WorldWideScience

Sample records for making instruction audience-appropriate

  1. How can we make user instructions motivational?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steehouder, M.F.; Loorbach, N.R.

    2004-01-01

    Good technical instructions are often viewed as 'cool, concise and professional', but there are good arguments to pay attention to their persuasive and motivational aspects as well. Until now, only analyses of existing instructions have been published, while guidelines for making instructions

  2. Demonstrating Empathy: A Phenomenological Study of Instructional Designers Making Instructional Strategy Decisions for Adult Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vann, Linda S.

    2017-01-01

    Instructional designers are tasked with making instructional strategy decisions to facilitate achievement of learning outcomes as part of their professional responsibilities. While the instructional design process includes learner analysis, that analysis alone does not embody opportunities to assist instructional designers with demonstrations of…

  3. Making Instructional Decisions Based on Data: What, How, and Why

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, Kouider; Rosemary, Catherine A.; Edwards, Patricia A.

    2007-01-01

    A carefully coordinated literacy assessment and instruction framework implemented school-wide can support school teams in making sense of various types of data for instructional planning. Instruction that is data based and goal driven sets the stage for continuous reading and writing improvement. (Contains 2 figures.)

  4. Making the Most of Instructional Coaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Britnie Delinger; Rosenquist, Brooks

    2018-01-01

    Although coaching holds great promise for professional development, instructional coaches are often asked to take on responsibilities that are not focused on improving instruction. The authors discuss a quantitative study of four school districts and a qualitative analysis of a single district that, together, reveal how hiring practices and school…

  5. Research in Brief: Shared Decision Making Enhances Instructional Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindle, Joan Clark

    1992-01-01

    A study of three middle school principals about their instructional leadership activities before and after the establishment of shared decision making revealed an enhancement of leadership. The nature of the middle school teacher's role demands participative leadership and communication and decision making revolved around instructional issues.…

  6. Making Time for Instructional Leadership. Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldring, Ellen; Grissom, Jason A.; Neumerski, Christine M.; Murphy, Joseph; Blissett, Richard; Porter, Andy

    2015-01-01

    This three-volume report describes the "SAM (School Administration Manager) process," an approach that about 700 schools around the nation are using to direct more of principals' time and effort to improve teaching and learning in classrooms. Research has shown that a principal's instructional leadership is second only to teaching among…

  7. Making Listening Instruction Meaningful: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Jennifer R.; Mishra, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Listening to, analyzing, and describing music, is perhaps the most difficult standard to present effectively in allotted classroom time. The purpose of this literature review is to better understand what constitutes effective listening instruction by examining students' listening practices, receptiveness, attentiveness, and activities that lead to…

  8. Instructional decision making of high school science teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Jeffrey S.

    The instructional decision-making processes of high school science teachers have not been well established in the literature. Several models for decision-making do exist in other teaching disciplines, business, computer game programming, nursing, and some fields of science. A model that incorporates differences in science teaching that is consistent with constructivist theory as opposed to conventional science teaching is useful in the current climate of standards-based instruction that includes an inquiry-based approach to teaching science. This study focuses on three aspects of the decision-making process. First, it defines what factors, both internal and external, influence high school science teacher decision-making. Second, those factors are analyzed further to determine what instructional decision-making processes are articulated or demonstrated by the participants. Third, by analyzing the types of decisions that are made in the classroom, the classroom learning environments established as a result of those instructional decisions are studied for similarities and differences between conventional and constructivist models. While the decision-making process for each of these teachers was not clearly articulated by the teachers themselves, the patterns that establish the process were clearly exhibited by the teachers. It was also clear that the classroom learning environments that were established were, at least in part, established as a result of the instructional decisions that were made in planning and implementation of instruction. Patterns of instructional decision-making were different for each teacher as a result of primary instructional goals that were different for each teacher. There were similarities between teachers who exhibited more constructivist epistemological tendencies as well as similarities between teachers who exhibited a more conventional epistemology. While the decisions that will result from these two camps may be different, the six step

  9. Experienced General Music Teachers' Instructional Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Daniel C.; Matthews, Wendy K.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to explore experienced general music teachers' decision-making processes. Participants included seven experienced, American general music teachers who contributed their views during two phases of data collection: (1) responses to three classroom scenarios; and (2) in-depth, semi-structured, follow-up…

  10. Data-based decision making for instructional improvement in primary education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelderblom, Gerrit; Schildkamp, Kim; Pieters, Julius Marie; Ehren, Melanie Catharina Margaretha

    2016-01-01

    Data-based decision making can help teachers improve their instruction. Research shows that instruction has a strong impact on students' learning outcomes. This study investigates whether Dutch primary school teachers use data to improve their instruction. Four aspects of instruction were

  11. The effects of critical thinking instruction on training complex decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helsdingen, A.S.; Bosch, K. van den; Gog, T. van; Merriënboer, J.J.G. van

    2010-01-01

    Objective : Two field studies assessed the effects of critical thinking instruction on training and transfer of a complex decision-making skill. Background : Critical thinking instruction is based on studies of how experienced decision makers approach complex problems. Method : Participants

  12. Bedside teaching-making it an effective instructional tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ishtiaq Ali

    2014-01-01

    Bedside teaching is defined as any teaching in the presence of patient and is the core teaching strategy during the clinical years of a medical student. Although it is considered the most effective method to teach clinical and communication skills but its quality is deteriorating with the passage of time. The objective of this study is to explore faculty's perceptions about bedside teaching. This study was conducted in clinical disciplines of Ayub Medical College and hospital Abbottabad, Pakistan from January 2012 to July 2012. Pragmatic paradigm was selected to gather both quantitative and qualitative information. Data was collected sequentially to validate findings. Perceptions of all professors of clinical subjects about bed side teaching were recorded on a close-ended structured questionnaire. Then in-depth interviews were taken from 5 professors using an open ended questionnaire. Quantitative data was analysed using, SPSS-16. Qualitative research data was analysed through content analysis. Out of 20 professors of clinical departments 18 agreed to respond to the questionnaire assessing their perceptions about bed side teaching. Non-existence of bedside teaching curriculum, lack of discipline in students and faculty, lack of accountability, poor job satisfaction and low salary were identified as major factors responsible for decline in quality of bedside teaching. Most of them advocated that curriculum development, planning bedside teaching, implementation of discipline and accountability, improved job satisfaction and performance based promotions will improve quality of clinical teaching. Curriculum development for bedside teaching, institutional discipline, application of best planning strategies, performance based appraisal of faculty and good job satisfaction can make bedside teaching an effective instructional tool.

  13. Error Tendencies in Processing Student Feedback for Instructional Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schermerhorn, John R., Jr.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Seeks to assist instructors in recognizing two basic errors that can occur in processing student evaluation data on instructional development efforts; offers a research framework for future investigations of the error tendencies and related issues; and suggests ways in which instructors can confront and manage error tendencies in practice. (MBR)

  14. Making Information Literacy Instruction More Efficient by Providing Individual Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Johannes; Leichner, Nikolas; Mayer, Anne-Kathrin; Krampen, Günter

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to information literacy instruction in colleges and universities that combines online and classroom learning (Blended Learning). The concept includes only one classroom seminar, so the approach presented here can replace existing one-shot sessions at colleges and universities without changes to the current workflow.…

  15. Differentiated instruction in a data-based decision-making context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, Janke M.; Glas, Cees A.W.; Visscher, Adrie J.

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the relationship between differentiated instruction, as an element of data-based decision making, and student achievement was examined. Classroom observations (n = 144) were used to measure teachers’ differentiated instruction practices and to predict the mathematical achievement of

  16. Ability Grouping and Differentiated Instruction in an Era of Data-Driven Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Vicki; Datnow, Amanda

    2017-01-01

    Despite data-driven decision making being a ubiquitous part of policy and school reform efforts, little is known about how teachers use data for instructional decision making. Drawing on data from a qualitative case study of four elementary schools, we examine the logic and patterns of teacher decision making about differentiation and ability…

  17. Organizational Factors and Instructional Decision-Making: A Cognitive Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hora, Matthew Tadashi

    2012-01-01

    Given the limited adoption of research-based teaching methods at the postsecondary level, research is necessary that examines why faculty choose to teach the way they do. In this article, I draw on insights from research on teacher cognition and naturalistic decision-making research to identify how perceptions of organizational factors influence…

  18. Implementation of Socioscientific Issues Instruction to Fostering Students’ Decision Making Based Gender on Environmental Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizal, H. P.; Siahaan, P.; Yuliani, G.

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the implementation socioscientific issues (SSI) instruction to examine students’ decision making based gender. Selection of environmental problem based on the consideration this issue has potential to evaluate from various scientific disciplines and may initiate to make decision. The participant was students grade VII in South Sulawesi. Pre experiment method was utilized in study with one group pre-test and post-test design. The instrument used in this study comprised of open-ended question, observation sheets for group discussion, sheet for interview and observation sheet of implementation instruction in class. The result indicated that instruction has been implemented successfully. It was found that pre-test and post-test was fostered with N-gain for male and female in medium category. Based on independent t test was found there was no difference improvement of decision making between male and female students. The group showed there was no difference between male group and female group, but a significant difference was noted in mix group. Students and teacher give positive response to the implementation of instruction. It is concluded that science instruction based SSI can be implemented to foster male and female decision making by forming group discussion.

  19. Blind Man's Bluff: Instructional Leadership, Teacher Selection and Rational Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, Norma T.; McNeely, Sonja R.

    Little research has been done to discover the process of selection of teachers by principals. This paper reports the results of a small study in which 29 principals in 11 districts in Tennessee were interviewed to determine the process used to hire a teacher, with the results analyzed for instructional leadership and rational decision making. If…

  20. Studying the Impact of Three Different Instructional Methods on Preservice Teachers' Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevik, Yasemin Demiraslan; Andre, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    This study compared the impact of three types of instructional methods (case-based learning, worked example and faded worked example) on preservice teachers' (n?=?72) decision-making about classroom management. A quasi-experimental study was conducted to investigate both the outcomes and the processes of preservice teachers' decision-making…

  1. Responding to the Gulf War: A Case Study of Instructional Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merryfield, Merry M.

    1993-01-01

    Reports on study of teacher decision making regarding instruction about Gulf War. Finds teachers were influenced by student grade level, number of students in class from another culture, and their own knowledge of Middle Eastern history and geography. Concludes that local and state curriculum officials should provide more flexibility so teachers…

  2. Evaluating the effects that existing instruction on responsible conduct of research has on ethical decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antes, Alison L; Wang, Xiaoqian; Mumford, Michael D; Brown, Ryan P; Connelly, Shane; Devenport, Lynn D

    2010-03-01

    To examine the effects that existing courses on the responsible conduct of research (RCR) have on ethical decision making by assessing the ethicality of decisions made in response to ethical problems and the underlying processes involved in ethical decision making. These processes included how an individual thinks through ethical problems (i.e., meta-cognitive reasoning strategies) and the emphasis placed on social dimensions of ethical problems (i.e., social-behavioral responses). In 2005-2007, recruitment announcements were made, stating that a nationwide, online study was being conducted to examine the impact of RCR instruction on the ethical decision making of scientists. Recruitment yielded contacts with over 200 RCR faculty at 21 research universities and medical schools; 40 (20%) RCR instructors enrolled their courses in the current study. From those courses, 173 participants completed an ethical decision-making measure. A mixed pattern of effects emerged. The ethicality of decisions did not improve as a result of RCR instruction and even decreased for decisions pertaining to business aspects of research, such as contract bidding. Course participants improved on some meta-cognitive reasoning strategies, such as awareness of the situation and consideration of personal motivations, but declined for seeking help and considering others' perspectives. Participants also increased their endorsement of detrimental social-behavioral responses, such as deception, retaliation, and avoidance of personal responsibility. These findings indicated that RCR instruction may not be as effective as intended and, in fact, may even be harmful. Harmful effects might result if instruction leads students to overstress avoidance of ethical problems, be overconfident in their ability to handle ethical problems, or overemphasize their ethical nature. Future research must examine these and other possible obstacles to effective RCR instruction.

  3. Making things explicit using instructional materials: a case study of a Singapore teacher's practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Yew Hoong; Cheng, Lu Pien; Toh, Wei Yeng Karen; Kaur, Berinderjeet; Toh, Tin Lam

    2018-04-01

    The phrase `make it explicit' is a common advice given to teachers. It is, however, not clear to us what this actually means when translated into classroom practice. Our review found that we are not alone: "explicit" is used in different ways in the education literature. This paper explores, through a case study of a teacher who stated "making things explicit" as an ostensible goal of his instructional practice, how the explicitation is realised in teaching mathematics. In particular, we examine how he used the instructional materials that he crafted to fulfil his goal of explicitation. We were able to uncover three strategies he used: explicit-from, explicit-within, and explicit-to.

  4. Toward an Understanding of "Teaching in the Making:" Explaining Instructional Decision Making by Analyzing a Geology Instructor's Use of Metaphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolphin, Glenn Robert

    2013-01-01

    There is a need to enhance science and geoscience literacy. Effective instruction allows students opportunity to build their own models, test them, make their own arguments, and discern reliability of the claims and arguments of others. Attempts at designing and importing such instruction have shown limited implementation fidelity, even with…

  5. Heuristic guidelines for making effective augmented-reality based training instruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yim, Ho Bin

    2009-02-01

    As industrial plants and factories age, their maintenance requirements increase. Because maintenance mistakes directly increase the operating costs of a power plant, maintenance quality is of significant concern to plant management. By law, all personnel working with nuclear technology must be re-trained every three years; however, as the statistical data show, the number of shutdown accidents at nuclear power plants (NPPs) due to maintenance failure is still high and needs to be reduced. Industries have started to adopt various technologies to increase the speed and accuracy of maintenance. Among those technologies, augmented reality (AR) is the latest multimedia presentation technology to be applied to plant maintenance, and it offers superior intuitiveness and user interactivity over other conventional multimedia. The objectives of this empirical study are to measure the optimum amounts of information to be delivered at a time and to identify what types of information enhance the learning ability of novices and to suggest heuristic guidelines by which to make effective AR training instructions. In addition, AR training instructions will be composed based on the suggested heuristic guidelines and on the Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning, which provides guidelines for multimedia instructions, and the efficiency of those guidelines will be compared with that of other AR instructions. Cognitive Load Theory addresses how working memory is structured. Intrinsic cognitive load refers to the cognitive load that is inherent in information to be learned. It depends on the basic amount of processing required for understanding a presentation. Intrinsic cognitive load is determined by the complexity of the learning material. Extraneous cognitive load refers to the cognitive load created through the presentation, format and delivery of the instruction. Germane cognitive load is the remaining part of the cognitive load, and it helps the learner transfer information from

  6. Heuristic guidelines for making effective augmented-reality based training instruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yim, Ho Bin

    2009-02-15

    As industrial plants and factories age, their maintenance requirements increase. Because maintenance mistakes directly increase the operating costs of a power plant, maintenance quality is of significant concern to plant management. By law, all personnel working with nuclear technology must be re-trained every three years; however, as the statistical data show, the number of shutdown accidents at nuclear power plants (NPPs) due to maintenance failure is still high and needs to be reduced. Industries have started to adopt various technologies to increase the speed and accuracy of maintenance. Among those technologies, augmented reality (AR) is the latest multimedia presentation technology to be applied to plant maintenance, and it offers superior intuitiveness and user interactivity over other conventional multimedia. The objectives of this empirical study are to measure the optimum amounts of information to be delivered at a time and to identify what types of information enhance the learning ability of novices and to suggest heuristic guidelines by which to make effective AR training instructions. In addition, AR training instructions will be composed based on the suggested heuristic guidelines and on the Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning, which provides guidelines for multimedia instructions, and the efficiency of those guidelines will be compared with that of other AR instructions. Cognitive Load Theory addresses how working memory is structured. Intrinsic cognitive load refers to the cognitive load that is inherent in information to be learned. It depends on the basic amount of processing required for understanding a presentation. Intrinsic cognitive load is determined by the complexity of the learning material. Extraneous cognitive load refers to the cognitive load created through the presentation, format and delivery of the instruction. Germane cognitive load is the remaining part of the cognitive load, and it helps the learner transfer information from

  7. Making learning whole: an instructional approach for mediating the practices of authentic science inquiries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liljeström, Anu; Enkenberg, Jorma; Pöllänen, Sinikka

    2013-03-01

    This design experiment aimed to answer the question of how to mediate the practices of authentic science inquiries in primary education. An instructional approach based on activity theory was designed and carried out with multi-age students in a small village school. An open-ended learning task was offered to the older students. Their task was to design and implement instruction about the Ice Age to their younger fellows. The objective was collaborative learning among students, the teacher, and outside domain experts. Mobile phones and GPS technologies were applied as the main technological mediators in the learning process. Technology provided an opportunity to expand the learning environment outside the classroom, including the natural environment. Empirically, the goal was to answer the following questions: What kind of learning project emerged? How did the students' knowledge develop? What kinds of science learning processes, activities, and practices were represented? Multiple and parallel data were collected to achieve this aim. The data analysis revealed that the learning project both challenged the students to develop explanations for the phenomena and generated high quality conceptual and physical models in question. During the learning project, the roles of the community members were shaped, mixed, and integrated. The teacher also repeatedly evaluated and adjusted her behavior. The confidence of the learners in their abilities raised the quality of their learning outcomes. The findings showed that this instructional approach can not only mediate the kind of authentic practices that scientists apply but also make learning more holistic than it has been. Thus, it can be concluded that nature of the task, the tool-integrated collaborative inquiries in the natural environment, and the multiage setting can make learning whole.

  8. Making the Grade: Using Instructional Feedback and Evaluation to Inspire Evidence-Based Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brickman, Peggy; Gormally, Cara; Martella, Amedee Marchand

    2016-01-01

    Typically, faculty receive feedback about teaching via two mechanisms: end-of-semester student evaluations and peer observation. However, instructors require more sustained encouragement and constructive feedback when implementing evidence-based teaching practices. Our study goal was to characterize the landscape of current instructional-feedback practices in biology and uncover faculty perceptions about these practices. Findings from a national survey of 400 college biology faculty reveal an overwhelming dissatisfaction with student evaluations, regardless of self-reported teaching practices, institution type, or position. Faculty view peer evaluations as most valuable, but less than half of faculty at doctoral-granting institutions report participating in peer evaluation. When peer evaluations are performed, they are more supportive of evidence-based teaching than student evaluations. Our findings reveal a large, unmet desire for greater guidance and assessment data to inform pedagogical decision making. Informed by these findings, we discuss alternate faculty-vetted feedback strategies for providing formative instructional feedback. © 2016 P. Brickman et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  9. Examining the influence of acute instructional approaches on the decision-making performance of experienced team field sport players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buszard, Tim; Farrow, Damian; Kemp, Justin

    2013-01-01

    We examined the influence of instructions on decision-making accuracy using video simulations of game-specific scenarios in Australian football. Skilled performers (average age of 23.4 ± 4.2 years) differing in experience (range 0 to 339 Australian Football League (AFL) matches) assumed the role of the key attacker and verbally indicated their kicking decision. Participants were randomly stratified into three groups: (1) LOOSE (n = 15)--instructed to "keep the ball away from the loose defender"; (2) TTF (n = 15) - instructed to "take the first option"; and (3) NI (control) (n = 16)--given no instructions. Gaze behaviour for a subset of participants (n = 20) was recorded. In the scenarios with an even number of attacking and defensive players, the decision-making accuracy of LOOSE was greater than TTF. This difference was most evident for lesser experienced performers, highlighting that lesser experienced performers are more affected by instructional foci than experienced performers. Gaze behaviour was not affected by instructional foci, but visual search rate was greater in scenarios of greater player number and complexity.

  10. Teacher and Leader Perceptions Concerning the Implementation of a Web-Based Data Warehouse for Instructional Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Jennifer Lee

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify, describe, and examine the perceptions of teachers and leaders when implementing a Web-based data warehouse (DW) for instructional decision-making in a K-12 public school setting. It identified the challenges and benefits of DW implementation by measuring teacher and leader concerns, studied teacher and…

  11. How Instructional Coaches Support Data-Driven Decision Making: Policy Implementation and Effects in Florida Middle Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Julie A.; McCombs, Jennifer Sloan; Martorell, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the convergence of two popular school improvement policies: instructional coaching and data-driven decision making (DDDM). Drawing on a mixed methods study of a statewide reading coach program in Florida middle schools, the article examines how coaches support DDDM and how this support relates to student and teacher outcomes.…

  12. Instructional, Transformational, and Managerial Leadership and Student Achievement: High School Principals Make a Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Jerry W.; Prater, Mike

    2011-01-01

    This statewide study examined the relationships between principal managerial, instructional, and transformational leadership and student achievement in public high schools. Differences in student achievement were found when schools were grouped according to principal leadership factors. Principal leadership behaviors promoting instructional and…

  13. Making Room for the Transformation of Literacy Instruction in the Digital Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofkova Hashemi, Sylvana; Cederlund, Katarina

    2017-01-01

    Education is in the process of transforming traditional print-based instruction into digital formats. This multi-case study sheds light on the challenge of coping with the old and new in literacy teaching in the context of technology-mediated instruction in the early years of schooling (7-8 years old children). By investigating the relation…

  14. Organizational Decision Making Related to Instructional Technology at Small Liberal Arts Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandover, William Frederick

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the factors that influence the creation, purchase, and selection of free instructional technology. Specifically, this study uses the RIPPLES Model to examine the perceptions and reflections of instructional technology directors and staff members with regard to the Resources, Infrastructure, People, Policies, Learning,…

  15. Making Design Decisions Visible: Applying the Case-Based Method in Designing Online Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Luo,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The instructional intervention in this design case is a self-directed online tutorial that applies the case-based method to teach educators how to design and conduct entrepreneurship programs for elementary school students. In this article, the authors describe the major decisions made in each phase of the design and development process, explicate the rationales behind them, and demonstrate their effect on the production of the tutorial. Based on such analysis, the guidelines for designing case-based online instruction are summarized for the design case.

  16. Making the Grade: Using Instructional Feedback and Evaluation to Inspire Evidence-Based Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brickman, Peggy; Gormally, Cara; Martella, Amedee Marchand

    2016-01-01

    Typically, faculty receive feedback about teaching via two mechanisms: end-of-semester student evaluations and peer observation. However, instructors require more sustained encouragement and constructive feedback when implementing evidence-based teaching practices. Our study goal was to characterize the landscape of current instructional-feedback…

  17. Does Spelling Instruction Make Students Better Spellers, Readers, and Writers? A Meta-Analytic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Steve; Santangelo, Tanya

    2014-01-01

    Despite the importance of spelling for both writing and reading, there is considerable disagreement regarding how spelling skills are best acquired. During this and virtually all of the last century, some scholars have argued that spelling should not be directly or formally taught as such instruction is not effective or efficient. We conducted a…

  18. Time Well Spent: Making Choices and Setting Priorities in Adult Numeracy Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braaten, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    In her Forum piece, "What's an Adult Numeracy Teacher to Teach? Negotiating the Complexity of Adult Numeracy Instruction," Lynda Ginsburg set the stage of the current problem (poor numeracy levels in American adults) and the bevy of standards, legislation, and new exams that have recently been developed to address it. Ginsburg also…

  19. Language Policy-Making in Multilingual Education: Mass Media and the Framing of Medium of Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollefson, James W.

    2015-01-01

    In some settings, medium of instruction (MOI) policies in multilingual education break out into public debates in mass media involving politicians, business leaders, government officials, parents, and school children. These public discussions of MOI often index struggles over the distribution of political power and economic resources, and issues…

  20. Physical Education Teacher Training in Fundamental Movement Skills Makes a Difference to Instruction and Assessment Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lander, Natalie Jayne; Barnett, Lisa M.; Brown, Helen; Telford, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate instruction and assessment of fundamental movement skills (FMSs) by Physical Education (PE) teachers of Year 7 girls. Of 168 secondary school PE teachers, many had received little FMSs professional development, and although most assessed student FMSs proficiency, the quality of assessment was variable.…

  1. Making It Happen: Using Differentiated Instruction, Retrofit Framework, and Universal Design for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Barbara; Reeves, Stacy

    2009-01-01

    When children of diverse disabilities and students with ELL rulings are included in traditional classrooms, regular education teachers face a dilemma: How to teach the standard curriculum and teach the new inclusion students? How do they teach students with different heritages and linguistic backgrounds? Differentiated Instruction (DI) is content,…

  2. Making Strategic Decisions: Conducting and Using Research on the Impact of Sequenced Library Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundstrom, Kacy; Martin, Pamela; Cochran, Dory

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between course grades and sequenced library instruction interventions throughout psychology students' curriculum. Researchers conducted this study to inform decisions about sustaining and improving program integrations for first- and second-year composition courses and to improve discipline-level integrations.…

  3. How to make the fourth revolution: Human factors in the adoption of electronic instructional aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demerath, N. J.; Daniels, L. A.

    1973-01-01

    The prospects and problems of getting higher education in the United States (high school and above) to more fully utilize electronic technologies are examined. Sociological, psychological, and political factors are analyzed to determine the feasibility of adopting electronic instructional techniques. Differences in organizations, attitudes, and customs of different kinds of students, teachers, administrators, and publics are crucial factors in innovation.

  4. EFL Teachers' Beliefs/Practices Correspondence in Reading Instruction: Does Language Teacher Education Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Mohammad Nabi; Dehghani, Asieh

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined EFL teachers' theoretical orientations towards reading, their reading instructional practices and the correspondence between the theoretical orientations/practices. The study participants were 80 male and female Iranian EFL teachers teaching at a number of private English language institutes. Half of the teachers were…

  5. The impact of complete denture making instructional videos on self-directed learning of clinical skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kon, Haruka; Botelho, Michael George; Bridges, Susan; Leung, Katherine Chiu Man

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of a clinical instructional video with a structured worksheet for independent self-study in a complete denture program. 47 multilingual dental students completed a task by watching an instructional video with subtitles regarding clinical complete denture procedures. After completion, students evaluated their learning experience, and 11 students participated in focus group interviews to gain further insight. A mixed-methods approach to data collection and analysis provided descriptive statistical results and a grounded theory approach to coding identified key concepts and categories from the qualitative data. Over 70% of students had favorable opinions of the learning experience and indicated that the speed and length of the video were appropriate. Highly positive and conflicting negative comments regarding the use of subtitles showed both preferences for subtitles over audio and vice versa. The use of a video resource was considered valuable as the replay and review functions allowed better visualization of the procedures, which was considered a good recap tool for the clinical demonstration. It was also a better revision aid than textbooks. So, if the students were able to view these videos at will, they believed that videos supplemented their self-study. Despite the positive response, videos were not considered to replace live clinical demonstrations. While students preferred live demonstrations over the clinical videos they did express a realization of these as a supplemental learning material for self-study based on their ease of access, use for revision, and prior to clinical preparation. Copyright © 2015 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Making death 'good': instructional tales for dying in newspaper accounts of Jade Goody's death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frith, Hannah; Raisborough, Jayne; Klein, Orly

    2013-03-01

    Facilitating a 'good' death is a central goal for hospices and palliative care organisations. The key features of such a death include an acceptance of death, an open awareness of and communication about death, the settling of practical and interpersonal business, the reduction of suffering and pain, and the enhancement of autonomy, choice and control. Yet deaths are inherently neither good nor bad; they require cultural labour to be 'made over' as good. Drawing on media accounts of the controversial death of UK reality television star Jade Goody, and building on existing analyses of her death, we examine how cultural discourses actively work to construct deaths as good or bad and to position the dying and those witnessing their death as morally accountable. By constructing Goody as bravely breaking social taboos by openly acknowledging death, by contextualising her dying as occurring at the end of a life well lived and by emphasising biographical continuity and agency, newspaper accounts serve to position themselves as educative rather than exploitative, and readers as information-seekers rather than ghoulishly voyeuristic. We argue that popular culture offers moral instruction in dying well which resonates with the messages from palliative care. © 2012 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2012 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Making Sense of Principal Leadership in Content Areas: The Case of Secondary Math and Science Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochmiller, Chad R.; Acker-Hocevar, Michele

    2016-01-01

    We drew upon sense making and leadership content knowledge to explore how high school administrators' understanding of content areas informed their leadership. We used math and science to illustrate our interpretations, noting that other content areas may pose different challenges. We found that principals' limited understanding of these content…

  8. Making Teacher Change Visible: Developing an Action Research Protocol for Elementary Mathematics Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Linda J.; McKeny, Timothy S.

    2012-01-01

    Professional development is a well-established component of teacher change, and action research can make that change visible. In this study, quantitative and qualitative data were collected from 237 elementary teachers and intervention specialists from 33 federally-designated Appalachian counties of Southeastern Ohio who participated in the…

  9. Making instruction and assessment responsive to diverse students' progress: group-administered dynamic assessment in teaching mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeltova, Ida; Birney, Damian; Fredine, Nancy; Jarvin, Linda; Sternberg, Robert J; Grigorenko, Elena L

    2011-01-01

    This study entailed a 3 (instructional intervention) × 2 (assessment-type) between-subjects experimental design employing a pretest-intervention-posttest methodology. The instructional interventions were administered between subjects in three conditions: (a) dynamic instruction, (b) triarchic or theory of successful intelligence-control instruction, and (c) standard-control instruction. The assessment-type consisted between subjects of either (a) a group-administered dynamic posttest or (b) the same group-administered posttest interspersed with a control filler activity. Performance in different mathematics content areas taught in fourth grade was investigated. In total, 1,332 students and 63 classroom teachers in 24 schools across six school districts participated in the study. The results indicate the advantages of using dynamic instruction and assessment in regular classrooms while teaching mathematics, especially when the student body is highly ethnically diverse.

  10. Seeing a Colleague Encourage a Student to Make an Assumption while Proving: What Teachers Put in Play when Casting an Episode of Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachlieli, Talli; Herbst, Patricio

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation of how teachers of geometry perceived an episode of instruction presented to them as a case of engaging students in proving. Confirming what was hypothesized, participants found it remarkable that a teacher would allow a student to make an assumption while proving. But they perceived this episode in various…

  11. The Influences of Middle School Mathematics Teachers' Practical Rationality on Instructional Decision Making Regarding the Common Core State Standards for Mathematical Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolewski-McMahon, Lauren M.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influences of various facets of middle school mathematics teachers' practical rationality on their instructional decision making as they plan to enact the Common Core State Standards for Mathematical Practice, CCSS-MP1 (perseverance in problem solving) and CCSS-MP3 (communicating and critiquing). The…

  12. A Pragmatic Approach to Ethical Decision-Making in Engineering Practice: Characteristics, Evaluation Criteria, and Implications for Instruction and Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qin; Jesiek, Brent K

    2017-06-01

    This paper begins by reviewing dominant themes in current teaching of professional ethics in engineering education. In contrast to more traditional approaches that simulate ethical practice by using ethical theories to reason through micro-level ethical dilemmas, this paper proposes a pragmatic approach to ethics that places more emphasis on the practical plausibility of ethical decision-making. In addition to the quality of ethical justification, the value of a moral action also depends on its effectiveness in solving an ethical dilemma, cultivating healthy working relationships, negotiating existing organizational cultures, and achieving contextual plausibility in everyday professional practice. This paper uses a cross-cultural ethics scenario to further elaborate how a pragmatic approach can help us rethink ethical reasoning, as well as ethics instruction and assessment. This paper is expected to be of interest to educators eager to improve the ability of engineers and other professional students to effectively and appropriately deal with the kinds of everyday ethical issues they will likely face in their careers.

  13. "It Makes History Alive for Them": The Role of Archivists and Special Collections Librarians in Instructing Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Magia G.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the educational role of archivists and special collections librarians in providing instructional services aimed at undergraduate students. Twelve leading thinkers in teaching with primary sources are interviewed to provide insight on pedagogical strategies for undergraduates, assessment of instruction, and how archivists…

  14. THE DEVELOPMENT OF INSTRUCTION BOOK ABOUT ARCHIPELAGO CAKE MAKING IN STUDY OF COOK AND FOOD PREPARATION FOR STUDENTS WITH HEARING IMPAIRMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dienda Nurmaisitha

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to develop instruction book of archipelago cake making for students with hearing impairment. The research adapted the Sugiyono (2011 model which consists of 7 stages: (1 potential problems, (2 data collection, (3 product design, (4 validation of the design, (5 design revisions, (6 product testing, and (7 the revision of the product. The results of matter experts was 97%, media experts was 92%, and practitioners (teachers was 98%. The individual experimental result was 90% for student I, 95% for student II, and 80% for student III. The result of field experimental from the evaluation to the students were 82,66 in average scoring. The research result showed that the instruction book about archipelago cake making in study of cook and food preparation for students with hearing impairment in state SMPLB was proper and effective.

  15. The Impact of Leadership on Student Outcomes: How Successful School Leaders Use Transformational and Instructional Strategies to Make a Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Christopher; Gu, Qing; Sammons, Pam

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This article illustrates how successful leaders combine the too often dichotomized practices of transformational and instructional leadership in different ways across different phases of their schools' development in order to progressively shape and "layer" the improvement culture in improving students' outcomes. Research…

  16. Making Learning Last: Teachers' Long-Term Retention of Improved Nature of Science Conceptions and Instructional Rationales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Bridget K.; Bell, Randy L.

    2017-01-01

    Despite successful attempts to improve learners' nature of science (NOS) conceptions through explicit, reflective approaches, retention of improved conceptions is rarely addressed in research. The issue of context for NOS instruction has implications for this retention. Whether to contextualise has been the question occupying science educators'…

  17. Secondary Science Teachers Making Sense of Model-Based Classroom Instruction: Understanding the Learning and Learning Pathways Teachers Describe as Supporting Changes in Teaching Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvidsten, Connie J.

    Connie J. Hvidsten September 2016 Education Secondary Science Teachers Making Sense of Model-Based Classroom Instruction: Understanding the Learning and Learning Pathways Teachers Describe as Supporting Changes in Teaching Practice This dissertation consists of three papers analyzing writings and interviews of experienced secondary science teachers during and after a two-year professional development (PD) program focused on model-based reasoning (MBR). MBR is an approach to science instruction that provides opportunities for students to use conceptual models to make sense of natural phenomena in ways that are similar to the use of models within the scientific community. The aim of this research is to better understand the learning and learning pathways teachers identified as valuable in supporting changes in their teaching practice. To accomplish this aim, the papers analyze the ways teachers 1) ascribe their learning to various aspects of the program, 2) describe what they learned, and 3) reflect on the impact the PD had on their teaching practice. Twenty-one secondary science teachers completed the Innovations in Science Instruction through Modeling (ISIM) program from 2007 through 2009. Commonalities in the written reflections and interview responses led to a set of generalizable findings related to the impacts and outcomes of the PD. The first of the three papers describes elements of the ISIM program that teachers associated with their own learning. One of the most frequently mentioned PD feature was being in the position of an adult learner. Embedding learning in instructional practice by collaboratively developing and revising lessons, and observing the lessons in one-another's classrooms provided a sense of professional community, accountability, and support teachers reported were necessary to overcome the challenges of implementing new pedagogical practices. Additionally, teachers described that opportunities to reflect on their learning and connect their

  18. Make

    CERN Document Server

    Frauenfelder, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The first magazine devoted entirely to do-it-yourself technology projects presents its 29th quarterly edition for people who like to tweak, disassemble, recreate, and invent cool new uses for technology. MAKE Volume 29 takes bio-hacking to a new level. Get introduced to DIY tracking devices before they hit the consumer electronics marketplace. Learn how to build an EKG machine to study your heartbeat, and put together a DIY bio lab to study athletic motion using consumer grade hardware.

  19. Effects of Computer-Assisted Instruction in Using Formal Decision-Making Strategies to Choose a College Major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mau, Wei-Cheng; Jepsen, David A.

    1992-01-01

    Compared decision-making strategies and college major choice among 113 first-year students assigned to Elimination by Aspects Strategy (EBA), Subjective Expected Utility Strategy (SEU), and control groups. "Rational" EBA students scored significantly higher on choice certainty; lower on choice anxiety and career indecision than "rational"…

  20. Case-based ethics instruction: the influence of contextual and individual factors in case content on ethical decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagdasarov, Zhanna; Thiel, Chase E; Johnson, James F; Connelly, Shane; Harkrider, Lauren N; Devenport, Lynn D; Mumford, Michael D

    2013-09-01

    Cases have been employed across multiple disciplines, including ethics education, as effective pedagogical tools. However, the benefit of case-based learning in the ethics domain varies across cases, suggesting that not all cases are equal in terms of pedagogical value. Indeed, case content appears to influence the extent to which cases promote learning and transfer. Consistent with this argument, the current study explored the influences of contextual and personal factors embedded in case content on ethical decision-making. Cases were manipulated to include a clear description of the social context and the goals of the characters involved. Results indicated that social context, specifically the description of an autonomy-supportive environment, facilitated execution of sense making processes and resulted in greater decision ethicality. Implications for designing optimal cases and case-based training programs are discussed.

  1. Computer-Based Video Instruction to Teach Students with Intellectual Disabilities to Verbally Respond to Questions and Make Purchases in Fast Food Restaurants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechling, Linda C.; Pridgen, Leslie S.; Cronin, Beth A.

    2005-01-01

    Computer-based video instruction (CBVI) was used to teach verbal responses to questions presented by cashiers and purchasing skills in fast food restaurants. A multiple probe design across participants was used to evaluate the effectiveness of CBVI. Instruction occurred through simulations of three fast food restaurants on the computer using video…

  2. Making Cooperative Learning Work in the College Classroom: An Application of the "Five Pillars" of Cooperative Learning to Post-Secondary Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Karrie A.; Jones, Jennifer L.

    2008-01-01

    Cooperative learning is viable yet generally underutilized method of instruction at the college level (Paulsen and Faust, 2008). This paper highlights the work of teacher educator Dr. Paul J. Vermette in his implementation of cooperative learning based practices in a graduate level Multicultural education course. In analyzing the "Five…

  3. BASIC Instructional Program: System Documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dageforde, Mary L.

    This report documents the BASIC Instructional Program (BIP), a "hands-on laboratory" that teaches elementary programming in the BASIC language, as implemented in the MAINSAIL language, a machine-independent revision of SAIL which should facilitate implementation of BIP on other computing systems. Eight instructional modules which make up…

  4. What Makes Earth and Space Science Sexy? A Model for Developing Systemic Change in Earth and Space Systems Science Curriculum and Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slutskin, R. L.

    2001-12-01

    Earth and Space Science may be the neglected child in the family of high school sciences. In this session, we examine the strategies that Anne Arundel County Public Schools and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center used to develop a dynamic and highly engaging program which follows the vision of the National Science Education Standards, is grounded in key concepts of NASA's Earth Science Directorate, and allows students to examine and apply the current research of NASA scientists. Find out why Earth/Space Systems Science seems to have usurped biology and has made students, principals, and teachers clamor for similar instructional practices in what is traditionally thought of as the "glamorous" course.

  5. Apparel. Teacher's Instructional Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambo, Patti

    This instructional guide for a one-half credit technological laboratory course for grades 10-12 focuses on apparel from the perspectives of personal decision making related to apparel, the apparel industry, and career preparation. Introductory materials are a course description; overview of course design; facilities, equipment, and resources; and…

  6. Strengthening Children's Math Skills with Enhanced Instruction: The Impacts of Making Pre-K Count and High 5s on Kindergarten Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattera, Shira K.; Jacob, Robin; Morris, Pamela A.

    2018-01-01

    Early math skills are a strong predictor of later achievement for young children, not only in math, but in other domains as well. Exhibiting strong math skills in elementary school is predictive of later high school completion and college attendance. To that end, the Making Pre-K Count and High 5s studies set out to rigorously assess whether…

  7. Instructional Media Initiatives: Focusing on the Educational Resources Center at Thirteen/wnet, New York, New York-- Slavery and the Making of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donlevy, Jim

    2005-01-01

    Slavery and the Making of America, a four-part series from PBS, is airing throughout the United States during February 2005. This landmark series examines the history of slavery in the United States and the significant role it played in shaping the development of the Nation. This article describes the series, including online resources, and…

  8. The Migration toward Ethical Decision Making as a Core Course into the B-School: Instructional Strategies and Approaches for Consideration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Johnathan; Smith, Lola B.; Hunt, Clifford Steven

    2014-01-01

    Many academicians are asking the following question: "Are we ill-preparing our business students if we fail to offer future business professionals the opportunity to engage in a greater understanding of the ethical decision making process?" The authors provide a current review of the literature on the state of ethics education in…

  9. Editorial - Instructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastberg, Peter; Grinsted, Annelise

    2007-01-01

    Why you may wonder - have we chosen a topic which at first glance may seem trivial, and even a bit dull? Well, looks can be deceiving, and in this case they are! There are many good reasons for taking a closer look at instructions.......Why you may wonder - have we chosen a topic which at first glance may seem trivial, and even a bit dull? Well, looks can be deceiving, and in this case they are! There are many good reasons for taking a closer look at instructions....

  10. Instructional Partners, Principals, Teachers, and Instructional Assistants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indiana State Dept. of Public Instruction, Indianapolis.

    This handbook examines various topics of interest and concern to teachers as they work with instructional assistants forming a classroom instructional partnership and functioning as a team. These topics include: (1) instructional assistant qualifications; (2) duties--instructional, classroom clerical, auxillary; (3) factors to be considered when…

  11. Making Earth Science Relevant in the K-8 Classroom. The Development of an Instructional Soils Module for Pre-Service Elementary Teachers Using the Next Generation Science Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, K. A.; Hauge, R.; Dechaine, J. M.; Varrella, G.; Egger, A. E.

    2013-12-01

    's STEP Center in the geosciences. The module goals are: 1) Pre-service teachers will apply classification methods, testing procedures and interdisciplinary systems thinking to analyze and evaluate a relevant societal issue in the context of soils, 2) Pre-service teachers will design, develop, and facilitate a standards-based K-8 soils unit, incorporating a relevant broader societal issue that applies authentic geoscientific data, and incorporates geoscientific habits of mind. In addition, pre-service teachers will look toward the NGSS and align activities with content standards, systems thinking, and science and engineering practices. This poster will provide an overview of module development to date as well as a summary of pre-semester survey results indicating pre-service elementary teachers' ideas (beliefs, attitudes, preconceptions, and content knowledge) about teaching soils, and making science relevant in a K-8 classroom.

  12. Using Blogs to Improve Differentiated Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Michaela W.; Colombo, Paul D.

    2007-01-01

    The authors discuss how the instructional impact of science teachers can be extended by using blogs, a technology popular among students that allows teachers to differentiate their instruction for students with diverse needs. Software now makes it easy for teachers to establish class blogs, Web sites that contain text, audio, and video postings on…

  13. Using Observation to Improve Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, William; Napoliello, Susan

    2005-01-01

    The International School of Kuala Lumpur in Malaysia, which serves international students in preschool through middle school, focused a great deal of professional attention on differentiation. The administrators in Malaysian school, by making rounds of classrooms, raised teachers' awareness of differentiated instruction.

  14. Preparing Instructional Leaders: A Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazer, S. David; Bauer, Scott C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This article proposes a model that provides one means of making instructional leadership the central focus of leadership preparation. It draws from conceptualizations of teaching and learning as well as organizational and leadership theory to advocate for greater coherence in education leadership programs. Conceptual Argument: We begin…

  15. Instructing the Online Catalog User.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, William

    1986-01-01

    This essay offers suggestions to make online public access catalogs (OPACs) less idiosyncratic and more usable. Discussion covers qualitative difference between online catalog and predecessors, challenge of debunking assumptions, skills for success, maintaining an instructional perspective, catalog development for the people by the people, and the…

  16. Research Timeline: Form-Focused Instruction and Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassaji, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a timeline of research on form-focused instruction (FFI). Over the past 40 years, research on the role of instruction has undergone many changes. Much of the early research concentrated on determining whether formal instruction makes any difference in the development of learner language. This question was motivated in part by…

  17. Strategy Instruction in Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Susan R.

    1989-01-01

    Experiments in strategy instruction for mathematics have been conducted using three models (direct instruction, self-instruction, and guided learning) applied to the tasks of computation and word problem solving. Results have implications for effective strategy instruction for learning disabled students. It is recommended that strategy instruction…

  18. Differences Between Library Instruction Conference Attendees and their Institutional Affiliations in the United States and Canada are Discernible. A review of: Willingham, Patricia, Linda Carder, and Christopher Millson‐Martula. “Does a Border Make a Difference? Library Instruction in the United States and Canada.” Journal of Academic Librarianship 32.1 (Jan. 2006: 23-34.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Perryman

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective – The primary intent of this study was to identify differences among library instruction conference attendees and their institutions between the United States and Canada. The overall hypothesis was that there would be areas of measurable distinction between the two countries. The authors tested nine hypotheses: #1, that the largest number of survey respondents would be employed at large institutions; #2, that statistically, the majority of well developed instructional programs are found at universities rather than colleges; #3, that beginning programs are more often found at four-year institutions; #4, that program development and technological issues predominate among instructional foci in the early twenty-first century; #5, that more experienced librarians are more likely to attend library instruction conferences; #6, that LOEX (originally an acronym for Library Orientation Exchange is perceived as the most valuable conference in library instruction; #7, that the impact of conference attendance upon library program development is only moderate; #8, that conference theme and reputation are the two greatest factors contributing to attendance; and #9, that the majority of conference attendees are from the United States. Design – Historical research, and an emailed survey. Setting – Libraries and library instruction conferences in the United States and Canada. Subjects – One hundred thirty-two librarians who were attendees at one of three library user instruction conferences: LOEX, LOEX of the West, and WILU (Workshop on Instruction in Library Use. Methods – First, a brief historical review was conducted on the influence of social, economic, and political events on the development of library user instruction, the creation of conferences focused on library instruction in from the United States and Canada, and national surveys looking at institutional support for instructional development. Next, a survey instrument consisting of

  19. Instructional Design as Knowledge Management: A Knowledge-in-Practice Approach to Choosing Instructional Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIver, Derrick; Fitzsimmons, Stacey; Flanagan, David

    2016-01-01

    Decisions about instructional methods are becoming more complex, with options ranging from problem sets to experiential service-learning projects. However, instructors not trained in instructional design may make these important decisions based on convenience, comfort, or trends. Instead, this article draws on the knowledge management literature…

  20. Instructional Leadership and Schools Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Daisy Kee Mui; Ponnusamy, Premavathy

    With the influx of information technology through the Internet and the use of ICT in our daily lives, our future generation has traversed from a mere change of era to a dynamic era of change. Thus, the role of school leaders is becoming more challenging than ever. They need to make greater strides to ensure that they are able to make adjustments and readjustments in instructional practices to cater for the changing elements in their organization. In brief, the school leaders have to be creative, innovative with entrepreneurial drive in order to steer their subordinates (teachers) towards school excellence. Leadership of principal is therefore considered as a main criterion to create successful schools in country's educational advancement. Besides, the school effectiveness plays a crucial role in country's academic advancement. This paper focuses on a comprehensive review of literature on the relationship between instructional leadership and school effectiveness.

  1. Using Tablet and iTunesU as Individualized Instruction Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klubal, Libor; Kostolanyova, Katerina; Gybas, Vojtech

    2017-01-01

    The paper is aimed at the possibilities of the implementation of individualized instruction in a regular classroom using a tablet and the iTunesU tool. It compares the course of collective frontal instruction and individualized instruction. The results show that the tools make instruction more effective and help increase the students' motivation.…

  2. BIBLIOGRAPHY ON INDIVIDUALIZED INSTRUCTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Graduate School of Education.

    THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY LISTS MATERIAL ON VARIOUS ASPECTS OF INDIVIDUALIZED INSTRUCTION. APPROXIMATELY 85 UNANNOTATED REFERENCES ARE PROVIDED TO DOCUMENTS DATING FROM 1958 TO 1966. JOURNALS, BOOKS, AND REPORT MATERIALS ARE LISTED. SUBJECT AREAS INCLUDED ARE PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION, TEACHING MACHINES, RESPONSE MODE, SELF-INSTRUCTION, AND COMPUTER-ASSISTED…

  3. The Instructional Capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Many administrators are so overwhelmed by the basic responsibilities of their daily work that there seems to be little or no time left for providing quality leadership in instruction. Instead, schools employ department chairs, instructional specialists, and coordinators to provide instructional leadership. How can administrators find time in the…

  4. Effective instructional strategies in physics classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosa, Sachiko

    2011-04-01

    Instructional strategies such as Think-Pair-Share and Socratic questioning are powerful ways to get students engaged in thinking processes. In this talk, tips and techniques that help students make sense of physics concepts in lecture-based classes are presented with specific examples. The participants will see the effectiveness of the instructional strategies by actually experiencing the process as learners with the use of clickers.

  5. Making PMT halftone prints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corey, J.D.

    1977-05-01

    In the printing process for technical reports presently used at Bendix Kansas City Division, photographs are reproduced by pasting up PMT halftone prints on the artwork originals. These originals are used to make positive-working plastic plates for offset lithography. Instructions for making good-quality halftone prints using Eastman Kodak's PMT materials and processes are given in this report. 14 figures.

  6. Wisconsin System for Instructional Management: Terminal Operator Manual. Practical Paper No. 19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, William C.; And Others

    The Wisconsin System for Instructional Management (WIS-SIM) is a computer managed instruction (CMI) system designed to improve instructional decision making in order to maximize the educational progress of each child while making efficient use of the available human, material, and financial resources within an organizational structure such as the…

  7. Collaboration systems for classroom instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. Y. Roger; Meliksetian, Dikran S.; Chang, Martin C.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we discuss how classroom instruction can benefit from state-of-the-art technologies in networks, worldwide web access through Internet, multimedia, databases, and computing. Functional requirements for establishing such a high-tech classroom are identified, followed by descriptions of our current experimental implementations. The focus of the paper is on the capabilities of distributed collaboration, which supports both synchronous multimedia information sharing as well as a shared work environment for distributed teamwork and group decision making. Our ultimate goal is to achieve the concept of 'living world in a classroom' such that live and dynamic up-to-date information and material from all over the world can be integrated into classroom instruction on a real-time basis. We describe how we incorporate application developments in a geography study tool, worldwide web information retrievals, databases, and programming environments into the collaborative system.

  8. Instruction in Information Structuring Improves Bayesian Judgment in Intelligence Analysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Mandel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to test the effectiveness of brief instruction in information structuring (i.e., representing and integrating information for improving the coherence of probability judgments and binary choices among intelligence analysts. Forty-three analysts were presented with comparable sets of Bayesian judgment problems before and immediately after instruction. After instruction, analysts’ probability judgments were more coherent (i.e., more additive and compliant with Bayes theorem. Instruction also improved the coherence of binary choices regarding category membership: after instruction, subjects were more likely to invariably choose the category to which they assigned the higher probability of a target’s membership. The research provides a rare example of evidence-based validation of effectiveness in instruction to improve the statistical assessment skills of intelligence analysts. Such instruction could also be used to improve the assessment quality of other types of experts who are required to integrate statistical information or make probabilistic assessments.

  9. Long multiplication by instruction sequences with backward jump instructions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    For each function on bit strings, its restriction to bit strings of any given length can be computed by a finite instruction sequence that contains only instructions to set and get the content of Boolean registers, forward jump instructions, and a termination instruction. Backward jump instructions

  10. When innovative instructional designs are too innovative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Thomas; Wahl, Christian

    2015-01-01

    and it was developed to include, motivate and encourage the students to engage in more situated learning processes. The course is infamous for low attendance and for demotivating the students. The new instructional design utilized teacher-produced video-clips to qualify the students learning in the preparation...... for the lessons and new pedagogical activities during lessons to make the learning process more situated. The video-clips should also include more students through scaffolding the academic reading with video-clips. However, the outcome was not as planned. The students didn’t recognize the video......This paper presents a study of what happens when innovation of an instructional design is too innovative. The study investigates an implementation process of a new instructional design in nursing education. The new instructional design should be a step away for a functionalist approach to learning...

  11. Cultural dimensions of learning: Addressing the challenges of multicultural instruction

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Parrish; Jennifer A. Linder-VanBerschot

    2010-01-01

    The growing multicultural nature of education and training environments makes it critical that instructors and instructional designers, especially those working in online learning environments, develop skills to deliver culturally sensitive and culturally adaptive instruction. This article explores research into cultural differences to identify those dimensions of culture that are most likely to impact instructional situations. It presents these in the cultural dimensions of learning framewor...

  12. Programmed Instruction Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, B. F.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the history and development of teaching machines, invented to restore the important features of personalized instruction as public school class size increased. Examines teaching and learning problems over the past 50 years, including motivation, attention, appreciation, discovery, and creativity in relation to programmed instruction.…

  13. Fashions in Instructional Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapper, Christopher K.

    This paper on instructional development notes the trend toward teaching improvement efforts, classifies instructional development centers in terms of their differing philosophies of operation, and identifies some general problems that have been encountered in institutional efforts to improve teaching and learning. Centers in North America, Europe,…

  14. Computer-based instruction system DIDAK and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gvozdjak, L.; Hanulova, L.; Jankovicova, A.; Scepanek, L.

    1983-01-01

    The DIDAK system has been developed for the instruction and training of specialized personnel of nuclear power plants. The structure of the instruction system comprises three processes: the author process, the instruction process and the administration process. Author processes provide the didactic data structure with instruction texts. In the text data base the instruction material is stored in 6 direct access nonformatted files. The instruction system receives information from the text data base and presents it to the student. According to the student's response it creates the preconditions for the further operation of the system which it stores in the data base for administration of instruction. This base contains data on the identification of students, on the instruction process of the individual and the instruction process as a whole. Administrative processes take place in the final stage. They provide information on the general course of instruction and make final evaluations. From the data base of products of the instruction process the said administrative processes produce output information for the teacher. The subject matter of each subject is divided into a finite number of elementary units of subject matter. Each elementary unit provides basic information on the explained subject matter and is followed by a check of the student's knowledge. In dependence on the results of this check the student either advances to a higher level elementary unit or proceeds to an alternative branch of the initial unit. (E.S.)

  15. Webquest 2.0: An Instructional Model for Digital Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell, Diana F. Abernathy

    2012-01-01

    Teaching and learning tools such as Moodle and Web 2.0 tools are appearing in K-12 classrooms; however, there is a lack of scholarly research to guide the implementation of these tools. The WebQuest model, a widely adopted inquiry-based model for online instruction, has instructional inadequacies and does not make the most of emerging…

  16. Cultural Dimensions of Learning: Addressing the Challenges of Multicultural Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Patrick; Linder-VanBerschot, Jennifer A.

    2010-01-01

    The growing multicultural nature of education and training environments makes it critical that instructors and instructional designers, especially those working in online learning environments, develop skills to deliver culturally sensitive and culturally adaptive instruction. This article explores research into cultural differences to identify…

  17. Creating a Cycle of Continuous Improvement through Instructional Rounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Looze, Catherine L.

    2015-01-01

    Instructional Rounds is a continuous improvement strategy that focuses on the technical core of educational systems as well as educators collaborating side-by-side. Concentrating on collective learning, this process only makes sense within an overall strategy of improvement. This case study examined the Instructional Rounds process in a northern…

  18. Excellence in College Teaching and Learning: Classroom and Online Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, George; Nash, Susan Smith

    2007-01-01

    This book will improve the quality of instruction that college students need. It makes numerous suggestions that must be tended to when teachers instruct students. For example, the authors speculate about ways teachers can present what may at times seem to be a mountain of information without burying students under it; why teachers must…

  19. Stand Up Comics: Instructional Humor and Student Engagment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortley, Amy; Dotson, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the use of instructional humor in higher education settings and makes connections between the levels of student achievement in academics and the influence of appropriate instructional humor. The work of prominent researchers such as Wanzer, Frymier, and Irwin (2010), and Segrist & Hupp (2015), who postulate that…

  20. A Measurement Model of Microgenetic Transfer for Improving Instructional Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlik, Philip I., Jr.; Yudelson, Michael; Koedinger, Kenneth R.

    2015-01-01

    Efforts to improve instructional task design often make reference to the mental structures, such as "schemas" (e.g., Gick & Holyoak, 1983) or "identical elements" (Thorndike & Woodworth, 1901), that are common to both the instructional and target tasks. This component based (e.g., Singley & Anderson, 1989) approach…

  1. Learning to Write with Interactive Writing Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Cheri

    2018-01-01

    Interactive writing is a process-oriented instructional approach designed to make the composing and encoding processes of writing overt and explicit for young students who are learning to write. It is particularly suitable for students who struggle with literacy learning. This article describes one first-grade teacher's use of interactive writing…

  2. Instructional Simulation of a Commercial Banking System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Donald D.

    1991-01-01

    Describes an instructional simulation of a commercial banking system. Identifies the teaching of portfolio theory, market robustness, and the subtleties of institutional constraints and decision making under uncertainty as the project's goals. Discusses the results of applying the simulation in an environment of local and national markets and a…

  3. Instructional Approaches in Teaching the Holocaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, David H.

    2011-01-01

    Holocaust education requires teachers to carefully determine which instructional approaches ensure effective teaching of the subject while avoiding potential difficulties. The article identifies several complicating factors that must be considered when making pedagogical decisions. It then examines five methodological approaches that can be used…

  4. Using Principles of Programmed Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Harry

    1971-01-01

    Although programmed instruction in accounting is available, it is limited in scope and in acceptance. Teachers, however, may apply principles of programming to the individualizing of instruction. (Author)

  5. The nature of instructional effects in color constancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radonjić, Ana; Brainard, David H

    2016-06-01

    The instructions subjects receive can have a large effect on experimentally measured color constancy, but the nature of these effects and how their existence should inform our understanding of color perception remains unclear. We used a factorial design to measure how instructional effects on constancy vary with experimental task and stimulus set. In each of 2 experiments, we employed both a classic adjustment-based asymmetric matching task and a novel color selection task. Four groups of naive subjects were instructed to make adjustments/selections based on (a) color (neutral instructions); (b) the light reaching the eye (physical spectrum instructions); (c) the actual surface reflectance of an object (objective reflectance instructions); or (d) the apparent surface reflectance of an object (apparent reflectance instructions). Across the 2 experiments we varied the naturalness of the stimuli. We find clear interactions between instructions, task, and stimuli. With simplified stimuli (Experiment 1), instructional effects were large and the data revealed 2 instruction-dependent patterns. In 1 (neutral and physical spectrum instructions) constancy was low, intersubject variability was also low, and adjustment-based and selection-based constancy were in agreement. In the other (reflectance instructions) constancy was high, intersubject variability was large, adjustment-based constancy deviated from selection-based constancy and for some subjects selection-based constancy increased across sessions. Similar patterns held for naturalistic stimuli (Experiment 2), although instructional effects were smaller. We interpret these 2 patterns as signatures of distinct task strategies-1 is perceptual, with judgments based primarily on the perceptual representation of color; the other involves explicit instruction-driven reasoning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Instructions for 104-SX liquid level measurement field tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, R.H.

    1994-01-01

    This document provides detailed instructions for field testing a suggested solution of inserting a liner inside the 104-SX failed Liquid Observation Well to gain access for making temporary Liquid Level Measurement until a permanent solution has been provided

  7. Languages of Instruction: Policy Implications for Education in Africa ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The research reviews on which the report is based were commissioned after ... the use of mother tongues and national languages for instruction and learning. ... prevent gender-based violence, and make digital platforms work for inclusive ...

  8. [The planned home care transfer by a local medical support hospital and the introduction to home intravenous hyper alimentation--the making of a home care patient's instruction plan document].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinobu, Akiko; Ohtsu, Yoko

    2004-12-01

    It is important to offer continuous medical service without interrupting everyone's various job functions at the Tama Numbu-Chiiki Hospitals in order to secure the quality and safety of home medical care to patients and their families. From 1998 up to the present, home intravenous hyper alimentation (home IVH) has been introduced by individually exchanging information that was based on items such as clinical case, doctor and caregiver in charge of the day, and introductory information. Five years have passed since we started an introduction of home IVH, and it appears that the medical cooperation of home IVH between the Minami-tama medical region and its neighboring area has been established. Then, we arranged an examination of the past 2 years based on the 57 patients who elected to choose home IVH instruction. Consequently, we created "home IVH introduction plan document" in standardizing a flow from home IVH introduction to post-hospital intervention. Since November of 2003, the plan document has been utilized and carried out to 5 patients by the end of February in 2004. This home IVH introduction plan document was able to clarify the role of medical person in connection with the patient. Therefore, we could not only share the information, but also could transfer medical care smoothly from the hospital to the patient's home.

  9. Using Interactive Video Instruction To Enhance Public Speaking Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Michael W.; Kennan, William R.

    Noting that interactive video instruction (IVI) should not and cannot replace classroom instruction, this paper offers an introduction to interactive video instruction as an innovative technology that can be used to expand pedagogical opportunities in public speaking instruction. The paper: (1) defines the distinctive features of IVI; (2) assesses…

  10. Computer Assisted Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Paul

    1976-01-01

    Methodology for developing a computer assisted instruction (CAI) lesson (scripting, programing, and testing) is reviewed. A project done by Informatics Education Ltd. (IEL) for the Department of National Defense (DND) is used as an example. (JT)

  11. Bibliographic Instruction : A Webliography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A Webliography about the Bibliographic Instruction, it collects a variety of internet resources divided to main categories; directories, articles, bibliographies, organization, mailing lists, and interest groups.

  12. Applications of decision theory to computer-based adaptive instructional systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Hendrik J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper considers applications of decision theory to the problem of instructional decision-making in computer-based adaptive instructional systems, using the Minnesota Adaptive Instructional System (MAIS) as an example. The first section indicates how the problem of selecting the appropriate

  13. Differentiating Writing Instruction: Meeting the Diverse Needs of Authors in a Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Mary

    2015-01-01

    This article outlines a rational for responsive, differentiated writing instruction that targets students' identified needs with respect to various dimensions of the writing process. Discussed is a cycle that requires ongoing assessment, instructional decision-making, responsive, differentiated instruction, guided practice, and assessment.…

  14. Exploring the Options: Teaching Economic Decision-Making with Poetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Theresa L.

    2012-01-01

    High-stakes standardized tests in reading and limited instructional time are two powerful disincentives for teaching economics in the elementary classroom. In this article, integrating instruction in poetry and economic decision-making is presented as one way to maximize the use of scarce instructional time. Following a brief introduction to the…

  15. Instructional Strategies Alternative for Reading Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajaira del Valle Cadenas Terán

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to expose significantly instruccionales strategic alternatives that help improve the process of reading in college students to be trained holistically, able to make critical decisions, thoughtful and successful in the academic field. The strategies implemented educational event isolated to produce no change is necessary, that are planned and executed in the proper context of the need to ensure a certain extent the instructional success. It is also essential that teachers be the first to appropriate it. This study was conducted with a literature review serves as instructional foundation - strategic. In conclusion the importance of instructional strategies in reading comprehension was determined, since they increase communication skills, provide specific or complex experiences and promote meaningful learning.

  16. Inclusive differentiated instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerković Ljiljana S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Inclusive differentiated instruction is a new model of didactic instruction, theoretically described and established in this paper for the first time, after being experimentally verified through teaching of the mother tongue (instruction in reading and literature. Inclusive individually planned instruction is based on a phenomenological and constructivist didactic instructional paradigm. This type of teaching is essentially developmental and person-oriented. The key stages of inclusive differentiated instruction of literature are: 1 recognition of individual students' potential and educational needs regarding reading and work on literary texts; 2 planning and preparation of inclusive individually planned instruction in reading and literature; 3 actual class teaching of lessons thus prepared; and 4 evaluation of the student achievement following inclusive differentiated instruction in reading and literature. A highly important element of the planning and preparation of inclusive differentiated instruction is the creation of student profiles and inclusive individualized syllabi. Individualized syllabi specify the following: 1. a brief student profile; 2. the student position on the continuum of the learning outcomes of instruction in the Serbian language; 3. reverse-engineered macro-plan stages of instruction in the Serbian language (3.1. identifying expected outcomes and fundamental qualities of learners' work, 3.2. defining acceptable proofs of their realisation, 3.3. planning learning and teaching experiences, and 3.4. providing material and technical requisites for teaching; 4 the contents and procedure of individualized lessons targeting the student; 5 a plan of syllabus implementation monitoring and evaluation. The continuum of the learning outcomes of inclusive differentiated instruction in literature exists at three main levels, A, B and C. The three levels are: A reading techniques and learning about the main literary theory concepts; B

  17. The Effectiveness of Web-Based Instruction: An Initial Inquiry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatana M. Olson

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available As the use of Web-based instruction increases in the educational and training domains, many people have recognized the importance of evaluating its effects on student outcomes such as learning, performance, and satisfaction. Often, these results are compared to those of conventional classroom instruction in order to determine which method is “better.” However, major differences in technology and presentation rather than instructional content can obscure the true relationship between Web-based instruction and these outcomes. Computer-based instruction (CBI, with more features similar to Web-based instruction, may be a more appropriate benchmark than conventional classroom instruction. Furthermore, there is little consensus as to what variables should be examined or what measures of learning are the most appropriate, making comparisons between studies difficult and inconclusive. In this article, we review the historical findings of CBI as an appropriate benchmark to Web-based instruction. In addition, we review 47 reports of evaluations of Web-based courses in higher education published between 1996 and 2002. A tabulation of the documented findings into eight characteristics is offered, along with our assessments of the experimental designs, effect sizes, and the degree to which the evaluations incorporated features unique to Web-based instruction.

  18. Instructional control of reinforcement learning: a behavioral and neurocomputational investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doll, Bradley B; Jacobs, W Jake; Sanfey, Alan G; Frank, Michael J

    2009-11-24

    Humans learn how to behave directly through environmental experience and indirectly through rules and instructions. Behavior analytic research has shown that instructions can control behavior, even when such behavior leads to sub-optimal outcomes (Hayes, S. (Ed.). 1989. Rule-governed behavior: cognition, contingencies, and instructional control. Plenum Press.). Here we examine the control of behavior through instructions in a reinforcement learning task known to depend on striatal dopaminergic function. Participants selected between probabilistically reinforced stimuli, and were (incorrectly) told that a specific stimulus had the highest (or lowest) reinforcement probability. Despite experience to the contrary, instructions drove choice behavior. We present neural network simulations that capture the interactions between instruction-driven and reinforcement-driven behavior via two potential neural circuits: one in which the striatum is inaccurately trained by instruction representations coming from prefrontal cortex/hippocampus (PFC/HC), and another in which the striatum learns the environmentally based reinforcement contingencies, but is "overridden" at decision output. Both models capture the core behavioral phenomena but, because they differ fundamentally on what is learned, make distinct predictions for subsequent behavioral and neuroimaging experiments. Finally, we attempt to distinguish between the proposed computational mechanisms governing instructed behavior by fitting a series of abstract "Q-learning" and Bayesian models to subject data. The best-fitting model supports one of the neural models, suggesting the existence of a "confirmation bias" in which the PFC/HC system trains the reinforcement system by amplifying outcomes that are consistent with instructions while diminishing inconsistent outcomes.

  19. Metacognitive instruction in middle school science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonney, Dianna

    The purpose of this action research project was to determine the extent to which metacognitive instruction affected students' performance in the middle-grade science classroom. Conducted with four seventh grade science classes over a three-month time period, 105 students were engaged in 21 metacognitively enhanced lessons. Both quantitative and qualitative data sources were collected for this study and analyzed according to grounded theory methodology. Quantitative data came from the Jr. Metacognitive Awareness Inventory, administered as a pre-post test. Qualitative teacher-generated data was collected in a metacognitive observation protocol containing observations and reflections while student-generated data was gathered from reflective journal entries, modified rubrics, and checklists. Analysis of the data led to the assertions that metacognitive development occurred over time through systematic and varied implementation of explicit instruction. In addition, students perceived they learned best both when working collaboratively and when making multiple connections with content material. Implications for middle-grade teachers include the need for explicit instruction of metacognitive strategies, providing for instructional variation and student collaboration, and guiding students in making connections to prior learning.

  20. Instructional Guidelines. Welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fordyce, H. L.; Doshier, Dale

    Using the standards of the American Welding Society and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, this welding instructional guidelines manual presents a course of study in accordance with the current practices in industry. Intended for use in welding programs now practiced within the Federal Prison System, the phases of the program are…

  1. Windows into Instructional Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbacher-Reed, Christina; Rotella, Sam A.

    2017-01-01

    Administrators are often removed from the daily instructional realities in classrooms, while teachers aren't given enough opportunities to lead in their schools, write Christina Steinbacher-Reed and Sam A. Rotella Jr. The result is a wall that prevents the two parties from collaborating in a way that improves school culture, teaching practices,…

  2. INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS CATALOG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio Vocational Agriculture Instructional Materials Service, Columbus.

    THE TITLE, IDENTIFICATION NUMBER, DATE OF PUBLICATION, PAGINATION, A BRIEF DESCRIPTION, AND PRICE ARE GIVEN FOR EACH OF THE INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS AND AUDIOVISUAL AIDS INCLUDED IN THIS CATALOG. TOPICS COVERED ARE FIELD CORPS, HORTICULTURE, ANIMAL SCIENCE, SOILS, AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING, AND FARMING PROGRAMS. AN ORDER FORM IS INCLUDED. (JM)

  3. Computers in writing instruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwartz, Helen J.; van der Geest, Thea; Smit-Kreuzen, Marlies

    1992-01-01

    For computers to be useful in writing instruction, innovations should be valuable for students and feasible for teachers to implement. Research findings yield contradictory results in measuring the effects of different uses of computers in writing, in part because of the methodological complexity of

  4. Gaze Interactive Building Instructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, John Paulin; Ahmed, Zaheer; Mardanbeigi, Diako

    We combine eye tracking technology and mobile tablets to support hands-free interaction with digital building instructions. As a proof-of-concept we have developed a small interactive 3D environment where one can interact with digital blocks by gaze, keystroke and head gestures. Blocks may be moved...

  5. Job Instruction Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfau, Richard H.

    Job Instruction Training (JIT) is a step-by-step, relatively simple technique used to train employees on the job. It is especially suitable for teaching manual skills or procedures; the trainer is usually an employee's supervisor but can be a co-worker. The JIT technique consists of a series of steps that a supervisor or other instructor follows…

  6. Nuclear Energy. Instructional Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Kenneth; Thessing, Dan

    This document is one of five learning packets on alternative energy (see note) developed as part of a descriptive curriculum research project in Arkansas. The overall objectives of the learning packets are to improve the level of instruction in the alternative energies by vocational exploration teachers, and to facilitate the integration of new…

  7. Wind Power. Instructional Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Kenneth; Thessing, Dan

    This document is one of five learning packets on alternative energy developed as part of a descriptive curriculum research project in Arkansas (see note). The overall objectives of the learning packets are to improve the level of instruction in the alternative energies by vocational exploration teachers, and to facilitate the integration of new…

  8. Instructional Psychology 1976 - 1981,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    business it is to carry out applied work in the design of instructional content and delivery. These organizations include specialized divisions of...34learning disabilities" label: An experimental analysis. Comtemporary Educational Psychology, 1977, 2, 292-297. Allington, R. L. Sensitivity to

  9. Reviews in instructional video

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meij, Hans

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the effectiveness of a video tutorial for software training whose construction was based on a combination of insights from multimedia learning and Demonstration-Based Training. In the videos, a model of task performance was enhanced with instructional features that were

  10. Computer-assisted instruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, J.; Fisser, P.; Wright, J.D.

    2015-01-01

    Since the early days of computer technology in education in the 1960s, it was claimed that computers can assist instructional practice and hence improve student learning. Since then computer technology has developed, and its potential for education has increased. In this article, we first discuss

  11. Scaffolding in Assisted Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available On-The-Job Training, developed as direct instruction, is one of the earliest forms of training. This method is still widely in use today because it requires only a person who knows how to do the task, and the tools the person uses to do the task. This paper is intended to be a study of the methods used in education in Knowledge Society, with more specific aspects in training the trainers; as a result of this approach, it promotes scaffolding in assisted instruction as a reflection of the digital age for the learning process. Training the trainers in old environment with default techniques and designing the learning process in assisted instruction, as an application of the Vygotskian concept of the zone of proximal development (ZPD to the area of computer literacy for the younger users, generate diversity in educational communities and requires standards for technology infrastructure, standards for the content, developed as a concepts map, and applications for personalized in-struction, based on ZPD theory.

  12. Characteristics of Instructional Videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheshti, Mobina; Taspolat, Ata; Kaya, Omer Sami; Sapanca, Hamza Fatih

    2018-01-01

    Nowadays, video plays a significant role in education in terms of its integration into traditional classes, the principal delivery system of information in classes particularly in online courses as well as serving as a foundation of many blended classes. Hence, education is adopting a modern approach of instruction with the target of moving away…

  13. Facility transition instruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morton, M.R.

    1997-01-01

    The Bechtel Hanford, Inc. facility transition instruction was initiated in response to the need for a common, streamlined process for facility transitions and to capture the knowledge and experience that has accumulated over the last few years. The instruction serves as an educational resource and defines the process for transitioning facilities to long-term surveillance and maintenance (S and M). Generally, these facilities do not have identified operations missions and must be transitioned from operational status to a safe and stable configuration for long-term S and M. The instruction can be applied to a wide range of facilities--from process canyon complexes like the Plutonium Uranium Extraction Facility or B Plant, to stand-alone, lower hazard facilities like the 242B/BL facility. The facility transition process is implemented (under the direction of the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office [RL] Assistant Manager-Environmental) by Bechtel Hanford, Inc. management, with input and interaction with the appropriate RL division and Hanford site contractors as noted in the instruction. The application of the steps identified herein and the early participation of all organizations involved are expected to provide a cost-effective, safe, and smooth transition from operational status to deactivation and S and M for a wide range of Hanford Site facilities

  14. Paratransit: An Instructional Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalici, Anthony

    A concept-based introduction to paratransit is provided in this instructional module for undergraduate and graduate transportation-related courses for disciplines such as engineering, business, marketing, and technology. The concept of paratransit generally refers to modes of transportation other than mass transit and solo-driven automobiles. The…

  15. Listening strategies instruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogueroles López, Marta

    2017-01-01

    , who presented similar level of Spanish, needs, educational and cultural background, but did not receive such a training. The listening strategies instruction consisted in integrating the development of listening strategies into a regular course of Spanish as a foreign language. Data referring...

  16. Inquiry-Oriented Instruction: A Conceptualization of the Instructional Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuster, George; Johnson, Estrella; Keene, Karen; Andrews-Larson, Christine

    2018-01-01

    Research has highlighted that inquiry-based learning (IBL) instruction leads to many positive student outcomes in undergraduate mathematics. Although this research points to the value of IBL instruction, the practices of IBL instructors are not well-understood. Here, we offer a characterization of a particular form of IBL instruction:…

  17. Instructional Leadership Practices in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Foo Seong David; Nguyen, Thanh Dong; Wong, Koon Siak Benjamin; Choy, Kim Weng William

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the literature on principal instructional leadership in Singapore. The authors investigated the dimensions of instructional leadership in the practices of Singapore principals and highlighted the strategies these leaders adopt to enact their instructional roles. Singapore principals were found to play an active role…

  18. Putting instruction sequences into effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    An attempt is made to define the concept of execution of an instruction sequence. It is found to be a special case of directly putting into effect of an instruction sequence. Directly putting into effect of an instruction sequences comprises interpretation as well as execution. Directly putting into

  19. The Measurement of Instructional Accomplishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraley, Lawrence E.; Vargas, Ernest A.

    Instructional System Technology in recent years has been characterized by an increase in individualized instruction and the modularization of the curriculum. In traditional systems the learners are forced to take blocks of instruction the size of entire courses and these are much too large. The courses can now be broken down into conceptual…

  20. Intelligent Frameworks for Instructional Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, J. Michael; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Presents a taxonomy describing various uses of artificial intelligence techniques in automated instructional development systems. Instructional systems development is discussed in relation to the design of computer-based instructional courseware; two systems being developed at the Air Force Armstrong Laboratory are reviewed; and further research…

  1. Very Long Instruction Word Processors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Explicitly Parallel Instruction Computing (EPIC) is an instruction processing paradigm that has been in the spot- light due to its adoption by the next generation of Intel. Processors starting with the IA-64. The EPIC processing paradigm is an evolution of the Very Long Instruction. Word (VLIW) paradigm. This article gives an ...

  2. Motivational elements in user instructions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loorbach, N.R.

    2013-01-01

    Concerning the design of user instructions, two view can be distinguished. The traditional view considers instructions as purely instrumental documents. The more and more emerging affective view still assumes that above all, instructions should enable readers to perform tasks. But in order to

  3. Language used in interaction during developmental science instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avenia-Tapper, Brianna

    The coordination of theory and evidence is an important part of scientific practice. Developmental approaches to instruction, which make the relationship between the abstract and the concrete a central focus of students' learning activity, provide educators with a unique opportunity to strengthen students' coordination of theory and evidence. Therefore, developmental approaches may be a useful instructional response to documented science achievement gaps for linguistically diverse students. However, if we are to leverage the potential of developmental instruction to improve the science achievement of linguistically diverse students, we need more information on the intersection of developmental science instruction and linguistically diverse learning contexts. This manuscript style dissertation uses discourse analysis to investigate the language used in interaction during developmental teaching-learning in three linguistically diverse third grade classrooms. The first manuscript asks how language was used to construct ascension from the abstract to the concrete. The second manuscript asks how students' non-English home languages were useful (or not) for meeting the learning goals of the developmental instructional program. The third manuscript asks how students' interlocutors may influence student choice to use an important discourse practice--justification--during the developmental teaching-learning activity. All three manuscripts report findings relevant to the instructional decisions that teachers need to make when implementing developmental instruction in linguistically diverse contexts.

  4. Death Penalty Decisions: Instruction Comprehension, Attitudes, and Decision Mediators

    OpenAIRE

    Patry, Marc W.; Penrod, Steven D.

    2013-01-01

    A primary goal of this research was to empirically evaluate a set of assumptions, advanced in the Supreme Court’s ruling in Buchanan v. Angelone (1998), about jury comprehension of death penalty instructions. Further, this research examined the use of evidence in capital punishment decision making by exploring underlying mediating factors upon which death penalty decisions may be based. Manipulated variables included the type of instructions and several variations of evidence. Study 1 was a p...

  5. The equivalence of learning paths in early science instruction: effect of direct instruction and discovery learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klahr, David; Nigam, Milena

    2004-10-01

    In a study with 112 third- and fourth-grade children, we measured the relative effectiveness of discovery learning and direct instruction at two points in the learning process: (a) during the initial acquisition of the basic cognitive objective (a procedure for designing and interpreting simple, unconfounded experiments) and (b) during the subsequent transfer and application of this basic skill to more diffuse and authentic reasoning associated with the evaluation of science-fair posters. We found not only that many more children learned from direct instruction than from discovery learning, but also that when asked to make broader, richer scientific judgments, the many children who learned about experimental design from direct instruction performed as well as those few children who discovered the method on their own. These results challenge predictions derived from the presumed superiority of discovery approaches in teaching young children basic procedures for early scientific investigations.

  6. Student-Centered Instruction and Academic Achievement: Linking Mechanisms of Educational Inequality to Schools’ Instructional Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ida Gran; Andersen, Simon Calmar

    2017-01-01

    educational inequality. We analyze whether the impact of student-centered instructional strategies on academic achievement differs for students with different socioeconomic backgrounds. Results suggest that a student-centered instructional strategy has a negative impact on academic achievement in general......, and for students with low parental education in particular. Our findings support the argument that the instructional strategy of schools is an important mechanism in generating educational inequality through the stratification of learning opportunities.......Research in the sociology of education argues that the educational system provides different learning opportunities for students with different socioeconomic backgrounds and that this circumstance makes the educational process an important institutional context for the reproduction of educational...

  7. Instructional immediacy in elearning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkem, Kerrie

    2014-01-01

    Instructor immediacy has been positively associated with many desirable academic outcomes including increased student learning. This study extends existing understanding of instructional immediacy behaviours in elearning by describing postgraduate nursing students' reflections on their own experience. An exploratory, descriptive survey design was used to collect qualitative data. Participants were asked what behaviours or activities help to create rapport or a positive interpersonal connection (immediacy) between students and their online teacher(s). Thematic analysis of the data revealed three main themes: acknowledging and affirming student's personal and professional responsibilities; providing clear and timely information; and utilising rich media. These findings give lecturers insight into instructional strategies they may adopt to increase immediacy in elearning and hence improve student learning outcomes.

  8. A Critique of Instructional

    OpenAIRE

    McKernan, James

    2010-01-01

    The ‘objectives model’ of curriculum planning, predicated upon behavioural performances, has become the dominant form of curriculum planning in Europe and elsewhere in the world. This paper argues that the objectives model is satisfactory for training or instruction, but falls down when applied to a true sense of ‘education’. The paper outlines 13 limitations on the use of educational objectives. It is argued that those interested in using objectives are guided by evaluation as assessment rat...

  9. Effective Multicultural Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin T. Thompson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The reason why the Trayvon Martin murder trial and similar court cases create a philosophical rift in our nation is due in part to flaws in the delivery of multicultural education. Traditional multicultural instruction does not prepare citizens for the subtleties and complexities of race relations. This study investigates critical strategies and practices that address multicultural missing gaps. I also seek to fill a void in the literature created by a lack of student input regarding teaching strategies that encourage lifelong learning. Students (N = 337 enrolled at a Midwestern university were asked to rate the efficacy of selected instructional strategies. Utilizing a 9-point Likert-type scale, students gave themselves a personal growth rating of 7.15 (SD = 1.47. Variables important to predicting that growth (R2 = .56, p < .0005 were a six-factor variable known as a non-color-blind instructional approach (t = 10.509, p ≤ .0005, allowing students an opportunity to form their own opinions apart from the instructor (t = 4.797, p ≤ .0005, and a state law that mandated multicultural training (t = 3.234, p = .001. Results demonstrated that utilizing a 35% traditional and 65% critical pedagogy mixture when teaching multicultural education helped promote win/win scenarios for education candidates hoping to become difference makers.

  10. Using a Study Circle Model to Improve Teacher Confidence and Proficiency in Delivering Pronunciation Instruction in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echelberger, Andrea; McCurdy, Suzanne Gichrist; Parrish, Betsy

    2018-01-01

    Adult English language learners are hungry for pronunciation instruction that helps them to "crack the code" of speaking intelligible English (Derwing, 2003). Research indicates benefits of pronunciation instruction with adult learners, yet many teachers believe they lack the knowledge and background to make sound instructional decisions…

  11. Examining the Influence of Seductive Details in Case-Based Instruction on Pre-Service Teachers' Learning and Learning Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercrombie, Sara

    2011-01-01

    The case-based instructional method uses fictionalized or actual narratives as instructional tools to support learning, decision-making, and improved transfer to practical settings. Educational theorists and researchers specializing in case-based instruction have suggested that cases can be made more realistic, engaging, and challenging, thus…

  12. Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Luigi Baldi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This article points out some conditions which significantly exert an influence upon decision and compares decision making and problem solving as interconnected processes. Some strategies of decision making are also examined.

  13. Amateur Telescope Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkin, Stephen

    Many amateur astronomers make their own instruments, either because of financial considerations or because they are just interested. Amateur Telescope Making offers a variety of designs for telescopes, mounts and drives which are suitable for the home-constructor. The designs range from simple to advanced, but all are within the range of a moderately well-equipped home workshop. The book not only tells the reader what he can construct, but also what it is sensible to construct given what time is available commercially. Thus each chapter begins with reasons for undertaking the project, then looks at theoretical consideration before finishing with practical instructions and advice. An indication is given as to the skills required for the various projects. Appendices list reputable sources of (mail order) materials and components. The telescopes and mounts range from "shoestring" (very cheap) instruments to specialist devices that are unavailable commercially.

  14. Making it their idea: The Learning Cycle in library instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Frierson

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available http://www.flickr.com/photos/penguinchris/ / CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 Librarians are always struggling to convince someone of something: convincing voters to say ‘yes’ to a library bond; persuading a library director to invest in a text-messaging reference tool; trying to get students to use library resources instead of Google. One of the most effective ways to be successful is [...

  15. Prayer and Adolescence: Can Formal Instruction Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigel, Deena

    2016-01-01

    This design experiment in prayer education for Jewish students was motivated by a current educational concern: educating for spirituality and religious practice. Educators are tasked with formally nurturing spirituality (Wright 2001). It is known that attitude to religious observance may change during adolescence (Hyde 1963), thus attitude to…

  16. Mindful Listening Instruction: Does It Make a Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, William Todd

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the effect of mindfulness on student listening. Mindfulness is defined as "the process of noticing novel distinctions." Fifth grade students (N = 38) at a single school participated in this study, which used a posttest-only, random selection experimental design. The Independent Variable was exposure to mindful…

  17. Why and How Teachers Transform Their Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Barbara J.

    In his 2011 book The highly qualified teacher: What is teacher quality and how do we measure it? Strong argues that as a profession, education has struggled to measure teacher quality and therefore cannot provide a proven system to consistently develop high-quality teachers. In order to move toward an operational definition of teacher quality, Kennedy, in her 2008 journal article entitled "Contributions of qualitative research to research on teacher qualifications" suggests that the causal mechanisms of the development of teachers who are identified as high-quality teachers must be researched, documented, and then used in teacher preparation and development. Instructional ability is a key component of teacher effectiveness. This case study examines instructional transformations made by four teachers to explore why and how teachers make transformations in their teaching. The overarching conclusion of the study is the importance of student-centeredness as a component of teacher effectiveness.

  18. Multilevel library instruction for emerging nursing roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, B W; Fisher, C C

    1995-10-01

    As new nursing roles emerge that involve greater decision making than in the past, added responsibility for outcomes and cost control, and increased emphasis on primary care, the information-seeking skills needed by nurses change. A search of library and nursing literature indicates that there is little comprehensive library instruction covering all levels of nursing programs: undergraduate, returning registered nurses, and graduate students. The University of Florida is one of the few places that has such a multilevel, course-integrated curriculum in place for all entrants into the nursing program. Objectives have been developed for each stage of learning. The courses include instruction in the use of the online public access catalog, printed resources, and electronic databases. A library classroom equipped with the latest technology enables student interaction with electronic databases. This paper discusses the program and several methods used to evaluate it.

  19. Shared Decision Making for Better Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brost, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Delegating decision making to those closest to implementation can result in better decisions, more support for improvement initiatives, and increased student performance. Shared decision making depends on capable school leadership, a professional community, instructional guidance mechanisms, knowledge and skills, information sharing, power, and…

  20. USING GOOGLE+ FOR INSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin YEE

    Full Text Available Introduced in July, 2011 in a beta test of invited users only, the new social media service Google+ (or G+ quickly spread by word of mouth, and Google leader Larry Page (2011 blogged that within sixteen days it had 10 million users. By August, it had 25 million users (Cashmore, 2011. Even with slower growth ahead (still with no marketing budget, the service looks likely to crest 100 million users perhaps as early as ten months, a feat that took Facebook three years. Other social networks, most notably Facebook and Twitter, have been used increasingly as instructional tools, since they are platforms with which students are already familiar (Maloney, 2007; McLoughlin & Lee, 2007. Selwyn (2009 found that students often eschew official channels for communication in favor of less formal community-based formats such as Facebook, implying a growing need for instructional communication tools that will be used willingly by students. The question is whether Google+ can be used like Twitter or Facebook to augment instruction, or even, perhaps, to improve upon those predecessors for academic purposes. Google+ is like Twitter in that anyone can follow a given user’s posts. There is no direct “friend” relationship required to read the posts written by others. However, it also approximates some features of Facebook. Rather than friends sorted into “lists” like in Facebook, Google+ allows users to place feeds into one or more “circles,” the better to monitor (or control the flow of information to and from different audiences. Circles are more intuitive, and more central to the experience, than the Facebook lists. They provide an explicit organizational structure, compared to the less-obvious listing functionality, which feels like an afterthought, found in Facebook.

  1. EST Vocabulary Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia D.S. Bell

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at contributing to the investigation on the instruction of EST (English for Science and Technology vocabulary, in terms of receptive use of the language. It evaluates the effectiveness of two teaching approaches to the acquisition of vocabulary. The first approach consisted of teaching vocabulary through the use of dictionaries, where the words were merely translated into the learners’ L1 or defined in the target language thus promoting superficial level of word processing. The second approach employed activities promoting deep level of word processing. Data were analysed quantitatively. Results indicated that the two approaches seem to have some equipotentiality, as far as EST vocabulary is concerned.

  2. The Mere Exposure Instruction Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dessel, Pieter; Mertens, Gaëtan; Smith, Colin Tucker; De Houwer, Jan

    2017-09-01

    The mere exposure effect refers to the well-established finding that people evaluate a stimulus more positively after repeated exposure to that stimulus. We investigated whether a change in stimulus evaluation can occur also when participants are not repeatedly exposed to a stimulus, but are merely instructed that one stimulus will occur frequently and another stimulus will occur infrequently. We report seven experiments showing that (1) mere exposure instructions influence implicit stimulus evaluations as measured with an Implicit Association Test (IAT), personalized Implicit Association Test (pIAT), or Affect Misattribution Procedure (AMP), but not with an Evaluative Priming Task (EPT), (2) mere exposure instructions influence explicit evaluations, and (3) the instruction effect depends on participants' memory of which stimulus will be presented more frequently. We discuss how these findings inform us about the boundary conditions of mere exposure instruction effects, as well as the mental processes that underlie mere exposure and mere exposure instruction effects.

  3. Cultural dimensions of learning: Addressing the challenges of multicultural instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Parrish

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The growing multicultural nature of education and training environments makes it critical that instructors and instructional designers, especially those working in online learning environments, develop skills to deliver culturally sensitive and culturally adaptive instruction. This article explores research into cultural differences to identify those dimensions of culture that are most likely to impact instructional situations. It presents these in the cultural dimensions of learning framework (CDLF, which describes a set of eight cultural parameters regarding social relationships, epistemological beliefs, and temporal perceptions, and illustrates their spectrums of variability as they might be exhibited in instructional situations. The article also explores the literature on instructional design and culture for guidelines on addressing the cross-cultural challenges faced by instructional providers. It suggests that these challenges can be overcome through increased awareness, culturally sensitive communication, modified instructional design processes, and efforts to accommodate the most critical cultural differences. Finally, it describes the use of the CDLF questionnaire as a tool to illuminate the range of preferences existing among learners and to discover the potential range of strategies and tactics that might be useful for a given set of learners.

  4. The Instructional Network: Using Facebook to Enhance Undergraduate Mathematics Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Peter; Gregory, Karen; Eddy, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Facebook is a website with over one billion users worldwide that is synonymous with social-networking. However, in this study, Facebook is used as an "instructional network". Two sections of an undergraduate calculus course were used to study the effects of participating in a Facebook group devoted solely to instruction. One section was…

  5. Improving Reading Instruction through Research-Based Instructional Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Vickie Lynn

    2010-01-01

    The diverse population of students in grades 1- 3 at a suburban elementary school has created a challenge for teachers when differentiating instruction in reading. The purpose of this doctoral project study was to explore the lived experiences of these teachers as they have acquired research-based instructional strategies in reading that support…

  6. Death Penalty Decisions: Instruction Comprehension, Attitudes, and Decision Mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patry, Marc W; Penrod, Steven D

    2013-01-01

    A primary goal of this research was to empirically evaluate a set of assumptions, advanced in the Supreme Court's ruling in Buchanan v. Angelone (1998), about jury comprehension of death penalty instructions. Further, this research examined the use of evidence in capital punishment decision making by exploring underlying mediating factors upon which death penalty decisions may be based. Manipulated variables included the type of instructions and several variations of evidence. Study 1 was a paper and pencil study of 245 undergraduate mock jurors. The experimental design was an incomplete 4×2×2×2×2 factorial model resulting in 56 possible conditions. Manipulations included four different types of instructions, presence of a list of case-specific mitigators to accompany the instructions, and three variations in the case facts: age of the defendant, bad prior record, and defendant history of emotional abuse. Study 2 was a fully-crossed 2×2×2×2×2 experiment with four deliberating mock juries per cell. Manipulations included jury instructions (original or revised), presence of a list of case-specific mitigators, defendant history of emotional abuse, bad prior record, and heinousness of the crime. The sample of 735 jury-eligible participants included 130 individuals who identified themselves as students. Participants watched one of 32 stimulus videotapes based on a replication of a capital sentencing hearing. The present findings support previous research showing low comprehension of capital penalty instructions. Further, we found that higher instruction comprehension was associated with higher likelihood of issuing life sentence decisions. The importance of instruction comprehension is emphasized in a social cognitive model of jury decision making at the sentencing phase of capital cases.

  7. Model : making

    OpenAIRE

    Bottle, Neil

    2013-01-01

    The Model : making exhibition was curated by Brian Kennedy in collaboration with Allies & Morrison in September 2013. For the London Design Festival, the Model : making exhibition looked at the increased use of new technologies by both craft-makers and architectural model makers. In both practices traditional ways of making by hand are increasingly being combined with the latest technologies of digital imaging, laser cutting, CNC machining and 3D printing. This exhibition focussed on ...

  8. Perspectives on Measurement Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airasian, Peter W.

    1991-01-01

    This paper seeks to identify ways of making measurement more relevant to classroom teachers, and making classroom realities more apparent to measurement specialists. Measurement elements of teacher education textbooks and courses, nontraditional assessment topics, informal classroom measurement techniques, terminological issues, and three types of…

  9. Designing Instructional Materials: Some Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbank, Lucille; Pett, Dennis

    Guidelines for the design of instructional materials are outlined in this paper. The principles of design are presented in five major categories: (1) general design (structural appeal and personal appeal); (2) instructional design (attention, memory, concept learning, and attitude change); (3) visual design (media considerations, pictures, graphs…

  10. Cognitive Approaches to Automated Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regian, J. Wesley, Ed.; Shute, Valerie J., Ed.

    This book contains a snapshot of state-of-the-art research on the design of automated instructional systems. Selected cognitive psychologists were asked to describe their approach to instruction and cognitive diagnosis, the theoretical basis of the approach, its utility and applicability, and the knowledge engineering or task analysis methods…

  11. Physics Instruction for Radiologic Technologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaney, Edward L.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the Denver collaborative training program in radiologic technology with emphasis upon identification of core topics, preparation of quality instructional materials, and use of innovative teaching techniques, such as computer-assisted instruction and video tape presentations. Included is a 10-week course outline. (CC)

  12. Active Learning through Online Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulbahar, Yasemin; Kalelioglu, Filiz

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the use of proper instructional techniques in online discussions that lead to meaningful learning. The research study looks at the effective use of two instructional techniques within online environments, based on qualitative measures. "Brainstorming" and "Six Thinking Hats" were selected and implemented…

  13. Adaptive instruction and pupil achievement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtveen, A.A M; Booy, N; de Jong, Robert (Rob); van de Grift, W.J C M

    In this article the results are reported of a quasi-experiment on effects of adaptive instruction on reading results of children in the first year of reading instruction in Dutch primary schools. The research involved 456 pupils from 23 schools (12 experimental and 11 control group schools).

  14. Instructional Theory for Teaching Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Jan R.; Dinham, Sarah M.

    Metatheoretical analysis of Ausubel's Theory of Meaningful Verbal Learning and Gagne's Theory of Instruction using the Dickoff and James paradigm produced two instructional systems for basic statistics. The systems were tested with a pretest-posttest control group design utilizing students enrolled in an introductory-level graduate statistics…

  15. Unaligned instruction relocation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertolli, Carlo; O' Brien, John K.; Sallenave, Olivier H.; Sura, Zehra N.

    2017-10-17

    In one embodiment, a computer-implemented method includes receiving source code to be compiled into an executable file for an unaligned instruction set architecture (ISA). Aligned assembled code is generated, by a computer processor. The aligned assembled code complies with an aligned ISA and includes aligned processor code for a processor and aligned accelerator code for an accelerator. A first linking pass is performed on the aligned assembled code, including relocating a first relocation target in the aligned accelerator code that refers to a first object outside the aligned accelerator code. Unaligned assembled code is generated in accordance with the unaligned ISA and includes unaligned accelerator code for the accelerator and unaligned processor code for the processor. A second linking pass is performed on the unaligned assembled code, including relocating a second relocation target outside the unaligned accelerator code that refers to an object in the unaligned accelerator code.

  16. Unaligned instruction relocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolli, Carlo; O'Brien, John K.; Sallenave, Olivier H.; Sura, Zehra N.

    2018-01-23

    In one embodiment, a computer-implemented method includes receiving source code to be compiled into an executable file for an unaligned instruction set architecture (ISA). Aligned assembled code is generated, by a computer processor. The aligned assembled code complies with an aligned ISA and includes aligned processor code for a processor and aligned accelerator code for an accelerator. A first linking pass is performed on the aligned assembled code, including relocating a first relocation target in the aligned accelerator code that refers to a first object outside the aligned accelerator code. Unaligned assembled code is generated in accordance with the unaligned ISA and includes unaligned accelerator code for the accelerator and unaligned processor code for the processor. A second linking pass is performed on the unaligned assembled code, including relocating a second relocation target outside the unaligned accelerator code that refers to an object in the unaligned accelerator code.

  17. Steel making

    CERN Document Server

    Chakrabarti, A K

    2014-01-01

    "Steel Making" is designed to give students a strong grounding in the theory and state-of-the-art practice of production of steels. This book is primarily focused to meet the needs of undergraduate metallurgical students and candidates for associate membership examinations of professional bodies (AMIIM, AMIE). Besides, for all engineering professionals working in steel plants who need to understand the basic principles of steel making, the text provides a sound introduction to the subject.Beginning with a brief introduction to the historical perspective and current status of steel making together with the reasons for obsolescence of Bessemer converter and open hearth processes, the book moves on to: elaborate the physiochemical principles involved in steel making; explain the operational principles and practices of the modern processes of primary steel making (LD converter, Q-BOP process, and electric furnace process); provide a summary of the developments in secondary refining of steels; discuss principles a...

  18. Comprehension instruction research-based best practices

    CERN Document Server

    Parris, Sheri R; Morrow, Lesley Mandel

    2015-01-01

    All key issues of research and practice in comprehension instruction are addressed in this highly regarded professional resource and course text. Leading scholars examine the processes that enable students to make meaning from what they read--and how this knowledge can be applied to improve teaching at all grade levels. Best practices for meeting the needs of diverse elementary and secondary students are identified. Essential topics include strategies for comprehending different types of texts, the impact of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS), cutting-edge assessment approaches, and the gr

  19. Interactive Instruction in Bayesian Inference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Azam; Breslav, Simon; Hornbæk, Kasper

    2018-01-01

    An instructional approach is presented to improve human performance in solving Bayesian inference problems. Starting from the original text of the classic Mammography Problem, the textual expression is modified and visualizations are added according to Mayer’s principles of instruction. These pri......An instructional approach is presented to improve human performance in solving Bayesian inference problems. Starting from the original text of the classic Mammography Problem, the textual expression is modified and visualizations are added according to Mayer’s principles of instruction....... These principles concern coherence, personalization, signaling, segmenting, multimedia, spatial contiguity, and pretraining. Principles of self-explanation and interactivity are also applied. Four experiments on the Mammography Problem showed that these principles help participants answer the questions...... that an instructional approach to improving human performance in Bayesian inference is a promising direction....

  20. 40 CFR 1048.220 - How do I amend the maintenance instructions in my application?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... step for engines in severe-duty applications. (c) You need not request approval if you are making only... ENGINES Certifying Engine Families § 1048.220 How do I amend the maintenance instructions in my... certification for an engine family if you want to change the emission-related maintenance instructions in a way...

  1. Non-Native English Teachers' Beliefs on Grammar Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Önalan, Okan

    2018-01-01

    Research on teacher cognition, which mainly focuses on identifying what teachers think, know and believe, is essential to understanding teachers' cognitive framework as it relates to the instructional choices they make. The aim of this study is to find out the beliefs of non-native speaker teachers of English on grammar instruction and to explain…

  2. Evaluation of an Online Instructional Database Accessed by QR Codes to Support Biochemistry Practical Laboratory Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Tor; Melling, Louise; Shaw, Kirsty J.

    2016-01-01

    An online instructional database containing information on commonly used pieces of laboratory equipment was created. In order to make the database highly accessible and to promote its use, QR codes were utilized. The instructional materials were available anytime and accessed using QR codes located on the equipment itself and within undergraduate…

  3. Laundry Soap from Waste Cooking Oil. What We Make. Science and Technology Education in Philippine Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippines Univ., Quezon City. Inst. for Science and Mathematics Education Development.

    This module provides instructions for clarifying cooking oil and using it with either wood ash lye or commercial lye to make laundry soap. It also provides (in appendices): a discussion of oils and soaps, including the history of soap; instructions for preparing an 18 percent lye solution; instructions for preparing soap using lye from wood ash;…

  4. ARS-Media for excel instruction manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    ARS-Media for Excel Instruction Manual is the instruction manual that explains how to use the Excel spreadsheet ARS-Media for Excel application. ARS-Media for Excel Instruction Manual is provided as a pdf file....

  5. Do I Buy? Rent? Or Make My Own?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawin, Philip, Jr.; Hartz, Roger

    1977-01-01

    Selection of and search for appropriate instructional materials should begin while writing instructional objectives during the curriculum planning process. A five-phase system to help the teacher make selection decisions, in consultation with the school media specialist, is presented. (MF)

  6. Make Sense?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyrd-Jones, Richard; Törmälä, Minna

    Purpose: An important part of how we sense a brand is how we make sense of a brand. Sense-making is naturally strongly connected to how we cognize about the brand. But sense-making is concerned with multiple forms of knowledge that arise from our interpretation of the brand-related stimuli......: Declarative, episodic, procedural and sensory. Knowledge is given meaning through mental association (Keller, 1993) and / or symbolic interaction (Blumer, 1969). These meanings are centrally related to individuals’ sense of identity or “identity needs” (Wallpach & Woodside, 2009). The way individuals make...... sense of brands is related to who people think they are in their context and this shapes what they enact and how they interpret the brand (Currie & Brown, 2003; Weick, Sutcliffe, & Obstfeld, 2005; Weick, 1993). Our subject of interest in this paper is how stakeholders interpret and ascribe meaning...

  7. Critical Comments on the General Model of Instructional Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Justin D.

    2014-01-01

    This essay presents a critical commentary on McCroskey et al.'s (2004) general model of instructional communication. In particular, five points are examined which make explicit and problematize the meta-theoretical assumptions of the model. Comments call attention to the limitations of the model and argue for a broader approach to…

  8. Computer-based learning: games as an instructional strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, J; Goodman, J

    1999-01-01

    Games are a creative teaching strategy that enhances learning and problem solving. Gaming strategies are being used by the authors to make learning interesting, stimulating and fun. This article focuses on the development and implementation of computer games as an instructional strategy. Positive outcomes have resulted from the use of games in the classroom.

  9. The New Spirit in Instruction: Cohesion, Communication and Causation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitmann, Helen M.

    The author examines physical education as a discipline and discusses what it is that physical educators can offer their students to make the instruction relevant to their educational careers and their lives. The intensive (but isolated) treatment of particular sports offered in popular sport-book literature is contrasted with the possibilities of…

  10. A multimedia adult literacy program: Combining NASA technology, instructional design theory, and authentic literacy concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Jerry W.

    1993-01-01

    For a number of years, the Software Technology Branch of the Information Systems Directorate has been involved in the application of cutting edge hardware and software technologies to instructional tasks related to NASA projects. The branch has developed intelligent computer aided training shells, instructional applications of virtual reality and multimedia, and computer-based instructional packages that use fuzzy logic for both instructional and diagnostic decision making. One outcome of the work on space-related technology-supported instruction has been the creation of a significant pool of human talent in the branch with current expertise on the cutting edges of instructional technologies. When the human talent is combined with advanced technologies for graphics, sound, video, CD-ROM, and high speed computing, the result is a powerful research and development group that both contributes to the applied foundations of instructional technology and creates effective instructional packages that take advantage of a range of advanced technologies. Several branch projects are currently underway that combine NASA-developed expertise to significant instructional problems in public education. The branch, for example, has developed intelligent computer aided software to help high school students learn physics and staff are currently working on a project to produce educational software for young children with language deficits. This report deals with another project, the adult literacy tutor. Unfortunately, while there are a number of computer-based instructional packages available for adult literacy instruction, most of them are based on the same instructional models that failed these students when they were in school. The teacher-centered, discrete skill and drill-oriented, instructional strategies, even when they are supported by color computer graphics and animation, that form the foundation for most of the computer-based literacy packages currently on the market may not

  11. Instructional Uses of Web-Based Survey Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concetta A. DePaolo, Ph.D.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent technological advances have led to changes in how instruction is delivered. Such technology can create opportunities to enhance instruction and make instructors more efficient in performing instructional tasks, especially if the technology is easy to use and requires no training. One such technology, web-based survey software, is extremely accessible for anyone with basic computer skills. Web-based survey software can be used for a variety of instructional purposes to streamline instructor tasks, as well as enhance instruction and communication with students. Following a brief overview of the technology, we discuss how Web Forms from nTreePoint can be used to conduct instructional surveys, collect course feedback, conduct peer evaluations of group work, collect completed assignments, schedule meeting times among multiple people, and aid in pedagogical research. We also discuss our experiences with these tasks within traditional on-campus courses and how they were enhanced or expedited by the use of web-based survey software.

  12. Extent and modes of physics instruction in European dental schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letić, Milorad; Popović, Gorjana

    2013-01-01

    Changes in dental education towards integration of sciences and convergence of curricula have affected instruction in physics. Earlier studies of undergraduate curricula make possible comparisons in physics instruction. For this study, the websites of 245 European dental schools were explored, and information about the curriculum was found on 213 sites. Physics instruction in the form of a separate course was found in 63 percent of these schools, with eighty-two hours and 5.9 European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) credits on average. Physics integrated with other subjects or into modules was found in 19 percent of these schools. Half of these schools had on average sixty-one hours and 6.9 ECTS credits devoted to physics. Eighteen percent of the schools had no noticeable obligatory physics instruction, but in half of them physics was found to be required or accepted on admission, included in other subjects, or appeared as an elective course. In 122 dental schools, the extent of physics instruction was found to be between forty and 120 contact hours. Physics instruction has been reduced by up to 14 percent in the last fourteen years in the group of eleven countries that were members of the European Union (EU) in 1997, but by approximately 30 percent in last five years in the group of ten Accession Countries to the EU.

  13. Inquiry-Based Instruction and High Stakes Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cothern, Rebecca L.

    Science education is a key to economic success for a country in terms of promoting advances in national industry and technology and maximizing competitive advantage in a global marketplace. The December 2010 Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) ranked the United States 23rd of 65 countries in science. That dismal standing in science proficiency impedes the ability of American school graduates to compete in the global market place. Furthermore, the implementation of high stakes testing in science mandated by the 2007 No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act has created an additional need for educators to find effective science pedagogy. Research has shown that inquiry-based science instruction is one of the predominant science instructional methods. Inquiry-based instruction is a multifaceted teaching method with its theoretical foundation in constructivism. A correlational survey research design was used to determine the relationship between levels of inquiry-based science instruction and student performance on a standardized state science test. A self-report survey, using a Likert-type scale, was completed by 26 fifth grade teachers. Participants' responses were analyzed and grouped as high, medium, or low level inquiry instruction. The unit of analysis for the achievement variable was the student scale score average from the state science test. Spearman's Rho correlation data showed a positive relationship between the level of inquiry-based instruction and student achievement on the state assessment. The findings can assist teachers and administrators by providing additional research on the benefits of the inquiry-based instructional method. Implications for positive social change include increases in student proficiency and decision-making skills related to science policy issues which can help make them more competitive in the global marketplace.

  14. INSTRUCTIONAL SYSTEMS DESIGN (ISD: Theory and Practice in Second Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nil GOKSEL CANBEK

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The considerable changes in distance learning related technologies and Web 2.0 tools direct new immersive platforms to serve on the concept of avatar-driven interactions. In this sense, the immersive learning platforms, like Second Life (SL, embrace innovative forms of network based settings for effective community interactions. SL, as an interactive learning milieu, conducts 3D interactions and active education within the context of Instructional Systems Design (ISD which makes learning experiences efficient for both the tutor and learners on the platform designed on social networking. The platform gives an appropriate service to its users to be part of an instructional application of virtual worlds in where learners become connected though online activities. Within the learning theories existing nowadays, instructional designers, who are working in 3D environment like SL, are using mainly cognitive theory and constructivist strategy of learning. According to cognitive learning theory, people learn in different ways that are individually contextual and new trends in Instructional Design (ID had to address these differences. There are number of already approbated instructional models, which are used widely in the process of creation learning courses for 3D environments. The most frequently used model is ADDIE (Assess–Design–Develop–Implement– Evaluate, and the model PIE (Plan-Integrate–Evaluate, that is relatively new and become increasingly popular as it allows easy integration of technology in the classroom-oriented (virtual or real teaching. Based on the above mentioned concerns, this paper will examine the instructional design models used to create immersive courses within SL. Further, the paper will collect ideas on the instructional tools and technologies used for designing SL courses as these new technologies used in this environment draws heavily on andragogy. The paper will also clarify the obstacles on virtual learning

  15. Instructed officers Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This law contains instructions on the prevention of radiological and contains 4 articles Article I: describe the responsibilities of the institutions that operate within the scope of radiological protection in terms of the number of radiation protection officers and personal Supervisors who available in the practices radiation field. Article II: talking about the conditions of radiation protection officers that must be available in the main officers and working field in larg institutions and thecondition of specific requirements for large enterprises of work permits in the field of radiological work that issued by the Council. Article III: the functions and duties of officers in the prevention of radiological oversee the development of radiation protection programmes in the planning stages, construction and preparing the rules of local labour and what it lead of such tasks.Article IV: radiation protection officers powers: to modify and approve the programme of prevention and radiation safety at the company, stop any unsafe steps, amend the steps of the usage, operation of materials, devices and so on

  16. To Err or Not to Err: A Question for the Instruction of Psychomotor Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Robert N.

    1977-01-01

    The effectiveness of guided and nonguided instructional strategies for teaching psychomotor skills is reviewed from the perspectives of learning theories, psychomotor research, transfer of learning, and the function and desirability of making errors in the learning process. (EVH)

  17. Mycological Research: instructions and guidelines for authors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawksworth, David L

    2007-01-01

    Instructions and guidelines for authors submitting papers to Mycological Research are provided. The journal is international and covers all fields of mycology, both fundamental and applied. It publishes news items, reviews, original papers, and book reviews. Contributions should be of interest to a wide spectrum of mycologists or make significant novel contributions. Papers with particularly exciting results are fast-tracked and prioritized for publication. Submission must be made online via the Elsevier Editorial System (ees.elsevier.com/mycres); hard copy submissions are no longer accepted. Information is provided on: scope and timeliness; submission of articles; manuscript preparation; tables; illustrations; spellings, numbers, chemical symbols, and abbreviations; voucher material; molecular data; taxonomic data; references; the decision-making process; copyright; author's copies; proofs; and further questions.

  18. Optimization for decision making linear and quadratic models

    CERN Document Server

    Murty, Katta G

    2010-01-01

    While maintaining the rigorous linear programming instruction required, Murty's new book is unique in its focus on developing modeling skills to support valid decision-making for complex real world problems, and includes solutions to brand new algorithms.

  19. How explicit and implicit test instructions in an implicit learning task affect performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Witt

    Full Text Available Typically developing children aged 5 to 8 years were exposed to artificial grammar learning. Following an implicit exposure phase, half of the participants received neutral instructions at test while the other half received instructions making a direct, explicit reference to the training phase. We first aimed to assess whether implicit learning operated in the two test conditions. We then evaluated the differential impact of age on learning performances as a function of test instructions. The results showed that performance did not vary as a function of age in the implicit instructions condition, while age effects emerged when explicit instructions were employed at test. However, performance was affected differently by age and the instructions given at test, depending on whether the implicit learning of short or long units was assessed. These results suggest that the claim that the implicit learning process is independent of age needs to be revised.

  20. Motivational Measure of the Instruction Compared: Instruction Based on the ARCS Motivation Theory vs Traditional Instruction in Blended Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colakoglu, Ozgur M.; Akdemir, Omur

    2012-01-01

    The ARCS Motivation Theory was proposed to guide instructional designers and teachers who develop their own instruction to integrate motivational design strategies into the instruction. There is a lack of literature supporting the idea that instruction for blended courses if designed based on the ARCS Motivation Theory provides different…

  1. Decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2011-01-01

    A decision is a commitment of resources under conditions of risk in expectation of the best future outcome. The smart decision is always the strategy with the best overall expected value-the best combination of facts and values. Some of the special circumstances involved in decision making are discussed, including decisions where there are multiple goals, those where more than one person is involved in making the decision, using trigger points, framing decisions correctly, commitments to lost causes, and expert decision makers. A complex example of deciding about removal of asymptomatic third molars, with and without an EBD search, is discussed.

  2. Zoology by Self-Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Keith; Hammond, Roger

    1976-01-01

    A historical account is given of how a conventional university first-year undergraduate course in zoology has been replaced by a self-instructional one. Advantages and problems are weighed, and successful student achievement and interest are described. (LBH)

  3. A Fallibilistic Model for Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, A. J.

    1971-01-01

    Discusses models in inquiry and of instruction based on critical Fallibilistic philosophy, developed by Karl R. Popper, which holds that all knowledge grows by conjecture and refutation. Classroom applications of strategies which result from the model are presented. (JP)

  4. Instructional Style Meets Classroom Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novelli, Joan

    1991-01-01

    Nine elementary teachers explain how they design their classrooms to match and support their instructional styles. The teachers focus on whole language programs, student portfolios, science activity set-ups, technology transformation, learning center strategies, and space utilization. (SM)

  5. Intelligent Tools and Instructional Simulations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Murray, William R; Sams, Michelle; Belleville, Michael

    2001-01-01

    This intelligent tools and instructional simulations project was an investigation into the utility of a knowledge-based performance support system to support learning and on-task performance for using...

  6. Measurement control workshop instructional materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbs, Philip [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Crawford, Cary [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McGinnis, Brent [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Insolves LLC, Piketon, OH (United States)

    2014-04-01

    A workshop to teach the essential elements of an effective nuclear materials control and accountability (MC&A) programs are outlined, along with the modes of Instruction, and the roles and responsibilities of participants in the workshop.

  7. Measurement Control Workshop Instructional Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbs, Philip; Crawford, Cary; McGinnis, Brent

    2014-01-01

    A workshop to teach the essential elements of an effective nuclear materials control and accountability (MC&A) programs are outlined, along with the modes of Instruction, and the roles and responsibilities of participants in the workshop.

  8. Adaptive Explicitly Parallel Instruction Computing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Talla, Surendranath

    2000-01-01

    .... With in this context, we ask ourselves the following questions. 1. Can application performance be improved if the compiler had the freedom to pick the instruction set on a per application basis? 2...

  9. Rating Instructional Conversations: A Guide

    OpenAIRE

    Rueda, Robert; Goldenberg, Claude; Gallimore, Ronald

    1992-01-01

    The current focus on more effective ways to foster literacy in school-age children, especially language minority students, has led to the development of alternative instructional approaches. One such approach is the instructional conversation (IC), based on early work in the Hawaiian Kamehameha Elementary Education Project (KEEP), on neo-Vygotskian theory, and on recent classroom-based research on reading comprehension. The present report outlines preliminary efforts to operationaliz...

  10. PLE-based instruction concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javorcik, Tomas

    2017-11-01

    The paper is aimed at the description of a PLE (Personal Learning Environment)-based teaching model suitable for implementation in the instruction of upper primary school students. The paper describes the individual stages of the model and its use of ICT (Information and Communication Technologies) tools. The Personal Learning Environment is a form of instruction which allows for the meaningful use of information and communication technologies (including mobile technologies) in their entirety.

  11. Tritium control and accountability instructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, W.R.; Cruz, S.L.

    1985-08-01

    This instruction describes the tritium accountability procedures practiced by the Tritium Research Laboratory, at Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore. The accountability procedures are based upon the Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, Nuclear Materials Operations Manual, SAND83-8036. The Nuclear Materials Operations Manual describes accountability techniques which are in compliance with the Department of Energy 5630 series Orders, Code of Federal Regulations, and Sandia National Laboratories Instructions

  12. Tritium control and accountability instructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, W.R.

    1981-03-01

    This instruction describes the tritium accountability procedures practiced by the Tritium Research Laboratory, Building 968 at Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore. The accountability procedures are based upon the Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, Nuclear Materials Operations Manual, SAND78-8018. The Nuclear Materials Operations Manual describes accountability techniques which are in compliance with the Department of Energy Manual, Code of Federal Regulations, and Sandia National Laboratories Instructions

  13. Instructional scientific humor in the secondary classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wizner, Francine

    This study is an examination of the manner in which educators employ scientific content humor and how that humor is perceived by their students. Content humor is a useful strategy in drawing the attention of students and improving their receptivity toward scientific information. It is also a useful tool in combating the growing distractions of the electronic classroom. Previous studies have found that humor has a positive effect on knowledge, memory, and understanding. However, few studies have been conducted below the undergraduate level and mainly quantitative measures of student recall have been used to measure learning. This study employed multiple data sources to determine how two secondary biology teachers used humor in order to explain scientific concepts and how their students perceived their teachers' use of scientific instructional humor. Evidence of student humor reception was collected from four students in each of the two classes. All of the scientific instructional humor used in the studied classrooms was cognitive in nature, varying among factual, procedural, conceptual, and metacognitive knowledge. Teachers tended to use dialogic forms of humor. Their scientific humor reflected everyday experiences, presented queries, poked fun at authority, and asked students to search out new perspectives and perform thought experiments. Teachers were the primary actors in performing the humorous events. The events were sometimes physical exaggerations of words or drawings, and they occurred for the purpose of establishing rapport or having students make connections between scientific concepts and prior knowledge. Student perceptions were that teachers did employ humor toward instructional objectives that helped their learning. Helping students become critical thinkers is a trademark of science teachers. Science teachers who take the risk of adopting some attributes of comedians may earn the reward of imparting behaviors on their students like critical thinking

  14. Neuroradiology computer-assisted instruction using interactive videodisk: Pilot project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, C.L.; Goldsmith, D.G.; Osborn, A.G.; Stensaas, S.S.; Davidson, H.C.; Quigley, A.C.

    1987-01-01

    The availability of microcomputers, high-resolution monitors, high-level authoring languages, and videodisk technology make sophisticated neuroradiology instruction a cost-effective possibility. The authors developed a laser videodisk and interactive software to teach normal and pathologic gross and radiologic anatomy of the sellar/juxtasellar region. A spectrum of lesions is presented with information for differential diagnosis included. The exhibit permits conference participants to review the pilot module and experience the self-paced learning and self-evaluation possible with computer-assisted instruction. They also may choose to peruse a ''visual database'' by instant random access to the videodisk by hand control

  15. Instructional Technology and Objectification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekir S. Gur

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectification refers to the way in which everything (including human beings is treated as an object, raw material, or resource to be manipulated and used. In this article, objectification refers to the way that education is often reduced to the packaging and delivery of information. A critique of objectification in instructional technology is presented. In the context of Heidegger’s critique of technology, the authors claim that objectification in education is metaphysical in the sense that the intelligibility (being of education is equated with ready-to-use packages, and thus is reduced to delivery and transmission of objects. The embodiment dimension of teaching and learning can help us in resisting this reduction. The authors argue that objectification increases bureaucratic control over the teaching process and deskills teachers; and by which teachers are proletarianized. The authors conclude that instructional designers should create structures in which a care relation and dialogue between students and teachers can take place. Résumé: L’objectification réfère à la façon dont tout (incluant les être humains est traité comme un objet, une matière première ou une ressource qui peut être manipulée et utilisée. Dans cet article, l’objectification réfère à la façon dont l’éducation est souvent réduite à la mise en boîte et à la livraison de l’information. Une critique de l’objectification en technologie éducative est présentée. Dans le contexte de la critique de la technologie par Heidegger, les auteurs prétendent que l’objectification en éducation est métaphysique dans le sens que l’intelligibilité (être de l’éducation équivaut à la mise en boîte prêt-à –utiliser, et se résume donc à la livraison et à la transmission d’objets. L’incarnation de l’enseignement et de l’apprentissage peuvent nous aider à résister à cette réduction. Les auteurs arguent que l

  16. Making Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pien, Cheng Lu; Dongsheng, Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Effective teaching includes enabling learners to make connections within mathematics. It is easy to accord with this statement, but how often is it a reality in the mathematics classroom? This article describes an approach in "connecting equivalent" fractions and whole number operations. The authors illustrate how a teacher can combine a common…

  17. Intelligent Instructional Systems in Military Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, J.D.; Zdybel, Frank

    Intelligent instructional systems can be distinguished from more conventional approaches by the automation of instructional interaction and choice of strategy. This approach promises to reduce the costs of instructional materials preparation and to increase the adaptability and individualization of the instruction delivered. Tutorial simulation…

  18. Learning and performance under alternative instructional manifestations of experimental practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Michael J.

    Before we can understand how students learn "to do" science, we must make explicit our assumptions about what scientific practice is. This study compares the learning outcomes of two sixth-grade instructional units on experimentation, each based on a particular characterization of practice. In one unit, instruction focused on acquisition and application of the control of variables strategy (CVS; Chen & Klahr, 1999), which is consistent with a popular conception of science education, stemming from Piaget, as the mastery of logical forms. In the other unit, students designed experimental apparatus to answer a target question, and instruction emphasized practices of rendering and transforming the material world in ways that support scientific understanding. Students in both groups were assessed for CVS acquisition and subsequent experimental performance on a novel task, and group performances on these assessments different across instructional conditions. I will argue that student understandings of goals, norms of instructional expectation, and strategies explain these differences, in some cases by supporting performance and in other cases by hindering it. I will also argue that the results question the role typically attributed to logical method in learning to design experiments.

  19. Instruction understanding for intelligent robots in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kambayashi, Shaw; Abe, Yasuaki

    1993-01-01

    As a first step to realize an autonomous mobile robot for plant maintenance, where the robot is capable to understand instructions written in natural languages, we have developed a prototype of instruction understanding system which makes the robot construct its motion sequences to approach instrumentations and inspect them from input sentences written in Japanese. In the prototype system, the instruction understanding and planning capabilities are integrated by an inference engine which consists of a cyclic operation of three processings, i.e., sensing, decision, and execution. Based on environmental data and current states of the robot, a proper process such as natural language processing is triggered by the decision part of the inference engine to accomplish the input instructions. The multiple- and dynamic-planning capabilities, which are necessary to cope with dynamic changes of environments surrounding the robot, are achieved by utilizing the cyclic inference engine together with a set of the inference packets which keep intermediate results of natural language processing and planning for respective input instructions. (orig.)

  20. Making Yugoslavs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian Axboe

    . By the time Aleksandar was killed by an assassin’s bullet five years later, he not only had failed to create a unified Yugoslav nation but his dictatorship had also contributed to an increase in interethnic tensions.   In Making Yugoslavs, Christian Axboe Nielsen uses extensive archival research to explain...... the failure of the dictatorship’s program of forced nationalization. Focusing on how ordinary Yugoslavs responded to Aleksandar’s nationalization project, the book illuminates an often-ignored era of Yugoslav history whose lessons remain relevant not just for the study of Balkan history but for many...

  1. THE MAKING OF DECISION MAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Yuji Tamura

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Quantum Electronics was a Brazilian startup in the 1990's that was acquired by an American equity fund in 2012. They are currently the largest manufacturer of vehicle tracking and infotainment systems. The company was founded by three college friends, who are currently executives at the company: Camilo Santos, Pedro Barbosa and Luana Correa. Edward Hutter was sent by the equity fund to take over the company’s finances, but is having trouble making organizational decisions with his colleagues. As a consultant, I was called to help them improve their decision making process and project prioritization. I adapted and deployed our firm's methodology, but, in the end, its adequacy is shown to be very much in question. The author of this case study intends to explore how actual organizational decisions rely on different decision models and their assumptions, .as well as demonstrate that a decision model is neither absolutely good nor bad as its quality is context dependent.

  2. Examination of Longitudinal Invariance on a Framework for Observing and Categorizing Instructional Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryoo, Ji Hoon; Tai, Robert H.; Skeeles-Worley, Angela D.

    2018-02-01

    In longitudinal studies, measurement invariance is required to conduct substantive comparisons over time or across groups. In this study, we examined measurement invariance on a recently developed instrument capturing student preferences for seven instructional strategies related to science learning and career interest. We have labeled these seven instructional strategies as Collaborating, Competing, Caretaking, Creating/Making, Discovering, Performing, and Teaching. A better understanding of student preferences for particular instructional strategies can help educators, researchers, and policy makers deliberately tailor programmatic instructional structure to increase student persistence in the STEM pipeline. However, simply confirming the relationship between student preferences for science instructional strategies and their future career choices at a single time point is not sufficient to clarify our understanding of the relationship between instructional strategies and student persistence in the STEM pipeline, especially since preferences for instructional strategies are understood to vary over time. As such, we sought to develop a measure that invariantly captures student preference over a period of time: the Framework for Observing and Categorizing Instructional Strategies (FOCIS). We administered the FOCIS instrument over four semesters over two middle school grades to 1009 6th graders and 1021 7th graders and confirmed the longitudinal invariance of the FOCIS measure. This confirmation of longitudinal invariance will allow researchers to examine the relationship between student preference for certain instructional strategies and student persistence in the STEM pipeline.

  3. Instructional Quality Features in Videotaped Biology Lessons: Content-Independent Description of Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorfner, Tobias; Förtsch, Christian; Boone, William; Neuhaus, Birgit J.

    2017-09-01

    A number of studies on single instructional quality features have been reported for mathematics and science instruction. For summarizing single instructional quality features, researchers have created a model of three basic dimensions (classroom management, supportive climate, and cognitive activation) of instructional quality mainly through observing mathematics instruction. Considering this model as valid for all subjects and as usable for describing instruction, we used it in this study which aimed to analyze characteristics of instructional quality in biology lessons of high-achieving and low-achieving classes, independently of content. Therefore, we used the data of three different previous video studies of biology instruction conducted in Germany. From each video study, we selected three high-achieving and three low-achieving classes (N = 18 teachers; 35 videos) for our multiple-case study, in which conspicuous characteristics of instructional quality features were qualitatively identified and qualitatively analyzed. The amount of these characteristics was counted in a quantitative way in all the videos. The characteristics we found could be categorized using the model of three basic dimensions of instructional quality despite some subject-specific differences for biology instruction. Our results revealed that many more characteristics were observable in high-achieving classes than in low-achieving classes. Thus, we believe that this model could be used to describe biology instruction independently of the content. We also make the claims about the qualities for biology instruction—working with concentration in a content-structured environment, getting challenged in higher order thinking, and getting praised for performance—that could have positive influence on students' achievement.

  4. Best practices in writing instruction

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzgerald, Jill; MacArthur, Charles A

    2014-01-01

    An indispensable teacher resource and course text, this book presents evidence-based practices for helping all K-12 students develop their skills as writers. Every chapter draws clear connections to the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). Leading authorities describe how to teach the skills and strategies that students need to plan, draft, evaluate, and revise multiple types of texts. Also addressed are ways for teachers to integrate technology into the writing program, use assessment to inform instruction, teach writing in the content areas, and tailor instruction for English language learner

  5. Improving physics instruction by analyzing video games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Ian D.

    2013-01-01

    Video games can be very powerful teaching systems, and game designers have become adept at optimizing player engagement while scaffolding development of complex skills and situated knowledge. One implication is that we might create games to teach physics. Another, which I explore here, is that we might learn to improve classroom physics instruction by studying effective games. James Gee, in his book What Video Games Have to Teach Us About Learning and Literacy (2007), articulates 36 principles that make good video games highly effective as learning environments. In this theoretical work, I identify 16 themes running through Gee's principles, and explore how these themes and Gee's principles could be applied to the design of an on-campus physics course. I argue that the process pushes us to confront aspects of learning that physics instructors and even physics education researchers generally neglect, and suggest some novel ideas for course design.

  6. PROPOSAL FOR A MOOC INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN BASED ON THE THEORY DEVELOPMENT AND MASTERY LEARNIG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Emilio Sánchez-García

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The first massive open online courses cMOOC lacked an instructional design and have now shifted to models that have an instructional design called xMOOC. This document makes a proposal instructional design for MOOC using the simplified adaptive method SAM inspired by the theory development and strategy of Mastery Learning as part of the research method based on the design of the qualitative paradigm. The results explain and justify the procedure used for the preparation of instructional design. The conclusion that has been reached is that both SAM and strategy Mastery Learning has allowed the instructional design for MOOC easily with emphasis in practice but supported with theoretical, personalized basis by tracking post and considering the learning strategy for the domain.

  7. The Future of Foreign Language Instructional Technology: BYOD MALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Burston

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes trends in instructional technology that are influencing foreign language teaching today and that can be expected to increasingly do so in the future. Though already an integral part of foreign language instruction, digital technology is bound to play an increasing role in language teaching in the coming years. The greatest stimulus for this will undoubtedly be the accessibility of Mobile-Assisted Language Learning (MALL, made possible through the exploitation of mobile devices owned by students themselves. The ubiquitous ownership of smartphones and tablet computers among adolescents and adults now makes a Bring Your Own Device (BYOD approach a feasible alternative to desktop computer labs. Making this work, however, especially in a financially and technologically restricted environment, presents a number of challenges which are the focus of this paper.

  8. Library Instruction. SPEC Kit 17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of Research Libraries, Washington, DC. Office of Management Studies.

    At the request of the Pennsylvania State University Library, the Office of Management Studies surveyed Association of Research Libraries (ARL) members requesting information and documentation illustrating the organization, nature, and level of the library instruction function at their institutions. A review of the responses from 64 of the 94 ARL…

  9. Assistant for instructional development (AID)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, J.P. van; Veldhuis, G.J.; Emmerik, M.L. van; Theunissen, N.C.M.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Due to periodical job rotation within the military, instructional developers are not always experts in their field and are consequently unaware of the types of educational concepts that are available to teach with (Jans & Frazer-Jans, 2004). These observations have led to the

  10. Learning Strategy Instruction Innovation Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumaker, Jean B.

    2011-01-01

    One way of helping students with learning disabilities and other struggling students to be independent life-long learners is to teach them how to use learning strategies in efficient ways. Learning strategy instruction can provide students the opportunity to succeed in today's schools and meet rigorous standards, transforming ineffective learners…

  11. Unpacking Corrections in Mobile Instruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levin, Lena; Cromdal, Jakob; Broth, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    that the practice of unpacking the local particulars of corrections (i) provides for the instructional character of the interaction, and (ii) is highly sensitive to the relevant physical and mobile contingencies. These findings contribute to the existing literature on the interactional organisation of correction...

  12. Three Logics of Instructional Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, Jessica G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines conceptions of instructional leadership in the institutional environment. We know that principals' practices affect student learning and that principals are influenced by ideas in the broader environment. This article examines and defines the multiple conceptions of what it means for principals to be instructional…

  13. Conversation Walks: Improving Instructional Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepeda, Sally J.; Lanoue, Philip D.

    2017-01-01

    Principals are tasked with being the instructional leaders in their schools--developing teacher's abilities through formal and informal classroom observations and feedback. But how can school districts ensure that principals have the skills they need to fulfill this crucial role? In Clarke County School District in Georgia, central-office leaders…

  14. Understanding the Supplemental Instruction Leader

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Adrian; Moore, Lori

    2018-01-01

    This article explored the learning styles and leadership styles of Supplemental Instruction (SI) leaders at Texas A&M University, and the impact of those preferences on recurring attendance to their sessions. The Learning Style Inventory, the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire, and a demographic instrument were administered to SI leaders…

  15. Cement Mason's Curriculum. Instructional Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendirx, Laborn J.; Patton, Bob

    To assist cement mason instructors in providing comprehensive instruction to their students, this curriculum guide treats both the skills and information necessary for cement masons in commercial and industrial construction. Ten sections are included, as follow: related information, covering orientation, safety, the history of cement, and applying…

  16. Health Instruction Packages: Cardiac Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Gwen; And Others

    Text, illustrations, and exercises are utilized in these five learning modules to instruct nurses, students, and other health care professionals in cardiac anatomy and functions and in fundamental electrocardiographic techniques. The first module, "Cardiac Anatomy and Physiology: A Review" by Gwen Phillips, teaches the learner to draw…

  17. Interior Design: Teacher's Instructional Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Tricia

    This teacher's instructional guide, which is part of a family and consumer sciences education series focusing on a broad range of employment opportunities, is intended to assist teachers responsible for teaching one- and two-year interior design programs for Texas high school students. The following are among the items included: (1) introductory…

  18. Succession Planning for Library Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, Karen; Drewry, Josiah

    2015-01-01

    Detailed succession planning helps libraries pass information from one employee to the next. This is crucial in preparing for hiring, turnover, retirements, training of graduate teaching assistants in academic libraries, and other common situations. The authors of this article discuss succession planning for instruction programs in academic…

  19. Adaptive Instruction: Building on Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Margaret C.

    1980-01-01

    The use of alternative instructional strategies and resources to meet the learning needs of individual students incorporates the diagnosis of student learning progress, the teaching of self-management skills, organizational supports, and family involvement into an effective educational program. (JN)

  20. Gestalt Theory and Instructional Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Patrick; Fitz, Chad

    1993-01-01

    Offers a brief overview of Gestalt theory. Shows how six Gestalt principles (proximity, closure, symmetry, figure-ground segregation, good continuation, and similarity) can be applied to improve a reader's comprehension of a badly designed instruction module that uses several graphics. (SR)

  1. The Basics of Blended Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Catlin R.

    2013-01-01

    Even though many of teachers do not have technology-rich classrooms, the rapidly evolving education landscape increasingly requires them to incorporate technology to customize student learning. Blended learning, with its mix of technology and traditional face-to-face instruction, is a great approach. Blended learning combines classroom learning…

  2. An Experiment in Museum Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, Marguerite

    Various lesson plans for museum instruction were tested on fifth grade children of fair and high intelligence in an attempt to improve upon the "accepted method" of teaching, which was thought to be better suited to the child of low intelligence than to his abler classmates. The lesson plans tested were: (1) the accepted method…

  3. Market Segmentation: An Instructional Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Peter H.

    A concept-based introduction to market segmentation is provided in this instructional module for undergraduate and graduate transportation-related courses. The material can be used in many disciplines including engineering, business, marketing, and technology. The concept of market segmentation is primarily a transportation planning technique by…

  4. Instruction of Competent Psychomotor Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Valerie Dong

    2008-01-01

    Instruction of competent psychomotor skill necessitates an eclectic approach. The principles of learning, complemented with learning styles and sensory modalities preferences, provide a background for teaching physical skills. The use of the psychomotor domain of Bloom's Taxonomy as a map and corresponding behavioral objectives foster the mastery…

  5. Attrition Cost Model Instruction Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagiura, Takeshi

    2012-01-01

    This instruction manual explains in detail how to use the Attrition Cost Model program, which estimates the cost of student attrition for a state's higher education system. Programmed with SAS, this model allows users to instantly calculate the cost of attrition and the cumulative attrition rate that is based on the most recent retention and…

  6. Women Administrators as Instructional Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Beth A.

    2013-01-01

    Women are under-represented in educational research and are much less likely to hold administrative positions than are men. This study, using the Liberal Feminist Theory and Structural Barrier Theory, proffers possible explanations for this phenomenon. Four women leaders were interviewed to gain insight into their instructional leadership…

  7. International Instructional Systems: Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brant, Jacek; Chapman, Arthur; Isaacs, Tina

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on research conducted as part of the International Instructional System Study that explored five subject areas across nine jurisdictions in six high-performing countries. The Study's overall aim was to understand what, if anything, there is in common in the curricula and assessment arrangements among the high-performing…

  8. Transportation Brokerage: An Instructional Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Linda

    A concept-based introduction to transportation brokerage is provided in this instructional module for undergraduate and graduate transportation-related courses for disciplines such as engineering, business, marketing, and technology. The concept of transportation brokerage is defined as an assignment of the management of a specific element of a…

  9. Computer Assisted Instruction in Basic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-28

    LIBRARY........................16 Program Purpose.........................16 Flowcharts ..........................17 Lessons...17IFlowchart For Main Menu...............19 Flowchart for Lessons One Through Six......................20 CHAPTER Page Tests I1-6 .* 21 Flowchart For...Software support was limited to off-the-shelf packages. All of the computers were purchased with Beginners All Purpose Instruction Code (BASIC), a word

  10. Effective instruction for English learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, Margarita; Slavin, Robert; Sánchez, Marta

    2011-01-01

    The fastest-growing student population in U.S. schools today is children of immigrants, half of whom do not speak English fluently and are thus labeled English learners. Although the federal government requires school districts to provide services to English learners, it offers states no policies to follow in identifying, assessing, placing, or instructing them. Margarita Calderón, Robert Slavin, and Marta Sánchez identify the elements of effective instruction and review a variety of successful program models. During 2007-08, more than 5.3 million English learners made up 10.6 percent of the nation's K-12 public school enrollment. Wide and persistent achievement disparities between these English learners and English-proficient students show clearly, say the authors, that schools must address the language, literacy, and academic needs of English learners more effectively. Researchers have fiercely debated the merits of bilingual and English-only reading instruction. In elementary schools, English learners commonly receive thirty minutes of English as a Second Language (ESL) instruction but attend general education classes for the rest of the day, usually with teachers who are unprepared to teach them. Though English learners have strikingly diverse levels of skills, in high school they are typically lumped together, with one teacher to address their widely varying needs. These in-school factors contribute to the achievement disparities. Based on the studies presented here, Calderón, Slavin, and Sánchez assert that the quality of instruction is what matters most in educating English learners. They highlight comprehensive reform models, as well as individual components of these models: school structures and leadership; language and literacy instruction; integration of language, literacy, and content instruction in secondary schools; cooperative learning; professional development; parent and family support teams; tutoring; and monitoring implementation and outcomes

  11. Case-Based Instruction: Improving Students' Conceptual Understanding through Cases in a Mechanical Engineering Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Aman; Vinh, Megan; Shaver, Gregory M.; Meckl, Peter; Firebaugh, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Recently, there has been a push within engineering curricula to adopt more learner-centered pedagogies, such as case-based instruction. Case-based instruction has been hypothesized to make the curriculum more relevant and motivating for students by pushing them to integrate the concepts they have learned with other experiences. The current study…

  12. Bibliographic Instruction in the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Gayle

    2000-01-01

    Discusses bibliographic instruction in libraries. Topics include a history of bibliographic instruction; the Internet and electronic searching; librarians' use of technology; defining information needs; locating and accessing information, including classification systems and Boolean searching; evaluating information; using and communication…

  13. Removing Administrative Impediments to Instructional Improvement Efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lorin W.; Pigford, Aretha B.

    1987-01-01

    Principals can and should develop strategies that will enable them to provide instructional leadership despite increased demands from other tasks. Recommended actions include: delegation; peer observation; commitment to instructional leadership; and effective communication with teachers. (CB)

  14. Instructional Design for Accelerated Macrocognitive Expertise in the Baseball Workplace

    OpenAIRE

    Fadde, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of accelerating expertise can leave researchers and trainers in human factors, naturalistic decision making, sport science, and expertise studies concerned about seemingly insufficient application of expert performance theories, findings and methods for training macrocognitive aspects of human performance. Video-occlusion methods perfected by sports expertise researchers have great instructional utility, in some cases offering an effective and inexpensive alternative to high-fidelity...

  15. Examining instruction, achievement, and equity with NAEP mathematics data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Theule Lubienski

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is two-fold. First, it reports on a study of the distribution of reform-oriented instructional practices among Black, White and Hispanic students, and the relationship between those practices and student achievement. The study identified many similarities in instruction across student groups, but there were some differences, such as Black and Hispanic students being assessed with multiple-choice tests significantly more often than were White students. Using hierarchical linear modeling, this study identified several significant positive—and no negative—relationships between reform-oriented practices and 4th-grade student achievement. Specifically, teacher emphasis on non-number mathematics strands, collaborative problem solving, and teacher knowledge of the NCTM Standards were positive predictors of achievement. An analysis of interaction effects indicated that the relationships between various instructional practices and achievement were roughly similar for White, Black and Hispanic students. The second purpose of this article is to make comparisons with another study that used the same NAEP data, but drew very different conclusions about the potential for particular instructional practices to alleviate inequities. A study published in EPAA by Wenglinsky (2004 concluded that school personnel can eliminate race-related gaps within their schools by changing their instructional practices. Similarities and differences between these two studies are discussed to illuminate how a researcher's framing, methods, and interpretations can heavily influence a study's conclusions. Ultimately, this article argues that the primary conclusion of Wenglinsky's study is unwarranted. Keywords: equity, hierarchical linear modeling; mathematics achievement; mathematics instruction; NAEP.

  16. Piano instruction for nursery school trainees

    OpenAIRE

    新海, 節; Makoto, SHINKAI; 藤女子大学人間生活学部保育学科

    2012-01-01

    It is important piano instruction in childcare training schools be viewed primarily as "music for childcare". To this end,it is also important that the view of piano instruction for nursery school trainees be switched from one mainly focused on the technical aspects of performance using many etudes to a form of instruction based on developing the musicality of the trainees and their ability to display emotion through music. Further, through this instruction, the trainees need to develop the a...

  17. Technology Use in Higher Education Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzarka, Sammy

    2012-01-01

    The significance of integrating technology use in higher education instruction is undeniable. The benefits include those related to access to instruction by underserved populations, adequately preparing students for future careers, capitalizing on best instructional practices, developing higher order thinking activities, and engaging students…

  18. On the Practice Architectures of Instructional Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Petri; Nylund, Jan; Stjernstrøm, Else

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the concept of instructional leadership and principals' perceptions of the practices of instructional leadership. Despite the emphasis on the effects of school leadership regarding teaching practices and learning outcomes, research on direct instructional leadership is scarce. It is focused either on identifying overall…

  19. Students and Instructors Opinions about Piano Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Deniz Beste Çevik

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the opinions of the students and piano instructors in the Turkish Education Faculties' Fine Arts Instruction Departments' music instruction programs about piano instruction. The study data were collected using a questionnaire administered to the piano instructors and the students who took lessons from them. The study results…

  20. Explicit Instruction Elements in Core Reading Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child, Angela R.

    2012-01-01

    Classroom teachers are provided instructional recommendations for teaching reading from their adopted core reading programs (CRPs). Explicit instruction elements or what is also called instructional moves, including direct explanation, modeling, guided practice, independent practice, discussion, feedback, and monitoring, were examined within CRP…

  1. A Performance-Based Instructional Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Tom E.

    1974-01-01

    The rationale for a performanced- based instructional theory has arisen from significant advances during the past several years in instructional psychology. Four major areas of concern are: analysis of subject-matter content in terms of performance competencies, diagnosis of pre-instructional behavior, formulation of an instructional…

  2. Effective Instruction: A Mathematics Coach's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebesniak, Amy L.

    2012-01-01

    Effective instruction is multifaceted, dependent largely on the context and, consequently, on numerous variables. Although "effective instruction" is difficult to define, in the author's experience--and as the work of mathematics education specialists and researchers indicates--three key features of quality instruction stand out: (1) Teaching…

  3. Changing Student Teachers' Views of Comprehension Instruction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At the same time research shows that little, if any, explicit and continuous strategy instruction takes place in classrooms. Reasons seem ... This article reports on the effect of a reading comprehension instruction course on university student teachers' lesson planning, strategy use and views about comprehension instruction.

  4. Instructional Cost Analysis: History and Present Inadequacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, David A.

    The cost analysis of instruction is conducted according to principles of teaching and learning that have often become historically dated. Using today's costing systems prevents determination of whether cost effectiveness actually exists. The patterns of instruction in higher education and the systems employed for instructional cost analysis are…

  5. Rapid Prototyping: An Alternative Instructional Design Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Steven D.; Bichelmeyer, Barbara

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the nature of instructional design and describes rapid prototyping as a feasible model for instructional system design (ISD). The use of prototyping in software engineering is described, similarities between software design and instructional design are discussed, and an example is given which uses rapid prototyping in designing a…

  6. Four Practical Principles for Enhancing Vocabulary Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyak, Patrick C.; Von Gunten, Heather; Autenrieth, David; Gillis, Carolyn; Mastre-O'Farrell, Julie; Irvine-McDermott, Elizabeth; Baumann, James F.; Blachowicz, Camille L. Z.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents four practical principles that lead to enhanced word-meaning instruction in the elementary grades. The authors, a collaborative team of researchers and classroom teachers, identified and developed these principles and related instructional activities during a three-year vocabulary instruction research project. The principles…

  7. Direct Reading Instruction and the NYS ELA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-Carey, Margaret H.

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzed the impact of classroom based reading instruction ("direct instruction") on the standardized test scores of 6th grade students as measured by the New York State English Language Arts assessment (NYS ELA). It was hypothesized that the implementation of direct instruction in reading in grade 6 would improve NYS ELA…

  8. Direct Vocabulary Instruction in Preschool: A Comparison of Extended Instruction, Embedded Instruction, and Incidental Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftus-Rattan, Susan M.; Mitchell, Alison M.; Coyne, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Based on its coincidence with a significant period in language development for children, preschool provides a favorable setting to foster vocabulary growth. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of two instructional conditions and an incidental exposure condition for teaching targeted vocabulary words to preschool students…

  9. 30 CFR 48.25 - Training of new miners; minimum courses of instruction; hours of instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...; minimum courses of instruction; hours of instruction. (a) Each new miner shall receive no less than 24...: Provided, That no less than 8 hours of training shall in all cases be given to new miners before they are... instruction; hours of instruction. 48.25 Section 48.25 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION...

  10. Pre-Service Teachers: An Analysis of Reading Instruction in High Needs Districts Dual Language Classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Whitacre

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pre-service teachers need opportunities to apply theory and connect to best practices as they teach in classroom settings be it, whole or small group. For many pre-service teachers often times their experience is limited to simply watching instruction or working with small groups of students (Pryor & Kuhn, 2004. The student teaching experience is a critical component of the teacher preparation program. Through the use of the English Language Learner Classroom Observation Instrument (ELLCOI, and researcher observation the hope is that these will aid in bringing to light the instructional activities used by pre-service teachers during reading instruction with ELLs. This study explores how pre-service bilingual teachers connect theory into practice by examining their instruction in the following categories: Instructional Practices, Interactive Teaching, English-Language Development, and Content Specific to Reading as listed in The English Language Learner Classroom Observation Instrument (ELLCOI developed by Haager, Gersten, Baker, and Graves (2003. To capture these instructional events video tape recordings of eight South Texas pre-service teachers were taken during a reading language arts lesson in order to observe instruction in high need districts’ dual language/bilingual classrooms. Data were compiled to capture the nature and quality of instruction on key essential elements, as well as reading instructional practices specific to the teaching/learning process in the dual language classroom. The findings portray the results of the ELLCOI with bilingual/ESL pre- service teachers and how they make sense of their instructional practices as a means to instruction in one-way dual language public school classrooms.

  11. Faculty Integration of Technology into Instruction and Students' Perceptions of Computer Technology to Improve Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keengwe, Jared

    2007-01-01

    There has been a remarkable improvement in access and rate of adoption of technology in higher education. Even so, reports indicate that faculty members are not integrating technology into instruction in ways that make a difference in student learning (Cuban, 2001; McCannon & Crews, 2000). To help faculty make informed decisions on student…

  12. Evaluation of a Theory of Instructional Sequences for Physics Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackermann, Rainer; Trendel, Georg; Fischer, Hans E.

    2010-05-01

    The background of the study is the theory of basis models of teaching and learning, a comprehensive set of models of learning processes which includes, for example, learning through experience and problem-solving. The combined use of different models of learning processes has not been fully investigated and it is frequently not clear under what circumstances a particular model should be used by teachers. In contrast, the theory under investigation here gives guidelines for choosing a particular model and provides instructional sequences for each model. The aim is to investigate the implementation of the theory applied to physics instruction and to show if possible effects for the students may be attributed to the use of the theory. Therefore, a theory-oriented education programme for 18 physics teachers was developed and implemented in the 2005/06 school year. The main features of the intervention consisted of coaching physics lessons and video analysis according to the theory. The study follows a pre-treatment-post design with non-equivalent control group. Findings of repeated-measures ANOVAs show large effects for teachers' subjective beliefs, large effects for classroom actions, and small to medium effects for student outcomes such as perceived instructional quality and student emotions. The teachers/classes that applied the theory especially well according to video analysis showed the larger effects. The results showed that differentiating between different models of learning processes improves physics instruction. Effects can be followed through to student outcomes. The education programme effect was clearer for classroom actions and students' outcomes than for teachers' beliefs.

  13. Making Informed Decisions: Management Issues Influencing Computers in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, James

    A number of noninstructional factors appear to determine the extent to which computers make a difference in writing instruction. Once computers have been purchased and installed, it is generally school administrators who make management decisions, often from an uninformed pedagogical orientation. Issues such as what hardware and software to buy,…

  14. Revisiting cognitive and learning styles in computer-assisted instruction: not so useful after all.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, David A

    2012-06-01

    In a previous systematic review, the author proposed that adaptation to learners' cognitive and learning styles (CLSs) could improve the efficiency of computer-assisted instruction (CAI). In the present article, he questions that proposition, arguing that CLSs do not make a substantive difference in CAI. To support this argument, the author performed an updated systematic literature search, pooled new findings with those from the previous review, and reinterpreted this evidence with a focus on aptitude-treatment interactions. (An aptitude-treatment interaction occurs when a student with attribute 1 learns better with instructional approach A than with approach B, whereas a student with attribute 2 learns better with instructional approach B).Of 65 analyses reported in 48 studies, only 9 analyses (14%) showed significant interactions between CLS and instructional approach. It seems that aptitude-treatment interactions with CLSs are at best infrequent and small in magnitude. There are several possible explanations for this lack of effect. First, the influence of strong instructional methods likely dominates the impact of CLSs. Second, current methods for assessing CLSs lack validity evidence and are inadequate to accurately characterize the individual learner. Third, theories are vague, and empiric evidence is virtually nonexistent to guide the planning of style-targeted instructional designs. Adaptation to learners' CLSs thus seems unlikely to enhance CAI. The author recommends that educators focus on employing strong instructional methods. Educators might also consider assessing and adapting to learners' prior knowledge or allowing learners to select among alternate instructional approaches.

  15. Imperfect practice makes perfect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, Liv; Tabor, Ann; Ringsted, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Context: Traditionally, trainees are instructed to practise with as few errors as possible during simulation-based training. However, transfer of learning may improve if trainees are encouraged to commit errors. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of error management instructions...... compared with error avoidance instructions during simulation-based ultrasound training. Methods: Medical students (n = 60) with no prior ultrasound experience were randomised to error management training (EMT) (n = 32) or error avoidance training (EAT) (n = 28). The EMT group was instructed to deliberately...... improvements between the pre- and post-tests were found in either performance scores (p = 0.25) or diagnostic accuracy (p = 0.09). Conclusions: The provision of error management instructions during simulation-based training improves the transfer of learning to the clinical setting compared with error avoidance...

  16. Motivating Calculus-Based Kinematics Instruction with Super Mario Bros

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordine, Jeffrey C.

    2011-09-01

    High-quality physics instruction is contextualized, motivates students to learn, and represents the discipline as a way of investigating the world rather than as a collection of facts and equations. Inquiry-oriented pedagogy, such as problem-based instruction, holds great promise for both teaching physics content and representing the process of doing real science.2 A challenge for physics teachers is to find instructional contexts that are meaningful, accessible, and motivating for students. Today's students are spending a growing fraction of their lives interacting with virtual environments, and these environments—physically realistic or not—can provide valuable contexts for physics explorations3-5 and lead to thoughtful discussions about decisions that programmers make when designing virtual environments. In this article, I describe a problem-based approach to calculus-based kinematics instruction that contextualizes students' learning within the Super Mario Bros. video game—a game that is more than 20 years old, but still remarkably popular with today's high school and college students.

  17. SAFETY INSTRUCTION AND SAFETY NOTE

    CERN Multimedia

    TIS Secretariat

    2002-01-01

    Please note that the SAFETY INSTRUCTION N0 49 (IS 49) and the SAFETY NOTE N0 28 (NS 28) entitled respectively 'AVOIDING CHEMICAL POLLUTION OF WATER' and 'CERN EXHIBITIONS - FIRE PRECAUTIONS' are available on the web at the following urls: http://edms.cern.ch/document/335814 and http://edms.cern.ch/document/335861 Paper copies can also be obtained from the TIS Divisional Secretariat, email: TIS.Secretariat@cern.ch

  18. Instructional skills evaluation in nuclear industry training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazour, T.J.; Ball, F.M.

    1985-11-01

    This report provides information to nuclear power plant training managers and their staffs concerning the job performance requirements of instructional personnel to implement prformance-based training programs (also referred to as the Systems Approach Training). The information presented in this report is a compilation of information and lessons learned in the nuclear power industry and in other industries using performance-based training programs. The job performance requirements in this report are presented as instructional skills objectives. The process used to develop the instructional skills objectives is described. Each objective includes an Instructional Skills Statement describing the behavior that is expected and an Instructional Skills Standard describing the skills/knowledge that the individual should possess in order to have achieved mastery. The instructional skills objectives are organized according to the essential elements of the Systems Approach to Training and are cross-referenced to three categories of instructional personnel: developers of instruction, instructors, and instructional managers/supervisors. Use of the instructional skills objectives is demonstrated for reviewing instructional staff training and qualification programs, developing criterion-tests, and reviewing the performance and work products of individual staff members. 22 refs

  19. Teaching Literacy: Methods for Studying and Improving Library Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meggan Houlihan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective – The aim of this paper is to evaluate teaching effectiveness in one-shotinformation literacy (IL instruction sessions. The authors used multiple methods,including plus/delta forms, peer evaluations, and instructor feedback surveys, in aneffort to improve student learning, individual teaching skill, and the overall IL programat the American University in Cairo.Methods – Researchers implemented three main evaluation tools to gather data in thisstudy. Librarians collected both quantitative and qualitative data using studentplus/delta surveys, peer evaluation, and faculty feedback in order to draw overallconclusions about the effectiveness of one-shot IL sessions. By designing a multi-methodstudy, and gathering information from students, faculty, and instruction librarians,results represented the perspectives of multiple stakeholders. Results – The data collected using the three evaluation tools provided insight into the needs and perspectives of three stakeholder groups. Individual instructors benefit from the opportunity to improve teaching through informed reflection, and are eager for feedback. Faculty members want their students to have more hands-on experience, but are pleased overall with instruction. Students need less lecturing and more authentic learning opportunities to engage with new knowledge.Conclusion – Including evaluation techniques in overall information literacy assessment plans is valuable, as instruction librarians gain opportunities for self-reflection and improvement, and administrators gather information about teaching skill levels. The authors gathered useful data that informed administrative decision making related to the IL program at the American University in Cairo. The findings discussed in this paper, both practical and theoretical, can help other college and university librarians think critically about their own IL programs, and influence how library instruction sessions might be evaluated and

  20. Silent method for mathematics instruction: An overview of teaching subsets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiman, Apino, Ezi

    2017-05-01

    Generally, teachers use oral communication for teaching mathematics. Taking an opposite perspective, this paper describes how instructional practices for mathematics can be carried out namely a silent method. Silent method uses body language, written, and oral communication for classroom interaction. This research uses a design research approach consisting of four phases: preliminary, prototyping and developing the instruction, and assessment. There are four stages of silent method. The first stage is conditioning stage in which the teacher introduces the method and makes agreement about the `rule of the game'. It is followed by the second one, elaborating stage, where students guess and explore alternative answers. The third stage is developing mathematical thinking by structuring and symbolizing. Finally, the method is ended by reinforcing stage which aims at strengthening and reflecting student's understanding. In this paper, every stage is described on the basis of practical experiences in a real mathematics classroom setting.

  1. Effective Instruction of Public Speaking

    OpenAIRE

    竹野, 茂; Shigeru, TAKENO

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the instruction of public speaking in a large-size class. The author has been in charge of the speech classes,SPEECH III and SPEECH IV mainly for the second year students at Miyazaki Municipal University for several years. At the preparation stage of SPEECH III, and IV, he intended that the class size was about 30 students as one group in the lecture style. But, in reality, more than 50 students took the course. Then he had to rethink the way of teaching. To solve the prob...

  2. Ninth Grade Student Responses to Authentic Science Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Michael Steven

    This mixed methods case study documents an effort to implement authentic science and engineering instruction in one teacher's ninth grade science classrooms in a science-focused public school. The research framework and methodology is a derivative of work developed and reported by Newmann and others (Newmann & Associates, 1996). Based on a working definition of authenticity, data were collected for eight months on the authenticity in the experienced teacher's pedagogy and in student performance. Authenticity was defined as the degree to which a classroom lesson, an assessment task, or an example of student performance demonstrates construction of knowledge through use of the meaning-making processes of science and engineering, and has some value to students beyond demonstrating success in school (Wehlage et al., 1996). Instruments adapted for this study produced a rich description of the authenticity of the teacher's instruction and student performance. The pedagogical practices of the classroom teacher were measured as moderately authentic on average. However, the authenticity model revealed the teacher's strategy of interspersing relatively low authenticity instructional units focused on building science knowledge with much higher authenticity tasks requiring students to apply these concepts and skills. The authenticity of the construction of knowledge and science meaning-making processes components of authentic pedagogy were found to be greater, than the authenticity of affordances for students to find value in classroom activities beyond demonstrating success in school. Instruction frequently included one aspect of value beyond school, connections to the world outside the classroom, but students were infrequently afforded the opportunity to present their classwork to audiences beyond the teacher. When the science instruction in the case was measured to afford a greater level of authentic intellectual work, a higher level of authentic student performance on

  3. Does physics instruction foster university students' cognitive processes?: A descriptive study of teacher activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson-Hessler, Monica G. M.; de Jong, Ton

    This study aims at giving a systematic description of the cognitive activities involved in teaching physics. Such a description of instruction in physics requires a basis in two models, that is, the cognitive activities involved in learning physics and the knowledge base that is the foundation of expertise in that subject. These models have been provided by earlier research. The model of instruction distinguishes three main categories of instruction process: presenting new information, integrating (i.e., bringing structure into) new knowledge, and connecting elements of new knowledge to prior knowledge. Each of the main categories has been divided into a number of specific instruction processes. Hereby any limited and specific cognitive teacher activity can be described along the two dimensions of process and type of knowledge. The model was validated by application to lectures and problem-solving classes of first year university courses. These were recorded and analyzed as to instruction process and type of knowledge. Results indicate that teachers are indeed involved in the various types of instruction processes defined. The importance of this study lies in the creation of a terminology that makes it possible to discuss instruction in an explicit and specific way.

  4. The paradoxical effect of long instructions on negative affect and performance: When, for whom and why do they backfire?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goemaere, Sophie; Beyers, Wim; De Muynck, Gert-Jan; Vansteenkiste, Maarten

    2018-06-01

    For reasons of bureaucracy and safety, astronauts on the International Space Station are provided with excruciatingly detailed instructions and a lack of decision-making power, even for simple routine tasks. Besides being time-consuming, many astronauts report feelings of demotivation, irritation, and even defiance when confronted with this working method. Anecdotic evidence suggests that this method leads to situations where astronauts read instructions diagonally or avoid checking in with mission support, thereby ironically increasing the risk of error making. There is a need to consider under which circumstances, for whom, and why the provision of long instructions could be detrimental for well-being and performance. An experimental study with LEGO assembly tasks examined whether length of instructions (i.e. short versus long) and task complexity (simple vs. complex) impact negative affect, motivational experiences and performance of participants (N = 113, Mage = 18.75 ± 2.46 years). Long instructions for simple tasks provoked greater feelings of irritation, diminished the perceived value of instructions, and negatively influenced productivity and accuracy. The negative effect of long instructions on irritation was explained via decreased perceived value. Additionally, the effect of length of instructions on irritation differed for participants high versus those low in need for achievement.

  5. Graduates perception towards instructional methods of emergency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Graduates perception towards instructional methods of emergency medicine: affecting their self-confidence in emergency departments. Mohamed Daffalla Awadalla, Ahmed Abd Elrahman Abdalla, Sami Mahjoub Taha ...

  6. The Multimodal Possibilities of Online Instructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance

    2006-01-01

    The WWW simplifies the process of delivering online instructions through multimodal channels because of the ease of use for voice, video, pictures, and text modes of communication built into it.  Given that instructions are being produced in multimodal format for the WWW, how do multi-modal analy......The WWW simplifies the process of delivering online instructions through multimodal channels because of the ease of use for voice, video, pictures, and text modes of communication built into it.  Given that instructions are being produced in multimodal format for the WWW, how do multi...

  7. Review of Instructional Approaches in Ethics Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulhearn, Tyler J; Steele, Logan M; Watts, Logan L; Medeiros, Kelsey E; Mumford, Michael D; Connelly, Shane

    2017-06-01

    Increased investment in ethics education has prompted a variety of instructional objectives and frameworks. Yet, no systematic procedure to classify these varying instructional approaches has been attempted. In the present study, a quantitative clustering procedure was conducted to derive a typology of instruction in ethics education. In total, 330 ethics training programs were included in the cluster analysis. The training programs were appraised with respect to four instructional categories including instructional content, processes, delivery methods, and activities. Eight instructional approaches were identified through this clustering procedure, and these instructional approaches showed different levels of effectiveness. Instructional effectiveness was assessed based on one of nine commonly used ethics criteria. With respect to specific training types, Professional Decision Processes Training (d = 0.50) and Field-Specific Compliance Training (d = 0.46) appear to be viable approaches to ethics training based on Cohen's d effect size estimates. By contrast, two commonly used approaches, General Discussion Training (d = 0.31) and Norm Adherence Training (d = 0.37), were found to be considerably less effective. The implications for instruction in ethics training are discussed.

  8. Tutorial Instruction in Science Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhea Miles

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to examine the tutorial practices of in-service teachers to address the underachievement in the science education of K-12 students. Method: In-service teachers in Virginia and North Carolina were given a survey questionnaire to examine how they tutored students who were in need of additional instruction. Results: When these teachers were asked, “How do you describe a typical one-on-one science tutorial session?” the majority of their responses were categorized as teacher-directed. Many of the teachers would provide a science tutorial session for a student after school for 16-30 minutes, one to three times a week. Respondents also indicated they would rely on technology, peer tutoring, scientific inquiry, or themselves for one-on-one science instruction. Over half of the in-service teachers that responded to the questionnaire stated that they would never rely on outside assistance, such as a family member or an after school program to provide tutorial services in science. Additionally, very few reported that they incorporated the ethnicity, culture, or the native language of ELL students into their science tutoring sessions.

  9. Learning from Narrated Instruction Videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alayrac, Jean-Baptiste; Bojanowski, Piotr; Agrawal, Nishant; Sivic, Josef; Laptev, Ivan; Lacoste-Julien, Simon

    2017-09-05

    Automatic assistants could guide a person or a robot in performing new tasks, such as changing a car tire or repotting a plant. Creating such assistants, however, is non-trivial and requires understanding of visual and verbal content of a video. Towards this goal, we here address the problem of automatically learning the main steps of a task from a set of narrated instruction videos. We develop a new unsupervised learning approach that takes advantage of the complementary nature of the input video and the associated narration. The method sequentially clusters textual and visual representations of a task, where the two clustering problems are linked by joint constraints to obtain a single coherent sequence of steps in both modalities. To evaluate our method, we collect and annotate a new challenging dataset of real-world instruction videos from the Internet. The dataset contains videos for five different tasks with complex interactions between people and objects, captured in a variety of indoor and outdoor settings. We experimentally demonstrate that the proposed method can automatically discover, learn and localize the main steps of a task input videos.

  10. Effect of regulating anger and sadness on decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szasz, Paul Lucian; Hofmann, Stefan G; Heilman, Renata M; Curtiss, Joshua

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of reappraisal, acceptance, and rumination for regulating anger and sadness on decision-making. Participants (N = 165) were asked to recall two autobiographical events in which they felt intense anger and sadness, respectively. Participants were then instructed to reappraise, accept, ruminate, or not use any strategies to regulate their feelings of anger and sadness. Following this manipulation, risk aversion, and decision-making strategies were measured using a computer-based measure of risk-taking and a simulated real-life decision-making task. Participants who were instructed to reappraise their emotions showed the least anger and sadness, the most adaptive decision-making strategies, but the least risk aversion as compared to the participants in the other conditions. These findings suggest that emotion regulation strategies of negative affective states have an immediate effect on decision-making and risk-taking behaviors.

  11. Elementary Students' Retention of Environmental Science Knowledge: Connected Science Instruction versus Direct Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Bhaskar; DeFranco, Cristina

    2008-01-01

    This study compares 3rd-grade elementary students' gain and retention of science vocabulary over time in two different classes--"connected science instruction" versus "direct instruction." Data analysis yielded that students who received connected science instruction showed less gain in science knowledge in the short term compared to students who…

  12. Instructed Pragmatics at a Glance: Where Instructional Studies Were, Are, and Should Be Going

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Naoko

    2015-01-01

    This paper brings together the research and developments of instructed pragmatics over the past three decades by reporting the synthesis findings of instructional intervention studies in interlanguage pragmatics. Two questions have guided this investigation: (1) is instruction effective in learning pragmatics?; and (2) what methods are most…

  13. Instructable autonomous agents. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Scott Bradley

    1994-01-01

    In contrast to current intelligent systems, which must be laboriously programmed for each task they are meant to perform, instructable agents can be taught new tasks and associated knowledge. This thesis presents a general theory of learning from tutorial instruction and its use to produce an instructable agent. Tutorial instruction is a particularly powerful form of instruction, because it allows the instructor to communicate whatever kind of knowledge a student needs at whatever point it is needed. To exploit this broad flexibility, however, a tutorable agent must support a full range of interaction with its instructor to learn a full range of knowledge. Thus, unlike most machine learning tasks, which target deep learning of a single kind of knowledge from a single kind of input, tutorability requires a breadth of learning from a broad range of instructional interactions. The theory of learning from tutorial instruction presented here has two parts. First, a computational model of an intelligent agent, the problem space computational model, indicates the types of knowledge that determine an agent's performance, and thus, that should be acquirable via instruction. Second, a learning technique, called situated explanation specifies how the agent learns general knowledge from instruction. The theory is embodied by an implemented agent, Instructo-Soar, built within the Soar architecture. Instructo-Soar is able to learn hierarchies of completely new tasks, to extend task knowledge to apply in new situations, and in fact to acquire every type of knowledge it uses during task performance - control knowledge, knowledge of operators' effects, state inferences, etc. - from interactive natural language instructions. This variety of learning occurs by applying the situated explanation technique to a variety of instructional interactions involving a variety of types of instructions (commands, statements, conditionals, etc.). By taking seriously the requirements of flexible

  14. The Impact of Data-Based Science Instruction on Standardized Test Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrington, Tia W.

    Increased teacher accountability efforts have resulted in the use of data to improve student achievement. This study addressed teachers' inconsistent use of data-driven instruction in middle school science. Evidence of the impact of data-based instruction on student achievement and school and district practices has been well documented by researchers. In science, less information has been available on teachers' use of data for classroom instruction. Drawing on data-driven decision making theory, the purpose of this study was to examine whether data-based instruction impacted performance on the science Criterion Referenced Competency Test (CRCT) and to explore the factors that impeded its use by a purposeful sample of 12 science teachers at a data-driven school. The research questions addressed in this study included understanding: (a) the association between student performance on the science portion of the CRCT and data-driven instruction professional development, (b) middle school science teachers' perception of the usefulness of data, and (c) the factors that hindered the use of data for science instruction. This study employed a mixed methods sequential explanatory design. Data collected included 8th grade CRCT data, survey responses, and individual teacher interviews. A chi-square test revealed no improvement in the CRCT scores following the implementation of professional development on data-driven instruction (chi 2 (1) = .183, p = .67). Results from surveys and interviews revealed that teachers used data to inform their instruction, indicating time as the major hindrance to their use. Implications for social change include the development of lesson plans that will empower science teachers to deliver data-based instruction and students to achieve identified academic goals.

  15. Effects of Instruction and Stage-Fright on Intelligence Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Joost; Oostdam, Ron

    2011-01-01

    In the present research, it was tried to unravel the influence of various types of instruction on test anxiety levels and, in turn, its influence on intelligence test performance. Three types of instruction were compared: a stressful, achievement-orientated instruction; a reassuring, task-orientated instruction; and an ambiguous instruction.…

  16. Using Informal Classroom Observations to Improve Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ing, Marsha

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to describe the variability of principals' classroom observations across schools and to relate classroom observations to the schools' instructional climate. This helps identify the conditions under which classroom observations effectively improve instruction in some schools and not in other schools.…

  17. Instructional Technology in Brazil: A Status Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saettler, Paul

    1973-01-01

    A status report on the evolving conceptions of instructional technology and current applications in Brazil. A complementary purpose is to summarize those conditions which vitally influence the general characteristics of the Brazilian educational system and the nature of instructional technology in this major developing country of the world.…

  18. A Taxonomy of Asynchronous Instructional Video Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorianopoulos, Konstantinos

    2018-01-01

    Many educational organizations are employing instructional videos in their pedagogy, but there is a limited understanding of the possible video formats. In practice, the presentation format of instructional videos ranges from direct recording of classroom teaching with a stationary camera, or screencasts with voiceover, to highly elaborate video…

  19. Self-Paced Instruction: Hello, Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuba, Richard J.; Flammer, Gordon H.

    1975-01-01

    Answers criticisms of self-paced instruction (SPI) by citing advantages of SPI over lecture methods. Concludes that criticisms of SPI are useful since they indicate in which areas further research should be conducted to improve this method of instruction. (MLH)

  20. Classroom Instruction: The Influences of Marie Clay

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    Marie Clay's body of work has influenced classroom instruction in direct and indirect ways, through large overarching themes in our pedagogical content knowledge as well as specific smart practices. This paper focuses on her the contributions to our thinking about instruction which come from two broad theoretical concepts; emergent literacy…

  1. Thread extraction for polyadic instruction sequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.; Middelburg, C.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study the phenomenon that instruction sequences are split into fragments which somehow produce a joint behaviour. In order to bring this phenomenon better into the picture, we formalize a simple mechanism by which several instruction sequence fragments can produce a joint

  2. Understanding instructions for oral rehydration therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisemon, T O; Patel, V L

    1989-01-01

    Oral rehydration mixtures are readily available in rural Kenya, but the instructions that accompany them are not always clear. Mothers will understand such instructions more readily if they explain the principles of oral rehydration and describe in a logical way the sequence of procedures to be followed.

  3. Implicit and Explicit Instruction of Spelling Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, M. J.; Verhoeven, L.; Bosman, A. M. T.

    2012-01-01

    The study aimed to compare the differential effectiveness of explicit and implicit instruction of two Dutch spelling rules. Students with and without spelling disabilities were instructed a spelling rule either implicitly or explicitly in two experiments. Effects were tested in a pretest-intervention-posttest control group design. Experiment 1…

  4. 25 CFR 67.15 - Special instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Area Director, the Assistant Secretary may issue special instructions not inconsistent with the... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special instructions. 67.15 Section 67.15 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT PREPARATION OF A ROLL OF INDEPENDENT...

  5. 25 CFR 61.15 - Special instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Secretary may issue special instructions not inconsistent with the regulations in this part 61. ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special instructions. 61.15 Section 61.15 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT PREPARATION OF ROLLS OF INDIANS § 61...

  6. How Instructional Systems Will Manage Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, John C.

    1970-01-01

    Discusses trends toward the systems approach in education including the development of effective instructional systems in government and industry; the introduction of teaching machines, programed learning, and computer- assisted instruction; and the increase in both the amount and sophistication of educational research and development. (JF)

  7. Modelling Web-Based Instructional Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Retalis, Symeon; Avgeriou, Paris

    2002-01-01

    The size and complexity of modern instructional systems, which are based on the World Wide Web, bring about great intricacy in their crafting, as there is not enough knowledge or experience in this field. This imposes the use of new instructional design models in order to achieve risk-mitigation,

  8. Instructional Leadership in Elementary School Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Ann; MacDonald, Leo

    2008-01-01

    Instructional leadership is internationally recognized as being a key role for school administrators to advance in their relationships with teachers. But what happens when a principal lacks content knowledge or specific pedagogical knowledge about certain curriculum areas? How do administrators support instructional practices of teachers who teach…

  9. Categories for Observing Language Arts Instruction (COLAI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benterud, Julianna G.

    Designed to study individual use of time spent in reading during regularly scheduled language arts instruction in a natural classroom setting, this coding sheet consists of nine categories: (1) engagement, (2) area of language arts, (3) instructional setting, (4) partner (teacher or pupil(s)), (5) source of content, (6) type of unit, (7) assigned…

  10. Preparing Instructional Objectives: Agony or Ecstasy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Wesley K.

    This paper 1) discusses the problems encountered in preparing objectives for instructional programs; 2) describes an informal research project in which seven instructional designers working on the same project attempted to determine agreement on an objective; and 3) suggests how to prepare objectives so that difficulties can be minimized. One…

  11. Misunderstanding during instructional communication as related to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Misunderstanding during instructional communication as related to oral proficiency. ... Data were collected through video recorded observations of authentic lessons presented by 26 pre-service teachers using English second language as the medium of instruction in the classroom. Misunderstandings were identified and ...

  12. Orientation: Automotive Mechanics Instructional Program. Block 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Ralph D.

    The first six instructional blocks in automotive mechanics, the lessons and supportive information in the document provide a guide for teachers in planning an instructional program in the basic theory and practice of a beginning course at the secondary and post-secondary level. The material, as organized, is a suggested sequence of instruction…

  13. Text-Picture Relations in Cooking Instructions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, Ielka; Leito, Shadira; Redeker, Gisela; Bunt, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Like many other instructions, recipes on packages with ready-to-use ingredients for a dish combine a series of pictures with short text paragraphs. The information presentation in such multimodal instructions can be compact (either text or picture) and/or cohesive (text and picture). In an

  14. Delivering Instruction to Adult Learners. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor, Jeffrey A.

    This one-stop guide for trainers and educators of adults in industry, business, or the professions details a results-oriented instructional strategy that is based on the following principles for instructing adults effectively: (1) act as a leader, helper, guide, change agent, coordinator, and facilitator of learning; (2) promote active…

  15. Softball: Special Olympics Sports Skills Instructional Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Special Olympics, Inc., Washington, DC.

    One of seven instructional units on Special Olympics Sports Skills Instructional Programs, this guide presents suggestions for coaching softball for mentally retarded persons. An overview section provides information on teaching suggestions, followed by a list of program goals, objectives, and benefits. Sports skill assessments measure athletes'…

  16. Grouping and Organizing for Instruction in Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow

    Flexibility is a key term to emphasize when grouping students for instruction, since a student might be in a different group for one academic area as compared to another academic area. This paper describes grouping for different methods of reading instruction and other disciplines. The paper discusses the following: using basal readers, using…

  17. Energizing Learning: The Instructional Power of Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David W.; Johnson, Roger T.

    2009-01-01

    Although intellectual conflict may be an important instructional tool (because of its potential constructive outcomes), conflict is rarely structured in instructional situations (because of its potential destructive outcomes). Many educators may be apprehensive about instigating intellectual conflict among students because of the lack of…

  18. The Pedagogy of Flipped Instruction in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane-Kelso, Mary

    2015-01-01

    "Flipping the classroom", or reverse instruction has been hailed the new pedagogical approach for preparing students for the 21st century. The idea behind this method is relatively simple. Instead of structuring class work to deliver direct instruction from the teacher in class and giving homework to students to practice outside of…

  19. Handwriting Instruction in Elementary Schools: Revisited!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, Asha; Estes, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Handwriting is an essential literacy and communication skill developed through a variety of instructional methods in elementary school. This study explored the consistency in handwriting instruction across grade levels in a Midwest public school district 15 years after the school initially implemented a uniform handwriting program. Additionally,…

  20. Changing Throwing Pattern: Instruction and Control Parameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southard, Dan

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of instruction and scaling up a control parameter (velocity of throw) on changes in throwing pattern. Sixty adult female throwers (ages 20-26 years) were randomly placed into one of four practice conditions: (a) scale up on velocity with no instruction, (b) maintain constant velocity with no…

  1. Putting the Fun Back into Fluency Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Mary Ann; Gregory, Anne E.

    2011-01-01

    Based on recent research in fluency instruction, the authors present a scenario in which a teacher focuses her fluency instruction on authentic fluency tasks based in performance. Beginning with establishing a student-friendly definition of fluency and culminating with student engagement in fun fluency activities, this article explores the…

  2. Effects of Instructions on False Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, John H.; And Others

    Four experiments were conducted to examine the effects of various processing instructions on the rate of false recognition. The continuous single-item procedure was used, and false recognitions of four types were examined: synonyms, antonyms, nonsemantic associates, and homonyms. The instructions encouraged subjects to think of associates, usages…

  3. Motivational Design in Information Literacy Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Amanda Nichols

    2015-01-01

    Motivational design theory complements instructional design theory and, when used together, both principles can affect learning, knowledge acquisition, and knowledge retention. In information literacy instruction, motivational design exists throughout the appropriate standards documents. However, there is limited current research on the best…

  4. Instructional Technology in the Armed Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchens, Howard B., Jr.

    Broad areas of communications media used in technical training in specific occupational skills within the armed forces are examined in the first part of this report. These areas include: traditional audiovisual media, television, the techniques of programed instruction and instructional systems development, and the use of computers. In the second…

  5. The Future of Instructional Teacher Leader Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangin, Melinda M.; Stoelinga, Sara Ray

    2010-01-01

    In response to increased performance expectations, schools and districts are turning to nonsupervisory, school-based, instructional teacher leader roles to help improve teachers' instruction and enhance student learning. Increased opportunities to learn about teacher leadership may facilitate the implementation and institutionalization of…

  6. Instructional Partnerships: A Pathway to Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreillon, Judi, Ed.; Ballard, Susan, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    In this Best of "Knowledge Quest" monograph, the editors have collected seminal articles to support pre-service and in-service school librarians in developing and strengthening the instructional partner role. "Instructional Partnerships: A Pathway to Leadership" provides readers with background knowledge, research-based…

  7. Instructional Strategy: Administration of Injury Scripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Jim

    2016-01-01

    Context: Learning how to form accurate and efficient clinical examinations is a critical factor in becoming a competent athletic training practitioner, and instructional strategies differ for this complex task. Objective: To introduce an instructional strategy consistent with complex learning to encourage improved efficiency by minimizing…

  8. Instructional Podcasting with Undergraduate Digital Natives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kevin M.; Willis, Dottie

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the use of instructional podcasts with students in introductory computer application classes at a small, independent, private university. Participants were all undergraduates in the school of education. In an effort to model effective use of instructional technology for preservice teachers and to "meet digital native…

  9. Web-Based Instruction (WBI): An Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Badrul H.

    1998-01-01

    Advances in information technology, coupled with changes in society, are creating new paradigms for education. The Web, as a medium of learning and instruction, has the potential to support the creation of well-designed resources. A table of features and components associated with Web-based instruction learning environments is provided.…

  10. Instructional Technology, Temper, Technique, and Teacher Empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, J. Mark; Garrison, James W.

    1991-01-01

    Scientific management and hierarchical accountability tend to destroy dialogue and issue ideas as orders to be obeyed. Instructional technology packages can actually enslave teachers. The emendation or feedback loop built into all instructional systems should allow educators to alter design in the context of practice and help technologists design…

  11. Multimedia Instruction Initiative: Building Faculty Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haile, Penelope J.

    Hofstra University began a university-wide initiative to enhance classroom instruction with multimedia technology and foster collaborative approaches to learning. The Multimedia Instruction Initiative emphasized teamwork among faculty, students, and computer center support staff to develop a technology-enriched learning environment supported by…

  12. Processing Instruction: A Review of Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasuki, Muhlisin

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides a critical review of Processing Instruction (PI). This type of instructional option was specifically designed to help second/foreign language (L2) learners grasp meaning manifested in the use of particular grammatical forms in a target language effectively through the provision of input. In this way, PI attempts to help…

  13. Kinaesthetic activities in physics instruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Jesper; Christiansen, Frederik V

    2016-01-01

    One of the major difficulties in learning physics is for students to develop a conceptual understanding of the core concepts of physics. Many authors argue that students’ conceptions of basic physical phenomena are rooted in basic schemas, originating in fundamental kinaesthetic experiences...... of being. We argue that this idea should be utilized in physics instruction, that kinaesthetic activities will provide useful entry point for students’ acquisition of the basic conceptions of physics, and that they can overcome the phenomenological gap between experiential and conceptual understanding. We...... discuss the nature of image schemas and focus particularly on one: effort-resistance-flow. This schema is fundamental not only in our everyday experience, but also in most of school physics. We show how enactment of a particular kinaesthetic model can support student understanding and intuition...

  14. Instructive for disposal of fluorescent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar Vargas, Gerlin

    2014-01-01

    An instructive is established for the management system of waste fluorescent lamps, ensuring the storage, collection, transportation, and final disposal. The lamp is changed by an official of the Seccion de Matenimiento Construccion of the Oficina de Servicios Generales or is produced with the support of an official of the unit. The fluorescent should be deposited in stock of materials of the building maintenance section or unit specified with the help of a staff and in appropriate conditions. The fluorescent lamp is transported according to the guidelines in the manual. A responsible company is contracted by la Vicerrectoria de Administracion of the Universidad de Costa Rica dedicated to the transport and proper handling of fluorescent lamps [es

  15. Computer-aided instruction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teneze, Jean Claude

    1968-01-01

    This research thesis addresses the use of teleprocessing and time sharing by the RAX IBM system and the possibility to introduce a dialog with the machine to develop an application in which the computer plays the role of a teacher for different pupils at the same time. Two operating modes are thus exploited: a teacher-mode and a pupil-mode. The developed CAI (computer-aided instruction) system comprises a checker to check the course syntax in teacher-mode, a translator to trans-code the course written in teacher-mode into a form which can be processes by the execution programme, and the execution programme which presents the course in pupil-mode

  16. Pronunciation improvement in EFL young learners through phonics instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Andrea Beltrán-Herrera

    2016-12-01

    based on Lloyd (2007 six types of sections. The participants were 13 students aged 10 to 12 years old from fifth grade; a mixed method was carried out to analyze collected data through the following instruments: 2 tests (pre-post, recordings and artifacts. This analysis was made using randomly 6 chosen students. At first the students did the pre-test with 20 words containing the sounds / i: /, / I /, / / θ / and / ð /. In the second phase, the researchers implemented the stages of Phonics Instruction focusing on making visual, auditory, Kinesthetic and tactile. In the third stage, students did the post-test with 40 words containing / i: /, / I /, / θ / and / ð / sounds, the recordings obtained the pronunciation of students and transcripts of tests; so it could be determined if students improved their pronunciation of sounds with the use of Phonics Instruction. There were also artifacts as evidence of activities did by students. Finally, the results showed that the students had a breakthrough and Phonics Instruction contributed in their pronunciation achieving to identify differences and similarities in word pronunciation based on the minimal pairs.

  17. SCRIPTED INSTRUCTION IN EFL CLASSES: AN OPPORTUNITY OR A DRAWBACK?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annur Rofiq

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Scripted Instruction (SI can be simply defined as an instructional activity which is based on a prepared script. It has been evident in the USA since the last decades in response to students‘ low achievement especially on reading or literacy and numeracy. Pros and cons for SI have been around disputing its significance on teachers‘ professional development and students‘ learning achievement. Studies came up with contradictory findings. On one side, students and teachers are found to get benefits from SI. On the other side, SI is believed to inhibit teachers‘ talent, abilities, and development of professional expertise, as the script tightly controls what the teachers should say and do during the instruction. This paper discusses the feasibility of SI in English language teaching. Experiences at the Teacher Professional Education and Training (PLPG program at Universitas Jember, Indonesia reveal that most English teachers are still weak at both pedagogical and professional competence. As a stepping stone, conversation gambits can be used to develop scripts. Teachers - senior teachers and teachers - teacher educators collaboration is required for script development. SI is assumed to make both English teachers and students ―save and sounds‖ during the teaching and learning activities and get meaningful experiences from the activities.

  18. The construction of different classroom norms during Peer Instruction: Students perceive differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Turpen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes variations in instructors’ implementation practices during Peer Instruction (PI and shows how these differences in practices shape different norms of classroom interaction. We describe variations in classroom norms along three dimensions of classroom culture that are integral to Peer Instruction, emphasis on: (1 faculty-student collaboration, (2 student-student collaboration, and (3 sense-making vs answer-making. Based on interpretations by an observing researcher, we place three different PI classrooms along a continuum representing a set of possible norms. We then check these interpretations against students’ perceptions of these environments from surveys collected at the end of the term. We find significant correspondence between the researchers’ interpretations and students’ perceptions of Peer Instruction in these environments. We find that variation in faculty practices can set up what students perceive as discernibly different norms. For interested instructors, concrete classroom practices are described that appear to encourage or discourage these norms.

  19. Instruction timing for the CDC 7600 computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipps, H.

    1975-01-01

    This report provides timing information for all instructions of the Control Data 7600 computer, except for instructions of type 01X, to enable the optimization of 7600 programs. The timing rules serve as background information for timing charts which are produced by a program (TIME76) of the CERN Program Library. The rules that co-ordinate the different sections of the CPU are stated in as much detail as is necessary to time the flow of instructions for a given sequence of code. Instruction fetch, instruction issue, and access to small core memory are treated at length, since details are not available from the computer manuals. Annotated timing charts are given for 24 examples, chosen to display the full range of timing considerations. (Author)

  20. The knowledge-learning-instruction framework: bridging the science-practice chasm to enhance robust student learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koedinger, Kenneth R; Corbett, Albert T; Perfetti, Charles

    2012-07-01

    Despite the accumulation of substantial cognitive science research relevant to education, there remains confusion and controversy in the application of research to educational practice. In support of a more systematic approach, we describe the Knowledge-Learning-Instruction (KLI) framework. KLI promotes the emergence of instructional principles of high potential for generality, while explicitly identifying constraints of and opportunities for detailed analysis of the knowledge students may acquire in courses. Drawing on research across domains of science, math, and language learning, we illustrate the analyses of knowledge, learning, and instructional events that the KLI framework affords. We present a set of three coordinated taxonomies of knowledge, learning, and instruction. For example, we identify three broad classes of learning events (LEs): (a) memory and fluency processes, (b) induction and refinement processes, and (c) understanding and sense-making processes, and we show how these can lead to different knowledge changes and constraints on optimal instructional choices. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  1. Prendre Au Serieux Les Jeux pedagogiques (Taking Instructional Games Seriously).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudin, Herve

    1989-01-01

    Three types of instructional games (learning, practice, and creative) are distinguished and discussed, and their place in the second language classroom is considered. It is emphasized that instructional games should complement, not repeat, classroom instruction. (MSE)

  2. Axioms for behavioural congruence of single-pass instruction sequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2017-01-01

    In program algebra, an algebraic theory of single-pass instruction sequences, three congruences on instruction sequences are paid attention to: instruction sequence congruence, structural congruence, and behavioural congruence. Sound and complete axiom systems for the first two congruences were

  3. Instructional Materials: The Changing Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodinsky, Ben

    1975-01-01

    The beleaguered educational publishing industry is making a valiant stand against a storm of challenges. From eradicating bias in textbooks to verifying textbook effectiveness, many problems must be faced. The industry responds by cooperating with educators. (Editor)

  4. Speech, stone tool-making and the evolution of language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Dana Michelle; Migliano, Andrea Bamberg; Vinicius, Lucio

    2018-01-01

    The 'technological hypothesis' proposes that gestural language evolved in early hominins to enable the cultural transmission of stone tool-making skills, with speech appearing later in response to the complex lithic industries of more recent hominins. However, no flintknapping study has assessed the efficiency of speech alone (unassisted by gesture) as a tool-making transmission aid. Here we show that subjects instructed by speech alone underperform in stone tool-making experiments in comparison to subjects instructed through either gesture alone or 'full language' (gesture plus speech), and also report lower satisfaction with their received instruction. The results provide evidence that gesture was likely to be selected over speech as a teaching aid in the earliest hominin tool-makers; that speech could not have replaced gesturing as a tool-making teaching aid in later hominins, possibly explaining the functional retention of gesturing in the full language of modern humans; and that speech may have evolved for reasons unrelated to tool-making. We conclude that speech is unlikely to have evolved as tool-making teaching aid superior to gesture, as claimed by the technological hypothesis, and therefore alternative views should be considered. For example, gestural language may have evolved to enable tool-making in earlier hominins, while speech may have later emerged as a response to increased trade and more complex inter- and intra-group interactions in Middle Pleistocene ancestors of Neanderthals and Homo sapiens; or gesture and speech may have evolved in parallel rather than in sequence.

  5. 30 CFR 77.1704 - First aid training program; availability of instruction to all miners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First aid training program; availability of... WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 77.1704 First aid training program; availability... shall make available to all miners employed in the mine a course of instruction in first aid conducted...

  6. Rural Elementary Teachers and Place-Based Connections to Text during Reading Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Rachael; Barrentine, Shelby J.

    2015-01-01

    Schooling can play a role in bolstering a sense of community, but research suggests that curriculum may serve to isolate teachers and students from their rural surroundings. In this qualitative case study, we asked if the literacy curriculum and instruction supported readers to make connections to their rural setting. We analyzed curriculum…

  7. Comparison of Three Instructional Approaches to Enhance Tactical Knowledge in Volleyball among University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vande Broek, Gert; Boen, Filip; Claessens, Manu; Feys, Jos; Ceux, Tanja

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the decision-making process of three instructional groups (i.e., teacher-centered, student-centered with tactical questioning and student-centered without tactical questioning) in practical courses in volleyball among university students. All students (N = 122) performed a Tactical Awareness task on the correctness of the…

  8. Inference Instruction to Support Reading Comprehension for Elementary Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Colby; Barnes, Marcia A.

    2017-01-01

    Making inferences during reading is a critical standards-based skill and is important for reading comprehension. This article supports the improvement of reading comprehension for students with learning disabilities (LD) in upper elementary grades by reviewing what is currently known about inference instruction for students with LD and providing…

  9. Approaches to inclusive English classrooms a teacher's handbook for content-based instruction

    CERN Document Server

    Mastruserio Reynolds, Kate

    2015-01-01

    This accessible book takes a critical approach towards content-based instruction methods, bridging the gap between theory and practice in order to allow teachers to make an informed decision about best practices for an inclusive classroom. It is a resource for both educators and ESL teachers working within an English learner inclusion environment.

  10. Operating instructions for ORELA [Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator] positron beam line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donohue, D.L.; Hulett, L.D. Jr.; Lewis, T.A.

    1990-11-01

    This report will contain details of the construction and operation of the positron beam line. Special procedures which are performed on a less frequent basis will also be described. Appendices will contain operating instructions for experiments which make use of the positron beam and are connected to the beam line. Finally, a review of safety-related considerations will be presented

  11. An Instructional Model for Teaching Proof Writing in the Number Theory Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schabel, Carmen

    2005-01-01

    I discuss an instructional model that I have used in my number theory classes. Facets of the model include using small group work and whole class discussion, having students generate examples and counterexamples, and giving students the opportunity to write proofs and make conjectures in class. The model is designed to actively engage students in…

  12. Is What's Hot in Reading What Should Be Important for Reading Instruction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasinski, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    For years one of the most anticipated events in reading instruction has been Jack Cassidy and his colleagues' annual publication of the "What's Hot, What's Not" survey. In their present study, using longitudinal data from the What's Hot survey, Cassidy, Ortlieb, and Grote-Garcia (2016) make the case that because the Common Core Standards…

  13. A Self-Instructional Course in Student Financial Aid Administration. Module 13: Verification. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington Consulting Group, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Module 13 of the 17-module self-instructional course on student financial aid administration (designed for novice financial aid administrators and other institutional personnel) focuses on the verification procedure for checking the accuracy of applicant data used in making financial aid awards. The full course provides an introduction to the…

  14. Evaluating Instructional Effects of Flipped Classroom in University: A Case Study on Electronic Business Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenlong; Xie, Wenjing

    2018-01-01

    Flipped classroom provides the new ideas and ways for the innovation of university pedagogical mode. Nowadays instructors may apply this new approach to liberal arts majors in university class in order to make up for the problems of low instructional effects in traditional teaching method. From the subjective and objective perspectives, this…

  15. The Role of Real-Life Mathematics Instruction on Mathematics Outcomes in Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfried, Michael

    2016-01-01

    In an era of a declining quality and quantity of students entering and persisting in mathematics in the USA, researchers and policy makers are looking for new strategies to engage students in these fields and improve mathematics outcomes. One push has been to make mathematics instruction more relevant with real-world applications throughout the…

  16. Transportability of Equivalence-Based Programmed Instruction: Efficacy and Efficiency in a College Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fienup, Daniel M.; Critchfield, Thomas S.

    2011-01-01

    College students in a psychology research-methods course learned concepts related to inferential statistics and hypothesis decision making. One group received equivalence-based instruction on conditional discriminations that were expected to promote the emergence of many untaught, academically useful abilities (i.e., stimulus equivalence group). A…

  17. The Functioning of Context-Based Physics Instruction in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tural, Guner

    2014-01-01

    The effects of the context-based approach have been discussed in educational settings as one of the innovative instructional approaches. Many countries throughout the world have implemented context-based physics projects or programs to make physics more relevant to students' lives. This paper examined the effects of context-based physics…

  18. Effects of Cooperative and Individualistic Instructional Strategies On ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    instructional strategies on students' problem solving abilities in secondary school chemistry ... individualistic instructional strategy and conventional teaching method. ..... solving abilities are best enhanced by cooperative learning environment.

  19. Making Meaning through Translanguaging in the Literacy Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Mark B.; Miller, Mary E.

    2016-01-01

    In this Teaching Tip, we share three literacy activities for teachers working with emergent bilinguals. Leveraging students' heritage languages in instruction holds rich opportunities for literacy achievement. Translanguaging pedagogies encourage emergent bilinguals to use the full range of their linguistic repertoires when making meaning in the…

  20. Using assessment to individualize early mathematics instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Mazzocco, Michèle M M; Kurz, Terri; Crowe, Elizabeth C; Tighe, Elizabeth L; Wood, Taffeta S; Morrison, Frederick J

    2018-02-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that assessment-informed personalized instruction, tailored to students' individual skills and abilities, is more effective than more one-size-fits-all approaches. In this study, we evaluate the efficacy of Individualizing Student Instruction in Mathematics (ISI-Math) compared to Reading (ISI-Reading) where classrooms were randomly assigned to ISI-Math or ISI-Reading. The literature on child characteristics X instruction or skill X treatment interaction effects point to the complexities of tailoring instruction for individual students who present with constellations of skills. Second graders received mathematics instruction in small flexible learning groups based on their assessed learning needs. Results of the study (n=32 teachers, 370 students) revealed significant treatment effects on standardized mathematics assessments. With effect sizes (d) of 0.41-0.60, we show that we can significantly improve 2nd graders' mathematics achievement, including for children living in poverty, by using assessment data to individualize the mathematics instruction they receive. The instructional regime, ISI-Math, was implemented by regular classroom teachers and it led to about a 4-month achievement advantage on standardized mathematics tests when compared to students in control classrooms. These results were realized within one school year. Moreover, treatment effects were the same regardless of school-level poverty and students' gender, initial mathematics or vocabulary scores. Copyright © 2017 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Differentiating Science Instruction: Secondary science teachers' practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeng, Jennifer L.; Bell, Randy L.

    2015-09-01

    This descriptive study investigated the implementation practices of secondary science teachers who differentiate instruction. Participants included seven high school science teachers purposefully selected from four different schools located in a mid-Atlantic state. Purposeful selection ensured participants included differentiated instruction (DI) in their lesson implementation. Data included semi-structured interviews and field notes from a minimum of four classroom observations, selected to capture the variety of differentiation strategies employed. These data were analyzed using a constant-comparative approach. Each classroom observation was scored using the validated Differentiated Instruction Implementation Matrix-Modified, which captured both the extent to which critical indicators of DI were present in teachers' instruction and the performance levels at which they engaged in these components of DI. Results indicated participants implemented a variety of differentiation strategies in their classrooms with varying proficiency. Evidence suggested all participants used instructional modifications that required little advance preparation to accommodate differences in students' interests and learning profile. Four of the seven participants implemented more complex instructional strategies that required substantial advance preparation by the teacher. Most significantly, this study provides practical strategies for in-service science teachers beginning to differentiate instruction and recommendations for professional development and preservice science teacher education.

  2. Standard operational radiation protection instructions for process instrumentation and control engineering applying radiometric equipment containing sealed sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    According to article 16(3) of the Ordinance on the Implementation of Atomic Safety and Radiation Protection of 11 October 1984, operational radiation protection instructions have to be worked out for each type of nuclear energy application. Based on the valid legal provisions of the GDR and on experience and knowledge gained in practice, the most important operational instructions and procedures for the operation of radiometric equipment containing sealed sources were compiled. The example should enable the management to make the instructions directly applicable and, if necessary, to modify or supplement them

  3. Making Rainforests Relevant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustbader, Sara

    1995-01-01

    Describes a program for teaching about tropical rainforests in a concrete way using what's outside the door. This activity uses an eastern deciduous hardwood forest as an example. Step-by-step instructions include introductory activities, plus descriptions of stations in the forest to be visited. Resources include books, audio-visual materials,…

  4. Poster session in instructional technology course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniaty, Artina; Fauzi'ah, Lina; Wulan Febriana, Beta; Arlianty, Widinda Normalia

    2017-12-01

    Instructional technology course must be studied by students in order to 1) understand the role of technology in learning, 2) capable of analyzing advantages and disadvantages of using technology in teaching, 3) capable of performing technology in teaching. A poster session in instructional technology course was performed to 1) enhance students' interest in this course and develop students' creativity. The step of this research includes: planning, implementation, and evaluation. The result showed that students' responses towards poster session in instructional technology course were good.

  5. Curriculum and instruction in nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, M.; Lugaski, T.; Pankratius, B.

    1991-01-01

    Curriculum and instruction in nuclear waste disposal is part of the larger problem of curriculum and instruction in science. At a time when science and technological literacy is crucial to the nation's economic future fewer students are electing to take needed courses in science that might promote such literacy. The problem is directly related to what science teachers teach and how they teach it. Science content that is more relevant and interesting to students must be a part of the curriculum. Science instruction must allow students to be actively involved in investigating or playing the game of science

  6. The Instructional Text like a Textual Genre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adiane Fogali Marinello

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the instructional text as a textual genre and is part of the research called Reading and text production from the textual genre perspective, done at Universidade de Caxias do Sul, Campus Universitário da Região dos Vinhedos. Firstly, some theoretical assumptions about textual genre are presented, then, the instructional text is characterized. After that an instructional text is analyzed and, finally, some activities related to reading and writing of the mentioned genre directed to High School and University students are suggested.

  7. Shared decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000877.htm Shared decision making To use the sharing features on this page, ... treatment you both support. When to use Shared Decision Making Shared decision making is often used when you ...

  8. The impact of inquiry-based instructional professional development upon instructional practice: An action research study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, Frances A.

    This mixed method case study employs action research, conducted over a three month period with 11 elementary math and science practitioners. Inquiry as an instructional practice is a vital component of math and science instruction and STEM teaching. Teachers examined their beliefs and teaching practices with regard to those instructional factors that influence inquiry instruction. Video-taped lessons were compared to a rubric and pre and post questionnaires along with two interviews which informed the study. The results showed that while most beliefs were maintained, teachers implemented inquiry at a more advanced level after examining their teaching and reflecting on ways to increase inquiry practices. Because instructional practices provide only one component of inquiry-based instruction, other components need to be examined in a future study.

  9. Generating and executing programs for a floating point single instruction multiple data instruction set architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gschwind, Michael K

    2013-04-16

    Mechanisms for generating and executing programs for a floating point (FP) only single instruction multiple data (SIMD) instruction set architecture (ISA) are provided. A computer program product comprising a computer recordable medium having a computer readable program recorded thereon is provided. The computer readable program, when executed on a computing device, causes the computing device to receive one or more instructions and execute the one or more instructions using logic in an execution unit of the computing device. The logic implements a floating point (FP) only single instruction multiple data (SIMD) instruction set architecture (ISA), based on data stored in a vector register file of the computing device. The vector register file is configured to store both scalar and floating point values as vectors having a plurality of vector elements.

  10. Effectiveness of a computer-based tutorial for teaching how to make a blood smear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preast, Vanessa; Danielson, Jared; Bender, Holly; Bousson, Maury

    2007-09-01

    Computer-aided instruction (CAI) was developed to teach veterinary students how to make blood smears. This instruction was intended to replace the traditional instructional method in order to promote efficient use of faculty resources while maintaining learning outcomes and student satisfaction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a computer-aided blood smear tutorial on 1) instructor's teaching time, 2) students' ability to make blood smears, and 3) students' ability to recognize smear quality. Three laboratory sessions for senior veterinary students were taught using traditional methods (control group) and 4 sessions were taught using the CAI tutorial (experimental group). Students in the control group received a short demonstration and lecture by the instructor at the beginning of the laboratory and then practiced making blood smears. Students in the experimental group received their instruction through the self-paced, multimedia tutorial on a laptop computer and then practiced making blood smears. Data was collected from observation, interview, survey questionnaires, and smear evaluation by students and experts using a scoring rubric. Students using the CAI made better smears and were better able to recognize smear quality. The average time the instructor spent in the room was not significantly different between groups, but the quality of the instructor time was improved with the experimental instruction. The tutorial implementation effectively provided students and instructors with a teaching and learning experience superior to the traditional method of instruction. Using CAI is a viable method of teaching students to make blood smears.

  11. Attentional Focusing Instructions and Force Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Marchant

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Research progress assessing the role of attentional focusing instructions on skill acquisition and performance has lead researchers to apply this approach to force production tasks. Initial converging evidence indicates that force production tasks are sensitive to verbal instruction; externally focused instructions (onto movement outcomes, or onto the object force is being exerted against are shown to be more beneficial than internally focused instructions (focusing attention onto the movements being executed. These benefits are observed for maximal and accurate force production, as well as the maintenance of force production in prolonged tasks. A range of mechanisms are identified supporting the proposal that an external focus promotes movement efficiency in line with energy and effort conservation. Future research is required to assess how this developing body of work interacts with the broader understanding of psychological and physiological factors implicated in the effective production, maintenance and limitation of maximal or sub-maximal forces.

  12. Completion processing for data communications instructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blocksome, Michael A; Kumar, Sameer; Parker, Jeffrey J

    2014-05-20

    Completion processing of data communications instructions in a distributed computing environment, including receiving, in an active messaging interface (`AMI`) data communications instructions, at least one instruction specifying a callback function; injecting into an injection FIFO buffer of a data communication adapter, an injection descriptor, each slot in the injection FIFO buffer having a corresponding slot in a pending callback list; listing in the pending callback list any callback function specified by an instruction, incrementing a pending callback counter for each listed callback function; transferring payload data as per each injection descriptor, incrementing a transfer counter upon completion of each transfer; determining from counter values whether the pending callback list presently includes callback functions whose data transfers have been completed; calling by the AMI any such callback functions from the pending callback list, decrementing the pending callback counter for each callback function called.

  13. Managing Innovation and Change for Instructional Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holznagel, Donald C.

    1991-01-01

    Introduces the term "orgware" and reviews the literature on managing technological innovation in instructional settings. Six areas of management concern are described, and advice on managing innovation and change is provided. (11 references) (GLR)

  14. Formal education of curriculum and instructional designers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKenney, Susan; Visscher-Voerman, Irene

    2013-01-01

    McKenney, S., & Visscher-Voerman, I. (2013). Formal education of curriculum and instructional designers. Educational Designer, 2(6). Available online: http://www.educationaldesigner.org/ed/volume2/issue6/article20/index.htm

  15. Competency-Based Instruction for Marketing Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Betty; Williams, Terry M.

    1982-01-01

    Which method of instruction is more effective for postsecondary students: competency-based or traditional? This study reveals that the effectiveness of one method over the other depends on work experience of the student. (Author)

  16. Differentiating Instruction in Early Childhood Care Education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education, Owerri,. E-mail: ... Key words: childhood education, Differentiated instruction, teachers/ caregivers' practice ... differences in their readiness level, interests and learning profiles/styles (p. 940). Today's ...

  17. Improving Instruction through a Videotape Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batesky, James

    1979-01-01

    Videotape and a videotape library can be used to expand the quality of instruction of a physical education program by allowing greater diversity of material taught and increased use of professionals and experts in various sports. (JMF)

  18. Biotechnology Education: A Multiple Instructional Strategies Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Trey; Wells, John; White, Karissa

    2002-01-01

    Provides a rationale for inclusion of biotechnology in technology education. Describes an instructional strategy that uses behaviorist, cognitive, and constructivist learning theories in two activities involving photobioreactors and bovine somatotropin (growth hormone). (Contains 39 references.) (SK)

  19. Sharing perspectives on English-medium instruction

    CERN Document Server

    Ackerley, Katherine; Helm, Francesca

    2017-01-01

    This volume gives voice to the views and experiences of researchers, lecturers, administrative staff, teacher trainers and students with regard to the implementation of English-medium instruction in a public university based in the north-east of Italy.

  20. CCP-NAP operator instructions at ANL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tantillo, V.V.

    1986-03-01

    CCP-NAP Operator Instructions at ANL (ANL/TM 435) supplements the CCPGUIDE (Category 26) prepared by the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computer Center (NMFECC), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The instructions in CCP-NAP Operator Instructions at ANL serve as a reference guide for Computing Services operators when operator intervention is necessary for ANL's MFEnet Nodes located in Building 221, Room A-134. Use this document in conjunction with the CCPGUIDE. The CCPGUIDE, a guide for network operators, outlines the procedures for loading the Communications Control Processor (CCP) and monitoring its activity. The CCPGUIDE contains detailed information on Software Loading, System Status, System Monitoring, Command Summary, etc. The material in this document is the result of additional information provided by Jim Morton and Jim Gigliaridi (NMFECC) when our Argonne National Laboratory/Computing Services MFEnet Nodes were installed. This document provides two formats: QUICK instructions and procedures, and detailed general text

  1. Discourse Analysis in Stylistics and Literature Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Mick

    1990-01-01

    A review of research regarding discourse analysis in stylistics and literature instruction covers studies of text, systematic analysis, meaning, style, literature pedagogy, and applied linguistics. A 10-citation annotated bibliography and a larger unannotated bibliography are included. (CB)

  2. 7 CFR 1212.103 - Instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS..., PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Referendum Procedures § 1212.103 Instructions... information sources, without incurring advertising expense, to publicize the dates, places, method of voting...

  3. Using Manipulatives in Math Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzola, Eileen S.

    1987-01-01

    Guidelines for teachers to better use manipulatives in the teaching of mathematics to learning disabled learners are offered including a rationale for manipulatives, selection crteria, principles underlying productive use of manipulatives, and making the transition from the concrete to the symbolic. Suggested materials and distributors are listed.…

  4. Supporting Mathematics Instruction through Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amidon, Joel C.; Trevathan, Morgan L.

    2016-01-01

    Raising expectations is nothing new. Every iteration of standards elevates the expectations for what students should know and be able to do. The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) is no exception, with standards for content and practice that move beyond memorization of traditional algorithms to "make sense of problems and…

  5. Content-Based Instruction Approach In Instructional Multimedia For English Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Farani, Rizki

    2016-01-01

    Content-based Instruction (CBI) is an approach in English learning that integrates certain topic and English learning objectives. This approach focuses on using English competencies as a “bridge” to comprehend certain topic or theme in English. Nowadays, this approach can be used in instructional multimedia to support English learning by using computer. Instructional multimedia with computer system refers to the sequential or simultaneous use of variety of media formats in a given presentatio...

  6. Knack knots you need step-by-step instructions for more than 100 of the best sailing, fishing, climbing, camping and decorative knots

    CERN Document Server

    Tilton, Buck

    2008-01-01

    Untie the mystery of knot-making with this clever and handy guide. This new compendium presents all the knots you need to know, with brightly colored photographs enabling you to easily follow the instructions. In addition, the book includes copious information on using knots in most popular activities. With its clear step-by-step instructions and friendly tone, this is the one volume you can count on to guide you toward quick success in knot-making.

  7. Regulations and instructions; Propisi i uputstva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1960-07-01

    Regulations and instructions for operating the RA reactor consist of the following chapters: general regulations with the fundamental RA reactor characteristics, operating regulations and instructions for the personnel on duty, regulations for accidental conditions, training program for the staff of the Laboratory for reactor operation. Propisi i uputstva za rad reaktora RA sadrze sledeca poglavlja: opsti deo sa kratkim opisom karakteristika reaktora RA, propisi za rad dezurnog osoblja, propisi za slucaj udesa, program obuke osoblja Laboratorije za eksploataciju reaktora RA.

  8. Instruction Set Architectures for Quantum Processing Units

    OpenAIRE

    Britt, Keith A.; Humble, Travis S.

    2017-01-01

    Progress in quantum computing hardware raises questions about how these devices can be controlled, programmed, and integrated with existing computational workflows. We briefly describe several prominent quantum computational models, their associated quantum processing units (QPUs), and the adoption of these devices as accelerators within high-performance computing systems. Emphasizing the interface to the QPU, we analyze instruction set architectures based on reduced and complex instruction s...

  9. Mathematical theory of peer-instruction dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideo Nitta

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical theory of peer instruction describing the increase of the normalized number of correct answers due to peer discussion is presented. A simple analytic expression is derived which agrees with class data. It is shown that our theory is connected to the mathematical learning models proposed by Pritchard et al. It is also shown that obtained theoretical lines are useful for analyzing peer-instruction efficiencies.

  10. Processing Instruction: A review of issues

    OpenAIRE

    Muhlisin Rasuki

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides a critical review of Processing Instruction (PI). This type of instructional option was specifically designed to help second/foreign language (L2) learners grasp meaning manifested in the use of particular grammatical forms in a target language effectively through the provision of input. In this way, PI attempts to help learners develop grammatical competence in a target language in ways that foster their comprehension and production skills. The paper starts with outlining...

  11. Basic Concepts of Reading Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan ARI

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Reading act is performed by connected physiological, psychological and cognitive processes. The operations taking place in these processes are expected to continue for life by being developed with certain strategies. A lot of information is gained with reading skill in education life. Therefore, basic concepts that constitute reading education in teaching and improving reading are important for teachers. The aim of this study is to submit information compiled from the literature about reading education process and which basic concepts are used in reading education. While teaching reading from part to whole, from whole to part and interactional approaches are used. From part to whole approach is at the forefront. Then with interactional approach strategies, both code solving and making sense is improved. Teachers should know the characteristics of bouncing, stopping, turning back, and scanning movements of the eye both in code solving and making sense. The teacher should configure the teaching for the students to gain fluid reading elements by making use of reading out and reading silently. After reading act is acquired; good reader characteristics should be gained by improving asking questions, guessing, summarizing, interpretation skills in integrated readings. Reading skill is improved by studies on the text. Therefore, the students should come across texts that are suitable to their levels, textuality and readability criteria. The vocabulary of children should be improved in a planned way with text-based word and meaning studies. Fluid reading, making sense and interpretation skills of children should be pursued with different evaluation types. In the long term, work should be done to make reading a habit for them.

  12. The Flipped Classroom Teaching Model and Its Use for Information Literacy Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Arnold-Garza

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The “flipped classroom” teaching model has emerged in a variety of educational settings. It provides many advantages for students and exploits the affordances of modern technology. This article describes some of the pedagogical and logistical characteristics of the flipped teaching model. It situates the flipped classroom in higher education and library instruction, and make the case that there are characteristics of information literacy instruction that fit well with the flipped teaching model, in addition to providing some unique challenges.

  13. Medical decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stiggelbout, A.M.; Vries, M. de; Scherer, L.; Keren, G.; Wu, G.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter presents an overview of the field of medical decision making. It distinguishes the levels of decision making seen in health-care practice and shows how research in judgment and decision making support or improve decision making. Most of the research has been done at the micro level,

  14. Examining Data Driven Decision Making via Formative Assessment: A Confluence of Technology, Data Interpretation Heuristics and Curricular Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Gerry; Mazur, Joan

    2011-01-01

    Although the term data-driven decision making (DDDM) is relatively new (Moss, 2007), the underlying concept of DDDM is not. For example, the practices of formative assessment and computer-managed instruction have historically involved the use of student performance data to guide what happens next in the instructional sequence (Morrison, Kemp, &…

  15. Multimodal versus Unimodal Instruction in a Complex Learning Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellevij, Mark; van der Meij, Hans; de Jong, Ton; Pieters, Jules

    2002-01-01

    Compared multimodal instruction with text and pictures with unimodal text-only instruction as 44 college students used a visual or textual manual to learn a complex software application. Results initially support dual coding theory and indicate that multimodal instruction led to better performance than unimodal instruction. (SLD)

  16. Modifying ADDIE: Incorporating New Technologies in Library Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Paul Clayton

    2014-01-01

    There are many instructional design theories to assist librarians in creating effective instructional modules for student learning. ADDIE is a generic instructional design model that has been in existence for more than 30 years and is known for its flexibility in application (Molenda, 2003). Using instructional design theories such as ADDIE helps…

  17. Investigating Comprehension in Real World Tasks: Understanding Jury Instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrow, Veda R.; Charrow, Robert

    This paper discusses the results of part of an ongoing project studying an aspect of real world language usage, the comprehension of standard jury instructions. Problems in the comprehension of these instructions include the memory load that they impose, the fact that most instructions are read only once, and the fact that instructions are written…

  18. Instructional Regulation and Control: Cybernetics, Algorithmization and Heuristics in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa, L. N.; And Others

    This book on the aspects of instructional processes focuses on control of student cognitive activity during instruction. Chapter 1 introduces the cybernetic approach to the theory of instruction. It is followed by a chapter on instructional effectiveness and efficiency. The third chapter discusses cognitive processes and thinking. Chapter 4…

  19. Computer-Supported Instruction in Enhancing the Performance of Dyscalculics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S. Praveen; Raja, B. William Dharma

    2010-01-01

    The use of instructional media is an essential component of teaching-learning process which contributes to the efficiency as well as effectiveness of the teaching-learning process. Computer-supported instruction has a very important role to play as an advanced technological instruction as it employs different instructional techniques like…

  20. An Analysis of Instructional Facilitators' Relationships with Teachers and Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Range, Bret G.; Pijanowski, John C.; Duncan, Heather; Scherz, Susan; Hvidston, David

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the perspectives of Wyoming instructional facilitators, concerning three coaching constructs--namely, their instructional leadership roles, teachers' instructional practices, and the support that they receive from principals and teachers. Findings suggest that instructional facilitators were positive about their instructional…

  1. Decision Making and Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Reyna, Valerie F.; Nelson, Wendy L.; Han, Paul K.; Pignone, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    We review decision-making along the cancer continuum in the contemporary context of informed and shared decision making, in which patients are encouraged to take a more active role in their health care. We discuss challenges to achieving informed and shared decision making, including cognitive limitations and emotional factors, but argue that understanding the mechanisms of decision making offers hope for improving decision support. Theoretical approaches to decision making that explain cogni...

  2. Rethinking biology instruction: The application of DNR-based instruction to the learning and teaching of biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskiewicz, April Lee

    Educational studies report that secondary and college level students have developed only limited understandings of the most basic biological processes and their interrelationships from typical classroom experiences. Furthermore, students have developed undesirable reasoning schemes and beliefs that directly affect how they make sense of and account for biological phenomena. For these reasons, there exists a need to rethink instructional practices in biology. This dissertation discusses how the principles of Harel's (1998, 2001) DNR-based instruction in mathematics could be applied to the teaching and learning of biology. DNR is an acronym for the three foundational principles of the system: Duality, Necessity, and Repeated-reasoning. This study examines the application of these three principles to ecology instruction. Through clinical and teaching interviews, I developed models of students' existing ways of understanding in ecology and inferred their ways of thinking. From these models a hypothetical learning trajectory was developed for 16 college level freshmen enrolled in a 10-week ecology teaching experiment. Through cyclical, interpretive analysis I documented and analyzed the evolution of the participants' progress. The results provide empirical evidence to support the claim that the DNR principles are applicable to ecology instruction. With respect to the Duality Principle, helping students develop specific ways of understanding led to the development of model-based reasoning---a way of thinking and the cognitive objective guiding instruction. Through carefully structured problem solving tasks, the students developed a biological understanding of the relationship between matter cycling, energy flow, and cellular processes such as photosynthesis and respiration, and used this understanding to account for observable phenomena in nature. In the case of intellectual necessity, the results illuminate how problem situations can be developed for biology learners

  3. Teaching science to English Language Learners: Instructional approaches of high school teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Betty-Vinca N.

    Students who are English Language Learners (ELLs) form the fastest growing segment of the American school population. Prompted by the call for scientific literacy for all citizens, science educators too have investigated the intersection of language and science instruction of ELLs. However these studies have typically been conducted with elementary students. Few studies have explored how high school science teachers, particularly those who have not received any special training, approach science instruction of ELLs and what supports them in this endeavor. This was a qualitative case study conducted with five science teachers in one small urban high school that predominantly served ELLs. The purpose of this study was to examine instructional approaches used by teachers to make science accessible to ELLs and the factors that supported or inhibited them in developing their instructional approaches. This goal encompassed the following questions: (a) how teachers viewed science instruction of ELLs, (b) how teachers designed a responsive program to teach science to ELLs, (c) what approaches teachers used for curriculum development and instruction, (d) how teachers developed classroom learning communities to meet the needs of ELLs. Seven instructional strategies and five perceived sources of support emerged as findings of this research. In summary, teachers believed that they needed to make science more accessible for their ELL students while promoting their literacy skills. Teachers provided individualized attention to students to provide relevant support. Teachers engaged their students in various types of active learning lessons in social contexts, where students worked on both hands-on and meaning-making activities and interacted with their peers and teachers. Teachers also created classroom communities and learning spaces where students felt comfortable to seek and give help. Finally, teachers identified several sources of support that influenced their instructional

  4. Hospice decision making: diagnosis makes a difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldrop, Deborah P; Meeker, Mary Ann

    2012-10-01

    This study explored the process of decision making about hospice enrollment and identified factors that influence the timing of that decision. This study employed an exploratory, descriptive, cross-sectional design and was conducted using qualitative methods. In-depth in-person semistructured interviews were conducted with 36 hospice patients and 55 caregivers after 2 weeks of hospice care. The study was guided by Janis and Mann's conflict theory model (CTM) of decision making. Qualitative data analysis involved a directed content analysis using concepts from the CTM. A model of hospice enrollment decision making is presented. Concepts from the CTM (appraisal, surveying and weighing the alternatives, deliberations, adherence) were used as an organizing framework to illustrate the dynamics. Distinct differences were found by diagnosis (cancer vs. other chronic illness, e.g., heart and lung diseases) during the pre-encounter phase or before the hospice referral but no differences emerged during the post-encounter phase. Differences in decision making by diagnosis suggest the need for research about effective means for tailored communication in end-of-life decision making by type of illness. Recognition that decision making about hospice admission varies is important for clinicians who aim to provide person-centered and family-focused care.

  5. A re-examination of the effects of biased lineup instructions in eyewitness identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Steven E

    2005-10-01

    A meta-analytic review of research comparing biased and unbiased instructions in eyewitness identification experiments showed an asymmetry; specifically, that biased instructions led to a large and consistent decrease in accuracy in target-absent lineups, but produced inconsistent results for target-present lineups, with an average effect size near zero (Steblay, 1997). The results for target-present lineups are surprising, and are inconsistent with statistical decision theories (i.e., Green & Swets, 1966). A re-examination of the relevant studies and the meta-analysis of those studies shows clear evidence that correct identification rates do increase with biased lineup instructions, and that biased witnesses make correct identifications at a rate considerably above chance. Implications for theory, as well as police procedure and policy, are discussed.

  6. Curricular Approaches in Research Ethics Education: Reflecting on More and Less Effective Practices in Instructional Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrence, Brett S; Watts, Logan L; Mulhearn, Tyler J; Turner, Megan R; Todd, E Michelle; Mumford, Michael D; Connelly, Shane

    2017-01-01

    Over the past decade, the effectiveness of ethics education programs has increased with regard to trainee outcomes, such as knowledge, awareness, and ethical decision making. However, despite the overall improvement in training effectiveness, considerable variability still exists across programs. One potential source of variability arises from the substantial range in instructional training content utilized across ethics training courses. The goal of the present effort was to clarify which approaches in ethics education result in positive training outcomes through the identification of instructional content themes. Through a qualitative review of ethics training courses, we identified key themes in instructional content curriculum associated with effective courses: domain-general, domain-specific, standard compliance, professionalism, and process-based. In addition, we identified key themes associated with less effective courses: mixed-specificity, narrow coverage, and idealized ethics. Descriptions and key characteristics of each theme along with example courses are provided. Implications of the content themes for ethics education are discussed.

  7. Technology for Early Braille Literacy: Comparison of Traditional Braille Instruction and Instruction with an Electronic Notetaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickford, James O.; Falco, Ruth A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The study reported here evaluated whether there was a difference in students' outcomes for braille fluency when instruction was provided with traditional braille media or refreshable braille. Students' and teachers' perceptions of the efficacy of the use of the different instructional media were analyzed. Methods: Nine students from…

  8. Multiple Representation Instruction First versus Traditional Algorithmic Instruction First: Impact in Middle School Mathematics Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Raymond; Koontz, Esther; Inan, Fethi A.; Alagic, Mara

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the impact of the order of two teaching approaches on students' abilities and on-task behaviors while learning how to solve percentage problems. Two treatment groups were compared. MR first received multiple representation instruction followed by traditional algorithmic instruction and TA first received these teaching…

  9. 30 CFR 48.5 - Training of new miners; minimum courses of instruction; hours of instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... avoidance of electrical hazards. (11) First aid. The course shall include instruction in first aid methods... use, care, and maintenance of self-rescue and respiratory devices used at the mine; (ii) Hands-on...; escapeways; emergency evacuation; barricading. The program of instruction for mine emergency evacuation and...

  10. Teachers' Beliefs, Instructional Behaviors, and Students' Engagement in Learning from Texts with Instructional Pictures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Sascha; Richter, Tobias; McElvany, Nele; Hachfeld, Axinja; Baumert, Jurgen; Schnotz, Wolfgang; Horz, Holger; Ullrich, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the relations between teachers' pedagogical beliefs and students' self-reported engagement in learning from texts with instructional pictures. Participants were the biology, geography, and German teachers of 46 classes (Grades 5-8) and their students. Teachers' instructional behaviors and students' engagement in learning…

  11. Evaluating the Instructional Architecture of Web-Based Learning Tools (WBLTs): Direct Instruction vs. Constructivism Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Robin

    2013-01-01

    Web-based learning tools (WBLTs), also known as learning objects, have been evaluated with a wide range of metrics, but rarely with respect to pedagogical design. The current study evaluated the impact of instructional architecture (direct instruction vs. constructive-based) on middle (n = 333)

  12. Computer Assisted Instructional Design for Computer-Based Instruction. Final Report. Working Papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Daniel M.; Pirolli, Peter

    Recent advances in artificial intelligence and the cognitive sciences have made it possible to develop successful intelligent computer-aided instructional systems for technical and scientific training. In addition, computer-aided design (CAD) environments that support the rapid development of such computer-based instruction have also been recently…

  13. Designing Preclinical Instruction of Psychomotor Skills (IV)--Instructional Engineering: Evaluation Phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenzel, Pamela J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The fourth article in a four-part series on instructional design discusses evaluation of a psychomotor skills unit taught in preclinical dental education. Issues examined include piloting of instructional materials, analysis and revision of materials based on student performance, syllabus design and content, influence of faculty characteristics,…

  14. Universal Design for Instruction: The Paradigm, Its Principles, and Products for Enhancing Instructional Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Joan M.; Scott, Sally S.; Shaw, Stan F.

    2003-01-01

    Universal Design for Instruction (UDI), a construct that serves as the foundation for the work of a federally funded project at the University of Connecticut, offers an approach to inclusive instruction that is responsive to the diverse learning needs of a changing postsecondary population. In this article elements relating to the implementation…

  15. Universal Design for Instruction: Extending the Universal Design Paradigm to College Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Joan M.; Scott, Sally S.

    2006-01-01

    Universal design for instruction (UDI) represents the systematic application of universal design, the construct from architecture and product development, to instructional practices in higher education. In addition to a description of the deliberative process by which UDI was developed, this article provides confirmatory evidence of the validity…

  16. Examining elementary teachers' knowledge and instruction of scientific explanations for fostering children's explanations in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebke, Heidi Lynn

    This study employed an embedded mixed methods multi-case study design (Creswell, 2014) with six early childhood (grades K-2) teachers to examine a) what changes occurred to their subject matter knowledge (SMK) and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) for teaching scientific explanations while participating in a professional development program, b) how they planned for and implemented scientific explanation instruction within a teacher developed unit on properties of matter, and c) what affordances their instruction of scientific explanations had on fostering their students' abilities to generate explanations in science. Several quantitative and qualitative measures were collected and analyzed in accordance to this studies conceptual framework, which consisted of ten instructional practices teachers should consider assimilating or accommodating into their knowledge base (i.e., SMK & PCK) for teaching scientific explanations. Results of this study indicate there was little to no positive change in the teachers' substantive and syntactic SMK. However, all six teachers did make significant changes to all five components of their PCK for teaching explanations in science. While planning for scientific explanation instruction, all six teachers' contributed some ideas for how to incorporate seven of the ten instructional practices for scientific explanations within the properties of matter unit they co-developed. When enacting the unit, the six teachers' employed seven to nine of the instructional practices to varying levels of effectiveness, as measured by researcher developed rubrics. Given the six teachers' scientific explanation instruction, many students did show improvement in their ability to formulate a scientific explanation, particularly their ability to provide multiple pieces of evidence. Implications for professional developers, teacher educators, researchers, policy makers, and elementary teachers regarding how to prepare teachers for and support students

  17. Impact of supplemental instruction leader on the success of supplemental instruction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahabaduge, Hasitha; Haslam, Jeanne

    Supplemental instruction utilizes peer-assisted study sessions to provide review sessions on course material and an opportunity to discuss and work out problems. The impact of supplemental instruction on student performance is well researched and used in a large number of universities around the world due to its proven success. However, the impact of the student leader who plays a significant role in this model is rarely discussed in the literature. We present a case study on the impact of student leader on the success of supplemental instruction model. This case study was done for an Introductory Physics course correlating student performance and the supplemental instruction sessions they attended. Further analysis revealed that the academic performance and work ethics of the student leader has a significant impact on the success of the supplemental instruction model. Important factors to consider when selecting a student leader, the challenges and possible remedies will also be discussed.

  18. Written instructions for the transport of hazardous materials: Accident management instruction sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridder, K.

    1988-01-01

    In spite of the regulations and the safety provisions taken, accidents are not entirely avoidable in the transport of hazardous materials. For managing an accident and preventing further hazards after release of dangerous substances, the vehicle drivers must carry with them the accident management instruction sheets, which give instructions on immediate counter measures to be taken by the driver, and on information to be given to the police and the fire brigades. The article in hand discusses the purpose, the contents, and practice-based improvement of this collection of instruction sheets. Particular reference is given to the newly revised version of June 15, 1988 (Verkehrsblatt 1/88) of the 'Directives for setting up accident management instruction sheets - written instructions - for road transport of hazardous materials', as issued by the Federal Ministry of Transport. (orig./HP) [de

  19. Teaching about teaching and instruction on instruction: a challenge for health sciences library education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detlefsen, Ellen Gay

    2012-10-01

    This is a review of the master's-level curricula of the fifty-eight America Library Association-accredited library and information science programs and iSchools for evidence of coursework and content related to library instruction. Special emphasis is placed on the schools and programs that also offer coursework in medical or health sciences librarianship. Fifty-eight school and program websites were reviewed. Course titles and course descriptions for seventy-three separate classes were analyzed. Twenty-three syllabi were examined. All North American library education programs offer at least one course in the general area of library instruction; some programs offer multiple courses. No courses on instruction, however, are focused directly on the specialized area of health sciences librarianship. Master's degree students can take appropriate classes on library instruction, but the medical library profession needs to offer continuing education opportunities for practitioners who want to have specific instruction for the specialized world of the health sciences.

  20. [Chronic gastritis: Instructions for use of medications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simanenkov, V I; Vyalov, S S

    The paper highlights the features of drug use in the legal aspect. It analyzes instructions for medical use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and gastric protective agents. Taking into account the characteristics of indications registered in the instruction, the authors discuss the possibility of using various PPIs. The instruction for medical application is an official document approved by the Ministry of Health, the basis of which is the data of trials carried out by a manufacturer, and it should be a key or fundamental source for a physician in choosing a medication. The use of a drug with no indications given in the manual (the so-called 'off-label' use in foreign practice), is a clinical trial of a sort conducted by a physician individually, by taking upon himself/herself a legal liability. If arguments break out over the correct choice of this or that drug in treating the specific patient, the instruction containing the indications for use of specific medications to treat a specific disease is one of the proofs that the physician has correctly chosen the drug or a criterion for skilled medical care. The inclusion of chronic gastritis as a primary and only diagnosis into the primary documentation substantially limits the possibilities of using PPIs. When a PPI is indicated for therapy of erosive gastritis, a formal rationale is contained only in the instruction for use of Controloc. There are no registered indications for PPI use to treat chronic non-erosive gastritis; the gastric protective agent Rebagit is indicated.

  1. Situation and person attributions under spontaneous and intentional instructions: an fMRI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kestemont, Jenny; Vandekerckhove, Marie; Ma, Ning; Van Hoeck, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) research explores how observers make causal beliefs about an event in terms of the person or situation. Thirty-four participants read various short descriptions of social events that implied either the person or the situation as the cause. Half of them were explicitly instructed to judge whether the event was caused by something about the person or the situation (intentional inferences), whereas the other half was instructed simply to read the material carefully (spontaneous inferences). The results showed common activation in areas related to mentalizing, across all types of causes or instructions (posterior superior temporal sulcus, temporo-parietal junction, precuneus). However, the medial prefrontal cortex was activated only under spontaneous instructions, but not under intentional instruction. This suggests a bias toward person attributions (e.g. fundamental attribution bias). Complementary to this, intentional situation attributions activated a stronger and more extended network compared to intentional person attributions, suggesting that situation attributions require more controlled, extended and broader processing of the information. PMID:22345370

  2. A grounded theory study on the role of differentiated instruction in effective middle school science teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brian Kirby

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to develop a model explaining the role of differentiated instruction (DI) in effective middle school science teaching. The study examined the best teaching practices and differentiated elements from eight general education middle school science teachers, all scoring at the highest level of a teaching effectiveness measure on their evaluations, through a collection of observational, interview, survey, and teaching artifact data. The data were analyzed through the methodology of a systematic grounded theory qualitative approach using open, axial, and selective coding to develop a model describing how and to what degree effective middle school science teachers differentiated their best teaching practices. The model that emerged from the data shows instruction as a four-phase process and highlights the major elements of best practices and DI represented at each phase. The model also depicts how teachers narrowed the scope of their differentiating strategies as instruction progressed. The participants incorporated DI into their pedagogies, though in different degrees at each phase, and primarily by using variety to present concepts with multiple types of instruction followed by a series of sense-making activities related to several learning modalities. Teachers scaffolded students carefully, using informal and formal assessment data to inform future instructional decisions and especially their plans to reteach or extend on a concept. The model is intended to provide insight into the value of DI for middle school science teaching.

  3. Situation and person attributions under spontaneous and intentional instructions: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kestemont, Jenny; Vandekerckhove, Marie; Ma, Ning; Van Hoeck, Nicole; Van Overwalle, Frank

    2013-06-01

    This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) research explores how observers make causal beliefs about an event in terms of the person or situation. Thirty-four participants read various short descriptions of social events that implied either the person or the situation as the cause. Half of them were explicitly instructed to judge whether the event was caused by something about the person or the situation (intentional inferences), whereas the other half was instructed simply to read the material carefully (spontaneous inferences). The results showed common activation in areas related to mentalizing, across all types of causes or instructions (posterior superior temporal sulcus, temporo-parietal junction, precuneus). However, the medial prefrontal cortex was activated only under spontaneous instructions, but not under intentional instruction. This suggests a bias toward person attributions (e.g. fundamental attribution bias). Complementary to this, intentional situation attributions activated a stronger and more extended network compared to intentional person attributions, suggesting that situation attributions require more controlled, extended and broader processing of the information.

  4. Make Better Food Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    10 tips Nutrition Education Series make better food choices 10 tips for women’s health Fruits Grains Dairy Vegetables Protein Make yourself a priority and take time to care for yourself. ChooseMyPlate. gov ...

  5. Categorization = Decision Making + Generalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seger, Carol A; Peterson, Erik J.

    2013-01-01

    We rarely, if ever, repeatedly encounter exactly the same situation. This makes generalization crucial for real world decision making. We argue that categorization, the study of generalizable representations, is a type of decision making, and that categorization learning research would benefit from approaches developed to study the neuroscience of decision making. Similarly, methods developed to examine generalization and learning within the field of categorization may enhance decision making research. We first discuss perceptual information processing and integration, with an emphasis on accumulator models. We then examine learning the value of different decision making choices via experience, emphasizing reinforcement learning modeling approaches. Next we discuss how value is combined with other factors in decision making, emphasizing the effects of uncertainty. Finally, we describe how a final decision is selected via thresholding processes implemented by the basal ganglia and related regions. We also consider how memory related functions in the hippocampus may be integrated with decision making mechanisms and contribute to categorization. PMID:23548891

  6. Goals and plans in decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David H. Krantz

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose a constructed-choice model for general decision making. The model departs from utility theory and prospect theory in its treatment of multiple goals and it suggests several different ways in which context can affect choice. It is particularly instructive to apply this model to protective decisions, which are often puzzling. Among other anomalies, people insure against non-catastrophic events, underinsure against catastrophic risks, and allow extraneous factors to influence insurance purchases and other protective decisions. Neither expected-utility theory nor prospect theory can explain these anomalies satisfactorily. To apply this model to the above anomalies, we consider many different insurance-related goals, organized in a taxonomy, and we consider the effects of context on goals, resources, plans and decision rules. The paper concludes by suggesting some prescriptions for improving individual decision making with respect to protective measures.

  7. Mathematical knowledge for teaching: Making the tacit more explicit in mathematics teacher education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Mohd Faizal Nizam Lee; Vimalanandan, Lena

    2017-05-01

    Teaching practice during school based experiences, afford an opportunity for pre service teachers to put into practice their knowledge for teaching mathematics. Like all knowledge, Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching (MKT) is held in both tacit and explicit form, making it especially difficult to study and map during instruction. This study investigates the tacit and explicit nature of MKT held by pre service teachers in a Malaysian Teacher Education Program and how it impacts the Mathematical Quality of their instruction (MQI). This study of three mathematics pre-service teachers (PSTs), utilised videos of mathematics lessons, reflective debriefs and interviews. The findings suggest that factors such as reflecting, peer-sharing, conferencing with mentors and observing support in making tacit knowledge more explicit during planning and instruction. Implications for preparation of mathematics teachers capable of high Mathematical Quality of Instruction are also discussed.

  8. Teachers' Grading Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isnawati, Ida; Saukah, Ali

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated teachers' grading decision making, focusing on their beliefs underlying their grading decision making, their grading practices and assessment types, and factors they considered in grading decision making. Two teachers from two junior high schools applying different curriculum policies in grade reporting in Indonesian…

  9. I: Making Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Malke; Johnson, Marquetta; Plemons, Anna; Makol, Suzanne; Zanskas, Meghan; Dzula, Mark; Mahoney, Meg Robson

    2014-01-01

    Writing about the teaching artist practice should mean writing about art making. As both teacher and artist, the authors are required to be cognizant of their own art-making processes, both how it works and why it is important to them, in order to make this process visible to their students. They also need the same skills to write about how and…

  10. Elements of Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Shelly; Harron, Jason; Fletcher, Steven; Spock, Hannah

    2018-01-01

    While there is no official definition, making is generally thought of as turning ideas into products through design, invention, and building. Support is growing for integrating making into science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education. Making can help high school students explore science concepts and phenomena, yet, lacking…

  11. OER Usage by Instructional Designers and Training Managers in Corporations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anat Cohen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the development of Open Educational Resources (OERs, different models regarding the usage of these resources in education have appeared in the literature. Wiley’s 4-Rs model is considered to be one of the leading models. Research based on Wiley’s model shows that using materials without making changes is the most common use. Compared to the extensive literature regarding OER usage in education, the literature barely deals with OER usage by instructional designers or training managers in corporations. The purpose of this research is to examine the OER usage of these two stakeholders, distinguishing between Little and Big OER repositories, in which Little OER repositories such as YouTube and Wikipedia aren’t necessarily designed to fulfill educational purposes. Findings show that these stakeholders almost use only Little repositories and that their usage level is higher than what is documented in the literature: they mostly Revise–modify the form of the resource, and Remix–combine different resources to create new ones. These differences can be explained by the fact that materials from Little OER repositories are raw materials, requiring further editing and adjustment. Significant differences between instructional designers’ and training managers’ usage of OERs were found regarding the Reuse level of resources from internal repositories and the Google Images repository, and the frequency of this Reuse.

  12. Student Motivation And Instructional Strategies In English Learning In Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Mustapha Bin Danquah

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Motivation has been referred to as the single most important ingredient of learning Wieman 2013. However it does not come by chance application of appropriate instructional strategies are necessary. The present study conducted in-depth inquiry into the relevance of student motivation and its relationship with higher achievement in L2 learning. Descriptive research design was adopted for the study. Using stratified sampling technique 60 students were sampled from three public schools in Kumasi Metropolis. Also by means of purposive sampling six English teachers were selected in the three schools as participants. Set of questionnaires were the instrument for the study and analysis involved simple frequencies percentages tables and Pearsons Correlation Coefficient r. The study revealed that students can be motivated by simplicity clarity practical and insightful analogies making lessons lively and interesting and most importantly generous use of TLMs. Positive relationship also existed between students motivation and the use of effective instructional strategies with the attendant proficiency in English. Unequivocally student motivation is pivotal to facilitating proficiency in English a key to riding the crest of globalization and technology.

  13. Processing Instruction: A review of issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhlisin Rasuki

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a critical review of Processing Instruction (PI. This type of instructional option was specifically designed to help second/foreign language (L2 learners grasp meaning manifested in the use of particular grammatical forms in a target language effectively through the provision of input. In this way, PI attempts to help learners develop grammatical competence in a target language in ways that foster their comprehension and production skills. The paper starts with outlining main characteristics of PI which distinguish it from other types of L2 grammar instruction. Then, a large body of research attempting to investigate the relative efficacy of PI is scrutinized. The paper concludes with a number of important issues that future studies on PI need to address.

  14. Ethics instruction in the dental hygiene curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacerik, Mark G; Prajer, Renee G; Conrad, Cynthia

    2006-01-01

    Dental hygiene ethics is an essential component of the dental hygiene curriculum. The accreditation standards for dental hygiene education state that graduates must be competent in applying ethical concepts to the provision and/or support of oral health care services. Although the standards for entry into the profession of dental hygiene emphasize the importance of ethical reasoning, there is little published research specific to ethics instruction in dental hygiene programs. The purpose of this study was to assess how ethics is taught in the dental hygiene curriculum. A 17-item survey was designed and distributed to 261 accredited dental hygiene programs in the United States for a response rate of 56% (N=147). The survey requested that participants provide information on teaching and evaluation methodologies, didactic and clinical hours of instruction, individuals responsible for providing instruction, and the degree of emphasis placed on ethics and integration of ethical reasoning within the dental hygiene curriculum. Results of the survey reflect that dental hygiene programs devote a mean of 20. hours to teaching dental hygiene ethics in the didactic component of the curriculum. With regard to the clinical component of the curriculum, 63% of respondents indicated that 10 or less hours are devoted to ethics instruction. These results show an increase in didactic hours of instruction from previous studies where the mean hours of instruction ranged from 7 to 11.7 hours. Results showed 64% of respondents offered a separate course in ethics; however, 82% of programs surveyed indicated that ethics was incorporated into one or more dental hygiene courses with 98% utilizing dental hygiene faculty to provide instruction. Most programs utilized a variety of instructional methods to teach ethics with the majority employing class discussion and lecture (99% and 97% respectively). The type of institution-technical college, community college, four-year university with a

  15. Instructional games in allied health education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, M A

    1980-08-01

    A theoretical framework and practical suggestions for incorporating games and simulation into allied health instruction are presented. Research findings that support the use of educational simulation/games as a tool for higher cognitive learning are discussed. Examples and step-by-step instructions are given to help allied health educatiors and students write their own simulation games, try them out, evaluate them, and incorporate them into classroom use to stimulate interaction. Advantages of using educational simulation/games in allied health education as well as possible disadvantages of this teaching strategy are discussed. Use of instructional games to enhance teaching effectiveness as measured by student achievement in the allied health fields is emphasized.

  16. The complete book of holograms how they work and how to make them

    CERN Document Server

    Kasper, Joseph Emil

    2001-01-01

    Clear, thorough account, without complicated mathematics, explains the two models of holography - the geometric and the zone plate - and different types of holograms, including transmission, reflection, phase, projection, rainbow, and multiplex. They also show basic setups for making holograms and provide step-by-step instructions so readers can make their own.

  17. Moogle, Google, and Garbage Cans: The Impact of Technology on Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Martin P.

    2005-01-01

    Decision makers are faced daily with making important and pervasive decisions. This is especially significant in higher education, where decisions about academics will have considerable impact on the next generation of leaders. In place of rational decisions about the substance of learning and instruction, academic administrators make incremental…

  18. Focused Science Delivery makes science make sense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachel W. Scheuering; Jamie. Barbour

    2004-01-01

    Science does not exist in a vacuum, but reading scientific publications might make you think it does. Although the policy and management implications of their findings could often touch a much wider audience, many scientists write only for the few people in the world who share their area of expertise. In addition, most scientific publications provide information that...

  19. Making detailed predictions makes (some) predictions worse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Theresa F.

    In this paper, we investigate whether making detailed predictions about an event makes other predictions worse. Across 19 experiments, 10,895 participants, and 415,960 predictions about 724 professional sports games, we find that people who made detailed predictions about sporting events (e.g., how many hits each baseball team would get) made worse predictions about more general outcomes (e.g., which team would win). We rule out that this effect is caused by inattention or fatigue, thinking too hard, or a differential reliance on holistic information about the teams. Instead, we find that thinking about game-relevant details before predicting winning teams causes people to give less weight to predictive information, presumably because predicting details makes information that is relatively useless for predicting the winning team more readily accessible in memory and therefore incorporated into forecasts. Furthermore, we show that this differential use of information can be used to predict what kinds of games will and will not be susceptible to the negative effect of making detailed predictions.

  20. Lexical Complexity of Decision-Making Writing Tasks: Form-focused Guided Strategic Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdavirad, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    The present study is an attempt to investigate the effect of form-focused guided strategic planning on lexical complexity of learners’ performance in writing tasks. The twenty intermediate level participants of the study performed an unplanned and then a planned decision-making task. In the planned task condition, the participants were provided with form-focused guided strategic planning which contained detailed instructions about how to plan, by being instructed to focus on form. The guidanc...

  1. Single-instruction multiple-data execution

    CERN Document Server

    Hughes, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    Having hit power limitations to even more aggressive out-of-order execution in processor cores, many architects in the past decade have turned to single-instruction-multiple-data (SIMD) execution to increase single-threaded performance. SIMD execution, or having a single instruction drive execution of an identical operation on multiple data items, was already well established as a technique to efficiently exploit data parallelism. Furthermore, support for it was already included in many commodity processors. However, in the past decade, SIMD execution has seen a dramatic increase in the set of

  2. Shaping instructional communication competence of preservice teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandyonomanu, D.; Mutiah; Setianingrum, V. M.

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to understand the process of shaping communication competence. Participants were pre-service teachers in the primary school education teacher who conducted teaching program internship program. Observations and interviews found that culture, experience, and education were the components that developed the communication competence within the instructional context. The former two components dominantly shape communication instructional competencies, whereas the latter contributes insignificantly. Education emphasizes on teacher’s pedagogy and professional competences. In the future, educational institutions for pre-service teachers could use this research results to Determine the process of developing communication competence.

  3. Making and Changing Wills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Tilse

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Wills are important social, economic, and legal documents. Yet little is known about current will making practices and intentions. A comprehensive national database on the prevalence of will making in Australia was developed to identify who is or is not most likely to draw up a will and triggers for making and changing wills. A national survey of 2,405 adults aged above 18 years was administered by telephone in August and September 2012. Fifty-nine percent of the Australian adult population has a valid will, and the likelihood of will making increases with age and estate value. Efforts to get organized, especially in combination with life stage and asset changes trigger will making; procrastination, rather than a strong resistance, appears to explain not making a will. Understanding will making is timely in the context of predicted significant intergenerational transfers of wealth, changing demographics, and a renewed emphasis on retirement planning.

  4. Instructional Design for Accelerated Macrocognitive Expertise in the Baseball Workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Fadde

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of accelerating expertise can leave researchers and trainers in human factors, naturalistic decision making, sport science, and expertise studies concerned about seemingly insufficient application of expert performance theories, findings and methods for training macrocognitive aspects of human performance. Video-occlusion methods perfected by sports expertise researchers have great instructional utility, in some cases offering an effective and inexpensive alternative to high-fidelity simulation. A key problem for instructional designers seems to be that expertise research done in laboratory and field settings doesn’t get adequately translated into workplace training. Therefore, this article presents a framework for better linkage of expertise research/training across laboratory, field, and workplace settings. It also uses a case study to trace the development and implementation of a macrocognitive training program in the very challenging workplace of the baseball batters’ box. This training, which was embedded for a full season in a college baseball team, targeted the perceptual-cognitive skill of pitch recognition that allows expert batters to circumvent limitations of human reaction time in order to hit a 90 mile-per-hour slider. While baseball batting has few analogous skills outside of sports, the instructional design principles of the training program developed to improve batting have wider applicability and implications. Its core operational principle, supported by information processing models but challenged by ecological models, decouples the perception-action link for targeted part-task training of the perception component, in much the same way that motor components routinely are isolated to leverage instructional efficiencies. After targeted perceptual training, perception and action were recoupled via transfer-appropriate tasks inspired by in situ research tasks. Using NCAA published statistics as performance measures

  5. Instructional Design for Accelerated Macrocognitive Expertise in the Baseball Workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadde, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    The goal of accelerating expertise can leave researchers and trainers in human factors, naturalistic decision making, sport science, and expertise studies concerned about seemingly insufficient application of expert performance theories, findings and methods for training macrocognitive aspects of human performance. Video-occlusion methods perfected by sports expertise researchers have great instructional utility, in some cases offering an effective and inexpensive alternative to high-fidelity simulation. A key problem for instructional designers seems to be that expertise research done in laboratory and field settings doesn't get adequately translated into workplace training. Therefore, this article presents a framework for better linkage of expertise research/training across laboratory, field, and workplace settings. It also uses a case study to trace the development and implementation of a macrocognitive training program in the very challenging workplace of the baseball batters' box. This training, which was embedded for a full season in a college baseball team, targeted the perceptual-cognitive skill of pitch recognition that allows expert batters to circumvent limitations of human reaction time in order to hit a 90 mile-per-hour slider. While baseball batting has few analogous skills outside of sports, the instructional design principles of the training program developed to improve batting have wider applicability and implications. Its core operational principle, supported by information processing models but challenged by ecological models, decouples the perception-action link for targeted part-task training of the perception component, in much the same way that motor components routinely are isolated to leverage instructional efficiencies. After targeted perceptual training, perception and action were recoupled via transfer-appropriate tasks inspired by in situ research tasks. Using NCAA published statistics as performance measures, the cooperating team

  6. Instructional leaders for all? High school science department heads and instructional leadership across all science disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanborn, Stephen

    Many high school science departments are responding to changes in state standards with respect to both curricular content and instructional practices. In the typical American high school organization, the academic department head is ideally positioned to influence change in the instructional practices of teachers within the department. Even though science department heads are well situated to provide leadership during this period of transition, the literature has not addressed the question of how well science department heads believe they can provide instructional leadership for all of the teachers in their department, whether they are teaching within and outside of the head's own sub-discipline. Nor is it known how science department heads view the role of pedagogical content knowledge in teaching different science disciplines. Using an online survey comprised of 26 objective questions and one open response question, a 54-respondent sample of science department heads provided no strong consensus regarding their beliefs about the role of pedagogical content knowledge in science instruction. However, science department heads expressed a significant difference in their views about their capacity to provide instructional leadership for teachers sharing their science content area compared to teachers instructing other science content areas. Given wide-spread science education reform efforts introduced in response to the Next Generation Science Standards, these findings may serve to provide some direction for determining how to best support the work of science department heads as they strive to provide instructional leadership for the teachers in their departments.

  7. Comparing Two Modes of Instruction in English Passive Structures (Processing and Meaning-Based Output Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Dabiri

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This research compared the effects of two types of instruction: Processing Instruction (PI and Meaning-based Output Instruction (MOI on the interpretation and production of English passive structures.  Ninety EFL intermediate tertiary level female students (PI group= 30, MOI group= 30 and control group = 30 participated in this study. The instruments were a proficiency test, a test to assess English passive structures and two instructional materials (PI and MOI. The data were analyzed by running one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and mixed between-within ANOVA. The study indicated the effectiveness of PI and MOI on English passive structures. PI had considerable enhancement on interpretation tasks all the time. It supported the use of PI rather than the use of traditional instructions in which mechanical components were emphasized. Also, the PI and MOI had long term effects on the interpretation and production of English passive sentences.  This study supported the use of PI and MOI rather than the use of traditional instruction (TI in EFL settings. The implication for particularly classroom teaching is that successful grammar instruction has to related to ultimate learning outcomes. Also, creating communicative tasks to offer opportunities for teaching grammar can lead to long-lasting learning effects.

  8. Telidon Videotex presentation level protocol: Augmented picture description instructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrien, C. D.; Brown, H. G.; Smirle, J. C.; Lum, Y. F.; Kukulka, J. Z.; Kwan, A.

    1982-02-01

    The Telidon Videotex system is a method by which graphic and textual information and transactional services can be accessed from information sources by the general public. In order to transmit information to a Telidon terminal at a minimum bandwidth, and in a manner independent of the type of communications channel, a coding scheme was devised which permits the encoding of a picture into the geometric drawing elements which compose it. These picture description instructions are an alpha geometric coding model and are based on the primitives of POINT, LINE, ARC, RECTANGLE, POLYGON, and INCREMENT. Text is encoded as (ASCII) characters along with a supplementary table of accents and special characters. A mosaic shape table is included for compatibility. A detailed specification of the coding scheme and a description of the principles which make it independent of communications channel and display hardware are provided.

  9. Teaching for physical literacy: Implications to instructional design and PETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Silverman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Physical education teachers play an important role in helping students' development of the motor skills needed to be physically literate individuals. Research suggests that teacher made instructional design decisions can lead to enhanced motor skill learning. After presenting a model of evidence-based research this paper presents information that will help teachers plan and execute lessons designed to improve students' motor skills. Variables that impact motor skill learning in physical education including time, type of practice, content, presentation and organizational strategies, and student skill level are presented and discussed. A brief section on student attitudes, their relation to motor skill learning and to physical literacy is included. Motor skills are needed for physically literate people to enjoy lifelong physical activity. Physical education teachers and the decisions they make contribute to students' learning and whether the goal of physical literacy is met.

  10. Teacher self-efficacy in instruction and in parent involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Gavora

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated self-efficacy of a sample of Slovak primary schoolteachers in two areas: area of instruction and area of parent involvement. Twoinstruments were used: the 16-item Slovak version of Teacher Efficacy Scale ofGibson and Dembo, and ZdUR, a 24-item scale to measure self-efficacy of teacherin parents’ involvement, developed by authors of the present study. The correlation between scores of personal teaching efficacy dimension of TES and ZdUR was 0.58 and between general teaching efficacy of TES and ZdUR was only 0.01. Teachers inthis sample had better scores in all dimensions of ZdUR than those of TES, with theexception of engaging parents in school activities. Scores of four teachers in TES andZdUR were analysed to document the possibility of making the individual profiles ofteacher self-efficacy.

  11. Business making decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Benjamín Franklin Fincowsky

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available People and organizations make better or get wrong as consequence of making decisions. Sometimes making decisions is just a trial and error process. Some others, decisions are good and the results profitable with a few of mistakes, most of the time because it’s considered the experience and the control of a specific field or the good intention of who makes them. Actually, all kinds of decisions bring learning. What is important is the intention, the attitude and the values considered in this process. People from different scenes face many facts and circumstances—almost always out of control—that affect the making decisions process. There is not a unique way to make decisions for all companies in many settings. The person who makes a decision should identify the problem, to solve it later using alternatives and solutions. Even though, follow all the steps it’s not easy as it seems. Looking back the conditions related to the decisions, we can mention the followings: uncertainty, risk and certainty. When people identify circumstances and facts, as well as its effects in a possible situation, they will make decisions with certainty. As long as the information decreases and it becomes ambiguous the risk becomes an important factor in the making decisions process because they are connected to probable objectives (clear or subjective (opinion judgment or intuition. To finish, uncertainty, involves people that make a decision with no or little information about circumstances or criteria with basis

  12. Augmented reality application utility for aviation maintenance work instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourcho, John Bryan

    Current aviation maintenance work instructions do not display information effectively enough to prevent costly errors and safety concerns. Aircraft are complex assemblies of highly interrelated components that confound troubleshooting and can make the maintenance procedure difficult (Drury & Gramopadhye, 2001). The sophisticated nature of aircraft maintenance necessitates a revolutionized training intervention for aviation maintenance technicians (United States General Accounting Office, 2003). Quite simply, the paper based job task cards fall short of offering rapid access to technical data and the system or component visualization necessary for working on complex integrated aircraft systems. Possible solutions to this problem include upgraded standards for paper based task cards and the use of integrated 3D product definition used on various mobile platforms (Ropp, Thomas, Lee, Broyles, Lewin, Andreychek, & Nicol, 2013). Previous studies have shown that incorporation of 3D graphics in work instructions allow the user to more efficiently and accurately interpret maintenance information (Jackson & Batstone, 2008). For aircraft maintenance workers, the use of mobile 3D model-based task cards could make current paper task card standards obsolete with their ability to deliver relevant, synchronized information to and from the hangar. Unlike previous versions of 3D model-based definition task cards and paper task cards, which are currently used in the maintenance industry, 3D model based definition task cards have the potential to be more mobile and accessible. Utilizing augmented reality applications on mobile devices to seamlessly deliver 3D product definition on mobile devices could increase the efficiency, accuracy, and reduce the mental workload for technicians when performing maintenance tasks (Macchiarella, 2004). This proposal will serve as a literary review of the aviation maintenance industry, the spatial ability of maintenance technicians, and benefits of

  13. A comparison of video modeling, text-based instruction, and no instruction for creating multiple baseline graphs in Microsoft Excel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyner, Bryan C; Fienup, Daniel M

    2015-09-01

    Graphing is socially significant for behavior analysts; however, graphing can be difficult to learn. Video modeling (VM) may be a useful instructional method but lacks evidence for effective teaching of computer skills. A between-groups design compared the effects of VM, text-based instruction, and no instruction on graphing performance. Participants who used VM constructed graphs significantly faster and with fewer errors than those who used text-based instruction or no instruction. Implications for instruction are discussed. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  14. Student Ratings of Instruction in Turkish Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nehir Sert

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The end-of-term student evaluations have a twofold purpose: to provide information for administrators to make personnel decisions, and to help instructors to improve the quality of their teaching. The aim of this study is to investigate the ‘utility’ of the Student Ratings of Instruction (SRI. To that end, the concerns of the administrators, instructors and students regarding the use of the SRI in formative and summative evaluations are questioned. This study also investigates possible variables associated with the SRI: 1 what are the differences in ratings among the below-average, average and the above-average students? and 2 what is the correlation between the students’ grades and ratings? The participants of the study consisted of 5 administrators, 17 instructors and 292 students from the faculty of education of a foundation university in Ankara. A triangulation of quantitative and qualitative methods was adopted. In the first phase, causal comparative and correlation research methods were implemented. In the second phase, qualitative data were collected through semi-structured interviews. The results revealed that there was no significant difference in the SRI among the below-average, average and above-average students. The correlation between the student grades and the SRI was significant at a low level. The SRI were reportedly utilised to make teaching more effective and to make decisions when employing part-time personnel only. The permanent personnel were not affected by the SRI. Suggestions have been put forward to verify the usefulness of SRI.

  15. Can verbal instruction enhance the recall of an everyday task and promote error-monitoring in people with dementia of the Alzheimer-type?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balouch, Sara; Rusted, Jennifer M

    2017-03-01

    People with dementia of the Alzheimer-type (DAT) have difficulties with performing everyday tasks, and error awareness is poor. Here we investigate whether recall of actions and error monitoring in everyday task performance improved when they instructed another person on how to make tea. In this situation, both visual and motor cues are present, and attention is sustained by the requirement to keep instructing. The data were drawn from a longitudinal study recording performance in four participants with DAT, filmed regularly for five years in their own homes, completing three tea-making conditions: performed-recall (they made tea themselves); instructed-recall (they instructed the experimenter on how to make tea); and verbal-recall (they described how to make tea). Accomplishment scores (percentage of task they correctly recalled), errors and error-monitoring were coded. Task accomplishment was comparable in the performed-recall and instructed-recall conditions, but both were significantly better than task accomplishment in the verbal-recall condition. Third person instruction did not improve error-monitoring. This study has implications for everyday task rehabilitation for people with DAT.

  16. Flipped Instruction: Breakthroughs in Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    IGI Global, 2017

    2017-01-01

    The integration of technology into modern classrooms has enhanced learning opportunities for students. With increased access to educational content, students gain a better understanding of the concepts being taught. "Flipped Instruction: Breakthroughs in Research and Practice" is a comprehensive reference source for the latest scholarly…

  17. Data Driven Program Planning for GIS Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarletto, Edith

    2013-01-01

    This study used both focus groups (qualitative) and survey data (quantitative) to develop and expand an instruction program for GIS services. It examined the needs and preferences faculty and graduate students have for learning about GIS applications for teaching and research. While faculty preferred in person workshops and graduate students…

  18. Rural Public Transportation: An Instructional Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Linda

    A concept-based introduction to rural public transportation is provided in this instructional module for undergraduate and graduate transportation-related courses for disciplines such as engineering, business, sociology, and technology. Rural public transportation involves systems in rural and small urban areas with populations under 50,000…

  19. Public Transportation Pricing: An Instructional Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWha, Charley

    A concept-based introduction to public transportation pricing is presented in this instructional module for undergraduate and graduate transportation-related courses for disciplines such as engineering, business administration, and technology. After an introductory section on transportation pricing planning and the history of transportation system…

  20. Instructional Television Programmes and Academic Performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated instructional Television (ITV) programmes and Academic performance of Senior Secondary School students in Anambra state-Nigeria. The need for the study arose from the problem of the declining nature of West African school certificate examination results of senior secondary school students in ...

  1. Differentiated instruction: perceptions, practices and challenges of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Differentiated instruction: perceptions, practices and challenges of primary school teachers. ... Different factors like knowledge and experience, commitment and motivation, availability of materials/resources, availability of time, class size, range of diversity in classroom, leadership and parental support and staff collaboration ...

  2. School Leadership Actions to Support Differentiated Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byars, Jennifer Pallon

    2011-01-01

    Schools are required to meet a range of students' learning needs and effective school leadership is needed for the implementation of pedagogical practices responsive to the challenges of increasing student diversity and academic accountability. Literature on differentiated instruction and its constituent elements suggests differentiation results…

  3. Flexible learning and the design of instruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collis, Betty; Nikolova, Iliana

    1998-01-01

    The paper deals with the problem of designing flexible learning and instruction. Flexibility is considered both from the learner's and the designer's perspective. The potential of telematics in the design, development and implementation of flexible and distance learning is discussed. A Method for

  4. Improving the Instruction of Infinite Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindaman, Brian; Gay, A. Susan

    2012-01-01

    Calculus instructors struggle to teach infinite series, and students have difficulty understanding series and related concepts. Four instructional strategies, prominently used during the calculus reform movement, were implemented during a 3-week unit on infinite series in one class of second-semester calculus students. A description of each…

  5. A Virtual Library for Instructional Systems Designers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, James J.

    During the past three years, the role of the instructional systems designer has taken on greater significance for instructors. This is because many faculty members have been asked to put their entire courses online over the World Wide Web. Instructors are now creating a substantial percentage of the online courses with little or no background in…

  6. Developing Instructional Leadership through Collaborative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Claire Johnson; McKnight, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    Collaborative learning teams have emerged as an effective tool for teachers to steadily and continuously improve their instruction. Evidence also suggests that a learning teams model can affect school leadership as well. We explored the impact of learning teams on leadership roles of principals and teachers in secondary schools and found that…

  7. Developing Principal Instructional Leadership through Collaborative Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cone, Mariah Bahar

    2010-01-01

    This study examines what occurs when principals of urban schools meet together to learn and improve their instructional leadership in collaborative principal networks designed to support, sustain, and provide ongoing principal capacity building. Principal leadership is considered second only to teaching in its ability to improve schools, yet few…

  8. Instructed fear stimuli bias visual attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deltomme, Berre; Mertens, G.; Tibboel, Helen; Braem, Senne

    We investigated whether stimuli merely instructed to be fear-relevant can bias visual attention, even when the fear relation was never experienced before. Participants performed a dot-probe task with pictures of naturally fear-relevant (snake or spider) or -irrelevant (bird or butterfly) stimuli.

  9. Instructional Uses of the Lexile Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenner, A. Jackson

    The Lexile Framework provides teachers with tools to help them link the results of reading assessment with subsequent instruction, focuses on appropriate-level curriculum for readers at all educational levels, and is designed to be flexible enough to use alongside any type of reading program. Suggested areas for application of this system include:…

  10. Cognitive Psychology and Instruction. Third Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruning, Roger H.; Schraw, Gregory J.; Ronning, Royce R.

    Like the earlier editions, the current text is directed at educators who are interested in understanding the principles of cognitive psychology and applying them to instruction and curriculum design. The following chapters are included: (1) "Introduction to Cognitive Psychology"; (2) "Sensory, Short-Term, and Working Memory"; (3) "Long-Term…

  11. Instructional Screencast: A Research Conceptual Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Razak, Muhammad Razuan; Mohamad Ali, Ahmad Zamzuri

    2016-01-01

    The literature review indicates that the benefit of screencast as an instructional media has not clearly proved effective for all categories of students. This is due to the individual differences in processing the information. Inadequate screencast design will cause strain to students' cognitive process which might impede learning. This…

  12. Instructional Leadership: A Learning-Centered Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Anita Woolfolk; Hoy, Wayne Kolter

    This book was written with the assumption that teachers and administrators must work as colleagues to improve instruction and learning in schools. It was written to be consistent with the Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium (ISLLC) standards for school administrators, especially Standards 1 and 2, which emphasize a learning-centered…

  13. Use of school gardens in academic instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Heather; Beall, Deborah Lane; Lussier, Mary; McLaughlin, Peggy; Zidenberg-Cherr, Sheri

    2005-01-01

    To determine the status of gardens in California schools. A self-administered Internet and mailed survey was sent to all California principals (N = 9805). 4194 California school principals. School garden practices, attitudes associated with the use of gardens in schools, and perceptions of barriers to having and using school gardens in academic instruction. Descriptive statistics and chi-square; P science, environmental studies, and nutrition. Principals strongly agreed that resources such as curriculum materials linked to academic instruction and lessons on teaching nutrition in the garden would assist in the school garden being used for academic instruction. Principals deemed the garden as being not to slightly effective at enhancing the school meal program. School gardens appear to be predominantly used by most schools to enhance academic instruction. There is a need for curriculum materials and teacher training for gardening and nutrition. The link between the garden and the school meal program is an area that clearly requires attention. School lunch would be a logical setting for provision of edible produce, in addition to taste-testing of fresh produce in the garden or classroom setting.

  14. Orchestrating Semiotic Resources in Explicit Strategy Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Lynn E.; Flury-Kashmanian, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Research and pedagogical information provided to teachers on implementing explicit strategy instruction has primarily focused on teachers' speech, with limited attention to other modes of communication, such as gesture and artefacts. This interpretive case study investigates two teachers' use of different semiotic resources when introducing…

  15. 18 CFR 356.2 - General instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... another with no loss of data. (3) Each oil pipeline company is required to implement internal control... COMPANIES § 356.2 General instructions. (a) Scope of this part. (1) The regulations in this part apply to all books of account and other records prepared by or on behalf of the oil pipeline companies. (2) The...

  16. Regulations and instructions for RA reactor operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This regulatory guide consists of following 4 chapters: Description of the RA reactor, organization scheme, regulations for performing experiments; Regulations for staff on duty; Instructions for operating the vacuum systems, heavy water and helium systems; and evacuation in case of accident [sr

  17. Instructional Media: Comunication Skills. Advisory List.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Media and Technology Services.

    This annotated bibliography of instructional media in communication skills presents annotations of 112 books and videotapes for students in grades from pre-kindergarten through grade 12, and of 38 books and videos for teachers. The material in the bibliography for students consists mostly of poetry collections published in 1990 and 1991. The…

  18. Perceptions of Crop Science Instructional Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, D. M.

    1994-01-01

    A number of crop science instructors have indicated that there is a shortage of quality, current crop/plant science teaching materials, particularly textbooks. A survey instrument was developed to solicit information from teachers about the use and adequacy of textbooks, laboratory manuals, and videotapes in crop/plant science instruction. (LZ)

  19. Care of the Laryngectomee. An Instructional Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tretton-Martinez, Maureen; Moseley, James L.

    This self-instructional model, written for registered nurses, is divided into three sections: (1) anatomy and physiology of the patient before and after laryngectomy; (2) eating and nourishment following the total laryngectomy; and (3) two options for speech following a total laryngectomy--the electrolarynx and esophageal speech. The manual…

  20. Preservice Teacher Application of Differentiated Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dee, Amy Lynn

    2011-01-01

    Successfully implementing the practice of inclusion by differentiating instruction depends on both the skills and attitudes of general education teachers. New general education teachers who are entering the field are particularly vulnerable to the demands and stress of the profession, and teacher education programs must prepare preservice teachers…

  1. Librarians and Instructional Designers: Collaboration and Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshleman, Joe; Moniz, Richard; Mann, Karen; Eshleman, Kristen

    2016-01-01

    With online education options more ubiquitous and sophisticated than ever, the need for academic librarians to be conversant with digital resources and design thinking has become increasingly important. The way forward is through collaboration with instructional designers, which allows librarians to gain a better understanding of digital resource…

  2. Instructional Aids, Materials, and Supplies--Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Development Center, Inc., Newton, MA.

    This resource guide produced for the Follow Through Program, primarily lists instructional aids and supplies; it also suggests practical implications for provisioning the classroom environment, gives specific suggestions for Project Follow Through directors, and lists addresses of suppliers. The materials are divided into nine categories, which…

  3. Broadcast Copywriting and Computer Assisted Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagerman, William L.

    The teaching of broadcast copywriting can be enhanced by computer assisted instruction, especially in screening students' writing for adherence to classic "formulas" or "rules" for broadcast writing. Such rules might include avoiding cliches or not beginning a sentence with a subordinate clause. Other rules the computer can…

  4. Formal education of curriculum and instructional designers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKenney, Susan; Visscher-Voerman, Irene

    2013-01-01

    In practice, few researchers and designers have strong conceptual understanding of the marriage between the design discipline and scientific research traditions. Rather, most have strong exposure to either research methodologies or instructional design methods, theories and/or practices. Within the

  5. Teaching Machines and Programmed Instruction; an Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Edward B.

    Teaching machines and programed instruction represent new methods in education, but they are based on teaching principles established before the development of media technology. Today programed learning materials based on the new technology enjoy increasing popularity for several reasons: they apply sound psychological theories; the materials can…

  6. Organic Chemistry Self Instructional Package 2: Methane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdravkovich, V.

    This booklet, one of a series of 17 developed at Prince George's Community College, Largo, Maryland, provides an individualized, self-paced undergraduate organic chemistry instruction module designed to augment any course in organic chemistry but particularly those taught using the text "Organic Chemistry" by Morrison and Boyd. The…

  7. Exploring Flipped Classroom Instruction in Calculus III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Nicholas H.; Quint, Christa; Norris, Scott A.; Carr, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    In an undergraduate Calculus III class, we explore the effect of "flipping" the instructional delivery of content on both student performance and student perceptions. Two instructors collaborated to determine daily lecture notes, assigned the same homework problems, and gave identical exams; however, compared to a more traditional…

  8. Grouping Pupils for Language Arts Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow

    A major task involved in teaching pupils is to group them wisely for instruction. Most elementary schools group learners in terms of a self-contained classroom. While it may seem extreme, all curriculum areas on each grade in the elementary school may be departmentalized. In some ways, departmentalization harmonizes more with a separate subjects…

  9. Writing Poetry: A Self-Instructional Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utah Univ., Salt Lake City. Bureau of Educational Research.

    The general design of this book is that of a step-by-step self-instructional program leading toward the writing of poetry. It consists of 156 exercises which lead the student from writing about a picture and poems to kinds of poetry and techniques for writing poetry (alliteration, assonance, consonance, onomatopoeia, metaphor, simile, rhyme, meter…

  10. Generate an Argument: An Instructional Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Victor; Grooms, Jonathon

    2010-01-01

    The Generate an Argument instructional model was designed to engage students in scientific argumentation. By using this model, students develop complex reasoning and critical-thinking skills, understand the nature and development of scientific knowledge, and improve their communication skills (Duschl and Osborne 2002). This article describes the…

  11. 7 CFR 900.310 - Supplementary instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Conduct of Referenda To Determine Producer Approval of Milk Marketing Orders To Be Made Effective Pursuant to Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as Amended § 900.310 Supplementary instructions. The... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing...

  12. Interaction and Instructed Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewen, Shawn; Sato, Masatoshi

    2018-01-01

    Interaction is an indispensable component in second language acquisition (SLA). This review surveys the instructed SLA research, both classroom and laboratory-based, that has been conducted primarily within the interactionist approach, beginning with the core constructs of interaction, namely input, negotiation for meaning, and output. The review…

  13. Promising Instructional Practices for English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Johanna

    2018-01-01

    Aim/Purpose: The purpose of this exploratory case study was to understand how teachers, working with English Language Learners (ELLs), expanded their knowledge and instructional practices as they implemented a one-to-one iPad® program. Background: English Language Learners experience linguistic, cultural, and cognitive shifts that can be…

  14. Instructive for radioactive solid waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora Rodriguez, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    An instructive is established for the management system of radioactive solid residues waste of the Universidad de Costa Rica, ensuring the collection, segregation, storage and disposal of waste. The radioactive solid waste have been segregated and transferred according to features and provisions of the Universidad de Costa Rica and CICANUM [es

  15. Health Instruction Packages: Consumer--Behavior/Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Vincent; And Others

    Text, illustrations, and exercises are utilized in this set of three learning modules to instruct the general public in methods of exploring human psychology and personal interrelationships. The first module, "The Basic Idea behind Rational-Emotive Therapy" by Vincent Larkin, distinguishes between rational and irrational fears and…

  16. Organic Chemistry Self Instructional Package 12: Alkynes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdravkovich, V.

    This booklet, one of a series of 17 developed at Prince George's Community College, Largo, Maryland, provides an individualized, self-paced undergraduate organic chemistry instruction module designed to augment any course in organic chemistry but particularly those taught using the text "Organic Chemistry" by Morrison and Boyd. The…

  17. General Systems Theory and Instructional Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, David F.

    The use of general systems theory in the field of instructional systems design (ISD) is explored in this paper. Drawing on work by Young, the writings of 12 representative ISD writers and researchers were surveyed to determine the use of 60 general systems theory concepts by the individual authors. The average number of concepts used by these…

  18. General Systems Theory and Instructional Systems Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, David F.

    1990-01-01

    Describes basic concepts in the field of general systems theory (GST) and identifies commonalities that exist between GST and instructional systems design (ISD). Models and diagrams that depict system elements in ISD are presented, and two matrices that show how GST has been used in ISD literature are included. (11 references) (LRW)

  19. RelaisILL instructions in English

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Julie Cassone

    OOID. Access from research databases (IDRC Discovery Service). OR. Access via Google Scholar*. ➢ Once you have clicked on the link, the Patron Login screen appears. * See instructions on how to add « IDRC Full Text » in Google Scholar at ...

  20. Identifying Interdisciplinary Research Collaboration in Instructional Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yonjoo

    2017-01-01

    Interdisciplinarity is defined as communication and collaboration across academic disciplines. The instructional technology (IT) field has claimed to have an interdisciplinary nature influenced by neighboring fields such as psychology, communication, and management. However, it has been difficult to find outstanding evidence of the field's…