WorldWideScience

Sample records for making fake sludge

  1. Fake It Until You Make It

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattsson, Jan; Standing, Craig

    2016-01-01

    have difficulty explaining their business model components we identified that critical features in our simplicity framework include three main modules, transaction/matching, marketing and back-office components, and simplicity in terms of value proposition, conceptualization approach and usability....... This research proposes that a parsimonious view of digital business models, aligned with the lean start-up idea, makes sense for theory development and in terms of usefulness for entrepreneurs....

  2. Fake it until you make it? The consequences of misinformation for democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyriakidou, Maria; Kaun, Anne; Uldam, Julie

    2017-01-01

    The concept of “fake news” has gained traction, in particular over the last year and because of the US Presidential elections. The latest revelations connected to the win of Donald Trump highlight the crucial implications of the deliberate spreading of misleading information for democratic conduct....... Trump himself notoriously uses the label to attack the media that criticise him....

  3. Fake News

    OpenAIRE

    Grunewald, Andreas; Kräkel, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    In the last decade, social media and the Internet have amplified the possibility to spread false information, a.k.a. fake news, which has become a serious threat to the credibility of politicians, organizations, and other decision makers. This paper proposes a framework for investigating the incentives to strategically spread fake news under different institutional configurations and payoff structures. In particular, we show under what conditions institutions that foster transparency in the m...

  4. FAKE NEWS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent Fella; Vestergaard, Mads

    Politik og medier oversvømmes af fordrejninger, fortielser, forglemmelser og forvanskninger af sandheden. Vi invaderes af populistiske fortællinger, “alternative kendsgerninger” og “fake news”. Det er nu et faktum, at misinformation er noget man aktivt må forholde sig til som politiker, som...... for virkelige udfordringer, vi står over for. FAKE NEWS giver et første sammenhængende billede af hvordan opmærksomhedsøkonomien kan ende i det postfaktuelle demokrati: Eventyrlige fortællinger erstatter kendsgerninger som grundlag for politisk meningsdannelse, debat og lovgivning. Et monster, som de færreste...

  5. Fake News

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederiksen, Linda

    2017-01-01

    In a politically and digitally polarized environment, identifying and evaluating fake news is more difficult than ever before. Librarians who have been teaching information and media literacy skills for decades understand the role we can and must play in this environment.

  6. Fake it till you make it: Policymaking and assisted human reproduction in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylis, Françoise; Downie, Jocelyn; Snow, Dave

    2014-06-01

    The Assisted Human Reproduction Act (AHR Act) came into effect in 2004. The AHR Act stipulates in s.12 that no reimbursement of expenditures incurred in the course of donating gametes, maintaining or transporting in vitro embryos, or providing surrogacy services is permitted, except in accordance with the regulations and with receipts. Ten years later, Health Canada still has not drafted the regulations governing reimbursement. Section 12 is therefore still not in force. Health Canada and others have asserted that there is a Health Canada policy on reimbursement and that reimbursement with receipts is legally permissible. We dispute the existence of such a policy and its legitimacy (if it exists). We also challenge the decision by Health Canada not to produce regulations and thereby make it possible for Parliament to bring s.12 into force. This intentional lack of action is worrisome on at least two fronts. First, it sidesteps the processes required for regulations and thereby ducks the Parliamentary oversight very deliberately built into the AHR Act. Second, it leaves Canadians who provide and who access assisted human reproduction uncertain about what is and is not permitted, and therefore fearful of, or at risk of, prosecution. We conclude that Health Canada should take the steps necessary to put regulations in front of Parliament so that Parliament will then be able to pass regulations and bring s.12 into force. Canadians should demand no less.

  7. Misinformation with fake news

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. BOTEI

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The last presidential elections in the United States of America (2016 have brought to the international public opinion’ s attention the phenomenon of “fake news”. Though it isn’t a new phenomenon, the spread of fake information for manipulating and misinforming the masses has existed in all historical periods. This time the phenomenon was noticed because of the number of fake news and, especially because of their impact, starting the discussion whether the victory of Donald Trump happened because of fake news and raising the question whether this phenomenon is a danger to democracy. An important reaction came also from the part of technology companies, of tech giants, Google and Facebook especially, which want the implementation of the phenomenon. Misinformation with public speech under the form of fake news brings to discussion the responsibility in the online space, but also the protection of people against this phenomenon.

  8. [Fake malaria drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bygbjerg, Ib Christian

    2009-03-02

    The literature on fake medicaments is sparse, even if approximately 15% of all medicaments are fake, a figure that for antimalarials in particular reaches 50% in parts of Africa and Asia. Sub-standard and fake medicines deplete the public's confidence in health systems, health professionals and in the pharmaceutical industry - and increase the risk that resistance develops. For a traveller coming from a rich Western country, choosing to buy e.g. preventive antimalarials over the internet or in poor malaria-endemic areas, the consequences may be fatal. International trade-, control- and police-collaboration is needed to manage the problem, as is the fight against poverty and poor governance.

  9. Comments on fake supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Dorronsoro, Juan; Truijen, Brecht; Van Riet, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Flat domain walls and spherical black holes are solutions to coupled second-order ODE’s of the Hamiltonian form. Hamilton–Jacobi theory then implies that first-order flow equations always exist (possibly up to isolated submanifolds). If the first-order equations factorise in a specific way, they take a form that has been named fake supersymmetry. We point out that this factorisation is always possible at zero temperature. We therefore propose a less generic definition of fake supersymmetry, which involves the boundary conditions in a non-trivial way, and we analyse its physical relevance. For instance, attractor flows are necessarily fake supersymmetric in our restricted sense. To illustrate the definition we provide new analytic solutions for axion-dilaton domain walls with fake superpotentials that were argued not to exist. (paper)

  10. A Fake Follower Story: improving fake accounts detection on Twitter

    OpenAIRE

    Di Pietro, Roberto; Petrocchi, Marinella; Spognardi, Angelo; Tesconi, Maurizio; Cresci, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Fake followers are those Twitter accounts created to inflate the number of followers of a target account. Fake followers are dangerous to the social platform and beyond, since they may alter concepts like popularity and influence in the Twittersphere-hence impacting on economy, politics, and Society. In this paper, we contribute along different dimensions. First, we review some of the most relevant existing features and rules (proposed by Academia and Media) for anomalous Twitter accounts det...

  11. Automatic Detection of Fake News

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Rosas, Verónica; Kleinberg, Bennett; Lefevre, Alexandra; Mihalcea, Rada

    2017-01-01

    The proliferation of misleading information in everyday access media outlets such as social media feeds, news blogs, and online newspapers have made it challenging to identify trustworthy news sources, thus increasing the need for computational tools able to provide insights into the reliability of online content. In this paper, we focus on the automatic identification of fake content in online news. Our contribution is twofold. First, we introduce two novel datasets for the task of fake news...

  12. RELATIONS BETWEEN BIG FIVE PERSONALITIES, MOTIVATION TO FAKE, AND APPLICANT FAKING BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Prasmara

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The action of faking is often done by applicants in the process of recruitment and selection of new employees with the purpose to impress an employer. The aim of this study is to integrate the big five personalities, faking motivation, and faking behavior. That is, the personality dimensions of applicants based may be the source of faking motivation, in turn, faking behavior. The data were gathered by questionnaires done toward 200 applicants. Data analysis was conducted using a Structural Equation Modelling (SEM in the AMOS 22. Results showed that in the five major categories of personalities, there was a dimension that was not significantly related to motivation to fake, i.e., neuroticism, while openness and extraversion positively influenced motivation to fake. The other dimensions, conscientiousness and agreeableness, showed negative effects on motivation to fake. Finally, motivation to fake showed a positive effect on applicants’ faking behavior.

  13. #FakeNobelDelayReasons

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Tuesday’s hour-long delay of the Nobel Prize in Physics announcement was (and still is) quite the cause for speculation. But on the Twittersphere, it was simply the catalyst for some fantastic puns, so-bad-they're-good physics jokes and other shenanigans. Here are some of our favourite #FakeNobelDelayReasons.    

  14. Recycling by the brick making industry of ashes from sewage sludge incineration; Verwertung von Aschen der Klaerschlammverbrennung in der Ziegelindustrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiebusch, B.; Seyfried, C.F. [Hannover Univ. (Germany). ISAH Inst. fuer Siedlungswasserwirtschaft und Abfalltechnik

    1998-09-01

    The present project focuses on the recycling of sewage sludge ashes by the brick making industry. The following aspects are dealt with in detail: Overview of the state of the art of sewage sludge combustion in Germany; influence of wastewater and sludge treatment on ash quality (determination of the seasonal course of chemical sewage sludge composition); use of sewage sludge ashes in as loading material in fluidised-bed furnaces or as clay substitute in brick manufacture; semi-technical trials in ceramic laboratories; assessment of the environmental impact of bricks containing sewage sludge ash; performance of leaching experiments; and examination of the mineralogical binding of heavy metals into the ceramic matrix. [Deutsch] Das Projekt konzentriert sich dabei auf eine Verwertung von Klaerschlammaschen in der Ziegelindustrie, wobei die im folgenden genannten Aspekte im Einzelnen bearbeitet werden: - Ueberblick ueber den Stand der Technik bei der Klaerschlammverbrennung in Deutschland - Einfluss der Abwasser- und Schlammbehandlung auf die Aschequalitaet (Ermittlung von Jahresganglinien der chemischen Zusammensetzung von Klaerschlammaschen) - Einsatz von Klaerschlammaschen aus Wirbelschichtoefen als Zuschlagstoff bzw. Tonersatz bei der Ziegelproduktion - halbtechnische Versuche im keramischen Labor - Abschaetzung der Umweltvertraeglichkeit von Ziegeln mit Klaerschlammaschezusatz: Durchfuehrung von Auslangversuchen, Untersuchung einer mineralogischen Einbindung von Schwermetallen in die keramische Matrix. (orig./SR)

  15. To Fake or Not to Fake: Antecedents to Interview Faking, Warning Instructions, and Its Impact on Applicant Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Stephanie J.; Bourdage, Joshua; O’Neill, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the antecedents and processes that impact job interviewees’ decisions to engage in deceptive impression management (i.e., interview faking). Willingness and capacity to engage in faking were found to be the processes underlying the decision to use deceptive impression management in the interview. We also examined a personality antecedent to this behavior, Honesty-Humility, which was negatively related to the use of deceptive impression management through increased willingness to engage in these behaviors. We also tested a possible intervention to reduce IM. In particular, we found that warnings against faking – specifically, an identification warning - reduced both the perceived capacity to engage in interview faking, and subsequent use of several faking behaviors. Moreover, this warning reduced faking without adversely impacting applicant reactions. PMID:27895609

  16. An investigation of fake fingerprint detection approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Asraful Syifaa'; Hassan, Rohayanti; Othman, Razib M.

    2017-10-01

    The most reliable biometrics technology, fingerprint recognition is widely used in terms of security due to its permanence and uniqueness. However, it is also vulnerable to the certain type of attacks including presenting fake fingerprints to the sensor which requires the development of new and efficient protection measures. Particularly, the aim is to identify the most recent literature related to the fake fingerprint recognition and only focus on software-based approaches. A systematic review is performed by analyzing 146 primary studies from the gross collection of 34 research papers to determine the taxonomy, approaches, online public databases, and limitations of the fake fingerprint. Fourteen software-based approaches have been briefly described, four limitations of fake fingerprint image were revealed and two known fake fingerprint databases were addressed briefly in this review. Therefore this work provides an overview of an insight into the current understanding of fake fingerprint recognition besides identifying future research possibilities.

  17. Are Sex Effects on Ethical Decision-Making Fake or Real? A Meta-Analysis on the Contaminating Role of Social Desirability Response Bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianfeng; Ming, Xiaodong; Wang, Zhen; Adams, Susan M

    2017-02-01

    A meta-analysis of 143 studies was conducted to explore how the social desirability response bias may influence sex effects on ratings on measures of ethical decision-making. Women rated themselves as more ethical than did men; however, this sex effect on ethical decision-making was no longer significant when social desirability response bias was controlled. The indirect questioning approach was compared with the direct measurement approach for effectiveness in controlling social desirability response bias. The indirect questioning approach was found to be more effective.

  18. FSFE: Fake Spectra Flux Extractor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Simeon

    2017-10-01

    The fake spectra flux extractor generates simulated quasar absorption spectra from a particle or adaptive mesh-based hydrodynamic simulation. It is implemented as a python module. It can produce both hydrogen and metal line spectra, if the simulation includes metals. The cloudy table for metal ionization fractions is included. Unlike earlier spectral generation codes, it produces absorption from each particle close to the sight-line individually, rather than first producing an average density in each spectral pixel, thus substantially preserving more of the small-scale velocity structure of the gas. The code supports both Gadget (ascl:0003.001) and AREPO.

  19. How to Spot Fake News?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çev.: Fatih Canata

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Critical thinking is a key skill in media and information literacy, and the mission of libraries is to educate and advocate its importance. Discussions about fake news has led to a new focus on media literacy more broadly, and the role of libraries and other education institutions in providing this. When Oxford Dictionaries announce post-truth is Word of the Year 2016, as librarians realise action is needed to educate and advocate for critical thinking – a crucial skill when navigating the information society, an infographic with eight simple steps have been prepared by IFLA to discover the verifiability of a given news-piece in front of you.

  20. Fingerprint fake detection by optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, Sven; Breithaupt, Ralph; Koch, Edmund

    2013-03-01

    The most established technique for the identification at biometric access control systems is the human fingerprint. While every human fingerprint is unique, fingerprints can be faked very easily by using thin layer fakes. Because commercial fingerprint scanners use only a two-dimensional image acquisition of the finger surface, they can only hardly differentiate between real fingerprints and fingerprint fakes applied on thin layer materials. A Swept Source OCT system with an A-line rate of 20 kHz and a lateral and axial resolution of approximately 13 μm, a centre wavelength of 1320 nm and a band width of 120 nm (FWHM) was used to acquire fingerprints and finger tips with overlying fakes. Three-dimensional volume stacks with dimensions of 4.5 mm x 4 mm x 2 mm were acquired. The layering arrangement of the imaged finger tips and faked finger tips was analyzed and subsequently classified into real and faked fingerprints. Additionally, sweat gland ducts were detected and consulted for the classification. The manual classification between real fingerprints and faked fingerprints results in almost 100 % correctness. The outer as well as the internal fingerprint can be recognized in all real human fingers, whereby this was not possible in the image stacks of the faked fingerprints. Furthermore, in all image stacks of real human fingers the sweat gland ducts were detected. The number of sweat gland ducts differs between the test persons. The typical helix shape of the ducts was observed. In contrast, in images of faked fingerprints we observe abnormal layer arrangements and no sweat gland ducts connecting the papillae of the outer fingerprint and the internal fingerprint. We demonstrated that OCT is a very useful tool to enhance the performance of biometric control systems concerning attacks by thin layer fingerprint fakes.

  1. Related Fact Checks: a tool for combating fake news

    OpenAIRE

    Guha, Sreya

    2017-01-01

    The emergence of "Fake News" and misinformation via online news and social media has spurred an interest in computational tools to combat this phenomenon. In this paper we present a new "Related Fact Checks" service, which can help a reader critically evaluate an article and make a judgment on its veracity by bringing up fact checks that are relevant to the article. We describe the core technical problems that need to be solved in building a "Related Fact Checks" service, and present results ...

  2. The big five factors and faking behaviors in employment interviews

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Phuong Thi Bang; Thomassen, Malene

    2017-01-01

    Masteroppgave(MSc) in Master of Science in Leadership and Organizational Psychology - Handelshøyskolen BI, 2017 Research shows how it is not unusual for job applicants to fake during employment interviews. Faking can deteriorate the quality of the interview result, and lead to wrong hiring decisions. According to the model of faking likelihood in the employment interview, capability, willingness and opportunity to fake influence the extent to which faking happens in employment ...

  3. Identification and rejection of fake reconstructed jets from a fluctuating heavy ion background in ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau, N.

    2009-01-01

    Full jet reconstruction in relativistic heavy ion collisions provides new and unique insights to the physics of parton energy loss. Because of the large underlying event multiplicity in A+A collisions, random and correlated fluctuations in the background can result in the reconstruction of fake jets. These fake jets must be identified and rejected to obtain the purest jet sample possible. A large but reducible fake rate of jets reconstructed using an iterative cone algorithm on HIJING events is observed. The absolute rate of fake jets exceeds the binary-scaled p+p jet rate below 50 GeV and is not negligible until 100 GeV. The variable Σj T , the sum of the jet constituent's E T perpendicular to the jet axis, is introduced to identify and reject fake jets at by a factor of 100 making it negligible. This variable is shown to not strongly depend on jet energy profiles modified by energy loss. By studying azimuthal correlations of reconstructed di-jets, the fake jet rate can be evaluated in data. (orig.)

  4. Fake and Counterfeit Drug: A review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    intent to deceptively represent its origin authenticity or effectiveness. A counterfeit drug ... version of medication. The business of fake drugs is a lucrative crime that is .... management of target or most vulnerable groups of patients with high risk ...

  5. Selection of hydrothermal pre-treatment conditions of waste sludge destruction using multicriteria decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shiekh Khalil, Wael; Shanableh, Abdullah; Rigby, Portia; Kokot, Serge

    2005-04-01

    The effectiveness of hydrothermal treatment for the destruction of the organic content of sludge waste was investigated. The sludge sampled in this study contained approximately 2% solids. The experimental program consisted of hydrothermal treatment experiments conducted in a batch reactor at temperatures between 100 and 250 degrees C, with the addition of an oxidant (hydrogen peroxide) in the range of 0-150% with reference to TCOD, and reaction times of up to 60 min. The results suggested that the availability of oxidant, reaction temperature and reaction time were the determining factors for COD removal. A significant fraction of the COD remaining after treatment consisted of the dissolved COD. The results confirmed that hydrothermal treatment proceeds through hydrolysis resulting in the production of dissolved organic products followed by COD removal through oxidation. Two MCDM chemometrics methods, PROMETHEE and GAIA, were applied to process the large data matrix so as to facilitate the selection of the most suitable hydrothermal conditions for sludge destruction. Two possible scenarios were produced from this analysis-one depended on the use of high temperatures and no oxidant, while the second offered a choice of compromise solutions at lower temperatures but with the use of at least some oxidant. Thus, for the final choice of operating conditions, the decision maker needs local knowledge of the costs and available infrastructure. In principle, such information could be added as further criteria to the data matrix and new rankings obtained.

  6. "Fake News": False fears or real concerns?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McGonagle, T.

    2017-01-01

    Fake news” has become a much-used and much-hyped term in the so-called “post-truth” era that we now live in. It is also much-maligned: it is often blamed for having a disruptive impact on the outcomes of elections and referenda and for skewing democratic public debate, with the 2016 US Presidential

  7. Fake currency detection using image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agasti, Tushar; Burand, Gajanan; Wade, Pratik; Chitra, P.

    2017-11-01

    The advancement of color printing technology has increased the rate of fake currency note printing and duplicating the notes on a very large scale. Few years back, the printing could be done in a print house, but now anyone can print a currency note with maximum accuracy using a simple laser printer. As a result the issue of fake notes instead of the genuine ones has been increased very largely. India has been unfortunately cursed with the problems like corruption and black money. And counterfeit of currency notes is also a big problem to it. This leads to design of a system that detects the fake currency note in a less time and in a more efficient manner. The proposed system gives an approach to verify the Indian currency notes. Verification of currency note is done by the concepts of image processing. This article describes extraction of various features of Indian currency notes. MATLAB software is used to extract the features of the note. The proposed system has got advantages like simplicity and high performance speed. The result will predict whether the currency note is fake or not.

  8. How Truthiness, Fake News and Post-Fact Endanger Brands and What to Do About It

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berthon Pierre

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Brands can interact both directly and indirectly with fake news. In some instances, brands are the victims of fake news and, other times, the purveyors. Brands can either finance fake news or be the targets of it. Indirectly, they can be linked via image transfer, where either fake news contaminates brands, or brands validate fake news.

  9. Antisocial features and "faking bad": A critical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niesten, Isabella J M; Nentjes, Lieke; Merckelbach, Harald; Bernstein, David P

    2015-01-01

    We critically review the literature on antisocial personality features and symptom fabrication (i.e., faking bad; e.g., malingering). A widespread assumption is that these constructs are intimately related. Some studies have, indeed, found that antisocial individuals score higher on instruments detecting faking bad, but others have been unable to replicate this pattern. In addition, studies exploring whether antisocial individuals are especially talented in faking bad have generally come up with null results. The notion of an intrinsic link between antisocial features and faking bad is difficult to test and research in this domain is sensitive to selection bias. We argue that research on faking bad would profit from further theoretical articulation. One topic that deserves scrutiny is how antisocial features affect the cognitive dissonance typically induced by faking bad. We illustrate our points with preliminary data and discuss their implications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Antecedents of Interview faking: Honesty-Humility and Warning instructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie J Law

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we examined the antecedents and processes that impact job interviewees’ decisions to engage in deceptive impression management (i.e. interview faking. Willingness and capacity to engage in faking were found to be the processes underlying the decision to use deceptive impression management in the interview. We also examined a personality antecedent to this behaviour, Honesty-Humility, which was negatively related to the use of deceptive impression management through increased willingness to engage in these behaviours. We also tested a possible intervention to reduce IM. In particular, we found that warnings against faking – specifically, an identification warning - reduced both the perceived capacity to engage in interview faking, and subsequent use of several faking behaviors. Moreover, this warning reduced faking without adversely impacting applicant reactions.

  11. Exploiting Tri-Relationship for Fake News Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Shu, Kai; Wang, Suhang; Liu, Huan

    2017-01-01

    Social media for news consumption is becoming popular nowadays. The low cost, easy access and rapid information dissemination of social media bring benefits for people to seek out news timely. However, it also causes the widespread of fake news, i.e., low-quality news pieces that are intentionally fabricated. The fake news brings about several negative effects on individual consumers, news ecosystem, and even society trust. Previous fake news detection methods mainly focus on news contents fo...

  12. Studying Fake News via Network Analysis: Detection and Mitigation

    OpenAIRE

    Shu, Kai; Bernard, H. Russell; Liu, Huan

    2018-01-01

    Social media for news consumption is becoming increasingly popular due to its easy access, fast dissemination, and low cost. However, social media also enable the wide propagation of "fake news", i.e., news with intentionally false information. Fake news on social media poses significant negative societal effects, and also presents unique challenges. To tackle the challenges, many existing works exploit various features, from a network perspective, to detect and mitigate fake news. In essence...

  13. The faking orgasm scale for women: psychometric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Erin B; Fenigstein, Allan; Fauber, Robert L

    2014-04-01

    The Faking Orgasm Scale for Women (FOS) was designed to assess women's self-reported motives for faking orgasm during oral sex and sexual intercourse. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted on the responses of 481 heterosexual undergraduate females (M age = 20.33 years, SD = 2.48). Results of the EFA revealed that the FOS-Sexual Intercourse Subscale was composed of four factors: (1) Altruistic Deceit, faking orgasm out of concern for a partner's feelings; (2) Fear and Insecurity, faking orgasm to avoid negative emotions associated with the sexual experience; (3) Elevated Arousal, a woman's attempt to increase her own arousal through faking orgasm; and (4) Sexual Adjournment, faking orgasm to end sex. The analysis of the FOS-Oral Sex Subscale yielded four factors: (1) Altruistic Deceit; (2) Insecure Avoidance, faking orgasm to avoid feelings of insecurity; (3) Elevated Arousal; and (4) Fear of Dysfunction, faking orgasm to cope with concerns of being abnormal. Each factor of the two subscales was found to have excellent internal consistency. Confirmatory factor analysis on a separate sample of 398 heterosexual female undergraduates (M age = 20.52 years, SD = 2.55) confirmed the factor structure of each subscale with excellent fit statistics. The FOS should allow researchers and clinicians to better understand why women fake orgasm. Deepening this understanding may serve future research examining sexual desire, satisfaction, and dysfunction as well as have applications in sex and couples' therapy.

  14. Answers to science questions from the "stop faking it!" guy

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2009-01-01

    This valuable and entertaining compendium of Bill Robertson's popular Science 101 columns, from NSTA member journal Science and Children, proves you don't have to be a science geek to understand basic scientific concepts. The author of the best-selling Stop Faking It! series explains everything from quarks to photosynthesis, telescopes to the expanding universe, and atomic clocks to curveballs all with his trademark wit and irreverence. The 33 short columns, plus a new introduction, provide an introductory science course of sorts, covering topics in life science, Earth and space science, physical science, technology, and more perfect for K-8 teachers, homeschoolers, or parents who just want to boost their science know-how. Easily understood prose and lively illustrations by cartoonist Brian Diskin make this volume an engaging and, more important, readable course you can pass with flying colors.

  15. Individual differences in impression management: an exploration of the psychological processes underlying faking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROSE A. MUELLER-HANSON

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study proposes and tests a model of psychological processes underlying faking, which integrates concepts from earlier models of faking by McFarland and Ryan (2000; 2001 and Snell, Sydell, and Lueke (1999. The results provided partial support for the model, suggesting personality factors and perceptions of situational factors contribute to faking behavior. The implications of these findings are (a people differ with regard to how much they will fake on a personality test in a simulated employment setting with some people faking substantially and others faking very little or not at all, and (b the extent to which an individual fakes is partially determined by the person’s attitudes and personality characteristics. The present findings are interpreted, discussed, and might be useful for the prevention and mitigation of faking by altering people's beliefs about their ability to fake and the appropriateness of faking.

  16. Fact-checking vs. Fake news: Confirmation journalism as a tool of media literacy against misinformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Lotero-Echeverri

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the relationship between media literacy and fake news, as one of the challenges that misinformation represents in the Internet age, for its risks for the political system, decision making and also for the reputation of companies and citizens. A theoretical review on the topic by media literacy and misinformation is presented, as a challenge for digital journalism. The case of colombiacheck.com is analyzed, which is an association journalist platform, that is a pioneer in Colombia in fact-checking journalism, to highlight the contribution that this methodology represent in the fight against fake and malicious news, on the one hand and to highlight that its represents a simple and replicable technique through which reinforce the media literacy of citizens and journalists.

  17. Fake News Detection on Social Media: A Data Mining Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Shu, Kai; Sliva, Amy; Wang, Suhang; Tang, Jiliang; Liu, Huan

    2017-01-01

    Social media for news consumption is a double-edged sword. On the one hand, its low cost, easy access, and rapid dissemination of information lead people to seek out and consume news from social media. On the other hand, it enables the wide spread of "fake news", i.e., low quality news with intentionally false information. The extensive spread of fake news has the potential for extremely negative impacts on individuals and society. Therefore, fake news detection on social media has recently b...

  18. IN IDENTIFYING FAKE AND SUBSTANDARD DRUGS IN NIGERIA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2017-07-01

    Jul 1, 2017 ... The high prevalence of counterfeit medicines particularly anti-malaria ... ofMobile Authentication Service (MAS) put the power of fake drugs .... In Nigeria today, it is common knowledge that drugs are treated as general ...

  19. Fame for sale: Efficient detection of fake Twitter followers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cresci, Stefano; Di Pietro, Roberto; Petrocchi, Marinella

    2015-01-01

    Fake followers are those Twitter accounts specifically created to inflate the number of followers of a target account. Fake followers are dangerous for the social platform and beyond, since they may alter concepts like popularity and influence in the Twittersphere - hence impacting on economy......, politics, and society. In this paper, we contribute along different dimensions. First, we review some of the most relevant existing features and rules (proposed by Academia and Media) for anomalous Twitter accounts detection. Second, we create a baseline dataset of verified human and fake follower accounts...... sensitivity of each of the features employed by the classifier. The findings reported in this paper, other than being supported by a thorough experimental methodology and interesting on their own, also pave the way for further investigation on the novel issue of fake Twitter followers....

  20. Friend or Foe? Fake Profile Identification in Online Social Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Fire, Michael; Kagan, Dima; Elyashar, Aviad; Elovici, Yuval

    2013-01-01

    The amount of personal information unwillingly exposed by users on online social networks is staggering, as shown in recent research. Moreover, recent reports indicate that these networks are infested with tens of millions of fake users profiles, which may jeopardize the users' security and privacy. To identify fake users in such networks and to improve users' security and privacy, we developed the Social Privacy Protector software for Facebook. This software contains three protection layers,...

  1. Image Quality Assessment for Fake Biometric Detection: Application to Iris, Fingerprint, and Face Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbally, Javier; Marcel, Sébastien; Fierrez, Julian

    2014-02-01

    To ensure the actual presence of a real legitimate trait in contrast to a fake self-manufactured synthetic or reconstructed sample is a significant problem in biometric authentication, which requires the development of new and efficient protection measures. In this paper, we present a novel software-based fake detection method that can be used in multiple biometric systems to detect different types of fraudulent access attempts. The objective of the proposed system is to enhance the security of biometric recognition frameworks, by adding liveness assessment in a fast, user-friendly, and non-intrusive manner, through the use of image quality assessment. The proposed approach presents a very low degree of complexity, which makes it suitable for real-time applications, using 25 general image quality features extracted from one image (i.e., the same acquired for authentication purposes) to distinguish between legitimate and impostor samples. The experimental results, obtained on publicly available data sets of fingerprint, iris, and 2D face, show that the proposed method is highly competitive compared with other state-of-the-art approaches and that the analysis of the general image quality of real biometric samples reveals highly valuable information that may be very efficiently used to discriminate them from fake traits.

  2. Presenting Fake Figures: A Tool to Teach Effective Scientific Figure Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica A. Segarra

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available As trained scientists, we become adept not only at analyzing and understanding figures in the scientific literature, but also at designing figures to effectively represent our own data and findings. As educators, we strive to pass on these skills to our students, some of whom will ultimately become scientists themselves. Conveying the principles of effective figure design can be challenging, particularly when students have had little exposure to the process of reading scientific literature, much less writing a piece of scientific literature. Improvisational activities in the classroom reinforce teaching goals such as spontaneity, risk-taking, creativity, communication skills, team-building, and critical thinking (2. Indeed, improv training for scientists is becoming more common, helping scientists to communicate more spontaneously about their work and connect with their audience (1. In this article, we present an improvisational game that can aid in the teaching of effective scientific figure design. This “Present-a-Fake-Figure Exercise” is applicable to both the classroom and laboratory settings. In this learning activity, students improvise presenting fake scientific figures to an audience of their peers. These fake figures are prepared beforehand by the instructor and exemplify the do’s and don’ts of scientific figure design. Some of the learning outcomes of the activity include (1 identifying what makes a scientific figure cohesive, easy to analyze, and reader-friendly, and (2 identifying strategies that are useful in the design of a multi-panel figure to convey a scientific story.

  3. Sewage sludges disinfection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandre, D.; Gevaudan, P.P.

    1977-01-01

    There is a hygienic risk in using biological sewage sludges for agriculture. Systematic analyses carried out on sludge samples obtained from purification plants in the Eastern and Southern part of France, show the almost uniform presence of pathogenic microorganisms. Some of them survive more than nine months after application to the soil. Conventional processes for disinfection, liming and heat, make the sludge unsuitable for agricultural use. On the other hand, irradiation involves no modification of structure and composition of sludges. Radiation doses required for disinfection vary according to the type of microorganism. Some of them are eliminated at rather low doses (200 krad), but mycobacteria, viruses and eggs of worms resist to more important doses. The security dose is estimated to be approx. 1000 krad

  4. Heating value characteristics of sewage sludge: a comparative study of different sludge types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young-JU.; Kang, Hae-Ok.; Qureshi, T.I.

    2005-01-01

    Heating value characteristics of three different types of sludge, i.e. domestic sewage sludge, industrial sludge, and industrial + domestic sewage sludge were investigated. Industrial + domestic sewage sludge (thickened) showed the highest heating value (5040 kcal/kg) than other sludge types. This may be due to increased amount of organic matter presents in thickened sludge than de-watered sludge. A gradual increase in organic matter of the sludge was observed with the increase of the moisture contents. Heating value of the sludge having 60% moisture contents was found in the range between 924-1656 kcal/kg and this amount was higher than the minimum heating value (800 kcal/kg) required sustaining auto thermal combustion in sludge incineration process. Energy consumption requirement for pre drying sludge operations revealed that industrial sludge (de-watered) required the minimum cost (13 $/ton of sludge) to make it a sludge of fuel grade (60% W), while mixed sludge cost the highest amount for its pre-drying operations. (author)

  5. Making up History: False Memories of Fake News Stories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle C. Polage

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that information that is repeated is more likely to be rated as true than information that has not been heard before. The current experiment examines whether familiarity with false news stories would increase rates of truthfulness and plausibility for these events. Further, the experiment tested whether false stories that were familiar would result in the creation of a false memory of having heard the story outside of the experiment. Participants were exposed to false new stories, each portrayed by the investigator as true news stories. After a five week delay, participants who had read the false experimental stories rated them as more truthful and more plausible than participants who had not been exposed to the stories. In addition, there was evidence of the creation of false memories for the source of the news story. Participants who had previously read about the stories were more likely to believe that they had heard the false stories from a source outside the experiment. These results suggest that repeating false claims will not only increase their believability but may also result in source monitoring errors.

  6. The dangers of feeling like a fake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Manfred F R Kets

    2005-09-01

    In many walks of life-and business is no exception-there are high achievers who believe that they are complete fakes. To the outside observer, these individuals appear to be remarkably accomplished; often they are extremely successful leaders with staggering lists of achievements. These neurotic impostors--as psychologists call them--are not guilty of false humility. The sense of being a fraud is the flip side of giftedness and causes a great many talented, hardworking, and capable leaders to believe that they don't deserve their success. "Bluffing" their way through life (as they see it), they are haunted by the constant fear of exposure. With every success, they think, "I was lucky this time, fooling everyone, but will my luck hold? When will people discover that I'm not up to the job?" In his career as a management professor, consultant, leadership coach, and psychoanalyst, Manfred F.R. Kets de Vries has found neurotic impostors at all levels of organizations. In this article, he explores the subject of neurotic imposture and outlines its classic symptoms: fear of failure, fear of success, perfectionism, procrastination, and workaholism. He then describes how perfectionist overachievers can damage their careers, their colleagues' morale, and the bottom line by allowing anxiety to trigger self-handicapping behavior and cripple the very organizations they're trying so hard to please. Finally, Kets de Vries offers advice on how to limit the incidence of neurotic imposture and mitigate its damage through discreet vigilance, appropriate intervention, and constructive support.

  7. Fake news kan leve længe i et frit marked

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent Fella; Lundorff Rasmusen, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Der er tydelige ligheder mellem optakten til finanskrisen og "fake news"-boblen, som vi ser i dag......Der er tydelige ligheder mellem optakten til finanskrisen og "fake news"-boblen, som vi ser i dag...

  8. Companion classroom activities for "stop faking it!" force and motion

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2011-01-01

    Never has it been so easy for educators to learn to teach physical science with confidence. Award-winning author Bill Robertson launched his bestselling Stop Faking It! series in 2002 with Force and Motion--offering elementary and middle school teachers a jargon-free way to learn the background for teaching physical science with confidence. Combining easy-to-understand if irreverent explanations and quirky diagrams, Stop Faking It! Force and Motion helped thousands of teachers, parents, and homeschoolers conquer topics from Newton s laws to the physics of space travel. Now Companion Classroom Activities for Stop Faking It! Force and Motion proves an ideal supplement to the original book or a valuable resource of its own. The hands-on activities and highly readable explanations allow students to first investigate concepts, then discuss learned concepts, and finally apply the concepts to everyday situations. Robertson's wit and humor are sure to keep students and teachers entertained while they tackle topics ...

  9. Fake news propagate differently from real news even at early stages of spreading

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Zilong; Zhao, Jichang; Sano, Yukie; Levy, Orr; Takayasu, Hideki; Takayasu, Misako; Li, Daqing; Havlin, Shlomo

    2018-01-01

    Social media can be a double-edged sword for modern communications, either a convenient channel exchanging ideas or an unexpected conduit circulating fake news through a large population. Existing studies of fake news focus on efforts on theoretical modelling of propagation or identification methods based on black-box machine learning, neglecting the possibility of identifying fake news using only structural features of propagation of fake news compared to those of real news and in particular...

  10. Breakthrough in fake prevention. Nuclear track-etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Yushun; He Xiangming; Zhang Quanrong

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear particle track-etched anti-counterfeit marking is a new weapon against fake products. The marks is manufactured by intricate high technology in state-controlled sensitive nuclear facilities which ensures that the mark can not be copied. The pattern of the mark is characterized by its permeability, and can be distinguished from fakes by using a transparent liquid (e.g. water), colored pen or chemical reagent. The technique has passed the of facial health safety examination and poses no danger of nuclear irradiation

  11. Principle of Parsimony, Fake Science, and Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, T. C. J.; Wan, L.; Wang, X. S.

    2017-12-01

    Considering difficulties in predicting exact motions of water molecules, and the scale of our interests (bulk behaviors of many molecules), Fick's law (diffusion concept) has been created to predict solute diffusion process in space and time. G.I. Taylor (1921) demonstrated that random motion of the molecules reach the Fickian regime in less a second if our sampling scale is large enough to reach ergodic condition. Fick's law is widely accepted for describing molecular diffusion as such. This fits the definition of the parsimony principle at the scale of our concern. Similarly, advection-dispersion or convection-dispersion equation (ADE or CDE) has been found quite satisfactory for analysis of concentration breakthroughs of solute transport in uniformly packed soil columns. This is attributed to the solute is often released over the entire cross-section of the column, which has sampled many pore-scale heterogeneities and met the ergodicity assumption. Further, the uniformly packed column contains a large number of stationary pore-size heterogeneity. The solute thus reaches the Fickian regime after traveling a short distance along the column. Moreover, breakthrough curves are concentrations integrated over the column cross-section (the scale of our interest), and they meet the ergodicity assumption embedded in the ADE and CDE. To the contrary, scales of heterogeneity in most groundwater pollution problems evolve as contaminants travel. They are much larger than the scale of our observations and our interests so that the ergodic and the Fickian conditions are difficult. Upscaling the Fick's law for solution dispersion, and deriving universal rules of the dispersion to the field- or basin-scale pollution migrations are merely misuse of the parsimony principle and lead to a fake science ( i.e., the development of theories for predicting processes that can not be observed.) The appropriate principle of parsimony for these situations dictates mapping of large

  12. Radiation hygienization of raw sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, M.R.; Lavale, D.S.; Rawat, P.; Benny, P.G.; Sharma, A.K.; Dey, G.R.; Bhave, V.

    2001-01-01

    'Radiation treatment of municipal sewage sludge can achieve resource conservation and recovery objectives. The liquid sludge irradiator of Sludge Hygienization Research Irradiator at Baroda (India) was operated for generating data on treatment of raw sludge containing 3-4 % solids. The plant system was modified for irradiating raw sludge without affecting basic irradiator initially designed to treat digested sludge. Hourly samples were analysed for estimation of disinfection dose requirement. Sand separated from the sludge was used as in-situ dosimeter by making use of its thermoluminescence property. Investigations are being carried out for regrowth of Total Coliforms in the sludge samples from this irradiator. Possibility of inadequate treatment due to geometric configuration of irradiator is being checked. (author)

  13. Fabricating the absolute fake: America in contemporary pop culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, J.

    2008-01-01

    Onze wereld wordt gedomineerd door de Amerikaanse popcultuur. Fabricating the Absolute Fake onderzoekt de dynamiek van Amerikanisering aan de hand van hedendaagse films, televisieprogramma's en popsterren die reflecteren op de vraag wat het betekent om Amerikaan in een mondiale popcultuur te zijn.

  14. On the Detection of Fake Certificates via Attribute Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojing Gu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Transport Layer Security (TLS and its predecessor, SSL, are important cryptographic protocol suites on the Internet. They both implement public key certificates and rely on a group of trusted certificate authorities (i.e., CAs for peer authentication. Unfortunately, the most recent research reveals that, if any one of the pre-trusted CAs is compromised, fake certificates can be issued to intercept the corresponding SSL/TLS connections. This security vulnerability leads to catastrophic impacts on SSL/TLS-based HTTPS, which is the underlying protocol to provide secure web services for e-commerce, e-mails, etc. To address this problem, we design an attribute dependency-based detection mechanism, called SSLight. SSLight can expose fake certificates by checking whether the certificates contain some attribute dependencies rarely occurring in legitimate samples. We conduct extensive experiments to evaluate SSLight and successfully confirm that SSLight can detect the vast majority of fake certificates issued from any trusted CAs if they are compromised. As a real-world example, we also implement SSLight as a Firefox add-on and examine its capability of exposing existent fake certificates from DigiNotar and Comodo, both of which have made a giant impact around the world.

  15. The Toledo invariant, and Seshadri constants of fake projective planes

    OpenAIRE

    DI CERBO, Luca F.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explicitly compute the Seshadri constants of all ample line bundles on fake projective planes. The proof relies on the theory of the Toledo invariant, and more precisely on its characterization of $\\mathbb{C}$-Fuchsian curves in complex hyperbolic spaces.

  16. Antisocial features and “faking bad” : A critical note

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niesten, I.J.M.; Nentjes, L.; Merckelbach, H.; Bernstein, D.P.

    We critically review the literature on antisocial personality features and symptom fabrication (i.e., faking bad; e.g., malingering). A widespread assumption is that these constructs are intimately related. Some studies have, indeed, found that antisocial individuals score higher on instruments

  17. Fake Academic Degrees as an Indicator for Severe Reputation Crisis in the Scientific Community of Russian Federation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rostovtsev, A.; Kostinskiy, A.

    2016-07-01

    As is shown by our studies described below, awarding fake academic degrees to politicians, businessmen, doctors in clinics, professors in universities, and teachers in schools, that is, to all those who wish to use their new academic titles to step onto a faster career route, is widely accepted in Russia. Fake academic titles are awarded throughout the country. This business is based on the manufacture of falsified dissertations. In early 2013, a group of five researchers and journalists established a social network called “Dissernet”. Dissernet is a volunteer-effort free association aimed at making fraud and trickery in the awarding of academic titles transparent and exposed to the public. The scale of academic fraud in Russia has turned out to exceed the most pessimistic expectations. Statistics collected by Dissernet have yielded a number of conclusions discussed below. (Author)

  18. Written Evidence Submitted to the House of Commons-Digital, Culture, Media and Sport Select Committee’s Inquiry on Fake News

    OpenAIRE

    Fuchs, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Executive Summary This submission provides evidence on four aspects: 1. What do we know about fake news, fake profiles/accounts, and fake attention on social media? 2. What are the causes of fake news, political bots and fake social media accounts? 3. What are the problems and impacts of fake news, political bots and fake accounts? 4. What can be done against fake news culture? This submission gives special attention to the role of online advertising in fake news culture. (§§1.1-1.16) Reports...

  19. Fake Superpotential for Large and Small Extremal Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Andrianopoli, L; Ferrara, S; Trigiante, M

    2010-01-01

    We consider the fist order, gradient-flow, description of the scalar fields coupled to spherically symmetric, asymptotically flat black holes in extended supergravities. Using the identification of the fake superpotential with Hamilton's characteristic function we clarify some of its general properties, showing in particular (besides reviewing the issue of its duality invariance) that W has the properties of a Liapunov's function, which implies that its extrema (associated with the horizon of extremal black holes) are asymptotically stable equilibrium points of the corresponding first order dynamical system (in the sense of Liapunov). Moreover, we show that the fake superpotential W has, along the entire radial flow, the same flat directions which exist at the attractor point. This allows to study properties of the ADM mass also for small black holes where in fact W has no critical points at finite distance in moduli space. In particular the W function for small non-BPS black holes can always be computed anal...

  20. Axion-dilaton domain walls and fake supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonner, Julian; Townsend, Paul K

    2007-01-01

    Dynamical systems methods are used to investigate domain-wall solutions of a two-parameter family of models in which gravity is coupled to an axion and to a dilaton with an exponential potential of either sign. A complete global analysis is presented for (i) constant axion and (ii) flat walls, including a study of bifurcations and a new exact domain-wall solution with non-constant axion. We reconsider 'fake-supergravity' issues in light of these results. We show, by example, how domain walls determine multi-valued superpotentials that branch at stationary points that are not stationary points of the potential, and we apply this result to potentials with anti-de Sitter vacua. We also show by example that 'adapted' truncation to a single-scalar model may be inconsistent, and we propose a 'generalized' fake-supergravity formalism that applies in some such cases

  1. Fake news and alternative facts: five challenges for academic libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick Anderson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In light of recent worldwide political developments, it seems clear that libraries are needed more than ever to combat a rising tide of fake news and public lies, and to help their patrons discriminate between truth, error and propaganda. In order to do so, however, libraries will have to decide where they stand on crucial questions about the social construction of reality; the politics of selection; the privileging of interpretations; the academic necessity of research access to false claims; and the meaning of ‘alternative’. A library that fails to address these questions carefully, and in advance, is doomed to incoherence in its response to fake news and ‘alternative facts’.

  2. Triggering at high luminosity: fake triggers from pile-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.

    1983-01-01

    Triggers based on a cut in transverse momentum (p/sub t/) have proved to be useful in high energy physics both because they indicte that a hard constituent scattering has occurred and because they can be made quickly enough to gate electronics. These triggers will continue to be useful at high luminosities if overlapping events do not cause an excessive number of fake triggers. In this paper, I determine if this is indeed a problem at high luminosity machines

  3. Characteristics of retractions related to faked peer reviews: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xingshun; Deng, Han; Guo, Xiaozhong

    2017-08-01

    A faked peer review is a novel cause for retraction. We reviewed the characteristics of papers retracted due to a faked peer review. All papers retracted due to faked peer reviews were identified by searching the Retraction Watch website and by conducting a manual search. All identified papers were confirmed in published journals. The information of retracted papers was collected, which primarily included publisher, journal, journal impact factor, country, as well as publication and retraction year. Overall, 250 retracted papers were identified. They were published in 48 journals by six publishers. The top 5 journals included the Journal of Vibration and Control (24.8%), Molecular Biology Reports (11.6%), Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology (8.0%), Tumour Biology (6.8%) and European Journal of Medical Research (6.4%). The publishers included SAGE (31%), Springer (26%), BioMed Central (18%), Elsevier (13%), Informa (11%) and LWW (1%). A minority (4%) of retracted papers were published in Science Citation Index (SCI) journals with an impact factor of >5. A majority (74.8%) of retracted papers were written by Chinese researchers. In terms of the publication year, the retracted papers were published since 2010, and the number of retracted papers peaked in 2014 (40.8%). In terms of the retraction year, the retractions started in 2012, and the number of retractions peaked in 2015 (59.6%). The number of papers retracted due to faked peer reviews differs largely among journals and countries. With the improvement of the peer review mechanism and increased education about publishing ethics, such academic misconduct may gradually disappear in future. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. Fake/Bogus Conferences: Their Features and Some Subtle Ways to Differentiate Them from Real Ones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, Amin; Rahbar, Nader; Rezvani, Mohammad Javad; Asadi, Fahime

    2018-04-01

    The main objective of the present paper is to introduce some features of fake/bogus conferences and some viable approaches to differentiate them from the real ones. These fake/bogus conferences introduce themselves as international conferences, which are multidisciplinary and indexed in major scientific digital libraries. Furthermore, most of the fake/bogus conference holders offer publishing the accepted papers in ISI journals and use other techniques in their advertisement e-mails.

  5. Fake/Bogus Conferences; Their Features and Some Subtle Ways to Differentiate Them from Real Ones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asadi, Amin; Rahbar, Nader; Rezvani, Mohammad Javad

    2018-01-01

    The main objective of the present paper is to introduce some features of fake/bogus conferences and some viable approaches to differentiate them from the real ones. These fake/bogus conferences introduce themselves as international conferences, which are multidisciplinary and indexed in major sci...... scientific digital libraries. Furthermore, most of the fake/bogus conference holders offer publishing the accepted papers in ISI journals and use other techniques in their advertisement e-mails....

  6. Fake Journals: Their Features and Some Viable Ways to Distinguishing Them

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmat Esfe, Mohammad; Wongwises, Somchai; Asadi, Amin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we aim to discuss the fake journals and their advertisement and publication techniques. These types of journals mostly start and continue their activities by using the name of some indexed journals and establishing fake websites. The fake journals and publishers, while asking...... the authors for a significant amount of money for publishing their papers, have no peer-review process, publish the papers without any revision on the fake sites, and put the scientific reputation and prestige of the researchers in jeopardy. In the rest of the paper, we present some viable techniques in order...

  7. Fake Journals: Their Features and Some Viable Ways to Distinguishing Them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmat Esfe, Mohammad; Wongwises, Somchai; Asadi, Amin; Akbari, Mohammad

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we aim to discuss the fake journals and their advertisement and publication techniques. These types of journals mostly start and continue their activities by using the name of some indexed journals and establishing fake websites. The fake journals and publishers, while asking the authors for a significant amount of money for publishing their papers, have no peer-review process, publish the papers without any revision on the fake sites, and put the scientific reputation and prestige of the researchers in jeopardy. In the rest of the paper, we present some viable techniques in order for researchers and students to identify these journals.

  8. Polycaprolactone-Polydiacetylene Electrospun Fibers for Colorimetric Detection of Fake Gasoline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamshad Ali

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available PCDA (Pentacosadiynoic Acid monomers were successfully embedded in PCL (Poly ?-Caprolactone polymer matrix by electrospinning process for the first time. The resultant EFM (Electrospun Fibers Mat was photo-polymerized under 254 nm UV light that enables colorimetric detection of fake gasoline. Results revealed that the fake gasoline develops a red color mat within 5 sec. FE-SEM images showed that the fake gasoline treatment dissolved the PCL EFM that give access to interact with PDA polymer. The proposed litmus-type sensor based on PCL-PDA EFM is highly sensitive to fake gasoline and can be fabricated easily

  9. Composting sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, E.

    1979-01-01

    Sewage sludge is predominantly organic matter containing domestic and industrial wastes. The inefficiency of the waste water treatment to destroy pathogens and stabilization of odor-producing volatile organic compounds necessitates further treatment before sludge can be used as a soil amendment or fertilizer. Composting, which is the rapid biological decomposition of the sludge organic matter is an excellent method of sludge stabilization. During the process, volatile organics are decomposed and many of the pathogens destoyed. The low cost of the process and its flexibility with respect to labor and capital makes the system highly attractive to municipalities. A major problem facing large urban waste water treatment facilities is the distribution or marketing. The light weight of the material, expensive hauling costs, and low fertilizer value reduce its attractiveness to the agricultural sector. Thus, the greatest market is for horticultural purposes, sod, nurseries, greenhouses, parks, and reclamation areas. The major potential benefits of irradiating compost as a means of further disinfection are: (1) elimination of any health hazard; (2) increase of market potential, i.e., providing more market outlets to distribute the material; (3) compliance with state and federal health regulations; and (4) enhancement of the economics of composting as a result of utilizing compost in speciality products commanding a higher value

  10. Economic comparison of sludge irradiation and alternative methods of municipal sludge treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlstrom, S.B.; McGuire, H.E.

    1977-11-01

    The relative economics of radiation treatment and other sludge treatment processes are reported. The desirability of radiation treatment is assessed in terms of cost and the quality of the treated sludge product. The major conclusions of this study are: radiation treatment is a high-level disinfection process. Therefore, it should only be considered if high levels of disinfection are required for widespread reuse of the sludge; the handling, transporting and pathogen growback problems associated with disinfected wet sludge makes it less attractive for reuse than dry sludge; radiation of composted sludge produces a product of similar quality at less cost than any thermal treatment and/or flash drying treatment option for situations where a high degree of disinfection is required; and heavy metal concerns, especially cadmium, may limit the reuse of sludge despite high disinfection levels. It is recommended that radiation treatment of sludge, particularly dry sludge, continue to be studied. A sensitivity analysis investigating the optimal conditions under which sludge irradiation operates should be instigated. Furthermore, costs of adding sludge irradiation to existing sludge treatment schemes should be determined

  11. An Economic comparison of sludge irradiation and alternative methods of municipal sludge treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlstrom, S.B.; McGuire, H.E.

    1977-11-01

    The relative economics of radiation treatment and other sludge treatment processes are reported. The desirability of radiation treatment is assessed in terms of cost and the quality of the treated sludge product. The major conclusions of this study are: radiation treatment is a high-level disinfection process. Therefore, it should only be considered if high levels of disinfection are required for widespread reuse of the sludge; the handling, transporting and pathogen growback problems associated with disinfected wet sludge makes it less attractive for reuse than dry sludge; radiation of composted sludge produces a product of similar quality at less cost than any thermal treatment and/or flash drying treatment option for situations where a high degree of disinfection is required; and heavy metal concerns, especially cadmium, may limit the reuse of sludge despite high disinfection levels. It is recommended that radiation treatment of sludge, particularly dry sludge, continue to be studied. A sensitivity analysis investigating the optimal conditions under which sludge irradiation operates should be instigated. Furthermore, costs of adding sludge irradiation to existing sludge treatment schemes should be determined.

  12. Welcome to the Era of Fake News

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Albright

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available For the news industry, information is used to tell stories, which have traditionally been organized around “facts”. A growing problem, however, is that fact-based evidence is not relevant to a growing segment of the populace. Journalists need facts to tell stories, but they need data to understand how to engage audiences with this accurate information. The implementation of data is part of the solution to countering the erosion of trust and the decay of social discourse across networked spaces. Rather than following “trends”, news organizations should establish the groundwork to make facts “matter” by shaping the narrative instead of following deceptive statements.

  13. Sludge busters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichon, Max

    2010-01-01

    Full text: A few years ago, For Earth developed low energy sub-surface aeration systems to increase the biological activity in the wastewater sludge ponds. Then came the idea to introduce probiotic bacteria to really ramp up the process, which promises massive time and cost savings in sludge management. Increasing the volumes of specific bacteria reactivates the sludge, accelerating biological nutrient removal in general and, by tailoring the bacteria, targeting specific organic waste types. The technology is already running at more than 30 councils across NSW and in some commercial settings, such as dairy farms. Shane McKibbin, GM of For Earth, said the 'Probiotic, Low Energy Aeration System' offers considerable upside. “The cost savings have been enormous with some councils, including the work done at Woolgoolga Water Reclamation Plant at Coffs Harbour,” he said. Sludge settling in wastewater treatment plant lagoons is typically pumped out, centrifuged to remove water and then landfilled. In Woolgoolga's case that process was costing Coffs Harbour Water $150 a cubic metre; McKibbin said they've slashed that to a measly $5 a cubic metre. An array of 'industrial air stones' is dropped 1m below the surface to create an oxygenated blanket across the surface, overcoming the tendency of sludge ponds to stagnate. The key though is floating probiotic dosing lines across the surface, which kick-starts the probiotics process. “Previously, some operators just wanted to throw it on with a bucket, so the bacteria would get thrown into one corner of the pond. But since we introduced the dosing system it has really improved the overall performance,” said McKibbin.The dosing pump system automatically applies the bacteria into the dosing line according to a specified program, ensuring the probiotics are spread out across the pond and across the week. “I would say it improves and accelerates the result by 30 per cent,” he adds. “The biggest problem was that

  14. Sludge busters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichon, Max

    2010-07-15

    Full text: A few years ago, For Earth developed low energy sub-surface aeration systems to increase the biological activity in the wastewater sludge ponds. Then came the idea to introduce probiotic bacteria to really ramp up the process, which promises massive time and cost savings in sludge management. Increasing the volumes of specific bacteria reactivates the sludge, accelerating biological nutrient removal in general and, by tailoring the bacteria, targeting specific organic waste types. The technology is already running at more than 30 councils across NSW and in some commercial settings, such as dairy farms. Shane McKibbin, GM of For Earth, said the 'Probiotic, Low Energy Aeration System' offers considerable upside. “The cost savings have been enormous with some councils, including the work done at Woolgoolga Water Reclamation Plant at Coffs Harbour,” he said. Sludge settling in wastewater treatment plant lagoons is typically pumped out, centrifuged to remove water and then landfilled. In Woolgoolga's case that process was costing Coffs Harbour Water $150 a cubic metre; McKibbin said they've slashed that to a measly $5 a cubic metre. An array of 'industrial air stones' is dropped 1m below the surface to create an oxygenated blanket across the surface, overcoming the tendency of sludge ponds to stagnate. The key though is floating probiotic dosing lines across the surface, which kick-starts the probiotics process. “Previously, some operators just wanted to throw it on with a bucket, so the bacteria would get thrown into one corner of the pond. But since we introduced the dosing system it has really improved the overall performance,” said McKibbin.The dosing pump system automatically applies the bacteria into the dosing line according to a specified program, ensuring the probiotics are spread out across the pond and across the week. “I would say it improves and accelerates the result by 30 per cent,” he adds. “The biggest problem was that

  15. Ethographic ubiquity: original fake, expanded codex, transurban subject, performative doll

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Canevacci

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available My essay presents the emerging of fake as a concept that does not mean false, but a post-dualistic mix of false/truth. The relation between digital culture and ubiquitous subjectivity is fundamental during its process; in the same way, the relation between aura and reproducibility cannot be determined dialectically as Benjamin did. Digital auratic reproducibility is the contemporary context and communicational metropolis is characterized by spontaneous and public performance: so, my conclusion is an analysis of some “living” doll and their uncanny presence.

  16. The mystery of the Persian mummy: original or fake?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kretschmer, W.; Grundherr, K. von; Kritzler, K.; Morgenroth, G.; Scharf, A.; Uhl, T.

    2004-01-01

    We report on the 14 C dating of a mummy found two years ago in the western part of Pakistan. According to the drawings and inscriptions on the coffin it was thought to be the daughter of Xerxes, the great king of ancient Persia (518-465 BC). AMS measurements were performed on pieces of textile, straw mat and charcoal resulting in a 14 C content of about 113 pMC instead of an expected value of 75 pMC. Additional measurements of bone-, skin- and muscular tissue samples suggested the individual died in AD 1994-1996 and revealed the mummy to be a modern fake

  17. Fake news portrayals of stem cells and stem cell research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcon, Alessandro R; Murdoch, Blake; Caulfield, Timothy

    2017-10-01

    This study examines how stem cells and stem cell research are portrayed on websites deemed to be purveyors of distorted and dubious information. Content analysis was conducted on 224 articles from 2015 to 2016, compiled by searching with the keywords 'stem cell(s)' on a list of websites flagged for containing either 'fake' or 'junk science' news. Articles contained various exaggerated positive and negative claims about stem cells and stem cell science, health and science related conspiracy theories, and statements promoting fear and mistrust of conventional medicine. Findings demonstrate the existence of organized misinformation networks, which may lead the public away from accurate information and facilitate a polarization of public discourse.

  18. Simulation of Neutron-Induced Prompt Gamma-ray Spectra Emitted from Fake Tungsten Gold Bar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K. M.; Sum, G. M. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Fake gold bars on the market cannot be identified easily without testing because they have the same appearance as a pure gold bar. A non-destructive monitoring method is needed to avoid the trading of fake gold bars on the market. The ultimate goal of this study is to find a fake gold bar detection method using a PGAA (Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis). Using existing data, the number of neutron capture for gold and tungsten in fake tungsten gold bar was calculated and a Monte Carlo simulation for the prompt neutron-induced gamma-ray spectra was conducted. A simulation for neutron-induced prompt gamma-rays spectra when a neutron beam is irradiated onto pure and fake gold bars was successfully conducted. Through a comparison between the prompt gamma-ray spectra of the pure gold bar and those of the fake gold bar, it was concluded that the observation of prompt high-energy gamma-rays from tungsten or a reduction of prompt gamma-rays from gold can be evidence of a fake gold bar. The possibility for detecting a fake gold bar using a PGAA facility was verified.

  19. Simulation of Neutron-Induced Prompt Gamma-ray Spectra Emitted from Fake Tungsten Gold Bar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K. M.; Sum, G. M.

    2016-01-01

    Fake gold bars on the market cannot be identified easily without testing because they have the same appearance as a pure gold bar. A non-destructive monitoring method is needed to avoid the trading of fake gold bars on the market. The ultimate goal of this study is to find a fake gold bar detection method using a PGAA (Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis). Using existing data, the number of neutron capture for gold and tungsten in fake tungsten gold bar was calculated and a Monte Carlo simulation for the prompt neutron-induced gamma-ray spectra was conducted. A simulation for neutron-induced prompt gamma-rays spectra when a neutron beam is irradiated onto pure and fake gold bars was successfully conducted. Through a comparison between the prompt gamma-ray spectra of the pure gold bar and those of the fake gold bar, it was concluded that the observation of prompt high-energy gamma-rays from tungsten or a reduction of prompt gamma-rays from gold can be evidence of a fake gold bar. The possibility for detecting a fake gold bar using a PGAA facility was verified

  20. Fake/Bogus Conferences; Their Features and Some Subtle Ways to Differentiate Them from Real Ones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asadi, Amin; Rahbar, Nader; Rezvani, Mohammad Javad

    2018-01-01

    The main objective of the present paper is to introduce some features of fake/bogus conferences and some viable approaches to differentiate them from the real ones. These fake/bogus conferences introduce themselves as international conferences, which are multidisciplinary and indexed in major sci...... scientific digital libraries. Furthermore, most of the fake/bogus conference holders offer publishing the accepted papers in ISI journals and use other techniques in their advertisement e-mails.......The main objective of the present paper is to introduce some features of fake/bogus conferences and some viable approaches to differentiate them from the real ones. These fake/bogus conferences introduce themselves as international conferences, which are multidisciplinary and indexed in major...

  1. Defense of fake fingerprint attacks using a swept source laser optical coherence tomography setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, Sven; Breithaupt, Ralph; Koch, Edmund

    2013-03-01

    The most established technique for the identification at biometric access control systems is the human fingerprint. While every human fingerprint is unique, fingerprints can be faked very easily by using thin layer fakes. Because commercial fingerprint scanners use only a two-dimensional image acquisition of the finger surface, they can only hardly differentiate between real fingerprints and fingerprint fakes applied on thin layer materials. A Swept Source OCT system with an A-line rate of 20 kHz and a lateral and axial resolution of approximately 13 μm, a centre wavelength of 1320 nm and a band width of 120 nm (FWHM) was used to acquire fingerprints and finger tips with overlying fakes. Three-dimensional volume stacks with dimensions of 4.5 mm x 4 mm x 2 mm were acquired. The layering arrangement of the imaged finger tips and faked finger tips was analyzed and subsequently classified into real and faked fingerprints. Additionally, sweat gland ducts were detected and consulted for the classification. The manual classification between real fingerprints and faked fingerprints results in almost 100 % correctness. The outer as well as the internal fingerprint can be recognized in all real human fingers, whereby this was not possible in the image stacks of the faked fingerprints. Furthermore, in all image stacks of real human fingers the sweat gland ducts were detected. The number of sweat gland ducts differs between the test persons. The typical helix shape of the ducts was observed. In contrast, in images of faked fingerprints we observe abnormal layer arrangements and no sweat gland ducts connecting the papillae of the outer fingerprint and the internal fingerprint. We demonstrated that OCT is a very useful tool to enhance the performance of biometric control systems concerning attacks by thin layer fingerprint fakes.

  2. Sludge recovery apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmo, A.R.

    1979-01-01

    Sludge recovery machine comprising a hollow centrifuge, a vertical pipe for feeding in a liquid containing sludge and a sliding rake pressing against the internal wall of the centrifuge to dislodge and move the sludge, a power drive for spinning the centrifuge at high speed and a rotating drying table to take the sludge and dry it [fr

  3. The susceptibility of a mixed model measure of emotional intelligence to faking: a Solomon four-group design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIEL S. WHITMAN

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This study used a Solomon four-group design to investigate the fakability of a widely used measure of emotional intelligence (EI. Administration instructions (faking/honest-response and testing effects (pre-test/no pre-test were the two conditions (i.e., 2 x 2 examined; two different Solomon four-group designs – one for fake-good instructional treatments and one for fake-bad instructional treatments – were assessed. Participants (n = 300 were randomly assigned to one of the six conditions and results indicate a significant pre-testing effect for fake-bad but not fake-good instructions. However, the interaction of testing and treatment was only significant for fake-good but not fake-bad. As expected, within-subjects designs resulted in higher distortion than between-subjects designs for both fake-good (d-value of 1.08 compared to 0.10 and fake-bad instructions (4.07 vs. 3.56, respectively. Participants were able to fake-bad more than fake-good, irrespective of the design used and scaling effects. Implications for EI assessments are discussed.

  4. Cost and effectiveness comparisons of various types of sludge irradiation and sludge pasteurization treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, M.E.

    1976-01-01

    The radiation from 137 Cs, a major constituent of nuclear fuel reprocessing waste, can be used to sterilize sewage sludge. This paper compares the effectiveness and cost of heat pasteurization, irradiation, and thermoradiation (simultaneous heating/irradiation), three competing methods of sludge disinfection. The cost of irradiation and thermoradiation is slightly higher than heat pasteurization costs for liquid sludges, although minor changes in oil availability or prices could change this. If the viral destruction could be done easily by other means, a 500-kilorad irradiation dose would be effective and less costly. For dry sewage sludges, irradiation is as effective and much less costly than any of the liquid sludge disinfection processes. Irradiation of compost appears to be cheaper and more practical than any heat pasteurization process for the dry sludge (the insulating property of the compost makes heating difficult). 6 tables, 2 fig

  5. Fake signals caused by heavy-mass motions near a sensitive spherical gravitational wave antenna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo, Alberto; Cerdonio, Massimo; Montero, Alvaro

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we analyse in quantitative detail the effect of a moving mass on a spherical gravitational wave detector. This applies to situations where heavy traffic or similar disturbances occur near the GW antenna. Such disturbances result in quadrupole tidal stresses in the antenna mass, and they therefore precisely fake a real gravitational signal. The study shows that there are always characteristic frequencies, depending on the motion of the external masses, at which the fake signals are most intense. It however appears that, even at those frequencies, fake signals should be orders of magnitude below the sensitivity curve of an optimized detector, in likely realistic situations

  6. Platformed antagonism: Racist discourses on fake Muslim Facebook pages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farkas, Johan; Schou, Jannick; Neumayer, Christina

    2018-01-01

    This research examines how fake identities on social media create and sustain antagonistic and racist discourses. It does so by analysing 11 Danish Facebook pages, disguised as Muslim extremists living in Denmark, conspiring to kill and rape Danish citizens. It explores how anonymous content...... producers utilize Facebook's socio-technical characteristics to construct, what we propose to term as, platformed antagonism. This term refers to socio-technical and discursive practices that produce new modes of antagonistic relations on social media platforms. Through a discourse-theoretical analysis...... of posts, images, 'about' sections and user comments on the studied Facebook pages, the article highlights how antagonism between ethno-cultural identities is produced on social media through fictitious social media accounts, prompting thousands of user reactions. These findings enhance our current...

  7. Fake facts and alternative truths in medical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Bjørn

    2018-01-27

    Fake news and alternative facts have become commonplace in these so-called "post-factual times." What about medical research - are scientific facts fake as well? Many recent disclosures have fueled the claim that scientific facts are suspect and that science is in crisis. Scientists appear to engage in facting interests instead of revealing interesting facts. This can be observed in terms of what has been called polarised research, where some researchers continuously publish positive results while others publish negative results on the same issue - even when based on the same data. In order to identify and address this challenge, the objective of this study is to investigate how polarised research produce "polarised facts." Mammography screening for breast cancer is applied as an example. The main benefit with mammography screening is the reduced breast cancer mortality, while the main harm is overdiagnosis and subsequent overtreatment. Accordingly, the Overdiagnosis to Mortality Reduction Ratio (OMRR) is an estimate of the risk-benefit-ratio for mammography screening. As there are intense interests involved as well as strong opinions in debates on mammography screening, one could expect polarisation in published results on OMRR. A literature search identifies 8 studies publishing results for OMRR and reveals that OMRR varies 25-fold, from 0.4 to 10. Two experts in polarised research were asked to rank the attitudes of the corresponding authors to mammography screening of the identified publications. The results show a strong correlation between the OMRR and the authors' attitudes to screening (R = 0.9). Mammography screening for breast cancer appears as an exemplary field of strongly polarised research. This is but one example of how scientists' strong professional interests can polarise research. Instead of revealing interesting facts researchers may come to fact interests. In order to avoid this and sustain trust in science, researchers should disclose

  8. Pengaruh Temperatur Pada Proses Hot Isostatic Pressing Terhadap Porositas, Keausan Dan Mikrostruktur Sludge Powder Duralumin

    OpenAIRE

    Multazam, Ahmad; Suprapto, Wahyono; Pratikto, Pratikto

    2014-01-01

    Sludge is the starting raw material in the process of forming wheels with forging method. Performance wheels strongly influenced by the quality of sludge. Sludge should have physical properties that light , soft and easy strengthened. One material that can be used as materials for sludge are: duralumin material. Duralumin is another name for aluminum & copper alloy (Al / Cu) with a Cu content of about 4 %. Making sludge powder duralumin with powder metallurgical methods can improve the qu...

  9. Use of dry sludge from waste water treatment plants as an additive in prefabricated concrete brick

    OpenAIRE

    Yagüe, A.; Valls, S.; Vázquez, E.; Kuchinow, V.

    2002-01-01

    Dry sludge from the Sabadell Water Treatment Plant was used to prepare prefabricated concrete bricks. After characterising the sludge and the manufacturing process used to make the bricks, we define the conditions of addition of the sludges in the manufacture. Reference samples not containing sludge and samples containing 2 % of dry sludge by cement weight were prepared. The variation in density, porosity, absorption coefficient and compressive strength of the bricks with the presence of...

  10. ‘Stop Fake Hate Profiles on Facebook’: Challenges for crowdsourced activism in social media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farkas, Johan; Neumayer, Christina

    2017-01-01

    This research examines how activists mobilise against fake hate profiles on Facebook. Based on six months of participant observation, this paper demonstrates how Danish Facebook users organised to combat fictitious Muslim profiles that spurred hatred against ethnic minorities. Crowdsourced action...

  11. Systematic survey for monitor signals to reduce fake burst events in a gravitational-wave detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishidoshiro, Koji; Ando, Masaki; Tsubono, Kimio

    2006-01-01

    We present methods and results to reduce fake burst events induced by nonstationary noises. To reduce these fake events, we systematically surveyed monitor signals recorded with a main (or gravitational-wave) signal of a gravitational-wave detector so as to watch the detector. Our survey was to check whether or not there was a coincidence between the main and monitor signals when we found a burst event from the main signal. If there was a coincidence, we rejected this event as a fake event induced by nonstationary noises, regarding the main signal as being dominated by nonstationary noises. As a result, we succeeded to reject about 90% of the burst events of which the SNR values were larger than 10 as fake events, with an accidental probability of about 5% to reject burst-gravitational-wave candidates

  12. Cerebral correlates of faking: evidence from a brief implicit association test on doping attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Sebastian; Wolff, Wanja; Kissler, Johanna M; Brand, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Direct assessment of attitudes toward socially sensitive topics can be affected by deception attempts. Reaction-time based indirect measures, such as the Implicit Association Test (IAT), are less susceptible to such biases. Neuroscientific evidence shows that deception can evoke characteristic ERP differences. However, the cerebral processes involved in faking an IAT are still unknown. We randomly assigned 20 university students (15 females, 24.65 ± 3.50 years of age) to a counterbalanced repeated-measurements design, requesting them to complete a Brief-IAT (BIAT) on attitudes toward doping without deception instruction, and with the instruction to fake positive and negative doping attitudes. Cerebral activity during BIAT completion was assessed using high-density EEG. Event-related potentials during faking revealed enhanced frontal and reduced occipital negativity, starting around 150 ms after stimulus presentation. Further, a decrease in the P300 and LPP components was observed. Source analyses showed enhanced activity in the right inferior frontal gyrus between 150 and 200 ms during faking, thought to reflect the suppression of automatic responses. Further, more activity was found for faking in the bilateral middle occipital gyri and the bilateral temporoparietal junction. Results indicate that faking reaction-time based tests alter brain processes from early stages of processing and reveal the cortical sources of the effects. Analyzing the EEG helps to uncover response patterns in indirect attitude tests and broadens our understanding of the neural processes involved in such faking. This knowledge might be useful for uncovering faking in socially sensitive contexts, where attitudes are likely to be concealed.

  13. Uninstructed BIAT faking when ego depleted or in normal state: differential effect on brain and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Wanja; Schindler, Sebastian; Englert, Christoph; Brand, Ralf; Kissler, Johanna

    2016-05-03

    Deception can distort psychological tests on socially sensitive topics. Understanding the cerebral processes that are involved in such faking can be useful in detection and prevention of deception. Previous research shows that faking a brief implicit association test (BIAT) evokes a characteristic ERP response. It is not yet known whether temporarily available self-control resources moderate this response. We randomly assigned 22 participants (15 females, 24.23 ± 2.91 years old) to a counterbalanced repeated-measurements design. Participants first completed a Brief-IAT (BIAT) on doping attitudes as a baseline measure and were then instructed to fake a negative doping attitude both when self-control resources were depleted and non-depleted. Cerebral activity during BIAT performance was assessed using high-density EEG. Compared to the baseline BIAT, event-related potentials showed a first interaction at the parietal P1, while significant post hoc differences were found only at the later occurring late positive potential. Here, significantly decreased amplitudes were recorded for 'normal' faking, but not in the depletion condition. In source space, enhanced activity was found for 'normal' faking in the bilateral temporoparietal junction. Behaviorally, participants were successful in faking the BIAT successfully in both conditions. Results indicate that temporarily available self-control resources do not affect overt faking success on a BIAT. However, differences were found on an electrophysiological level. This indicates that while on a phenotypical level self-control resources play a negligible role in deliberate test faking the underlying cerebral processes are markedly different.

  14. Development of pathogen risk assessment models for the evaluation of sludge management alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeager, J.G.; Sheridan, R.E.; Ward, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    The constraints imposed on sewage treatment and disposal by clean air and water legislation make it clear that, in the near future, there will be increasing amounts of sewage sludge and fewer alternatives for its disposal. Additionally, this legislation has encouraged the use of waste management procedures which emphasize the recycling of waste materials. Decisions regarding optimal methods of sludge handling will primarily be controlled by economic considerations including the intrinsic value of the sludge, the cost of transporting sludge and sludge products, and the degree of treatment necessary to make the sludge suitable for particular applications. One principal reason to treat sludge is to inactivate pathogens. However, the actual health risks posed by pathogenic species that result from different methods of sludge utilization and how these risks are affected by different treatment processes are poorly understood. Therefore, computerized models are being developed to describe pathogen transport through environmental pathways and to help predict the risk of certain sludge utilization practices

  15. Biological degradation of oil sludge: A review of the current state of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The adverse effects of oil sludge on soil ecology and fertility have been of ... of contaminated land, with a view to making such land available for further use. Oil ... on the biological remediation technologies employed in the treatment oil sludge.

  16. Elimination of pathogenic microorganisms contained in sewage sludge by different anaerobic digestion technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Morales, J. A.; Hernandez Lehmann, A.; Herandez Munoz, A. F.

    2010-01-01

    sewage sludge should be treated to facilitate handling and avoid possible problems like the smell of pathogens. These treatments modify the properties of the sludge making them more suitable for reuse or disposal. (Author) 5 refs.

  17. How ‘Fake News’ Affects Autism Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mickey Keenan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Since autism was first recognised, prevalence has increased rapidly. The growing economic as well as social cost to families and society can only be mitigated by effective interventions and supports. It is, therefore, not surprising that there is much heated debate and most governments have developed public policies to address the management of autism. This paper describes how well-known ‘propaganda’ techniques, that have become prevalent in the helping professions have been used to influence autism policies by spreading ‘fake news’ about the scientific discipline of Applied Behaviour Analysis (ABA. Over the past 40–50 years, meaningful evidence has accrued showing that interventions based on ABA can help people with autism reach their potential. In view of this, nearly all of North America has laws to mandate that ABA-based interventions are available through their health care systems. In contrast, across Europe there are no such laws. In fact, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE, the body guiding health and social policy in the UK, concluded that it could not find any evidence to support ABA, and therefore could not recommend it. This paper addresses the reasons for these diametrically opposed perspectives.

  18. Fake Publishing, Alternative Facts and Truthiness: Observations from a Conversation Café Held at CHLA/ABSC 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Melody Campbell

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Issues of fake information are buffeting all libraries.  In health libraries, where the quality of evidence is critical to the care of individuals, understanding the extent and nature of fake information and how to manage it is paramount.  However, the area is volatile, the challenges change frequently, and librarian practices for managing fake information are in constant flux as everyone attempts to keep up.  This session was designed to give health librarians an opportunity to spend an intensive hour discussing issues related to fake information, to learn about new developments in the field, and to network with colleagues.

  19. Futures, fakes and discourses of the gigantic and miniature in ‘The World’ islands, Dubai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamila Gupta

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article takes the “island” as a key trope in tourism studies, exploring how ideas of culture and nature, as well as those of paradise (lost are central to its interpretation for tourists and tourist industries alike. Increasingly, however, island tourism is blurring the line between geographies of land and water, continent and archipelago, and private and public property. The case of ‘The World’ islands mega project off the coast of Dubai (UAE is used to chart the changing face and future of island tourism, exploring how spectacle, branding and discourses of the gigantic, miniature, and fake, particularly alongside technological mediations on a large-scale, reflect the postmodern neoliberal world of tourism and the liquid times in which we live. Artificial island complexes such as this one function as cosmopolitan ‘non-places’ at the same time that they reflect a resurgence in (British nascent nationalism and colonial nostalgia, all the whilst operating in a sea of ‘junkspace’. The shifting cartography of ‘the island’ is thus mapped out to suggest new forms of place-making and tourism’s evolving relationship to these floating islandscapes.

  20. Predatory and fake scientific journals/publishers: A global outbreak with rising trend: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukić Tin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent times some publishers are intensively exploiting the model of open access publishing. During the last several years, studies have shown that there was a substantial increase in the number of fake publishers and hijacked journals. These cyber criminals make money by stealing the identities of legitimate journals and collecting the article processing charges on the papers that are submitted. This is all accomplished by a well developed framework that includes web development steps, intensive e-mail marketing and victim selections. This review article strives to recommend that the Beall's list of predatory publishers and journals should be consulted every time when an author plans to submit scientific work to some of the journals that are indexed by Thomson Reuters/Institute for Scientific Information-ISI and covered by the Journal Citation Report. Also, the authors are advised to be 'up to date' with new information regarding this controversial topic by informing themselves through various web-sites and specialized scientific portals. The review paper itself strives to summarize the most recent investigations on predatory and spurious journals/publishers which affect the entire scientific community, thus representing an outbreak with rising trend not only on national and regional level, but on global level as well.

  1. THE IMPAIRMENT of CITIZEN'S RIGHT TO INFORMATION BY "FAKE NEWS" PUBLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina V. POPESCU

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In the context of an international society ever-evolving in the rapid development of information technology, there is a need to obtain information in a shorter time, which sometimes can lead to data being taken as real, without further verifying their trustworthiness. The citizen’s right to information, a fundamental one, indissolubly bound to the existence of a democratic society, has been applied in both international documents and the fundamental law. In order for the citizen to be able to make informed decisions and to participate to social life, they need information from various social fields. The need for information has become more and more acute as the surplus of information on the market has become increasingly obvious. In this social context, the temptation of manipulating information, and more seriously that of breaking false news into the media market, which in the speed of everyday life, the citizen no longer has the time or the patience to check, appears more and more. The development of false information is facilitated by social media, by its barrier-free movement in the context of the information society. From the point of view of the study, I intend to analyse the manner in which information manipulation and the socalled "fake news" impair the right to information, undermine democracy and which the limits, in this case, of freedom of expression, are or should be.

  2. Design of a portable electronic nose for real-fake detection of liquors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Pei-Feng; Zeng, Ming; Li, Zhi-Hua; Sun, Biao; Meng, Qing-Hao

    2017-09-01

    Portability is a major issue that influences the practical application of electronic noses (e-noses). For liquors detection, an e-nose must preprocess the liquid samples (e.g., using evaporation and thermal desorption), which makes the portable design even more difficult. To realize convenient and rapid detection of liquors, we designed a portable e-nose platform that consists of hardware and software systems. The hardware system contains an evaporation/sampling module, a reaction module, a control/data acquisition and analysis module, and a power module. The software system provides a user-friendly interface and can achieve automatic sampling and data processing. This e-nose platform has been applied to the real-fake recognition of Chinese liquors. Through parameter optimization of a one-class support vector machine classifier, the error rate of the negative samples is greatly reduced, and the overall recognition accuracy is improved. The results validated the feasibility of the designed portable e-nose platform.

  3. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT PHASE 1 SLUDGE STORAGE OPTIONS. ASSESSMENT OF T PLANT VERSUS ALTERNATE STORAGE FACILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutherford, W.W.; Geuther, W.J.; Strankman, M.R.; Conrad, E.A.; Rhoadarmer, D.D.; Black, D.M.; Pottmeyer, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    The CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) has recommended to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) a two phase approach for removal and storage (Phase 1) and treatment and packaging for offsite shipment (Phase 2) of the sludge currently stored within the 105-K West Basin. This two phased strategy enables early removal of sludge from the 105-K West Basin by 2015, allowing remediation of historical unplanned releases of waste and closure of the 100-K Area. In Phase 1, the sludge currently stored in the Engineered Containers and Settler Tanks within the 105-K West Basin will be transferred into sludge transport and storage containers (STSCs). The STSCs will be transported to an interim storage facility. In Phase 2, sludge will be processed (treated) to meet shipping and disposal requirements and the sludge will be packaged for final disposal at a geologic repository. The purpose of this study is to evaluate two alternatives for interim Phase 1 storage of K Basin sludge. The cost, schedule, and risks for sludge storage at a newly-constructed Alternate Storage Facility (ASF) are compared to those at T Plant, which has been used previously for sludge storage. Based on the results of the assessment, T Plant is recommended for Phase 1 interim storage of sludge. Key elements that support this recommendation are the following: (1) T Plant has a proven process for storing sludge; (2) T Plant storage can be implemented at a lower incremental cost than the ASF; and (3) T Plant storage has a more favorable schedule profile, which provides more float, than the ASF. Underpinning the recommendation of T Plant for sludge storage is the assumption that T Plant has a durable, extended mission independent of the K Basin sludge interim storage mission. If this assumption cannot be validated and the operating costs of T Plant are borne by the Sludge Treatment Project, the conclusions and recommendations of this study would change. The following decision-making strategy, which is

  4. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT PHASE 1 SLUDGE STORAGE OPTIONS ASSESSMENT OF T PLANT VERSUS ALTERNATE STORAGE FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RUTHERFORD WW; GEUTHER WJ; STRANKMAN MR; CONRAD EA; RHOADARMER DD; BLACK DM; POTTMEYER JA

    2009-04-29

    The CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) has recommended to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) a two phase approach for removal and storage (Phase 1) and treatment and packaging for offsite shipment (Phase 2) of the sludge currently stored within the 105-K West Basin. This two phased strategy enables early removal of sludge from the 105-K West Basin by 2015, allowing remediation of historical unplanned releases of waste and closure of the 100-K Area. In Phase 1, the sludge currently stored in the Engineered Containers and Settler Tanks within the 105-K West Basin will be transferred into sludge transport and storage containers (STSCs). The STSCs will be transported to an interim storage facility. In Phase 2, sludge will be processed (treated) to meet shipping and disposal requirements and the sludge will be packaged for final disposal at a geologic repository. The purpose of this study is to evaluate two alternatives for interim Phase 1 storage of K Basin sludge. The cost, schedule, and risks for sludge storage at a newly-constructed Alternate Storage Facility (ASF) are compared to those at T Plant, which has been used previously for sludge storage. Based on the results of the assessment, T Plant is recommended for Phase 1 interim storage of sludge. Key elements that support this recommendation are the following: (1) T Plant has a proven process for storing sludge; (2) T Plant storage can be implemented at a lower incremental cost than the ASF; and (3) T Plant storage has a more favorable schedule profile, which provides more float, than the ASF. Underpinning the recommendation of T Plant for sludge storage is the assumption that T Plant has a durable, extended mission independent of the K Basin sludge interim storage mission. If this assumption cannot be validated and the operating costs of T Plant are borne by the Sludge Treatment Project, the conclusions and recommendations of this study would change. The following decision-making strategy, which is

  5. The Costs of Hiding and Faking Emotions: The Case of Extraverts and Introverts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seger-Guttmann, Tali; Medler-Liraz, Hana

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the moderation effects of extraversion on the relationships between hiding and faking emotions, perceived satisfaction from intimate relationships, and reported physical health concerns. Four hundred and four Israeli participants, who were all involved in intimate relationships at the time of the study, responded to the Extraversion scale from the Big-Five Inventory, the DEELS to measure hiding and faking emotions, the SELF to assess physical health concerns, and the short version of the ENRICH to evaluate perceived satisfaction with intimate relationships. The mean age was 32.3 years (SD = 8.2); and the average length of time as a couple was 7.8 years (SD = 8.2). Of the participants, 198 were married (48.5%). The findings indicate that the effect of hiding negative emotions was stronger for perceived satisfaction with intimate relationships and physical health concerns than that for faking positive emotions. Extraverts who showed a higher frequency of hiding their negative emotions were significantly less satisfied with their relationships than introverts and they also tended to report more concerns with their physical health. These results were not found when extraverts reported a high frequency of faking positive emotions. These results are discussed in the context of the trait-behavior-concordance model and stress the importance of distinguishing faking from hiding.

  6. Process for treating waters and sludges and device for developing this process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levaillant, Claude.

    1977-01-01

    The description is given of a process for treating waters and sludge by means of a ionizing radiation beam, featuring the following stages: settlement of primary waters and sludge, centrifugation of the settled waters and sludge in order to separate the waste waters, the sludge formed of organic compounds charged with heavy metals and the sludge formed of mineral compounds, irradiation, by ionizing radiation beam, of the sludge formed of organic compounds, containing heavy metals, and which are transformed into less toxic and denser recoverable mineral compounds, centrifugation of the irradiated sludge making it possible to obtain clarified waters treated by irradiation, sludge composed of organic compounds freed of their heavy metals and sludge formed of mineral compounds containing heavy metals and which will be easily separated owing to their high density [fr

  7. O fake fotográfico: simulações irônicas

    OpenAIRE

    Emérito, Matheus Barbosa

    2012-01-01

    Esta pesquisa traz um estudo sobre fake fotográfico, cada dia mais presente na imprensa e na publicidade mundiais. O termo fake é utilizado por abranger das produções falsas até aquelas que apenas simulam, sem ter como prioridade a intenção de enganar. Com o objetivo de comprovar o potencial do fake fotográfico, como elemento de crítica ao suporte midiático em que também está inserido, este trabalho fez uma distinção entre os conceitos de falsificação e simulação. As fotogra...

  8. The inverse relation between psychopathy and faking good: Not response bias but true variance in psychopathic personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuere, B.; Uzieblo, K.; De Schryver, M.; Douma, H.; Onraedt, T.; Crombez, G.

    2014-01-01

    The possibility to assess psychopathy through self-report is debated, amongst others, because psychopathic individuals may deliberately underreport psychopathic features (fake good). Meta-analytic research has shown an inverse relation between faking good and self-reported psychopathy, possibly

  9. The Challenge That's Bigger than Fake News: Civic Reasoning in a Social Media Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrew, Sarah; Ortega, Teresa; Breakstone, Joel; Wineburg, Sam

    2017-01-01

    Since the November 2016 presidential election, coverage of "fake news" has been everywhere. It's hard to turn on the TV without hearing the term. Google and Facebook have pitched plans for fighting the menace. State legislators have even introduced bills to mandate K-12 instruction on the topic. Fake news is certainly a problem. Sadly,…

  10. Sustainable Development of Sewage Sludge-to-Energy in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Liang, Hanwei; Dong, Liang

    2017-01-01

    ) to identify the critical barriers that hinder the sustainable development of sludge-to-energy industry in China and to investigate the cause-effect relationships among these barriers. Accordingly, some policy implications for promoting the sustainable development of sludge-to-energy industry in China were......In order to promote the sustainable development of sludge-to-energy industry and help the decision-makers/stakeholders to select the most sustainable technology for achieving the sludge-to-energy target, this study aims at using grey Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL...

  11. Use of sewage sludge for agriculture in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumazawa, K.

    1997-01-01

    In Japan, the use of sewage sludge and composted sewage sludge is gradually increasing. They are applied not only to agricultural land, but also to golf courses, parks, etc. The presence of heavy metals and pathogens poses a major problem for such utilization of sludge. Composting is a traditional method of sewage treatment. Laws have been introduced and guidelines prepared for proper and safe use of these materials by farmers. Public acceptance plays a crucial role. At a time when environmental preservation is a major issue in almost every aspect of life, greater emphasis will have to be placed on making sludge and compost hygienically acceptable with minimum contamination from pathogenic organisms and heavy metals. The advantages of using sludges as fertilizer for improving and sustaining soil fertility and crop production are many. This paper reviews studies conducted on the use of sewage sludge in agriculture in japan. (author)

  12. Fast neural-net based fake track rejection in the LHCb reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    De Cian, Michel; Seyfert, Paul; Stahl, Sascha

    2017-01-01

    A neural-network based algorithm to identify fake tracks in the LHCb pattern recognition is presented. This algorithm, called ghost probability, retains more than 99 % of well reconstructed tracks while reducing the number of fake tracks by 60 %. It is fast enough to fit into the CPU time budget of the software trigger farm and thus reduces the combinatorics of the decay reconstructions, as well as the number of tracks that need to be processed by the particle identification algorithms. As a result, it strongly contributes to the achievement of having the same reconstruction online and offline in the LHCb experiment in Run II of the LHC.

  13. Fake news and post-truth pronouncements in general and in early human development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, Victor

    2017-12-01

    Fake news and post-truth pronouncements are increasingly common, and are unfortunately also progressively being applied to the sciences, including the medical sciences. This editorial briefly reviews this unsavoury trend and highlights recent debunking of fake truths in early human development. Science is arguably the last metanarrative with any significant cachet in the postmodern period. We, as scientists, must strive to ensure that our work is transparent and of the highest possible standard so as to continue to uphold science's integrity and probity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. In a World That Counts: Clustering and Detecting Fake Social Engagement at Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yixuan; Martinez, Oscar; Chen, Xing; Li, Yi; Hopcroft, John

    2015-01-01

    How can web services that depend on user generated content discern fake social engagement activities by spammers from legitimate ones? In this paper, we focus on the social site of YouTube and the problem of identifying bad actors posting inorganic contents and inflating the count of social engagement metrics. We propose an effective method, Leas (Local Expansion at Scale), and show how the fake engagement activities on YouTube can be tracked over time by analyzing the temporal graph based on...

  15. Fake Plate Vehicle Auditing Based on Composite Constraints in Internet of Things Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shasha; Xiangji Huang, Jimmy; Tohti, Turdi

    2018-03-01

    Accordance to the real application demands, this paper proposes a fake plate vehicle auditing method based on composite constrains strategy, a corresponding simulated IOT (internet of things) environment was created and uses liner matrix, Base64 encryption and grid monitoring technology and puts forward a real-time detecting algorithm for fake plate vehicles. The developed real system not only shows the superiority on its speed, detection accuracy and visualization, it also be good at realizing the vehicle’s real-time position and predicting the possible traveling trajectory.

  16. Sludge recovery apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmo, A.R.

    1979-01-01

    An improved design of a sludge recovery apparatus used in the fabrication of nuclear fuel is described. This apparatus provides for automatic separation of sludge from the grinder coolant, drying of the sludge into a flowable powder and transfer of the dry powder to a salvage container. It can be constructed to comply with criticality-safe-geometry requirements and to obviate need for operating personnel in its immediate vicinity. (UK)

  17. Make

    CERN Document Server

    Frauenfelder, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The first magazine devoted entirely to do-it-yourself technology projects presents its 29th quarterly edition for people who like to tweak, disassemble, recreate, and invent cool new uses for technology. MAKE Volume 29 takes bio-hacking to a new level. Get introduced to DIY tracking devices before they hit the consumer electronics marketplace. Learn how to build an EKG machine to study your heartbeat, and put together a DIY bio lab to study athletic motion using consumer grade hardware.

  18. T84. DO SIMILAR COGNITIVE MECHANISMS ENCOURAGE DELUSION-LIKE IDEATION AND BELIEF IN FAKE NEWS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronstein, Michael; Pennycook, Gordon; Bear, Adam; Cannon, Tyrone; Rand, David

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background Increasingly, the positive symptoms of psychosis are recognized as being on a continuum with phenomena that are experienced by many members of the general population (i.e., non-clinical samples). Delusions are no exception. These fixed false beliefs, which are common in individuals with psychosis, are echoed by inflexible false beliefs in the general population that have delusion-like qualities (e.g., belief in clairvoyance). In a series of studies, we sought to determine whether belief in a particular type of disinformation (fake news) might represent a point on the same continuum as delusions and delusion-like ideation. To this end, we examined whether individuals who endorsed more delusion-like ideation were also more prone to believing fake news. We then examined whether the cognitive mechanisms behind any relationship between delusion-like ideation and fake news were similar to those associated with delusion-like ideation generally. Methods 503 participants were recruited using Amazon’s Mechanical Turk (MTurk). Participants completed a test of ability to discriminate real from fake news along with several individual difference measures. These included measures of delusion-like ideation (the Peters et al. Delusion Inventory [PDI]), engagement in analytic thinking (the Cognitive Reflection Test [CRT]), and the degree to which one values evidence in forming and revising beliefs (the Actively Open-Minded Thinking Questionnaire [AOT]). Mediation tests were conducted using the PROCESS macro for SPSS (model 4, with 5000 bootstrapped samples and bias-corrected 95% confidence intervals). Results Delusion-like ideation was positively correlated with belief in fake news (rho(501) = .20, p fake news and delusion-like ideation was partially explained by lower levels of analytic thinking ability (as measured by the CRT; completely standardized 95% CI = [.02 .07]) and lower evidence valuation (as measured by AOT scores; completely standardized 95% CI

  19. Sewage sludge irradiators: Batch and continuous flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavale, D.S.; George, J.R.; Shah, M.R.; Rawat, K.P.

    1998-01-01

    The potential threat to the environment imposed by high pathogenic organism content in municipal wastewater, especially the sludge and the world-wide growing aspirations for a cleaner, salubrious environment have made it mandatory for the sewage and sludge to undergo treatment, prior to their ultimate disposal to mother nature. Incapabilities associated with the conventional wastewater treatments to mitigate the problem of microorganisms have made it necessary to look for other alternatives, radiation treatment being the most reliable, rapid and environmentally sustainable of them. To promote the use of radiation for the sludge hygienization, Department of Atomic Energy has endeavoured to set up an indigenous, Sludge Hygienization Research Irradiator (SHRI) in the city of Baroda. Designed for 18.5 PBq of 60 Co to disinfect the digested sludge, the irradiator has additional provision for treatment of effluent and raw sewage. From engineering standpoint, all the subsystems have been functioning satisfactorily since its commissioning in 1990. Prolonged studies, spanning over a period of six years, primarily focused on inactivation of microorganism revealed that 3 kGy dose of gamma radiation is adequate to make the sludge pathogen and odour-free. A dose of 1.6 kGy in raw sewage and 0.5 kGy in effluent reduced coliform counts down to the regulatory discharge limits. These observations reflect a possible cost-effective solution to the burgeoning problem of surface water pollution across the globe. In the past, sub 37 PBq 60 Co batch irradiators have been designed and commissioned successfully for the treatment of sludge. Characterized with low dose delivery rates they are well-suited for treating low volumes of sludge in batches. Some concepts of continuous flow 60 Co irradiators having larger activities, yet simple and economic in design, are presented in the paper

  20. Ethical considerations when employing fake identities in online social networks for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elovici, Yuval; Fire, Michael; Herzberg, Amir; Shulman, Haya

    2014-12-01

    Online social networks (OSNs) have rapidly become a prominent and widely used service, offering a wealth of personal and sensitive information with significant security and privacy implications. Hence, OSNs are also an important--and popular--subject for research. To perform research based on real-life evidence, however, researchers may need to access OSN data, such as texts and files uploaded by users and connections among users. This raises significant ethical problems. Currently, there are no clear ethical guidelines, and researchers may end up (unintentionally) performing ethically questionable research, sometimes even when more ethical research alternatives exist. For example, several studies have employed "fake identities" to collect data from OSNs, but fake identities may be used for attacks and are considered a security issue. Is it legitimate to use fake identities for studying OSNs or for collecting OSN data for research? We present a taxonomy of the ethical challenges facing researchers of OSNs and compare different approaches. We demonstrate how ethical considerations have been taken into account in previous studies that used fake identities. In addition, several possible approaches are offered to reduce or avoid ethical misconducts. We hope this work will stimulate the development and use of ethical practices and methods in the research of online social networks.

  1. Situational Judgment Tests and Their Predictiveness of College Students' Success: The Influence of Faking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Helga; Lievens, Filip

    2005-01-01

    There is increasing interest in using situational judgment tests (SJTs) to supplement traditional student admission procedures. An important unexplored issue is whether students can intentionally distort or fake their responses on SJTs. This study examined the fakability of an SJT of college students' performance. Two hundred ninety-three…

  2. Measurement of fake rates for hadronically decaying τ leptons in the ATLAS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreyer, Timo; Janus, Michel; Lai, Stan [II. Physikalisches Institut, Georg-August-Universitaet Goettingen (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The τ lepton is the heaviest lepton in the standard model and an important probe of physics at high energy scales. The joint observation of the H → ττ signal in 2015 by the CMS and ATLAS experiments, for example, was the first direct observation of the Higgs boson coupling to fermions. For signatures involving hadronically decaying τ leptons, it is important to have a good understanding of the τ reconstruction and identification algorithms that are used for data analysis in the ATLAS experiment. In particular, the probability for jets originating from quarks and gluons to be misidentified as hadronically decaying τ leptons (the so-called fake rate), is important for background estimation from a variety of sources. This fake rate depends on many kinematic variables, as well as the quark-gluon composition of the process in question. This talk presents an approach using 13 TeV ATLAS data, to measure the fake rate using the tag-and-probe technique. The dependence of the fake rate on the above mentioned factors is also discussed.

  3. 77 FR 48198 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Faking It: Manipulated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-13

    ... exhibition ``Faking It: Manipulated Photography Before Photoshop,'' imported from abroad for temporary... exhibit objects at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, New York, from on or about October 11, 2012... February 17, 2013, until on or about May 5, 2013, the Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, Texas, from on or about...

  4. K basins sludge removal sludge pretreatment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, H.L.

    1997-01-01

    The Spent Nuclear Fuels Program is in the process of planning activities to remove spent nuclear fuel and other materials from the 100-K Basins as a remediation effort for clean closure. The 105 K- East and K-West Basins store spent fuel, sludge, and debris. Sludge has accumulated in the 1 00 K Basins as a result of fuel oxidation and a slight amount of general debris being deposited, by settling, in the basin water. The ultimate intent in removing the sludge and fuel is to eliminate the environmental risk posed by storing fuel at the K Basins. The task for this project is to disposition specific constituents of sludge (metallic fuel) to produce a product stream through a pretreatment process that will meet the requirements, including a final particle size acceptable to the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS). The purpose of this task is to develop a preconceptual design package for the K Basin sludge pretreatment system. The process equipment/system is at a preconceptual stage, as shown in sketch ES-SNF-01 , while a more refined process system and material/energy balances are ongoing (all sketches are shown in Appendix C). Thus, the overall process and 0535 associated equipment have been conservatively selected and sized, respectively, to establish the cost basis and equipment layout as shown in sketches ES- SNF-02 through 08

  5. Respirometry in activated sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spanjers, H.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the study was (1) to develop a respiration meter capable of continuously measuring, using different procedures, the oxygen uptake rate of activated sludge and (2) to expand knowledge about respiration related characteristics of wastewater and activated sludge.

    A

  6. Carbon-14 in sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, J.R.; Coleman, C.J.

    1983-01-01

    The level of C-14 in high-level waste is needed to establish the amount of C-14 that will be released to the environment either as off-gas from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) or as a component of saltstone. Available experimental data confirmed a low level of C-14 in soluble waste, but no data was available for sludge. Based on the processes used in each area, Purex LAW sludge in F-area and HM HAW sludge in H-area will contain the bulk of any sludge produced by the cladding. Accordingly, samples from Tank 8F containing Purex LAW and Tank 15H containing HM HAW were obtained and analyzed for C-14. These two waste types constitute approximately 70% of the total sludge inventory now stored in the waste tanks. Results from analyses of these two sludge types show: the total C-14 inventory in sludge now stored in the waste tanks is 6.8 Ci; C-14 releases to the atmosphere from the DWPF will average approximately 0.6 Ci annually at the projected sludge processing rate in the DWPF. 4 references, 2 tables

  7. Lazy, not biased: Susceptibility to partisan fake news is better explained by lack of reasoning than by motivated reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennycook, Gordon; Rand, David G

    2018-06-20

    Why do people believe blatantly inaccurate news headlines ("fake news")? Do we use our reasoning abilities to convince ourselves that statements that align with our ideology are true, or does reasoning allow us to effectively differentiate fake from real regardless of political ideology? Here we test these competing accounts in two studies (total N = 3446 Mechanical Turk workers) by using the Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT) as a measure of the propensity to engage in analytical reasoning. We find that CRT performance is negatively correlated with the perceived accuracy of fake news, and positively correlated with the ability to discern fake news from real news - even for headlines that align with individuals' political ideology. Moreover, overall discernment was actually better for ideologically aligned headlines than for misaligned headlines. Finally, a headline-level analysis finds that CRT is negatively correlated with perceived accuracy of relatively implausible (primarily fake) headlines, and positively correlated with perceived accuracy of relatively plausible (primarily real) headlines. In contrast, the correlation between CRT and perceived accuracy is unrelated to how closely the headline aligns with the participant's ideology. Thus, we conclude that analytic thinking is used to assess the plausibility of headlines, regardless of whether the stories are consistent or inconsistent with one's political ideology. Our findings therefore suggest that susceptibility to fake news is driven more by lazy thinking than it is by partisan bias per se - a finding that opens potential avenues for fighting fake news. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Bisecting real and fake body parts: effects of prism adaptation after right brain damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia eBolognini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The representation of body parts holds a special status in the brain, due to their prototypical shape and the contribution of multisensory (visual and somatosensory-proprioceptive information. In a previous study (Sposito et al., 2010, we showed that patients with left unilateral spatial neglect exhibit a rightward bias in setting the mid-point of their left forearm, which becomes larger when bisecting a cylindrical object comparable in size. This body part advantage, found also in control participants, suggests partly different processes for computing the extent of body parts and objects. In this study we tested 16 right-brain-damaged patients, and 10 unimpaired participants, on a manual bisection task of their own (real left forearm, or a size-matched fake forearm. We then explored the effects of adaptation to rightward displacing prism exposure, which brings about leftward aftereffects. We found that all participants showed prism adaptation and aftereffects, with right-brain-damaged patients exhibiting a reduction of the rightward bias for both real and fake forearm, with no overall differences between them. Second, correlation analyses highlighted the role of visual and proprioceptive information for the metrics of body parts. Third, single-patient analyses showed dissociations between real and fake forearm bisections, and the effects of prism adaptation, as well as a more frequent impairment with fake body parts. In sum, the rightward bias shown by right-brain-damaged patients in bisecting body parts is reduced by prism exposure, as other components of the neglect syndrome; discrete spatial representations for real and fake body parts, for which visual and proprioceptive codes play different roles, are likely to exist. Multisensory information seems to render self bodily segments more resistant to the disruption brought about by right-hemisphere injury.

  9. Fake News: A Technological Approach to Proving the Origins of Content, Using Blockchains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckle, Steve; White, Martin

    2017-12-01

    In this article, we introduce a prototype of an innovative technology for proving the origins of captured digital media. In an era of fake news, when someone shows us a video or picture of some event, how can we trust its authenticity? It seems that the public no longer believe that traditional media is a reliable reference of fact, perhaps due, in part, to the onset of many diverse sources of conflicting information, via social media. Indeed, the issue of "fake" reached a crescendo during the 2016 U.S. Presidential Election, when the winner, Donald Trump, claimed that The New York Times was trying to discredit him by pushing disinformation. Current research into overcoming the problem of fake news does not focus on establishing the ownership of media resources used in such stories-the blockchain-based application introduced in this article is technology that is capable of indicating the authenticity of digital media. Put simply, using the trust mechanisms of blockchain technology, the tool can show, beyond doubt, the provenance of any source of digital media, including images used out of context in attempts to mislead. Although the application is an early prototype and its capability to find fake resources is somewhat limited, we outline future improvements that would overcome such limitations. Furthermore, we believe that our application (and its use of blockchain technology and standardized metadata) introduces a novel approach to overcoming falsities in news reporting and the provenance of media resources used therein. However, while our application has the potential to be able to verify the originality of media resources, we believe that technology is only capable of providing a partial solution to fake news. That is because it is incapable of proving the authenticity of a news story as a whole. We believe that takes human skills.

  10. Supercritical water gasification of sewage sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aye, L.; Yamaguchi, D. [Melbourne Univ. International Technologies Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2006-07-01

    Supercritical water gasification (SCWG) is an attractive technology for producing fuels from biomass and waste materials. As a result of greenhouse gas emissions and issues related to local air pollutants, hydrogen production from these renewable energy resources has been gaining in popularity. Disposal of sewage sludge is another environmental problem that have led to severe regulations. Incineration has been one of the most commonly used means of sewage sludge disposal. Thermal gasification produces gaseous fuel, making it a better option over incineration. However, due to its high moisture content, this process is not feasible to make use of sewage sludge directly. In order to analyze SCWG of sewage sludge, it has been determined that equilibrium analysis is most suitable since the maximum achievable amount of hydrogen in a given reacting condition can be estimated. The equilibrium model can be divided into two types of models, namely stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric. This paper presented the results of a study that used a computer program to develop a nonstoichiometric model with the direct Gibbs free energy minimization technique. In addition, various biomass were simulated for comparisons in order to identify if sewage sludge is a potential feedstock for hydrogen production. Last, the effects of reaction pressure and temperature on product distribution were also examined. It was shown that the proposed model is capable of estimating the product distribution at equilibrium. 33 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs.

  11. Activated sludge model No. 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gujer, W.; Henze, M.; Mino, T.

    1999-01-01

    The Activated Sludge Model No. 3 (ASM3) can predict oxygen consumption, sludge production, nitrification and denitrification of activated sludge systems. It relates to the Activated Sludge Model No. 1 (ASM1) and corrects for some defects of ASM I. In addition to ASM1, ASM3 includes storage of org...

  12. Sludge minimization technologies - an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oedegaard, Hallvard

    2003-07-01

    The management of wastewater sludge from wastewater treatment plants represents one of the major challenges in wastewater treatment today. The cost of the sludge treatment amounts to more that the cost of the liquid in many cases. Therefore the focus on and interest in sludge minimization is steadily increasing. In the paper an overview is given for sludge minimization (sludge mass reduction) options. It is demonstrated that sludge minimization may be a result of reduced production of sludge and/or disintegration processes that may take place both in the wastewater treatment stage and in the sludge stage. Various sludge disintegration technologies for sludge minimization are discussed, including mechanical methods (focusing on stirred ball-mill, high-pressure homogenizer, ultrasonic disintegrator), chemical methods (focusing on the use of ozone), physical methods (focusing on thermal and thermal/chemical hydrolysis) and biological methods (focusing on enzymatic processes). (author)

  13. Survey of radiation effect on sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M'selmi, Nadia Ammar

    2005-01-01

    The high nutrient and organic matter contents of sewage sludge make it a useful soil amandment for famers. the presence of heavy metals and pathogens poses a major problem for utilisation of sladge to agriculture land. Radiation is a convenable method of sewage treatment. (author)

  14. Dewatering of sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bode, P.

    1984-01-01

    A filter rig has been designed and built. Simulated magnox and alumino ferric hydroxide sludges have been successfully filtered on this equipment and both types of sludge produced a clear filtrate and a cake. The flow rates were low. The cake often partially remained adhered to the filter membrane instead of dropping clear during the filter cleaning cycle. This filtration technique can only be used on sludges which form a non-binding cake. Permeability of the membrane can be altered by stretching. Irradiation of the membrane showed that it should withstand 20 to 50 M.rads. (author)

  15. A Method for Measuring Sludge Settling Characteristics in Turbulent Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael R.; Larsen, Torben

    1996-01-01

    A method for the determination of the settlilng velocity for sludge as a funktion of turbulence intensity and sludge concentration has been developed. The principle of the method is to continuously feed the top of a settling column with sludge so that a steady state and uniform concentration...... distribution occurs in the middle of the column. This eliminates time scale effects such as flocculation from the measurements, as the resulting settling velocity only can be found at steady state and uniform conditions. The method assumes that flocculated sludge settles faster than disintegratedsludge to make...... a mass balance involving concentration at the top and the middle of the column as well as the inlet sludge flow. The resulting mass balance is used to calculate a lokal settling velocity. The turbulence is introduced by an oscillating grid in the whole depth of the settling column. Settling velocities...

  16. Project Management Plan 105-KE Basin sludge retrieval and packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McWethy, L.M.

    1994-01-01

    The KE Basin contains over 1,100 metric tons of spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The bulk of this inventory consists of over 50,000 zircaloy clad, uranium metal N-Reactor fuel element assemblies, along with less than half a metric ton of single-pass reactor fuel elements, stored in over 3,600 open top canister assemblies. In addition, sludge containing fissile and fission product material from damaged/degraded fuel has accumulated in the basin. The sludge, particularly the fines, impacts basin operations by clouding the water and making activities requiring a clear view impossible to complete until after sludge settles. Packaging would get the sludge out of the operator's way and allow it to be moved within the basin in a more manageable state. The primary project objective is to develop, procure, and quality the equipment needed to remove all sludge from the KE Basin with minimal dose commitment, minimal cost, and on schedule. The project will provide: (1) the development, testing, and installation of equipment for sludge retrieval and packaging; (2) understanding of and experience with actual sludge through near-term sludge packaging feature tests in the KE Basin; (3) sludge removal and handling equipment required to support debris removal, fuel handling, and other activities involving sludge within the KE Basin; and (4) enlist industry expertise in all phases of the project. This Project Management Plant establishes the organizational responsibilities, control systems, and procedures for the execution of project activities for KE Basin sludge retrieval packaging, to meet programmatic requirements within authorized funding and approved schedules

  17. Sanitizing effects of sewage sludge irradiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yongfu

    2005-01-01

    A large quantity of pathogenic organisms were found in sewage sludge. An investigation was carried out on the relationship in the chain of sludge-soil-vegetable between the survival of pathogenic organisms and the irradiation dosage. After irradiation with 5-6 kGy, coliform group reduced 3 log cycles, and ascarid ova were completely eliminated with a dose of 1 kGy, making the water matched the standard quality of irrigating water. In the soil applied with irradiated sewage sludge, the total bacteria and coliforms group count reduced to one tenth, and alive ascarid ova was not detected. The coliform group on the Chinese cabbage was extremely low and reached the standard of fresh eating. (authors)

  18. Is this the Era of Misinformation yet? Combining Social Bots and Fake News to Deceive the Masses

    OpenAIRE

    Wang , Patrick; Angarita , Rafael; Renna , Ilaria

    2018-01-01

    International audience; Social media is an amazing platform for enhancing public exposure. Anyone, even social bots, can reach out to a vast community and expose one's opinion. But what happens when fake news is (un)intentionally spread within a social media? This paper reviews techniques that can be used to fabricate fake news and depicts a scenario where social bots evolve in a fully semantic Web to infest social media with automatically generated deceptive information.

  19. Searching for new physics with B-decay fake triple products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, Alakabha; Duraisamy, Murugeswaran; London, David

    2011-01-01

    In pure-penguin b-bar→s-barB→V 1 V 2 decays (V 1,2 are vector mesons), f T /f L ≅1 has been observed (f T (f L ) is the polarization fraction of transverse (longitudinal) decays). Explanations of this unexpectedly large result have been given within the standard model (SM) and with new physics (NP). In this Letter, we show that these two explanations can be partially distinguished through the triple products (TP's) in these transitions. In particular, the SM predicts one of the two fake, CP-conserving TP's to be small (|A T (2) |≤9%), while NP often gives larger values for |A T (2) |. We discuss the implications of the measurements of both fake TP's in B→φK* - the present data prefer an SM explanation of f T /f L - and provide the SM predictions for B s 0 →φφ.

  20. Covert Communication in MIMO-OFDM System Using Pseudo Random Location of Fake Subcarriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizky Pratama Hudhajanto

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Multiple-Input Multiple-Output Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM is the most used wireless transmission scheme in the world. However, its security is the interesting problem to discuss if we want to use this scheme to transmit a sensitive data, such as in the military and commercial communication systems. In this paper, we propose a new method to increase the security of MIMO-OFDM system using the change of location of fake subcarrier. The fake subcarriers’ location is generated per packet of data using Pseudo Random sequence generator. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme does not decrease the performance of conventional MIMO-OFDM. The attacker or eavesdropper gets worse Bit Error Rate (BER than the legal receiver compared to the conventional MIMO-OFDM system.

  1. Fake and fan film trailers as incarnations of audience anticipation and desire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Amy Williams

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the lead-up to the release of some feature films, fake and fan trailers are created by users and uploaded to YouTube and other Web sites. These trailers demonstrate that users are literate not only in the form of the trailer itself, but also in the Hollywood system and how it markets products to audiences. Circulating in a networked environment online, these texts, which play with the form of the trailer, perform and embody users' and fans' desire to see not just the feature film but also the official trailer itself. I discuss these fake and fan trailers in relation to cinematic anticipation and describe how they navigate both spatial and temporal bounds. Using the architectural concept of the desire line, I argue that spatial frameworks can be usefully employed to consider how users navigate online spaces, media, and concepts through the form of the trailer.

  2. Sludge technology assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, T.R.; Cunnane, J.C.; Helt, J.E.

    1994-12-01

    The retrieval, processing, and generation of final waste forms from radioactive tank waste sludges present some of the most challenging technical problems confronting scientists and engineers responsible for the waste management programs at the various Department of Energy laboratories and production facilities. Currently, the Department of Energy is developing a strategy to retrieve, process, and generate a final waste form for the sludge that meets the acceptance criteria for the final disposition. An integral part of this strategy will be use of separation processes that treat the sludge; the goal is to meet feed criteria for the various processes that will generate the final waste form, such as vitrification or grouting. This document is intended to (1) identify separation technologies which are being considered for sludge treatment at various DOE sites, (2) define the current state of sludge treatment technology, (3) identify what research and development is required, (4) identify current research programs within either DOE or academia developing sludge treatment technology, and (5) identify commercial separation technologies which may be applicable. Due to the limited scope of this document, technical evaluations regarding the need for a particular separations technology, the current state of development, or the research required for implementation, are not provided

  3. Sludge Stabilization Campaign blend plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Vries, M.L.

    1994-01-01

    This sludge stabilization blend plan documents the material to be processed and the order of processing for the FY95 Sludge Stabilization Campaign. The primary mission of this process is to reduce the inventory of unstable plutonium bearing sludge. The source of the sludge is residual and glovebox floor sweepings from the production of material at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The reactive sludge is currently being stored in various gloveboxes at PFP. There are two types of the plutonium bearing material that will be thermally stabilized in the muffle furnace: Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF) sludge and Remote Mechanical C (RMC) Line material

  4. A sneak into the Devil's Colony - Fake Profiles in Online Social Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Wani, Mudasir Ahmad; Jabin, Suraiya

    2017-01-01

    Online Social Networks (OSNs) play an important role for internet users to carry out their daily activities like content sharing, news reading, posting messages, product reviews and discussing events etc. At the same time, various kinds of spammers are also equally attracted towards these OSNs. These cyber criminals including sexual predators, online fraudsters, advertising campaigners, catfishes, and social bots etc. exploit the network of trust by various means especially by creating fake p...

  5. Image Quality Assessment for Fake Biometric Detection: Application to Iris, Fingerprint, and Face Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Galbally, Javier; Marcel, Sebastien; Fierrez, Julian

    2014-01-01

    Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works. To ensure the actual presence of a real legitimate trait in contrast to a fake self-manufactured synthetic or reconstructed...

  6. Falling for fake news: investigating the consumption of news via social media

    OpenAIRE

    Flintham, Martin; Karner, Christian; Creswick, Helen; Bachour, Khaled; Gupta, Neha; Moran, Stuart

    2018-01-01

    In the so called ‘post-truth’ era, characterized by a loss of public trust in various institutions, and the rise of ‘fake news’ disseminated via the internet and social media, individuals may face uncertainty about the veracity of information available, whether it be satire or malicious hoax. We investigate attitudes to news delivered by social media, and subsequent verification strategies applied, or not applied, by individuals. A survey reveals that two thirds of respondents regularly consu...

  7. Non-supersymmetric membrane flows from fake supergravity and multi-trace deformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadimitriou, I.; Hamburg Univ.

    2006-06-01

    We use fake supergravity as a solution generating technique to obtain a continuum of non-supersymmetric asymptotically AdS 4 x S 7 domain wall solutions of eleven-dimensional supergravity with non-trivial scalars in the SL(8,R)/SO(8) coset. These solutions are continuously connected to the supersymmetric domain walls describing a uniform sector of the Coulomb branch of the M2-brane theory. We also provide a general argument that identifies the fake superpotential with the exact large-N quantum effective potential of the dual theory, thus arriving at a very general description of multi-trace deformations in the AdS/CFT correspondence, which strongly motivates further study of fake supergravity as a solution generating method. This identification allows us to interpret our non-supersymmetric solutions as a family of marginal triple-trace deformations of the Coulomb branch that completely break supersymmetry and to calculate the exact large-N anomalous dimensions of the operators involved. The holographic one- and two-point functions for these solutions are also computed. (Orig.)

  8. Non-supersymmetric membrane flows from fake supergravity and multi-trace deformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadimitriou, I. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)]|[Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Zentrum fuer Mathematische Physik

    2006-06-15

    We use fake supergravity as a solution generating technique to obtain a continuum of non-supersymmetric asymptotically AdS{sub 4} x S{sup 7} domain wall solutions of eleven-dimensional supergravity with non-trivial scalars in the SL(8,R)/SO(8) coset. These solutions are continuously connected to the supersymmetric domain walls describing a uniform sector of the Coulomb branch of the M2-brane theory. We also provide a general argument that identifies the fake superpotential with the exact large-N quantum effective potential of the dual theory, thus arriving at a very general description of multi-trace deformations in the AdS/CFT correspondence, which strongly motivates further study of fake supergravity as a solution generating method. This identification allows us to interpret our non-supersymmetric solutions as a family of marginal triple-trace deformations of the Coulomb branch that completely break supersymmetry and to calculate the exact large-N anomalous dimensions of the operators involved. The holographic one- and two-point functions for these solutions are also computed. (Orig.)

  9. A review of existing and emerging digital technologies to combat the global trade in fake medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K; Nayyar, Gaurvika

    2017-05-01

    The globalization of the pharmaceutical supply chain has introduced new challenges, chief among them, fighting the international criminal trade in fake medicines. As the manufacture, supply, and distribution of drugs becomes more complex, so does the need for innovative technology-based solutions to protect patients globally. Areas covered: We conducted a multidisciplinary review of the science/health, information technology, computer science, and general academic literature with the aim of identifying cutting-edge existing and emerging 'digital' solutions to combat fake medicines. Our review identified five distinct categories of technology including mobile, radio frequency identification, advanced computational methods, online verification, and blockchain technology. Expert opinion: Digital fake medicine solutions are unifying platforms that integrate different types of anti-counterfeiting technologies as complementary solutions, improve information sharing and data collection, and are designed to overcome existing barriers of adoption and implementation. Investment in this next generation technology is essential to ensure the future security and integrity of the global drug supply chain.

  10. Test plan, sludge retrieval, sludge packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feigenbutz, L.V.

    1994-01-01

    This document provides direction for the cold testing of tools, equipment and systems which will be installed and operated in K-East (KE) Basin in support of the sludge retrieval and packaging project. The technical uncertainties related to the effectiveness of sludge retrieval procedures and equipment require that cold testing be completed before installation in KE Basin to identify and resolve existing problems, and to optimize the efficiency of all equipment and systems used. This plan establishes the responsibilities, test requirements, and documentation requirements necessary to complete cold tests of: (1) equipment with no potential for plant use; (2) prototype equipment and systems which may be upgraded for use in K-Basin; and (3) plant equipment and systems requiring cold acceptance testing prior to plant use. Some equipment and systems may have been subject to a formal design review and safety assessment; the results of which will be included as supporting documents to the operational readiness review (ORR)

  11. Pioneer identification of fake tiger claws using morphometric and DNA-based analysis in wildlife forensics in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vipin; Sharma, Vinita; Sharma, Chandra Prakash; Kumar, Ved Prakash; Goyal, Surendra Prakash

    2016-09-01

    The illegal trade in wildlife is a serious threat to the existence of wild animals throughout the world. The short supply and high demand for wildlife articles have caused an influx of many different forms of fake wildlife articles into this trade. The task of identifying the materials used in making such articles poses challenges in wildlife forensics as different approaches are required for species identification. Claws constitute 3.8% of the illegal animal parts (n=2899) received at the Wildlife Institute of India (WII) for species identification. We describe the identification of seized suspected tiger claws (n=18) using a combined approach of morphometric and DNA-based analysis. The differential keratin density, determined using X-ray radiographs, indicated that none of the 18 claws were of any large cat but were fake. We determined three claw measurements, viz. ac (from the external coronary dermo-epidermal interface to the epidermis of the skin fold connecting the palmar flanges of the coronary horn), bc (from the claw tip to the epidermis of the skin fold connecting the palmar flanges of the coronary horn) and the ratio bc/ac, for all the seized (n=18), tiger (n=23) and leopard (n=49) claws. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were performed using SPSS. A scatter plot generated using canonical discriminant function analysis revealed that of the 18 seized claws, 14 claws formed a cluster separate from the clusters of the tiger and leopard claws, whereas the remaining four claws were within the leopard cluster. Because a discrepancy was observed between the X-ray images and the measurements of these four claws, one of the claw that clustered with the leopard claws was chosen randomly and DNA analysis carried out using the cyt b (137bp) and 16S rRNA (410bp) genes. A BLAST search and comparison with the reference database at WII indicated that the keratin material of the claw was derived from Bos taurus (cattle). This is a pioneering discovery, and

  12. Sludge pumping in water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solar Manuel, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    In water treatment processes is frequent to separate residual solids, with sludge shape, and minimize its volume in a later management. the technologies to applicate include pumping across pipelines, even to long distance. In wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), the management of these sludges is very important because their characteristics affect load losses calculation. Pumping sludge can modify its behavior and pumping frequency can concern treatment process. This paper explains advantages and disadvantages of different pumps to realize transportation sludge operations. (Author) 11 refs.

  13. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SLUDGE DEWATERABILITY NUMBER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A representative of a sludge sample collected from the same source was filtered under the same environmental condition and the result analysed with two different concepts. One method of analysis uses Sludge Dewaterability Number, while the second employed the Carman's Specific resistance concept in sludge ...

  14. The true and fake advantages of opening energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maillard, D.

    2000-01-01

    The energy market used to be restricted to a small number of operators who often held a monopoly. To clarify the debate, now more than ten years old, about opening up this market, we need to assess the impact of doing so on energy policies and their finalities, namely: making a supply of quality energy available to consumers at reasonable prices under conditions respectful of the environment and in a way coherent with major economic and social policies. (authors)

  15. Sewage sludges disinfection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandre, D.

    1977-01-01

    There is an hygienic risk in using biological sewage sludges for agriculture. Systematic analysis carried out on sludges samples obtained from purification plants in East and South part of France, show the almost uniform presence of pathogenic microorganisms. Some of it survive more than 9 months after soil application. Conventional process for disinfection: liming and heat are not suitable for agricultural use. On the other hand, irradiation involves no modification in structure and composition of sludges. Radiation doses required for disinfection vary according to microorganisms. If some of them are eliminated with rather light doses (200 krad) mycobacteria, viruses and eggs of worms resist to more important doses. Security dose is estimated around 1000 krad

  16. Charcoal from paper sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, M

    1980-03-06

    Paper sludge containing less than or equal to 50% water is mixed with coffee shells and greater than or equal to 1 almond shells, orange skin, walnut shells, or bean jam waste, compacted, and dry distilled at 300-600 degrees to prepare charcoal. Thus, 1 ton of paper sludge was mixed with 100 kg each of coffee shells, almond shells, orange skin, and walnut shells; compacted and dry distilled 24 hours at approximately 450 degrees. The calorific value of the charcoal produced was approximately 7300 kcal/kg.

  17. A Preliminary Study on Detecting Fake Gold Bars Using Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis: Simulation of Neutron Transmission in Gold Bar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K. M.; Sun, G. M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop fake gold bar detecting method by using Prompt-gamma activation analysis (PGAA) facility at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). PGAA is an established nuclear analytical technique for non-destructive determination of elemental and isotopic compositions. For a preliminary study on detecting fake gold bar, Monte Carlo simulation of neutron transmission in gold bar was conducted and the possibility for detecting fake gold bar was confirmed. Under the gold bullion standard, it guaranteed the government would redeem any amount of currency for its value in gold. After the gold bullion standard ended, gold bars have been the target for investment as ever. But it is well known that fake gold bar exist in the gold market. This cannot be identified easily without performing a testing as it has the same appearance as the pure gold bar. In order to avoid the trading of fake gold bar in the market, they should be monitored thoroughly. Although the transmissivity of cold neutrons are low comparing that of thermal neutrons, the slower neutrons are more apt to be absorbed in a target, and can increase the prompt gamma emission rate. Also the flux of both thermal and cold neutron beam is high enough to activate thick target. If the neutron beam is irradiated on the front and the reverse side of gold bar, all insides of it can be detected

  18. A Preliminary Study on Detecting Fake Gold Bars Using Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis: Simulation of Neutron Transmission in Gold Bar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K. M.; Sun, G. M. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The purpose of this study is to develop fake gold bar detecting method by using Prompt-gamma activation analysis (PGAA) facility at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). PGAA is an established nuclear analytical technique for non-destructive determination of elemental and isotopic compositions. For a preliminary study on detecting fake gold bar, Monte Carlo simulation of neutron transmission in gold bar was conducted and the possibility for detecting fake gold bar was confirmed. Under the gold bullion standard, it guaranteed the government would redeem any amount of currency for its value in gold. After the gold bullion standard ended, gold bars have been the target for investment as ever. But it is well known that fake gold bar exist in the gold market. This cannot be identified easily without performing a testing as it has the same appearance as the pure gold bar. In order to avoid the trading of fake gold bar in the market, they should be monitored thoroughly. Although the transmissivity of cold neutrons are low comparing that of thermal neutrons, the slower neutrons are more apt to be absorbed in a target, and can increase the prompt gamma emission rate. Also the flux of both thermal and cold neutron beam is high enough to activate thick target. If the neutron beam is irradiated on the front and the reverse side of gold bar, all insides of it can be detected.

  19. Ultrasonic reduction of excess sludge from the activated sludge system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Guangming; Zhang Panyue; Yang Jinmei; Chen Yanming

    2007-01-01

    Sludge treatment has long become the most challenging problem in wastewater treatment plants. Previous studies showed that ozone or chlorine effectively liquefies sludge into substrates for bio-degradation in the aeration tank, and thus reduces the excess sludge. This paper employs ultrasound to reduce the excess sludge from the sequential batch reactor (SBR) system. Partial sludge was disintegrated into dissolved substrates by ultrasound in an external sono-tank and was then returned to the SBR for bio-degradation. The results showed that ultrasound (25 kHz) effectively liquefied the sludge. The most effective conditions for sludge reduction were as following: sludge sonication ratio of 3/14, ultrasound intensity of 120 kW/kgDS, and sonication duration of 15 min. The amount of excess sludge was reduced by 91.1% to 17.8 mg/(L d); the organic content and settleability of sludge in the SBR were not impacted. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency was 81.1%, the total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiency was 17-66%, and high phosphorus concentration in the effluent was observed

  20. Bacteriology of activated sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gils, van H.W.

    1964-01-01

    The bacteriology and biochemistry of activated sludge grown in domestic waste water or fed with synthetic media were studied. The nature of the flocs was investigated by determining morphological and physiological characteristics of many strains isolated.

    Predominant bacteria were

  1. Activated Sludge Rheology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratkovich, Nicolas Rios; Horn, Willi; Helmus, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Rheological behaviour is an important fluid property that severely impacts its flow behaviour and many aspects related to this. In the case of activated sludge, the apparent viscosity has an influence on e.g. pumping, hydrodynamics, mass transfer rates, sludge-water separation (settling and filtr...... rheological measurements. Moreover, the rheological models are not very trustworthy and remain very “black box”. More insight in the physical background needs 30 to be gained. A model-based approach with dedicated experimental data collection is the key to address this.......Rheological behaviour is an important fluid property that severely impacts its flow behaviour and many aspects related to this. In the case of activated sludge, the apparent viscosity has an influence on e.g. pumping, hydrodynamics, mass transfer rates, sludge-water separation (settling......, leading to varying results and conclusions. In this paper, a vast amount of papers are critically reviewed with respect to this and important flaws are highlighted with respect to rheometer choice, rheometer settings and measurement protocol. The obtained rheograms from experimental efforts have...

  2. Minority Subjectivities in Maxine Hong Kingston’s Tripmaster Monkey: His Fake Book

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜鹰

    2011-01-01

    Seeking the legitimacy of representing themselves is one of the major missions that Chinese American writer Kingston sends on her main characters in her novels. To voice his minority subjectivities, Wittman Ah Sing, the protagonist in Tripmaster Monkey: His Fake Book, needs to protest the emasculated stereotype culturally applied to him, a Chinese American man, in a way of changing his identities. This multiple-faced Wittman Ah Sing manifests Kingston’s objection to any singular or fixed subjectivity of Chinese Americans in her anti-racist posture.

  3. Pet fur or fake fur? A forensic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background In forensic science there are many types of crime that involve animals. Therefore, the identification of the species has become an essential investigative tool. The exhibits obtained from such offences are very often a challenge for forensic experts. Indeed, most biological materials are traces, hair or tanned fur. With hair samples, a common forensic approach should proceed from morphological and structural microscopic examination to DNA analysis. However, the microscopy of hair requires a lot of experience and a suitable comparative database to be able to recognize with a high degree of accuracy that a sample comes from a particular species and then to determine whether it is a protected one. DNA analysis offers the best opportunity to answer the question, ‘What species is this?’ In our work, we analyzed different samples of fur coming from China used to make hats and collars. Initially, the samples were examined under a microscope, then the mitochondrial DNA was tested for species identification. For this purpose, the genetic markers used were the 12S and 16S ribosomal RNA, while the hypervariable segment I of the control region was analyzed afterwards, to determine whether samples belonged to the same individual. Results Microscopic examination showed that the fibres were of animal origin, although it was difficult to determine with a high degree of confidence which species they belonged to and if they came from a protected species. Therefore, DNA analysis was essential to try to clarify the species of these fur samples. Conclusions Macroscopic and microscopic analysis confirmed the hypothesis regarding the analyzed hair belonging to real animals, although it failed to prove with any kind of certainty which actual family it came from, therefore, the species remains unknown. Sequence data analysis and comparisons with the samples available in GenBank showed that the hair, in most cases, belonged to the Canidae family, and in one case only to

  4. Selfies. Symmetry_Encoding_Life_Fakes_Insight_Encoding_Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Amodio

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available By observing through the microscope a biological structure at the different scale levels, it is possible to live an astonishing experience which leads the explorer to travel across hierarchically structured geometrical worlds where spaces and paths are established by forms of unexpected strictness and symmetrical constructions conceal nested architectures which create self-similar universes evoking Koch's fractals or three-dimensional versions of Mandelbrot sets. The finding – surprising and consolatory at the same time – that living matter can somehow exhibit symmetries and levels of order one generally (and only associates to inorganic crystals, de facto undermines the foundations of some dichotomous categories on which both Science and Philosophy are based, consequently making fluid the boundaries between organic and inorganic, artificial and natural and – at the end – between life and death. The Life – at the macro- and micro-scopic eye – is available. It is geometrical disposition, conformal symmetry, solution and result. But Life, where that eye (and its extents is slotted, is meta-order, at most World as energy and kinematic laps, anyway para-logical priority, logical noise, paradox of the tangible and of the material. So, Science and Philosophy become comment and/or protest of the human mind in front of a “There Is”, and in this blame game between meta-bio-logical prius and historical preemption, any result of the human mind is also a result of the Life, of physical and chemical auto-organization which allows the Life itself. Not only methodological explosion of dichotomies as Natural/Artificial, Organic/Inorganic – the practice or the break of the dichotomy is however an existential demand of the Logos – rather secret horizon required by human livings, mass-produced mirrors of self-references and semantic codes. Symmetries and violations of symmetries in piles of Selfies to post on social networks of Science and

  5. Possibility of sludge conditioning and dewatering with rice husk biochar modified by ferric chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan; Zhang, Panyue; Zhang, Haibo; Zeng, Guangming; Liu, Jianbo; Ye, Jie; Fang, Wei; Gou, Xiying

    2016-04-01

    Rice husk biochar modified by FeCl3 (MRB-Fe) was used to enhance sludge dewaterability in this study. MRB-Fe preparation conditions and dosage were optimized. Mechanisms of MRB-Fe improving sludge dewaterability were investigated. The optimal modification conditions were: FeCl3 concentration, 3mol/L; ultrasound time, 1h. The optimal MRB-Fe dosage was 60% DS. Compared with raw sludge, the sludge specific resistance to filtration (SRF) decreased by 97.9%, the moisture content of sludge cake decreased from 96.7% to 77.9% for 6min dewatering through vacuum filtration under 0.03MPa, the SV30% decreased from 96% to 60%, and the net sludge solids yield (YN) increased by 28 times. Positive charge from iron species on MRB-Fe surface counteracted negative charge of sludge flocs to promote sludge settleability and dewaterability. Meanwhile, MRB-Fe kept a certain skeleton structure in sludge cake, making the moisture pass through easily. Using MRB-Fe, therefore, for sludge conditioning and dewatering is promising. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Impact of composting strategies on the degradation of nonylphenol in sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guodi; Chen, Tongbin; Yu, Jie; Gao, Ding; Shen, Yujun; Niu, Mingjie; Liu, Hongtao

    2015-12-01

    Nonylphenol can be present in sewage sludge, and this can limit the use of the sewage sludge to amend soil. Composting is one of the most efficient and economical methods of making sewage sludge stable and harmless. The nonylphenol degradation rates during composting with added bulking agents and with aeration applied were studied. Three organic bulking agents (sawdust, corn stalk, and mushroom residue) were added to sewage sludge, and the effects of the bulking agents used and the amount added on nonylphenol degradation were determined. The highest apparent nonylphenol degradation rate (71.6%) was found for sewage sludge containing 20% mushroom residue. The lowest apparent nonylphenol degradation rate (22.5%) was found for sewage sludge containing 20% sawdust. The temperature of the composting pile of sewage sludge containing 20% sawdust became too high for nonylphenol to be efficiently degraded, and the apparent nonylphenol degradation rate was lower than was found for sewage sludge containing 10% sawdust. Increasing the ventilating time from 5 to 15 min increased the apparent nonylphenol degradation rate from 19.7 to 41.6%. Using appropriate aerobic conditions facilitates the degradation of nonylphenol in sewage sludge, decreasing the risks posed by sewage sludge applied to land. Adding too much of a bulking agent can decrease the amount of the nonylphenol degraded. Increasing the ventilating time and the amount of air supplied can increase the amount of nonylphenol degraded even if doing so causes the composting pile temperature to remain low.

  7. Radioactivity in sludge: tank cleaning procedures and sludge disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    In the oil and gas industry management of alpha-active sludge is made more complex by the presence of hydrocarbons and heavy metals. This presentation discusses the origin of radioactivity in sludge, management of risk in terms of safe working procedures, storage and possible disposal options. The several options will generally involve aspects of dilution or of concentration; issues to be discussed will include sludge farming, bioremediation and incineration. (author)

  8. Minimization of Excess Sludge in Activated Sludge Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Ali Reza Momeni

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The disposal of excess sludge from wastewater treatment plant represents a rising challenge in activated sludge processes. Hence, the minimization of excess sludge production was investigated by increasing the dissolved oxygen in aeration basin. Units of the pilot include: Primary sedimentation tank, aeration basin, secondary sedimentation tank, and return sludge tank. Volume of aeration basin is 360 l and influent flow rate is 90 L/h. Influent of pilot is taken from effluent of grit chamber of Isfahan's North Wastewater treatment plant. The experiments were done on different parts of pilot during the 5 month of study. Results show that increase of dissolved oxygen in aeration tank affect on decrease of excess sludge. Increase of dissolved oxygen from 0.5 to 4.5 mg/L resulted in 25% decrease of excess sludge. Variation of dissolved oxygen affect on settleability of sludge too. By increase of dissolved oxygen, SVI decreased and then increased. Value of 1-3 mg/L was the adequate range of dissolved oxygen by settleability of sludge and optimum range was 2-2.5 mg/L. It could be concluded by increasing of dissolved oxygen up to of 3 mg/L, sludge settleability significant decreased.

  9. Use of sewage sludge as a fertilizer for increasing soil fertility and crop production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suess, A.

    1997-01-01

    The high nutrient and organic-matter contents of sewage sludge make it a useful soil amendment for farmers. In this study at four locations in Bavaria, the application of sewage sludge produced com yields that were similar to or better than those produced by an equal application (in terms of N) of chemical fertilizer. High rates of sludge (800 m 3 /ha) further improved crop yields, although such are impractical for farmers' fields. Residual beneficial effects of sewage-sludge application were seen also in terms of subsequent yields of barley. Application of sludge also improved biological and physical properties of the soils. More long-term studies are needed to better understand how sewage sludge contributes to the improvement of soil fertility and crop yields. (author)

  10. Consumers' practical understanding of healthy food choices: a fake food experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mötteli, Sonja; Keller, Carmen; Siegrist, Michael; Barbey, Jana; Bucher, Tamara

    2016-08-01

    Little is known about laypeople's practical understanding of a healthy diet, although this is important to successfully promote healthy eating. The present study is the first to experimentally examine how consumers define healthy and balanced food choices for an entire day compared with normal choices and compared with dietary guidelines. We used an extensive fake food buffet (FFB) with 179 foods commonly consumed in the Swiss diet. The FFB is a validated method to investigate food choice behaviour in a well-controlled laboratory setting. People from the general population in Switzerland (n 187; 51·9 % females), aged between 18 and 65 years, were randomly assigned to one of two conditions. In the control group, the participants were instructed to serve themselves foods they would eat on a normal day, whereas in the 'healthy' group they were instructed to choose foods representing a healthy diet. Participants chose significantly more healthy foods, with 4·5 g more dietary fibre, 2 % more protein and 2 % less SFA in the 'healthy' group compared with the control group. However, in both experimental conditions, participants served themselves foods containing twice as much sugar and salt than recommended by dietary guidelines. The results suggest that laypeople lack knowledge about the recommended portion sizes and the amounts of critical nutrients in processed food, which has important implications for communicating dietary guidelines. Furthermore, the energy of the food served was substantially correlated with the energy needs of the participants, demonstrating the potential of the fake food buffet method.

  11. Agricultural yields of irradiated sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnavacca, Cecilia; Miranda, E.; Sanchez, M.

    1999-01-01

    Lettuce, radish and ryegrass have been used to study the nitrogen fertilization of soil by sewage sludge. The results show that the irradiated sludge improve by 15 - 30 % the production yield, compared to the non-irradiated sludge. (author)

  12. Physicochemical and thermal characteristics of the sludge produced after thermochemical treatment of petrochemical wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Shilpi; Prasad, Basheshwar; Mishra, I M

    2012-01-01

    The present work describes the physicochemical and thermal characteristics of the sludge generated after thermochemical treatment of wastewater from a petrochemical plant manufacturing purified terephthalic acid (PTA). Although FeCl3 was found to be more effective than CuSO4 in removing COD from wastewater, the settling and filtration characteristics of FeCl3 sludge were poorer. Addition of cationic polyacrylamide (CPAA; 0.050kg/m3) to the FeCl3 wastewater system greatly improved the values of the filter characteristics of specific cake resistance (1.2 x 10(8) m/kg) and resistance of filter medium (9.9 x 10(8) m(-1)) from the earlier values of 1.9 x 10(9) m/kg and 1.7 x 10(8) m(-1), respectively. SEM-EDAX and FTIR studies were undertaken, to understand the sludge structure and composition, respectively. The moisture distribution in the CuSO4 sludge, FeCl3 sludge and FeCl3 + CPAA sludge showed that the amount of bound water content in the CuSO4 and FeCl3 + CPAA sludges is less than that of the FeCl3 sludge and there was a significant reduction in the solid-water bond strength of FeCl3 + CPAA sludge, which was responsible for better settling and filtration characteristics. Due to the hazardous nature of the sludge, land application is not a possible route of disposal. The thermal degradation behaviour of the sludge was studied for its possible use as a co-fuel. The studies showed that degradation behaviour of the sludge was exothermic in nature. Because of the exothermic nature of the sludge, it can be used in making fuel briquettes or it can be disposed of via wet air oxidation.

  13. Types and treatment of sewage sludges: Practice in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabasaran, M.O.

    1975-01-01

    The sludge that is formed by the various processes in the sewage treatment plant consists mainly of water with a small amount of organic and inorganic suspended solids. It contains pathogenic agents and biological inhibitors, and must be prepared and brought into a form where it is less dangerous to the environment. The de-watering of the sludge is the first step in sludge handling. The solids content of the raw sludge, which is usually between 5 and 10%, can be increased by gravity thickening to 15%, by centrifuging or straining-band-pressing up to 30%, and by pressure-filtration up to 40%. The process of drying enables a substance with almost no moisture to be obtained. Generally the sludge will be either mixed before de-watering with coagulation agencies, or preheated, or its colloidal components biochemically oxidized in order to accelerate the withdrawal of the water. One of the most common methods of disposal is the transport of sludge to a land filling, usually together with the solid refuse of the community. For this purpose the moisture content of the sludge should not be more than 60 to 70 percent. The disposal of sludge into the sea can be practised in coastal towns, but the ecological effects of this kind of sludge removal are still disputed. More expedient is the agricultural utilization of sludge, particularly if the sludge is composted together with a carbon carrier such as city refuse which would make it a very suitable soil improver. In the Federal Republic of Germany the wet oxidation of sludge is applied in a few cases. The most common process is anaerobic alkaline digestion. The incineration of sludge is more economical than drying, but still too, expensive in comparison with other approved processes. (author)

  14. Highly efficient secondary dewatering of dewatered sewage sludge using low boiling point solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chao; Chena, Chia-Lung; Xu, Zhirong; Wang, Jing-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Secondary dewatering of dewatered sludge is imperative to make conventional drying and incineration of sludge more economically feasible. In this study, a secondary dewatering of dewatered sludge with selected solvents (i.e. acetone and ethanol) followed by vacuum filtration and nature drying was investigated to achieve in-depth dewatering. After the entire secondary dewatering process, the sludge was shown to be odourless and the organic matter content was greatly retained. Increased mean particle size of sludge after solvent contact improved solid-liquid separation. With an acetone/sludge ratio of 3:1 (mL:g) in solvent contact and subsequent nature drying at ambient temperature after 24 h, the moisture content of sludge can be reduced to a level less than 20%. It is found that the polysaccharides were mainly precipitated by acetone, whereas the release ratios of protein and DNA were increased significantly as the added acetone volumes were elevated. During nature drying, accumulated evaporation rates of the sludge after solvent contact were 5-6 times higher than original dewatered sludge. Furthermore, sludge after acetone contact had better nature drying performance than ethanol. The two-stage dewatering involves solvent contact dewatering and solvent enhanced evaporation dewatering. Through selecting an appropriate solvent/sludge ratio as well as economical solvents and minimizing the solvent loss in a closed-pilot system, this dewatering process can be competitive in industrial applications. Therefore, this solvent-aided secondary dewatering is an energy-saving technology for effective in-depth dewatering of dewatered sludge and subsequent sludge utilization.

  15. Monstrous (InAuthenticity: Text and Identity in Peter Carey’s My Life as a Fake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Kampmark

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Taking (inauthenticity as his subject and intertextuality as the structuring principle, Peter Carey brings together Australian literary and social history, literary theory and a self-reflexive probe into the issues of identity, authenticity and cultural insecurity of a postcolonial society. The novel is interpreted as an allegorical account of national history and an allegorical narrative on the theoretical matters of originality and authorship.Keywords: Carey, identity, (inauthenticity, intertextuality, text, postcolonialism. The most well-known Australian author today, Peter Carey, has more than once found inspiration for his novels in already existing texts of British and Australian cultures. The most notable examples are his sixth novel titled Jack Maggs, his seventh novel titled True History of the Kelly Gang and the one explored in this paper, his eighth novel titled My Life as a Fake. Carey’s Jack Maggs (1997 retells the story of Dickens’ Great Expectations and in a postcolonial fashion of re-writing imperial texts gives voice to the previously marginalised point of view so that the story is told from the perspective of the runaway convict, Magwitch. The Booker Prize winning True History of the Kelly Gang (2001 is inspired by the so-called “Jerilderie letter,” which was written by Australia’s most famous outlaw, Ned Kelly, after a bank robbery in 1879. The fifty-six page long original letter is expanded in Carey’s version into thirteen parcels which actually make up this epistolary novel. My Life as a Fake (2003 is a roman a clef based on the literary hoax which took place in Melbourne in 1944 and assumed an Ossianic significance in the Australian literary establishment. Wishing to explore the depths of degradation which, in their opinion, Australian modernist poetry had reached, two young disgruntled poets, Harold Stewart and James McAuley, conjured up a fictitious poet, Ern Malley, a mechanic and the author of The Darkening

  16. Sewage sludge irradiation with electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauber, M.

    1976-01-01

    The disinfection of sewage sludge by irradiation has been discussed very intensively in the last few months. Powerful electron accelerators are now available and the main features of the irradiation of sewage sludge with fast electrons are discussed and the design parameters of such installations described. AEG-Telefunken is building an irradiation plant with a 1.5 MeV, 25 mA electron accelerator, to study the main features of electron irradiation of sewage sludge. (author)

  17. Sewage sludge additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  18. Composting of sewage sludge irradiated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Shoji; Watanabe, Hiromasa; Nishimura, Koichi; Kawakami, Waichiro

    1981-01-01

    Recently, the development of the techniques to return sewage sludge to forests and farm lands has been actively made, but it is necessary to assure its hygienic condition lest the sludge is contaminated by pathogenic bacteria. The research to treat sewage sludge by irradiation and utilize it as fertilizer or soil-improving material has been carried out from early on in Europe and America. The effects of the irradiation of sludge are sterilization, to kill parasites and their eggs, the inactivation of weed seeds and the improvement of dehydration. In Japan, agriculture is carried out in the vicinity of cities, therefore it is not realistic to use irradiated sludge for farm lands as it is. The composting treatment of sludge by aerobic fermentation is noticed to eliminate the harms when the sludge is returned to forests and farm lands. It is desirable to treat sludge as quickly as possible from the standpoint of sewage treatment, accordingly, the speed of composting is a problem. The isothermal fermentation experiment on irradiated sludge was carried out using a small-scale fermentation tank and strictly controlling fermentation conditions, and the effects of various factors on the fermentation speed were studied. The experimental setup and method are described. The speed of composting reached the maximum at 50 deg C and at neutral or weak alkaline pH. The speed increased with the increase of irradiation dose up to 30 Mrad. (Kako, I.)

  19. Radioactive contamination of sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soeder, C.J.; Zanders, E.; Raphael, T.

    1986-01-01

    Because of the radioactivity released through the explosion of the nuclear reactor near Chernobyl radionuclides have been accumulated to a significant extent in sewage sludge in the Federal Republic of Germany. This is demonstrated for samples from four activated sludge plants according to a recent recommendation of the German Commission for Radiation Protection, there is until now no reason to deviate from the common practices of sludge disposal or incineration. The degree of radioactive contamination of plant materials produced on farm lands on which sewage sludge is being spread cannot be estimated with sufficient certainty yet. Additional information is required. (orig.) [de

  20. Sewage sludge disposal in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, F.

    1997-01-01

    Sewage systems serve about 70% of the Austrian population, producing 6 million m 3 of sewage sludge per year with a dry matter content of 4-5%. At present about 52% of this sludge is disposed of in land fills, 33% is incinerated, and only about 15 % is used in agriculture. Although agricultural utilization is becoming increasingly important, several problems, especially those related to public opinion, need to be resolved before increased use will be possible. In this paper, wastewater treatment and sewage-sludge production in Austria, and problems associated with sludge disposal are discussed. (author)

  1. Dewatering properties of differently treated sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zehnder, H.J.

    1977-01-01

    A study on dewatering properties of radiosterilized sewage sludge of different type and origin was carried out. For comparison, also heat-treated (pasteurized) sludge was investigated. The specific filtration resistance of irradiated sewage sludge was lowered in all types of sludge examined. In general, pasteurization increased this parameter. The settling properties of irradiated digested sewage sludge was slightly improved, mainly in the first hours after treatment. Microbial effects may mask the real sedimentation relations especcially in aerobically stabilized sludges. A pasteurization treatment of sewage sludge caused an increased content of soluble substances and suspended particles in the supernatant water. The supernatant water from irradiated sludge showed a smaller increase

  2. Fake Shakespeare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Taylor

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The essay examines the relationship between Shakespeare and Fletcher’s lost play The History of Cardenio and Theobald’s 1727 adaptation Double Falsehood, and various twentieth-first century attempts (by Greenblatt and Mee, Doran and Álamo, and Gary Taylor, to recover the lost play by adapting Double Falsehood. Any such attempt requires the modern adapter to identify which parts of Double Falsehood preserve the Jacobean original (and should therefore be retained and which are the work of a Restoration or eighteenth-century adapter (and should therefore be removed. That task is essentially empirical. But recreation of the lost play also requires sympathetic creativity: in particular, an effort to imitate Shakespeare (and Fletcher.

  3. Fake news

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    Den borgerlige offentlighed er der hvor vi samles og diskuterer, hvordan vi vil forholde os til hvad der sker i verden og navnlig til hvad magthaverne foretager sig. Imidlertid er offentligheden i skrivende stund mere splittet, polariseret og fragmentarisk end i mands minde. Faktisk er vi nu komm...

  4. Effect of pyrolysis temperatures on freely dissolved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in sewage sludge-derived biochars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielińska, Anna; Oleszczuk, Patryk

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of sewage sludge pyrolysis on freely dissolved (Cfree) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contents in biochars. Four sewage sludges with varying properties and PAH contents were pyrolysed at temperatures of 500 °C, 600 °C or 700 °C. Cfree PAH contents were determined using polyoxymethylene (POM). The contents of Cfree PAHs in the sludges ranged from 262 to 294 ng L(-1). Sewage sludge-derived biochars have from 2.3- to 3.4-times lower Cfree PAH contents comparing to corresponding sewage sludges. The Cfree PAH contents in the biochars ranged between 81 ng L(-1) and 126 ng L(-1). As regards agricultural use of biochar, the lower contents of Cfree PAHs in the biochars compared to the sewage sludges makes biochar a safer material than sewage sludge in terms of PAH contents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. How Emotional Intelligence Might Get You the Job: The Relationship Between Trait Emotional Intelligence and Faking on Personality Tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.H.M. Pelt (Dirk); D. van der Linden (Dimitri); M.Ph. Born (Marise)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThis study examined trait emotional intelligence (EI) in relation to the ability to fake on personality tests. Undergraduate students (N = 129) were first instructed to fill out a personality inventory honestly, and subsequently in such a way as to maximize their chances of obtaining two

  6. Developing Pairwise Preference-Based Personality Test and Experimental Investigation of Its Resistance to Faking Effect by Item Response Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usami, Satoshi; Sakamoto, Asami; Naito, Jun; Abe, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Recent years have shown increased awareness of the importance of personality tests in educational, clinical, and occupational settings, and developing faking-resistant personality tests is a very pragmatic issue for achieving more precise measurement. Inspired by Stark (2002) and Stark, Chernyshenko, and Drasgow (2005), we develop a pairwise…

  7. Predictors of Sun-Related Behaviors among Young Women: Comparisons between Outdoor Tanners, Fake Tanners, and Tan Avoiders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Ashley K.; Oxlad, Melissa; Roberts, Rachel M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Skin cancer incidence continues to rise as a tanned appearance remains desirable, particularly among young women. Fake tanning provides a tanned appearance without exposure to ultraviolet radiation. In order to advance our understanding of the factors that contribute to long-term behavior change, this study explores determinants…

  8. Fake insanes and fools: another way of playing (without disguise in Lope de Vega's theatre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Enrique López Martínez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:In this work I study the theme of fake insanity and foolishness in Spanish Baroque Drama, starting with the work of Lope de Vega. In the first place, I consider some important sources in Italian Drama, specially Grazzini’s La Spiritata and Girolamo Bargagli’s La Pellegrina. Afterwards, I analyse in chronological order some of Lope’s plays that introduce this theme in Hispanic Theater, written at the turn of the XVIIth Century, such as Los locos de Valencia and El mármol de Felisardo; until many late plays by Lope and other playwrights that kept on reproducing the literary elements of those early comedias. In this survey, I examine the metatheatrical sense of fake insanity, the dramatic subgenres where it was featured, its importance for the plots, and its relation to other forms of dramatic deception, like the woman in male disguise and the nobleman as servant; as well as some dramatic and literary devices it relied on: the different kinds of simulated madness, its discoursive features, and the motif of the fake wedding. Resumen:En este trabajo se analiza el desarrollo del tema de la locura y la simpleza fingida en el teatro barroco español, a partir de la obra de Lope de Vega. Primero, se consideran algunos importantes antecedentes italianos, especialmente las obras La Spiritata, de Grazzini, y La Pellegrina, de Girolamo Bargagli. Después, se analizan con detalle y en orden cronológico algunas comedias del Fénix escritas en la última década del siglo XVI y primera del XVII en que introduce este tema en el teatro hispánico, como Los locos de Valencia o El mármol de Felisardo, hasta mencionar varias obras tardías del propio Lope y otros autores que continuaron reproduciendo los recursos de aquellas comedias tempranas. En este recorrido, se hace énfasis en el carácter metateatral de la locura fingida, los subgéneros dramáticos en la que fue incluida, importancia argumental, formas de caracterización y relación con

  9. The effect of implicitly incentivized faking on explicit and implicit measures of doping attitude: when athletes want to pretend an even more negative attitude to doping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanja Wolff

    Full Text Available The Implicit Association Test (IAT aims to measure participants' automatic evaluation of an attitude object and is useful especially for the measurement of attitudes related to socially sensitive subjects, e.g. doping in sports. Several studies indicate that IAT scores can be faked on instruction. But fully or semi-instructed research scenarios might not properly reflect what happens in more realistic situations, when participants secretly decide to try faking the test. The present study is the first to investigate IAT faking when there is only an implicit incentive to do so. Sixty-five athletes (22.83 years ± 2.45; 25 women were randomly assigned to an incentive-to-fake condition or a control condition. Participants in the incentive-to-fake condition were manipulated to believe that athletes with lenient doping attitudes would be referred to a tedious 45-minute anti-doping program. Attitudes were measured with the pictorial doping brief IAT (BIAT and with the Performance Enhancement Attitude Scale (PEAS. A one-way MANOVA revealed significant differences between conditions after the manipulation in PEAS scores, but not in the doping BIAT. In the light of our hypothesis this suggests that participants successfully faked an exceedingly negative attitude to doping when completing the PEAS, but were unsuccessful in doing so on the reaction time-based test. This study assessed BIAT faking in a setting that aimed to resemble a situation in which participants want to hide their attempts to cheat. The two measures of attitude were differentially affected by the implicit incentive. Our findings provide evidence that the pictorial doping BIAT is relatively robust against spontaneous and naïve faking attempts. (BIATs might be less prone to faking than implied by previous studies.

  10. The effect of implicitly incentivized faking on explicit and implicit measures of doping attitude: when athletes want to pretend an even more negative attitude to doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Wanja; Schindler, Sebastian; Brand, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    The Implicit Association Test (IAT) aims to measure participants' automatic evaluation of an attitude object and is useful especially for the measurement of attitudes related to socially sensitive subjects, e.g. doping in sports. Several studies indicate that IAT scores can be faked on instruction. But fully or semi-instructed research scenarios might not properly reflect what happens in more realistic situations, when participants secretly decide to try faking the test. The present study is the first to investigate IAT faking when there is only an implicit incentive to do so. Sixty-five athletes (22.83 years ± 2.45; 25 women) were randomly assigned to an incentive-to-fake condition or a control condition. Participants in the incentive-to-fake condition were manipulated to believe that athletes with lenient doping attitudes would be referred to a tedious 45-minute anti-doping program. Attitudes were measured with the pictorial doping brief IAT (BIAT) and with the Performance Enhancement Attitude Scale (PEAS). A one-way MANOVA revealed significant differences between conditions after the manipulation in PEAS scores, but not in the doping BIAT. In the light of our hypothesis this suggests that participants successfully faked an exceedingly negative attitude to doping when completing the PEAS, but were unsuccessful in doing so on the reaction time-based test. This study assessed BIAT faking in a setting that aimed to resemble a situation in which participants want to hide their attempts to cheat. The two measures of attitude were differentially affected by the implicit incentive. Our findings provide evidence that the pictorial doping BIAT is relatively robust against spontaneous and naïve faking attempts. (B)IATs might be less prone to faking than implied by previous studies.

  11. Sludge Digestion Manual; Handboek Slibgisting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-09-15

    This manual offers a guideline for developing, designing, optimizing and operating sludge digestion installations based on sewage sludge. It also offers tools for solving operation problems [Dutch] Het Handboek is een leidraad voor het ontwikkelen, ontwerpen, optimaliseren en bedrijven van slibgistingsinstallaties voor zuiveringsslib. Ook geeft het handvatten voor het oplossen van operationele problemen.

  12. Co-disposal of sewage sludge and solid wastes-it works

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sussman, D B

    1977-10-01

    The problem of sludge disposal is one of more sludge than ever before, few suitable land disposal or land application sites, the ocean dumping option being phased out, and energy cost so high or supplies so few as to make incineration a questionable endeavor. The energy required to run a wastewater treatment plant and the heat needed to incinerate the sludge may be available in the same community in the form of municipal solid waste. Municipal sludge has a heat value of about 10,000 Btu/lb of dry solids; it is autogenous at>30% solids. Codisposal techniques are discussed which use the energy produced by the combustion of solid waste to dewater the sludge to its autogenous point. One approach is to use sewage sludge incinerators, in many cases already installed at the wastewater treatment plant, and to use the organic portion of solid waste as a fuel to dry, burn, and reduce the volume of the sludge that must ultimately be disposed. A second approach would use a solid waste incinerator, solid waste-fired steam generator, or waterwall combustion unit to burn dewatered sludge. Both approaches are being demonstrated or used. Thermal sludge disposal at wastewater treatment plants normally is carried out in multiple-hearth or fluidized-bed incinerators. The experiences of such plants in the US and Europe are summarized.

  13. Occurrence of high-tonnage anionic surfactants in Spanish sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantarero, Samuel; Prieto, Carlos A; López, Ignacio

    2012-03-01

    Agricultural application has become the most widespread method of sewage sludge disposal, being the most economical outlet for sludge and also recycling beneficial plant nutrients and organic matter to soil for crop production. As a matter of fact, the European Sewage Sludge Directive 86/278/EEC seeks to encourage the disposal of sewage sludge in agriculture applications and regulate its use to prevent harmful effects on the soil environment. At the present time, the sewage sludge Directive is under revision and a possible cut-off limit for some organic chemicals may be implemented. Linear alkylbenzene sulphonate (LAS), the main synthetic anionic surfactant, has been included in the draft list of chemicals to be limited. The present research work deals with the monitoring of LAS and soap in Spanish sewage sludge. The average concentration of LAS found in anaerobic sewage sludge samples was 8.06 g/kg, higher than the average values for European sludge. Besides, it has been also found that more than 55% of Spanish anaerobic sludge would not fulfil the limit proposed by the 3rd European Working paper on sludge. As a consequence, the implementation of the limit for LAS would make the disposal of most Spanish biosolids for agricultural applications almost impossible. Regarding the mechanisms why anionic surfactants are found in sludge, two surfactants are compared: LAS and soap, both readily biodegraded in aerobic conditions. Irrespective of the anaerobic biodegradability of soap, its concentration found in sludge is higher than LAS (only anaerobically biodegradable under particular conditions). The relevance of anaerobic biodegradation to assure environmental protection is discussed for this case. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Ultrasonic sludge pretreatment under pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Ngoc Tuan; Julcour-Lebigue, Carine; Delmas, Henri

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this work was to optimize the ultrasound (US) pretreatment of sludge. Three types of sewage sludge were examined: mixed, secondary and secondary after partial methanisation ("digested" sludge). Thereby, several main process parameters were varied separately or simultaneously: stirrer speed, total solid content of sludge (TS), thermal operating conditions (adiabatic vs. isothermal), ultrasonic power input (PUS), specific energy input (ES), and for the first time external pressure. This parametric study was mainly performed for the mixed sludge. Five different TS concentrations of sludge (12-36 g/L) were tested for different values of ES (7000-75,000 kJ/kgTS) and 28 g/L was found as the optimum value according to the solubilized chemical oxygen demand in the liquid phase (SCOD). PUS of 75-150 W was investigated under controlled temperature and the "high power input - short duration" procedure was the most effective at a given ES. The temperature increase in adiabatic US application significantly improved SCOD compared to isothermal conditions. With PUS of 150 W, the effect of external pressure was investigated in the range of 1-16 bar under isothermal and adiabatic conditions for two types of sludge: an optimum pressure of about 2 bar was found regardless of temperature conditions and ES values. Under isothermal conditions, the resulting improvement of sludge disintegration efficacy as compared to atmospheric pressure was by 22-67% and 26-37% for mixed and secondary sludge, respectively. Besides, mean particle diameter (D[4,3]) of the three sludge types decreased respectively from 408, 117, and 110 μm to about 94-97, 37-42, and 36-40 μm regardless of sonication conditions, and the size reduction process was much faster than COD extraction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Lipid profiling in sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fenfen; Wu, Xuemin; Zhao, Luyao; Liu, Xiaohui; Qi, Juanjuan; Wang, Xueying; Wang, Jiawei

    2017-06-01

    High value-added reutilization of sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is essential in sustainable development in WWTPs. However, despite the advantage of high value reutilization, this process must be based on a detailed study of organics in sludge. We used the methods employed in life sciences to determine the profile of lipids (cellular lipids, free fatty acids (FFAs), and wax/gum) in five sludge samples obtained from three typical WWTPs in Beijing; these samples include one sludge sample from a primary sedimentation tank, two activated sludge samples from two Anaerobic-Anoxic-Oxic (A2/O) tanks, and two activated sludge samples from two membrane bioreactor tanks. The percentage of total raw lipids varied from 2.90% to 12.3%. Sludge from the primary sedimentation tank showed the highest concentrations of lipid, FFA, and wax/gum and the second highest concentration of cellular lipids. All activated sludge contained an abundance of cellular lipids (>54%). Cells in sludge can from plants, animals, microbes and so on in wastewater. Approximately 14 species of cellular lipids were identified, including considerable high value-potential ceramide (9567-38774 mg/kg), coenzyme (937-3897 mg/kg), and some phosphatidylcholine (75-548 mg/kg). The presence of those lipid constituents would thus require a wider range of recovery methods for sludge. Both cellular lipids and FFAs contain an abundance of C16-C18 lipids at high saturation level, and they serve as good resources for biodiesel production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Treatment of radioactive sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, W.; Payne, B.J.; Pegler, G.E.

    1979-01-01

    Radioactive sludge e.g. that which may accumulate in irradiated nuclear fuel element storage ponds, is treated by pumping it from a settling tank to a particle separator, conveniently a hydrocyclone and a sloping plate separator, the liquid being returned to the settling tank and the solids being metered into a drum pre-lined with dry cement. The drums are in a containment box in which they are transferred to a mixing station where the particles and cement are mixed and thence to a curing station. After curing the drums are embedded in cement in outer containers for transport to a long-term storage site. (author)

  17. Physical and chemical factors affecting sludge consolidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, C.W.; Blimkie, M.E.; Lavoie, P.A

    1997-09-01

    Chemical reactions between sludge components and precipitation reactions within the pores of the existing sludge are shown to contribute to the consolidation of sludge under steam generator operating conditions. Simulations of sludge representative of plants with a mixed iron/copper feedtrain suggest that as the conditions in the feedtrain become more oxidizing the sludge will become harder with a higher nickel ferrite content. The precipitation of feedwater impurities introduced by condenser leaks and of zinc silicate, which is produced in plants with brass condenser tubes and silica in the makeup water, contribute significantly to sludge consolidation. Sodium phosphate is also shown to be an agent of sludge consolidation. (author)

  18. A study on the dewatering of industrial waste sludge by fry-drying technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohm, Tae-In; Chae, Jong-Seong; Kim, Jeong-Eun; Kim, Hee-kyum; Moon, Seung-Hyun

    2009-01-01

    In sludge treatment, drying sludge using typical technology with high water content to a water content of approximately 10% is always difficult because of adhesive characteristics of sludge. Many methods have been applied, including direct and indirect heat drying, but these approaches of reducing water content to below 40% after drying is very inefficient in energy utilization of drying sludge. In this study, fry-drying technology with a high heat transfer coefficient of approximately 500 W/m 2 deg. C was used to dry industrial wastewater sludge. Also waste oil was used in the fry-drying process, and because the oil's boiling point is between 240 and 340 deg. C and the specific heat is approximately 60% of that of water. In the fry-drying system, the sludge is input by molding it into a designated form after heating the waste oil at temperatures between 120 and 170 deg. C. At these temperatures, the heated oil rapidly evaporates the water contained in the sludge, leaving the oil itself. After approximately 10 min, the water content of the sludge was less than 10%, and its heating value surpassed 5300 kcal/kg. Indeed, this makes the organic sludge appropriate for use as a solid fuel. The wastewater sludge used in this study was the designated waste discharged from chemical, leather and plating plants. These samples varied in characteristics, especially with regard to heavy metal concentration. After drying the three kinds of wastewater sludge at oil temperatures 160 deg. C for 10 min, it was found that the water content in the sludge from the chemical, leather, and plating plants reduced from 80.0 to 5.5%, 81.6 to 1.0%, and 65.4 to 0.8%, respectively. Furthermore, the heat values of the sludge from the chemical, leather, and plating plants prior to fry-drying were 217, 264, and 428 kcal/kg, respectively. After drying, these values of sludge increased to 5317, 5983 and 6031 kcal/kg, respectively. The heavy metals detected in the sludge after drying were aluminum

  19. Evaluation of activated sludge treatment and settleability in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wastewater discharged from the edible oil industry contains a very concentrated amalgamation of organic and inorganic materials making it a problematic effluent to treat. The aim of this study was to evaluate the activated sludge treatment of edible oil effluent from a sunflower oil processing company in KwaZulu-Natal.

  20. Wasting Away: To Sludge or Not to Sludge?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Nicolle

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Following a century of high standards of sanitation, food and water safety in North America are often taken for granted. Recent outbreaks of illness attributed to food and water contamination, however, have challenged this complacency. Now, sludge is added to the list of concerns. Sewage sludge is the muddy substance that remains after the treatment of municipal sewage. This material includes not only human waste, but also household and industrial toxic wastes disposed of in local sewers. Federal and provincial Canadian regulations support the use of this material as fertilizer, within acceptable guidelines, as does the Environmental Protection Agency in the United States. The safety of sludge, however, is questioned by some individuals and groups. Specifically, the risk of infectious agents and toxins to workers or other exposed individuals, and the potential for heavy metals and organic chemicals to be transferred from sludge-treated fields into crops are concerns.

  1. Environmental Assessment of Sewage Sludge Management – Focusing on Sludge Treatment Reed Bed Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Julie Dam

    profiles of the STRB system technology and a mechanical treatment technology, constituting a basis for decision-making in relation to choice of technology. A major part of the project involved performance of fieldwork and laboratory work. Data were collected at three Danish, well-operated STRB systems...... assessment were based on international acknowledged standards and recommendations. An attributional LCA approach was chosen, and the loadings and savings for all impact categories were normalised to people equivalents (PE) (the annual loadings and savings provided by one average person). Three sludge...... gasses CH4 and N2O were larger for mechanical dewatered sludge, the net environmental loadings provided to the impact category Climate Change by this technology (S-CEN) and the STRB system technology (S-STRB and S-SPA) ended up being equally sized (9.010-4 PE), despite of higher biological activity...

  2. Sludge pretreatment chemistry evaluation: Enhanced sludge washing separation factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colton, N.G.

    1995-03-01

    This report presents the work conducted in Fiscal Year 1994 by the Sludge Pretreatment Chemistry Evaluation Subtask for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Tank Waste Treatment Science Task. The main purpose of this task, is to provide the technical basis and scientific understanding to support TWRS baseline decisions and actions, such as the development of an enhanced sludge washing process to reduce the volume of waste that will require high-level waste (HLW) vitrification. One objective within the Sludge Pretreatment Chemistry Evaluation Subtask was to establish wash factors for various SST (single-shell tank) sludges. First, analytical data were compiled from existing tank waste characterization reports. These data were summarized on tank-specific worksheets that provided a uniform format for reviewing and comparing data, as well as the means to verify whether the data set for each tank was complete. Worksheets were completed for 27 SST wastes. The analytical water wash data provided tank-specific information about the fraction of each component that dissolves with water, i.e., an estimate of tank-specific wash factors for evaluating tank-by-tank processing. These wash data were then used collectively to evaluate some of the wash factors that are assumed for the overall SST waste inventory; specifically, wash factors for elements that would be found primarily in sludges. The final step in this study was to incorporate the characterization and wash factor data into a spreadsheet that provides insight into the effect of enhanced sludge washing on individual tank sludges as well as for groups of sludges that may be representative of different waste types. Spreadsheet results include the estimated mass and percentage of each element that would be removed with washing and leaching. Furthermore, estimated compositions are given of the final wash and leach streams and residual solids, in terms of both concentration and dry weight percent

  3. Co-conditioning and dewatering of chemical sludge and waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, G R; Liu, J C; Lee, D J

    2001-03-01

    The conditioning and dewatering behaviors of chemical and waste activated sludges from a tannery were studied. Capillary suction time (CST), specific resistance to filtration (SRF), and bound water content were used to evaluate the sludge dewatering behaviors. Zeta potentials were also measured. Experiments were conducted on each sludge conditioned and dewatered separately, and on the sludge mixed at various ratios. Results indicate that the chemical sludge was relatively difficult to be dewatered, even in the presence of polyelectrolyte. When the waste activated sludge was mixed with the chemical sludge at ratios of 1:1 and 2:1, respectively, the dewaterability of chemical sludge improved remarkably while the relatively better dewaterability of the waste activated sludge deteriorated only to a limited extent. As the mixing ratios became 4:1 and 8:1, the dewaterability of the mixed sludge was equal to that of the waste activated sludge. The optimal polyelectrolyte dosage for the mixed sludge was equal to or less than that of the waste activated sludge. It is proposed that the chemical sludges act as skeleton builders that reduce the compressibility of the mixed sludge whose dewaterability is enhanced. Bound water contents of sludge decreased at low polyelectrolyte dosage and were not significantly affected as polyelectrolyte dosage increased. Advantages and disadvantages of co-conditioning and dewatering chemical sludge and waste activated sludge were discussed.

  4. Costs and economic efficiency of the drying of sewage sludges; Kosten und Wirtschaftlichkeit der Klaerschlammtrocknung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, Ulrich [Haarslev Industries A/S, Herlev (Denmark). Marketing and Business Development

    2013-03-01

    New methods of the thermal utilization have to be created due to the fact that agricultural utilisation of sewage sludge and the use in the reclamation due to stringent limit values and enhanced quality criteria are available restricted in future. The incineration of mechanically dewatered and dried sewage sludge is performed in mono-combustion plants as well as in coal-fired power plants. The author of the contribution under consideration reports on the costs and economic efficiency of the drying of sewage sludge. The drying of sewage sludge may perform an important and reasonable contribution to the utilization of municipal sewage sludge. The selection of a suitable drying process should ever depend on the local realities. Proved and suitable technologies are available for every application. Before the decision for a certain provider, one should examine reference plants and consider specific experiences of the operator among the decision-making.

  5. Bioavailability of nitrogen from sewage sludge using 15N-labelled ammonium sulphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Motaium, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    The high nutrient nitrogen and organic matter contents of sewage sludge (SS) make it a potential organic fertilizer for sandy soil. In this study, 15 N-labelled ammonium sulphate was used to investigate the availability of nitrogen from irradiated and non-irradiated sewage sludge to tomato plants. The application of sewage sludge to sandy soil increased dry matter production (DMP), nitrogen yield (NY) and nitrogen recovery (NR) over two successive years. A positive relationship was found between sludge application rate and DMP and NY. The increase was significantly higher (P=0.05) in irradiated than non-irradiated sewage sludge. Total nitrogen derived from non-irradiated sewage sludge are : 48.0, 63.7, 73.5, 105.2 Kg/ha, whereas, the total nitrogen derived from irradiated sewage sludge are: 55.1, 72.5, 88.9, 141.4 Kg/ha corresponding to application rates of 10 t/ha, 20 t/ha, 30 t/ha, respectively. This was attributed to higher dry matter production in the later than the former. A highly significant correlation (0.945**) was found between dry matter production and sludge nitrogen yield (i.e. nitrogen derived from sewage sludge). Fertilizer nitrogen yield (total nitrogen derived from fertilizer) was high in treatment receiving mineral fertilizer, however, the 15 N recovery by tomato was only 13.8%. Soil did not contribute well towards total nitrogen yield in tomato and most nitrogen was derived from sewage sludge. Percent nitrogen derived from sewage sludge was in the range 88-92%, depending on the application rate

  6. Recycle of valuable products from oily cold rolling mill sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Zhang, Shen-gen; Tian, Jian-jun; Pan, De-an; Liu, Yang; Volinsky, Alex A.

    2013-10-01

    Oily cold rolling mill (CRM) sludge contains lots of iron and alloying elements along with plenty of hazardous organic components, which makes it as an attractive secondary source and an environmental contaminant at the same time. The compound methods of "vacuum distillation + oxidizing roasting" and "vacuum distillation + hydrogen reduction" were employed for the recycle of oily cold rolling mill sludge. First, the sludge was dynamically vacuum distilled in a rotating furnace at 50 r/min and 600°C for 3 h, which removed almost hazardous organic components, obtaining 89.2wt% ferrous resultant. Then, high purity ferric oxide powders (99.2wt%) and reduced iron powders (98.9wt%) were obtained when the distillation residues were oxidized and reduced, respectively. The distillation oil can be used for fuel or chemical feedstock, and the distillation gases can be collected and reused as a fuel.

  7. Medium Density Fibreboard Made of Acetylated Sludge from Paper Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luthfi Hakim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Research of using sludge as raw material for making medium density fibreboard (MDF was useful to create additional value of sludge. The objective of the research was to evaluate physical properties, mechanical properties, and durability of MDF from acetylated sludge in 4 levels of acetate anhydride (0%, 3%, 5%, and 7% with 3 replicates. The MDF was made using dry process. After materials were mixed with adhesives, they were pressed using hotpress under 170 oC temperature and 45 Pa pressure for 25 minutes. The size of the MDF sample was 25 cm x 20 cm x 1 cm with 0.8 g/cm3 density. The physical properties (density, moisture content, water absorption, thickness swelling and mechanical properties (modulus of elasticity, modulus of rupture, internal bond, screw holding power was tested based on JIS A 5905-2003 standard. The durability was evaluated using SNI 01-7207-2006. All physical properties of MDF fulfill JIS A 5905-2003. Acetate anhydride decreased the moisture content value of MDF. On the other hand, all mechanical properties did not fulfill the standard. That was caused by calcium carbonate in sludge that blocked the adhesion between sludge fibres. The durability of MDF tested here was classified Class I which is very resistant to termites.

  8. The moderating effects of sample type as evidence of the effects of faking on personality scale correlations and factor structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KEVIN M. BRADLEY

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Motivational differences as a function of sample type (applicants versus incumbents have frequently been suspected of causing meaningful differences in the psychometric properties of personality inventories due to the effects of faking. In this quantitative review, correlations among the Big Five personality constructs were estimated and sample type was examined as a potential moderator of the personality construct inter-correlations. The resulting subgroup meta-analytic correlation matrices were factor-analyzed, and the second order factor solutions for job incumbents and job applicants were compared. Results of the meta-analyses indicate frequent, but small moderating effects. The second order factor analyses indicated that the observed moderation had little effect on the congruence of factor loadings. Together, the results are consistent with the position that faking is of little practical consequence in selection settings.

  9. Stings and Scams: ‘Fake News,’ the First Amendment, and the New Activist Journalism

    OpenAIRE

    Dorf, Michael; Tarrow, Sidney

    2017-01-01

    Constitutional law, technological innovations, and the rise of a cultural “right to know” have recently combined to yield “fake news,” as illustrated by an anti-abortion citizen-journalist sting operation that scammed Planned Parenthood. We find that the First Amendment, as construed by the Supreme Court, offers scant protection for activist journalists to go undercover to uncover wrongdoing, while providing substantial protection for the spread of falsehoods. By providing activists the means...

  10. Post-truth and „Fake news”. From Tribalizing to Filters – Interview with Constantin Vică

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Iancu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The interview addresses the concept of „post-truth“ and tries to get its meaning and its limits. The reference point is that of social networks which impose filters of reality and tribalize the Internet users. Post-truth is seen as a virus of democracy and as a challenge to Political science, and the „fake news“ phenomenon is analyzed in the light of its stake: to generate reluctance to believe anything.

  11. Pain elicited by the Cold Pressor Test: A gender-comparative FACS coding study of spontaneous, faked and inhibited expressions.

    OpenAIRE

    Gil, Luisa; De Sousa, Cristina; Baunninger-Huber, Eva; Schiestl, Cathrin; Toussaint, Kyra; Gruber, Verena; Oliveira, Armando Monica; Duarte, Ana Catarina

    2012-01-01

    Evolutionary theories of pain have conjectured a better ability of males to control their facial expressions of pain, and of females to express and communicate emotions through the face. The present study involved 24 participants (12 men; 12 women). Pain was induced via the Cold Pressor Test (CPT), and three expressive contexts (spontaneous, faked an inhibited) were created through instructions. Elicited pain expressions were FACS coded and frequency, indices were derived for the observed Act...

  12. Steam generator sludge removal apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schafer, B.W.; Werner, C.E.; Klahn, F.C.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention relates to equipment for cleaning steam generators and in particular to a high pressure fluid lance for cleaning sludge off the steam generator tubes away from an open tube lane. 6 figs

  13. Processing method for radioactive sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoji, Yuichi; Kaneko, Masaaki.

    1993-01-01

    The concentration of radioactive sludges contained in a storage tank is controlled, thereafter, a filter is charged into a processing vessel to continuously conduct dewatering. Then, the radioactive sludges and an oxidizer are mixed by stirring using a stirring impeller and by vibrations using a vibrator. At the same time, thermic rays are irradiated by using infrared ray lamps to heat and decompose them. Since thermic rays reach the center of the radioactive sludges by the infrared ray lamps, ion exchange resins are sufficiently decomposed and carbonized into inorganic material. Then, a filling hardener such as mortar cement having a good flowability is charged to solidify the wastes. With such procedures, radioactive sludges can be stored under a stable condition for a long period of time by decomposing organic materials into inorganic materials and solidifying them. Further, an operator's radiation exposure dose can remarkably be reduced by applying a predetermined and a stabilization treatment in an identical processing vessel. (N.H.)

  14. Municipal sludge disposal economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, J L [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA; Bomberger, Jr, D C; Lewis, F M

    1977-10-01

    Costs for disposal of sludges from a municipal wastewater treatment plant normally represents greater than or equal to 25% of the total plant operating cost. The following 5 sludge handling options are considered: chemical conditioning followed by vacuum filtration, and incineration; high-pressure wet-air oxidation and vacuum filtration or filter press prior to incineration; thermal conditioning, vacuum filtraton, and incineration; high-pressure wet-air oxidation and vacuum filtration, with ash to landfill; aerobic or anaerobic digestion, followed by chemical conditioning, vacuum filtration, and disposal on land; and chemical conditioning, followed by a filter press, flash dryer, and sale as fertilizer. The 1st 2 options result in the ultimate disposal of small amounts of ash in a landfill; the digestion options require a significant landfill; the fertilizer option requires a successful marketing and sales effort. To compare the economies of scale for the options, analyses were performed for 3 plant capacities - 10, 100, and 500 mgd; as plant size increases, the economies of scale for incineration system are quite favorable. The anaerobic digestion system has a poorer capital cost-scaling factor. The incinerator options which start with chemical conditioning consume much less electrical power at all treatment plant sizes; incinerator after thermal conditioning uses more electricity but less fuel. Digestion requires no direct external fossil fuel input. The relative use of fuel is constant at all plant sizes for other options. The incinerator options can produce a significant amount of steam which may be used. The anaerobic digestion process can be a significant net producer of fuel gas.

  15. Ozonation of return activated sludge for disintegration and solubilisation with synthesized titanium oxide as catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarif, S. F. Z. Mohd; Alias, S. S.; Ridwan, F. Muhammad; Salim, K. S. Ku; Abidin, C. Z. A.; Ali, U. F. Md.

    2018-03-01

    Ozonation of activated sludge in the present of titanium dioxide (TiO2) as catalyst to enhance the production of hydroxyl radical was evaluated in comparison to the sole ozonation process. In this process, the catalytic ozontion showed improvement in increasing ozone consumption and improving activated sludge disintegration and solubilisation. The reduction of total suspended solid (TSS), volatile suspended solid (VSS) and soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) solubilisation was better in the catalytic ozonation system. Initial pH 7 of activated sludge was found best to disintegrate and solubilise the sludge flocs. However upon additional of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) in pH adjustment enhanced the solubilisation of organic matter from the flocs and cells, making the initial pH 9 is the best condition for activated sludge solubilisation. Yet the initial pH 7 of activated sludge supernatant was the best condition to achieve SCOD solubilisation due to sludge floc disintegration, when it had stronger correlation between TSS reduction and SCOD solubilisation (R2=0.961). Lower amount of catalyst of 100 mgTiO2/gTSS was found to disintegrate and solubilise the activated sludge better with 30.4% TSS reduction and 25.2% SCOD solubilisation efficiency, compared to 200 mgTiO2/gTSS with 21.9% and 17.1% TSS reduction and SCOD solubilisation, respectively.

  16. Environmental application of gamma technology: Update on the Canadian sludge irradiator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinwood, Jean F.; Fraser, Frank M.

    1993-10-01

    Waste treatment and disposal technologies have recently been subjected to increasing public and regulatory scrutiny. Concern for the environment and a heightened awareness of potential health hazards that could result from insufficient or inappropriate waste handling methods have combined to push waste generators in their search for new treatment alternatives. Gamma technology can offer a new option for the treatment of potentially infectious wastes, including municipal sewage sludge. Sewage sludge contains beneficial plant nutrients and a high organic component that make it ideal as a soil conditioning agent or fertilizer bulking material. It also carries potentially infectious microorganisms which limit opportunities for beneficial recycling of sludges. Gamma irradiation-disinfection of these sludges offers a reliable, fast and efficient method for safe sludge recycling. Nordion International's Market Development Division was created in 1987 as part of a broad corporate reorganization. It was given an exclusive mandate to develop new applications of gamma irradiation technology and markets for these new applications. Nordion has since explored and developed opportunities in food irradiation, pharmaceutical/cosmetic products irradiation, biomedical waste sterilization, airline waste disinfection, and sludge disinfection for recycling. This paper focuses on the last of these -a proposed sludge recycling facility that incorporates a cobalt 60 sludge irradiator.

  17. Genetic differentiation between fake abalone and genuine Haliotis species using the forensically informative nucleotide sequencing (FINS) method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Wai Y; Reid, David G; Kam, Wan L; Lau, Yuk Y; Sham, Wing C; Tam, Silvia Y K; Sin, Della W M; Mok, Chuen S

    2011-05-25

    Abalones ( Haliotis species) are a popular delicacy and commonly preserved in dried form either whole or in slices or small pieces for consumption in Asian countries. Driven by the huge profit from trading abalones, dishonest traders may substitute other molluscan species for processed abalone, of which the morphological characteristics are frequently lost in the processed form. For protection of consumer rights and law enforcement against fraud, there is a need for an effective methodology to differentiate between fake and genuine abalone. This paper describes a method (validated according to the international forensic guidelines provided by SWGDAM) for the identification of fake abalone species using forensically informative nucleotide sequence (FINS) analysis. A study of the local market revealed that many claimed "abalone slice" samples on sale are not genuine. The fake abalone samples were found to be either volutids of the genus Cymbium (93%) or the muricid Concholepas concholepas (7%). This is the first report of Cymbium species being used for the preparation and sale as "abalone" in dried sliced form in Hong Kong.

  18. Co-combustion of sewage sludge and energy-rich waste fuels or forest fuels; Sameldning av roetslam och energirika avfallsbraenslen eller skogsbraenslen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linder, Kristina [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2003-10-01

    In this report literature on incineration of sewage sludge is summarises. In Sweden there is a yearly production of about 0,24 million-ton dry sewage sludge of which 50% is deposited. Recent changes in legislation will restrict and later prohibit the dumping of sewage sludge. Alternative methods for handling the material have not yet been found. In other parts of Europe the problem has been solved by incineration. Sludge incineration can be performed in several ways depending of the pretreatment. The sludge can be raw or digested, dewatered or dried. The sludge can be burnt as single fuel or in mixtures with other fuels. Focus in this work has been on co-combustion with biofuel or waste, as it will make use of existing plants. Digested sludge is also of major interest as 70% of the Swedish sludge is digested. The report describes the situation both in Sweden and in the rest of Europe. Sludge has a varying quality depending on origin and treatment, which affects the combustion properties. Ash and moisture contents differ from other fuels. The heating value of sewage sludge is approximately 20 MJ/kg per dry combustible matter and the amount of organic is around 70%. Compared to forest residue and demolition wood, sludge contains high levels of nitrogen and sulphur, which will cause emissions. The nitrogen level is about 10 times higher and the sulphur level 25 to 50 times higher. Sulphur, in combination with alkali metals, can cause deposit problems in boilers. However, sludge contains low levels of alkali. In the experimental investigation leaching of digested sludge showed low values on water conductivity which indicates a low concentration of sintering ash species in the sludge. A comparison of the aerodynamic properties of dried digested sludge and wood chips from energy coppice showed that sludge has a lower fraction of fines. This indicates that the sewage sludge is not likely to be carried over in the furnace but rather to stay in the fuel and ash bed on the

  19. Enhanced sludge washing evaluation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, R.D.

    1994-09-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program mission is to store, treat, and immobilize highly radioactive Hanford Site waste (current and future tank waste and the strontium/cesium capsules) in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner. The scope of the TWRS Waste Pretreatment Program is to treat tank waste and separate that waste into HLW and LLW fractions and provide additional treatment as required to feed LLW and HLW immobilization facilities. Enhanced sludge washing was chosen as the baseline process for separating Hanford tank waste sludge. Section 1.0 briefly discusses the purpose of the evaluation plan and provides the background that led to the choice of enhanced sludge washing as the baseline process. Section 2.0 provides a brief summary of the evaluation plan details. Section 3.0 discusses, in some detail, the technical work planned to support the evaluation of enhanced sludge washing. Section 4.0 briefly discusses the potential important of policy issues to the evaluation. Section 5.0 discusses the methodology to be used in the evaluation process. Section 6.0 summarizes the milestones that have been defined to complete the enhanced sludge washing evaluation and provides a summary schedule to evaluate the performance of enhanced sludge washing. References are identified in Section 7.0, and additional schedule and milestone information is provided in the appendices.

  20. Enhanced sludge washing evaluation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, R.D.

    1994-09-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program mission is to store, treat, and immobilize highly radioactive Hanford Site waste (current and future tank waste and the strontium/cesium capsules) in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner. The scope of the TWRS Waste Pretreatment Program is to treat tank waste and separate that waste into HLW and LLW fractions and provide additional treatment as required to feed LLW and HLW immobilization facilities. Enhanced sludge washing was chosen as the baseline process for separating Hanford tank waste sludge. Section 1.0 briefly discusses the purpose of the evaluation plan and provides the background that led to the choice of enhanced sludge washing as the baseline process. Section 2.0 provides a brief summary of the evaluation plan details. Section 3.0 discusses, in some detail, the technical work planned to support the evaluation of enhanced sludge washing. Section 4.0 briefly discusses the potential important of policy issues to the evaluation. Section 5.0 discusses the methodology to be used in the evaluation process. Section 6.0 summarizes the milestones that have been defined to complete the enhanced sludge washing evaluation and provides a summary schedule to evaluate the performance of enhanced sludge washing. References are identified in Section 7.0, and additional schedule and milestone information is provided in the appendices

  1. SLUDGE MASS REDUCTION: PRIMARY COMPOSITIONAL FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE MELT RATE FOR FUTURE SLUDGE BATCH PROJECTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newell, J; Miller, D; Stone, M; Pickenheim, B

    2008-01-01

    510 based system without Al-dissolution relative to the Frit 418 based system with Al-dissolution. Though the without aluminum dissolution scenario suggests a slightly higher melt rate with frit 510, several points must be taken into consideration: (1) The MRF does not have the ability to assess liquid feeds and, thus, rheology impacts. Instead, the MRF is a 'static' test bed in which a mass of dried melter feed (SRAT product plus frit) is placed in an 'isothermal' furnace for a period of time to assess melt rate. These conditions, although historically effective in terms of identifying candidate frits for specific sludge batches and mapping out melt rate versus waste loading trends, do not allow for assessments of the potential impact of feed rheology on melt rate. That is, if the rheological properties of the slurried melter feed resulted in the mounding of the feed in the melter (i.e., the melter feed was thick and did not flow across the cold cap), melt rate and/or melter operations (i.e., surges) could be negatively impacted. This could affect one or both flowsheets. (2) Waste throughput factors were not determined for Frit 510 and Frit 418 over multiple waste loadings. In order to provide insight into the mission life versus canister count question, one needs to define the maximum waste throughput for both flowsheets. Due to funding limitations, the melt rate testing only evaluated melt rate at a fixed waste loading. (3) DWPF will be processing SB5 through their facility in mid-November 2008. Insight into the over arching questions of melt rate, waste throughput, and mission life can be obtained directly from the facility. It is recommended that processing of SB5 through the facility be monitored closely and that data be used as input into the decision making process on whether to implement Al-dissolution for future sludge batches

  2. The “Fake Marriage” Test in Taiwan: Gender, Sexuality, and Border Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Hua Chen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available According to many reports, migrant sex workers often use marriages of convenience to cross national borders in order to avoid laws criminalizing commercial sex in many destination countries. Taiwan is one of the countries developing strategies to prevent this illicit migration, particularly through the application of a fake marriage test. Based on in-depth interviews with eighteen Chinese migrant sex workers and thirteen officers of Taiwan’s National Immigration Agency (NIA, this article argues, first, that the discourse of “national security” has been widely drawn on to justify Taiwan’s rigid border control at the expense of stigmatized Chinese prostitutes who have been scapegoated. Border control is therefore not only racialized or classed but also sexualized, to the extent that all Chinese migrant women are considered potential prostitutes. Second, this article reveals how the exclusion of and hostility toward Chinese sex workers are simultaneously linked with a gender regime that seeks to exclude Chinese spouses who deviate from Taiwanese gender and social norms. The border is therefore a contested site where gender, sexuality, and nationality are interwoven.

  3. Eyes are windows to the Chinese soul: evidence from the detection of real and fake smiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Xiaoqin; Ge, Yue; Tao, Lin; Tang, Honghong; Liu, Chao; Luo, Yue-Jia

    2011-01-01

    How do people interpret the meaning of a smile? Previous studies with Westerners have found that both the eyes and the mouth are crucial in identifying and interpreting smiles, yet less is known about Easterners. Here we reported that when asking the Chinese to judge the Duchenne and non-Duchenne smiles as either real or fake, their accuracy and sensitivity were negatively correlated with their individualism scores but positively correlated with their collectivism scores. However, such correlations were found only for participants who stated the eyes to be the most useful references, but not for those who favored the mouth. Moreover, participants who favored the eyes were more accurate and sensitive than those who favored the mouth. Our results thus indicate that Chinese who follow the typical Eastern decoding process of using the eyes as diagnostic cues to identify and interpret others' facial expressions and social intentions, are particularly accurate and sensitive, the more they self-report greater collectivistic and lower individualistic values.

  4. Eyes are windows to the Chinese soul: evidence from the detection of real and fake smiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqin Mai

    Full Text Available How do people interpret the meaning of a smile? Previous studies with Westerners have found that both the eyes and the mouth are crucial in identifying and interpreting smiles, yet less is known about Easterners. Here we reported that when asking the Chinese to judge the Duchenne and non-Duchenne smiles as either real or fake, their accuracy and sensitivity were negatively correlated with their individualism scores but positively correlated with their collectivism scores. However, such correlations were found only for participants who stated the eyes to be the most useful references, but not for those who favored the mouth. Moreover, participants who favored the eyes were more accurate and sensitive than those who favored the mouth. Our results thus indicate that Chinese who follow the typical Eastern decoding process of using the eyes as diagnostic cues to identify and interpret others' facial expressions and social intentions, are particularly accurate and sensitive, the more they self-report greater collectivistic and lower individualistic values.

  5. Faking or Convincing: Why Do Some Advertising Campaigns Win Creativity Awards?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raoul V. Kübler

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the Sarbanes-Oxley Act was passed in 2002, it has become commonplace in the advertising industry to use creativity-award-show prizes instead of gross income figures to attract new customers. Therefore, achieving a top creativity ranking and winning creativity awards have become high priorities in the advertising industry. Agencies and marketers have always wondered what elements in the advertising creation process would lead to the winning of creativity awards. Although this debate has been dominated by pure speculation about the success of different routines, approaches and strategies in winning creativity awards, for the first time our study delivers an empirical insight into the key drivers of creativity award success. We investigate what strategies and which elements of an advertising campaign are truly likely to lead to winning the maximum number of creativity awards. Using a sample of 108 campaigns, we identify factors that influence campaign success at international advertising award shows. We identify innovativeness and the integration of multiple channels as the key drivers of creativity award success. In contrast to industry beliefs, meaningful or personally connecting approaches do not seem to generate a significant benefit in terms of winning creativity awards. Finally, our data suggest that the use of so-called “fake campaigns” to win more creativity awards does not prove to be effective.

  6. The manufacture and use of sludge test materials for R and D purposes in the treatment and processing of magnox based sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackburn, D.R.; Thompson, E.J.

    2013-01-01

    Among the Intermediate Level Waste materials in store and awaiting treatment and processing in the UK are quantities of magnesium hydroxide sludge. This sludge is a product of radioactive Magnox Swarf which arose from the de-canning of used magnox fuel element rods. As the Swarf was stored underwater, a corrosion reaction occurred over the course of time between the magnox and the water resulting in a magnesium hydroxide based sludge. The differing conditions and materials present in the various storage areas means that the sludge can range in consistency from that of a slurry through to a thick clay. Sludge test materials are required to underpin and validate the research and development equipment and processes that are to be used to treat the waste material. Necessary restrictions imposed on the sampling and testing of the radioactive waste means that the available data on the properties and behaviour of the sludge is limited. The raw materials used to create the sludge test materials are based upon magnesium hydroxide so that as far as possible the chemical behaviour will be similar to that of the waste material. The most representative sludge test material is manufactured by the corrosion of non-radioactive magnox or magnesium. However, time constraints make it impractical to supply this material in sufficient quantities for full scale validation trials. An alternative is to use sludge manufactured from commercially available magnesium hydroxide. The particle shape of commercially available materials differs from corrosion product magnesium hydroxide which means that properties such as the rheological behaviour cannot be replicated. Nevertheless, valuable trial data can be obtained, giving a greater degree of confidence in the waste treatment process than would be possible if only the more representative but less available corrosion product materials were to be used. Key test material parameters used in the trials have been identified as the particle size

  7. The manufacture and use of sludge test materials for R and D purposes in the treatment and processing of magnox based sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackburn, D.R.; Thompson, E.J. [NSG Environmental Ltd, Chorley, Lancashire (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    Among the Intermediate Level Waste materials in store and awaiting treatment and processing in the UK are quantities of magnesium hydroxide sludge. This sludge is a product of radioactive Magnox Swarf which arose from the de-canning of used magnox fuel element rods. As the Swarf was stored underwater, a corrosion reaction occurred over the course of time between the magnox and the water resulting in a magnesium hydroxide based sludge. The differing conditions and materials present in the various storage areas means that the sludge can range in consistency from that of a slurry through to a thick clay. Sludge test materials are required to underpin and validate the research and development equipment and processes that are to be used to treat the waste material. Necessary restrictions imposed on the sampling and testing of the radioactive waste means that the available data on the properties and behaviour of the sludge is limited. The raw materials used to create the sludge test materials are based upon magnesium hydroxide so that as far as possible the chemical behaviour will be similar to that of the waste material. The most representative sludge test material is manufactured by the corrosion of non-radioactive magnox or magnesium. However, time constraints make it impractical to supply this material in sufficient quantities for full scale validation trials. An alternative is to use sludge manufactured from commercially available magnesium hydroxide. The particle shape of commercially available materials differs from corrosion product magnesium hydroxide which means that properties such as the rheological behaviour cannot be replicated. Nevertheless, valuable trial data can be obtained, giving a greater degree of confidence in the waste treatment process than would be possible if only the more representative but less available corrosion product materials were to be used. Key test material parameters used in the trials have been identified as the particle size

  8. Pentachlorophenol (PCP) sludge recycling unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The Guelph Utility Pole Company treats utility poles by immersion in pentachlorophenol (PCP) or by pressure treatment with chromated copper arsenate (CCA). The PCP treatment process involves a number of steps, each producing a certain amount of sludge and other wastes. In a plant upgrading program to improve processing and treatment of poles and to reduce and recycle waste, a PCP recovery unit was developed, first as an experimental pilot-scale unit and then as a full-scale unit. The PCP recovery unit is modular in design and can be modified to suit different requirements. In a recycling operation, the sludge is pumped through a preheat system (preheated by waste heat) and suspended solids are removed by a strainer. The sludge is then heated in a tank and at a predetermined temperature it begins to separate into its component parts: oil, steam, and solids. The steam condenses to water containing low amounts of light oil, and this water is pumped through an oil/water separator. The recovered oil is reused in the wood treatment process and the water is used in the CCA plant. The oil remaining in the tank is reused in PCP treatment and the solid waste, which includes small stones and wood particles, is removed and stored. By the third quarter of operation, the recovery unit was operating as designed, processing ca 10,000 gal of sludge. This sludge yielded 6,500 gal of water, 3,500 gal of oil, and ca 30 gal of solids. Introduction of the PCP sludge recycling system has eliminated long-term storage of PCP sludge and minimized costs of hazardous waste disposal. 4 figs

  9. The hydraulic transportation of thickened sludges

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    driniev

    non-Newtonian sludges (Xu et al., 1993; Spinosa and Lotita, 2001; .... [11]. Analysis and typical applications. Laminar/turbulent transition. For most sewage sludges the ... on Transport and Sedimentation of Solid Particles - Ghent, September.

  10. Microbiological aspects of granular methanogenic sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolfing, J.

    1987-01-01

    The settling characteristics of anaerobic sludge are enhanced by the formation of microbial conglomerates. Various types of conglomerates having different structures, were distinguished in the present study, viz. granules, pellets and flocs (chapter 1). Granular methanogenic sludge, often

  11. Biological sludge solubilisation for reduction of excess sludge production in wastewater treatment process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, T; Yao, Y; Kihara, Y

    2006-01-01

    A novel sludge disintegration system (JFE-SD system) was developed for the reduction of excess sludge production in wastewater treatment plants. Chemical and biological treatments were applied to disintegrate excess sludge. At the first step, to enhance biological disintegration, the sludge was pretreated with alkali. At the second step, the sludge was disintegrated by biological treatment. Many kinds of sludge degrading microorganisms integrated the sludge. The efficiency of the new sludge disintegration system was confirmed in a full-scale experiment. The JFE-SD system reduced excess sludge production by approximately 50% during the experimental period. The quality of effluent was kept at quite a good level. Economic analysis revealed that this system could significantly decrease the excess sludge treatment cost.

  12. The role and control of sludge age in biological nutrient removal activated sludge systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekama, G A

    2010-01-01

    The sludge age is the most fundamental and important parameter in the design, operation and control of biological nutrient removal (BNR) activated sludge (AS) systems. Generally, the better the effluent and waste sludge quality required from the system, the longer the sludge age, the larger the biological reactor and the more wastewater characteristics need to be known. Controlling the reactor concentration does not control sludge age, only the mass of sludge in the system. When nitrification is a requirement, sludge age control becomes a requirement and the secondary settling tanks can no longer serve the dual purpose of clarifier and waste activated sludge thickeners. The easiest and most practical way to control sludge age is with hydraulic control by wasting a defined proportion of the reactor volume daily. In AS plants with reactor concentration control, nitrification fails first. With hydraulic control of sludge age, nitrification will not fail, rather the plant fails by shedding solids over the secondary settling tank effluent weirs.

  13. Integral study of sewage sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Sewage sludges are the by-product generated during the treatment process of waste water, and they are conformed by a solid phase which origin is the accumulation of pollutant materials which has been added to water during natural and anthropogenic activities. Its handling is one of the most serious problems faced by water treatment plants which involve the production, gathering, transportation, re utilization and final disposal of sewage sludges. The main purpose of this project is to perform a technical evaluation of the process of sewage sludge irradiation for its possible application as a choice for treatment and final disposal. Irradiation with gammas from Cobalt-60 shows effectiveness in disinfestation of sewage sludges, since they reduce six times the microbial population with a 7 KGy dose. In like manners with doses of 10 KGy is possible to bring down in 70 % the concentration of organic compounds, as well as to eliminate the presence of 6 to 22 organic compounds on samples of sewage sludges. The whole content of this work is presented in six sections: Introduction, Antecedents, Methodology, Conclusions, Suggestions and Bibliography. (Author)

  14. Excess sludge reduction in activated sludge processes by integrating ultrasound treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Elvira, S.; Fdz-Polanco, M.; Plaza, F. I.; Garralon, G.; Fdz-Polanco, F.

    2009-01-01

    Biological sludge produced in the activated sludge process can be minimised modifying the water line, the sludge line or the final disposal strategy. Selecting the water line the general idea is to reduce the sludge producing the yield coefficient by means of the called lysis cryptic growth process. The main techniques referenced in literature are onization, chlorination and chemical and heat treatment. Ultrasounds are widely used to increase anaerobic biodegradability but are not reported as system to control excess sludge production. (Author)

  15. Supplementary information on K-Basin sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MAKENAS, B.J.

    1999-01-01

    Three previous documents in this series have been published covering the analysis of: K East Basin Floor and Pit Sludge, K East Basin Canister Sludge, and K West Basin Canister Sludge. Since their publication, additional data have been acquired and analyses performed. It is the purpose of this volume to summarize the additional insights gained in the interim time period

  16. 40 CFR 61.54 - Sludge sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sludge sampling. 61.54 Section 61.54... sampling. (a) As an alternative means for demonstrating compliance with § 61.52(b), an owner or operator... days prior to a sludge sampling test, so that he may at his option observe the test. (c) Sludge shall...

  17. Heavy metals precipitation in sewage sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchioretto, M.M.; Rulkens, W.H.; Bruning, H.

    2005-01-01

    There is a great need for heavy metal removal from strongly metal-polluted sewage sludges. One of the advantages of heavy metal removal from this type of sludge is the possibility of the sludge disposal to landfill with reduced risk of metals being leached to the surface and groundwater. Another

  18. Inactivation of bacteria in sewage sludge by ionizing radiation, heat, and thermoradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandon, J.R.; Langley, S.L.

    1976-01-01

    For purposes of animal feeding or fertilizer usage on edible crops, sewage sludge must be free of pathogenic organisms. Bacterial inactivation by a combination of heat and irradiation is shown to be effective. These results must be viewed in conjunction with those from studies of parasite egg inactivation, virus inactivation, and physical-chemical benefits in order to make a fair assessment of the value of the thermoradiation treatment compared to other possible sludge treatment processes

  19. K Basin sludge/resin bead separation test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squier, D.M.

    1998-01-01

    The K Basin sludge is an accumulation of fuel element corrosion products, organic and inorganic ion exchange materials, canister gasket materials, iron and aluminum corrosion products, sand, dirt and minor amounts of other organic material. The sludge will be collected and treated for storage and eventual disposal. This process will remove the large solid materials by a 1/4 inch screen. The screened material will be subjected to nitric acid in a chemical treatment process. The organic ion exchange resin beads produce undesirable chemical reactions with the nitric acid. The resin beads must be removed from the bulk material and treated by another process. An effective bead separation method must extract 95% of the resin bead mass without entraining more than 5% of the other sludge component mass. The test plan I-INF-2729, ''Organic Ion Exchange Resin Separation Methods Evaluation,'' proposed the evaluation of air lift, hydro cyclone, agitated slurry and elutriation resin bead separation methods. This follows the testing strategy outlined in section 4.1 of BNF-2574, ''Testing Strategy to Support the Development of K Basins Sludge Treatment Process''. Engineering study BNF-3128, ''Separation of Organic Ion Exchange Resins from Sludge,'' Rev. 0, focused the evaluation tests on a method that removed the fine sludge particles by a sieve and then extracted the beads by means of a elutriation column. Ninety-nine percent of the resin beads are larger than 125 microns and 98.5 percent are 300 microns and larger. Particles smaller than 125 microns make up the largest portion of sludge in the K Basins. Eliminating a large part of the sludge's non-bead component will reduce the quantity that is lifted with the resin beads in the elutriation column. Resin bead particle size distribution measurements are given in Appendix A The Engineering Testing Laboratory conducted measurements of a elutriation column's ability to extract resin beads from a sieved, non-radioactive sludge

  20. Chemical modeling of waste sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, C.F.; Beahm, E.C.

    1996-10-01

    The processing of waste from underground storage tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and other facilities will require an understanding of the chemical interactions of the waste with process chemicals. Two aspects of sludge treatment should be well delineated and predictable: (1) the distribution of chemical species between aqueous solutions and solids, and (2) potential problems due to chemical interactions that could result in process difficulties or safety concerns. It is likely that the treatment of waste tank sludge will begin with washing, followed by basic or acidic leaching. The dissolved materials will be in a solution that has a high ionic strength where activity coefficients are far from unity. Activity coefficients are needed in order to calculate solubilities. Several techniques are available for calculating these values, and each technique has its advantages and disadvantages. The techniques adopted and described here is the Pitzer method. Like any of the methods, prudent use of this approach requires that it be applied within concentration ranges where the experimental data were fit, and its use in large systems should be preceded by evaluating subsystems. While much attention must be given to the development of activity coefficients, other factors such as coprecipitation of species and Ostwald ripening must also be considered when one aims to interpret results of sludge tests or to predict results of treatment strategies. An understanding of sludge treatment processes begins with the sludge tests themselves and proceeds to a general interpretation with the aid of modeling. One could stop with only data from the sludge tests, in which case the table of data would become an implicit model. However, this would be a perilous approach in situations where processing difficulties could be costly or result in concerns for the environment or health and safety

  1. A Collaborative Epidemiological Investigation into the Criminal Fake Artesunate Trade in South East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Paul N; Fernández, Facundo M; Plançon, Aline; Mildenhall, Dallas C; Green, Michael D; Ziyong, Li; Christophel, Eva Maria; Phanouvong, Souly; Howells, Stephen; McIntosh, Eric; Laurin, Paul; Blum, Nancy; Hampton, Christina Y; Faure, Kevin; Nyadong, Leonard; Soong, C. W. Ray; Santoso, Budiono; Zhiguang, Wang; Newton, John; Palmer, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    Background Since 1998 the serious public health problem in South East Asia of counterfeit artesunate, containing no or subtherapeutic amounts of the active antimalarial ingredient, has led to deaths from untreated malaria, reduced confidence in this vital drug, large economic losses for the legitimate manufacturers, and concerns that artemisinin resistance might be engendered. Methods and Findings With evidence of a deteriorating situation, a group of police, criminal analysts, chemists, palynologists, and health workers collaborated to determine the source of these counterfeits under the auspices of the International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL) and the Western Pacific World Health Organization Regional Office. A total of 391 samples of genuine and counterfeit artesunate collected in Vietnam (75), Cambodia (48), Lao PDR (115), Myanmar (Burma) (137) and the Thai/Myanmar border (16), were available for analysis. Sixteen different fake hologram types were identified. High-performance liquid chromatography and/or mass spectrometry confirmed that all specimens thought to be counterfeit (195/391, 49.9%) on the basis of packaging contained no or small quantities of artesunate (up to 12 mg per tablet as opposed to ∼ 50 mg per genuine tablet). Chemical analysis demonstrated a wide diversity of wrong active ingredients, including banned pharmaceuticals, such as metamizole, and safrole, a carcinogen, and raw material for manufacture of methylenedioxymethamphetamine (‘ecstasy'). Evidence from chemical, mineralogical, biological, and packaging analysis suggested that at least some of the counterfeits were manufactured in southeast People's Republic of China. This evidence prompted the Chinese Government to act quickly against the criminal traders with arrests and seizures. Conclusions An international multi-disciplinary group obtained evidence that some of the counterfeit artesunate was manufactured in China, and this prompted a criminal investigation

  2. Fake Tilt-Shift Miniaturisation Causes Negative D-Prime for Detecting Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim S Meese

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Tilt-shift lens technology can produce photographs of distant objects with very narrow depths of field. For scenes with appropriately placed foreground and background, fake tilt shift (FTS effects can be achieved by applying blur gradients to the upper and lower parts of a conventional photograph. Either way, the treatment causes real scenes to look like small-scale models. This happens because the blur depth-cue implies that the object is close, and therefore small to be within view. Previous attempts to study this used subjective measures of perceived distance, which are complicated by cognitive strategy. We improved on this by devising a 2AFC performance task where participants viewed pairs of achromatic railway scenes for 5 seconds. The target scene was real; the other was a detailed 1:76 scale model. There were six treatments of the real photographs: null, total blur, FTS blur, inverse FTS blur, orthogonally oriented FTS blur, and FTS blur with no gradient (ie, a strip of focus through a blurred image. Each of the six real photographs was given each of the treatments and compared to each of the six model photographs. Each of the 36 participants performed 6 trials in random order. For the null treatment, observers detected reality reliably, whereas for FTS blur with and without gradients the model world was mistaken for reality. Participants were at chance for the other treatments. We conclude that the key factor for achieving FTS miniaturization is the correct alignment of the treatment with the subject, not the inclusion of a blur gradient.

  3. A collaborative epidemiological investigation into the criminal fake artesunate trade in South East Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul N Newton

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Since 1998 the serious public health problem in South East Asia of counterfeit artesunate, containing no or subtherapeutic amounts of the active antimalarial ingredient, has led to deaths from untreated malaria, reduced confidence in this vital drug, large economic losses for the legitimate manufacturers, and concerns that artemisinin resistance might be engendered.With evidence of a deteriorating situation, a group of police, criminal analysts, chemists, palynologists, and health workers collaborated to determine the source of these counterfeits under the auspices of the International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL and the Western Pacific World Health Organization Regional Office. A total of 391 samples of genuine and counterfeit artesunate collected in Vietnam (75, Cambodia (48, Lao PDR (115, Myanmar (Burma (137 and the Thai/Myanmar border (16, were available for analysis. Sixteen different fake hologram types were identified. High-performance liquid chromatography and/or mass spectrometry confirmed that all specimens thought to be counterfeit (195/391, 49.9% on the basis of packaging contained no or small quantities of artesunate (up to 12 mg per tablet as opposed to approximately 50 mg per genuine tablet. Chemical analysis demonstrated a wide diversity of wrong active ingredients, including banned pharmaceuticals, such as metamizole, and safrole, a carcinogen, and raw material for manufacture of methylenedioxymethamphetamine ('ecstasy'. Evidence from chemical, mineralogical, biological, and packaging analysis suggested that at least some of the counterfeits were manufactured in southeast People's Republic of China. This evidence prompted the Chinese Government to act quickly against the criminal traders with arrests and seizures.An international multi-disciplinary group obtained evidence that some of the counterfeit artesunate was manufactured in China, and this prompted a criminal investigation. International cross

  4. Critical operational parameters for zero sludge production in biological wastewater treatment processes combined with sludge disintegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seong-Hoon; Lee, Sangho

    2005-09-01

    Mathematical models were developed to elucidate the relationships among process control parameters and the effect of these parameters on the performance of anoxic/oxic biological wastewater processes combined with sludge disintegrators (A/O-SD). The model equations were also applied for analyses of activated sludge processes hybrid with sludge disintegrators (AS-SD). Solubilization ratio of sludge in the sludge disintegrator, alpha, hardly affected sludge reduction efficiencies if the biomass was completely destructed to smaller particulates. On the other hand, conversion efficiency of non-biodegradable particulates to biodegradable particulates, beta, significantly affected sludge reduction efficiencies because beta was directly related to the accumulation of non-biodegradable particulates in bioreactors. When 30% of sludge in the oxic tank was disintegrated everyday and beta was 0.5, sludge reduction was expected to be 78% and 69% for the A/O-SD and AS-SD processes, respectively. Under this condition, the sludge disintegration number (SDN), which is the amount of sludge disintegrated divided by the reduced sludge, was calculated to be around 4. Due to the sludge disintegration, live biomass concentration decreased while other non-biodegradable particulates concentration increased. As a consequence, the real F/M ratio was expected to be much higher than the apparent F/M. The effluent COD was maintained almost constant for the range of sludge disintegration rate considered in this study. Nitrogen removal efficiencies of the A/O-SD process was hardly affected by the sludge disintegration until daily sludge disintegration reaches 40% of sludge in the oxic tank. Above this level of sludge disintegration, autotrophic biomass concentration decreases overly and TKN in the effluent increases abruptly in both the A/O-SD and AS-SD processes. Overall, the trends of sludge reduction and effluent quality according to operation parameters matched well with experimental results

  5. Vermistabilization of sewage sludge (biosolids) by earthworms: converting a potential biohazard destined for landfill disposal into a pathogen-free, nutritive and safe biofertilizer for farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Rajiv K; Herat, Sunil; Bharambe, Gokul; Brahambhatt, Ashish

    2010-10-01

    Earthworms feed readily upon sludge components, rapidly converting them into vermicompost, reduce the pathogens to safe levels and ingest the heavy metals. Volume is significantly reduced from 1 m³ of wet sludge (80% moisture) to 0.5 m³ of vermicompost (30% moisture). Earthworms have real potential both to increase the rate of aerobic decomposition and composting of organic matter and also to stabilize the organic residues in the sludge--removing the harmful pathogens (by devouring them and also by discharge of antibacterial coelomic fluid) and heavy metals (by bio-accumulation). They also mineralize the essential nutrients nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium from the sludge. It may not be possible to remove toxic substances completely, but at least change the 'chemical make-up' of the sludge to make it harmless to the soil and enable its use as a nutritive organic fertilizer. This method has been found to comply with grade A standards for sludge stabilization.

  6. SLUDGE WASHING AND DEMONSTRATION OF THE DWPF FLOWSHEET IN THE SRNL SHIELDED CELLS FOR SLUDGE BATCH 6 QUALIFICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pareizs, J.; Pickenheim, B.; Bannochie, C.; Billings, A.; Bibler, N.; Click, D.

    2010-10-01

    below the DWPF target with 750 g of steam per g of mercury. However, rheological properties did not improve and were above the design basis. Hydrogen generation rates did not exceed DWPF limits during the SRAT and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycles. However, hydrogen generation during the SRAT cycle approached the DWPF limit. The glass fabricated with the Tank 51 SB6 SME product and Frit 418 was acceptable with respect to chemical durability as measured by the Product Consistency Test (PCT). The PCT response was also predictable by the current durability models of the DWPF Product Composition Control System (PCCS). It should be noted, however, that in the first attempt to make glass from the SME product, the contents of the fabrication crucible foamed over. This may be a result of the SME product's REDOX (Reduction/Oxidation - Fe{sup 2+}/{Sigma}Fe) of 0.08 (calculated from SME product analytical results). The following are recommendations drawn from this demonstration. In this demonstration, at the request of DWPF, SRNL caustic boiled the SRAT contents prior to acid addition to remove water (to increase solids concentration). During the nearly five hours of caustic boiling, 700 ppm of antifoam was required to control foaming. SRNL recommends that DWPF not caustic boil/concentrate SRAT receipt prior to acid addition until further studies can be performed to provide a better foaming control strategy or a new antifoam is developed for caustic boiling. Based on this set of runs and a recently completed demonstration with the SB6 Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS) sample, it is recommended that DWPF not add formic acid at the design addition rate of two gallons per minute for this sludge batch. A longer acid addition time appears to be helpful in allowing slower reaction of formic acid with the sludge and possibly decreases the chance of a foam over during acid addition.

  7. Engineering Work Plan for Development of Sludge Pickup Adapter for Fuel Cleanliness Inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PITNER, A.L.

    2000-01-01

    The plan for developing an adapter to suction up sludge into a calibrated tube for fuel cleanliness inspection activities is described. A primary assessment of fuel cleanliness to be performed after processing through the Primary Cleaning Machine is whether the volume of any remaining canister sludge in or on a fuel assembly exceeds the allowable 14 cm 3 limit. It is anticipated that a general visual inspection of the sludge inventory after fuel assembly separation will usually suffice in making this assessment, but occasions may arise where there is some question as to whether or not the observed quantity of sludge exceeds this limit. Therefore a quantitative method of collecting and measuring the sludge volume is needed for these borderline situations. It is proposed to develop an adapter that fits on the end of the secondary cleaning station vacuum wand that will suction the material from the sludge collection tray into a chamber marked with the limiting volume to permit a direct go/no-go assessment of the sludge quantity

  8. What does nuclear technology have to do with pool cues, cow fat and art fakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, Stanton.

    1984-01-01

    Several agricultural, industrial and miscellaneous uses of radiation are featured. Excellent results on the hormesis of seed potatoes are reported from eastern Europe. Three pilot plants are presently using radiation to sterilize sewage sludge for use as a fertilizer. The ban on ethylene dibromide as a fumigant for grain opens up a new market for gamma disinfestation. Radappertization of food is valuable for special diets. Gamma sterilization of medical supplies is an expanding application. Increasingly, silicon for semiconductor applications is being doped by neutron-induced transmutation

  9. Anaerobic digestion of industrial activated aerobic sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodloe, J.G.; Roberts, R.S.

    1990-04-01

    The Tennessee Eastman Company manufactures a variety of organic chemicals, plastics and fibers at their Kingsport Tennessee Facility. The wastewater generated during the manufacture of these compounds is currently treated using an activated sludge process. The objective of the project is to evaluate the economic potential of an anaerobic digestion process to convert industrial sludge at the Tennessee Eastman Company into biogas. The evaluation will require collection and analysis of experimental data on the anaerobic digestion of industrial sludge obtained from Kingsport. Although the experiments will be conducted using Tennessee Eastman sludge, these results should be also generally applicable to similar industrial sludge

  10. Sludge cleaning in the steam generators: sludge Lancing e IBL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoro, E.; Gonzalez, S.; Calderon, N.

    2013-01-01

    IBERDROLA Engineering and Construction has echoed the need for plants to remove oxide deposits (sludge) located on the secondary side, on the bottom plate and into the tube bundle steam steam generators. Therefore, and with its partner SAVAC SRA has developed a specific system consisting of applying a capillary water at very high pressure applied directly to the location of these oxides. (Author)

  11. Improved waste-activated sludge dewatering using sludge/oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-10-07

    Oct 7, 2014 ... 2Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hanyang University, 222 Wangsimni-Ro, Seongdong-Gu, Seoul 133-791, ... conventional heating methods in chemical reactions is becom- ... the dewaterability of sludge and reduces the organic matter ..... It is unlikely that this technique will be applied in.

  12. A review on paint sludge from automotive industries: Generation, characteristics and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihoglu, Guray; Salihoglu, Nezih Kamil

    2016-03-15

    The automotive manufacturing process results in the consumption of several natural sources and the generation of various types of wastes. The primary source of hazardous wastes at an automotive manufacturing plant is the painting process, and the major waste fraction is paint sludge, which is classified with EU waste code of 080113* implying hazardous characteristics. The amount of the paint sludge generated increases every year with the worldwide increase in the car production. The characteristics of the paint sludge, which mainly designate the management route, are mainly determined by the type of the paint used, application technique employed, and the chemicals applied such as flocculants, detackifiers, pH boosters, antifoam agents, and biocides as well as the dewatering techniques preferred. Major routes for the disposal of the paint sludges are incineration as hazardous waste or combustion at cement kilns. Because of high dissolved organic carbon content of the paint, the paint sludge cannot be accepted by landfills according to European Union Legislations. More investigations are needed in the field of paint sludge recycling such as recycling it as a new paint or as other formulations, or making use of the sludge for the production of construction materials. Research on the applicability of the paint sludge in composting and biogasification can also be useful. Ongoing research is currently being conducted on new application techniques to increase the effectiveness of paint transfer, which helps to prevent the generation of paint sludge. Advancements in paint and coating chemistry such as the reduction in the coating layers with its thickness also help to decrease the level of paint sludge generation. Investigations on the effects of the chemicals on the recycling potential of paint sludges and consideration of these effects by the chemical manufacturer companies would be extremely important. This review presents the formation of paint sludge, the factors

  13. JOURNALISM IN POST-TRUTH ERA: fact-checking as a tool to fight against the fake news

    OpenAIRE

    Spinelli, Egle Müller; Santos, Jéssica de Almeida

    2018-01-01

    This article intends to report how the work of the agencies of fact-checking can help informative companies in the fight against false news, with their data-checking methodologies in order to encourage the transparency of the journalistic process. A literature review addresses the impacts of post-truth and the spread of fake news in society - where objective facts are less influential in public opinion than personal emotions and beliefs. As a result, it is concluded that serious fact-finding ...

  14. Filterability of membrane bioreactor (MBR) sludge: impacts of polyelectrolytes and mixing with conventional activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigit, Nevzat O; Civelekoglu, Gokhan; Cinar, Ozer; Kitis, Mehmet

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to investigate the filterability of MBR sludge and its mixture with conventional activated sludge (CAS). In addition, the impacts of type and dose of various polyelectrolytes, filter type and sludge properties on the filterability of both MBR and Mixed sludges were determined. Specific cake resistance (SCR) measured by the Buchner funnel filtration test apparatus and the solids content of the resulting sludge cake were used to assess the dewaterability of tested sludges. The type of filter paper used in Buchner tests affected the results of filterability for MBR, CAS and Mixed sludges. SCR values and optimum polyelectrolyte doses increased with increasing MLSS concentrations in the MBR, which suggested that increase in MLSS concentrations accompanied by increases in EPS and SMP concentrations and a shift toward smaller particles caused poorer dewaterability of the MBR sludge. The significant differences observed among the filterability of CAS and MBR sludges suggested that MLSS alone is not a good predictor of sludge dewaterability. Combining CAS and MBR sludges at different proportions generally improved their dewaterability. Combining MBR sludges having typically high MLSS and EPS concentrations with CAS having much lower MLSS concentrations may be an option for full-scale treatment plants experiencing sludge dewaterability problems. Better filterability and higher cake dry solids were achieved with cationic polyelectrolytes compared to anionic and non-ionic ones for all sludge types tested.

  15. The Superlative Scale S of Butcher and Han (1995: the "fake-good" in the Spanish adaptation of the MMPI-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe Sánchez Crespo

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the '"fake-good" behaviour using the Superlative Scale S in theSpanish adaptation of the MMPI-2. From the 3.035 participants, the "normal" group ( 1.723and the "clinic" group (561 responded with sincerity lo the questionnaire. A group of 269"'normal" participants was asked to show a negative image of themselves (group "fake-bad"'and other 282 participants, to show a positive image (group "Fake-good"; finally a group of 200 participants answered to the questionnaire without following the information of the items (group "inconsistent answers"'. The results showed the sensibility of this to detect the individuals that falsify their answers trying to present their more positive image. There were difficulties to identify individuals who answered to the questionnaire without keeping in mind the information of the items.

  16. Electrodialytic removal of cadmium from wastewater sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, M. R.; Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Nielsen, S.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents for the first time laboratory results demonstrating electrodialytic removal of Cd from wastewater sludge, which is a method originally developed for soil remediation. During the remediation a stirred suspension of wastewater sludge was exposed to an electric dc field. The liquid....../solid (ml/g fresh sludge) ratio was between 1.4 and 2. Three experiments were performed where the sludge was suspended in distilled water, citric acid or HNO"3. The experimental conditions were otherwise identical. The Cd removal in the three experiments was 69, 70 and 67%, respectively, thus the removal...... was approximately the same. Chemical extraction experiments with acidic solutions showed that 5-10 times more Cd could be extracted from decomposed sludge than from fresh sludge. It is likely that the mobilization of Cd during decomposition of the sludge contributes to the efficient removal of Cd...

  17. Fast pyrolysis of lignin, macroalgae and sewage sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trinh, N.T.

    2013-04-15

    macronutrients as N, P, K, S, Mg and Ca and this could make the chars most valuable as raw materials for fertilizer production. The sewage sludge waste bulk volume (the char compared to the sludge) was reduced with 52 % by pyrolysis at 575 deg. C. It is seen that the fast pyrolysis process provides a promising method to reduce cost for landfilling and produce a bio-oil that can be used as a fuel. The pyrolysis temperature has a considerable effect on the product distributions of the lignin and sewage sludge PCR pyrolysis, as well as their bio-oil properties with respect to molecular mass distribution, identified GC-MS component compositions, water-insoluble fraction, viscosity, and HHV. A maximum of organic oil yields of lignin and sewage sludge PCR pyrolysis were obtained at optimal temperatures of 550 - 575 deg. C. In this work, the behaviors of slurry samples of wood, char and grinded char with respect to phase transitions, rheological properties, elemental composition, and energy density were investigated. Also pumping properties were investigated at temperatures of 25, 40 and 60 deg. C and the solids loading of 0 - 20 wt%. The bioslurries obtained a volume energy density of 21-23 GJ/m{sup 3} and an energy densification factor of 4.5 - 5 (when compared to beech wood). Their apparent viscosities were significantly influenced by the solid loading levels (0 - 20 wt %) and temperatures (25 - 60 deg. C). The slurry samples with 10 wt% char (having d80 of 276 {mu}m) and 20 wt% grinded char (having d80 of 118 {mu}m) were successfully pumped into a pressurized chamber (0 - 6 bar). (LN)

  18. Solidification process for sludge residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, K.L.

    1998-01-01

    This report investigates the solidification process used at 100-N Basin to solidify the N Basin sediment and assesses the N Basin process for application to the K Basin sludge residue material. This report also includes a discussion of a solidification process for stabilizing filters. The solidified matrix must be compatible with the Environmental Remediation Disposal Facility acceptance criteria

  19. Sludge stabilization operability test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, W.S.

    1994-01-01

    Document provides the results of the Operability Test Procedure performed to test the operability of the HC-21C thermal stabilization process for sludge. The OTP assured all equipment functioned properly and established the baseline temperature profile for glovebox HC-21C

  20. Thermal analysis of kieselguhr sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. T. Antipov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It’s currently necessary to clarify the mechanisms of thermodynamic and mass transfer processes in capillary porous media. In this paper we obtain the thermogravimetric curves of evaporation drying kieselguhr sludge. It is also an analysis of the curves, allowing to choose the optimum conditions of drying.

  1. Fluidization of Dried Wastewater Sludge.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hartman, Miloslav; Pohořelý, Michael; Trnka, Otakar

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 178, 3 (2007) , s. 166-172 ISSN 0032-5910 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA4072201 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : fluidization characteristics * multiphase reactors * dried stabilized wastewater sludge Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.130, year: 2007

  2. Fermentation and chemical treatment of pulp and paper mill sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoon Y; Wang, Wei; Kang, Li

    2014-12-02

    A method of chemically treating partially de-ashed pulp and/or paper mill sludge to obtain products of value comprising taking a sample of primary sludge from a Kraft paper mill process, partially de-ashing the primary sludge by physical means, and further treating the primary sludge to obtain the products of value, including further treating the resulting sludge and using the resulting sludge as a substrate to produce cellulase in an efficient manner using the resulting sludge as the only carbon source and mixtures of inorganic salts as the primary nitrogen source, and including further treating the resulting sludge and using the resulting sludge to produce ethanol.

  3. Radiation disinfection of sewage sludge and composting of the irradiated sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Shoji; Nishimura, Koichi; Watanabe, Hiromasa; Kawakami, Waichiro

    1985-01-01

    In the radiation disinfected sewage sludge, its stabilization is necessary with the composting. In this disinfected sludge, there is no need of keeping it at high temperature at the cost of fermentation velocity. The fermentation velocity can thus be set to obtain its maximum value. In sewage sludge utilization of farm land, to prevent the contamination with pathogenic bacteria and the secondary pollution, the radiation disinfection of dehydrated sludge and the composting of the disinfected sludge have been studied. The disinfection effect when an electron accelerator is used for the radiation source is described. Then, the composting of the disinfected sludge is described in chemical kinetics of the microorganisms. (Mori, K.)

  4. Effects of Sludge-amendment on Mineralization of Pyrene and Microorganisms in Sludge and Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinge, C; Gejlsbjerg, B; Ekelund, Flemming

    2001-01-01

    . Sludge-amendment enhanced the mineralization of pyrene in the soil compared to soil without sludge, and the most extensive mineralization was observed when the sludge was kept in a lump. The number of protozoa, heterotrophic bacteria and pyrene-mineralizing bacteria was much higher in the sludge compared...... to the soil. The amendment of sludge did not affect the number of protozoa and bacteria in the surrounding soil, which indicated that organic contaminants in the sludge had a little effect on the number of protozoa and bacteria in the surrounding soil...

  5. Hexavalent chromium removal using aerobic activated sludge batch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The following Cr(VI) removal systems were tested: activated sludge alone; activated sludge with an external electron donor (5 g/. of lactose); activated sludge with PAC addition (4 g/.); activated sludge with both PAC and lactose; and PAC alone. The results reported here showed that activated sludges are capable of ...

  6. Performance and mechanism of sludge dewaterability enhanced by potassium ferrate pretreatment and calcium chloride addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yali Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The potential benefits and mechanisms of potassium ferrate pretreatment and calcium chloride addition on sludge dewaterability were investigated in this study. The capillary suction time (CST was used to evaluate sludge dewaterability. Results indicated that potassium ferrate of 0.1 g/g total solids (TS and calcium chloride of 0.4 g/g TS were optimal parameters, and corresponding CST reached 43.7 s. Soluble organics in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS were determined by three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy, which was used to explain the mechanism of sludge dewaterability. The fluorescence intensities of protein-like and humic-like substances in EPS had a negative relationship with the CST. Scanning electron microscopy images indicated that calcium chloride neutralized the surface charge of particles, making the soluble protein-like substances agglomerate and form bigger flocs, consequently enhancing sludge dewaterability.

  7. Sludge derived fuel technique of sewage sludge by oil vacuum evaporation drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seokhwan; Lim, Byungran; Lee, Sookoo

    2010-01-01

    Sewage sludge contains high content of organic materials and its water content is also very high about 80% even after filtration process. Landfill as a sludge treatment methods can cause odor problem and leachate production which can derive the secondary contamination of soil and groundwater. The ocean dumping will be prohibited according to the London Convention and domestic stringent environmental regulation. Based on domestic agenda on organic sewage sludge treatment, the ocean disposal will be prohibited from 2012, thus alternative methods are demanded. Sludge derived fuel (SDF) technology can alleviate the emission of greenhouse gas and recover energy from sludge. For proper treatment and SDF production from sludge, the vacuum evaporation and immersion frying technology was adopted in this research. This technology dries moisture in sludge after mixing with oil such as Bunker C oil, waste oil or waste food oil etc. Mixing sludge and oil secures liquidity of organic sludge to facilitate handling throughout the drying process. The boiling temperature could be maintained low through vacuum condition in whole evaporation process. This study was performed to find the optimum operating temperature and pressure, the mixing ratio of sludge and oil. Finally, we could obtained SDF which moisture content was less than 5%, its heating value was over 4,500 kcal/ kg sludge. This heating value could satisfy the Korean Fuel Standard for the Recycle Products. Assessed from the perspective of energy balance and economic evaluation, this sludge drying system could be widely used for the effective sludge treatment and the production of SDF. (author)

  8. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 503 - Procedure To Determine the Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge A Appendix A to Part 503 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE Pt... a Sewage Sludge Section 503.13(a)(4)(ii) requires that the product of the concentration for each...

  9. Production of bacterial cellulose and enzyme from waste fiber sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Bacterial cellulose (BC) is a highly crystalline and mechanically stable nanopolymer, which has excellent potential as a material in many novel applications, especially if it can be produced in large amounts from an inexpensive feedstock. Waste fiber sludge, a residue with little or no value, originates from pulp mills and lignocellulosic biorefineries. A high cellulose and low lignin content contributes to making the fiber sludge suitable for bioconversion, even without a thermochemical pretreatment step. In this study, the possibility to combine production of BC and hydrolytic enzymes from fiber sludge was investigated. The BC was characterized using field-emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis, and its mechanical properties were investigated. Results Bacterial cellulose and enzymes were produced through sequential fermentations with the bacterium Gluconacetobacter xylinus and the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei. Fiber sludges from sulfate (SAFS) and sulfite (SIFS) processes were hydrolyzed enzymatically without prior thermochemical pretreatment and the resulting hydrolysates were used for BC production. The highest volumetric yields of BC from SAFS and SIFS were 11 and 10 g/L (DW), respectively. The BC yield on initial sugar in hydrolysate-based medium reached 0.3 g/g after seven days of cultivation. The tensile strength of wet BC from hydrolysate medium was about 0.04 MPa compared to about 0.03 MPa for BC from a glucose-based reference medium, while the crystallinity was slightly lower for BC from hydrolysate cultures. The spent hydrolysates were used for production of cellulase with T. reesei. The cellulase activity (CMCase activity) in spent SAFS and SIFS hydrolysates reached 5.2 U/mL (87 nkat/mL), which was similar to the activity level obtained in a reference medium containing equal amounts of reducing sugar. Conclusions It was shown that waste fiber sludge is a suitable raw material for production of

  10. Hybrid life-cycle environmental and cost inventory of sewage sludge treatment and end-use scenarios: a case study from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Ashley; Horvath, Arpad; Nelson, Kara L

    2008-05-01

    Sewage sludge management poses environmental, economic, and political challenges for wastewater treatment plants and municipalities around the globe. To facilitate more informed and sustainable decision making, this study used life-cycle inventory (LCI) to expand upon previous process-based LCIs of sewage sludge treatmenttechnologies. Additionally, the study evaluated an array of productive end-use options for treated sewage sludge, such as fertilizer and as an input into construction materials, to determine how the sustainability of traditional manufacturing processes changes with sludge as a replacement for other raw inputs. The inclusion of the life-cycle of necessary inputs (such as lime) used in sludge treatment significantly impacts the sustainability profiles of different treatment and end-use schemes. Overall, anaerobic digestion is generally the optimal treatment technology whereas incineration, particularly if coal-fired, is the most environmentally and economically costly. With respect to sludge end use, offsets are greatest for the use of sludge as fertilizer, but all of the productive uses of sludge can improve the sustainability of conventional manufacturing practices. The results are intended to help inform and guide decisions about sludge handling for existing wastewater treatment plants and those that are still in the planning phase in cities around the world. Although additional factors must be considered when selecting a sludge treatment and end-use scheme, this study highlights how a systems approach to planning can contribute significantly to improving overall environmental sustainability.

  11. Textile wastewater treatment: aerobic granular sludge vs activated sludge systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotito, Adriana Maria; De Sanctis, Marco; Di Iaconi, Claudio; Bergna, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    Textile effluents are characterised by high content of recalcitrant compounds and are often discharged (together with municipal wastewater to increase their treatability) into centralized wastewater treatment plants with a complex treatment scheme. This paper reports the results achieved adopting a granular sludge system (sequencing batch biofilter granular reactor - SBBGR) to treat mixed municipal-textile wastewater. Thanks to high average removals in SBBGR (82.1% chemical oxygen demand, 94.7% total suspended solids, 87.5% total Kjeldahl nitrogen, 77.1% surfactants), the Italian limits for discharge into a water receiver can be complied with the biological stage alone. The comparison with the performance of the centralized plant treating the same wastewater has showed that SBBGR system is able to produce an effluent of comparable quality with a simpler treatment scheme, a much lower hydraulic residence time (11 h against 30 h) and a lower sludge production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Microbiological studies in enhanced sewage sludge degradation through cell membrane break-up; Mikrobiologische Untersuchungen zum verbesserten Klaerschlammabbau durch Zellaufschluss. Mechanische und thermische Behandlung von Schlaemmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battenberg, S.; Naeveke, R. [Gesellschaft fuer Biotechnologische Forschung mbH, Braunschweig (Germany). Bereich Mikrobiologie

    1999-07-01

    Mechanical disintegration breaks up the flake structure of excess sludge and solubilizes organic constituents. Bacterial cells are rendered soluble. Thermal conditioning of excess sludge, too, can release sludge constituents. This makes for enhanced and accelerated hydrolysis of polymeric sludge constituents in subsequent anaerobic processing. The yield of useful biogas is increased. (orig.) [German] Durch die mechanische Desintegration von Ueberschussschlamm wird die Flockenstruktur zerschlagen und organische Inhaltsstoffe werden in Loesung gebracht. Bakterienzellen werden aufgeschlossen. Auch durch eine thermische Behandlung von Ueberschussschlamm koennen Schlamminhaltsstoffe freigesetzt werden. Dadurch wird bei einer anschliessenden anaeroben Behandlung die Hydrolyse der polymeren Schlamminhaltsstoffe gefoerdert und beschleunigt. Die Ausbeute an verwertbarem Biogas wird gesteigert. (orig.)

  13. K Basin sludge dissolution engineering study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westra, A.G.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this engineering study is to investigate the available technology related to dissolution of the K Basin sludge in nitric acid. The conclusion of this study along with laboratory and hot cell tests with actual sludge samples will provide the basis for beginning conceptual design of the sludge dissolver. The K Basin sludge contains uranium oxides, fragments of metallic U, and some U hydride as well as ferric oxyhydroxide, aluminum oxides and hydroxides, windblown sand that infiltrated the basin enclosure, ion exchange resin, and miscellaneous materials. The decision has been made to dispose of this sludge separate from the fuel elements stored in the basins. The sludge will be conditioned so that it meets Tank Waste Remediation System waste acceptance criteria and can be sent to one of the underground storage tanks. Sludge conditioning will be done by dissolving the fuel constituents in nitric acid, separating the insoluble material, adding neutron absorbers for criticality safety, and then reacting the solution with caustic to co-precipitate the uranium and plutonium. There will be five distinct feed streams to the sludge conditioning process two from the K East (KE) Basin and three from the K West (KW) Basin. The composition of the floor and pit sludges which contain more iron oxides and sand than uranium is much different than the canister sludges which are composed of mostly uranium oxides. The sludge conditioning equipment will be designed to process all of the sludge streams, but some of the operating parameters will be adjusted as necessary to handle the different sludge stream compositions. The volume of chemical additions and the amount of undissolved solids will be much different for floor and pit sludge than for canister sludge. Dissolution of uranium metal and uranium dioxide has been studied quite thoroughly and much information is available. Both uranium metal and uranium dioxide have been dissolved on a large scale in nuclear fuel

  14. STUDY ON MAXIMUM SPECIFIC SLUDGE ACIVITY OF DIFFERENT ANAEROBIC GRANULAR SLUDGE BY BATCH TESTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The maximum specific sludge activity of granular sludge from large-scale UASB, IC and Biobed anaerobic reactors were investigated by batch tests. The limitation factors related to maximum specific sludge activity (diffusion, substrate sort, substrate concentration and granular size) were studied. The general principle and procedure for the precise measurement of maximum specific sludge activity were suggested. The potential capacity of loading rate of the IC and Biobed anaerobic reactors were analyzed and compared by use of the batch tests results.

  15. Environmental sustainability of wastewater sludge treatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyer-Souchet, Florence; Larsen, Henrik Fred

    treatment for municipal waste water. A special focus area in Neptune is sludge handling because the sludge amount is expected to increase due to advanced waste water treatment. The main sludge processing methods assessed in Neptune can be divided into two categories: disintegration processes before...... anaerobic digestion (thermal hydrolysis and ultrasound disintegration) and inertisation processes performed at high temperatures (incineration, pyrolysis, gasification, wet oxidation) but they all aim at volume reduction and removal of biodegradable compounds before safe sludge disposal or reuse of its...... resources. As part of a sustainability assessment (or “best practice evaluation”), a comparison between the existing and new sludge handling techniques have been done by use of life cycle assessment (LCA).The concept of induced impacts as compared to avoided impacts when introducing a new sludge treatment...

  16. F-Canyon Sludge Physical Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, M. R.; Hansen, P. R.; Fink, S. D.

    2005-01-01

    The Site Deactivation and Decommissioning (SDD) Organization is evaluating options to disposition the 800 underground tanks (including removal of the sludge heels from these tanks). To support this effort, DandD requested assistance from Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel to determine the pertinent physical properties to effectively mobilize the sludge from these tanks (Tanks 804, 808, and 809). SDD provided SRNL with samples of the sludge from Tanks 804, 808, and 809. The authors measured the following physical properties for each tank: particle settling rate, shear strength (i.e., settled solids yield stress), slurry rheology (i.e., yield stress and consistency), total solids concentration in the sludge, soluble solids concentration of the sludge, sludge density, and particle size distribution

  17. Sewage sludge and how to sell it

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, I M

    1977-10-01

    Largo, Florida dries its sludge and sells it as fertilizer for $80 to $169/T. The sludge processing plant capable of turning common sludge into a dry, pelletized soil conditioner was only slightly more expensive than the previously proposed concrete drying beds which would have required disposal of the dried residue. The city's experience in setting up the plant and marketing the finished product is discussed. The true advantage of selling heat-dried sludge is that residents of the surrounding area, knowing the value of the product to their lawns and shrubs, will provide the transportation for the product and the physical labor to spread it over an area wider than most municipalities could afford to own or operate. The current production cost of $140/T is high, but the addition of a sludge prethickener-conditioner process and expected future economies of scale as the volume of sludge treated increases should lower per ton costs.

  18. Composting of gamma-radiation disinfected sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, W.; Hashimoto, S.; Watanabe, H.; Nishimura, K.; Watanabe, H.; Ito, H.; Takehisa, M.

    1981-01-01

    The composting of radiation disinfected sewage sludge has been studied since 1978, aiming to present a new process of sludge composting for agricultural uses. This process is composed of two steps: irradiation step to disinfect sludge, and composting step to remove odor and easily decomposable organics in sludge. In this paper, the gamma-irradiation effect on sludge cake and composting condition of irradiated sludge are discussed. (author)

  19. Use of a water treatment sludge in a sewage sludge dewatering process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górka, Justyna; Cimochowicz-Rybicka, Małgorzata; Kryłów, Małgorzata

    2018-02-01

    The objective of the research study was to determine whether a sewage sludge conditioning had any impact on sludge dewaterability. As a conditioning agent a water treatment sludge was used, which was mixed with a sewage sludge before a digestion process. The capillary suction time (CST) and the specific filtration resistance (SRF) were the measures used to determine the effects of a water sludge addition on a dewatering process. Based on the CST curves the water sludge dose of 0.3 g total volatile solids (TVS) per 1.0 g TVS of a sewage sludge was selected. Once the water treatment sludge dose was accepted, disintegration of the water treatment sludge was performed and its dewaterability was determined. The studies have shown that sludge dewaterability was much better after its conditioning with a water sludge as well as after disintegration and conditioning, if comparing to sludge with no conditioning. Nevertheless, these findings are of preliminary nature and future studies will be needed to investigate this topic.

  20. Solidifying power station resins and sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, A.S.D.; Haigh, C.P.

    1984-01-01

    Radioactive ion exchange resins and sludges arise at nuclear power stations from various operations associated with effluent treatment and liquid waste management. As the result of an intensive development programme, the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) has designed a process to convert power station resins and sludges into a shielded, packaged solid monolithic form suitable for final disposal. Research and development, the generic CEGB sludge/resin conditioning plant and the CEGB Active Waste Project are described. (U.K.)

  1. Thermal utilisation and disposal of sewage sludge; Thermische Klaerschlammverwertung -beseitigung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgart, H.C. [Emscher Genossenschaft/Lippeverband, Essen (Germany). Technischer Vorstand

    2001-07-01

    Sewage sludge combustion - either in an incinerator or for heat or power generation - has always been important and is getting ever more so. From the cost aspect, it makes quite a difference whether sewage sludge is just incinerated or utilised. The author makes it clear that this cost aspect - and what it means to communities and citizens - tends to be neglected by those who favour sewage sludge combustion and utilisation. [German] Die Verbrennung von Klaerschlamm - sei es als Schlammveraschung oder als thermische oder energetische Verwertung - hat schon immer fuer grosse Klaeranlagen einen bedeutenden Stellenwert gehabt. Die Bedeutung der Verbrennung scheint in letzter Zeit sogar zuzunehmen. Unter Kostengesichtspunkten ist es ein grosser Unterschied, ob ein Klaerschlamm nur verascht oder energetisch verwertet wird. Vor dem Hintergrund der allgemeinen Diskussion um die leeren Kassen der Kommunen, um die sogenannte dritte Miete fuer den Buerger und damit die Zumutbarkeit fuer weitere Steigerungen der Abwassergebuehren stoert mich die Bagatellisierung der Kostengesichtspunkte vor allem auf Seiten derer, die die Verbrennung der Klaerschlaemme fordern. (orig.)

  2. Land application of sewage sludge: Pathogen issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, A.C.

    1997-01-01

    Diseases transmitted via the faecal-oral exposure route cause severe gastroenteric disorders, and large numbers of causative organisms are discharged with the faecal matter of infected individuals. For this reason, pathogenic bacteria, viruses, protozoa, or helminths, are always found in sewage sludge. If not properly treated for use in agriculture, sludge can be a source of pathogenic contamination. Radiation is an attractive method to reduce the numbers of microorganisms in sewage sludge. Routine examination for pathogens is not practised nor recommended because complicated and costly procedures are involved. Instead, an indicator organism is usually assayed and enumerated. In this paper, methods are discussed for the investigation of pathogens in sewage sludge. (author)

  3. Where to dispose of the sewage sludge?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beurer, P.; Geering, F.

    2001-01-01

    The 'proper' course for the disposal of sewage sludge is a topic that has continually sparked intense discussion for years. New legal regulations have developed which have significantly changed the disposal structure. Nevertheless, the consumer market of agriculture products has an increasing influence on sewage sludge recycling possibilities. In this report, the changes in sewage sludge disposal within the last ten years and the expected development is pointed out. On account of legal guidelines and of political market influences, the thermal recycling of sewage sludge is considered as the future solution, which should, however, be adapted according to marginal situations. (author)

  4. Rheological properties of disintegrated sewage sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolski, Paweł

    2017-11-01

    The rheology of the sludge provides information about the capacity and the flow, which in the case of project tasks for the hydraulic conveying installation is an important control parameter. Accurate knowledge of the rheological properties of sludge requires the designation of rheological models. Models single and multiparameter (Ostwald, Bingham, Herschel-Bulkley'a, and others) allow an approximation of flow curves, and the determination of the boundaries of the flow of modified sludge allows you to control the process compaction or are dewatered sludge undergoing flow. The aim of the study was to determine the rheological parameters and rheological models of sludge conditioned by physical methods before and after the process of anaerobic digestion. So far, studies have shown that the application of conditioning in the preparation of sewage sludge increases shear stress, viscosity as well as the limits of flow in relation to the untreated sludge. Offset yield point by the application of a conditioning agent is associated with decreased flowability tested sludge, which has also been observed by analyzing the structure of the prepared samples. Lowering the yield point, and thus the shear stress was recorded as a result of the fermentation test of disintegrated sludge.

  5. Radioactive contamination of sewage sludge. Preliminary data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soeder, C J; Zanders, E; Raphael, T

    1986-01-01

    Because of the radioactivity released through the explosion of the nuclear reactor near Chernobyl radionuclides have been accumulated to a significant extent in sewage sludge in the Federal Republic of Germany. This is demonstrated for samples from four activated sludge plants according to a recent recommendation of the German Commission for Radiation Protection, there is until now no reason to deviate from the common practices of sludge disposal or incineration. The degree of radioactive contamination of plant materials produced on farm lands on which sewage sludge is being spread cannot be estimated with sufficient certainty yet. Additional information is required.

  6. Sewage sludge as a biomass energy source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Kolat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The major part of the dry matter content of sewage sludge consists of nontoxic organic compounds, in general a combination of primary sludge and secondary microbiological sludge. The sludge also contains a substantive amount of inorganic material and a small amount of toxic components. There are many sludge-management options in which production of energy is one of the key treatment steps. The most important options are anaerobic digestion, co-digestion, incineration in combination with energy recovery and co-incineration in coal-fired power plants. The goal of our applied research is to verify, if the sludge from waste water treatment plants may be used as a biomass energy source in respect of the EU legislation, which would comply with emission limits or the proposal of energy process optimizing the preparation of coal/sludge mixture for combustion in the existing fluid bed boilers in the Czech Republic. The paper discusses the questions of thermal usage of mechanically drained stabilized sewage sludge from the waste water treatment plants in the boiler with circulated fluid layer. The paper describes methods of thermal analysis of coal, sewage sludge and its mixtures, mud transport to the circulating fluidised bed boiler, effects on efficiency, operational reliability of the combustion equipment, emissions and solid combustion residues.

  7. Contaminants in Sludge: Implications for Management Policies and Land Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dentel, Steven K.

    2003-07-01

    Policies on sludge (or biosolids) management vary widely, particularly when decisions must be made on what to do with the final product. This paper examines the two principal rationales with which such decisions are made, and through which scientific knowledge is included in the process. These rationales are risk analysis (risk assessment and management), and the criterion of sustainability. Both are found to be potentially arbitrary due to the difficulty in defining the individual constituents necessary to relate environmental phenomena to environmental policy. To place the difficulties in a practical context, this paper presents research results from three recent projects concerned with contaminants in sludge (phosphorus, flocculant polymers, and polymer-surfactant aggregates), and uses the findings to exemplify the dilemma encountered in policy making. A path forward is proposed. (author)

  8. A review of modeling approaches in activated sludge systems

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    Key words: Mathematical modeling, water, wastewater, wastewater treatment plants, activated sludge systems. INTRODUCTION ... sedimentation processes which take place in the aeration ...... activated sludge waste water treatment systems.

  9. Synthesis of Hydroxysodalite From Paper Sludge Ash Using NaOH-LiOH Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaaki Wajima

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxysodalite zeolite was synthesized at 90 oC from paper sludge ash, which is industrial wastes in paper manufacturing, using NaOH-LiOH mixed solution. Paper sludge ash was discharged from paper making plant as industrial wastes, and the amount is increasing annually. The new utilization of paper sludge ash is desired. Hydroxysodalite can be used to remove HCl gas at high temperature, and there are papers for hydroxysodalite synthesis from various ashes, for example, coal fly ash. In my previous study, hydroxysodalite can be synthesized from paper sludge ash. However, little information can be available on the synthesis of hydroxysodalite from paper sludge ash. Therefore, we attempted to examine the synthesis of hydroxysodalite from paper sludge ash using NaOH-LiOH mixtures. Hydroxysodalite [Na6Al6Si6O24‧8H2O] was obtained in the mixed solution with Li / (Li + Na ratios smaller than 0.25, while katoite [Ca3Al2(SiO4(OH8] was formed in the mixed solutions with the other molar ratios, due to the dissolution of gehlenite [Ca2Al2SiO7]. The observed concentrations of Si and Al in the solution during the reaction explain the synthesis of reaction products, which depends on alkali species.

  10. Sewage sludge disposal-requirements, expense and acceptance; Klaerschlammentsorgung zwischen Anspruch, Aufwand und Akzeptanz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruenebaum, T. [Ruhrverband, Essen (Germany)

    1997-02-01

    Production of sewage sludges is unavoidable at wastewater treatment. Sewage sludges shall be used in agriculture. Although the content of hazardous substances in sewage sludges has obviously been minimized, the use of those sludges is limited because of the low acceptance in agriculture and food industry. Therefore it is necessary to build up methods of disposal which make possible and ensure a medium- or even longtime disposal. Incineration seems to be the solution since the requirements for landfill of sewage sludges have been renewed. The currently valid transitional regulation lead to remarkable reactions of the disposal market. The plans for sewage sludge disposal have to agree with the principles of environmental protection, safety, economic efficiency, good realization and operational handling. (orig.) [Deutsch] Bei der Abwasserreinigung faellt Klaerschlamm an. Dieser ist moeglichst in der Landwirtschaft zu verwerten. Obwohl die Schadstoffgehalte der Klaerschlaemme in den letzten 15 Jahren sehr deutlich gesunken sind, ist der Einsatz durch Akzeptanzprobleme in der Landwirtschaft und bei der Nahrungsmittelindustrie limitiert. Es gilt deshalb, Entsorgungspfade aufzubauen, die eine mittel- und langfristige Sicherung der Entsorgung ermoeglichen. Nach den neueren Anforderungen an eine Deponierung ist demnach immer eine Verbrennung vorzusehen. Die z.Z. noch geltende Uebergangsregelung hat zu massiven Reaktionen des Entsorgungsmarktes gefuehrt. Die Planungen zur Klaerschlammentsorgung muessen sich an den Grundsaetzen der Umsetzbarkeit und betrieblichen Handhabbarkeit ausrichten. (orig.)

  11. Effects of organic contaminants in sewage sludge on soil fertility, plants and animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, J.E.; Sauerbeck, D.R.; L'Hermite, P.

    1992-01-01

    Sewage sludge production in Europe will continue to rise as a result of higher environmental standards, making disposal increasingly difficult in the future. A considerable part of this sludge is spread beneficially on agricultural land as an organic fertilizer, however, this outlet is very sensitive to the problems associated with the inorganic and organic contaminants which sludge inevitably contains. Much research has been devoted to the problems of contaminants in sludge and their potential effects on soil, plants, animals and man in recent years, and the European Commission's Concerted Action COST 681 has provided a valuable forum for the exchange of views and progress of research on sludge treatment and disposal. This book contains 19 papers presented to a joint meeting of Working Party 4 (Agricultural Value) and Working Party 5 (Environmental Effects) of COST 681, held at the German Federal Research Centre of Agriculture (FAL), Braunschweig on 6-8 June 1990. The meeting addressed two areas of current concern; the occurrence, behaviour and transfer of sludge-derived organic contaminants (Session 1), and the influence of inorganic and organic contaminants on soil micro-organisms and their activities (Session 2)

  12. [Formation Mechanism of Aerobic Granular Sludge and Removal Efficiencies in Integrated ABR-CSTR Reactor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kai-cheng; Wu, Peng; Xu, Yue-zhong; Li, Yue-han; Shen, Yao-liang

    2015-08-01

    Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR) was altered to make an integrated anaerobic-aerobic reactor. The research investigated the mechanism of aerobic sludge granulation, under the condition of continuous-flow. The last two compartments of the ABR were altered into aeration tank and sedimentation tank respectively with seeded sludge of anaerobic granular sludge in anaerobic zone and conventional activated sludge in aerobic zone. The HRT was gradually decreased in sedimentation tank from 2.0 h to 0.75 h and organic loading rate was increased from 1.5 kg x (M3 x d)(-1) to 2.0 kg x (M3 x d)(-1) while the C/N of 2 was controlled in aerobic zone. When the system operated for 110 days, the mature granular sludge in aerobic zone were characterized by compact structure, excellent sedimentation performance (average sedimentation rate was 20.8 m x h(-1)) and slight yellow color. The system performed well in nitrogen and phosphorus removal under the conditions of setting time of 0.75 h and organic loading rate of 2.0 kg (m3 x d)(-1) in aerobic zone, the removal efficiencies of COD, NH4+ -N, TP and TN were 90%, 80%, 65% and 45%, respectively. The results showed that the increasing selection pressure and the high organic loading rate were the main propulsions of the aerobic sludge granulation.

  13. Copper and trace element fractionation in electrokinetically treated methanogenic anaerobic granular sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virkutyte, Jurate; Hullebusch, Eric van; Sillanpaeae, Mika; Lens, Piet

    2005-01-01

    The effect of electrokinetic treatment (0.15 mA cm -2 ) on the metal fractionation in anaerobic granular sludge artificially contaminated with copper (initial copper concentration 1000 mg kg -1 wet sludge) was studied. Acidification of the sludge (final pH 4.2 in the sludge bed) with the intention to desorb the copper species bound to the organic/sulfides and residual fractions did not result in an increased mobility, despite the fact that a higher quantity of copper was measured in the more mobile (i.e. exchangeable/carbonate) fractions at final pH 4.2 compared to circum-neutral pH conditions. Also addition of the chelating agent EDTA (Cu 2+ :EDTA 4- ratio 1.2:1) did not enhance the mobility of copper from the organic/sulfides and residual fractions, despite the fact that it induced a reduction of the total copper content of the sludge. The presence of sulfide precipitates likely influences the copper mobilisation from these less mobile fractions, and thus makes EDTA addition ineffective to solubilise copper from the granules. - Electrokinetic treatment of copper contaminated anaerobic granular sludge at 0.15 mA cm -2 for 14 days induces copper and trace metal mobility as well as changes in their fractionation (i.e. bonding forms)

  14. Protists as bioindicators in activated sludge: Identification, ecology and future needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foissner, Wilhelm

    2016-08-01

    When the activated sludge process was developed, operators and scientists soon recognized protists as valuable indicators. However, only when Curds et al. (1968) showed with a few photographs the need of ciliates for a clear plant effluent, sewage protistology began to bloom but was limited by the need of species identification. Still, this is a major problem although several good guides are available. Thus, molecular kits should be developed for identification. Protists are indicators in two stages of wastewater treatment, viz., in the activated sludge and in the environmental water receiving the plant effluent. Continuous control of the protist and bacterial communities can prevent biological sludge foaming and bulking and may greatly save money for sludge oxygenation because several protist species are excellent indicators for the amount of oxygen present. The investigation of the effluent-receiving rivers gives a solid indication about the long term function of sewage works. The literature on protist bioindication in activated sludge is widely distributed. Thus, I compiled the data in a simple Table, showing which communities and species indicate good, mediocre, or poor plant performance. Further, many details on indication are provided, such as sludge loading and nitrifying conditions. Such specific features should be improved by appropriate statistics and more reliable identification of species. Then, protistologists have a fair chance to become important in wastewater works. Activated sludge is a unique habitat for particular species, often poorly or even undescribed. As an example, I present two new species. The first is a minute (∼30μm) Metacystis that makes an up to 300μm-sized mucous envelope mimicking a sludge floc. The second is a Phialina that is unique in having the contractile vacuole slightly posterior to mid-body. Finally, I provide a list of species which have the type locality in sewage plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights

  15. Gas composition of sludge residue profiles in a sludge treatment reed bed between loadings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Julie Dam; Nielsen, Steen M; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Treatment of sludge in sludge treatment reed bed systems includes dewatering and mineralization. The mineralization process, which is driven by microorganisms, produces different gas species as by-products. The pore space composition of the gas species provides useful information on the biological...... processes occurring in the sludge residue. In this study, we measured the change in composition of gas species in the pore space at different depth levels in vertical sludge residue profiles during a resting period of 32 days. The gas composition of the pore space in the sludge residue changed during...

  16. Phosphorus availability to ryegrass from urban sewage sludges assessed by isotopic labeling and dilution technique, effect of irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Motaium, R.A.; Morel, C.

    2007-01-01

    Urban sewage sludge are widely used as alternative P input because of their high P content. Irradiation of sewage sludge is developed in Egypt to make safe spreading of sludge on agricultural fields. Five sludges were sampled from representative urban wastewater treatment plants located in Cairo, Egypt. Sub samples were irradiated using gamma radiation at 6 KGy dose. A pot experiment was conducted under plastic greenhouse using sandy P-deficient soil. The soil was homogeneously labelled with a radioactive solution of carrier-free 32 PO 4 (about 3 MBq kg / soil) to determine the contribution of the different sources of P in plant nutrition. Sludges were applied at 50 mg P/ kg soil. In addition, a control treatment was also carried out to analyze sludge P availability in comparison to a water soluble mineral fertilizer, i.e. 50 mg P/kg soil was applied as commercial monocalcium phosphate (SSP). A reference treatment was included without any P application but the radioactive solution was added. One gram of ryegrass seeds (Lolium multiflorium) was sown in each pot. The aerial parts of the ryegrass were harvested four times, every 3 weeks. Analysis of all harvests included 32 P and total P content was used to determine the respective contribution of soil and sludge to plant P nutrition and the plant available P (L value) using the isotopic dilution principle. The ratio of radioactive P to non-radioactive P, i.e. isotopic composition, was calculated. The total P content in the different urban sewage sludge was ranged from 6.2 to 13.8 g P/ kg and affected by irradiation. Because the soil was extremely P deficient (L value=0.3 mg P/ kg soil), P derived from seeds represented 99% of the P taken up when no P was applied and 87% when applying 50 mg P-SSP/ kg. After correcting the contribution of ryegrass seeds, sludge P contributed by 98% to plant nutrition and 7.2% of the applied P was recovered. The sludge type and irradiation factors did not significantly affect sludge P

  17. Gaseous emissions from sewage sludge combustion in a moving bed combustor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batistella, Luciane; Silva, Valdemar; Suzin, Renato C; Virmond, Elaine; Althoff, Chrtistine A; Moreira, Regina F P M; José, Humberto J

    2015-12-01

    , such as the installation of exhaust gas-cleaning systems. According to previous studies, the efficient operation of such cleaning systems is also effective for metals emission control, which makes the combustion of sewage sludge a feasible treatment method from both energetic and environmental perspectives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Fake news of baby booms 9months after major sporting events distorts the public's understanding of early human development science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, Victor; Masukume, Gwinyai

    2017-12-01

    In France on 27/6/16, Iceland's men's national football team won 2-1, knocking England out of the UEFA European Championship. Nine months after this momentous Icelandic victory, Ásgeir Pétur Þorvaldsson a medical doctor in Iceland, posted a tweet in jest suggesting that a baby boom had occurred as a result of increased celebratory coital activity following the win. The media covered this widely but statistical analysis shows otherwise and this was confirmed by the original tweet source. Given the increase in fake scientific news, it is especially important for scientists to correct misinformation lest the public loses trust in science or gains a distorted understanding of known facts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Lifecycle analysis of renewable natural gas and hydrocarbon fuels from wastewater treatment plants’ sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Uisung [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Han, Jeongwoo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Urgun Demirtas, Meltem [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wang, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tao, Ling [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) produce sludge as a byproduct when they treat wastewater. In the United States, over 8 million dry tons of sludge are produced annually just from publicly owned WWTPs. Sludge is commonly treated in anaerobic digesters, which generate biogas; the biogas is then largely flared to reduce emissions of methane, a potent greenhouse gas. Because sludge is quite homogeneous and has a high energy content, it is a good potential feedstock for other conversion processes that make biofuels, bioproducts, and power. For example, biogas from anaerobic digesters can be used to generate renewable natural gas (RNG), which can be further processed to produce compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied natural gas (LNG). Sludge can be directly converted into hydrocarbon liquid fuels via thermochemical processes such as hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL). Currently, the environmental impacts of converting sludge into energy are largely unknown, and only a few studies have focused on the environmental impacts of RNG produced from existing anaerobic digesters. As biofuels from sludge generate high interest, however, existing anaerobic digesters could be upgraded to technology with more economic potential and more environmental benefits. The environmental impacts of using a different anaerobic digestion (AD) technology to convert sludge into energy have yet to be analyzed. In addition, no studies are available about the direct conversion of sludge into liquid fuels. In order to estimate the energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions impacts of these alternative pathways (sludge-to-RNG and sludge-to-liquid), this study performed a lifecycle analysis (LCA) using the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET®) model. The energy uses and GHG emissions associated with the RNG and hydrocarbon liquid are analyzed relative to the current typical sludge management case, which consists of a single-stage mesophilic

  20. Effects of different sludge disintegration methods on sludge moisture distribution and dewatering performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lingyun; Zhang, Guangming; Zheng, Xiang

    2015-02-01

    A key step in sludge treatment is sludge dewatering. However, activated sludge is generally very difficult to be dewatered. Sludge dewatering performance is largely affected by the sludge moisture distribution. Sludge disintegration can destroy the sludge structure and cell wall, so as change the sludge floc structure and moisture distribution, thus affecting the dewatering performance of sludge. In this article, the disintegration methods were ultrasound treatment, K2FeO4 oxidation and KMnO4 oxidation. The degree of disintegration (DDCOD), sludge moisture distribution and the final water content of sludge cake after centrifuging were measured. Results showed that three disintegration methods were all effective, and K2FeO4 oxidation was more efficient than KMnO4 oxidation. The content of free water increased obviously with K2FeO4 and KMnO4 oxidations, while it decreased with ultrasound treatment. The changes of free water and interstitial water were in the opposite trend. The content of bounding water decreased with K2FeO4 oxidation, and increased slightly with KMnO4 oxidation, while it increased obviously with ultrasound treatment. The water content of sludge cake after centrifuging decreased with K2FeO4 oxidation, and did not changed with KMnO4 oxidation, but increased obviously with ultrasound treatment. In summary, ultrasound treatment deteriorated the sludge dewaterability, while K2FeO4 and KMnO4 oxidation improved the sludge dewaterability. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Speciation of mercury in sludge solids: washed sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Lourie, A. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-10-24

    The objective of this applied research task was to study the type and concentration of mercury compounds found within the contaminated Savannah River Site Liquid Waste System (SRS LWS). A method of selective sequential extraction (SSE), developed by Eurofins Frontier Global Sciences1,2 and adapted by SRNL, utilizes an extraction procedure divided into seven separate tests for different species of mercury. In the SRNL’s modified procedure four of these tests were applied to a washed sample of high level radioactive waste sludge.

  2. Pathogen reduction in sludges by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandon, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    There is international interest in the use of ionizing radiation in waste water and sludge treatment. Results of programs to study effects of radiation on disease-causing microbes commonly found in wastewater sludges will be discussed. Although emphasis will be on the work conducted at Sandia Laboratories, the discussion will include work in progress in West Germany, France, South Africa, and other countries

  3. Sustainability of Domestic Sewage Sludge Disposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Bruna Rizzardini

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Activated sludge is now one of the most widely used biological processes for the treatment of wastewaters from medium to large populations. It produces high amounts of sewage sludge that can be managed and perceived in two main ways: as a waste it is discharged in landfill, as a fertilizer it is disposed in agriculture with direct application to soil or subjected to anaerobic digestion and composting. Other solutions, such as incineration or production of concrete, bricks and asphalt play a secondary role in terms of their degree of diffusion. The agronomical value of domestic sewage sludge is a proved question, which may be hidden by the presence of several pollutants such as heavy metals, organic compounds and pathogens. In this way, the sustainability of sewage sludge agricultural disposal requires a value judgment based on knowledge and evaluation of the level of pollution of both sewage sludge and soil. The article analyzed a typical Italian case study, a water management system of small communities, applying the criteria of evaluation of the last official document of European Union about sewage sludge land application, the “Working Document on Sludge (3rd draft, 2000”. The report brought out good sewage sludge from small wastewater treatment plants and soils quality suggesting a sustainable application.

  4. Electron beam disinfection of sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Shoji

    1992-01-01

    Electron beam treatment of dehydrated sewage sludge for safe reutilization was performed. Ranges of total bacterial counts and total coliforms in the sludge were from 1.5 x 10 8 to 1.6 x 10 9 and from 2.2 x 10 7 to 1.5 x 10 8 per wet gram, respectively. Total bacterial counts decreased about 5 log cycles after irradiating 5 kGy and irradiation with 2 kGy was enough to kill all coliforms in sewage sludge. The survival curves of total bacteria, obtained by irradiation in oxygen atmosphere, approached to that in nitrogen atmosphere with the increase of sludge thickness. No effects of dose rate and electron energy were found when the sludge layers were thin enough. Continuous disinfection of sewage sludge cake, with the maximum feed rate of 300 kg-sludge/hr, was successfully performed with a Cockcroft-Walton type electron accelerator, a sludge pump and a flat nozzle. (J.P.N.)

  5. Viscosity evolution of anaerobic granular sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pevere, A.; Guibaud, G.; Hullebusch, van E.D.; Lens, P.N.L.; Baudu, M.

    2006-01-01

    The evolution of the apparent viscosity at steady shear rate of sieved anaerobic granular sludge (20¿315 ¿m diameter) sampled from different full-scale anaerobic reactors was recorded using rotation tests. The ¿limit viscosity¿ of sieved anaerobic granular sludge was determined from the apparent

  6. Filterability and Sludge Concentration in Membrane Bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lousada-Ferreira, M.

    2011-01-01

    The Thesis entitled “Filterability and Sludge Concentration in Membrane Bioreactors” aims at explaining the relation between Mixed Liquid Suspended Solids (MLSS) concentration, the amount of solids in the wastewater being treated, also designated as sludge, and filterability, being the ability of

  7. Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion of Sewage Sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoshizo; Nojima, Tomoyuki; Kakuta, Akihiko; Moritomi, Hiroshi

    A conceptual design of an energy recovering system from sewage sludge was proposed. This system consists of a pressurized fluidized bed combustor, a gas turbine, and a heat exchanger for preheating of combustion air. Thermal efficiency was estimated roughly as 10-25%. In order to know the combustion characteristics of the sewage sludge under the elevated pressure condition, combustion tests of the dry and wet sewage sludge were carried out by using laboratory scale pressurized fluidized bed combustors. Combustibility of the sewage sludge was good enough and almost complete combustion was achieved in the combustion of the actual wet sludge. CO emission and NOx emission were marvelously low especially during the combustion of wet sewage sludge regardless of high volatile and nitrogen content of the sewage sludge. However, nitrous oxide (N2O) emission was very high. Hence, almost all nitrogen oxides were emitted as the form of N2O. From these combustion tests, we judged combustion of the sewage sludge with the pressurized fluidized bed combustor is suitable, and the conceptual design of the power generation system is available.

  8. Gravitational sedimentation of flocculated waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, C P; Lee, D J; Tay, J H

    2003-01-01

    The sedimentation characteristics of flocculated wastewater sludge have not been satisfactorily explored using the non-destructive techniques, partially owing to the rather low solid content (ca. 1-2%) commonly noted in the biological sediments. This paper investigated, for the first time, the spatial-temporal gravitational settling characteristics of original and polyelectrolyte flocculated waste activated sludge using Computerized Axial Tomography Scanner. The waste activated sludge possessed a distinct settling characteristic from the kaolin slurries. The waste activated sludges settled more slowly and reached a lower solid fraction in the final sediment than the latter. Flocculation markedly enhanced the settleability of both sludges. Although the maximum achievable solid contents for the kaolin slurries were reduced, flocculation had little effects on the activated sludge. The purely plastic rheological model by Buscall and White (J Chem Soc Faraday Trans 1(83) (1987) 873) interpreted the consolidating sediment data, while the purely elastic model by Tiller and Leu (J. Chin. Inst. Chem. Eng. 11 (1980) 61) described the final equilibrated sediment. Flocculation produced lower yield stress during transient settling, thereby resulting in the more easily consolidated sludge than the original sample. Meanwhile, the flocculated activated sludge was stiffer in the final sediment than in the original sample. The data reported herein are valuable to the theories development for clarifier design and operation.

  9. Outlook of thermal sludge digestion/pretreatment??; Verkenning thermische slibontsluiting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkhof, D.C. [DHV, Amersfoort (Netherlands)

    2011-09-15

    This (mid-term) report sketches an image of thermal sludge digestion: the benefits are shown of this new technique as well as the critical factors for making the technique successful in the Netherlands. Moreover, research aspects for pilot research have been formulated that are part of the STOWA research on thermal sludge digestion. Thermal digestion aims to increase the dry mater degradation in the digestion of the biogas production. Next to an increase in the energy production from biogas, a decrease in the amount of sludge to be sold is realized [Dutch] In dit (tussen)rapport wordt een beeld geschetst van thermische slibontsluiting: onder meer de voordelen van deze nieuwe techniek en de kritische factoren om de techniek in Nederland succesvol te laten zijn. Er zijn tevens onderzoeksaspecten voor pilotonderzoeken geformuleerd die deel uitmaken van het STOWA-onderzoek naar thermische slibontsluiting. Met thermische ontsluiting wordt een verhoging van de drogestofafbraak in de gisting en van de biogasproductie beoogd. Naast een verhoging van de energieproductie uit biogas wordt een verlaging van de hoeveelheid af te zetten slib bereikt.

  10. Waste sludge resuspension and transfer: development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeren, H.O.; Mackey, T.S.

    1980-02-01

    The six Gunite waste tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) contain about 400,000 gal of sludge that has precipitated from solution and settled during the 35 years these tanks have been in service. Eventual decommissioning of the tanks has been proposed. The first part of this program is to resuspend the accumulated sludge, to transfer it to new storage tanks in Melton Valley, and to dispose of it by the shale-fracturing process. On the basis of preliminary information, a tentative operational concept was adopted. The sludge in each tank would be resuspended by hydraulic sluicing and pumped from the tank. This resuspended sludge would be treated as necessary to keep the particles in suspension and would be pumped to the new waste-storage tanks. Subsequently the sludge would be pumped from the tanks, combined with a cement-base mix, and disposed of by the shale-fracturing facility. Verification of the feasibility of this concept required development effort on characterization of the sludge and development of techniques for resuspending the sludge and for keeping it in suspension. These development efforts are described in this report. Sections of the report describe both the known properties of the sludge and the tests of grinding methods investigated, discuss tests of various suspenders, describe tests with cement-base mixes, summarize hot-cell tests on actual sludge samples, and describe tests that were made at a mockup of a Gunite tank installation. On the basis of the tests made, it was concluded that reslurrying and resuspension of the sludge is quite feasible and that the suspensions can be made compatible with cement mixes

  11. Physical property characterization of 183-H Basin sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biyani, R.K.; Delegard, C.H.

    1995-01-01

    This document describes the characterization of 183-H Basin sludge physical properties, e.g. bulk density of sludge and absorbent, and determination of free liquids. Calcination of crucible-size samples of sludge was also done and the resulting 'loss-on-ignition' was compared to the theoretical weight loss based on sludge analysis obtained from Weston Labs

  12. Dewaterability of sludge digested in extended aeration plants using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dewaterability of unconditioned sludge digested in full scale and lab scale experiments using either extended aeration (EA) or anaerobic digestion were compared on full and lab scale sand drying beds. Sludge digested in EA plants resulted in improvement in sludge dewaterability compared to sludge digested ...

  13. Sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation: financial viability case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinwood, J.F.; Kotler, J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the financial viability of sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation, by examining the following three North American scenarios: 1. Small volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs; 2. Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing low sludge disposal costs; 3. Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs. (author)

  14. Sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation: financial viability case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swinwood, J.F.; Kotler, J. (Nordion International Inc., Kanata, Ontario (Canada))

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the financial viability of sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation, by examining the following three North American scenarios: 1. Small volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs; 2. Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing low sludge disposal costs; 3. Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs. (author).

  15. Sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation: Financial viability case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinwood, Jean F.; Kotler, Jiri

    This paper examines the financial viability of sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation, by examining the following three North American scenarios: 1) Small volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs. 2) Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing low sludge disposal costs. 3) Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs.

  16. The beneficial usage of water treatment sludge as pottery product ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The disposal of sludge from water treatment operations has become a major problem in Malaysia. The problem becomes acute because of scarcity of space for installation of sludge treatment facilities and disposal of treated sludge. Traditionally, treated sludge from water treatment plant will be sent to landfill for disposal.

  17. Demonstration of the Defense Waste Processing Facility vitrification process for Tank 42 radioactive sludge -- Glass preparation and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibler, N.E.; Fellinger, T.L.; Marshall, K.M.; Crawford, C.L.; Cozzi, A.D.; Edwards, T.B.

    1999-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently processing and immobilizing the radioactive high level waste sludge at SRS into a durable borosilicate glass for final geological disposal. The DWPF has recently finished processing the first radioactive sludge batch, and is ready for the second batch of radioactive sludge. The second batch is primarily sludge from Tank 42. Before processing this batch in the DWPF, the DWPF process flowsheet has to be demonstrated with a sample of Tank 42 sludge to ensure that an acceptable melter feed and glass can be made. This demonstration was recently completed in the Shielded Cells Facility at SRS. An earlier paper in these proceedings described the sludge composition and processes necessary for producing an acceptable melter fee. This paper describes the preparation and characterization of the glass from that demonstration. Results substantiate that Tank 42 sludge after mixing with the proper amount of glass forming frit (Frit 200) can be processed to make an acceptable glass

  18. REEMISSION OF MERCURY COMPOUNDS FROM SEWAGE SLUDGE DISPOSAL

    OpenAIRE

    Beata Janowska

    2016-01-01

    The sewage sludge disposal and cultivation methods consist in storage, agricultural use, compost production, biogas production or heat treatment. The sewage sludge production in municipal sewage sludge treatment plants in year 2013 in Poland amounted to 540.3 thousand Mg d.m. The sewage sludge for agricultural or natural use must satisfy chemical, sanitary and environmental safety requirements. The heavy metal content, including the mercury content, determines the sewage sludge disposal metho...

  19. Factors affecting the consolidation of steam generator sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, C. W.; Shamsuzzaman, K.; Tapping, R. L.

    1993-02-15

    It is hypothesized that sludge consolidation is promoted by chemical reactions involving the various sludge constituents, although the hardness of the final product will also depend on the total porosity. Oxidizing conditions and higher temperatures produce a harder sludge. The precipitation of Zn{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}, a potential binding agent, may also promote sludge consolidation. Several solutions to prevent sludge consolidation are suggested. (Author) 3 figs., 4 tabs., 3 refs.

  20. Aquatic worm reactor for improved sludge processing and resource recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Hendrickx, T.L.G.

    2009-01-01

    Municipal waste water treatment is mainly achieved by biological processes. These processes produce huge volumes of waste sludge (up 1.5 million m3/year in the Netherlands). Further processing of the waste sludge involves transportation, thickening and incineration. A decrease in the amount of waste sludge would be both environmentally and economically attractive. Aquatic worms can be used to reduce the amount of waste sludge. After predation by the worms, the amount of final sludge is lower....

  1. Electroosmotic dewatering of chalk sludge, iron hydroxide sludge, wet fly ash and biomass sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H.K.; Christensen, Iben Vernegren; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2003-01-01

    . Casagrande's coefficients were determined for the four materials at different water contents. The experiments in this work showed that chalk could be dewatered from 40% to 79% DM (dry matter), fly ash from 75 to 82% DM, iron hydroxide sludge from 2.7 to 19% DM and biomass from 3 to 33% DM by electroosmosis....... The process was not optimised indicating that higher dry matter contents could be achieved by electroosmosis. It was possible to relate Casagrande's coefficient directly to the electroosmotic coefficient obtained by dewatering experiments....

  2. ALARA ASSESSMENT OF SETTLER SLUDGE SAMPLING METHODS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelsen, L.A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this assessment is to compare underwater and above water settler sludge sampling methods to determine if the added cost for underwater sampling for the sole purpose of worker dose reductions is justified. Initial planning for sludge sampling included container, settler and knock-out-pot (KOP) sampling. Due to the significantly higher dose consequence of KOP sludge, a decision was made to sample KOP underwater to achieve worker dose reductions. Additionally, initial plans were to utilize the underwater sampling apparatus for settler sludge. Since there are no longer plans to sample KOP sludge, the decision for underwater sampling for settler sludge needs to be revisited. The present sampling plan calls for spending an estimated $2,500,000 to design and construct a new underwater sampling system (per A21 C-PL-001 RevOE). This evaluation will compare and contrast the present method of above water sampling to the underwater method that is planned by the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) and determine if settler samples can be taken using the existing sampling cart (with potentially minor modifications) while maintaining doses to workers As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) and eliminate the need for costly redesigns, testing and personnel retraining

  3. ALARA ASSESSMENT OF SETTLER SLUDGE SAMPLING METHODS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NELSEN LA

    2009-01-30

    The purpose of this assessment is to compare underwater and above water settler sludge sampling methods to determine if the added cost for underwater sampling for the sole purpose of worker dose reductions is justified. Initial planning for sludge sampling included container, settler and knock-out-pot (KOP) sampling. Due to the significantly higher dose consequence of KOP sludge, a decision was made to sample KOP underwater to achieve worker dose reductions. Additionally, initial plans were to utilize the underwater sampling apparatus for settler sludge. Since there are no longer plans to sample KOP sludge, the decision for underwater sampling for settler sludge needs to be revisited. The present sampling plan calls for spending an estimated $2,500,000 to design and construct a new underwater sampling system (per A21 C-PL-001 RevOE). This evaluation will compare and contrast the present method of above water sampling to the underwater method that is planned by the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) and determine if settler samples can be taken using the existing sampling cart (with potentially minor modifications) while maintaining doses to workers As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) and eliminate the need for costly redesigns, testing and personnel retraining.

  4. Virological investigations on inadiated sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epp, C.

    1980-08-01

    The virusinactivating activity of a Co 60 -irradiation pilot plant at Geiselbullach/Munich was to be examined. We investigated 16 impure sewage water, 15 purified sewage water, 32 raw sladge samples, 62 digested sludge samples before irradiation, 52 digested sludge samples after irradiation and 9 raw sludge samples after irradiation. We completed these investigations by adding poliovaccinevirus type 1 to the digested sludge before irradiation and by adding suspensions of pure virus in MEM + 2% FBS packed in synthetic capsules and mixtures of virus and sludge packed in synthetic capsules to the digested sludge. After the irradiation we collected the capsules and determined the virustiter. The testviruses were poliovaccinevirus type 1, poliowildvirus type 1, echovirus type 6, coxsackie-B-virus type 5, coxsackie-A-virus type 9 and adenovirus type 1. In the field trial the irradiation results were like the laboratory results assuming that the sewage sludge was homogenized enough by digestion and the solid particle concentration was not more than 3%. The D-value was 300-400 krad for enteroviruses and 700 krad for adenovirus. (orig.) [de

  5. A microbiological study on sewage sludge treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sermkiattipong, Ngamnit; Ito, Hitoshi; Hashimoto, Shoji.

    1990-09-01

    Isolation and identification of salmonellae in sewage sludge cake and radiation sensitivities of the isolated strains were studied. Disinfection of the sludge by heat or radiation and effect of such treatment on composting were also carried out. Five groups of O-antigen and seven serotypes of salmonellae were identified from the sludge cakes. D 10 values of the salmonellae in phosphate buffer were ranged from 0.16 to 0.22 kGy and those in sludge were about three times larger. Total bacterial counts and coliforms in the sludges were determined to be 4.6 x 10 7 - 5.1 x 10 9 and 1.3 x 10 5 - 1.1 x 10 9 colony forming unit (cfu/g). After irradiation at 20 kGy by gamma ray or electron beam, decrease of total bacterial count was 5 - 7 log cycles and a dose of 5 kGy was enough to eliminate all of the coliforms. Coliforms decreased rapidly by heating at 65degC, but only one log cycle decrease was observed in total bacterial count. By heating at 100degC, total bacterial count decreased rapidly. Two peaks were observed in CO 2 evolution curves of radiation disinfected sludge composting, but only one peak in heat disinfected sludge composting. (author)

  6. A review on sludge dewatering indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Vu Hien Phuong; Nguyen, Tien Vinh; Vigneswaran, Saravanamuth; Ngo, Huu Hao

    2016-01-01

    Dewatering of sludge from sewage treatment plants is proving to be a significant challenge due to the large amounts of residual sludges generated annually. In recent years, research and development have focused on improving the dewatering process in order to reduce subsequent costs of sludge management and transport. To achieve this goal, it is necessary to establish reliable indices that reflect the efficiency of sludge dewatering. However, the evaluation of sludge dewaterability is not an easy task due to the highly complex nature of sewage sludge and variations in solid-liquid separation methods. Most traditional dewatering indices fail to predict the maximum cake solids content achievable during full-scale dewatering. This paper reviews the difficulties in assessing sludge dewatering performance, and the main techniques used to evaluate dewatering performance are compared and discussed in detail. Finally, the paper suggests a new dewatering index, namely the modified centrifugal index, which is demonstrated to be an appropriate indicator for estimating the final cake solids content as well as simulating the prototype dewatering process.

  7. Radioactivity of sludge in Finland in 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puhakainen, M.; Rahola, T.

    1989-05-01

    Sewage sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plants was studied to determine its radionuclide concentrations. Measurements were made to find out whether any radionuclides from the nuclear power stations at Loviisa and Olkiluoto and from hospitals and medical laboratories could be detected in sludge additional to those originating from global and Chernobyl fallout. In the treatment process of water, aluminium sulphate sludge is developed at treatment plants using surface water. This kind of sludge was measured since it also concentrates radionuclides. Fallout nuclides from the Chernobyl nuclear power station after the accident predominated in all sewage sludge samples in Finland. In 1987 six different radionuclides originating from the Chernobyl fallout were detected in sewage sludge. In spring when the snow melted and large quantities of run off water flowed into the treatment plants, the activity concentrations clearly increased, but then started decreasing again. At the end of the year the highest measured 137 Cs activity concentrations were below 1000 Bq kg -1 dry weight. The highest activity concentration in sludge originated from iodine used fro medical purposes

  8. Sustainable sludge management in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, B.; Barrios, J.A.; Mendez, J.M.; Diaz, J.

    2003-07-01

    Worldwide, unsanitary conditions are responsible of more than three million deaths annually. One of the reasons is the low level of sanitation in developing countries. Particularly, sludge from these regions has a high parasite concentration and low heavy metal content even though the available information is limited. Different issues needed to achieve a sustainable sludge management in developing nations are analysed. Based on this analysis some conclusions arise: sludge management plays an important role in sanitation programs by helping reduce health problems and associated risks; investments in sanitation should consider sludge management within the overall projects; the main restriction for reusing sludge is the high microbial concentration, which requires a science-based decision of the treatment process, while heavy metals are generally low; the adequate sludge management needs the commitment of those sectors involved in the development and enforcement of the regulations as well as those that are directly related to its generation, treatment, reuse or disposal; current regulations have followed different approaches, based mainly on local conditions, but they favour sludge reuse to fight problems like soil degradation, reduced crop production, and the increased use of inorganic fertilizers. This paper summarises an overview of theses issues. (author)

  9. Stabilization/solidification of sewage sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boura, Panagiota; Katsioti, Margarita; Tsakiridis, Petros; Katsiri, Alexandra

    2003-07-01

    The main objective of this work is to investigate a viable alternative for the final disposal of sewage sludge from urban wastewater treatment plants by its use as an additive in developing new construction materials. For this purpose, several mixtures of sludge- cement and sludge-cement and jarosite/alunite precipitate were prepared. Jarosite/alunite precipitate is a waste product of a new hydrometallurgical process. Two kinds of sludge were used: primary sludge from Psyttalia Wastewater Treatment Plant, which receives a considerable amount of industrial waste, and biological sludge from Metamorphosi Wastewater Treatment Plant. Various percentages of these sludges were stabilized/solidified with Portland cement and Portland cement with jarosite/alunite. The specimens were tested by determination of compressive strength according to the methods described by European Standard EN 196. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis as well as Thermogravimetry-Differential Thermal Analysis (TG-DTA) were used to determine the hydration products in 28 days. Furthermore, Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure test for heavy metals (TCLP), were carried out in order to investigate the environmental compatibility of these new materials. (author)

  10. Mesophilic and thermophilic activated sludge post-treatment of paper mill process water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogelaar, J.C.T.; Bouwhuis, E.; Klapwijk, A.; Spanjers, H.; Lier, van J.B.

    2002-01-01

    Increasing system closure in paper mills and higher process water temperatures make the applicability of thermophilic treatment systems increasingly important. The use of activated sludge as a suitable thermophilic post-treatment system for anaerobically pre-treated paper process water from a paper

  11. Fake news. Fake journals. Fake conferences. What we can do.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbyshire, Philip

    2017-12-05

    It is time to take the gloves off in the fight against predatory publishers, predatory journals and the ever-increasing number of predatory conferences. There was a time when I believed that education and awareness, coupled with some basic policy 'signals' would be enough to bring most Universities and Schools of Nursing & Midwifery to the table (Darbyshire, McKenna, Lee, & East, 2016). It is quite touching that I could still be this naive at my age. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison and analysis of membrane fouling between flocculent sludge membrane bioreactor and granular sludge membrane bioreactor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jing-Feng

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to investigate the effect of inoculating granules on reducing membrane fouling. In order to evaluate the differences in performance between flocculent sludge and aerobic granular sludge in membrane reactors (MBRs, two reactors were run in parallel and various parameters related to membrane fouling were measured. The results indicated that specific resistance to the fouling layer was five times greater than that of mixed liquor sludge in the granular MBR. The floc sludge more easily formed a compact layer on the membrane surface, and increased membrane resistance. Specifically, the floc sludge had a higher moisture content, extracellular polymeric substances concentration, and negative surface charge. In contrast, aerobic granules could improve structural integrity and strength, which contributed to the preferable permeate performance. Therefore, inoculating aerobic granules in a MBR presents an effective method of reducing the membrane fouling associated with floc sludge the perspective of from the morphological characteristics of microbial aggregates.

  13. Modeling Aspects Of Activated Sludge Processes Part I: Process Modeling Of Activated Sludge Facilitation And Sedimentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, H. I.; EI-Ahwany, A.H.; Ibrahim, G.

    2004-01-01

    Process modeling of activated sludge flocculation and sedimentation reviews consider the activated sludge floc characteristics such as: morphology viable and non-viable cell ratio density and water content, bio flocculation and its kinetics were studied considering the characteristics of bio flocculation and explaining theory of Divalent Cation Bridging which describes the major role of cations in bio flocculation. Activated sludge flocculation process modeling was studied considering mass transfer limitations from Clifft and Andrew, 1981, Benefild and Molz 1983 passing Henze 1987, until Tyagi 1996 and G. Ibrahim et aI. 2002. Models of aggregation and breakage of flocs were studied by Spicer and Pratsinis 1996,and Biggs 2002 Size distribution of floes influences mass transfer and biomass separation in the activated sludge process. Therefore, it is of primary importance to establish the role of specific process operation factors, such as sludge loading dynamic sludge age and dissolved oxygen, on this distribution with special emphasis on the formation of primary particles

  14. Application of dielectric constant measurement in microwave sludge disintegration and wastewater purification processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Petra Veszelovszki; Lemmer, Balázs; Keszthelyi-Szabó, Gábor; Hodúr, Cecilia; Beszédes, Sándor

    2018-05-01

    It has been numerously verified that microwave radiation could be advantageous as a pre-treatment for enhanced disintegration of sludge. Very few data related to the dielectric parameters of wastewater of different origins are available; therefore, the objective of our work was to measure the dielectric constant of municipal and meat industrial wastewater during a continuous flow operating microwave process. Determination of the dielectric constant and its change during wastewater and sludge processing make it possible to decide on the applicability of dielectric measurements for detecting the organic matter removal efficiency of wastewater purification process or disintegration degree of sludge. With the measurement of dielectric constant as a function of temperature, total solids (TS) content and microwave specific process parameters regression models were developed. Our results verified that in the case of municipal wastewater sludge, the TS content has a significant effect on the dielectric constant and disintegration degree (DD), as does the temperature. The dielectric constant has a decreasing tendency with increasing temperature for wastewater sludge of low TS content, but an adverse effect was found for samples with high TS and organic matter contents. DD of meat processing wastewater sludge was influenced significantly by the volumetric flow rate and power level, as process parameters of continuously flow microwave pre-treatments. It can be concluded that the disintegration process of food industry sludge can be detected by dielectric constant measurements. From technical purposes the applicability of dielectric measurements was tested in the purification process of municipal wastewater, as well. Determination of dielectric behaviour was a sensitive method to detect the purification degree of municipal wastewater.

  15. Sludge, biosolids, and the propaganda model of communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampton, Sheldon

    2002-01-01

    The Water Environment Federation's elaborate effort to rename sewage sludge as "biosolids" is an example in practice of the "propaganda model" of communications, which sees its task as indoctrinating target audiences with ideas favorable to the interests of the communicators. The propaganda model assumes that members of the public are irrational and focuses therefore on symbolic and emotional aspects of communication. This approach to communicating arouses public resentment rather than trust. In place of a "propaganda model," public officials should adopt a "democratic model," which assumes that audiences are rational and intellectually capable of meaningful participation in decision-making.

  16. Anaerobic granular sludge and biofilm reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2003-01-01

    by the immobilization of the biomass, which forms static biofilms, particle-supported biofilms, or granules depending on the reactor's operational conditions. The advantages of the high-rate anaerobic digestion over the conventional aerobic wastewater treatment methods has created a clear trend for the change......-rate anaerobic treatment systems based on anaerobic granular sludge and biofilm are described in this chapter. Emphasis is given to a) the Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) systems, b) the main characteristics of the anaerobic granular sludge, and c) the factors that control the granulation process...

  17. A microbiological study on irradiated sludge composting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pongpat, S.; Hashimoto, Shoji.

    1993-03-01

    Effect of fermentation temperature on microorganisms in sewage sludge compost and suppressive effect of the compost on Fusarium oxysporum were investigated. Dehydrated sewage sludge was irradiated at 10 kGy by cobalt 60 gamma ray source and fermented at various temperatures with six different seed-composts. It was found that microorganisms showed higher growth in irradiated sludge at the temperature around 30 to 40degC. One of the seed-composts and compost produced from the seed-compost showed the remarkable effects of suppression on F. oxysporum. It can be also observed that the composts produced by lower temperature fermentation showed higher suppression. (author)

  18. Using Ecosan sludge for crop production

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jimenez, B

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available %) was low, but not enough to completely inactivate microorganisms (below 30?40% in general and ,5% for Ascaris eggs, according to Feachem et al., 1983). The N content (0.2?0.34%) was in the normal range for domestic sludge (0.2?0.6%) if the N contribution... et al. (2003), indicated that faecal coliforms may survive .1,000 d in Ecosan sludge, while Ascaris may be completely inactivated. The helminth ova content (29.8 ^ 2.9 eggs/g TS) was less than expected for sludge from developing countries (ranging...

  19. A microbiological study on irradiated sludge composting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pongpat, S. [Office of Atomic Energy for Peace, Bangkok (Thailand); Hashimoto, Shoji

    1993-03-01

    Effect of fermentation temperature on microorganisms in sewage sludge compost and suppressive effect of the compost on Fusarium oxysporum were investigated. Dehydrated sewage sludge was irradiated at 10 kGy by cobalt 60 gamma ray source and fermented at various temperatures with six different seed-composts. It was found that microorganisms showed higher growth in irradiated sludge at the temperature around 30 to 40degC. One of the seed-composts and compost produced from the seed-compost showed the remarkable effects of suppression on F. oxysporum. It can be also observed that the composts produced by lower temperature fermentation showed higher suppression. (author).

  20. Improvement of anaerobic digestion of sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohanyos, Michael; Zabranska, Jana; Kutil, Josef; Jenicek, Pavel

    2003-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion improvement can be accomplished by different methods. Besides optimization of process conditions is frequently used pretreatment of input sludge and increase of process temperature. Thermophilic process brings a higher solids reduction and biogas production, the high resistance to foaming, no problems with odour, the higher effect of destroying pathogens and the improvement of the energy balance of the whole treatment plant. Disintegration of excess activated sludge in lysate centrifuge was proved in full-scale conditions causing increase of biogas production. The rapid thermal conditioning of digested sludge is acceptable method of particulate matter disintegration and solubilization. (author)

  1. Biofac, a microbiological multimedia tool to perform the analysis of activated sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrer Torregrosa, C.; Llopis Nicolau, A.; Claramonte Santarrufina, J.; Alonso Hernandez, S.

    2009-01-01

    The composition and structure of the macrobiotic that is part of the active sludge, its temporal evolution, and the analysis of the macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of it are a source of information of great help in making decisions for plant operators. Lack of training and access to specific information linked to the missing standardization of analysis processes hinder the implementation and interpretation of them. Using a multimedia tool in DVD, Facsa has developed the Biofac, an application in which it is documented and illustrated the most relevant aspects that allow the user to perform the analysis of activated sludge. (Author)

  2. Mixed deep learning and natural language processing method for fake-food image recognition and standardization to help automated dietary assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezgec, Simon; Eftimov, Tome; Bucher, Tamara; Koroušić Seljak, Barbara

    2018-04-06

    The present study tested the combination of an established and a validated food-choice research method (the 'fake food buffet') with a new food-matching technology to automate the data collection and analysis. The methodology combines fake-food image recognition using deep learning and food matching and standardization based on natural language processing. The former is specific because it uses a single deep learning network to perform both the segmentation and the classification at the pixel level of the image. To assess its performance, measures based on the standard pixel accuracy and Intersection over Union were applied. Food matching firstly describes each of the recognized food items in the image and then matches the food items with their compositional data, considering both their food names and their descriptors. The final accuracy of the deep learning model trained on fake-food images acquired by 124 study participants and providing fifty-five food classes was 92·18 %, while the food matching was performed with a classification accuracy of 93 %. The present findings are a step towards automating dietary assessment and food-choice research. The methodology outperforms other approaches in pixel accuracy, and since it is the first automatic solution for recognizing the images of fake foods, the results could be used as a baseline for possible future studies. As the approach enables a semi-automatic description of recognized food items (e.g. with respect to FoodEx2), these can be linked to any food composition database that applies the same classification and description system.

  3. Sewage sludge disintegration by high-pressure homogenization: a sludge disintegration model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuxuan; Zhang, Panyue; Ma, Boqiang; Wu, Hao; Zhang, Sheng; Xu, Xin

    2012-01-01

    High-pressure homogenization (HPH) technology was applied as a pretreatment to disintegrate sewage sludge. The effects of homogenization pressure, homogenization cycle number, and total solid content on sludge disintegration were investigated. The sludge disintegration degree (DD(COD)), protein concentration, and polysaccharide concentration increased with the increase of homogenization pressure and homogenization cycle number, and decreased with the increase of sludge total solid (TS) content. The maximum DD(COD) of 43.94% was achieved at 80 MPa with four homogenization cycles for a 9.58 g/L TS sludge sample. A HPH sludge disintegration model of DD(COD) = kNaPb was established by multivariable linear regression to quantify the effects of homogenization parameters. The homogenization cycle exponent a and homogenization pressure exponent b were 0.4763 and 0.7324 respectively, showing that the effect of homogenization pressure (P) was more significant than that of homogenization cycle number (N). The value of the rate constant k decreased with the increase of sludge total solid content. The specific energy consumption increased with the increment of sludge disintegration efficiency. Lower specific energy consumption was required for higher total solid content sludge.

  4. The effect of operational conditions on the sludge specific methanogenic activity and sludge biodegradability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitao, R. C.; Santaella, S. T.; Haandel, A. C. van; Zeeman, G.; Lettinga, G.

    2009-07-01

    The Specific Methanogenic Activity (SMA) and sludge biodegradability of an anaerobic sludge depends on various operational and environmental conditions imposed to the anaerobic reactor. However, the effects of hydraulic retention time (HRT), influent COD concentration (COD{sub i}nf) and sludge retention time (SRT) on those two parameters need to be elucidated. This knowledge about SMA can provide insights about the capacity of the UASB reactors to withstand organic and hydraulic shock loads, whereas the biodegradability gives information necessary for final disposal of the sludge. (Author)

  5. Effect of seed sludge on characteristics and microbial community of aerobic granular sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhiwei; Pan, Yuejun; Zhang, Kun; Ren, Nanqi; Wang, Aijie

    2010-01-01

    Aerobic granular sludge was cultivated by using different kinds of seed sludge in sequencing batch airlift reactor. The influence of seed sludge on physical and chemical properties of granular sludge was studied; the microbial community structure was probed by using scanning electron microscope and polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). The results showed that seed sludge played an important role on the formation of aerobic granules. Seed sludge taken from beer wastewater treatment plant (inoculum A) was more suitable for cultivating aerobic granules than that of sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plant (inoculum B). Cultivated with inoculum A, large amount of mature granules formed after 35 days operation, its SVI reached 32.75 mL/g, and SOUR of granular sludge was beyond 1.10 mg/(g x min). By contrast, it needed 56 days obtaining mature granules using inoculum B. DGGE profiles indicated that the dominant microbial species in mature granules were 18 and 11 OTU when inoculum A and B were respectively employed as seed sludge. The sequencing results suggested that dominant species in mature granules cultivated by inoculum A were Paracoccus sp., Devosia hwasunensi, Pseudoxanthomonas sp., while the dominant species were Lactococcus raffinolactis and Pseudomonas sp. in granules developed from inoculum B.

  6. Gas composition of sludge residue profiles in a sludge treatment reed bed between loadings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Julie D; Nielsen, Steen M; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2017-11-01

    Treatment of sludge in sludge treatment reed bed systems includes dewatering and mineralization. The mineralization process, which is driven by microorganisms, produces different gas species as by-products. The pore space composition of the gas species provides useful information on the biological processes occurring in the sludge residue. In this study, we measured the change in composition of gas species in the pore space at different depth levels in vertical sludge residue profiles during a resting period of 32 days. The gas composition of the pore space in the sludge residue changed during the resting period. As the resting period proceeded, atmospheric air re-entered the pore space at all depth levels. The methane (CH 4 ) concentration was at its highest during the first part of the resting period, and then declined as the sludge residue became more dewatered and thereby aerated. In the pore space, the concentration of CH 4 often exceeded the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). However, the total emission of CO 2 from the surface of the sludge residue exceeded the total emission of CH 4 , suggesting that CO 2 was mainly produced in the layer of newly applied sludge and/or that CO 2 was emitted from the sludge residue more readily compared to CH 4 .

  7. The effect of operational conditions on the sludge specific methanogenic activity and sludge biodegradability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitao, R. C.; Santaella, S. T.; Haandel, A. C. van; Zeeman, G.; Lettinga, G.

    2009-01-01

    The Specific Methanogenic Activity (SMA) and sludge biodegradability of an anaerobic sludge depends on various operational and environmental conditions imposed to the anaerobic reactor. However, the effects of hydraulic retention time (HRT), influent COD concentration (COD i nf) and sludge retention time (SRT) on those two parameters need to be elucidated. This knowledge about SMA can provide insights about the capacity of the UASB reactors to withstand organic and hydraulic shock loads, whereas the biodegradability gives information necessary for final disposal of the sludge. (Author)

  8. Coming to power: women's fake orgasms and best orgasm experiences illuminate the failures of (hetero)sex and the pleasures of connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahs, Breanne

    2014-01-01

    While some literature has explored women's sexual satisfaction and, to a lesser degree, women's faking orgasm experiences, little research has examined the context and conditions around women's best and most memorable orgasms. This paper utilised thematic analysis of qualitative data from a community sample of 20 women in the USA (mean age = 34 years, SD = 13.35 years) from a wide range of racial, socioeconomic, and sexual identity backgrounds to illuminate their experiences with fake or pretend orgasms, and with their best orgasms. While faking orgasm narratives reflected themes of wanting to reinforce a partner's sexual skills, strategically ending sexual interactions, and suppressing feelings of abnormality and shame, best orgasm experiences showcased the power of interpersonal connection, the joys of masturbation and other non-penile-vaginal intercourse behaviours, and the significance of 'transformative embodiment'. Implications for the relative failures of (hetero)sex, particularly in the context of gendered power imbalances, along with the importance of deconstructing the sexually 'functional' or 'dysfunctional' woman are explored.

  9. FAKES NO TWITTER E APROPRIAÇÕES IDENTITÁRIAS: CONTRIBUIÇÕES METODOLÓGICAS PARA A COLETA E ANÁLISE DE PERFIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AMARAL, Adriana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo discute algumas contribuições metodológicas possíveis para a coleta e análise de dados no processo da pesquisa empírica qualitativa na internet (Fragoso, Recuero e Amaral, 2011, aplicada à observação e análise de perfis fakes do Twitter como forma de apropriação de identidade cultural (Woodward, 2000; Hall, 2002 nos ambientes digitais. O contexto e os resultados aqui debatidos partem do estudo de Santos (2011 sobre perfis fakes de celebridades midiáticas no Twitter. O objetivo do artigo é apresentar algumas possibilidades de exploração dessa plataforma para estudos empíricos sobre esse tema. Os resultados coletados a partir dessas processualidades online demonstram apropriações de características identitárias que geram a empatia dos mesmos com seu público seguidor. Além disso, observamos alguns padrões de usos e tipos de conteúdos produzidos pelos fakes que são construídos através de um aprendizado obtido a partir do uso constante da plataforma em suas limitações e qualidades.

  10. Influence of forced air volume on water evaporation during sewage sludge bio-drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Lu; Chen, Tong-Bin; Gao, Ding; Zheng, Guo-Di; Liu, Hong-Tao; Pan, Tian-Hao

    2013-09-01

    Mechanical aeration is critical to sewage sludge bio-drying, and the actual water loss caused by aeration can be better understood from investigations of the relationship between aeration and water evaporation from the sewage sludge bio-drying pile based on in situ measurements. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of forced air volume on the evaporation of water from a sewage sludge bio-drying pile. Dewatered sewage sludge was bio-dried using control technology for bio-drying, during which time the temperature, superficial air velocity and water evaporation were measured and calculated. The results indicated that the peak air velocity and water evaporation occurred in the thermophilic phase and second temperature-increasing phase, with the highest values of 0.063 ± 0.027 m s(-1) and 28.9 kg ton(-1) matrix d(-1), respectively, being observed on day 4. Air velocity above the pile during aeration was 43-100% higher than when there was no aeration, and there was a significantly positive correlation between air volume and water evaporation from day 1 to 15. The order of daily means of water evaporation was thermophilic phase > second temperature-increasing phase > temperature-increasing phase > cooling phase. Forced aeration controlled the pile temperature and improved evaporation, making it the key factor influencing water loss during the process of sewage sludge bio-drying. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Oak Ridge National Laboratory West End Treatment Facility simulated sludge vitrification demonstration, Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicero, C.A.; Bickford, D.F.; Bennert, D.M.; Overcamp, T.J.

    1994-01-01

    Technologies are being developed by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Nuclear Facility sites to convert hazardous and mixed wastes to a form suitable for permanent disposal. Vitrification, which has been declared the Best Demonstrated Available Technology for high-level radioactive waste disposal by the EPA, is capable of producing a highly durable wasteform that minimizes disposal volumes through organic destruction, moisture evaporation, and porosity reduction. However, this technology must be demonstrated over a range of waste characteristics, including compositions, chemistries, moistures, and physical characteristics to ensure that it is suitable for hazardous and mixed waste treatment. These wastes are typically wastewater treatment sludges that are categorized as listed wastes due to the process origin or organic solvent content, and usually contain only small amounts of hazardous constituents. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL) West End Treatment Facility's (WETF) sludge is considered on of these representative wastes. The WETF is a liquid waste processing plant that generates sludge from the biodenitrification and precipitation processes. An alternative wasteform is needed since the waste is currently stored in epoxy coated carbon steel tanks, which have a limited life. Since this waste has characteristics that make it suitable for vitrification with a high likelihood of success, it was identified as a suitable candidate by the Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) for testing at CU. The areas of special interest with this sludge are (1) minimum nitrates, (2) organic destruction, and (3) waste water treatment sludges containing little or no filter aid

  12. Assessment of mobility and bioavailability of mercury compounds in sewage sludge and composts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janowska, Beata; Szymański, Kazimierz; Sidełko, Robert; Siebielska, Izabela; Walendzik, Bartosz

    2017-07-01

    Content of heavy metals, including mercury, determines the method of management and disposal of sewage sludge. Excessive concentration of mercury in composts used as organic fertilizer may lead to accumulation of this element in soil and plant material. Fractionation of mercury in sewage sludge and composts provides a better understanding of the extent of mobility and bioavailability of the different mercury species and helps in more informed decision making on the application of sludge for agricultural purposes. The experimental setup comprises the composing process of the sewage sludge containing 13.1mgkg -1 of the total mercury, performed in static reactors with forced aeration. In order to evaluate the bioavailability of mercury, its fractionation was performed in sewage sludge and composts during the process. An analytical procedure based on four-stage sequential extraction was applied to determine the mercury content in the ion exchange (water soluble and exchangeable Hg), base soluble (Hg bound to humic and fulvic acid), acid soluble (Hg bound to Fe/Mn oxides and carbonates) and oxidizable (Hg bound to organic matter and sulphide) fractions. The results showed that from 50.09% to 64.55% of the total mercury was strongly bound to organo-sulphur and inorganic sulphide; that during composting, increase of concentrations of mercury compounds strongly bound with organic matter and sulphides; and that mercury content in the base soluble and oxidizable fractions was strongly correlated with concentration of dissolved organic carbon in those fractions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Experimental studies on pulp and paper mill sludge ash behavior in fluidized bed combustors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latva-Somppi, J. [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland). Process Technology

    1998-11-01

    Ash formation during the fluidized bed combustion (FBC) of pulp and paper mill sludges has been experimentally studied on an industrial and bench scale. The methods included aerosol measurements, chemical and crystalline composition analyses, thermogravimetry and electron microscopy. Fly ash mass and number size distributions and elemental enrichment in submicron particles and bottom ash were measured. Fly ash, bottom ash and ash deposits were characterized and their formation mechanisms are discussed. During combustion the fine paper-making additives in sludge, clay minerals and calcite, sintered fanning porous agglomerates. The fly ash mass mean size was 7.5 - 15 lam and the supermicron particles included 93.6 - 97.3 % of the fly ash. Condensation of the volatilized inorganic species formed spherical submicron particles in the fly ash. Their mass concentration was almost negligible when co-firing paper mill sludges and wood. This suggests that the fraction of the volatilized inorganic species in the paper mill sludges was low. Results from pulp mill sludge and bark co-firing were different. A clear mass mode below 0.3 pm, presenting 2.2 - 5.0 weight-% of the fly ash was detected. The condensed species included K, Na, S and Cl. Their mass fraction was higher in the pulp mill sludge than in the paper mill sludge. Evidently this resulted in increased volatilization and formation of condensed particles. The following trace elements were enriched in the submicron ash during pulp mill sludge and wood co-firing: As, Cd, Rb and Pb. The main part of the volatile species was, however, captured in the bulk ash. Presumably, this was due to the high surface area concentration in the bulk ash. Sludge moisture was observed to reduce the inorganic species volatilization. Probably steam vaporization from the wet sludge through the burning layer decreased combustion temperatures on char surface and less char was produced. Hence, the volatilization of ash forming species was

  14. Land application of sewage sludge: Pathogen issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, A C [Department of Soil and Environmental Sciences, Univ. of California at Riverside, Riverside, CA (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Diseases transmitted via the faecal-oral exposure route cause severe gastroenteric disorders, and large numbers of causative organisms are discharged with the faecal matter of infected individuals. For this reason, pathogenic bacteria, viruses, protozoa, or helminths, are always found in sewage sludge. If not properly treated for use in agriculture, sludge can be a source of pathogenic contamination. Radiation is an attractive method to reduce the numbers of microorganisms in sewage sludge. Routine examination for pathogens is not practised nor recommended because complicated and costly procedures are involved. Instead, an indicator organism is usually assayed and enumerated. In this paper, methods are discussed for the investigation of pathogens in sewage sludge. (author). 8 refs, 3 tabs.

  15. 183-H Basin sludge treatability test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biyani, R.K.

    1995-01-01

    This document presents the results from the treatability testing of a 1-kg sample of 183-H Basin sludge. Compressive strength measurements, Toxic Characteristic Leach Procedure, and a modified ANSI 16.1 leach test were conducted

  16. Use of sludge as ceramic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morais, L.C.; Vianna, R.S.C.; Campos, V.; Rosa, A.H.; Buechler, P.M.

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays, with increase amounts of sludge derived from the treatment of domestic sewage put pressure into research on systems for the adequate use of these materials. The aim of the present work is to study the use of sludge ash, from sintering and calcinated process, as a raw material for the ceramic industry. Using the sewage sludge ashes as ceramic raw material there will be no contamination of soil and underground water. Metals and toxic compounds like Al, Fe, Ba, Cr, Cu, Mn and Zn oxides were analyzed and characterized by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The leached material was chemically analyzed where the integration of oxides into the ceramic matrix of sludge ash was observed. Residual decomposition was analyzed by TG, DTG and DTA curves. (author)

  17. Rheological characterisation of municipal sludge: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshtiaghi, Nicky; Markis, Flora; Yap, Shao Dong; Baudez, Jean-Christophe; Slatter, Paul

    2013-10-01

    Sustainable sludge management is becoming a major issue for wastewater treatment plants due to increasing urban populations and tightening environmental regulations for conventional sludge disposal methods. To address this problem, a good understanding of sludge behaviour is vital to improve and optimize the current state of wastewater treatment operations. This paper provides a review of the recent experimental works in order for researchers to be able to develop a reliable characterization technique for measuring the important properties of sludge such as viscosity, yield stress, thixotropy, and viscoelasticity and to better understand the impact of solids concentrations, temperature, and water content on these properties. In this context, choosing the appropriate rheological model and rheometer is also important. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Resistance capability of microaerobic granular sludge for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enoh

    2012-02-08

    Feb 8, 2012 ... The resistance capability to pH shock of microaerobic granular sludge for pentachlorophenol (PCP) ... process with chlorine gas in pulp and paper, leather and spinning ... nitrifying bacteria in the aerobic zone, and then trans-.

  19. Bacteriological studies on dairy waste activated sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adamse, A.D.

    1966-01-01

    Dairy-waste activated sludge was examined for bacterial composition and response to different conditions. Strains isolated were classified mainly into three groups: predominantly coryneform bacteria (largely Arthrobacter), some Achromobacteraceae and a small groups of Pseudomonadaceae.

  20. grown on soil amended with sewage sludge

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    2Department of Civil Engineering, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria. Corresponding ... Key Words: Sewage sludge, Green amaranth, Phytoextraction, Heavy metals. ..... Wastewater-irrigated Areas of Titagarh,.

  1. MOBIL CONTAINER UNIT FOR SEWAGE SLUDGE UTILIZATION FROM SMALL AND MEDIUM WASTWATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Ledakowicz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The most wastewater treatment plants in Poland are small and medium plants of flow capacity below 1000 m3/d. These plants are not able to build sludge incineration plants and the transportation costs to the nearest plants increase the total costs of wastewater treatment. Polish company Metal Expert together with the French company ETIA and Lodz University of Technology proposed mobile unit for integrated drying and pyrolysis of sewage sludge in a pilot bench scale with capacity of 100 kg/h of dewatered sludge. The pilot plant was mounted in a typical mobile container which could provide service to small and medium wastewater treatment plants offering thermal processing of sewage sludge. This unit consists of KENKI contact dryer and „Spirajoule”® pyrolyser supplied with electricity utilizing the Joule effect, and a boiler, wherein the pyrolysis gases and volatile products are burned producing steam sent to the contact dryer. The bio-char produced during sludge pyrolysis could be utilized for agriculture purposes. During preliminary experiments and short-term exploitation of the unit at Elbląg Wastewater Treatment Plant the obtained results allowed us to make a mass and energy balance depended on the process conditions in the pyrolysis temperature range of 400÷800 °C. Based on the obtained results a calculator was created in the Excel , which enables assessment of pyrolysis products content and making mass and energy balances depended on process parameters such as initial moisture of sludge, pyrolysis temperature and installation output.

  2. Rapid thermal conditioning of sewage sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jianhong

    Rapid thermal conditioning (RTC) is a developing technology recently applied to sewage sludge treatment. Sludge is heated rapidly to a reaction temperature (up to about 220sp°C) under sufficient pressure to maintain the liquid phase. Reaction is quenched after 10 to 30 seconds when the mixture of sludge and steam pass through a pressure let-down valve. This process reduces the amount of sludge requiring land disposal, eliminates the need for polymer coagulant, improves dewaterability, increases methane production, and further reduces the concentration of pathogens. The odor problem associated with traditional thermal conditioning processes is largely minimized. Ammonia removal is readily integrated with the process. For this research, a pilot unit was constructed capable of processing 90 liters of sludge per hour. Over 22 runs were made with this unit using sludge from New York City Water Pollution Control Plants (WPCP). Sludges processed in this equipment were tested to determine the effect of RTC operating conditions on sludge dewaterability, biodegradability, and other factors affecting the incorporation of RTC into wastewater treatment plants. Dewaterability of thermally conditioned sludge was assessed for cetrifugeability and filterability. Bench scale centrifugation was used for evaluating centrifugeability, pressure filtration and capillary suction time (CST) for filterability. A mathematical model developed for centrifuge dewatering was used to predict the effect of RTC on full scale centrifuge performance. Particle size distribution and solids density of raw and treated PDS were also analyzed. An observed increase in sludge solids density at least partially explains its improved centrifugeability. An investigation of thermally conditioned amino acids showed that the L-isomer is highly biodegradable while the D-isomers are generally less so. Glucose is highly biodegradable, but rapidly becomes refractory as thermal conditioning time is lengthened. This

  3. Enhancement of biogas production from sewage sludge by addition of grease trap sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosser, A.; Neczaj, E.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Addition of grease trap sludge is interesting option for sewage sludge digestion. • Co-digestion of grease trap sludge and sewage sludge improved efficiency of process. • The anaerobic digestion can be carried out at short hydraulic retention time. • Long chain fatty acids concentration was below the ranges for inhibition of anaerobic digestion. - Abstract: Despite having many benefits, a low degree of volatile solids removal as well as long retention time are the main factors limiting the performance of the anaerobic digestion. Co-digestion of sewage sludge with other organic waste (for example fat rich materials) is one of the few potential ways to enhance the performance of the anaerobic digestion. In this article, the effects of adding fatty rich materials on the performance and stability of semi-continuous anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge were investigated on a 6 l laboratory-scale reactor (working volume equal to 5.5 l). The reactor was operated in a semi-continuous mode with a hydraulic retention time of 10 days. The data presented in this paper relate to the period in which the grease trap sludge accounted for 10, 12, 14, 16 and 18% of the mixture on the volatile solids basis. The results clearly indicate that the addition of fat rich materials like grease trap sludge can lead to a satisfactory increase in biogas yield in digester treating sewage sludge. The results showed that co-digestion can enhance the biogas yield by 28–82% compared to anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge alone (control sample). Moreover, the addition of grease trap sludge to digesters resulted in increased volatile solids removal from 44.38% (control sample) to 57.77% (feedstock with 14% addition of grease trap sludge). It was found that the increase of grease trap sludge in the feedstock had a direct impact on the biogas production and methane yield. This proposal has also been confirmed by statistical analysis such as Pearson correlation coefficients and

  4. Sustainability of Domestic Sewage Sludge Disposal

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Bruna Rizzardini; Daniele Goi

    2014-01-01

    Activated sludge is now one of the most widely used biological processes for the treatment of wastewaters from medium to large populations. It produces high amounts of sewage sludge that can be managed and perceived in two main ways: as a waste it is discharged in landfill, as a fertilizer it is disposed in agriculture with direct application to soil or subjected to anaerobic digestion and composting. Other solutions, such as incineration or production of concrete, bricks and asphalt play a s...

  5. Physical inactivation and stabilization of sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandre, D.

    1979-07-01

    High temperature conditioning of sludge is a stabilization process that insures sterilization. Both thermal pasteurization and irradiation are inactivation processes. Viruses and parasites are inactivated at 70-80 0 C. Total bacterial destruction requires higher temperatures and/or detention time. Radio sensitivity of pathogens and pertinent treatment parameters are examined. If sludge is to be land disposed, disinfection requires irradiation doses ranging 500 Krad; if cattle feeding is considered, the required dose is 1 Mrad

  6. Activated Sludge and Aerobic Biofilm Reactors

    OpenAIRE

    Von Sperling, Marcos

    2007-01-01

    "Activated Sludge and Aerobic Biofilm Reactors is the fifth volume in the series Biological Wastewater Treatment. The first part of the book is devoted to the activated sludge process, covering the removal of organic matter, nitrogen and phosphorus.A detailed analysis of the biological reactor (aeration tank) and the final sedimentation tanks is provided. The second part of the book covers aerobic biofilm reactors, especially trickling filters, rotating biological contractors and submerged ae...

  7. Modeling of Activated Sludge Floc Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim H. Mustafa; G. Ibrahim; Ali Elkamel; A. H. Elahwany

    2009-01-01

    Problem Statement: The activated sludge system needs to improve the operational performance and to achieve more effective control. To realize this, a better quantitative understanding of the biofloc characteristics is required. The objectives of this study were to: (i) Study the biofloc characteristics from kinetics-mass transfer interaction point of view by quantification of the weight of the aerobic portion of the activated sludge floc to the total floc weight. (ii) Study the effect of bulk...

  8. Disintegration impact on sludge digestion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauknys, Regimantas; Rimeika, Mindaugas; Jankeliūnaitė, Eglė; Mažeikienė, Aušra

    2016-11-01

    The anaerobic sludge digestion is a widely used method for sludge stabilization in wastewater treatment plant. This process can be improved by applying the sludge disintegration methods. As the sludge disintegration is not investigated enough, an analysis of how the application of thermal hydrolysis affects the sludge digestion process based on full-scale data was conducted. The results showed that the maximum volatile suspended solids (VSS) destruction reached the value of 65% independently on the application of thermal hydrolysis. The average VSS destruction increased by 14% when thermal hydrolysis was applied. In order to have the maximum VSS reduction and biogas production, it is recommended to keep the maximum defined VSS loading of 5.7 kg VSS/m(3)/d when the thermal hydrolysis is applied and to keep the VSS loading between 2.1-2.4 kg VSS/m(3)/d when the disintegration of sludge is not applied. The application of thermal hydrolysis leads to an approximately 2.5 times higher VSS loading maintenance comparing VSS loading without the disintegration; therefore, digesters with 1.8 times smaller volume is required.

  9. Separation of SRP waste sludge and supernate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    Sludges and supernates were separated from Savannah River Plant waste slurries by centrifugation and sand filtration. This separation, a portion of a conceptual process for solidification and long-term storage of high-level radioactive wastes, was tested in shielded cells with small-scale process equipment. Procedures for the separation were developed in tests with nonradioactive materials. Then, in 13 tests with actual sludges and supernates, solids removal ranged from 90 to 99.2 vol percent and averaged 96.4 vol percent after two passes through a basket-type centrifuge. Concentrates from the tests, containing 0.05 to 0.2 vol percent solids, were clarified by sand filter columns to produce solutions of the soluble salts with less than 0.01 vol percent solids. About 700 liters of salt solution and 8 kilograms of washed, dried sludges were separated in the tests. Effects of sludge type, flocculant, flow rates, and batch size were evaluated. Washing and drying of centrifuged sludges were studied, and two types of dryers were tested. Ruthenium volatility during drying was negligible. Washing efficiency was determined by analyses of wash solutions and sludge products

  10. Summary status of K Basins sludge characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, R.B.

    1995-01-01

    A number of activities are underway as part of the Spent Nuclear Fuels Project (SNFP) related to the processing and disposing of sludge in the 105-K Basins (K Basins). Efforts to rigorously define data requirements for these activities are being made using the Data Quality Objectives (DQO) process. Summaries of current sludge characterization data are required to both help support this DQO process and to allow continued progress with on-going engineering activities (e.g., evaluations of disposal alternatives). This document provides the status of K Basins sludge characterization data currently available to the Nuclear Fuel Evaluations group. This group is tasked by the SNFP to help develop and maintain the characterization baseline for the K Basins. The specific objectives of this document are to: (1) provide a current summary (and set of references) of sludge characterization data for use by SNFP initiatives, to avoid unnecessary duplication of effort and to support on-going initiatives; (2) submit these data to an open forum for review and comment, and identify additional sources of significant data that may be available; (3) provide a summary of current data to use as part of the basis to develop requirements for additional sludge characterization data through the DQO process; (4) provide an overview of the intended activities that will be used to develop and maintain the sludge characterization baseline

  11. Reuse of industrial sludge as construction aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, J H; Show, K Y; Hong, S Y

    2001-01-01

    Industrial wastewater sludge and dredged marine clay are high volume wastes that needed enormous space at landfill disposal sites. Due to the limitation of land space, there is an urgent need for alternative disposal methods for these two wastes. This study investigates the possibility of using the industrial sludge in combination with marine clay as construction aggregates. Different proportions of sludge and clay were made into round and angular aggregates. It was found that certain mix proportions could provide aggregates of adequate strength, comparable to that of conventional aggregates. Concrete samples cast from the sludge-clay aggregates yield compressive strengths in the range of 31.0 to 39.0 N/mm2. The results showed that the round aggregates of 100% sludge and the crush aggregates of sludge with up to 20% clay produced concrete of compressive strengths which are superior to that of 38.0 N/mm2 for conventional aggregate. The study indicates that the conversion of high volume wastes into construction materials is a potential option for waste management.

  12. Sludge storage lagoon biogas recovery and use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, D.; Norville, C. (Memphis and Shelby County Div. of Planning and Development, TN (United States))

    1991-07-01

    The City of Memphis has two wastewater treatment plants. The SWTP employs two large anaerobic digestion sludge lagoons as part of the overall sludge treatment system. Although these lagoons are effective in concentrating and digesting sludge, they can generate offensive odors. The SWTP uses aerobic digesters to partially stabilize the sludge and help reduce objectionable odors before it enters the lagoons. The anaerobic digestion of sludge in the lagoons results in the dispersion of a large quantity of biogas into the atmosphere. The City realized that if the lagoons could be covered, the odor problem could be resolved, and at the same, time, biogas could be recovered and utilized as a source of energy. In 1987, the City commissioned ADI International to conduct a feasibility study to evaluate alternative methods of covering the lagoons and recovering and utilizing the biogas. The study recommended that the project be developed in two phases: (1) recovery of the biogas and (2) utilization of the biogas. Phase 1 consists of covering the two lagoons with an insulated membrane to control odor and temperature and collect the biogas. Phase 1 was found to be economically feasible and offered a unique opportunity for the City to save substantial operating costs at the treatment facility. The Memphis biogas recovery project is the only application in the world where a membrane cover has been used on a municipal wastewater sludge lagoon. It is also the largest lagoon cover system in the world.

  13. Method of treating radioactive sludge waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoji, Yuichi; Matsuura, Hiroyuki; Ichihashi, Toshio

    1989-01-01

    For removing water content from sludge wastes, filtration or steam condensation may be considered, but none of them can sufficiently reduce the water content since filtration may cause clogging and steam treatment has a limit in the condensation. In view of the above, radioactive sludge wastes are dehydrated by an electroosmotic process in a vessel and then dehydrated solid contents are solidified in the vessel. Since the sludge wastes are mainly composed o fion exchange resins and iron oxides deposited to the resins, when a DC voltage is applied to the sludges containing such solid contents, a force tending to premeate them through the fine pores in the filter is exerted to water. As a result, only water is removed while the solids are being held on the filters. Since the moving direction of water is different depending on the property of the sludges, the polarity of the electrodes may be changed depending on the nature of the sludges. Thus, volume reduction can be improved and treating conditions can be controlled easily by a simple device. (N.H.)

  14. MMPI-2 validity, clinical and content scales, and the Fake Bad Scale for personal injury litigants claiming idiopathic environmental intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudenmayer, Herman; Phillips, Scott

    2007-01-01

    Idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI) is a descriptor for nonspecific complaints that are attributed to environmental exposure. The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 2 (MMPI-2) was administered to 50 female and 20 male personal injury litigants alleging IEI. The validity scales indicated no overreporting of psychopathology. Half of the cases had elevated scores on validity scales suggesting defensiveness, and a large number had elevations on Fake Bad Scale (FBS) suggesting overreporting of unauthenticated symptoms. The average T-score profile for females was defined by the two-point code type 3-1 (Hysteria-Hypochondriasis), and the average T-score profile for males was defined by the three-point code type 3-1-2 (Hysteria, Hypochondriasis-Depression). On the content scales, Health Concerns (HEA) scale was significantly elevated. Idiopathic environmental intolerance litigants (a) are more defensive about expressing psychopathology, (b) express distress through somatization, (c) use a self-serving misrepresentation of exaggerated health concerns, and (d) may exaggerate unauthenticated symptoms suggesting malingering.

  15. How Drone Strikes and a Fake Vaccination Program Have Inhibited Polio Eradication in Pakistan: An Analysis of National Level Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Jonathan

    2017-10-01

    This article investigates whether the United States' counterinsurgency operations have inhibited polio eradication efforts in northwestern Pakistan, the world's last major reservoir of polio. Anecdotal evidence suggests that militants disrupt polio vaccination programs because of suspicions that campaigns are a cover for gathering intelligence on Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) drone targets. This paper analyzes national-level quantitative data to test this argument. Between 2004 and 2012, the number of polio cases in Pakistan closely mirrored the number of drone strikes. But from 2013 onward, polio cases increased while drone strikes fell. This can be explained by the CIA's use of a fake immunization campaign in a failed attempt to obtain the DNA of Osama bin Laden's relatives prior to his assassination in 2011. This seemingly vindicated militants' suspicions that vaccination programs were a cover for espionage. Militants consequently intensified their disruption of immunization campaigns, resulting in an increase in polio cases in Pakistan, as well as in Afghanistan, Syria, and Iraq. For politicians and military planners, drones are attractive because they are said to harm fewer civilians than conventional methods of warfare. However, this paper demonstrates that drone strikes had negative effects on the well-being of civilians in Pakistan and further afield because they undermined global efforts to eradicate polio.

  16. ADHD Rating Scales' Susceptibility to Faking in a College Student Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, April Bryington; Watkins, Marley W.

    2008-01-01

    Clinicians must often rely on self-report data to make a diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults. Unfortunately, self-report data are subject to intentional distortion. This becomes a concern when assessing for the disorder in the college population due to perceptions that there are benefits to having a documented…

  17. Reasonable management plan of sludge in sewage disposal plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yum, Kyu Jin; Koo, Hyun Jung [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    The compost method, which is widely used as a sewage disposal recycling in Korea, is now basically impossible to recycle sludge to compost by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry announcement. Therefore, the disposal of sludge will be much harder with reducing the amount of sludge used as compost. The amount of sludge other than using as compost is very small, so the development of various sludge recycling and use will be needed with regulations. This study was implemented to help the establishment of sewage sludge recycling policy in Korea. 30 refs., 17 figs., 58 tabs.

  18. Deep Sludge Gas Release Event Analytical Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sams, Terry L.

    2013-01-01

    Long Abstract. Full Text. The purpose of the Deep Sludge Gas Release Event Analytical Evaluation (DSGRE-AE) is to evaluate the postulated hypothesis that a hydrogen GRE may occur in Hanford tanks containing waste sludges at levels greater than previously experienced. There is a need to understand gas retention and release hazards in sludge beds which are 200 -300 inches deep. These sludge beds are deeper than historical Hanford sludge waste beds, and are created when waste is retrieved from older single-shell tanks (SST) and transferred to newer double-shell tanks (DST).Retrieval of waste from SSTs reduces the risk to the environment from leakage or potential leakage of waste into the ground from these tanks. However, the possibility of an energetic event (flammable gas accident) in the retrieval receiver DST is worse than slow leakage. Lines of inquiry, therefore, are (1) can sludge waste be stored safely in deep beds; (2) can gas release events (GRE) be prevented by periodically degassing the sludge (e.g., mixer pump); or (3) does the retrieval strategy need to be altered to limit sludge bed height by retrieving into additional DSTs? The scope of this effort is to provide expert advice on whether or not to move forward with the generation of deep beds of sludge through retrieval of C-Farm tanks. Evaluation of possible mitigation methods (e.g., using mixer pumps to release gas, retrieving into an additional DST) are being evaluated by a second team and are not discussed in this report. While available data and engineering judgment indicate that increased gas retention (retained gas fraction) in DST sludge at depths resulting from the completion of SST 241-C Tank Farm retrievals is not expected and, even if gas releases were to occur, they would be small and local, a positive USQ was declared (Occurrence Report EM-RP--WRPS-TANKFARM-2012-0014, 'Potential Exists for a Large Spontaneous Gas Release Event in Deep Settled Waste Sludge'). The purpose of this technical

  19. Ultrasonically enhanced disintegration. Polymers, sludge, and contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groenroos, A.

    2010-05-15

    There are a great variety of potential applications of high-intensity ultrasonic energy. Of these, cleaning, plastic pounding, and at present also sludge disintegration and the remediation of contaminated soil are probably the best known and offer the most general market for high-intensity ultrasonics. All developments within the area of ultrasound applications lead to the creation of environmentally friendly processes and compounds, emphasizing the role of ultrasound in 'green chemistry'. Ultrasound technology is considered not easy to use in industrial processes, since devices providing high sonic energy are not easy to construct. This thesis investigates on a semi-pilot scale if it is possible to enhance the disintegration of three quite different samples: polymers, sludge, and contaminated soil by using ultrasound. The results indicate that it is possible to enhance the disintegration of polymers by means of ultrasonic power only when the cavitation threshold is exceeded. Above the cavitation threshold, the most extensive degradation took place at the lowest ultrasonic frequency used. The biggest decrease (from 115,000 g/mol to 30,000 g/mol) in relative molecular mass (RMM) was observed when the concentration of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) was the lowest (1.0%). However, in the case of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) it was observed that when viscosity was not adjusted there is an optimum polymer concentration (1.5-2.0%) where degradation is most efficient. The thesis shows that the extent of ultrasonic depolymerization decreases with decreasing molecular mass of the CMC polymer. The study also reveals that ultrasonic irradiation causes narrowing of the molecular mass distribution. The degradation of CMC polymer proceeded linearly and the rate of ultrasonic depolymerization decreased with decreasing molecular mass. In cases where the initial dynamic viscosities of polymer solutions were not the same, the sonolytic degradation of CMC polymer mainly depended

  20. Dispersed plug flow model for upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactors with focus on granular sludge dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalyuzhnyi, S.V.; Fedorovich, V.V.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2006-01-01

    A new approach to model upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB)-reactors, referred to as a one-dimensional dispersed plug flow model, was developed. This model focusses on the granular sludge dynamics along the reactor height, based on the balance between dispersion, sedimentation and convection using

  1. Sludge treatment facility preliminary siting study for the sludge treatment project (A-13B)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WESTRA, A.G.

    1999-01-01

    This study evaluates various sites in the 100 K area and 200 areas of Hanford for locating a treatment facility for sludge from the K Basins. Both existing facilities and a new standalone facility were evaluated. A standalone facility adjacent to the AW Tank Farm in the 200 East area of Hanford is recommended as the best location for a sludge treatment facility

  2. Impact of sludge properties on solid-liquid separation of activated sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard

    2016-01-01

    Solid-liquid separation of activated sludge is important both directly after the biological treatment of wastewater and for sludge dewatering. The separation of solid from the treated wastewater can be done by clarifiers (conventional plants) or membrane (MBR). Further, part of the sludge is taken...... out from the proces and usually dewatered before further handling. The separation process is costly. Moreover, the separation process depends on the composition and the properties of the sludge. The best separation is obtained for sludge that contains strong, compact flocs without single cells...... and dissolved extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Polyvalent ions improve the floc strangth and improve the separation whereas monovalent ions (e.g. from road salt, sea water intrusion and industry) reduces impair the separation. Further high pH impairs the separation process due to floc disintegration...

  3. Wastewater and sludge management and research in Oman: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffar Abdul Khaliq, Suaad; Ahmed, Mushtaque; Al-Wardy, Malik; Al-Busaidi, Ahmed; Choudri, B S

    2017-03-01

    It is well recognized that management of wastewater and sludge is a critical environmental issue in many countries. Wastewater treatment and sludge production take place under different technical, economic, and social contexts, thus requiring different approaches and involving different solutions. In most cases, a regular and environmentally safe wastewater treatment and associated sludge management requires the development of realistic and enforceable regulations, as well as treatment systems appropriate to local circumstances. The main objective of this paper is to provide useful information about the current wastewater and sludge treatment, management, regulations, and research in Oman. Based on the review and discussion, the wastewater treatment and sludge management in Oman has been evolving over the years. Further, the land application of sewage sludge should encourage revision of existing standards, regulations, and policies for the management and beneficial use of sewage sludge in Oman. Wastewater treatment and sludge management in Oman have been evolving over the years. Sludge utilization has been a challenge due to its association with human waste. Therefore, composting of sewage sludge is the best option in agriculture activities. Sludge and wastewater utilization can add up positively in the economic aspects of the country in terms of creating jobs and improving annual income rate. The number of research projects done on wastewater reuse and other ongoing ones related to the land application of sewage sludge should encourage revision of existing standards, regulations, and policies for the management and beneficial use of sewage sludge in Oman.

  4. Assessment of heavy metal pollution with applications of sewage sludge and city compost for maximizing crop yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Souza, T.J.; Ramachandran, V.; Raghu, K.

    1997-01-01

    Land application of municipal sewage sludge and city compost as organic manures make it imperative to assess heavy-metal pollution in soils and crops. Greenhouse experiments, conducted on maize in a vertisol and an ultisol amended with various doses of dry sewage sludge and city compost from Mumbai, indicated significant increases in dry matter-yields only in the vertisol. Significantly higher concentrations of Zn, Cu, Co, Pb, Ni and Cd were obtained in plants grown in the amended ultisol, but not in the amended vertisol. As Cd is the most toxic, experiments were conducted with four contrasting soils amended with varying doses of Cd-enriched sewage sludge and city compost. Results showed significant reductions in dry-matter yields of maize shoots at the higher rates of sludge or compost in the ultisol and an alfisol, but with no significant effects in the vertisol or an entisol. The levels of Cd and Zn were significantly elevated in plants in all four soil types. There were negative residual effects from the sludge and compost amendments: dry-matter yields of a succeeding maize crop were decreased in the ultisol and alfisol. Experiments with soils amended with sludge enriched with either Cd or Zn at 80 mg kg -1 indicated significant reductions in dry matter in all soils with Cd, but not with Zn. The results demonstrate that sewage sludges and city composts may be effectively used for maximizing crop yields, especially in vertisols and entisols. However, caution has to be exercised when using sludges containing even relatively low levels of Cd, or high levels of Zn, depending upon soil type. (author)

  5. Nuclear safety of extended sludge processing on tank 42 and 51 sludge (DWPF sludge feed batch one)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemons, J.S.

    1993-01-01

    The sludge in tanks 42 and 51 is to be washed with inhibited water to remove soluble salts and combined in tank 51 in preparation for feed to DWPF. Since these tanks contain uranium and plutonium, the process of washing must be evaluated to ensure subcriticality is maintained. When the sludge is washed, inhibited water is added, the tank contents are slurried and allowed to settle. The sludge wash water is then decanted to the evaporator feed tank where it is fed to the evaporator to reduce the volume. The resulting evaporator concentrate is sent to a salt tank where it cools and forms crystallized salt cake. This salt cake will later be dissolved, processed in ITP and sent to Z-Area. This report evaluates the supernate and sludge during washing, the impact on the evaporator during concentration of decanted wash water, and the salt tank where the concentrated supernate is deposited. The conclusions generated in this report are specific to the sludge currently contained in tanks 42 and 51

  6. Degradation of slime extracellular polymeric substances and inhibited sludge flocs destruction contribute to sludge dewaterability enhancement during fungal treatment of sludge using filamentous fungus Mucor sp. GY-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenyu; Zheng, Guanyu; Zhou, Lixiang

    2015-09-01

    Mechanisms responsible for the sludge dewaterability enhanced by filamentous fungi during fungal treatment of sludge were investigated in the present study. The filamentous fungus Mucor sp. GY-1, isolated from waste activated sludge, enhanced sludge dewaterability by 82.1% to achieve the lowest value of normalized sludge specific resistance to filtration (SRF), 8.18 × 10(10) m · L/kg · g-TSS. During the fungal treatment of sludge, 57.8% of slime extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and 51.1% of polysaccharide in slime EPS were degraded, respectively, by Mucor sp. GY-1, contributing to the improvement of sludge dewaterability. Slime EPS is much more available for Mucor sp. GY-1 than either LB-EPS or TB-EPS that bound with microbial cells. In addition, filamentous fungus Mucor sp. GY-1 entrapped small sludge particles and inhibited the destruction of sludge flocs larger than 100 μm, thus enhancing sludge dewaterability, during fungal treatment of sludge using Mucor sp. GY-1. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. "People Are Either Too Fake or Too Real": Opportunities and Challenges in Tie-Based Anonymity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Xiao; Andabili, Nazanin; Barkhuus, Louise

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, several mobile applications allowed individuals to anonymously share information with friends and contacts, without any persistent identity marker. The functions of these “tie-based” anonymity services may be notably different than other social media services. We use semi-structu...... disclosure needs and social probing. Still, challenges for making such applications successful, for example the prevalence of negativity and bullying, are substantial.......In recent years, several mobile applications allowed individuals to anonymously share information with friends and contacts, without any persistent identity marker. The functions of these “tie-based” anonymity services may be notably different than other social media services. We use semi...

  8. Gas Generation from K East Basin Sludges - Series II Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, Samuel A.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Sell, Rachel L.; Silvers, Kurt L.; Gano, Susan R.; Thornton, Brenda M.

    2001-01-01

    This report describes work to examine the gas generation behavior of actual K East (KE) Basin floor, pit and canister sludge. Mixed and unmixed and fractionated KE canister sludge were tested, along with floor and pit sludges from areas in the KE Basin not previously sampled. The first report in this series focused on gas generation from KE floor and canister sludge collected using a consolidated sampling technique. The third report will present results of gas generation testing of irradiated uranium fuel fragments with and without sludge addition. The path forward for management of the K Basin Sludge is to retrieve, ship, and store the sludge at T Plant until final processing at some future date. Gas generation will impact the designs and costs of systems associated with retrieval, transportation and storage of sludge

  9. Enhanced remediation of an oily sludge with saline water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enhanced remediation of an oily sludge with saline water. ... the remediation of an oily sludge, which was part of the waste stream from the improvement ... m3 of fresh water respectively while 'treatment' reactors C and D received ...

  10. Sludge pipe flow pressure drop prediction using composite power ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sludge pipe flow pressure drop prediction using composite power-law friction ... Water SA. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue ... When predicting pressure gradients for the flow of sludges in pipes, the ...

  11. Organic matter and heavy metals in grey-water sludge

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-01-08

    Jan 8, 2010 ... metal loads comparable to Danish sewage sludge, and it exceeds the Danish quality criteria for ... The hydraulic retention time (HRT) of the whole plant is .... sludge will contain an important part of the XOCs which were.

  12. Microwave enhanced digestion of aerobic SBR sludge | Kennedy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MWs) for improving characteristics of aerobic sequencing batch reactor (SBR) sludge to enhance mesophilic anaerobic digestion. Effects of pretreatment temperature, MW irradiation intensity and solids concentration on sludge characterisation ...

  13. The influence of aerobic sludge retention time on anaerobic co ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABR) and aerobic plug flow reactor (PFR) were operated aiming to minimize excess sludge output of the activated sludge process through coupled alkaline hydrolysis and anaerobic digestion. Variations in the effluent total chemical oxygen ...

  14. Investigation of possibilities for high heavy metal content sludges utilization by incorporating them in concrete products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simeonova A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The safe removal of sludge, obtained during the surface treatment of different metal products, is a serious environmental problem. These sludges are usually characterized by a high content of heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Ni, Zn, Cr, Cd, Mn, low quality and are obtained in many small industrial units in the whole country, which makes their centralized treatment difficult. In world practice, different methods are used for component fixation of such sludge, in the aim to prevent leaching of the metals causing pollution of the soil and underground water. The aim of the recent work is to prepare the sludge in a form of light (keramzit fillers by preliminary treatment with binding substances and to introduce them in non supporting concrete products - curbs, stakes and similar products. The investigation was made with two types of sludge - from a production line for thermal treatment and hardening of different parts used in machine building and from a production line for surface decoration treatment (nickel-plating and chromium-plating of consumer products. The sludge were dried and ground and then granulated with a solution of water glass. After their solidifying the air dried granules with a size of 5 to 15 mm were treated with cement milk and air dried again. With the obtained granules, standard percolation test for leaching metals like Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni and Cr was carried out. After a preliminary calculation of concrete mixtures, these granules were mixed with Portland cement and concrete sample products were made. These molded concrete samples were characterized by their density, water absorption, and mechanical strength for defined standard periods of time. The samples were subjected to a modified percolation test for leaching metals. The metal concentration in eluates was determined by Atomic Spectral Analysis.

  15. Effect of process variables on the production of Polyhydroxyalkanoates by activated sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhtarani Nader

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Polyhydroxyalkanoates are known to be temporarily stored by microorganisms in activated sludge, especially in anaerobic-aerobic processes. Due to the problems resulted from the disposals of plastic wastes and excess sludge of wastewater treatment plants, the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates by treating activated sludge and determining the effect of process variables were the main issues of this paper. In this research, an anaerobic-aerobic sequencing batch reactor was used to make microorganism adapted and a batch aerobic reactor was used for enriching them. The variables affecting polyhydroxyalkanoates production including aeration time, sludge retention time, and volatile fatty acids concentration of the influent in sequencing batch reactor, and also carbon to nitrogen ratio and cultivation time in polymer production reactor, were investigated using Taguchi statistical approach to determine optimum conditions. The maximum polymer production of 29% was achieved at sludge retention time of 5–10 days, aeration time of 2 hours, supplementation of 40% of volatile fatty acids in the influent and increasing of carbon to nitrogen ratio of polymer production reactor to above 25 g/g. Based on the results, in optimum conditions, the volatile fatty acids concentration which increased the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates up to 49% was the most effective variable. Carbon to nitrogen ratio, sludge retention time and aeration time were ranked as the next affecting parameters. Although the polyhydroxyalkanoates content achieved in present study is much lower than that by pure culture, but the proposed method may still serve well as an environmental friendly means to convert waste into valuable product.

  16. Effect of Process Variables on the Production of Polyhydroxyalkanoates by Activated Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Mokhtarani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Polyhydroxyalkanoates are known to be temporarily stored by microorganisms in activated sludge, especially in anaerobic-aerobic processes. Due to the problems resulted from the disposals of plastic wastes and excess sludge of wastewater treatment plants, the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates by treating activated sludge anddetermining the effect of process variables were the main issues of this paper. In this research, an anaerobic-aerobic sequencing batch reactor was used to make microorganism adapted and a batch aerobic reactor was used for enriching them. The variables affecting polyhydroxyalkanoates production including aeration time, sludge retention time, and volatile fatty acids concentration of the influent in sequencing batch reactor, and also carbon to nitrogenratio and cultivation time in polymer production reactor, were investigated using Taguchi statistical approach to determine optimum conditions. The maximum polymer production of 29% was achieved at sludge retention time of 5–10 days, aeration time of 2 hours, supplementation of 40% of volatile fatty acids in the influent and increasing of carbon to nitrogen ratio of polymer production reactor to above 25 g/g. Based on the results, in optimum conditions, the volatile fatty acids concentration which increased the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates up to 49% was the most effective variable. Carbon to nitrogen ratio, sludge retention time and aeration time were ranked as the next affecting parameters. Although the polyhydroxyalkanoates content achieved in present study is muchlower than that by pure culture, but the proposed method may still serve well as an environmental friendly means to convert waste into valuable product.

  17. Bioassay directed identification of toxicants in sludge and related reused materials from industrial wastewater treatment plants in the Yangtze River Delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Binbin; Guo, Jing; Li, Fuxing; Giesy, John P; Wang, Lianjun; Shi, Wei

    2017-02-01

    Industrialized development of the Yangtze River Delta, China, has resulted in larger amounts of wastes, including sludges from treatment of these wastes. Methods to manage and dispose, including reuse were urgently needed. Sludge and reused products were collected from two largest factories, KEYUAN and HENGJIA where treated sludges were turned into bricks or sludge cake to be placed in landfills, respectively. Metals and organic compounds were quantified in sludges and leachates assessed by use of toxicity characterized leaching procedure (TCLP) while acute toxicity was determined by Daphnia magna. Nine metals were detected in all raw sludges with concentrations of Cr and Ni exceeding Chinese standards. For sludge leachate, concentrations of metals were all less than Chinese standards, which changed little after being made into cake by HENGJIA, but were significantly less after being made into brick by KEYUAN. Toxicity units (TU) for all samples are greater than 1.0 indicating that they are potentially toxic to aquatic organisms. TUs changed little after being made into filter cake, but were 10-fold less after being made into bricks. Cr and Ni contributed most to the total toxicity followed by Zn and Cu. Making of sludges into K-brick 1 resulted in better inactivation of contaminants, which resulted in less toxic potencies. So that is the recommended method for handling of industrial sludges. To further assure their safe reuse, additional research on identification of key toxicants and potential hazards, based on additional endpoints, by combining bio-tests and chemical analysis should be done for reused sludges. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Characteristics of biosolids from sludge treatment wetlands for agricultural reuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uggetti, Enrica; Ferrer, Ivet; Nielsen, Steen

    2012-01-01

    Sludge treatment wetlands (STW) consist of constructed wetlands systems specifically developed for sludge treatment over the last decades. Sludge dewatering and stabilisation are the main features of this technology, leading to a final product which may be recycled as an organic fertiliser or soi...... legal limits for land application of the sludge. Our results suggest that biosolids from the studied STW can be valorised in agriculture, especially as soil conditioner....

  19. Municipal Sewage Sludge Drying Treatment by an Composite Modifier

    OpenAIRE

    Na Wei

    2012-01-01

    A sludge composite modifier (SCM) which comprises a mixture of three cementitious components was proposed for sludge drying and stabilization. Effect of SCM components on sludge moisture content was analyzed using uniform design and the optimum composition of SCM was determined by computer-aided modeling and optimization. To compare the drying effect of SCM, quicklime, and Portland cement, the effects of material content and curing time on moisture content of sludge were also studied. The res...

  20. Physical Properties of Hanford Transuranic Waste Sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poloski, A. P.

    2004-01-01

    This project has two primary objectives. The first is to understand the physical properties and behavior of the Hanford transuranic (TRU) tank sludges under conditions that might exist during retrieval, treatment, packaging, and transportation for disposal at WIPP. The second primary objective is to develop a fundamental understanding of these sludge suspensions by correlating the macroscopic properties with particle interactions occurring at the colloidal scale in the various liquid media. The results of this research effort will enhance the existing understanding of agglomeration phenomena and the properties of complex colloidal suspensions. In addition, the knowledge gained and capabilities developed during this effort will aid in the development and optimization of techniques to process the wastes at various DOE sites. These objectives will be accomplished by: (1) characterizing the TRU sludges contained in the Hanford tanks that are intended for shipment to WIPP; (2) determining the physical behavior of the Hanford TRU tank sludges under conditions that might exist during treatment and packaging; (3) and modeling the retrieval, treatment, and packaging operations that will be performed at Hanford to dispose of TRU tank sludges

  1. Recovery of phosphorus from sewerage treatment sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manuilova, Anastasia

    1999-07-01

    This thesis is a review of the current state of technologies for the removal of phosphorus from wastewater and sludge, and the recovery and re-use of phosphorus. It explains the need for phosphorus removal and describes the current removal processes. Focus is given to phosphorus crystallisation processes and to the processes which treat sewage treatment sludges into potential sources of phosphorus. An interesting possibility to recover phosphorus from sewage sludge by use of Psenner fractionation is also discussed. By this method, the following phosphate fractions of technological significance may be distinguished: (1) redox sensitive phosphates, mainly bound to Fe(OH){sub 3}; (2) phosphate adsorbed to surfaces (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), exchangeable against OH{sup -}, and alkali-soluble phosphate; (3) phosphate bound to CaCO{sub 3}, MgCO{sub 3} and in apatite; and (4) organically bound phosphate. The basic removal mechanisms, process schemes and treatment results are described. Two experiments with three different types of sludges from Henriksdal wastewater treatment plant in Stockholm were performed in the laboratory. It was shown that the addition of sodium hydroxide or hydrochloric acid cause the significant release of phosphate (about 80%) for all types of sludges. If a whole Psenner fractionation was performed the phosphate release is approximately 100%.

  2. Solar drying in sludge management in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamil Salihoglu, Nezih; Pinarli, Vedat; Salihoglu, Guray [Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Environmental Engineering Department, Uludag University, 16059, Bursa (Turkey)

    2007-08-15

    Two main wastewater treatment plants in Bursa city in Turkey will start to operate and produce at least 27,000 tons of dry solids per year by the end of 2006. The purpose of this study was to investigate an economical solution to the sludge management problem that Bursa city would encounter. The general trend in Turkey is mechanical dewatering to obtain a dry solid (DS) content of 20%, and liming the mechanically dewatered sludge to reach the legal land filling requirement, 35% DS content. This study recommends limited liming and solar drying as an alternative to only-liming the mechanically dewatered sludge. Open and covered solar sludge drying plants were constructed in pilot scale for experimental purposes. Dry solids and climatic conditions were constantly measured. Faecal coliform reduction was also monitored. The specially designed covered solar drying plant proved to be more efficient than the open plant in terms of drying and faecal coliform reduction. It was found that, if the limited liming and solar drying method was applied after mechanical dewatering instead of only-liming method, the total amount of the sludge to be disposed would be reduced by approximately 40%. This would lead to a reduction in the transportation, handling, and land filling costs. The covered drying system would amortize itself in 4 years. (author)

  3. Operational experience at the Sludge Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sy, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    The Sludge Treatment Facility (STF) at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant has been in operation since April 1987. The facility was designed to encapsulate hazardous sludge wastes in a cement matrix. Fixation will allow the waste to meet or exceed applicable compressive strength and leachability requirements. Thus, the grout mixture complies with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) guidelines as a nonhazardous waste. The grout mixture is based upon a recipe formulation developed after several years of waste stream characterization and formulation studies. The wastes to be treated at the STF are wastes impounded in two ponds. The ponds have a combined capacity of 4.5 million gallons of sludge. The sludge is transferred from the ponds to a 15,000-gallon capacity storage tank by the use of a dredge. The grout mixture recipe dictates the amount of sludge, cement, fly ash, and admixture required for weighing per batch. All ingredients are weighed and then transferred to a tilt or high energy mixer for mixing. The grout mixture is then transferred to 89- or 96-gallon steel drums. The drums are placed in a storage yard designed for a point source discharge from the yard

  4. The Effects of Money on Fake Rating Behavior in E-Commerce: Electrophysiological Time Course Evidence From Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuicui Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Online ratings impose significant effects on the behaviors of potential customers. Thus, online merchants try to adopt strategies that affect this rating behavior, and most of these strategies are connected to money, such as the strategies of returning cash coupons if a consumer gives a five-star rating (RI strategy, an acronym for “returning” and “if” or returning cash coupons directly with no additional requirements (RN strategy, an acronym for “returning” and “no”. The current study explored whether a certain strategy (RN or RI was more likely to give rise to false rating behaviors, as assessed by event-related potentials. A two-stimulus paradigm was used in this experiment. The first stimulus (S1 was the picture of a product with four Chinese characters that reflected the product quality (slightly defective vs. seriously defective vs. not defective, and the second stimulus (S2 displayed the coupon strategy (RN or RI. The participants were asked to decide whether or not to give a five-star rating. The behavioral results showed that the RI strategy led to a higher rate of five-star ratings than the RN strategy. For the electrophysiological time courses, the N1, N2, and LPP components were evaluated. The slightly defective products elicited a larger amplitude of the N1 component than the seriously defective and not-defective products, reflecting that perceptual difficulty was associated with the processing of the slightly defective products. The RI strategy evoked a less negative N2 and a more positive LPP than the RN strategy, indicating that the subjects perceived less conflict and experienced stronger incentives when processing the RI strategy. These findings will benefit future studies of fake online comments and provide evidence supporting the policy of forbidding the use of the RI strategy in e-commerce.

  5. The Effects of Money on Fake Rating Behavior in E-Commerce: Electrophysiological Time Course Evidence From Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cuicui; Li, Yun; Luo, Xuan; Ma, Qingguo; Fu, Weizhong; Fu, Huijian

    2018-01-01

    Online ratings impose significant effects on the behaviors of potential customers. Thus, online merchants try to adopt strategies that affect this rating behavior, and most of these strategies are connected to money, such as the strategies of returning cash coupons if a consumer gives a five-star rating (RI strategy, an acronym for "returning" and "if") or returning cash coupons directly with no additional requirements (RN strategy, an acronym for "returning" and "no"). The current study explored whether a certain strategy (RN or RI) was more likely to give rise to false rating behaviors, as assessed by event-related potentials. A two-stimulus paradigm was used in this experiment. The first stimulus (S1) was the picture of a product with four Chinese characters that reflected the product quality (slightly defective vs. seriously defective vs. not defective), and the second stimulus (S2) displayed the coupon strategy (RN or RI). The participants were asked to decide whether or not to give a five-star rating. The behavioral results showed that the RI strategy led to a higher rate of five-star ratings than the RN strategy. For the electrophysiological time courses, the N1, N2, and LPP components were evaluated. The slightly defective products elicited a larger amplitude of the N1 component than the seriously defective and not-defective products, reflecting that perceptual difficulty was associated with the processing of the slightly defective products. The RI strategy evoked a less negative N2 and a more positive LPP than the RN strategy, indicating that the subjects perceived less conflict and experienced stronger incentives when processing the RI strategy. These findings will benefit future studies of fake online comments and provide evidence supporting the policy of forbidding the use of the RI strategy in e-commerce.

  6. The Effects of Money on Fake Rating Behavior in E-Commerce: Electrophysiological Time Course Evidence From Consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cuicui; Li, Yun; Luo, Xuan; Ma, Qingguo; Fu, Weizhong; Fu, Huijian

    2018-01-01

    Online ratings impose significant effects on the behaviors of potential customers. Thus, online merchants try to adopt strategies that affect this rating behavior, and most of these strategies are connected to money, such as the strategies of returning cash coupons if a consumer gives a five-star rating (RI strategy, an acronym for “returning” and “if”) or returning cash coupons directly with no additional requirements (RN strategy, an acronym for “returning” and “no”). The current study explored whether a certain strategy (RN or RI) was more likely to give rise to false rating behaviors, as assessed by event-related potentials. A two-stimulus paradigm was used in this experiment. The first stimulus (S1) was the picture of a product with four Chinese characters that reflected the product quality (slightly defective vs. seriously defective vs. not defective), and the second stimulus (S2) displayed the coupon strategy (RN or RI). The participants were asked to decide whether or not to give a five-star rating. The behavioral results showed that the RI strategy led to a higher rate of five-star ratings than the RN strategy. For the electrophysiological time courses, the N1, N2, and LPP components were evaluated. The slightly defective products elicited a larger amplitude of the N1 component than the seriously defective and not-defective products, reflecting that perceptual difficulty was associated with the processing of the slightly defective products. The RI strategy evoked a less negative N2 and a more positive LPP than the RN strategy, indicating that the subjects perceived less conflict and experienced stronger incentives when processing the RI strategy. These findings will benefit future studies of fake online comments and provide evidence supporting the policy of forbidding the use of the RI strategy in e-commerce. PMID:29615851

  7. Fate of return activated sludge after ozonation: an optimization study for sludge disintegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Ozlem; Filibeli, Ayse

    2012-09-01

    The effects of ozonation on sludge disintegration should be investigated before the application of ozone during biological treatment, in order to minimize excess sludge production. In this study, changes in sludge and supernatant after ozonation of return activated sludge were investigated for seven different ozone doses. The optimum ozone dose to avoid inhibition of ozonation and high ozone cost was determined in terms of disintegration degree as 0.05 g O3/gTS. Suspended solid and volatile suspended solid concentrations of sludge decreased by 77.8% and 71.6%, respectively, at the optimum ozone dose. Ozonation significantly decomposed sludge flocs. The release of cell contents was proved by the increase of supernatant total nitrogen (TN) and phosphorus (TP). While TN increased from 7 mg/L to 151 mg/L, TP increased from 8.8 to 33 mg/L at the optimum ozone dose. The dewaterability and filterability characteristics of the ozonated sludge were also examined. Capillary suction time increased with increasing ozone dosage, but specific resistance to filtration increased to a specific value and then decreased dramatically. The particle size distribution changed significantly as a result of floc disruption at an optimum dose of 0.05 gO3/gTS.

  8. Properties of bacterial radioresistance observed in sewage sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, H; Ito, H; Takehisa, M [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma. Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Iizuka, H

    1981-09-01

    The changes in radiosensitivities of bacteria in sludge were investigated. The coliforms are more radioresistant in raw sludge than in cake (dewatered sludge). This radioresistance of coliforms was observed not only in raw sludge but also in the cake diluted with water. The radioresistance was independent of the difference of treatment plant, kind of sludge, and season. The oxygen effect on the radioresistance was not observed, but the resistance was changed during storage of sludge. Escherichia coli isolated from sludge was radiosensitive in buffer, but its radiosensitivity was protected by the water-extracts of sludge. On the other hand, radioresistant bacteria were present in total bacteria of sludge irradiated at 2 Mrad. However, the dominant flora in the irradiated sludge consisted of radiosensitive bacteria (mainly Pseudomonas). When a strain of radiosensitive Pseudomonas was irradiated in raw sludge and diluted cake, the radiosensitivity was remarkably protected. From these results, it is suggested that a factor affecting the radiosensitivity of bacteria is present in sludge.

  9. Effects of ultrasonic disintegration on sludge microbial activity and dewaterability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Huan; Jin Yiying; Mahar, Rasool Bux; Wang Zhiyu; Nie Yongfeng

    2009-01-01

    Ultrasonic treatment can disintegrate sludge, enhance microbial activity and improve sludge dewaterability at different energy inputs. To find their relationship, the three phenomena during ultrasonic treatment were investigated synchronously, and an experimental model was established to describe the process of ultrasonic sludge disintegration. Analysis results showed that the changes of sludge microbial activity and dewaterability were dependent on sludge disintegration degree during ultrasonic treatment. When sludge disintegration degree was lower than 20%, sludge flocs were disintegrated into micro-floc aggregates and the microbial activity increased over 20%. When sludge disintegration degree was over 40%, most cells were destroyed at different degree, and sludge activity decreased drastically. Only when sludge disintegration degree was 2-5%, sludge dewaterability was improved with the conditioning of FeCl 3 . It was also found that the sonication with low density and long duration was more efficient than sonication with high density and short duration at the same energy input for sludge disintegration, and a transmutative power function model can be used to describe the process of ultrasonic disintegration

  10. Effects of ultrasonic disintegration on sludge microbial activity and dewaterability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, Li; Yiying, Jin; Mahar, Rasool Bux; Zhiyu, Wang; Yongfeng, Nie

    2009-01-30

    Ultrasonic treatment can disintegrate sludge, enhance microbial activity and improve sludge dewaterability at different energy inputs. To find their relationship, the three phenomena during ultrasonic treatment were investigated synchronously, and an experimental model was established to describe the process of ultrasonic sludge disintegration. Analysis results showed that the changes of sludge microbial activity and dewaterability were dependent on sludge disintegration degree during ultrasonic treatment. When sludge disintegration degree was lower than 20%, sludge flocs were disintegrated into micro-floc aggregates and the microbial activity increased over 20%. When sludge disintegration degree was over 40%, most cells were destroyed at different degree, and sludge activity decreased drastically. Only when sludge disintegration degree was 2-5%, sludge dewaterability was improved with the conditioning of FeCl(3). It was also found that the sonication with low density and long duration was more efficient than sonication with high density and short duration at the same energy input for sludge disintegration, and a transmutative power function model can be used to describe the process of ultrasonic disintegration.

  11. Keynote address: Federal overview of municipal sludge management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hathaway, W.B.

    1979-01-01

    The proper disposal of sewage sludge is becoming an increasing problem on solid waste management systems throughout the country. Currently 18,000 municipal wastewater treatment plants are generating about 5 million tons of sludge a year. This is expected to double in the next 8 to 10 years. The environmental aspects of sludge disposal are discussed

  12. Properties of bacterial radioresistance observed in sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Hiroshi; Ito, Hitoshi; Takehisa, Masaaki; Iizuka, Hiroshi.

    1981-01-01

    The changes in radiosensitivities of bacteria in sludge were investigated. The coliforms are more radioresistant in raw sludge than in cake (dewatered sludge). This radioresistance of coliforms was observed not only in raw sludge but also in the cake diluted with water. The radioresistance was independent of the difference of treatment plant, kind of sludge, and season. The oxygen effect on the radioresistance was not observed, but the resistance was changed during storage of sludge. Escherichia coli isolated from sludge was radiosensitive in buffer, but its radiosensitivity was protected by the water-extracts of sludge. On the other hand, radioresistant bacteria were present in total bacteria of sludge irradiated at 2 Mrad. However, the dominant flora in the irradiated sludge consisted of radiosensitive bacteria (mainly Pseudomonas). When a strain of radiosensitive Pseudomonas was irradiated in raw sludge and diluted cake, the radiosensitivity was remarkably protected. From these results, it is suggested that a factor affecting the radiosensitivity of bacteria is present in sludge. (author)

  13. Photovoltaic's silica-rich waste sludge as supplementary cementitious material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quercia, G.; Van der Putten, J.J.G.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Waste sludge, a solid recovered from wastewater of photovoltaic-industries, composes of agglomerates of nano-particles like SiO2 and CaCO3. This sludge deflocculates in aqueous solutions into nano-particles smaller than 1000 nm. Thus, this sludge is potentially hazardous waste when is improperly

  14. Processed wastewater sludge for improvement of mechanical properties of concretes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera-Diaz, Carlos, E-mail: cbd0044@yahoo.com [Centro Conjunto de Investigacion en Quimica Sustentable, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico - Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UAEM-UNAM), Carretera Toluca-Atlacomulco, km 14.5, Unidad El Rosedal, C.P. 50200, Toluca, Edo. de Mexico (Mexico); Martinez-Barrera, Gonzalo [Laboratorio de Investigacion y Desarrollo de Materiales Avanzados (LIDMA), Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Carretera Toluca-Atlacomulco, Km.12, San Cayetano C.P. 50200, Toluca, Edo. de Mexico (Mexico); Gencel, Osman [Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Bartin University, 74100 Bartin (Turkey); Bernal-Martinez, Lina A. [Centro Conjunto de Investigacion en Quimica Sustentable, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico - Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UAEM-UNAM), Carretera Toluca-Atlacomulco, km 14.5, Unidad El Rosedal, C.P. 50200, Toluca, Edo. de Mexico (Mexico); Brostow, Witold [Laboratory of Advanced Polymers and Optimized Materials (LAPOM), Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Center for Advanced Research and Technology (CART), University of North Texas, 1150 Union Circle 305310, Denton, TX 76203-5017 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} Electrochemical methods produce less amount of residual sludge as compared with chemical procedures. {yields} Wastewater sludge contains a large amount of water. {yields} The residual sludge is used to prepare cylinder specimen concrete. {yields} There are improvements in the elastic modulus of the concrete when is prepared with residual sludge. - Abstract: Two problems are addressed simultaneously. One is the utilisation of sludge from the treatment of wastewater. The other is the modification of the mechanical properties of concrete. The sludge was subjected to two series of treatments. In one series, coagulants were used, including ferrous sulphate, aluminium sulphate or aluminium polyhydroxychloride. In the other series, an electrochemical treatment was applied with several starting values of pH. Then, concretes consisting of a cement matrix, silica sand, marble and one of the sludges were developed. Specimens without sludge were prepared for comparison. Curing times and aggregate concentrations were varied. The compressive strength, compressive strain at yield point, and static and dynamic elastic moduli were determined. Diagrams of the compressive strength and compressive strain at the yield point as a function of time passed through the minima as a function of time for concretes containing sludge; therefore, the presence of sludge has beneficial effects on the long term properties. Some morphological changes caused by the presence of sludge are seen in scanning electron microscopy. A way of utilising sludge is thus provided together with a way to improve the compressive strain at yield point of concrete.

  15. Examination of sludge from the Hanford K Basins fuel canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makenas, B.J.

    1998-01-01

    Samples of sludges with a high uranium content have been retrieved from the fuel canisters in the Hanford K West and K East basins. The composition of these samples contrasts markedly with the previously reported content of sludge samples taken from the K East basin floor. Chemical composition, chemical reactivity, and particle size of sludge are summarized in this paper

  16. Biological sulphate reduction with primary sewage sludge in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The success of the UASB reactor depends largely on the settling properties and stability of the sludge bed which comprises the anaerobic active biomass. The solid-liquid separation behaviour of the sludge bed in 2 UASB reactors (R1 at 35oC and R2 at 20oC) fed with primary sewage sludge and sulphate was investigated ...

  17. Modeling of Seepage Losses in Sewage Sludge Drying Bed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was carried out to develop a model governing seepage losses in sewage sludge drying bed. The model will assist in the design of sludge drying beds for effective management of wastes derived from households' septic systems. In the experiment conducted this study, 125kg of sewage sludge, 90.7% moisture ...

  18. Physical and biochemical changes in sludge upon Tubifex tubifex predation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Valk, S.L.; Khadem, A.F.; Foreman, Christine M.; van Lier, J.B.; de Kreuk, M.K.

    2016-01-01

    Worm predation (WP) on activated sludge leads to increased sludge degradation rates, irrespective of the type of worm used or reactor conditions employed. However, the cause of the increased sludge degradation rates remains unknown. This paper presents a comparative analysis of the physical and

  19. Technology for improving sludge concentration; Odei noshukusei kaizen gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-10

    Sludge generating in a sewage treatment plant is disposed through the processes such as concentration, dehydration, and incineration in sludge disposal facilities. In recent years, there has been a trend that this sludge increases in volume as well as worsens in the concentration. A case is predictable where the sludge load to the dehydrating process is so large that the sludge can no longer be processed in sufficient quantity. In the meantime, if sludge is ozone-treated, viscous substance on the surface of sludge particles can be separated with a comparatively small amount of ozone, with sludge concentration enhanced. At Meidensha, an experimental plant was set up for the ozone treatment of sludge in a sludge intensive treatment plant of a metropolis, with a verification experiment carried out for a sludge concentration improving system by ozone. As a result of comparison of the treatment performance between an assessment system for performing ozone treatment and a reference system for not performing, the average value of the sludge concentration of a gravity concentration tank was 1.9% of the reference system against 1.7% of the assessment system in a continuous treatment experiment in the summer, while the solid collection ratio was 65.8% of the reference system against 95.5% of the assessment system, enabling a superior improving effect to be obtained. (NEDO)

  20. A new reactor concept for sludge reduction using aquatic worms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elissen, H.J.H.; Hendrickx, T.L.G.; Temmink, B.G.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2006-01-01

    Biological waste water treatment results in the production of waste sludge. The final treatment option in The Netherlands for this waste sludge is usually incineration. A biological approach to reduce the amount of waste sludge is through predation by aquatic worms. In this paper we test the

  1. Submersible microbial fuel cell for electricity production from sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Olias, Lola Gonzalez; Kongjan, Prawit

    2010-01-01

    A submersible microbial fuel cell (SMFC) was utilized to treatment of sewage sludge and simultaneous generate electricity. Stable power generation (145±5 mW/m2) was produced continuously from raw sewage sludge for 5.5 days. The corresponding total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) removal efficiency...... of an effective system to treatment of sewage sludge and simultaneous recover energy....

  2. Rheology of Savannah River Site Tank 51 HLW radioactive sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, B.C.

    1993-01-01

    Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank 51 HLW radioactive sludge represents a major portion of the first batch of sludge to be vitrified in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at SRS. The rheological properties of Tank 51 sludge will determine if the waste sludge can be pumped by the current DWPF process cell pump design and the homogeneity of melter feed slurries. The rheological properties of Tank 51 sludge and sludge/frit slurries at various solids concentrations were measured remotely in the Shielded Cells Operations (SCO) at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) using a modified Haake Rotovisco viscometer system. Rheological properties of Tank 51 radioactive sludge/Frit 202 slurries increased drastically when the solids content was above 41 wt %. The yield stresses of Tank 51 sludge and sludge/frit slurries fall within the limits of the DWPF equipment design basis. The apparent viscosities also fall within the DWPF design basis for sludge consistency. All the results indicate that Tank 51 waste sludge and sludge/frit slurries are pumpable throughout the DWPF processes based on the current process cell pump design, and should produce homogeneous melter feed slurries

  3. The hydraulic transportation of thickened sludges | Slatter | Water SA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Industries which pump sludges are under continuous pressure to decrease water content, and increase concentration. Environmentally superior disposal techniques are demanding that such sludges have high mechanical strength properties. This results in a sludge with an increasing viscous character. At high ...

  4. Optimization of up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2013-06-05

    Jun 5, 2013 ... sludge instead of imported commercial anaerobic granulated sludge. Over the ... biogas, granulated anaerobic sludge, industrial wastewater. ... production of methane by methanogenic bacteria. Compared with other treatment processes, USAB ... effluent collector; 8, gas outlet; 9, gas collector; 10, side-arm ...

  5. Efficiency of a pilot-scale integrated sludge thickening and digestion reactor in treating low-organic excess sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiang; Li, Jiang; Liu, Hongxia; Tang, Chuandong; de Koning, Jaap; Spanjers, Henri

    2012-06-01

    The sludge production from medium- and small-scale wastewater treatment plants in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region is low and non-stable; especially, the organic content in this sludge is low (near 40% of VS/TS). An integrated thickening and digestion (ISTD) reactor was developed to treat this low-organic excess sludge. After a flow test and start-up experiment of the reactor, a running experiment was used to investigate the excess sludge treatment efficiency under five different excess sludge inflows: 200, 300, 400, 500 and 400 L/d (a mixture of excess sludge and primary sludge in a volume ratio of 9:1). This trial was carried out in the wastewater treatment plant in Chongqing, which covers 80% of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region, under the following conditions: (1) sludge was heated to 38-40 degrees C using an electrical heater to maintain anaerobic mesophilic digestion; (2) the biogas produced was recirculated to mix raw sludge with anaerobic sludge in the reactor under the flow rate of 12.5 L/min. There were three main results. Firstly, the flow pattern of the inner reactor was almost completely mixed under the air flow of 12.0 L/min using clear water. Secondly, under all the different sludge inflows, the water content in the outlet sludge was below 93%. Thirdly, the organic content in the outlet sludge was decreased from 37% to 30% and from 24% to 20%, whose removal ratio was in relation to the organic content of the inlet sludge. The excess sludge treatment capacity of the ISTD reactor was according to the organic content in the excess sludge.

  6. Perceived emotion genuineness: normative ratings for popular facial expression stimuli and the development of perceived-as-genuine and perceived-as-fake sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawel, Amy; Wright, Luke; Irons, Jessica; Dumbleton, Rachael; Palermo, Romina; O'Kearney, Richard; McKone, Elinor

    2017-08-01

    In everyday social interactions, people's facial expressions sometimes reflect genuine emotion (e.g., anger in response to a misbehaving child) and sometimes do not (e.g., smiling for a school photo). There is increasing theoretical interest in this distinction, but little is known about perceived emotion genuineness for existing facial expression databases. We present a new method for rating perceived genuineness using a neutral-midpoint scale (-7 = completely fake; 0 = don't know; +7 = completely genuine) that, unlike previous methods, provides data on both relative and absolute perceptions. Normative ratings from typically developing adults for five emotions (anger, disgust, fear, sadness, and happiness) provide three key contributions. First, the widely used Pictures of Facial Affect (PoFA; i.e., "the Ekman faces") and the Radboud Faces Database (RaFD) are typically perceived as not showing genuine emotion. Also, in the only published set for which the actual emotional states of the displayers are known (via self-report; the McLellan faces), percepts of emotion genuineness often do not match actual emotion genuineness. Second, we provide genuine/fake norms for 558 faces from several sources (PoFA, RaFD, KDEF, Gur, FacePlace, McLellan, News media), including a list of 143 stimuli that are event-elicited (rather than posed) and, congruently, perceived as reflecting genuine emotion. Third, using the norms we develop sets of perceived-as-genuine (from event-elicited sources) and perceived-as-fake (from posed sources) stimuli, matched on sex, viewpoint, eye-gaze direction, and rated intensity. We also outline the many types of research questions that these norms and stimulus sets could be used to answer.

  7. Electron beam treatment of wastewaters and sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborn, D.W.

    1980-01-01

    Various procedures for decreasing the health risks associated with the disposal of sewage sludges are discussed including land storage, thermophilic digestion, autothermal aerobic digestion, the Porteus Process, the Zimpro Process, incineration, pyrolysis, thermal pasteurisation, composting, lime utilisation, flash drying and radiation techniques. A fully automated sludge irradiation facility at Geiselbullach near Munich and an electron accelerator experimental plant near Boston are described. Advantages and disadvantages are given for both processes. Costs of electron radiation treatment of sewage sludges (a slurry containing 5 per cent solids) for a city the size of Johannesburg is estimated to be in the order of R900 000 per year at a dose rate of 4 000 Gy, which would produce a product of reasonable hygienic quality but not necessarily meet the criteria laid down by local authority medical officers at all times. In order to reduce costs it would be necessary to have a readily available market to dispose of disinfected material

  8. Electron beam treatment of wastewaters and sludges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborn, D W [City Health Dept., Johannesburg (South Africa)

    1980-12-01

    Various procedures for decreasing the health risks associated with the disposal of sewage sludges are discussed including land storage, thermophilic digestion, autothermal aerobic digestion, the Porteus Process, the Zimpro Process, incineration, pyrolysis, thermal pasteurisation, composting, lime utilisation, flash drying and radiation techniques. A fully automated sludge irradiation facility at Geiselbullach near Munich and an electron accelerator experimental plant near Boston are described. Advantages and disadvantages are given for both processes. Costs of electron radiation treatment of sewage sludges (a slurry containing 5 per cent solids) for a city the size of Johannesburg is estimated to be in the order of R900,000 per year at a dose rate of 4,000 Gy, which would produce a product of reasonable hygienic quality but not necessarily meet the criteria laid down by local authority medical officers at all times. In order to reduce costs it would be necessary to have a readily available market to dispose of disinfected material.

  9. Utilization of irradiated sludge for fish feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harsojo; Syamsu, Suwirma; Subagyo, Lydia Andini

    1994-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the use of irradiated sludge pellet for fish feed, namely pellet A consisting of irradiated sludge and shrimp waste (1:3); pellet B consisting of irradiated sludge and commercial pellet (1:2). Pellet C, which is a commercial fish feed, was used as control. Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) was used in this experiment. The feed pellet with a dose of 5% of total body weight was given 3 times per day. The results of the experiments showed that based on food conversion for the relative growth of the catfishes, and heavy metal content, pellet A was the best. No contamination of Salmonella or Shigella bacteria was detected in each pellet. (author). 8 refs, 3 tabs, 1 fig

  10. Determining organic pollutants in automotive industry sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munaretto, Juliana S; Wonghon, Audrey L; von Mühlen, Carin

    2012-12-01

    In Brazil, the policy for disposing industrial sludge is changing from an emphasis on using controlled landfills to other treatment or co-processing methods; however, the monitoring of organic pollutants is not mandatory. The present study evaluated two general screening methods for organic pollutants in sludge generated in an automotive industrial complex in southern Brazil. The screening was performed using Soxhlet and sonication extractions and Gas Chromatograph coupled with Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry (GC/qMS). It was concluded that both techniques were effective and that most of the compounds identified were alkanes, phenols and esters. Important pollutants were detected in the sludge, which confirms the necessity of monitoring this type of residue.

  11. Tank 5 Model for Sludge Removal Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LEE, SI

    2004-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics methods have been used to develop and provide slurry pump operational guidance for sludge heel removal in Tank 5. Flow patterns calculated by the model were used to evaluate the performance of various combinations of operating pumps and their orientation under steady-state indexed and transient oscillation modes. A model used for previous analyses has been updated to add the valve housing distribution piping and pipe clusters of the cooling coil supply system near pump no. 8 to the previous tank Type-I model. In addition, the updated model included twelve concrete support columns. This model would provide a more accurate assessment of sludge removal capabilities. The model focused on removal of the sludge heel located near the wall of Tank 5 using the two new slurry pumps. The models and calculations were based on prototypic tank geometry and expected normal operating conditions as defined by Tank Closure Project Engineering. Computational fluid dynamics models of Tank 5 with different operating conditions were developed using the FLUENT (trademark) code. The modeling results were used to assess the efficiency of sludge suspension and removal operations in the 75-ft tank. The models employed a three-dimensional approach, a two-equation turbulence model, and an approximate representation of flow obstructions. The calculated local velocity was used as a measure of sludge removal and mixing capability. For the simulations, modeling calculations were performed with indexed pump orientations until an optimum flow pattern near the potential location of the sludge heel was established for sludge removal. The calculated results demonstrated that the existing slurry pumps running at 3801 gpm flowrate per nozzle could remove the sludge from the tank with a 101 in liquid level, based on a historical minimum sludge suspension velocity of 2.27 ft/sec. The only exception is the region within maximum 4.5 ft distance from the tank wall boundary at the

  12. Thermal drying of sewage plant sludge and its disposal; El secado termico de fangos de EDAR y su disposicion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elias, X.

    2002-07-01

    Thermal drying is one more link in the sludge treatment chain. The thickeners transfer the wastes water contaminant to the primary sludge, which contains around 5% of dry matter (DM). Mechanical dehydration brings the proportion of DM up to between 20% and 40%. Thermal drying raises the proportion of DM to between 85% and 95%. These are the solutions that have been adopted in most of the European Union. The next step consists in eliminating the organic fraction, which makes up from 40% to 60% of the DM, from the sludge. This can be done by pyrolysis-gasification or incineration. Although incineration provides the energy needed to dry the sludge and also complies with the Directive that limits the disposal of fermentable matter on dumps, it inevitably leaves behind the inorganic waste presents in the sludge. Vitrification is a simple, complementary technology for making the inorganic fraction inert while allowing it to be valorized. It thus closes the cycle and achieves zero dumping. (Author) 28 refs.

  13. Development of a test method to access the sludge reduction potential of aquatic organisms in activated sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, B.R.; Klapwijk, A.; Elissen, H.J.H.; Rulkens, W.H.

    2008-01-01

    This article shows the development of a quantitative sludge reduction test method, which uses the sludge consuming aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus (Oligochaeta, Lumbriculidae). Essential for the test are sufficient oxygen supply and the presence of a non-stirred layer of sludge for burrowing of

  14. The chemical and mechanical differences between alginate-like exopolysaccharides isolated from aerobic flocculent sludge and aerobic granular sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Y. M.; Sharma, P. K.; van Loosdrecht, M. C. M.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate differences in the gel matrix of aerobic granular sludge and normal aerobic flocculent sludge. From both types of sludge that fed with the same municipal sewage, the functional gel-forming exopolysaccharides, alginate-like exopolysaccharides, were isolated. These two

  15. Improved surfactants formulation for remediation of oil sludge recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed Hakimi Sakuma Syed Ahmad; Shahidan Radiman

    2000-01-01

    Surfactant enhanced remediation based on mobilisation of the residual NAPLs (oil sludge) which is radioactive depends on the tendency of the surfactants to lower interfacial tension. Mobilisation has greater potential than solubilisation to increase the rate of remediation. Optimised surfactants formulation was determined with concentration of Aqua 2000 and D Bond of 1% wt respectively, sodium chloride concentration of 2 gmL -1 and addition of 3% wt butanol as cosolvent. The formulation was of benefit not only able to decrease further the interfacial tension of aqueous solution containing oil emulsion, but also to make possible to be more mobile and destruction of mixed liquid crystals that formed. Formation of liquid crystals can hinders significantly recovery efficiency of aqueous solution containing oil emulsion in field remediation work. In a 100 litres soil column experiment conducted containing oil emulsion in field sludge soil and using the surfactants formulation for flushing, miniemulsion formed sizes maintained at average size between 125 nm and 280 nm before and after remediation. Total oil and grease concentration removed from the soil were significant due to the decreased in oil emulsion sizes, increase mobility and solubility. (Author)

  16. Los Alamos National Laboratory simulated sludge vitrification demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicero, C.A.; Bickford, D.F.; Bennert, D.M.; Overcamp, T.J.

    1994-01-01

    Technologies are being developed to convert hazardous and mixed wastes to a form suitable for permanent disposal. Vitrification, which has been declared the Best Demonstrated Available Technology (BDAT) for high-level radioactive waste disposal by the EPA, is capable of producing a highly durable wasteform that minimizes disposal volumes through organic destruction, moisture evaporation, and porosity reduction. However, this technology must be demonstrated over a range of waste characteristics, including compositions, chemistries, moistures, and physical characteristics to ensure that it is suitable for hazardous and mixed waste treatment. This project plans to demonstrate vitrification of simulated wastes that are considered representatives of wastes found throughout the DOE complex. For the most part, the primary constituent of the wastes is flocculation aids, such as Fe(OH) 3 , and natural filter aids, such as diatomaceous earth and perlite. The filter aids consist mostly of silica, which serves as an excellent glass former; hence, the reason why vitrification is such a viable option. LANL is currently operating a liquid waste processing plant which produces an inorganic sludge similar to other waste water treatment streams. Since this waste has characteristics that make it suitable for vitrification and the likelihood of success is high, it shall be tested at CU. The objective of this task is to characterize the process behavior and glass product formed upon vitrification of simulated LANL sludge. The off-gases generated from the production runs will also be characterized to help further develop vitrification processes for mixed and low level wastes

  17. Design characteristics of the Sludge Mobilization System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMahon, C.L.

    1990-01-01

    Radioactive waste stored in underground tanks at the West Valley Demonstration Project is being processed into low-level waste and solidified in cement. High-level waste also stored underground will be vitrified and solidified into canistered glass logs. To move the waste from where it resides at the Waste Tank Farm to the Vitrification Facility requires equipment to prepare the storage tanks for low-level and high-level waste processing, equipment to mobilize and mix the radioactive sludge into a homogeneous slurry, and equipment to transfer the slurry for vitrification. The design of the Sludge Mobilization System has incorporated the necessary components to effect the preparation and transfer of waste in five operational phases. The first phase of the Sludge Mobilization System, which began in 1987, prepared the waste tanks to process radioactive liquid for delivery to the Cement Solidification System and to support the mobilization equipment. The second phase, beginning in 1991, will wash the sludge that remains after the liquid supernatant is decanted to prepare it for mobilization operations. The third phase will combine the contents of various waste tanks into one tank. The fourth phase will resuspend and mix the contents of the high-level waste tank. The fifth and final phase of the Sludge Mobilization System will entail transferring the waste mixture to the Vitrification Facility for processing into glass logs. Provisions for recycling the waste streams or slurries within the tank farm or for returning process streams to the Waste Tank Farm from the Vitrification Facility are also included in the final phase. This document addresses the Sludge Mobilization System equipment design characteristics in terms of its use in each of the five operational phases listed above

  18. Kinetic model of excess activated sludge thermohydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbierowicz, Mirosław; Chacuk, Andrzej

    2012-11-01

    Thermal hydrolysis of excess activated sludge suspensions was carried at temperatures ranging from 423 K to 523 K and under pressure 0.2-4.0 MPa. Changes of total organic carbon (TOC) concentration in a solid and liquid phase were measured during these studies. At the temperature 423 K, after 2 h of the process, TOC concentration in the reaction mixture decreased by 15-18% of the initial value. At 473 K total organic carbon removal from activated sludge suspension increased to 30%. It was also found that the solubilisation of particulate organic matter strongly depended on the process temperature. At 423 K the transfer of TOC from solid particles into liquid phase after 1 h of the process reached 25% of the initial value, however, at the temperature of 523 K the conversion degree of 'solid' TOC attained 50% just after 15 min of the process. In the article a lumped kinetic model of the process of activated sludge thermohydrolysis has been proposed. It was assumed that during heating of the activated sludge suspension to a temperature in the range of 423-523 K two parallel reactions occurred. One, connected with thermal destruction of activated sludge particles, caused solubilisation of organic carbon and an increase of dissolved organic carbon concentration in the liquid phase (hydrolysate). The parallel reaction led to a new kind of unsolvable solid phase, which was further decomposed into gaseous products (CO(2)). The collected experimental data were used to identify unknown parameters of the model, i.e. activation energies and pre-exponential factors of elementary reactions. The mathematical model of activated sludge thermohydrolysis appropriately describes the kinetics of reactions occurring in the studied system. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Energy potential of the modified excess sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zawieja Iwona

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the SCOD value of excess sludge it is possible to estimate an amount of energy potentially obtained during the methane fermentation process. Based on a literature review, it has been estimated that from 1 kg of SCOD it is possible to obtain 3.48 kWh of energy. Taking into account the above methane and energy ratio (i.e. 10 kWh/1Nm3 CH4, it is possible to determine the volume of methane obtained from the tested sludge. Determination of potential energy of sludge is necessary for the use of biogas as a source of power generators as cogeneration and ensure the stability of this type of system. Therefore, the aim of the study was to determine the energy potential of excess sludge subjected to the thermal and chemical disintegration. In the case of thermal disintegration, test was conducted in the low temperature 80°C. The reagent used for the chemical modification was a peracetic acid, which in an aqueous medium having strong oxidizing properties. The time of chemical modification was 6 hours. Applied dose of the reagent was 1.0 ml CH3COOOH/L of sludge. By subjecting the sludge disintegration by the test methods achieved an increase in the SCOD value of modified sludge, indicating the improvement of biodegradability along with a concomitant increase in their energy potential. The obtained experimental production of biogas from disintegrated sludge confirmed that it is possible to estimate potential intensity of its production. The SCOD value of 2576 mg O2/L, in the case of chemical disintegration, was obtained for a dose of 1.0 ml CH3COOH/L. For this dose the pH value was equal 6.85. In the case of thermal disintegration maximum SCOD value was 2246 mg O2/L obtained at 80°C and the time of preparation 6 h. It was estimated that in case of thermal disintegration as well as for the chemical disintegration for selected parameters, the potential energy for model digester of active volume of 5L was, respectively, 0.193 and 0,118 kWh.

  20. Energy potential of the modified excess sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawieja, Iwona

    2017-11-01

    On the basis of the SCOD value of excess sludge it is possible to estimate an amount of energy potentially obtained during the methane fermentation process. Based on a literature review, it has been estimated that from 1 kg of SCOD it is possible to obtain 3.48 kWh of energy. Taking into account the above methane and energy ratio (i.e. 10 kWh/1Nm3 CH4), it is possible to determine the volume of methane obtained from the tested sludge. Determination of potential energy of sludge is necessary for the use of biogas as a source of power generators as cogeneration and ensure the stability of this type of system. Therefore, the aim of the study was to determine the energy potential of excess sludge subjected to the thermal and chemical disintegration. In the case of thermal disintegration, test was conducted in the low temperature 80°C. The reagent used for the chemical modification was a peracetic acid, which in an aqueous medium having strong oxidizing properties. The time of chemical modification was 6 hours. Applied dose of the reagent was 1.0 ml CH3COOOH/L of sludge. By subjecting the sludge disintegration by the test methods achieved an increase in the SCOD value of modified sludge, indicating the improvement of biodegradability along with a concomitant increase in their energy potential. The obtained experimental production of biogas from disintegrated sludge confirmed that it is possible to estimate potential intensity of its production. The SCOD value of 2576 mg O2/L, in the case of chemical disintegration, was obtained for a dose of 1.0 ml CH3COOH/L. For this dose the pH value was equal 6.85. In the case of thermal disintegration maximum SCOD value was 2246 mg O2/L obtained at 80°C and the time of preparation 6 h. It was estimated that in case of thermal disintegration as well as for the chemical disintegration for selected parameters, the potential energy for model digester of active volume of 5L was, respectively, 0.193 and 0,118 kWh.

  1. Overview of present and future sludge regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonetti, R.

    1980-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency is mandated by several acts of Congress to develop sludge management regulations. These include the Resource Recovery and Conservation Act, Clean Water Act, Marine Resources and Sanctuaries Act, Clean Air Act, and Toxic Substances Control Act. Congress had two main goals: the protection of the public health and the promotion of the use of sludge as a natural resource. This presentation will review the development of present and anticipated regulation as they seek to support achievement of these goals

  2. Potential priority pollutants in sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Christensen, Nina; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2008-01-01

    compounds using their inherent properties and environmental fate it was shown that 99 XOCs could be classified as being hazardous with regard to the solid phase and 23 were found to be priority pollutants in the subsequent hazard assessment. The final selected priority pollutants can act as indicators when...... assessing sludge quality. They were compared with European legislations and discussed in regard for pointing out the need for mitigation such as substitution. Furthermore, the potential need for implementation of sludge treatment trains in order to meet the society's needs was addressed....

  3. PENERAPAN ELEKTROOSMOSIS UNTUK PENGERINGAN SLUDGE DARI PENGOLAHAN LIMBAH CAIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darmawan Darmawan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available APPLICATION OF ELECTROOSMOSIS FOR DEWATERING OF SLUDGE FROM WASTE WATER TREATMENT. Wastewater treatment produces semi-solid residue (sludge that must be handled carefully during dumping and discharge to avoid polluting the environment. A low cost and easy treatment of dewatering is needed. This research aimed to apply electroosmosis technique for dewatering sludge in order to seek for parameters that can efficiently reduce water content of sludge, including range of voltage, type of electrodes, and distance between electrodes; and to determine the effect of electroosmosis processes on changes of chemical characteristics of sludge. The results showed that: (1 electroosmosis dewatering occurred on the sludge taken from waste water treatment of landfill but not on sludge from water purification plant (PDAM, (2 direct current voltage of 30 volts was the optimum voltage, (3 copper rod cathode provided electroosmosis process as good as stainless steel cathode and both were better than the woven stainless steel cathode, (4 the dewatering time to reduce 1200% (w/w water content to about 400% was about 40 hours for sludge of 2500 cm3 in volume (laboratory bench scale, (5 the anode need to reinserted gradually approaching the cathode due to current lost when the water content at the anode point reached 400% and sludge at the point shrink, and (6 some chemical elements in the sludge decreased significantly after treatment. Pengolahan limbah cair menghasilkan residu berupa bahan semi padat yang dikenal sebagai sludge. Sludge tersebut juga perlu dikelola penyimpanan dan pembuangannya agar tidak mencemari lingkungan. Salah satu pengelolaan sludge yang perlu dilakukan adalah pengeringan (dewatering. Salahsatu teknik dewatering yang mungkin diterapkan ialah teknik elektroosmosis, yaitu teknik yang memanfaatkan adanya pergerakan air pada media poros di dalam medan istrik searah. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mencari parameter sistem dewatering secara

  4. Irradiation treatment of sewage sludge: History and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Borong; Wu Minghong; Zhou Ruimin; Zhu Jinliang

    1998-01-01

    This paper first reviews the history of irradiation treatment of sewage sludge in the world. The first sludge irradiation plant was built in Geiselbullach, West Germany in 1973 and used 60 Co as irradiation source. Since then, many sludge irradiators were constructed in U.S.A., India, Japan, Canada, Poland, etc., which used 60 Co, 137 Cs or electron beam as irradiation sources. The paper then describes some basic research on irradiation treatment of sewage sludge including optimization of irradiation parameters, synergistic effect of radiation with heat, oxygenation, irradiation-composting and potential applications of treated sludge. Some proposals have been suggested for further development of this technology in the future

  5. Revegetation of mined land using waste water sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopper, W E; Kerr, N

    1980-01-01

    The benefits of using sludge to reclaim land that has been used for strip mining is explained. Pennsylvania State University developed demonstration plots and used various types of sludges to illustrate this. One application of sludge is sufficient to supply plant nutrients for 3-5 years. After sludge application and incorporation, the site was broadcast seeded with grasses and legumes. Other trials and their results are noted. All show no detrimental effects on vegetation, the soil or groundwater quality due to sludge application.

  6. On the influence of sewage sludge irradiation by gamma radiation on the sludge properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegemann, W.

    1976-01-01

    The gamma irradiation is a technically usable method to disinfect sewage sludge. Furthermore, the slurry properties are also improved. After 24 hours' thickening time, a significantly smaller volume of concentrated thick slurry could be removed compared to untreated sludge. On the other hand, a dilution occurs with pasteurization if the heat is introduced by steam, and the initial concentration could not be achieved again even after thickening for 24 hours. The drainability of the treated sludge was also improved by irradiation, expressed by a reduction of the specific filter resistance. The costs are essentially determined by the radiation sources used. If it is technically possible to process reactor wastes in such a manner that they can be used in slurry radiation plants, costs of 3.50-4.00 DM/m 3 treated sludge seem possible. (orig.) [de

  7. Settling properties of aerobic granular sludge (AGS) and aerobic granular sludge molasses (AGSM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat Saad, Azlina; Aini Dahalan, Farrah; Ibrahim, Naimah; Yasina Yusuf, Sara; Aqlima Ahmad, Siti; Khalil, Khalilah Abdul

    2018-03-01

    Aerobic granulation technology is applied to treat domestic and industrial wastewater. The Aerobic granular sludge (AGS) cultivated has strong properties that appears to be denser and compact in physiological structure compared to the conventional activated sludge. It offers rapid settling for solid:liquid separation in wastewater treatment. Aerobic granules were developed using sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with intermittent aerobic - anaerobic mode with 8 cycles in 24 hr. This study examined the settling velocity performance of cultivated aerobic granular sludge (AGS) and aerobic granular sludge molasses (AGSM). The elemental composition in both AGS and AGSM were determined using X-ray fluorescence (XRF). The results showed that AGSM has higher settling velocity 30.5 m/h compared to AGS.

  8. Electroosmotic dewatering of chalk sludge, iron hydroxide sludge, wet fly ash and biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, H.K.; Kristensen, I.V.; Ottosen, L.M.; Villumsen, A. [Dept. of Geology and Geotechnical Engineering, The Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark)

    2001-07-01

    Electroosmotic dewatering has been tested in laboratory cells for 4 different porous materials: chalk sludge, iron hydroxide sludge, wet fly ash and biomass sludge from enzyme production. In all cases it was possible to remove water when passing electric DC current through the material. Casagrande's coefficients for the three materials where determined at different water contents. In the electroosmotic experiments shown in this work chalk can be dewatered from 40% to 79% DM (dry matter), fly ash from 75 to 82% DM, iron hydroxide sludge from 2.7 to 19% DM and biomass from 3 to 33% DM. The process was not optimised indicating that higher dry matter contents could be achieved. (orig.)

  9. CHARACTERIZATION OF ACTINIDES IN SIMULATED ALKALINE TANK WASTE SLUDGES AND LEACHATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, Kenneth L.

    2008-11-20

    In this project, both the fundamental chemistry of actinides in alkaline solutions (relevant to those present in Hanford-style waste storage tanks), and their dissolution from sludge simulants (and interactions with supernatants) have been investigated under representative sludge leaching procedures. The leaching protocols were designed to go beyond conventional alkaline sludge leaching limits, including the application of acidic leachants, oxidants and complexing agents. The simulant leaching studies confirm in most cases the basic premise that actinides will remain in the sludge during leaching with 2-3 M NaOH caustic leach solutions. However, they also confirm significant chances for increased mobility of actinides under oxidative leaching conditions. Thermodynamic data generated improves the general level of experiemental information available to predict actinide speciation in leach solutions. Additional information indicates that improved Al removal can be achieved with even dilute acid leaching and that acidic Al(NO3)3 solutions can be decontaminated of co-mobilized actinides using conventional separations methods. Both complexing agents and acidic leaching solutions have significant potential to improve the effectiveness of conventional alkaline leaching protocols. The prime objective of this program was to provide adequate insight into actinide behavior under these conditions to enable prudent decision making as tank waste treatment protocols develop.

  10. Monitoring of toxic elements present in sludge of industrial waste using CF-LIBS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rohit; Rai, Awadhesh K; Alamelu, Devanathan; Aggarwal, Suresh K

    2013-01-01

    Industrial waste is one of the main causes of environmental pollution. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was applied to detect the toxic metals in the sludge of industrial waste water. Sludge on filter paper was obtained after filtering the collected waste water samples from different sections of a water treatment plant situated in an industrial area of Kanpur City. The LIBS spectra of the sludge samples were recorded in the spectral range of 200 to 500 nm by focusing the laser light on sludge. Calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (CF-LIBS) technique was used for the quantitative measurement of toxic elements such as Cr and Pb present in the sample. We also used the traditional calibration curve approach to quantify these elements. The results obtained from CF-LIBS are in good agreement with the results from the calibration curve approach. Thus, our results demonstrate that CF-LIBS is an appropriate technique for quantitative analysis where reference/standard samples are not available to make the calibration curve. The results of the present experiment are alarming to the people living nearby areas of industrial activities, as the concentrations of toxic elements are quite high compared to the admissible limits of these substances.

  11. Characterization Of Actinides In Simulated Alkaline Tank Waste Sludges And Leachates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, Kenneth L.

    2008-01-01

    In this project, both the fundamental chemistry of actinides in alkaline solutions (relevant to those present in Hanford-style waste storage tanks), and their dissolution from sludge simulants (and interactions with supernatants) have been investigated under representative sludge leaching procedures. The leaching protocols were designed to go beyond conventional alkaline sludge leaching limits, including the application of acidic leachants, oxidants and complexing agents. The simulant leaching studies confirm in most cases the basic premise that actinides will remain in the sludge during leaching with 2-3 M NaOH caustic leach solutions. However, they also confirm significant chances for increased mobility of actinides under oxidative leaching conditions. Thermodynamic data generated improves the general level of experiemental information available to predict actinide speciation in leach solutions. Additional information indicates that improved Al removal can be achieved with even dilute acid leaching and that acidic Al(NO3)3 solutions can be decontaminated of co-mobilized actinides using conventional separations methods. Both complexing agents and acidic leaching solutions have significant potential to improve the effectiveness of conventional alkaline leaching protocols. The prime objective of this program was to provide adequate insight into actinide behavior under these conditions to enable prudent decision making as tank waste treatment protocols develop.

  12. Selective Leaching of Chromium from Hanford Tank Sludge 241-U-108

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapko, Brian M.; Vienna, John D.

    2002-01-01

    This study evaluated the oxidants permanganate, MnO4-, and peroxynitrite, ONOO-, as selective chromium-leaching agents from washed 241-U-108 tank sludge under varying conditions of hydroxide concentration, temperature, and time. The mass changes and final sludge compositions were evaluated using glass-property models to ascertain the relative impacts of the various oxidative alkaline leach conditions on the amount of borosilicate glass required to immobilize a given amount of washed 241-U-108 Hanford tank sludge. Only permanganate leaching removes sufficient chromium to make the chromium concentration in the oxidatively alkaline leached solids non-limiting. In the absence of added oxidants, continued washing or caustic leaching have no beneficial effects. Peroxynitrite addition reduces the amount of glass required to immobilize a given amount of washed 241-U-108 tank sludge by approximately a factor of two. Depending on the leach conditions and the exact chromium concentration limits, contact with alkaline permanganate solutions reduces the amount of immobilized high-level waste glass by a factor of 10 to 30

  13. Implementation of co-digestion and sludge management systems in Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Berardino, Santino [INETI/DER, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2006-07-01

    A solution based on sludge and Olive oil mill effluent (OME) co-digestion, coupled with a management plan, has been implemented, to treat and dispose safely, the mixed residues, into the natural forest and agricultural land. The mixture of up to 25% OME to the sludge improved anaerobic degradation of phenols and fats. High density fat compounds, present in OME, enhanced aggregation, settling and acetoclastic activity of anaerobic sludge. The full scale unit, obtained by modification of a cold digester, allowed to set-up a low capital cost system. The system produced large quantity of biogas and electric energy. Anaerobic degradation of the mixture improved fertilizing properties, making feasible land application of the digested mixture. Regional plan based in Geographical Information System (GIS) selected 800 ha of adequate land area for application near the WWTP. The experience is technically and economically successful. Main incomes are provided by energy use and OME charge. Sludge application in local agriculture does not generate any income, but eliminated landfill costs and reduced transportation costs.

  14. Removal of Sulfur Dioxide from Flue Gas Using the Sludge Sodium Humate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study shows the ability of sodium humate from alkaline treatment sludge on removing sulfur dioxide (SO2 in the simulated flue gas. Experiments were conducted to examine the effect of various operating parameters, like the inlet SO2 concentration or temperature or O2, on the SO2 absorption efficiency and desulfurization time in a lab-scale bubbling reactor. The sludge sodium humate in the supernatant after alkaline sludge treatment shows great performance in SO2 absorption, and such efficiency can be maintained above 98% with 100 mL of this absorption solution at 298 K (flue gas rate of 0.12 m3/h. The highest SO2 absorption by 1.63 g SHA-Na is 0.946 mmol in the process, which is translated to 0.037 g SO2 g−1 SHA-Na. The experimental results indicate that the inlet SO2 concentration slightly influences the SO2 absorption efficiency and significantly influences the desulfurization time. The pH of the absorption solution should be above 3.5 in this process in order to make an effective desulfurization. The products of this process were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. It can be seen that the desulfurization products mainly contain sludge humic acid sediment, which can be used as fertilizer components.

  15. Selective Leaching of Chromium from Hanford Tank Sludge 241-U-108

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapko, Brian M.; Vienna, John D.

    2002-09-09

    This study evaluated the oxidants permanganate, MnO4-, and peroxynitrite, ONOO-, as selective chromium-leaching agents from washed 241-U-108 tank sludge under varying conditions of hydroxide concentration, temperature, and time. The mass changes and final sludge compositions were evaluated using glass-property models to ascertain the relative impacts of the various oxidative alkaline leach conditions on the amount of borosilicate glass required to immobilize a given amount of washed 241-U-108 Hanford tank sludge. Only permanganate leaching removes sufficient chromium to make the chromium concentration in the oxidatively alkaline leached solids non-limiting. In the absence of added oxidants, continued washing or caustic leaching have no beneficial effects. Peroxynitrite addition reduces the amount of glass required to immobilize a given amount of washed 241-U-108 tank sludge by approximately a factor of two. Depending on the leach conditions and the exact chromium concentration limits, contact with alkaline permanganate solutions reduces the amount of immobilized high-level waste glass by a factor of 10 to 30.

  16. Placement of radium/barium sludges in tailings areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, K.L.; Multamaki, G.E.

    1980-01-01

    Currently radium is removed from uranium mining and milling effluents by the addition of barium chloride to precipitate the radium as radium/barium sulphate. The precipitate is allowed to settle in sedimentation basins prior to discharge of the effluent. The sedimentation basins are not suitable for final disposal of the sludge, and placement of the sludges in the tailings area has been proposed. The geochemical environment of fresh tailings areas was characterized as an acidic, oxidized surface zone underlain by an alkaline, reduced zone comprising the rest of the tailings. The quantity of sludge produced was estimated to be small relative to the quantity of tailings, and therefor a relatively small amount of radium would be added to the tailings disposal area by the addition of sludge. To confirm whether sludge addition affected radionuclide solubilization, laboratory leaching tests were conducted on slurries of acid leach tailings, and sludge-tailings mixtures. Radium in the (Ra,Ba)SO 4 sludge was at least as stable as radium in the tailings, and the sludge was able to absorb radium released from the tailings. The addition of sludge did not affect uranium and thorium solubilization. From these results it appears that the placement of sludge in tailings areas would not adversely affect the stability of radionuclides in the tailings or sludge. (auth)

  17. Sludge quantification at water treatment plant and its management scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Tarique; Ahmad, Kafeel; Alam, Mehtab

    2017-08-15

    Large volume of sludge is generated at the water treatment plants during the purification of surface water for potable supplies. Handling and disposal of sludge require careful attention from civic bodies, plant operators, and environmentalists. Quantification of the sludge produced at the treatment plants is important to develop suitable management strategies for its economical and environment friendly disposal. Present study deals with the quantification of sludge using empirical relation between turbidity, suspended solids, and coagulant dosing. Seasonal variation has significant effect on the raw water quality received at the water treatment plants so forth sludge generation also varies. Yearly production of the sludge in a water treatment plant at Ghaziabad, India, is estimated to be 29,700 ton. Sustainable disposal of such a quantity of sludge is a challenging task under stringent environmental legislation. Several beneficial reuses of sludge in civil engineering and constructional work have been identified globally such as raw material in manufacturing cement, bricks, and artificial aggregates, as cementitious material, and sand substitute in preparing concrete and mortar. About 54 to 60% sand, 24 to 28% silt, and 16% clay constitute the sludge generated at the water treatment plant under investigation. Characteristics of the sludge are found suitable for its potential utilization as locally available construction material for safe disposal. An overview of the sustainable management scenario involving beneficial reuses of the sludge has also been presented.

  18. Biohydrogen production using waste activated sludge disintegrated by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Yanan; Wang, Jianlong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The waste activated sludge could be disintegrated by gamma irradiation. • The disintegrated sludge could be used for biohydrogen production. • Combined alkali-irradiation treatment achieved the highest solubilization of sludge. - Abstract: The biohydrogen production using the disintegrated and dissolved sludge by gamma irradiation was studied. The experimental results showed that gamma irradiation and irradiation combined with alkali pretreatment could disintegrate and dissolve waste activated sludge for biohydrogen production. The alkali-irradiation treatment of the sludge at pH = 12 and 20 kGy achieved the highest disintegration and dissolution, i.e., it could destroy the cell walls and release organic matters (such as soluble COD, polysaccharides and protein) into the solution. The disintegrated sludge could be used as a low-cost substrate for biohydrogen production

  19. Gravity Drainage of Activated Sludge on Reed Beds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard; Dominiak, Dominik Marek; Keiding, Kristian

    and operation of reed beds and the efficiencies are often lower than predicted. One reason is that the sludge quality varies from plant to plant and even within plants from time to time. No good method exists for measuring the sludge quality with respect to drainage characteristics. A new experimental method...... has therefore been developed to measure relevant quality parameters: specific cake resistance, settling velocity and cake compressibility. It has been found that activated sludge form highly compressible cake even at the low compressive pressures obtained during drainage. Numerical simulation shows......Activated sludge is a by-product from waste water treatment plants, and the water content in the sludge is high (> 90%). Among several methods to remove the water, sludge drying reed beds are often used to dewater the sludge by drainage. There is, however, no well-defined criterion for design...

  20. Recent developments in Sandia Laboratories' sewage sludge irradiation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivinski, H.D.; Brandon, J.R.; Morris, M.E.; Neuhauser, K.S.; Ward, R.L.; McCaslin, B.; Smith, G.S.

    1977-01-01

    Pathogen reduction studies show that gamma irradiation is effective in inactivating pathogenic bacteria, parasite ova, and viruses in liquid sludges. Ammonia is shown to be virucidal to poliovirus and several other enteric viruses. Sludge processing costs are relatively economical for composted or dried sludges, but only marginally competitive with costs of heat treatment for liquid sludges. Physical and chemical studies show that effects of irradiation of sludges on dewatering properties are insignificant when compared to the effects of polymer addition. Dried, irradiated undigested sludge has significant nutritional value as a feed supplement for sheep and cattle and in agronomic uses such as greenhouses and field plots. No significant harmful effects have been demonstrated in the feeding program. Product enhancement studies are under way, including schemes for removing nitrogen from wastewaters and adding it to sludges in the form of ammonium salts

  1. The exploitation of swamp plants for dewatering liquid sewage sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Šálek

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The operators of little rural wastewater treatment plants have been interested in economic exploitation of sewage sludge in local conditions. The chance is searching simply and natural ways of processing and exploitation stabilized sewage sludge in agriculture. Manure substrate have been obtained by composting waterless sewage sludge including rest plant biomass after closing 6–8 years period of filling liquid sewage sludge to the basin. Main attention was focused on exploitation of swamp plants for dewatering liquid sewage sludge and determination of influence sewage sludge on plants, intensity and course of evapotranspiration and design and setting of drying beds. On the base of determined ability of swamp plants evapotranspiration were edited suggestion solutions of design and operation sludge bed facilities in the conditions of small rural wastewater treatment plant.

  2. Hydrothermal Testing of K Basin Sludge and N Reactor Fuel at Sludge Treatment Project Operating Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Thornton, Brenda M.

    2007-03-30

    The Sludge Treatment Project (STP), managed for the U. S. DOE by Fluor Hanford (FH), was created to design and operate a process to eliminate uranium metal from K Basin sludge prior to packaging for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The STP process uses high temperature liquid water to accelerate the reaction, produce uranium dioxide from the uranium metal, and safely discharge the hydrogen. Under nominal process conditions, the sludge will be heated in pressurized water at 185°C for as long as 72 hours to assure the complete reaction (corrosion) of up to 0.25-inch diameter uranium metal pieces. Under contract to FH, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted bench-scale testing of the STP hydrothermal process in November and December 2006. Five tests (~50 ml each) were conducted in sealed, un-agitated reaction vessels under the hydrothermal conditions (e.g., 7 to 72 h at 185°C) of the STP corrosion process using radioactive sludge samples collected from the K East Basin and particles/coupons of N Reactor fuel also taken from the K Basins. The tests were designed to evaluate and understand the chemical changes that may be occurring and the effects that any changes would have on sludge rheological properties. The tests were not designed to evaluate engineering aspects of the process. The hydrothermal treatment affected the chemical and physical properties of the sludge. In each test, significant uranium compound phase changes were identified, resulting from dehydration and chemical reduction reactions. Physical properties of the sludge were significantly altered from their initial, as-settled sludge values, including, shear strength, settled density, weight percent water, and gas retention.

  3. Bench-scale enhanced sludge washing and gravity settling of Hanford Tank C-106 Sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, K.P.; Myers, R.L.; Rappe, K.G.

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of a bench-scale sludge pretreatment demonstration of the Hanford baseline flowsheet using liter-quantities of sludge from Hanford Site single-shell tank 241-C-106 (tank C-106). The leached and washed sludge from these tests provided Envelope D material for the contractors supporting Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Privatization. Pretreatment of the sludge included enhanced sludge washing and gravity settling tests and providing scale-up data for both these unit operations. Initial and final solids as well as decanted supernatants from each step of the process were analyzed chemically and radiochemically. The results of this work were compared to those of Lumetta et al. (1996a) who performed a similar experiment with 15 grams of C-106, sludge. A summary of the results are shown in Table S.1. Of the major nonradioactive components, those that were significantly removed with enhanced sludge washing included aluminum (31%), chromium (49%), sodium (57%), and phosphorus (35%). Of the radioactive components, a significant amount of 137 Cs (49%) were removed during the enhanced sludge wash. Only a very small fraction of the remaining radionuclides were removed, including 90 Sr (0.4%) and TRU elements (1.5%). These results are consistent with those of the screening test. All of the supernatants (both individually and as a blend) removed from these washing steps, once vitrified as LLW glasses (at 20 wt% Na 2 O), would be less than NRC Class C in TRU elements and less than NRC Class B in 90 Sr

  4. PBDEs in Italian sewage sludge and environmental risk of using sewage sludge for land application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cincinelli, Alessandra; Martellini, Tania; Misuri, Lorenza; Lanciotti, Eudes; Sweetman, Andy; Laschi, Serena; Palchetti, Ilaria

    2012-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were determined in sewage sludge samples collected from eight Italian wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) between June 2009 and March 2010. Total PBDE concentrations ranged from 158.3 to 9427 ng g −1 dw, while deca-BDE (BDE-209) (concentrations ranging from 130.6 to 9411 ng g −1 dw) dominated the congener profile in all the samples, contributing between 77% and 99.8% of total PBDE. The suitability of using a magnetic particle enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) to analyse PBDEs in sewage sludge was also tested. The ELISA results, expressed as BDE-47 equivalents, were well correlated with those obtained by GC–NCI–MS, with correlation coefficients (r 2 ) of 0.899 and 0.959, depending on the extraction procedure adopted. The risk assessment of PBDEs in sewage sludge addressed to land application was calculated. PEC soil values compared to the relative PNEC soil for penta and deca-BDE suggests that there is a low risk to the soil environment. - Highlights: ► PBDEs in sewage sludge were determined in eight Italian WWTPs for the first time. ► PBDEs concentrations showed differences between the eight investigated WWTPs. ► Deca-BDE (BDE-209) was the dominant congener in all samples. ► The suitability of using ELISA method to analyse PBDEs in sewage sludge was tested. ► The risk assessment of using sewage sludge for land application was evaluated. - Determination of PBDEs in sewage sludge by GC–NCI–MS and ELISA test and risk assessment when sewage sludge is used for land application.

  5. Release of nutrients from sludge pellets - a field study in Halland; Naeringsfrigoerelse ur pelleterat slam - en faeltstudie i Halland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Maria

    2000-07-01

    The forest will, most probably, play an important part in the sustainable society of the future, as a producer of timber and pulp, in the conversion of bioenergy and in the chemical industry. The forest also is of great importance for recreation. The question is how we can make the forest last for all these things, without lessening its values of nature and production. Some are speaking of an enhanced fertilization of parts of the forest to maintain productivity. The fertilizer could consist of sludge from municipal sewage treatment works. The management of the sludge has earlier been a problem at fertilizations, but now there is a method to produce sludge pellets that are easy to handle, possible to store and do not smell or contain any infectious matter. Before the sludge pellets can be used in a large scale, questions about the release of different matters from the sludge, should be answered. The aim of this study was to find out at which rate nutrients and heavy metals are released from sludge pellets spread on forest soils. The study was executed at Hjuleberg, east of Falkenberg in south Sweden. Pellets were put out in bags of fine-meshed synthetic fibre net. The bags were collected at four different occasions. The samples were analyzed for C, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Al, As, B, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, Se, V and Zn. After nine months, about half of the original dry-matter and about half of the original amounts of N, K, Ca, Mg and S remained. The results showed that nitrogen was mineralized, which indicates that pelleted sludge can work as a source of nutrients, and that phosphorus was to a large part immobilized. As for As, Cd, Fe, Pb, Se and Zn, there was an enrichment in the pellets during the early winter, before the first uptake. Spreading of sludge of the kind that is used in this study results in spreading of heavy metals. Swedish limits of heavy metals in arable land might be exceeded during an initial phase, but is managed at an annual

  6. Enhancement of sludge reduction and methane production by removing extracellular polymeric substances from waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh Tuan; Mohd Yasin, Nazlina Haiza; Miyazaki, Toshiki; Maeda, Toshinari

    2014-12-01

    The management of waste activated sludge (WAS) recycling is a concern that affects the development of the future low-carbon society, particularly sludge reduction and biomass utilization. In this study, we investigated the effect of removing extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), which play important roles in the adhesion and flocculation of WAS, on increased sludge disintegration, thereby enhancing sludge reduction and methane production by anaerobic digestion. EPS removal from WAS by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) significantly enhanced sludge reduction, i.e., 49 ± 5% compared with 27 ± 1% of the control at the end the digestion process. Methane production was also improved in WAS without EPS by 8881 ± 109 CH4 μmol g(-1) dry-weight of sludge. Microbial activity was determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and real-time polymerase chain reaction, which showed that the hydrolysis and acetogenesis stages were enhanced by pretreatment with 2% EDTA, with a larger methanogenic community and better methane production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Bacterial composition of activated sludge - importance for floc and sludge properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Per H.; Thomsen, Trine R.; Nielsen, Jeppe L.

    2003-07-01

    Activated sludge flocs consist of numerous constituents which, together with other factors, are responsible for floc structure and floc properties. These properties largely determine the sludge properties such as flocculation, settling and dewaterability. In this paper we briefly review the present knowledge about the role of bacteria in relation to floc and sludge properties, and we present a new approach to investigate the identity and function of the bacteria in the activated sludge flocs. The approach includes identification of the important bacteria and a characterization of their physiological and functional properties. It is carried out by use of culture-independent molecular biological methods linked with other methods to study the physiology and function maintaining a single cell resolution. Using this approach it was found that floc-forming properties differed among the various bacterial groups, e.g. that different microcolony-forming bacteria had very different sensitivities to shear and that some of them deflocculated under anaerobic conditions. in our opinion, the approach to combine identity with functional analysis of the dominant bacteria in activated sludge by in situ methods is a very promising way to investigate correlations between presence of specific bacteria, and floc and sludge properties that are of interest. (author)

  8. Bacterial regrowth potential in alkaline sludges from open-sun and covered sludge drying beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkan, U.; Topac, F.O.; Birden, B.; Baskaya, H.S. [Uludag University, Gorukle (Turkey). Dept. of Environmnetal Engineering

    2007-10-15

    The aim of this study was to compare the regrowth potentials of wastewater sludges dried in two pilot-scale drying processes namely, Open-Sun Sludge Drying Bed (OSDB) and Covered Sludge Drying Bed (CSDB). Quicklime and/or coal fly ash were added to raw sludge samples prior to drying processes in order to enhance bacterial inactivation. Following three drying cycles (March-April, June-July and August-October), sludge samples were taken from the beds for the regrowth experiments. Addition of alkaline materials prevented the regrowth of faecal coliforms in all rewetted samples except for the samples obtained after the rainfall events in OSDB. Rewetting of these samples in the regrowth experiments increased faecal coliform numbers by 3.5-7 log units. In contradiction, the observed bacterial numbers in rewetted alkaline samples from CSDB were below the EPA Class B criterion (2 million MPN g{center_dot} 1) dry sludge). The combination of additional heat from solar collectors, protection from the rain and the unfavourable living conditions owing to alkaline materials appeared to inactivate bacteria more effectively in CSDB and hence eliminated regrowth potential more efficiently.

  9. Application of Fuzzy Synthetic Evaluation in Selection of Best Sludge Dewatering Option in Ghods Town WWTP in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Taheriyoun

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The design and upgrade of sludge treatment systems generally depend on the decision made regarding the appropriate system from among the options available. The selection process has become increasingly important and complex due to recent technological developments that have led to increased diversity in the available options which offer a wide variety of capabilities. The multi-criteria decision making method is one of the techniques recently developed which takes into account all the criteria involved in the decision making process. The Ghods Town WWTP in the west of Tehran located in the vicinity of residential areas has given rise to claims by citizens due to the odors emitted by the sludge sand drying bed, which justifies the replacement of the present sludge dewatering system. For this purpose, the multi-criteria decision making method based on the fuzzy synthetic evaluation method was used to identify the optimal sludge dewatering system appropriate for the WWTP under consideration. Furthermore, weighting of the subjective (social, environmental, and administrative criteria was accomplished using the analytical hierarchy process and the objective (i.e., economic criteria were weighted using the entropy concept. In this method, the triangular fuzzy membership function was also used to take into account the uncertainty associated with each of the decision making parameters. Based on the results obtained, the belt filter press dewatering system and the filter press were identified as the preferred solutions.

  10. Improvement of sludge dewaterability and removal of sludge-borne metals by bioleaching at optimum pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fenwu; Zhou, Lixiang; Zhou, Jun; Song, Xingwei; Wang, Dianzhan

    2012-06-30

    Bio-acidification caused by bio-oxidation of energy substances during bioleaching is widely known to play an important role in improving sludge-borne metals removal. Here we report that bioleaching also drastically enhances sludge dewaterability in a suitable pH level. To obtain the optimum initial concentrations of energy substances and pH values for sludge dewaterability during bioleaching, bio-oxidation of Fe(2+) and S(0) under co-inoculation with Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans TS6 and Acidothiobacillus ferrooxidans LX5 and their effects on sludge dewaterability and metals removal during sludge bioleaching were investigated. Results indicated that the dosage of energy substances with 2g/L S(0) and 2g/L Fe(2+) could obtain bio-oxidation efficiencies of up to 100% for Fe(2+) and 50% for S(0) and were the optimal dosages for sludge bioleaching. The removal efficiencies of sludge-borne Cu and Cr could reach above 85% and 40%, respectively, and capillary suction time (CST) of bioleached sludge decreased to as low as ∼10s from initial 48.9s for fresh sludge when sludge pH declined to ∼2.4 through bioleaching. These results confirm the potential of bioleaching as a novel method for improving sludge dewaterability as well as removal of metals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. COMMUNICATING THE STEREOTYPE OF “OTHERNESS” IN EUROPEAN ADVERTISING: CULTURAL AND NATIONAL “FAKE MULTICULTURALISM”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Mudure-Iacob

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In its quest for the destination of an ‘all-encompassing’ communication, European advertising builds an image of complexity and oppositions. Constructed as a mingling of cultural values, intensive consumerism and creative touches, the story of advertising is a never-ending analysis of nowadays globalized societies. Moreover, its ramifying story of acceptance, assimilation, rejection and stereotypy brought advertising at a position in which the debate over intercultural representation and consumer behavior is crucial. Consequently, the main question that arises is: in the realm of the thirsty and goods-addict consumers, what type of discourse should advertising in Europe use, so as to emphasize pluralism and still maintain culturally personalized approaches. It is, therefore, the purpose of this paper to explore and analyze the congruencies and disparities between advertising and its social, cultural and economic repositories, on the background of Europe’s image. In this respect, some questions can be formulated: How does advertising pertain to organizing its communication with the overly globalized consumer markets? Is the stereotypical label hereby inserted in such a communicational direction with consumers, and if so, what are the features of an “addressing otherness” discourse with respect to ad typology? Another aim of the current paper is to evoke the level at which European advertising fails to stick to the intercultural framework of reference, through a presentation of the stereotypes of “otherness” and the implied “fake multiculturalism.” The idea behind this assumption is that, while representing ethnic groups differently or by use of a derogatory mechanism, the message cannot be that of Europeanness. Moreover, the focus on linguistic choice of advertising vocabulary is linked to the issue of “linguistic fetishism” and, more importantly, it shows that the variety of linguistic panel in Europe sometimes prevents

  12. FAKE STAR FORMATION BURSTS: BLUE HORIZONTAL BRANCH STARS MASQUERADE AS YOUNG MASSIVE STARS IN OPTICAL INTEGRATED LIGHT SPECTROSCOPY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocvirk, P.

    2010-01-01

    Model color-magnitude diagrams of low-metallicity globular clusters (GCs) usually show a deficit of hot evolved stars with respect to observations. We investigate quantitatively the impact of such modeling inaccuracies on the significance of star formation history reconstructions obtained from optical integrated spectra. To do so, we analyze the sample of spectra of galactic globular clusters of Schiavon et al. with STECKMAP (Ocvirk et al.), and the stellar population models of Vazdekis et al. and Bruzual and Charlot, and focus on the reconstructed stellar age distributions. First, we show that background/foreground contamination correlates with E(B - V), which allows us to define a clean subsample of uncontaminated GCs, on the basis of an E(B - V) filtering. We then identify a 'confusion zone' where fake young bursts of star formation pop up in the star formation history although the observed population is genuinely old. These artifacts appear for 70%-100% of cases depending on the population model used, and contribute up to 12% of the light in the optical. Their correlation with the horizontal branch (HB) ratio indicates that the confusion is driven by HB morphology: red HB clusters are well fitted by old stellar population models while those with a blue HB require an additional hot component. The confusion zone extends over [Fe/H] = [ - 2, - 1.2], although we lack the data to probe extreme high and low metallicity regimes. As a consequence, any young starburst superimposed on an old stellar population in this metallicity range could be regarded as a modeling artifact, if it weighs less than 12% of the optical light, and if no emission lines typical of an H II region are present. This work also provides a practical method for constraining HB morphology from high signal to noise integrated light spectroscopy in the optical. This will allow post-asymptotic giant branch evolution studies in a range of environments and at distances where resolving stellar populations

  13. Transportability Class of Americium in K Basin Sludge under Ambient and Hydrothermal Processing Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmitt, Bruce E.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2006-08-01

    This report establishes the technical bases for using a ''slow uptake'' instead of a ''moderate uptake'' transportability class for americium-241 (241Am) for the K Basin Sludge Treatment Project (STP) dose consequence analysis. Slow uptake classes are used for most uranium and plutonium oxides. A moderate uptake class has been used in prior STP analyses for 241Am based on the properties of separated 241Am and its associated oxide. However, when 241Am exists as an ingrown progeny (and as a small mass fraction) within plutonium mixtures, it is appropriate to assign transportability factors of the predominant plutonium mixtures (typically slow) to the Am241. It is argued that the transportability factor for 241Am in sludge likewise should be slow because it exists as a small mass fraction as the ingrown progeny within the uranium oxide in sludge. In this report, the transportability class assignment for 241Am is underpinned with radiochemical characterization data on K Basin sludge and with studies conducted with other irradiated fuel exposed to elevated temperatures and conditions similar to the STP. Key findings and conclusions from evaluation of the characterization data and published literature are summarized here. Plutonium and 241Am make up very small fractions of the uranium within the K Basin sludge matrix. Plutonium is present at about 1 atom per 500 atoms of uranium and 241Am at about 1 atom per 19000 of uranium. Plutonium and americium are found to remain with uranium in the solid phase in all of the {approx}60 samples taken and analyzed from various sources of K Basin sludge. The uranium-specific concentrations of plutonium and americium also remain approximately constant over a uranium concentration range (in the dry sludge solids) from 0.2 to 94 wt%, a factor of {approx}460. This invariability demonstrates that 241Am does not partition from the uranium or plutonium fraction for any characterized sludge matrix. Most

  14. Cavitation for improved sludge conversion into biogas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoop, A.H.; Bakker, T.W.; Kramer, H.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    In several studies the beneficial influence of pre-treatment of waste activated sludge with cavitation on the biogas production was demonstrated. It is however, still not fully certain whether this effect should be mainly contributed to an increase in conversion rate of organics into biogas by

  15. Operator assisted optimization of sludge dewatering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grüttner, Henrik

    1991-01-01

    by the operator. By graphical presentation and an advisory service these data are used to support the operator in his dewatering operations and to secure a running optimization of the sludge dewatering. Evaluations show that this system is a useful tool for data collection and presentation and that the data...

  16. Predicting the degradability of waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Richard; Parker, Wayne; Zhu, Henry; Houweling, Dwight; Murthy, Sudhir

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this study was to identify methods for estimating anaerobic digestibility of waste activated sludge (WAS). The WAS streams were generated in three sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) treating municipal wastewater. The wastewater and WAS properties were initially determined through simulation of SBR operation with BioWin (EnviroSim Associates Ltd., Flamborough, Ontario, Canada). Samples of WAS from the SBRs were subsequently characterized through respirometry and batch anaerobic digestion. Respirometry was an effective tool for characterizing the active fraction of WAS and could be a suitable technique for determining sludge composition for input to anaerobic models. Anaerobic digestion of the WAS revealed decreasing methane production and lower chemical oxygen demand removals as the SRT of the sludge increased. BioWin was capable of accurately describing the digestion of the WAS samples for typical digester SRTs. For extended digestion times (i.e., greater than 30 days), some degradation of the endogenous decay products was assumed to achieve accurate simulations for all sludge SRTs.

  17. Oxidation of oily sludge in supercritical water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Baochen; Cui Fuyi; Jing Guolin; Xu Shengli; Huo Weijing; Liu Shuzhi

    2009-01-01

    The oxidation of oily sludge in supercritical water is performed in a batch reactor at reaction temperatures between 663 and 723 K, the reaction times between 1 and 10 min and pressure between 23 and 27 MPa. Effect of reaction parameters such as reaction time, temperature, pressure, O 2 excess and initial COD on oxidation of oily sludge is investigated. The results indicate that chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate of 92% can be reached in 10 min. COD removal rate increases as the reaction time, temperature and initial COD increase. Pressure and O 2 excess have no remarkable affect on reaction. By taking into account the dependence of reaction rate on COD concentration, a global power-law rate expression was regressed from experimental data. The resulting pre-exponential factor was 8.99 x 10 14 (mol L -1 ) -0.405 s -1 ; the activation energy was 213.13 ± 1.33 kJ/mol; and the reaction order for oily sludge (based on COD) is 1.405. It was concluded that supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) is a rapidly emerging oily sludge processing technology.

  18. Biological treatment of sludge digester liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loosdrecht, M C M; Salem, S

    2006-01-01

    Nitrogen removal in side stream processes offers a good potential for upgrading wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) that need to meet stricter effluent standards. Removing nutrients from these internal process flows significantly reduces the N-load to the main treatment plant. These internal flows mainly result from the sludge processing and have a high temperature and a high concentration of ammonia. Therefore, the required reactor volumes as well as the required aerobic SRT are small. Generally, biological treatment processes are more economical and preferred over physical-chemical processes. Recently, several biological treatment processes have been introduced for sludge water treatment. These processes are available now on the activated sludge market (e.g. SHARON, ANAMMOX and BABE processes). The technologies differ in concept and in the limitations guiding the application of these processes for upgrading WWTPs. This paper reviews and compares different biological alternatives for nitrogen removal in side streams. The limitations for selecting a technology from the available ones in the activated sludge market are noted and analysed. It is stressed that the choice for a certain process is based on more aspects than pure process engineering arguments.

  19. Lipase and protease extraction from activated sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gessesse, Amare; Dueholm, Thomas; Petersen, Steffen B.

    2003-01-01

    of gentle and efficient enzyme extraction methods from environmental samples is very important. In this study we present a method for the extraction of lipases and proteases from activated sludge using the non-ionic detergent Triton X-100, EDTA, and cation exchange resin (CER), alone or in combination...

  20. Parasites in soil/sludge systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandon, J.R.

    1978-03-01

    The potential for the transmission of parasites, such as Entamoeba sp., schistosomes, and nematodes such as Ascaris sp., to man through the use of sewage sludges as fertilizer is reviewed. The eggs of Ascaris have been found to be the most resistant of these parasites to normal sludge treatment methods. Results of studies on the effectiveness of heat and ionizing radiation treatments reported show that a treatment of 55/sup 0/C for 1 hour or more sufficiently reduces the number of viable Ascaris eggs in seeded sludge systems. An absorbed dose of 300 kilorads radiation is more than adequate for the same purpose. However, before an unequivocal statement can be made about the effectiveness of either of these treatments in reducing viable ova in real systems, certain qualifying factors must be investigated. There are conflicting reports on the radiation sensitivities of Ascaris eggs in different stages of development. Also, irradiation of composted sludge using an electron beam was unsuccessful in rendering all naturally-occurring Ascaris ova non-viable, even at 300 kilorads. The significant differences in radiation and heat sensitivities of Ascaris eggs in compost vs liquid systems points out the need to further investigate the effects of moisture levels on these sensitivities.

  1. Sumi-sludge system; Sumisurajji system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-04-20

    The subject facilities, delivered to Kakegawa City, Shizuoka Prefecture, in December, 1999, are the first machine by the heavy load denitrification processing system adaptive to purifying tank sludge 'Sumi-sludge system'. It enhanced the capacity of 84 kl/day by about 30% to 109 kl/day through the remodeling of the existing facilities. Its major specifications are capacity: 109 kl/day (human wastes 18 kl/day, purifying tank sludge 91 kl/day) and final effluent quality: pH 5.8-8.6, BOD 10 mg/l or less, COD 20 mg/l or less, SS 10 mg/l or less, T-N 10 mg/l or less, T-P 1 mg/l or less, chromaticity 30 degrees or less, coliform group quantity 3,000 pieces/ml or less. It has the following features. (1) Bio-treatment load is reduced by dehydrating human wastes and purifying tank sludge in the prestage of the bio-treatment. (2) Bio-treatment and flocculation separating treatment are integrated. (3) A high-speed flocculation sedimentation tank 'Sumi-thickner' is employed in the solid-liquid separator, enabling stable solid-liquid separation. (translated by NEDO)

  2. Contextual investigation of factors affecting sludge accumulation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pit latrines in slums areas of Uganda fill up faster than might be expected from some estimates owing to inappropriate use and failure to consider critical factors affecting sludge accumulation rates at the planning, design and construction stages. This study sought to investigate factors affecting filling rates of lined pit latrines ...

  3. Parasites in soil/sludge systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandon, J.R.

    1978-03-01

    The potential for the transmission of parasites, such as Entamoeba sp., schistosomes, and nematodes such as Ascaris sp., to man through the use of sewage sludges as fertilizer is reviewed. The eggs of Ascaris have been found to be the most resistant of these parasites to normal sludge treatment methods. Results of studies on the effectiveness of heat and ionizing radiation treatments reported show that a treatment of 55 0 C for 1 hour or more sufficiently reduces the number of viable Ascaris eggs in seeded sludge systems. An absorbed dose of 300 kilorads radiation is more than adequate for the same purpose. However, before an unequivocal statement can be made about the effectiveness of either of these treatments in reducing viable ova in real systems, certain qualifying factors must be investigated. There are conflicting reports on the radiation sensitivities of Ascaris eggs in different stages of development. Also, irradiation of composted sludge using an electron beam was unsuccessful in rendering all naturally-occurring Ascaris ova non-viable, even at 300 kilorads. The significant differences in radiation and heat sensitivities of Ascaris eggs in compost vs liquid systems points out the need to further investigate the effects of moisture levels on these sensitivities

  4. Phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge char ash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atienza-Martinez, M.; Gea, G.; Arauzo, J.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Kootstra, A.M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorus was recovered from the ash obtained after combustion at different temperatures (600 °C, 750 °C and 900 °C) and after gasification (at 820 °C using a mixture of air and steam as fluidising agent) of char from sewage sludge fast pyrolysis carried out at 530 °C. Depending on the leaching

  5. Respirometry techniques and activated sludge models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benes, O.; Spanjers, H.; Holba, M.

    2002-01-01

    This paper aims to explain results of respirometry experiments using Activated Sludge Model No. 1. In cases of insufficient fit of ASM No. 1, further modifications to the model were carried out and the so-called "Enzymatic model" was developed. The best-fit method was used to determine the effect of

  6. Disinfection of sewage sludge with gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    In the Geiselbullach sewage treatment plant near Munich, sewage irradiation by a 60 Co source is being investigated on a technical scale. 145 m 3 of sewage sludge are irradiated per day and then used as field fertilizer. (orig./HBR) [de

  7. Sludge irradiation disinfection for beneficial use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-12-01

    Papers given at the symposium are included in this volume. The symposium was organized to facilitate the transfer of information on the use of sludge irradiation as a process to further reduce pathogens. State-of-the-art gamma radiation of dried sewage solids is reviewed. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual papers for inclusion in the Energy Data Base

  8. Hydrogen production from paper sludge hydrolysate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kádár, Z.; Vrije, de G.J.; Budde, M.A.W.; Szengyel, Z.; Reczey, K.; Claassen, P.A.M.

    2003-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to develop a system for the production of 'renewable' hydrogen. Paper sludge is a solid industrial waste yielding mainly cellulose, which can be used, after hydrolysis, as a feedstock in anaerobic fermentation by (hyper)thermophilic organisms, such as Thermotoga

  9. Synchronous municipal sewerage-sludge stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukuru, Godefroid; Jian, Yang

    2005-01-01

    A study on a pilot plant accomplishing synchronous municipal sewerage-sludge stabilization was conducted at a municipal sewerage treatment plant. Stabilization of sewerage and sludge is achieved in three-step process: anaerobic reactor, roughing filter and a microbial-earthworm-ecofilter. The integrated ecofilter utilizes an artificial ecosystem to degrade and stabilize the sewerage and sludge. When the hydraulic retention time(HRT) of the anaerobic reactor is 6 h, the hydraulic load(HL) of the bio-filter is 16 m3/(m2 x d), the HL of the eco-filter is 5 m3/(m2 x d), the recycle ratio of nitrified liquor is 1.5, the removal efficiency is 83%-89% for COD(Cr), 94%-96% for BOD5, 96%-98% for SS, and 76%-95% for NH3-N. The whole system realizes the zero emission of sludge, and has the characteristics of saving energy consumption and operational costs.

  10. Phase Chemistry of Tank Sludge Residual Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumhansl, James L.; Nagy, Kathryn L.

    2000-01-01

    About four or five distinct reprocessing technologies were used at various times in Hanford's history. After removing U and Pu (or later 137Cs and 90Sr), the strongly acidic HLW was ''neutralized'' to high pH (>13) and stored in steel-lined tanks. High pH was necessary to prevent tank corrosion. While each technology produced chemically distinct waste, all wastes were similar in that they were high pH, concentrated, aqueous solutions. Dominant dissolved metals were Fe and/or Al, usually followed by Ni, Mn, or Cr. In an effort to reduce waste volume, many of the wastes were placed in evaporators or allowed to ''self-boil'' from the heat produced by their own radioactive decay. Consequently, today's HLW has been aging at temperatures ranging from 20 to 160 C. Previous studies of synthetic HLW sludge analogues have varied in their exact synthesis procedures and recipes, although each involved ''neutralization'' of acidic nitrate salt solutions by concentrated NaOH. Some recipes included small amounts of Si, SO4 2-, CO3 2-, and other minor chemical components in the Hanford sludges. The work being conducted at the University of Colorado differs from previous studies and from parallel current investigations at Sandia National Laboratories in the simplicity of the synthetic sludge we are investigating. We are emphasizing the dominant role of Fe and Al, and secondarily, the effects of Ni and Si on the aging kinetics of the solid phases in the sludge

  11. Analysis on carbon dioxide emission reduction during the anaerobic synergetic digestion technology of sludge and kitchen waste: Taking kitchen waste synergetic digestion project in Zhenjiang as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qia; Dai, Xiaohu

    2017-11-01

    With the popularization of municipal sewage treatment facilities, the improvement of sewage treatment efficiency and the deepening degree of sewage treatment, the sludge production of sewage plant has been sharply increased. Carbon emission during the process of municipal sewage treatment and disposal has become one of the important sources of greenhouse gases that cause greenhouse effect. How to reduce carbon dioxide emissions during sewage treatment and disposal process is of great significance for reducing air pollution. Kitchen waste and excess sludge, as two important organic wastes, once uses anaerobic synergetic digestion technology in the treatment process can on the one hand, avoid instability of sludge individual anaerobic digestion, improve sludge degradation rate and marsh gas production rate, and on the other hand, help increase the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions to a great extent. The paper uses material balance method, analyzes and calculates the carbon dioxide emissions from kitchen waste and sludge disposed by the anaerobic synergetic digestion technology, compares the anaerobic synergetic digestion technology with traditional sludge sanitary landfill technology and works out the carbon dioxide emission reductions after synergetic digestion. It takes the kitchen waste and sludge synergetic digestion engineering project of Zhenjiang city in Jiangsu province as an example, makes material balance analysis using concrete data and works out the carbon dioxide daily emission reductions. The paper analyzes the actual situation of emission reduction by comparing the data, and found that the synergetic digestion of kitchen waste and sludge can effectively reduce the carbon dioxide emission, and the reduction is obvious especially compared with that of sludge sanitary landfill, which has a certain effect on whether to promote the use of the technology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. An Evaluation of Reed Bed Technology to Dewater Army Wastewater Treatment Plant Sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    speculated that the plants produced "root exudations" that were active against pathogens , and that the plants specifically showed an affinity for cadmium, zinc...mineralize and for pathogens to be destroyed. This downtime makes multiple beds necessary. The USEPA also reports that the major advantage of the reed...employee to regulate the sludge applications. This employee would also visually assess the beds for possible problems such as weed or insect ( aphid

  13. Hydrogen Evolution and Sludge Suspension During the Preparation of the First Batch of Sludge at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hay, M.S.; Lee, E.D.

    1995-01-01

    The first batch of High Level Radioactive Sludge for the Defense Waste Processing Facility is being prepared in two 4.9 million liter waste tanks. The preparation involves removing water soluble salts by washing (water addition, sludge suspension, settling and decantation). Sludge suspension is accomplished using long shafted slurry pumps that are mounted on rotating turntables. During the sludge suspension runs in 1993 and 1994, the slurry pumps' cleaning radius was determined to be less than that expected from previous determinations using synthetic sludge in a full size waste tank mockup. Hydrogen concentrations in the tanks' vapor space were monitored during the sludge suspension activities. As expected, the initial agitation of the sludge increased the hydrogen concentration, however, with the controls in place the hydrogen concentration was maintained below seven percent of the lower flammability limit

  14. Wastewater and Sludge Reuse Management in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis K. Kalavrouziotis

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Huge quantities of treated wastewater (TMWW and biosolids (sludge are produced every day all over the world, which exert a strong pressure on the environment. An important question that is raised is “what to do with them?”.An effort is put by the scientific community to eliminate the concept of “waste” and to replace it with the concept of “recycling of resources”, by means of effective management, which does not concern only the users, but all the other groups involved in the problem, such as facility administrators, operations, politicians, scientific community and the general population. Sludge concentration data showed that there exist 516 chemicals in biosolids which create a serious health risk. It is pointed out that this risk will be greatly exacerbated by chemical toxins present in the sludge which can predispose skin to infection by pathogens. Consequently, the need for science-based policies are necessary to effectively protect public health. The risk assessment due to sludge, is difficult to evaluate of due to the large number of unknown interactions involved. People living near the sludge application sites may suffer from such abnormalities as: eye, nose, and throat irritation, gastrointestinal abnormalities, as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, including cough, difficulty in breathing, sinus congestion, skin infection and sores. Many problems seem to be related to biosolid and wastewater application in agriculture, which should be solved. A universal one, acknowledged as an “international health crisis” is the resistance of pathogens to antibiotics and to the evolution of multidrug resistance of bacteria”. Certain anthropogenically created environments have been identified as major sources of multidrug resistance bacteria such as in water treatment plants, concentrated animal feeding operations etc. All these, and many other health problems, render the safety of sludge and biosolid and wastewater agricultural reuse, for

  15. 40 CFR 503.7 - Requirement for a person who prepares sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... sewage sludge. 503.7 Section 503.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE General Provisions § 503.7 Requirement for a person who prepares sewage sludge. Any person who prepares sewage sludge shall ensure that the...

  16. Emerging organic contaminants in sludges. Analysis, fate and biological treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicent, Teresa [Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra (Spain). Chemical Engineering Dept.; Eljarrat, Ethel [IDAEA-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry; Caminal, Gloria [IQAC-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain). Grupo de biocatalisis Aplicada y biodegradacion; Barcelo, Damia (eds.) [IDAEA-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry; Girona Univ. (Spain). Catalan Inst. for Water Research

    2013-07-01

    A comprehensive review. Written by experts. Richly illustrated. There are a growing number of new chemicals in the environment that represent an ascertained or potential risk. Many of them can be found in sewage sludge and are the subject of this volume. Experts in the field highlight their occurrence and fate, risks of biosolid use, advanced chemical analysis methods, and degradation techniques with a special focus on biodegradation using fungi. In the final chapter conclusions and trends are offered as a point of departure for future studies. The double-disciplinary approach combining environmental analysis and engineering makes the book a valuable and comprehensive source of information for a broad audience, such as environmental chemists and engineers, biotechnologists, ecotoxicologists and professionals responsible for waste and water management.

  17. Environmentally compatible sewage sludge disposal; Umweltgerechte Klaerschlammentsorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, J. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Mechanische Verfahrenstechnik; Schwedes, J. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Mechanische Verfahrenstechnik

    1997-09-01

    Cleaning of municipal and industrial waste water is done by means of biological processes: micro-organisms degrade pollutants. The resulting products are, besides cleaned waste water, sewage sludge and surplus sludge. Their disposal involves ecological and economic problems. One approach to their partial disposal is their degradation in a digester. Approximately one half of the organic substance is converted by anaerobic bacteria into energy-rich biogas. Optimization of this digestion process accelerates the anaerobic degradation process, increases the accruing amount of digester gas and reduces the volume of digested sludge to be disposed of. With these objectives, the Institute fuer Mechanische Verfahrenstechnik is conducting research into the mechanical treatment of micro-organisms remaining in surplus sludge by means of different treatment devices. The project is sponsored under the programme of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft DFG ``Biological processes with dispersive solids``. Mechanical treatment renders the cell constituents exploitable to anaerobic bacteria; the resulting sludge degradation is more rapid and more complete. (orig./ABI) [Deutsch] Zur Reinigung haeuslicher und industrieller Abwaesser werden biologische Prozesse eingesetzt. Dabei sorgen Mikroorganismen fuer den Abbau der Verunreinigungen. Neben dem gereinigten Abwasser fallen Primaer- und Ueberschussschlamm an, deren Entsorgung oekologische und oekonomische Probleme verursacht. Ein Weg zur partiellen Beseitigung dieser Klaerschlaemme ist ihr Abbau in einem Faulbehaelter. Dabei wird etwa die Haelfe der organischen Substanz durch anaerobe Bakterien zu einem energiereichen Biogas umgewandelt. Eine Optimierung dieses Faulprozesses beinhaltet: 1. Beschleunigung des anaeroben Abbauprozesses, 2. Erhoehung der anfallenden Faulgasmenge und 3. Reduzierung der zu entsorgenden Faulschlammenge. Mit diesen Zielsetzungen wird am Institut fuer Mechanische Verfahrenstechnik im Rahmen der DFG

  18. Counter current decantation washing of HLW sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooke, J.N.; Peterson, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has 51 High Level Waste (HLW) tanks with typical dimensions 25.9 meters (85 feet) diameter and 10 meters (33 feet) high. Nearly 114 million liters (30 M gallons) of HLW waste is stored in these tanks in the form of insoluble solids called sludge, crystallized salt called salt cake, and salt solutions. This waste is being converted to waste forms stable for long term storage. In one of the processes, soluble salts are washed from HLW sludge in preparation for vitrification. At present, sludge is batch washed in a waste tank with one or no reuse of the wash water. Sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrite are added to the wash water for tank corrosion protection; the large volumes of spent wash water are recycled to the evaporator system; additional salt cake is produced; and sodium carbonate is formed in the washed sludge during storage by reaction with CO 2 from the air. High costs and operational concerns with the current washing process prompts DOE and WSRC to seek an improved washing method. A new method should take full advantage of the physical/chemical properties of sludge, experience from other technical disciplines, processing rate requirements, inherent process safety, and use of proven processes and equipment. Counter current solids washing is a common process in the minerals processing and chemical industries. Washing circuits can be designed using thickeners, filters or centrifuges. Realizing the special needs of nuclear work and the low processing rates required, a Counter Current Decantation (CCD) circuit is proposed using small thickeners and fluidic pumps

  19. Combustion characteristics of biodried sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zongdi; Yang, Benqin; Jahng, Deokjin

    2018-02-01

    In this study, effects of biodrying on the characteristics of sewage sludge and the subsequent combustion behavior were investigated. 7-Day of biodrying removed 49.78% of water and 23.17% of VS initially contained in the sewage sludge and increased lower heating value (LHV) by 37.87%. Meanwhile, mass contents of C and N decreased from 36.25% and 6.12% to 32.06% and 4.82%, respectively. Surface of the biodried sewage sludge (BDSS) appeared granulated and multi-porous, which was thought to facilitate air transfer during combustion. According to thermogravimetric (TG) analysis coupled with mass spectrometer (MS) with a heating rate of 10 °C/min from 35 °C to 1000 °C, thermally-dried sewage sludge (TDSS) and BDSS lost 74.39% and 67.04% of the initial mass, respectively. In addition, combustibility index (S) of BDSS (8.67 × 10 -8  min -2  K -3 ) was higher than TDSS. TG-MS analyses also showed that less nitrogenous gases were generated from BDSS than TDSS. It was again showed that the average CO and NO concentrations in exit gas from isothermal combustion of BDSS were lower than those from TDSS, especially at low temperatures (≤800 °C). Based on these results, it was concluded that biodrying of sewage sludge was an energy-efficient water-removal method with less emission of air pollutants when BDSS was combusted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Rheology of sludge-slurry grouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDaniel, E.W.

    1980-10-01

    A series of rheograms was developed that relates the critical velocity (velocity where flow changes from laminar to turbulent) of a cementitious grout that incorporates a suspended sludge-slurry to the critical velocity of a reference grout made with a simulated waste solution. The sludge that is now in the Gunite waste tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) will be suspended and pumped to the new waste storage tanks in Melton Valley. The sludge will then be blended with a cement mix base to form a grout which will be injected underground by the shale fracturing process. This report describes the materials, equipment, and techniques used in the laboratory studies to suspend sludges and mix sludge-slurry grouts that have flow properties similar to those of current shale fracturing grouts. Bentonite clay is an effective suspender in dilute NaNO 3 solutions; 15 wt % solids can be suspended with 2.0 wt % bentonite in a 0.1 M NaNO 3 solution. Other suspending materials were evaluated, but bentonite gave the best results. If a slurry grout becomes too viscous to pump, methods must be available to thin the mixture. A number of thinners, friction reducers, and plasticizers were examined. Q-Broxin, a thinner supplied by Baroid, reduced the velocity of a grout required for turbulent flow in a 5.0-cm (2-in.)-diam tube from 1.76 to 1.20 m/s (5.79 to 3.95 ft/s); FX-32C, a plasticizer supplied by Fox Industries, Inc., reduced the velocity from 1.76 to 0.75 m/s