Crutcher. Constraints on the values of the inclination angle α of the mean magnetic field with respect to the line of sight are also given. The values obtained from the comparison of the simulations with the SCUPOL data are consistent with the estimates made by using two observational methods provided by other authors. Our main conclusion is that simple, ideal, isothermal, and non-self-gravitating MHD simulations are sufficient in order to describe the large-scale observed physical properties of the envelopes of this set of regions.

  3. Optimization of speed-up network component values for the 30 Ω resistively terminated prototype kicker magnet

    Barnes, M.J.; Wait, G.D.

    1993-01-01

    Kicker magnets are required for all ring-to-ring transfers in the 5 rings of the proposed KAON factory synchrotron. The kick must rise from 1% to 99% of full strength during the time interval of gaps created in the beam (80 ns to 160 ns) so that the beam can be extracted with minimum losses. In order to achieve the specified rise-time and open-quote flatness close-quote for the kick it is necessary to utilize speed-up networks, comprising a capacitor and a resistor, in the electrical circuit. Speed-up networks may be connected electrically on both the input and output of the kicker magnet. In addition it is advantageous to connect a open-quote speed-up close-quote network on the input of the resistive terminator(s). A sequence which may minimize the number of mathematical simulations required to optimize the values of the 8 possible speed-up components is presented. PE2D has been utilized to determine inductance and capacitance values for the resistive terminator; this data has been used in PSpice transient analyses. Results of the PE2D predictions are also presented. The research has culminated in a predicted kick rise time (1% to 99%) of less than 50 ns for a TRIUMF 10 cell prototype kicker magnet. The proposed improvements are currently being implemented on our prototype kicker system

  4. Independent component analysis-based artefact reduction: application to the electrocardiogram for improved magnetic resonance imaging triggering

    Oster, Julien; Pietquin, Olivier; Felblinger, Jacques; Abächerli, Roger; Kraemer, Michel

    2009-01-01

    Electrocardiogram (ECG) is required during magnetic resonance (MR) examination for monitoring patients under anaesthesia or with heart diseases and for synchronizing image acquisition with heart activity (triggering). Accurate and fast QRS detection is therefore desirable, but this task is complicated by artefacts related to the complex MR environment (high magnetic field, radio-frequency pulses and fast switching magnetic gradients). Specific signal processing has been proposed, whether using specific MR QRS detectors or ECG denoising methods. Most state-of-the-art techniques use a connection to the MR system for achieving their task, which is a major drawback since access to the MR system is often restricted. This paper introduces a new method for on-line ECG signal enhancement, called ICARE, which takes advantage of using multi-lead ECG and does not require any connection to the MR system. It is based on independent component analysis (ICA) and applied in real time. This algorithm yields accurate QRS detection for efficient triggering

  5. Merging of magnetic fields with field-aligned plasma flow components

    Mitchell, H.G. Jr.; Kan, J.R.

    1978-01-01

    The Sonnerup merging model for an incompressible plasma is extended to allow a flow component along the field lines in the inflow regions. Solutions are found to exist as long as the difference between the quantities B. V for the two inflow regions does not exceed a critical magnitude dependent on the inflow field magnitudes and plasma densities. All such solutions satisfy Vasyliunas' definition of merging, but some classes of solution have radically altered geometries, i.e. geometries in which the inflow regions are much smaller than the outflow regions. The necessary but not sufficient condition for these unusual geometries is that the field-aligned flow component in at least one inflow region be super-Alfvenic. A solution for the case of a vacuum field in one inflow region is obtained in which any flow velocity is allowed in the non-vacuum inflow region, although super-Alfvenic flow can still result in an unusual geometry. For symmetric configurations, the usual geometry, that of Petschek and Sonnerup, is retained as long as both field-aligned flow components in the inflow regions are less than twice the inflow Alfven speed. For the case of a vacuum field on one side and fields approximating the boundary between the solar wind and the earth's dayside magnetosphere, the usual geometry is retained for flow less than about 2.5 times the local Alfven speed. (author)

  6. R and D of the key components for ITER magnet supports

    Lee, P.Y., E-mail: lipy@swip.ac.cn [Department of Material and Fusion Engineering, Southwestern Institute of Physics (SWIP), P.O. Box 432, Chengdu 610041 (China); Hou, B.L.; Pan, C.J. [Department of Material and Fusion Engineering, Southwestern Institute of Physics (SWIP), P.O. Box 432, Chengdu 610041 (China); Cheng, Z.Q.; Huai, K.W. [Stainless Steel Institute, Baoshan Iron and Steel Co., Ltd, 580 Changjiang Road, Baoshan District, Shanghai 200431 (China); Savary, F.; Fu, Y.K.; Gallix, R. [Tokamak Department, ITER Organization, Cadarache, 13108 St. Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    2010-12-15

    In this article, we report the recent progress of the R and D work for ITER magnet supports, including 316LN raw material development, designing and manufacturing, development of gravity supports (GS) and poloidal field (PF) supports. 316LN stainless steel has been developed successfully with nitrogen content up to 0.188 mass%. These materials show very good mechanical properties at both room temperature and low temperature. The GS conceptual design using welded connections is replaced with pre-stressed bolted connections in order to reduce the risk of defects and manufacturing cost. The finite element model (FEM) analysis for this design shows that neither terrible stress concentrations nor large deformations would occur during either normal or abnormal operation. Attaching the thermal anchor to the flexible plate is made possible by a brazing connection and is carried out in the GS manufacturing. For PF supports, the wear resistance of the strut dowel of PF3-4 support improved after ion implantation.

  7. R and D of the key components for ITER magnet supports

    Lee, P.Y.; Hou, B.L.; Pan, C.J.; Cheng, Z.Q.; Huai, K.W.; Savary, F.; Fu, Y.K.; Gallix, R.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we report the recent progress of the R and D work for ITER magnet supports, including 316LN raw material development, designing and manufacturing, development of gravity supports (GS) and poloidal field (PF) supports. 316LN stainless steel has been developed successfully with nitrogen content up to 0.188 mass%. These materials show very good mechanical properties at both room temperature and low temperature. The GS conceptual design using welded connections is replaced with pre-stressed bolted connections in order to reduce the risk of defects and manufacturing cost. The finite element model (FEM) analysis for this design shows that neither terrible stress concentrations nor large deformations would occur during either normal or abnormal operation. Attaching the thermal anchor to the flexible plate is made possible by a brazing connection and is carried out in the GS manufacturing. For PF supports, the wear resistance of the strut dowel of PF3-4 support improved after ion implantation.

  8. Large Cryogenic Infrastructure for LHC Superconducting Magnet and Cryogenic Component Tests: Layout, Commissioning and Operational Experience

    Calzas, C.; Chanat, D.; Knoops, S.; Sanmarti, M.; Serio, L.

    2004-01-01

    The largest cryogenic test facility at CERN, located at Zone 18, is used to validate and to test all main components working at cryogenic temperature in the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) before final installation in the machine tunnel. In total about 1300 main dipoles, 400 main quadrupoles, 5 RF-modules, eight 1.8 K refrigeration units will be tested in the coming years.The test facility has been improved and upgraded over the last few years and the first 18 kW refrigerator for the LHC machine has been added to boost the cryogenic capacity for the area via a 25,000 liter liquid helium dewar. The existing 6 kW refrigerator, used for the LHC Test String experiments, will also be employed to commission LHC cryogenic components.We report on the design and layout of the test facility as well as the commissioning and the first 10,000 hours operational experience of the test facility and the 18 kW LHC refrigerator

  9. Fabrication and component testing results for a Nb3Sn dipole magnet

    Dell'Orco, D.; Scanlan, R.M.; Taylor, C.E.; Lietzke, A.; Caspi, S.; van Oort, J.M.; McInturff, A.D.

    1994-10-01

    At present, the maximum field achieved in accelerator R ampersand D dipoles is slightly over 10T, with NbTi conductor at 1.8 K. Although Nb 3 Sn has the potential to achieve much higher fields, none of the previous dipoles constructed from Nb 3 Sn have broken the 10T barrier. We report here on the construction of a dipole with high current density Nb 3 Sn with a predicted short sample limit of 13T. A wind and react technique, followed by epoxy impregnation of the fiberglass insulated coils, was used. The problems identified with the use of Nb 3 SD in earlier dipole magnets were investigated in a series of supplemental tests. This includes measurement of the degradation of J c with transverse strain, cabling degradation, joint resistance measurements, and epoxy strength tests. In addition, coff assembly techniques were developed to ensure that adequate prestress could be applied without damaging the reacted Nb 3 Sn cable. We report here the results of these tests and the construction status of this 50 mm bore dipole

  10. Components of the CMS magnet system at the detector's assembly site.

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    Photos 01, 05: Outer cylinder of the CMS vacuum tank. The vacuum tank consists of inner and outer stainless-steel cylinders and houses the superconducting coil. As can be seen, the cylinder is attached to the innermost ring of the barrel yoke. Photos 02, 04: CMS end-cap yoke. The magnetic flux generated by the superconducting coil in the CMS detector is returned via an iron yoke comprising three end-cap discs at each end (end-cap yoke) and five concentric cylinders (barrel yoke).Photo 03: Inner cylinder of the CMS vacuum tank. The vacuum tank consists of inner and outer stainless-steel cylinders and houses the superconducting coil. The inner cylinder contains all the barrel sub-detectors, which it supports via a system of horizontal rails. The cylinder is pictured here in the vertical position on a yellow platform mounted on the ferris-wheel support structure. This will allow it to be pivoted and inserted into the outer cylinder already attached to the innermost ring of the barrel yoke.

  11. Identification of some additional loss components in high-power low-voltage permanent magnet generators

    Hamalainen, H.

    2013-11-01

    Permanent magnet generators (PMG) represent the cutting edge technology in modern wind mills. The efficiency remains high (over 90%) at partial loads. To improve the machine efficiency even further, every aspect of machine losses has to be analyzed. Additional losses are often given as a certain percentage without providing any detailed information about the actual calculation process; meanwhile, there are many design-dependent losses that have an effect on the total amount of additional losses and that have to be taken into consideration. Additional losses are most often eddy current losses in different parts of the machine. These losses are usually difficult to calculate in the design process. In this doctoral thesis, some additional losses are identified and modeled. Further, suggestions on how to minimize the losses are given. Iron losses can differ significantly between the measured no-load values and the loss values under load. In addition, with embedded magnet rotors, the quadrature-axis armature reaction adds losses to the stator iron by manipulating the harmonic content of the flux. It was, therefore, re-evaluated that in salient pole machines, to minimize the losses and the loss difference between the no-load and load operation, the flux density has to be kept below 1.5 T in the stator yoke, which is the traditional guideline for machine designers. Eddy current losses may occur in the end-winding area and in the support structure of the machine, that is, in the finger plate and the clamping ring. With construction steel, these losses account for 0.08% of the input power of the machine. These losses can be reduced almost to zero by using nonmagnetic stainless steel. In addition, the machine housing may be subjected to eddy current losses if the flux density exceeds 1.5 T in the stator yoke. Winding losses can rise rapidly when high frequencies and 10-15 mm high conductors are used. In general, minimizing the winding losses is simple. For example, it can be

  12. On the Fluctuating Component of the Sun's Large-Scale Magnetic Field

    Wang, Y.-M.; Sheeley, N. R., Jr.

    2003-06-01

    The Sun's large-scale magnetic field and its proxies are known to undergo substantial variations on timescales much less than a solar cycle but longer than a rotation period. Examples of such variations include the double activity maximum inferred by Gnevyshev, the large peaks in the interplanetary field strength observed in 1982 and 1991, and the 1.3-1.4 yr periodicities detected over limited time intervals in solar wind speed and geomagnetic activity. We consider the question of the extent to which these variations are stochastic in nature. For this purpose, we simulate the evolution of the Sun's equatorial dipole strength and total open flux under the assumption that the active region sources (BMRs) are distributed randomly in longitude. The results are then interpreted with the help of a simple random walk model including dissipation. We find that the equatorial dipole and open flux generally exhibit multiple peaks during each 11 yr cycle, with the highest peak as likely to occur during the declining phase as at sunspot maximum. The widths of the peaks are determined by the timescale τ~1 yr for the equatorial dipole to decay through the combined action of meridional flow, differential rotation, and supergranular diffusion. The amplitudes of the fluctuations depend on the strengths and longitudinal phase relations of the BMRs, as well as on the relative rates of flux emergence and decay. We conclude that stochastic processes provide a viable explanation for the ``Gnevyshev gaps'' and for the existence of quasi periodicities in the range ~1-3 yr.

  13. Making the Most of the Operating Experience Feedback: Design of a Computerized Data Base Related to NPP Component Behavior

    Degrave, C.; Martin-Onraet, M.

    1998-01-01

    Electricite de France carries out several analyses on NPP component behavior every year. However, these analyses are conducted separately by specialists of only the kind of component and regardless of the time factor. Seven years ago, a working group from the Nuclear Operation Division completed a detailed examination of component behavior of the 50 NPP then in operation, over a ten-years period (from 1980 to 1990). These analyses have been centered on main components only. Today, another working group will integrate this operating experience in a computerized process to facilitate access to all the information contained in the data base. This system will be based on a site server allowing a user-friendly connection, and updated periodically. (author)

  14. Other components

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This chapter includes descriptions of electronic and mechanical components which do not merit a chapter to themselves. Other hardware requires mention because of particularly high tolerance or intolerance of exposure to radiation. A more systematic analysis of radiation responses of structures which are definable by material was given in section 3.8. The components discussed here are field effect transistors, transducers, temperature sensors, magnetic components, superconductors, mechanical sensors, and miscellaneous electronic components

  15. Method of making active magnetic refrigerant materials based on Gd-Si-Ge alloys

    Pecharsky, Alexandra O.; Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A.; Pecharsky, Vitalij K.

    2006-10-03

    An alloy made of heat treated material represented by Gd.sub.5(Si.sub.xGe.sub.1-x).sub.4 where 0.47.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.56 that exhibits a magnetic entropy change (-.DELTA.S.sub.m) of at least 16 J/kg K, a magnetostriction of at least 2000 parts per million, and a magnetoresistance of at least 5 percent at a temperature of about 300K and below, and method of heat treating the material between 800 to 1600 degrees C. for a time to this end.

  16. Principles and Application of Magnetic Rubber Testing for Crack Detection in High-Strength Steel Components: I. Active-Field Inspection

    2014-12-01

    containing a dispersion of ferromagnetic particles to the surface of a magnetised steel component. Following curing of the rubber, any surface-breaking...concentration of black particles along the crack is clearly visible against the lighter pigments of the silicone rubber base. magnetic leakage flux due...other side of the black crack indication appear white because they contain a very low density of magnetic particles so that the underlying white pigment

  17. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex affects strategic decision-making

    van't Wout, M; Kahn, RS; Sanfey, AG; Aleman, A

    2005-01-01

    Although decision-making is typically seen as a rational process, emotions play a role in tasks that include unfairness. Recently, activation in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during offers experienced as unfair in the Ultimatum Game was suggested to subserve goal maintenance in this task.

  18. The Contribution of "Cool" and "Hot" Components of Decision-Making in Adolescence: Implications for Developmental Psychopathology

    Seguin, Jean R.; Arseneault, Louise; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2007-01-01

    Impairments in either "cool" or "hot" processes may represent two pathways to deficient decision-making. Whereas cool processes are associated with cognitive and rational decisions, hot processes are associated with emotional, affective, and visceral processes. In this study, 168 boys were administered a card-playing task at ages 13 and 14 years…

  19. The control of auroral zone dynamics and thermodynamics by the interplanetary magnetic field dawn-dusk (Y) component

    Sica, R.J.; Hernandez, G.; Emery, B.A.; Roble, R.G.; Smith, R.W.; Rees, M.H.

    1989-01-01

    Previous theoretical and experimental studies have shown that the dawn-dusk component of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF B y ) expands the classical symmetric two-cell convection pattern toward dusk (B y negative) or toward dawn (B y positive) in the northern hemisphere, altering the ion drag forcing on the neutral atmosphere. Measurements of the neutral dynamics associated with these convection patterns have been presented primarily at magnetic latitudes greater than 70 degree in the polar cap. In this study, nights with coincident IMF measurements have been selected from the extensive four-year auroral zone thermospheric wind and temperature data set derived from Fabry-Perot spectrometer measurements of the Doppler shifts and widths of the O( 1 D) 15,867 cm -1 (630.0 nm) emission from College, Alaska. Averages from 112 nights of measurements from College were also computed using a selection criterion that depended on the previous 2 hours of IMF measurements (case 2). This procedure yielded averages that differed at times from case 1. The wind and temperature averages for both cases show large variations with B y in the auroral zone. The wind averages for B y negative and positive are compared with National Center for Atmospheric Research thermospheric general circulation model predictions that use a B y -dependent model of ionospheric convection. The results for B y negative and positive are compared with National Center for Atmospheric Research thermospheric general circulation model predictions that use a B y -dependent model of ionospheric convection. The results for B y negative compare favorably with the averages, but there are significant differences between model calculations and averages for the B y positive case

  20. Individual differences in decision making and reward processing predict changes in cannabis use: a prospective functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Cousijn, Janna; Wiers, Reinout W; Ridderinkhof, K Richard; van den Brink, Wim; Veltman, Dick J; Porrino, Linda J; Goudriaan, Anna E

    2013-11-01

    Decision-making deficits are thought to play an important role in the development and persistence of substance use disorders. Individual differences in decision-making abilities and their underlying neurocircuitry may, therefore, constitute an important predictor for the course of substance use and the development of substance use disorders. Here, we investigate the predictive value of decision making and neural mechanisms underlying decision making for future cannabis use and problem severity in a sample of heavy cannabis users. Brain activity during a monetary decision-making task (Iowa gambling task) was compared between 32 heavy cannabis users and 41 matched non-using controls using functional magnetic resonance imaging. In addition, within the group of heavy cannabis users, associations were examined between task-related brain activations, cannabis use and cannabis use-related problems at baseline, and change in cannabis use and problem severity after a 6-month follow-up. Despite normal task performance, heavy cannabis users compared with controls showed higher activation during wins in core areas associated with decision making. Moreover, within the group of heavy cannabis users, win-related activity and activity anticipating loss outcomes in areas generally involved in executive functions predicted change in cannabis use after 6 months. These findings are consistent with previous studies and point to abnormal processing of motivational information in heavy cannabis users. A new finding is that individuals who are biased toward immediate rewards have a higher probability of increasing drug use, highlighting the importance of the relative balance between motivational processes and regulatory executive processes in the development of substance use disorders. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  1. Spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy experiments on the rough surface of a polycrystalline NiFe film with a fine magnetic tip sensitive to a well-defined magnetization component

    Matsuyama, H., E-mail: matsu@phys.sci.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0810 (Japan); Nara, D.; Kageyama, R.; Honda, K.; Sato, T.; Kusanagi, K. [Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0810 (Japan); Srinivasan, E. [Creative Research Institution (CRIS), Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 001-0021 (Japan); Koike, K. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0810 (Japan); Creative Research Institution (CRIS), Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 001-0021 (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    We developed a micrometer-sized magnetic tip integrated onto the write head of a hard disk drive for spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy (SP-STM) in the modulated tip magnetization mode. Using SP-STM, we measured a well-defined in-plane spin-component of the tunneling current of the rough surface of a polycrystalline NiFe film. The spin asymmetry of the NiFe film was about 1.3% within the bias voltage range of -3 to 1 V. We obtained the local spin component image of the sample surface, switching the magnetic field of the sample to reverse the sample magnetization during scanning. We also obtained a spin image of the rough surface of a polycrystalline NiFe film evaporated on the recording medium of a hard disk drive.

  2. Spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy experiments on the rough surface of a polycrystalline NiFe film with a fine magnetic tip sensitive to a well-defined magnetization component

    H. Matsuyama

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We developed a micrometer-sized magnetic tip integrated onto the write head of a hard disk drive for spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy (SP-STM in the modulated tip magnetization mode. Using SP-STM, we measured a well-defined in-plane spin-component of the tunneling current of the rough surface of a polycrystalline NiFe film. The spin asymmetry of the NiFe film was about 1.3% within the bias voltage range of -3 to 1 V. We obtained the local spin component image of the sample surface, switching the magnetic field of the sample to reverse the sample magnetization during scanning. We also obtained a spin image of the rough surface of a polycrystalline NiFe film evaporated on the recording medium of a hard disk drive.

  3. Principal component directed partial least squares analysis for combining nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry data in metabolomics: Application to the detection of breast cancer

    Gu Haiwei; Pan Zhengzheng; Xi Bowei; Asiago, Vincent; Musselman, Brian; Raftery, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and mass spectrometry (MS) are the two most commonly used analytical tools in metabolomics, and their complementary nature makes the combination particularly attractive. A combined analytical approach can improve the potential for providing reliable methods to detect metabolic profile alterations in biofluids or tissues caused by disease, toxicity, etc. In this paper, 1 H NMR spectroscopy and direct analysis in real time (DART)-MS were used for the metabolomics analysis of serum samples from breast cancer patients and healthy controls. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the NMR data showed that the first principal component (PC1) scores could be used to separate cancer from normal samples. However, no such obvious clustering could be observed in the PCA score plot of DART-MS data, even though DART-MS can provide a rich and informative metabolic profile. Using a modified multivariate statistical approach, the DART-MS data were then reevaluated by orthogonal signal correction (OSC) pretreated partial least squares (PLS), in which the Y matrix in the regression was set to the PC1 score values from the NMR data analysis. This approach, and a similar one using the first latent variable from PLS-DA of the NMR data resulted in a significant improvement of the separation between the disease samples and normals, and a metabolic profile related to breast cancer could be extracted from DART-MS. The new approach allows the disease classification to be expressed on a continuum as opposed to a binary scale and thus better represents the disease and healthy classifications. An improved metabolic profile obtained by combining MS and NMR by this approach may be useful to achieve more accurate disease detection and gain more insight regarding disease mechanisms and biology.

  4. Principal component directed partial least squares analysis for combining nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry data in metabolomics: application to the detection of breast cancer.

    Gu, Haiwei; Pan, Zhengzheng; Xi, Bowei; Asiago, Vincent; Musselman, Brian; Raftery, Daniel

    2011-02-07

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and mass spectrometry (MS) are the two most commonly used analytical tools in metabolomics, and their complementary nature makes the combination particularly attractive. A combined analytical approach can improve the potential for providing reliable methods to detect metabolic profile alterations in biofluids or tissues caused by disease, toxicity, etc. In this paper, (1)H NMR spectroscopy and direct analysis in real time (DART)-MS were used for the metabolomics analysis of serum samples from breast cancer patients and healthy controls. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the NMR data showed that the first principal component (PC1) scores could be used to separate cancer from normal samples. However, no such obvious clustering could be observed in the PCA score plot of DART-MS data, even though DART-MS can provide a rich and informative metabolic profile. Using a modified multivariate statistical approach, the DART-MS data were then reevaluated by orthogonal signal correction (OSC) pretreated partial least squares (PLS), in which the Y matrix in the regression was set to the PC1 score values from the NMR data analysis. This approach, and a similar one using the first latent variable from PLS-DA of the NMR data resulted in a significant improvement of the separation between the disease samples and normals, and a metabolic profile related to breast cancer could be extracted from DART-MS. The new approach allows the disease classification to be expressed on a continuum as opposed to a binary scale and thus better represents the disease and healthy classifications. An improved metabolic profile obtained by combining MS and NMR by this approach may be useful to achieve more accurate disease detection and gain more insight regarding disease mechanisms and biology. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Magnets

    Young, I.R.

    1984-01-01

    A magnet pole piece for an NMR imaging magnet is made of a plurality of magnetic wires with one end of each wire held in a non-magnetic spacer, the other ends of the wires being brought to a pinch, and connected to a magnetic core. The wires may be embedded in a synthetic resin and the magnetisation and uniformity thereof can be varied by adjusting the density of the wires at the spacer which forms the pole piece. (author)

  6. Effect of heat treatment in air on surface composition of iron-phosphate based soft magnetic composite components

    Oikonomou, C., E-mail: christos.oikonomou@chalmers.se; Oro, R.; Hryha, E.; Nyborg, L.

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Surface morphological and chemical depth profiling analyses of SMC parts. • Effect of annealing at exterior/interior areas for different temperature regimes. • Difference in degree of oxidation/nature of bulk/coating with area and temperature. • Thermodynamic calculations/considerations on the thermal stability of the coating. • Incomplete delubrication and strong bulk oxidation of the samples under 500 °C. - Abstract: Soft magnetic composite materials (SMC) manufactured by conventional powder metallurgical techniques for electromagnetic applications constitute individually encapsulated ferromagnetic powder particles with an insulating surface layer, bonded together into 3D finished structures. The production procedure includes compaction of the SMC base powder mixed with a lubricant substance and a post-annealing treatment that aims to relieve the stresses induced in the component during pressing. In the present study, the effect of the heat treatment process to the nature of the insulating layer was investigated under different temperature regimes using analytical techniques. Its surface chemistry was determined based on the XPS depth profiling technique, and its morphology and structure were evaluated using HR-SEM and XRD. Differences between interior and exterior areas of the samples suggested the development of an oxide scale in the outer regions that prevents its further bulk oxidation at temperatures above 500 °C, while below that temperature incomplete de-lubrication takes place.

  7. MAGNET

    Benoit Curé

    2013-01-01

    Maintenance work and consolidation activities on the magnet cryogenics and its power distribution are progressing according to the schedules. The manufacturing of the two new helium compressor frame units has started. The frame units support the valves, all the sensors and the compressors with their motors. This activity is subcontracted. The final installation and the commissioning at CERN are scheduled for March–April 2014. The overhauls of existing cryogenics equipment (compressors, motors) are in progress. The reassembly of the components shall start in early 2014. The helium drier, to be installed on the high-pressure helium piping, has been ordered and will be delivered in the first trimester of 2014. The power distribution for the helium compressors in SH5 on the 3.3kV network is progressing. The 3.3kV switches, between each compressor and its hot spare compressor, are being installed, together with the power cables for the new compressors. The 3.3kV electrical switchboards in SE5 will ...

  8. Perfusion magnetic resonance imaging provides additional information as compared to anatomical imaging for decision-making in vestibular schwannoma

    Kleijwegt, M.C.; Mey, A.G.L. van der; Wiggers-deBruine, F.T.; Malessy, M.J.A; Osch, M.J.P. van

    2016-01-01

    •DSC/ASL-MRI can be acquired in growing VS with sufficient image quality.•In most patients DSC and ASL techniques provide similar qualitative scores.•These techniques can be of importance in future decision-making. DSC/ASL-MRI can be acquired in growing VS with sufficient image quality. In most patients DSC and ASL techniques provide similar qualitative scores. These techniques can be of importance in future decision-making. The added value of perfusion MRI for decision-making in vestibular schwannoma (VS) patients is unknown. MRI offers two perfusion methods: the first employing contrast agent (dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC)-MRI) that provides information on cerebral blood volume (CBV) and cerebral blood flow (CBF), the second by magnetic labeling of blood (arterial spin labeling (ASL)-MRI), providing CBF-images. The goal of the current study is to investigate whether DSC and ASL perfusion MRI provides complimentary information to current anatomical imaging in treatment selection process of VS. Nine patients with growing VS with extrameatal diameter >9 mm were included (>2 mm/year and 20% volume expansion/year) and one patient with 23 mm extrameatal VS without growth. DSC and ASL perfusion MRI were obtained on 3 T MRI. Perfusion in VS was scored as hyperintense, hypointense or isointense compared to the contralateral region. Seven patients showed hyperintense signal on DSC and ASL sequences. Three patients showed iso- or hypointense signal on at least one perfusion map (1 patient hypointense on both DSC-MRI and ASL; 1 patient isointense on DSC-CBF; 1 patient isointense on ASL). All patients showed enhancement on post-contrast T1 anatomical scan. Perfusion MR provides additional information compared to anatomical imaging for decision-making in VS

  9. Advertising, patient decision making, and self-referral for computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging.

    Illes, Judy; Kann, Dylan; Karetsky, Kim; Letourneau, Phillip; Raffin, Thomas A; Schraedley-Desmond, Pamela; Koenig, Barbara A; Atlas, Scott W

    Self-referred imaging is one of the latest health care services to be marketed directly to consumers. Most aspects of these services are unregulated, and little is known about the messages in advertising used to attract potential consumers. We conducted a detailed analysis of print advertisements and informational brochures for self-referred imaging with respect to themes, content, accuracy, and emotional valence. Forty print advertisements from US newspapers around the country and 20 informational brochures were analyzed by 2 independent raters according to 7 major themes: health care technology; emotion, empowerment, and assurance; incentives; limited supporting evidence; popular appeal; statistics; and images. The Fisher exact test was used to identify significant differences in information content. Both the advertisements and the brochures emphasized health care and technology information and provided assurances of good health and incentives to self-refer. These materials also encouraged consumers to seek further information from company resources; virtually none referred to noncomplying sources of information or to the risks of having a scan. Images of people commonly portrayed European Americans. We found statistical differences between newspaper advertisements and mailed brochures for references to "prevalence of disease" (Padvertisements (n = 15) and 25% of the brochures (n = 5). Direct-to-consumer marketing of self-referred imaging services, in both print advertisements and informational brochures, fails to provide prospective consumers with comprehensive balanced information vital to informed autonomous decision making. Professional guidelines and oversight for advertising and promotion of these services are needed.

  10. Theoretical Study of H/D Isotope Effects on Nuclear Magnetic Shieldings Using an ab initio Multi-Component Molecular Orbital Method

    Masanori Tachikawa

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We have theoretically analyzed the nuclear quantum effect on the nuclear magnetic shieldings for the intramolecular hydrogen-bonded systems of σ-hydroxy acyl aromatic species using the gauge-including atomic orbital technique combined with our multi-component density functional theory. The effect of H/D quantum nature for geometry and nuclear magnetic shielding changes are analyzed. Our study clearly demonstrated that the geometrical changes of hydrogen-bonds induced by H/D isotope effect (called geometrical isotope effect: GIE is the dominant factor of deuterium isotope effect on 13C chemical shift.

  11. I. A model for the magnetic equation of state of liquid 3He. II. An induced interaction model for a two-component Fermi liquid

    Sanchez-Castro, C.R.

    1988-01-01

    This dissertation is divided in six chapters. Chapter 1 is an introduction to the rest of the dissertation. In it, the author presents the different models for the magnetic equation state of liquid 3 He, a derivation of the induced interaction equations for a one component Fermi liquid, and discuss the basic hamiltonian describing the heavy fermion compounds. In Chapter 2 and Chapter 3, he presents a complete discussion of the thermodynamics and Landau theory of a spin polarized Fermi liquid. A phenomenological model is then developed to predict the polarization dependence of the longitudinal Landau parameters in liquid 3 He. This model predicts a new magnetic equation of state and the possibility of liquid 3 He being 'nearly metamagnetic' at high pressures. Chapter 4 contains a microscopic calculation of the magnetic field dependence of the Landau parameters in a strongly correlated Fermi system using the induced interaction model. The system he studied consists of a single component Fermi liquid with parabolic energy bands, and a large on-site repulsive interaction. In Chapter 5, he presents a complete discussion of the Landau theory of a two component Fermi liquid. Then, he generalizes the induced interaction equations to calculate Landau parameters and scattering amplitudes for an arbitrary, spin polarized, two component Fermi liquid. The resulting equations are used to study a model for the heavy fermion Fermi liquid state: a two band electronic system with an antiferromagnetic interaction between the two bands. Chapter 6 contains the concluding remarks of the dissertation

  12. Detection and Analysis of the Magnetic Field Component of Electromagnetic Radiation Emission from Macroscopic Fracturing of Cement-Bound Granular Material

    Maquiling, J. T.; Ceralde, P. I. B.

    2016-12-01

    Countries most prone to earthquake damage have been in pursuit of a possible earthquake precursor. This study aims to detect and measure the magnetic field component of the Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) emitted by quasi-brittle materials that undergo macroscopic fracturing. Cement-Bound Granular Materials (CBGM) were prepared by mixing cement, sand and gravel in a beam mold. Additional aggregates in the form of saw dust were added to produce variable CBGM samples. A concrete beam holder was designed and fabricated such that induced cracks from impact loading would form at the center of the beam. Six Vernier software magnetic field sensors were used to detect the magnetic field (MF) component of the EMR emission. Initial calibration was done to minimize noise in the laboratory. The magnetic field sensors were set at a low amplification range (±6.4x10-3 T) setting with 0.0002 mT precision at 20-50 Hz. Sensor locations and orientations were specified and fixed throughout the experiment. The impact loading process was repeated until concrete failure. The time of drop was determined through the occurrence of peak sound levels (dB) induced by the collision noise using a sound level meter at fast time weighting. Magnetic field fluctuations manifesting near the occurrence of sound level impulses were recorded. Peak magnetic field values within ±200ms from the recorded time of impact were considered to be originating from the concrete fracture. Concrete samples consisting of cement, sand and gravel produced magnetic field emissions measuring 0.58-1.07 μT while the same concrete mixture added with dispersed fine sawdust released 0.55-1.28 μT. A more dispersed set of values of magnetic field emissions were observed for concrete with sawdust. Comparison between the average number of drops done before failure occurs between the two concrete mixtures also indicated that the addition of dispersed sawdust resulted to weaker CBGM samples. Upon increasing input energy from

  13. Ultrafast Magnetism of Multi-component Ferromagnets and Ferrimagnets on the Time Scale of the Exchange Interaction

    Radu, Ilie

    2012-02-01

    Revealing the ultimate speed limit at which magnetic order can be controlled, is a fundamental challenge of modern magnetism having far reaching implications for the magnetic recording industry [1]. Exchange interaction is the strongest force in magnetism, being ultimately responsible for ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic spin order. How do spins react after being optically excited on a timescale of or even faster than the exchange interaction? Here, we demonstrate that femtosecond (fs) measurements of ferrimagnetic and ferromagnetic alloys using X-ray magnetic circular dichroism provide revolutionary new insights into the problem of ultrafast magnetism on timescales pertinent to the exchange interaction. In particular, we show that upon fs optical excitation the ultrafast spin reversal of GdFeCo - a material with antiferromagnetic coupling of spins - occurs via a transient ferromagnetic state [2]. The latter emerges due to different dynamics of the Gd and Fe magnetic moments: Gd switches within 1.5 ps while it takes only 300 fs for Fe. Thus, by using a single fs laser pulse one can force the spin system to evolve via an energetically unfavorable way and temporarily switch from an antiferromagnetic to a ferromagnetic type of ordering. In order to understand whether the observation of this temporarily decoupled and element-specific dynamics is a general phenomenon or just something strictly related to the case of ferrimagnetic GdFeCo, we have investigated the demagnetization of the archetypal ferromagnetic NiFe alloys. Essentially, we observe the same distinct magnetization dynamics of the constituent magnetic moments: Ni demagnetizes within ˜300 fs being much faster than the demagnetization of Fe of ˜800 fs. This distinct demagnetization behavior leads to an apparent decoupling of the Fe and Ni magnetic moments on a few hundreds of fs time scale, despite the strong exchange interaction of 260meV (˜16 fs) that couples them. These observations supported by

  14. Magnetization damping in two-component metal oxide micropowder and nanopowder compacts by broadband ferromagnetic resonance measurements

    Youssef, Jamal Ben; Brosseau, Christian

    2006-12-01

    The microwave damping mechanisms in magnetic inhomogeneous systems have displayed a richness of phenomenology that has attracted widespread interest over the years. Motivated by recent experiments, we report an extensive experimental study of the Gilbert damping parameter of multicomponent metal oxides micro- and nanophases. We label the former by M samples, and the latter by N samples. The main thrust of this examination is the magnetization dynamics in systems composed of mixtures of magnetic (γ-Fe2O3) and nonmagnetic (ZnO and epoxy resin) materials fabricated via powder processing. Detailed ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) measurements on N and M samples are described so to determine changes in the microwave absorption over the 6-18GHz frequency range as a function of composition and static magnetic field. The FMR linewidth and the field dependent resonance were measured for the M and N samples, at a given volume fraction of the magnetic phase. The asymmetry in the form and change in the linewidth for the M samples are caused by the orientation distribution of the local anisotropy fields, whereas the results for the N samples suggest that the linewidth is very sensitive to details of the spatial magnetic inhomogeneities. For N samples, the peak-to-peak linewidth increases continuously with the volume content of magnetic material. The influence of the volume fraction of the magnetic phase on the static internal field was also investigated. Furthermore, important insights are gleaned through analysis of the interrelationship between effective permeability and Gilbert damping constant. Different mechanisms have been considered to explain the FMR linewidth: the intrinsic Gilbert damping, the broadening induced by the magnetic inhomogeneities, and the extrinsic magnetic relaxation. We observed that the effective Gilbert damping constant of the series of N samples are found to be substantially smaller in comparison to M samples. This effect is attributed to the surface

  15. MAGNET

    by B. Curé

    2011-01-01

    The magnet operation was very satisfactory till the technical stop at the end of the year 2010. The field was ramped down on 5th December 2010, following the successful regeneration test of the turbine filters at full field on 3rd December 2010. This will limit in the future the quantity of magnet cycles, as it is no longer necessary to ramp down the magnet for this type of intervention. This is made possible by the use of the spare liquid Helium volume to cool the magnet while turbines 1 and 2 are stopped, leaving only the third turbine in operation. This obviously requires full availability of the operators to supervise the operation, as it is not automated. The cryogenics was stopped on 6th December 2010 and the magnet was left without cooling until 18th January 2011, when the cryoplant operation resumed. The magnet temperature reached 93 K. The maintenance of the vacuum pumping was done immediately after the magnet stop, when the magnet was still at very low temperature. Only the vacuum pumping of the ma...

  16. Modification of structural and magnetic properties of soft magnetic multi-component metallic glass by 80 MeV {sup 16}O{sup 6+} ion irradiation

    Kane, S.N., E-mail: kane_sn@yahoo.com [School of Physics, D.A. University, Khandwa Road Campus, Indore 452001 (India); Shah, M.; Satalkar, M.; Gehlot, K. [School of Physics, D.A. University, Khandwa Road Campus, Indore 452001 (India); Kulriya, P.K.; Avasthi, D.K. [Inter-University Accelerator Centre, P.O. Box No. 10502, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India); Sinha, A.K. [Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, P.O. CAT, Indore 452013 (India); Modak, S.S. [Physics Department, Jaypee University of Eng. & Tech., A-B Road, Raghogarh, Guna 473226 (India); Ghodke, N.L.; Reddy, V.R. [UGC-DAE CSR, University Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore 452001 (India); Varga, L.K. [RISSPO, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, 1525 Budapest (Hungary)

    2016-07-15

    Effect of 80 MeV {sup 16}O{sup 6+} ion irradiation in amorphous Fe{sub 77}P{sub 8}Si{sub 3}C{sub 5}Al{sub 2}Ga{sub 1}B{sub 4} alloy is reported. Electronic energy loss induced modifications in the structural and, magnetic properties were monitored by synchrotron X-ray diffraction (SXRD), Mössbauer and, magnetic measurements. Broad amorphous hump seen in SXRD patterns reveals the amorphous nature of the studied specimens. Mössbauer measurements suggest that: (a) alignment of atomic spins within ribbon plane, (b) changes in average hyperfine field suggests radiation-induced decrease in the inter atomic distance around Mössbauer (Fe) atom, (c) hyperfine field distribution confirms the presence of non-magnetic elements (e.g. – B, P, C) in the first near-neighbor shell of the Fe atom, thus reducing its magnetic moment, and (d) changes in isomer shift suggests variation in average number of the metalloid near neighbors and their distances. Minor changes in soft magnetic behavior – watt loss and, coercivity after an irradiation dose of 2 × 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2} suggests prospective application of Fe{sub 77}P{sub 8}Si{sub 3}C{sub 5}Al{sub 2}Ga{sub 1}B{sub 4} alloy as core material in accelerators (radio frequency cavities).

  17. Guide to making time-lapse graphics using the facilities of the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computing Center

    Munro, J.K. Jr.

    1980-05-01

    The advent of large, fast computers has opened the way to modeling more complex physical processes and to handling very large quantities of experimental data. The amount of information that can be processed in a short period of time is so great that use of graphical displays assumes greater importance as a means of displaying this information. Information from dynamical processes can be displayed conveniently by use of animated graphics. This guide presents the basic techniques for generating black and white animated graphics, with consideration of aesthetic, mechanical, and computational problems. The guide is intended for use by someone who wants to make movies on the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computing Center (NMFECC) CDC-7600. Problems encountered by a geographically remote user are given particular attention. Detailed information is given that will allow a remote user to do some file checking and diagnosis before giving graphics files to the system for processing into film in order to spot problems without having to wait for film to be delivered. Source listings of some useful software are given in appendices along with descriptions of how to use it. 3 figures, 5 tables

  18. Magnetic Inflation and Stellar Mass. I. Revised Parameters for the Component Stars of the Kepler Low-mass Eclipsing Binary T-Cyg1-12664

    Han, Eunkyu; Muirhead, Philip S. [Department of Astronomy and Institute for Astrophysical Research, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Swift, Jonathan J. [The Thacher School, 5025 Thacher Road Ojai, CA 93023 (United States); Baranec, Christoph; Atkinson, Dani [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaiì at Mānoa, Hilo, HI 96720-2700 (United States); Law, Nicholas M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3255 (United States); Riddle, Reed [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Mace, Gregory N. [McDonald Observatory and The University of Texas, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400, Austin, TX 78712-1205 (United States); DeFelippis, Daniel, E-mail: eunkyuh@bu.edu [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Several low-mass eclipsing binary stars show larger than expected radii for their measured mass, metallicity, and age. One proposed mechanism for this radius inflation involves inhibited internal convection and starspots caused by strong magnetic fields. One particular eclipsing binary, T-Cyg1-12664, has proven confounding to this scenario. Çakırlı et al. measured a radius for the secondary component that is twice as large as model predictions for stars with the same mass and age, but a primary mass that is consistent with predictions. Iglesias-Marzoa et al. independently measured the radii and masses of the component stars and found that the radius of the secondary is not in fact inflated with respect to models, but that the primary is, which is consistent with the inhibited convection scenario. However, in their mass determinations, Iglesias-Marzoa et al. lacked independent radial velocity measurements for the secondary component due to the star’s faintness at optical wavelengths. The secondary component is especially interesting, as its purported mass is near the transition from partially convective to a fully convective interior. In this article, we independently determined the masses and radii of the component stars of T-Cyg1-12664 using archival Kepler data and radial velocity measurements of both component stars obtained with IGRINS on the Discovery Channel Telescope and NIRSPEC and HIRES on the Keck Telescopes. We show that neither of the component stars is inflated with respect to models. Our results are broadly consistent with modern stellar evolutionary models for main-sequence M dwarf stars and do not require inhibited convection by magnetic fields to account for the stellar radii.

  19. Biclustered Independent Component Analysis for Complex Biomarker and Subtype Identification from Structural Magnetic Resonance Images in Schizophrenia

    Cota Navin Gupta

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Clinical and cognitive symptoms domain-based subtyping in schizophrenia (Sz has been critiqued due to the lack of neurobiological correlates and heterogeneity in symptom scores. We, therefore, present a novel data-driven framework using biclustered independent component analysis to detect subtypes from the reliable and stable gray matter concentration (GMC of patients with Sz. The developed methodology consists of the following steps: source-based morphometry (SBM decomposition, selection and sorting of two component loadings, subtype component reconstruction using group information-guided ICA (GIG-ICA. This framework was applied to the top two group discriminative components namely the insula/superior temporal gyrus/inferior frontal gyrus (I-STG-IFG component and the superior frontal gyrus/middle frontal gyrus/medial frontal gyrus (SFG-MiFG-MFG component from our previous SBM study, which showed diagnostic group difference and had the highest effect sizes. The aggregated multisite dataset consisted of 382 patients with Sz regressed of age, gender, and site voxelwise. We observed two subtypes (i.e., two different subsets of subjects each heavily weighted on these two components, respectively. These subsets of subjects were characterized by significant differences in positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS positive clinical symptoms (p = 0.005. We also observed an overlapping subtype weighing heavily on both of these components. The PANSS general clinical symptom of this subtype was trend level correlated with the loading coefficients of the SFG-MiFG-MFG component (r = 0.25; p = 0.07. The reconstructed subtype-specific component using GIG-ICA showed variations in voxel regions, when compared to the group component. We observed deviations from mean GMC along with conjunction of features from two components characterizing each deciphered subtype. These inherent variations in GMC among patients with Sz could possibly indicate the

  20. Novel processing of Barkhausen noise signal for assessment of residual stress in surface ground components exhibiting poor magnetic response

    Vashista, M.; Paul, S.

    2011-01-01

    The Barkhausen Noise Analysis (BNA) technique has been utilised to assess surface integrity of steels. But the BNA technique is not very successful in evaluating surface integrity of ground steels that exhibit poor micro-magnetic response. A new approach has been proposed for the processing of BN signal and two newly proposed parameters, namely 'count' and 'event', have been shown to correlate linearly with the residual stress upon grinding, with judicious choice of user defined 'threshold', even when the micro-magnetic response of the work material is poor. In the present study, residual stress induced upon conventional plunge surface grinding of hardened bearing steel has been investigated along with unhardened bearing steel for benchmarking. Moreover, similar correlation has been established, when primarily compressive stress is induced upon high speed grinding using cBN wheel with moderately deep cut suppressing the micro-magnetic response from the ground medium carbon steel as the work material. - Highlights: → The problem of work materials exhibiting poor BN response and poor Barkhausen Noise response is identified. → A novel signal processing strategy is introduced to address the issue of poor micro-magnetic response of some ferromagnetic material. → Potential of newly introduced BN parameters has been studied. → These two BN parameters exhibited linear correlation with residual stress for work material with poor micro-magnetic response.

  1. MAGNET

    Benoit Curé

    2010-01-01

    Operation of the magnet has gone quite smoothly during the first half of this year. The magnet has been at 4.5K for the full period since January. There was an unplanned short stop due to the CERN-wide power outage on May 28th, which caused a slow dump of the magnet. Since this occurred just before a planned technical stop of the LHC, during which access in the experimental cavern was authorized, it was decided to leave the magnet OFF until 2nd June, when magnet was ramped up again to 3.8T. The magnet system experienced a fault also resulting in a slow dump on April 14th. This was triggered by a thermostat on a filter choke in the 20kA DC power converter. The threshold of this thermostat is 65°C. However, no variation in the water-cooling flow rate or temperature was observed. Vibration may have been the root cause of the fault. All the thermostats have been checked, together with the cables, connectors and the read out card. The tightening of the inductance fixations has also been checked. More tem...

  2. MAGNET

    B. Curé

    2012-01-01

      The magnet was energised at the beginning of March 2012 at a low current to check all the MSS safety chains. Then the magnet was ramped up to 3.8 T on 6 March 2012. Unfortunately two days later an unintentional switch OFF of the power converter caused a slow dump. This was due to a misunderstanding of the CCC (CERN Control Centre) concerning the procedure to apply for the CMS converter control according to the beam-mode status at that time. Following this event, the third one since 2009, a discussion was initiated to define possible improvement, not only on software and procedures in the CCC, but also to evaluate the possibility to upgrade the CMS hardware to prevent such discharge from occurring because of incorrect procedure implementations. The magnet operation itself was smooth, and no power cuts took place. As a result, the number of magnetic cycles was reduced to the minimum, with only two full magnetic cycles from 0 T to 3.8 T. Nevertheless the magnet suffered four stops of the cryogeni...

  3. MAGNET

    B. Curé

    2012-01-01

      Following the unexpected magnet stops last August due to sequences of unfortunate events on the services and cryogenics [see CMS internal report], a few more events and initiatives again disrupted the magnet operation. All the magnet parameters stayed at their nominal values during this period without any fault or alarm on the magnet control and safety systems. The magnet was stopped for the September technical stop to allow interventions in the experimental cavern on the detector services. On 1 October, to prepare the transfer of the liquid nitrogen tank on its new location, several control cables had to be removed. One cable was cut mistakenly, causing a digital input card to switch off, resulting in a cold-box (CB) stop. This tank is used for the pre-cooling of the magnet from room temperature down to 80 K, and for this reason it is controlled through the cryogenics control system. Since the connection of the CB was only allowed for a field below 2 T to avoid the risk of triggering a fast d...

  4. A possible mechanism of the enhancement and maintenance of the shear magnetic field component in the current sheet of the Earth’s magnetotail

    Grigorenko, E. E.; Malova, H. V.; Malykhin, A. Yu.; Zelenyi, L. M.

    2015-01-01

    The influence of the shear magnetic field component, which is directed along the electric current in the current sheet (CS) of the Earth’s magnetotail and enhanced near the neutral plane of the CS, on the nonadiabatic dynamics of ions interacting with the CS is studied. The results of simulation of the nonadiabatic ion motion in the prescribed magnetic configuration similar to that observed in the magnetotail CS by the CLUSTER spacecraft demonstrated that, in the presence of some initial shear magnetic field, the north-south asymmetry in the ion reflection/refraction in the CS is observed. This asymmetry leads to the formation of an additional current system formed by the oppositely directed electric currents flowing in the northern and southern parts of the plasma sheet in the planes tangential to the CS plane and in the direction perpendicular to the direction of the electric current in the CS. The formation of this current system perhaps is responsible for the enhancement and further maintenance of the shear magnetic field near the neutral plane of the CS. The CS structure and ion dynamics observed in 17 intervals of the CS crossings by the CLUSTER spacecraft is analyzed. In these intervals, the shear magnetic field was increased near the neutral plane of the CS, so that the bell-shaped spatial distribution of this field across the CS plane was observed. The results of the present analysis confirm the suggested scenario of the enhancement of the shear magnetic field near the neutral plane of the CS due to the peculiarities of the nonadiabatic ion dynamics

  5. A possible mechanism of the enhancement and maintenance of the shear magnetic field component in the current sheet of the Earth’s magnetotail

    Grigorenko, E. E., E-mail: elenagrigorenko2003@yahoo.com; Malova, H. V., E-mail: hmalova@yandex.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Space Research Institute (Russian Federation); Malykhin, A. Yu., E-mail: anmaurdreg@gmail.com [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (Russian Federation); Zelenyi, L. M., E-mail: lzelenyi@iki.rssi.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Space Research Institute (Russian Federation)

    2015-01-15

    The influence of the shear magnetic field component, which is directed along the electric current in the current sheet (CS) of the Earth’s magnetotail and enhanced near the neutral plane of the CS, on the nonadiabatic dynamics of ions interacting with the CS is studied. The results of simulation of the nonadiabatic ion motion in the prescribed magnetic configuration similar to that observed in the magnetotail CS by the CLUSTER spacecraft demonstrated that, in the presence of some initial shear magnetic field, the north-south asymmetry in the ion reflection/refraction in the CS is observed. This asymmetry leads to the formation of an additional current system formed by the oppositely directed electric currents flowing in the northern and southern parts of the plasma sheet in the planes tangential to the CS plane and in the direction perpendicular to the direction of the electric current in the CS. The formation of this current system perhaps is responsible for the enhancement and further maintenance of the shear magnetic field near the neutral plane of the CS. The CS structure and ion dynamics observed in 17 intervals of the CS crossings by the CLUSTER spacecraft is analyzed. In these intervals, the shear magnetic field was increased near the neutral plane of the CS, so that the bell-shaped spatial distribution of this field across the CS plane was observed. The results of the present analysis confirm the suggested scenario of the enhancement of the shear magnetic field near the neutral plane of the CS due to the peculiarities of the nonadiabatic ion dynamics.

  6. MAGNET

    B. Curé

    2012-01-01

      The magnet and its sub-systems were stopped at the beginning of the winter shutdown on 8th December 2011. The magnet was left without cooling during the cryogenics maintenance until 17th January 2012, when the cryoplant operation resumed. The magnet temperature reached 93 K. The vacuum pumping was maintained during this period. During this shutdown, the yearly maintenance was performed on the cryogenics, the vacuum pumps, the magnet control and safety systems, and the power converter and discharge lines. Several preventive actions led to the replacement of the electrovalve command coils, and the 20A DC power supplies of the magnet control system. The filters were cleaned on the demineralised water circuits. The oil of the diffusion pumps was changed. On the cryogenics, warm nitrogen at 343 K was circulated in the cold box to regenerate the filters and the heat exchangers. The coalescing filters have been replaced at the inlet of both the turbines and the lubricant trapping unit. The active cha...

  7. MAGNET

    B. Curé

    2013-01-01

      The magnet was operated without any problem until the end of the LHC run in February 2013, apart from a CERN-wide power glitch on 10 January 2013 that affected the CMS refrigerator, causing a ramp down to 2 T in order to reconnect the coldbox. Another CERN-wide power glitch on 15 January 2013 didn’t affect the magnet subsystems, the cryoplant or the power converter. At the end of the magnet run, the reconnection of the coldbox at 2.5 T was tested. The process will be updated, in particular the parameters of some PID valve controllers. The helium flow of the current leads was reduced but only for a few seconds. The exercise will be repeated with the revised parameters to validate the automatic reconnection process of the coldbox. During LS1, the water-cooling services will be reduced and many interventions are planned on the electrical services. Therefore, the magnet cryogenics and subsystems will be stopped for several months, and the magnet cannot be kept cold. In order to avoid unc...

  8. MAGNET

    Benoit Curé

    2010-01-01

    The magnet was successfully operated at the end of the year 2009 despite some technical problems on the cryogenics. The magnet was ramped up to 3.8 T at the end of November until December 16th when the shutdown started. The magnet operation met a few unexpected stops. The field was reduced to 3.5 T for about 5 hours on December 3rd due to a faulty pressure sensor on the helium compressor. The following day the CERN CCC stopped unintentionally the power converters of the LHC and the experiments, triggering a ramp down that was stopped at 2.7 T. The magnet was back at 3.8 T about 6 hours after CCC sent the CERN-wide command. Three days later, a slow dump was triggered due to a stop of the pump feeding the power converter water-cooling circuit, during an intervention on the water-cooling plant done after several disturbances on the electrical distribution network. The magnet was back at 3.8 T in the evening the same day. On December 10th a break occurred in one turbine of the cold box producing the liquid ...

  9. MAGNET

    B. Curé

    2011-01-01

    The CMS magnet has been running steadily and smoothly since the summer, with no detected flaw. The magnet instrumentation is entirely operational and all the parameters are at their nominal values. Three power cuts on the electrical network affected the magnet run in the past five months, with no impact on the data-taking as the accelerator was also affected at the same time. On 22nd June, a thunderstorm caused a power glitch on the service electrical network. The primary water cooling at Point 5 was stopped. Despite a quick restart of the water cooling, the inlet temperature of the demineralised water on the busbar cooling circuit increased by 5 °C, up to 23.3 °C. It was kept below the threshold of 27 °C by switching off other cooling circuits to avoid the trigger of a slow dump of the magnet. The cold box of the cryogenics also stopped. Part of the spare liquid helium volume was used to maintain the cooling of the magnet at 4.5 K. The operators of the cryogenics quickly restarted ...

  10. A Novel Hysteresis Model of Magnetic Field Strength Determined by Magnetic Induction Intensity for Fe-3% Si Electrical Steel Applied in Cigarette Making Machines

    Hao Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hysteresis characteristics of grain-oriented electrical steel were studied through the hysteresis loop. Existing hysteresis fitting simulation methods were summarized, and new Fe-3% Si grain-oriented electrical steel hysteresis loop model was proposed. Undetermined coefficients of the magnetic field intensity and magnetic flux density were determined by both the fixed angle method and the least squares method, and the hysteresis loop model was validated with high fitting degree by experimental data.

  11. Dielectric and magnetic characterization of the electroceramic Ba2Co2Fe12O22 doped with Bi2O3 for applications in electronics components

    Pires Junior, G.F.M.; Sales, A.J.M.; Rodrigues, H.O.; Sombra, A.S.B.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work is to study the dielectric and magnetic properties of electroceramics (Ba 2 Co 2 Fe 12 O 22 - Co 2 Y) doped with (3; 5 and 10 wt%) of Bi 2 O 3 in order to promote better dielectric and magnetic properties for applications in electronics. Phase Co 2 Y was obtained through the method of solid-state reaction. The structural characterization was performed by X-ray Diffraction using the Rietveld refinement. Magnetic hysteresis curves of the samples were obtained at room temperature. The Impedance Spectroscopy was used in the study of the dielectric function of frequency in the range 100-100 MHz, at room temperature. It follows that the Rietveld refinement confirmed the structure to the hexagonal crystalline phase obtained. The curve analysis confirmed the magnetic hysteresis behavior of the ferrimagnetic samples. Furthermore, the samples showed large values of dielectric permittivity (30.8) and small dielectric loss (3,66 x10 -1 ) at 100 MHz for the sample B1, making them passive miniaturization. (author)

  12. MAGNET

    B. Curé

    2011-01-01

    The magnet ran smoothly in the last few months until a fast dump occurred on 9th May 2011. Fortunately, this occurred in the afternoon of the first day of the technical stop. The fast dump was due to a valve position controller that caused the sudden closure of a valve. This valve is used to regulate the helium flow on one of the two current leads, which electrically connects the coil at 4.5 K to the busbars at room temperature. With no helium flow on the lead, the voltage drop and the temperatures across the leads increase up to the defined thresholds, triggering a fast dump through the Magnet Safety System (MSS). The automatic reaction triggered by the MSS worked properly. The helium release was limited as the pressure rise was just at the limit of the safety valve opening pressure. The average temperature of the magnet reached 72 K. It took four days to recover the temperature and refill the helium volumes. The faulty valve controller was replaced by a spare one before the magnet ramp-up resumed....

  13. Magnetic measurements with fluxgate 3-components magnetometers in archaeology. Multi-sensor device and associated potential field operators for large scale to centimetre investigations on the 1st millennium BC site of Qasr ʿAllam in the western desert of

    Gavazzi, Bruno; Alkhatib-Alkontar, Rozan; Munschy, Marc; Colin, Frédéric; Duvette, Catherine

    2016-04-01

    Fluxgate 3-components magnetometers allow vector measurements of the magnetic field. Moreover, they are the magnetometers measuring the intensity of the magnetic field with the lightest weight and the lowest power consumption. Vector measurements make them the only kind of magnetometer allowing compensation of magnetic perturbations due to the equipment carried with the magnetometer. Fluxgate 3-components magnetometers are common in space magnetometry and in aero-geophysics but are never used in archaeology due to the difficulty to calibrate them. This problem is overcome by the use of a simple calibration and compensation procedure on the field developed initially for space research (after calibration and compensation, rms noise is less than 1 nT). It is therefore possible to build a multi-sensor (up to 8) and georeferenced device for investigations at different scales down to the centimetre: because the locus of magnetic measurements is less than a cubic centimetre, magnetic profiling or mapping can be performed a few centimetres outside magnetized bodies. Such an equipment is used in a context of heavy sediment coverage and uneven topography on the 1st millennium BC site of Qasr ʿAllam in the western desert of Egypt. Magnetic measurements with a line spacing of 0.5 m allow to compute a magnetic grid. Interpretation using potential field operators such as double reduction to the pole and fractional vertical derivatives reveals a widespread irrigation system and a vast cultic facility. In some areas, magnetic profiling with a 0.1 m line spacing and at 0.1 m above the ground is performed. Results of interpretations give enough proof to the local authorities to enlarge the protection of the site against the threatening progression of agricultural fields.

  14. On a distribution of electric fields caused by the northern component of the interplanetary magnetic field in the absence of longitudinal currents in the winter polar cap

    Uvarov, V.M.

    1984-01-01

    Data on the distribution of electric fields, conditioned by the northern component of the interplanetary magnetic field Bsub(z), have been discussed. The problem of electric field excitation is reduced to the solution of equations of continuity for the current in three regions: northern and southern polar caps and region beyond the caps. At the values Bsub(z)>0 in the ranqe of latitudes phi >= 80 deg the localization of convection conversion effect is obtained in calculations for summer cap and it agrees with the data of direct measurements

  15. Bi-Component Nanostructured Arrays of Co Dots Embedded in Ni80Fe20 Antidot Matrix: Synthesis by Self-Assembling of Polystyrene Nanospheres and Magnetic Properties.

    Coïsson, Marco; Celegato, Federica; Barrera, Gabriele; Conta, Gianluca; Magni, Alessandro; Tiberto, Paola

    2017-08-23

    A bi-component nanostructured system composed by a Co dot array embedded in a Ni 80 Fe 20 antidot matrix has been prepared by means of the self-assembling polystyrene nanospheres lithography technique. Reference samples constituted by the sole Co dots or Ni 80 Fe 20 antidots have also been prepared, in order to compare their properties with those of the bi-component material. The coupling between the two ferromagnetic elements has been studied by means of magnetic and magneto-transport measurements. The Ni 80 Fe 20 matrix turned out to affect the vortex nucleation field of the Co dots, which in turn modifies the magneto-resistance behaviour of the system and its spinwave properties.

  16. Developing bulk exchange spring magnets

    Mccall, Scott K.; Kuntz, Joshua D.

    2017-06-27

    A method of making a bulk exchange spring magnet by providing a magnetically soft material, providing a hard magnetic material, and producing a composite of said magnetically soft material and said hard magnetic material to make the bulk exchange spring magnet. The step of producing a composite of magnetically soft material and hard magnetic material is accomplished by electrophoretic deposition of the magnetically soft material and the hard magnetic material to make the bulk exchange spring magnet.

  17. MAGNET

    Benoit Curé

    2010-01-01

    The magnet worked very well at 3.8 T as expected, despite a technical issue that manifested twice in the cryogenics since June. All the other magnet sub-systems worked without flaw. The issue in the cryogenics was with the cold box: it could be observed that the cold box was getting progressively blocked, due to some residual humidity and air accumulating in the first thermal exchanger and in the adsorber at 65 K. This was later confirmed by the analysis during the regeneration phases. An increase in the temperature difference between the helium inlet and outlet across the heat exchanger and a pressure drop increase on the filter of the adsorber were observed. The consequence was a reduction of the helium flow, first compensated by the automatic opening of the regulation valves. But once they were fully opened, the flow and refrigeration power reduced as a consequence. In such a situation, the liquid helium level in the helium Dewar decreased, eventually causing a ramp down of the magnet current and a field...

  18. MAGNET

    B. Curé

    MAGNET During the winter shutdown, the magnet subsystems went through a full maintenance. The magnet was successfully warmed up to room temperature beginning of December 2008. The vacuum was broken later on by injecting nitrogen at a pressure just above one atmosphere inside the vacuum tank. This was necessary both to prevent any accidental humidity ingress, and to allow for a modification of the vacuum gauges on the vacuum tank and maintenance of the diffusion pumps. The vacuum gauges had to be changed, because of erratic variations on the measurements, causing spurious alarms. The new type of vacuum gauges has been used in similar conditions on the other LHC experiments and without problems. They are shielded against the stray field. The lubricants of the primary and diffusion pumps have been changed. Several minor modifications were also carried out on the equipment in the service cavern, with the aim to ease the maintenance and to allow possible intervention during operation. Spare sensors have been bough...

  19. MAGNET

    Benoit Curé.

    The magnet operation restarted end of June this year. Quick routine checks of the magnet sub-systems were performed at low current before starting the ramps up to higher field. It appeared clearly that the end of the field ramp down to zero was too long to be compatible with the detector commissioning and operations plans. It was decided to perform an upgrade to keep the ramp down from 3.8T to zero within 4 hours. On July 10th, when a field of 1.5T was reached, small movements were observed in the forward region support table and it was decided to fix this problem before going to higher field. At the end of July the ramps could be resumed. On July 28th, the field was at 3.8T and the summer CRAFT exercise could start. This run in August went smoothly until a general CERN wide power cut took place on August 3rd, due to an insulation fault on the high voltage network outside point 5. It affected the magnet powering electrical circuit, as it caused the opening of the main circuit breakers, resulting in a fast du...

  20. MAGNET

    B. Curé

    2013-01-01

    The magnet is fully stopped and at room temperature. The maintenance works and consolidation activities on the magnet sub-systems are progressing. To consolidate the cryogenic installation, two redundant helium compressors will be installed as ‘hot spares’, to avoid the risk of a magnet downtime in case of a major failure of a compressor unit during operation. The screw compressors, their motors, the mechanical couplings and the concrete blocks are already available and stored at P5. The metallic structure used to access the existing compressors in SH5 will be modified to allow the installation of the two redundant ones. The plan is to finish the installation and commissioning of the hot spare compressors before the summer 2014. In the meantime, a bypass on the high-pressure helium piping will be installed for the connection of a helium drier unit later during the Long Shutdown 1, keeping this installation out of the schedule critical path. A proposal is now being prepared for the con...

  1. Magnetic fusion energy plasma interactive and high heat flux components. Volume II. Technical assessment of the critical issues and problem areas in high heat flux materials and component development

    Abdou, M.A.; Boyd, R.D.; Easor, J.R.; Gauster, W.B.; Gordon, J.D.; Mattas, R.F.; Morgan, G.D.; Ulrickson, M.A,; Watson, R.D.; Wolfer, W.G,

    1984-06-01

    A technical assessment of the critical issues and problem areas for high heat flux materials and components (HHFMC) in magnetic fusion devices shows these problems to be of critical importance for the successful operation of near-term fusion experiments and for the feasibility and attractiveness of long-term fusion reactors. A number of subgroups were formed to assess the critical HHFMC issues along the following major lines: (1) source conditions, (2) systems integration, (3) materials and processes, (4) thermal hydraulics, (5) thermomechanical response, (6) electromagnetic response, (7) instrumentation and control, and (8) test facilities. The details of the technical assessment are presented in eight chapters. The primary technical issues and needs for each area are highlighted.

  2. Magnetic fusion energy plasma interactive and high heat flux components. Volume II. Technical assessment of the critical issues and problem areas in high heat flux materials and component development

    Abdou, M.A.; Boyd, R.D.; Easor, J.R.

    1984-06-01

    A technical assessment of the critical issues and problem areas for high heat flux materials and components (HHFMC) in magnetic fusion devices shows these problems to be of critical importance for the successful operation of near-term fusion experiments and for the feasibility and attractiveness of long-term fusion reactors. A number of subgroups were formed to assess the critical HHFMC issues along the following major lines: (1) source conditions, (2) systems integration, (3) materials and processes, (4) thermal hydraulics, (5) thermomechanical response, (6) electromagnetic response, (7) instrumentation and control, and (8) test facilities. The details of the technical assessment are presented in eight chapters. The primary technical issues and needs for each area are highlighted

  3. Controlling the competing magnetic anisotropy energies in FineMET amorphous thin films with ultra-soft magnetic properties

    Ansar Masood

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Thickness dependent competing magnetic anisotropy energies were investigated to explore the global magnetic behaviours of FineMET amorphous thin films. A dominant perpendicular magnetization component in the as-deposited state of thinner films was observed due to high magnetoelastic anisotropy energy which arises from stresses induced at the substrate-film interface. This perpendicular magnetization component decreases with increasing film thickness. Thermal annealing at elevated temperature revealed a significant influence on the magnetization state of the FineMET thin films and controlled annealing steps leads to ultra-soft magnetic properties, making these thin films alloys ideal for a wide range of applications.

  4. Trapping of dilute ion components in wells and double wells in higher equatorial magnetic regions: A kinetic theory including collisions, varying background and additional fields

    Oeien, Alf H.

    2001-08-01

    The component of the ambipolar field along the magnetic field B, though weak, may, acting together with the gravitational field, give rise to along-B ''ambipolar wells'' where light ions (test particles) in the ionosphere in equatorial regions are trapped. We also take into account magnetic field wells, especially in cases when the along-B velocity of test particles are much less than the transverse-B velocities. For heavy ions, or, for light ions high up, when the ambipolar trap ceases to function, the along-B ambipolar- and gravitational field effects may combine with the magnetic field trap to form a double well for the along-B movement of test particles. The magnetic field trap and its contribution to the double well may be nearly stationary for particles obeying the same velocity condition as above even when collisional effects between the test particles and the background plasma are incorporated. Ions trapped in wells like this, may ''feel'' a varying background, for instance because of Earth rotation, that may be incorporated as time-variation of parameters in the along-B motion. An along-B kinetic equation for groups of test particles is solved both for the case of simple wells and for double wells, including time-varying collisional coefficients and additional fields, and in some cases analytic solutions are obtained. Peculiar along-B distribution functions may arise due to the time-dependency of coefficients and to various combinations of collision- and field parameter values. In particular ''breathing'' distributions that alternate between wide and narrow forms in phase-space may arise, and also distributions where strange attractors may play some role.

  5. MAGNET

    Benoit Curé

    The magnet subsystems resumed operation early this spring. The vacuum pumping was restarted mid March, and the cryogenic power plant was restarted on March 30th. Three and a half weeks later, the magnet was at 4.5 K. The vacuum pumping system is performing well. One of the newly installed vacuum gauges had to be replaced at the end of the cool-down phase, as the values indicated were not coherent with the other pressure measurements. The correction had to be implemented quickly to be sure no helium leak could be at the origin of this anomaly. The pressure measurements have been stable and coherent since the change. The cryogenics worked well, and the cool-down went quite smoothly, without any particular difficulty. The automated start of the turbines had to be fine-tuned to get a smooth transition, as it was observed that the cooling power delivered by the turbines was slightly higher than needed, causing the cold box to stop automatically. This had no consequence as the cold box safety system acts to keep ...

  6. MAGNET

    B. Curé

    During the winter shutdown, the magnet subsystems went through a full maintenance. The magnet was successfully warmed up to room temperature beginning of December 2008. The vacuum was broken later on by injecting nitrogen at a pressure just above one atmosphere inside the vacuum tank. This was necessary both to prevent any accidental humidity ingress, and to allow for a modification of the vacuum gauges on the vacuum tank and maintenance of the diffusion pumps. The vacuum gauges had to be changed, because of erratic variations on the measurements, causing spurious alarms. The new type of vacuum gauges has been used in similar conditions on the other LHC experiments and without problems. They are shielded against the stray field. The lubricants of the primary and diffusion pumps have been changed. Several minor modifications were also carried out on the equipment in the service cavern, with the aim to ease the maintenance and to allow possible intervention during operation. Spare sensors have been bought. Th...

  7. Individual differences in decision making and reward processing predict changes in cannabis use: a prospective functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    Cousijn, J.; Wiers, R.W.; Ridderinkhof, K.R.; van den Brink, W.; Veltman, D.J.; Porrino, L.J.; Goudriaan, A.E.

    2013-01-01

    Decision-making deficits are thought to play an important role in the development and persistence of substance use disorders. Individual differences in decision-making abilities and their underlying neurocircuitry may, therefore, constitute an important predictor for the course of substance use and

  8. A new approach for heparin standardization: combination of scanning UV spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance and principal component analysis.

    Marcelo A Lima

    Full Text Available The year 2007 was marked by widespread adverse clinical responses to heparin use, leading to a global recall of potentially affected heparin batches in 2008. Several analytical methods have since been developed to detect impurities in heparin preparations; however, many are costly and dependent on instrumentation with only limited accessibility. A method based on a simple UV-scanning assay, combined with principal component analysis (PCA, was developed to detect impurities, such as glycosaminoglycans, other complex polysaccharides and aromatic compounds, in heparin preparations. Results were confirmed by NMR spectroscopy. This approach provides an additional, sensitive tool to determine heparin purity and safety, even when NMR spectroscopy failed, requiring only standard laboratory equipment and computing facilities.

  9. Magnetic fusion energy plasma interactive and high heat flux components. Volume I. Technical assessment of the critical issues and problem areas in the plasma materials interaction field

    Conn, R.W.; Gauster, W.B.; Heifetz, D.; Marmar, E.; Wilson, K.L.

    1984-01-01

    A technical assessment of the critical issues and problem areas in the field of plasma materials interactions (PMI) in magnetic fusion devices shows these problems to be central for near-term experiments, for intermediate-range reactor devices including D-T burning physics experiments, and for long-term reactor machines. Critical technical issues are ones central to understanding and successful operation of existing and near-term experiments/reactors or devices of great importance for the long run, i.e., ones which will require an extensive, long-term development effort and thus should receive attention now. Four subgroups were formed to assess the critical PMI issues along four major lines: (1) PMI and plasma confinement physics experiments; (2) plasma-edge modelling and theory; (3) surface physics; and (4) materials technology for in-vessel components and the first wall. The report which follows is divided into four major sections, one for each of these topics

  10. PLACD-7T Study: Atherosclerotic Carotid Plaque Components Correlated with Cerebral Damage at 7 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    den Hartog, A G; Bovens, S M; Koning, W; Hendrikse, J; Pasterkamp, G; Moll, F L; de Borst, G J

    2011-02-01

    In patients with carotid artery stenosis histological plaque composition is associated with plaque stability and with presenting symptomatology. Preferentially, plaque vulnerability should be taken into account in pre-operative work-up of patients with severe carotid artery stenosis. However, currently no appropriate and conclusive (non-) invasive technique to differentiate between the high and low risk carotid artery plaque in vivo is available. We propose that 7 Tesla human high resolution MRI scanning will visualize carotid plaque characteristics more precisely and will enable correlation of these specific components with cerebral damage. The aim of the PlaCD-7T study is 1: to correlate 7T imaging with carotid plaque histology (gold standard); and 2: to correlate plaque characteristics with cerebral damage ((clinically silent) cerebral (micro) infarcts or bleeds) on 7 Tesla high resolution (HR) MRI. We propose a single center prospective study for either symptomatic or asymptomatic patients with haemodynamic significant (70%) stenosis of at least one of the carotid arteries. The Athero-Express (AE) biobank histological analysis will be derived according to standard protocol. Patients included in the AE and our prospective study will undergo a pre-operative 7 Tesla HR-MRI scan of both the head and neck area. We hypothesize that the 7 Tesla MRI scanner will allow early identification of high risk carotid plaques being associated with micro infarcted cerebral areas, and will thus be able to identify patients with a high risk of periprocedural stroke, by identification of surrogate measures of increased cardiovascular risk.

  11. Magnetic

    Aboud, Essam; El-Masry, Nabil; Qaddah, Atef; Alqahtani, Faisal; Moufti, Mohammed R. H.

    2015-06-01

    The Rahat volcanic field represents one of the widely distributed Cenozoic volcanic fields across the western regions of the Arabian Peninsula. Its human significance stems from the fact that its northern fringes, where the historical eruption of 1256 A.D. took place, are very close to the holy city of Al-Madinah Al-Monawarah. In the present work, we analyzed aeromagnetic data from the northern part of Rahat volcanic field as well as carried out a ground gravity survey. A joint interpretation and inversion of gravity and magnetic data were used to estimate the thickness of the lava flows, delineate the subsurface structures of the study area, and estimate the depth to basement using various geophysical methods, such as Tilt Derivative, Euler Deconvolution and 2D modeling inversion. Results indicated that the thickness of the lava flows in the study area ranges between 100 m (above Sea Level) at the eastern and western boundaries of Rahat Volcanic field and getting deeper at the middle as 300-500 m. It also showed that, major structural trend is in the NW direction (Red Sea trend) with some minor trends in EW direction.

  12. MAGNET

    Benoit Curé

    The cooling down to the nominal temperature of 4.5 K was achieved at the beginning of August, in conjunction with the completion of the installation work of the connection between the power lines and the coil current leads. The temperature gradient on the first exchanger of the cold box is now kept within the nominal range. A leak of lubricant on a gasket of the helium compressor station installed at the surface was observed and several corrective actions were necessary to bring the situation back to normal. The compressor had to be refilled with lubricant and a regeneration of the filters and adsorbers was necessary. The coil cool down was resumed successfully, and the cryogenics is running since then with all parameters being nominal. Preliminary tests of the 20kA coil power supply were done earlier at full current through the discharge lines into the dump resistors, and with the powering busbars from USC5 to UXC5 without the magnet connected. On Monday evening August 25th, at 8pm, the final commissionin...

  13. MAGNET

    B. Curé

    The first phase of the commissioning ended in August by a triggered fast dump at 3T. All parameters were nominal, and the temperature recovery down to 4.5K was carried out in two days by the cryogenics. In September, series of ramps were achieved up to 3 and finally 3.8T, while checking thoroughly the detectors in the forward region, measuring any movement of and around the HF. After the incident of the LHC accelerator on September 19th, corrective actions could be undertaken in the forward region. When all these displacements were fully characterized and repetitive, with no sign of increments in displacement at each field ramp, it was possible to start the CRAFT, Cosmic Run at Four Tesla (which was in fact at 3.8T). The magnet was ramped up to 18.16kA and the 3 week run went smoothly, with only 4 interruptions: due to the VIP visits on 21st October during the LHC inauguration day; a water leak on the cooling demineralized water circuit, about 1 l/min, that triggered a stop of the cooling pumps, and resulte...

  14. PLACD-7T Study: Atherosclerotic Carotid Plaque Components Correlated with Cerebral Damage at 7 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    den Hartog, A.G; Bovens, S.M; Koning, W; Hendrikse, J; Pasterkamp, G; Moll, F.L; de Borst, G.J

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: In patients with carotid artery stenosis histological plaque composition is associated with plaque stability and with presenting symptomatology. Preferentially, plaque vulnerability should be taken into account in pre-operative work-up of patients with severe carotid artery stenosis. However, currently no appropriate and conclusive (non-) invasive technique to differentiate between the high and low risk carotid artery plaque in vivo is available. We propose that 7 Tesla human high resolution MRI scanning will visualize carotid plaque characteristics more precisely and will enable correlation of these specific components with cerebral damage. Study objective: The aim of the PlaCD-7T study is 1: to correlate 7T imaging with carotid plaque histology (gold standard); and 2: to correlate plaque characteristics with cerebral damage ((clinically silent) cerebral (micro) infarcts or bleeds) on 7 Tesla high resolution (HR) MRI. Design: We propose a single center prospective study for either symptomatic or asymptomatic patients with haemodynamic significant (70%) stenosis of at least one of the carotid arteries. The Athero-Express (AE) biobank histological analysis will be derived according to standard protocol. Patients included in the AE and our prospective study will undergo a pre-operative 7 Tesla HR-MRI scan of both the head and neck area. Discussion: We hypothesize that the 7 Tesla MRI scanner will allow early identification of high risk carotid plaques being associated with micro infarcted cerebral areas, and will thus be able to identify patients with a high risk of periprocedural stroke, by identification of surrogate measures of increased cardiovascular risk. PMID:22294972

  15. Non-conventional rule of making a periodically varying different-pole magnetic field in low-power alternating current electrical machines with using ring coils in multiphase armature winding

    Plastun, A. T.; Tikhonova, O. V.; Malygin, I. V.

    2018-02-01

    The paper presents methods of making a periodically varying different-pole magnetic field in low-power electrical machines. Authors consider classical designs of electrical machines and machines with ring windings in armature, structural features and calculated parameters of magnetic circuit for these machines.

  16. An MHD simulation of the effects of the interplanetary magnetic field By component on the interaction of the solar wind with the earth's magnetosphere during southward interplanetary magnetic field

    Ogino, T.; Walker, R. J.; Ashour-Abdalla, M.; Dawson, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    The interaction between the solar wind and the earth's magnetosphere has been studied by using a time-dependent three-dimensional MHD model in which the IMF pointed in several directions between dawnward and southward. When the IMF is dawnward, the dayside cusp and the tail lobes shift toward the morningside in the northern magnetosphere. The plasma sheet rotates toward the north on the dawnside of the tail and toward the south on the duskside. For an increasing southward IMF component, the plasma sheet becomes thinner and subsequently wavy because of patchy or localized tail reconnection. At the same time, the tail field-aligned currents have a filamentary layered structure. When projected onto the northern polar cap, the filamentary field-aligned currents are located in the same area as the region 1 currents, with a pattern similar to that associated with auroral surges. Magnetic reconnection also occurs on the dayside magnetopause for southward IMF.

  17. Making the MagIC (Magnetics Information Consortium) Web Application Accessible to New Users and Useful to Experts

    Minnett, R.; Koppers, A.; Jarboe, N.; Tauxe, L.; Constable, C.; Jonestrask, L.

    2017-12-01

    Challenges are faced by both new and experienced users interested in contributing their data to community repositories, in data discovery, or engaged in potentially transformative science. The Magnetics Information Consortium (https://earthref.org/MagIC) has recently simplified its data model and developed a new containerized web application to reduce the friction in contributing, exploring, and combining valuable and complex datasets for the paleo-, geo-, and rock magnetic scientific community. The new data model more closely reflects the hierarchical workflow in paleomagnetic experiments to enable adequate annotation of scientific results and ensure reproducibility. The new open-source (https://github.com/earthref/MagIC) application includes an upload tool that is integrated with the data model to provide early data validation feedback and ease the friction of contributing and updating datasets. The search interface provides a powerful full text search of contributions indexed by ElasticSearch and a wide array of filters, including specific geographic and geological timescale filtering, to support both novice users exploring the database and experts interested in compiling new datasets with specific criteria across thousands of studies and millions of measurements. The datasets are not large, but they are complex, with many results from evolving experimental and analytical approaches. These data are also extremely valuable due to the cost in collecting or creating physical samples and the, often, destructive nature of the experiments. MagIC is heavily invested in encouraging young scientists as well as established labs to cultivate workflows that facilitate contributing their data in a consistent format. This eLightning presentation includes a live demonstration of the MagIC web application, developed as a configurable container hosting an isomorphic Meteor JavaScript application, MongoDB database, and ElasticSearch search engine. Visitors can explore the Mag

  18. Magnetic Field Calculator

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Magnetic Field Calculator will calculate the total magnetic field, including components (declination, inclination, horizontal intensity, northerly intensity,...

  19. High-pressure, high-temperature magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance devices and processes for making and using same

    Hu, Jian Zhi; Hu, Mary Y.; Townsend, Mark R.; Lercher, Johannes A.; Peden, Charles H. F.

    2015-10-06

    Re-usable ceramic magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR rotors constructed of high-mechanic strength ceramics are detailed that include a sample compartment that maintains high pressures up to at least about 200 atmospheres (atm) and high temperatures up to about least about 300.degree. C. during operation. The rotor designs minimize pressure losses stemming from penetration over an extended period of time. The present invention makes possible a variety of in-situ high pressure, high temperature MAS NMR experiments not previously achieved in the prior art.

  20. Combination of 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and principal component analysis to evaluate the lipid fluidity of flutamide-encapsulated lipid nanoemulsions.

    Takegami, Shigehiko; Ueyama, Keita; Konishi, Atsuko; Kitade, Tatsuya

    2018-06-06

    The lipid fluidity of various lipid nanoemulsions (LNEs) without and with flutamide (FT) and containing one of two neutral lipids, one of four phosphatidylcholines as a surfactant, and sodium palmitate as a cosurfactant was investigated by the combination of 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and principal component analysis (PCA). In the 1 H NMR spectra, the peaks from the methylene groups of the neutral lipids and surfactants for all LNE preparations showed downfield shifts with increasing temperature from 20 to 60 °C. PCA was applied to the 1 H NMR spectral data obtained for the LNEs. The PCA resulted in a model in which the first two principal components (PCs) extracted 88% of the total spectral variation; the first PC (PC-1) axis and second PC (PC-2) axis accounted for 73 and 15%, respectively, of the total spectral variation. The Score-1 values for PC-1 plotted against temperature revealed the existence of two clusters, which were defined by the neutral lipid of the LNE preparations. Meanwhile, the Score-2 values decreased with rising temperature and reflected the increase in lipid fluidity of each LNE preparation, consistent with fluorescence anisotropy measurements. In addition, the changes of Score-2 values with temperature for LNE preparations with FT were smaller than those for LNE preparations without FT. This indicates that FT encapsulated in LNE particles markedly suppressed the increase in lipid fluidity of LNE particles with rising temperature. Thus, PCA of 1 H NMR spectra will become a powerful tool to analyze the lipid fluidity of lipid nanoparticles. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  1. A theoretical and empirical study of the response of the high latitude thermosphere to the sense of the 'Y' component of the interplanetary magnetic field

    Rees, D.; Fuller-Rowell, T.J.; Gordon, R.

    1986-01-01

    The strength and direction of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) controls the transfer of solar wind momentum and energy to the high latitude thermosphere in a direct fashion. The sense of ''Y'' component of the IMF (BY) creates a significant asymmetry of the magnetospheric convection pattern as mapped onto the high latitude thermosphere and ionosphere. The resulting response of the polar thermospheric winds during periods when BY is either positive or negative is quite distinct, with pronounced changes in the relative strength of thermospheric winds in the dusk-dawn parts of the polar cap and in the dawn part of the auroral oval. In a study of four periods when there was a clear signature of BY, observed by the ISEE-3 satellite, with observations of polar winds and electric fields from the Dynamics Explorer-2 satellite and with wind observations by a ground-based Fabry-Perot interferometer located in Kiruna, Northern Sweden, it is possible to explain features of the high latitude thermospheric circulation using three dimensional global models including BY dependent, asymmetric, polar convection fields. Anomalously zonal wind velocities are often observed, for BY positive and when BY is negative. These are matched by the observation of strong anti-sunward polar-cap wind jets from the DE-2 satellite, on the dusk side with BY negative, and on the dawn side with BY positive. (author)

  2. Field Mapping System for Solenoid Magnet

    Park, K. H.; Jung, Y. K.; Kim, D. E.; Lee, H. G.; Park, S. J.; Chung, C. W.; Kang, B. K.

    2007-01-01

    A three-dimensional Hall probe mapping system for measuring the solenoid magnet of PLS photo-cathode RF e-gun has been developed. It can map the solenoid field either in Cartesian or in cylindrical coordinate system with a measurement reproducibility better than 5 × 10-5 T. The system has three axis motors: one for the azimuthal direction and the other two for the x and z direction. This architecture makes the measuring system simple in fabrication. The magnetic center was calculated using the measured axial component of magnetic field Bz in Cartesian coordinate system because the accuracy of magnetic axis measurement could be improved significantly by using Bz, instead of the radial component of magnetic field Br. This paper describes the measurement system and summarizes the measurement results for the solenoid magnetic of PLS photo-cathode RF e-gun.

  3. Magnetic compatibility of standard components for electrical installations: Computation of the background field and consequences on the design of the electrical distribution boards and control boards for the ITER Tokamak building

    Benfatto, I.; Bettini, P.; Cavinato, M.; Lorenzi, A. De; Hourtoule, J.; Serra, E.

    2005-01-01

    Inside the proposed Tokamak building, the ITER poloidal field magnet system would produce a stray magnetic field up to 70 mT. This is a very unusual environmental condition for electrical installation equipment and limited information is available on the magnetic compatibility of standard components for electrical distribution boards and control boards. Because this information is a necessary input for the design of the electrical installation inside the proposed ITER Tokamak building specific investigations have been carried out by the ITER European Participant Team. The paper reports on the computation of the background magnetic field map inside the ITER Tokamak building and the consequences on the design of the electrical installations of this building. The effects of the steel inside the building structure and the feasibility of magnetic shields for electrical distribution boards and control boards are also reported in the paper. The results of the test campaigns on the magnetic field compatibility of standard components for electrical distribution boards and control boards are reported in companion papers published in these proceedings

  4. Steady-state operation of magnetic fusion devices: Plasma control and plasma facing components. Report on the IAEA technical committee meeting held at Fukuoka, 25-29 October 1999

    Engelmann, F.

    2000-01-01

    An IAEA Technical Committee Meeting on Steady-State Operation of Magnetic Fusion Devices - Plasma Control and Plasma Facing Components was held at Fukuoka, Japan, from 25 to 29 October 1999. The meeting was the second IAEA Techical Committee Meeting on the subject, following the one held at Hefei, China, a year earlier. The meeting was attended by over 150 researchers from 10 countries

  5. Single-wheel drive with new electric components. Einzelradantrieb mit neuen E-Komponenten

    Westendorf, H. (Fichtel und Sachs AG, Schweinfurt (Germany)); Schiebold, S. (Fichtel und Sachs AG, Schweinfurt (Germany)); Ehrhart, P. (Fichtel und Sachs AG, Schweinfurt (Germany)); Lindner, L. (Fichtel und Sachs AG, Schweinfurt (Germany))

    1991-01-01

    Fundamentally important developments and innovations in the fields of magnetic materials, plastics technology and electronics, together with new control concepts, make a new drive concept possible for passenger cars produced in series. The concept, which makes use of a combustion engine and an all-electric power transmission with a single-wheel drive, is presented, together with its components. (orig./HW)

  6. Examining the Role of the Human Hippocampus in Approach-Avoidance Decision Making Using a Novel Conflict Paradigm and Multivariate Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    O'Neil, Edward B; Newsome, Rachel N; Li, Iris H N; Thavabalasingam, Sathesan; Ito, Rutsuko; Lee, Andy C H

    2015-11-11

    Rodent models of anxiety have implicated the ventral hippocampus in approach-avoidance conflict processing. Few studies have, however, examined whether the human hippocampus plays a similar role. We developed a novel decision-making paradigm to examine neural activity when participants made approach/avoidance decisions under conditions of high or absent approach-avoidance conflict. Critically, our task required participants to learn the associated reward/punishment values of previously neutral stimuli and controlled for mnemonic and spatial processing demands, both important issues given approach-avoidance behavior in humans is less tied to predation and foraging compared to rodents. Participants played a points-based game where they first attempted to maximize their score by determining which of a series of previously neutral image pairs should be approached or avoided. During functional magnetic resonance imaging, participants were then presented with novel pairings of these images. These pairings consisted of images of congruent or opposing learned valences, the latter creating conditions of high approach-avoidance conflict. A data-driven partial least squares multivariate analysis revealed two reliable patterns of activity, each revealing differential activity in the anterior hippocampus, the homolog of the rodent ventral hippocampus. The first was associated with greater hippocampal involvement during trials with high as opposed to no approach-avoidance conflict, regardless of approach or avoidance behavior. The second pattern encompassed greater hippocampal activity in a more anterior aspect during approach compared to avoid responses, for conflict and no-conflict conditions. Multivoxel pattern classification analyses yielded converging findings, underlining a role of the anterior hippocampus in approach-avoidance conflict decision making. Approach-avoidance conflict has been linked to anxiety and occurs when a stimulus or situation is associated with reward

  7. Making more matrix: enhancing the deposition of dermal-epidermal junction components in vitro and accelerating organotypic skin culture development, using macromolecular crowding.

    Benny, Paula; Badowski, Cedric; Lane, E Birgitte; Raghunath, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Skin is one of the most accessible tissues for experimental biomedical sciences, and cultured skin cells represent one of the longest-running clinical applications of stem cell therapy. However, culture-generated skin mimetic multicellular structures are still limited in their application by the time taken to develop these constructs in vitro and by their incomplete differentiation. The development of a functional dermal-epidermal junction (DEJ) is one of the most sought after aspects of cultured skin, and one of the hardest to recreate in vitro. At the DEJ, dermal fibroblasts and epidermal keratinocytes interact to form an interlinked basement membrane of extracellular matrix (ECM), which forms as a concerted action of both keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Successful formation of this basement membrane is essential for take and stability of cultured skin autografts. We studied interactive matrix production by monocultures and cocultures of primary human keratinocytes and fibroblasts in an attempt to improve the efficiency of basement membrane production in culture using mixed macromolecular crowding (mMMC); resulting ECM were enriched with the deposition of collagens I, IV, fibronectin, and laminin 332 (laminin 5) and also in collagen VII, the anchoring fibril component. Our in vitro data point to fibroblasts, rather than keratinocytes, as the major cellular contributors of the DEJ. Not only did we find more collagen VII production and deposition by fibroblasts in comparison to keratinocytes, but also observed that decellularized fibroblast ECM stimulated the production and deposition of collagen VII by keratinocytes, over and above that of keratinocyte monocultures. In confrontation cultures, keratinocytes and fibroblasts showed spontaneous segregation and demarcation of cell boundaries by DEJ protein deposition. Finally, mMMC was used in a classical organotypic coculture protocol with keratinocytes seeded over fibroblast-containing collagen gels. Applied during

  8. Rare earth permanent magnet with easy magnetization

    Kim, A.S.; Camp, F.E.

    1998-01-01

    Rare earth permanent magnets have high energy products and coercivities, and thus the volume miniaturization of magnetic devices has been possible with improved magnetic performance. Although the high energy products of these rare earth permanent magnets provide substantial advantages for magnetic design and application, the strong magnetic force of the magnetized magnets makes assembly difficult. Therefore, a special device is needed to assemble the magnetized magnets. On the other hand, unmagnetized magnets are assembled and then they are magnetized. The assembled magnets are generally more difficult to magnetize than unassembled magnets because a much less effective magnetic field may be applied to them. This is particularly true for the rare earth permanent magnets because they usually need a much higher magnetic field to be fully magnetized than alnico or ferrite magnets. To obtain optimum magnetic properties, the required minimum magnetizing fields for SmCo 5 , Sm 2 TM 17 and Nd 2 Fe 14 B magnets were reported as 25-30 kOe, 45-60 kOe and 25-30 kOe, respectively. If the required magnetizing field for full saturation could be lowered, the effective utilization of magnetic properties would be maximized and the magnetic design option could be expanded with reduced restrictions. To meet this demand, we have sought to lower the field required for full magnetic saturation, and found that an increase in Dy content in R-(Fe,Co,Cu)-B type magnets lowers the field required for full saturation as well as improves the temperature stability. By increasing the H ci with Dy addition from 14 kOe to 24 and 34 kOe, the field required for full magnetic saturation decreases from about 20 to 15 and 10 kOe, respectively. This dual benefit will open up new application areas with more freedom for magnet design options. The mechanism for the lower magnetizing fields will be discussed. (orig.)

  9. Synthesis and characterization of bracelet-like magnetic nanorings consisting of Ag-Fe3O4 bi-component nanoparticles.

    Zhou, Shuai; Chen, Qianwang

    2011-09-14

    Stable bracelet-like magnetic nanorings, formed by Ag-Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles with an average size around 40 nm, have been successfully prepared in large scale by means of reducing Ag(+) and Fe(3+) simultaneously under mild conditions. In the reaction, tiny grains of silver are used as seeds to prompt small Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles to grow larger, which is essential to enhance the magnetic dipole-dipole interactions, while only superparamagnetic Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles (about 10 nm in size) can be obtained in the absence of Ag seeds. The XRD, TEM, SAED and the EDS line scan data reveal that these nanoparticles are in the core-shell structure. These magnetic Ag-Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles assembled into nanorings by magnetic dipole-dipole interactions with a diameter of 100-200 nm. The saturation magnetization of the nanorings is 39.5 emu g(-1) at room temperature. The MRI images indicate that these kind of nanorings have the potential application in diagnostics as a T(2) MRI contrast agent. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  10. A green one-pot three-component synthesis of spirooxindoles under conventional heating conditions or microwave irradiation by using Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@SiO{sub 2}-imid-PMA{sup n} magnetic porous nanospheres as a recyclable catalyst

    Esmaeilpour, Mohsen, E-mail: m1250m551085@yahoo.com [Chemistry Department, College of Science, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Javidi, Jaber, E-mail: JaberJavidi@gmail.com [Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Students Research Committee, School of Pharmacy, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Divar, Masoumeh [Chemistry Department, College of Science, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-02-01

    An efficient, green and environmentally procedure for the synthesis of spirooxindole derivatives has been developed by a one-pot three-component reaction of isatin derivatives, activated methylene, and 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds in the presence of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@SiO{sub 2}-imid-PMA{sup n} magnetic nanocatalyst under conventional heating conditions in water or microwave irradiation under solvent-free conditions. The reactions under conventional heating conditions were compared with the microwave-assisted reactions. The suggested method offers several advantages such as excellent yields, short reaction times, operational simplicity, a cleaner reaction, absence of any tedious workup or purification and ease of recovery and reusability of the catalyst by a magnetic field. In addition, the excellent catalytic performance in a water medium and the easy preparation, thermal stability and separation of the catalyst make it a good heterogeneous system and a useful alternative to other heterogeneous catalysts. The catalyst can be easily recovered by a magnetic field and reused for six consecutive reaction cycles without significant loss of activity. Also, the morphology of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@SiO{sub 2}-imid-PMA{sup n}, particle size distribution and leaching of nano H{sub 3}PMo{sub 12}O{sub 40} (PMA{sup n}) after reaction cycles were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analyzer. - Graphical abstract: An efficient, green and environmentally procedure for the synthesis of spirooxindole derivatives has been developed by a one-pot three-component reaction of isatin derivatives, activated methylene, and 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds in the presence of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@SiO{sub 2}-imid-PMA{sup n} magnetic nanocatalyst under conventional heating conditions in water or microwave irradiation under solvent-free conditions. - Highlights: • Using of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@SiO{sub 2}-imid-PMA{sup n} magnetic

  11. On a role of the Bsub(z) component of interplanetary magnetic field in a force balance in the day time magnetopause

    Kuznetsova, T.V.

    1980-01-01

    The role of interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) in the force balance in the day time magnetopause is discussed. The effect of the circular DR-current on the balance of pressures in the magnetopause is taken into account in the calculations. It is shown that IMF plays a significant role in the balance of forces in the day time magnetopause. The ratio of magnetic pressure to the thermal pressure of solar wind in subsolar point is k=0.5. The field observed in magnetosphere near the neutral line is lower by the value of transition region field. All the conclusions are obtained for Bsub(z) [ru

  12. Nanoparticles affect PCR primarily via surface interactions with PCR components: using amino-modified silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles as a main model

    Nanomaterials have been widely reported to affect the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). However, many studies in which these effects were observed were not comprehensive, and many of the proposed mechanisms have been primarily speculative. In this work, we used amino-modified silica-coated magnetic n...

  13. Interplanetary magnetic field Bx component influence on horizontal and field‐aligned currents in the ionosphere

    Laundal, K. M.; Reistad, J. P.; Finlay, C. C.

    2018-01-01

    a detailed investigation of three different sets of magnetic field measurements, from the CHAMP and Swarm low‐Earth‐Orbit satellites, from the AMPERE products derived from the Iridium satellite constellation, and from the SuperMAG ground magnetometer network, each analyzed using different techniques, to test...

  14. Magnetic fusion energy plasma interactive and high heat flux components. Volume III. Strategy for international collaborations in the areas of plasma materials interactions and high heat flux materials and components development

    Gauster, W.B.; Bauer, W.; Roberto, J.B.; Post, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this summary is to assess opportunities for such collaborations in the specific areas of Plasma Materials Interaction and High Heat Flux Materials and Components Development, and to aid in developing a strategy to take advantage of them. After some general discussion of international collaborations, we summarize key technical issues and the US programs to address them. Then follows a summary of present collaborations and potential opportunities in foreign laboratories

  15. Change in the F region structure of a polar ionosphere at the change of the Y component sighn of the interplanetary magnetic field. Svalgaard-Mansurov effect in the ionosphere

    Gal'perin, Yu.I.; Zosimova, A.G.; Larina, T.N.; Mozhaev, A.M.; Osipov, N.K.; Ponomarev, Yu.N.

    1980-01-01

    Model calculations of the planetary picture of the polar ionosphere characteristics taking into account modern models of magnetospheric convection are carried out. The results of direct measurements of the lateral component of the convection rate in the day polar cusp region obtained by the ''Kosmos-184'' satellite in 1967 indicative of rotation of the zonal convection component direction with tha change of the Bsub(y) component sign of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). It is shown that the change of the IMF Bsub(y) sign and the following change of the convection picture in the polar cap must cause a quick (10 3 s) change of the planetary picture of the polar ionosphere characteristics in the F region peak and higher, i.e. ''the Svalgard-Mansurov ionospheric effect''. The amplitude of the variations and their character are defined by the relation of the solar and auroral ionization, and, therefore, they strongly depend on the universal time, season and auroral activity, that hampers comparison of the calculations with the experiment. The experimental data obtained from satellites and indicative of the reality of the described ionospheric Bsub(y) effect are presented. Thus, the data of many years on the ionospheric measurements from the Earth and satellites parallel with the magnetic measurements can be used to specify parameters describing the magnetospheric convection picture [ru

  16. Main component analysis of nuclear magnetic resonance /sup 1/H and /sup 13/C quantitative spectra of hydrogenation products of tars from Kansk-Achinsk Achinsk and Cheremkhovsk coals

    Kushnarev, D.F.; Polonov, V.M.; Donskikh, V.I.; Rokhina, E.F.; Kalabin, G.A.

    1986-03-01

    Possibility is discussed of examining nuclear magnetic resonance /sup 1/H and /sup 13/C quantitative spectra of coal tar hydrogenation products using main component factorial analysis and applying special mathematical methods of processing experimental data. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of hydrogenation products of low temperature Cheremkhovsk coal carbonization tar and rapid pyrolysis Kansk-Achinsk coal tar were obtained on a WP-200SY (Bruker) spectrometer at 50.3 and 200.1 MHz, respectively. Data processing was carried out on an ODRA-1304 computer. Comparative correlation of parameters are given of tars and hydrogenation products which consist of hydrogenation of aromatic cycles and destruction of alkyl substituents, and factorial loads on structural parameters of tar hydrogenation products. 11 references.

  17. Effect of component substitution on the magnetic properties of Zr2Co11 phase and rapidly quenched Zr2Co11 - based alloys

    Gabaj, A.M.; Shchegoleva, N.N.; Gaviko, V.S.; Ivanova, G.V.

    2003-01-01

    Magnetic properties of homogenized ingots and rapidly quenched ribbons of (Zr 1-x M x ) 16.4 Co 83.6 with M=Ti, Nb, Y, Gd and Zr 16.4 (Co 1-y M* y ) 83.6 with M*= Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Al, Ga, Si are studied. The phase composition of the alloys is determined with the help of thermomagnetic analysis and, in specific cases, with the use of X-ray diffraction analysis and electron microscopical data. It is ascertained that a part of zirconium in a phase Zr 2 Co 11 can be replaced by titanium and niobium. The solubility of rare earth elements is noted to be not revealed. Cobalt is partially replaced by Al, Cu, Ga, Si, Ni and Fe in a 2:11 phase, and Mn stabilizes the structure of a Laves phase with unexpectedly strong ferromagnetic properties. For magnetic hardness of the rapidly quenched alloys the introduction of Ti is appeared to be most beneficial. This element enhances noticeably the coercive force and hysteresis loop rectangularity and, as it takes place, it does not change practically magnetic properties of a 2:11 phase but suppresses the formation of dendrites on its crystallization. A small increase of the coercive force is also observed on addition of Cu and Al [ru

  18. Magnetic Field Grid Calculator

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Magnetic Field Properties Calculator will computes the estimated values of Earth's magnetic field(declination, inclination, vertical component, northerly...

  19. Displacements and intensities of the components of hydrogenic lines of the helium atom in the presence of exterior uniform electrical and magnetic fields

    Deutsch, C.; Herman, L.; Nguyen, H.; Drawin, H.W.

    1967-01-01

    The Waller-Foster method for hydrogenic lines of neutral helium is extended in order to take into account an external magnetic field (vector K) having an arbitrary angle with an external constant electric field (vector F). The diagonal correction has been evaluated numerically taking into account recent experimental data. A Fortran IV program written for the CDC 3600 computer allows to calculate the displacements and the intensities for any hydrogenic transition. Special attention is given to the {2-4} transitions in neutral helium. (authors) [fr

  20. X-ray magnetic microscopy for correlations between magnetic domains and crystal structure

    Denbeaux, G.; Anderson, E.; Bates, B.; Chao, W.; Liddle, J.A.; Harteneck, B.; Pearson, A.; Salmassi, F.; Schneider, G.; Fischer, P.; Eimuller, T.; Taylor, S.; Chang, H.; Kusinski, G.J.

    2002-01-01

    Accurately determining the resolution of x-ray microscopes has been a challenge because good test patterns for x-ray microscopy have been hard to make. We report on a sputter-deposited multilayer imaged in cross section as a test pattern with small features and high aspect ratios. One application of high-resolution imaging is magnetic materials. Off-axis bend magnet radiation is known to have a component of circular polarization which can be used for x-ray magnetic circular dichroism. We calculate the integrated circular polarization collected by the illumination optics in the XM-1 full-field x-ray microscope. (authors)

  1. LHC magnets

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Preparations for the LHC proton collider to be built in CERN's LEP tunnel continue to make good progress. In particular development work for the high field superconducting magnets to guide the almost 8 TeVproton beams through the 'tight' curve of the 27-kilometre ring are proceeding well, while the magnet designs and lattice configuration are evolving in the light of ongoing experience. At the Evian LHC Experiments meeting, this progress was covered by Giorgio Brianti

  2. Investigation of magnetic properties of steel in the process of fatigue

    Kasimov, G.A.; Pokrovskij, A.D.

    1976-01-01

    Non-destructive method was developed for the recognition of structural demages of mashine components, which is based on studying the effect of the cyclical loading of constructional steel (brands 10, 20, etc.) upon their magnetic characteristics. Using the experimental installation, we have determined the effect of the degree of fatigue destruction of steel specimens upon the main magnetization curve and the symmetrical cycles of magnetic hysteresis. The obtained results make it possible to choose the conditions of control over the fatigue process

  3. Magnetic Nanocomposite Cilia Sensors

    Alfadhel, Ahmed

    2016-07-19

    Recent progress in the development of artificial skin concepts is a result of the increased demand for providing environment perception such as touch and flow sensing to robots, prosthetics and surgical tools. Tactile sensors are the essential components of artificial skins and attracted considerable attention that led to the development of different technologies for mimicking the complex sense of touch in humans. This dissertation work is devoted to the development of a bioinspired tactile sensing technology that imitates the extremely sensitive hair-like cilia receptors found in nature. The artificial cilia are fabricated from permanent magnetic, biocompatible and highly elastic nanocomposite material, and integrated on a giant magneto-impedance magnetic sensor to measure the stray field. A force that bends the cilia changes the stray field and is therefore detected with the magnetic sensor, providing high performance in terms of sensitivity, power consumption and versatility. The nanocomposite is made of Fe nanowires (NWs) incorporated into polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Fe NWs have a high remanent magnetization, due the shape anisotropy; thus, they are acting as permanent nano-magnets. This allows remote device operation and avoids the need for a magnetic field to magnetize the NWs, benefiting miniaturization and the possible range of applications. The magnetic properties of the nanocomposite can be easily tuned by modifying the NWs concentration or by aligning the NWs to define a magnetic anisotropy. Tactile sensors are realized on flexible and rigid substrates that can detect flow, vertical and shear forces statically and dynamically, with a high resolution and wide operating range. The advantage to operate the sensors in liquids and air has been utilized to measure flows in different fluids in a microfluidic channel. Various dynamic studies were conducted with the tactile sensor demonstrating the detection of moving objects or the texture of objects. Overall

  4. Application of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy combined with principal component analysis in detecting inborn errors of metabolism using blood spots: a metabonomic approach

    Constantinou, M.A.; Papakonstantinou, E.; Benaki, D.; Spraul, M.; Shulpis, K.; Koupparis, M.A.; Mikros, E.

    2004-01-01

    NMR spectra of extracted blood spots were used to investigate the possibility for the development of a new method for mass screening concerning the diagnosis of inborn errors of metabolism (IEM). Blood spots were collected on filter papers from normal, phenylketonuric (PKU) and maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) subjects and their Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) 1 H NMR spectra were acquired. The spectra were reduced to a number of spectral descriptors and principal component analysis (PCA) was performed. The scores plot showed that PKU and MSUD samples were well discriminated from the main cluster of points

  5. Electronic components

    Colwell, Morris A

    1976-01-01

    Electronic Components provides a basic grounding in the practical aspects of using and selecting electronics components. The book describes the basic requirements needed to start practical work on electronic equipment, resistors and potentiometers, capacitance, and inductors and transformers. The text discusses semiconductor devices such as diodes, thyristors and triacs, transistors and heat sinks, logic and linear integrated circuits (I.C.s) and electromechanical devices. Common abbreviations applied to components are provided. Constructors and electronics engineers will find the book useful

  6. Neutron scattering and magnetism

    Mackintosh, A.R.

    1983-01-01

    Those properties of the neutron which make it a unique tool for the study of magnetism are described. The scattering of neutrons by magnetic solids is briefly reviewed, with emphasis on the information on the magnetic structure and dynamics which is inherent in the scattering cross-section. The contribution of neutron scattering to our understanding of magnetic ordering, excitations and phase transitions is illustrated by experimental results on a variety of magnetic crystals. (author)

  7. Achievement report for fiscal 1999. Research and development of high-performance magnetic materials creation technology making use of microgravitational environment; 1999 nendo bisho juryoku kankyo wo riyoshita koseino jisei zairyo sosei gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Efforts are made to develop the above-named technology so as to improve on performance of magnetic materials for magnets extensively used in electric motors to consequently influence their energy conversion efficiency. For this purpose, probes are conducted into novel alloy phases, intermetallic compounds, and microstructure in a containerless coagulation process in which a molten body of a magnetic metal material in free-fall is allowed to cool rapidly, and a system is developed to enable a series of processes of heating and melting in preparation for containerless coagulation, specimen formation, and then coagulation in a microgravitational environment. The system is used for the study of novel materials for magnetic alloys and process technology. For the utilization of containerless coagulation in a microgravitational environment, it is necessary to make full use of the JAMIC (Japan Microgravity Center) facilities, and an experimenting apparatuses are fabricated for a containerless coagulation process and unidirectional coagulation process applicable to a free-fall test. In this fiscal year, some significance involving for example structural uniformity are found among the specimens created using containerless coagulation in a microgravitational environment, and it is inferred that the data as an index of higher performance will lead to studies in the next fiscal year and afterward. (NEDO)

  8. Magnetic Fusion Energy Plasma Interactive and High Heat Flux Components: Volume 5, Technical assessment of critical issues in the steady state operation of fusion confinement devices

    1988-01-01

    Critical issues for the steady state operation of plasma confinement devices exist in both the physics and technology fields of fusion research. Due to the wide range and number of these issues, this technical assessment has focused on the crucial issues associated with the plasma physics and the plasma interactive components. The document provides information on the problem areas that affect the design and operation of a steady state ETR or ITER type confinement device. It discusses both tokamaks and alternative concepts, and provides a survey of existing and planned confinement machines and laboratory facilities that can address the identified issues. A universal definition of steady state operation is difficult to obtain. From a physics point of view, steady state is generally achieved when the time derivatives approach zero and the operation time greatly exceeds the characteristic time constants of the device. Steady state operation for materials depends on whether thermal stress, creep, fatigue, radiation damage, or power removal are being discussed. For erosion issues, the fluence and availability of the machine for continuous operation are important, assuming that transient events such as disruptions do not limit the component lifetimes. The panel suggests, in general terms, that steady state requires plasma operation from 100 to 1000 seconds and an availability of more than a few percent, which is similar to the expectations for an ETR type device. The assessment of critical issues for steady state operation is divided into four sections: physics issues; technology issues; issues in alternative concepts; and devices and laboratory facilities that can address these problems.

  9. Magnetic Fusion Energy Plasma Interactive and High Heat Flux Components: Volume 5, Technical assessment of critical issues in the steady state operation of fusion confinement devices

    1988-01-01

    Critical issues for the steady state operation of plasma confinement devices exist in both the physics and technology fields of fusion research. Due to the wide range and number of these issues, this technical assessment has focused on the crucial issues associated with the plasma physics and the plasma interactive components. The document provides information on the problem areas that affect the design and operation of a steady state ETR or ITER type confinement device. It discusses both tokamaks and alternative concepts, and provides a survey of existing and planned confinement machines and laboratory facilities that can address the identified issues. A universal definition of steady state operation is difficult to obtain. From a physics point of view, steady state is generally achieved when the time derivatives approach zero and the operation time greatly exceeds the characteristic time constants of the device. Steady state operation for materials depends on whether thermal stress, creep, fatigue, radiation damage, or power removal are being discussed. For erosion issues, the fluence and availability of the machine for continuous operation are important, assuming that transient events such as disruptions do not limit the component lifetimes. The panel suggests, in general terms, that steady state requires plasma operation from 100 to 1000 seconds and an availability of more than a few percent, which is similar to the expectations for an ETR type device. The assessment of critical issues for steady state operation is divided into four sections: physics issues; technology issues; issues in alternative concepts; and devices and laboratory facilities that can address these problems

  10. Volume Tracking: A new method for quantitative assessment and visualization of intracardiac blood flow from three-dimensional, time-resolved, three-component magnetic resonance velocity mapping

    Töger, Johannes; Carlsson, Marcus; Söderlind, Gustaf; Arheden, Håkan; Heiberg, Einar

    2011-01-01

    Functional and morphological changes of the heart influence blood flow patterns. Therefore, flow patterns may carry diagnostic and prognostic information. Three-dimensional, time-resolved, three-directional phase contrast cardiovascular magnetic resonance (4D PC-CMR) can image flow patterns with unique detail, and using new flow visualization methods may lead to new insights. The aim of this study is to present and validate a novel visualization method with a quantitative potential for blood flow from 4D PC-CMR, called Volume Tracking, and investigate if Volume Tracking complements particle tracing, the most common visualization method used today. Eight healthy volunteers and one patient with a large apical left ventricular aneurysm underwent 4D PC-CMR flow imaging of the whole heart. Volume Tracking and particle tracing visualizations were compared visually side-by-side in a visualization software package. To validate Volume Tracking, the number of particle traces that agreed with the Volume Tracking visualizations was counted and expressed as a percentage of total released particles in mid-diastole and end-diastole respectively. Two independent observers described blood flow patterns in the left ventricle using Volume Tracking visualizations. Volume Tracking was feasible in all eight healthy volunteers and in the patient. Visually, Volume Tracking and particle tracing are complementary methods, showing different aspects of the flow. When validated against particle tracing, on average 90.5% and 87.8% of the particles agreed with the Volume Tracking surface in mid-diastole and end-diastole respectively. Inflow patterns in the left ventricle varied between the subjects, with excellent agreement between observers. The left ventricular inflow pattern in the patient differed from the healthy subjects. Volume Tracking is a new visualization method for blood flow measured by 4D PC-CMR. Volume Tracking complements and provides incremental information compared to particle

  11. DFB component production at IHEP complete

    2007-01-01

    The last of the components for the 42 DFBs (electrical distribution boxes feeding the strings of superconducting magnets in the LHC) produced for CERN by IHEP Protvino (Russia) were delivered to CERN in January 2007. The DFBs will provide the electrical supply for the superconducting magnets for the LHC, making possible the transition from room temperature down to -268ºC (4.5 K) (see Bulletin No. 37/2006). This important achievement was celebrated on the 14th February 2007 at the IHEP House of Scientists in Protvino in the presence of all the IHEP personnel who contributed to the DFB components production, and with the participation of eight delegates from CERN Management and CERN engineers involved in DFB production. Lyn Evans handed over a present symbolizing the IHEP-CERN collaboration to Nikolaj Tyurin, who offered to Lyn Evans a model of a DFB. Since August 2005, when the components for the first two boxes arrived at CERN, a total of 360 tonnes of raw materials were transported to IHEP on 19 lorries...

  12. Enhancing the magnetic properties of magnetic nanoparticles

    Ahlburg, Jakob; Saura-Múzquiz, Matilde; Stingaciu, Marian

    with a similar magnetic performance. There are several different ways of enhancing magnetic properties of 3d magnetic compounds. This includes, size control, core-shell particles or mixing hard and soft magnetic materials together to achieve an exchange coupling between the compounds and enhancing the magnetic...... energy product. In order to control the particle size, a hydrothermal synthesis is preferred. This followed by reduction or the oxides into either core shell particles, or a mixture of magnetic oxides and a metallic phase.......Strong magnets with a high energy product are vital when optimizing the efficiency in the electric industry. But since the rare earth metals, normally used for making strong permanent magnets, are both expensive and difficult to mine, a great demand has come to cheaper types of magnets...

  13. Volume Tracking: A new method for quantitative assessment and visualization of intracardiac blood flow from three-dimensional, time-resolved, three-component magnetic resonance velocity mapping

    Arheden Håkan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional and morphological changes of the heart influence blood flow patterns. Therefore, flow patterns may carry diagnostic and prognostic information. Three-dimensional, time-resolved, three-directional phase contrast cardiovascular magnetic resonance (4D PC-CMR can image flow patterns with unique detail, and using new flow visualization methods may lead to new insights. The aim of this study is to present and validate a novel visualization method with a quantitative potential for blood flow from 4D PC-CMR, called Volume Tracking, and investigate if Volume Tracking complements particle tracing, the most common visualization method used today. Methods Eight healthy volunteers and one patient with a large apical left ventricular aneurysm underwent 4D PC-CMR flow imaging of the whole heart. Volume Tracking and particle tracing visualizations were compared visually side-by-side in a visualization software package. To validate Volume Tracking, the number of particle traces that agreed with the Volume Tracking visualizations was counted and expressed as a percentage of total released particles in mid-diastole and end-diastole respectively. Two independent observers described blood flow patterns in the left ventricle using Volume Tracking visualizations. Results Volume Tracking was feasible in all eight healthy volunteers and in the patient. Visually, Volume Tracking and particle tracing are complementary methods, showing different aspects of the flow. When validated against particle tracing, on average 90.5% and 87.8% of the particles agreed with the Volume Tracking surface in mid-diastole and end-diastole respectively. Inflow patterns in the left ventricle varied between the subjects, with excellent agreement between observers. The left ventricular inflow pattern in the patient differed from the healthy subjects. Conclusion Volume Tracking is a new visualization method for blood flow measured by 4D PC-CMR. Volume Tracking

  14. Improved equivalent magnetic network modeling for analyzing working points of PMs in interior permanent magnet machine

    Guo, Liyan; Xia, Changliang; Wang, Huimin; Wang, Zhiqiang; Shi, Tingna

    2018-05-01

    As is well known, the armature current will be ahead of the back electromotive force (back-EMF) under load condition of the interior permanent magnet (PM) machine. This kind of advanced armature current will produce a demagnetizing field, which may make irreversible demagnetization appeared in PMs easily. To estimate the working points of PMs more accurately and take demagnetization under consideration in the early design stage of a machine, an improved equivalent magnetic network model is established in this paper. Each PM under each magnetic pole is segmented, and the networks in the rotor pole shoe are refined, which makes a more precise model of the flux path in the rotor pole shoe possible. The working point of each PM under each magnetic pole can be calculated accurately by the established improved equivalent magnetic network model. Meanwhile, the calculated results are compared with those calculated by FEM. And the effects of d-axis component and q-axis component of armature current, air-gap length and flux barrier size on working points of PMs are analyzed by the improved equivalent magnetic network model.

  15. Measurement of gradient magnetic field temporal characteristics

    Bartusek, K.; Jflek, B.

    1994-01-01

    We describe a technique of measuring the time dependence and field distortions of magnetic fields due to eddy currents (EC) produced by time-dependent magnetic field gradients. The EC measuring technique makes use of a large volume sample and selective RF excitation pulses and free induction decay (FID) (or a spin or gradient echo) to measure the out-of-phase component of the FID, which is proportional to γδB, i.e. the amount the signal is off resonance. The measuring technique is sensitive, easy to implement and interpret, and used for determining pre-emphasis compensation parameters

  16. IMAGINE: Interstellar MAGnetic field INference Engine

    Steininger, Theo

    2018-03-01

    IMAGINE (Interstellar MAGnetic field INference Engine) performs inference on generic parametric models of the Galaxy. The modular open source framework uses highly optimized tools and technology such as the MultiNest sampler (ascl:1109.006) and the information field theory framework NIFTy (ascl:1302.013) to create an instance of the Milky Way based on a set of parameters for physical observables, using Bayesian statistics to judge the mismatch between measured data and model prediction. The flexibility of the IMAGINE framework allows for simple refitting for newly available data sets and makes state-of-the-art Bayesian methods easily accessible particularly for random components of the Galactic magnetic field.

  17. MAGNETIC WOVEN FABRICS - PHYSICAL AND MAGNETIC PROPERTIES

    GROSU Marian C

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A coated material is a composite structure that consists of at least two components: base material and coating layer. The purpose of coating is to provide special properties to base material, with potential to be applied in EMI shielding and diverse smart technical fields. This paper reports the results of a study about some physical and magnetic properties of coated woven fabrics made from cotton yarns with fineness of 17 metric count. For this aim, a plain woven fabric was coated with a solution hard magnetic polymer based. As hard magnetic powder, barium hexaferrite (BaFe12O19 was selected. The plain woven fabric used as base has been coated with five solutions having different amounts of hard magnetic powder (15% - 45% in order to obtain five different magnetic woven fabrics. A comparison of physical properties regarding weight (g/m2, thickness (mm, degree of charging (% and magnetic properties of magnetic woven samples were presented. Saturation magnetizing (emu/g, residual magnetizing (emu/g and coercive force (kA/m of pure hard magnetic powder and woven fabrics have been studied as hysteresis characteristics. The magnetic properties of the woven fabrics depend on the mass percentage of magnetic powder from coating solution. Also, the residual magnetism and coercive field of woven fabrics represents only a part of bulk barium hexafferite residual magnetism and coercive field.

  18. How the win-lose balance situation affects subsequent decision-making: functional magnetic resonance imaging evidence from a gambling task.

    Dong, G; Lin, X; Zhou, H; Lu, Q

    2014-07-11

    Humans have been consistently shown to be bad at making decisions, especially in disadvantageous situations. In this study, we designed a task that simulates real-life non-strategic gambling to examine the effect of win-lose balance situations (WIN, LOSS, TIE) on decision-making. In behavioral performances, participants showed shorter response time (RT) in LOSS than in WIN and TIE conditions. Imaging results revealed that decisions in WIN are associated with increased brain activations in the posterior cingulate cortex; decisions in LOSS are associated with increased brain activations in the insula and decreased activations in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). Positive correlation was found between brain activation in IFG and RT in LOSS. Overall, we concluded that, in disadvantageous conditions, participants are frustrated by their negative results and tend to make a random selection without full consideration. In advantageous conditions, participants' motivations to gamble are elicited and they tend to engage in more endeavors in making decisions. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Selective One-Dimensional Total Correlation Spectroscopy Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Experiments for a Rapid Identification of Minor Components in the Lipid Fraction of Milk and Dairy Products: Toward Spin Chromatography?

    Papaemmanouil, Christina; Tsiafoulis, Constantinos G; Alivertis, Dimitrios; Tzamaloukas, Ouranios; Miltiadou, Despoina; Tzakos, Andreas G; Gerothanassis, Ioannis P

    2015-06-10

    We report a rapid, direct, and unequivocal spin-chromatographic separation and identification of minor components in the lipid fraction of milk and common dairy products with the use of selective one-dimensional (1D) total correlation spectroscopy (TOCSY) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments. The method allows for the complete backbone spin-coupling network to be elucidated even in strongly overlapped regions and in the presence of major components from 4 × 10(2) to 3 × 10(3) stronger NMR signal intensities. The proposed spin-chromatography method does not require any derivatization steps for the lipid fraction, is selective with excellent resolution, is sensitive with quantitation capability, and compares favorably to two-dimensional (2D) TOCSY and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) methods of analysis. The results of the present study demonstrated that the 1D TOCSY NMR spin-chromatography method can become a procedure of primary interest in food analysis and generally in complex mixture analysis.

  20. Catalog of physical protection equipment. Book 1: Volume II. Intrusion detection components

    Haberman, W.

    1977-06-01

    This volume covers acoustic components, microwave/radar components, electro-optic barriers, electric field components, orientation components, ferrous metal detection components, proximity detection components, vibration detection components, seismic components, pressure-sensitive components, pressure mats, continuity components, electrical/magnetic switches, fire detection components, and mechanical contact switches

  1. AGS superconducting bending magnets

    Robins, K.E.; Sampson, W.B.; McInturff, A.D.; Dahl, P.F.; Abbatiello, F.; Aggus, J.; Bamberger, J.; Brown, D.; Damm, R.; Kassner, D.; Lasky, C.; Schlafke, A.

    1976-01-01

    Four large aperture superconducting bending magnets are being built for use in the experimental beams at the AGS. Each of these magnets is 2.5 m long and has a room temperature aperture of 20 cm. The magnets are similar in design to the dipoles being developed for ISABELLE and employ a low temperature iron core. Results are presented on the ''training'' behavior of the magnets and a comparison will be made with the smaller aperture versions of this design. The magnet field measurements include end fields and leakage fields as well as the harmonic components of the straight section of the magnet

  2. Principal components

    Hallin, M.; Hörmann, S.; Piegorsch, W.; El Shaarawi, A.

    2012-01-01

    Principal Components are probably the best known and most widely used of all multivariate analysis techniques. The essential idea consists in performing a linear transformation of the observed k-dimensional variables in such a way that the new variables are vectors of k mutually orthogonal

  3. Magnetic resonance and porous materials

    McDonald, P.; Strange, J.

    1998-01-01

    Mention the words magnetic resonance to your medical advisor and he or she will immediately think of a multi-million pound scanner that peers deep into the brain. A chemist, on the other hand, will imagine a machine that costs several hundred thousand pounds and produces high-resolution spectra for chemical analysis. Food technologists will probably think of a bench-top instrument for determining moisture content, while an oil prospector will envisage a device that can be operated several kilometres down an oil well. To a physicist the term is more likely to conjure up a mental picture of nuclear spins precessing in a magnetic field. These examples illustrate the diverse aspects of a phenomenon discovered by physicists over 50 years ago. Electron spin resonance was first discovered by Russian scientists, and nuclear magnetic resonance was discovered in the US shortly afterwards by Ed Purcell at Harvard University and Felix Bloch at Stanford University. Today, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is the most widely used technique. Modern NMR machines are making it possible to probe microstructure and molecular movement in materials as diverse as polymers, cements, rocks, soil and foods. NMR allows the distribution of different components in a material to be determined with a resolution approaching 1μm, although the signal can be sensitive to even smaller lengthscales. In this article the authors describe how physicists are still developing magnetic resonance to exploit a range of new applications. (UK)

  4. Magnetic actuators and sensors

    Brauer, John R

    2014-01-01

    An accessible, comprehensive guide on magnetic actuators and sensors, this fully updated second edition of Magnetic Actuators and Sensors includes the latest advances, numerous worked calculations, illustrations, and real-life applications. Covering magnetics, actuators, sensors, and systems, with updates of new technologies and techniques, this exemplary learning tool emphasizes computer-aided design techniques, especially magnetic finite element analysis, commonly used by today's engineers. Detailed calculations, numerous illustrations, and discussions of discrepancies make this text an inva

  5. Magnetic Reconnection in the Solar Chromosphere

    Lukin, Vyacheslav S.; Ni, Lei; Murphy, Nicholas Arnold

    2017-08-01

    We report on the most recent efforts to accurately and self-consistently model magnetic reconnection processes in the context of the solar chromosphere. The solar chromosphere is a notoriously complex and highly dynamic boundary layer of the solar atmosphere where local variations in the plasma parameters can be of the order of the mean values. At the same time, the interdependence of the physical processes such as magnetic field evolution, local and global energy transfer between internal and electromagnetic plasma energy, radiation transport, plasma reactivity, and dissipation mechanisms make it a particularly difficult system to self-consistently model and understand. Several recent studies have focused on the micro-physics of multi-fluid magnetic reconnection at magnetic nulls in the weakly ionized plasma environment of the lower chromosphere[1-3]. Here, we extend the previous work by considering a range of spatial scales and magnetic field strengths in a configuration with component magnetic reconnection, i.e., for magnetic reconnection with a guide field. We show that in all cases the non-equilibrium reactivity of the plasma and the dynamic interaction among the plasma processes play important roles in determining the structure of the reconnection region. We also speculate as to the possible observables of chromospheric magnetic reconnection and the likely plasma conditions required for generation of Ellerman and IRIS bombs.[1] Leake, Lukin, Linton, and Meier, “Multi-fluid simulations of chromospheric magnetic reconnection in a weakly ionized reacting plasma,” ApJ 760 (2012).[2] Leake, Lukin, and Linton, “Magnetic reconnection in a weakly ionized plasma,” PoP 20 (2013).[3] Murphy and Lukin, “Asymmetric magnetic reconnection in weakly ionized chromospheric plasmas,” ApJ 805 (2015).[*Any opinion, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National

  6. Influence of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Features on Surgical Decision-Making in Degenerative Cervical Myelopathy: Results from a Global Survey of AOSpine International Members.

    Nouri, Aria; Martin, Allan R; Nater, Anick; Witiw, Christopher D; Kato, So; Tetreault, Lindsay; Reihani-Kermani, Hamed; Santaguida, Carlo; Fehlings, Michael G

    2017-09-01

    We conducted a survey to understand how specific pathologic features on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) influence surgeons toward an anterior or posterior surgical approach in degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM). A questionnaire was sent out to 6179 AOSpine International members via e-mail. This included 18 questions on a 7-point Likert scale regarding how MRI features influence the respondent's decision to perform an anterior or posterior surgical approach. Influence was classified based on the mean and mode. Variations in responses were assessed by region and training. Of 513 respondents, 51.7% were orthopedic surgeons, 36.8% were neurosurgeons, and the remainder were fellows, residents, or other. In ascending order, multilevel bulging disks, cervical kyphosis, and a high degree of anterior cord compression had a moderate to strong influence toward an anterior approach. A high degree of posterior cord compression had a moderate to strong influence, whereas multilevel compression, ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament, ligamentum flavum enlargement, and congenital stenosis had a moderate influence toward a posterior approach. Neurosurgeons chose anterior approaches more and posterior approaches less in comparison with orthopedic surgeons (P influences the choice for anterior or posterior surgical approach. These data highlight factors based on surgeon experience, training, and region of practice. They will be helpful in defining future areas of investigation in an effort to provide individualized surgical strategies and optimize patient outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Imaging pediatric magnet ingestion with surgical-pathological correlation

    Otjen, Jeffrey P.; Iyer, Ramesh S.; Rohrmann, Charles A.

    2013-01-01

    Foreign body ingestion is a common problem in the pediatric population and a frequent cause for emergency room visits. Magnets are common household objects that when ingested can bring about severe, possibly fatal gastrointestinal complications. Radiography is an integral component of the management of these children. Pediatric and emergency radiologists alike must be aware of imaging manifestations of magnet ingestion, as their identification drives decision-making for consulting surgeons and gastroenterologists. Radiology can thus substantially augment the clinical history and physical exam, facilitating appropriate management. This manuscript sequentially presents cases of magnet ingestion featuring imaging findings coupled with surgical and pathological correlation. Each case is presented to highlight ways in which the radiologist can make impactful contributions to diagnosis and management. Clinical overview with pitfalls of magnet ingestion imaging and an imaging decision tree will also be presented. (orig.)

  8. Imaging pediatric magnet ingestion with surgical-pathological correlation.

    Otjen, Jeffrey P; Rohrmann, Charles A; Iyer, Ramesh S

    2013-07-01

    Foreign body ingestion is a common problem in the pediatric population and a frequent cause for emergency room visits. Magnets are common household objects that when ingested can bring about severe, possibly fatal gastrointestinal complications. Radiography is an integral component of the management of these children. Pediatric and emergency radiologists alike must be aware of imaging manifestations of magnet ingestion, as their identification drives decision-making for consulting surgeons and gastroenterologists. Radiology can thus substantially augment the clinical history and physical exam, facilitating appropriate management. This manuscript sequentially presents cases of magnet ingestion featuring imaging findings coupled with surgical and pathological correlation. Each case is presented to highlight ways in which the radiologist can make impactful contributions to diagnosis and management. Clinical overview with pitfalls of magnet ingestion imaging and an imaging decision tree will also be presented.

  9. [How to make regional medicine revive from the medical crisis or collapse due to the severe paucity of medical doctors: a plan with "the magnet hospital"].

    Itoh, Tsunetoshi

    2009-01-01

    In 2002-2003, the practice of doctors lending their names to appear as "staff" of hospitals became known. Problems regarding funds from public hospitals were also revealed. Tohoku University asked regional societies how to improve the medical situation, and redefined its responsibilities. The Educational Development Center for Local Medicine and Department of Local Medical Service System were set up (2005-2008). A severe shortage of medical doctors prevails in Japan: the number of doctors per population is at the 4th lowest among OECD countries, and the number per hospital bed is the lowest. We have no nursing homes whose beds are not counted as hospital beds. The number of faculty staff in Japanese medical schools is 1/3 to those of Western countries. The reported number of doctors working in hospitals and offices surpasses that by census for medical doctors by >40,000. Japanese doctors work for >60 hours per week. I propose essential plans to improve Japanese situation for medical service: 1. Immediately increase the number of doctors by at least 50%. Based on our calculation, we need 450,000 doctors. 2. When the shortage of doctors is severe, establish a magnet hospital with c.a. 500 beds for every 200,000 population, capable of treating highly emergency patients and attracting doctors who need medical training. Hospitals should not belong to each city or town. 3. Establish a comprehensive organization to nurture doctors on a long-term basis. It should consist of a medical school, hospitals, and the prefectural government. It should help doctors to move between hospitals, and be responsible both for designing doctors' career paths and for allocating them appropriately.

  10. Makeup and uses of a basic magnet laboratory for characterizing high-temperature permanent magnets

    Niedra, Janis M.; Schwarze, Gene E.

    1991-01-01

    A set of instrumentation for making basic magnetic measurements was assembled in order to characterize high intrinsic coercivity, rare earth permanent magnets with respect to short term demagnetization resistance and long term aging at temperatures up to 300 C. The major specialized components of this set consist of a 13 T peak field, capacitor discharge pulse magnetizer; a 10 in. pole size, variable gap electromagnet; a temperature controlled oven equipped with iron cobalt pole piece extensions and a removable paddle that carries the magnetization and field sensing coils; associated electronic integrators; and sensor standards for field intensity H and magnetic moment M calibration. A 1 cm cubic magnet sample, carried by the paddle, fits snugly between the pole piece extensions within the electrically heated aluminum oven, where fields up to 3.2 T can be applied by the electromagnet at temperatures up to 300 C. A sample set of demagnetization data for the high energy Sm2Co17 type of magnet is given for temperatures up to 300 C. These data are reduced to the temperature dependence of the M-H knee field and of the field for a given magnetic induction swing, and they are interpreted to show the limits of safe operation.

  11. CrowdMag - Crowdsourcing magnetic data

    Nair, M. C.; Boneh, N.; Chulliat, A.

    2014-12-01

    In the CrowdMag project, we explore whether digital magnetometers built in modern mobile phones can be used as scientific instruments to measure Earth's magnetic field. Most modern mobile phones have digital magnetometers to orient themselves. A phone's magnetometer measures three components of the local magnetic field with a typical sensitivity of about 150 to 600 nanotesla (nT). By combining data from vector magnetometers and accelerometers, phone's orientation is determined. Using phone's Internet connection, magnetic data and location are sent to a central server. At the server, we check quality of the magnetic data from all users and make the data available to the public as aggregate maps. We have two long-term goals. 1) Develop near-real-time models of Earth's time changing magnetic field by reducing man-made noise from crowdsourced data and combining it with geomagnetic data from other sources. 2) Improving accuracy of magnetic navigation by mapping magnetic noise sources (for e.g. power transformer and iron pipes). Key challenges to this endeavor are the low sensitivity of the phone's magnetometer and the noisy environment within and surrounding the phone. URL : http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/geomag/crowdmag.shtml

  12. Invisible magnetic sensors

    Mach-Batlle, Rosa; Navau, Carles; Sanchez, Alvaro

    2018-04-01

    Sensing magnetic fields is essential in many applications in biomedicine, transportation, or smart cities. The distortion magnetic sensors create in response to the field they are detecting may hinder their use, for example, in applications requiring dense packaging of sensors or accurately shaped field distributions. For sensing electromagnetic waves, cloaking shells that reduce the scattering of sensors have been introduced. However, the problem of making a magnetic sensor undetectable remains unsolved. Here, we present a general strategy on how to make a sensor magnetically invisible while keeping its ability to sense. The sensor is rendered undetectable by surrounding it with a spherical shell having a tailored magnetic permeability. Our method can be applied to arbitrary shaped magnetic sensors in arbitrary magnetic fields. The invisibility can be made exact when the sensor is spherical and the probed field is uniform. A metasurface composed of superconducting pieces is presented as a practical realization of the ideal invisibility shell.

  13. Decision Making

    Pier Luigi Baldi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This article points out some conditions which significantly exert an influence upon decision and compares decision making and problem solving as interconnected processes. Some strategies of decision making are also examined.

  14. Alignment of mapping system for magnet cyclotron DECY-13

    Idrus Abdul Kudus; Taufik; Kurnia Wibowo

    2016-01-01

    A cyclotron is composed of some main and specific components, such as magnet system, ion source, RF system and extractor. A magnet is one of important component in a cyclotron that serves as ion beam bending so the ion beam trajectory is circular. Magnet design should with the requirement of cyclotron that proton energy is 13 MeV. In the construction of the cyclotron magnet, a mapping tool of the magnetic field is required for analysis in shimming process in order to optimize the magnetic field. The magnetic field mapping process is carried out in the median plane of the magnet poles. The magnetic field mapping is carried out repeatedly during the shimming process. During this process, the mapping tool is possible to experience a shift or change in position, for that it is necessary to alignment in order to make sure that the probe is in the median plane of magnet poles and to ensure their positions are always the same on each repetition mapping. During this process, it is possible to experience a shift mapping tool or change the position, for this it is needed to process alignment to ensure the position of the probe is in the median plane magnetic poles and ensure their positions are always the same on each repetition mapping. Alignment on the mapping tool are the height position, zeroing tesla meter and two hall probe mapping. The parameters form the basis for magnetic field measurements based on the three elements: an alignment system on the engine mapping, mapping tool reference point and stage movement of x-y coordinates. Shifts occur due to change in elevation mapping tool table and center coordinates x and y in the mapping process. Changes made to shift mapping coordinates can be shifted as far as 1 to 2 mm for each hall probe in the x and y coordinates with altitude changes 0.05° mapping table and measurement of tesla meter changes in 0.002 T. (author)

  15. Wireless power transfer magnetic couplers

    Wu, Hunter; Gilchrist, Aaron; Sealy, Kylee

    2016-01-19

    A magnetic coupler is disclosed for wireless power transfer systems. A ferrimagnetic component is capable of guiding a magnetic field. A wire coil is wrapped around at least a portion of the ferrimagnetic component. A screen is capable of blocking leakage magnetic fields. The screen may be positioned to cover at least one side of the ferrimagnetic component and the coil. A distance across the screen may be at least six times an air gap distance between the ferrimagnetic component and a receiving magnetic coupler.

  16. Investigations on the magnetization behavior of magnetic composite particles

    Eichholz, Christian [Process Research and Chemical Engineering, BASF SE, Ludwigshafen (Germany); Knoll, Johannes, E-mail: johannes.knoll@kit.edu [Institute of Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); Lerche, Dietmar [L.U.M. GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Nirschl, Hermann [Institute of Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    In life sciences the application of surface functionalized magnetic composite particles is establishing in diagnostics and in downstream processing of modern biotechnology. These magnetic composite particles consist of non-magnetic material, e.g. polystyrene, which serves as a matrix for the second magnetic component, usually colloidal magnetite. Because of the multitude of magnetic cores these magnetic beads show a complex magnetization behavior which cannot be described with the available approaches for homogeneous magnetic material. Therefore, in this work a new model for the magnetization behavior of magnetic composite particles is developed. By introducing an effective magnetization and considering an overall demagnetization factor the deviation of the demagnetization of homogeneously magnetized particles is taken into account. Calculated and experimental results show a good agreement which allows for the verification of the adapted model of particle magnetization. Besides, a newly developed magnetic analyzing centrifuge is used for the characterization of magnetic composite particle systems. The experimental results, also used for the model verification, give both, information about the magnetic properties and the interaction behavior of particle systems. By adding further components to the particle solution, such as salts or proteins, industrial relevant systems can be reconstructed. The analyzing tool can be used to adapt industrial processes without time-consuming preliminary tests with large samples in the process equipments. - Highlights: • New model for magnetizability calculation of magnetic composite particles. • New method for particle bulk characterization relating to their magnetizability. • Model verification due to experimental data.

  17. Investigations on the magnetization behavior of magnetic composite particles

    Eichholz, Christian; Knoll, Johannes; Lerche, Dietmar; Nirschl, Hermann

    2014-01-01

    In life sciences the application of surface functionalized magnetic composite particles is establishing in diagnostics and in downstream processing of modern biotechnology. These magnetic composite particles consist of non-magnetic material, e.g. polystyrene, which serves as a matrix for the second magnetic component, usually colloidal magnetite. Because of the multitude of magnetic cores these magnetic beads show a complex magnetization behavior which cannot be described with the available approaches for homogeneous magnetic material. Therefore, in this work a new model for the magnetization behavior of magnetic composite particles is developed. By introducing an effective magnetization and considering an overall demagnetization factor the deviation of the demagnetization of homogeneously magnetized particles is taken into account. Calculated and experimental results show a good agreement which allows for the verification of the adapted model of particle magnetization. Besides, a newly developed magnetic analyzing centrifuge is used for the characterization of magnetic composite particle systems. The experimental results, also used for the model verification, give both, information about the magnetic properties and the interaction behavior of particle systems. By adding further components to the particle solution, such as salts or proteins, industrial relevant systems can be reconstructed. The analyzing tool can be used to adapt industrial processes without time-consuming preliminary tests with large samples in the process equipments. - Highlights: • New model for magnetizability calculation of magnetic composite particles. • New method for particle bulk characterization relating to their magnetizability. • Model verification due to experimental data

  18. Organizational decision making

    Grandori, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis develops a heuristic approach to organizational decision-making by synthesizing the classical, neo-classical and contingency approaches to organization theory. The conceptual framework developed also integrates the rational and cybernetic approaches with cognitive processes underlying the decision-making process. The components of the approach address the role of environment in organizational decision-maki...

  19. Model : making

    Bottle, Neil

    2013-01-01

    The Model : making exhibition was curated by Brian Kennedy in collaboration with Allies & Morrison in September 2013. For the London Design Festival, the Model : making exhibition looked at the increased use of new technologies by both craft-makers and architectural model makers. In both practices traditional ways of making by hand are increasingly being combined with the latest technologies of digital imaging, laser cutting, CNC machining and 3D printing. This exhibition focussed on ...

  20. Rapid collection and identification of a novel component from Clausena lansium Skeels leaves by means of three-dimensional preparative gas chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance/infrared/mass spectrometric analysis

    Sciarrone, Danilo [Dipartimento di Scienze del Farmaco e dei Prodotti per la Salute, University of Messina, Viale Annunziata, 98168, Messina (Italy); Chromaleont s.r.l. A start-up of the University of Messina, c/o University of Messina, Viale Annunziata, 98168 Messina (Italy); Pantò, Sebastiano [Dipartimento di Scienze del Farmaco e dei Prodotti per la Salute, University of Messina, Viale Annunziata, 98168, Messina (Italy); Rotondo, Archimede [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Università di Messina, Via D’Alcontres 31, 98166 Messina (Italy); Tedone, Laura; Tranchida, Peter Quinto [Dipartimento di Scienze del Farmaco e dei Prodotti per la Salute, University of Messina, Viale Annunziata, 98168, Messina (Italy); Dugo, Paola [Dipartimento di Scienze del Farmaco e dei Prodotti per la Salute, University of Messina, Viale Annunziata, 98168, Messina (Italy); Centro Integrato di Ricerca (C.I.R.), Università Campus Bio-Medico, Via Álvaro del Portillo, 21 - 00128 Roma (Italy); Mondello, Luigi, E-mail: lmondello@unime.it [Dipartimento di Scienze del Farmaco e dei Prodotti per la Salute, University of Messina, Viale Annunziata, 98168, Messina (Italy); Centro Integrato di Ricerca (C.I.R.), Università Campus Bio-Medico, Via Álvaro del Portillo, 21 - 00128 Roma (Italy)

    2013-06-27

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •A recently-developed three-dimensional prep-GC system has been applied to wampee essential oil. •The prep GC system enables the rapid collection of pure compounds from complex samples. •An isolated unknown solute was identified through NMR, IR and MS data. •The structure of an oxygenated sesquiterpene is here reported for the first time. -- Abstract: The present research reports the use of a three-dimensional preparative gas chromatography (prep GC) system, equipped with three Deans-switch devices and 5%diphenyl/wax/mid-polarity ionic liquid stationary phases, for the isolation of volatile components from a complex natural source, namely wampee essential oil (derived from Clausena lansium Skeels leaves). Collection was performed by using a simple and effective lab-constructed trapping device. Initially, an unknown (and abundant) wampee oil constituent was erroneously identified as α-sinensal, through an MS database search (a low similarity match was attained), performed after a GC-quadMS experiment., The unknown compound was then the isolated by using the novel prep GC system, in a highly pure form (at the mg level), and was correctly identified by using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and mass spectrometry (MS). Both FTIR and MS data were used to confirm the NMR information. The name given to the molecule was (2E,6E)-2-methyl-6-(4-methylcyclohex-3-enylidene)hept-2-enal. The results herein described will demonstrate the need for a high-resolution GC step, prior to analyte collection, in the prep GC analysis of complex samples.

  1. Rapid collection and identification of a novel component from Clausena lansium Skeels leaves by means of three-dimensional preparative gas chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance/infrared/mass spectrometric analysis

    Sciarrone, Danilo; Pantò, Sebastiano; Rotondo, Archimede; Tedone, Laura; Tranchida, Peter Quinto; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •A recently-developed three-dimensional prep-GC system has been applied to wampee essential oil. •The prep GC system enables the rapid collection of pure compounds from complex samples. •An isolated unknown solute was identified through NMR, IR and MS data. •The structure of an oxygenated sesquiterpene is here reported for the first time. -- Abstract: The present research reports the use of a three-dimensional preparative gas chromatography (prep GC) system, equipped with three Deans-switch devices and 5%diphenyl/wax/mid-polarity ionic liquid stationary phases, for the isolation of volatile components from a complex natural source, namely wampee essential oil (derived from Clausena lansium Skeels leaves). Collection was performed by using a simple and effective lab-constructed trapping device. Initially, an unknown (and abundant) wampee oil constituent was erroneously identified as α-sinensal, through an MS database search (a low similarity match was attained), performed after a GC-quadMS experiment., The unknown compound was then the isolated by using the novel prep GC system, in a highly pure form (at the mg level), and was correctly identified by using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and mass spectrometry (MS). Both FTIR and MS data were used to confirm the NMR information. The name given to the molecule was (2E,6E)-2-methyl-6-(4-methylcyclohex-3-enylidene)hept-2-enal. The results herein described will demonstrate the need for a high-resolution GC step, prior to analyte collection, in the prep GC analysis of complex samples

  2. Intrinsic magnetic torque at low magnetic induction

    Doria, M.M.; Oliveira, I.G. de.

    1993-01-01

    Using anisotropic London theory the intrinsic magnetic torque for extreme type II uniaxial superconductors for any value of the magnetic induction is obtained. It is considered the vortex lines straight and take into account the contribution of the supercurrents flowing inside the vortex core within the London theory. It is shown that the interline and intra line free energies give opposite torque contributions, the first drives the magnetic induction parallel to the superconductor's axis of symmetry and the second orthogonal to it. At high magnetic induction torque expression obtained generalizes V. Kogan's formula since it has no free parameters other than the anisotropy γ = m 1 /m 3 and the Ginzburg-Landau parameter κ. At low magnetic induction it is proposed a way to observe vortex chains effects in the total torque based on the fact that London theory is linear and the energy to make a single vortex line in space is independent of the magnetic induction. (author)

  3. Magnetization strucrure of thermal vent on island arc from vector magnetic anomlies using AUV

    Isezaki, N.; Matsuo, J.; Sayanagi, K.

    2012-04-01

    around the magnetometer sensors. The method of Isezaki(1984) works good to eliminate these noises. 4.We got the very precise magnetization structure in the Bayonnaise submarine caldera area at the southern end of Izu island arc. We used the prism model which forms the shape of magnetized source body whose top is the sea-floor. The total number od prisms is 1500 making the 3 layers (0-80m, 80-160m, 160- 240m below the sea-floor, 25x20=500 prisms in 1 layer). The 4500 unknowns(3 unknowns, Mx,My,Mz in each prosm) are obtained from 12000 observed vector magnetic anomaly fields by inversion method. 5. The tentative result shows that the 1st and 2nd layers have smaller intensity of magnetization compared to the 3rd layer. The 2nd layer has the smallest of three layers. However the Hakurei deposit area in the 2nd layer has the a little bit greater magnetization than surrounding area which suggests that the Hakurei deposit includes some magnetic minerals. 6.We strongly recommend to carry out the magnetic survey using a three component magnetometer to get TF and TA which have many advantages for magnetic analyses (magnetization, upward continuation etc.) which cannot be done using scalar TIA.

  4. Component Composition Using Feature Models

    Eichberg, Michael; Klose, Karl; Mitschke, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    interface description languages. If this variability is relevant when selecting a matching component then human interaction is required to decide which components can be bound. We propose to use feature models for making this variability explicit and (re-)enabling automatic component binding. In our...... approach, feature models are one part of service specifications. This enables to declaratively specify which service variant is provided by a component. By referring to a service's variation points, a component that requires a specific service can list the requirements on the desired variant. Using...... these specifications, a component environment can then determine if a binding of the components exists that satisfies all requirements. The prototypical environment Columbus demonstrates the feasibility of the approach....

  5. Fabrication of ion source components by electroforming

    Schechter, D.E.; Sluss, F.

    1983-01-01

    Several components of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)/Magnetic Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) ion source have been fabricated utilizing an electroforming process. A procedure has been developed for enclosing coolant passages in copper components by electrodepositing a thick (greater than or equal to 0.75-mm) layer of copper (electroforming) over the top of grooves machined into the copper component base. Details of the procedure to fabricate acceleration grids and other ion source components are presented

  6. Development of standard components for remote handling

    Taguchi, Kou; Kakudate, Satoshi; Nakahira, Masataka; Ito, Akira

    1998-01-01

    The core of Fusion Experimental Reactor consists of various components such as superconducting magnets and forced-cooled in-vessel components, which are remotely maintained due to intense of gamma radiation. Mechanical connectors such as cooling pipe connections, insulation joints and electrical connectors are commonly used for maintenance of these components and have to be standardized in terms of remote handling. This paper describes these mechanical connectors developed as the standard component compatible with remote handling and tolerable for radiation. (author)

  7. Development of standard components for remote handling

    Taguchi, Kou; Kakudate, Satoshi; Nakahira, Masataka; Ito, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-04-01

    The core of Fusion Experimental Reactor consists of various components such as superconducting magnets and forced-cooled in-vessel components, which are remotely maintained due to intense of gamma radiation. Mechanical connectors such as cooling pipe connections, insulation joints and electrical connectors are commonly used for maintenance of these components and have to be standardized in terms of remote handling. This paper describes these mechanical connectors developed as the standard component compatible with remote handling and tolerable for radiation. (author)

  8. Designing for Decision Making

    Jonassen, David H.

    2012-01-01

    Decision making is the most common kind of problem solving. It is also an important component skill in other more ill-structured and complex kinds of problem solving, including policy problems and design problems. There are different kinds of decisions, including choices, acceptances, evaluations, and constructions. After describing the centrality…

  9. Steel making

    Chakrabarti, A K

    2014-01-01

    "Steel Making" is designed to give students a strong grounding in the theory and state-of-the-art practice of production of steels. This book is primarily focused to meet the needs of undergraduate metallurgical students and candidates for associate membership examinations of professional bodies (AMIIM, AMIE). Besides, for all engineering professionals working in steel plants who need to understand the basic principles of steel making, the text provides a sound introduction to the subject.Beginning with a brief introduction to the historical perspective and current status of steel making together with the reasons for obsolescence of Bessemer converter and open hearth processes, the book moves on to: elaborate the physiochemical principles involved in steel making; explain the operational principles and practices of the modern processes of primary steel making (LD converter, Q-BOP process, and electric furnace process); provide a summary of the developments in secondary refining of steels; discuss principles a...

  10. The magnet database system

    Ball, M.J.; Delagi, N.; Horton, B.; Ivey, J.C.; Leedy, R.; Li, X.; Marshall, B.; Robinson, S.L.; Tompkins, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The Test Department of the Magnet Systems Division of the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL) is developing a central database of SSC magnet information that will be available to all magnet scientists at the SSCL or elsewhere, via network connections. The database contains information on the magnets' major components, configuration information (specifying which individual items were used in each cable, coil, and magnet), measurements made at major fabrication stages, and the test results on completed magnets. These data will facilitate the correlation of magnet performance with the properties of its constituents. Recent efforts have focused on the development of procedures for user-friendly access to the data, including displays in the format of the production open-quotes travelerclose quotes data sheets, standard summary reports, and a graphical interface for ad hoc queues and plots

  11. Microscale magnetic compasses

    Shiozawa, Hidetsugu; Zhang, Desai; Eisterer, Michael; Ayala, Paola; Pichler, Thomas; McCartney, Martha R.; Smith, David J.

    2017-09-01

    Microscale magnetic compasses have been synthesized with high yield. These ferromagnetic iron carbide nano-particles, which are encapsulated in a pair of parallel carbon needles, change their orientation in response to an external magnetic field. Electron holography reveals magnetic fields confined to the vicinity of the bicone-shaped particles, which are composed of only a few ferromagnetic domains. Aligned magnetically and encapsulated in an acrylate polymer matrix, these micro-compasses exhibit anisotropic bulk magnetic permeability with an easy axis normal to the needle direction that can be understood as a result of the anisotropic demagnetizing field of a non-spherical single-domain particle. This novel type of material with orthogonal magnetic and structural axes could be highly useful as magnetic components in electromagnetic wave absorbent materials and magnetorheological fluids.

  12. Magnetic mineral exploration using ground magnetic survey data of ...

    The field data were quantitatively interpreted and the results gave values for the total component measurements of the ground magnetic anomaly that varied ... from the Earth surface fall in the interval of 1.28m to 13.57m, which indicates the magnetic source body suspected to be magnetic mineral, are near surface features.

  13. Grand Challenges for Environmental Magnetism

    Verosub, K. L.

    2009-05-01

    The development of new, inexpensive, and rapid geochemical methods for determining the ages of geologic materials, their elemental composition, and their isotopic ratios over a broad array of elements puts into sharp focus the question: What information can environmental magnetic methods provide that can't be obtained using these other methods? Because iron is ubiquitous in the Earth's crust and because it exists in so many different forms, a discipline that looks in detail at iron-bearing minerals does have the potential to make significant contributions to the study of surficial processes. However, to reach that potential requires the development of new environmental magnetic methods. I would like to put forward three Grand Challenges for environmental magnetism that have the potential to move the field forward to a new level of scientific sophistication and that will allow environmental magnetists to compete successfully in a world increasingly dominated by geochemists. The first Grand Challenge is the development of new techniques that lead to the direct and unambiguous identification of the full suite of magnetic minerals. For many environmental magnetic applications, the key magnetic minerals are not just magnetite and hematite but also iron oxy-hydroxides (goethite, lepidocrocite, akaganeite, ferrihydrite), carbonates (siderite) and sulfides (pyrrhotite and greigite) as well as compounds involving iron and other transition metals (cobalt and nickel). The second Grand Challenge is the development of new analytical methods that provide specific quantitative values for the amount of each magnetic mineral present in a sample. One promising approach to this problem is the application of two- or three-component multivariate analysis to arrays of downcore environmental magnetic parameters. The third Grand Challenge is the development of new ways of determining, not just the average values, but the actual distributions of grain sizes and coercivities of each mineral

  14. Geophysical Modelling and Multi-Scale Studies in the Arctic Seiland Igneous Province: Millimeter to Micrometer Scale Mapping of the Magnetic Sources by High Resolution Magnetic Microscopy

    Pastore, Z.; Church, N. S.; McEnroe, S. A.; Oda, H.; ter Maat, G. W.

    2017-12-01

    Rocks samples can have wide range of magnetic properties depending on composition, amount of ferromagnetic minerals, grain sizes and microstructures. These influence the magnetic anomalies from the micro to the global scale making the study of the magnetic properties of interest for multiple applications. Later geological processes such as serpentinization can significantly influence these properties and change the nature of the magnetic anomalies. Particularly, magnetic properties such as remanent magnetization and magnetic susceptibility are directly linked to the magnetic mineralogy composition and grain size and can provide useful information about the geological history of the source. Scanning magnetic microscopy is a highly sensitive and high-resolution magnetometric technique for mapping the magnetic field over a planar surface of a rock sample. The device measures the vertical component of the field above the thin sections and the technique offers a spatial resolution down to tens of micrometers and thus can be used to investigate discrete magnetic mineral grains or magnetic textures and structures, and the magnetic history of the sample. This technique allows a direct correlation between the mineral chemistry (through both electron and optical microscopy) and the magnetic properties. We present as case-study three thin section magnetic scans of two dunite samples from the Reinfjord Ultramafic complex, in northern Norway. The selected thin sections show different magnetic properties which reflect the magnetic petrology. One of the thin sections is from a pristine dunite sample; the other two are highly serpentinized with newly formed magnetite found in multiple, few micrometer thick, veins. We present the preliminary results obtained applying a forward modelling approach on the magnetic anomaly maps acquired over the thin sections. Modelling consists of uniformly-magnetized polygonal bodies whose geometry is constrained by the thickness of the thin section

  15. LARGE SCALE DISTRIBUTED PARAMETER MODEL OF MAIN MAGNET SYSTEM AND FREQUENCY DECOMPOSITION ANALYSIS

    ZHANG,W.; MARNERIS, I.; SANDBERG, J.

    2007-06-25

    Large accelerator main magnet system consists of hundreds, even thousands, of dipole magnets. They are linked together under selected configurations to provide highly uniform dipole fields when powered. Distributed capacitance, insulation resistance, coil resistance, magnet inductance, and coupling inductance of upper and lower pancakes make each magnet a complex network. When all dipole magnets are chained together in a circle, they become a coupled pair of very high order complex ladder networks. In this study, a network of more than thousand inductive, capacitive or resistive elements are used to model an actual system. The circuit is a large-scale network. Its equivalent polynomial form has several hundred degrees. Analysis of this high order circuit and simulation of the response of any or all components is often computationally infeasible. We present methods to use frequency decomposition approach to effectively simulate and analyze magnet configuration and power supply topologies.

  16. Generating the optimal magnetic field for magnetic refrigeration

    Bjørk, Rasmus; Insinga, Andrea Roberto; Smith, Anders

    2016-01-01

    In a magnetic refrigeration device the magnet is the single most expensive component, and therefore it is crucially important to ensure that an effective magnetic field as possible is generated using the least amount of permanent magnets. Here we present a method for calculating the optimal...... remanence distribution for any desired magnetic field. The method is based on the reciprocity theorem, which through the use of virtual magnets can be used to calculate the optimal remanence distribution. Furthermore, we present a method for segmenting a given magnet design that always results...... in the optimal segmentation, for any number of segments specified. These two methods are used to determine the optimal magnet design of a 12-piece, two-pole concentric cylindrical magnet for use in a continuously rotating magnetic refrigeration device....

  17. Make Sense?

    Gyrd-Jones, Richard; Törmälä, Minna

    Purpose: An important part of how we sense a brand is how we make sense of a brand. Sense-making is naturally strongly connected to how we cognize about the brand. But sense-making is concerned with multiple forms of knowledge that arise from our interpretation of the brand-related stimuli......: Declarative, episodic, procedural and sensory. Knowledge is given meaning through mental association (Keller, 1993) and / or symbolic interaction (Blumer, 1969). These meanings are centrally related to individuals’ sense of identity or “identity needs” (Wallpach & Woodside, 2009). The way individuals make...... sense of brands is related to who people think they are in their context and this shapes what they enact and how they interpret the brand (Currie & Brown, 2003; Weick, Sutcliffe, & Obstfeld, 2005; Weick, 1993). Our subject of interest in this paper is how stakeholders interpret and ascribe meaning...

  18. Magnetic rubber inspection (MRI)

    Carro, L.

    1997-01-01

    Magnetic Rubber Inspection (MRI) was developed to inspect for small cracks and flaws encountered in high performance aircraft. A formula of very fine magnetic particles immersed in a room temperature curing rubber is catalysed and poured into dams (retainers) on the surface of the part to be inspected. Inducing a magnetic field then causes the particles to be drawn to discontinuities in the component under test. These indicating particles are held to the discontinuity by magnetic attraction, as the rubber cures. The solid rubber cast (Replica) is then removed and examined under a microscope for indicating lines of particle concentrations. 3 refs., 6 figs

  19. Spectral Analysis of Vector Magnetic Field Profiles

    Parker, Robert L.; OBrien, Michael S.

    1997-01-01

    We investigate the power spectra and cross spectra derived from the three components of the vector magnetic field measured on a straight horizontal path above a statistically stationary source. All of these spectra, which can be estimated from the recorded time series, are related to a single two-dimensional power spectral density via integrals that run in the across-track direction in the wavenumber domain. Thus the measured spectra must obey a number of strong constraints: for example, the sum of the two power spectral densities of the two horizontal field components equals the power spectral density of the vertical component at every wavenumber and the phase spectrum between the vertical and along-track components is always pi/2. These constraints provide powerful checks on the quality of the measured data; if they are violated, measurement or environmental noise should be suspected. The noise due to errors of orientation has a clear characteristic; both the power and phase spectra of the components differ from those of crustal signals, which makes orientation noise easy to detect and to quantify. The spectra of the crustal signals can be inverted to obtain information about the cross-track structure of the field. We illustrate these ideas using a high-altitude Project Magnet profile flown in the southeastern Pacific Ocean.

  20. Magnets and magnetic materials

    Meuris, Ch.; Rifflet, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the world's largest highest-energy particle collider that the CERN plans to commission in 2008, gets a double boost from superconducting magnet technology. Superconducting magnets are first used to guide the particles scheduled for collision through the accelerator, and then to observe the events triggered by the collision inside giant detectors in a known magnetic field. Despite the installation's massive dimensions, all this is done with minimal expenditure of energy. (author)

  1. Neutral-beam systems for magnetic-fusion reactors

    Fink, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    Neutral beams for magnetic fusion reactors are at an early stage of development, and require considerable effort to make them into the large, reliable, and efficient systems needed for future power plants. To optimize their performance to establish specific goals for component development, systematic analysis of the beamlines is essential. Three ion source characteristics are discussed: arc-cathode life, gas efficiency, and beam divergence, and their significance in a high-energy neutral-beam system is evaluated

  2. Making It

    Jacobe, Monica F.

    2011-01-01

    Questions about college costs, college value, and even what a college degree means for the earning potential of graduates have become a high-profile component of discourse about higher education in the public sphere, and the voices of parents, politicians, taxpayers, and even students have often been raised against the university itself--against…

  3. Decision making.

    Chambers, David W

    2011-01-01

    A decision is a commitment of resources under conditions of risk in expectation of the best future outcome. The smart decision is always the strategy with the best overall expected value-the best combination of facts and values. Some of the special circumstances involved in decision making are discussed, including decisions where there are multiple goals, those where more than one person is involved in making the decision, using trigger points, framing decisions correctly, commitments to lost causes, and expert decision makers. A complex example of deciding about removal of asymptomatic third molars, with and without an EBD search, is discussed.

  4. Reconstruction of magnetic configurations in W7-X using artificial neural networks

    Böckenhoff, Daniel; Blatzheim, Marko; Hölbe, Hauke; Niemann, Holger; Pisano, Fabio; Labahn, Roger; Pedersen, Thomas Sunn; The W7-X Team

    2018-05-01

    It is demonstrated that artificial neural networks can be used to accurately and efficiently predict details of the magnetic topology at the plasma edge of the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator, based on simulated as well as measured heat load patterns onto plasma-facing components observed with infrared cameras. The connection between heat load patterns and the magnetic topology is a challenging regression problem, but one that suits artificial neural networks well. The use of a neural network makes it feasible to analyze and control the plasma exhaust in real-time, an important goal for Wendelstein 7-X, and for magnetic confinement fusion research in general.

  5. Magnetism and magnetic materials

    1990-01-01

    It describes the actual status of physics in Brazil concerning the study of magnetism and magnetic materials. It gives an overview of different research groups in Brazil, their needs, as well as the investments needed to improve the area. (A.C.A.S.)

  6. Making Connections

    Pien, Cheng Lu; Dongsheng, Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Effective teaching includes enabling learners to make connections within mathematics. It is easy to accord with this statement, but how often is it a reality in the mathematics classroom? This article describes an approach in "connecting equivalent" fractions and whole number operations. The authors illustrate how a teacher can combine a common…

  7. A general perspective on the magnetization reversal in cylindrical soft magnetic nanowires with dominant shape anisotropy

    Kuncser, A. [National Institute of Materials Physics, PO Box MG-7, 077125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); University of Bucharest, Faculty of Physics, PO Box MG-11, 077125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Antohe, S. [University of Bucharest, Faculty of Physics, PO Box MG-11, 077125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Kuncser, V., E-mail: kuncser@infim.ro [National Institute of Materials Physics, PO Box MG-7, 077125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)

    2017-02-01

    Peculiarities of the magnetization reversal process in cylindrical Ni-Cu soft magnetic nanowires with dominant shape anisotropy are analyzed via both static and time dependent micromagnetic simulations. A reversible process involving a coherent-like spin rotation is always observed for magnetic fields applied perpendicularly to the easy axis whereas nucleation of domain walls is introduced for fields applied along the easy axis. Simple criteria for making distinction between a Stoner-Wohlfarth type rotation and a nucleation mechanism in systems with uniaxial magnetic anisotropy are discussed. Superposed reversal mechanisms can be in action for magnetic fields applied at arbitrary angles with respect to the easy axis within the condition of an enough strong axial component required by the nucleation. The dynamics of the domain wall, involving two different stages (nucleation and propagation), is discussed with respect to initial computing conditions and orientations of the magnetic field. A nucleation time of about 3 ns and corkscrew domain walls propagating with a constant velocity of about 150 m/s are obtained in case of Ni-Cu alloy (Ni rich side) NWs with diameters of 40 nm and high aspect ratio. - Highlights: • The formation and the dynamics of the domain walls in magnetic nanowires have been studied by micromagnetic simulations. • Simple criteria for making distinction between Stoner-Wohlfarth type and nucleation mechanisms in nanowires were discussed. • Corkscrew domain walls or quasi-coherent spin rotation may be induced depending on the field orientation. • The nucleation time was estimated at 3 ns and the wall velocity at 150 m/s. • A simple way for tuning the wall velocity in such systems was mentioned.

  8. Iron Oxide Nanoparticle-Based Magnetic Ink Development for Fully Printed Tunable Radio-Frequency Devices

    Vaseem, Mohammad

    2018-01-30

    The field of printed electronics is still in its infancy and most of the reported work is based on commercially available nanoparticle-based metallic inks. Although fully printed devices that employ dielectric/semiconductor inks have recently been reported, there is a dearth of functional inks that can demonstrate controllable devices. The lack of availability of functional inks is a barrier to the widespread use of fully printed devices. For radio-frequency electronics, magnetic materials have many uses in reconfigurable components but rely on expensive and rigid ferrite materials. A suitable magnetic ink can facilitate the realization of fully printed, magnetically controlled, tunable devices. This report presents the development of an iron oxide nanoparticle-based magnetic ink. First, a tunable inductor is fully printed using iron oxide nanoparticle-based magnetic ink. Furthermore, iron oxide nanoparticles are functionalized with oleic acid to make them compatible with a UV-curable SU8 solution. Functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles are successfully embedded in the SU8 matrix to make a magnetic substrate. The as-fabricated substrate is characterized for its magnetostatic and microwave properties. A frequency tunable printed patch antenna is demonstrated using the magnetic and in-house silver-organo-complex inks. This is a step toward low-cost, fully printed, controllable electronic components.

  9. Methods of making textured catalysts

    Werpy, Todd [West Richland, WA; Frye, Jr., John G.; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA; Zacher, Alan H [Kennewick, WA

    2010-08-17

    A textured catalyst having a hydrothermally-stable support, a metal oxide and a catalyst component is described. Methods of conducting aqueous phase reactions that are catalyzed by a textured catalyst are also described. The invention also provides methods of making textured catalysts and methods of making chemical products using a textured catalyst.

  10. Superconductor shields test chamber from ambient magnetic fields

    Hildebrandt, A. F.

    1965-01-01

    Shielding a test chamber for magnetic components enables it to maintain a constant, low magnetic field. The chamber is shielded from ambient magnetic fields by a lead foil cylinder maintained in a superconducting state by liquid helium.

  11. Knowledge, decision making, and uncertainty

    Fox, J.

    1986-01-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) systems depend heavily upon the ability to make decisions. Decisions require knowledge, yet there is no knowledge-based theory of decision making. To the extent that AI uses a theory of decision-making it adopts components of the traditional statistical view in which choices are made by maximizing some function of the probabilities of decision options. A knowledge-based scheme for reasoning about uncertainty is proposed, which extends the traditional framework but is compatible with it

  12. Magnetic flux concentration methods for magnetic energy harvesting module

    Wakiwaka Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents magnetic flux concentration methods for magnetic energy harvesting module. The purpose of this study is to harvest 1 mW energy with a Brooks coil 2 cm in diameter from environmental magnetic field at 60 Hz. Because the harvesting power is proportional to the square of the magnetic flux density, we consider the use of a magnetic flux concentration coil and a magnetic core. The magnetic flux concentration coil consists of an air­core Brooks coil and a resonant capacitor. When a uniform magnetic field crossed the coil, the magnetic flux distribution around the coil was changed. It is found that the magnetic field in an area is concentrated larger than 20 times compared with the uniform magnetic field. Compared with the air­core coil, our designed magnetic core makes the harvested energy ten­fold. According to ICNIRP2010 guideline, the acceptable level of magnetic field is 0.2 mT in the frequency range between 25 Hz and 400 Hz. Without the two magnetic flux concentration methods, the corresponding energy is limited to 1 µW. In contrast, our experimental results successfully demonstrate energy harvesting of 1 mW from a magnetic field of 0.03 mT at 60 Hz.

  13. Magnetic studies of dusts in the urban environment

    Xie, S.

    2000-12-01

    Dusts are one of the major public health concerns in the urban environment. This study investigates the application of magnetic techniques in the studies of urban dust pollution. Measurements of magnetic properties, element concentrations, and the organic matter content were carried out on Liverpool (UK) street dust and/or Bootle (UK) deposited dust. Mixed dominant ferrimagnetic phases are found in Liverpool street dust although magnetite is probably a major one. The partial susceptibility technique is able to model the contributions of main magnetic components satisfactorily in Liverpool street dust. There are similar spatial distributions for some measurements, such as χLF and Pb, whilst there are different patterns for some measurements, such as χLF and the organic matter content. There are good linear correlations between the organic matter content and some magnetic mineral concentration-related parameters for < 1mm (bulk) samples. Among them, frequency dependent susceptibility (χFD) shows the highest correlation coefficient value. χFD percentage demonstrates a significant correlation with the organic matter content for size fraction and bulk samples. This suggests that re-entrainment of soil is probably a major source of the organic material present in street dust. The ratio χARM /SIRM shows a highly significant correlation with the organic matter content for <150μm fraction samples. The study demonstrates that the simple, rapid, and non-destructive magnetic measurements may be used as proxies for the organic matter content in street dust. Associations between magnetic properties and element concentrations are investigated by using correlation analysis and factor analysis, which may be a potential approach for source identification of magnetic material in the environment. The study suggests that ferrimagnetic minerals are the dominant magnetic component in Bootle dust samples. Both studied sites show similar magnetic properties, but they can be

  14. Making Yugoslavs

    Nielsen, Christian Axboe

    . By the time Aleksandar was killed by an assassin’s bullet five years later, he not only had failed to create a unified Yugoslav nation but his dictatorship had also contributed to an increase in interethnic tensions.   In Making Yugoslavs, Christian Axboe Nielsen uses extensive archival research to explain...... the failure of the dictatorship’s program of forced nationalization. Focusing on how ordinary Yugoslavs responded to Aleksandar’s nationalization project, the book illuminates an often-ignored era of Yugoslav history whose lessons remain relevant not just for the study of Balkan history but for many...

  15. THE MAKING OF DECISION MAKING

    Leonardo Yuji Tamura

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Quantum Electronics was a Brazilian startup in the 1990's that was acquired by an American equity fund in 2012. They are currently the largest manufacturer of vehicle tracking and infotainment systems. The company was founded by three college friends, who are currently executives at the company: Camilo Santos, Pedro Barbosa and Luana Correa. Edward Hutter was sent by the equity fund to take over the company’s finances, but is having trouble making organizational decisions with his colleagues. As a consultant, I was called to help them improve their decision making process and project prioritization. I adapted and deployed our firm's methodology, but, in the end, its adequacy is shown to be very much in question. The author of this case study intends to explore how actual organizational decisions rely on different decision models and their assumptions, .as well as demonstrate that a decision model is neither absolutely good nor bad as its quality is context dependent.

  16. Absolute Magnetization Distribution on Back-arc Spreading Axis Hosting Hydrothermal Vents; Insight from Shinkai 6500 Magnetic Survey

    Fujii, M.; Okino, K.; Honsho, C.; Mochizuki, N.; Szitkar, F.; Dyment, J.

    2013-12-01

    Near-bottom magnetic profiling using submersible, deep-tow, Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) and Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) make possible to conduct high-resolution surveys and depict detailed magnetic features reflecting, for instance, the presence of fresh lavas or hydrothermal alteration, or geomagnetic paleo-intensity variations. We conducted near-bottom three component magnetic measurements onboard submersible Shinkai 6500 in the Southern Mariana Trough, where five active hydrothermal vent fields (Snail, Yamanaka, Archean, Pica, and Urashima sites) have been found in both on- and off-axis areas of the active back-arc spreading center, to detect signals from hydrothermally altered rock and to distinguish old and new submarine lava flows. Fourteen dives were carried out at an altitude of 1-40 m during the R/V Yokosuka YK10-10 and YK10-11 cruises in 2010. We carefully corrected the effect of the induced and permanent magnetizations of the submersible by applying the correction method for the shipboard three-component magnetometer measurement modified for deep-sea measurement, and subtracted the IGRF values from the corrected data to obtain geomagnetic vector anomalies along the dive tracks. We then calculated the synthetic magnetic vector field produced by seafloor, assumed to be uniformly magnetized, using three dimensional forward modeling. Finally, values of the absolute magnetizations were estimated by using a linear transfer function in the Fourier domain from the observed and synthetic magnetic anomalies. The distribution of estimated absolute magnetization generally shows low values around the five hydrothermal vent sites. This result is consistent with the equivalent magnetization distribution obtained from previous AUV survey data. The areas of low magnetization are also consistent with hydrothermal deposits identified in video records. These results suggest that low magnetic signals are due to hydrothermal alteration zones where host rocks are

  17. Specialty magnets

    Halbach, K.

    1986-07-01

    A number of basic conceptual designs are explained for magnet systems that use permanent magnet materials. Included are iron free multipoles and hybrid magnets. Also appended is a discussion of the manufacturing process and magnetic properties of some permanent magnet materials

  18. Magnet operating experience review for fusion applications

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1991-11-01

    This report presents a review of magnet operating experiences for normal-conducting and superconducting magnets from fusion, particle accelerator, medical technology, and magnetohydrodynamics research areas. Safety relevant magnet operating experiences are presented to provide feedback on field performance of existing designs and to point out the operational safety concerns. Quantitative estimates of magnet component failure rates and accident event frequencies are also presented, based on field experience and on performance of similar components in other industries

  19. Electromagnetic nonlinearities in a Roebel-cable-based accelerator magnet prototype: variational approach

    Ruuskanen, J.; Stenvall, A.; Lahtinen, V.; Pardo, E.

    2017-02-01

    Superconducting magnets are the most expensive series of components produced in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN). When developing such magnets beyond state-of-the-art technology, one possible option is to use high-temperature superconductors (HTS) that are capable of tolerating much higher magnetic fields than low-temperature superconductors (LTS), carrying simultaneously high current densities. Significant cost reductions due to decreased prototype construction needs can be achieved by careful modelling of the magnets. Simulations are used, e.g. for designing magnets fulfilling the field quality requirements of the beampipe, and adequate protection by studying the losses occurring during charging and discharging. We model the hysteresis losses and the magnetic field nonlinearity in the beampipe as a function of the magnet’s current. These simulations rely on the minimum magnetic energy variation principle, with optimization algorithms provided by the open-source optimization library interior point optimizer. We utilize this methodology to investigate a research and development accelerator magnet prototype made of REBCO Roebel cable. The applicability of this approach, when the magnetic field dependence of the superconductor’s critical current density is considered, is discussed. We also scrutinize the influence of the necessary modelling decisions one needs to make with this approach. The results show that different decisions can lead to notably different results, and experiments are required to study the electromagnetic behaviour of such magnets further.

  20. Making RISC.

    Kawamata, Tomoko; Tomari, Yukihide

    2010-07-01

    It is well established that 20- to 30-nt small RNAs, including small interfering RNAs, microRNAs and Piwi-interacting RNAs, play crucial roles in regulating gene expression and control a surprisingly diverse array of biological processes. These small RNAs cannot work alone: they must form effector ribonucleoprotein complexes - RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISCs) - to exert their function. Thus, RISC assembly is a key process in small RNA-mediated silencing. Recent biochemical analyses of RISC assembly, together with new structural studies of Argonaute, the core protein component of RISC, suggest a revised view of how mature RISC, which contains single-stranded guide RNA, is built from small RNAs that are born double-stranded. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. TPC magnet cryogenic system

    Green, M.A.; Burns, W.A.; Taylor, J.D.; Van Slyke, H.W.

    1980-03-01

    The Time Projection Chamber (TPC) magnet at LBL and its compensation solenoids are adiabatically stable superconducting solenoid magnets. The cryogenic system developed for the TPC magnet is discussed. This system uses forced two-phase tubular cooling with the two cryogens in the system. The liquid helium and liquid nitrogen are delivered through the cooled load by forced tubular flow. The only reservoirs of liquid cryogen exist in the control dewar (for liquid helium) and the conditioner dewar (for liquid nitrogen). The operation o these systems during virtually all phases of system operation are described. Photographs and diagrams of various system components are shown, and cryogenic system data are presented in the following sections: (1) heat leaks into the TPC coil package and the compensation solenoids; (2) heat leaks to various components of the TPC magnet cryogenics system besides the magnets and control dewar; (3) the control dewar and its relationship to the rest of the system; (4) the conditioner system and its role in cooling down the TPC magnet; (5) gas-cooled electrical leads and charging losses; and (6) a summation of the liquid helium and liquid nitrogen requirements for the TPC superconducting magnet system

  2. High energy magnetic excitations

    Endoh, Yasuo

    1988-01-01

    The report emphasizes that the current development in condensed matter physics opens a research field fit to inelastic neutron scattering experiments in the eV range which is easilly accessed by spallation neutron sources. Several important subjects adopted at thermal reactors are shown. It is desired to extend the implementation of the spectroscopic experiments for investigation of higher energy magnetic excitations. For La 2 CuO 4 , which is the mother crystal of the first high Tc materials found by Bednortz and Muller, it seems to be believed that the magnetism is well characterized by the two-dimensional Heisenberg antiferromagnetic Hamiltonian, and it is widely accepted that the magnetism is a most probable progenitor of high Tc superconductors. The unusual properties of spin correlations in this crystal have been studied extensively by standard neutron scattering techniques with steady neutrons at BNL. FeSi is not ordered magnetically but shows a very unique feature of temperature induced magnetism, which also has been studied extensively by using the thermal neutron scattering technique at BNL. In these experiments, polarized neutrons are indispensable to extract the clean magnetic components out of other components of non-magnetic scattering. (N.K.)

  3. Passive Microwave Components and Antennas

    State-of-the-art microwave systems always require higher performance and lower cost microwave components. Constantly growing demands and performance requirements of industrial and scientific applications often make employing traditionally designed components impractical. For that reason, the design...... and development process remains a great challenge today. This problem motivated intensive research efforts in microwave design and technology, which is responsible for a great number of recently appeared alternative approaches to analysis and design of microwave components and antennas. This book highlights...... techniques. Modelling and computations in electromagnetics is a quite fast-growing research area. The recent interest in this field is caused by the increased demand for designing complex microwave components, modeling electromagnetic materials, and rapid increase in computational power for calculation...

  4. Magnetic entropy and cooling

    Hansen, Britt Rosendahl; Kuhn, Luise Theil; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden

    2010-01-01

    Some manifestations of magnetism are well-known and utilized on an everyday basis, e.g. using a refrigerator magnet for hanging that important note on the refrigerator door. Others are, so far, more exotic, such as cooling by making use of the magnetocaloric eect. This eect can cause a change...... in the temperature of a magnetic material when a magnetic eld is applied or removed. For many years, experimentalists have made use of dilute paramagnetic materials to achieve milliKelvin temperatures by use of the magnetocaloric eect. Also, research is done on materials, which might be used for hydrogen, helium...... or nitrogen liquefaction or for room-temperature cooling. The magnetocaloric eect can further be used to determine phase transition boundaries, if a change in the magnetic state occurs at the boundary.In this talk, I will introduce the magnetocaloric eect (MCE) and the two equations, which characterize...

  5. The ELETTRA fast magnets

    Tommasini, D.

    1992-01-01

    The design of the fast magnets to be used to inject the electron beam into the 2 GeV storage ring Elettra is presented and discussed. Injection makes use of two types of fast magnets: the septa and the kickers. There are two identical septa magnets of the so called 'eddy current' type, which will be housed in a vacuum tank. The orbit bump is generated by four identical kicker magnets symmetrically placed around the mid-point of a single straight section: they will be in air with an internal vacuum chamber. Extensive electric and magnetic tests have been performed on prototypes, and the relevant results are presented and discussed. (author) 6 refs.; 6 figs.; 2 tabs

  6. Making ward-based outreach teams an effective component of ...

    2018-04-12

    Apr 12, 2018 ... WBOT is linked to a PHC facility and consists of a team leader, usually a professional .... Despite the promise of the WBOTs in improving programme .... continual training is a challenge.28 Continuous education and ... be shared with them by CHWs. ... can lead to improved health outcomes by improving.

  7. Automatic and controlled components of judgment and decision making

    Ferreira, MB; Garcia-Marques, L; Sherman, SJ; Sherman, JW

    2006-01-01

    The categorization of inductive reasoning into largely automatic processes (heuristic reasoning) and controlled analytical processes (rule-based reasoning) put forward by dual-process approaches of judgment under uncertainty (e.g., K. E. Stanovich & R. F. West, 2000) has been primarily a matter of assumption with a scarcity of direct empirical findings supporting it. The present authors use the process dissociation procedure (L. L. Jacoby, 1991) to provide convergent evidence validating a d...

  8. Tacit components of medical ethics: making decisions in the clinic.

    Churchill, L R

    1977-01-01

    When a patient visits his doctor there is, as well as a spoken dialogue, also an unspoken, or tacit, dialogue between them. This may not be evident unless that dialogue breaks down when the psychological or moral terms of reference of each are seen to be different. The author of this paper tries to elucidate the framework in which physician and patient think, and in so doing allow an understanding of why the physician may appear to be rigid and authoritarian in his dealing with his patients and the patient uncooperative. PMID:926131

  9. Big data, mining, and analytics components of strategic decision making

    Kudyba, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Kudyba again has put together an all-star cast in his new book focused on leveraging data, including the more traditional structured and also the unstructured incomprehensible source, to generate actionable information. This most current book provides a framework for both the advanced data jockeys to more analytically focused data-driven decision makers. A must-read for those wishing to be on the cutting edge of leveraging the multitude of data sources that businesses capture today.-Jeff Nicola, VP of Retail Sales at one of the nation's largest health insurance firms, and a Six

  10. Making Artificial Heart Components – Selected Aspects Of Casting Technology

    Sobczak J.J.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study shown possibilities of Rapid Prototyping techniques (RP and metal casting simulation software (MCSS, including non inertial reference systems. RP and MCSS have been used in order to design and produce essential elements for artificial heart. Additionally it has been shown possibilities of Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM technique and DodJet technology using prototyped elements of rotodynamic pump. MAGMASOFT® software allowed to verify the cast kit heart valves model. Optical scanner Atos III enabled size verification of experimental elements supplied by rapid prototyping together with metal casting elements. Due to the selection of ceramic materials and assessment of molten metal – ceramic reactivity at high temperatures together with pattern materials selection model it was possible to design, manufacture a ceramic mould for titanium based alloys. The casting structure modification has been carried out by means of high isostatic pressure technique (HIP. The quality assessment of the casting materials has been performed using X-ray fluorescence (XRF, ARL 4460 Optical Emission Spectrometer, metallographic techniques and X-ray computed tomography.

  11. Magnetic hydroxyapatite nanoworms for magnetic resonance diagnosis of acute hepatic injury

    Xu, Yun-Jun; Dong, Liang; Lu, Yang; Zhang, Le-Cheng; An, Duo; Gao, Huai-Ling; Yang, Dong-Mei; Hu, Wen; Sui, Cong; Xu, Wei-Ping; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Inorganic non-metallic biomaterials, including the silicon frustule of a unicellular diatom, the carbonate shell of a mollusk and the calcium skeleton of the vertebrate, which are the main constituent part of an organism, serve as the supportive and protective components of soft tissue. Among them, hydroxyapatite, which primarily makes up the enamel and bone, is widely used in tissue engineering. Recently, the inorganic nonmetallic biomaterials, especially the applications of hydroxyapatites have attracted great attention. Herein, we report a novel synthesis method of magnetic functionalized hydroxyapatite nanocomposites. By simply tuning the ratios of reactants, a series of hydroxyapatite-Fe3O4 worm-shaped nanocomposites (HAP-ION nanoworms) are obtained. In addition, layer-by-layer surface modifications with chitosan (CH) and sodium alginate (SA) were employed to improve the solubility and biocompatibility, and low cytotoxicity and no hemolysis were observed. With the increase of iron oxide nanocrystals, the magnetic properties of the magnetic assembled nanoworms were enhanced, which resulted in better performance of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Owing to the intravenous injection of HAP-ION nanoworms, the contrast to noise ratio (CNR) of hepatic MR imaging in vivo was enhanced obviously, which should be beneficial for hepatic injury grading and further therapeutic treatment.Inorganic non-metallic biomaterials, including the silicon frustule of a unicellular diatom, the carbonate shell of a mollusk and the calcium skeleton of the vertebrate, which are the main constituent part of an organism, serve as the supportive and protective components of soft tissue. Among them, hydroxyapatite, which primarily makes up the enamel and bone, is widely used in tissue engineering. Recently, the inorganic nonmetallic biomaterials, especially the applications of hydroxyapatites have attracted great attention. Herein, we report a novel synthesis method of magnetic

  12. Investigation of natural gas theft by magnetic remanence mapping.

    Dobó, Zsolt; Kovács, Helga; Tóth, Pál; Palotás, Árpád B

    2014-12-01

    Natural gas theft causes major losses in the energy industry in Hungary. Among the non-technical losses occurring in natural gas networks, fraudulent residential consumption is one of the main factors. Up to 2014, gas meters that are most widely used in residential monitoring are manufactured with ferromagnetic moving components, which makes it possible to alter or disrupt the operation of the meters non-intrusively by placing permanent magnets on the casing of the meters. Magnetic remanence mapping was used to investigate a sample of 80 recalled residential meters and detect potentially fraudulent activity. 10% of the meters were found suspect by magnetic remanence measurement, of which 50% were confirmed to be potentially hijacked by further mechanical investigation. The details of the technique are described in this paper, along with experimental results and the discussion of the analysis of the real-world samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Accurate method of the magnetic field measurement of quadrupole magnets

    Kumada, M.; Sakai, I.; Someya, H.; Sasaki, H.

    1983-01-01

    We present an accurate method of the magnetic field measurement of the quadrupole magnet. The method of obtaining the information of the field gradient and the effective focussing length is given. A new scheme to obtain the information of the skew field components is also proposed. The relative accuracy of the measurement was 1 x 10 -4 or less. (author)

  14. Slow magnetic relaxation in a cobalt magnetic chain.

    Yang, Chen-I; Chuang, Po-Hsiang; Lu, Kuang-Lieh

    2011-04-21

    A homospin ladder-like chain, [Co(Hdhq)(OAc)](n) (1; H(2)dhq = 2,3-dihydroxyquinoxaline), shows a single-chain-magnet-like (SCM-like) behavior with the characteristics of frequency dependence of the out-of-phase component in alternating current (ac) magnetic susceptibilities and hysteresis loops. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  15. Magnetic Spinner

    Ouseph, P. J.

    2006-01-01

    A science toy sometimes called the "magnetic spinner" is an interesting class demonstration to illustrate the principles of magnetic levitation. It can also be used to demonstrate Faraday's law and a horizontally suspended physical pendulum. The levitated part contains two circular magnets encased in a plastic housing. Each magnet stays…

  16. Challenges in Special Steel Making

    Balachandran, G.

    2018-02-01

    Special bar quality [SBQ] is a long steel product where an assured quality is delivered by the steel mill to its customer. The bars have enhanced tolerance to higher stress application and it is demanded for specialised component making. The SBQ bars are sought for component making processing units such as closed die hot forging, hot extrusion, cold forging, machining, heat treatment, welding operations. The final component quality of the secondary processing units depends on the quality maintained at the steel maker end along with quality maintained at the fabricator end. Thus, quality control is ensured at every unit process stages. The various market segments catered to by SBQ steel segment is ever growing and is reviewed. Steel mills need adequate infrastructure and technological capability to make these higher quality steels. Some of the critical stages of processing SBQ and the critical quality maintenance parameters at the steel mill in the manufacture has been brought out.

  17. Global enhancement and structure formation of the magnetic field in spiral galaxies

    Khoperskov, Sergey A.; Khrapov, Sergey S.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we study numerically large-scale magnetic field evolution and its enhancement in gaseous disks of spiral galaxies. We consider a set of models with the various spiral pattern parameters and the initial magnetic field strength with taking into account gas self-gravity and cooling and heating processes. In agreement with previous studies we find out that galactic magnetic field is mostly aligned with gaseous structures, however small-scale gaseous structures (spurs and clumps) are more chaotic than the magnetic field structure. In spiral arms magnetic field often coexists with the gas distribution, in the inter-arm region we see filamentary magnetic field structure. These filaments connect several isolated gaseous clumps. Simulations reveal the presence of the small-scale irregularities of the magnetic field as well as the reversal of magnetic field at the outer edge of the large-scale spurs. We provide evidences that the magnetic field in the spiral arms has a stronger mean-field component, and there is a clear inverse correlation between gas density and plasma-beta parameter, compared to the rest of the disk with a more turbulent component of the field and an absence of correlation between gas density and plasma-beta. We show the mean field growth up to >3-10 μG in the cold gas during several rotation periods (>500-800 Myr), whereas ratio between azimuthal and radial field is equal to >4/1. We find an enhancement of random and ordered components of the magnetic field. Mean field strength increases by a factor of >1.5-2.5 for models with various spiral pattern parameters. Random magnetic field component can reach up to 25% from the total strength. By making an analysis of the time-dependent evolution of the radial Poynting flux, we point out that the magnetic field strength is enhanced more strongly at the galactic outskirts which is due to the radial transfer of magnetic energy by the spiral arms pushing the magnetic field outward. Our results also

  18. Amateur Telescope Making

    Tonkin, Stephen

    Many amateur astronomers make their own instruments, either because of financial considerations or because they are just interested. Amateur Telescope Making offers a variety of designs for telescopes, mounts and drives which are suitable for the home-constructor. The designs range from simple to advanced, but all are within the range of a moderately well-equipped home workshop. The book not only tells the reader what he can construct, but also what it is sensible to construct given what time is available commercially. Thus each chapter begins with reasons for undertaking the project, then looks at theoretical consideration before finishing with practical instructions and advice. An indication is given as to the skills required for the various projects. Appendices list reputable sources of (mail order) materials and components. The telescopes and mounts range from "shoestring" (very cheap) instruments to specialist devices that are unavailable commercially.

  19. Small Satellite Passive Magnetic Attitude Control

    Gerhardt, David T.

    Passive Magnetic Attitude Control (PMAC) is capable of aligning a satellite within 5 degrees of the local magnetic field at low resource cost, making it ideal for a small satellite. However, simulation attempts to date have not been able to predict the attitude dynamics at a level sufficient for mission design. Also, some satellites have suffered from degraded performance due to an incomplete understanding of PMAC system design. This dissertation alleviates these issues by discussing the design, inputs, and validation of PMAC systems for small satellites. Design rules for a PMAC system are defined using the Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment (CSSWE) CubeSat as an example. A Multiplicative Extended Kalman Filter (MEKF) is defined for the attitude determination of a PMAC satellite without a rate gyro. After on-orbit calibration of the off-the-shelf magnetometer and photodiodes and an on-orbit fit to the satellite magnetic moment, the MEKF regularly achieves a three sigma attitude uncertainty of 4 degrees or less. CSSWE is found to settle to the magnetic field in seven days, verifying its attitude design requirement. A Helmholtz cage is constructed and used to characterize the CSSWE bar magnet and hysteresis rods both individually and in the flight configuration. Fitted parameters which govern the magnetic material behavior are used as input to a PMAC dynamics simulation. All components of this simulation are described and defined. Simulation-based dynamics analysis shows that certain initial conditions result in abnormally decreased settling times; these cases may be identified by their dynamic response. The simulation output is compared to the MEKF output; the true dynamics are well modeled and the predicted settling time is found to possess a 20 percent error, a significant improvement over prior simulation.

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a new and innovative technique that affords anatomic images in multiple planes and that may provide information about tissue characterization. The magnetic resonance images are obtained by placing the patient or the area of interest within a powerful, highly uniform, static magnetic field. Magnetized protons (hydrogen nuclei) within the patient align like small magnets in this field. Radiofrequency pulses are then used to create an oscillating magnetic field perpendicular to the main field. Magnetic resonance images differ from those produced by x-rays: the latter are associated with absorption of x-ray energy while magnetic resonance images are based on proton density and proton relaxation dynamics. Proton characteristics vary according to the tissue under examination and reflect its physical and chemical properties. To resolve issues regarding safety and efficacy, the Warren Grant Magnuson Clinical Center and the Office of Medical Applications of Research of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) convened a consensus conference about MRI Oct 26 through 28, 1987. At the NIH, the Consensus Development Conference brings together investigators in the biomedical sciences, clinical investigators, practicing physicians, and consumer and special interest groups to make a scientific assessment of technologies, including drugs, devices, and procedures, and to seek agreement on their safety and effectiveness

  1. Solid state magnetism

    Crangle, John

    1991-01-01

    Solid state magnetism is important and attempts to understand magnetic properties have led to an increasingly deep insight into the fundamental make up of solids. Both experimental and theoretical research into magnetism continue to be very active, yet there is still much ground to cover before there can be a full understanding. There is a strong interplay between the developments of materials science and of magnetism. Hundreds of new materials have been dis­ covered, often with previously unobserved and puzzling magnetic prop­ erties. A large and growing technology exists that is based on the magnetic properties of materials. Very many devices used in everyday life involve magnetism and new applications are being invented all the time. Under­ standing the fundamental background to the applications is vital to using and developing them. The aim of this book is to provide a simple, up-to-date introduction to the study of solid state magnetism, both intrinsic and technical. It is designed to meet the needs a...

  2. Magnetic skyrmions

    2018-06-01

    Welcome to the special issue of Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials on magnetic skyrmions. We are proud to present, with great pleasure, a timely collection of 9 original research articles on the recent hot topic "magnetic skyrmions" which studies the static and dynamic properties of skyrmions and the methods to control them in a variety of ways, including magnetic field, electric current and applied strain.

  3. Characterization of axially-symmetric magnetic elds

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2087237; Buzio, Marco

    In solenoids for particle accelerators, the magnetic field is usually mapped by means of 3D Hall-sensing systems through a burdensome and costly procedure. A further problem arises from a coherent treatment between the beam physics requirements, the qualification of numerical models, the design and manufacturing of the magnet, and the magnetic measurements. For example, when the magnet is misaligned with respect to the longitudinal direction of the mapper, the fringe field shows spurious components. A method was therefore developed for measuring the magnetic field of axisymmetric magnets by exploiting their inherent symmetry. The method yields a measurement of the magnetic flux linked with a pair of sensing coils as a function of their longitudinal position. An induction transducer, sensitive to the longitudinal and radial components of the solenoid under test, has been designed and constructed. A transport system moves the transducer along the magnet axis, covering the full length of the magnet and including...

  4. Magnetic materials fundamentals, products, properties, applications

    Hilzinger, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    At a practical level, this compendium reviews the basics of soft and hard magnetic materials, discusses the advantages of the different processing routes for the exploitation of the magnetic properties and hence assists in proper, fail-safe and economic application of magnetic materials. Essential guidelines and formulas for the calculation of the magnetic and electrical properties, temperature and long-term stability of permanent magnets, of inductive components and magnetic shielding are compiled. Selected fields of application and case studies illustrate the large diversity of technical applications. Application engineers will appreciate the comprehensive compilation of the properties and detailed characteristic curves of modern soft and hard magnetic materials. Materials scientists will enjoy the presentation of the different processing routes and their impact on the magnetic properties and students will profit from the survey from the basics of magnetism down to the applications in inductive components, ...

  5. FINE MAGNETIC FEATURES AND CHIRALITY IN SOLAR ACTIVE REGION NOAA 10930

    Zhang Hongqi

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present fine magnetic features near the magnetic inversion line in the solar active region NOAA 10930. The high-resolution vector magnetograms obtained by Hinode allow detailed analyses around magnetic fibrils in the active region. The analyses are based on the fact that the electric current density can be divided into two components: the shear component caused by the magnetic inhomogeneity and the twist component caused by the magnetic field twist. The relationships between magnetic field, electric current density, and its two components are examined. It is found that the individual magnetic fibrils are dominated by the current density component caused by the magnetic inhomogeneity, while the large-scale magnetic region is generally dominated by the electric current component associated with the magnetic twist. The microstructure of the magnetic field in the solar atmosphere is far from the force-free field. The current mainly flows around the magnetic flux fibrils in the active regions.

  6. Rotary magnetic heat pump

    Kirol, L.D.

    1987-02-11

    A rotary magnetic heat pump constructed without flow seals or segmented rotor accomplishes recuperation and regeneration by using split flow paths. Heat exchange fluid pumped through heat exchangers and returned to the heat pump splits into two flow components: one flowing counter to the rotor rotation and one flowing with the rotation. 5 figs.

  7. High-throughput search for new permanent magnet materials.

    Goll, D; Loeffler, R; Herbst, J; Karimi, R; Schneider, G

    2014-02-12

    The currently highest-performance Fe-Nd-B magnets show limited cost-effectiveness and lifetime due to their rare-earth (RE) content. The demand for novel hard magnetic phases with more widely available RE metals, reduced RE content or, even better, completely free of RE metals is therefore tremendous. The chances are that such materials still exist given the large number of as yet unexplored alloy systems. To discover such phases, an elaborate concept is necessary which can restrict and prioritize the search field while making use of efficient synthesis and analysis methods. It is shown that an efficient synthesis of new phases using heterogeneous non-equilibrium diffusion couples and reaction sintering is possible. Quantitative microstructure analysis of the domain pattern of the hard magnetic phases can be used to estimate the intrinsic magnetic parameters (saturation polarization from the domain contrast, anisotropy constant from the domain width, Curie temperature from the temperature dependence of the domain contrast). The probability of detecting TM-rich phases for a given system is high, therefore the approach enables one to scan through even higher component systems with one single sample. The visualization of newly occurring hard magnetic phases via their typical domain structure and the correlation existing between domain structure and intrinsic magnetic properties allows an evaluation of the industrial relevance of these novel phases.

  8. Study on magnetic property and fracture behavior of magnetic materials

    Miya, Kenzo; Demachi, Kazuyuki; Aoto, Kazumi; Nagae, Yuji

    2002-04-01

    Establishment of evaluation methods of material degradation before crack initiation is needed very much to enhance the reliability of structural components. We remark magnetic methods in this report. Our objectives are to reveal the relation between degradation and magnetic property and to develop evaluation methods of material degradation, especially plastic deformation and stress corrosion cracking (SCC). In the former part of this report, evaluation methods for plastic deformation are discussed. At first, the study that shows the relation between the magnetic flux leakage and plastic deformation is reviewed. We developed the inverse analysis method of magnetization to specify the degradation distribution. Moreover, we propose inverse analysis of magnetic susceptibility for quantitative evaluation. In the latter part, the topic is SCC. We measured the magnetic flux leakage from the sample induced a SCC crack (Inconel 600). Inconel 600 is a paramagnetic material at room temperature but the sample shows ferromagnetic and the magnetic flux leakage was changed near the SCC crack. The possibility of detection of a SCC crack is shown by the inverse analysis result from the magnetic flux leakage. Finally, it is recognized by observation of the micro magnetic distributions by using a magnetic force microscope that the magnetization has relation with chromium depletion near grain boundaries and it is weak near the SCC crack. From these results, the magnetic method is very effective for evaluation of degradation. (author)

  9. Distinguishing magnetic particle size of iron oxide nanoparticles with first-order reversal curves

    Kumari, Monika; Hirt, Ann M., E-mail: ann.hirt@erdw.ethz.ch [Department of Earth Sciences, Institute of Geophysics, ETH-Zurich, Sonneggstrasse 5, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Widdrat, Marc; Faivre, Damien [Department of Biomaterials, Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Science Park Golm, D-14424 Potsdam (Germany); Tompa, Éva; Pósfai, Mihály [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Pannonia, Egyetem u. 10, H-8200 Veszprém (Hungary); Uebe, Rene; Schüler, Dirk [Department Biologie I, LMU Munich, Großhaderner Str. 2, D-82152 Martinsried (Germany)

    2014-09-28

    Magnetic nanoparticles encompass a wide range of scientific study and technological applications. The success of using the nanoparticles in various applications demands control over size, dispersibility, and magnetics. Hence, the nanoparticles are often characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction, and magnetic hysteresis loops. TEM analysis requires a thin layer of dispersed particles on the grid, which may often lead to particle aggregation thus making size analysis difficult. Magnetic hysteresis loops on the other hand provide information on the bulk property of the material without discriminating size, composition, and interaction effects. First order reversal curves (FORCs), described as an assembly of partial hysteresis loops originating from the major loop are efficient in identifying the domain size, composition, and interaction in a magnetic system. This study presents FORC diagrams on a variety of well-characterized biogenic and synthetic magnetite nanoparticles. It also introduces deconvoluted reversible and irreversible components from FORC as an important method for obtaining a semi-quantitative measure of the effective magnetic particle size. This is particularly important in a system with aggregation and interaction among the particles that often leads to either the differences between physical size and effective magnetic size. We also emphasize the extraction of secondary components by masking dominant coercivity fraction on FORC diagram to explore more detailed characterization of nanoparticle systems.

  10. Distinguishing magnetic particle size of iron oxide nanoparticles with first-order reversal curves

    Kumari, Monika; Hirt, Ann M.; Widdrat, Marc; Faivre, Damien; Tompa, Éva; Pósfai, Mihály; Uebe, Rene; Schüler, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles encompass a wide range of scientific study and technological applications. The success of using the nanoparticles in various applications demands control over size, dispersibility, and magnetics. Hence, the nanoparticles are often characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction, and magnetic hysteresis loops. TEM analysis requires a thin layer of dispersed particles on the grid, which may often lead to particle aggregation thus making size analysis difficult. Magnetic hysteresis loops on the other hand provide information on the bulk property of the material without discriminating size, composition, and interaction effects. First order reversal curves (FORCs), described as an assembly of partial hysteresis loops originating from the major loop are efficient in identifying the domain size, composition, and interaction in a magnetic system. This study presents FORC diagrams on a variety of well-characterized biogenic and synthetic magnetite nanoparticles. It also introduces deconvoluted reversible and irreversible components from FORC as an important method for obtaining a semi-quantitative measure of the effective magnetic particle size. This is particularly important in a system with aggregation and interaction among the particles that often leads to either the differences between physical size and effective magnetic size. We also emphasize the extraction of secondary components by masking dominant coercivity fraction on FORC diagram to explore more detailed characterization of nanoparticle systems.

  11. Chiral magnetic effect of light

    Hayata, Tomoya

    2018-05-01

    We study a photonic analog of the chiral magnetic (vortical) effect. We discuss that the vector component of magnetoelectric tensors plays a role of "vector potential," and its rotation is understood as "magnetic field" of a light. Using the geometrical optics approximation, we show that "magnetic fields" cause an anomalous shift of a wave packet of a light through an interplay with the Berry curvature of photons. The mechanism is the same as that of the chiral magnetic (vortical) effect of a chiral fermion, so that we term the anomalous shift "chiral magnetic effect of a light." We further study the chiral magnetic effect of a light beyond geometric optics by directly solving the transmission problem of a wave packet at a surface of a magnetoelectric material. We show that the experimental signal of the chiral magnetic effect of a light is the nonvanishing of transverse displacements for the beam normally incident to a magnetoelectric material.

  12. Mitigating component performance variation

    Gara, Alan G.; Sylvester, Steve S.; Eastep, Jonathan M.; Nagappan, Ramkumar; Cantalupo, Christopher M.

    2018-01-09

    Apparatus and methods may provide for characterizing a plurality of similar components of a distributed computing system based on a maximum safe operation level associated with each component and storing characterization data in a database and allocating non-uniform power to each similar component based at least in part on the characterization data in the database to substantially equalize performance of the components.

  13. Biodegradation of magnetic nanoparticles evaluated from Moessbauer and magnetization measurements

    Mischenko, I., E-mail: IlyaMischenko@rambler.ru; Chuev, M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics and Technology (Russian Federation); Cherepanov, V.; Polikarpov, M.; Panchenko, V. [National Research Centre ' Kurchatov Institute' (Russian Federation)

    2013-04-15

    In order to extract a quantitative information about characteristics of the magnetic nanoparticles injected into a living organism it is necessary to define a model of the magnetic dynamics for fitting self-consistently the whole set of the experimental data, specifically, the evolution of Moessbauer spectral shape with temperature and external magnetic field as well as the magnetization curves. We have developed such a model and performed such an analysis of the temperature- and magnetic field-dependent spectra and magnetization curves of nanoparticles injected into mice. This allowed us to reliably evaluate changes in the characteristics of the residual particles and their chemical transformation to paramagnetic ferritin-like forms in different mouse organs as a function of time. Actually, the approach makes it possible to quantitatively characterize biodegradation and biotransformation of magnetic nanoparticles delivered in a body.

  14. A neural approach for the numerical modeling of two-dimensional magnetic hysteresis

    Cardelli, E.; Faba, A.; Laudani, A.; Riganti Fulginei, F.; Salvini, A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with a neural network approach to model magnetic hysteresis at macro-magnetic scale. Such approach to the problem seems promising in order to couple the numerical treatment of magnetic hysteresis to FEM numerical solvers of the Maxwell's equations in time domain, as in case of the non-linear dynamic analysis of electrical machines, and other similar devices, making possible a full computer simulation in a reasonable time. The neural system proposed consists of four inputs representing the magnetic field and the magnetic inductions components at each time step and it is trained by 2-d measurements performed on the magnetic material to be modeled. The magnetic induction B is assumed as entry point and the output of the neural system returns the predicted value of the field H at the same time step. A suitable partitioning of the neural system, described in the paper, makes the computing process rather fast. Validations with experimental tests and simulations for non-symmetric and minor loops are presented

  15. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children’s (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging Children’s magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses ... identify and accurately characterize diseases than other imaging methods. This detail makes MRI an invaluable tool in ...

  16. New propulsion components for electric vehicles

    Secunde, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    Improved component technology is described. This includes electronically commutated permanent magnet motors of both drum and disk configurations, an unconventional brush commutated motor, ac induction motors, various controllers, transmissions and complete systems. One or more of these approaches to electric vehicle propulsion may eventually displace presently used controllers and brush commutated dc motors. Previously announced in STAR as N83-25982

  17. Radiation-resistant beamline components at LAMPF

    Macek, R.J.; Grisham, D.L.; Lambert, J.e.; Werbeck, R.

    1983-01-01

    A variety of highly radiation-resistant beamline components have been successfully developed at LAMPF primarily for use in the target cells and beam stop area of the intense proton beamline. Design features and operating experience are reviewed for magnets, instrumentation, targets, vacuum seals, vacuum windows, collimators, and beam stops

  18. Magnetic Focusing Horn

    1974-01-01

    This magnetic focusing horn was used for the AA (antiproton accumulator). Its development was an important step towards using CERN's Super Proton Synchrotron as a proton - antiproton collider. This eventually led to the discovery of the W and Z particles in 1983. Making an antiproton beam took a lot of time and effort. Firstly, protons were accelerated to an energy of 26 GeV in the PS and ejected onto a metal target. From the spray of emerging particles, a magnetic horn picked out 3.6 GeV antiprotons for injection into the AA through a wide-aperture focusing quadrupole magnet. For a million protons hitting the target, just one antiproton was captured, 'cooled' and accumulated. It took 3 days to make a beam of 3 x 10^11 -, three hundred thousand million - antiprotons.

  19. Biomaterials and magnetism

    M. Senthilkumar (Newgen Imaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    high water content of the biological tNo.s, the static magnetic field will make most of the protons to align with the ... It may be used for detection ..... recently been reported that hyperthermia increases the rate of liposome leakage into tumours.

  20. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging

    1983-06-01

    This report summarises the aspects of nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI) considered by the National Health Technology Advisory Panel and makes recommendations on its introduction in Australia with particular regard to the need for thorough evaluation of its cost effectiveness. Topics covered are: principles of the technique, equipment required, installation, costs, reliability, performance parameters, clinical indications, training and staff requirements, and safety considerations

  1. Overview of magnetic control in ITER

    Zabeo, L., E-mail: luca.zabeo@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St. Paul Lez Durance (France); Ambrosino, G., E-mail: ambrosin@unina.it [CREATE/Universitá di Napoli Federico II, Dip. Ingegneria Elettrica e delle Tecnologie dell’informazione, Naples (Italy); Cavinato, M., E-mail: mario.cavinato@f4e.europa.eu [Fusion for Energy (F4E), Josep Pla 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral - B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Gribov, Y., E-mail: yuri.gribov@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St. Paul Lez Durance (France); Kavin, A., E-mail: kavina@sintez.niiefa.spb.su [D.V. Efremov Scientific Research Institute, 196641 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Lukash, V., E-mail: lukash@nfi.kiae.ru [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Mattei, M., E-mail: massimiliano.mattei@unina2.it [CREATE/Seconda Universitá di Napoli, Dip. Ingegneria Industriale e dell’informazione, Naples (Italy); Pironti, A., E-mail: pironti@unina.it [CREATE/Seconda Universitá di Napoli, Dip. Ingegneria Industriale e dell’informazione, Naples (Italy); Snipes, J.A., E-mail: joseph.snipes@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St. Paul Lez Durance (France); Vayakis, G., E-mail: george.vayakis@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St. Paul Lez Durance (France); Winter, A., E-mail: axel.winter@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St. Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2014-05-15

    plasma boundary), and the strong component of eddy current at the start-up (resulting in a poor S/N ratio for plasma reconstruction for I{sub p} < 2 MA requiring a robust plasma control) make the ITER magnetic diagnostic system a demanding part of the magnetic control and investment protection systems. Finally the paper will illustrate the identified roles of magnetic control in the PCS (plasma control system) as formally defined in the recent first step of the design and development of the system.

  2. Am angledetector based on magnetic sensing

    Kaulberg, Thomas; Bogason, Gudmundur

    1994-01-01

    bar magnet placed above a silicon chip. Because of the galvanic separation between the anglesetting bar magnet and the electrical circuit, this component is insensitive to the rather hostile environment hearing aids are exposed to. The lifetime of the component is thereby increased significantly...

  3. Counterstreaming ions as evidence of magnetic reconnection in the recovery phase of substorms at the kinetic level

    Nagai, Tsugunobu; Nakamura, Masao; Shinohara, Iku; Fujimoto, Masaki; Saito, Yoshifumi; Mukai, Toshifumi

    2002-01-01

    Counterstreaming ions embedded in hot isotropic ions are found at the front of fast earthward plasma flows in the recovery phase of substorms in the Earth's magnetotail. The counterstreaming ions are present only when the northward component of the magnetic field increases in the equatorial plane. Hybrid simulations of magnetic reconnection have been carried out. It is found that counterstreaming ions form in the leading edge of jetting plasmas produced with magnetic reconnection, where the magnetic field lines pile up due to the pre-existing stationary plasmas. These counterstreaming ions originate from cold ions on the northern and southern tail lobe field lines, and earthward transport of the reconnected field lines makes these cold ions flow into the equatorial plane. The present observations provide strong evidence of magnetic reconnection in the recovery phase of substorms at the kinetic level

  4. Plasma facing components integration studies for the WEST divertor

    Ferlay, Fabien, E-mail: fabien.ferlay@cea.fr; Missirlian, Marc; Guilhem, Dominique; Firdaouss, Mehdi; Richou, Marianne; Doceul, Louis; Faisse, Frédéric; Languille, Pascal; Larroque, Sébastien; Martinez, André; Proust, Maxime; Louison, Céphise; Jeanne, Florian; Saille, Alain; Samaille, Frank; Verger, Jean-Marc; Bucalossi, Jérôme

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The divertor PFU integration has been studied regarding existing environment. • Magnetic, electric, thermal, hydraulic, mechanical loads and assembly are considered. - Abstract: In the context of the Tokamak Tore-Supra evolution, the CEA aims at transforming it into a test bench for ITER actively cooled tungsten (ACW) plasma facing components (PFC). This project named WEST (Tungsten Environment in Steady state Tokamak) is especially focused on the divertor target. The modification of the machine, by adding two axisymmetric divertors will make feasible an H-mode with an X-point close to the lower divertor. This environment will allow exposing the divertor ACW components up to 20 MW/m{sup 2} heat flux during long pulse. These specifications are well suited to test the ITER-like ACW target elements, respecting the ITER design. One challenge in such machine evolution is to integrate components in an existing vacuum vessel in order to obtain the best achievable performance. This paper deals with the design integration of ITER ACW target elements into the WEST environment considering magnetic, electric, thermal and mechanical loads. The feasibility of installation and maintenance has to be strongly considered as these PFC could be replaced several times. The ports size allows entering a 30° sector of pre-installed tungsten targets which will be plugged as quickly and easily as possible. The main feature of steady state operation is the active cooling, which leads to have many embedded cooling channels and bulky pipes on the PFC module including many connections and sealings between vacuum and water channels. The 30° sector design is now finalized regarding the ITER ACW elements specifications. No major modifications are expected.

  5. Nonlinear control of magnetic signatures

    Niemoczynski, Bogdan

    Magnetic properties of ferrite structures are known to cause fluctuations in Earth's magnetic field around the object. These fluctuations are known as the object's magnetic signature and are unique based on the object's geometry and material. It is a common practice to neutralize magnetic signatures periodically after certain time intervals, however there is a growing interest to develop real time degaussing systems for various applications. Development of real time degaussing system is a challenging problem because of magnetic hysteresis and difficulties in measurement or estimation of near-field flux data. The goal of this research is to develop a real time feedback control system that can be used to minimize magnetic signatures for ferrite structures. Experimental work on controlling the magnetic signature of a cylindrical steel shell structure with a magnetic disturbance provided evidence that the control process substantially increased the interior magnetic flux. This means near field estimation using interior sensor data is likely to be inaccurate. Follow up numerical work for rectangular and cylindrical cross sections investigated variations in shell wall flux density under a variety of ambient excitation and applied disturbances. Results showed magnetic disturbances could corrupt interior sensor data and magnetic shielding due to the shell walls makes the interior very sensitive to noise. The magnetic flux inside the shell wall showed little variation due to inner disturbances and its high base value makes it less susceptible to noise. This research proceeds to describe a nonlinear controller to use the shell wall data as an input. A nonlinear plant model of magnetics is developed using a constant tau to represent domain rotation lag and a gain function k to describe the magnetic hysteresis curve for the shell wall. The model is justified by producing hysteresis curves for multiple materials, matching experimental data using a particle swarm algorithm, and

  6. Design of a control card for remote operation of the magnet power supply of microtron

    Khan, A.M.; Hanumaiah, B.; Ganesh; Siddappa, K.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: In this paper we report on a control card developed for remote operation of the magnet power supply of the Microtron. We have used a microcontroller, an ADC, a DAC and some circuit components to make the microcontroller perform the control operations according to the in built program. The value of the parameter to be controlled (i.e. the magnetic field) is given by the main program in the PC kept away from the system. When the user wants to use the magnet power supply system operate the microtron, he will switch ON the system and feed a particular value of the parameter (i.e. magnetic field in Gauss). This value is passed on to the control program in the microcontroller. With this value and the read back value obtained from the sensor the control card activates its control circuitary to maintain the system at the defined parameter value

  7. Gesturing Makes Memories that Last

    Cook, Susan Wagner; Yip, Terina KuangYi; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2010-01-01

    When people are asked to perform actions, they remember those actions better than if they are asked to talk about the same actions. But when people talk, they often gesture with their hands, thus adding an action component to talking. The question we asked in this study was whether producing gesture along with speech makes the information encoded…

  8. Axion experiment makes its debut

    Dumé, Belle

    2004-01-01

    An experiment built from components recycled from other experiments has put new limits on the properties of particles that might be the "dark matter" that makes up about 25% of the universe. The CERN Axion Solar telescope (CAST) was built to search for exotic particles called axions that might be produced inside the sun (1 page)

  9. Superconducting Magnets

    CERN. Geneva

    2008-01-01

    Starting from the beam requirements for accelerator magnets, we will outline the main issues and the physical limitations for producing strong and pure magnetic fields with superconductors. The seminar will mainly focus on the magnets for the accelerator, and give some hints on the magnets for the experiments. Prerequisite knowledge: Basic knowledge of Maxwell equations, and linear optics for particle accelerators (FODO cell, beta functions).

  10. Magnetic strings

    Chaves, Max

    2006-01-01

    The conception of the magnetic string is presented as an infinitely thin bundle of magnetic flux lines. The magnetic strings are surrounded by a film of current that rotates around them, and are a solution of Maxwell's equations. The magnetic potential contains a line singularity, and its stability can be established topologically. A few comments are added on the possibility that they may exist at a cosmological scale as relics of the Big Bang. (author) [es

  11. Magnetic Materials

    Spaldin, Nicola A.

    2003-04-01

    Magnetic materials are the foundation of multi-billion dollar industries and the focus of intensive research across many disciplines. This book covers the fundamentals, basic theories and applications of magnetism and conventional magnetic materials. Based on a lecture course given by Nicola Spaldin in the Materials Department at University of California, Santa Barbara, the book is ideal for a one- semester course in magnetic materials. It contains numerous homework problems and solutions.

  12. Component protection based automatic control

    Otaduy, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    Control and safety systems as well as operation procedures are designed on the basis of critical process parameters limits. The expectation is that short and long term mechanical damage and process failures will be avoided by operating the plant within the specified constraints envelopes. In this paper, one of the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) design duty cycles events is discussed to corroborate that the time has come to explicitly make component protection part of the control system. Component stress assessment and aging data should be an integral part of the control system. Then transient trajectory planning and operating limits could be aimed at minimizing component specific and overall plant component damage cost functions. The impact of transients on critical components could then be managed according to plant lifetime design goals. The need for developing methodologies for online transient trajectory planning and assessment of operating limits in order to facilitate the explicit incorporation of damage assessment capabilities to the plant control and protection systems is discussed. 12 refs

  13. Cold component flow in a two-component mirror machine

    Rognlien, T.D.

    1975-12-01

    Steady-state solutions are given for the flow characteristics along the magnetic field of the cold plasma component in a two-component mirror machine. The hot plasma component is represented by a fixed density profile. The fluid equations are used to describe the cold plasma, which is assumed to be generated in a localized region at one end of the machine. The ion flow speed, v/sub i/, is required to satisfy the Bohm sheath condition at the end walls, i.e., v/sub i/ greater than or equal to c/sub s/, where c/sub s/ is the ion-acoustic speed. For the case when the cold plasma density, n/sub c/, is much less than the hot plasma density, n/sub h/, the cold plasma is stagnant and does not penetrate through the machine in the zero temperature case. The effect of a finite temperature is to allow for the penetration of a small amount of cold plasma through the machine. For the density range n/sub c/ approximately n/sub h/, the flow solutions are asymmetric about the midplane and have v/sub i/ = c/sub s/ near the midplane. Finally, for n/sub c/ much greater than n/sub h/, the solutions become symmetric about the midplane and approach the Lee--McNamara type solutions with v/sub i/ = c/sub s/ near the mirror throats

  14. Superconducting magnets

    1994-08-01

    This report discusses the following topics on superconducting magnets: D19B and -C: The next steps for a record-setting magnet; D20: The push beyond 10 T: Beyond D20: Speculations on the 16-T regime; other advanced magnets for accelerators; spinoff applications; APC materials development; cable and cabling-machine development; and high-T c superconductor at low temperature

  15. Superconducting magnets

    Willen, E.

    1996-01-01

    Superconducting dipole magnets for high energy colliders are discussed. As an example, the magnets recently built for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven are reviewed. Their technical performance and the cost for the industry-built production dipoles are given. The cost data is generalized in order to extrapolate the cost of magnets for a new machine

  16. Mechanical engineering and design criteria for the Magnetically Insulated Transmission Experiment Accelerator

    Staller, G.E.; Hamilton, I.D.; Aker, M.F.; Fifer, H.G.

    1978-02-01

    A single-unit electron beam accelerator was designed, fabricated, and assembled in Sandia's Technical Area V to conduct magnetically insulated transmission experiments. Results of these experiments will be utilized in the future design of larger, more complex accelerators. This design makes optimum use of existing facilities and equipment. When designing new components, possible future applications were considered as well as compatibility with existing facilities and hardware

  17. Non-rare earth magnetic nanoparticles

    Carpenter, Everett E.; Huba, Zachary J.; Carroll, Kyler J.; Farghaly, Ahmed; Khanna, Shiv N.; Qian, Meichun; Bertino, Massimo

    2017-09-26

    Continuous flow synthetic methods are used to make single phase magnetic metal alloy nanoparticles that do not contain rare earth metals. Soft and hard magnets made from the magnetic nanoparticles are used for a variety of purposes, e.g. in electric motors, communication devices, etc.

  18. Magnetic Sensing with Ferrofluid and Fiber Optic Connectors

    Daniel Homa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A simple, cost effective and sensitive fiber optic magnetic sensor fabricated with ferrofluid and commercially available fiber optic components is described in this paper. The system uses a ferrofluid infiltrated extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer (EFPI interrogated with an infrared wavelength spectrometer to measure magnetic flux density. The entire sensing system was developed with commercially available components so it can be easily and economically reproduced in large quantities. The device was tested with two different ferrofluid types over a range of magnetic flux densities to verify performance. The sensors readily detected magnetic flux densities in the range of 0.5 mT to 12.0 mT with measurement sensitivities in the range of 0.3 to 2.3 nm/mT depending on ferrofluid type. Assuming a conservative wavelength resolution of 0.1 nm for state of the art EFPI detection abilities, the estimated achievable measurement resolution is on the order 0.04 mT. The inherent small size and basic structure complimented with the fabrication ease make it well-suited for a wide array of research, industrial, educational and military applications.

  19. Reusable Component Services

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Reusable Component Services (RCS) is a super-catalog of components, services, solutions and technologies that facilitates search, discovery and collaboration in...

  20. Magnetic novae

    Zemko, Polina; Orio, Marina

    2016-07-01

    We present the results of optical and X-ray observations of two quiescent novae, V2491 Cyg and V4743 Sgr. Our observations suggest the intriguing possibility of localization of hydrogen burning in magnetic novae, in which accretion is streamed to the polar caps. V2491 Cyg was observed with Suzaku more than 2 years after the outburst and V4743 Sgr was observed with XMM Newton 2 and 3.5 years after maximum. In the framework of a monitoring program of novae previously observed as super soft X-ray sources we also obtained optical spectra of V4743 Sgr with the SALT telescope 11.5 years after the eruption and of V2491 Cyg with the 6m Big Azimutal Telescope 4 and 7 years post-outburst. In order to confirm the possible white dwarf spin period of V2491 Cyg measured in the Suzaku observations we obtained photometric data using the 90cm WIYN telescope at Kitt Peak and the 1.2 m telescope in Crimea. We found that V4743 Sgr is an intermediate polar (IP) and V2491 Cyg is a strong IP candidate. Both novae show modulation of their X-ray light curves and have X-ray spectra typical of IPs. The Suzaku and XMM Newton exposures revealed that the spectra of both novae have a very soft blackbody-like component with a temperature close to that of the hydrogen burning white dwarfs in their SSS phases, but with flux by at least two orders of magnitude lower, implying a possible shrinking of emitting regions in the thin atmosphere that is heated by nuclear burning underneath it. In quiescent IPs, independently of the burning, an ultrasoft X-ray flux component originates at times in the polar regions irradiated by the accretion column, but the soft component of V4743 Sgr disappeared in 2006, indicating that the origin may be different from accretion. We suggest it may have been due to an atmospheric temperature gradient on the white dwarf surface, or to continuing localized thermonuclear burning at the bottom of the envelope, before complete turn-off. The optical spectra of V2491 Cyg and V

  1. Thermal and structural analysis of a cryogenic conduction cooling system for a HTS NMR magnet

    In, Se Hwan; Hong, Yong Jun; Yeom, Han Kil; Ko, Hyo Bong; Park, Seong Je [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    The superconducting NMR magnets have used cryogen such as liquid helium for their cooling. The conduction cooling method using cryocoolers, however, makes the cryogenic cooling system for NMR magnets more compact and user-friendly than the cryogen cooling method. This paper describes the thermal and structural analysis of a cryogenic conduction cooling system for a 400 MHz HTS NMR magnet, focusing on the magnet assembly. The highly thermo-conductive cooling plates between HTS double pancake coils are used to transfer the heat generated in coils, namely Joule heating at lap splice joints, to thermal link blocks and finally the cryocooler. The conduction cooling structure of the HTS magnet assembly preliminarily designed is verified by thermal and structural analysis. The orthotropic thermal properties of the HTS coil, thermal contact resistance and radiation heat load are considered in the thermal analysis. The thermal analysis confirms the uniform temperature distribution for the present thermal design of the NMR magnet within 0.2 K. The mechanical stress and the displacement by the electromagnetic force and the thermal contraction are checked to verify structural stability. The structural analysis indicates that the mechanical stress on each component of the magnet is less than its material yield strength and the displacement is acceptable in comparison with the magnet dimension.

  2. Thick film magnetic nanoparticulate composites and method of manufacture thereof

    Ma, Xinqing (Inventor); Zhang, Yide (Inventor); Ge, Shihui (Inventor); Zhang, Zongtao (Inventor); Yan, Dajing (Inventor); Xiao, Danny T. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Thick film magnetic/insulating nanocomposite materials, with significantly reduced core loss, and their manufacture are described. The insulator coated magnetic nanocomposite comprises one or more magnetic components, and an insulating component. The magnetic component comprises nanometer scale particles (about 1 to about 100 nanometers) coated by a thin-layered insulating phase. While the intergrain interaction between the immediate neighboring magnetic nanoparticles separated by the insulating phase provides the desired soft magnetic properties, the insulating material provides high resistivity, which reduces eddy current loss.

  3. Software component quality evaluation

    Clough, A. J.

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes a software inspection process that can be used to evaluate the quality of software components. Quality criteria, process application, independent testing of the process and proposed associated tool support are covered. Early results indicate that this technique is well suited for assessing software component quality in a standardized fashion. With automated machine assistance to facilitate both the evaluation and selection of software components, such a technique should promote effective reuse of software components.

  4. Magnetic field dependent atomic tunneling in non-magnetic glasses

    Ludwig, S.; Enss, C.; Hunklinger, S.

    2003-01-01

    The low-temperature properties of insulating glasses are governed by atomic tunneling systems (TSs). Recently, strong magnetic field effects in the dielectric susceptibility have been discovered in glasses at audio frequencies at very low temperatures. Moreover, it has been found that the amplitude of two-pulse polarization echoes generated in non-magnetic multi-component glasses at radio frequencies and at very low temperatures shows a surprising non-monotonic magnetic field dependence. The magnitude of the latter effect indicates that virtually all TSs are affected by the magnetic field, not only a small subset of systems. We have studied the variation of the magnetic field dependence of the echo amplitude as a function of the delay time between the two excitation pulses and at different frequencies. Our results indicate that the evolution of the phase of resonant TSs is changed by the magnetic field

  5. Magnetic field dependent atomic tunneling in non-magnetic glasses

    Ludwig, S.; Enss, C.; Hunklinger, S.

    2003-05-01

    The low-temperature properties of insulating glasses are governed by atomic tunneling systems (TSs). Recently, strong magnetic field effects in the dielectric susceptibility have been discovered in glasses at audio frequencies at very low temperatures. Moreover, it has been found that the amplitude of two-pulse polarization echoes generated in non-magnetic multi-component glasses at radio frequencies and at very low temperatures shows a surprising non-monotonic magnetic field dependence. The magnitude of the latter effect indicates that virtually all TSs are affected by the magnetic field, not only a small subset of systems. We have studied the variation of the magnetic field dependence of the echo amplitude as a function of the delay time between the two excitation pulses and at different frequencies. Our results indicate that the evolution of the phase of resonant TSs is changed by the magnetic field.

  6. Effects from magnetic boundary conditions in superconducting-magnetic proximity systems

    Thomas E. Baker

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A superconductor-magnetic proximity system displays singlet-triplet pair correlations in the magnetization as a function of inhomogeneities of the magnetic profile. We discuss how the magnetic boundary conditions affects differently the curvature and winding number of rotating magnetizations in the three commonly used structures to generate long range triplet components: an exchange spring, a helical structure and a misaligned magnetic multilayer. We conclude that the choice of the system is dictated by the goal one wishes to achieve in designing a spintronic device but note that only the exchange spring presently offers an experimentally realizable magnetic profile that is tunable.

  7. Reactor component automatic grapple

    Greenaway, P.R.

    1982-01-01

    A grapple for handling nuclear reactor components in a medium such as liquid sodium which, upon proper seating and alignment of the grapple with the component as sensed by a mechanical logic integral to the grapple, automatically seizes the component. The mechanical logic system also precludes seizure in the absence of proper seating and alignment. (author)

  8. Repurposing learning object components

    Verbert, K.; Jovanovic, J.; Gasevic, D.; Duval, E.; Meersman, R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an ontology-based framework for repurposing learning object components. Unlike the usual practice where learning object components are assembled manually, the proposed framework enables on-the-fly access and repurposing of learning object components. The framework supports two

  9. Hoosier Magnetics

    None, None

    2015-09-30

    Hoosier Magnetics proposes to replace the indirect clinker water cooling system with a cooling system that recycles heat from the hot ferrite to preheat the combustion air. This innovative process would significantly reduce the amount of natural gas required to heat the combustion air while eliminating Hoosier’s largest source of downtime. According to the Department of Energy’s Industrial Technologies Program for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, process temperature is customarily used as a rough indication of where preheating air will be cost effective. Previous studies have concluded that processes operating above 1,600° F are ideal candidates for the utilization of pre-heated combustion air. Hoosier Magnetics’ operating temperatures run between 1800-2200° F making Hoosier the perfect candidate. Using preheated air at 1200° F will result in 35% fuel savings, or $298,935 annually. Additionally, the new system would have improved process reliability and result in both production efficiency increases and cost savings. This technology is NOT practiced or utilized on a wide-spread basis but could have a significant energy reduction impact in many different high heat utilizing industries in the country. While the energy savings is apparent with this theory the application and design of such a process has not been studied.

  10. Magnetization reversal mechanisms in hybrid resin-bonded Nd Fe B magnets

    Plusa, D.; Dospial, M.; Slusarek, B.; Kotlarczyk, U.

    2006-11-01

    The magnetic properties of isotropic epoxy resin-bonded magnets prepared by mixing a hard magnetic powder made from melt quenched Nd-Fe-Co-B ribbons and a soft magnetic iron powder have been examined. The magnetization reversal processes and the magnetic parameters have been studied by the measurement of the virgin magnetization curves, the major and minor hysteresis loops and sets of recoil curves. From these recoil curves the field dependence of the reversible and irreversible magnetization components during the magnetization and demagnetization processes has been derived. The remanence relationship was used to study the nature of magnetic interaction between the grains. A study of interaction domains was conducted using optical microscopy. Groups of domains, each over several grains, were observed. It was found that the reversal process in the samples investigated involves the rotation of magnetization vectors in the iron powder grains and pinning of domain walls at the MQP-B grain boundaries.

  11. Magnetization reversal mechanisms in hybrid resin-bonded Nd-Fe-B magnets

    Plusa, D.; Dospial, M.; Slusarek, B.; Kotlarczyk, U.

    2006-01-01

    The magnetic properties of isotropic epoxy resin-bonded magnets prepared by mixing a hard magnetic powder made from melt quenched Nd-Fe-Co-B ribbons and a soft magnetic iron powder have been examined. The magnetization reversal processes and the magnetic parameters have been studied by the measurement of the virgin magnetization curves, the major and minor hysteresis loops and sets of recoil curves. From these recoil curves the field dependence of the reversible and irreversible magnetization components during the magnetization and demagnetization processes has been derived. The remanence relationship was used to study the nature of magnetic interaction between the grains. A study of interaction domains was conducted using optical microscopy. Groups of domains, each over several grains, were observed. It was found that the reversal process in the samples investigated involves the rotation of magnetization vectors in the iron powder grains and pinning of domain walls at the MQP-B grain boundaries

  12. Magnetic resonance instrumentation

    Bell, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR), while opening new vistas to diagnostic medicine, utilizes equipment that is unfamiliar to most clinicians. Beyond learning to cope with new terms, such as spin-echo, T1, T2, and spin density, health care professionals are faced with the inclusion of magnetic and radiofrequency effects in their facilities produced by a complex array of devices. It is the purpose of this chapter to outline the components of an MR imaging system, to discuss their functions, and to note the variations in equipment commercially available

  13. Composite magnetic particles

    Davies, G.E.; Janata, J.

    1981-01-01

    This patent claim on behalf of I.C.I. Ltd., relates to the preparation and use of composite magnetic particles, comprising a low density core, and having a magnetic coating over at least a proportion of the surface. The density of such particles can be chosen to suit a range of applications, e.g. in affinity chromatography, in radioimmunoassay, in the transport of the associated component, such as a drug or enzyme, to a specific site in a living organism. (U.K.)

  14. A novel structure of permanent-magnet-biased radial hybrid magnetic bearing

    Sun Jinji; Fang Jiancheng

    2011-01-01

    The paper proposes a novel structure for a permanent-magnet-biased radial hybrid magnetic bearing. Based on the air gap between the rotor and stator of traditional radial hybrid magnetic bearings, a subsidiary air gap is first constructed between the permanent magnets and the inner magnetic parts. Radial magnetic bearing makes X and Y magnetic fields independent of each other with separate stator poles, and the subsidiary air gap makes control flux to a close loop. As a result, magnetic field coupling of the X and Y channels is decreased significantly by the radial hybrid magnetic bearing and makes it easier to design control systems. Then an external rotor structure is designed into the radial hybrid magnetic bearing. The working principle of the radial hybrid magnetic bearing and its mathematical model is discussed. Finally, a non-linear magnetic network method is proposed to analyze the radial hybrid magnetic bearing. Simulation results indicate that magnetic fields in the two channels of the proposed radial hybrid magnetic bearing decouple well from each other.

  15. A novel structure of permanent-magnet-biased radial hybrid magnetic bearing

    Sun Jinji, E-mail: sunjinji@aspe.buaa.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Fundamental Science for National Defense, Novel Inertial Instrument and Navigation System Technology, School of Instrument Science and Opto-electronics Engineering, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 100191 (China); Fang Jiancheng [Key Laboratory of Fundamental Science for National Defense, Novel Inertial Instrument and Navigation System Technology, School of Instrument Science and Opto-electronics Engineering, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 100191 (China)

    2011-01-15

    The paper proposes a novel structure for a permanent-magnet-biased radial hybrid magnetic bearing. Based on the air gap between the rotor and stator of traditional radial hybrid magnetic bearings, a subsidiary air gap is first constructed between the permanent magnets and the inner magnetic parts. Radial magnetic bearing makes X and Y magnetic fields independent of each other with separate stator poles, and the subsidiary air gap makes control flux to a close loop. As a result, magnetic field coupling of the X and Y channels is decreased significantly by the radial hybrid magnetic bearing and makes it easier to design control systems. Then an external rotor structure is designed into the radial hybrid magnetic bearing. The working principle of the radial hybrid magnetic bearing and its mathematical model is discussed. Finally, a non-linear magnetic network method is proposed to analyze the radial hybrid magnetic bearing. Simulation results indicate that magnetic fields in the two channels of the proposed radial hybrid magnetic bearing decouple well from each other.

  16. Development of a high-performance magnetic gear

    Rasmussen, Peter Omand; Andersen, Torben Ole; Jørgensen, Frank Thorleif

    2005-01-01

    components in the magnetic gear is also performed in order to figure out why the efficiency for the actual construction was only 81 %. A large magnetic 1055 component originated in the bearings, where an unplanned extra bearing was necessary due to mechanical problems. Without the losses of magnetic origin...

  17. Magnetic nanoparticles for tunable microwave metamaterials

    Noginova, Natalia; Williams, Quincy Leon; Dallas, Panagiotis; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.

    2012-01-01

    Commonly, metamaterials are electrically engineered systems with optimized spatial arrangement of subwavelength sized metal and dielectric components. We explore alternative methods based on use of magnetic inclusions, such as magnetic nanoparticles, which can allow permeability of a composite to be tuned from negative to positive at the range of magnetic resonance. To better understand effects of particle size and magnetization dynamics, we performed electron magnetic resonance study on several varieties of magnetic nanoparticles and determined potential of nanoparticle use as building blocks for tunable microwave metamaterials. © (2012) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  18. Magnetic nanoparticles for tunable microwave metamaterials

    Noginova, Natalia

    2012-09-24

    Commonly, metamaterials are electrically engineered systems with optimized spatial arrangement of subwavelength sized metal and dielectric components. We explore alternative methods based on use of magnetic inclusions, such as magnetic nanoparticles, which can allow permeability of a composite to be tuned from negative to positive at the range of magnetic resonance. To better understand effects of particle size and magnetization dynamics, we performed electron magnetic resonance study on several varieties of magnetic nanoparticles and determined potential of nanoparticle use as building blocks for tunable microwave metamaterials. © (2012) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  19. Active Magnetic Regenerative Liquefier

    Barclay, John A. [Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Oseen-Send, Kathryn [Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Ferguson, Luke [Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Pouresfandiary, Jamshid [Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Cousins, Anand [Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Ralph, Heather [Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Hampto, Tom [Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-01-12

    This final report for the DOE Project entitled Active Magnetic Regenerative Liquefier (AMRL) funded under Grant DE-FG36-08GO18064 to Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy (Heracles/Prometheus) describes an active magnetic regenerative refrigerator (AMRR) prototype designed and built during the period from July 2008 through May 2011. The primary goal of this project was to make significant technical advances toward highly efficient liquefaction of hydrogen. Conventional hydrogen liquefiers at any scale have a maximum FOM of ~0.35 due primarily to the intrinsic difficulty of rapid, efficient compression of either hydrogen or helium working gases. Numerical simulation modeling of high performance AMRL designs indicates certain designs have promise to increase thermodynamic efficiency from a FOM of ~0.35 toward ~0.5 to ~0.6. The technical approach was the use of solid magnetic working refrigerants cycled in and out of high magnetic fields to build an efficient active regenerative magnetic refrigeration module providing cooling power for AMRL. A single-stage reciprocating AMRR with a design temperature span from ~290 K to ~120 K was built and tested with dual magnetic regenerators moving in and out of the conductively-cooled superconducting magnet subsystem. The heat transfer fluid (helium) was coupled to the process stream (refrigeration/liquefaction load) via high performance heat exchangers. In order to maximize AMRR efficiency a helium bypass loop with adjustable flow was incorporated in the design because the thermal mass of magnetic refrigerants is higher in low magnetic field than in high magnetic field. Heracles/Prometheus designed experiments to measure AMRR performance under a variety of different operational parameters such as cycle frequency, magnetic field strength, heat transfer fluid flow rate, amount of bypass flow of the heat transfer fluid while measuring work input, temperature span, cooling capability as a function of cold temperature

  20. Variation of Magnetic Field (By , Bz) Polarity and Statistical Analysis of Solar Wind Parameters during the Magnetic Storm Period

    Ga-Hee Moon

    2011-01-01

    It is generally believed that the occurrence of a magnetic storm depends upon the solar wind conditions, particularly the southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) component. To understand the relationship between solar wind parameters and magnetic storms, variations in magnetic field polarity and solar wind parameters during magnetic storms are examined. A total of 156 storms during the period of 1997~2003 are used. According to the interplanetary driver, magnetic storms are ...

  1. Numerical analysis of magnetic field in superconducting magnetic energy storage

    Kanamaru, Y.; Amemiya, Y.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) is more useful than the other systems of electric energy storage because of larger stored energy and higher efficiency. The other systems are the battery, the flywheel, the pumped-storage power station. Some models of solenoid type SMES are designed in U.S.A. and Japan. But a high magnetic field happens by the large scale SMES in the living environment, and makes the erroneous operations of the computer display, the pacemaker of the heart and the electronic equipments. We study some fit designs of magnetic shielding of the solenoidal type SMES for reduction of the magnetic field in living environment. When some superconducting shielding coils are over the main storage coil, magnetic field reduces remarkably than the case of non shielding coil. The calculated results of the magnetic field are obtained y the finite element method

  2. Modulation of capillary condensation by trace component

    Shiqi Zhou

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Impact of trace component on capillary condensation (CC is investigated systematically using a classical density functional theory. It is discovered that (i presence of the trace component makes the CC to occur at much lower condensation pressure than when its absence; (ii Lennard-Jones potential parameters like size parameter and energy parameter of the trace component, and its concentration in the bulk adsorption system, show their effects the most remarkably within a particular range beyond which the effects eventually become insignificant. The present discoveries have implications in low pressure storage of gases, separation and enrichment of low concentration component, and easy control of CC transition, etc.

  3. OCSEGen: Open Components and Systems Environment Generator

    Tkachuk, Oksana

    2014-01-01

    To analyze a large system, one often needs to break it into smaller components.To analyze a component or unit under analysis, one needs to model its context of execution, called environment, which represents the components with which the unit interacts. Environment generation is a challenging problem, because the environment needs to be general enough to uncover unit errors, yet precise enough to make the analysis tractable. In this paper, we present a tool for automated environment generation for open components and systems. The tool, called OCSEGen, is implemented on top of the Soot framework. We present the tool's current support and discuss its possible future extensions.

  4. Workflow with pitfalls to derive a regional airborne magnetic compilation

    Brönner, Marco; Baykiev, Eldar; Ebbing, Jörg

    2017-04-01

    Today, large scale magnetic maps are usually a patchwork of different airborne surveys from different size, different resolution and different years. Airborne magnetic acquisition is a fast and economic method to map and gain geological and tectonic information for large areas, onshore and offshore. Depending on the aim of a survey, acquisition parameters like altitude and profile distance are usually adjusted to match the purpose of investigation. The subsequent data processing commonly follows a standardized workflow comprising core-field subtraction and line leveling to yield a coherent crustal field magnetic grid for a survey area. The resulting data makes it possible to correlate with geological and tectonic features in the subsurface, which is of importance for e.g. oil and mineral exploration. Crustal scale magnetic interpretation and modeling demand regional compilation of magnetic data and the merger of adjacent magnetic surveys. These studies not only focus on shallower sources, reflected by short to intermediate magnetic wavelength anomalies, but also have a particular interest in the long wavelength deriving from deep seated sources. However, whilst the workflow to produce such a merger is supported by quite a few powerful routines, the resulting compilation contains several pitfalls and limitations, which were discussed before, but still are very little recognized. The maximum wavelength that can be resolved of each individual survey is directly related to the survey size and consequently a merger will contribute erroneous long-wavelength components in the magnetic data compilation. To minimize this problem and to homogenous the longer wavelengths, a first order approach is the combination of airborne and satellite magnetic data commonly combined with the compilation from airborne data, which is sufficient only under particular preconditions. A more advanced approach considers the gap in frequencies between airborne and satellite data, which motivated

  5. Magnetic Approaches to Measuring and Mitigating Airborne Particulate Pollution

    Maher, B.

    2014-12-01

    Human exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) generates adverse human health impacts at all life stages from the embryonic to the terminal, including damage to respiratory and cardiovascular health, and neurodevelopment and cognitive function. Detailed understanding of the causal links between PM exposure and specific health impacts, and possible means to reduce PM exposure require knowledge of PM concentrations, compositions and sources at the fine-scale; i.e. beyond the current resolution of spatially-sparse conventional PM monitoring, non-unique elemental analyses, or poorly-validated PM modelling. Magnetically-ordered iron oxide minerals appear to be a ubiquitous component of urban PM. These minerals derive partly from the presence of iron impurities in fuels, which form, upon combustion, a non-volatile residue, often dominated by magnetite, within glassy, spherical condensates. Iron-rich, magnetic PM also arises from abrasion from vehicle components, including disk brakes, and road dust. The ubiquity and diversity of these magnetic PM phases, and the speed and sensitivity of magnetic analyses (down to trace concentrations), makes possible rapid, cost-effective magnetic characterization and quantification of PM, a field of study which has developed rapidly across the globe over the last 2 decades. Magnetic studies of actively-sampled PM, on filters, and passively-sampled PM, on tree leaves and other depositional surfaces, can be used to: monitor and map at high spatial resolution ambient PM concentrations; address the controversial issue of the efficacy of PM capture by vegetation; and add a new, discriminatory dimension to PM source apportionment.

  6. What makes a leader?

    Goleman, D

    1999-01-01

    Superb leaders have very different ways of directing a team, a division, or a company. Some are subdued and analytical; others are charismatic and go with their gut. And different of situations call for different types of leadership. Most mergers need a sensitive negotiator at the helm whereas many turnarounds require a more forceful kind of authority. Psychologist and noted author Daniel Goleman has found, however, that effective leaders are alike in one crucial way: they all have a high degree of what has come to be known as emotional intelligence. In fact, Goleman's research at nearly 200 large, global companies revealed that emotional intelligence--especially at the highest levels of a company--is the sine qua non for leadership. Without it, a person can have first-class training, an incisive mind, and an endless supply of good ideas, but he still won't make a great leader. The components of emotional intelligence--self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy, and social skill--can sound unbusinesslike. But exhibiting emotional intelligence at the workplace does not mean simply controlling your anger or getting along with people. Rather it means understanding your own and other people's emotional makeup well enough to move people in the direction of accomplishing your company's goals. In this article, the author discusses each component of emotional intelligence and shows through examples how to recognize it in potential leaders, how and why it leads to measurable business results, and how it can be learned. It takes time and, most of all, commitment. But the benefits that come from having a well-developed emotional intelligence, both for the individual and the organization, make it worth the effort.

  7. What makes a leader?

    Goleman, D

    1998-01-01

    Superb leaders have very different ways of directing a team, a division, or a company. Some are subdued and analytical; others are charismatic and go with their gut. And different situations call for different types of leadership. Most mergers need a sensitive negotiator at the helm, whereas many turnarounds require a more forceful kind of authority. Psychologist and noted author Daniel Goleman has found, however, that effective leaders are alike in one crucial way: they all have a high degree of what has come to be known as emotional intelligence. In fact, Goleman's research at nearly 200 large, global companies revealed that emotional intelligence--especially at the highest levels of a company--is the sine qua non for leadership. Without it, a person can have first-class training, an incisive mind, and an endless supply of good ideas, but he still won't make a great leader. The components of emotional intelligence--self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy, and social skill--can sound unbusinesslike. But exhibiting emotional intelligence at the workplace does not mean simply controlling your anger or getting along with people. Rather, it means understanding your own and other people's emotional makeup well enough to move people in the direction of accomplishing your company's goals. In this article, the author discusses each component of emotional intelligence and shows through examples how to recognize it in potential leaders, how and why it leads to measurable business results, and how it can be learned. It takes time and, most of all, commitment. But the benefits that come from having a well-developed emotional intelligence, both for the individual and the organization, make it worth the effort.

  8. Magnet sorting algorithms

    Dinev, D.

    1996-01-01

    Several new algorithms for sorting of dipole and/or quadrupole magnets in synchrotrons and storage rings are described. The algorithms make use of a combinatorial approach to the problem and belong to the class of random search algorithms. They use an appropriate metrization of the state space. The phase-space distortion (smear) is used as a goal function. Computational experiments for the case of the JINR-Dubna superconducting heavy ion synchrotron NUCLOTRON have shown a significant reduction of the phase-space distortion after the magnet sorting. (orig.)

  9. Fabrication of magnetic tunnel junctions with epitaxial and textured ferromagnetic layers

    Chang, Y. Austin; Yang, Jianhua Joshua

    2008-11-11

    This invention relates to magnetic tunnel junctions and methods for making the magnetic tunnel junctions. The magnetic tunnel junctions include a tunnel barrier oxide layer sandwiched between two ferromagnetic layers both of which are epitaxial or textured with respect to the underlying substrate upon which the magnetic tunnel junctions are grown. The magnetic tunnel junctions provide improved magnetic properties, sharper interfaces and few defects.

  10. Computing strategy of Alpha-Magnetic Spectrometer experiment

    Choutko, V.; Klimentov, A.

    2003-01-01

    Alpha-Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is an experiment to search in the space for dark matter, missing matter, and antimatter scheduled for being flown on the International Space Station in the fall of year 2005 for at least 3 consecutive years. This paper gives an overview of the AMS software with emphasis on the distributed production system based on client/server approach. We also describe our choice of hardware components to build a processing farm with TByte RAID arrays of IDE disks and highlight the strategies that make our system different from many other experimental systems

  11. Cooling Curve of Strange Star in Strong Magnetic Field

    WANG Xiao-Qin; LUO Zhi-Quan

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, firstly, we investigate the neutrino emissivity from quark Urca process in strong magnetic field. Then, we discuss the heat capacity of strange stars in strong magnetic field. Finally, we give the cooling curve in strong magnetic field. In order to make a comparison, we also give the corresponding cooling curve in the case of null magnetic field. It turns out that strange stars cool faster in strong magnetic field than that without magnetic field.

  12. Rotational magnetization of anisotropic media: Lag angle, ellipticity and accommodation

    Kahler, G.R.; Della Torre, E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the change in the ellipticity of two-dimensional magnetization trajectories as the applied field rotates from the easy axis to the hard axis of a material. Furthermore, the impact that the reversible magnetization has on the ellipticity is discussed, including the relationship between the magnetization squareness and the reversible component of the magnetization

  13. Analysis of magnetic nanoparticles using quadrupole magnetic field-flow fractionation

    Carpino, Francesca; Moore, Lee R.; Zborowski, Maciej; Chalmers, Jeffrey J.; Williams, P. Stephen

    2005-01-01

    The new technique of quadrupole magnetic field-flow fractionation is described. It is a separation and characterization technique for particulate magnetic materials. Components of a sample are eluted from the separation channel at times dependent on the strength of their interaction with the magnetic field. A quadrupole electromagnet allows a programmed reduction of field strength during analysis of polydisperse samples

  14. Inspection of disposal canisters components

    Pitkaenen, J.

    2013-12-01

    This report presents the inspection techniques of disposal canister components. Manufacturing methods and a description of the defects related to different manufacturing methods are described briefly. The defect types form a basis for the design of non-destructive testing because the defect types, which occur in the inspected components, affect to choice of inspection methods. The canister components are to nodular cast iron insert, steel lid, lid screw, metal gasket, copper tube with integrated or separate bottom, and copper lid. The inspection of copper material is challenging due to the anisotropic properties of the material and local changes in the grain size of the copper material. The cast iron insert has some acoustical material property variation (attenuation, velocity changes, scattering properties), which make the ultrasonic inspection demanding from calibration point of view. Mainly three different methods are used for inspection. Ultrasonic testing technique is used for inspection of volume, eddy current technique, for copper components only, and visual testing technique are used for inspection of the surface and near surface area

  15. A superconducting magnetic gear

    Campbell, A M

    2016-01-01

    A comparison is made between a magnetic gear using permanent magnets and superconductors. The objective is to see if there are any fundamental reasons why superconducting magnets should not provide higher power densities than permanent magnets. The gear is based on the variable permeability design of Attilah and Howe (2001 IEEE Trans. Magn. 37 2844–46) in which a ring of permanent magnets surrounding a ring of permeable pole pieces with a different spacing gives an internal field component at the beat frequency. Superconductors can provide much larger fields and forces but will saturate the pole pieces. However the gear mechanism still operates, but in a different way. The magnetisation of the pole pieces is now constant but rotates with angle at the beat frequency. The result is a cylindrical Halbach array which produces an internal field with the same symmetry as in the linear regime, but has an analytic solution. In this paper a typical gear system is analysed with finite elements using FlexPDE. It is shown that the gear can work well into the saturation regime and that the Halbach array gives a good approximation to the results. Replacing the permanent magnets with superconducting tapes can give large increases in torque density, and for something like a wind turbine a combined gear and generator is possible. However there are major practical problems. Perhaps the most fundamental is the large high frequency field which is inevitably present and which will cause AC losses. Also large magnetic fields are required, with all the practical problems of high field superconducting magnets in rotating machines. Nevertheless there are ways of mitigating these difficulties and it seems worthwhile to explore the possibilities of this technology further. (paper)

  16. The approximation of anomalous magnetic field by array of magnetized rods

    Denis, Byzov; Lev, Muravyev; Natalia, Fedorova

    2017-07-01

    The method for calculation the vertical component of an anomalous magnetic field from its absolute value is presented. Conversion is based on the approximation of magnetic induction module anomalies by the set of singular sources and the subsequent calculation for the vertical component of the field with the chosen distribution. The rods that are uniformly magnetized along their axis were used as a set of singular sources. Applicability analysis of different methods of nonlinear optimization for solving the given task was carried out. The algorithm is implemented using the parallel computing technology on the NVidia GPU. The approximation and calculation of vertical component is demonstrated for regional magnetic field of North Eurasia territories.

  17. Supply chain components

    Vieraşu, T.; Bălăşescu, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this article I will go through three main logistics components, which are represented by: transportation, inventory and facilities, and the three secondary logistical components: information, production location, price and how they determine performance of any supply chain. I will discuss then how these components are used in the design, planning and operation of a supply chain. I will also talk about some obstacles a supply chain manager may encounter.

  18. Supply chain components

    Vieraşu, T.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article I will go through three main logistics components, which are represented by: transportation, inventory and facilities, and the three secondary logistical components: information, production location, price and how they determine performance of any supply chain. I will discuss then how these components are used in the design, planning and operation of a supply chain. I will also talk about some obstacles a supply chain manager may encounter.

  19. Control component retainer

    Walton, L.A.; King, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus is described for retaining an undriven control component assembly disposed in a fuel assembly in a nuclear reactor of the type having a core grid plate. The first part of the mechanism involves a housing for the control component and the second part is a brace with a number of arms that reach under the grid plate. The brace and the housing are coupled together to firmly hold the control components in place even under strong flows of th coolant

  20. Magnetic Hysteresis

    Della Torre, Edward

    2000-01-01

    Understanding magnetic hysteresis is vitally important to the development of the science of magnetism as a whole and to the advancement of practical magnetic device applications. Magnetic Hysteresis, by acclaimed expert Edward Della Torre, presents a clear explanation of the connection between physical principles and phenomenological hysteresis. This comprehensive book offers a lucid analysis that enables the reader to save valuable time by reducing trial-and-error design. Dr. Della Torre uses physical principles to modify Preisach modeling and to describe the complex behavior of magnetic media. While Pretsach modeling is a useful mathematical tool, its congruency and deletion properties present limitations to accurate descriptions of magnetic materials. Step-by-step, this book describes the modifications that can overcome these limitations. Special attention is given to the use of feedback around a Preisach transducer to remove the congruency restriction, and to the use of accommodation and aftereffect model...

  1. Planetary Magnetism

    Connerney, J. E. P.

    2007-01-01

    The chapter on Planetary Magnetism by Connerney describes the magnetic fields of the planets, from Mercury to Neptune, including the large satellites (Moon, Ganymede) that have or once had active dynamos. The chapter describes the spacecraft missions and observations that, along with select remote observations, form the basis of our knowledge of planetary magnetic fields. Connerney describes the methods of analysis used to characterize planetary magnetic fields, and the models used to represent the main field (due to dynamo action in the planet's interior) and/or remnant magnetic fields locked in the planet's crust, where appropriate. These observations provide valuable insights into dynamo generation of magnetic fields, the structure and composition of planetary interiors, and the evolution of planets.

  2. Component design for LMFBR's

    Fillnow, R.H.; France, L.L.; Zerinvary, M.C.; Fox, R.O.

    1975-01-01

    Just as FFTF has prototype components to confirm their design, FFTF is serving as a prototype for the design of the commercial LMFBR's. Design and manufacture of critical components for the FFTF system have been accomplished primarily using vendors with little or no previous experience in supplying components for high temperature sodium systems. The exposure of these suppliers, and through them a multitude of subcontractors, to the requirements of this program has been a necessary and significant step in preparing American industry for the task of supplying the large mechanical components required for commercial LMFBR's

  3. Hot gas path component

    Lacy, Benjamin Paul; Kottilingam, Srikanth Chandrudu; Porter, Christopher Donald; Schick, David Edward

    2017-09-12

    Various embodiments of the disclosure include a turbomachine component. and methods of forming such a component. Some embodiments include a turbomachine component including: a first portion including at least one of a stainless steel or an alloy steel; and a second portion joined with the first portion, the second portion including a nickel alloy including an arced cooling feature extending therethrough, the second portion having a thermal expansion coefficient substantially similar to a thermal expansion coefficient of the first portion, wherein the arced cooling feature is located within the second portion to direct a portion of a coolant to a leakage area of the turbomachine component.

  4. Magnetic levitation

    Štěpánek,B.; Paleček,M.

    2015-01-01

    The paper deals with magnetism and its influence on superconducting materials. We describe the discovery and development of superconductivity, superconducting levitation and its use in future technology - called. MAGLEV speed trains. We show the interaction of the magnetic field of a strong neodymium magnet and high-temperature superconductor, cooled with liquid nitrogen at about -200 ° C. Of superconductors at this temperature becomes perfect diamagnetic material. That is ejected from the ma...

  5. Magnet Systems

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Over the decades, Fermilab has been responsible for the design, construction, test and analysis of hundreds of conventional and superconducting accelerator magnets...

  6. Planetary Magnetism

    Russell, C.T.

    1980-01-01

    Planetary spacecraft have now probed the magnetic fields of all the terrestrial planets, the moon, Jupiter, and Saturn. These measurements reveal that dynamos are active in at least four of the planets, Mercury, the earth, Jupiter, and Saturn but that Venus and Mars appear to have at most only very weak planetary magnetic fields. The moon may have once possessed an internal dynamo, for the surface rocks are magnetized. The large satellites of the outer solar system are candidates for dynamo action in addition to the large planets themselves. Of these satellites the one most likely to generate its own internal magnetic field is Io

  7. Magnetics Processing

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Magnetics Processing Lab equipped to perform testing of magnetometers, integrate them into aircraft systems, and perform data analysis, including noise reduction...

  8. Nuclear resonance apparatus including means for rotating a magnetic field

    Sugimoto, H.

    1983-01-01

    A nuclear magnetic resonance apparatus including magnet apparatus for generating a homogeneous static magnetic field between its magnetic poles, shims of a magnetic substance mounted on the magnetic poles to apply a first gradient magnetic field intensity distribution in a direction orthogonal as to the direction of line of magnetic force of the static magnetic field, gradient magnetic field generating electromagnetic apparatus for generating a second gradient magnetic field having a gradient magnetic field intensity distribution in superimposition with the static magnetic field and for changing the magnetic field gradient of the first gradient magnetic field, an oscillator for generating an oscillating output having a frequency corresponding to the nuclear magnetic resonance condition of an atomic nucleus to be measured, a coil wound around a body to be examined for applying the output of said oscillator as electromagnetic waves upon the body, a receiver for detecting the nuclear magnetic resonance signals received by the coil, a gradient magnetic field controller making a magnetic field line equivalent to the combined gradient magnetic fields and for rotating the line along the section of the body to be examined by controlling said gradient magnetic field generating electromagnetic apparatus and devices for recording the nuclear magnetic resonance signals, for reconstructing the concentration distribution of the specific atomic nuclei in the section of the body, and a display unit for depicting the result of reconstruction

  9. Manipulating Neutral Atoms in Chip-Based Magnetic Traps

    Aveline, David; Thompson, Robert; Lundblad, Nathan; Maleki, Lute; Yu, Nan; Kohel, James

    2009-01-01

    Several techniques for manipulating neutral atoms (more precisely, ultracold clouds of neutral atoms) in chip-based magnetic traps and atomic waveguides have been demonstrated. Such traps and waveguides are promising components of future quantum sensors that would offer sensitivities much greater than those of conventional sensors. Potential applications include gyroscopy and basic research in physical phenomena that involve gravitational and/or electromagnetic fields. The developed techniques make it possible to control atoms with greater versatility and dexterity than were previously possible and, hence, can be expected to contribute to the value of chip-based magnetic traps and atomic waveguides. The basic principle of these techniques is to control gradient magnetic fields with suitable timing so as to alter a trap to exert position-, velocity-, and/or time-dependent forces on atoms in the trap to obtain desired effects. The trap magnetic fields are generated by controlled electric currents flowing in both macroscopic off-chip electromagnet coils and microscopic wires on the surface of the chip. The methods are best explained in terms of examples. Rather than simply allowing atoms to expand freely into an atomic waveguide, one can give them a controllable push by switching on an externally generated or a chip-based gradient magnetic field. This push can increase the speed of the atoms, typically from about 5 to about 20 cm/s. Applying a non-linear magnetic-field gradient exerts different forces on atoms in different positions a phenomenon that one can exploit by introducing a delay between releasing atoms into the waveguide and turning on the magnetic field.

  10. Components of Sexual Identity

    Shively, Michael G.; DeCecco, John P.

    1977-01-01

    This paper examines the four components of sexual identity: biological sex, gender identity, social sex-role, and sexual orientation. Theories about the development of each component and how they combine and conflict to form the individual's sexual identity are discussed. (Author)

  11. Towards Cognitive Component Analysis

    Hansen, Lars Kai; Ahrendt, Peter; Larsen, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Cognitive component analysis (COCA) is here defined as the process of unsupervised grouping of data such that the ensuing group structure is well-aligned with that resulting from human cognitive activity. We have earlier demonstrated that independent components analysis is relevant for representing...

  12. Electromagnetic interactions in relativistic infinite component wave equations

    Gerry, C.C.

    1979-01-01

    The electromagnetic interactions of a composite system described by relativistic infinite-component wave equations are considered. The noncompact group SO(4,2) is taken as the dynamical group of the systems, and its unitary irreducible representations, which are infinite dimensional, are used to find the energy spectra and to specify the states of the systems. First the interaction mechanism is examined in the nonrelativistic SO(4,2) formulation of the hydrogen atom as a heuristic guide. A way of making a minimal relativistic generalization of the minimal ineractions in the nonrelativistic equation for the hydrogen atom is proposed. In order to calculate the effects of the relativistic minimal interactions, a covariant perturbation theory suitable for infinite-component wave equations, which is an algebraic and relativistic version of the Rayleigh-Schroedinger perturbation theory, is developed. The electric and magnetic polarizabilities for the ground state of the hydrogen atom are calculated. The results have the correct nonrelativistic limits. Next, the relativistic cross section of photon absorption by the atom is evaluated. A relativistic expression for the cross section of light scattering corresponding to the seagull diagram is derived. The Born amplitude is combusted and the role of spacelike solutions is discussed. Finally, internal electromagnetic interactions that give rise to the fine structure splittings, the Lamb shifts and the hyperfine splittings are considered. The spin effects are introduced by extending the dynamical group

  13. An experimental magnetic moment determination method based on spatial harmonic analysis of magnetic flux density signatures

    A.V. Getman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical aspects of an experimental determination method for residual and inductive magnetic moments of a technical object are considered. As input data, the technical object magnetic induction signatures obtained under its linear movement near a pair of three-component sensors are used. A magnetic signature integration technique based on spatial harmonic analysis of the magnetic field represented by twenty-four multipole coefficients is introduced.

  14. Magnetic Field Measurements In Magnetized Plasmas Using Zeeman Broadening Diagnostics

    Haque, Showera; Wallace, Matthew; Presura, Radu; Neill, Paul

    2017-10-01

    The Zeeman effect has been used to measure the magnetic field in high energy density plasmas. This method is limited when plasma conditions are such that the line broadening due to the high plasma density and temperature surpasses the Zeeman splitting. We have measured magnetic fields in magnetized laser plasmas under conditions where the Zeeman splitting was not spectrally resolved. The magnetic field strength was determined from the difference in widths of two doublet components, using an idea proposed by Tessarin et al. (2011). Time-gated spectra with one-dimensional space-resolution were obtained at the Nevada Terawatt Facility for laser plasmas created by 20 J, 1 ns Leopard laser pulses, and expanding in the azimuthal magnetic field produced by the 0.6 MA Zebra pulsed power generator. We explore the response of the Al III 4s 2S1/2 - 4p 2P1 / 2 , 3 / 2 doublet components to the external magnetic field spatially along the plasma. Radial magnetic field and electron density profiles were measured within the plasma plume. This work was supported by the DOE/OFES Grant DE-SC0008829 and DOE/NNSA contract DE-FC52-06NA27616.

  15. Magnetic starspots

    Jahn, K.; Stepien, K.

    1984-01-01

    Models of large magnetic starspots with an axisymmetric untwisted magnetic field on late type stars are discussed. It is assumed that the magnetic field reduces the efficiency of convection inside the spot. A unique relation between the stellar mass and the difference of effective temperatures of the spot and the surrounding photosphere is adopted from observations. It is equivalent to the reduction of a s (the mixing length theory parameter) inside the spot to the value 0.15 independently of the stellar mass. The surface magnetic field of large spots covering a considerable part of the stellar surface is a decreasing function of the magnetic flux. Hence a coverage of a star by magnetic regions rapidly increases as a function of the magnetic flux in a narrow range of fluxes. This behaviour can explain the Vaughan-Preston gap. Recent observations of magnetic fields on G and K type stars are in a good agreement with our predictions. 35 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs. (author)

  16. Magnetic superlattices

    Kwo, J.; Hong, M.; McWhan, D.B.; Yafet, Y.; Fleming, R.M.; DiSalvo, F.J.; Waszczak, J.V.; Majkrzak, C.F.; Gibbs, D.; Goldmann, A.I.; Boni, P.; Bohr, J.; Grimm, H.; Bohr, J.; Chien, C.L.; Grimm, H.; Cable, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    Single crystal magnetic rare earth superlattices were synthesized by molecular beam epitaxy. The studies include four rare earth systems: Gd-Y, Dy-Y, Ho-Y, and Gd-Dy. The magnetic properties and the long-range spin order are reviewed in terms of the interfacial behavior, and the interlayer exchange coupling across Y medium

  17. Thermomechanic equations for magnetic fluids of equilibrium magnetization

    Bashtovoy, V.G.; Berkovsky, B.M.; Vislovich, A.N.

    1988-01-01

    The main physical prerequisite for the existence of equilibrium magnetization is the assumption that nothing, except thermal motion, hinders the orientation of elementary magnetic moments along the field and that the mean value of magnetization is achieved instantaneously, i.e., within the times much shorter than the characteristic times of macroscopic processes (hydrodynamic, thermal, electromagnetic, etc.). This assumption makes it possible to consider the fluid magnetization vector M-vector at a given instant to be parallel to the vector of magnetic field intensity H-vector, which in the general form may be related as M-vector = (M/H)H-vector. Magnetization M is determined by the fluid temperature and density and by field intensity: M = M(T,rho,H). It is natural that it decreases with rising temperature and increases with the field intensity. The condition for the vectors M-vector and H-vector to be parallel is realized in a MF only for certain colloid characteristics. Nevertheless, for a wide range of problems this condition may be regarded as fulfilled and enables one to study those effects in a MF which are caused to occur by the volume magnetic force due to the interaction between equilibrium magnetization and the magnetic field

  18. Triode for magnetic flux quanta.

    Vlasko-Vlasov, Vitalii; Colauto, Fabiano; Benseman, Timothy; Rosenmann, Daniel; Kwok, Wai-Kwong

    We designed a magnetic vortex triode using an array of closely spaced soft magnetic Py strips on top of a Nb superconducting film. The strips act similar to the grid electrode in an electronic triode, where the electron flow is regulated by the grid potential. In our case, we tune the vortex motion by the magnetic charge potential of the strip edges, using a small magnetic field rotating in the film plane. The magnetic charges emerging at the stripe edges and proportional to the magnetization component perpendicular to the edge direction, form linear potential barriers or valleys for vortex motion in the superconducting layer. We directly imaged the normal flux penetration into the Py/Nb films and observed retarded or accelerated entry of the normal vortices depending on the in-plane magnetization direction in the stripes. The observed flux behavior is explained by interactions between magnetically charged lines and magnetic monopoles of vortices similar to those between electrically charged strings and point charges. We discuss the possibility of using our design for manipulation of individual vortices in high-speed, low-power superconducting electronic circuits. This work was supported by the U.S. DOE, Office of Science, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division, and Office of BES (contract DE-AC02-06CH11357). F. Colauto thanks the Sao Paulo Research Foundation FAPESP (Grant No. 2015/06.085-3).

  19. Magnetic Field

    Olsen, Nils

    2015-01-01

    he Earth has a large and complicated magnetic field, the major part of which is produced by a self-sustaining dynamo operating in the fluid outer core. Magnetic field observations provide one of the few tools for remote sensing the Earth’s deep interior, especially regarding the dynamics...... of the fluid flow at the top of the core. However, what is measured at or near the surface of the Earth is the superposition of the core field and fields caused by magnetized rocks in the Earth’s crust, by electric currents flowing in the ionosphere, magnetosphere, and oceans, and by currents induced...... in the Earth by time-varying external fields. These sources have their specific characteristics in terms of spatial and temporal variations, and their proper separation, based on magnetic measurements, is a major challenge. Such a separation is a prerequisite for remote sensing by means of magnetic field...

  20. GCS component development cycle

    Rodríguez, Jose A.; Macias, Rosa; Molgo, Jordi; Guerra, Dailos; Pi, Marti

    2012-09-01

    The GTC1 is an optical-infrared 10-meter segmented mirror telescope at the ORM observatory in Canary Islands (Spain). First light was at 13/07/2007 and since them it is in the operation phase. The GTC control system (GCS) is a distributed object & component oriented system based on RT-CORBA8 and it is responsible for the management and operation of the telescope, including its instrumentation. GCS has used the Rational Unified process (RUP9) in its development. RUP is an iterative software development process framework. After analysing (use cases) and designing (UML10) any of GCS subsystems, an initial component description of its interface is obtained and from that information a component specification is written. In order to improve the code productivity, GCS has adopted the code generation to transform this component specification into the skeleton of component classes based on a software framework, called Device Component Framework. Using the GCS development tools, based on javadoc and gcc, in only one step, the component is generated, compiled and deployed to be tested for the first time through our GUI inspector. The main advantages of this approach are the following: It reduces the learning curve of new developers and the development error rate, allows a systematic use of design patterns in the development and software reuse, speeds up the deliverables of the software product and massively increase the timescale, design consistency and design quality, and eliminates the future refactoring process required for the code.

  1. 2-component heating systems

    Radtke, W

    1987-03-01

    The knowledge accumulated only recently of the damage to buildings and the hazards of formaldehyde, radon and hydrocarbons has been inducing louder calls for ventilation, which, on their part, account for the fact that increasing importance is being attached to the controlled ventilation of buildings. Two-component heating systems provide for fresh air and thermal comfort in one. While the first component uses fresh air blown directly and controllably into the rooms, the second component is similar to the Roman hypocaustic heating systems, meaning that heated outer air is circulating under the floor, thus providing for hot surfaces and thermal comfort. Details concerning the two-component heating system are presented along with systems diagrams, diagrams of the heating system and tables identifying the respective costs. Descriptions are given of the two systems components, the fast heat-up, the two-component made, the change of air, heat recovery and control systems. Comparative evaluations determine the differences between two-component heating systems and other heating systems. Conclusive remarks are dedicated to energy conservation and comparative evaluations of costs. (HWJ).

  2. Component aging evaluation with expert systems

    Wiesemann, J.S.; Maguire, H.T. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The age degradation of components involves a complex relationship between a variety of variables. These relationships are typically modeled using probabilistic and deterministic analyses. These methods depend upon a formal understanding of the underlying degradation mechanisms and a database of experience which allows statistical analyses to extract numerical trends. At present, not all age degradation mechanisms are adequately modeled and available data for age degradation is in most cases insufficient. In addition, these methods tend to focus upon answers to isolated questions (e.g., What is the component failure rate?) rather than the more pertinent questions concerning operations and maintenance (e.g., should the component be replaced at the next outage). Fortunately, knowledge in the form of personal experience does exist which allows plant personnel to make decisions concerning operations and maintenance. This knowledge can be modeled using expert systems. This paper discusses CAGES (Component Aging Expert System). It combines expert rules (heuristics), probabilistic models, and deterministic models to make evaluations of component aging; predict the implications for component life extension, operational readiness, maintenance effectiveness, and safety, and make recommendations for maintenance and operation

  3. An example of utilization of the superconductivity for the generation of high magnetic fields: the LHC at CERN

    Savary, F.; Vlogaert, J.

    2006-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider, LHC, under construction at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) in Geneva makes use of the low temperature superconductivity of the Nb-Ti alloy to generate high magnetic fields in order to guide and to focus high energy proton beams in a double ring of 27-km circumference; aiming at studying the matter in the sub-nuclear field. In this paper, we will present the main parameters of the collider and the constraints which led to the choice of the low temperature superconductor technology for two of the main components of the LHC: the bending magnet and the focussing quadrupole. Then, the conceptual principles and the main parameters of the bending magnets will be described. To conclude, the results obtained at half of the fabrication of the 1232 superconducting magnets necessary to guide the protons in the accelerator ring will be shown. (authors)

  4. [Application value of magnetic compression anastomosis in digestive tract reconstruction].

    Du, Xilin; Fan, Chao; Zhang, Hongke; Lu, Jianguo

    2014-05-01

    Magnetic compression anastomosis can compress tissues together and restore the continuity. Magnetic compression anastomosis mainly experienced three stages: magnetic ring, magnetic ring and column, and smart self-assembling magnets for endoscopy (SAMSEN). Nowadays, the magnetic compression anastomosis has been applied in vascular and different digestive tract surgeries, especially for complex surgery, such as anastomotic stenosis of biliary ducts after liver transplantation or congenital esophageal stenosis. Although only case reports are available at present, the advantages of the magnetic compression anastomosis includes lower cost, simplicity, individualization, good efficacy, safety, and minimally invasiveness. We are building a better technical platform to make magnetic compression anastomosis more advanced and popularized.

  5. Applications concepts of small regenerative cryocoolers in superconducitng magnet systems

    van der Laan, M.T.G.; van der Laan, M.T.G.; Tax, R.B.; ten Kate, Herman H.J.

    1992-01-01

    Superconducting magnets are in growing use outside laboratories for example MRI scanners in hospitals. Other applications under development are magnet systems for separation, levitated trains and ship propulsion. The application of cryocoolers can make these systems more practical. Interfacing these

  6. A multi-component matrix loop algebra and a unified expression of the multi-component AKNS hierarchy and the multi-component BPT hierarchy

    Zhang Yufeng

    2005-01-01

    A set of multi-component matrix Lie algebra is constructed, which is devote to obtaining a new loop algebra A-bar M-1 . It follows that an isospectral problem is established. By making use of Tu scheme, a Liouville integrable multi-component hierarchy of soliton equations is generated, which possesses the bi-Hamiltonian structures. As its reduction cases, the multi-component AKNS hierarchy and the formalism of the multi-component BPT hierarchy are given, respectively

  7. Recent developments in magnet measuring techniques

    Billan, J.; Henrichsen, K.N.; Walckiers, L.

    1985-01-01

    The main problems related to magnetic measurements of particle accelerator components are discussed. Measurements of the properties of magnetic materials as well as the measurements of field distribution in the electromagnets for the Large Electron-Positron Collider (LEP) are illustrated. The fluxmeter method is extensively employed in this work. The impact of recent advances in electronic technology on measurement techniques is explained. Magnetic measurements (including the harmonic coil method) can be performed with improved accuracy applying modern technology to the classical methods. New methods for the non-destructive testing of magnetic materials and for the measurement of magnetic geometry are described. (orig.) [de

  8. Tuning bacterial hydrodynamics with magnetic fields

    Pierce, C. J.; Mumper, E.; Brown, E. E.; Brangham, J. T.; Lower, B. H.; Lower, S. K.; Yang, F. Y.; Sooryakumar, R.

    2017-06-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria are a group of motile prokaryotes that synthesize chains of lipid-bound, magnetic nanoparticles called magnetosomes. This study exploits their innate magnetism to investigate previously unexplored facets of bacterial hydrodynamics at surfaces. Through use of weak, uniform, external magnetic fields and local, micromagnetic surface patterns, the relative strength of hydrodynamic, magnetic, and flagellar force components is tuned through magnetic control of the bacteria's orientation. The resulting swimming behaviors provide a means to experimentally determine hydrodynamic parameters and offer a high degree of control over large numbers of living microscopic entities. The implications of this controlled motion for studies of bacterial motility near surfaces and for micro- and nanotechnology are discussed.

  9. Theorem on magnet fringe field

    Wei, Jie; Talman, R.

    1995-01-01

    Transverse particle motion in particle accelerators is governed almost totally by non-solenoidal magnets for which the body magnetic field can be expressed as a series expansion of the normal (b n ) and skew (a n ) multipoles, B y + iB x = summation(b n + ia n )(x + iy) n , where x, y, and z denote horizontal, vertical, and longitudinal (along the magnet) coordinates. Since the magnet length L is necessarily finite, deflections are actually proportional to ''field integrals'' such as bar BL ≡ ∫ B(x,y,z)dz where the integration range starts well before the magnet and ends well after it. For bar a n , bar b n , bar B x , and bar B y defined this way, the same expansion Eq. 1 is valid and the ''standard'' approximation is to neglect any deflections not described by this expansion, in spite of the fact that Maxwell's equations demand the presence of longitudinal field components at the magnet ends. The purpose of this note is to provide a semi-quantitative estimate of the importance of |Δp ∝ |, the transverse deflection produced by the ion-gitudinal component of the fringe field at one magnet end relative to |Δp 0 |, the total deflection produced by passage through the whole magnet. To emphasize the generality and simplicity of the result it is given in the form of a theorem. The essence of the proof is an evaluation of the contribution of the longitudinal field B x from the vicinity of one magnet end since, along a path parallel to the magnet axis such as path BC

  10. Approach to magnetic neutron capture therapy

    Kuznetsov, Anatoly A.; Podoynitsyn, Sergey N.; Filippov, Victor I.; Komissarova, Lubov Kh.; Kuznetsov, Oleg A.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The method of magnetic neutron capture therapy can be described as a combination of two methods: magnetic localization of drugs using magnetically targeted carriers and neutron capture therapy itself. Methods and Materials: In this work, we produced and tested two types of particles for such therapy. Composite ultradispersed ferro-carbon (Fe-C) and iron-boron (Fe-B) particles were formed from vapors of respective materials. Results: Two-component ultradispersed particles, containing Fe and C, were tested as magnetic adsorbent of L-boronophenylalanine and borax and were shown that borax sorption could be effective for creation of high concentration of boron atoms in the area of tumor. Kinetics of boron release into the physiologic solution demonstrate that ultradispersed Fe-B (10%) could be applied for an effective magnetic neutron capture therapy. Conclusion: Both types of the particles have high magnetization and magnetic homogeneity, allow to form stable magnetic suspensions, and have low toxicity

  11. Replaceable LMFBR core components

    Evans, E.A.; Cunningham, G.W.

    1976-01-01

    Much progress has been made in understanding material and component performance in the high temperature, fast neutron environment of the LMFBR. Current data have provided strong assurance that the initial core component lifetime objectives of FFTF and CRBR can be met. At the same time, this knowledge translates directly into the need for improved core designs that utilize improved materials and advanced fuels required to meet objectives of low doubling times and extended core component lifetimes. An industrial base for the manufacture of quality core components has been developed in the US, and all procurements for the first two core equivalents for FFTF will be completed this year. However, the problem of fabricating recycled plutonium while dramatically reducing fabrication costs, minimizing personnel exposure, and protecting public health and safety must be addressed

  12. Explosive Components Facility

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The 98,000 square foot Explosive Components Facility (ECF) is a state-of-the-art facility that provides a full-range of chemical, material, and performance analysis...

  13. The Physical Connection and Magnetic Coupling of the MICE Cooling Channel Magnets and the Magnet Forces for Various MICE Operating Modes

    Yang, Stephanie Q.; Baynham, D.E.; Fabricatore, Pasquale; Farinon, Stefania; Green, Michael A.; Ivanyushenkov, Yury; Lau, Wing W.; Maldavi, S.M.; Virostek, Steve P.; Witte, Holger

    2006-01-01

    A key issue in the construction of the MICE cooling channel is the magnetic forces between various elements in the cooling channel and the detector magnets. This report describes how the MICE cooling channel magnets are hooked to together so that the longitudinal magnetic forces within the cooling channel can be effectively connected to the base of the experiment. This report presents a magnetic force and stress analysis for the MICE cooling channel magnets, even when longitudinal magnetic forces as large as 700 kN (70 tons) are applied to the vacuum vessel of various magnets within the MICE channel. This report also shows that the detector magnets can be effectively separated from the central MICE cooling channel magnets without damage to either type of magnet component

  14. Component fragility research program

    Tsai, N.C.; Mochizuki, G.L.; Holman, G.S.

    1989-11-01

    To demonstrate how ''high-level'' qualification test data can be used to estimate the ultimate seismic capacity of nuclear power plant equipment, we assessed in detail various electrical components tested by the Pacific Gas ampersand Electric Company for its Diablo Canyon plant. As part of our Phase I Component Fragility Research Program, we evaluated seismic fragility for five Diablo Canyon components: medium-voltage (4kV) switchgear; safeguard relay board; emergency light battery pack; potential transformer; and station battery and racks. This report discusses our Phase II fragility evaluation of a single Westinghouse Type W motor control center column, a fan cooler motor controller, and three local starters at the Diablo Canyon nuclear power plant. These components were seismically qualified by means of biaxial random motion tests on a shaker table, and the test response spectra formed the basis for the estimate of the seismic capacity of the components. The seismic capacity of each component is referenced to the zero period acceleration (ZPA) and, in our Phase II study only, to the average spectral acceleration (ASA) of the motion at its base. For the motor control center, the seismic capacity was compared to the capacity of a Westinghouse Five-Star MCC subjected to actual fragility tests by LLNL during the Phase I Component Fragility Research Program, and to generic capacities developed by the Brookhaven National Laboratory for motor control center. Except for the medium-voltage switchgear, all of the components considered in both our Phase I and Phase II evaluations were qualified in their standard commercial configurations or with only relatively minor modifications such as top bracing of cabinets. 8 refs., 67 figs., 7 tabs

  15. Refractory alloy component fabrication

    Young, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose of this report is to describe joining procedures, primarily welding techniques, which were developed to construct reliable refractory alloy components and systems for advanced space power systems. Two systems, the Nb-1Zr Brayton Cycle Heat Receiver and the T-111 Alloy Potassium Boiler Development Program, are used to illustrate typical systems and components. Particular emphasis is given to specific problems which were eliminated during the development efforts. Finally, some thoughts on application of more recent joining technology are presented. 78 figures

  16. Impact test of components

    Borsoi, L.; Buland, P.; Labbe, P.

    1987-01-01

    Stops with gaps are currently used to support components and piping: it is simple, low cost, efficient and permits free thermal expansion. In order to keep the nonlinear nature of stops, such design is often modeled by beam elements (for the component) and nonlinear springs (for the stops). This paper deals with the validity and the limits of these models through the comparison of computational and experimental results. The experimental results come from impact laboratory tests on a simplified mockup. (orig.)

  17. Shared decision making

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000877.htm Shared decision making To use the sharing features on this page, ... treatment you both support. When to use Shared Decision Making Shared decision making is often used when you ...

  18. 3D Analytical Calculation of the Interactions between Permanent Magnets

    Allag , Hicham; Yonnet , Jean-Paul

    2008-01-01

    International audience; Up to now, the analytical calculation has been made only when the magnets own parallel magnetization directions. We have succeeded in two new results of first importance for the analytical calculation: the torque between two magnets, and the force components and torque when the magnetization directions are perpendicular. The last result allows the analytical calculation of the interactions when the magnetizations are in all the directions. The 3D analytical expressions...

  19. Metacognitive components in smart learning environment

    Sumadyo, M.; Santoso, H. B.; Sensuse, D. I.

    2018-03-01

    Metacognitive ability in digital-based learning process helps students in achieving learning goals. So that digital-based learning environment should make the metacognitive component as a facility that must be equipped. Smart Learning Environment is the concept of a learning environment that certainly has more advanced components than just a digital learning environment. This study examines the metacognitive component of the smart learning environment to support the learning process. A review of the metacognitive literature was conducted to examine the components involved in metacognitive learning strategies. Review is also conducted on the results of study smart learning environment, ranging from design to context in building smart learning. Metacognitive learning strategies certainly require the support of adaptable, responsive and personalize learning environments in accordance with the principles of smart learning. The current study proposed the role of metacognitive component in smart learning environment, which is useful as the basis of research in building environment in smart learning.

  20. The Characterization of the Magnetic Properties of Soft Magnetic Materials

    Larsen, Raino Michael

    1996-01-01

    The hysteresis curve and magnetic properties such as permeability, saturation induction, residual induction, coercive force and hysteresis losses are presented. The design and construction of equipment making it possible to measure true DC-values as well as AC-properties of toroid rings and cylin......The hysteresis curve and magnetic properties such as permeability, saturation induction, residual induction, coercive force and hysteresis losses are presented. The design and construction of equipment making it possible to measure true DC-values as well as AC-properties of toroid rings...

  1. Full magnetic gradient tensor from triaxial aeromagnetic gradient measurements: Calculation and application

    Luo, Yao; Wu, Mei-Ping; Wang, Ping; Duan, Shu-Ling; Liu, Hao-Jun; Wang, Jin-Long; An, Zhan-Feng

    2015-09-01

    The full magnetic gradient tensor (MGT) refers to the spatial change rate of the three field components of the geomagnetic field vector along three mutually orthogonal axes. The tensor is of use to geological mapping, resources exploration, magnetic navigation, and others. However, it is very difficult to measure the full magnetic tensor gradient using existing engineering technology. We present a method to use triaxial aeromagnetic gradient measurements for deriving the full MGT. The method uses the triaxial gradient data and makes full use of the variation of the magnetic anomaly modulus in three dimensions to obtain a self-consistent magnetic tensor gradient. Numerical simulations show that the full MGT data obtained with the proposed method are of high precision and satisfy the requirements of data processing. We selected triaxial aeromagnetic gradient data from the Hebei Province for calculating the full MGT. Data processing shows that using triaxial tensor gradient data allows to take advantage of the spatial rate of change of the total field in three dimensions and suppresses part of the independent noise in the aeromagnetic gradient. The calculated tensor components have improved resolution, and the transformed full tensor gradient satisfies the requirement of geological mapping and interpretation.

  2. Lunar magnetism

    Hood, L. L.; Sonett, C. P.; Srnka, L. J.

    1984-01-01

    Aspects of lunar paleomagnetic and electromagnetic sounding results which appear inconsistent with the hypothesis that an ancient core dynamo was the dominant source of the observed crustal magnetism are discussed. Evidence is summarized involving a correlation between observed magnetic anomalies and ejecta blankets from impact events which indicates the possible importance of local mechanisms involving meteoroid impact processes in generating strong magnetic fields at the lunar surface. A reply is given to the latter argument which also presents recent evidence of a lunar iron core.

  3. Effect of Anode Magnetic Shield on Magnetic Field and Ion Beam in Cylindrical Hall Thruster

    Zhao Jie; Wang Shiqing; Liu Jian; Xu Li; Tang Deli; Geng Shaofei

    2010-01-01

    Numerical simulation of the effect of the anode magnetic shielding on the magnetic field and ion beam in a cylindrical Hall thruster is presented. The results show that after the anode is shielded by the magnetic shield, the magnetic field lines near the anode surface are obviously convex curved, the ratio of the magnetic mirror is enhanced, the width of the positive magnetic field gradient becomes larger than that without the anode magnetic shielding, the radial magnetic field component is enhanced, and the discharge plasma turbulence is reduced as a result of keeping the original saddle field profile and the important role the other two saddle field profiles play in restricting electrons. The results of the particle in cell (PIC) numerical simulation show that both the ion number and the energy of the ion beam increase after the anode is shielded by the magnetic shield. In other words, the specific impulse of the cylindrical Hall thruster is enhanced.

  4. Diffusion of test particles in stochastic magnetic fields in the percolative regime

    Neuer, Marcus; Spatschek, Karl H.

    2006-01-01

    For stochastic magnetic flux functions with percolative contours the test particle transport is investigated. The calculations make use of the stochastic Liouville approach. They start from the so-called A-Langevin equations, including stochastic magnetic field components and binary collisions. Using the decorrelation trajectory method, a relation between the Lagrangian velocity correlation function and the Eulerian magnetic field correlation is derived and introduced into the Green-Kubo formalism. Finite Larmor radius effects are included. Interesting results are presented in the percolation regime corresponding to high Kubo numbers. Previous results are found to be limiting cases for small Kubo numbers. For different percolative scenarios the diffusion is analyzed and strong influences of the percolative structures on the transport scaling are found. The finite Larmor radius effects are discussed in detail. Numerical simulations of the A-Langevin equation confirm the semianalytical predictions

  5. Light scattering of rectangular slot antennas: parallel magnetic vector vs perpendicular electric vector

    Lee, Dukhyung; Kim, Dai-Sik

    2016-01-01

    We study light scattering off rectangular slot nano antennas on a metal film varying incident polarization and incident angle, to examine which field vector of light is more important: electric vector perpendicular to, versus magnetic vector parallel to the long axis of the rectangle. While vector Babinet’s principle would prefer magnetic field along the long axis for optimizing slot antenna function, convention and intuition most often refer to the electric field perpendicular to it. Here, we demonstrate experimentally that in accordance with vector Babinet’s principle, the incident magnetic vector parallel to the long axis is the dominant component, with the perpendicular incident electric field making a small contribution of the factor of 1/|ε|, the reciprocal of the absolute value of the dielectric constant of the metal, owing to the non-perfectness of metals at optical frequencies.

  6. Making training decisions proactively

    Hartman, R.F.

    1988-01-01

    The challenge of making training decisions with a high degree of confidence as to the results of those decisions face every DOD, Federal, State, and City agency. Training has historically been a very labor and paper intensive system with limited automation support. This paper outlines how one DOD component, the Air Force, is approaching that challenge. The Training Decision System (TDS) will provide the Air Force with an automated decision aid to help plan and estimate the consequences of various mixes of resident training, On-The-Job Training (OJT), and field training within a specialty such as security. The system described provides training from enlistment to separation and responds to hundreds of related security task needs. This system identifies what the tasks are, who should provide the training, what training setting should be used, what proficiency should be achieved, and through computer modeling provides an assessment of training effectiveness options and estimate the impact of implementing those options. With current budgetary constraints and with the possibility of further reductions in the future, the most cost effective training mix must be found to sustain required capabilities

  7. Highly hydrated poly(allylamine)/silica magnetic resin

    Johnson, Andrew K.; Kaczor, Jozef; Han, Hongmei; Kaur, Maninder; Tian, Guoxin; Rao, Linfeng; Qiang, You; Paszczynski, Andrzej J.

    2011-01-01

    The creation of multifunctional nanomaterials by combining organic and inorganic components is a growing trend in nanoscience. The unique size-dependent properties of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) make them amenable to numerous applications such as carriers of expensive biological catalysts, in magnetically assisted chemical separation of heavy metals and radionuclides from contaminated water sources. The separation of minor actinides from high-level radionuclide waste requires a sorbent stable in acidic pH, with ease of surface functionalization, and a high capacity for binding the molecules of interest. For the described experiments, the MNPs with 50 nm average size were used (size distribution from 20 to 100 nm and an iron content of 80–90 w/w%). The MNPs that have been double coated with an initial silica coating for protection against iron solubilization and oxidation in nitric acid solution (pH 1) and a second silica/polymer composite coating incorporating partially imbedded poly(allylamine) (PA). The final product is magnetic, highly swelling, containing >95% water, with >0.5 mmol amines g −1 available for functionalization. The amine groups of the magnetic resin were functionalized with the chelating molecules diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and N,N-dimethyl-3-oxa-glutaramic acid (DMOGA) for separation of minor actinides from used nuclear fuel.

  8. Evaluation of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) and collagen by Low Field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    Costa, Paula de M.; Tavares, Maria I.B.

    2005-01-01

    Blends of natural and synthetic polymers represent a new class of materials with better mechanical properties and biocompatibility than those of the single components. Collagen and poly(vinylpyrrolidone) are well known for their important biological properties. The blending of collagen with poly(vinylpyrrolidone) makes it possible to obtain new materials in which strong interactions between the synthetic and biological components occur. Do to the excellent biocompatibility of these polymers, this blend has been much studied intending biomedical applications. And a one technique that can provide important information on molecular mobility, compatibility and even evaluate the interactions that can occur with these polymers is the Low Field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Thus, the purpose of this work is to evaluate collagen and poly(vinylpyrrolidone) by Low Field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. From the values of relaxation times obtained, we can conclude that these materials have different interactions, and different mobility domains, confirming the heterogeneity and complexity of these materials. (author)

  9. Magnetic monopoles

    Fryberger, D.

    1984-12-01

    In this talk on magnetic monopoles, first the author briefly reviews some historical background; then, the author describes what several different types of monopoles might look like; and finally the author discusses the experimental situation. 81 references

  10. Quantum magnetism

    Richter, Johannes; Farnell, Damian; Bishop, Raymod

    2004-01-01

    The investigation of magnetic systems where quantum effects play a dominant role has become a very active branch of solid-state-physics research in its own right. The first three chapters of the "Quantum Magnetism" survey conceptual problems and provide insights into the classes of systems considered, namely one-dimensional, two-dimensional and molecular magnets. The following chapters introduce the methods used in the field of quantum magnetism, including spin wave analysis, exact diagonalization, quantum field theory, coupled cluster methods and the Bethe ansatz. The book closes with a chapter on quantum phase transitions and a contribution that puts the wealth of phenomena into the context of experimental solid-state physics. Closing a gap in the literature, this volume is intended both as an introductory text at postgraduate level and as a modern, comprehensive reference for researchers in the field.

  11. Magnetic monopoles

    Preskill, J

    1984-01-01

    This article offers a review of the physics of the magnetic monopole, which, although as yet unseen, offers sound theoretical reasons to believe that it must exist. Several theories are presented and equations are given. The idea that magnetic monopoles, stable particles carrying magnetic charges, ought to exist has, according to the authors, proved to be very durable. One theory presented demonstrates the consistency of magnetic monopoles with quantum electrodynamics. Another theory demonstrates the necessity of monopoles in grand unified gauge theories. The authors believe it is reasonable to expect the monopole to be an extremely heavy stable elementary particle. The stability of the classical monopole solution given is ensured by a topological principle explained

  12. Magnetic Bacteria.

    Nelson, Jane Bray; Nelson, Jim

    1992-01-01

    Describes the history of Richard Blakemore's discovery of magnetotaxic organisms. Discusses possible reasons why the magnetic response in bacteria developed. Proposes research experiments integrating biology and physics in which students investigate problems using cultures of magnetotaxic organisms. (MDH)

  13. New Magnetically Coupled Impedance (Z-) Source Networks

    Siwakoti, Yam Prasad; Blaabjerg, Frede; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2016-01-01

    Various Magnetically Coupled Impedance Source (MCIS) networks have been proposed in the literature for increasing voltage gain and modulation index simultaneously, while reducing the number of passive components used in the converter. However, applications of such networks have been limited...

  14. Combining two major ATLAS inner detector components

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    The semiconductor tracker is inserted into the transition radiation tracker for the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. These make up two of the three major components of the inner detector. They will work together to measure the trajectories produced in the proton-proton collisions at the centre of the detector when the LHC is switched on in 2008.

  15. Multiscale principal component analysis

    Akinduko, A A; Gorban, A N

    2014-01-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) is an important tool in exploring data. The conventional approach to PCA leads to a solution which favours the structures with large variances. This is sensitive to outliers and could obfuscate interesting underlying structures. One of the equivalent definitions of PCA is that it seeks the subspaces that maximize the sum of squared pairwise distances between data projections. This definition opens up more flexibility in the analysis of principal components which is useful in enhancing PCA. In this paper we introduce scales into PCA by maximizing only the sum of pairwise distances between projections for pairs of datapoints with distances within a chosen interval of values [l,u]. The resulting principal component decompositions in Multiscale PCA depend on point (l,u) on the plane and for each point we define projectors onto principal components. Cluster analysis of these projectors reveals the structures in the data at various scales. Each structure is described by the eigenvectors at the medoid point of the cluster which represent the structure. We also use the distortion of projections as a criterion for choosing an appropriate scale especially for data with outliers. This method was tested on both artificial distribution of data and real data. For data with multiscale structures, the method was able to reveal the different structures of the data and also to reduce the effect of outliers in the principal component analysis

  16. Solar magnetism: a new look

    Golub, L.

    1981-01-01

    With the growing evidence for the ubiquity of magnetic fields, researchers feel a growing need for an adequate theory for the generation of such fields in nature. This article looks at the sun and its magnetic fields. The fundamental property that must be explained aside from the existence of magnetic fields is the solar cycle. The traditional picture of the solar cycle has three primary components: (1) solar activity; (2) latitude migration; and (3) Hale's law and reversal of polarity. The aspects of internal motion which can generate magnetic fields and cycles of activity like those observed are discussed. There are two major elements to the flow patterns of the sun. More important than the visible differential rotation of solar surface is the belief that the sun's interior rotates faster than the surface. It is this mechanism which probably produces the magnetic fields which bubble up from interior. It's also possible to show that this mechanism can produce the migration of solar activity. The reversal of polarity is explained by convection zones and sun's rotation. Due to x-ray imaging and improved magnetic field measurements, it has been observed that enormous quantities of magnetic flux emerge from solar interior in form of very small regions. This data along with rocket data show that the rate of generation of magnetic flux does not change during a solar cycle - instead, the observed cycle represents a shift from large emerging regions to numerous small regions and back again

  17. Superconducting magnet safety

    Arendt, F.; Komarek, P.

    1983-01-01

    One of the major components in a fusion reactor for which a safety analysis must be carried out is the magnet system. Most of the possible disturbances influencing the operation of superconducting magnets lead only to a quench, defined as an ''abnormal operating condition'' which causes just a temporary shut down of the magnet system without damage, if the system is well designed. More unlikely are accidental events which are associated with the generation of high power arcs. In these cases, single current arcs, e.g. at broken current leads, will lead to moderate damage only, but with the necessity of a longer shut down period for repair or replacing. Severe damage can only occur if in a multiple current arcing, starting by broken conductors, a wide-spread rupture of the winding occurs and the final high power arc burns through the coil case damaging other coils and reactor components. In a very hypothetical event the simultaneous rupture of the complete winding at two locations at least 1 m apart leads to missile generation due to the electromagnetic forces in the background field. The kinetic energy which the flying piece can get will be less than the values assumed for airplane crashes with the containment of modern fission power plants. (author)

  18. Study of the magnetic interaction in nanocrystalline Pr–Fe–Co–Nb–B permanent magnets

    Dospial, M.; Plusa, D.; Ślusarek, B.

    2012-01-01

    The magnetic properties of an isotropic, epoxy resin bonded magnets made from Pr–Fe–Co–Nb–B powder were investigated. The magnetization reversal process and magnetic parameters were examined by measurements of the initial magnetization curve, major and minor hysteresis loops and sets of recoil curves. From the initial magnetization curve and the field dependencies of the reversible and irreversible magnetization components derived from the recoil loops it was found that the magnetization reversal process is the combination of the nucleation of reversed domains and pinning of domain walls at the grain boundaries and the reversible rotation of magnetization vector in single domain grains. The interactions between grains were studied by means of δM plots. The nonlinear behavior of δM curve approve that the short range intergrain exchange coupling interactions are dominant in a field up to the sample coercivity. The interaction domains and fine magnetic structure were revealed as the evidence of exchange coupling between soft α-Fe and hard magnetic Nd 2 Fe 14 B grains. - Highlights: ► Coercivity of the Pr–Fe–Co–Nb–B magnet is determined by the pinning of domain walls at the grain boundaries. ► Rotation of magnetization vector and domain walls bowing also give the contribution to the initial and demagnetization process. ► δM behavior shows that the dominant interaction is the short range exchange one among soft magnetic α-Fe and hard magnetic Pr 2 Fe 14 B grains.

  19. Superconducting magnet

    1985-01-01

    Extensive computer based engineering design effort resulted in optimization of a superconducting magnet design with an average bulk current density of approximately 12KA/cm(2). Twisted, stranded 0.0045 inch diameter NbTi superconductor in a copper matrix was selected. Winding the coil from this bundle facilitated uniform winding of the small diameter wire. Test coils were wound using a first lot of the wire. The actual packing density was measured from these. Interwinding voltage break down tests on the test coils indicated the need for adjustment of the wire insulation on the lot of wire subsequently ordered for construction of the delivered superconducting magnet. Using the actual packing densities from the test coils, a final magnet design, with the required enhancement and field profile, was generated. All mechanical and thermal design parameters were then also fixed. The superconducting magnet was then fabricated and tested. The first test was made with the magnet immersed in liquid helium at 4.2K. The second test was conducted at 2K in vacuum. In the latter test, the magnet was conduction cooled from the mounting flange end.

  20. [Neodymium magnet injury causing nasal fracture: a case report].

    Aykan, Andaç; Güzey, Serbülent; Avşar, Sedat; Öztürk, Serdar

    2015-05-01

    In parallel with technological developments, small size but strong magnets are commonly used in modern devices. In terms of foreign body injuries, magnet injuries are quite rare. However, due to their unique characteristics, there are some difficulties in their management. The magnetic field generated by the magnet affects the surgical instruments and make treatment difficult. In this case report, a nasal injury due to neodymium magnet and our alternative approach for its management was reported.

  1. Two dimensional magnetic field calculations for the SSC dipole magnets

    Krefta, M.P.; Pavlik, D.

    1991-01-01

    In this work two-dimensional methods are used to calculate the magnetic fields throughout the cross section of a SSC dipole magnet. Analytic techniques, which are based on closed form solutions to the defining field equations, are used to calculate the multipole content for any specified conductor positioning. The method is extended to investigate the effects of radial slots or keyways in the iron yoke. The multipole components of field, directly attributable to the slots or keyways, are examined as a function of size and location. It is shown that locating the slots or keyways at the magnet pole centers has a large effect on the multipole components; whereas, locating the keyways between the magnet poles has little effect on any of the multipoles. The investigation of nonlinear effects such as ferromagnetic saturation or superconductor magnetization relies on the use of numerical methods such as the finite element method. The errors associated with these codes are explained in terms of numerical round-off, spatial discretization error and the representation of distant boundaries. A method for increasing the accuracy of the multipole calculation from finite element solutions is set forth. It is shown that calculated multipole coefficients are sensitive to boundary conditions external to the cold mass during conditions of magnetic saturation

  2. Irradiation properties of T0 chopper components

    Itoh, Shinichi, E-mail: shinichi.itoh@kek.jp [Neutron Science Division, Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Ueno, Kenji; Ohkubo, Ryuji [Mechanical Engineering Center, Applied Research Laboratory, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Sagehashi, Hidenori [Neutron Science Division, Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Funahashi, Yoshisato [Mechanical Engineering Center, Applied Research Laboratory, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Yokoo, Tetsuya [Neutron Science Division, Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan)

    2011-10-21

    We investigated the irradiation properties of the components of a T0 chopper. The organic materials in the rotor bearing grease, the magnetic fluids in seals, and the rubber in the timing belt, as well as the semiconductor materials in the rotation sensor and motor encoder, were all irradiated with high-energy {gamma}-rays up to 100 kGy. No significant damage that shortens the lifetime of a T0 chopper was observed for the mechanical components. However, the semiconductor components were damaged by the irradiation. For the rotation sensor system detecting the rotor phase, the signal from a marker on the rotor shaft was transmitted outside the shielding by an optical fiber with radiation-proofing and the electrical circuits were removed from the beamline shielding. The lifetime of the motor encoder possibly meets the requirement for the maintenance period of the T0 chopper.

  3. Irradiation effects on plasma diagnostic components

    Nishitani, Takeo; Iida, Toshiyuki; Ikeda, Yujiro

    1998-10-01

    One of the most important issues to develop the diagnostics for the experimental thermonuclear reactor such as ITER is the irradiation effects on the diagnostics components. Typical neutron flux and fluence on the first wall are 1 MW/m 2 and 1 MWa/m 2 , respectively for ITER. In such radiation condition, most of the present diagnostics could not survive so that those will be planed to be installed far from the vacuum vessel. However, some diagnostics sensors such as bolometers and magnetic probes still have to be install inside vessel. And many transmission components for lights, wave and electric signals are inevitable even inside vessel. As a part of this R and D program of the ITER Engineering Design Activities (EDA), we carried out the irradiation tests on the basic materials of the transmission components and in-vessel diagnostics sensors in order to identify radiation hardened materials that can be used for diagnostic systems. (J.P.N.)

  4. Internal magnetic probe data from ZT-40

    Burkhardt, L.C.; Phillips, J.A.

    1981-05-01

    Measurements of magnetic field distribution as a function of time and radius were made in ZT-40 with its ceramic vacuum vessel. Data were obtained with a 10-station, 20-coil magnetic probe, measuring the B/sub p/ and B/sub epsilon/ orthogonal field components in deuterium plasma discharges. Sheath formation and diffusion, magnetic axis location and motion, the effect of the probe on the plasma, and the consistency of flux measurements with external probes are examined

  5. Medical decision making

    Stiggelbout, A.M.; Vries, M. de; Scherer, L.; Keren, G.; Wu, G.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter presents an overview of the field of medical decision making. It distinguishes the levels of decision making seen in health-care practice and shows how research in judgment and decision making support or improve decision making. Most of the research has been done at the micro level,

  6. Optical CDMA components requirements

    Chan, James K.

    1998-08-01

    Optical CDMA is a complementary multiple access technology to WDMA. Optical CDMA potentially provides a large number of virtual optical channels for IXC, LEC and CLEC or supports a large number of high-speed users in LAN. In a network, it provides asynchronous, multi-rate, multi-user communication with network scalability, re-configurability (bandwidth on demand), and network security (provided by inherent CDMA coding). However, optical CDMA technology is less mature in comparison to WDMA. The components requirements are also different from WDMA. We have demonstrated a video transport/switching system over a distance of 40 Km using discrete optical components in our laboratory. We are currently pursuing PIC implementation. In this paper, we will describe the optical CDMA concept/features, the demonstration system, and the requirements of some critical optical components such as broadband optical source, broadband optical amplifier, spectral spreading/de- spreading, and fixed/programmable mask.

  7. Solid state lighting component

    Yuan, Thomas; Keller, Bernd; Tarsa, Eric; Ibbetson, James; Morgan, Frederick; Dowling, Kevin; Lys, Ihor

    2017-10-17

    An LED component according to the present invention comprising an array of LED chips mounted on a submount with the LED chips capable of emitting light in response to an electrical signal. The array can comprise LED chips emitting at two colors of light wherein the LED component emits light comprising the combination of the two colors of light. A single lens is included over the array of LED chips. The LED chip array can emit light of greater than 800 lumens with a drive current of less than 150 milli-Amps. The LED chip component can also operate at temperatures less than 3000 degrees K. In one embodiment, the LED array is in a substantially circular pattern on the submount.

  8. Cognitive Component Analysis

    Feng, Ling

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation concerns the investigation of the consistency of statistical regularities in a signaling ecology and human cognition, while inferring appropriate actions for a speech-based perceptual task. It is based on unsupervised Independent Component Analysis providing a rich spectrum...... of audio contexts along with pattern recognition methods to map components to known contexts. It also involves looking for the right representations for auditory inputs, i.e. the data analytic processing pipelines invoked by human brains. The main ideas refer to Cognitive Component Analysis, defined...... as the process of unsupervised grouping of generic data such that the ensuing group structure is well-aligned with that resulting from human cognitive activity. Its hypothesis runs ecologically: features which are essentially independent in a context defined ensemble, can be efficiently coded as sparse...

  9. Use of high gradient magnetic separation for actinide application

    Avens, L.R.; Worl, L.A.; Padilla, D.D.

    1996-01-01

    Decontamination of materials such as soils or waste water that contain radioactive isotopes, heavy metals, or hazardous components is a subject of great interest. Magnetic separation is a physical separation process that segregates materials on the basis of magnetic susceptibility. Because the process relies on physical properties, separations can be achieved while producing a minimum of secondary waste. Most traditional physical separation processes effectively treat particles larger than 70 microns. In many situations, the radioactive contaminants are found concentrated in the fine particle size fraction of less than 20 microns. For effective decontamination of the fine particle size fraction most current operations resort to chemical dissolution methods for treatment. High gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) is able to effectively treat particles from 90 to ∼0.1 micron in diameter. The technology is currently used on the 60 ton per hour scale in the kaolin clay industry. When the field gradient is of sufficiently high intensity, paramagnetic particles can be physically captured and separated from extraneous nonmagnetic material. Because all actinide compounds are paramagnetic, magnetic separation of actinide containing mixtures is feasible. The advent of reliable superconducting magnets also makes magnetic separation of weakly paramagnetic species attractive. HGMS work at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is being developed for soil remediation, waste water treatment and treatment of actinide chemical processing residues. LANL and Lockheed Environmental Systems and Technologies Company (LESAT) have worked on a co-operative research and development agreement (CRADA) to develop HGMS for radioactive soil decontamination. The program is designed to transfer HGMS from the laboratory and other industries for the commercial treatment of radioactive contaminated materials. 9 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Interaction of Mutually Perpendicular Magnetic Fields in HTSC

    Vasilyev Aleksandr Fedorovich

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article a problem of interaction of the crossed magnetic fields in superconductors is considered. Superconducting materials have nonlinear magnetic properties. It allows using a non-linear magnetic susceptibility for measurement of feeble magnetic fields. We place a wire of superconducting material in a constant parallel uniform magnetic field. Then we let through a wire the alternating current leak. Interaction of mutual and perpendicular variation magnetic fields, with adequate accuracy is described by Ginzburg-Landau's equations. Approximate solution of the written equations is received. The component of a magnetic field parallel to a wire contains a variable component. Frequency of a variable component of the magnetic field is equal to the doubled current frequency. Amplitude of the variable component of the magnetic field is proportional to strength of the constant magnetic field. The experimental installation for research of interaction of mutually perpendicular magnetic fields is created. The cylinder from HTSC of ceramics of the YBa2Cu3O7-x was used as a sensor. Dependence of amplitude of the second harmonica of a variation magnetic field on strength of a constant magnetic field is received.

  11. Electronic components and systems

    Dennis, W H

    2013-01-01

    Electronic Components and Systems focuses on the principles and processes in the field of electronics and the integrated circuit. Covered in the book are basic aspects and physical fundamentals; different types of materials involved in the field; and passive and active electronic components such as capacitors, inductors, diodes, and transistors. Also covered in the book are topics such as the fabrication of semiconductors and integrated circuits; analog circuitry; digital logic technology; and microprocessors. The monograph is recommended for beginning electrical engineers who would like to kn

  12. Electrical supply for MFTF-B superconducting magnet system

    Shimer, D.W.; Owen, E.W.

    1985-01-01

    The MFTF-B magnet system consists of 42 superconducting magnets which must operate continuously for long periods of time. The magnet power supply system is designed to meet the operational requirements of accuracy, flexibility, and reliability. The superconducting magnets require a protection system to protect against critical magnet faults of quench, current lead overtemperature, and overcurrent. The protection system is complex because of the large number of magnets, the strong coupling between magnets, and the high reliability requirement. This paper describes the power circuits and the components used in the design

  13. Decision Making and Cancer

    Reyna, Valerie F.; Nelson, Wendy L.; Han, Paul K.; Pignone, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    We review decision-making along the cancer continuum in the contemporary context of informed and shared decision making, in which patients are encouraged to take a more active role in their health care. We discuss challenges to achieving informed and shared decision making, including cognitive limitations and emotional factors, but argue that understanding the mechanisms of decision making offers hope for improving decision support. Theoretical approaches to decision making that explain cogni...

  14. Influence of coating on nanocrystalline magnetic properties during high temperature thermal ageing

    Lekdim, Atef, E-mail: atef.lekdim@univ-lyon1.fr; Morel, Laurent; Raulet, Marie-Ange

    2017-05-15

    Since their birth or mergence the late 1980s, the nanocrystalline ultrasoft magnetic materials are taking a great importance in power electronic systems conception. One of the main advantages that make them more attractive nowadays is their ability to be packaged since the reduction of the magnetostrictive constant to almost zero. In aircraft applications, due to the high component compactness and to their location (for example near the jet engine), the operating temperature increases and may reach easily 200 °C and more. Consequently, the magnetic thermal ageing may occur but is, unfortunately, weakly studied. This paper focuses on the influence of the coating (packaging type) on the magnetic nanocrystalline performances during a thermal ageing. This study is based on monitoring the magnetic characteristics of two types of nanocrystalline cores (naked and coated) during a thermal activated ageing (100, 150 and 200 °C). Based on a dedicated monitoring protocol, a large magnetic characterization has been done and analyzed. Elsewhere, X-Ray Diffraction and magnetostriction measurements were carried out to support the study of the anisotropy energies evolution with ageing. This latter is discussed in this paper to explain and give hypothesis about the ageing phenomena. - Highlights: • The coating impacts drastically the magnetic properties during thermal ageing. • Irreversible ageing phenomena after the total coating breakage. • The deteriorations are related to the storage of the magnetoelastic anisotropy.

  15. Validating Timed Component Contracts

    Le Guilly, Thibaut; Liu, Shaoying; Olsen, Petur

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a technique for testing software components with contracts that specify functional behavior, synchronization, as well as timing behavior. The approach combines elements from unit testing with model-based testing techniques for timed automata. The technique is implemented...... in an online testing tool, and we demonstrate its use on a concrete use case....

  16. Euler principal component analysis

    Liwicki, Stephan; Tzimiropoulos, Georgios; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Pantic, Maja

    Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is perhaps the most prominent learning tool for dimensionality reduction in pattern recognition and computer vision. However, the ℓ 2-norm employed by standard PCA is not robust to outliers. In this paper, we propose a kernel PCA method for fast and robust PCA,

  17. Hybrid wars’ information component

    T. A. Nevskaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The war of the new generation - hybrid war, the information component which is directed not so much on the direct destruction of the enemy, how to achieve the goals without warfare. Fighting in the information field is no less important than immediate military action.

  18. ITER plasma facing components

    Kuroda, T.; Vieider, G.; Akiba, M.

    1991-01-01

    This document summarizes results of the Conceptual Design Activities (1988-1990) for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project, namely those that pertain to the plasma facing components of the reactor vessel, of which the main components are the first wall and the divertor plates. After an introduction and an executive summary, the principal functions of the plasma-facing components are delineated, i.e., (i) define the low-impurity region within which the plasma is produced, (ii) absorb the electromagnetic radiation and charged-particle flux from the plasma, and (iii) protect the blanket/shield components from the plasma. A list of critical design issues for the divertor plates and the first wall is given, followed by discussions of the divertor plate design (including the issues of material selection, erosion lifetime, design concepts, thermal and mechanical analysis, operating limits and overall lifetime, tritium inventory, baking and conditioning, safety analysis, manufacture and testing, and advanced divertor concepts) and the first wall design (armor material and design, erosion lifetime, overall design concepts, thermal and mechanical analysis, lifetime and operating limits, tritium inventory, baking and conditioning, safety analysis, manufacture and testing, an alternative first wall design, and the limiters used instead of the divertor plates during start-up). Refs, figs and tabs

  19. Spain's nuclear components industry

    Kaibel, E.

    1985-01-01

    Spanish industrial participation in supply of components for nuclear power plants has grown steadily over the last fifteen years. The share of Spanish companies in work for the five second generation nuclear power plants increased to 50% of total capital investments. The necessity to maintain Spanish technology and production in the nuclear field is emphasized

  20. The market for components

    Simon, M.; Stoelzl, D.

    1986-01-01

    The offers of the German nuclear components industry are shown at the examples of some masterpieces of engineering and their delivery capacities. Then, the success achieved with exports up to now are referred to. The forecast includes the demand, the side conditions of the technical competition, and the pricing and financing situation. (UA) [de

  1. Bayesian Independent Component Analysis

    Winther, Ole; Petersen, Kaare Brandt

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present an empirical Bayesian framework for independent component analysis. The framework provides estimates of the sources, the mixing matrix and the noise parameters, and is flexible with respect to choice of source prior and the number of sources and sensors. Inside the engine...

  2. Component-oriented programming

    Bosch, J; Szyperski, C; Weck, W; Buschmann, F; Buchmann, AP; Cilia, MA

    2003-01-01

    This report covers the eighth Workshop on Component-Oriented Programming (WCOP). WCOP has been affiliated with ECOOP since its inception in 1996. The report summarizes the contributions made by authors of accepted position papers as well as those made by all attendees of the workshop sessions.

  3. Analysis of PM Magnetization Field Effects on the Unbalanced Magnetic Forces due to Rotor Eccentricity in BLDC Motors

    S. Mahdiuon-Rad

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates both static and dynamic eccentricities in single phase brushless DC (BLDC motors and analyzes the effect of the PM magnetization field on unbalanced magnetic forces acting on the rotor. Three common types of PM magnetization field patterns including radial, parallel and sinusoidal magnetizations are considered. In both static and dynamic eccentricities, harmonic components of the unbalanced magnetic forces on the rotor are extracted and analyzed. Based on simulation results, the magnetization fields that produce the lowest and highest unbalanced magnetic forces are determined in rotor eccentricity conditions.

  4. Hospice decision making: diagnosis makes a difference.

    Waldrop, Deborah P; Meeker, Mary Ann

    2012-10-01

    This study explored the process of decision making about hospice enrollment and identified factors that influence the timing of that decision. This study employed an exploratory, descriptive, cross-sectional design and was conducted using qualitative methods. In-depth in-person semistructured interviews were conducted with 36 hospice patients and 55 caregivers after 2 weeks of hospice care. The study was guided by Janis and Mann's conflict theory model (CTM) of decision making. Qualitative data analysis involved a directed content analysis using concepts from the CTM. A model of hospice enrollment decision making is presented. Concepts from the CTM (appraisal, surveying and weighing the alternatives, deliberations, adherence) were used as an organizing framework to illustrate the dynamics. Distinct differences were found by diagnosis (cancer vs. other chronic illness, e.g., heart and lung diseases) during the pre-encounter phase or before the hospice referral but no differences emerged during the post-encounter phase. Differences in decision making by diagnosis suggest the need for research about effective means for tailored communication in end-of-life decision making by type of illness. Recognition that decision making about hospice admission varies is important for clinicians who aim to provide person-centered and family-focused care.

  5. Progress of sintered NdFeB permanent magnets by the diffusion of non-rare earth elements and their alloy compounds

    Lyu Meng

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been found that the coercivity (HC and corrosivity of sintered NdFeB magnets are closely related to the components and microstructure of their intergranular phase.The traditional smelting NdFeB magnets with adding heavy rare earth elements can modify intergranular phase to improve the HC and corrosion resistance of magnets.However,it makes the additives be homogenously distributed on the main phase,and causes magnetic decrease and cost increase.With the addition of non-rare earth materials into grain boundary,the microstructure of intergranular phase as well as its electrochemical potential and wettability can be optimized.As a result,the amount of heavy rare earth elements and cost of magnets could be reduced whilst the HC and corrosion resistance of magnets can be improved.This paper summarized the research on regulating the components and the microstructure of intergranular phase in sintered NdFeB magnets by non-rare earth metals and compounds,and its influence on coercivity and corrosion resistance.

  6. Developing a Model Component

    Fields, Christina M.

    2013-01-01

    The Spaceport Command and Control System (SCCS) Simulation Computer Software Configuration Item (CSCI) is responsible for providing simulations to support test and verification of SCCS hardware and software. The Universal Coolant Transporter System (UCTS) was a Space Shuttle Orbiter support piece of the Ground Servicing Equipment (GSE). The initial purpose of the UCTS was to provide two support services to the Space Shuttle Orbiter immediately after landing at the Shuttle Landing Facility. The UCTS is designed with the capability of servicing future space vehicles; including all Space Station Requirements necessary for the MPLM Modules. The Simulation uses GSE Models to stand in for the actual systems to support testing of SCCS systems during their development. As an intern at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), my assignment was to develop a model component for the UCTS. I was given a fluid component (dryer) to model in Simulink. I completed training for UNIX and Simulink. The dryer is a Catch All replaceable core type filter-dryer. The filter-dryer provides maximum protection for the thermostatic expansion valve and solenoid valve from dirt that may be in the system. The filter-dryer also protects the valves from freezing up. I researched fluid dynamics to understand the function of my component. The filter-dryer was modeled by determining affects it has on the pressure and velocity of the system. I used Bernoulli's Equation to calculate the pressure and velocity differential through the dryer. I created my filter-dryer model in Simulink and wrote the test script to test the component. I completed component testing and captured test data. The finalized model was sent for peer review for any improvements. I participated in Simulation meetings and was involved in the subsystem design process and team collaborations. I gained valuable work experience and insight into a career path as an engineer.

  7. Magnetizing of permanent magnet using HTS bulk magnet

    Oka, Tetsuo; Muraya, Tomoki; Kawasaki, Nobutaka; Fukui, Satoshi; Ogawa, Jun; Sato, Takao; Terasawa, Toshihisa

    2011-01-01

    A demagnetized Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet was scanned just above the magnetic pole containing the HTS bulk magnet, generating a magnetic field of 3.27 T. The magnet sample was subsequently found to be fully magnetized in the open space of the static magnetic fields. We examined the magnetic field distributions when the magnetic poles were scanned twice to activate the magnetic plates inversely with various overlap distances between the tracks of the HTS bulk magnet. The magnetic field of the 'rewritten' magnet reached the values of the magnetically saturated region of the material, showing steep gradients at the border of each magnetic pole. As a replacement for conventional pulse field magnetizing methods, this technique is proposed to expand the degree of freedom in the design of electromagnetic devices, and is proposed as a novel practical method for magnetizing rare-earth magnets, which have excellent magnetic performance and require intense fields of more than 3 T to be activated. (author)

  8. Magnetic spring based on two permanent magnets

    Tsivilitsin, V.Yu.; Mil'man, Yu.V.; Goncharuk, V.A.; Bondar, I.B.

    2011-01-01

    A new type of the magnetic spring construction 'two permanent magnets' has been considered. A mathematical expression for the estimation of a pulling-in force has been offered. This expression is verified experimentally on the produced operating magnetic spring. The theoretical and experimental data are in good accordance. A number of advantages of the magnetic spring over the construction 'permanent magnet - magnetic circuit' such as an insignificant friction force between two magnets and a higher pulling force are discussed.

  9. The levitation characteristics of the magnetic substances using trapped HTS bulk annuli with various magnetic field distributions

    Kim, S.B.; Ikegami, T.; Matsunaga, J.; Fujii, Y.; Onodera, H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •The spherical solenoid magnet can make a various magnetic field distributions. •We generated a large magnetic gradient at inner space of HTS bulks. •The levitation height of samples was improved by the reapplied field method. •The levitation height depends on the variation rate of magnetic field gradient. -- Abstract: We have been investigating the levitation system without any mechanical contact which is composed of a field-cooled ring-shaped high temperature superconducting (HTS) bulks [1]. In this proposed levitation system, the trapped magnetic field distributions of stacked HTS bulk are very important. In this paper, the spherical solenoid magnet composed of seven solenoid coils with different inner and outer diameters was designed and fabricated as a new magnetic source. The fabricated spherical solenoid magnet can easily make a homogeneous and various magnetic field distributions in inner space of stacked HTS bulk annuli by controlling the emerging currents of each coil. By using this spherical solenoid magnet, we tried to make a large magnetic field gradient in inner space of HTS bulk annuli, and it is very important on the levitation of magnetic substances. In order to improve the levitation properties of magnetic substances with various sizes, the external fields were reapplied to the initially trapped HTS bulk magnets. We could generate a large magnetic field gradient along the axial direction in inner space of HTS bulk annuli, and obtain the improved levitation height of samples by the proposed reapplied field method

  10. Precision fiducialization of transport components

    Fischer, G.E.; Bressler, V.E.; Cobb, J.K.; Jensen, D.R.; Ruland, R.E.; Walz, H.V.; Williams, S.H.

    1992-03-01

    The Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) is a transport line designed to test both concept and advanced technology for application to future linear colliders. It is currently under construction at SLAC in the central beam line. Most of the quadrupoles of the FFTB have ab initio alignment tolerances of less than 30 microns, if the planned for beam based alignment tuning procedure is to converge. For such placement tolerances to have any meaning requires that the coordinates of the effective centers, seen by the beam particles, be tansferred to tooling (that can be reached by mechanical or optical alignment methods) located on the outside of the components to comparable or better values. We have constructed an apparatus that simultaneously locates to micron tolerances, the effective magnetic center of fussing lenses, as well as the electrical center of beam position monitors (BPM) imbedded therein, and once located, for transferring these coordinates to specially mounted tooling frames that supported the external retroreflectors used in a laser tracker based alignment of the beam line. Details of construction as well as experimental results from the method are presented

  11. Making nuclear 'normal'

    Haehlen, Peter; Elmiger, Bruno

    2000-01-01

    The mechanics of the Swiss NPPs' 'come and see' programme 1995-1999 were illustrated in our contributions to all PIME workshops since 1996. Now, after four annual 'waves', all the country has been covered by the NPPs' invitation to dialogue. This makes PIME 2000 the right time to shed some light on one particular objective of this initiative: making nuclear 'normal'. The principal aim of the 'come and see' programme, namely to give the Swiss NPPs 'a voice of their own' by the end of the nuclear moratorium 1990-2000, has clearly been attained and was commented on during earlier PIMEs. It is, however, equally important that Swiss nuclear energy not only made progress in terms of public 'presence', but also in terms of being perceived as a normal part of industry, as a normal branch of the economy. The message that Swiss nuclear energy is nothing but a normal business involving normal people, was stressed by several components of the multi-prong campaign: - The speakers in the TV ads were real - 'normal' - visitors' guides and not actors; - The testimonials in the print ads were all real NPP visitors - 'normal' people - and not models; - The mailings inviting a very large number of associations to 'come and see' activated a typical channel of 'normal' Swiss social life; - Spending money on ads (a new activity for Swiss NPPs) appears to have resulted in being perceived by the media as a normal branch of the economy. Today we feel that the 'normality' message has well been received by the media. In the controversy dealing with antinuclear arguments brought forward by environmental organisations journalists nowadays as a rule give nuclear energy a voice - a normal right to be heard. As in a 'normal' controversy, the media again actively ask themselves questions about specific antinuclear claims, much more than before 1990 when the moratorium started. The result is that in many cases such arguments are discarded by journalists, because they are, e.g., found to be

  12. Nonuniform radiation damage in permanent magnet quadrupoles.

    Danly, C R; Merrill, F E; Barlow, D; Mariam, F G

    2014-08-01

    We present data that indicate nonuniform magnetization loss due to radiation damage in neodymium-iron-boron Halbach-style permanent magnet quadrupoles. The proton radiography (pRad) facility at Los Alamos uses permanent-magnet quadrupoles for magnifying lenses, and a system recently commissioned at GSI-Darmsdadt uses permanent magnets for its primary lenses. Large fluences of spallation neutrons can be produced in close proximity to these magnets when the proton beam is, intentionally or unintentionally, directed into the tungsten beam collimators; imaging experiments at LANL's pRad have shown image degradation with these magnetic lenses at proton beam doses lower than those expected to cause damage through radiation-induced reduction of the quadrupole strength alone. We have observed preferential degradation in portions of the permanent magnet quadrupole where the field intensity is highest, resulting in increased high-order multipole components.

  13. Nonuniform radiation damage in permanent magnet quadrupoles

    Danly, C. R.; Merrill, F. E.; Barlow, D.; Mariam, F. G.

    2014-01-01

    We present data that indicate nonuniform magnetization loss due to radiation damage in neodymium-iron-boron Halbach-style permanent magnet quadrupoles. The proton radiography (pRad) facility at Los Alamos uses permanent-magnet quadrupoles for magnifying lenses, and a system recently commissioned at GSI-Darmsdadt uses permanent magnets for its primary lenses. Large fluences of spallation neutrons can be produced in close proximity to these magnets when the proton beam is, intentionally or unintentionally, directed into the tungsten beam collimators; imaging experiments at LANL’s pRad have shown image degradation with these magnetic lenses at proton beam doses lower than those expected to cause damage through radiation-induced reduction of the quadrupole strength alone. We have observed preferential degradation in portions of the permanent magnet quadrupole where the field intensity is highest, resulting in increased high-order multipole components

  14. Nonuniform radiation damage in permanent magnet quadrupoles

    Danly, C. R.; Merrill, F. E.; Barlow, D.; Mariam, F. G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    We present data that indicate nonuniform magnetization loss due to radiation damage in neodymium-iron-boron Halbach-style permanent magnet quadrupoles. The proton radiography (pRad) facility at Los Alamos uses permanent-magnet quadrupoles for magnifying lenses, and a system recently commissioned at GSI-Darmsdadt uses permanent magnets for its primary lenses. Large fluences of spallation neutrons can be produced in close proximity to these magnets when the proton beam is, intentionally or unintentionally, directed into the tungsten beam collimators; imaging experiments at LANL’s pRad have shown image degradation with these magnetic lenses at proton beam doses lower than those expected to cause damage through radiation-induced reduction of the quadrupole strength alone. We have observed preferential degradation in portions of the permanent magnet quadrupole where the field intensity is highest, resulting in increased high-order multipole components.

  15. Superconducting magnets for a muon collider

    Green, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    The existence of a muon collider will be dependent on the use of superconducting magnets. Superconducting magnets for the μ - μ + collider will be found in the following locations: the π - π + capture system, the muon phase rotation system, the muon cooling system, the recirculating acceleration system, the collider ring, and the collider detector system. This report describes superconducting magnets for each of these sections except the detector. In addition to superconducting magnets, superconducting RF cavities will be found in the recirculating accelerator sections and the collider ring. The use of superconducting magnets is dictated by the need for high magnetic fields in order to reduce the length of various machine components. The performance of all of the superconducting magnets will be affected the energy deposited from muon decay products. (orig.)

  16. Physics and measurements of magnetic materials

    Sgobba, S

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic materials, both hard and soft, are used extensively in several components of particle accelerators. Magnetically soft iron-nickel alloys are used as shields for the vacuum chambers of accelerator injection and extraction septa; Fe-based material is widely employed for cores of accelerator and experiment magnets; soft spinel ferrites are used in collimators to damp trapped modes; innovative materials such as amorphous or nanocrystalline core materials are envisaged in transformers for high-frequency polyphase resonant convertors for application to the International Linear Collider (ILC). In the field of fusion, for induction cores of the linac of heavy-ion inertial fusion energy accelerators, based on induction accelerators requiring some 107 kg of magnetic materials, nanocrystalline materials would show the best performance in terms of core losses for magnetization rates as high as 105 T/s to 107 T/s. After a review of the magnetic properties of materials and the different types of magnetic behaviour...

  17. Characterizing permanent magnet blocks with Helmholtz coils

    Carnegie, D. W.; Timpf, J.

    1992-08-01

    Most of the insertion devices to be installed at the Advanced Photon Source will utilize permanent magnets in their magnetic structures. The quality of the spectral output is sensitive to the errors in the field of the device which are related to variations in the magnetic properties of the individual blocks. The Advanced Photon Source will have a measurement facility to map the field in the completed insertion devices and equipment to test and modify the magnetic strength of the individual magnet blocks. One component of the facility, the Helmholtz coil permanent magnet block measurement system, has been assembled and tested. This system measures the total magnetic moment vector of a block with a precision better than 0.01% and a directional resolution of about 0.05°. The design and performance of the system will be presented.

  18. Three-dimensional magnetic properties of soft magnetic composite materials

    Lin, Z.W.; Zhu, J.G.

    2007-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D) magnetic property measurement system, which can control the three components of the magnetic flux density B vector and measure the magnetic field strength H vector in a cubic sample of soft magnetic material, has been developed and calibrated. This paper studies the relationship between the B and H loci in 3-D space, and the power losses features of a soft magnetic composite when the B loci are controlled to be circles with increasing magnitudes and ellipses evolving from a straight line to circle in three orthogonal planes. It is found that the B and H loci lie in the same magnetization plane, but the H loci and power losses strongly depend on the orientation, position, and process of magnetization. On the other hand, the H vector evolves into a unique locus, and the power loss approaches a unique value, respectively, when the B vector evolves into the round locus with the same magnitude from either a series of circles or ellipses

  19. Chiral magnetism of magnetic adatoms generated by Rashba electrons

    Bouaziz, Juba; dos Santos Dias, Manuel; Ziane, Abdelhamid; Benakki, Mouloud; Blügel, Stefan; Lounis, Samir

    2017-02-01

    We investigate long-range chiral magnetic interactions among adatoms mediated by surface states spin-splitted by spin-orbit coupling. Using the Rashba model, the tensor of exchange interactions is extracted wherein a thepseudo-dipolar interaction is found, in addition to the usual isotropic exchange interaction and the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction. We find that, despite the latter interaction, collinear magnetic states can still be stabilized by the pseudo-dipolar interaction. The interadatom distance controls the strength of these terms, which we exploit to design chiral magnetism in Fe nanostructures deposited on a Au(111) surface. We demonstrate that these magnetic interactions are related to superpositions of the out-of-plane and in-plane components of the skyrmionic magnetic waves induced by the adatoms in the surrounding electron gas. We show that, even if the interatomic distance is large, the size and shape of the nanostructures dramatically impacts on the strength of the magnetic interactions, thereby affecting the magnetic ground state. We also derive an appealing connection between the isotropic exchange interaction and the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, which relates the latter to the first-order change of the former with respect to spin-orbit coupling. This implies that the chirality defined by the direction of the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya vector is driven by the variation of the isotropic exchange interaction due to the spin-orbit interaction.

  20. Magnetic Properties of Electrically Contacted Fe4 Molecular Magnets

    Burgess, Jacob; Malavolti, Luigi; Lanzilotto, Valeria; Mannini, Matteo; Totti, Frederico; Ninova, Silviya; Yan, Shichao; Choi, Deung-Jang; Rolf-Pissarczyk, Steffen; Cornia, Andrea; Sessoli, Roberta; Loth, Sebastian

    2015-03-01

    Single molecule magnets (SMMs) are often large and fragile molecules. This poses challenges for the construction of SMM based spintronics. Device geometries with two electronic leads contacting a molecule may be explored via scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The Fe4 molecule stands out as a robust, thermally evaporable SMM, making it ideal for such an experiment. Here we present the first STM investigations of individual Fe4 molecules thermally evaporated onto a monolayer of Cu2N on a Cu (100) crystal. Using inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS), spin excitations in single Fe4 molecules can be detected at meV energies. Analysis using a Spin Hamiltonian allows extraction of magnetic properties of individual Fe4 molecules, and investigation of the influence of the electronic leads. The tip and sample induce small changes in the magnetic properties of Fe4 molecules, making Fe4 a promising candidate for the development of spintronics devices based on SMMs.