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Sample records for making anomalous dispersion

  1. Fickian dispersion is anomalous

    Cushman, John H.; O'Malley, Dan

    2015-12-01

    The thesis put forward here is that the occurrence of Fickian dispersion in geophysical settings is a rare event and consequently should be labeled as anomalous. What people classically call anomalous is really the norm. In a Lagrangian setting, a process with mean square displacement which is proportional to time is generally labeled as Fickian dispersion. With a number of counter examples we show why this definition is fraught with difficulty. In a related discussion, we show an infinite second moment does not necessarily imply the process is super dispersive. By employing a rigorous mathematical definition of Fickian dispersion we illustrate why it is so hard to find a Fickian process. We go on to employ a number of renormalization group approaches to classify non-Fickian dispersive behavior. Scaling laws for the probability density function for a dispersive process, the distribution for the first passage times, the mean first passage time, and the finite-size Lyapunov exponent are presented for fixed points of both deterministic and stochastic renormalization group operators. The fixed points of the renormalization group operators are p-self-similar processes. A generalized renormalization group operator is introduced whose fixed points form a set of generalized self-similar processes. Power-law clocks are introduced to examine multi-scaling behavior. Several examples of these ideas are presented and discussed.

  2. Magnetic effects in anomalous dispersion

    Blume, M.

    1992-01-01

    Spectacular enhancements of magnetic x-ray scattering have been predicted and observed experimentally. These effects are the result of resonant phenomena closely related to anomalous dispersion, and they are strongest at near-edge resonances. The theory of these resonances will be developed with particular attention to the symmetry properties of the scatterer. While the phenomena to be discussed concern magnetic properties the transitions are electric dipole or electric quadrupole in character and represent a subset of the usual anomalous dispersion phenomena. The polarization dependence of the scattering is also considered, and the polarization dependence for magnetic effects is related to that for charge scattering and to Templeton type anisotropic polarization phenomena. It has been found that the strongest effects occur in rare-earths and in actinides for M shell edges. In addition to the scattering properties the theory is applicable to ''forward scattering'' properties such as the Faraday effect and circular dichroism

  3. Faraday anomalous dispersion optical tuners

    Wanninger, P.; Valdez, E. C.; Shay, T. M.

    1992-01-01

    Common methods for frequency stabilizing diode lasers systems employ gratings, etalons, optical electric double feedback, atomic resonance, and a Faraday cell with low magnetic field. Our method, the Faraday Anomalous Dispersion Optical Transmitter (FADOT) laser locking, is much simpler than other schemes. The FADOT uses commercial laser diodes with no antireflection coatings, an atomic Faraday cell with a single polarizer, and an output coupler to form a compound cavity. This method is vibration insensitive, thermal expansion effects are minimal, and the system has a frequency pull in range of 443.2 GHz (9A). Our technique is based on the Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter. This method has potential applications in optical communication, remote sensing, and pumping laser excited optical filters. We present the first theoretical model for the FADOT and compare the calculations to our experimental results.

  4. Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filters

    Shay, T. M.; Yin, B.; Alvarez, L. S.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filters on infrared and blue transitions of some alkali atoms is calculated. A composite system is designed to further increase the background noise rejection. The measured results of the solar background rejection and image quality through the filter are presented. The results show that the filter may provide high transmission and high background noise rejection with excellent image quality.

  5. Anomalous dispersion enhanced Cerenkov phase-matching

    Kowalczyk, T.C.; Singer, K.D. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States). Dept. of Physics; Cahill, P.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-11-01

    The authors report on a scheme for phase-matching second harmonic generation in polymer waveguides based on the use of anomalous dispersion to optimize Cerenkov phase matching. They have used the theoretical results of Hashizume et al. and Onda and Ito to design an optimum structure for phase-matched conversion. They have found that the use of anomalous dispersion in the design results in a 100-fold enhancement in the calculated conversion efficiency. This technique also overcomes the limitation of anomalous dispersion phase-matching which results from absorption at the second harmonic. Experiments are in progress to demonstrate these results.

  6. Powder diffraction studies using anomalous dispersion

    Cox, D.E.; Wilkinson, A.P.

    1993-01-01

    With the increasing availability and accessibility of high resolution powder diffractometers at many synchrotron radiation sources throughout the world, there is rapidly-growing interest in the exploitation of anomalous dispersion techniques for structural studies of polycrystalline materials. In conjunction with the Rietveld profile method for structure refinement, such studies are especially useful for the determination of the site distributions of two or more atoms which are near neighbors in the periodic table, or atoms which are distributed among partially occupied sites. Additionally, it is possible to (1) determine the mean-square displacements associated with different kinds of atoms distributed over a single set of sites, (2) distinguish between different oxidation states and coordination geometries of a particular atom in a compound and (3) to determine f' for a wide range of atomic species as a function of energy in the vicinity of an absorption edge. Experimental methods for making anomalous dispersion measurements are described in some detail, including data collection strategies, data analysis and correlation problems, possible systematic errors, and the accuracy of the results. Recent work in the field is reviewed, including cation site-distribution studies (e.g. doped high T c superconductors, ternary alloys, FeCo 2 (PO 4 ) 3 , FeNi 2 BO 5 ), oxidation-state contrast (e.g. YBa 2 Cu 3 O 6+x , Eu 3 O 4 , GaCl 2 , Fe 2 PO 5 ), and the effect of coordination geometry (e.g. Y 3 Ga 5 O l2 )

  7. Diffraction anomalous fine structure using X-ray anomalous dispersion

    Soejima, Yuji; Kuwajima, Shuichiro

    1998-01-01

    A use of X-ray anomalous dispersion effects for structure investigation has recently been developed by using synchrotron radiation. One of the interesting method is the observation of anomalous fine structure which arise on diffraction intensity in energy region of incident X-ray at and higher than absorption edge. The phenomenon is so called Diffraction Anomalous Fine Structure (DAFS). DAFS originates in the same physical process an that of EXAFS: namely photoelectric effect at the corresponding atom and the interaction of photoelectron waves between the atom and neighboring atoms. In contrast with EXAFS, the method is available for only the crystalline materials, but shows effective advantages of the structure investigations by a use of diffraction: one is the site selectivity and the other is space selectivity. In the present study, demonstrations of a use of X-ray anomalous dispersion effect for the superstructure determination will be given for the case of PbZrO 3 , then recent trial investigations of DAFS in particular on the superlattice reflections will be introduced. In addition, we discuss about Forbidden Reflection near Edge Diffraction (FRED) which is more recently investigated as a new method of the structure analysis. (author)

  8. Anomalous dispersion due to hydrocarbons: The secret of reservoir geophysics?

    Brown, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    When P- and S-waves travel through porous sandstone saturated with hydrocarbons, a bit of magic happens to make the velocities of these waves more frequency-dependent (dispersive) than when the formation is saturated with brine. This article explores the utility of the anomalous dispersion in finding more oil and gas, as well as giving a possible explanation about the effect of hydrocarbons upon the capillary forces in the formation. ?? 2009 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  9. Vacuum field energy and spontaneous emission in anomalously dispersive cavities

    Bradshaw, Douglas H.; Di Rosa, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Anomalously dispersive cavities, particularly white-light cavities, may have larger bandwidth to finesse ratios than their normally dispersive counterparts. Partly for this reason, they have been proposed for use in laser interferometer gravitational-wave observatory (LIGO)-like gravity-wave detectors and in ring-laser gyroscopes. In this paper we analyze the quantum noise associated with anomalously dispersive cavity modes. The vacuum field energy associated with a particular cavity mode is proportional to the cavity-averaged group velocity of that mode. For anomalously dispersive cavities with group index values between 1 and 0, this means that the total vacuum field energy associated with a particular cavity mode must exceed (ℎ/2π)ω/2. For white-light cavities in particular, the group index approaches zero and the vacuum field energy of a particular spatial mode may be significantly enhanced. We predict enhanced spontaneous emission rates into anomalously dispersive cavity modes and broadened laser linewidths when the linewidth of intracavity emitters is broader than the cavity linewidth.

  10. Anomalous acoustic dispersion in architected microlattice metamaterials

    KröDel, Sebastian; Palermo, Antonio; Daraio, Chiara

    The ability to control dispersion in acoustic metamaterials is crucial to realize acoustic filtering and rectification devices as well as perfect imaging using negative refractive index materials. Architected microlattice metamaterials immersed in fluid constitute a versatile platform for achieving such control. We investigate architected microlattice materials able to exploit locally resonant modes of their fundamental building blocks that couple with propagating acoustic waves. Using analytical, numerical and experimental methods we find that such lattice materials show a hybrid dispersion behavior governed by Biot's theory for long wavelengths and multiple scattering theory when wave frequency is close to the resonances of the building block. We identify the relevant geometric parameters to alter and control the group and phase velocities in this class of acoustic metamaterials. Furthermore, we fabricate small-scale acoustic metamaterial samples using high precision SLA additive manufacturing and test the resulting materials experimentally using a customized ultrasonic setup. This work paves the way for new acoustic devices based on microlattice metamaterials.

  11. Use of the babinet compensator for anomalous dispersion measurements.

    Izatt, J R; Boyle, L J

    1973-01-01

    Reorientation of the optical elements in a standard experimental setup that utilizes a Babinet compensator to measure the anomalous dispersion of a birefringent mediumn results in a useful trade-off between the intensity and visibility of the polarization fringes produced by the apparatus. The fringe pattern is analyzed and numerical results are presented that illustrate the nature of the trade-off and its application to measurements near the center of a strong absorption line.

  12. Electrodeless-discharge-vapor-lamp-based Faraday anomalous-dispersion optical filter.

    Sun, Qinqing; Zhuang, Wei; Liu, Zhiwen; Chen, Jingbiao

    2011-12-01

    We report an excited-state Faraday anomalous-dispersion optical filter operating on the rubidium 5P(3/2)-5D(5/2) transition (775.9 nm in vacuum) without the use of a pump laser. An electrodeless discharge vapor lamp is employed to replace the Rb vapor cell in a traditional Faraday anomalous-dispersion optical filter system. Atoms can be excited by power rather than a complex frequency-locked pump laser. A proof-of-concept experimental demonstration with a maximum transmission of 1.9% and a filter bandwidth of 650 MHz is presented. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  13. Anomalous dispersion properties of TM waves in subwavelength metallic waveguides loaded by uniaxial metamaterials

    Wang, Guanghui, E-mail: wanggh@scnu.edu.cn; Lei, Yuandong; Zhang, Weifeng

    2015-02-20

    Dispersion properties of transverse magnetic (TM) waves in a subwavelength metallic waveguide loaded by uniaxial metamaterials are investigated, based on two kinds of uniaxial metamaterials with different orientations of optical axis. The numerical results show that the existence of fundamental TM{sub 0} mode and high-order TM modes in the waveguide system is dependent on the orientation of optical axis. In addition, their anomalous dispersion properties are clarified. When the orientation of optical axis is selected properly, there are two branches of dispersion curves for each high-order mode—one is normal dispersion and another belongs to anomalous dispersion, showing a transition from a backward wave to a forward one with the increase of working frequency. Moreover, the group velocity and energy flow distribution for TM{sub 1} mode are also demonstrated. These properties may have potential applications in optical information storage, integrated optics and nanophotonic devices. - Highlights: • Two kinds of subwavelength uniaxial metamaterial waveguides are constructed. • We demonstrate anomalous dispersion properties of transverse magnetic (TM) guided modes. • There are two branches of dispersion curves for high-order TM modes, showing a transition from a backward wave to a forward one. • Group velocity can approach to zero, having potential application in optical information storage. • Negative group velocity and energy flow distribution for TM modes are shown.

  14. Anomalous dissolution behaviour of tablets prepared from sugar glass-based solid dispersions

    Van Drooge, D.J.; Hinrichs, W.L.J.; Frijlink, H.W.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, anomalous dissolution behaviour of tablets consisting of sugar glass dispersions was investigated. The poorly aqueous soluble diazepam was used as a lipophilic model drug. The release of diazepam and sugar carrier was determined to study the mechanisms governing dissolution behaviour.

  15. Frequency doubling in poled polymers using anomalous dispersion phase-matching

    Kowalczyk, T.C.; Singer, K.D. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States). Dept. of Physics; Cahill, P.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The authors report on a second harmonic generation in a poled polymer waveguide using anomalous dispersion phase-matching. Blue light ({lambda} = 407 nm) was produced by phase-matching the lowest order fundamental and harmonic modes over a distance of 32 {micro}m. The experimental conversion efficiency was {eta} = 1.2 {times} 10{sup {minus}4}, in agreement with theory. Additionally, they discuss a method of enhancing the conversion efficiency for second harmonic generation using anomalous dispersion phase-matching to optimize Cerenkov second harmonic generation. The modeling shows that a combination of phase-matching techniques creates larger conversion efficiencies and reduces critical fabrication requirements of the individual phase-matching techniques.

  16. Soliton formation and evolution in passively-mode-locked lasers with ultralong anomalous-dispersion fibers

    Liu Xueming

    2011-01-01

    The soliton formation and evolution are numerically and experimentally investigated in passively-mode-locked lasers where pulses encounter ultralong anomalous-dispersion fibers. The pulse formation and evolution in lasers are determined by two balances, namely, nonlinearity and anomalous-dispersion balance and intracavity filtering and self-amplitude modulation balance. It is numerically found that a higher-energy soliton can be split into identical lower-energy multisolitons with exactly the same physical properties. Simulation results show that the separation of neighboring solitons is variational in the temporal domain. The temporal and spectral characteristics of solitons have large variations throughout the laser cavity, qualitatively distinct from the steady state of conventional solitons. The experimental observations confirm the theoretical predictions.

  17. Multisplitting and collapse of self-focusing anisotropic beams in normal/anomalous dispersive media

    Bergé, L.; Juul Rasmussen, J.

    1996-01-01

    Three-dimensional self-focusing light pulses in normal and anomalous dispersive media are investigated by means of a waveguide instability analysis, a Lagrangian approach, and a quasi-self-similar analysis. In the case of normal dispersion for which no localized ground state exists, it is shown....... The mechanism underlying this fragmentation process is described in terms of a stretching of the self-focusing beam along its propagation axis. The focal point, where the splitting process develops, is identified. Finally, it is shown that the longitudinal dynamical motions of self-focusing elongated pulses...

  18. Anomalous dispersion of magnetic spiky particles for enhanced oil emulsions/water separation.

    Chen, Hui-Jiuan; Hang, Tian; Yang, Chengduan; Liu, Guishi; Lin, Di-An; Wu, Jiangming; Pan, Shuolin; Yang, Bo-Ru; Tao, Jun; Xie, Xi

    2018-01-25

    In situ effective separation of oil pollutants including oil spills and oil emulsions from water is an emerging technology yet remains challenging. Hydrophobic micro- or nano-materials with ferromagnetism have been explored for oil removal, yet the separation efficiency of an oil emulsion was compromised due to the limited dispersion of hydrophobic materials in water. A surfactant coating on microparticles prevented particle aggregation, but reduced oil absorption and emulsion cleaning ability. Recently, polystyrene microbeads covered with nanospikes have been reported to display anomalous dispersion in phobic media without surfactants. Inspired by this phenomenon, here magnetic microparticles attached with nanospikes were fabricated for enhanced separation of oil emulsions from water. In this design, the particle surfaces were functionalized to be superhydrophobic/superoleophilic for oil absorption, while the surface of the nanospikes prevented particle aggregation in water without compromising surface hydrophobicity. The magnetic spiky particles effectively absorbed oil spills on the water surface, and readily dispersed in water and offered facile cleaning of the oil emulsion. In contrast, hydrophobic microparticles without nanospikes aggregated in water limiting the particle-oil contact, while surfactant coating severely reduced particle hydrophobicity and oil absorption ability. Our work provides a unique application scope for the anomalous dispersity of microparticles and their potential opportunities in effective oil-water separation.

  19. The origin of anomalous transport in porous media - is it possible to make a priori predictions?

    Bijeljic, Branko; Blunt, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Despite the range of significant applications of flow and solute transport in porous rock, including contaminant migration in subsurface hydrology, geological storage of carbon-dioxide and tracer studies and miscible displacement in oil recovery, even the qualitative behavior in the subsurface is uncertain. The non-Fickian nature of dispersive processes in heterogeneous porous media has been demonstrated experimentally from pore to field scales. However, the exact relationship between structure, velocity field and transport has not been fully understood. Advances in X ray imaging techniques made it possible to accurately describe structure of the pore space, helping predict flow and anomalous transport behaviour using direct simulation. This is demonstrated by simulating solute transport through 3D images of rock samples, with resolutions of a few microns, representing geological media of increasing pore-scale complexity: a sandpack, a sandstone, and a carbonate. A novel methodology is developed that predicts solute transport at the pore scale by using probability density functions of displacement (propagators) and probability density function of transit time between the image voxels, and relates it to probability density function of normalized local velocity. A key advantage is that full information on velocity and solute concentration is retained in the models. The methodology includes solving for Stokes flow by Open Foam, solving for advective transport by the novel streamline simulation method, and superimposing diffusive transport diffusion by the random walk method. It is shown how computed propagators for beadpack, sandstone and carbonate depend on the spread in the velocity distribution. A narrow velocity distribution in the beadpack leads to the least anomalous behaviour where the propagators rapidly become Gaussian; the wider velocity distribution in the sandstone gives rise to a small immobile concentration peak, and a large secondary mobile peak moving

  20. Bifurcation structure of localized states in the Lugiato-Lefever equation with anomalous dispersion

    Parra-Rivas, P.; Gomila, D.; Gelens, L.; Knobloch, E.

    2018-04-01

    The origin, stability, and bifurcation structure of different types of bright localized structures described by the Lugiato-Lefever equation are studied. This mean field model describes the nonlinear dynamics of light circulating in fiber cavities and microresonators. In the case of anomalous group velocity dispersion and low values of the intracavity phase detuning these bright states are organized in a homoclinic snaking bifurcation structure. We describe how this bifurcation structure is destroyed when the detuning is increased across a critical value, and determine how a bifurcation structure known as foliated snaking emerges.

  1. Structure investigation of metal ions clustering in dehydrated gel using x-ray anomalous dispersion effect

    Soejima, Y; Sugiyama, M; Annaka, M; Nakamura, A; Hiramatsu, N; Hara, K

    2003-01-01

    The structure of copper ion clusters in dehydrated N-isopropylacrylamide/sodium acrylate (NIPA/SA) gel has been studied by means of small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) method. In order to distinguish the intensity scattered by Cu ions, the X-ray anomalous dispersion effect around the Cu K absorption edge has been coupled with SAXS. It is found that the dispersion effect dependent on the incident X-ray energy is remarkable only at the momentum transfer q = 0.031 A sup - sup 1 , where a SAXS peak is observed. The results indicate that copper ions form clusters in the dehydrated gel, and that the mean size of clusters is the same as that of SA clusters produced by microphase separation. It is therefore naturally presumed that copper ions are adsorbed into the SA molecules. On the basis of the presumption, a mechanism is proposed for microphase-separation and clustering of Cu ions.

  2. Anomalous, extreme weather disrupts obligate seed dispersal mutualism: snow in a subtropical forest ecosystem.

    Zhou, Youbing; Newman, Chris; Chen, Jin; Xie, Zongqiang; Macdonald, David W

    2013-09-01

    Ongoing global climate change is predicted to increase the frequency and magnitude of extreme weather events, impacting population dynamics and community structure. There is, however, a critical lack of case studies considering how climatic perturbations affect biotic interactions. Here, we document how an obligate seed dispersal mutualism was disrupted by a temporally anomalous and meteorologically extreme interlude of unseasonably frigid weather, with accompanying snowstorms, in subtropical China, during January-February 2008. Based on the analysis of 5892 fecal samples (representing six mammalian seed dispersers), this event caused a substantial disruption to the relative seed dispersal function for the raisin tree Hovenia dulcis from prestorm 6.29 (2006) and 11.47 (2007), down to 0.35 during the storm (2008). Crucially, this was due to impacts on mammalian seed dispersers and not due to a paucity of fruit, where 4.63 fruit per branch were available in January 2008, vs. 3.73 in 2006 and 3.58 in 2007. An induced dietary shift occurred among omnivorous carnivores during this event, from the consumption fruit to small mammals and birds, reducing their role in seed dispersal substantially. Induced range shift extinguished the functionality of herbivorous mammals completely, however, seed dispersal function was compensated in part by three omnivorous carnivores during poststorm years, and thus while the mutualism remained intact it was enacted by a narrower assemblage of species, rendering the system more vulnerable to extrinsic perturbations. The storm's extended effects also had anthropogenic corollaries - migrating ungulates becoming exposed to heightened levels of illegal hunting - causing long-term modification to the seed dispersal community and mutualism dynamics. Furthermore, degraded forests proved especially vulnerable to the storm's effects. Considering increasing climate variability and anthropogenic disturbance, the impacts of such massive, aberrant

  3. Anomalous dispersion in correlated porous media: a coupled continuous time random walk approach

    Comolli, Alessandro; Dentz, Marco

    2017-09-01

    We study the causes of anomalous dispersion in Darcy-scale porous media characterized by spatially heterogeneous hydraulic properties. Spatial variability in hydraulic conductivity leads to spatial variability in the flow properties through Darcy's law and thus impacts on solute and particle transport. We consider purely advective transport in heterogeneity scenarios characterized by broad distributions of heterogeneity length scales and point values. Particle transport is characterized in terms of the stochastic properties of equidistantly sampled Lagrangian velocities, which are determined by the flow and conductivity statistics. The persistence length scales of flow and transport velocities are imprinted in the spatial disorder and reflect the distribution of heterogeneity length scales. Particle transitions over the velocity length scales are kinematically coupled with the transition time through velocity. We show that the average particle motion follows a coupled continuous time random walk (CTRW), which is fully parameterized by the distribution of flow velocities and the medium geometry in terms of the heterogeneity length scales. The coupled CTRW provides a systematic framework for the investigation of the origins of anomalous dispersion in terms of heterogeneity correlation and the distribution of conductivity point values. We derive analytical expressions for the asymptotic scaling of the moments of the spatial particle distribution and first arrival time distribution (FATD), and perform numerical particle tracking simulations of the coupled CTRW to capture the full average transport behavior. Broad distributions of heterogeneity point values and lengths scales may lead to very similar dispersion behaviors in terms of the spatial variance. Their mechanisms, however are very different, which manifests in the distributions of particle positions and arrival times, which plays a central role for the prediction of the fate of dissolved substances in

  4. Anomalous behavior in the third harmonic generation z response through dispersion induced shape changes and matching χ(3)

    Pillai, Rajesh S.; Brakenhoff, G. J.; Müller, M.

    2006-09-01

    The third harmonic generation (THG) axial response in the vicinity of an interface formed by two isotropic materials of normal dispersion is typically single peaked, with the maximum intensity at the interface position. Here it is shown experimentally that this THG z response may show anomalous behavior—being double peaked with a dip coinciding with the interface position—when the THG contributions from both materials are of similar magnitude. The observed anomalous behavior is explained, using paraxial Gaussian theory, by considering dispersion induced shape changes in the THG z response.

  5. Anomalous transport in disordered fracture networks: Spatial Markov model for dispersion with variable injection modes

    Kang, Peter K.; Dentz, Marco; Le Borgne, Tanguy; Lee, Seunghak; Juanes, Ruben

    2017-08-01

    We investigate tracer transport on random discrete fracture networks that are characterized by the statistics of the fracture geometry and hydraulic conductivity. While it is well known that tracer transport through fractured media can be anomalous and particle injection modes can have major impact on dispersion, the incorporation of injection modes into effective transport modeling has remained an open issue. The fundamental reason behind this challenge is that-even if the Eulerian fluid velocity is steady-the Lagrangian velocity distribution experienced by tracer particles evolves with time from its initial distribution, which is dictated by the injection mode, to a stationary velocity distribution. We quantify this evolution by a Markov model for particle velocities that are equidistantly sampled along trajectories. This stochastic approach allows for the systematic incorporation of the initial velocity distribution and quantifies the interplay between velocity distribution and spatial and temporal correlation. The proposed spatial Markov model is characterized by the initial velocity distribution, which is determined by the particle injection mode, the stationary Lagrangian velocity distribution, which is derived from the Eulerian velocity distribution, and the spatial velocity correlation length, which is related to the characteristic fracture length. This effective model leads to a time-domain random walk for the evolution of particle positions and velocities, whose joint distribution follows a Boltzmann equation. Finally, we demonstrate that the proposed model can successfully predict anomalous transport through discrete fracture networks with different levels of heterogeneity and arbitrary tracer injection modes.

  6. Anomalous hydrodynamical dispersion and the Coats-Smith equation: the finite size effects

    Caceres, Manuel O.

    2003-09-01

    We investigate a family of probability distributions that shows anomalous hydrodynamics dispersion, by solving a particular class of coupled generalized master equations. The Fourier-Laplace solution is obtained analytically in terms of the matrix Green function method; then the Coats-Smith concentration profile is revisited in a particular case. Two models of disorder are worked out explicitly, and the mean current is asymptotically calculated. We present an approximation method to calculate the first passage time distribution for this stochastic transport process, and as an example an exact Markovian result is worked out; scaling results are also shown. We discuss the comparison with other different methods to work out complex diffusion phenomena in the presence of disordered multiple transport paths. Extensions when the models are non diffusive can also be solved in the Fourier-Laplace representation. (author)

  7. Anomalous resonance-radiation energy-transfer rate in a scattering dispersive medium

    Shekhtman, V.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a generalization of the concept of group velocity as an energy-transfer rate in a dispersive medium with complex refractive index when the polaritons, which are energy carriers, undergo scattering, in contrast to the classical concept of the group velocity of free polaritons (i.e., without scattering in the medium). The concept of delay time from quantum multichannel-scattering, theory is used as the fundamental concept. Based on Maxwell's equations and the new mathematical Φ-function method, a consistent conceptual definition of group velocity in terms of the ratio of the coherent-energy flux density to the coherent-energy density is obtained for the first time, and a critical analysis of the earlier (Brillouin) understanding of energy-transfer rate is given in the light of radiation-trapping theory and the quantum theory of resonance scattering. The role of generalized group velocity is examined for the interpretation of the phenomenon of multiple resonance scattering, or radiation diffusion. The question of causality for the given problem is touched upon; a new relationship is obtained, called the microcausality condition, which limits the anomalous values of group velocity by way of the indeterminacy principle and the relativistic causality principle for macroscopic time intervals directly measurable in experiment, whereby attention is focused on the connection of the given microcausality condition and the well-known Wigner inequality for the time delay of spherical waves. 22 refs

  8. Using angular dispersion and anomalous transmission to shape ultramonochromatic x rays

    Shvyd' ko, Yuri; Stoupin, Stanislav; Shu, Deming; Khachatryan, Ruben [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Optical spectrometers, instruments that work with highly monochromatic light, are commonly rated by the spectral bandwidth, which defines the ability to resolve closely spaced spectral components. Another equally important feature is the spectral contrast, the ability to detect faint objects among these components. Here we demonstrate that a combined effect of angular dispersion (AD) and anomalous transmission (AT) of x rays in Bragg reflection from asymmetrically cut crystals can shape spectral distributions of x rays to profiles with high contrast and small bandwidths. The AD and AT x-ray optics is implemented as a five-reflection, three-crystal arrangement featuring a combination of the above-mentioned attributes so desirable for x-ray monochromators and analyzers: a spectral contrast of {approx_equal} 500, a bandwidth of {approx_equal} 0.46 meV, and a remarkably large angular acceptance of {approx_equal} 107 {mu}rad with 9.1 keV x rays. The new optics can become a foundation for the next-generation inelastic x-ray scattering spectrometers for studies of atomic dynamics.

  9. High-energy pulse compressor using self-defocusing spectral broadening in anomalously dispersive media

    2015-01-01

    (3) with a net positive dispersion. Furthermore, the net positive dispersion in the dispersive unit at least partially compensates for the negative nonlinear phase variation and the negative group-velocity dispersion produced by the bulk quadratic nonlinear medium when the optical pulse passes......A method and a pulse compressor (1) for compressing an optical pulse, wherein the pulse compressor comprising a bulk quadratic nonlinear medium (2) adapted for generating a negative nonlinear phase variation on the optical pulse and having a negative group-velocity dispersion, and a dispersive unit...

  10. Anomalous magnetoresistance effect in sputtered TbFeCo relating to dispersed magnetic moment

    Yumoto, S.; Toki, K.; Okada, O.; Gokan, H.

    1988-01-01

    The electric resistance is sputtered TbFeCo has been measured at room temperature as a function of magnetic field perpendicular to the film plane. Two kinds of anomalous magnetoresistance have been observed. One is a magnetoresistance peak in the magnetization reversal region. The other is reversible change proportional to the applied magnetic field, appearing in the other region. The magnetoresistance peak agrees well with a curve calculated from experimental Hall loop, using a phenomenological relation between anomalous magnetoresistance and anomalous Hall voltage. The magnetoresistance peak is found to originate from magnetic domain walls. The linear magnetoresistance change for TM dominant samples appears in a direction opposite to that for RE dominant samples. The linear change can't be derived from Hall loop

  11. Anomalous dispersion of optical phonons in La2-xSrxCuO4 at low temperatures

    Bishoyi, K.C.; Rout, G.C.; Behera, S.N.

    2001-01-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering measurements of cuprate system show that a discontinuity in dispersion develops in the middle of the highest energy of optical phonon at low temperatures. We present here a microscopic theory to explain the phonon anomaly in doped cuprate system in normal state. Anti-ferromagnetism due to copper moments is introduced in the electronic Hamiltonian. Phonon coupling to the hybridisation between conduction electrons of the system and the doped f-electrons is incorporated. The phonon self energy due to electron-phonon interaction, which involves the electronic density response function, is evaluated explicitly by Zubarev's Green's function technique in finite temperature and small wave vector limit. The temperature dependence of phonon frequency and the anomalous phonon dispersion are calculated numerically and studied by varying the position of the f-level (ε f ), the effective electron-phonon coupling strength (g), staggered field (h), and the hybridisation parameter (V). (author)

  12. Antiwear performance of ionic liquid+graphene dispersions with anomalous viscosity-temperature behavior

    Pamies Porras, Ramón Francisco; Arias Pardilla, Joaquín; Espinosa Rodríguez, Tulia; Carrión Vilches, Francisco José; Bermúdez Olivares, María Dolores; Sanes Molina, José; Avilés González, María Dolores

    2018-01-01

    New dispersions of few-layers graphene (G) in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ([EMIM]) ionic liquids (ILs) with dicyanamide ([DCA]) or bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([TFSI]) anions have been obtained by mechanical mixing and sonication. IL+0.5 wt% G dispersions show constant viscosity values from 357K (for IL = [EMIM][DCA]) or from 385K (for IL = [EMIM][TFSI]) to 393K. IL + G dispersions with G > 0.5 wt% show linear viscosity increases with increasing temperature, from 306K (for [EMIM][DCA]+1...

  13. Anomalous behavior of the structural relaxation dispersion function of a carborane-containing siloxane

    Pawlus, Sebastian; Paluch, Marian; Ziolo, Jerzy [Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, Uniwersytecka 4, Katowice 40-007 (Poland); Kolel-Veetil, Manoj K [Chemistry Division, Code 6127, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375-5342 (United States)

    2010-10-20

    Broadband dielectric spectroscopic investigations of a vinyl-terminated carboranylenesiloxane, VCS, were performed at ambient and elevated pressures. At a constant structural relaxation time, results show that the structural relaxation dispersion function of VCS narrows with both increasing pressure and temperature. This narrowing is substantial in the case of pressurization and, consequently, the breakdown of the temperature-pressure superposition rule is observed. The interpretation of this breakdown is presented.

  14. Clay-Alcohol-Water Dispersions: Anomalous Viscosity Changes Due to Network Formation of Clay Nanosheets Induced by Alcohol Clustering.

    Kimura, Yuji; Haraguchi, Kazutoshi

    2017-05-16

    Clay-alcohol-water ternary dispersions were compared with alcohol-water binary mixtures in terms of viscosity and optical absorbance. Aqueous clay dispersions to which lower alcohols (ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, and tert-butanol) were added exhibited significant viscosity anomalies (maxima) when the alcohol content was 30-55 wt %, as well as optical absorbance anomalies (maxima). The maximum viscosity (η max ) depended strongly on the clay content and varied between 300 and 8000 mPa·s, making it remarkably high compared with the viscosity anomalies (2 mPa·s) observed in alcohol-water binary mixtures. The alcohol content at η max decreased as the hydrophobicity of the alcohol increased. The ternary dispersions with viscosity anomalies exhibited thixotropic behaviors. The effects of other hydrophilic solvents (glycols) and other kinds of clays were also clarified. Based on these findings and the average particle size changes, the viscosity anomalies in the ternary dispersions were explained by alcohol-clustering-induced network formation of the clay nanosheets. It was estimated that 0.9, 1.7, and 2.5 H 2 O molecules per alcohol molecule were required to stabilize the ethanol, 2-propanol, and tert-butanol, respectively, in the clay-alcohol-water dispersions.

  15. Excitation of terahertz modes localized on a layered superconductor: Anomalous dispersion and resonant transmission

    Apostolov, S. S.; Makarov, N. M.; Yampol'skii, V. A.

    2018-01-01

    We study theoretically the optic transmission through a slab of layered superconductor separated from two dielectric leads by spatial gaps. Based on the transfer matrix formalism along with the Josephson plasma electrodynamic approach, we derive analytic expressions for the transmittance and identify the conditions for the perfect transmission. The special interest of the study is focused on the resonant transmission, which occurs when the wave does not propagate in the spatial gaps. Far from the resonance, the transmittance is exponentially small due to the total internal reflection from the lead-gap interface. However, the excitation of electromagnetic modes localized on the layered superconductor gives rise to a remarkable resonant enhancement of the transmission. Moreover, this phenomenon is significantly modified for the layered superconductors in comparison with usual dielectrics or conductors. The dispersion curves for the modes localized on the layered superconductor are proved to be nonmonotonic, thus resulting in the specific dependence of the transmittance T on the incidence angle θ . In particular, we predict the onset of two resonant peaks in the T (θ ) dependence and their subsequent merge into the broadened single peak with increasing of the wave frequency. Our analytical results are demonstrated by numerical data.

  16. Do oil dispersants make spilled oil more toxic to fish?

    Hodson, P.

    2010-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon blowout in the Gulf of Mexico was the world's largest oil spill in terms of duration and volume spilled. Clean-up operations, which involved the continuous and wide-spread use of oil dispersant at the surface and at the seabed discharge point at 1500 metres depth, gave rise to public concern about dispersant toxicity. Reports from the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) claimed little difference in acute toxicity to marine fish and invertebrate species among commonly available dispersants and between dispersed and non-dispersed Louisiana Sweet Crude. Technically, the toxicity of waterborne hydrocarbons does not vary with chemical dispersion. However, the EPA omitted any consideration of loading, and misled the public about the risks of dispersant use in oil clean-up. This study examined the chronic toxicity of dispersed oil to fish embryos. The study revealed that toxicity expressed as oil loading increases by a factor of 10 to 1000 times with dispersion, largely because 10 to 1000 times more oil enters the water column. Since the action of dispersant is on the exposure component of the risk equation, not on the potency of the toxic components of oil, then the risk of oil toxicity to fish increases an equivalent amount.

  17. High-transmission excited-state Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter edge filter based on a Halbach cylinder magnetic-field configuration.

    Rudolf, Andreas; Walther, Thomas

    2012-11-01

    We report on the realization of an excited-state Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter (ESFADOF) edge filter based on the 5P(3/2)→8D(5/2) transition in rubidium. A maximum transmission of 81% has been achieved. This high transmission is only possible by utilizing a special configuration of magnetic fields taken from accelerator physics to provide a strong homogeneous magnetic field of approximately 6000 G across the vapor cell. The two resulting steep transmission edges are separated by more than 13 GHz, enabling its application in remote sensing.

  18. An instrumented mixer setup for making tackifier dispersions used to make pressure-sensitive adhesives

    Song, Daoyun; Zhang, Wu; Gupta, Rakesh K; Melby, Earl G

    2008-01-01

    Water-based pressure-sensitive adhesives (PSAs) are made by combining a tackifier dispersion and a polymer latex. During the process of making the tackifier dispersion, the system initially forms a water-in-oil emulsion, and then inverts to an oil-in-water one as more water is continuously added with constant agitation. To better understand the process, an instrumented mixer setup was constructed to simulate the manufacturing process, and agitation was provided by an inner impeller and an outer impeller. Several variables were monitored in situ. They are the electrical resistance of the emulsion, torque exerted on the inner impeller, agitation speeds of both impellers, power consumption of both impellers and the flow rate of feeding water. Our measurements showed that torque reached a maximum at phase inversion, and this was verified by direct measurements of viscosity during the process. Simultaneously electrical resistance measurements monitored the chemical changes as well as phase inversion. Experiments showed that under a certain low water feeding flow rate, there appeared to be an intermediate agitation speed at which the phase inversion occurred the earliest. This, from the industrial standpoint, is really favorable due to both time and energy efficiency. Furthermore, this intermediate agitation speed also corresponded to a better quality product. All this information may be used for optimizing this process in the future

  19. Filamentation and light bullet formation dynamics in solid-state dielectric media with weak, moderate and strong anomalous group velocity dispersion

    Gražulevičiūtė, I; Garejev, N; Majus, D; Tamošauskas, G; A Dubietis; Jukna, V

    2016-01-01

    We present a series of measurements, which characterize filamentation dynamics of intense ultrashort laser pulses in the space–time domain, as captured by means of three-dimensional imaging technique in sapphire and fused silica, in the wavelength range of 1.45–2.25 μm, accessing the regimes of weak, moderate and strong anomalous group velocity dispersion (GVD). In the regime of weak anomalous GVD (at 1.45 μm), pulse splitting into two sub-pulses producing a pair of light bullets with spectrally shifted carrier frequencies in both nonlinear media is observed. In contrast, in the regimes of moderate (at 1.8 μm) and strong (at 2.25 μm) anomalous GVD we observe notably different transient dynamics, which however lead to the formation of a single self-compressed quasistationary light bullet with an universal spatiotemporal shape comprised of an extended ring-shaped periphery and a localized intense core that carries the self-compressed pulse. (paper)

  20. Filamentation and light bullet formation dynamics in solid-state dielectric media with weak, moderate and strong anomalous group velocity dispersion

    Gražulevičiūtė, I.; Garejev, N.; Majus, D.; Jukna, V.; Tamošauskas, G.; Dubietis, A.

    2016-02-01

    We present a series of measurements, which characterize filamentation dynamics of intense ultrashort laser pulses in the space-time domain, as captured by means of three-dimensional imaging technique in sapphire and fused silica, in the wavelength range of 1.45-2.25 μm, accessing the regimes of weak, moderate and strong anomalous group velocity dispersion (GVD). In the regime of weak anomalous GVD (at 1.45 μm), pulse splitting into two sub-pulses producing a pair of light bullets with spectrally shifted carrier frequencies in both nonlinear media is observed. In contrast, in the regimes of moderate (at 1.8 μm) and strong (at 2.25 μm) anomalous GVD we observe notably different transient dynamics, which however lead to the formation of a single self-compressed quasistationary light bullet with an universal spatiotemporal shape comprised of an extended ring-shaped periphery and a localized intense core that carries the self-compressed pulse.

  1. The alkali halide disk technique in infra-red spectrometry : Anomalous behaviour of some samples dispersed in alkali halide disks

    Tolk, A.

    1961-01-01

    Some difficulties encountered in the application of the alkali halide disk technique in infra-red spectrometry are discussed. Complications due to interaction of the sample with the alkali halide have been studied experimentally. It was found that the anomalous behaviour of benzoic acid, succinic

  2. Dispersion toughened ceramic composites and method for making same

    Stinton, D.P.; Lackey, W.J.; Lauf, R.J.

    1984-09-28

    Ceramic composites exhibiting increased fracture toughness are produced by the simultaneous codeposition of silicon carbide and titanium disilicide by chemical vapor deposition. A mixture of hydrogen, methyltrichlorosilane and titanium tetrachloride is introduced into a furnace containing a substrate such as graphite or silicon carbide. The thermal decomposition of the methyltrichlorosilane provides a silicon carbide matrix phase and the decomposition of the titanium tetrachloride provides a uniformly dispersed second phase of the intermetallic titanium disilicide within the matrix phase. The fracture toughness of the ceramic composite is in the range of about 6.5 to 7.0 MPa..sqrt..m which represents a significant increase over that of silicon carbide.

  3. An anomalous extinction law in the Cep OB3b young cluster: Evidence for dust processing during gas dispersal

    Allen, Thomas S.; Prchlik, Jakub J.; Megeath, S. Thomas; Gutermuth, Robert A.; Pipher, Judith L.; Naylor, Tim; Jeffries, R. D.

    2014-01-01

    We determine the extinction law through Cep OB3b, a young cluster of 3000 stars undergoing gas dispersal. The extinction is measured toward 76 background K giants identified with MMT/Hectospec spectra. Color excess ratios were determined toward each of the giants using V and R photometry from the literature, g, r, i, and z photometry from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and J, H, and K s photometry from the Two Micron All Sky Survey. These color excess ratios were then used to construct the extinction law through the dusty material associated with Cep OB3b. The extinction law through Cep OB3b is intermediate between the R V = 3.1 and R V = 5 laws commonly used for the diffuse atomic interstellar medium and dense molecular clouds, respectively. The dependence of the extinction law on line-of-sight A V is investigated and we find the extinction law becomes shallower for regions with A V > 2.5 mag. We speculate that the intermediate dust law results from dust processing during the dispersal of the molecular cloud by the cluster.

  4. An anomalous extinction law in the Cep OB3b young cluster: Evidence for dust processing during gas dispersal

    Allen, Thomas S.; Prchlik, Jakub J.; Megeath, S. Thomas [University of Toledo, Ritter Astrophysical Observatory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Gutermuth, Robert A. [Five College Astronomy Department, Smith College, Northampton, MA 01063 (United States); Pipher, Judith L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Naylor, Tim [School of Physics, University of Exeter, Exeter, UK EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Jeffries, R. D. [Astrophysics Group, School of Physical and Geographical Sciences, Keele University, Keele, Staffordshire, UK ST5 5BG (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-10

    We determine the extinction law through Cep OB3b, a young cluster of 3000 stars undergoing gas dispersal. The extinction is measured toward 76 background K giants identified with MMT/Hectospec spectra. Color excess ratios were determined toward each of the giants using V and R photometry from the literature, g, r, i, and z photometry from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and J, H, and K{sub s} photometry from the Two Micron All Sky Survey. These color excess ratios were then used to construct the extinction law through the dusty material associated with Cep OB3b. The extinction law through Cep OB3b is intermediate between the R{sub V} = 3.1 and R{sub V} = 5 laws commonly used for the diffuse atomic interstellar medium and dense molecular clouds, respectively. The dependence of the extinction law on line-of-sight A{sub V} is investigated and we find the extinction law becomes shallower for regions with A{sub V} > 2.5 mag. We speculate that the intermediate dust law results from dust processing during the dispersal of the molecular cloud by the cluster.

  5. Factors in the dispersant use decision-making process : historical overview and look to the future

    Etkin, D.S.

    1998-01-01

    The history of chemical dispersant use in response to marine oil spills was reviewed. A series of case histories were presented to show the political, technical, and financial issues that have influenced the decision-making process and which are likely to influence dispersant use in the future. It was shown that response coordinators must consider the potential effectiveness of dispersant treatment and also the potential for environmental benefit or environmental damage. The safety and effectiveness of dispersant use were shown to depend on: (1) the type of oil or product spilled, (2) the amount of oil spilled, (3) the proximity to the shore and to sensitive habitats, (4) the weather and sea conditions at the time of the spill and during the response, (5) the types of dispersant chemicals on the market at the time of the spill, and (6) the potential efficiency of other cleanup methodologies available. It was noted that more than 37 per cent of the marine oil spills recorded in the Oil Spill Intelligence Report's international oil spill database involve the use of dispersants during the cleanup operations. 21 refs., 4 tabs

  6. Crystal structure determination of solar cell materials: Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films using X-ray anomalous dispersion

    Nozaki, Hiroshi; Fukano, Tatsuo; Ohta, Shingo; Seno, Yoshiki; Katagiri, Hironori; Jimbo, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 thin films as a solar cell material were synthesized. ► The wavelength dependences of the diffraction intensity were measured. ► The crystal structures were clearly identified as kesterite structure for all samples. ► Crystal structure analysis revealed that the atomic compositions were Cu/(Zn + Sn) = 0.97 and Zn/Sn = 1.42 for the sample synthesized using stoichiometric amount of starting materials. - Abstract: The crystal structure of Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 (CZTS) thin films fabricated by vapor-phase sulfurization was determined using X-ray anomalous dispersion. High statistic synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction data were collected from very small amounts of powder. By analyzing the wavelength dependencies of the diffraction peak intensities, the crystal structure was clearly identified as kesterite. Rietveld analysis revealed that the atomic composition deviated from stoichiometric composition, and the compositions were Cu/(Zn + Sn) = 0.97, and Zn/Sn = 1.42.

  7. Direct phase selection of initial phases from single-wavelength anomalous dispersion (SAD) for the improvement of electron density and ab initio structure determination.

    Chen, Chung-De; Huang, Yen-Chieh; Chiang, Hsin-Lin; Hsieh, Yin-Cheng; Guan, Hong-Hsiang; Chuankhayan, Phimonphan; Chen, Chun-Jung

    2014-09-01

    Optimization of the initial phasing has been a decisive factor in the success of the subsequent electron-density modification, model building and structure determination of biological macromolecules using the single-wavelength anomalous dispersion (SAD) method. Two possible phase solutions (φ1 and φ2) generated from two symmetric phase triangles in the Harker construction for the SAD method cause the well known phase ambiguity. A novel direct phase-selection method utilizing the θ(DS) list as a criterion to select optimized phases φ(am) from φ1 or φ2 of a subset of reflections with a high percentage of correct phases to replace the corresponding initial SAD phases φ(SAD) has been developed. Based on this work, reflections with an angle θ(DS) in the range 35-145° are selected for an optimized improvement, where θ(DS) is the angle between the initial phase φ(SAD) and a preliminary density-modification (DM) phase φ(DM)(NHL). The results show that utilizing the additional direct phase-selection step prior to simple solvent flattening without phase combination using existing DM programs, such as RESOLVE or DM from CCP4, significantly improves the final phases in terms of increased correlation coefficients of electron-density maps and diminished mean phase errors. With the improved phases and density maps from the direct phase-selection method, the completeness of residues of protein molecules built with main chains and side chains is enhanced for efficient structure determination.

  8. Direct phase selection of initial phases from single-wavelength anomalous dispersion (SAD) for the improvement of electron density and ab initio structure determination

    Chen, Chung-De; Huang, Yen-Chieh; Chiang, Hsin-Lin; Hsieh, Yin-Cheng; Guan, Hong-Hsiang; Chuankhayan, Phimonphan; Chen, Chun-Jung

    2014-01-01

    A novel direct phase-selection method to select optimized phases from the ambiguous phases of a subset of reflections to replace the corresponding initial SAD phases has been developed. With the improved phases, the completeness of built residues of protein molecules is enhanced for efficient structure determination. Optimization of the initial phasing has been a decisive factor in the success of the subsequent electron-density modification, model building and structure determination of biological macromolecules using the single-wavelength anomalous dispersion (SAD) method. Two possible phase solutions (ϕ 1 and ϕ 2 ) generated from two symmetric phase triangles in the Harker construction for the SAD method cause the well known phase ambiguity. A novel direct phase-selection method utilizing the θ DS list as a criterion to select optimized phases ϕ am from ϕ 1 or ϕ 2 of a subset of reflections with a high percentage of correct phases to replace the corresponding initial SAD phases ϕ SAD has been developed. Based on this work, reflections with an angle θ DS in the range 35–145° are selected for an optimized improvement, where θ DS is the angle between the initial phase ϕ SAD and a preliminary density-modification (DM) phase ϕ DM NHL . The results show that utilizing the additional direct phase-selection step prior to simple solvent flattening without phase combination using existing DM programs, such as RESOLVE or DM from CCP4, significantly improves the final phases in terms of increased correlation coefficients of electron-density maps and diminished mean phase errors. With the improved phases and density maps from the direct phase-selection method, the completeness of residues of protein molecules built with main chains and side chains is enhanced for efficient structure determination

  9. Anomalous and resonance small-angle scattering

    Epperson, J.E.; Thiyagarajan, P.

    1988-01-01

    Significant changes in the small-angle scattered intensity can be induced by making measurements with radiation close to an absorption edge of an appropriate atomic species contained in the sample. These changes can be related quantitatively to the real and imaginary anomalous-dispersion terms for the scattering factor (X-rays) or scattering length (neutrons). The physics inherent in these anomalous-dispersion terms is first discussed before consideration of how they enter the relevant scattering theory. Two major areas of anomalous-scattering research have emerged; macromolecules in solution and unmixing of metallic alloys. Research in each area is reviewed, illustrating both the feasibility and potential of these techniques. All the experimental results reported to date have been obtained with X-rays. However, it is pointed out that the formalism is the same for the analog experiment with neutrons, and a number of suitable isotopes exist which exhibit resonance in an accessible range of energy. Potential applications of resonance small-angle neutron scattering are discussed. (orig.)

  10. Cermet anode with continuously dispersed alloy phase and process for making

    Marschman, Steven C.; Davis, Norman C.

    1989-01-01

    Cermet electrode compositions and methods for making are disclosed which comprise NiO--NiFe.sub.2 O.sub.4 --Cu--Ni. Addition of an effective amount of a metallic catalyst/reactant to a composition of a nickel/iron/oxide, NiO, copper, and nickel produces a stable electrode having significantly increased electrical conductivity. The metallic catalyst functions to disperse the copper and nickel as an alloy continuously throughout the oxide phase of the cermet to render the electrode compositon more highly electrically conductive than were the third metal not present in the base composition. The third metal is preferably added to the base composition as elemental metal and includes aluminum, magnesium, sodium and gallium. The elemental metal is converted to a metal oxide during the sintering process.

  11. Sub-100 fs pulses from an all-polarization maintaining Yb-fiber oscillator with an anomalous dispersion higher-order-mode fiber

    Verhoef, A. J.; Zhu, L.; Israelsen, Stine Møller

    2015-01-01

    , was investigated for different settings of the intracavity dispersion. When the cavity is operated with close to zero net dispersion, highly stable 0.5-nJ pulses externally compressed to sub-100-fs are generated. These are to our knowledge the shortest pulses generated from an all-polarization-maintaining Yb-fiber......We present an Yb-fiber oscillator with an all-polarizationmaintaining cavity with a higher-order-mode fiber for dispersion compensation. The polarization maintaining higher order mode fiber introduces not only negative second order dispersion but also negative third order dispersion in the cavity......, in contrast to dispersion compensation schemes used in previous demonstrations of all-polarization maintaining Yb-fiber oscillators. The performance of the saturable absorber mirror modelocked oscillator, that employs a free space scheme for coupling onto the saturable absorber mirror and output coupling...

  12. Sub-100 fs pulses from an all-polarization maintaining Yb-fiber oscillator with an anomalous dispersion higher-order-mode fiber

    Verhoef, A.J.; Zhu, L.; Israelsen, Stine Møller

    2015-01-01

    , was investigated for different settings of the intracavity dispersion. When the cavity is operated with close to zero net dispersion, highly stable 0.5-nJ pulses externally compressed to sub-100-fs are generated. These are to our knowledge the shortest pulses generated from an all-polarization-maintaining Yb-fiber......We present an Yb-fiber oscillator with an all-polarization-maintaining cavity with a higher-order-mode fiber for dispersion compensation. The polarization maintaining higher order mode fiber introduces not only negative second order dispersion but also negative third order dispersion in the cavity......, in contrast to dispersion compensation schemes used in previous demonstrations of all-polarization maintaining Yb-fiber oscillators. The performance of the saturable absorber mirror modelocked oscillator, that employs a free space scheme for coupling onto the saturable absorber mirror and output coupling...

  13. The use of surfactants for dispersing carbon nanotubes and graphene to make conductive nanocomposites

    Tkalya, E.; Ghislandi, M.G.; With, de G.; Koning, C.E.

    2012-01-01

    Applications of composites based on carbon nanotubes and graphene require their exfoliation and dispersion in a polymer matrix. One of the main approaches to disperse and exfoliate carbon nanotubes and graphene is based on the use of surfactants. Here we review the surfactants utilized for

  14. Expanded potential of seleno-carbohydrates as a molecular tool for X-ray structural determination of a carbohydrate-protein complex with single/multi-wavelength anomalous dispersion phasing.

    Suzuki, Tatsuya; Makyio, Hisayoshi; Ando, Hiromune; Komura, Naoko; Menjo, Masanori; Yamada, Yusuke; Imamura, Akihiro; Ishida, Hideharu; Wakatsuki, Soichi; Kato, Ryuichi; Kiso, Makoto

    2014-04-01

    Seleno-lactoses have been successfully synthesized as candidates for mimicking carbohydrate ligands for human galectin-9 N-terminal carbohydrate recognition domain (NCRD). Selenium was introduced into the mono- or di-saccharides using p-methylselenobenzoic anhydride (Tol2Se) as a novel selenating reagent. The TolSe-substituted monosaccharides were converted into selenoglycosyl donors or acceptors, which were reacted with coupling partners to afford seleno-lactoses. The seleno-lactoses were converted to the target compounds. The structure of human galectin-9 NCRD co-crystallized with 6-MeSe-lactose was determined with single/multi-wavelength anomalous dispersion (SAD/MAD) phasing and was similar to that of the co-crystal with natural lactose. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Revisit to diffraction anomalous fine structure

    Kawaguchi, T.; Fukuda, K.; Tokuda, K.; Shimada, K.; Ichitsubo, T.; Oishi, M.; Mizuki, J.; Matsubara, E.

    2014-01-01

    The diffraction anomalous fine structure method has been revisited by applying this measurement technique to polycrystalline samples and using an analytical method with the logarithmic dispersion relation. The diffraction anomalous fine structure (DAFS) method that is a spectroscopic analysis combined with resonant X-ray diffraction enables the determination of the valence state and local structure of a selected element at a specific crystalline site and/or phase. This method has been improved by using a polycrystalline sample, channel-cut monochromator optics with an undulator synchrotron radiation source, an area detector and direct determination of resonant terms with a logarithmic dispersion relation. This study makes the DAFS method more convenient and saves a large amount of measurement time in comparison with the conventional DAFS method with a single crystal. The improved DAFS method has been applied to some model samples, Ni foil and Fe 3 O 4 powder, to demonstrate the validity of the measurement and the analysis of the present DAFS method

  16. Polarization reversal and ferroelectric domain structure observed in electroded cesium dihydrogen phosphate crystals using an X-ray anomalous dispersion effect

    Ozaki, Toru; Amau, Toshirou; Kawata, Hiroshi; Mizuno, Kaoru; Mori, Koichi.

    1997-01-01

    We have carried out an X-ray intensity measurement and X-ray topography on electroded b plates of ferroelectric cesium dihydrogen phosphate, CsH 2 PO 4 (CDP), using a synchrotron radiation with a wavelength of 2.482 A above the Cs L 3 -absorption edge. We have found that integrated intensities I(150) and I(1-bar5-bar0) show an anomalously large breakdown of Friedel's law, I(150)/I(1-bar5-bar0)=10.4 at 125 K, and display a ferroelectric hysteresis loop. The hysteresis loop determines that spontaneous polarization is antiparallel to the b axes set in both ferroelectric crystal structures related by inversions. The (150) diffraction topography shows that a single domain turns into a lamellar domain structure without fractal aspects after short-circuiting the b plate. The atomic displacement associated with polarization reversal is shown in a crystal structure model of 180deg domains observed in the X-ray topography. (author)

  17. Anomalous x-ray scattering

    Wendin, G.

    1979-01-01

    The availability of tunable synchrotron radiation has made it possible systematically to perform x-ray diffraction studies in regions of anomalous scattering near absorption edges, e.g. in order to derive phase information for crystal structure determination. An overview is given of recent experimental and theoretical work and discuss the properties of the anomalous atomic scattering factor, with emphasis on threshold resonances and damping effects. The results are applied to a discussion of the very strong anomalous dispersion recently observed near the L 3 edge in a cesium complex. Also given is an overview of elements and levels where similar behavior can be expected. Finally, the influence of solid state and chemical effects on the absorption edge structure is discussed. 64 references

  18. Development of a dispersant-use decision-making system for oil spills in the U. S. Gulf of Mexico

    Trudel, B K; Ross, S L; Belore, R C; Jessiman, B J

    1987-12-01

    A computerized system to aid in making real-time dispersant-use decisions for oil spills in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico is due for completion in early 1988. The system can predict the impact of an oil spill in the Gulf if it is either treated with dispersants or left untreated. The method works as follows. A computerized map of the untreated spill is produced showing the predicted location and concentration of the spilled oil as a function of time after the initial discharge. This map is then compared with a series of computerized maps of 70 important Gulf resources that might suffer from the effects of the spill. A geographical information system with extensive spatial analytical capabilities is then used to calculate the proportion of each resource that is affected by the spill at specified levels of oil concentration. Using a series of resource-specific impact assessment algorithms that link information on oil concentration and resource sensitivity, estimates of impact are then computed for each resource. The entire procedure is repeated for the same spill if chemically dispersed. The result is a list of resource-specific impacts from the untreated spill and a similar list for the treated decision is made by comparing the lists. Preliminary indications are that the computer will take less than one hour to derive a dispersant-use decision for the most complex case involving all 70 resources included in the system. 3 figs. 1 tab.

  19. Generalized dispersive wave emission in nonlinear fiber optics.

    Webb, K E; Xu, Y Q; Erkintalo, M; Murdoch, S G

    2013-01-15

    We show that the emission of dispersive waves in nonlinear fiber optics is not limited to soliton-like pulses propagating in the anomalous dispersion regime. We demonstrate, both numerically and experimentally, that pulses propagating in the normal dispersion regime can excite resonant dispersive radiation across the zero-dispersion wavelength into the anomalous regime.

  20. Comparison of two models for the X-ray dispersion produced in a Novillo Tokamak with measurements make with thermoluminescent dosemeters

    Flores O, A.; Castillo, A.; Barocio, S.R.; Melendez L, L.; Chavez A, E.; Cruz C, G.J.; Lopez, R.; Olayo, M.G.; Gonzalez M, P.; Azorin N, J.

    1999-01-01

    It was presented the results to study about the X-ray dispersion produced in the Novillo Tokamak using thermoluminescent dosemeters (DTL). The measurements were make in the equatorial plane of Tokamak, along twelve radial directions. The dispersion is observed due to the radiation interaction with walls surrounding the machine. It was proposed two types of heuristic mathematical methods for describing the X-ray dispersion, comparing them with the experimental data obtained with Dtl. The predictions of both models are adjusted well to the experimental data. (Author)

  1. Anomalous top magnetic couplings

    2012-11-09

    Nov 9, 2012 ... Corresponding author. E-mail: remartinezm@unal.edu.co. Abstract. The real and imaginary parts of the one-loop electroweak contributions to the left and right tensorial anomalous couplings of the tbW vertex in the Standard Model (SM) are computed. Keywords. Top; anomalous. PACS Nos 14.65.Ha; 12.15 ...

  2. Anomalous gauge theories revisited

    Matsui, Kosuke; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    A possible formulation of chiral gauge theories with an anomalous fermion content is re-examined in light of the lattice framework based on the Ginsparg-Wilson relation. It is shown that the fermion sector of a wide class of anomalous non-abelian theories cannot consistently be formulated within this lattice framework. In particular, in 4 dimension, all anomalous non-abelian theories are included in this class. Anomalous abelian chiral gauge theories cannot be formulated with compact U(1) link variables, while a non-compact formulation is possible at least for the vacuum sector in the space of lattice gauge fields. Our conclusion is not applied to effective low-energy theories with an anomalous fermion content which are obtained from an underlying anomaly-free theory by sending the mass of some of fermions to infinity. For theories with an anomalous fermion content in which the anomaly is cancelled by the Green-Schwarz mechanism, a possibility of a consistent lattice formulation is not clear. (author)

  3. Nonlinear trapped electron mode and anomalous heat transport in tokamaks

    Kaw, P.K.

    1982-01-01

    We take the phenomenological point of view that the anomalous electron thermal conductivity produced by the non-linear trapped electron mode should also influence the stability properties of the mode itself. Using a model equation, we show that this effect makes the mode self-stabilizing. A simple expression for the anomalous thermal conductivity is derived, and its scaling properties are discussed. (orig.)

  4. Anomalous periodic disruptions in tokamak plasma

    Montvai, A.; Tegze, M.; Valyi, I.

    1982-09-01

    Anomalously strong, periodic instabilities were observed in the MT-1 tokamak. Characteristics of these instabilities were partly similar to those of internal disruptions, but there were features making them different from the normal relaxational oscillations. Basic characteristics of the phenomenon were studied with the aid of generally used diagnostics. (author)

  5. Anomalous refraction of light colors by a metamaterial prism.

    Silveirinha, Mário G

    2009-05-15

    A prism of glass separates white light into its spectral components in such a manner that colors associated with shorter wavelengths are more refracted than the colors associated with longer wavelengths. Here, we demonstrate that this property is not universal, and that a lossless metamaterial prism with a suitable microstructure may enable a broadband regime of anomalous dispersion, where the spectral components of light are separated in an unconventional way, so that "violet light" is less refracted than "red light." This phenomenon is fundamentally different from conventional anomalous dispersion effects, which are invariably accompanied by significant loss and are typically very narrow band.

  6. Anomalous carbon nuclei

    Gasparian, A.P.

    1984-01-01

    Results are presented from a bubble chamber experiment to search for anomalous mean free path (MFP) phenomena for secondary multicharged fragments (Zsub(f)=5 and 6) of the beam carbon nucleus at 4.2 GeV/c per nucleon. A total of 50000 primary interactions of carbon with propane (C 3 H 8 ) were created. Approximately 6000 beam tragments with charges Zsub(f)=5 and 6 were analyzed in detail to find out an anomalous decrease of MFP. The anomaly is observed only for secondary 12 C nuclei

  7. Diffusion coefficient for anomalous transport

    1986-01-01

    A report on the progress towards the goal of estimating the diffusion coefficient for anomalous transport is given. The gyrokinetic theory is used to identify different time and length scale inherent to the characteristics of plasmas which exhibit anomalous transport

  8. Anomalous Hall effect

    Nagaosa, N.; Sinova, Jairo; Onoda, S.; MacDonald, A. H.; Ong, N. P.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 2 (2010), s. 1539-1592 ISSN 0034-6861 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : anomalous Hall effect * spintronics Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 51.695, year: 2010

  9. Anomalous vacuum expectation values

    Suzuki, H.

    1986-01-01

    The anomalous vacuum expectation value is defined as the expectation value of a quantity that vanishes by means of the field equations. Although this value is expected to vanish in quantum systems, regularization in general produces a finite value of this quantity. Calculation of this anomalous vacuum expectation value can be carried out in the general framework of field theory. The result is derived by subtraction of divergences and by zeta-function regularization. Various anomalies are included in these anomalous vacuum expectation values. This method is useful for deriving not only the conformal, chiral, and gravitational anomalies but also the supercurrent anomaly. The supercurrent anomaly is obtained in the case of N = 1 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in four, six, and ten dimensions. The original form of the energy-momentum tensor and the supercurrent have anomalies in their conservation laws. But the modification of these quantities to be equivalent to the original one on-shell causes no anomaly in their conservation laws and gives rise to anomalous traces

  10. Temperature dependent anomalous statistics

    Das, A.; Panda, S.

    1991-07-01

    We show that the anomalous statistics which arises in 2 + 1 dimensional Chern-Simons gauge theories can become temperature dependent in the most natural way. We analyze and show that a statistic's changing phase transition can happen in these theories only as T → ∞. (author). 14 refs

  11. Anomalous high-frequency wave activity flux preceding anomalous changes in the Northern polar jet

    Nakamura, Mototaka; Kadota, Minoru; Yamane, Shozo

    2010-05-01

    show anomalous acceleration or deceleration of U in the polar region, accompanied by anomalies of the opposite sign in the subtropics throughout the troposphere and stratosphere. The anomalies are conspicuously large in the polar stratosphere. The composited anomalous Z and U in the preceding and following months indicate that these large anomalies in dZ and dU occur when the polar troposphere and stratosphere are relaxing back toward the climatology from strongly anomalous states that closely resemble the positive and negative phases of the NAM. In this process of relaxation, the atmosphere actually overshoots the climatology and develops anomalies of the sign opposite to those existed initially. The anomalous wave activity flux exhibit strong signals of anomalous upward (downward) propagation of high-frequency waves in the North Atlantic storm track from the bottom of the atmosphere, penetrating up to the stratosphere, when the polar jet is anomalously strong (weak) in the preceding month. The anomalous horizontal wave activity flux shows anomalous eastward (westward) flux emanating from the North Atlantic storm track when the polar jet is anomalously strong (weak) in the preceding month. These patterns suggest that anomalous high-frequency waves originating from the North Atlantic storm track in the lower troposphere contribute to the destruction of both phases of the NAM. However, the anomalous flux divergence is very noisy everywhere due to the noisiness of the advective horizontal flux, making it difficult to ascertain the role of the high-frequency transients in the destruction of the NAM.

  12. Dispersion engineering for integrated nanophotonics

    Vanbésien, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    This book shows how dispersion engineering in two dimensional dielectric photonic crystals can provide new effects for the precise control of light propagation for integrated nanophotonics.Dispersion engineering in regular and graded photonic crystals to promote anomalous refraction effects is studied from the concepts to experimental demonstration via nanofabrication considerations. Self collimation, ultra and negative refraction, second harmonic generation, mirage and invisibility effects which lead to an unprecedented control of light propagation at the (sub-)wavelength scale for the

  13. Causal vs. analytic constraints on anomalous quartic gauge couplings

    Vecchi, L.

    2007-01-01

    We derive one loop constraints on the anomalous quartic gauge couplings using a general non-forward dispersion relation for the elastic scattering amplitude of two longitudinally polarized vector bosons. We show that for exactly chiral theories more stringent bounds can be obtained by the assumption that the underlying theory satisfies the causality principle of Special Relativity

  14. Causal vs. Analytic constraints on anomalous quartic gauge couplings

    Vecchi, Luca

    2007-01-01

    We derive one loop constraints on the anomalous quartic gauge couplings using a general non-forward dispersion relation for the elastic scattering amplitude of two longitudinally polarized vector bosons. We compare this result with another one derived by the assumption that the underlying theory satisfies the causality principle of Special Relativity and show that this latter is more constraining.

  15. Anomalous transport in tokamaks

    Wootton, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    A review is presented of what is known about anomalous transport in tokamaks. It is generally thought that this anomalous transport is the result of fluctuations in various plasma parameters. In the plasma edge detailed measurements of the quantities required to directly determine the fluctuation driven fluxes are available. The total flux of particles is well explained by the measured electrostatic fluctuation driven flux. However, a satisfactory model to explain the origin of the fluctuations has not been identified. The processes responsible for determining the edge energy flux are less clear, but electrostatic convection plays an important part. In the confinement region experimental observations are presently restricted to measurements of density and potential fluctuations and their correlations. The characteristics of the measured fluctuations are discussed and compared with the predictions of various models. Comparisons between measured particle, electron heat and ion heat fluxes, and those fluxes predicted to result from the measured fluctuations, are made. Magnetic fluctuations is discussed

  16. Anomalous nuclear fragments

    Karmanov, V.A.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental data are given, the status of anomalon problem is discussed, theoretical approaches to this problem are outlined. Anomalons are exotic objects formed following fragmentation of nuclei-targets under the effect of nuclei - a beam at the energy of several GeV/nucleon. These nuclear fragments have an anomalously large cross section of interaction and respectively, small free path, considerably shorter than primary nuclei have. The experimental daa are obtained in accelerators following irradiation of nuclear emulsions by 16 O, 56 Fe, 40 Ar beams, as well as propane by 12 C beams. The experimental data testify to dependence of fragment free path on the distance L from the point of the fragment formation. A decrease in the fragment free path is established more reliably than its dependence on L. The problem of the anomalon existence cannot be yet considered resolved. Theoretical models suggested for explanation of anomalously large cross sections of nuclear fragment interaction are variable and rather speculative

  17. Make

    Frauenfelder, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The first magazine devoted entirely to do-it-yourself technology projects presents its 29th quarterly edition for people who like to tweak, disassemble, recreate, and invent cool new uses for technology. MAKE Volume 29 takes bio-hacking to a new level. Get introduced to DIY tracking devices before they hit the consumer electronics marketplace. Learn how to build an EKG machine to study your heartbeat, and put together a DIY bio lab to study athletic motion using consumer grade hardware.

  18. The decision making criteria on radiation protection of population in the cases of an accidental plutonium dispersion into environment

    Savkin, M.N.; Titov, A.V.

    2000-01-01

    Intervention criteria for radiation protection of general public in the case of accidental plutonium release have been elaborated on the basis of experimental radiobiological studies of affects of incorporated plutonium and of long duration medical observation for nuclear workers in Russia and the requirements of the national Radiation Safety Standards. Generic and operational levels for decision-making are given for early and late phases following the accident. Criteria for decision making are established in terms of upper and lower generic and operational levels (UL/LL). Criteria for urgent evacuation in the early stage directed on preventing of serious deterministic effects are defined as projected absorbed dose rate for lung 2x10 -2 Gy/day (UL) and 3x10 -3 Gy/day (LL). The UL corresponds to intake of 300 kBq of 239 Pu and mortal consequences during the first year after the accident as a result of acute interstitial pneumonite. The LL corresponds to intake of 40 kBq of 239 Pu and the threshold of serious radiological effects (disablement as a result of pneumosclerosis) and high level of stochastic effects - cancer of lung. Other basic countermeasures are intended on to be directed mitigation of long term radiological consequences. That is why criteria for them are defined in terms of protected equivalent dose for lungs or avertable effective dose. Criteria for sheltering and individual protection of respiratory tract correspond to committed equivalent dose due to intake during two days 200 mSv (UL) and 20 mSv (LL). Temporary relocation (1-2 years) is recommended if averted monthly effective dose is 30 mSv (UL) and 10 mSv (LL). Permanent relocation is justified if averted life-time effective dose is 1000 mSv (UL) and 200 mSv (LL). Operational levels in terms of density of soil contamination by plutonium are calculated for practical application of the dose criteria. (author)

  19. Anomalous N=2 superconformal Ward identities

    Ketov, Sergei V.

    2000-01-01

    The N=2 superconformal Ward identities and their anomalies are discussed in N=2 superspace (including N=2 harmonic superspace), at the level of the low-energy effective action (LEEA) in four-dimensional N=2 supersymmetric field theories. The (first) chiral N=2 supergravity compensator is related to the known N=2 anomalous Ward identity in the N=2 (abelian) vector mulitplet sector. As regards the hypermultiplet LEEA given by the N=2 non-linear sigma-model (NLSM), a new anomalous N=2 superconformal Ward identity is found, whose existence is related to the (second) analytic compensator in N=2 supergravity. The celebrated solution of Seiberg and Witten is known to obey the (first) anomalous Ward identity in the Coulomb branch. We find a few solutions to the new anomalous Ward identity, after making certain assumptions about unbroken internal symmetries. Amongst the N=2 NLSM target space metrics governing the hypermultiplet LEEA are the SU(2)-Yang-Mills-Higgs monopole moduli-space metrics that can be encoded in terms of the spectral curves (Riemann surfaces), similarly to the Seiberg-Witten-type solutions. After a dimensional reduction to three spacetime dimensions (3d), our results support the mirror symmetry between the Coulomb and Higgs branches in 3d, N=4 gauge theories

  20. Investigation on dispersion in the active optical waveguide resonator

    Qiu, Zihan; Gao, Yining; Xie, Wei

    2018-03-01

    Introducing active gain in the optical waveguide resonator not only compensates the loss, but also can change the dispersion relationship in the ring resonator. It is demonstrated that the group delay time is negative when the resonator is in the undercoupled condition, which also means the resonator exhibits the fast light effect. Theoretical analysis indicates that fast light effect due to anomalous dispersion, would be manipulated by the gain coefficient controlled by the input pump light power and that fast light would enhance scale factor of the optical resonant gyroscope. Resonance optical gyroscope (ROG)'s scale factor for measuring rotation rate is enhanced by anomalous dispersion with superluminal light propagation. The sensitivity of ROG could be enhanced by anomalous dispersion by coupled resonators even considering the effect of anomalous dispersion and propagation gain on broadened linewidth, and this could result in at least two orders of magnitude enhancement in sensitivity.

  1. Anomalous decay and scattering processes of the meson

    Kubis, Bastian; Plenter, Judith

    2015-06-01

    We amend a recent dispersive analysis of the anomalous decay process by the effects of the tensor meson, the lowest-lying resonance that can contribute in the system. While the net effects on the measured decay spectrum are small, they may be more pronounced for the analogous decay. There are nonnegligible consequences for the transition form factor, which is an important quantity for the hadronic light-by-light scattering contribution to the muon's anomalous magnetic moment. We predict total and differential cross sections, as well as a marked forward-backward asymmetry, for the crossed process , which could be measured in Primakoff reactions in the future.

  2. Anomalous photoconductivity of ferrocene

    Chakraborty, A K [Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Calcutta (India). Dept. of Spectroscopy; Mallik, B [Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Calcutta (India). Dept. of Spectroscopy

    1995-08-15

    Photoconductivity behaviour of ferrocene, a very useful metallo-organic sandwich compound, has been investigated at different constant temperatures using powdery material in a sandwich type of cell configuration and with the exposure of a polychromatic light source (mercury lamp of 125 W). Measurements with a constant d.c. bias voltage (27 V) across the sample cell and a fixed intensity of the exciting light source have shown a drastic change in the photocurrent versus time profile with the increase in temperature. Anomalous changes have been observed in the plot of the photocurrent versus reciprocal of temperature. Such changes are completely absent in the corresponding dark current behaviour. The photoinduced changes have been observed to be almost reversible in the entire temperature range. In a particular temperature range the reversibility of photocurrent is accompanied by fluctuations in equilibrium current obtained after switching off the light source. The observed anomalous changes in photocurrent have been explained by photoinduced phase transition in ferrocene. The possible origin and implications of this photoinduced phase transition are discussed. (orig.)

  3. Anomalous Dimensions of Conformal Baryons

    Pica, Claudio; Sannino, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    We determine the anomalous dimensions of baryon operators for the three color theory as function of the number of massless flavours within the conformal window to the maximum known order in perturbation theory. We show that the anomalous dimension of the baryon is controllably small, within...

  4. Optically Anomalous Crystals

    Shtukenberg, Alexander; Kahr, Bart

    2007-01-01

    Optical anomalies in crystals are puzzles that collectively constituted the greatest unsolved problems in crystallography in the 19th Century. The most common anomaly is a discrepancy between a crystal’s symmetry as determined by its shape or by X-ray analysis, and that determined by monitoring the polarization state of traversing light. These discrepancies were perceived as a great impediment to the development of the sciences of crystals on the basis of Curie’s Symmetry Principle, the grand organizing idea in the physical sciences to emerge in the latter half of the 19th Century. Optically Anomalous Crystals begins with an historical introduction covering the contributions of Brewster, Biot, Mallard, Brauns, Tamman, and many other distinguished crystallographers. From this follows a tutorial in crystal optics. Further chapters discuss the two main mechanisms of optical dissymmetry: 1. the piezo-optic effect, and 2. the kinetic ordering of atoms. The text then tackles complex, inhomogeneous crystals, and...

  5. Detection of anomalous events

    Ferragut, Erik M.; Laska, Jason A.; Bridges, Robert A.

    2016-06-07

    A system is described for receiving a stream of events and scoring the events based on anomalousness and maliciousness (or other classification). The system can include a plurality of anomaly detectors that together implement an algorithm to identify low-probability events and detect atypical traffic patterns. The anomaly detector provides for comparability of disparate sources of data (e.g., network flow data and firewall logs.) Additionally, the anomaly detector allows for regulatability, meaning that the algorithm can be user configurable to adjust a number of false alerts. The anomaly detector can be used for a variety of probability density functions, including normal Gaussian distributions, irregular distributions, as well as functions associated with continuous or discrete variables.

  6. Comparison of two models for the X-ray dispersion produced in a Novillo Tokamak with measurements make with thermoluminescent dosemeters; Comparacion de dos modelos para la dispersion de rayos X producidos en un Novillo Tokamak con mediciones efectuadas con dosimetros termoluminiscentes

    Flores O, A.; Castillo, A.; Barocio, S.R.; Melendez L, L.; Chavez A, E.; Cruz C, G.J.; Lopez, R.; Olayo, M.G.; Gonzalez M, P. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, 52045 Salazar, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Azorin N, J. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    It was presented the results to study about the X-ray dispersion produced in the Novillo Tokamak using thermoluminescent dosemeters (DTL). The measurements were make in the equatorial plane of Tokamak, along twelve radial directions. The dispersion is observed due to the radiation interaction with walls surrounding the machine. It was proposed two types of heuristic mathematical methods for describing the X-ray dispersion, comparing them with the experimental data obtained with Dtl. The predictions of both models are adjusted well to the experimental data. (Author)

  7. Normal-dispersion microresonator Kerr frequency combs

    Xue Xiaoxiao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Optical microresonator-based Kerr frequency comb generation has developed into a hot research area in the past decade. Microresonator combs are promising for portable applications due to their potential for chip-level integration and low power consumption. According to the group velocity dispersion of the microresonator employed, research in this field may be classified into two categories: the anomalous dispersion regime and the normal dispersion regime. In this paper, we discuss the physics of Kerr comb generation in the normal dispersion regime and review recent experimental advances. The potential advantages and future directions of normal dispersion combs are also discussed.

  8. Field enhancement due to anomalous skin effect inside a target

    Ma, G.; Tan, W.

    1996-01-01

    A new method based on Fourier transformation to study the skin effects is presented. Using this method, the field amplitude in plasma is represented in terms of electric conductivity, and the normal and anomalous skin effects are described through one formula by omitting the plasma dispersion or not. The results are in agreement with other publications [e.g., J. P. Matte and K. Aguenaou, Phys. Rev. A 45, 2558 (1992)] for equivalent parameters. But for deeper positions inside a target, which have not been studied by others, it is found that the field amplitude is considerably enhanced due to an anomalous skin effect, even for constant collision frequency. In addition, the skin absorptions and some calculations on an anomalous skin effect for different collision frequencies are also presented. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  9. Anomalous Hall effect

    Nagaosa, Naoto; Sinova, Jairo; Onoda, Shigeki; MacDonald, A. H.; Ong, N. P.

    2010-04-01

    The anomalous Hall effect (AHE) occurs in solids with broken time-reversal symmetry, typically in a ferromagnetic phase, as a consequence of spin-orbit coupling. Experimental and theoretical studies of the AHE are reviewed, focusing on recent developments that have provided a more complete framework for understanding this subtle phenomenon and have, in many instances, replaced controversy by clarity. Synergy between experimental and theoretical works, both playing a crucial role, has been at the heart of these advances. On the theoretical front, the adoption of the Berry-phase concepts has established a link between the AHE and the topological nature of the Hall currents. On the experimental front, new experimental studies of the AHE in transition metals, transition-metal oxides, spinels, pyrochlores, and metallic dilute magnetic semiconductors have established systematic trends. These two developments, in concert with first-principles electronic structure calculations, strongly favor the dominance of an intrinsic Berry-phase-related AHE mechanism in metallic ferromagnets with moderate conductivity. The intrinsic AHE can be expressed in terms of the Berry-phase curvatures and it is therefore an intrinsic quantum-mechanical property of a perfect crystal. An extrinsic mechanism, skew scattering from disorder, tends to dominate the AHE in highly conductive ferromagnets. The full modern semiclassical treatment of the AHE is reviewed which incorporates an anomalous contribution to wave-packet group velocity due to momentum-space Berry curvatures and correctly combines the roles of intrinsic and extrinsic (skew-scattering and side-jump) scattering-related mechanisms. In addition, more rigorous quantum-mechanical treatments based on the Kubo and Keldysh formalisms are reviewed, taking into account multiband effects, and demonstrate the equivalence of all three linear response theories in the metallic regime. Building on results from recent experiment and theory, a

  10. Electron-temperature-gradient-driven drift waves and anomalous electron energy transport

    Shukla, P.K.; Murtaza, G.; Weiland, J.

    1990-01-01

    By means of a kinetic description for ions and Braginskii's fluid model for electrons, three coupled nonlinear equations governing the dynamics of low-frequency short-wavelength electrostatic waves in the presence of equilibrium density temperature and magnetic-field gradients in a two-component magnetized plasma are derived. In the linear limit a dispersion relation that admits new instabilities of drift waves is presented. An estimate of the anomalous electron energy transport due to non-thermal drift waves is obtained by making use of the saturated wave potential, which is deduced from the mixing-length hypothesis. Stationary solutions of the nonlinear equations governing the interaction of linearly unstable drift waves are also presented. The relevance of this investigation to wave phenomena in space and laboratory plasmas is pointed out. (author)

  11. Anomalous spreading behaviour of polyethyleneglycoldistearate ...

    Unknown

    Anomalous behaviour; polythyleneglycoldistearate; air/water interface; ... distinguished these monolayer states in terms of molecular ordering, including the .... It has been found that the compressibilities of the materials in the condensed phase.

  12. Renewal-anomalous-heterogeneous files

    Flomenbom, Ophir

    2010-01-01

    Renewal-anomalous-heterogeneous files are solved. A simple file is made of Brownian hard spheres that diffuse stochastically in an effective 1D channel. Generally, Brownian files are heterogeneous: the spheres' diffusion coefficients are distributed and the initial spheres' density is non-uniform. In renewal-anomalous files, the distribution of waiting times for individual jumps is not exponential as in Brownian files, yet obeys: ψ α (t)∼t -1-α , 0 2 >, obeys, 2 >∼ 2 > nrml α , where 2 > nrml is the MSD in the corresponding Brownian file. This scaling is an outcome of an exact relation (derived here) connecting probability density functions of Brownian files and renewal-anomalous files. It is also shown that non-renewal-anomalous files are slower than the corresponding renewal ones.

  13. Anomalous diffusion in chaotic scattering

    Srokowski, T.; Ploszajczak, M.

    1994-01-01

    The anomalous diffusion is found for peripheral collision of atomic nuclei described in the framework of the molecular dynamics. Similarly as for chaotic billiards, the long free paths are the source of the long-time correlations and the anomalous diffusion. Consequences of this finding for the energy dissipation in deep-inelastic collisions and the dynamics of fission in hot nuclei are discussed (authors). 30 refs., 2 figs

  14. Anomalous magnetoresistance in amorphous metals

    Kuz'menko, V.M.; Vladychkin, A.N.; Mel'nikov, V.I.; Sudovtsev, A.I.

    1984-01-01

    The magnetoresistance of amorphous Bi, Ca, V and Yb films is investigated in fields up to 4 T at low temperatures. For all metals the magnetoresistance is positive, sharply decreases with growth of temperature and depends anomalously on the magnetic field strength. For amorphous superconductors the results agree satisfactorily with the theory of anomalous magnetoresistance in which allowance is made for scattering of electrons by the superconducting fluctuations

  15. Fractional Diffusion Equations and Anomalous Diffusion

    Evangelista, Luiz Roberto; Kaminski Lenzi, Ervin

    2018-01-01

    Preface; 1. Mathematical preliminaries; 2. A survey of the fractional calculus; 3. From normal to anomalous diffusion; 4. Fractional diffusion equations: elementary applications; 5. Fractional diffusion equations: surface effects; 6. Fractional nonlinear diffusion equation; 7. Anomalous diffusion: anisotropic case; 8. Fractional Schrödinger equations; 9. Anomalous diffusion and impedance spectroscopy; 10. The Poisson–Nernst–Planck anomalous (PNPA) models; References; Index.

  16. Symmetrized local co-registration optimization for anomalous change detection

    Wohlberg, Brendt E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Theiler, James P [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The goal of anomalous change detection (ACD) is to identify what unusual changes have occurred in a scene, based on two images of the scene taken at different times and under different conditions. The actual anomalous changes need to be distinguished from the incidental differences that occur throughout the imagery, and one of the most common and confounding of these incidental differences is due to the misregistration of the images, due to limitations of the registration pre-processing applied to the image pair. We propose a general method to compensate for residual misregistration in any ACD algorithm which constructs an estimate of the degree of 'anomalousness' for every pixel in the image pair. The method computes a modified misregistration-insensitive anomalousness by making local re-registration adjustments to minimize the local anomalousness. In this paper we describe a symmetrized version of our initial algorithm, and find significant performance improvements in the anomalous change detection ROC curves for a number of real and synthetic data sets.

  17. MHD [magnetohydrodynamic] modes driven by anomalous electron viscosity and their role in fast sawtooth crashes

    Aydemir, A.Y.

    1990-01-01

    We derive the dispersion relations for both small and large-Δ' modes (m ≥ 2, and m = 1 modes, respectively) driven by anomalous electron viscosity. Under the assumption that the anomalous kinematic electron viscosity is comparable to the anomalous electron thermal diffusivity, we find that the viscous mode typically has a higher growth rate than the corresponding resistive mode. We compare computational results in cylindrical and toroidal geometries with theory and present some nonlinear results for viscous m = 1 modes in both circular and D-shaped boundaries and discuss their possible rile in fast sawtooth crashes. 30 ref., 5 figs., 1 tab

  18. The effect of broadened linewidth induced by dispersion on the performance of resonant optical gyroscope

    Zhang, Hao; Li, Wenxiu; Han, Peng; Chang, Xiaoyang; Liu, Jiaming; Lin, Jian; Xue, Xia; Zhu, Fang; Yang, Yang; Liu, Xiaojing; Zhang, Xiaofu; Huang, Anping; Xiao, Zhisong; Fang, Jiancheng

    2018-01-01

    Anomalous dispersion enhancement physical mechanism for Sagnac effect is described by special relativity derivation, and three kinds of definitions of minimum detectable angular rate of resonance optical gyroscope (ROG) are compared and the relations among them are investigated. The effect of linewidth broadening induced by anomalous dispersion on the sensitivity of ROG is discussed in this paper. Material dispersion-broadened resonance linewidth deteriorates the performance of a passive ROG and dispersion enhancement effect, while the sensitivity of a structural dispersion ROG is enhanced by two orders of magnitude even considering the dispersion-broadened resonance linewidth.

  19. Anomalous Stars and Where to Find Them

    Muna, Demitri; Huff, Eric

    2018-01-01

    The sky is now extensively mapped by imaging surveys in wavelengths that span the electromagnetic spectrum, ranging from Fermi and GALEX down to WISE, Planck, and radio surveys like FIRST and VLSS. Individual public catalogs now contain on order hundreds of millions of distinct sources. Recent progress in image analysis techniques makes possible great increases in the efficiency, sensitivity, and reliability of measurements that combine imaging data from multiple probes with heterogeneous properties. This is especially true for the identification of anomalous sources: traditional methods for finding ‘outliers’ typically rely on making hard cuts on noisy catalog properties, greatly restricting the potential discovery space. Cross-catalog matches confine investigation to objects that occur at signal-to-noise ratios sufficient to be independently detectable in a subset of all the available multi-wavelength coverage. The process of merging the latest analyses with existing data is severely hampered, however, by the fractured way in which these data are processed and stored, limitations of data access, the data volume involved, and the computation power required. This has left archive data far from fully exploited. Stellar anomalies present the best place to start: joint distributions of stellar colors and magnitudes have finer structures than extended sources, and modelling of point sources is computationally cheaper than for galaxies. We present a framework to solve the problem of applying new algorithms to old data while overcoming the limitations described above, in the search for the undiscovered anomalous.

  20. Anomalous couplings at LEP2

    Fayolle, D.

    2002-01-01

    In its second phase, LEP has allowed to study four fermion processes never observed before. Results are presented on the charged triple gauge boson couplings (TGC) from the W-pair, Single W and Single γ production. The anomalous quartic gauge couplings (QGC) are constrained using production of WWγ, νν-barγγ and Z γγ final states. Finally, limits on the neutral anomalous gauge couplings (NGC) using the Z γ and ZZ production processes are also reported. All results are consistent with the Standard Model expectations. (authors)

  1. Computer simulations of anomalous transport

    Lee, W.W.; Okuda, H.

    1980-07-01

    Numerical plasma simulations have been carried out to study: (1) the turbulent spectrum and anomalous plasma transport associated with a steady state electrostatic drift turbulence; and (2) the anomalous energy transport of electrons due to shear-Alfven waves in a finite-β plasma. For the simulation of the steady state drift turbulence, it is observed that, in the absence of magnetic shear, the turbulence is quenched to a low level when the rotational transform is a rational number, while the turbulent level remains high for an irrational rotational transform

  2. A variable-order fractal derivative model for anomalous diffusion

    Liu Xiaoting

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper pays attention to develop a variable-order fractal derivative model for anomalous diffusion. Previous investigations have indicated that the medium structure, fractal dimension or porosity may change with time or space during solute transport processes, results in time or spatial dependent anomalous diffusion phenomena. Hereby, this study makes an attempt to introduce a variable-order fractal derivative diffusion model, in which the index of fractal derivative depends on temporal moment or spatial position, to characterize the above mentioned anomalous diffusion (or transport processes. Compared with other models, the main advantages in description and the physical explanation of new model are explored by numerical simulation. Further discussions on the dissimilitude such as computational efficiency, diffusion behavior and heavy tail phenomena of the new model and variable-order fractional derivative model are also offered.

  3. Fractional charge and anomalous commutators

    Frishman, Y.; Gepner, D.

    1983-06-01

    Non-integer charges on topological objects in the presence of fermions are further investigated. The connection with anomalous commutators is discussed. The reason for the identical results in two-dimensional solutions and four-dimensional monopoles is pointed out. (author)

  4. Anomalous decay and scattering processes of the η meson

    Kubis, Bastian; Plenter, Judith

    2015-01-01

    We amend a recent dispersive analysis of the anomalous η decay process η → π + π - γ by the effects of the a2 tensor meson, the lowest-lying resonance that can contribute in the πη system. While the net effects on the measured decay spectrum are small, they may be more pronounced for the analogous η' decay. There are nonnegligible consequences for the η transition form factor, which is an important quantity for the hadronic light-by-light scattering contribution to the muon's anomalous magnetic moment. We predict total and differential cross sections, as well as a marked forward.backward asymmetry, for the crossed process γπ - → π - η, which could be measured in Primakoff reactions in the future. (orig.)

  5. Anomalous decay and scattering processes of the η meson

    Kubis, Bastian, E-mail: kubis@hiskp.uni-bonn.de [Helmholtz-Institut für Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Universität Bonn, 53115, Bonn (Germany); Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Universität Bonn, 53115, Bonn (Germany); Plenter, Judith [Helmholtz-Institut für Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Universität Bonn, 53115, Bonn (Germany)

    2015-06-25

    We amend a recent dispersive analysis of the anomalous η decay process η→π{sup +}π{sup -}γ by the effects of the a{sub 2} tensor meson, the lowest-lying resonance that can contribute in the πη system. While the net effects on the measured decay spectrum are small, they may be more pronounced for the analogous η{sup ′} decay. There are nonnegligible consequences for the η transition form factor, which is an important quantity for the hadronic light-by-light scattering contribution to the muon’s anomalous magnetic moment. We predict total and differential cross sections, as well as a marked forward–backward asymmetry, for the crossed process γπ{sup -}→π{sup -}η, which could be measured in Primakoff reactions in the future.

  6. Anomalous decay and scattering processes of the η meson

    Kubis, Bastian [Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Bonn (Germany); Universitaet Bonn, Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Bonn (Germany); Plenter, Judith [Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Bonn (Germany)

    2015-06-15

    We amend a recent dispersive analysis of the anomalous η decay process η → π{sup +}π{sup -}γ by the effects of the a2 tensor meson, the lowest-lying resonance that can contribute in the πη system. While the net effects on the measured decay spectrum are small, they may be more pronounced for the analogous η' decay. There are nonnegligible consequences for the η transition form factor, which is an important quantity for the hadronic light-by-light scattering contribution to the muon's anomalous magnetic moment. We predict total and differential cross sections, as well as a marked forward.backward asymmetry, for the crossed process γπ{sup -} → π{sup -}η, which could be measured in Primakoff reactions in the future. (orig.)

  7. Hydrodynamic dispersion

    Pryce, M.H.L.

    1985-01-01

    A dominant mechanism contributing to hydrodynamic dispersion in fluid flow through rocks is variation of travel speeds within the channels carrying the fluid, whether these be interstices between grains, in granular rocks, or cracks in fractured crystalline rocks. The complex interconnections of the channels ensure a mixing of those parts of the fluid which travel more slowly and those which travel faster. On a macroscopic scale this can be treated statistically in terms of the distribution of times taken by a particle of fluid to move from one surface of constant hydraulic potential to another, lower, potential. The distributions in the individual channels are such that very long travel times make a very important contribution. Indeed, while the mean travel time is related to distance by a well-defined transport speed, the mean square is effectively infinite. This results in an asymmetrical plume which differs markedly from a gaussian shape. The distribution of microscopic travel times is related to the distribution of apertures in the interstices, or in the microcracks, which in turn are affected in a complex way by the stresses acting on the rock matrix

  8. More modular invariant anomalous U(1) breaking

    Gaillard, Mary K.; Giedt, Joel

    2002-01-01

    We consider the case of several scalar fields, charged under a number of U(1) factors, acquiring vacuum expectation values due to an anomalous U(1). We demonstrate how to make redefinitions at the superfield level in order to account for tree-level exchange of vector supermultiplets in the effective supergravity theory of the light fields in the supersymmetric vacuum phase. Our approach builds upon previous results that we obtained in a more elementary case. We find that the modular weights of light fields are typically shifted from their original values, allowing an interpretation in terms of the preservation of modular invariance in the effective theory. We address various subtleties in defining unitary gauge that are associated with the noncanonical Kaehler potential of modular invariant supergravity, the vacuum degeneracy, and the role of the dilaton field. We discuss the effective superpotential for the light fields and note how proton decay operators may be obtained when the heavy fields are integrated out of the theory at the tree-level. We also address how our formalism may be extended to describe the generalized Green-Schwarz mechanism for multiple anomalous U(1)'s that occur in four-dimensional Type I and Type IIB string constructions

  9. Hydrodynamic disperser

    Bulatov, A.I.; Chernov, V.S.; Prokopov, L.I.; Proselkov, Yu.M.; Tikhonov, Yu.P.

    1980-01-15

    A hydrodynamic disperser is suggested which contains a housing, slit nozzles installed on a circular base arranged opposite from each other, resonators secured opposite the nozzle and outlet sleeve. In order to improve the effectiveness of dispersion by throttling the flow, each resonator is made in the form of a crimped plate with crimpings that decrease in height in a direction towards the nozzle.

  10. Schwinger Model Mass Anomalous Dimension

    Keegan, Liam

    2016-06-20

    The mass anomalous dimension for several gauge theories with an infrared fixed point has recently been determined using the mode number of the Dirac operator. In order to better understand the sources of systematic error in this method, we apply it to a simpler model, the massive Schwinger model with two flavours of fermions, where analytical results are available for comparison with the lattice data.

  11. Dispersive waves induced by self-defocusing temporal solitons in a beta-barium-borate crystal

    Zhou, Binbin; Bache, Morten

    2015-01-01

    We experimentally observe dispersive waves in the anomalous dispersion regime of a beta-barium-borate (BBO) crystal, induced by a self-defocusing few-cycle temporal soliton. Together the soliton and dispersive waves form an energetic octave-spanning supercontinuum. The soliton was excited...

  12. Anomalous interactions in confined charge-stabilized colloid

    Grier, D G; Han, Y

    2004-01-01

    Charge-stabilized colloidal spheres dispersed in weak 1:1 electrolytes are supposed to repel each other. Consequently, experimental evidence for anomalous long-ranged like-charged attractions induced by geometric confinement inspired a burst of activity. This has largely subsided because of nagging doubts regarding the experiments' reliability and interpretation. We describe a new class of thermodynamically self-consistent colloidal interaction measurements that confirm the appearance of pairwise attractions among colloidal spheres confined by one or two bounding walls. In addition to supporting previous claims for this as-yet unexplained effect, these measurements also cast new light on its mechanism

  13. The hidden treasure in your data: phasing with unexpected weak anomalous scatterers from routine data sets

    Hegde, Raghurama P.; Fedorov, Alexander A.; Sauder, J. Michael; Burley, Stephen K.; Almo, Steven C.; Ramagopal, Udupi A.

    2017-03-22

    Single-wavelength anomalous dispersion (SAD) utilizing anomalous signal from native S atoms, or other atoms withZ≤ 20, generally requires highly redundant data collected using relatively long-wavelength X-rays. Here, the results from two proteins are presented where the anomalous signal from serendipitously acquired surface-bound Ca atoms with an anomalous data multiplicity of around 10 was utilized to drivede novostructure determination. In both cases, the Ca atoms were acquired from the crystallization solution, and the data-collection strategy was not optimized to exploit the anomalous signal from these scatterers. The X-ray data were collected at 0.98 Å wavelength in one case and at 1.74 Å in the other (the wavelength was optimized for sulfur, but the anomalous signal from calcium was exploited for structure solution). Similarly, using a test case, it is shown that data collected at ~1.0 Å wavelength, where thef'' value for sulfur is 0.28 e, are sufficient for structure determination using intrinsic S atoms from a strongly diffracting crystal. Interestingly, it was also observed thatSHELXDwas capable of generating a substructure solution from high-exposure data with a completeness of 70% for low-resolution reflections extending to 3.5 Å resolution with relatively low anomalous multiplicity. Considering the fact that many crystallization conditions contain anomalous scatterers such as Cl, Ca, Mnetc., checking for the presence of fortuitous anomalous signal in data from well diffracting crystals could prove useful in either determining the structurede novoor in accurately assigning surface-bound atoms.

  14. Taylor dispersion on a fractal

    Mazo, R.M.

    1998-01-01

    Taylor dispersion is the greatly enhanced diffusion in the direction of a fluid flow caused by ordinary diffusion in directions orthogonal to the flow. It is essential that the system be bounded in space in the directions orthogonal to the flow. We investigate the situation where the medium through which the flow occurs has fractal properties so that diffusion in the orthogonal directions is anomalous and non-Fickian. The effective diffusion in the flow direction remains normal; its width grows proportionally with the time. However, the proportionality constant depends on the fractal dimension of the medium as well as its walk dimension. (author)

  15. Dispersion Forces

    Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi

    2012-01-01

    In this book, a modern unified theory of dispersion forces on atoms and bodies is presented which covers a broad range of advanced aspects and scenarios. Macroscopic quantum electrodynamics is shown to provide a powerful framework for dispersion forces which allows for discussing general properties like their non-additivity and the relation between microscopic and macroscopic interactions. It is demonstrated how the general results can be used to obtain dispersion forces on atoms in the presence of bodies of various shapes and materials. Starting with a brief recapitulation of volume I, this volume II deals especially with bodies of irregular shapes, universal scaling laws, dynamical forces on excited atoms, enhanced forces in cavity quantum electrodynamics, non-equilibrium forces in thermal environments and quantum friction. The book gives both the specialist and those new to the field a thorough overview over recent results in the field. It provides a toolbox for studying dispersion forces in various contex...

  16. Modeling of dispersion engineered chalcogenide rib waveguide for ultraflat mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in all-normal dispersion regime

    Ahmad, H.; Karim, M. R.; Rahman, B. M. A.

    2018-03-01

    A rigorous numerical investigation has been carried out through dispersion engineering of chalcogenide rib waveguide for near-infrared to mid-infrared ultraflat broadband supercontinuum generation in all-normal group-velocity dispersion regime. We propose a novel design of a 1-cm-long air-clad rib waveguide which is made from {Ge}_{11.5} {As}_{24} {Se}_{64.5} chalcogenide glass as the core with either silica or {Ge}_{11.5} {As}_{24} {S}_{64.5} chalcogenide glass as a lower cladding separately. A broadband ultraflat supercontinuum spanning from 1300 to 1900 nm could be generated when pumped at 1.55 μ {m} with a low input peak power of 100 W. Shifting the pump to 2 μ {m}, the supercontinuum spectra extended in the mid-infrared region up to 3400 nm with a moderate-input peak power of 500 W. To achieve further extension in mid-infrared, we excite our optimized rib waveguide in both the anomalous and all-normal dispersion pumping regions at 3.1 μ {m} with a largest input peak power of 3 kW. In the case of anomalous dispersion region pumping, numerical analysis shows that supercontinuum spectrum can be extended in the mid-infrared up to 10 μ {m}, although this contains high spectral amplitude fluctuations over the entire bandwidth which limits the supercontinuum sources in the field of high precision measurement applications. On the other hand, by optimizing a rib waveguide geometry for pumping in all-normal dispersion region, we are able to generate a smooth and flat-top coherent supercontinuum spectrum with a moderate bandwidth spanning the wavelength range 2-5.5 μ {m} with less than 5 dB spectral fluctuation over the entire output bandwidth. Our proposed design is highly suitable for making on-chip SC light sources for a variety of applications such as biomedical imaging, and environmental and industrial sensing in the mid-infrared region.

  17. Anomalous Hall effect in polycrystalline Ni films

    Guo, Zaibing

    2012-02-01

    We systematically studied the anomalous Hall effect in a series of polycrystalline Ni films with thickness ranging from 4 to 200 nm. It is found that both the longitudinal and anomalous Hall resistivity increased greatly as film thickness decreased. This enhancement should be related to the surface scattering. In the ultrathin films (46 nm thick), weak localization corrections to anomalous Hall conductivity were studied. The granular model, taking into account the dominated intergranular tunneling, has been employed to explain this phenomenon, which can explain the weak dependence of anomalous Hall resistivity on longitudinal resistivity as well. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Dispersive approach to the axial anomaly and nonrenormalization theorem

    Pasechnik, R.S.; Teryaev, O.V.

    2006-01-01

    Anomalous triangle graphs for the divergence of the axial-vector current are studied using the dispersive approach generalized for the case of higher orders of perturbation theory. The validity of this procedure is proved up to the two-loop level. By direct calculation in the framework of dispersive approach we have obtained that the two-loop axial-vector-vector (AVV) amplitude is equal to zero. According to the Vainshtein's theorem, the transversal part of the anomalous triangle is not renormalized in the chiral limit. We generalize this theorem for the case of finite fermion mass in the triangle loop

  19. Anomalous inferior vena cava in association with omphalocele: a case report

    Antoniou, E E.H. [Dept. of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Univ. of Tokushima (Japan); Matsuoka, S [Dept. of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Univ. of Tokushima (Japan); Mori, K [Dept. of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Univ. of Tokushima (Japan); Hayabuchi, Y [Dept. of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Univ. of Tokushima (Japan); Kuroda, Y [Dept. of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Univ. of Tokushima (Japan)

    1995-06-01

    We present the case of a 6-year-old boy who had an omphalocele repaired at day 1 of life. He had a secundum atrial septal defect and an anomalous inferior vena cava of a type which has not been previously reported. Cine-MRI was a useful noninvasive tool for diagnosing the anomalous subaortic innominate vein and four immature vessels which make up the venous drainage systems of the lumbar region. (orig.)

  20. Anomalous inferior vena cava in association with omphalocele: a case report

    Antoniou, E.E.H.; Matsuoka, S.; Mori, K.; Hayabuchi, Y.; Kuroda, Y.

    1995-01-01

    We present the case of a 6-year-old boy who had an omphalocele repaired at day 1 of life. He had a secundum atrial septal defect and an anomalous inferior vena cava of a type which has not been previously reported. Cine-MRI was a useful noninvasive tool for diagnosing the anomalous subaortic innominate vein and four immature vessels which make up the venous drainage systems of the lumbar region. (orig.)

  1. The distribution of copper in stream sediments in an anomalous stream near Steinkopf, Namaqualand

    De Bruin, D.

    1987-01-01

    Anomalous copper concentrations detected by the regional stream-sediment programme of the Geological Survey was investigated in a stream near Steinkopf, Namaqualand. A follow-up disclosed the presence of malachite mineralization. However, additional stream-sediment samples collected from the 'anomalous' stream revealed an erratic distribution of copper and also that the malachite mineralization had no direct effect on the copper distribution in the stream sediments. Low partial-extraction yields, together with X-ray diffraction analyses, indicated that dispersion is mainly mechanical and that the copper occurs as cations in the lattice of the biotite fraction of the stream sediments. (author). 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  2. The distribution of copper in stream sediments in an anomalous stream near Steinkopf, Namaqualand

    De Bruin, D

    1987-01-01

    Anomalous copper concentrations detected by the regional stream-sediment programme of the Geological Survey was investigated in a stream near Steinkopf, Namaqualand. A follow-up disclosed the presence of malachite mineralization. However, additional stream-sediment samples collected from the 'anomalous' stream revealed an erratic distribution of copper and also that the malachite mineralization had no direct effect on the copper distribution in the stream sediments. Low partial-extraction yields, together with X-ray diffraction analyses, indicated that dispersion is mainly mechanical and that the copper occurs as cations in the lattice of the biotite fraction of the stream sediments. (author). 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Analytical relation between effective mode field area and waveguide dispersion in microstructure fibers.

    Moenster, Mathias; Steinmeyer, Günter; Iliew, Rumen; Lederer, Falk; Petermann, Klaus

    2006-11-15

    For optical fibers exhibiting a radially symmetric refractive index profile, there exists an analytical relation that connects waveguide dispersion and the Petermann-II mode field radius. We extend the usefulness of this relation to the nonradially symmetric case of microstructure fibers in the anomalous dispersion regime, yielding a simple relation between dispersion and effective mode field area. Assuming a Gaussian mode distribution, we derive a fundamental upper limit for the effective mode field area that is required to obtain a certain amount of anomalous waveguide dispersion. This relation is demonstrated to show excellent agreement for fiber designs suited for supercontinuum generation and soliton lasers in the near infrared.

  4. Dispersion tailoring of a silicon strip waveguide employing Titania-Alumina thin-film coating

    Guo, Kai; Christensen, Jesper B.; Christensen, Erik N.

    2017-01-01

    We numerically demonstrate dispersion tailoring of a silicon strip waveguide employing Titania-Alumina thin-film coating using a finite-difference mode solver. The proposed structure exhibits spectrally-flattened near-zero anomalous dispersion within the telecom wavelength range. We also numerica......We numerically demonstrate dispersion tailoring of a silicon strip waveguide employing Titania-Alumina thin-film coating using a finite-difference mode solver. The proposed structure exhibits spectrally-flattened near-zero anomalous dispersion within the telecom wavelength range. We also...

  5. Anomalous properties of technetium clusters

    Kryuchkov, S.V.

    1985-01-01

    On the basis of critical evaluation of literature data in the field of chemistry of technetium cluster compounds with ligands of a weak field a conclusion is made on specific, ''anomalous'' properties of technetium cluster complexes which consist in an increased ability of the given element to the formation of a series of binuclear and multinuclear clusters, similar in composition and structure and easily transforming in each other. The majority of technetium clusters unlike similar compounds of other elements are paramagnetic with one unpaired electron on ''metallic'' MO of loosening type. All theoretical conceptions known today on the electronic structure of technetium clusters are considered. It is pointed out, that the best results in the explanation of ''anomalous'' properties of technetium clusters can be obtained in the framework of nonempirical methods of self-consistent field taking into account configuration interactions. It is also shown, that certain properties of technetium clusters can be explained on the basis of qualitative model of Coulomb repulsion of metal atoms in clusters. The conclusion is made, that technetium position in the Periodic table, as well as recently detected technetium property to the decrease of effective charge on its atoms during M-M bond formation promote a high ability of the element to cluster formation both with weak field ligands and with strong field one

  6. Kinetic studies of anomalous transport

    Tang, W.M.

    1990-11-01

    Progress in achieving a physics-based understanding of anomalous transport in toroidal systems has come in large part from investigations based on the proposition that low frequency electrostatic microinstabilities are dominant in the bulk (''confinement'') region of these plasmas. Although the presence here of drift-type modes dependent on trapped particle and ion temperature gradient driven effects appears to be consistent with a number of important observed confinement trends, conventional estimates for these instabilities cannot account for the strong current (I p ) and /or q-scaling frequently found in empirically deduced global energy confinement times for auxiliary-heated discharges. The present paper deals with both linear and nonlinear physics features, ignored in simpler estimates, which could introduce an appreciable local dependence on current. It is also pointed out that while the thermal flux characteristics of drift modes have justifiably been the focus of experimental studies assessing their relevance, other transport properties associated with these microinstabilities should additionally be examined. Accordingly, the present paper provides estimates and discusses the significance of anomalous energy exchange between ions and electrons when fluctuations are present. 19 refs., 3 figs

  7. Anomalous transport in toroidal plasmas

    Punjabi, A.

    1989-12-01

    When the magnetic moment of particle is conserved, there are three mechanisms which cause anomalous transport. These are: variation of magnetic field strength in flux surface, variation of electrostatic potential in flux surface, and destruction of flux surface. The anomalous transport of different groups of particles resulting from each of these mechanisms is different. This fact can be exploited to determine the cause of transport operative in an experimental situation. This approach can give far more information on the transport than the standard confinement time measurements. To implement this approach, we have developed Monte Carlo codes for toroidal geometries. The equations of motion are developed in a set of non-canonical, practical Boozer co-ordinates by means of Jacobian transformations of the particle drift Hamiltonian equations of motion. Effects of collisions are included by appropriate stochastic changes in the constants of motion. Effects of the loop voltage on particle motions are also included. We plan to apply our method to study two problems: the problem of the hot electron tail observed in edge region of ZT-40, and the energy confinement time in TOKAPOLE II. For the ZT-40 problem three situations will be considered: a single mode in the core, a stochastic region that covers half the minor radius, a stochastic region that covers the entire plasma. A turbulent spectrum of perturbations based on the experimental data of TOKAPOLE II will be developed. This will be used to simulate electron transport resulting from ideal instabilities and resistive instabilities in TOKAPOLE II

  8. Anomalous transport in toroidal plasmas

    Punjabi, A.

    1991-01-01

    We have developed a Monte Carlo method to estimate the transport of different groups of particles for plasmas in toroidal geometries. This method can determine the important transport mechanisms driving the anomalous transport by comparing the numerical results with the experimental data. The important groups of particles whose transport can be estimated by this method include runaway electrons, thermal electrons, both passing and trapped diagnostic beam ions etc. The three basic mechanisms driving the anomalous transport are: spatial variation of magnetic field strength, spatial variation of electrostatic potential within the flux surfaces, and the loss of flux surfaces. The equation of motion are obtained from the drift hamiltonian. The equations of motion are developed in the canonical and in the non-canonical, practical co-ordinates as well. The effects of collisions are represented by appropriate stochastic changes in the constants of motion at each time-step. Here we present the results of application of this method to three cases: superathermal alphas in the rippled field of tokamaks, motion in the magnetic turbulence of takapole II, and transport in the stochastic fields of ZT40. This work is supported by DOE OFE and ORAU HBCU program

  9. Chemical dispersants

    Rahsepar, Shokouhalsadat; Smit, Martijn P.J.; Murk, Albertinka J.; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M.; Langenhoff, Alette A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Chemical dispersants were used in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, both at the sea surface and the wellhead. Their effect on oil biodegradation is unclear, as studies showed both inhibition and enhancement. This study addresses the effect of Corexit on oil

  10. Anomalous osmosis resulting from preferential absorption

    Staverman, A.J.; Kruissink, C.A.; Pals, D.T.F.

    1965-01-01

    An explanation of the anomalous osmosis described in the preceding paper is given in terms of friction coefficients in the glass membrane. It is shown that anomalous osmosis may be expected when the friction coefficients are constant and positive provided that the membrane absorbs solute strongly

  11. Anomalous columnar order of charged colloidal platelets

    Morales-Anda, L.; Wensink, H. H.; Galindo, A.; Gil-Villegas, A.

    2012-01-01

    Monte Carlo computer simulations are carried out for a model system of like-charged colloidal platelets in the isothermal-isobaric ensemble (NpT). The aim is to elucidate the role of electrostatic interactions on the structure of synthetic clay systems at high particle densities. Short-range repulsions between particles are described by a suitable hard-core model representing a discotic particle. This potential is supplemented with an electrostatic potential based on a Yukawa model for the screened Coulombic potential between infinitely thin disklike macro-ions. The particle aspect-ratio and electrostatic parameters were chosen to mimic an aqueous dispersion of thin, like-charged, rigid colloidal platelets at finite salt concentration. An examination of the fluid phase diagram reveals a marked shift in the isotropic-nematic transition compared to the hard cut-sphere reference system. Several statistical functions, such as the pair correlation function for the center-of-mass coordinates and structure factor, are obtained to characterize the structural organization of the platelets phases. At low salinity and high osmotic pressure we observe anomalous hexagonal columnar structures characterized by interpenetrating columns with a typical intercolumnar distance corresponding to about half of that of a regular columnar phase. Increasing the ionic strength leads to the formation of glassy, disordered structures consisting of compact clusters of platelets stacked into finite-sized columns. These so-called "nematic columnar" structures have been recently observed in systems of charge-stabilized gibbsite platelets. Our findings are corroborated by an analysis of the static structure factor from a simple density functional theory.

  12. Anomalous transport in mirror systems

    Post, R.F.

    1979-01-01

    As now being explored for fusion applications confinement systems based on the mirror principle embody two kinds of plasma regimes. These two regimes are: (a) high-beta plasmas, stabilized against MHD and other low frequency plasma instabilities by magnetic-well fields, but characterized by non-Maxwellian ion distributions; (b) near-Maxwellian plasmas, confined electrostatically (as in the tandem mirror) or in a field-reversed region within the mirror cell. Common to both situations are the questions of anomalous transport owing to high frequency instabilities in the non-maxwellian portions of the plasmas. This report will summarize the status of theory and of experimental data bearing on these questions, with particular reference to the high temperature regimes of interest for fusion power

  13. Fluctuation relations for anomalous dynamics

    Chechkin, A V; Klages, R

    2009-01-01

    We consider work fluctuation relations (FRs) for generic types of dynamics generating anomalous diffusion: Lévy flights, long-correlated Gaussian processes and time-fractional kinetics. By combining Langevin and kinetic approaches we calculate the probability distributions of mechanical and thermodynamical work in two paradigmatic nonequilibrium situations, respectively: a particle subject to a constant force and a particle in a harmonic potential dragged by a constant force. We check the transient FR for two models exhibiting superdiffusion, where a fluctuation-dissipation relation does not exist, and for two other models displaying subdiffusion, where there is a fluctuation-dissipation relation. In the two former cases the conventional transient FR is not recovered, whereas in the latter two it holds either exactly or in the long-time limit. (letter)

  14. Dinotor model for anomalous nuclei

    Castillejo, L.; Goldhaber, A.S.; Jackson, A.D.; Johnson, M.B.

    1986-01-01

    The simplest version of the MIT bag model implies the existence of metastable toroidal bags, with large radius proportional to the enclosed baryon number, and small radius comparable to that of an ordinary nucleon (we refer to those toroidal bags as dinotors). Considerations of various possible instabilities, and of the effects of quark interactions through intermediate gluons, suggest that the metastability is still valid when the model is treated more realistically. These results might provide an explanation for reports of anomalously large interaction cross sections of secondary fragments (''anomalons'') observed in visual track detectors. However, it appears that the most likely characteristics of toroidal bags would not be compatible with those of anomalons, and would not be as easy to detect in emulsions. copyright 1986 Academic Press, Inc

  15. Anomalous Lorentz and CPT violation

    Klinkhamer, F. R.

    2018-01-01

    If there exists Lorentz and CPT violation in nature, then it is crucial to discover and understand the underlying mechanism. In this contribution, we discuss one such mechanism which relies on four-dimensional chiral gauge theories defined over a spacetime manifold with topology ℛ3 × S 1 and periodic spin structure for the compact dimension. It can be shown that the effective gauge-field action contains a local Chern-Simons-like term which violates Lorentz and CPT invariance. For arbitrary Abelian U(1) gauge fields with trivial holonomies in the compact direction, this anomalous Lorentz and CPT violation has recently been established perturbatively with a Pauli-Villars-type regularization and nonperturbatively with a lattice regularization based on Ginsparg-Wilson fermions.

  16. Anomalous transport regimes in a stochastic advection-diffusion model

    Dranikov, I.L.; Kondratenko, P.S.; Matveev, L.V.

    2004-01-01

    A general solution to the stochastic advection-diffusion problem is obtained for a fractal medium with long-range correlated spatial fluctuations. A particular transport regime is determined by two basic parameters: the exponent 2h of power-law decay of the two-point velocity correlation function and the mean advection velocity u. The values of these parameters corresponding to anomalous diffusion are determined, and anomalous behavior of the tracer distribution is analyzed for various combinations of u and h. The tracer concentration is shown to decrease exponentially at large distances, whereas power-law decay is predicted by fractional differential equations. Equations that describe the essential characteristics of the solution are written in terms of coupled space-time fractional differential operators. The analysis relies on a diagrammatic technique and makes use of scale-invariant properties of the medium

  17. The role of the second zero-dispersion wavelength in generation of supercontinua and bright-bright soliton-pairs across the zero-dispersion wavelength: erratum

    Frosz, Michael Henoch; Falk, Peter Andreas; Bang, Ole

    2007-01-01

    An erratum is presented explaining that the observation in the original paper (Optics Express, volume 13, issue 16, page 6181-6192, 2005), of a bright-bright soliton with one color in the anomalous dispersion region and the other color in the normal dispersion region was mistaken; both parts...

  18. Metapopulation extinction risk: dispersal's duplicity.

    Higgins, Kevin

    2009-09-01

    Metapopulation extinction risk is the probability that all local populations are simultaneously extinct during a fixed time frame. Dispersal may reduce a metapopulation's extinction risk by raising its average per-capita growth rate. By contrast, dispersal may raise a metapopulation's extinction risk by reducing its average population density. Which effect prevails is controlled by habitat fragmentation. Dispersal in mildly fragmented habitat reduces a metapopulation's extinction risk by raising its average per-capita growth rate without causing any appreciable drop in its average population density. By contrast, dispersal in severely fragmented habitat raises a metapopulation's extinction risk because the rise in its average per-capita growth rate is more than offset by the decline in its average population density. The metapopulation model used here shows several other interesting phenomena. Dispersal in sufficiently fragmented habitat reduces a metapopulation's extinction risk to that of a constant environment. Dispersal between habitat fragments reduces a metapopulation's extinction risk insofar as local environments are asynchronous. Grouped dispersal raises the effective habitat fragmentation level. Dispersal search barriers raise metapopulation extinction risk. Nonuniform dispersal may reduce the effective fraction of suitable habitat fragments below the extinction threshold. Nonuniform dispersal may make demographic stochasticity a more potent metapopulation extinction force than environmental stochasticity.

  19. Linear algebraic analyses of structures with one predominant type of anomalous scatterer

    Karle, J.

    1989-01-01

    Further studies have been made of the information content of the exact linear equations for analyzing anomalous dispersion data in one-wavelength experiments. The case of interest concerns structures containing atoms that essentially do not scatter anomalously and one type of anomalously scattering atoms. For this case, there are three alternative ways of writing the equations. The alternative sets of equations and the transformations for transforming one set into the other are given explicitly. Comparison calculations were made with different sets of equations. Isomorphous replacement information is readily introduced into the calculations and the advantage of doing so is clearly illustrated by the results. Another aspect of the potential of the exact linear algebraic theory is its application to multiple-wavelength experiments. Successful applications of the latter have been made by several collaborative groups of investigators. (orig.)

  20. The use of models to help in the decision making process related to response after an RDD (Radiological dispersion device) event

    Saint Yves, Thalis Leon de Avila; Lauria, Dejanira da Costa; Maia, Arlei; Andrade, Edson Ramos de

    2011-01-01

    Since the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, the assessment of radiological impacts for the public and the environment due to radionuclides being scattered by a radiological malevolent event has been a central focus. Models and computational codes have been developed and hypothetical scenarios have been formulated for establishing priority of countermeasures and protective actions; determining of generic operational guidelines; and assessment of risks for exposure population. In this study, a likely scenario was considered for evaluation of radiation exposures after a hypothetical radiological explosion of a 137 Cs device event in an urban environment. Joining to that, the main goal of this study is evaluating the usefulness of the sequential use of two codes for assessment of radiological consequence, and supporting decision making related to a RDD. A summary of the approaches of the two different codes, of their key inputs and outputs are presented. (author)

  1. Are anomalously short tunnelling times measurable?

    Delgado, V.; Muga, J.G.

    1996-01-01

    Low and Mende have analyzed the conditions that would make possible an actual measurement of an anomalously short traversal time through a potential barrier concluding that such a measurement cannot be made because it is not possible to describe the tunnelling of a wave packet initially close to the barrier by the open-quote open-quote usual wave packet space time analysis close-quote close-quote. We complement this work in several ways: It is argued that the described failure of the usual formalism occurs under a set of too restrictive conditions, some of them not physically motivated, so it does not necessarily imply the impossibility of such a measurement. However, by retaining only conditions well motivated on physical grounds we have performed a systematic numerical check which shows that the conclusion by Low and Mende is indeed generally valid. It is shown that, as speculated by Low and Mende, the process is dominated by over the barrier transmission. Copyright copyright 1996 Academic Press, Inc

  2. On the properties of two pulses propagating simultaneously in different dispersion regimes in a nonlinear planar waveguide

    Pietrzyk, M.E.

    1999-02-01

    Properties of two pulses propagating simultaneously in different dispersion regimes, anomalous and normal, in a Kerr-type planar waveguide are studied. It is found that the presence of the pulse propagating in normal dispersion regime can cause termination of catastrophic self-focusing of the pulse propagating in anomalous regime. It is also shown that the coupling between pulses can lead to spatio-temporal splitting of the pulse propagating in anomalous dispersion regime, but it does not lead to catastrophic self-focusing of the pulse propagating in normal dispersion regime. For the limiting case when the dispersive term of the pulse propagating in normal dispersion regime can be neglected an indication (based on the variational estimation) to a possibility of a stable self-trapped propagation of both pulses is obtained. This stabilization is similar to the one which was found earlier in media with saturation-type nonlinearity. (author)

  3. Experimentally validated dispersion tailoring in a silicon strip waveguide with alumina thin-film coating

    Guo, Kai; Christensen, Jesper Bjerge; Shi, Xiaodong

    2018-01-01

    We propose a silicon strip waveguide structure with alumina thin-film coating in-between the core and the cladding for group-velocity dispersion tailoring. By carefully designing the core dimension and the coating thickness, a spectrally-flattened near-zero anomalous group-velocity dispersion...

  4. Nanospikes functionalization as a universal strategy to disperse hydrophilic particles in non-polar media

    Hang, Tian; Chen, Hui-Jiuan; Wang, Ji; Lin, Di-an; Wu, Jiangming; Liu, Di; Cao, Yuhong; Yang, Chengduan; Liu, Chenglin; Xiao, Shuai; Gu, Meilin; Pan, Shuolin; Wu, Mei X.; Xie, Xi

    2018-05-01

    Dispersion of hydrophilic particles in non-polar media has many important applications yet remains difficult. Surfactant or amphiphilic functionalization was conventionally applied to disperse particles but is highly dependent on the particle/solvent system and may induce unfavorable effects and impact particle hydrophilic nature. Recently 2 μm size polystyrene microbeads coated with ZnO nanospikes have been reported to display anomalous dispersity in phobic media without using surfactant or amphiphilic functionalization. However, due to the lack of understanding whether this phenomenon was applicable to a wider range of conditions, little application has been derived from it. Here the anomalous dispersity phenomenons of hydrophilic microparticles covered with nanospikes were systematically assessed at various conditions including different particle sizes, material compositions, particle morphologies, solvent hydrophobicities, and surface polar groups. Microparticles were functionalized with nanospikes through hydrothermal route, followed by dispersity test in hydrophobic media. The results suggest nanospikes consistently prevent particle aggregation in various particle or solvent conditions, indicating the universal applicability of the anomalous dispersion phenomenons. This work provides insight on the anomalous dispersity of hydrophilic particles in various systems and offers potential application to use this method for surfactant-free dispersions.

  5. Anomalous magnetic moment with heavy virtual leptons

    Kurz, Alexander [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Liu, Tao; Steinhauser, Matthias [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik; Marquard, Peter [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2013-11-15

    We compute the contributions to the electron and muon anomalous magnetic moment induced by heavy leptons up to four-loop order. Asymptotic expansion is applied to obtain three analytic expansion terms which show rapid convergence.

  6. Tunneling Anomalous and Spin Hall Effects.

    Matos-Abiague, A; Fabian, J

    2015-07-31

    We predict, theoretically, the existence of the anomalous Hall effect when a tunneling current flows through a tunnel junction in which only one of the electrodes is magnetic. The interfacial spin-orbit coupling present in the barrier region induces a spin-dependent momentum filtering in the directions perpendicular to the tunneling current, resulting in a skew tunneling even in the absence of impurities. This produces an anomalous Hall conductance and spin Hall currents in the nonmagnetic electrode when a bias voltage is applied across the tunneling heterojunction. If the barrier is composed of a noncentrosymmetric material, the anomalous Hall conductance and spin Hall currents become anisotropic with respect to both the magnetization and crystallographic directions, allowing us to separate this interfacial phenomenon from the bulk anomalous and spin Hall contributions. The proposed effect should be useful for proving and quantifying the interfacial spin-orbit fields in metallic and metal-semiconductor systems.

  7. Anomalous neutron scattering and feroelectric modes

    Viswanathan, K.S.

    1977-01-01

    It is suggested that anomalous neutron scattering could prove a powerful experimental tool in studying ferroelectric phase transition, the sublattice displacements of the soft modes as well as their symmetry characteristics. (author)

  8. Anomalous Magnetic Excitations of Cooperative Tetrahedral Spin Clusters

    Prsa, K.; Rønnow, H.M.; Zaharko, O.

    2009-01-01

    An inelastic neutron scattering study of Cu2Te2O5X2 (X=Cl, Br) shows strong dispersive modes with large energy gaps persisting far above T-N, notably in Cu2Te2O5Br2. The anomalous features: a coexisting unusually weak Goldstone-like mode observed in Cu2Te2O5Cl2 and the size of the energy gaps can...... cannot be explained by existing theories, such as our mean-field or random-phase approximation. We argue that our findings represent a new general type of behavior due to intercluster quantum fluctuations and call for development of a new theoretical approach....

  9. Birefringent dispersive FDTD subgridding scheme

    De Deckere, B; Van Londersele, Arne; De Zutter, Daniël; Vande Ginste, Dries

    2016-01-01

    A novel 2D finite difference time domain (FDTD) subgridding method is proposed, only subject to the Courant limit of the coarse grid. By making mu or epsilon inside the subgrid dispersive, unconditional stability is induced at the cost of a sparse, implicit set of update equations. By only adding dispersion along preferential directions, it is possible to dramatically reduce the rank of the matrix equation that needs to be solved.

  10. Dispersion strengthening

    Scattergood, R.O.; Das, E.S.P.

    1976-01-01

    Using digital computer-based methods, models for dispersion strengthening can now be developed which take into account many of the important effects that have been neglected in the past. In particular, the self interaction of a dislocation can be treated, and a computer simulation method was developed to determine the flow stress of a random distribution of circular, impenetrable obstacles, taking into account all such interactions. The flow stress values depended on the obstacle sizes and spacings, over and above the usual 1/L dependence where L is the average obstacle spacing. From an analysis of the results, it was found that the main effects of the self interactions can be captured in a line tension analogue in which the obstacles appear to be penetrable

  11. Tailoring of the free spectral range and geometrical cavity dispersion of a microsphere by a coating layer.

    Ristić, Davor; Mazzola, Maurizio; Chiappini, Andrea; Rasoloniaina, Alphonse; Féron, Patrice; Ramponi, Roberta; Righini, Giancarlo C; Cibiel, Gilles; Ivanda, Mile; Ferrari, Maurizio

    2014-09-01

    The modal dispersion of a whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonator is a very important parameter for use in all nonlinear optics applications. In order to tailor the WGM modal dispersion of a microsphere, we have coated a silica microsphere with a high-refractive-index coating in order to study its effect on the WGM modal dispersion. We used Er(3+) ions as a probe for a modal dispersion assessment. We found that, by varying the coating thickness, the geometrical cavity dispersion can be used to shift overall modal dispersion in a very wide range in both the normal and anomalous dispersion regime.

  12. Wave power balance in resonant dissipative media with spatial and temporal dispersion

    Tokman, M.D.; Gavrilova, M.A.; Westerhof, E. . www.rijnh.nl

    2003-01-01

    A power balance for waves in resonant dissipative media is formulated, which generalizes well-known expressions for dielectric wave energy density, wave energy flux, and dissipated power density. The identification of the different terms with wave energy density and flux remains only phenomenological. The result is better viewed as an equation for the evolution of wave intensity. In that form, its consequences are discussed in particular in relation to anomalous dispersion. A discrimination is made between boundary and initial value problems. For boundary value problems, anomalous dispersion is shown not to lead to unphysical results. In contrast, for initial value problems the solution for the evolution of wave intensity is shown to be at fault in the case of anomalous dispersion. Further illustration is provided by consideration of wave dispersion in a medium of charged harmonic oscillators and of ordinary-mode dispersion in plasma. Both are characterized by anomalous dispersion and show marked differences in the solutions of the dispersion relation solved either for complex wave vector at real frequency, k(ω) (applicable to boundary value problems), or for complex frequency at real wave vector ω(k) (applicable to initial value problems). (author)

  13. Anomalous magnetohydrodynamics in the extreme relativistic domain

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    The evolution equations of anomalous magnetohydrodynamics are derived in the extreme relativistic regime and contrasted with the treatment of hydromagnetic nonlinearities pioneered by Lichnerowicz in the absence of anomalous currents. In particular we explore the situation where the conventional vector currents are complemented by the axial-vector currents arising either from the pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons of a spontaneously broken symmetry or because of finite fermionic density effects. After expanding the generally covariant equations in inverse powers of the conductivity, the relativistic analog of the magnetic diffusivity equation is derived in the presence of vortical and magnetic currents. While the anomalous contributions are generally suppressed by the diffusivity, they are shown to disappear in the perfectly conducting limit. When the flow is irrotational, boost-invariant and with vanishing four-acceleration the corresponding evolution equations are explicitly integrated so that the various physic...

  14. The vector meson with anomalous magnetic moment

    Boyarkin, O.M.

    1976-01-01

    The possibility of introducing an anomalous magnetic moment into the Stuckelberg version of the charged vector meson theory is considered. It is shown that the interference of states with spins equal to one and zero is absent in the presence of an anomalous magnetic moment of a particle. The differential cross section of scattering on the Coulomb field of a nucleus is calculated, and so are the differential and integral cross sections of meson pair production on annihilation of two gamma quanta. The two-photon mechanism of production of a meson pair in colliding electron-positron beams is considered. It is shown that with any value of the anomalous magnetic moment the cross section of the esup(+)esup(-) → esup(+)esup(-)γsup(*)γsup(*) → esup(+)esup(-)Wsup(+)Wsup(-) reaction exceeds that of the esup(+)esup(-) → γsup(*) → Wsup(+)Wsup(-) at sufficiently high energies

  15. The anomalous magnetic moment of the muon

    Jegerlehner, Friedrich

    2017-01-01

    This research monograph covers extensively the theory of the muon anomalous magnetic moment and provides estimates of the theoretical uncertainties. The muon anomalous magnetic moment is one of the most precisely measured quantities in elementary particle physics and provides one of the most stringent tests of relativistic quantum field theory as a fundamental theoretical framework. It allows for an extremely precise check of the standard model of elementary particles and of its limitations. This book reviews the present state of knowledge of the anomalous magnetic moment a=(g-2)/2 of the muon. Recent experiments at the Brookhaven National Laboratory now reach the unbelievable precision of 0.5 parts per million, improving the accuracy of previous g-2 experiments at CERN by a factor of 14. In addition, quantum electrodynamics and electroweak and hadronic effects are reviewed. Since non-perturbative hadronic effects play a key role for the precision test, their evaluation is described in detail. Perspectives fo...

  16. Total least squares for anomalous change detection

    Theiler, James; Matsekh, Anna M.

    2010-04-01

    A family of subtraction-based anomalous change detection algorithms is derived from a total least squares (TLSQ) framework. This provides an alternative to the well-known chronochrome algorithm, which is derived from ordinary least squares. In both cases, the most anomalous changes are identified with the pixels that exhibit the largest residuals with respect to the regression of the two images against each other. The family of TLSQbased anomalous change detectors is shown to be equivalent to the subspace RX formulation for straight anomaly detection, but applied to the stacked space. However, this family is not invariant to linear coordinate transforms. On the other hand, whitened TLSQ is coordinate invariant, and special cases of it are equivalent to canonical correlation analysis and optimized covariance equalization. What whitened TLSQ offers is a generalization of these algorithms with the potential for better performance.

  17. Fractional diffusion equations and anomalous diffusion

    Evangelista, Luiz Roberto

    2018-01-01

    Anomalous diffusion has been detected in a wide variety of scenarios, from fractal media, systems with memory, transport processes in porous media, to fluctuations of financial markets, tumour growth, and complex fluids. Providing a contemporary treatment of this process, this book examines the recent literature on anomalous diffusion and covers a rich class of problems in which surface effects are important, offering detailed mathematical tools of usual and fractional calculus for a wide audience of scientists and graduate students in physics, mathematics, chemistry and engineering. Including the basic mathematical tools needed to understand the rules for operating with the fractional derivatives and fractional differential equations, this self-contained text presents the possibility of using fractional diffusion equations with anomalous diffusion phenomena to propose powerful mathematical models for a large variety of fundamental and practical problems in a fast-growing field of research.

  18. Interarterial course of anomalous right coronary artery: Pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment

    George Renchao Wu, BS

    2017-12-01

    A timely diagnosis of an anomalous coronary artery is critical in symptomatic patients because of the risk of sudden cardiac death, especially in patients with arteries with an interarterial course. This case demonstrates the importance of making the correct diagnosis, as appropriate surgical management can drastically improve outcomes.

  19. Anomalous diffusion in a dynamical optical lattice

    Zheng, Wei; Cooper, Nigel R.

    2018-02-01

    Motivated by experimental progress in strongly coupled atom-photon systems in optical cavities, we study theoretically the quantum dynamics of atoms coupled to a one-dimensional dynamical optical lattice. The dynamical lattice is chosen to have a period that is incommensurate with that of an underlying static lattice, leading to a dynamical version of the Aubry-André model which can cause localization of single-particle wave functions. We show that atomic wave packets in this dynamical lattice generically spread via anomalous diffusion, which can be tuned between superdiffusive and subdiffusive regimes. This anomalous diffusion arises from an interplay between Anderson localization and quantum fluctuations of the cavity field.

  20. Development of anomalous detection using movie prediction

    Sakakibara, Yoji; Demachi, Kazuyuki; Kawai, Masaki; Chhatluli, Ritu; Kamiaka, Kazuma

    2012-01-01

    In this research, the new method to predict the near-future of the movie images captured by video camera based on the combination of the Principle Component Analysis (PCA) and the Singular Spectral Analysis (SSA). In the normal condition of machines, the real-time captured movie is supposed to correspond to the predicted one. If the error between the both becomes significantly large, it may suggest some anomalous motion of the machines. So the movie prediction method has a possibility of the sensitive anomalous detection system. (author)

  1. On dispersive derivation of triangle anomaly

    Horejsi, J.

    1985-01-01

    A straightforward generalization of the results of some previous treatments, in which the Adler-Bell-Jachiw triangle anomaly has been recovered with the help of dispersion relation is presented. The absorptive part of the VVA triangle diagram with the external momenta k, p at vector vertices such as K 2 =p 2 =0 is considered. An integral of the imaginary part of the relevant invariant amplitude is calculated explicitly. It is shown that the anomalous contribution to the axial Ward identity is reproduced. This also enables one to demonstrate the delta-like behaviour of sich an imaginary part in k 2 → 0, m → 0 limit

  2. Seed dispersal in fens

    Middleton, Beth; van Diggelen, Rudy; Jensen, Kai

    Question: How does seed dispersal reduce fen isolation and contribute to biodiversity? Location: European and North American fens. Methods: This paper reviews the literature on seed dispersal to fens. Results: Landscape fragmentation may reduce dispersal opportunities thereby isolating fens and

  3. Anomalous behaviors during infiltration into heterogeneous porous media

    Aarão Reis, F. D. A.; Bolster, D.; Voller, V. R.

    2018-03-01

    Flow and transport in heterogeneous porous media often exhibit anomalous behavior. A physical analog example is the uni-directional infiltration of a viscous liquid into a horizontal oriented Hele-Shaw cell containing through thickness flow obstacles; a system designed to mimic a gravel/sand medium with impervious inclusions. When there are no obstacles present or the obstacles form a multi-repeating pattern, the change of the length of infiltration F with time t tends to follow a Fickian like scaling, F ∼t1/2 . In the presence of obstacle fields laid out as Sierpinski carpet fractals, infiltration is anomalous, i.e., F ∼ tn, n ≠ 1/2. Here, we study infiltration into such Hele-Shaw cells. First we investigate infiltration into a square cell containing one fractal carpet and make the observation that it is possible to generate both sub (n 1/2) diffusive behaviors within identical heterogeneity configurations. We show that this can be explained in terms of a scaling analysis developed from results of random-walk simulations in fractal obstacles; a result indicating that the nature of the domain boundary controls the exponent n of the resulting anomalous transport. Further, we investigate infiltration into a rectangular cell containing several repeats of a given Sierpinski carpet. At very early times, before the liquid encounters any obstacles, the infiltration is Fickian. When the liquid encounters the first (smallest scale) obstacle the infiltration sharply transitions to sub-diffusive. Subsequently, around the time where the liquid has sampled all of the heterogeneity length scales in the system, there is a rapid transition back to Fickian behavior. An explanation for this second transition is obtained by developing a simplified infiltration model based on the definition of a representative averaged hydraulic conductivity.

  4. tbW anomalous couplings in the Two Higgs Doublet Model

    Arhrib, Abdesslam; Jueid, Adil [Département de Mathématiques, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques,Université Abdelmalek Essaadi,B. 416, Tangier (Morocco)

    2016-08-11

    We make a complete one loop calculation of the tbW couplings in the Two Higgs Doublet Model. We evaluate both the anomalous couplings g{sub L} and g{sub R} as well as left handed and right handed component of tbW. The computation is done in the Feynman gauge using the on-shell scheme renormalization for the Standard Model wave functions and parameters. We first show that the relative corrections to these anomalous couplings are rather small in most regions of the parameter space. We then analyze the effects of these anomalous couplings on certain observables such as top quark polarization in single top production through t−channel as well as W{sup ±} boson helicity fractions in top decay.

  5. 'Complexity' and anomalous transport in space plasmas

    Chang, Tom; Wu Chengchin

    2002-01-01

    'Complexity' has become a hot topic in nearly every field of modern physics. Space plasma is of no exception. In this paper, it is demonstrated that the sporadic and localized interactions of magnetic coherent structures are the origin of 'complexity' in space plasmas. The intermittent localized interactions, which generate the anomalous diffusion, transport, and evolution of the macroscopic state variables of the overall dynamical system, may be modeled by a triggered (fast) localized chaotic growth equation of a set of relevant order parameters. Such processes would generally pave the way for the global system to evolve into a 'complex' state of long-ranged interactions of fluctuations, displaying the phenomenon of forced and/or self-organized criticality. An example of such type of anomalous transport and evolution in a sheared magnetic field is provided via two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations. The coarse-grained dissipation due to the intermittent triggered interactions among the magnetic coherent structures induces a 'fluctuation-induced nonlinear instability' that reconfigures the sheared magnetic field into an X-point magnetic geometry (in the mean field sense), leading to the anomalous acceleration of the magnetic coherent structures. A phenomenon akin to such type of anomalous transport and acceleration, the so-called bursty bulk flows, has been commonly observed in the plasma sheet of the Earth's magnetotail

  6. Anomalous Seebeck coefficient in boron carbides

    Aselage, T.L.; Emin, D.; Wood, C.; Mackinnon, I.D.R.; Howard, I.A.

    1987-01-01

    Boron carbides exhibit an anomalously large Seebeck coefficient with a temperature coefficient that is characteristic of polaronic hopping between inequivalent sites. The inequivalence in the sites is associated with disorder in the solid. The temperature dependence of the Seebeck coefficient for materials prepared by different techniques provides insight into the nature of the disorder

  7. Examination of anomalous self-experience

    Raballo, Andrea; Parnas, Josef

    2012-01-01

    . Here, we present the initial normative data and psychometric properties of a newly developed instrument (Examination of Anomalous Self-experience [EASE]), specifically designed to support the psychopathological exploration of SDs in both research and "real world" clinical settings. Our results support...

  8. Anomalous human behavior detection: An Adaptive approach

    Leeuwen, C. van; Halma, A.; Schutte, K.

    2013-01-01

    Detection of anomalies (outliers or abnormal instances) is an important element in a range of applications such as fault, fraud, suspicious behavior detection and knowledge discovery. In this article we propose a new method for anomaly detection and performed tested its ability to detect anomalous

  9. Anomalous VVH interactions at a linear collider

    Abstract. We examine, in a model independent way, the sensitivity of a linear collider to the couplings of a light Higgs boson to a pair of gauge bosons, including the possibility of. CP violation. We construct several observables that probe the various possible anomalous couplings. For an intermediate mass Higgs, a collider ...

  10. Anomalous Hall effect in disordered multiband metals

    Kovalev, A.A.; Sinova, Jairo; Tserkovnyak, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 105, č. 3 (2010), 036601/1-036601/4 ISSN 0031-9007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : anomalous Hall effect * spintronics Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 7.621, year: 2010

  11. Anomalous VVH interactions at a linear collider

    We examine, in a model independent way, the sensitivity of a linear collider to the couplings of a light Higgs boson to a pair of gauge bosons, including the possibility of CP violation. We construct several observables that probe the various possible anomalous couplings. For an intermediate mass Higgs, a collider operating ...

  12. Anomalous Hall conductivity: Local orbitals approach

    Středa, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 4 (2010), 045115/1-045115/9 ISSN 1098-0121 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : anomalous Hall effect * Berry phase correction * orbital polarization momentum Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.772, year: 2010

  13. Bunburra Rockhole: A New Anomalous Achondrite

    Bland, P.A.; Spurný, Pavel; Greenwood, R.C.; Towner, M.C.; Bevan, A.W.R.; Bottke jr., W.F.; Shrbený, Lukáš; McClafferty, T.; Vaughan, D.; Benedix, G.K.; Franchi, I.A.; Hough, R.M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 72, Supplement (2009), A34-A34 ISSN 1086-9379. [Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society /72./. Nancy, 13.06.2009-18.06.2009] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : Bunburra Rockhole * anomalous achondrite Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 3.253, year: 2009

  14. Anomalous Levinson theorem and supersymmetric quantum mechanics

    Boya, L.J.; Casahorran, J.; Esteve, J.G.

    1993-01-01

    We analyse the symmetry breaking associated to anomalous realization of supersymmetry in the context of SUSY QM. In this case one of the SUSY partners is singular; that leads to peculiar forms of the Levinson theorem relating phase shifts and bound states. Some examples are exhibited; peculiarities include negative energies, incomplete pairing of states and extra phases in scattering. (Author) 8 refs

  15. A laboratory dispersant effectiveness test which reflects dispersant efficiency in the field

    Lunel, T.; Wood, P.

    1996-01-01

    Oil dispersion efficiencies of surfactants, from laboratory dispersion tests and field data were compared and calibrated. Data from an oil spill, where dispersants were used as a major part of the response, was analysed. The data was accumulated through the monitoring of the dispersant operation of the Sea Empress spill incident, in which Forties Blend oil was spilled at sea. This detailed data set was used to calibrate existing laboratory dispersant tests, and to devise a new International Dispersant Effectiveness Test. The objective was to create a comprehensive guide to decision making on whether and when to start a dispersant spraying operation. The dispersion efficiencies obtained from the laboratory dispersant tests were compared with field data. Flume tests produced the highest percentage of dispersed oil for all the dispersal tests. However, it was emphasised that the total percentage of oil dispersed should not be the only measure of dispersant effectiveness, since it does not distinguish between the contribution of natural and chemically enhanced dispersion. 9 refs., 1 tab., 9 figs

  16. Decision analysis to define the optimal management of athletes with anomalous aortic origin of a coronary artery.

    Mery, Carlos M; Lopez, Keila N; Molossi, Silvana; Sexson-Tejtel, S Kristen; Krishnamurthy, Rajesh; McKenzie, E Dean; Fraser, Charles D; Cantor, Scott B

    2016-11-01

    The goal of this study was to use decision analysis to evaluate the impact of varying uncertainties on the outcomes of patients with anomalous aortic origin of a coronary artery. Two separate decision analysis models were created: one for anomalous left coronary artery (ALCA) and one for anomalous right coronary artery (ARCA). Three strategies were compared: observation, exercise restriction, and surgery. Probabilities and health utilities were estimated on the basis of existing literature. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. Surgery was the optimal management strategy for patients management in anomalous aortic origin of a coronary artery depends on multiple factors, including individual patient characteristics. Decision analysis provides a tool to understand how these characteristics affect the outcomes with each management strategy and thus may aid in the decision making process for a particular patient. Copyright © 2016 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Ion anomalous transport and feedback control. Final technical report, September 1, 1987 - August 31, 1997

    Sen, A.K.

    1998-01-01

    This final report is comprised of the following six progress reports: Ion Temperature Gradient Instability and Anomalous Transport, July 1989; Ion Temperature Gradient Instability and Anomalous Transport, August 1991; Ion Temperature Gradient Instability and Anomalous Transport, July 1993; Ion Anomalous Transport and Feedback Control, May 1994; Ion Anomalous Transport and Feedback Control, April 1995; and Ion Anomalous Transport and Feedback Control, December 1997

  18. Suppression of anomalous synchronization and nonstationary behavior of neural network under small-world topology

    Boaretto, B. R. R.; Budzinski, R. C.; Prado, T. L.; Kurths, J.; Lopes, S. R.

    2018-05-01

    It is known that neural networks under small-world topology can present anomalous synchronization and nonstationary behavior for weak coupling regimes. Here, we propose methods to suppress the anomalous synchronization and also to diminish the nonstationary behavior occurring in weakly coupled neural network under small-world topology. We consider a network of 2000 thermally sensitive identical neurons, based on the model of Hodgkin-Huxley in a small-world topology, with the probability of adding non local connection equal to p = 0 . 001. Based on experimental protocols to suppress anomalous synchronization, as well as nonstationary behavior of the neural network dynamics, we make use of (i) external stimulus (pulsed current); (ii) biologic parameters changing (neuron membrane conductance changes); and (iii) body temperature changes. Quantification analysis to evaluate phase synchronization makes use of the Kuramoto's order parameter, while recurrence quantification analysis, particularly the determinism, computed over the easily accessible mean field of network, the local field potential (LFP), is used to evaluate nonstationary states. We show that the methods proposed can control the anomalous synchronization and nonstationarity occurring for weak coupling parameter without any effect on the individual neuron dynamics, neither in the expected asymptotic synchronized states occurring for large values of the coupling parameter.

  19. Resurgence of the cusp anomalous dimension

    Dorigoni, Daniele; Hatsuda, Yasuyuki [DESY Theory Group, DESY Hamburg,Notkestrasse 85, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-09-21

    We revisit the strong coupling limit of the cusp anomalous dimension in planar N=4 super Yang-Mills theory. It is known that the strong coupling expansion is asymptotic and non-Borel summable. As a consequence, the cusp anomalous dimension receives non-perturbative corrections, and the complete strong coupling expansion should be a resurgent transseries. We reveal that the perturbative and non-perturbative parts in the transseries are closely interrelated. Solving the Beisert-Eden-Staudacher equation systematically, we analyze in detail the large order behavior in the strong coupling perturbative expansion and show that the non-perturbative information is indeed encoded there. An ambiguity of (lateral) Borel resummations of the perturbative expansion is precisely canceled by the contributions from the non-perturbative sectors, and the final result is real and unambiguous.

  20. Resurgence of the Cusp Anomalous Dimension

    Dorigoni, Daniele; Hatsuda, Yasuyuki [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group

    2015-06-15

    We revisit the strong coupling limit of the cusp anomalous dimension in planar N=4 super Yang-Mills theory. It is known that the strong coupling expansion is asymptotic and non-Borel summable. As a consequence, the cusp anomalous dimension receives non-perturbative corrections, and the complete strong coupling expansion should be a resurgent transseries. We reveal that the perturbative and non-perturbative parts in the transseries are closely interrelated. Solving the Beisert-Eden-Staudacher equation systematically, we analyze in detail the large order behavior in the strong coupling perturbative expansion and show that the non-perturbative information is indeed encoded there. An ambiguity of (lateral) Borel resummations of the perturbative expansion is precisely canceled by the contributions from the non-perturbative sectors, and the final result is real and unambiguous.

  1. Resurgence of the Cusp Anomalous Dimension

    Dorigoni, Daniele; Hatsuda, Yasuyuki

    2015-06-01

    We revisit the strong coupling limit of the cusp anomalous dimension in planar N=4 super Yang-Mills theory. It is known that the strong coupling expansion is asymptotic and non-Borel summable. As a consequence, the cusp anomalous dimension receives non-perturbative corrections, and the complete strong coupling expansion should be a resurgent transseries. We reveal that the perturbative and non-perturbative parts in the transseries are closely interrelated. Solving the Beisert-Eden-Staudacher equation systematically, we analyze in detail the large order behavior in the strong coupling perturbative expansion and show that the non-perturbative information is indeed encoded there. An ambiguity of (lateral) Borel resummations of the perturbative expansion is precisely canceled by the contributions from the non-perturbative sectors, and the final result is real and unambiguous.

  2. Anomalous properties of hot dense nonequilibrium plasmas

    Ferrante, G; Zarcone, M; Uryupin, S A

    2005-01-01

    A concise overview of a number of anomalous properties of hot dense nonequilibrium plasmas is given. The possibility of quasistationary megagauss magnetic field generation due to Weibel instability is discussed for plasmas created in atom tunnel ionization. The collisionless absorption and reflection of a test electromagnetic wave normally impinging on the plasma with two-temperature bi-maxwellian electron velocity distribution function are studied. Due to the wave magnetic field influence on the electron kinetics in the skin layer the wave absorption and reflection significantly depend on the degree of the electron temperature anisotropy. The linearly polarized impinging wave during reflection transforms into an elliptically polarized one. The problem of transmission of an ultrashort laser pulse through a layer of dense plasma, formed as a result of ionization of a thin foil, is considered. It is shown that the strong photoelectron distribution anisotropy yields an anomalous penetration of the wave field through the foil

  3. Anomalous enthalpy relaxation in vitreous silica

    Yue, Yuanzheng

    2015-01-01

    scans. It is known that the liquid fragility (i.e., the speed of the viscous slow-down of a supercooled liquid at its Tg during cooling) has impact on enthalpy relaxation in glass. Here, we find that vitreous silica (as a strong system) exhibits striking anomalies in both glass transition and enthalpy...... relaxation compared to fragile oxide systems. The anomalous enthalpy relaxation of vitreous silica is discovered by performing the hyperquenching-annealing-calorimetry experiments. We argue that the strong systems like vitreous silica and vitreous Germania relax in a structurally cooperative manner, whereas...... the fragile ones do in a structurally independent fashion. We discuss the origin of the anomalous enthalpy relaxation in the HQ vitreous silica....

  4. Anomalous feedback and negative domain wall resistance

    Cheng, Ran; Xiao, Di; Zhu, Jian-Gang

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic induction can be regarded as a negative feedback effect, where the motive-force opposes the change of magnetic flux that generates the motive-force. In artificial electromagnetics emerging from spintronics, however, this is not necessarily the case. By studying the current-induced domain wall dynamics in a cylindrical nanowire, we show that the spin motive-force exerting on electrons can either oppose or support the applied current that drives the domain wall. The switching into the anomalous feedback regime occurs when the strength of the dissipative torque β is about twice the value of the Gilbert damping constant α . The anomalous feedback manifests as a negative domain wall resistance, which has an analogy with the water turbine. (paper)

  5. Anomalous Hall effect in semiconductor quantum wells in proximity to chiral p -wave superconductors

    Yang, F.; Yu, T.; Wu, M. W.

    2018-05-01

    By using the gauge-invariant optical Bloch equation, we perform a microscopic kinetic investigation on the anomalous Hall effect in chiral p -wave superconducting states. Specifically, the intrinsic anomalous Hall conductivity in the absence of the magnetic field is zero as a consequence of Galilean invariance in our description. As for the extrinsic channel, a finite anomalous Hall current is obtained from the impurity scattering with the optically excited normal quasiparticle current even at zero temperature. From our kinetic description, it can be clearly seen that the excited normal quasiparticle current is due to an induced center-of-mass momentum of Cooper pairs through the acceleration driven by ac electric field. For the induced anomalous Hall current, we show that the conventional skew-scattering channel in the linear response makes the dominant contribution in the strong impurity interaction. In this case, our kinetic description as a supplementary viewpoint mostly confirms the results of Kubo formalism in the literature. Nevertheless, in the weak impurity interaction, this skew-scattering channel becomes marginal and we reveal that an induction channel from the Born contribution dominates the anomalous Hall current. This channel, which has long been overlooked in the literature, is due to the particle-hole asymmetry by nonlinear optical excitation. Finally, we study the case in the chiral p -wave superconducting state with a transverse conical magnetization, which breaks the Galilean invariance. In this situation, the intrinsic anomalous Hall conductivity is no longer zero. Comparison of this intrinsic channel with the extrinsic one from impurity scattering is addressed.

  6. Anomalous diffusion of fermions in superlattices

    Drozdz, S.; Okolowicz, J.; Srokowski, T.; Ploszajczak, M.

    1996-03-01

    Diffusion of fermions in the periodic two-dimensional lattice of fermions is studied. It is shown that effects connected with antisymmetrization of the wave function increase chaoticness of motion. Various types of anomalous diffusion, characterized by a power spectral analysis are found. The nonlocality of the Pauli potential destroys cantori in the phase space. Consequently, the diffusion process is dominated by long free paths and the power spectrum is logarithmic at small frequency limit. (author)

  7. What's wrong with anomalous chiral gauge theory?

    Kieu, T.D.

    1994-05-01

    It is argued on general ground and demonstrated in the particular example of the Chiral Schwinger Model that there is nothing wrong with apparently anomalous chiral gauge theory. If quantised correctly, there should be no gauge anomaly and chiral gauge theory should be renormalisable and unitary, even in higher dimensions and with non-Abelian gauge groups. Furthermore, it is claimed that mass terms for gauge bosons and chiral fermions can be generated without spoiling the gauge invariance. 19 refs

  8. Anomalous Symmetry Fractionalization and Surface Topological Order

    Xie Chen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In addition to possessing fractional statistics, anyon excitations of a 2D topologically ordered state can realize symmetry in distinct ways, leading to a variety of symmetry-enriched topological (SET phases. While the symmetry fractionalization must be consistent with the fusion and braiding rules of the anyons, not all ostensibly consistent symmetry fractionalizations can be realized in 2D systems. Instead, certain “anomalous” SETs can only occur on the surface of a 3D symmetry-protected topological (SPT phase. In this paper, we describe a procedure for determining whether a SET of a discrete, on-site, unitary symmetry group G is anomalous or not. The basic idea is to gauge the symmetry and expose the anomaly as an obstruction to a consistent topological theory combining both the original anyons and the gauge fluxes. Utilizing a result of Etingof, Nikshych, and Ostrik, we point out that a class of obstructions is captured by the fourth cohomology group H^{4}(G,U(1, which also precisely labels the set of 3D SPT phases, with symmetry group G. An explicit procedure for calculating the cohomology data from a SET is given, with the corresponding physical intuition explained. We thus establish a general bulk-boundary correspondence between the anomalous SET and the 3D bulk SPT whose surface termination realizes it. We illustrate this idea using the chiral spin liquid [U(1_{2}] topological order with a reduced symmetry Z_{2}×Z_{2}⊂SO(3, which can act on the semion quasiparticle in an anomalous way. We construct exactly solved 3D SPT models realizing the anomalous surface terminations and demonstrate that they are nontrivial by computing three-loop braiding statistics. Possible extensions to antiunitary symmetries are also discussed.

  9. Micro-instabilities and anomalous transport

    Connor, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    In order to optimise the design of a tokamak fusion reactor it is necessary to understand how the energy confinement time depends on the plasma and machine parameters. In principle the neo-classical theory provides this information but empirical evidence yields confinement times up to two orders of magnitude less than the predictions of this model. Experimental evidence of microscopic fluctuations in plasma density and other quantities suggests turbulent electro-magnetic fluctuations may be responsible for this anomalous transport. (Author)

  10. Anomalous cross-modulation between microwave beams

    Ranfagni, Anedio; Mugnai, Daniela; Petrucci, Andrea; Mignani, Roberto; Cacciari, Ilaria

    2018-06-01

    An anomalous effect in the near field of crossing microwave beams, which consists of an unexpected transfer of modulation from one beam to the other, has found a plausible interpretation within the framework of a locally broken Lorentz invariance. A theoretical approach of this kind deserves to be reconsidered also in the light of further experimental work, including a counter-check of the phenomenon.

  11. Anomalous hall effect in ferromagnetic semiconductors

    Jungwirth, Tomáš; Niu, Q.; MacDonald, A. H.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 20 (2002), s. 207208-1-207208-4 ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/02/0912; GA MŠk OC P5.10 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : ferromagnetic semiconductors * anomalous Hall effect Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 7.323, year: 2002

  12. Probing anomalous gauge boson couplings at LEP

    Dawson, S.; Valencia, G.

    1994-01-01

    We bound anomalous gauge boson couplings using LEP data for the Z → bar ∫∫ partial widths. We use an effective field theory formalism to compute the one-loop corrections resulting from non-standard model three and four gauge boson vertices. We find that measurements at LEP constrain the three gauge boson couplings at a level comparable to that obtainable at LEPII

  13. Anomalous dynamics of capillary rise in porous media

    Shikhmurzaev, Yulii D.

    2012-07-09

    The anomalous dynamics of capillary rise in a porous medium discovered experimentally more than a decade ago is described. The developed theory is based on considering the principal modes of motion of the menisci that collectively form the wetting front on the Darcy scale. These modes, which include (i) dynamic wetting mode, (ii) threshold mode, and (iii) interface depinning process, are incorporated into the boundary conditions for the bulk equations formulated in the regular framework of continuum mechanics of porous media, thus allowing one to consider a general case of three-dimensional flows. The developed theory makes it possible to describe all regimes observed in the experiment, with the time spanning more than four orders of magnitude, and highlights the dominant physical mechanisms at different stages of the process. © 2012 American Physical Society.

  14. Multislice CT imaging of anomalous coronary arteries

    Shi Heshui; Aschoff, Andrik J.; Brambs, Hans-Juergen; Hoffmann, Martin H.K.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the role of 16 multislice computed tomography (MSCT) to identify the origin of anomalous coronary arteries and to confirm their anatomic course in relation to the great vessels. Accuracy of coronary artery disease (CAD) detection was a secondary aim and was tested with conventional angiograms (CA) serving as standard of reference. Two hundred and forty-two consecutive patients referred for noninvasive coronary CT imaging were reviewed for the study. Sixteen patients (6.6%) with anomalous coronary arteries were detected and included as the study group. MSCT and CA images were analyzed in a blinded fashion for accuracy of anomalous artery origin and path detection. Results were compared in a secondary consensus evaluation. Accuracy ratios to detect CAD with MSCT in all vessels were calculated. Coronary anomalies for all 16 patients were correctly displayed on MSCT. CA alone achieved correct identification of the abnormality in only 53% (P=0.016). Sensitivity and specificity of MSCT to detect significantly stenosed vessels was 90 and 92%. 16-MSCT is accurate to delineate abnormally branching coronary arteries and allows sufficiently accurate detection of obstructive coronary artery disease in distal branches. It should therefore be considered as a prime non-invasive imaging tool for suspected coronary anomalies. (orig.)

  15. The Anomalous Magnetic Moment of the Muon

    Jegerlehner, Friedrich

    2008-01-01

    This book reviews the present state of knowledge of the anomalous magnetic moment a=(g-2)/2 of the muon. The muon anomalous magnetic moment amy is one of the most precisely measured quantities in elementary particle physics and provides one of the most stringent tests of relativistic quantum field theory as a fundamental theoretical framework. It allows for an extremely precise check of the standard model of elementary particles and of its limitations. Recent experiments at the Brookhaven National Laboratory now reach the unbelievable precision of 0.5 parts per million, improving the accuracy of previous g-2 experiments at CERN by a factor of 14. A major part of the book is devoted to the theory of the anomalous magnetic moment and to estimates of the theoretical uncertainties. Quantum electrodynamics and electroweak and hadronic effects are reviewed. Since non-perturbative hadronic effects play a key role for the precision test, their evaluation is described in detail. After the overview of theory, the exper...

  16. Anomalous momentum transport from drift waves

    Dominguez, R.R.; Staebler, G.M.

    1993-01-01

    A sheared slab magnetic field model B = B 0 [z + (x/L s )y], with inhomogeneous flows in the y and z directions, is used to perform a fully-kinetic stability analysis of the ion temperature gradient (ITG) and dissipative trapped electron (DTE) modes. The concomitant quasilinear stress components that couple to the local perpendicular (y-component) and parallel (z-component) momentum transport are also calculated and the anomalous perpendicular and parallel viscous stresses obtained. A breakdown of the ITG-induced perpendicular viscous stress is generally observed at moderate values of the sheared perpendicular flow. The ITG-induced parallel viscous stress is generally larger and strongly dependent on the sheared flows. The DTE-induced perpendicular viscous stress may sometimes be negative, tending to cancel the ITG contributions while the DTE-induced parallel viscous stress is generally small. The effect of the perpendicular stress component in the momentum balance equations is generally small while the parallel stress component can dominate the usual neoclassical viscous stress terms. The dominant contribution to parallel viscous stress by the ITG mode suggests that bulk plasma toroidal momentum confinement, like energy confinement, is governed by an anomalous ion loss mechanism. Furthermore, the large anomalous effect suggests that the neoclassical explanation of poloidal flows in tokamaks may be incorrect. The present results are in general agreement with existing experimental observations on momentum transport in tokamaks

  17. Anomalous dissolution of metals and chemical corrosion

    DRAGUTIN M. DRAZIC

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available An overview is given of the anomalous behavior of some metals, in particular Fe and Cr, in acidic aqueous solutions during anodic dissolution. The anomaly is recognizable by the fact that during anodic dissolutionmore material dissolves than would be expected from the Faraday law with the use of the expected valence of the formed ions. Mechanical disintegration, gas bubble blocking, hydrogen embrittlement, passive layer cracking and other possible reasons for such behavior have been discussed. It was shown, as suggested by Kolotyrkin and coworkers, that the reason can be, also, the chemical reaction in which H2O molecules with the metal form metal ions and gaseous H2 in a potential independent process. It occurs simultaneously with the electrochemical corrosion process, but the electrochemical process controls the corrosion potential. On the example of Cr in acid solution itwas shown that the reason for the anomalous behavior is dominantly chemical dissolution, which is considerably faster than the electrochemical corrosion, and that the increasing temperature favors chemical reaction, while the other possible reasons for the anomalous behavior are of negligible effect. This effect is much smaller in the case of Fe, but exists. The possible role of the chemical dissolution reacton and hydrogen evolution during pitting of steels and Al and stress corrosion cracking or corrosion fatigue are discussed.

  18. Integrating individual movement behaviour into dispersal functions.

    Heinz, Simone K; Wissel, Christian; Conradt, Larissa; Frank, Karin

    2007-04-21

    Dispersal functions are an important tool for integrating dispersal into complex models of population and metapopulation dynamics. Most approaches in the literature are very simple, with the dispersal functions containing only one or two parameters which summarise all the effects of movement behaviour as for example different movement patterns or different perceptual abilities. The summarising nature of these parameters makes assessing the effect of one particular behavioural aspect difficult. We present a way of integrating movement behavioural parameters into a particular dispersal function in a simple way. Using a spatial individual-based simulation model for simulating different movement behaviours, we derive fitting functions for the functional relationship between the parameters of the dispersal function and several details of movement behaviour. This is done for three different movement patterns (loops, Archimedean spirals, random walk). Additionally, we provide measures which characterise the shape of the dispersal function and are interpretable in terms of landscape connectivity. This allows an ecological interpretation of the relationships found.

  19. Anomalous effect of high-frequency ultrasound on radiation diffraction in deformed single crystals

    Iolin, E.M.; Rajtman, Eh.A.; Kuvaldin, B.V.; Zolotoyabko, Eh.V.

    1988-01-01

    Results are presented of a theoretical and experimental study of neutron and X-ray diffraction in defromed single crystals on high-frequency ultrasonic excitation. It is demonstrated theoretically that at a frequency exceeding a certain threshold value the ultrasound violates the adiabatic conditions for the excitation point motion on the dispersion surface branches. This leads to an anomalous (compared to diffraction for a perfect crystal) dependence of the diffraction intensity on the ultrasonic wave amplitude. The experimental data for Si crystals are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions

  20. Anomalous electrodynamics of neutral pion matter in strong magnetic fields

    Brauner, Tomáš [Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Stavanger,N-4036 Stavanger (Norway); Kadam, Saurabh V. [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER),Pune 411008 (India)

    2017-03-03

    The ground state of quantum chromodynamics in sufficiently strong external magnetic fields and at moderate baryon chemical potential is a chiral soliton lattice (CSL) of neutral pions https://arxiv.org/abs/1609.05213. We investigate the interplay between the CSL structure and dynamical electromagnetic fields. Our main result is that in presence of the CSL background, the two physical photon polarizations and the neutral pion mix, giving rise to two gapped excitations and one gapless mode with a nonrelativistic dispersion relation. The nature of this mode depends on the direction of its propagation, interpolating between a circularly polarized electromagnetic wave https://www.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.93.085036 and a neutral pion surface wave, which in turn arises from the spontaneously broken translation invariance. Quite remarkably, there is a neutral-pion-like mode that remains gapped even in the chiral limit, in seeming contradiction to the Goldstone theorem. Finally, we have a first look at the effect of thermal fluctuations of the CSL, showing that even the soft nonrelativistic excitation does not lead to the Landau-Peierls instability. However, it leads to an anomalous contribution to pressure that scales with temperature and magnetic field as T{sup 5/2}(B/f{sub π}){sup 3/2}.

  1. Polaritons dispersion in a composite ferrite-semiconductor structure near gyrotropic-nihility state

    Tuz, Vladimir R.

    2016-01-01

    In the context of polaritons in a ferrite-semiconductor structure which is influenced by an external static magnetic field, the gyrotropic-nihility can be identified from the dispersion equation related to bulk polaritons as a particular extreme state, at which the longitudinal component of the corresponding constitutive tensor and bulk constant simultaneously acquire zero. Near the frequency of the gyrotropic-nihility state, the conditions of branches merging of bulk polaritons, as well as an anomalous dispersion of bulk and surface polaritons are found and discussed. - Highlights: • Gyrotropic-nihility state is identified from the dispersion equation related to bulk polaritons in a magnetic-semiconductor superlattice. • The conditions of branches merging of bulk polaritons are found. • An anomalous dispersion of bulk and surface polaritons is found and discussed.

  2. Polaritons dispersion in a composite ferrite-semiconductor structure near gyrotropic-nihility state

    Tuz, Vladimir R., E-mail: tvr@rian.kharkov.ua

    2016-12-01

    In the context of polaritons in a ferrite-semiconductor structure which is influenced by an external static magnetic field, the gyrotropic-nihility can be identified from the dispersion equation related to bulk polaritons as a particular extreme state, at which the longitudinal component of the corresponding constitutive tensor and bulk constant simultaneously acquire zero. Near the frequency of the gyrotropic-nihility state, the conditions of branches merging of bulk polaritons, as well as an anomalous dispersion of bulk and surface polaritons are found and discussed. - Highlights: • Gyrotropic-nihility state is identified from the dispersion equation related to bulk polaritons in a magnetic-semiconductor superlattice. • The conditions of branches merging of bulk polaritons are found. • An anomalous dispersion of bulk and surface polaritons is found and discussed.

  3. Clock synchronization and dispersion

    Giovannetti, Vittorio; Lloyd, Seth; Maccone, Lorenzo; Wong, Franco N C

    2002-01-01

    We present a method to defeat effects of dispersion of timing signals when synchronizing clocks. It is based on the recently proposed 'conveyor belt synchronization' scheme and on the quantum dispersion cancellation effect

  4. Dispersion engineering of thick high-Q silicon nitride ring-resonators via atomic layer deposition.

    Riemensberger, Johann; Hartinger, Klaus; Herr, Tobias; Brasch, Victor; Holzwarth, Ronald; Kippenberg, Tobias J

    2012-12-03

    We demonstrate dispersion engineering of integrated silicon nitride based ring resonators through conformal coating with hafnium dioxide deposited on top of the structures via atomic layer deposition. Both, magnitude and bandwidth of anomalous dispersion can be significantly increased. The results are confirmed by high resolution frequency-comb-assisted-diode-laser spectroscopy and are in very good agreement with the simulated modification of the mode spectrum.

  5. Dielectric Dispersion Studies Indicate Change in Structure of Water by Potentised Homeopathic Medicines

    Mahata, C. R.

    2012-12-01

    Response of living bodies to different vastly `diluted' homeopathic medicines are different (rejecting the sceptic's view of `placebo' effect), though they are chemically same. Till now there is no satisfactory answer to how one such medicine differs from another in terms of scientifically measurable parameters. This paper tries to address this basic issue by taking two medicines of the same potency and two different potencies of the same medicine, namely, Arnica Mont 30c, 200c and Anacardium Orient 30c, 200c. These potencies are well above the Avogadro limit. The investigation reported here proceeds with the concept of `induced molecular structure' advanced by a number of scientists. Dielectric dispersion is used as the tool for experimental verification. It is based on the fact that when the exciting frequency of applied electric field equals the characteristic frequency, then macromolecules resonate leading to anomalous dielectric dispersion associated with sharp increase in dielectric loss, the resonance frequencies being different for macromolecules of different structures or dimensions. The results suggest that medicine- and potency-specific attributes are acquired by the vehicle (i.e. water) in the form of macromolecules generated by the potentization process of homeopathy making one medicine structurally different from another.

  6. Dispersing powders in liquids

    Nelson, RD

    1988-01-01

    This book provides powder technologists with laboratory procedures for selecting dispersing agents and preparing stable dispersions that can then be used in particle size characterization instruments. Its broader goal is to introduce industrial chemists and engineers to the phenomena, terminology, physical principles, and chemical considerations involved in preparing and handling dispersions on a commercial scale. The book introduces novices to: - industrial problems due to improper degree of dispersion; - the nomenclature used in describing particles; - the basic physica

  7. Applications of anomalous diffraction systems, generation of attosecond electron and photon pulses and Raman amplification by stimulated emission of radiation

    Vartak, Sameer Dinkar

    1998-10-01

    Anomalous diffraction is scattering process due to phase distortion introduced on incident phase front by scattering object. Phase mask or hologram, Christiansen filter, PDLC are examples of an anomalously diffracting systems. Phase hologram modulates an input wavefront to produce a wavefront which when Fourier transformed using a converging lens gives desired image on to a screen. We made a nonlinear optical element using phase mask made up of nonlinear material. It forms a lens because of nonlinear index of refraction when a high intensity beam is incident. This lens Fourier transforms the phase mask and images the phase mask. This nonlinear optical element can be used for various applications like image gating and 3-D memory writing and read out. Christiansen filter (CF) is a two component scattering system whose dispersion curves intersect at certain wavelength. Thus light corresponding to this wavelength traverses the filter without any scattering and light at other wavelengths gets scattered. This results in narrow wavelength dependent transmission curve centered at the index matching wavelength. When materials with an intensity dependent refractive index are used to make a CF, the index matching condition of CF becomes function of the input intensity resulting in intensity dependent beam size and transmittance through the filter. This property of nonlinear CF can be used to switch beam optically in both self and cross-modulation modes. Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystal (PDLC) is dispersion of liquid crystal droplets in polymer whose index of refraction is same as ordinary refractive index of liquid crystal. PDLC shows voltage dependent scattering and are used in flat panel displays. We used this element as voltage controlled intracavity loss element in a laser cavity to make a lasing pixel projection display. Output of this pixel shows all desired properties for a projection display like narrow linewidth, high brightness, TTL switching compatibility and

  8. Application of new synchrotron powder diffraction techniques to anomalous scattering from glasses

    Beno, M.A.; Knapp, G.S.; Armand, P.; Price, D.L.; Saboungi, M.

    1995-01-01

    We have applied two synchrotron powder diffraction techniques to the measurement of high quality anomalous scattering diffraction data for amorphous materials. One of these methods, which uses a curved perfect crystal analyzer to simultaneously diffract multiple powder lines into a position sensitive detector has been shown to possess high resolution, low background, and very high counting rates. This data measurement technique provides excellent energy resolution while minimizing systematic errors resulting from detector nonlinearity. Anomalous scattering data for a Cesium Germanate glass collected using this technique will be presented. The second powder diffraction technique uses a flat analyzer crystal to deflect multiple diffraction lines out of the equatorial plane. Calculations show that this method possesses sufficient energy resolution for anomalous scattering experiments when a perfect crystal analyzer is used and is experimentally much simpler. Future studies will make use of a rapid sample changer allowing the scattering from the sample and a standard material (a material not containing the anomalous scatterer) to be measured alternately at each angle, reducing systematic errors due to beam instability or sample misalignment

  9. Effect of radial electric field inhomogeneity on anomalous cross field plasma flux in Heliotron/Torsatron

    Yamagishi, Tomejiro; Sanuki, Heiji.

    1996-01-01

    Anomalous cross field plasma fluxes induced by the electric field fluctuations has been evaluated in a rotating plasma with shear flow in a helical system. The anomalous ion flux is evaluated by the contribution from ion curvature drift resonance continuum in the test particle model. The radial electric field induces the Doppler frequency shift which disappears in the frequency integrated anomalous flux. The inhomogeneity of the electric field (shear flow effect), however, induces a new force term in the flux. The curvature drift resonance also induces a new force term '/ which, however, did not make large influence in the ion flux in the CHS configuration. The shear flow term in the flux combined with the electric field in neoclassical flux reduces to a first order differential equation which governs the radial profile of the electric field. Numerical results indicate that the shear flow effect is important for the anomalous cross field flux and for determination of the radial electric field particularly in the peripheral region. (author)

  10. Contemporary Use of Anomalous Diffraction in Biomolecular Structure Analysis

    Liu Q.; Hendrickson, W.

    2017-01-01

    The normal elastic X-ray scattering that depends only on electron density can be modulated by an ?anomalous? component due to resonance between X-rays and electronic orbitals. Anomalous scattering thereby precisely identifies atomic species, since orbitals distinguish atomic elements, which enables the multi- and single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (MAD and SAD) methods. SAD now predominates in de novo structure determination of biological macromolecules, and we focus here on the prevailing SAD method. We describe the anomalous phasing theory and the periodic table of phasing elements that are available for SAD experiments, differentiating between those readily accessible for at-resonance experiments and those that can be effective away from an edge. We describe procedures for present-day SAD phasing experiments and we discuss optimization of anomalous signals for challenging applications. We also describe methods for using anomalous signals as molecular markers for tracing and element identification. Emerging developments and perspectives are discussed in brief.

  11. Analyzing the Anomalous Dipole Moment Type Couplings of Heavy Quarks with FCNC Interactions at the CLIC

    Senol, A.; Tasci, A. T.; Verep, C.

    2014-01-01

    We examine both anomalous magnetic and dipole moment type couplings of a heavy quark via its single production with subsequent dominant standard model decay modes at the compact linear collider (CLIC). The signal and background cross sections are analyzed for heavy quark masses 600 and 700 GeV. We make the analysis to delimitate these couplings as well as to find the attainable integrated luminosities for 3σ observation limit

  12. Rationality of the anomalous dimensions in N=4 SYM theory

    Genovese, Luigi; Stanev, Yassen S.

    2005-01-01

    We reconsider the general constraints on the perturbative anomalous dimensions in conformal invariant QFT and in particular in N=4 SYM with gauge group SU(N). We show that all the perturbative corrections to the anomalous dimension of a renormalized gauge invariant local operator can be written as polynomials in its one loop anomalous dimension. In the N=4 SYM theory the coefficients of these polynomials are rational functions of the number of colours N

  13. Presentation: 3D magnetic inversion by planting anomalous densities

    Uieda, Leonardo; Barbosa, Valeria C. F.

    2013-01-01

    Slides for the presentation "3D magnetic inversion by planting anomalous densities" given at the 2013 AGU Meeting of the Americas in Cancun, Mexico.   Note: There was an error in the title of the talk. The correct title should be "3D magnetic inversion by planting anomalous magnetization"   Abstract: We present a new 3D magnetic inversion algorithm based on the computationally efficient method of planting anomalous densities. The algorithm consists of an iterative growth of the an...

  14. Anomalous x-ray radiation of beam plasma

    Dimitrov, S.K.; Zavyalov, M.A.; Mikhin, S.G.; Tarasenkov, V.A.; Telkovskij, V.G.; Khrabrov, V.A.

    1985-01-01

    The properties of non-equilibrium stationary plasma under the conditions of the planned plasma-chemical reactors based on beam-plasma discharge were investigated. The x-ray spectrum of the beam-plasma was measured and anomalous spectral properties were analyzed. Starting with some critical pressure the anomalous radiation was added to the classical bremsstrahlung spectrum. The occurrence of anomalous radiation can be used to diagnose the condition of beam transportation in such systems. (D.Gy.)

  15. Connection between recurrence time statistics and anomalous transport

    Zaslavsky, G.M.; Tippett, M.K.

    1991-01-01

    For a model stationary flow with hexagonal symmetry, the recurrence time statistics are studied. The model has been shown to have a sharp transition from normal to anomalous transport. Here it is shown that this transition is accompanied by a correspondent change of the recurrence time statistics from normal to anomalous. The latter one displays the existence of a power tail. Recurrence time statistics provide a local measurement of anomalous transport that is of practical interest

  16. Inclusive anomalous muon production in e+e- annihilation

    Feldman, G.J.; Bulos, F.; Lueke, D.; Abrams, G.S.; Alam, M.S.; Boyarski, A.M.; Breidenbach, M.; Dorfan, J.; Friedberg, C.E.; Fryberger, D.; Goldhaber, G.; Hanson, G.; Heile, F.B.; Jaros, J.A.; Kadyk, J.A.; Larsen, R.R.; Litke, A.M.; Lueth, V.; Madaras, R.J.; Morehouse, C.C.; Nguyen, H.K.; Paterson, J.M.; Perl, M.L.; Peruzzi, I.; Piccolo, M.; Pierre, F.M.; Pun, T.P.; Rapidis, P.; Richter, B.; Sadoulet, B.; Schwitters, R.F.; Tanenbaum, W.; Trilling, G.H.; Vannucci, F.; Whitaker, J.S.; Wiss, J.E.

    1977-01-01

    We present measurements of inclusive anomalous muon production in e + e - annihilations in three energy ranges. In all three ranges we observe a large anomalous muon production rate in two-prong events which is compatible with the expected decays of pairs of heavy leptons. In the highest energy range there is also appreciable anomalous muon production in multiprong events which, due to its magnitude and momentum dependence, must come in part from a source other than a heavy lepton

  17. Anomalous Cepheids and population II blue stragglers

    Nemec, James M.

    Recent studies of anomalous Cepheids (ACs) and population II blue stragglers (BSs), including photometrically variable BSs (VBSs), are reviewed. The VBSs represent about 25 percent of the BSs, the majority of which are SX Phe short-period variables in the Cepheid instability strip. Mass estimates derived using various techniques suggest that both ACs and BSs are relatively massive (about 1.0-1.6 solar mass). The recent discovery that two BSs in the globular cluster NGC 5466 are contact binaries, and the earlier discovery that one of the BSs in Omega Cen is an eclipsing binary, provide direct evidence that at least some BSs are binary systems.

  18. Global constraints on top quark anomalous couplings

    Déliot, Frédéric; Faria, Ricardo; Fiolhais, Miguel C. N.; Lagarelhos, Pedro; Onofre, António; Pease, Christopher M.; Vasconcelos, Ana

    2018-01-01

    The latest results on top quark physics, namely single top quark production cross sections, W -boson helicity and asymmetry measurements are used to probe the Lorentz structure of the W t b vertex. The increase of sensitivity to new anomalous physics contributions to the top quark sector of the standard model is quantified by combining the relevant results from Tevatron and the Large Hadron Collider. The results show that combining an increasing set of available precision measurements in the search for new physics phenomena beyond the standard model leads to significant sensitivity improvements, especially when compared with the current expectation for the High Luminosity run at the LHC.

  19. Anomalous atomic volume of alpha-Pu

    Kollar, J.; Vitos, Levente; Skriver, Hans Lomholt

    1997-01-01

    We have performed full charge-density calculations for the equilibrium atomic volumes of the alpha-phase light actinide metals using the local density approximation (LDA) and the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The average deviation between the experimental and the GGA atomic radii is 1.......3%. The comparison between the LDA and GGA results show that the anomalously large atomic volume of alpha-Pu relative to alpha-Np can be ascribed to exchange-correlation effects connected with the presence of low coordinated sites in the structure where the f electrons are close to the onset of localization...

  20. Observations of anomalous fading in maiolica

    Bowman, S.G.E.

    1988-01-01

    In the course of an authenticity study on Italian maiolica (tin-glazed earthenware of the Renaissance period), storage at elevated temperature was used to accelerate anomalous fading. Substantial levels of fading were observed in about half of the samples, and in these cases the variation of fading with glow curve temperature accounted for the lack of an equivalent dose plateau. Some evidence was found for a difference in the fading between alpha and beta induced thermoluminescence (TL). More importantly, some samples with unstable natural TL were found: the implications of this for dating and the circumvention of fading are discussed. (author)

  1. Anomalous vector-boson self-interactions

    Nir, Y.

    1988-03-01

    We study the possibility that vector-boson self-couplings may differ from their standard model values. We find that known constraints from loop-effects and from unitarity already imply that such deviations are of order 10 -2 or less. Consequently, even if the correct model differs from the standard model and even if the energy scale of new physics is as low as 1 TeV, a direct observation of anomalous couplings is very improbable in the LEP-200 and Tevatron experiments. (author)

  2. The anomalous magnetic moment of the muon

    Farley, F.J.M.

    1975-01-01

    A historical survey of the measurements of the gyromagnetic ratio g of the muon. A brief introduction is given to the theory of the 'anomalous magnetic moment' a equivalent to 1/2(g-2) and its significance is explained. The main part of the review concerns the successive (g-2) experiments to measure a directly, with gradually increasing accuracy. At present experiment and theory agree to (13+-29) parts in 10 9 in g, and the muon still obeys the rules of quantum electrodynamics for a structureless point charge. (author)

  3. The role of the second zero-dispersion wavelength in generation of supercontinua and brigth-bright soliton-pairs across the zero-dispersion wavelength

    Frosz, Michael Henoch; Falk, Peter Andreas; Bang, Ole

    2005-01-01

    Supercontinuum generation with femtosecond pulses in photonic crystal fibers with two zero-dispersion wavelengths (ZDWs) is investigated numerically. The role of the higher ZDW is examined for 5 fiber designs with a nearly constant lower ZDW. It is found that the resulting spectrum is mainly....... Further, the generation of a bright-bright soliton-pair from an initial single red-shifted soliton is found. The soliton-pair has one color in the anomalous dispersion region and the other color in the normal dispersion region, which has not previously been described for bright-bright soliton-pairs....

  4. Theory of dispersive microlenses

    Herman, B.; Gal, George

    1993-01-01

    A dispersive microlens is a miniature optical element which simultaneously focuses and disperses light. Arrays of dispersive mircolenses have potential applications in multicolor focal planes. They have a 100 percent optical fill factor and can focus light down to detectors of diffraction spot size, freeing up areas on the focal plane for on-chip analog signal processing. Use of dispersive microlenses allows inband color separation within a pixel and perfect scene registration. A dual-color separation has the potential for temperature discrimination. We discuss the design of dispersive microlenses and present sample results for efficient designs.

  5. Zγ production at NNLO including anomalous couplings

    Campbell, John M.; Neumann, Tobias; Williams, Ciaran

    2017-11-01

    In this paper we present a next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) QCD calculation of the processes pp → l + l -γ and pp\\to ν \\overline{ν}γ that we have implemented in MCFM. Our calculation includes QCD corrections at NNLO both for the Standard Model (SM) and additionally in the presence of Zγγ and ZZγ anomalous couplings. We compare our implementation, obtained using the jettiness slicing approach, with a previous SM calculation and find broad agreement. Focusing on the sensitivity of our results to the slicing parameter, we show that using our setup we are able to compute NNLO cross sections with numerical uncertainties of about 0.1%, which is small compared to residual scale uncertainties of a few percent. We study potential improvements using two different jettiness definitions and the inclusion of power corrections. At √{s}=13 TeV we present phenomenological results and consider Zγ as a background to H → Zγ production. We find that, with typical cuts, the inclusion of NNLO corrections represents a small effect and loosens the extraction of limits on anomalous couplings by about 10%.

  6. Unparticles and anomalous dimensions in the cuprates

    Karch, Andreas [Department of Physics, University of Washington,3910 15th Ave. NE, Seattle, WA 98195-1560 (United States); Limtragool, Kridsanaphong; Phillips, Philip W. [Department of Physics and Institute for Condensed Matter Theory, University of Illinois,1110 W. Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2016-03-25

    Motivated by the overwhelming evidence some type of quantum criticality underlies the power-law for the optical conductivity and T−linear resistivity in the cuprates, we demonstrate here how a scale-invariant or unparticle sector can lead to a unifying description of the observed scaling forms. We adopt the continuous mass formalism or multi band (flavor) formalism of the unparticle sector by letting various microscopic parameters be mass-dependent. In particular, we show that an effective mass that varies with the flavor index as well as a running band edge and lifetime capture the AC and DC transport phenomenology of the cuprates. A key consequence of the running mass is that the effective dynamical exponent can differ from the underlying bare critical exponent, thereby providing a mechanism for realizing the fractional values of the dynamical exponent required in a previous analysis http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.91.155126. We also predict that regardless of the bare dynamical exponent, z, a non-zero anomalous dimension for the current is required. Physically, the anomalous dimension arises because the charge depends on the flavor, mass or energy. The equivalent phenomenon in a d+1 gravitational construction is the running of the charge along the radial direction. The nature of the superconducting instability in the presence of scale invariant stuff shows that the transition temperature is not necessarily a monotonic function of the pairing interaction.

  7. Elucidation of the mechanism for anomalous blueshift

    Kotaki, Hideyuki; Kando, Masaki; Koga, J.K.; Nakajima, Kazuhisa

    2004-01-01

    The anomalous blue shift of high intensity laser which was discovered by the present authors occurs in the process of gas ionization accompanied with the self-focusing. This shift does not depend either on the laser power or on the gas density and all photons are shifted by a certain frequency, while the one which has been known in common depends on both the intensity and density and only some part of the laser photons is shifted. In order to elucidate this phenomenon, the occurrence conditions of the anomalous blue shift were investigated and the results are compared with theory. The shifts were measured by focusing the laser beam in the gas-filled chamber with an off-axis-parabolic mirror and with a convex lens. When the reflective lens was used the amount of the shift depended significantly on the ionization rate of the plasma, while it depended on the pulse width when the transmission lens was used indicating that the shift is determined by the valence due to the ionization at the focusing point. (S. Funahashi)

  8. Anomalous Micellization of Pluronic Block Copolymers

    Leonardi, Amanda; Ryu, Chang Y.

    2014-03-01

    Poly(ethylene oxide) - poly(propylene oxide) - poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO) block copolymers, commercially known as Pluronics, are a unique family of amphiphilic triblock polymers, which self-assemble into micelles in aqueous solution. These copolymers have shown promise in therapeutic, biomedical, cosmetic, and nanotech applications. As-received samples of Pluronics contain low molecular weight impurities (introduced during the manufacturing and processing), that are ignored in most applications. It has been observed, however, that in semi-dilute aqueous solutions, at concentrations above 1 wt%, the temperature dependent micellization behavior of the Pluronics is altered. Anomalous behavior includes a shift of the critical micellization temperature and formation of large aggregates at intermediate temperatures before stable sized micelles form. We attribute this behavior to the low molecular weight impurities that are inherent to the Pluronics which interfere with the micellization process. Through the use of Dynamic Light Scattering and HPLC, we compared the anomalous behavior of different Pluronics of different impurity levels to their purified counterparts.

  9. Anomalous growth of Ba on Ag(111)

    Teodoro, O.M.N.D.; Los, J.; Moutinho, A.M.C.

    2002-01-01

    Electropositive elements are often adsorbed on metals to produce a well-known decrease in the surface work function. During deposition, the work function drops steeply and reaches a minimum at coverage lower than one monolayer. Then, it increases slightly and the work function converges to the value of the deposited element. In this work, we report anomalous behavior found during the deposition of barium on a Ag(111) surface. After a minimum of about 2.4 eV the work function did not increase up to 2.7 eV, the bulk barium work function, no matter what amount of barium was deposited. Auger electron spectroscopy corroborated these results in which we measured a permanent and constant intensity of the Ag MNN peak for high barium coverage. To explain this anomalous growth of barium on Ag(111) we propose an explanation based on the diffusion of silver atoms into the barium film. Further experiments showed that coadsorption of oxygen before a second deposition of barium blocked the diffusion thus allowing the work function to reach 2.7 eV

  10. Spectral dispersion and fringe detection in IOTA

    Traub, W. A.; Lacasse, M. G.; Carleton, N. P.

    1990-01-01

    Pupil plane beam combination, spectral dispersion, detection, and fringe tracking are discussed for the IOTA interferometer. A new spectrometer design is presented in which the angular dispersion with respect to wavenumber is nearly constant. The dispersing element is a type of grism, a series combination of grating and prism, in which the constant parts of the dispersion add, but the slopes cancel. This grism is optimized for the display of channelled spectra. The dispersed fringes can be tracked by a matched-filter photon-counting correlator algorithm. This algorithm requires very few arithmetic operations per detected photon, making it well-suited for real-time fringe tracking. The algorithm is able to adapt to different stellar spectral types, intensity levels, and atmospheric time constants. The results of numerical experiments are reported.

  11. Chaotic Lagrangian models for turbulent relative dispersion.

    Lacorata, Guglielmo; Vulpiani, Angelo

    2017-04-01

    A deterministic multiscale dynamical system is introduced and discussed as a prototype model for relative dispersion in stationary, homogeneous, and isotropic turbulence. Unlike stochastic diffusion models, here trajectory transport and mixing properties are entirely controlled by Lagrangian chaos. The anomalous "sweeping effect," a known drawback common to kinematic simulations, is removed through the use of quasi-Lagrangian coordinates. Lagrangian dispersion statistics of the model are accurately analyzed by computing the finite-scale Lyapunov exponent (FSLE), which is the optimal measure of the scaling properties of dispersion. FSLE scaling exponents provide a severe test to decide whether model simulations are in agreement with theoretical expectations and/or observation. The results of our numerical experiments cover a wide range of "Reynolds numbers" and show that chaotic deterministic flows can be very efficient, and numerically low-cost, models of turbulent trajectories in stationary, homogeneous, and isotropic conditions. The mathematics of the model is relatively simple, and, in a geophysical context, potential applications may regard small-scale parametrization issues in general circulation models, mixed layer, and/or boundary layer turbulence models as well as Lagrangian predictability studies.

  12. Explanatory hypotheses formation and the anomalous β spectrum

    Gauderis, Tjerk [Centre for Logic and Philosophy of Science, Ghent University (Belgium)

    2013-07-01

    Between 1928 and 1934, a persevering anomaly mystified the physics community: while alpha decay behaved perfectly according to the new quantum mechanics, the energy of electrons emitted in beta decay displayed a broad continuous spectrum. This puzzle invoked a lively debate among the most established physicists at the time. But the curious thing was that they all suggested hypotheses of very different formal types: Rutherford and Chadwick thought of varying internal energies, Bohr suggested to restrict the energy conservation principle, Heisenberg tinkered with a new quantization of space, and Pauli suggested the existence of a new elementary particle - all these hypotheses being radical and highly controversial. In physics, an anomalous experimental result can trigger the formation of formally very different hypotheses. A scientist confronted with such a result has no strict guidelines to help her decide whether she should explain this result by withdrawing or adapting a constraint (e.g. a law) of the current theory, or by presupposing the existence of a hitherto unobserved entity (e.g. a particle) that makes the anomaly fit within that theory. In this talk I aim to gain some insights how scientists make this choice, by examining in the above case study how the choice of the various mentioned physicists depended on their previous experiences and their specific perception of the problem.

  13. Fractional power-law spatial dispersion in electrodynamics

    Tarasov, Vasily E.; Trujillo, Juan J.

    2013-01-01

    Electric fields in non-local media with power-law spatial dispersion are discussed. Equations involving a fractional Laplacian in the Riesz form that describe the electric fields in such non-local media are studied. The generalizations of Coulomb’s law and Debye’s screening for power-law non-local media are characterized. We consider simple models with anomalous behavior of plasma-like media with power-law spatial dispersions. The suggested fractional differential models for these plasma-like media are discussed to describe non-local properties of power-law type. -- Highlights: •Plasma-like non-local media with power-law spatial dispersion. •Fractional differential equations for electric fields in the media. •The generalizations of Coulomb’s law and Debye’s screening for the media

  14. Contribution of MRI in supracardiac total anomalous pulmonary venous drainage

    Kastler, B.; Germain, P.; Gangi, A.; Klinkert, A.; Dietemann, J.L.; Wackenheim, A.; Livolsi, A.; Willard, D.

    1992-01-01

    A case of supracardiac total anomalous pulmonary venous drainage (TAPVD) in an infant aged 2 1/2 months is presented. Diagnosis was established non invasively by magnetic resonance image (MRI). Not only did MRI precisely depict the anomalous venous pathway but it moreover securely excluded pulmonary venous obstruction. (orig.)

  15. Anomalous structural changes and elastic properties of bismuth oxide superconductors

    He, Y.S.; Xiang, J.; Chang, F.G.; Zhang, J.C.; He, A.S.; Wang, H.; Gu, B.L.

    1989-01-01

    Ultrasonic measurement revealed that there are anomalous structural changes near 200 K in single 2212 or 2223 phase samples of Bi(Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O. Detailed study showed such anomalous changes are isothermal-like processes and have a characteristics of second order phase transition, accompanying with increases in lattice constants. The elastic properties of these ceramics and related systems are discussed

  16. Comment on anomalous dispersion and scattering rates for multiphonon spontaneous decay in He II

    Haavasoja, T.; Narayanamurti, V.; Chin, M. A.

    1984-10-01

    We report on new measurements of the spontaneous decay threshold energy E c for high-frequency phonon propagation in He II at saturated vapor pressure at T=0.1 K. Superconducting tin tunnel generators and aluminum tunnel detectors were used in this study. The measurements show that the mean free path becomes much larger than the propagation length of 1.1 mm for a value of E c =9.8±0.15 K. This agrees with the value originally reported ( E c =9.5±0.4 K) by Dynes and Narayanamurti using aluminum tunnel generators, but is shown to correspond to the point where the phase velocity equals the sound velocity, when the phonons become stable, as first proposed by Pitayevski and Levinson. Evidence for n-phonon decay at energies lower than E c is presented for n≳2 with a short mean free path (neutron data due to Donnelly, Donnelly, and Hills.

  17. Anomalous or regular capacitance? The influence of pore size dispersity on double-layer formation

    Jäckel, N.; Rodner, M.; Schreiber, A.; Jeongwook, J.; Zeiger, M.; Aslan, M.; Weingarth, D.; Presser, V.

    2016-09-01

    The energy storage mechanism of electric double-layer capacitors is governed by ion electrosorption at the electrode surface. This process requires high surface area electrodes, typically highly porous carbons. In common organic electrolytes, bare ion sizes are below one nanometer but they are larger when we consider their solvation shell. In contrast, ionic liquid electrolytes are free of solvent molecules, but cation-anion coordination requires special consideration. By matching pore size and ion size, two seemingly conflicting views have emerged: either an increase in specific capacitance with smaller pore size or a constant capacitance contribution of all micro- and mesopores. In our work, we revisit this issue by using a comprehensive set of electrochemical data and a pore size incremental analysis to identify the influence of certain ranges in the pore size distribution to the ion electrosorption capacity. We see a difference in solvation of ions in organic electrolytes depending on the applied voltage and a cation-anion interaction of ionic liquids in nanometer sized pores.

  18. Procedure for preparation of dispersions

    1978-01-01

    Procedure for the preparation of a water based dispersion of cerium oxide, characterised in that a suspension of cerium (IV) hydroxide is formed with an acid, where the acid is in the state of a disaggregation of aggregated crystalline cerium hydroxide, the suspension being preheated for a specified time and to a specified temperature, so that the pH value becomes constant, and whereby the quantity of acid in the suspension is such that the constant pH value is lower than 5.4, so that a conditioned suspension may be obtained, and water may be mixed with the conditioned suspension for making a water based dispersion of cerium oxide. (G.C.)

  19. Ability Dispersion and Team Performance

    Hoogendoorn, Sander; Parker, Simon C.; Van Praag, Mirjam

    What is the effect of dispersed levels of cognitive ability of members of a (business) team on their team's performance? This paper reports the results of a field experiment in which 573 students in 49 (student) teams start up and manage real companies under identical circumstances for one year. We...... ensured exogenous variation in otherwise random team composition by assigning students to teams based on their measured cognitive abilities. Each team performs a variety of tasks, often involving complex decision making. The key result of the experiment is that the performance of business teams first...... increases and then decreases with ability dispersion. We seek to understand this finding by developing a model in which team members of different ability levels form sub- teams with other team members with similar ability levels to specialize in different productive tasks. Diversity spreads production over...

  20. Anomalous water absorption in porous materials

    Lockington, D A

    2003-01-01

    The absorption of fluid by unsaturated, rigid porous materials may be characterized by the sorptivity. This is a simple parameter to determine and is increasingly being used as a measure of a material's resistance to exposure to fluids (especially moisture and reactive solutes) in aggressive environments. The complete isothermal absorption process is described by a nonlinear diffusion equation, with the hydraulic diffusivity being a strongly nonlinear function of the degree of saturation of the material. This diffusivity can be estimated from the sorptivity test. In a typical test the cumulative absorption is proportional to the square root of time. However, a number of researchers have observed deviation from this behaviour when the infiltrating fluid is water and there is some potential for chemo-mechanical interaction with the material. In that case the current interpretation of the test and estimation of the hydraulic diffusivity is no longer appropriate. Kuentz and Lavallee (2001) discuss the anomalous b...

  1. Anomalous Quantum Correlations of Squeezed Light

    Kühn, B.; Vogel, W.; Mraz, M.; Köhnke, S.; Hage, B.

    2017-04-01

    Three different noise moments of field strength, intensity, and their correlations are simultaneously measured. For this purpose a homodyne cross-correlation measurement [1] is implemented by superimposing the signal field and a weak local oscillator on an unbalanced beam splitter. The relevant information is obtained via the intensity noise correlation of the output modes. Detection details like quantum efficiencies or uncorrelated dark noise are meaningless for our technique. Yet unknown insight in the quantumness of a squeezed signal field is retrieved from the anomalous moment, correlating field strength with intensity noise. A classical inequality including this moment is violated for almost all signal phases. Precognition on quantum theory is superfluous, as our analysis is solely based on classical physics.

  2. Rooted triple consensus and anomalous gene trees

    Schmidt Heiko A

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anomalous gene trees (AGTs are gene trees with a topology different from a species tree that are more probable to observe than congruent gene trees. In this paper we propose a rooted triple approach to finding the correct species tree in the presence of AGTs. Results Based on simulated data we show that our method outperforms the extended majority rule consensus strategy, while still resolving the species tree. Applying both methods to a metazoan data set of 216 genes, we tested whether AGTs substantially interfere with the reconstruction of the metazoan phylogeny. Conclusion Evidence of AGTs was not found in this data set, suggesting that erroneously reconstructed gene trees are the most significant challenge in the reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships among species with current data. The new method does however rule out the erroneous reconstruction of deep or poorly resolved splits in the presence of lineage sorting.

  3. 44th Annual Anomalous Absorption Conference

    Beg, Farhat

    2014-03-03

    Conference Grant Report July 14, 2015 Submitted to the U. S. Department of Energy Attn: Dr. Sean Finnegan By the University of California, San Diego 9500 Gilman Drive La Jolla, California 92093 On behalf of the 44th Annual Anomalous Absorption Conference 8-13 June 2014, in Estes Park, Colorado Support Requested: $10,100 Amount expended: $3,216.14 Performance Period: 1 March 20 14 to 28 February 20 15 Principal Investigator Dr. Farhat Beg Center for Energy Research University of California, San Diego 9500 Gilman Drive La Jolla, California 92093-0417 858-822-1266 (telephone) 858-534-4543 (fax) fbeg@ucsd.edu Administrative Point of Contact: Brandi Pate, 858-534-0851, blpate®ucsd.edu I. Background The forty-fourth Anomalous Absorption Conference was held in Estes Park, Colorado from June 5-8, 2014 (aac2014.ucsd.edu). The first Anomalous Absorption Conference was held in 1971 to assemble experts in the poorly understood area of laser-plasma absorption. The goal of that conference was to address the anomalously large laser absorption seen in plasma experiments with respect to the laser absorption predicted by linear plasma theory. Great progress in this research area has been made in the decades since that first meeting, due in part to the scientific interactions that have occurred annually at this conference. Specifically, this includes the development of nonlinear laser-plasma theory and the simulation of laser interactions with plasmas. Each summer since that first meeting, this week-long conference has been held at unique locations in North America as a scientific forum for intense scientific exchanges relevant to the interaction of laser radiation with plasmas. Responsibility for organizing the conference has traditional rotated each year between the major Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) laboratories and universities including LANL, LLNL, LLE, UCLA UC Davis and NRL. As the conference has matured over the past four decades, its technical footprint has expanded

  4. Anomalous photon-assisted tunneling in graphene

    Iurov, Andrii; Gumbs, Godfrey; Roslyak, Oleksiy; Huang, Danhong

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the transmission of Dirac electrons through a potential barrier in the presence of circularly polarized light. An anomalous photon-assisted enhanced transmission is predicted and explained. It is demonstrated that the perfect transmission for nearly head-on collision in infinite graphene is suppressed in gapped dressed states of electrons, which is further accompanied by a shift of peaks as a function of the incident angle away from head-on collision. In addition, the perfect transmission is partially suppressed by a photon-induced gap in illuminated graphene. After the effect of rough edges of the potential barrier or impurity scattering is included, the perfect transmission with no potential barrier becomes completely suppressed and the energy range for the photon-assisted transmission is reduced at the same time. (paper)

  5. Anomalous krypton in the Allende meteorite

    Frick, U.

    1977-01-01

    The reported investigation provides important new data for the heavy noble gases, especially Kr, in the Allende meteorite. The data are used to criticize the original model of Lewis et al. (1975) based on the noble gas data of these researchers. The conclusions reached in the investigation support alternative models which have been mainly based on Xe data by Lewis et al. (1975, 1977). Because of the relatively high noble gas abundances in the separates studied, disturbance from nuclear effects occurring in situ such as spallation and neutron capture is insignificant, offering an opportunity to study primordial Ar, Kr, and Xe. The isotopic and abundance data obtained from the samples largely confirm the noble gas results of Lewis et al. (1975, 1977) where isotopic correlations agree with the correlations of the considered samples. It is found that both Kr and Xe data are consistent with a two component mixture of 'ordinary' as well as 'anomalous' planetary gases.

  6. Anomalous Abelian symmetry in the standard model

    Ramond, P.

    1995-01-01

    The observed hierarchy of quark and lepton masses can be parametrized by nonrenormalizable operators with dimensions determined by an anomalous Abelian family symmetry, a gauge extension to the minimal supersymmetric standard model. Such an Abelian symmetry is generic to compactified superstring theories, with its anomalies compensated by the Green-Schwarz mechanism. If we assume these two symmetries to be the same, we find the electroweak mixing angle to be sin 2 θ ω = 3/8 at the string scale, just by setting the ratio of the product of down quark to charged lepton masses equal to one at the string scale. This assumes no GUT structure. The generality of the result suggests a superstring origin for the standard model. We generalize our analysis to massive neutrinos, and mixings in the lepton sector

  7. Edge separation using diffraction anomalous fine structure

    Ravel, B.; Bouldin, C.E.; Renevier, H.; Hodeau, J.L.; Berar, J.F.

    1999-01-01

    We exploit the crystallographic sensitivity of the Diffraction Anomalous Fine-Structure (DAFS) measurement to separate the fine structure contributions of different atomic species with closely spaced resonant energies. In BaTiO 3 the Ti K edge and Ba Lm edges are separated by 281 eV, or about 8.2 Angstrom -1 ), thus severely limiting the information content of the Ti K edge signal. Using the site selectivity of DAFS we can separate the two fine structure spectra using an iterative Kramers-Kronig method, thus extending the range of the Ti K edge spectrum. This technique has application to many rare earth/transition metal compounds, including many magnetic materials of technological significance for which K and L edges overlap in energy. (au)

  8. Anomalous resistivity in the plasma opening switch

    Dolgachev, G I; Zakatov, L P; Kalinin, Yu G; Kingsep, A S; Nitishinskij, M S; Ushakov, A G [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation). Applied Physics Division

    1997-12-31

    Experimental studies and modelling together with analytical considerations of anomalous resistivity in the plasma opening switch (POS) are being pursued to improve the understanding of the physical mechanism of the POS conduction phase. Experiments have been undertaken for a `microsecond` POS of coaxial geometry. Measurements of Stark broadening of the H{sub {alpha}} line allowed turbulent oscillations in plasma to be found at the conductivity stage. A comparison with the modelling including low-frequency (ion-acoustic) turbulence and Doppler broadening (neutral gas temperature 1-3 eV) the electric field value to be estimated to 10-30 kV/cm. The turbulent field increased toward the cathode up to 50 kV/cm in the near-cathode layer. (author). 3 figs., 14 refs.

  9. Case report 376: Accessory (anomalous) soleus muscle

    Apple, J.S.; Khoury, M.B.; Martinez, S.; Nunley, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    In summary, a case has been presented of a 24-year-old woman who developed pain in the left lower extremity while jogging. Physical examination showed a soft, palpable mass medial and anterior to the Achilles tendon in the left lower extremity. Although a lipoma was suspected, plain films and CT studies indicated clearly that the mass was not of fatty density. In fact, the density of the mass was equivalent to adjacent muscles. The mass itself was lying in the soft tissues of the left ankle tissue. An open biopsy showed a normal muscle which represented an accessory soleus muscle - a muscle known to be anomalous on accoasion and reported as being symptomatic or asymptomatic in different individuals. (orig./SHA)

  10. Anomalous normal mode oscillations in semiconductor microcavities

    Wang, H. [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States). Dept. of Physics; Hou, H.Q.; Hammons, B.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Semiconductor microcavities as a composite exciton-cavity system can be characterized by two normal modes. Under an impulsive excitation by a short laser pulse, optical polarizations associated with the two normal modes have a {pi} phase difference. The total induced optical polarization is then expected to exhibit a sin{sup 2}({Omega}t)-like oscillation where 2{Omega} is the normal mode splitting, reflecting a coherent energy exchange between the exciton and cavity. In this paper the authors present experimental studies of normal mode oscillations using three-pulse transient four wave mixing (FWM). The result reveals surprisingly that when the cavity is tuned far below the exciton resonance, normal mode oscillation in the polarization is cos{sup 2}({Omega}t)-like, in contrast to what is expected form the simple normal mode model. This anomalous normal mode oscillation reflects the important role of virtual excitation of electronic states in semiconductor microcavities.

  11. Comparison of the anomalous and non-anomalous generalized Schwinger models via functional formalism

    Souza Dutra, A. de.

    1992-01-01

    The Green functions of the two versions of the two versions of the generalized Schwinger model, the anomalous and the non-anomalous one, in their higher order Lagrangian density form are calculated. Furthermore it is shown through a sequence of transformations that the bosonized Lagrangian density is equivalent to the former, at least for the bosonic correlation functions. The introduction of the sources from the beginning, leading to a gauge-invariant source term is also considered. It is verified that the two models have the same correlation functions only of the gauge-invariant sector is taken into account. Finally it is presented a generalization of the Wess-Zumino term, and its physical consequences are studied, in particular the appearance of gauge-dependent massive excitations. (author)

  12. A distribution-free test for anomalous gamma-ray spectra

    Chan, Kung-sik; Li, Jinzheng; Eichinger, William; Bai, Er-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Gamma-ray spectra are increasingly acquired in monitoring cross-border traffic, or in an area search for lost or orphan special nuclear material (SNM). The signal in such data is generally weak, resulting in poorly resolved spectra, thereby making it hard to detect the presence of SNM. We develop a new test for detecting anomalous spectra by characterizing the complete shape change in a spectrum from background radiation; the proposed method may serve as a tripwire for routine screening for SNM. We show that, with increasing detection time, the limiting distribution of the test is given by some functional of the Brownian bridge. The efficacy of the proposed method is illustrated by simulations. - Highlights: • We develop a new non-parametric test for detecting anomalous gamma-ray spectra. • The proposed test has good empirical power for detecting weak signals. • It can serve as an effective tripwire for invoking more thorough scrutiny of the source

  13. Anomalous diffusion in geophysical and laboratory turbulence

    A. Tsinober

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an overview and some new results on anomalous diffusion of passive scalar in turbulent flows (including those used by Richardson in his famous paper in 1926. The obtained results are based on the analysis of the properties of invariant quantities (energy, enstrophy, dissipation, enstrophy generation, helicity density, etc. - i.e. independent of the choice of the system of reference as the most appropriate to describe physical processes - in three different turbulent laboratory flows (grid-flow, jet and boundary layer, see Tsinober et al. (1992 and Kit et al. (1993. The emphasis is made on the relations between the asymptotic properties of the intermittency exponents of higher order moments of different turbulent fields (energy, dissipation, helicity, spontaneous breaking of isotropy and reflexional symmetry and the variability of turbulent diffusion in the atmospheric boundary layer, in the troposphere and in the stratosphere. It is argued that local spontaneous breaking of isotropy of turbulent flow results in anomalous scaling laws for turbulent diffusion (as compared to the scaling law of Richardson which are observed, as a rule, in different atmospheric layers from the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL to the stratosphere. Breaking of rotational symmetry is important in the ABL, whereas reflexional symmetry breaking is dominating in the troposphere locally and in the stratosphere globally. The results are of speculative nature and further analysis is necessary to validate or disprove the claims made, since the correspondence with the experimental results may occur for the wrong reasons as happens from time to time in the field of turbulence.

  14. No need to replace an "anomalous" primate (Primates) with an "anomalous" bear (Carnivora, Ursidae).

    Gutiérrez, Eliécer E; Pine, Ronald H

    2015-01-01

    By means of mitochondrial 12S rRNA sequencing of putative "yeti", "bigfoot", and other "anomalous primate" hair samples, a recent study concluded that two samples, presented as from the Himalayas, do not belong to an "anomalous primate", but to an unknown, anomalous type of ursid. That is, that they match 12S rRNA sequences of a fossil Polar Bear (Ursusmaritimus), but neither of modern Polar Bears, nor of Brown Bears (Ursusarctos), the closest relative of Polar Bears, and one that occurs today in the Himalayas. We have undertaken direct comparison of sequences; replication of the original comparative study; inference of phylogenetic relationships of the two samples with respect to those from all extant species of Ursidae (except for the Giant Panda, Ailuropodamelanoleuca) and two extinct Pleistocene species; and application of a non-tree-based population aggregation approach for species diagnosis and identification. Our results demonstrate that the very short fragment of the 12S rRNA gene sequenced by Sykes et al. is not sufficiently informative to support the hypotheses provided by these authors with respect to the taxonomic identity of the individuals from which these sequences were obtained. We have concluded that there is no reason to believe that the two samples came from anything other than Brown Bears. These analyses afforded an opportunity to test the monophyly of morphologically defined species and to comment on both their phylogenetic relationships and future efforts necessary to advance our understanding of ursid systematics.

  15. Dispersant effectiveness in the field on fresh oils and emulsions

    Lunel, T.; Davies, L.

    1996-01-01

    A detailed data set on the effectiveness of dispersants on fresh oils and emulsions, was presented. The data set could be used to calibrate laboratory dispersant tests and dispersion models so that oil spill response teams would have accurate information to make decisions regarding remediation processes. AEA Technology developed steady state continuous release experiments to provide a data set with quantitative measures of dispersant effectiveness in the field. The Sea Empress incident was closely monitored in order to compare the quantification obtained through field trials. It was noted that the prediction of the percentage of oil dispersed chemically is not the only indication of whether or not to use a dispersant. The important determinant to consider should be the extent to which the natural dispersion process would be enhanced by dispersant application. 17 refs., 5 tabs., 18 figs

  16. Dispersal of forest insects

    Mcmanus, M. L.

    1979-01-01

    Dispersal flights of selected species of forest insects which are associated with periodic outbreaks of pests that occur over large contiguous forested areas are discussed. Gypsy moths, spruce budworms, and forest tent caterpillars were studied for their massive migrations in forested areas. Results indicate that large dispersals into forested areas are due to the females, except in the case of the gypsy moth.

  17. Improved new generation dispersants

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The use of dispersants to combat oil spills has attracted controversy over the years, and there has been a number of accusations of the chemicals involved doing more harm than good. A new study by the International Petroleum Industry Environmental Conservation Association discusses the positive and the negatives of dispersant use to be considered when drawing up spill contingency plans. (author)

  18. Seed dispersal in fens

    Middleton, B.; Van Diggelen, R.; Jensen, K.

    2006-01-01

    Question: How does seed dispersal reduce fen isolation and contribute to biodiversity? Location: European and North American fens. Methods: This paper reviews the literature on seed dispersal to fens. Results: Landscape fragmentation may reduce dispersal opportunities thereby isolating fens and reducing genetic exchange. Species in fragmented wetlands may have lower reproductive success, which can lead to biodiversity loss. While fens may have always been relatively isolated from each other, they have become increasingly fragmented in modern times within agricultural and urban landscapes in both Europe and North America. Dispersal by water, animals and wind has been hampered by changes related to development in landscapes surrounding fens. Because the seeds of certain species are long-lived in the seed bank, frequent episodes of dispersal are not always necessary to maintain the biodiversity of fens. However, of particular concern to restoration is that some dominant species, such as the tussock sedge Carex stricta, may not disperse readily between fens. Conclusions: Knowledge of seed dispersal can be used to maintain and restore the biodiversity of fens in fragmented landscapes. Given that development has fragmented landscapes and that this situation is not likely to change, the dispersal of seeds might be enhanced by moving hay or cattle from fens to damaged sites, or by reestablishing lost hydrological connections. ?? IAVS; Opulus Press.

  19. Peclet number as affected by molecular diffusion controls transient anomalous transport in alluvial aquifer-aquitard complexes

    Zhang, Yong; Green, Christopher T.; Tick, Geoffrey R.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the role of the Peclet number as affected by molecular diffusion in transient anomalous transport, which is one of the major knowledge gaps in anomalous transport, by combining Monte Carlo simulations and stochastic model analysis. Two alluvial settings containing either short- or long-connected hydrofacies are generated and used as media for flow and transport modeling. Numerical experiments show that 1) the Peclet number affects both the duration of the power-law segment of tracer breakthrough curves (BTCs) and the transition rate from anomalous to Fickian transport by determining the solute residence time for a given low-permeability layer, 2) mechanical dispersion has a limited contribution to the anomalous characteristics of late-time transport as compared to molecular diffusion due to an almost negligible velocity in floodplain deposits, and 3) the initial source dimensions only enhance the power-law tail of the BTCs at short travel distances. A tempered stable stochastic (TSS) model is then applied to analyze the modeled transport. Applications show that the time-nonlocal parameters in the TSS model relate to the Peclet number, Pe. In particular, the truncation parameter in the TSS model increases nonlinearly with a decrease in Pe due to the decrease of the mean residence time, and the capacity coefficient increases with an increase in molecular diffusion which is probably due to the increase in the number of immobile particles. The above numerical experiments and stochastic analysis therefore reveal that the Peclet number as affected by molecular diffusion controls transient anomalous transport in alluvial aquifer–aquitard complexes.

  20. Simultaneous generation of tunable giant dispersive waves in the visible and mid-infrared regions based on photonic crystal fibers

    Zhang, Lei; Yang, Si-Gang; Chen, Hong-Wei; Chen, Ming-Hua; Xie, Shi-Zhong; Han, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Cherenkov radiation (CR) in both the visible and mid-infrared regions is simultaneously generated experimentally based on a photonic crystal fiber with two zero-dispersion wavelengths. The generation of CR in the visible region originates from solitons located in the anomalous group velocity dispersion (GVD) regime which are perturbed by positive third order dispersion. Conversely, the generation of CR in the mid-infrared region requires that the solitons in the anomalous GVD regime are perturbed by negative third order dispersion. The peak wavelength of the CR in the visible region can be tuned from 498 to 425 nm by increasing the average input pump power from 70 to 400 mW, while the peak wavelength of the CR in the mid-infrared region can be tuned from 1986 to 2279 nm by increasing the average input pump power from 70 to 320 mW. (paper)

  1. Anomalous dimensions of heavy operators from magnon energies

    Koch, Robert de Mello; Tahiridimbisoa, Nirina Hasina; Mathwin, Christopher [National Institute for Theoretical Physics,School of Physics and Mandelstam Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Witwatersrand,Wits, 2050 (South Africa)

    2016-03-22

    We study spin chains with boundaries that are dual to open strings suspended between systems of giant gravitons and dual giant gravitons. Motivated by a geometrical interpretation of the central charges of su(2|2), we propose a simple and minimal all loop expression that interpolates between the anomalous dimensions computed in the gauge theory and energies computed in the dual string theory. The discussion makes use of a description in terms of magnons, generalizing results for a single maximal giant graviton. The symmetries of the problem determine the structure of the magnon boundary reflection/scattering matrix up to a phase. We compute a reflection/scattering matrix element at weak coupling and verify that it is consistent with the answer determined by symmetry. We find the reflection/scattering matrix does not satisfy the boundary Yang-Baxter equation so that the boundary condition on the open spin chain spoils integrability. We also explain the interpretation of the double coset ansatz in the magnon language.

  2. Improving practical atmospheric dispersion models

    Hunt, J.C.R.; Hudson, B.; Thomson, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    The new generation of practical atmospheric dispersion model (for short range ≤ 30 km) are based on dispersion science and boundary layer meteorology which have widespread international acceptance. In addition, recent improvements in computer skills and the widespread availability of small powerful computers make it possible to have new regulatory models which are more complex than the previous generation which were based on charts and simple formulae. This paper describes the basis of these models and how they have developed. Such models are needed to satisfy the urgent public demand for sound, justifiable and consistent environmental decisions. For example, it is preferable that the same models are used to simulate dispersion in different industries; in many countries at present different models are used for emissions from nuclear and fossil fuel power stations. The models should not be so simple as to be suspect but neither should they be too complex for widespread use; for example, at public inquiries in Germany, where simple models are mandatory, it is becoming usual to cite the results from highly complex computational models because the simple models are not credible. This paper is written in a schematic style with an emphasis on tables and diagrams. (au) (22 refs.)

  3. The Braer incident: Dispersion in action

    Thomas, D.

    1993-01-01

    In January 1993, the tanker Braer foundered in the Shetland Islands and pollution from the cargo of 85,000 tonnes of Gullfaks crude oil was reported almost immediately. The tanker was battered by storm winds and finally broke up, spilling the remainder of its cargo into the bay at Garth's Ness. Dispersants were applied to the oil plumes, assisting the significant natural dispersion. Shoreline protection and cleanup activities included construction of spade dams and sorbent barriers. Oil concentrations in water, air, sediment, and fish were monitored. The sampling program undertaken during the spill period is described. Measured hydrocarbon concentrations in salmon farm areas were not observed to rise above 4 ppM. The high rates of dispersion make the Braer incident worthy of detailed study both in terms of understanding the mechanism of the dispersion process and also in assessing the environmental effects following high dispersed oil concentrations. Estimates of the spill's mass balance are provided for the bay at Garth's Ness, where the highest oil concentrations were observed, and along the 26 km of coastline which received the most significant concentrations of dispersed oil. Contrary to laboratory experiments which showed that the Gullfaks crude would emulsify at the high sea states prevailing at the time, the Braer spill did not emulsify and most of the oil released was dispersed naturally into the water column. It appears that it is most appropriate to model the Braer spill as a spillage of floating or dissolved chemical. 4 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs

  4. Statistical analysis of anomalous transport in resistive interchange turbulence

    Sugama, Hideo; Wakatani, Masahiro.

    1992-01-01

    A new anomalous transport model for resistive interchange turbulence is derived from statistical analysis applying two-scale direct-interaction approximation to resistive magnetohydrodynamic equations with a gravity term. Our model is similar to the K-ε model for eddy viscosity of turbulent shear flows in that anomalous transport coefficients are expressed in terms of by the turbulent kinetic energy K and its dissipation rate ε while K and ε are determined by transport equations. This anomalous transport model can describe some nonlocal effects such as those from boundary conditions which cannot be treated by conventional models based on the transport coefficients represented by locally determined plasma parameters. (author)

  5. Search for Anomalous Couplings in the Higgs Sector at LEP

    Achard, P; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Anselmo, F; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Bajo, A; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Baldew, S V; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, Sw; Barczyk, A; Barillère, R; Bartalini, P; Basile, M; Batalova, N; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Bellucci, L; Berbeco, R; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Biasini, M; Biglietti, M; Biland, A; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, Gerjan J; Böhm, A; Boldizsar, L; Borgia, B; Bottai, S; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, Maurice; Braccini, S; Branson, J G; Brochu, F; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A M; Casaus, J; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada, M; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chang, Y H; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chiefari, G; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Clare, I; Clare, R; Coignet, G; Colino, N; Costantini, S; de la Cruz, B; Cucciarelli, S; van Dalen, J A; De Asmundis, R; Déglon, P L; Debreczeni, J; Degré, A; Dehmelt, K; Deiters, K; Della Volpe, D; Delmeire, E; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; De Salvo, A; Diemoz, M; Dierckxsens, M; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, M; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Duchesneau, D; Duda, M; Echenard, B; Eline, A; El-Hage, A; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Extermann, P; Falagán, M A; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, M; Ferguson, T; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, F; Fisher, P H; Fisher, W; Fisk, I; Forconi, G; Freudenreich, Klaus; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gataullin, M; Gentile, S; Giagu, S; Gong, Z F; Grenier, G; Grimm, O; Grünewald, M W; Guida, M; van Gulik, R; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Haas, D; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Hirschfelder, J; Hofer, H; Hohlmann, M; Holzner, G; Hou, S R; Hu, Y; Jin, B N; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Kaur, M; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, J K; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, E W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Kopal, M; Koutsenko, V F; Kräber, M H; Krämer, R W; Krüger, A; Kunin, A; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Laktineh, I; Landi, G; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Le Goff, J M; Leiste, R; Levtchenko, M; Levchenko, P M; Li, C; Likhoded, S; Lin, C H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lü, Y S; Luci, C; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma Wen Gan; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mans, J; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Mazumdar, K; McNeil, R R; Mele, S; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Mihul, A; Milcent, H; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Mohanty, G B; Muanza, G S; Muijs, A J M; Musicar, B; Musy, M; Nagy, S; Natale, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Nisati, A; Novák, T; Nowak, H; Ofierzynski, R A; Organtini, G; Pal, I; Palomares, C; Paolucci, P; Paramatti, R; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, Felicitas; Pedace, M; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petersen, B; Piccolo, D; Pierella, F; Pioppi, M; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Pothier, J; Prokofev, D; Prokofiev, D O; Quartieri, J; Rahal-Callot, G; Rahaman, M A; Raics, P; Raja, N; Ramelli, R; Rancoita, P G; Ranieri, R; Raspereza, A V; Razis, P A; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Riemann, S; Riles, K; Roe, B P; Romero, L; Rosca, A; Rosemann, C; Rosenbleck, C; Rosier-Lees, S; Roth, S; Rubio, J A; Ruggiero, G; Rykaczewski, H; Sakharov, A; Saremi, S; Sarkar, S; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Sciacca, C; Servoli, L; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A V; Son, D; Souga, C; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Sushkov, S; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Szillási, Z; Tang, X W; Tarjan, P; Tauscher, Ludwig; Taylor, L; Tellili, B; Teyssier, D; Timmermans, C; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Tully, C; Tung, K L; Ulbricht, J; Valente, E; Van de Walle, R T; Vásquez, R; Veszpremi, V; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Vicinanza, D; Viertel, Gert M; Villa, S; Vivargent, M; Vlachos, S; Vodopyanov, I; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Wadhwa, M; Wang, Q; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Weber, M; Wilkens, H; Wynhoff, S; Xia, L; Xu, Z Z; Yamamoto, J; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yang, H J; Yang, M; Yeh, S C; Zalite, A; Zalite, Yu; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, J; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zhuang, H L; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, B; Zöller, M

    2004-01-01

    Anomalous couplings of the Higgs boson are searched for through the processes e^+ e^- -> H gamma, e^+ e^- -> e^+ e^- H and e^+ e^- -> HZ. The mass range 70 GeV ffbar, H -> gamma gamma, H -> Z\\gamma and H -> WW^(*) are considered and no evidence is found for anomalous Higgs production or decay. Limits on the anomalous couplings d, db, Delta(g1z), Delta(kappa_gamma) and xi^2 are derived as well as limits on the H -> gamma gamma and H -> Z gamma decay rates.

  6. Dispersal and metapopulation stability

    Shaopeng Wang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Metapopulation dynamics are jointly regulated by local and spatial factors. These factors may affect the dynamics of local populations and of the entire metapopulation differently. Previous studies have shown that dispersal can stabilize local populations; however, as dispersal also tends to increase spatial synchrony, its net effect on metapopulation stability has been controversial. Here we present a simple metapopulation model to study how dispersal, in interaction with other spatial and local processes, affects the temporal variability of metapopulations in a stochastic environment. Our results show that in homogeneous metapopulations, the local stabilizing and spatial synchronizing effects of dispersal cancel each other out, such that dispersal has no effect on metapopulation variability. This result is robust to moderate heterogeneities in local and spatial parameters. When local and spatial dynamics exhibit high heterogeneities, however, dispersal can either stabilize or destabilize metapopulation dynamics through various mechanisms. Our findings have important theoretical and practical implications. We show that dispersal functions as a form of spatial intraspecific mutualism in metapopulation dynamics and that its effect on metapopulation stability is opposite to that of interspecific competition on local community stability. Our results also suggest that conservation corridors should be designed with appreciation of spatial heterogeneities in population dynamics in order to maximize metapopulation stability.

  7. Anomalous Centrifugal Distortion in NH_2

    Martin-Drumel, Marie-Aline; Pirali, Olivier; Coudert, L. H.

    2017-06-01

    The NH2 radical spectrum, first observed by Herzberg and Ramsay, is dominated by a strong Renner-Teller effect giving rise to two electronic states: the bent X ^{2}B_1 ground state and the quasi-linear A ^{2}A_1 excited state. The NH2 radical has been the subject of numerous high-resolution investigations and its electronic and ro-vibrational transitions have been measured. Using synchrotron radiation, new rotational transitions have been recently recorded and a value of the rotational quantum number N as large as 26 could be reached. In the X ^{2}B_1 ground state, the NH2 radical behaves like a triatomic molecule displaying spin-rotation splittings. Due to the lightness of the molecule, a strong coupling between the overall rotation and the bending mode arises whose effects increase with N and lead to the anomalous centrifugal distortion evidenced in the new measurements.^d In this talk the Bending-Rotation approach developed to account for the anomalous centrifugal distortion of the water molecule is modified to include spin-rotation coupling and applied to the fitting of high-resolution data pertaining to the ground electronic state of NH2. A preliminary line position analysis of the available data^{c,d} allowed us to account for 1681 transitions with a unitless standard deviation of 1.2. New transitions could also be assigned in the spectrum recorded by Martin-Drumel et al.^d In the talk, the results obtained with the new theoretical approach will be compared to those retrieved with a Watson-type Hamiltonian and the effects of the vibronic coupling between the ground X ^{2}B_1 and the excited A ^{2}A_1 electronic state will be discussed. Herzberg and Ramsay, J. Chem. Phys. 20 (1952) 347 Dressler and Ramsay, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 25 (1959) 553 Hadj Bachir, Huet, Destombes, and Vervloet, J. Molec. Spectrosc. 193 (1999) 326 McKellar, Vervloet, Burkholder, and Howard, J. Molec. Spectrosc. 142 (1990) 319 Morino and Kawaguchi, J. Molec. Spectrosc. 182 (1997) 428

  8. #FluxFlow: Visual Analysis of Anomalous Information Spreading on Social Media.

    Zhao, Jian; Cao, Nan; Wen, Zhen; Song, Yale; Lin, Yu-Ru; Collins, Christopher

    2014-12-01

    We present FluxFlow, an interactive visual analysis system for revealing and analyzing anomalous information spreading in social media. Everyday, millions of messages are created, commented, and shared by people on social media websites, such as Twitter and Facebook. This provides valuable data for researchers and practitioners in many application domains, such as marketing, to inform decision-making. Distilling valuable social signals from the huge crowd's messages, however, is challenging, due to the heterogeneous and dynamic crowd behaviors. The challenge is rooted in data analysts' capability of discerning the anomalous information behaviors, such as the spreading of rumors or misinformation, from the rest that are more conventional patterns, such as popular topics and newsworthy events, in a timely fashion. FluxFlow incorporates advanced machine learning algorithms to detect anomalies, and offers a set of novel visualization designs for presenting the detected threads for deeper analysis. We evaluated FluxFlow with real datasets containing the Twitter feeds captured during significant events such as Hurricane Sandy. Through quantitative measurements of the algorithmic performance and qualitative interviews with domain experts, the results show that the back-end anomaly detection model is effective in identifying anomalous retweeting threads, and its front-end interactive visualizations are intuitive and useful for analysts to discover insights in data and comprehend the underlying analytical model.

  9. TargetVue: Visual Analysis of Anomalous User Behaviors in Online Communication Systems.

    Cao, Nan; Shi, Conglei; Lin, Sabrina; Lu, Jie; Lin, Yu-Ru; Lin, Ching-Yung

    2016-01-01

    Users with anomalous behaviors in online communication systems (e.g. email and social medial platforms) are potential threats to society. Automated anomaly detection based on advanced machine learning techniques has been developed to combat this issue; challenges remain, though, due to the difficulty of obtaining proper ground truth for model training and evaluation. Therefore, substantial human judgment on the automated analysis results is often required to better adjust the performance of anomaly detection. Unfortunately, techniques that allow users to understand the analysis results more efficiently, to make a confident judgment about anomalies, and to explore data in their context, are still lacking. In this paper, we propose a novel visual analysis system, TargetVue, which detects anomalous users via an unsupervised learning model and visualizes the behaviors of suspicious users in behavior-rich context through novel visualization designs and multiple coordinated contextual views. Particularly, TargetVue incorporates three new ego-centric glyphs to visually summarize a user's behaviors which effectively present the user's communication activities, features, and social interactions. An efficient layout method is proposed to place these glyphs on a triangle grid, which captures similarities among users and facilitates comparisons of behaviors of different users. We demonstrate the power of TargetVue through its application in a social bot detection challenge using Twitter data, a case study based on email records, and an interview with expert users. Our evaluation shows that TargetVue is beneficial to the detection of users with anomalous communication behaviors.

  10. Anomalous transport from holography. Part I

    Bu, Yanyan [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev,Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Lublinsky, Michael [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev,Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Physics Department, University of Connecticut,2152 Hillside Road, Storrs, CT 06269-3046 (United States); Sharon, Amir [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev,Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2016-11-17

    We revisit the transport properties induced by the chiral anomaly in a charged plasma holographically dual to anomalous U(1){sub V}×U(1){sub A} Maxwell theory in Schwarzschild-AdS{sub 5}. Off-shell constitutive relations for vector and axial currents are derived using various approximations generalising most of known in the literature anomaly-induced phenomena and revealing some new ones. In a weak external field approximation, the constitutive relations have all-order derivatives resummed into six momenta-dependent transport coefficient functions: the diffusion, the electric/magnetic conductivity, and three anomaly induced functions. The latter generalise the chiral magnetic and chiral separation effects. Nonlinear transport is studied assuming presence of constant background external fields. The chiral magnetic effect, including all order nonlinearity in magnetic field, is proven to be exact when the magnetic field is the only external field that is turned on. Non-linear corrections to the constitutive relations due to electric and axial external fields are computed.

  11. Anomalous transport from holography. Pt. II

    Bu, Yanyan; Sharon, Amir; Lublinsky, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This is a second study of chiral anomaly-induced transport within a holographic model consisting of anomalous U(1)_V x U(1)_A Maxwell theory in Schwarzschild-AdS_5 spacetime. In the first part, chiral magnetic/separation effects (CME/CSE) are considered in the presence of a static spatially inhomogeneous external magnetic field. Gradient corrections to CME/CSE are analytically evaluated up to third order in the derivative expansion. Some of the third order gradient corrections lead to an anomaly-induced negative B"2-correction to the diffusion constant. We also find modifications to the chiral magnetic wave nonlinear in B. In the second part, we focus on the experimentally interesting case of the axial chemical potential being induced dynamically by a constant magnetic and time-dependent electric fields. Constitutive relations for the vector/axial currents are computed employing two different approximations: (a) derivative expansion (up to third order) but fully nonlinear in the external fields, and (b) weak electric field limit but resuming all orders in the derivative expansion. A non-vanishing nonlinear axial current (CSE) is found in the first case. The dependence on magnetic field and frequency of linear transport coefficient functions is explored in the second. (orig.)

  12. Anomalous water diffusion in salt solutions

    Ding, Yun; Hassanali, Ali A.; Parrinello, Michele

    2014-01-01

    The dynamics of water exhibits anomalous behavior in the presence of different electrolytes. Recent experiments [Kim JS, Wu Z, Morrow AR, Yethiraj A, Yethiraj A (2012) J Phys Chem B 116(39):12007–12013] have found that the self-diffusion of water can either be enhanced or suppressed around CsI and NaCl, respectively, relative to that of neat water. Here we show that unlike classical empirical potentials, ab initio molecular dynamics simulations successfully reproduce the qualitative trends observed experimentally. These types of phenomena have often been rationalized in terms of the “structure-making” or “structure-breaking” effects of different ions on the solvent, although the microscopic origins of these features have remained elusive. Rather than disrupting the network in a significant manner, the electrolytes studied here cause rather subtle changes in both structural and dynamical properties of water. In particular, we show that water in the ab initio molecular dynamics simulations is characterized by dynamic heterogeneity, which turns out to be critical in reproducing the experimental trends. PMID:24522111

  13. Diagnosing Anomalous Network Performance with Confidence

    Settlemyer, Bradley W [ORNL; Hodson, Stephen W [ORNL; Kuehn, Jeffery A [ORNL; Poole, Stephen W [ORNL

    2011-04-01

    Variability in network performance is a major obstacle in effectively analyzing the throughput of modern high performance computer systems. High performance interconnec- tion networks offer excellent best-case network latencies; how- ever, highly parallel applications running on parallel machines typically require consistently high levels of performance to adequately leverage the massive amounts of available computing power. Performance analysts have usually quantified network performance using traditional summary statistics that assume the observational data is sampled from a normal distribution. In our examinations of network performance, we have found this method of analysis often provides too little data to under- stand anomalous network performance. Our tool, Confidence, instead uses an empirically derived probability distribution to characterize network performance. In this paper we describe several instances where the Confidence toolkit allowed us to understand and diagnose network performance anomalies that we could not adequately explore with the simple summary statis- tics provided by traditional measurement tools. In particular, we examine a multi-modal performance scenario encountered with an Infiniband interconnection network and we explore the performance repeatability on the custom Cray SeaStar2 interconnection network after a set of software and driver updates.

  14. Anomalous transport from holography. Pt. II

    Bu, Yanyan; Sharon, Amir [Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Department of Physics, Beersheba (Israel); Lublinsky, Michael [Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Department of Physics, Beersheba (Israel); University of Connecticut, Physics Department, Storrs, CT (United States)

    2017-03-15

    This is a second study of chiral anomaly-induced transport within a holographic model consisting of anomalous U(1){sub V} x U(1){sub A} Maxwell theory in Schwarzschild-AdS{sub 5} spacetime. In the first part, chiral magnetic/separation effects (CME/CSE) are considered in the presence of a static spatially inhomogeneous external magnetic field. Gradient corrections to CME/CSE are analytically evaluated up to third order in the derivative expansion. Some of the third order gradient corrections lead to an anomaly-induced negative B{sup 2}-correction to the diffusion constant. We also find modifications to the chiral magnetic wave nonlinear in B. In the second part, we focus on the experimentally interesting case of the axial chemical potential being induced dynamically by a constant magnetic and time-dependent electric fields. Constitutive relations for the vector/axial currents are computed employing two different approximations: (a) derivative expansion (up to third order) but fully nonlinear in the external fields, and (b) weak electric field limit but resuming all orders in the derivative expansion. A non-vanishing nonlinear axial current (CSE) is found in the first case. The dependence on magnetic field and frequency of linear transport coefficient functions is explored in the second. (orig.)

  15. Anomalous Anticipatory Responses in Networked Random Data

    Nelson, Roger D.; Bancel, Peter A.

    2006-01-01

    We examine an 8-year archive of synchronized, parallel time series of random data from a world spanning network of physical random event generators (REGs). The archive is a publicly accessible matrix of normally distributed 200-bit sums recorded at 1 Hz which extends from August 1998 to the present. The primary question is whether these data show non-random structure associated with major events such as natural or man-made disasters, terrible accidents, or grand celebrations. Secondarily, we examine the time course of apparently correlated responses. Statistical analyses of the data reveal consistent evidence that events which strongly affect people engender small but significant effects. These include suggestions of anticipatory responses in some cases, leading to a series of specialized analyses to assess possible non-random structure preceding precisely timed events. A focused examination of data collected around the time of earthquakes with Richter magnitude 6 and greater reveals non-random structure with a number of intriguing, potentially important features. Anomalous effects in the REG data are seen only when the corresponding earthquakes occur in populated areas. No structure is found if they occur in the oceans. We infer that an important contributor to the effect is the relevance of the earthquake to humans. Epoch averaging reveals evidence for changes in the data some hours prior to the main temblor, suggestive of reverse causation

  16. Drift wave vortices and anomalous transport

    Horton, W.

    1990-01-01

    Many plasma equations for drift waves and other modes possess vortex solutions, so it is important to consider the transport associated with vortex structures and their mutual interactions. Vortex structures occur when the amplitude of the fluctuation is sufficient to trap and circulate plasma around the vortex in one wave period. The vortex contribution of the diffusion of the passively convected scalar field was calculated. It was found that the field can be represented by the superposition of vortices and wave fluctuation components. For transport the computer solutions for the vortex-vortex collisions with various impact parameters while carrying along the passively convected scalar thermodynamic field were used. As the result, the inelastic collisions with b≅r 0 ≅1/k x cross-section σ(b)≅b exp(-b/r 0 )≅r 0 give the strongest transport. An example is shown in figure. As the final result, the anomalous diffusion D was derived in dimensional form. (M.T.)

  17. Anomalous Solubility Behavior of Several Acidic Drugs

    Alex Avdeef

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The “anomalous solubility behavior at higher pH values” of several acidic drugs originally studied by Higuchi et al. in 1953 [1], but hitherto not fully rationalized, has been re-analyzed using a novel solubility-pH analysis computer program, pDISOL-XTM. The program internally derives implicit solubility equations, given a set of proposed equilibria and constants (iteratively refined by weighted nonlinear regression, and does not require explicit Henderson-Hasselbalch equations. The re-analyzed original barbital, phenobarbital, oxytetracycline, and sulfathiazole solubility-pH data of Higuchi et al. is consistent with the presence of dimers in saturated solutions. In the case of barbital, phenobarbital and sulfathiazole, anionic dimers, reaching peak concentrations near pH 8. However, oxytetracycline indicated a pronounced tendency to form a cationic dimer, peaking near pH 2. Under the conditions of the original study, only barbital indicated a slight tendency to form a salt precipitate at pH > 6.8, with a highly unusual stoichiometry (consistent with a slope of 0.55 in the log S – pH plot: K+ + A2H- + 3HA D KA5H4(s. Thus the “anomaly” in the Higuchi data can be rationalized by invoking specific aggregated species.

  18. Mechanisms of anomalous compressibility of vitreous silica

    Clark, Alisha N.; Lesher, Charles E.; Jacobsen, Steven D.; Sen, Sabyasachi

    2014-11-01

    The anomalous compressibility of vitreous silica has been known for nearly a century, but the mechanisms responsible for it remain poorly understood. Using GHz-ultrasonic interferometry, we measured longitudinal and transverse acoustic wave travel times at pressures up to 5 GPa in vitreous silica with fictive temperatures (Tf) ranging between 985 °C and 1500 °C. The maximum in ultrasonic wave travel times-corresponding to a minimum in acoustic velocities-shifts to higher pressure with increasing Tf for both acoustic waves, with complete reversibility below 5 GPa. These relationships reflect polyamorphism in the supercooled liquid, which results in a glassy state possessing different proportions of domains of high- and low-density amorphous phases (HDA and LDA, respectively). The relative proportion of HDA and LDA is set at Tf and remains fixed on compression below the permanent densification pressure. The bulk material exhibits compression behavior systematically dependent on synthesis conditions that arise from the presence of floppy modes in a mixture of HDA and LDA domains.

  19. Anomalous transport from holography. Part I

    Bu, Yanyan; Lublinsky, Michael; Sharon, Amir

    2016-01-01

    We revisit the transport properties induced by the chiral anomaly in a charged plasma holographically dual to anomalous U(1)_V×U(1)_A Maxwell theory in Schwarzschild-AdS_5. Off-shell constitutive relations for vector and axial currents are derived using various approximations generalising most of known in the literature anomaly-induced phenomena and revealing some new ones. In a weak external field approximation, the constitutive relations have all-order derivatives resummed into six momenta-dependent transport coefficient functions: the diffusion, the electric/magnetic conductivity, and three anomaly induced functions. The latter generalise the chiral magnetic and chiral separation effects. Nonlinear transport is studied assuming presence of constant background external fields. The chiral magnetic effect, including all order nonlinearity in magnetic field, is proven to be exact when the magnetic field is the only external field that is turned on. Non-linear corrections to the constitutive relations due to electric and axial external fields are computed.

  20. Phonon dispersion curves of fcc La

    Stassis, C.; Loong, C.; Zarestky, J.

    1982-01-01

    Large single crystals of fcc La were grown in situ and were used to study the lattice dynamics of this phase of La by coherent inelastic neutron scattering. The phonon dispersion curves have been measured along the [xi00], [xixi0], [xixixi], and [0xi1] symmetry directions at 660 and 1100 K. The T[xixixi] branch exhibits anomalous dispersion for xi>0.25 and, in addition, close to the zone boundary, the phonon frequencies of this branch decrease with decreasing temperature. This soft-mode behavior may be related to the #betta→α# transformation in La, an assumption supported by recent band-theoretical calculations of the generalized susceptibility of fcc La. At X the frequencies of the L[xi00] branch are considerably lower than those of the corresponding branch of #betta#-Ce; a similar but not as pronounced effect is observed for the frequencies of the L[xixixi] branch close to the point L. Since the calculated generalized susceptibility of fcc La exhibits strong peaks at X and L, these anomalies may be due to the renormalization of the phonon frequencies by virtual fbold-arrow-left-rightd transitions to the unoccupied 4f level in La. The data were used to evaluate the elastic constants, the phonon density of states, and the lattice specific heat at constant pressure C/sub P//sup

  1. Dispersal and migration

    Schwarz, C.

    2004-06-01

    overlay maps of effort to try and remove any induced artefacts in the data. Differences in timing or the route of migration has often been studies separately. Lokki and Saurola (Lokki & Saurola, 2004 develop an omnibus procedure to test if the migration timing and/or route differ among two populations of birds (e.g. males vs females. It uses a randomization test to calibrate the test statistic. However, it makes the key assumptions about equal recovery effort in time and space so that the method may be most applicable to comparison among species with similar migration timing and movement to keep differential sighting/recovery rates from affecting the result. Of course, it is in these cases where it is most difficulty to separate the groups which will require substantial samples to have good performance. Thorup and Rahbek (Thorup & Rahbek, 2004 provide a framework for accounting for unequal spatial recovery probability investigating the geometric influence of ocean and sea on observed migratory patterns. Taking the data set of Pied Flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca ringed as nestlings in Scandinavia and recovered en route on their initial migration and using a model based on the clock–and–compass innate navigation hypothesis they are showing that geometric constraints explain quite a bit of the variation in ring–recoveries. The model also shows that ring recovery patterns do reflect the migratory patterns, and that they are suitable for an analysis of the concentration of the migratory route which is important for the general use of ringing data in studies of migration. This is important for the general use of ringing data in studies of migration and dispersal. The new approach has also implications for understanding the migratory orientation program. The compiled papers highlight some novel ideas of how to analyse band recoveries to investigate migration routes and migration behaviour as well as dispersal patterns among birds and dolphins. Multistate modeling appears

  2. A costal dispersion model

    Rahm, L.; Nyberg, L.; Gidhagen, L.

    1990-01-01

    A dispersion model to be used off costal waters has been developed. The model has been applied to describe the migration of radionuclides in the Baltic sea. A summary of the results is presented here. (K.A.E)

  3. Wave-equation dispersion inversion

    Li, Jing; Feng, Zongcai; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2016-01-01

    We present the theory for wave-equation inversion of dispersion curves, where the misfit function is the sum of the squared differences between the wavenumbers along the predicted and observed dispersion curves. The dispersion curves are obtained

  4. Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return in patients with pulmonary hypertension

    Sung, Won-kyung; Au, Virginia; Rose, Anand

    2012-01-01

    Anomalous pulmonary venous return is an uncommon congenital malformation, and may be partial or total. Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return (PAPVR) is more common than total anomalous pulmonary venous return, and is often associated with other congenital cardiac anomalies. Whilst many patients with PAPVR remain asymptomatic, some may present in later age with symptoms related to left-to-right shunt, right heart failure and pulmonary hypertension. We report two cases of PAPVR detected on Computed Tomography Pulmonary Angiogram (CTPA) for the work up of pulmonary hypertension. The cases demonstrate that, although uncommon, partial anomalous pulmonary venous return can be a contributing factor to pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary veins should be carefully examined when reading a CTPA study.

  5. The relation between anomalous magnetic moment and axial anomaly

    Teryaev, O.V.

    1990-12-01

    The conservation of total angular momentum of spinor particle leads to a simple relation between the famous Schwinger and Adler coefficients determining axial anomaly and anomalous magnetic moment, respectively. (author). 8 refs, 1 fig

  6. Anomalous superconductivity in black phosphorus under high pressures

    Kawamura, H.; Tachikawa, K.

    1984-01-01

    Pressure induced superconductivity in single crystals of black phosphorus has been studied. Maximum onset Tsub(c) was near 13 K. The anomalous superconductivity may be explained in terms of excitonic mechanism. (author)

  7. Anomalous magnon Nernst effect of topological magnonic materials

    Wang, X. S.; Wang, X. R.

    2018-05-01

    The magnon transport driven by a thermal gradient in a perpendicularly magnetized honeycomb lattice is studied. The system with the nearest-neighbor pseudodipolar interaction and the next-nearest-neighbor Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction has various topologically nontrivial phases. When an in-plane thermal gradient is applied, a transverse in-plane magnon current is generated. This phenomenon is termed as the anomalous magnon Nernst effect that closely resembles the anomalous Nernst effect for an electronic system. The anomalous magnon Nernst coefficient and its sign are determined by the magnon Berry curvature distributions in the momentum space and magnon populations in the magnon bands. We predict a temperature-induced sign reversal in anomalous magnon Nernst effect under certain conditions.

  8. Anomalous scaling of a scalar field advected by turbulence

    Kraichnan, R.H. [Robert H. Kraichnan, Inc., Santa Fe, NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Recent work leading to deduction of anomalous scaling exponents for the inertial range of an advected passive field from the equations of motion is reviewed. Implications for other turbulence problems are discussed.

  9. Anomalous transient behavior from an inhomogeneous initial optical vortex density

    Roux, FS

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available . However, the decay curves contain oscillatory features that are counterintuitive: for a short while, the inhomogeneity actually increases. The author provides numerical simulations and analytic calculations to study the appearance of the anomalous features...

  10. Anomalous dynamics of capillary rise in porous media

    Shikhmurzaev, Yulii D.; Sprittles, James E.

    2012-01-01

    The anomalous dynamics of capillary rise in a porous medium discovered experimentally more than a decade ago is described. The developed theory is based on considering the principal modes of motion of the menisci that collectively form the wetting

  11. Reactimeter dispersion equation

    A.G. Yuferov

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work is to derive and analyze a reactimeter metrological model in the form of the dispersion equation which connects reactimeter input/output signal dispersions with superimposed random noise at the inlet. It is proposed to standardize the reactimeter equation form, presenting the main reactimeter computing unit by a convolution equation. Hence, the reactimeter metrological characteristics are completely determined by this unit hardware function which represents a transient re...

  12. Anomalous anisotropic compression behavior of superconducting CrAs under high pressure

    Yu, Zhenhai; Wu, Wei; Hu, Qingyang; Zhao, Jinggeng; Li, Chunyu; Yang, Ke; Cheng, Jinguang; Luo, Jianlin; Wang, Lin; Mao, Ho-kwang

    2015-01-01

    CrAs was observed to possess the bulk superconductivity under high-pressure conditions. To understand the superconducting mechanism and explore the correlation between the structure and superconductivity, the high-pressure structural evolution of CrAs was investigated using the angle-dispersive X-ray diffraction (XRD) method. The structure of CrAs remains stable up to 1.8 GPa, whereas the lattice parameters exhibit anomalous compression behaviors. With increasing pressure, the lattice parameters a and c both demonstrate a nonmonotonic change, and the lattice parameter b undergoes a rapid contraction at ∼0.18−0.35 GPa, which suggests that a pressure-induced isostructural phase transition occurs in CrAs. Above the phase transition pressure, the axial compressibilities of CrAs present remarkable anisotropy. A schematic band model was used to address the anomalous compression behavior of CrAs. The present results shed light on the structural and related electronic responses to high pressure, which play a key role toward understanding the superconductivity of CrAs. PMID:26627230

  13. Anomalous lattice compressibility of hexagonal Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    Irshad, K.A.; Chandra Shekar, N.V., E-mail: chandru@igcar.gov.in

    2017-07-01

    Monoclinic Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3} was investigated in a Mao-Bell type diamond anvil cell using angle dispersive x-ray diffraction up to a pressure of 26 GPa. Pressure induced structural phase transition from monoclinic to hexagonal phase was observed at 4.3 GPa with 2% volume collapse. Birch –Murnaghan equation of state fit to the pressure volume data yielded a bulk modulus of 159(9) GPa and 165(6) GPa for the monoclinic and hexagonal phases respectively. Equation of state fitting to the structural parameters yielded an axial compressibility of β{sub a} > β{sub c} > β{sub b} for the parent monoclinic phase, showing the least compressibility along b axis. Contrary to the available reports, an anomalous lattice compressibility behavior is observed for the high pressure hexagonal phase, characterized by pronounced hardening of a axis above 15 GPa. The observed incompressible nature of the hexagonal a axis in the pressure range 15–25 GPa is found to be compensated by doubling the compressibility along the c axis. - Highlights: • Structural phase transition in Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3} from monoclinic to hexagonal phase. • Anomalous lattice compressibility in the hexagonal phase has reported first time. • Quantitative analysis of lattice compressibility.

  14. Effect of anomalous resistivity on the dynamics of plasma switching

    Kingsep, A [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Munier, A [Centre d` Etudes Limeil-Vaneton, Villeneuve St. Georges (France)

    1997-12-31

    Some of the conditions for electron MHD are recollected, and it is shown how this leads to anomalous resistivity which may play an important role in the dynamics of POS. It has been shown that not only the order of value of the resistance of the plasma-filled diode but rather basic scalings have to be changed in the regime of essential anomalous resistivity. (author). 11 refs.

  15. Anomalous magnon Nernst effect of topological magnonic materials

    Wang, X. S.; Wang, X. R.

    2017-01-01

    The magnon transport driven by thermal gradient in a perpendicularly magnetized honeycomb lattice is studied. The system with the nearest-neighbor pseudodipolar interaction and the next-nearest-neighbor Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) has various topologically nontrivial phases. When an in-plane thermal gradient is applied, a transverse in-plane magnon current is generated. This phenomenon is termed as the anomalous magnon Nernst effect that closely resembles the anomalous Nernst effe...

  16. Four-fermi anomalous dimension with adjoint fermions

    Del Debbio, Luigi; Ruano, Carlos Pena

    2014-01-01

    The four-fermi interaction can play an important role in models of strong dynamical EW sym- metry breaking if the anomalous dimensions of the four-fermi operators become large in the IR. We discuss a number of issues that are relevant for the nonperturbative computation of the four- fermi anomalous dimensions for the SU(2) gauge theory with two flavors of Dirac fermions in the adjoint representation, using a Schrödinger functional formalism.

  17. chi2 analyses of data on relativistic anomalous projectile fragments

    MacGregor, M.H.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear emulsion data from four experimental groups are now available on the interactions of p relativistic anomalous projectile fragments. In the present paper we systematically combine these data together to form several different data sets, which are used to carry out a series of chi 2 parameter studies. The anomalous particle fragment component in the relativistic nuclear beam has been characterized previously in terms of the parameters f and lambda, where f is the anomalous particle fragment fraction in the secondary beam and lambda is the average anomalous particle fragment mean free path in the emulsion. We extend this result here by setting lambda = lambda 0 (2Z)/sup -beta/, where Z is the nuclear charge of the anomalous particle fragment, so that we can investigate the Z dependence of lambda. We also investigate isotopic effects in the equations used to describe ''normal'' secondary beam nuclei, and we examine the problem of optimizing the bin sizes used to represent the data. A series of (f,lambda 0 ,#betta#) parameter studies leads to the conclusion that the ''anomalous particle fragment effect'' exists for all Z values in the range Z = 3--26 included in the chi 2 analyses. These chi 2 analyses also indicate that #betta#>0, so that the anomalous particle fragment lambda's are Z dependent, but the data are not sufficient to pin down a definite value of #betta#. In order to assess the physical content of these results, we define a domain within which nuclear mean free paths can be accounted for by conventional nuclear forces (but not necessarily by conventional nuclear structure). The Z-dependent anomalous particle fragment mean free paths lie approximately on the boundary of this domain

  18. Anomalous transport in fluid field with random waiting time depending on the preceding jump length

    Zhang Hong; Li Guo-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Anomalous (or non-Fickian) transport behaviors of particles have been widely observed in complex porous media. To capture the energy-dependent characteristics of non-Fickian transport of a particle in flow fields, in the present paper a generalized continuous time random walk model whose waiting time probability distribution depends on the preceding jump length is introduced, and the corresponding master equation in Fourier–Laplace space for the distribution of particles is derived. As examples, two generalized advection-dispersion equations for Gaussian distribution and lévy flight with the probability density function of waiting time being quadratic dependent on the preceding jump length are obtained by applying the derived master equation. (paper)

  19. Anomalous transport in fluid field with random waiting time depending on the preceding jump length

    Zhang, Hong; Li, Guo-Hua

    2016-11-01

    Anomalous (or non-Fickian) transport behaviors of particles have been widely observed in complex porous media. To capture the energy-dependent characteristics of non-Fickian transport of a particle in flow fields, in the present paper a generalized continuous time random walk model whose waiting time probability distribution depends on the preceding jump length is introduced, and the corresponding master equation in Fourier-Laplace space for the distribution of particles is derived. As examples, two generalized advection-dispersion equations for Gaussian distribution and lévy flight with the probability density function of waiting time being quadratic dependent on the preceding jump length are obtained by applying the derived master equation. Project supported by the Foundation for Young Key Teachers of Chengdu University of Technology, China (Grant No. KYGG201414) and the Opening Foundation of Geomathematics Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, China (Grant No. scsxdz2013009).

  20. Low-loss and broadband anomalous Floquet topological insulator for airborne sound

    Peng, Yu-Gui; Shen, Ya-Xi; Zhao, De-Gang; Zhu, Xue-Feng

    2017-04-01

    Anomalous Floquet topological insulators (AFIs) for airborne sound have recently been realized in experiments. However, the implemented version suffers from significant loss and narrowband due to thermal viscosity and dispersive coupling strength between unit-cells. Here, we propose a solution for realizing low-loss and broadband acoustic AFI. We show that the loss after passing through one unit-cell can be less than 2% for the topological edge states. It is also theoretically unveiled that in the frequency range of nearly unitary coupling (˜0.97 from 4.8 kHz to 7.0 kHz in our case), around 84% corresponds to topological bands. Our proposal may promote the application of large-dimension acoustic topological devices.

  1. Effect of entropy on anomalous transport in ITG-modes of magneto-plasma

    Yaqub Khan, M.; Qaiser Manzoor, M.; Haq, A. ul; Iqbal, J.

    2017-04-01

    The ideal gas equation and S={{c}v}log ≤ft(P/ρ \\right) (where S is entropy, P is pressure and ρ is the mass density) define the interconnection of entropy with the temperature and density of plasma. Therefore, different phenomena relating to plasma and entropy need to be investigated. By employing the Braginskii transport equations for a nonuniform electron-ion magnetoplasma, two new parameters—the entropy distribution function and the entropy gradient drift—are defined, a new dispersion relation is obtained, and the dependence of anomalous transport on entropy is also proved. Some results, like monotonicity, the entropy principle and the second law of thermodynamics, are proved with a new definition of entropy. This work will open new horizons in fusion processes, not only by controlling entropy in tokamak plasmas—particularly in the pedestal regions of the H-mode and space plasmas—but also in engineering sciences.

  2. Anomalous photovoltaic effect in organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells.

    Yuan, Yongbo; Li, Tao; Wang, Qi; Xing, Jie; Gruverman, Alexei; Huang, Jinsong

    2017-03-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites (OIHPs) have been demonstrated to be highly successful photovoltaic materials yielding very-high-efficiency solar cells. We report the room temperature observation of an anomalous photovoltaic (APV) effect in lateral structure OIHP devices manifested by the device's open-circuit voltage ( V OC ) that is much larger than the bandgap of OIHPs. The persistent V OC is proportional to the electrode spacing, resembling that of ferroelectric photovoltaic devices. However, the APV effect in OIHP devices is not caused by ferroelectricity. The APV effect can be explained by the formation of tunneling junctions randomly dispersed in the polycrystalline films, which allows the accumulation of photovoltage at a macroscopic level. The formation of internal tunneling junctions as a result of ion migration is visualized with Kelvin probe force microscopy scanning. This observation points out a new avenue for the formation of large and continuously tunable V OC without being limited by the materials' bandgap.

  3. Problems with Discontinuous Diffusion/Dispersion Coefficients

    Stefano Ferraris

    2012-01-01

    accurate on smooth solutions and based on a special numerical treatment of the diffusion/dispersion coefficients that makes its application possible also when such coefficients are discontinuous. Numerical experiments confirm the convergence of the numerical approximation and show a good behavior on a set of benchmark problems in two space dimensions.

  4. Hyper dispersion pulse compressor for chirped pulse amplification systems

    Barty, Christopher P. J.

    2011-11-29

    A grating pulse compressor configuration is introduced for increasing the optical dispersion for a given footprint and to make practical the application for chirped pulse amplification (CPA) to quasi-narrow bandwidth materials, such as Nd:YAG. The grating configurations often use cascaded pairs of gratings to increase angular dispersion an order of magnitude or more. Increased angular dispersion allows for decreased grating separation and a smaller compressor footprint.

  5. Anomalous baryogenesis at the weak scale

    Singleton, R.L. Jr.

    1991-06-01

    One of the fundamental constants of nature is the baryon asymmetry of the universe -- the ratio of the number of baryons to the entropy. This constant is about 10{sup {minus}11}. In baryon- number conserving theories, this was just an initial condition. With the advent of the grand unified theories (GUTs), baryon number is no longer conserved, and this asymmetry can be generated dynamically. Unfortunately, however, there are reasons for preferring another mechanism. For example, GUTs predict proton decay which, after extensive searches, has not been found. An alternative place to look for baryogenesis is the electroweak phase transition, described by the standard model, which posses all the necessary ingredients for baryogenesis. Anomalous baryon-number violation in weak interactions becomes large at high temperatures, which offers the prospect of creating the asymmetry with the standard model or minimal extensions. This can just barely be done if certain conditions are fulfilled. CP violation must be large, which rules out the minimal standard model as the source of the asymmetry, but which is easily arranged with an extended Higgs sector. The baryon-number violating rates themselves are not exactly known, and they must be pushed to their theoretical limits. A more exact determination of these rates is needed before a definitive answer can be given. Finally, the phase transition must be at least weakly first order. Such phase transitions are accompanied by the formation and expansion of bubbles of true vacuum within the false vacuum, much like the boiling of water. As the bubbles expand, they provide a departure from thermal equilibrium, otherwise the dynamics will adjust the net baryon number to zero. The bubble expansion also provides a biasing that creates an asymmetry on the bubbles surface. Under optimal conditions, the observed asymmetry can just be produced. 31 refs., 10 figs.

  6. Anomalous facial nerve canal with cochlear malformations.

    Romo, L V; Curtin, H D

    2001-05-01

    Anteromedial "migration" of the first segment of the facial nerve canal has been previously identified in a patient with a non-Mondini-type cochlear malformation. In this study, several patients with the same facial nerve canal anomaly were reviewed to assess for the association and type of cochlear malformation. CT scans of the temporal bone of 15 patients with anteromedial migration of the first segment of the facial nerve canal were collected from routine departmental examinations. In seven patients, the anomalous course was bilateral, for a total of 22 cases. The migration was graded relative to normal as either mild/moderate or pronounced. The cochlea in each of these cases was examined for the presence and size of the basilar, second, and apical turns. The turns were either absent, small, normal, or enlarged. The CT scans of five patients with eight Mondini malformations were examined for comparison. The degree of the facial nerve migration was pronounced in nine cases and mild/moderate in 13. All 22 of these cases had associated cochlear abnormalities of the non-Mondini variety. These included common cavity anomalies with lack of definition between the cochlea and vestibule (five cases), cochleae with enlarged basilar turns and absent second or third turns (five cases), and cochleae with small or normal basilar turns with small or absent second or third turns (12 cases). None of the patients with Mondini-type cochlear malformations had anteromedial migration of the facial nerve canal. Anteromedial migration of the facial nerve canal occurs in association with some cochlear malformations. It did not occur in association with the Mondini malformations. A cochlea with a Mondini malformation, being similar in size to a normal cochlea, may physically prohibit such a deviation in course.

  7. Anomalous baryogenesis at the weak scale

    Singleton, R.L. Jr.

    1991-06-01

    One of the fundamental constants of nature is the baryon asymmetry of the universe -- the ratio of the number of baryons to the entropy. This constant is about 10 -11 . In baryon- number conserving theories, this was just an initial condition. With the advent of the grand unified theories (GUTs), baryon number is no longer conserved, and this asymmetry can be generated dynamically. Unfortunately, however, there are reasons for preferring another mechanism. For example, GUTs predict proton decay which, after extensive searches, has not been found. An alternative place to look for baryogenesis is the electroweak phase transition, described by the standard model, which posses all the necessary ingredients for baryogenesis. Anomalous baryon-number violation in weak interactions becomes large at high temperatures, which offers the prospect of creating the asymmetry with the standard model or minimal extensions. This can just barely be done if certain conditions are fulfilled. CP violation must be large, which rules out the minimal standard model as the source of the asymmetry, but which is easily arranged with an extended Higgs sector. The baryon-number violating rates themselves are not exactly known, and they must be pushed to their theoretical limits. A more exact determination of these rates is needed before a definitive answer can be given. Finally, the phase transition must be at least weakly first order. Such phase transitions are accompanied by the formation and expansion of bubbles of true vacuum within the false vacuum, much like the boiling of water. As the bubbles expand, they provide a departure from thermal equilibrium, otherwise the dynamics will adjust the net baryon number to zero. The bubble expansion also provides a biasing that creates an asymmetry on the bubbles surface. Under optimal conditions, the observed asymmetry can just be produced. 31 refs., 10 figs

  8. The peak in anomalous magnetic viscosity

    Collocott, S.J.; Watterson, P.A.; Tan, X.H.; Xu, H.

    2014-01-01

    Anomalous magnetic viscosity, where the magnetization as a function of time exhibits non-monotonic behaviour, being seen to increase, reach a peak, and then decrease, is observed on recoil lines in bulk amorphous ferromagnets, for certain magnetic prehistories. A simple geometrical approach based on the motion of the state line on the Preisach plane gives a theoretical framework for interpreting non-monotonic behaviour and explains the origin of the peak. This approach gives an expression for the time taken to reach the peak as a function of the applied (or holding) field. The theory is applied to experimental data for bulk amorphous ferromagnet alloys of composition Nd 60−x Fe 30 Al 10 Dy x , x = 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4, and it gives a reasonable description of the observed behaviour. The role played by other key magnetic parameters, such as the intrinsic coercivity and fluctuation field, is also discussed. When the non-monotonic behaviour of the magnetization of a number of alloys is viewed in the context of the model, features of universal behaviour emerge, that are independent of alloy composition. - Highlights: • Development of a simple geometrical model based on the Preisach model which gives a complete explanation of the peak in the magnetic viscosity. • Geometrical approach is extended by considering equations that govern the motion of the state line. • The model is used to deduce the relationship between the holding field and the time it takes to reach the peak. • The model is tested with experimental results for a range of Nd–Fe–Al–Dy bulk amorphous ferromagnets. • There is good agreement between the model and the experimental data

  9. Anomalous xenon in zone 13 Okelobondo

    Meshik, A.P.; Kehm, K.; Hohenberg, C.M.

    2000-01-01

    In situ laser extraction techniques were applied for the study of heavy noble gases in a polished section of Zone 13 from the natural nuclear reactor in Okelobondo. Three main mineral phases were identified in this polished section using SEM-EDX. The Xe and Kr isotopic structures were determined by multiple measurements in each of these phases. Twenty-four isotopic analyses of the gases extracted from two different U-rich phases revealed nearly normal fission spectra. All 9 analyses of a U-free phase, consisting mainly of alumophosphates, demonstrated an unusual isotopic composition ( 136 Xe/ 134 Xe/ 132 Xe/ 131 Xe/ 130 Xe 129 Xe/ 128 Xe = 1/1.25/1.73/0.89/0.0045/0.274/0) with concentrations ranging up to 10 -2 cm 3 STP/g. This is the highest Xe concentration ever measured in a natural material. Kr was also anomalous, although to a lesser extent. These results confirm the presence of Chemical Fractionation of Fission Xe (CFF-Xe) in the Okelobondo alumophosphates. CFF-Xe is a decay product of intermediate fission fragments that have migrated out of the U-rich host phases into adjacent U-free minerals. The CFF-Xe spectra in the alumophosphates are also accompanied by 130 Xe excesses, which are attributed to neutron capture on fissiogenic 129 I that apparently migrated out of the nearby U-rich minerals. The 130 Xe/ 129 Xe ratio allows one to estimate the thermal equivalent neutron dose of 1.1 x 10 21 n/cm 2 . The presence of an unknown fission component remarkably similar in composition to CFF-Xe can be inferred from the atmospheric and terrestrial data. This leads one to the hypothesis that the CFF process has operated on a global scale on the Earth

  10. Rare associations of tetralogy of Fallot with anomalous left coronary artery from pulmonary artery and totally anomalous pulmonary venous connection.

    Sen, Supratim; Rao, Suresh G; Kulkarni, Snehal

    2016-06-01

    We describe the cases of two patients with tetralogy of Fallot, aged 4 years and 8 months, who were incidentally detected to have concomitant anomalous left coronary artery from pulmonary artery and total anomalous pulmonary venous connection, respectively, on preoperative imaging. They underwent surgical correction with good mid-term outcomes. In this study, we discuss the embryological basis, physiological effects, and review the literature of these two unusual associations. Awareness of these rare associations will avoid missed diagnoses and consequent surgical surprises.

  11. Calculation of one-loop anomalous dimensions by means of the background field method

    Morozov, A.Yu.

    1983-01-01

    The knowledge of propagators in background fields makes calculation of anomalous dimensions (AD) straightforward and brief. The paper illustrates this statement by calculation of AD of many spin-zero and one QCD operators up to the eighth dimension included. The method presented does not simplify calculations in case of four-quark operators, therefore these are not discussed. Together with calculational difficulties arising for operators with derivatives this limits capacities of the whole approach and leads to incompleteness of some mixing matrices found in the article

  12. Giant anomalous Hall angle in a half-metallic magnetic Weyl semimetal

    Liu, Enke; Sun, Yan; Müchler, Lukas; Sun, Aili; Jiao, Lin; Kroder, Johannes; Süß, Vicky; Borrmann, Horst; Wang, Wenhong; Schnelle, Walter; Wirth, Steffen; Goennenwein, Sebastian T. B.; Felser, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic Weyl semimetals (WSMs) with time reversal symmetry breaking exhibit Weyl nodes that act as monopoles of Berry curvature and are thus expected to generate a large intrinsic anomalous Hall effect (AHE). However, in most magnetic WSMs, the Weyl nodes are located far from the Fermi energy, making it difficult to observe the Weyl-node dominated intrinsic AHE in experiments. Here we report a novel half-metallic magnetic WSM in the Kagome-lattice Shandite compound Co3Sn2S2. The Weyl nodes, ...

  13. Constraint on the QED vertex from the mass anomalous dimension γm = 1

    Bashir, A.; Pennington, M.R.

    1995-10-01

    We discuss the structure of the non-perturbative fermion-boson vertex in quenched QED. We show that it is possible to construct a vertex which not only ensures that the fermion propagator is multiplicatively renormalizable, obeys the appropriate Ward-Takahashi identity, reproduces perturbation theory for weak couplings and guarantees that the critical coupling at which the mass is dynamically generated is gauge independent but also makes sure that the value for the anomalous dimension for the mass function is strictly 1, as Holdom and Mahanta have proposed. (author). 8 refs

  14. Mass anomalous dimension of Adjoint QCD at large N from twisted volume reduction

    Pérez, Margarita García; Keegan, Liam; Okawa, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    In this work we consider the $SU(N)$ gauge theory with two Dirac fermions in the adjoint representation, in the limit of large $N$. In this limit the infinite-volume physics of this model can be studied by means of the corresponding twisted reduced model defined on a single site lattice. Making use of this strategy we study the reduced model for various values of $N$ up to 289. By analyzing the eigenvalue distribution of the adjoint Dirac operator we test the conformality of the theory and extract the corresponding mass anomalous dimension.

  15. Mass anomalous dimension of adjoint QCD at large N from twisted volume reduction

    Pérez, Margarita García [Instituto de Física Teórica UAM-CSIC, Nicolás Cabrera 13-15, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid,E-28049-Madrid (Spain); González-Arroyo, Antonio [Instituto de Física Teórica UAM-CSIC, Nicolás Cabrera 13-15, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid,E-28049-Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Física Teórica, C-XI, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid,E-28049-Madrid (Spain); Keegan, Liam [PH-TH, CERN,CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Okawa, Masanori [Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University,Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Core of Research for the Energetic Universe, Hiroshima University,Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan)

    2015-08-07

    In this work we consider the SU(N) gauge theory with two Dirac fermions in the adjoint representation, in the limit of large N. In this limit the infinite-volume physics of this model can be studied by means of the corresponding twisted reduced model defined on a single site lattice. Making use of this strategy we study the reduced model for various values of N up to 289. By analyzing the eigenvalue distribution of the adjoint Dirac operator we test the conformality of the theory and extract the corresponding mass anomalous dimension.

  16. Anomalous small-angle scattering as a way to solve the Babinet principle problem

    Boiko, M. E.; Sharkov, M. D.; Boiko, A. M.; Bobyl, A. V.

    2013-01-01

    X-ray absorption spectra (XAS) have been used to determine the absorption edges of atoms present in a sample under study. A series of small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements using different monochromatic X-ray beams at different wavelengths near the absorption edges is performed to solve the Babinet principle problem. The sizes of clusters containing atoms determined by the method of XAS were defined in SAXS experiments. In contrast to differential X-ray porosimetry, anomalous SAXS makes it possible to determine sizes of clusters of different atomic compositions

  17. Anomalous small-angle scattering as a way to solve the Babinet principle problem

    Boiko, M. E., E-mail: m.e.boiko@mail.ioffe.ru; Sharkov, M. D.; Boiko, A. M.; Bobyl, A. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physicotechnical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2013-12-15

    X-ray absorption spectra (XAS) have been used to determine the absorption edges of atoms present in a sample under study. A series of small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements using different monochromatic X-ray beams at different wavelengths near the absorption edges is performed to solve the Babinet principle problem. The sizes of clusters containing atoms determined by the method of XAS were defined in SAXS experiments. In contrast to differential X-ray porosimetry, anomalous SAXS makes it possible to determine sizes of clusters of different atomic compositions.

  18. Anomalous small-angle scattering as a way to solve the Babinet principle problem

    Boiko, M. E.; Sharkov, M. D.; Boiko, A. M.; Bobyl, A. V.

    2013-12-01

    X-ray absorption spectra (XAS) have been used to determine the absorption edges of atoms present in a sample under study. A series of small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements using different monochromatic X-ray beams at different wavelengths near the absorption edges is performed to solve the Babinet principle problem. The sizes of clusters containing atoms determined by the method of XAS were defined in SAXS experiments. In contrast to differential X-ray porosimetry, anomalous SAXS makes it possible to determine sizes of clusters of different atomic compositions.

  19. Dispersive analysis of the pion transition form factor

    Hoferichter, M.; Kubis, B.; Leupold, S.; Niecknig, F.; Schneider, S. P.

    2014-11-01

    We analyze the pion transition form factor using dispersion theory. We calculate the singly-virtual form factor in the time-like region based on data for the cross section, generalizing previous studies on decays and scattering, and verify our result by comparing to data. We perform the analytic continuation to the space-like region, predicting the poorly-constrained space-like transition form factor below , and extract the slope of the form factor at vanishing momentum transfer . We derive the dispersive formalism necessary for the extension of these results to the doubly-virtual case, as required for the pion-pole contribution to hadronic light-by-light scattering in the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon.

  20. Can I solve my structure by SAD phasing? Anomalous signal in SAD phasing.

    Terwilliger, Thomas C; Bunkóczi, Gábor; Hung, Li Wei; Zwart, Peter H; Smith, Janet L; Akey, David L; Adams, Paul D

    2016-03-01

    A key challenge in the SAD phasing method is solving a structure when the anomalous signal-to-noise ratio is low. A simple theoretical framework for describing measurements of anomalous differences and the resulting useful anomalous correlation and anomalous signal in a SAD experiment is presented. Here, the useful anomalous correlation is defined as the correlation of anomalous differences with ideal anomalous differences from the anomalous substructure. The useful anomalous correlation reflects the accuracy of the data and the absence of minor sites. The useful anomalous correlation also reflects the information available for estimating crystallographic phases once the substructure has been determined. In contrast, the anomalous signal (the peak height in a model-phased anomalous difference Fourier at the coordinates of atoms in the anomalous substructure) reflects the information available about each site in the substructure and is related to the ability to find the substructure. A theoretical analysis shows that the expected value of the anomalous signal is the product of the useful anomalous correlation, the square root of the ratio of the number of unique reflections in the data set to the number of sites in the substructure, and a function that decreases with increasing values of the atomic displacement factor for the atoms in the substructure. This means that the ability to find the substructure in a SAD experiment is increased by high data quality and by a high ratio of reflections to sites in the substructure, and is decreased by high atomic displacement factors for the substructure.

  1. Coping with power dispersion?

    2014-01-01

    The last decades have witnessed a significant shift in policy competences away from central governments in Europe. The reallocation of competences spans over three dimensions: upwards; sideways; and downwards. This collection takes the dispersion of powers as a starting point and seeks to assess...... how the actors involved cope with the new configurations. In this introduction, we discuss the conceptualization of power dispersion and highlight the ways in which the contributions add to this research agenda. We then outline some general conclusions and end by indicating future avenues of research....... Taken together, the collection contributes some answers to the challenge of defining and measuring – in a comparative way – the control and co-ordination mechanisms which power dispersion generates. It also explores the tension between political actors' quest for autonomy and the acknowledgement...

  2. Light-by-light scattering and muon's anomalous magnetic moment

    Pauk, Vladyslav

    2014-01-01

    phenomenological implications of these results for mesons in both the light-quark sector and the charm-quark sector. In the second part of this thesis we develop the formalism to provide an improved estimate for the hadronic light-by-light (HLbL) correction to the muon's anomalous magnetic moment a μ , by considering single meson contributions beyond the leading pseudo-scalar mesons. This is motivated by the present 3σ deviation between the measurement of a μ and its estimate in the Standard Model. Furthermore, a forthcoming new experiment at Fermilab aims to improve the experimental precision by a factor of 4 which also requires a similar theoretical improvement. We incorporate available experimental input as well as constraints from light-by-light scattering sum rules to estimate the effects of axial-vector, scalar, and tensor mesons. We give numerical evaluations for the HLbL contribution of these states to a μ . The presented formalism allows to further improve on these estimates, once new data for such meson states will become available. In the last part of this work, we present a new dispersion formalism developed for the HLbL contribution to a μ and test the formalism for the case of scalar field theory. The new framework opens a unique possibility for a consistent incorporation of data from e + e - colliders for single- as well as multi-meson contributions. Furthermore, it allows to systematically control the HLbL uncertainty in the a μ which is a crucial step in searches of new physics using this precision quantity.

  3. The Anomalous Process γπ → ππ and its Impact on the π0 Transition Form Factor

    Kubis, Bastian

    2014-12-01

    The process γπ → ππ, in the limit of vanishing photon and pion energies, is determined by the chiral anomaly. This reaction can be investigated experimentally using Primakoff reactions, as currently done at COMPASS. We derive a dispersive representation that allows one to extract the chiral anomaly from cross-section measurements up to 1 GeV, where effects of the ρ resonance are included model-independently via the ππ P-wave phase shift. We discuss how this amplitude serves as an important input to a dispersion-theoretical analysis of the π0 transition form factor, which in turn is a vital ingredient to the hadronic light-by-light contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon.

  4. Determination of the aerosol size distribution by analytic inversion of the extinction spectrum in the complex anomalous diffraction approximation.

    Franssens, G; De Maziére, M; Fonteyn, D

    2000-08-20

    A new derivation is presented for the analytical inversion of aerosol spectral extinction data to size distributions. It is based on the complex analytic extension of the anomalous diffraction approximation (ADA). We derive inverse formulas that are applicable to homogeneous nonabsorbing and absorbing spherical particles. Our method simplifies, generalizes, and unifies a number of results obtained previously in the literature. In particular, we clarify the connection between the ADA transform and the Fourier and Laplace transforms. Also, the effect of the particle refractive-index dispersion on the inversion is examined. It is shown that, when Lorentz's model is used for this dispersion, the continuous ADA inverse transform is mathematically well posed, whereas with a constant refractive index it is ill posed. Further, a condition is given, in terms of Lorentz parameters, for which the continuous inverse operator does not amplify the error.

  5. Streamlined Modeling for Characterizing Spacecraft Anomalous Behavior

    Klem, B.; Swann, D.

    2011-09-01

    Anomalous behavior of on-orbit spacecraft can often be detected using passive, remote sensors which measure electro-optical signatures that vary in time and spectral content. Analysts responsible for assessing spacecraft operational status and detecting detrimental anomalies using non-resolved imaging sensors are often presented with various sensing and identification issues. Modeling and measuring spacecraft self emission and reflected radiant intensity when the radiation patterns exhibit a time varying reflective glint superimposed on an underlying diffuse signal contribute to assessment of spacecraft behavior in two ways: (1) providing information on body component orientation and attitude; and, (2) detecting changes in surface material properties due to the space environment. Simple convex and cube-shaped spacecraft, designed to operate without protruding solar panel appendages, may require an enhanced level of preflight characterization to support interpretation of the various physical effects observed during on-orbit monitoring. This paper describes selected portions of the signature database generated using streamlined signature modeling and simulations of basic geometry shapes apparent to non-imaging sensors. With this database, summarization of key observable features for such shapes as spheres, cylinders, flat plates, cones, and cubes in specific spectral bands that include the visible, mid wave, and long wave infrared provide the analyst with input to the decision process algorithms contained in the overall sensing and identification architectures. The models typically utilize baseline materials such as Kapton, paints, aluminum surface end plates, and radiators, along with solar cell representations covering the cylindrical and side portions of the spacecraft. Multiple space and ground-based sensors are assumed to be located at key locations to describe the comprehensive multi-viewing aspect scenarios that can result in significant specular reflection

  6. Anomalous dependence of the lasing parameters of dye solutions on the spectrum of microsecond pump laser pulses

    Tarkovsky, V V; Kurstak, V Yu; Anufrik, S S

    2003-01-01

    The anomalous dependence of the lasing parameters of ethanol solutions of coumarin, rhodamine, oxazine, and laser dyes of other classes on the spectrum of microsecond pump laser pulses is found. The dependence is determined by the shape of the induced singlet - singlet absorption spectra and absorption spectra of short-lived photoproducts. The elucidation of the influence of these factors makes it possible to choose optimal pump spectra and to enhance the efficiency and stability of microsecond dye lasers. (active media)

  7. Towards a dispersive determination of the η and η' transition form factors

    Kubis, Bastian

    2018-01-01

    We discuss status and prospects of a dispersive analysis of the η and η' transition form factors. Particular focus is put on the various pieces of experimental information that serve as input to such a calculation. These can help improve on the precision of an evaluation of the η and η' pole contributions to hadronic light-by-light scattering in the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon.

  8. Towards a dispersive determination of the η and η′ transition form factors

    Kubis Bastian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss status and prospects of a dispersive analysis of the η and η′ transition form factors. Particular focus is put on the various pieces of experimental information that serve as input to such a calculation. These can help improve on the precision of an evaluation of the η and η′ pole contributions to hadronic light-by-light scattering in the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon.

  9. ANOMALOUS MICROWAVE EMISSION IN H ii REGIONS: IS IT REALLY ANOMALOUS? THE CASE OF RCW 49

    Paladini, Roberta [Infrared Processing Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, 770 South Wilson Ave., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Ingallinera, Adriano; Agliozzo, Claudia; Umana, Grazia; Trigilio, Corrado [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania Italy (Italy); Tibbs, Christopher T. [Scientific Support Office, Directorate of Science and Robotic Exploration,European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESA/ESTEC), Keplerlaan 1, 2201 AZ, Noordwijk (Netherlands); Noriega-Crespo, Alberto [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Dickinson, Clive [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, Alan Turing Building, School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2015-11-01

    The detection of an excess of emission at microwave frequencies with respect to the predicted free–free emission has been reported for several Galactic H ii regions. Here, we investigate the case of RCW 49, for which the Cosmic Background Imager tentatively (∼3σ) detected Anomalous Microwave Emission (AME) at 31 GHz on angular scales of 7′. Using the Australia Telescope Compact Array, we carried out a multi-frequency (5, 19, and 34 GHz) continuum study of the region, complemented by observations of the H109α radio recombination line. The analysis shows that: (1) the spatial correlation between the microwave and IR emission persists on angular scales from 3.′4 to 0.″4, although the degree of the correlation slightly decreases at higher frequencies and on smaller angular scales; (2) the spectral indices between 1.4 and 5 GHz are globally in agreement with optically thin free–free emission, however, ∼30% of these are positive and much greater than −0.1, consistent with a stellar wind scenario; and (3) no major evidence for inverted free–free radiation is found, indicating that this is likely not the cause of the Anomalous Emission in RCW 49. Although our results cannot rule out the spinning dust hypothesis to explain the tentative detection of AME in RCW 49, they emphasize the complexity of astronomical sources that are very well known and studied, such as H ii regions, and suggest that, at least in these objects, the reported excess of emission might be ascribed to alternative mechanisms such as stellar winds and shocks.

  10. Tweaking the spin-wave dispersion and suppressing the incommensurate phase in LiNiPO4 by iron substitution

    Li, Jiying; Jensen, Thomas Bagger Stibius; Andersen, Niels Hessel

    2009-01-01

    ) indicates the instability of the Ising-type ground state that eventually evolves into the incommensurate phase as the temperature is raised. The pure LiNiPO4 system (x=0) undergoes a first-order magnetic phase transition from a long-range incommensurate phase to an antiferromagnetic (AFM) ground state at TN......Elastic and inelastic neutron-scattering studies of Li(Ni1−xFex)PO4 single crystals reveal anomalous spin-wave dispersions along the crystallographic direction parallel to the characteristic wave vector of the magnetic incommensurate phase. The anomalous spin-wave dispersion (magnetic soft mode......=20.8 K. At 20% Fe concentrations, although the AFM ground state is to a large extent preserved as that of the pure system, the phase transition is second order, and the incommensurate phase is completely suppressed. Analysis of the dispersion curves using a Heisenberg spin Hamiltonian that includes...

  11. Systematic Serendipity: A Method to Discover the Anomalous

    Giles, Daniel; Walkowicz, Lucianne

    2018-01-01

    One of the challenges in the era of big data astronomical surveys is identifying anomalous data, data that exhibits as-of-yet unobserved behavior. These data may result from systematic errors, extreme (or rare) forms of known phenomena, or, most interestingly, truly novel phenomena that has historically required a trained eye and often fortuitous circumstance to identify. We describe a method that uses machine clustering techniques to discover anomalous data in Kepler lightcurves, as a step towards systematizing the detection of novel phenomena in the era of LSST. As a proof of concept, we apply our anomaly detection method to Kepler data including Boyajian's Star (KIC 8462852). We examine quarters 4, 8, 11, and 16 of the Kepler data which contain Boyajian’s Star acting normally (quarters 4 and 11) and anomalously (quarters 8 and 16). We demonstrate that our method is capable of identifying Boyajian’s Star’s anomalous behavior in quarters of interest, and we further identify other anomalous light curves that exhibit a range of interesting variability.

  12. Neoclassical and anomalous transport in axisymmetric toroidal plasmas with electrostatic turbulence

    Sugama, H.; Horton, W.

    1995-05-01

    Neoclassical and anomalous transport fluxes are determined for axisymmetric toroidal plasmas with weak electrostatic fluctuations. The neoclassical and anomalous fluxes are defined based on the ensemble-averaged kinetic equation with the statistically averaged nonlinear term. The anomalous forces derived from that quasilinear term induce the anomalous particle and heat fluxes. The neoclassical banana-plateau particle and heat fluxes and the bootstrap current are also affected by the fluctuations through the parallel anomalous forces and the modified parallel viscosities. The quasilinear term, the anomalous forces, and the anomalous particle and heat fluxes are evaluated from the fluctuating part of the drift kinetic equation. The averaged drift kinetic equation with the quasilinear term is solved for the plateau regime to derive the parallel viscosities modified by the fluctuations. The entropy production rate due to the anomalous transport processes is formulated and used to identify conjugate pairs of the anomalous fluxes and forces, which are connected by the matrix with the Onsager symmetry. (author)

  13. Interface, a dispersed architecture

    Vissers, C.A.

    1976-01-01

    Past and current specification techniques use timing diagrams and written text to describe the phenomenology of an interface. This paper treats an interface as the architecture of a number of processes, which are dispersed over the related system parts and the message path. This approach yields a

  14. Psychorheology of food dispersions

    Štern, Petr; Panovská, Z.; Pokorný, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 1 (2010), s. 29-35 ISSN 0042-790X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA2060404 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : psychorheology * food dispersions * tomato ketchup * rheology * sensory analysis Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 0.553, year: 2010

  15. Dispersal of sticky particles

    Reddy, Ramana; Kumar, Sanjeev

    2007-12-01

    In this paper, we show through simulations that when sticky particles are broken continually, particles are dispersed into fine dust only if they are present in a narrow range of volume fractions. The upper limit of this range is 0.20 in the 2D and 0.10 in the 3D space. An increase in the dimensionality of space reduces the upper limit nearly by a factor of two. This scaling holds for dispersal of particles in hyperdimensional space of dimensions up to ten, the maximum dimension studied in this work. The maximum values of volume fractions obtained are significantly lower than those required for close packing and random packing of discs in 2D and spheres in 3D space. These values are also smaller than those required for critical phenomena of cluster percolation. The results obtained are attributed to merger cascades of sticky particles, triggered by breakup events. A simple theory that incorporates this cascade is developed to quantitatively explain the observed scaling of the upper limit with the dimensionality of space. The theory also captures the dynamics of the dispersal process in the corresponding range of particle volume fractions. The theory suggests that cascades of order one and two predominantly decide the upper limit for complete dispersal of particles.

  16. Anomalous random correlations of force constants on the lattice dynamical properties of disordered Au-Fe alloys

    Kangsabanik, Jiban; Chouhan, Rajiv K.; Johnson, D. D.; Alam, Aftab

    2017-09-01

    Gold iron (Au-Fe) alloys are of immense interest due to their biocompatibility, anomalous Hall conductivity, and applications in various medical treatments. However, irrespective of the method of preparation, they often exhibit a high level of disorder with properties sensitive to the thermal or magnetic annealing temperatures. We calculate the lattice dynamical properties of Au1 -xFex alloys using density functional theory methods where, being multisite properties, reliable interatomic force constant (IFC) calculations in disordered alloys remain a challenge. We follow a twofold approach: (1) an accurate IFC calculation in an environment with nominally zero chemical pair correlations to mimic the homogeneously disordered alloy and (2) a configurational averaging for the desired phonon properties (e.g., dispersion, density of states, and entropy). We find an anomalous change in the IFC's and phonon dispersion (split bands) near x =0.19 , which is attributed to the local stiffening of the Au-Au bonds when Au is in the vicinity of Fe. Other results based on mechanical and thermophysical properties reflect a similar anomaly: Phonon entropy, e.g., becomes negative below x =0.19 , suggesting a tendency for chemical unmixing, reflecting the onset of a miscibility gap in the phase diagram. Our results match fairly well with reported data wherever available.

  17. An analysis of superluminal propagation becoming subluminal in highly dispersive media

    Nanda, L.

    2018-05-01

    In this article the time-moments of the Poynting vector associated with an electromagnetic pulse are used to characterize the traversal time and the pulse width as the pulse propagates through highly dispersive media. The behaviour of these quantities with propagation distance is analyzed in two physical cases: Lorentz absorptive medium, and Raman gain doublet amplifying medium. It is found that the superluminal pulse propagation in these two cases with anomalous dispersion is always accompanied by pulse compression and eventually the pulse becomes subluminal with increasing distance of propagation.

  18. Feasibility of using Ohmsett for dispersant testing and research

    Ross, S.L.; Buist, I.A.; Potter, S.G.; Belore, R.C.

    2000-01-01

    Laboratory dispersant testing proved to be of limited value for the prediction of actual dispersant effectiveness in spill situations. Variables such as oil type, weathered state, dispersant type, dispersant-to-oil ratio application method etc. were difficult to reproduce. A feasibility study was conducted at the Ohmsett facility in Leonardo, New Jersey to determine if the site was suitable for dispersant effectiveness testing. The study consisted of four phases: (1) interfacial tension laboratory tests, (2) turbidity tests, (3) the determination of the efficiency of filtering materials at the facility and alternative filtering materials, and (3) full-scale testing. Results indicated that dispersant in the water after the tests affected the interfacial tension of oils used in other tests following this one. Noticeable dispersion of floating oil occurred only after the concentration of dispersant in the water reached 400 ppm, making it possible to conduct consecutive experiments without having to worry about residual dispersant in the tank. The filtering of water to remove the dispersed oil was only required after several experiments had taken place on a given day. Evidently, it was only possible to have an underwater view of the dispersant testing during the first test of a series. The use of cellulose to aid the filtering at the facility removed most of the dispersed oil. The use of activated carbon resulted in a high degree of efficiency for the removal of dissolved dispersant. The testing of dispersant at Ohmsett proved possible as long as the design and implementation phases of the testing program respected the limitations stipulated above. 3 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs

  19. Anomalous Hall effect and Nernst effect in itinerant ferromagnets

    Asamitsu, A.; Miyasato, T.; Abe, N.; Fujii, T.; Onose, Y.; Onoda, S.; Nagaosa, N.; Tokura, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Anomalous Hall effect (AHE) and anomalous Nernst effect (ANE) in many ferromagnetic metals including pure metals, oxides, and calcogenides, are studied to obtain unified understandings of their origins. We show the universal behavior of anomalous Hall conductivity σ xy as a function of longitudinal conductivity σ xx over six orders of magnitude, which is well reproduced by rigorous unified theory assuming both intrinsic and extrinsic contributions to the AHE. ANE is closely related with AHE and gives us further information about the electronic state in the ground state of ferromagnets. The temperature dependence of transverse Peltier coefficient α xy shows almost similar behavior among various ferromagnets and this behavior is expected from a conventional Boltzmann transport theory

  20. The anomalous self-diffusion in α-Zr

    Hood, G.M.

    1985-01-01

    In a very recent publication, Horvath, Dyment and Mehrer, henceforth HDM, presented measurements of the self-diffusion coefficient Dsub(m) 0 for α-Zr as a function of temperature. The results of that study, done on a single crystal sample, were anomalous in the sense that a plot of log Dsub(m) 0 vs. 1/T(K -1 ) was not only non-linear, but exhibited two regions of downward curvature with increasing 1/T. HDM indicated that they were unable to see any explanation of their anomalous self-diffusion results. It is the purpose of this letter to indicate a means whereby these anomalous results may be ''explained'' and to suggest some experiments which might be undertaken to test the proposal. (orig./RK)

  1. Anomalous high-frequency resistivity of a plasma

    Kruer, W.L.; Dawson, J.M.

    1971-06-01

    In one- and two-dimensional computer simulations we investigate anomalous high-frequency resistivity in a plasma driven by a large electric field oscillating near the electron plasma frequency. The large field excites the oscillating two-stream and the ion-acoustic decay instabilities in agreement with the linear theory. When the ion and electron fluctuations saturate, a strong anomalous heating of the plasma sets in. This strong heating is due to an efficient coupling of the externally imposed large electric field to the plasma by ion fluctuations. We determine the anomalous collision frequency and the saturation fluctuation amplitudes as a function of the external field amplitude and frequency, and the electron-ion mass ratio. A simple nonlinear theory gives results in reasonable agreement with simulations. 24 refs., 10 figs

  2. Gauge invariance and anomalous theories at finite fermionic density

    Roberge, A.

    1990-01-01

    We investigate the issue of stability of anomalous matter at finite fermionic density using a two-dimensional toy model. In particular, we pay careful attention to the issue of gauge invariance. We find that, contrary to some recent claims, the effective free energy (obtained by integrating out the fermions) cannot be obtained by the simple inclusion of a Chern-Simons term multiplying the fermionic chemical potential. We obtain some conditions for stability of anomalous charges when some finite density of conserved charge is present as well as for the neutral case. We also show that, under reasonable conditions, no sphaleron-type solution can exist in the toy model unless the anomalous charge density vanishes. We argue that this could be the case for more realistic models as well

  3. Absence of U(1) anomalous superamplitudes in N≥5 supergravities

    Freedman, Daniel Z. [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Stanford University,Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Center for Theoretical Physics and Department of Mathematics,Massachusetts Institute of Technology,Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Kallosh, Renata; Murli, Divyanshu [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Stanford University,Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Proeyen, Antoine Van [KU Leuven, Institute for Theoretical Physics,Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001, Leuven (Belgium); Yamada, Yusuke [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Stanford University,Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2017-05-12

    We list all potential candidates for U(1) anomalous non-local 1-loop 4-point amplitudes and higher loop UV divergences in N≥5 supergravities. The relevant chiral superinvariants are constructed from linearized chiral superfields and define the corresponding superamplitudes. The anomalous amplitudes, of the kind present in N=4, are shown to be absent in N≥5. In N=6 supergravity the result is deduced from the double-copy (N=4){sub YM}×(N=2){sub YM} model, whereas in N=5,8 the result on absence of anomalous amplitudes is derived in supergravities as well as in the (N=4){sub YM}×(N−4){sub YM} double-copy models.

  4. Quantum anomalous Bloch-Siegert shift in Weyl semimetal

    Kumar, Upendra; Kumar, Vipin; Enamullah, Setlur, Girish S.

    2018-05-01

    A periodic exchange of energy between the light field and two level system is known as Rabi oscillations. The Bloch-Siegert shift (BSS) is a shift in Rabi oscillation resonance condition, when the driving field is sufficiently strong. There are new type of oscillations exhibit in Weyl semimetal at far from resonance, known as anomalous Rabi oscillation. In this work, we study the phenomenon of the Bloch-Siegert shift in Weyl semimetal at far from resonance called anomalous Bloch-Siegert shift (ABSS) by purely quantum mechanical treatment and describe it's anisotropic nature. A fully numerical solution of the Floquet-Bloch equations unequivocally establishes the presence of not only anomalous Rabi oscillations in these systems but also their massless character.

  5. Observations of Anomalous Refraction with Co-housed Telescopes

    Taylor, Malinda S.; McGraw, J. T.; Zimmer, P. C.

    2013-01-01

    Anomalous refraction is described as a low frequency, large angular scale motion of the entire image plane with respect to the celestial coordinate system as observed and defined by previous astrometric catalogs. These motions of typically several tenths of an arcsecond with timescales on the order of ten minutes are ubiquitous to drift-scan ground-based astrometric measurements regardless of location or telescopes used and have been attributed to meter scale slowly evolving coherent dynamical structures in the boundary-layer below 60 meters. The localized nature of the effect and general inconsistency of the motions seen by even closely spaced telescopes in individual domes has led to the hypothesis that the dome or other type of telescope housing may be responsible. This hypothesis is tested by observing anomalous refraction using two telescopes housed in a single roll-off roof observatory building with the expected outcome that the two telescopes will see correlated anomalous refraction induced motions.

  6. Microinstability-based model for anomalous thermal confinement in tokamaks

    Tang, W.M.

    1986-03-01

    This paper deals with the formulation of microinstability-based thermal transport coefficients (chi/sub j/) for the purpose of modelling anomalous energy confinement properties in tokamak plasmas. Attention is primarily focused on ohmically heated discharges and the associated anomalous electron thermal transport. An appropriate expression for chi/sub e/ is developed which is consistent with reasonable global constraints on the current and electron temperature profiles as well as with the key properties of the kinetic instabilities most likely to be present. Comparisons of confinement scaling trends predicted by this model with the empirical ohmic data base indicate quite favorable agreement. The subject of anomalous ion thermal transport and its implications for high density ohmic discharges and for auxiliary-heated plasmas is also addressed

  7. Anomalous Hall effect and Nernst effect in itinerant ferromagnets

    Miyasato, T.; Abe, N.; Fujii, T.; Asamitsu, A.; Onose, Y.; Onoda, S.; Nagaosa, N.; Tokura, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Anomalous Hall effect (AHE) and anomalous Nernst effect (ANE) in many ferromagnetic metals including pure metals, oxides, and chalcogenides, are studied to obtain unified understandings of their origins. We show the universal behavior of anomalous Hall conductivity σ xy as a function of longitudinal conductivity σ xx over six orders of magnitude, which is well reproduced by a recent theory assuming both the intrinsic and extrinsic contributions to the AHE. ANE is closely related with AHE and gives us further information about the electronic state in the ground state of ferromagnets. The temperature dependence of transverse Peltier coefficient α xy shows almost similar behavior among various ferromagnets, and this behavior is expected from a conventional Boltzmann transport theory

  8. ε-iron nitrides: Intrinsic anomalous Hall ferromagnets

    Guo-Ke Li

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The anomalous Hall effect in ε-iron nitrides (ε-Fe3-xN, 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 has been systematically investigated taking advantage of the fact that the exchange splitting of ε-Fe3-xN can be continuously tuned through the nitrogen concentration. It has been found that the anomalous Hall conductivity, σ x y A H , is proportional to the saturation magnetization MS, i.e., σ x y A H = S H M S , across significant variations in the saturation magnetization (96–1146 emu/cc. This relationship is in excellent agreement with the intrinsic mechanism as well as with the unified theory of AHE. Our results also demonstrate that the anomalous Hall conductivity is sensitive to the exchange splitting of the band structure.

  9. Superconductivity in an anomalously tetragonal YB2C3O6.62 single crystal: A possible singularity in the structural phase diagram

    Frello, T.; Andersen, N.H.; Baziljevich, M.

    2003-01-01

    superconducting. This makes the sample highly anomalous in two respects: with a stoichiometry of YBa2Cu3O6.62 the sample should have an orthorhombic symmetry, and a tetragonal undoped sample should not be superconducting at all. Our results corroborate previous findings of Topnikov [JETP Lett. 46, 577 (1987......)] of a tetragonal superconducting YBCO crystal with x=0.62....

  10. Pigment dispersion syndrome masquerading as acute anterior uveitis.

    Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Luis Alonso; Rodríguez-García, Alejandro; Foster, C Stephen

    2011-06-01

    Signs and symptoms of pigment dispersion may be confused with those of acute anterior uveitis. This case series is intended to aid the ophthalmologist in the clinical differentiation between these two disorders. The authors present a series of 6 patients with pigment dispersion who were initially diagnosed as having acute anterior uveitis and treated with anti-inflammatory medication, including corticosteroids. The patients were referred for a second opinion due to poor or no response to therapy and were found to have pigment dispersion instead of uveitis. Symptoms of pigment dispersion may consist of blurred vision, redness, ocular pain, and photophobia, all of which are also symptoms of acute anterior uveitis. These symptoms, plus the fact that pigment floating in the aqueous humor can be mistaken for inflammation, make diagnosis challenging. Moreover, the possible co-existence of true anterior uveitis and pigment dispersion makes the diagnosis and treatment more difficult.

  11. Anomalous CO2 Emissions in Different Ecosystems Around the World

    Sanchez-Canete, E. P.; Moya Jiménez, M. R.; Kowalski, A. S.; Serrano-Ortiz, P.; López-Ballesteros, A.; Oyonarte, C.; Domingo, F.

    2016-12-01

    As an important tool for understanding and monitoring ecosystem dynamics at ecosystem level, the eddy covariance (EC) technique allows the assessment of the diurnal and seasonal variation of the net ecosystem exchange (NEE). Despite the high temporal resolution data available, there are still many processes (in addition to photosynthesis and respiration) that, although they are being monitored, have been neglected. Only a few authors have studied anomalous CO2 emissions (non biological), and have related them to soil ventilation, photodegradation or geochemical processes. The aim of this study is: 1) to identify anomalous short term CO2 emissions in different ecosystems distributed around the world, 2) to determine the meteorological variables that are influencing these emissions, and 3) to explore the potential processes that can be involved. We have studied EC data together with other meteorological ancillary variables obtained from the FLUXNET database (version 2015) and have found more than 50 sites with anomalous CO2 emissions in different ecosystem types such as grasslands, croplands or savannas. Data were filtered according to the FLUXNET quality control flags (only data with quality control flag equal to 0 was used) and correlation analysis were performed with NEE and ancillary data. Preliminary results showed strong and highly significant correlations between meteorological variables and anomalous CO2 emissions. Correlation results showed clear differing behaviors between ecosystems types, which could be related to the different processes involved in the anomalous CO2 emissions. We suggest that anomalous CO2 emissions are happening globally and therefore, their contribution to the global net ecosystem carbon balance requires further investigation in order to better understand its drivers.

  12. Splash-cup plants accelerate raindrops to disperse seeds

    Amador, Guillermo J.; Yamada, Yasukuni; McCurley, Matthew; Hu, David L.

    2013-01-01

    The conical flowers of splash-cup plants Chrysosplenium and Mazus catch raindrops opportunistically, exploiting the subsequent splash to disperse their seeds. In this combined experimental and theoretical study, we elucidate their mechanism for maximizing dispersal distance. We fabricate conical plant mimics using three-dimensional printing, and use high-speed video to visualize splash profiles and seed travel distance. Drop impacts that strike the cup off-centre achieve the largest dispersal distances of up to 1 m. Such distances are achieved because splash speeds are three to five times faster than incoming drop speeds, and so faster than the traditionally studied splashes occurring upon horizontal surfaces. This anomalous splash speed is because of the superposition of two components of momentum, one associated with a component of the drop's motion parallel to the splash-cup surface, and the other associated with film spreading induced by impact with the splash-cup. Our model incorporating these effects predicts the observed dispersal distance within 6–18% error. According to our experiments, the optimal cone angle for the splash-cup is 40°, a value consistent with the average of five species of splash-cup plants. This optimal angle arises from the competing effects of velocity amplification and projectile launching angle. PMID:23235266

  13. Dispersion relations in real and virtual Compton scattering

    Drechsel, D.; Pasquini, B.; Vanderhaeghen, M.

    2003-01-01

    A unified presentation is given on the use of dispersion relations in the real and virtual Compton scattering processes off the nucleon. The way in which dispersion relations for Compton scattering amplitudes establish connections between low energy nucleon structure quantities, such as polarizabilities or anomalous magnetic moments, and the nucleon excitation spectrum is reviewed. We discuss various sum rules for forward real and virtual Compton scattering, such as the Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn sum rule and its generalizations, the Burkhardt-Cottingham sum rule, as well as sum rules for forward nucleon polarizabilities, and review their experimental status. Subsequently, we address the general case of real Compton scattering (RCS). Various types of dispersion relations for RCS are presented as tools for extracting nucleon polarizabilities from the RCS data. The information on nucleon polarizabilities gained in this way is reviewed and the nucleon structure information encoded in these quantities is discussed. The dispersion relation formalism is then extended to virtual Compton scattering (VCS). The information on generalized nucleon polarizabilities extracted from recent VCS experiments is described, along with its interpretation in nucleon structure models. As a summary, the physics content of the existing data is discussed and some perspectives for future theoretical and experimental activities in this field are presented

  14. Algebraic isomorphism in two-dimensional anomalous gauge theories

    Carvalhaes, C.G.; Belvedere, L.V.; Filho, H.B.; Natividade, C.P.

    1997-01-01

    The operator solution of the anomalous chiral Schwinger model is discussed on the basis of the general principles of Wightman field theory. Some basic structural properties of the model are analyzed taking a careful control on the Hilbert space associated with the Wightman functions. The isomorphism between gauge noninvariant and gauge invariant descriptions of the anomalous theory is established in terms of the corresponding field algebras. We show that (i) the Θ-vacuum representation and (ii) the suggested equivalence of vector Schwinger model and chiral Schwinger model cannot be established in terms of the intrinsic field algebra. copyright 1997 Academic Press, Inc

  15. Anomalous magnetotransport of a surface electron layer above liquid helium

    Grigor'ev, V.N.; Kovdrya, Yu.Z.; Nikolaenko, V.A.; Kirichek, O.I.; Shcherbachenko, R.I.

    1991-01-01

    The magnetoconductivity σ xx of a surface electron layer above liquid helium has been measured at temperatures between 0.5-1.6 K, for concentrations up to about 4x10 8 cm -2 , in magnetic fields up to 25 kOe. As was observed, σ xx first decreases with lowering temperature, then has a minimum and at T xy , the earlier ascertained anomalous behaviour of the magnetoresistance ρ xx taken into consideration. The calculated dependence of ρ xx on T is in satisfactory agreement with the anomalous dependence ρ xx (T) found earlier by experiment

  16. A classical picture of anomalous effects in a tokamak

    Hirano, K.

    1984-01-01

    It is demonstrated that the atomic collisions between plasma ions and a very small amount of neutral particles remaining in a hot plasma plays a very important role for plasma transports and may be an origin of anomalous effects observed in a tokamak such as the diffusion coefficient independent of the field strength, a rapid plasma density increase during gas puffing and current penetration with anomalously high speed in the start-up phase. The Ohm's law derived by Cowling is used for the analysis. (author)

  17. Anomalous tensoelectric effects in gallium arsenide tunnel diodes

    Alekseeva, Z.M.; Vyatkin, A.P.; Krivorotov, N.P.; Shchegol' , A.A.

    1988-02-01

    Anomalous tensoelectric phenomena induced in a tunnel p-n junction by a concentrated load and by hydrostatic compression were studied. The anomalous tensoelectric effects are caused by the action of concentrators of mechanical stresses in the vicinity of the p-n junction, giving rise to local microplastic strain. Under the conditions of hydrostatic compression prolate inclusions approx.100-200 A long play the role of concentrators. Analysis of irreversible changes in the current-voltage characteristics of tunnel p-n junctions made it possible to separate the energy levels of the defects produced with plastic strain of gallium arsenide.

  18. Five-loop anomalous dimension of twist-two operators

    Lukowski, T. [Institute of Physics, Jagellonian University, ul. Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Rej, A. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Velizhanin, V.N., E-mail: velizh@mail.desy.d [Theoretical Physics Department, Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Orlova Roscha, Gatchina, 188300 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2010-05-21

    In this article we calculate the five-loop anomalous dimension of twist-two operators in the planar N=4 SYM theory. Firstly, using reciprocity, we derive the contribution of the asymptotic Bethe ansatz. Subsequently, we employ the first finite-size correction for the AdS{sub 5}xS{sup 5} sigma model to determine the wrapping correction. The anomalous dimension found in this way passes all known tests provided by the NLO BFKL equation and double-logarithmic constraints. This result thus furnishes an infinite number of experimental data for testing the veracity of the recently proposed spectral equations for planar AdS/CFT correspondence.

  19. Dispersed flow film boiling

    Andreani, M.; Yadigaroglu, G.

    1989-12-01

    Dispersed flow film boiling is the heat transfer regime that occurs at high void fractions in a heated channel. The way this transfer mode is modelled in the NRC computer codes (RELAP5 and TRAC) and the validity of the assumption and empirical correlations used is discussed. An extensive review of the theoretical and experimental work related with heat transfer to highly dispersed mixtures reveals the basic deficiencies of these models: the investigation refers mostly to the typical conditions of low rate bottom reflooding, since the simulation of this physical situation by the computer codes has often showed poor results. The alternative models that are available in the literature are reviewed, and their merits and limits are highlighted. The modification that could improve the physics of the models implemented in the codes are identified. (author) 13 figs., 123 refs

  20. Working document dispersion models

    Dop, H. van

    1988-01-01

    This report is a summary of the most important results from June 1985 of the collaboration of the RIVM (Dutch National Institute for Public Health and Environment Hygiene) and KNMI (Royal Dutch Meteorologic Institute) on the domain of dispersion models. It contains a short description of the actual SO x /NO x -model. Furthermore it contains recommendations for modifications of some numerical-mathematical aspects and an impulse to a more complete description of chemical processes in the atmosphere and the (wet) deposition process. A separate chapter is devoted to the preparation of meteorologic data which are relevant for dispersion as well as atmospheric chemistry and deposition. This report serves as working document for the final formulation of a acidifying- and oxidant-model. (H.W.). 69 refs.; 51 figs.; 13 tabs.; 3 schemes

  1. Spatially Dispersed Employee Recovery

    Hvass, Kristian Anders; Torfadóttir, Embla

    2014-01-01

    Employee recovery addresses either employee well-being or management's practices in aiding employees in recovering themselves following a service failure. This paper surveys the cabin crew at a small, European, low-cost carrier and investigates employees' perceptions of management practices to aid...... personnel achieve service recovery. Employee recovery within service research often focuses on front-line employees that work in a fixed location, however a contribution to the field is made by investigating the recovery of spatially dispersed personnel, such as operational personnel in the transport sector......, who have a work place away from a fixed or central location and have minimal management contact. Results suggest that the support employees receive from management, such as recognition, information sharing, training, and strategic awareness are all important for spatially dispersed front...

  2. Heat dispersion in rivers

    Shaw, T.L.

    1974-01-01

    One of the tasks of the Sonderforschungsbereich 80 is to study the dispersion of heat discharged into rivers and other bodies of water and to develop methods which permit prediction of detrimental effects caused by the heated discharges. In order to help the SFB 80 to specify this task, Dr. Shaw, lecturer of Civil Engineering at the Bristol University, conducted a literature survey on heat-dispersion studies during the two months which he spent as a visiting research fellow with the SFB 80 at the University of Karlsruhe in the summer of 1973. The following report is the outcome of this survey. It gives Dr. Shaw's assessment of the present state of knowledge - based almost exclusively on literature in the English language - and compares this with the knowledge required by river planners. The apparent discrepancy leads to suggestions for future research. Selected references as well as a representative bibliography can be found at the end of the report. (orig.) [de

  3. Granular controls on the dispersion of bed load tracers

    Jerolmack, D. J.; Martin, R. L.; Phillips, C. B.

    2014-12-01

    Coarse particles are transported in a river as bed load, i.e., they move in frequent contact with and are supported by the granular bed. This movement is typically intermittent and may be described by a series of steps are rests, the distributions of which determine particle dispersion. Laboratory and field studies of bed load tracer dispersion have reported sub- and super-diffusive behavior, both of which have been successfully reproduced with stochastic transport models. Although researchers have invoked heavy-tailed step lengths as the cause of anomalous dispersion, most observations report thin-tailed distributions. Little attention has been paid to rest periods, and stochastic transport models have not been connected to the underlying mechanics of particle motion. Based on theoretical and experimental evidence, we argue that step lengths are thin-tailed and do not control the longterm dispersion of bed load tracers; they are determined by momentum balance between the fluid and solid. Using laboratory experiments with both marbles and natural sediments, we demonstrate that the rest time distribution is power law, and argue that this distribution controls asymptotic dispersion. Observed rest times far exceed any hydrodynamic timescale. Experiments reveal that rest times of deposited particles are governed by fluctuations in river bed elevation; in particular, the return time for the bed to scour to the base of a deposited particle. Stochastic fluctuations in bed elevation are describable by an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck (mean-reverting random walk) model that contains two parameters, which we show are directly related to the granular shear rate and range of bed elevation fluctuations, respectively. Combining these results with the theory of asymmetric random walks (particles only move downstream), we predict superdiffusive behavior that is in quantitative agreement with our observations of tracer dispersion in a natural river.

  4. Taylor dispersion of nanoparticles

    Balog, Sandor; Urban, Dominic A.; Milosevic, Ana M.; Crippa, Federica; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara; Petri-Fink, Alke

    2017-08-01

    The ability to detect and accurately characterize particles is required by many fields of nanotechnology, including materials science, nanotoxicology, and nanomedicine. Among the most relevant physicochemical properties of nanoparticles, size and the related surface-to-volume ratio are fundamental ones. Taylor dispersion combines three independent phenomena to determine particle size: optical extinction, translational diffusion, and sheer-enhanced dispersion of nanoparticles subjected to a steady laminar flow. The interplay of these defines the apparent size. Considering that particles in fact are never truly uniform nor monodisperse, we rigorously address particle polydispersity and calculate the apparent particle size measured by Taylor dispersion analysis. We conducted case studies addressing aqueous suspensions of model particles and large-scale-produced "industrial" particles of both academic and commercial interest of various core materials and sizes, ranging from 15 to 100 nm. A comparison with particle sizes determined by transmission electron microscopy confirms that our approach is model-independent, non-parametric, and of general validity that provides an accurate account of size polydispersity—independently on the shape of the size distribution and without any assumption required a priori.

  5. Can I solve my structure by SAD phasing? Planning an experiment, scaling data and evaluating the useful anomalous correlation and anomalous signal.

    Terwilliger, Thomas C; Bunkóczi, Gábor; Hung, Li Wei; Zwart, Peter H; Smith, Janet L; Akey, David L; Adams, Paul D

    2016-03-01

    A key challenge in the SAD phasing method is solving a structure when the anomalous signal-to-noise ratio is low. Here, algorithms and tools for evaluating and optimizing the useful anomalous correlation and the anomalous signal in a SAD experiment are described. A simple theoretical framework [Terwilliger et al. (2016), Acta Cryst. D72, 346-358] is used to develop methods for planning a SAD experiment, scaling SAD data sets and estimating the useful anomalous correlation and anomalous signal in a SAD data set. The phenix.plan_sad_experiment tool uses a database of solved and unsolved SAD data sets and the expected characteristics of a SAD data set to estimate the probability that the anomalous substructure will be found in the SAD experiment and the expected map quality that would be obtained if the substructure were found. The phenix.scale_and_merge tool scales unmerged SAD data from one or more crystals using local scaling and optimizes the anomalous signal by identifying the systematic differences among data sets, and the phenix.anomalous_signal tool estimates the useful anomalous correlation and anomalous signal after collecting SAD data and estimates the probability that the data set can be solved and the likely figure of merit of phasing.

  6. Navigation by anomalous random walks on complex networks.

    Weng, Tongfeng; Zhang, Jie; Khajehnejad, Moein; Small, Michael; Zheng, Rui; Hui, Pan

    2016-11-23

    Anomalous random walks having long-range jumps are a critical branch of dynamical processes on networks, which can model a number of search and transport processes. However, traditional measurements based on mean first passage time are not useful as they fail to characterize the cost associated with each jump. Here we introduce a new concept of mean first traverse distance (MFTD) to characterize anomalous random walks that represents the expected traverse distance taken by walkers searching from source node to target node, and we provide a procedure for calculating the MFTD between two nodes. We use Lévy walks on networks as an example, and demonstrate that the proposed approach can unravel the interplay between diffusion dynamics of Lévy walks and the underlying network structure. Moreover, applying our framework to the famous PageRank search, we show how to inform the optimality of the PageRank search. The framework for analyzing anomalous random walks on complex networks offers a useful new paradigm to understand the dynamics of anomalous diffusion processes, and provides a unified scheme to characterize search and transport processes on networks.

  7. Navigation by anomalous random walks on complex networks

    Weng, Tongfeng; Zhang, Jie; Khajehnejad, Moein; Small, Michael; Zheng, Rui; Hui, Pan

    2016-11-01

    Anomalous random walks having long-range jumps are a critical branch of dynamical processes on networks, which can model a number of search and transport processes. However, traditional measurements based on mean first passage time are not useful as they fail to characterize the cost associated with each jump. Here we introduce a new concept of mean first traverse distance (MFTD) to characterize anomalous random walks that represents the expected traverse distance taken by walkers searching from source node to target node, and we provide a procedure for calculating the MFTD between two nodes. We use Lévy walks on networks as an example, and demonstrate that the proposed approach can unravel the interplay between diffusion dynamics of Lévy walks and the underlying network structure. Moreover, applying our framework to the famous PageRank search, we show how to inform the optimality of the PageRank search. The framework for analyzing anomalous random walks on complex networks offers a useful new paradigm to understand the dynamics of anomalous diffusion processes, and provides a unified scheme to characterize search and transport processes on networks.

  8. Gluonic Regge singularities and anomalous dimensions in QCD

    Jaroszewicz, T.

    1982-01-01

    The Regge calculus results on the perturbative Pomeron are applied to deep inelastic scattering. Explicit expressions are given for the anomalous dimensions γsub(GGG)sup(n) and γsub(GF)sup(n) at n approx.= 1 to the lowest order in α and all orders in α/(n-1). (author)

  9. anomalous left anterior cerebral artery with hypoplastic right anterior ...

    2018-02-28

    Feb 28, 2018 ... We report an extremely rare anomalous variation of left anterior cerebral artery arising from the ... paraclinoid internal carotid artery and right ... Studies on the arteries of the brain: II-The anterior cerebral artery: Some anatomic ...

  10. Theory of anomalous transport in toroidal helical plasmas

    Itoh, K.; Itoh, S.; Fukuyama, A.

    1992-03-01

    Theoretical model of the anomalous transport in Torsatron/Heliotron plasmas is developed, based on the current-diffusive interchange instability which is destabilized due to the averaged magnetic hill near edge. Analytic formula of transport coefficient is derived. This model explains the high edge transport, the power degradation and energy confinement scaling law and the enhanced heat-pulse thermal conduction. (author)

  11. Exotic aspects of hadronic atoms-anomalous quasi-stabilities

    Yamazaki, Toshimitsu.

    1993-07-01

    Recently revealed, but hitherto unknown, new aspects of hadronic atoms, namely, anomalous quasi-stabilities of negative hadrons, are discussed. One is on long-lived antiprotonic helium atoms, characterized as 'atomic exotic halo' and the other is on deeply bound pionic atoms, characterized as 'nuclear exotic halo'. (author)

  12. Anomalous dc resistivity and double layers in the auroral ionosphere

    Kindel, J.M.; Barnes, C.; Forslund, D.W.

    1980-01-01

    There are at least four candidate instabilities which might account for anomalous dc rereresistivity in the auroral ionosphere. These are: the ion-acoustic instability, the Buneman instability, the ion-cyclotron instability and double layers. Results are reported of computer simulations of these four instabilities which suggest that double layers are most likely to be responsible for sistivity in the auroral zone

  13. Identification of an anomalous phase in Ni–W electrodeposits

    Mizushima, Io; Tang, Peter Torben; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2008-01-01

    In the present work Ni–W layers electrodeposited from electrolytes based on NiSO4, Na2WO4, citrate, glycine and triethanolamine are characterized with glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GD-OES) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). XRD showed the occurrence of an anomalous phase...

  14. Influence of anomalous thermal losses of ignition conditions

    Coppi, B.; Tang, W.M.

    1986-05-01

    In the process of achieving ignition conditions, it is likely that microinstabilities, which lead to anomalous thermal transport of the fusing nuclei, will be present. When such phenomena are taken into account, an appropriate formulation of ignition criteria becomes necessary. In particular, a new type of plasma density limit is identified

  15. PICTORIAL ESSAY Is anomalous origin of the left vertebral artery ...

    Is anomalous origin of the left vertebral artery indeed a rare finding? Braham van der Merwe, Christelle Ackermann, Shaun Scheepers, Sulaiman Moosa. Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Stellenbosch University and Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Tygerberg, Western Cape. Braham van der Merwe, MB ChB , DA (SA).

  16. Anomalous scaling of stochastic processes and the Moses effect.

    Chen, Lijian; Bassler, Kevin E; McCauley, Joseph L; Gunaratne, Gemunu H

    2017-04-01

    The state of a stochastic process evolving over a time t is typically assumed to lie on a normal distribution whose width scales like t^{1/2}. However, processes in which the probability distribution is not normal and the scaling exponent differs from 1/2 are known. The search for possible origins of such "anomalous" scaling and approaches to quantify them are the motivations for the work reported here. In processes with stationary increments, where the stochastic process is time-independent, autocorrelations between increments and infinite variance of increments can cause anomalous scaling. These sources have been referred to as the Joseph effect and the Noah effect, respectively. If the increments are nonstationary, then scaling of increments with t can also lead to anomalous scaling, a mechanism we refer to as the Moses effect. Scaling exponents quantifying the three effects are defined and related to the Hurst exponent that characterizes the overall scaling of the stochastic process. Methods of time series analysis that enable accurate independent measurement of each exponent are presented. Simple stochastic processes are used to illustrate each effect. Intraday financial time series data are analyzed, revealing that their anomalous scaling is due only to the Moses effect. In the context of financial market data, we reiterate that the Joseph exponent, not the Hurst exponent, is the appropriate measure to test the efficient market hypothesis.

  17. Anomalous scaling of stochastic processes and the Moses effect

    Chen, Lijian; Bassler, Kevin E.; McCauley, Joseph L.; Gunaratne, Gemunu H.

    2017-04-01

    The state of a stochastic process evolving over a time t is typically assumed to lie on a normal distribution whose width scales like t1/2. However, processes in which the probability distribution is not normal and the scaling exponent differs from 1/2 are known. The search for possible origins of such "anomalous" scaling and approaches to quantify them are the motivations for the work reported here. In processes with stationary increments, where the stochastic process is time-independent, autocorrelations between increments and infinite variance of increments can cause anomalous scaling. These sources have been referred to as the Joseph effect and the Noah effect, respectively. If the increments are nonstationary, then scaling of increments with t can also lead to anomalous scaling, a mechanism we refer to as the Moses effect. Scaling exponents quantifying the three effects are defined and related to the Hurst exponent that characterizes the overall scaling of the stochastic process. Methods of time series analysis that enable accurate independent measurement of each exponent are presented. Simple stochastic processes are used to illustrate each effect. Intraday financial time series data are analyzed, revealing that their anomalous scaling is due only to the Moses effect. In the context of financial market data, we reiterate that the Joseph exponent, not the Hurst exponent, is the appropriate measure to test the efficient market hypothesis.

  18. Dynamic conservation of anomalous current in gauge theories

    Kulikov, A.V.

    1986-01-01

    The symmetry of classical Lagrangian of gauge fields is shown to lead in quantum theory to certain limitations for the fields interacting with gauge ones. Due to this property, additional terms appear in the effective action in the theories with anomalous currents and its gauge invariance is ensured

  19. Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return in Turner syndrome

    Hoven, A.T. van den; Chelu, R.G.; Duijnhouwer, A.L.; Demulier, L.; Devos, D.; Nieman, K.; Witsenburg, M.; Bosch, A.E. van den; Loeys, B.L.; Hagen, I.M. van; Roos-Hesselink, J.W.

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to describe the prevalence, anatomy, associations and clinical impact of partial anomalous pulmonary venous return in patients with Turner syndrome. METHODS AND RESULTS: All Turner patients who presented at our Turner clinic, between January 2007 and October 2015

  20. Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return in Turner syndrome.

    van den Hoven, Allard T; Chelu, Raluca G; Duijnhouwer, Anthonie L; Demulier, Laurent; Devos, Daniel; Nieman, Koen; Witsenburg, Maarten; van den Bosch, Annemien E; Loeys, Bart L; van Hagen, Iris M; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the prevalence, anatomy, associations and clinical impact of partial anomalous pulmonary venous return in patients with Turner syndrome. All Turner patients who presented at our Turner clinic, between January 2007 and October 2015 were included in this study and underwent ECG, echocardiography and advanced imaging such as cardiac magnetic resonance or computed tomography as part of their regular clinical workup. All imaging was re-evaluated and detailed anatomy was described. Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return was diagnosed in 24 (25%) out of 96 Turner patients included and 14 (58%) of these 24 partial anomalous pulmonary venous return had not been reported previously. Right atrial or ventricular dilatation was present in 11 (46%) of 24 partial anomalous pulmonary venous return patients. When studied with advanced imaging modalities and looked for with specific attention, PAPVR is found in 1 out of 4 Turner patients. Half of these patients had right atrial and/or ventricular dilatation. Evaluation of pulmonary venous return should be included in the standard protocol in all Turner patients. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Electric charge quantization and the muon anomalous magnetic moment

    Pires, C.A.S. de; Rodrigues da Silva, P.S.

    2002-01-01

    We investigate some proposals to solve the electric charge quantization puzzle that simultaneously explain the recent measured deviation on the muon anomalous magnetic moment. For this we assess extensions of the electro-weak standard model spanning modifications on the scalar sector only. It is interesting to verify that one can have modest extensions which easily account for the solution for both problems

  2. Explanation of Two Anomalous Results in Statistical Mediation Analysis

    Fritz, Matthew S.; Taylor, Aaron B.; MacKinnon, David P.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies of different methods of testing mediation models have consistently found two anomalous results. The first result is elevated Type I error rates for the bias-corrected and accelerated bias-corrected bootstrap tests not found in nonresampling tests or in resampling tests that did not include a bias correction. This is of special…

  3. Anomalous hydrocracking of triglycerides over CoMo-catalyst ...

    Vol. 126, No. 2, March 2014, pp. 473–480. c Indian Academy of Sciences. Anomalous hydrocracking of ... to minimize condensation reaction during this process. Keywords. Coupling reactions ... normal and/or iso-alkanes.5–7 The first step in plant- oil hydroprocessing for the production of hydrocarbon fuels is saturation of ...

  4. Anomalous heat conduction in a one-dimensional ideal gas.

    Casati, Giulio; Prosen, Tomaz

    2003-01-01

    We provide firm convincing evidence that the energy transport in a one-dimensional gas of elastically colliding free particles of unequal masses is anomalous, i.e., the Fourier law does not hold. Our conclusions are confirmed by a theoretical and numerical analysis based on a Green-Kubo-type approach specialized to momentum-conserving lattices.

  5. Patterns of anomalous pulmonary venous connection as seen at ...

    Supra-cardiac and intra-cardiac anomalous were the commonest type of TAPVC representing 43.6% and 35.9% respectively. Among all patients with TAPVC 51.35% were associated with ostium secundum atrial septal defect, 74.4% had moderate to severe pulmonary hypertension. Overall mortality was 9.25%. Mortality ...

  6. Robustness in cluster analysis in the presence of anomalous observations

    Zhuk, EE

    Cluster analysis of multivariate observations in the presence of "outliers" (anomalous observations) in a sample is studied. The expected (mean) fraction of erroneous decisions for the decision rule is computed analytically by minimizing the intraclass scatter. A robust decision rule (stable to

  7. Anomalous left the pulmonary dilemma coronary artery artery from a ...

    Anomalous origin ofthe left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery is an unusual congenital ... led us to review our experience of this anomaly over the past 10 years. During this .... New York: McGraw-Hill, 1978: 1345. 5. Bland EF, White PO, ...

  8. Mass anomalous dimension in SU(2) with six fundamental fermions

    Bursa, Francis; Del Debbio, Luigi; Keegan, Liam

    2010-01-01

    We simulate SU(2) gauge theory with six massless fundamental Dirac fermions. We measure the running of the coupling and the mass in the Schroedinger Functional scheme. We observe very slow running of the coupling constant. We measure the mass anomalous dimension gamma, and find it is between 0.13...

  9. Anomalous U(1)A and electroweak symmetry breaking

    Gogoladze, I.; Tsulaya, M.

    2000-01-01

    A new mechanism for electroweak symmetry breaking in the supersymmetric Standard Model is suggested. Our suggestion is based on the presence of an anomalous U(1) A gauge symmetry, which naturally arises in the four-dimensional superstring theory, and heavily relies on the corresponding Fayet-Illiopoulos ξ-term

  10. Anomalous U(1)A and electroweak symmetry breaking

    Gogoladze, Ilia

    2000-10-01

    We suggest a mechanism for electroweak symmetry breaking in the Supersymmetric Standard Model. Our suggestion is based on the presence of an anomalous U(1) A gauge symmetry, which naturally arises in the four dimensional superstring theory, and heavily relies on the value of the corresponding Fayet-Illiopoulos ξ-term. (author)

  11. Functional MRI of Conventional and Anomalous Metaphors in Mandarin Chinese

    Ahrens, Kathleen; Liu, Ho-Ling; Lee, Chia-Ying; Gong, Shu-Ping; Fang, Shin-Yi; Hsu, Yuan-Yu

    2007-01-01

    This study looks at whether conventional and anomalous metaphors are processed in different locations in the brain while being read when compared with a literal condition in Mandarin Chinese. We find that conventional metaphors differ from the literal condition with a slight amount of increased activation in the right inferior temporal gyrus. In…

  12. Composite scalar contributions to the anomalous magnetic moments

    Stremnitzer, H.

    1984-01-01

    It is shown that the composite scalars recently introduced to explain the high Z 0 → e + e - γ rate contribute too much to the lepton anomalous magnetic moments, unless one uses very accurate chiral symmetry or composite models with two preonic scales. (Author)

  13. Vertices for correlated electron systems with anomalous propagators

    Janiš, Václav; Pokorný, Vladislav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 1 (2014), "66-1"-"66-10" ISSN 2278-3393 R&D Projects: GA ČR GCP204/11/J042 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : interacting quantum dot * superconducting leads * diagrammatic perturbation expansion * anomalous vertex functions Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism http://www.cognizure.com/sj.aspx?p=200638479

  14. Anomalous Magnetic and Electric Dipole Moments of the $\\tau$

    Taylor, L

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews the theoretical predictions for and the experimental measurements of the anomalous magnetic and electric dipole moments of the tau lepton. In particular, recent analyses of the e/sup +/e/sup -/ to tau /sup +/ tau /sup -/ gamma process from the L3 and OPAL collaborations are described. The most precise results, from L3, for the anomalous magnetic and electric dipole moments respectively are: a/sub tau /=0.004+or-0.027+or-0.023 and d /sub tau /=(0.0+or-1.5+or-1.3)*10/sup -16/ e.cm. (22 refs). This paper reviews the theoretical predictions for and the experimental measurements of the anomalous magnetic and electric dipole moments of the tau lepton. In particular, recent analyses of the $\\eettg$ process from the L3 and OPAL collaborations are described. The most precise results, from L3, for the anomalous magnetic and electric dipole moments respectively are: $\\atau = 0.004 10^{-16}{e{\\cdot}\\mathrm{cm}}$.

  15. Revisiting the Anomalous rf Field Penetration into a Warm Plasma

    Kaganovich, Igor D.; Polomarov, Oleg V.; Theodosiou, Constantine E.

    2005-01-01

    Radio-frequency [rf] waves do not penetrate into a plasma and are damped within it. The electric field of the wave and plasma current are concentrated near the plasma boundary in a skin layer. Electrons can transport the plasma current away from the skin layer due to their thermal motion. As a result, the width of the skin layer increases when electron temperature effects are taken into account. This phenomenon is called anomalous skin effect. The anomalous penetration of the rf electric field occurs not only for transversely propagating to the plasma boundary wave (inductively coupled plasmas) but also for the wave propagating along the plasma boundary (capacitively coupled plasmas). Such anomalous penetration of the rf field modifies the structure of the capacitive sheath. Recent advances in the nonlinear, non-local theory of the capacitive sheath are reported. It is shown that separating the electric field profile into exponential and non-exponential parts yields an efficient qualitative and quantitative description of the anomalous skin effect in both inductively and capacitively coupled plasma

  16. Nozzle for electric dispersion reactor

    Sisson, W.G.; Basaran, O.A.; Harris, M.T.

    1995-11-07

    A nozzle for an electric dispersion reactor includes two concentric electrodes, the inner one of the two delivering disperse phase fluid into a continuous phase fluid. A potential difference generated by a voltage source creates a dispersing electric field at the end of the inner electrode. 4 figs.

  17. Anomalous Power Flow and ``Ghost'' Sources

    Monzon, Cesar

    2008-08-01

    It is demonstrated that EM radiation from complex sources can result in real power in restricted regions of space flowing back towards the sources, thereby mimicking “ghost” sources. This counterintuitive mechanism of radiation does not rely on backward waves, as ordinary waves carry the power. Ways to harness the effect by making it directional are presented, together with selected applications, of which deception is a prime example due to the nature of the phenomenon. The concept can be applied to other areas, such as mechanics, acoustics, etc., and can be realized with available technology.

  18. Anomalous elasticity, fluctuations and disorder in elastic membranes

    Le Doussal, Pierre; Radzihovsky, Leo

    2018-05-01

    Motivated by freely suspended graphene and polymerized membranes in soft and biological matter we present a detailed study of a tensionless elastic sheet in the presence of thermal fluctuations and quenched disorder. The manuscript is based on an extensive draft dating back to 1993, that was circulated privately. It presents the general theoretical framework and calculational details of numerous results, partial forms of which have been published in brief Letters (Le Doussal and Radzihovsky, 1992; 1993). The experimental realization atom-thin graphene sheets (Novoselov et al., 2004) have driven a resurgence in this fascinating subject, making our dated predictions and their detailed derivations timely. To this end we analyze the statistical mechanics of a generalized D-dimensional elastic "membrane" embedded in d dimensions using a self-consistent screening approximation (SCSA), that has proved to be unprecedentedly accurate in this system, exact in three complementary limits: (i) d → ∞, (ii) D → 4, and (iii) D = d. Focusing on the critical "flat" phase, for a homogeneous two-dimensional (D = 2) membrane embedded in three dimensions (d = 3), we predict its universal roughness exponent ζ = 0 . 590, length-scale dependent elastic moduli exponents η = 0 . 821 and ηu = 0 . 358, and an anomalous Poisson ratio, σ = - 1 / 3. In the presence of random uncorrelated heterogeneity the membrane exhibits a glassy wrinkled ground state, characterized by ζ‧ = 0 . 775 ,η‧ = 0 . 449, ηu‧ = 1 . 101 and a Poisson ratio σ‧ = - 1 / 3. Motivated by a number of physical realizations (charged impurities, disclinations and dislocations) we also study power-law correlated quenched disorder that leads to a variety of distinct glassy wrinkled phases. Finally, neglecting self-avoiding interaction we demonstrate that at high temperature a "phantom" sheet undergoes a continuous crumpling transition, characterized by a radius of gyration exponent, ν = 0 . 732 and η = 0

  19. Anomalous variations of lithosphere magnetic field before several earthquakes

    Ni, Z.; Chen, B.

    2015-12-01

    Based on the geomagnetic vector data measured each year since 2011 at more than 500 sites with a mean spatial interval of ~70km.we observed anomalous variations of lithospheric magnetic field before and after over 15 earthquakes having magnitude > 5. We find that the field in near proximity (about 50km) to the epicenter of large earthquakes shows high spatial and temporal gradients before the earthquake. Due to the low frequency of repeat measurements it is unclear when these variations occurred and how do them evolve. We point out anomalous magnetic filed using some circles with radius of 50km usually in June of each year, and then we would check whether quake will locat in our circles during one year after that time (June to next June). Now we caught 10 earthquakes of 15 main shocks having magnitude > 5, most of them located at less than10km away from our circles and some of them were in our circles. Most results show that the variations of lithosphere magnetic filed at the epicenter are different with surrending backgroud usually. When we figure out horizontal variations (vector) of lithosphere magnetic field and epicenter during one year after each June, we found half of them show that the earthquakes will locat at "the inlands in a flowing river", that means earthquakes may occur at "quiet"regions while the backgroud show character as"flow" as liquid. When we compared with GPS results, it appears that these variations of lithospere magnetic field may also correlate with displacement of earth's surface. However we do not compared with GPS results for each earthquake, we are not clear whether these anomalous variations of lithospere magnetic field may also correlate with anomalous displacement of earth's surface. Future work will include developing an automated method for identifying this type of anomalous field behavior and trying to short repeat measurement period to 6 month to try to find when these variations occur.

  20. Anomalous aortic origin of a coronary artery: a report from the Congenital Heart Surgeons Society Registry.

    Poynter, Jeffrey A; Williams, William G; McIntyre, Susan; Brothers, Julie A; Jacobs, Marshall L

    2014-01-01

    Anomalous aortic origin of a coronary artery (AAOCA) is a common congenital heart lesion that may be rarely associated with myocardial ischemia and sudden death in the young. Evidence-based criteria for managing young patients with AAOCA are lacking. The Congenital Heart Surgeons Society (CHSS) established a multicenter registry of patients with AAOCA aged ≤30 years to develop these criteria. All institutional members of the CHSS are eligible to enroll patients. Patients were enrolled retrospectively if diagnosis of AAOCA occurred between January 1, 1998, and January 20, 2009, and prospectively from January 20, 2009 forward. The first phase of analysis explored possible associations between demographics, symptoms, coronary anatomy, and management using correlation analysis and logistic regression. As of June 2012, 198 patients were enrolled from CHSS member institutions (median age at diagnosis = 10.2 years; 64% male). Data were extracted from clinical records. Fifty-four percent were symptomatic at presentation (most commonly chest pain, N = 78). The AAOCA was diagnosed at autopsy in two patients who presented with sudden death (one with anomalous aortic origin of the left coronary artery [AAOLCA]; one with a single ostium above a commissure giving rise to both left and right coronary arteries). Imaging reports documented anomalous aortic origin of the right coronary artery (AAORCA) in 144 patients, AAOLCA in 51 patients, and AAOLCA/AAORCA in 1 patient. Surgery or autopsy without surgery was performed in 106 patients (71 AAORCA [67%]; 31 AAOLCA [29%]; and 4 AAORCA/AAOLCA [4%]) at a median age of 12.6 years. Overall, 52% of patients with AAORCA versus 67% with AAOLCA had surgery. Most surgical operative reports described an intramural segment of the coronary artery with anomalous origin. Surgery correlated with symptoms, older age, and presence of an intramural segment in the setting of AAOLCA. Management decisions, including surgical referral, are associated

  1. Tracer dispersion - experiment and CFD

    Zitny, R.

    2004-01-01

    Description of tracer distribution by means of dispersion models is a method successfully used in process engineering for fifty years. Application of dispersion models in reactor engineering for characterization of flows in column apparatus, heat exchangers, etc. is summarized and experimental tracer techniques as well as CFD methods for dispersion coefficients evaluation are discussed. Possible extensions of thermal axial dispersion model (ADM) and a core-wall ADM model suitable for description of tracer dispersion in laminar flows are suggested as well as CFD implementation as 1D finite elements. (author)

  2. High density dispersion fuel

    Hofman, G.L.

    1996-01-01

    A fuel development campaign that results in an aluminum plate-type fuel of unlimited LEU burnup capability with an uranium loading of 9 grams per cm 3 of meat should be considered an unqualified success. The current worldwide approved and accepted highest loading is 4.8 g cm -3 with U 3 Si 2 as fuel. High-density uranium compounds offer no real density advantage over U 3 Si 2 and have less desirable fabrication and performance characteristics as well. Of the higher-density compounds, U 3 Si has approximately a 30% higher uranium density but the density of the U 6 X compounds would yield the factor 1.5 needed to achieve 9 g cm -3 uranium loading. Unfortunately, irradiation tests proved these peritectic compounds have poor swelling behavior. It is for this reason that the authors are turning to uranium alloys. The reason pure uranium was not seriously considered as a dispersion fuel is mainly due to its high rate of growth and swelling at low temperatures. This problem was solved at least for relatively low burnup application in non-dispersion fuel elements with small additions of Si, Fe, and Al. This so called adjusted uranium has nearly the same density as pure α-uranium and it seems prudent to reconsider this alloy as a dispersant. Further modifications of uranium metal to achieve higher burnup swelling stability involve stabilization of the cubic γ phase at low temperatures where normally α phase exists. Several low neutron capture cross section elements such as Zr, Nb, Ti and Mo accomplish this in various degrees. The challenge is to produce a suitable form of fuel powder and develop a plate fabrication procedure, as well as obtain high burnup capability through irradiation testing

  3. Anomalous structural transition of confined hard squares.

    Gurin, Péter; Varga, Szabolcs; Odriozola, Gerardo

    2016-11-01

    Structural transitions are examined in quasi-one-dimensional systems of freely rotating hard squares, which are confined between two parallel walls. We find two competing phases: one is a fluid where the squares have two sides parallel to the walls, while the second one is a solidlike structure with a zigzag arrangement of the squares. Using transfer matrix method we show that the configuration space consists of subspaces of fluidlike and solidlike phases, which are connected with low probability microstates of mixed structures. The existence of these connecting states makes the thermodynamic quantities continuous and precludes the possibility of a true phase transition. However, thermodynamic functions indicate strong tendency for the phase transition and our replica exchange Monte Carlo simulation study detects several important markers of the first order phase transition. The distinction of a phase transition from a structural change is practically impossible with simulations and experiments in such systems like the confined hard squares.

  4. Absolute negative mobility in the anomalous diffusion

    Chen, Ruyin; Chen, Chongyang; Nie, Linru

    2017-12-01

    Transport of an inertial Brownian particle driven by the multiplicative Lévy noise was investigated here. Numerical results indicate that: (i) The Lévy noise is able to induce absolute negative mobility (ANM) in the system, while disappearing in the deterministic case; (ii) the ANM can occur in the region of superdiffusion while disappearing in the region of normal diffusion, and the appropriate stable index of the Lévy noise makes the particle move along the opposite direction of the bias force to the maximum degree; (iii) symmetry breaking of the Lévy noise also causes the ANM effect. In addition, the intrinsic physical mechanism and conditions for the ANM to occur are discussed in detail. Our results have the implication that the Lévy noise plays an important role in the occurrence of the ANM phenomenon.

  5. Spurious dispersion effects at FLASH

    Prat, Eduard

    2009-07-01

    The performance of the Free-Electron Laser (FEL) process imposes stringent demands on the transverse trajectory and size of the electron beam. Since transverse dispersion changes off-energy particle trajectories and increases the effective beam size, dispersion must be controlled. This thesis treats the concept of dispersion in linacs, and analyses the impact of dispersion on the electron beam and on the FEL process. It presents generation mechanisms for spurious dispersion, quantifying its importance for FLASH (Free-electron Laser in Hamburg) and the XFEL (European X-ray Free-Electron Laser). A method for measuring and correcting dispersion and its implementation in FLASH is described. Experiments of dispersion e ects on the transverse beam quality and on the FEL performance are presented. (orig.)

  6. Spurious dispersion effects at FLASH

    Prat, Eduard

    2009-07-15

    The performance of the Free-Electron Laser (FEL) process imposes stringent demands on the transverse trajectory and size of the electron beam. Since transverse dispersion changes off-energy particle trajectories and increases the effective beam size, dispersion must be controlled. This thesis treats the concept of dispersion in linacs, and analyses the impact of dispersion on the electron beam and on the FEL process. It presents generation mechanisms for spurious dispersion, quantifying its importance for FLASH (Free-electron Laser in Hamburg) and the XFEL (European X-ray Free-Electron Laser). A method for measuring and correcting dispersion and its implementation in FLASH is described. Experiments of dispersion e ects on the transverse beam quality and on the FEL performance are presented. (orig.)

  7. Dispersion stability of thermal nanofluids

    Fan Yu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Thermal nanofluids, the engineered fluids with dispersed functional nanoparticles, have exhibited extraordinary thermophysical properties and added functionalities, and thus have enabled a broad range of important applications. The poor dispersion stability of thermal nanofluids, however, has been considered as a long-existing issue that limits their further development and practical application. This review overviews the recent efforts and progresses in improving the dispersion stability of thermal nanofluids such as mechanistic understanding of dispersion behavior of nanofluids, examples of both water-based and oil-based nanofluids, strategies to stabilize nanofluids, and characterization techniques for dispersion behavior of nanofluids. Finally, on-going research needs, and possible solutions to research challenges and future research directions in exploring stably dispersed thermal nanofluids are discussed. Keywords: Thermal nanofluids, Dispersion, Aggregation, Electrostatic stabilization, Steric stabilization

  8. Phonon dispersion in vanadium

    Ivanov, A.S.; Rumiantsev, A.Yu.

    1999-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Phonon dispersion curves in Vanadium metal are investigated by neutron inelastic scattering using three-axis spectrometers. Due to extremely low coherent scattering amplitude of neutrons in natural isotope mixture of vanadium the phonon frequencies could be determined in the energy range below about 15 meV. Several phonon groups were measured with the polarised neutron scattering set-up. It is demonstrated that the intensity of coherent inelastic scattering observed in the non-spin-flip channel vanishes in the spin-flip channel. The phonon density of states is measured on a single crystal keeping the momentum transfer equal to a vector of reciprocal lattice where the coherent inelastic scattering is suppressed. Phonon dispersion curves in vanadium, as measured by neutron and earlier by X-ray scattering, are described in frames of a charge-fluctuation model involving monopolar and dipolar degrees of freedom. The model parameters are compared for different transition metals with body-centred cubic-structure. (author)

  9. Dispersion and current measurements

    Boelskifte, S.

    1986-04-01

    A model for the simulation of particle movements in water should incorporate the mutual distance dependent correlation. As long as reliable data are given accessible a model can be created of the dispersion in a given area from a statistical description of turbulence. Current measurements have been performed in an area north of the Swedish nuclear power plant Barsebaeck, and statistical time series analysis have made it possible to estimate multivariate autoregressive moving-average (ARMA) models for these data using the Box-Jenkins method. The correlation structure for the area has been investigated in detail. Transport and dispersion models for the marine environment are used in estimating doses to the population from the aquatic food chain. Some of these models are described with special emphasis on the time and length scales they cover. Furthermore, to illustrate the background of the simulation model, short introductuions are given to health physics, time series analysis, and turbulence theory. Analysis of the simulation model shows the relative importance of the different parameters. The model can be expanded to conditional simulation, where the current measurements are used directly to simulate the movement of one of the particles. Results from the model are also compared to results from a sampling of bioindicators (Fucus vesiculosus) along the Danish coast. The reliability of bioindicators in this kind of experiment is discussed. (author)

  10. Quantum optical rotatory dispersion

    Tischler, Nora; Krenn, Mario; Fickler, Robert; Vidal, Xavier; Zeilinger, Anton; Molina-Terriza, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenon of molecular optical activity manifests itself as the rotation of the plane of linear polarization when light passes through chiral media. Measurements of optical activity and its wavelength dependence, that is, optical rotatory dispersion, can reveal information about intricate properties of molecules, such as the three-dimensional arrangement of atoms comprising a molecule. Given a limited probe power, quantum metrology offers the possibility of outperforming classical measurements. This has particular appeal when samples may be damaged by high power, which is a potential concern for chiroptical studies. We present the first experiment in which multiwavelength polarization-entangled photon pairs are used to measure the optical activity and optical rotatory dispersion exhibited by a solution of chiral molecules. Our work paves the way for quantum-enhanced measurements of chirality, with potential applications in chemistry, biology, materials science, and the pharmaceutical industry. The scheme that we use for probing wavelength dependence not only allows one to surpass the information extracted per photon in a classical measurement but also can be used for more general differential measurements. PMID:27713928

  11. Relativistic energy correction of the hydrogen atom with an anomalous magnetic moment

    Ambogo, David Otieno

    2015-07-01

    The electron is known to possess an anomalous magnetic moment, which interacts with the gradient of the electric field. This makes it necessary to compute its effects on the energy spectrum. Even though the Coulomb Dirac equation can be solved in closed form, this is no longer possible when the anomalous magnetic moment is included. In fact the interaction due to this term is so strong that it changes the domain of the Hamiltonian. From a differential equation point of view, the anomalous magnetic moment term is strongly singular near the origin. As usual, one has to resort to perturbation theory. This, however, only makes sense if the eigenvalues are stable. To prove stability is therefore a challenge one has to face before actually computing the energy shifts. The first stability results in this line were shown by Behncke for angular momenta κ≥3, because the eigenfunctions of the unperturbed Hamiltonian decay fast enough near the origin. He achieved this by decoupling the system and then using the techniques available for second order differential equations. Later, Kalf and Schmidt extended Behncke's results basing their analysis on the Pruefer angle technique and a comparison result for first order differential equations. The Pruefer angle method is particularly useful because it shows a better stability and because it obeys a first order differential equation. Nonetheless, Kalf and Schmidt had to exclude some coupling constants for κ>0. This I believe is an artefact of their method. In this study, I make increasing use of asymptotic integration, a method which is rather well adapted to perturbation theory and is known to give stability results to any level of accuracy. Together with the Pruefer angle technique, this lead to a more general stability result and even allows for an energy shifts estimate. Hamiltonians traditionally treated in physics to describe the spin-orbit effect are not self adjoint i.e. they are not proper observables in quantum

  12. Relativistic energy correction of the hydrogen atom with an anomalous magnetic moment

    Ambogo, David Otieno

    2015-07-15

    The electron is known to possess an anomalous magnetic moment, which interacts with the gradient of the electric field. This makes it necessary to compute its effects on the energy spectrum. Even though the Coulomb Dirac equation can be solved in closed form, this is no longer possible when the anomalous magnetic moment is included. In fact the interaction due to this term is so strong that it changes the domain of the Hamiltonian. From a differential equation point of view, the anomalous magnetic moment term is strongly singular near the origin. As usual, one has to resort to perturbation theory. This, however, only makes sense if the eigenvalues are stable. To prove stability is therefore a challenge one has to face before actually computing the energy shifts. The first stability results in this line were shown by Behncke for angular momenta κ≥3, because the eigenfunctions of the unperturbed Hamiltonian decay fast enough near the origin. He achieved this by decoupling the system and then using the techniques available for second order differential equations. Later, Kalf and Schmidt extended Behncke's results basing their analysis on the Pruefer angle technique and a comparison result for first order differential equations. The Pruefer angle method is particularly useful because it shows a better stability and because it obeys a first order differential equation. Nonetheless, Kalf and Schmidt had to exclude some coupling constants for κ>0. This I believe is an artefact of their method. In this study, I make increasing use of asymptotic integration, a method which is rather well adapted to perturbation theory and is known to give stability results to any level of accuracy. Together with the Pruefer angle technique, this lead to a more general stability result and even allows for an energy shifts estimate. Hamiltonians traditionally treated in physics to describe the spin-orbit effect are not self adjoint i.e. they are not proper observables in quantum

  13. Velocity Dispersion of Ionized Gas and Multiple Supernova Explosions

    Vasiliev E. O.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We use 3D numerical simulations to study the evolution of the Hα intensity and velocity dispersion for single and multiple supernova (SN explosions. We find that the IHα– σ diagram obtained for simulated gas flows is similar in shape to that observed in dwarf galaxies. We conclude that colliding SN shells with significant difference in age are responsible for high velocity dispersion that reaches up to ≳ 100 km s−1. Such a high velocity dispersion could be hardly obtained for a single SN remnant. Peaks of velocity dispersion in the IHα– σ diagram may correspond to several isolated or merged SN remnants with moderately different ages. Degrading the spatial resolution in the Hα intensity and velocity dispersion maps makes the simulated IHα– σ diagrams close to those observed in dwarf galaxies not only in shape, but also quantitatively.

  14. Optical Detection of Anomalous Nitrogen in Comets

    2003-12-01

    . Introducing instead the terrestrial ratio for nitrogen-15 (1/272) significantly degrades the fit and thus that ratio can clearly be ruled out in Comet LINEAR. At the time of the VLT observations, the comet was of 9th magnitude, i.e. about 15 times fainter than what can be perceived with the unaided eye. The distance from the Sun was about 180 million km; the distance from the Earth was 186 million km. The observations included calibration spectra of sunlight reflected from the lunar surface; they were used to "subtract" the solar signatures in the comet's spectrum, caused by reflection of sunlight from the dust particles around the comet. As expected, in addition to emission from "normal" CN-molecules ( 12 C 14 N), the UVES data also show emission lines of the 13 C 14 N-molecule that contains the rare isotope carbon-13. The derived 12 C/ 13 C isotopic ratio is 115 ± 20, quite similar to the "standard" solar system value of 89. However, there is also a series of weak features that are positioned exactly at the theoretical wavelengths of emission lines from 12 C 15 N-molecules, cf. PR Photo 28c/03 . The excellent fit that is evident in this diagram proves beyond any doubt the presence of nitrogen-15 in Comet LINEAR and allows a quite accurate determination of the isotopic ratio. The "anomalous" nitrogen isotope ratio in comets In 1997, the same group of astronomers obtained spectra of the (at that time) much brighter Comet Hale-Bopp with the 2.6-m NOT telescope (Roque de los Muchachos Observatory, La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain) in order to investigate the isotopic ratio of carbon-12 to carbon-13. Claude Arpigny remembers: " Interestingly, our spectra of Hale-Bopp showed a number of weak and unidentified emission lines. We later realised that they were positioned close to the theoretical wavelengths of some lines from the 12 C 15 N-molecule. This was a pleasant surprise, as lines from that molecular species were previously believed to be so faint that they would not be

  15. Decision Making

    Pier Luigi Baldi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This article points out some conditions which significantly exert an influence upon decision and compares decision making and problem solving as interconnected processes. Some strategies of decision making are also examined.

  16. Pulse Propagation in Presence of Polarization Mode Dispersion and Chromatic Dispersion in Single Mode Fibers

    Hassan Abid Yasser

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of (first and second orders polarization mode dispersion (PMD, chromatic dispersion, and initial chirp makes effects on the propagated pulses in single mode fiber. Nowadays, there is not an accurate mathematical formula that describes the pulse shape in the presence of these effects. In this work, a theoretical study is introduced to derive a generalized formula. This formula is exactly approached to mathematical relations used in their special cases. The presence of second-order PMD (SOPMD will not affect the orthogonality property between the principal states of polarization. The simulation results explain that the interaction of the SOPMD components with the conventional effects (chromatic dispersion and chirp will cause a broadening/narrowing and shape distortion. This changes depend on the specified values of SOPMD components as well as the present conventional parameters.

  17. Anomalous values of heavy metals in soil of cemetery

    Carlos Eduardo Balestrin Flores

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The necro chorume generated by the decomposition of human bodies has a high pollution load and depending on its location, it may reach and contaminate the soil, the surface and underground water resources. The problem is critical because the analyzed cemetery is located in a vulnerable area and the surrounding population makes use of the water under the influence of the necro chorume, and therefore, subjected to water carrying diseases. This study aimed to analyze the concentrations of heavy metals barium, copper, chromium and zinc in soil occupied by necropolis. An auger was used to collect soil samples in 10 different sites and depths. For determining the concentration of metals, the technique of fluorescence X-ray Energy Dispersive with the support of the software Surfer 10 was used to spatially generate concentration data maps. The concentrations of barium and copper indicated contamination of the soil in all sampled sites, while the chrome showed evidence of contamination at various depths between 0 and 300 cm. The lowest topographic point was the only one to have zinc concentration above reference values, indicating a contamination by this element in the surface flow and sub-surface water. With these results we can confirm the potential of metal contamination in soil occupied by the cemetery.

  18. Anomalous bilateral contribution of extensor pollicis longus and muscle fusion of the first compartment of the wrist

    Rodrigo César Rosa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the anatomical variations of the muscles of the first dorsal compartments of the wrist is clinically relevant to De Quervain's tenosynovitis and to reconstructive surgeries. In the literature, there are many reports of the presence of multiple insertion tendons in the first dorsal compartment of the wrist, but few reports describe occurrences of fusion and muscle contributions. This case report describes an anomalous bilateral contribution of the extensor pollicis longus. This anomalous contribution was found through a slender auxiliary tendon that crossed laterally under the extensor retinaculum, entered the first dorsal compartment of the wrist and merged with the tendon of the extensor pollicis brevis muscle. In the same cadaver in which this contribution was present, there was atypical muscle fusion of the abductor pollicis longus muscle and extensor pollicis brevis muscle. In conclusion, anomalous bilateral contribution of the extensor pollicis longus muscle and atypical muscle fusion, concomitant with a variant insertion pattern, are the highlight of this case report. Furthermore, it is concluded that additional tendons may be effectively used in reconstructive surgeries, but that there is a need for knowledge of the possible numerical and positional variations of these tendons, with a view to making more effective surgical plans.

  19. Anomalously Weak Scattering in Metal-Semiconductor Multilayer Hyperbolic Metamaterials

    Hao Shen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to strong plasmonic scattering from metal particles or structures in metal films, we show that patterns of arbitrary shape fabricated out of multilayer hyperbolic metamaterials become invisible within a chosen band of optical frequencies. This is due to anomalously weak scattering when the in-plane permittivity of the multilayer hyperbolic metamaterials is tuned to match with the surrounding medium. This new phenomenon is described theoretically and demonstrated experimentally by optical characterization of various patterns in Au-Si multilayer hyperbolic metamaterials. This anomalously weak scattering is insensitive to pattern sizes, shapes, and incident angles, and has potential applications in scattering cross-section engineering, optical encryption, low-observable conductive probes, and optoelectric devices.

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging of anomalous pulmonary venous connections

    Choe, Yeon Hyeon; Lee, Heung Jae; Kim, Hak Soo; Ko, Jae Kon; Kim, Ji Eun; Han, Jae Jin

    1994-01-01

    We evaluated the capability of MR in the diagnosis of anomalous pulmonary venous connection (APVC). The patient group consisted of 11 total APVC and 8 partial APVC diagnosed with MR. Echocardiography was performed in all cases, cardiac angiography in 12 cases and operation in 12 cases. We compared MR findings with those of operation, echocardiography and cardiac angiography. In surgically proven 12 cases, diagnostic accuracy of preoperative MR, echocardiography and cardiac angiography was 100%, 67%, and 63%, respectively. In the remaining cases, MR findings well correlated with those of echocardiography or cardiac angiography. Stenosis of common pulmonary vein or superior vena cava was identified in 4 cases. In one patient, MR duplicated associated cortriatriatum clearly. MR is an effective modally in depicting anomalous pulmonary venous connections

  1. Top quark amplitudes with an anomalous magnetic moment

    Larkoski, Andrew J.; Peskin, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    The anomalous magnetic moment of the top quark may be measured during the first run of the LHC at 7 TeV. For these measurements, it will be useful to have available tree amplitudes with tt and arbitrarily many photons and gluons, including both QED and color anomalous magnetic moments. In this paper, we present a method for computing these amplitudes using the Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten recursion formula. Because we deal with an effective theory with higher-dimension couplings, there are roadblocks to a direct computation with the Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten method. We evade these by using an auxiliary scalar theory to compute a subset of the amplitudes.

  2. Anomalous Origin of Left Coronary Artery from Pulmonary Artery (ALCAPA)

    Younus, Z.; Ahmed, I.; Iftikhar, R.

    2013-01-01

    Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery also recognized as Bland White Garland syndrome is a very rare congenital condition. A two-months old baby boy presented with dyspnoea for two weeks and a pansystolic murmur on auscultation. The base line investigations showed cardiomegaly and bilateral basal haze on X-ray chest. ECG showed ST elevation in leads l and AVl and echocardiography showed situs solitus, levocardia, hypokinetic intraventricular septum, ejection fraction of 30%, mitral regurgitation of grade-I and an anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from pulmonary artery was diagnosed. Patient was in left heart failure. It was rectified surgically by creating a transpulmonary tunnel (Takeuchi repair). Postoperative course was uneventful and he was finally discharged in stable condition. (author)

  3. Ghost anomalous dimension in asymptotically safe quantum gravity

    Eichhorn, Astrid; Gies, Holger

    2010-01-01

    We compute the ghost anomalous dimension within the asymptotic-safety scenario for quantum gravity. For a class of covariant gauge fixings and using a functional renormalization group scheme, the anomalous dimension η c is negative, implying an improved UV behavior of ghost fluctuations. At the non-Gaussian UV fixed point, we observe a maximum value of η c ≅-0.78 for the Landau-deWitt gauge within the given scheme and truncation. Most importantly, the backreaction of the ghost flow onto the Einstein-Hilbert sector preserves the non-Gaussian fixed point with only mild modifications of the fixed-point values for the gravitational coupling and cosmological constant and the associated critical exponents; also their gauge dependence is slightly reduced. Our results provide further evidence for the asymptotic-safety scenario of quantum gravity.

  4. Utilizing Weak Indicators to Detect Anomalous Behaviors in Networks

    Egid, Adin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-01

    We consider the use of a novel weak in- dicator alongside more commonly used weak indicators to help detect anomalous behavior in a large computer network. The data of the network which we are studying in this research paper concerns remote log-in information (Virtual Private Network, or VPN sessions) from the internal network of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The novel indicator we are utilizing is some- thing which, while novel in its application to data science/cyber security research, is a concept borrowed from the business world. The Her ndahl-Hirschman Index (HHI) is a computationally trivial index which provides a useful heuristic for regulatory agencies to ascertain the relative competitiveness of a particular industry. Using this index as a lagging indicator in the monthly format we have studied could help to detect anomalous behavior by a particular or small set of users on the network.

  5. Toward an early detection of PWR control rod anomalous dropping

    Blazquez, J.; Vallejo, I.

    1998-01-01

    Some anomalous PWR control rods dropping occurred in the past. It is assumed to be caused by a geometrical deformation of its guide tube, which might be related with neutron fluence and its sharp changes. Now at days, this problem is an open field of research, oriented to the understanding and prevention of the event. Work here is focused toward early detection. A differential equation modelling control rod free fall movement is found. There result three acceleration terms: gravity; friction with fluid; and friction with its guide tube. From recorded Plant measurements, both friction coefficients are estimated. The one from guide tube experiences a large variation in case of anomalous dropping; so relationship with neutron fluence is proposed for the prevention purpose. (Author)

  6. Search for anomalous WW and WZ production at D0

    Abachi, S.

    1995-07-01

    We present a preliminary result from a search for anomalous WW and WZ production in p bar p collisions at √s = 1.8 TeV using p bar p → eνjj events observed during the 1992-1993 run of the Fermilab Tevatron collider. A fit to the p T spectrum of W(eν) yields direct limits on the CP-conserving anomalous WWγ and WWZ coupling parameters of -0.89 < Δκ < 1.07 (λ = 0) and -0.66 < λ < 0.67 (Δκ = 0) at the 95% confidence level, assuming that the WWZ coupling parameters are equal to the WWγ coupling parameters, and a form factor scale Λ = 1.5 TeV

  7. Mechanisms underlying anomalous diffusion in the plasma membrane.

    Krapf, Diego

    2015-01-01

    The plasma membrane is a complex fluid where lipids and proteins undergo diffusive motion critical to biochemical reactions. Through quantitative imaging analyses such as single-particle tracking, it is observed that diffusion in the cell membrane is usually anomalous in the sense that the mean squared displacement is not linear with time. This chapter describes the different models that are employed to describe anomalous diffusion, paying special attention to the experimental evidence that supports these models in the plasma membrane. We review models based on anticorrelated displacements, such as fractional Brownian motion and obstructed diffusion, and nonstationary models such as continuous time random walks. We also emphasize evidence for the formation of distinct compartments that transiently form on the cell surface. Finally, we overview heterogeneous diffusion processes in the plasma membrane, which have recently attracted considerable interest. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Effective field theory: A modern approach to anomalous couplings

    Degrande, Céline; Greiner, Nicolas; Kilian, Wolfgang; Mattelaer, Olivier; Mebane, Harrison; Stelzer, Tim; Willenbrock, Scott; Zhang, Cen

    2013-01-01

    We advocate an effective field theory approach to anomalous couplings. The effective field theory approach is the natural way to extend the standard model such that the gauge symmetries are respected. It is general enough to capture any physics beyond the standard model, yet also provides guidance as to the most likely place to see the effects of new physics. The effective field theory approach also clarifies that one need not be concerned with the violation of unitarity in scattering processes at high energy. We apply these ideas to pair production of electroweak vector bosons. -- Highlights: •We discuss the advantages of effective field theories compared to anomalous couplings. •We show that one need not be concerned with unitarity violation at high energy. •We discuss the application of effective field theory to weak boson physics

  9. Anomalous Hall effect in ZrTe5

    Liang, Tian; Lin, Jingjing; Gibson, Quinn; Kushwaha, Satya; Liu, Minhao; Wang, Wudi; Xiong, Hongyu; Sobota, Jonathan A.; Hashimoto, Makoto; Kirchmann, Patrick S.; Shen, Zhi-Xun; Cava, R. J.; Ong, N. P.

    2018-05-01

    Research in topological matter has expanded to include the Dirac and Weyl semimetals1-10, which feature three-dimensional Dirac states protected by symmetry. Zirconium pentatelluride has been of recent interest as a potential Dirac or Weyl semimetal material. Here, we report the results of experiments performed by in situ three-dimensional double-axis rotation to extract the full 4π solid angular dependence of the transport properties. A clear anomalous Hall effect is detected in every sample studied, with no magnetic ordering observed in the system to the experimental sensitivity of torque magnetometry. Large anomalous Hall signals develop when the magnetic field is rotated in the plane of the stacked quasi-two-dimensional layers, with the values vanishing above about 60 K, where the negative longitudinal magnetoresistance also disappears. This suggests a close relation in their origins, which we attribute to the Berry curvature generated by the Weyl nodes.

  10. Relativistic plasma dispersion functions

    Robinson, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    The known properties of plasma dispersion functions (PDF's) for waves in weakly relativistic, magnetized, thermal plasmas are reviewed and a large number of new results are presented. The PDF's required for the description of waves with small wave number perpendicular to the magnetic field (Dnestrovskii and Shkarofsky functions) are considered in detail; these functions also arise in certain quantum electrodynamical calculations involving strongly magnetized plasmas. Series, asymptotic series, recursion relations, integral forms, derivatives, differential equations, and approximations for these functions are discussed as are their analytic properties and connections with standard transcendental functions. In addition a more general class of PDF's relevant to waves of arbitrary perpendicular wave number is introduced and a range of properties of these functions are derived

  11. Dispersion model for airborne radioactive particulates inside a process building

    Perkins, W.C.; Stoddard, D.H.

    1984-02-01

    An empirical model, predicting the spread of airborne radioactive particles after they are released inside a building, has been developed. The basis for this model is a composite of data for dispersion of airborne activity recorded during 12 case incidents. These incidents occurred at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) during approximately 90 plant-years of experience with the chemical and metallurgical processing of purified neptunium and plutonium. The model illustrates that the multiple-air-zone concept, used in the designs of many nuclear facilities, can be an efficient safety feature to limit the spread of airborne activity from a release. This study also provides some insight into an apparently anomalous behavior of airborne particulates, namely, their migration against the prevailing flow of ventilation air. 2 references, 12 figures, 4 tables

  12. Dielectric dispersion of porous media as a fractal phenomenon

    Thevanayagam, S.

    1997-09-01

    It is postulated that porous media is made up of fractal solid skeleton structure and fractal pore surface. The model thus developed satisfies measured anomalous dielectric behavior of three distinctly different porous media: kaolin, montmorillonite, and shaly sand rock. It is shown that the underlying mechanism behind dielectric dispersion in the kHz range to high MHz range is indeed Maxwell-Wagner mechanism but modified to take into account the multiphase nature of the porous media as opposed to the traditional two-phase Maxwell-Wagner charge accumulation effect. The conductivity of the surface water associated with the solid surface and charge accumulation across the surface irregularities, asperity, and bridging between particles at the micro-scale-level pores are shown to contribute to this modified Maxwell-Wagner mechanism. The latter is dominant at low frequencies. The surface water thickness is calculated to be about 2-6 nm for a variety of porous media.

  13. Z' effects and anomalous gauge couplings at LC with polarization

    Pankov, A.A.; Paver, N.; Verzegnassi, C.

    1996-12-01

    We show that the availability of longitudinally polarized electron beams at a 500 GeV Linear Collider would allow, from an analysis of the reaction e + e - → W + W - , to set stringent bounds on the couplings of a Z' of the most general type. In addition, to some extent it would be possible to disentangle observable effects of the Z' from analogous ones due to competitor models with anomalous tri-linear gauge couplings. (author). 21 refs, 6 figs

  14. Anomalous Higgs couplings at an eγ collider

    Choudhury, Debajyoti; Mamta

    2006-01-01

    We examine the sensitivity of eγ colliders (based on e + e - linear colliders of c.m. energy 500 GeV) to the anomalous couplings of the Higgs to W-boson via the process e - γ→νWH. This has the advantage over e + e - collider in being able to dissociate WWH vertex from ZZH. We are able to construct several dynamical variables which may be used to constrain the various couplings in the WWH vertex

  15. Anomalous Surface Wave Launching by Handedness Phase Control

    Zhang, Xueqian; Xu, Yuehong; Yue, Weisheng; Tian, Zhen; Gu, Jianqiang; Li, Yanfeng; Singh, Ranjan; Zhang, Shuang; Han, Jiaguang; Zhang, Weili

    2015-01-01

    Anomalous launch of a surface wave with different handedness phase control is achieved in a terahertz metasurface based on phase discontinuities. The polarity of the phase profile of the surface waves is found to be strongly correlated to the polarization handedness, promising polarization-controllable wavefront shaping, polarization sensing, and environmental refractive-index sensing. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Anomalous Faraday effect of a system with extraordinary optical transmittance.

    Khanikaev, Alexander B; Baryshev, Alexander V; Fedyanin, Andrey A; Granovsky, Alexander B; Inoue, Mitsuteru

    2007-05-28

    It is shown theoretically that the Faraday rotation becomes anomalously large and exhibits extraordinary behavior near the frequencies of the extraordinary optical transmittance through optically thick perforated metal film with holes filled with a magneto-optically active material. This phenomenon is explained as result of strong confinement of the evanescent electromagnetic field within magnetic material, which occurs due to excitation of the coupled plasmon-polaritons on the opposite surfaces of the film.

  17. Anomalous Surface Wave Launching by Handedness Phase Control

    Zhang, Xueqian

    2015-10-09

    Anomalous launch of a surface wave with different handedness phase control is achieved in a terahertz metasurface based on phase discontinuities. The polarity of the phase profile of the surface waves is found to be strongly correlated to the polarization handedness, promising polarization-controllable wavefront shaping, polarization sensing, and environmental refractive-index sensing. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Exchange interpretation of anomalous back angle heavy ion elastic scattering

    Zisman, M.S.

    1977-10-01

    Anomalous back angle oscillations in the angular distributions obtained in the elastic scattering of 16 O + 28 Si and 12 C + 28 Si have been interpreted in terms of an elastic cluster transfer comparable to that observed in other heavy ion reactions. The calculations appear to at least qualitatively explain the data with respect to the existence and phase of the back angle oscillations. The results indicate that an exchange mechanism may play an important role in the oscillations

  19. Anomalous dimension of subleading-power N-jet operators

    Beneke, Martin; Garny, Mathias; Szafron, Robert; Wang, Jian

    2018-03-01

    We begin a systematic investigation of the anomalous dimension of subleading power N-jet operators in view of resummation of logarithmically enhanced terms in partonic cross sections beyond leading power. We provide an explicit result at the one-loop order for fermion-number two N-jet operators at the second order in the power expansion parameter of soft-collinear effective theory.

  20. Anomalous fast diffusion in Cu-NiFe nanolaminates.

    Jankowski, Alan F. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Energy Nanomaterials Dept.

    2017-09-01

    For this work, the decomposition of the one-dimensional composition wave in Cu-NiFe nanolaminate structures is examined using x-ray diffraction to assess the kinetics of phase decomposition. The anomalously high diffusivity value found for long-term aging at room temperature is attributed to the inherent nanostructure that features paths for short-circuit diffusion in nanolaminates as attributed to interlayer grain boundaries.

  1. Total anomalous systemic venous drainage in left heterotaxy syndrome.

    Khandenahally, Ravindranath S; Deora, Surender; Math, Ravi S

    2013-04-01

    Total anomalous systemic venous drainage is an extremely rare congenital heart defect. In this study we describe an 11-year-old girl who presented with a history of fatigue and central cyanosis that she had had since early childhood with unremarkable precordial examination results. Investigations revealed left heterotaxy with all systemic venous drainage to the left-sided atrium with non-compaction of the left ventricle.

  2. Anomalous U(1) as a mediator of Supersymmetry Breaking

    Dvali, Gia; Dvali, Gia; Pomarol, Alex

    1996-01-01

    We point out that an anomalous gauge U(1) symmetry is a natural candida= te for being the mediator and messenger of supersymmetry breaking. It facilitate= s dynamical supersymmetry breaking even in the flat limit. Soft masses are induced by both gravity and the U(1) gauge interactions giving an unusual= mass hierarchy in the sparticle spectrum which suppresses flavor violations. T= his scenario does not suffer from the Polonyi problem.

  3. Theory of anomalous transport in H-mode plasmas

    Itoh, S.; Itoh, K.; Fukuyama, A.; Yagi, M.

    1993-05-01

    Theory of the anomalous transport is developed, and the unified formula for the L- and H-mode plasmas is presented. The self-sustained ballooning-mode turbulence is solved in the presence of the inhomogeneous radial electric field, E r . Reductions in transport coefficients and the amplitude and decorrelation length of fluctuations due to E r ' are quantitatively analyzed. Combined with the E r -bifurcation model, the thickness of the transport barrier is simultaneously determined. (author)

  4. Nonlinear saturation of dissipative trapped ion instability and anomalous transport

    Sugihara, Masayoshi; Ogasawara, Masatada.

    1977-04-01

    An expression for the turbulent collision frequency is derived by summing up the most dominant terms from each order in the perturbation expansion in order to obtain the nonlinear saturation level of the dissipative trapped ion instability. Numerical calculation shows that the anomalous diffusion coefficient at the saturated state is in good agreement with the result of Kadomtsev and Pogutse when the effect of the magnetic shear is taken into account. (auth.)

  5. The Equivalence Principle and Anomalous Magnetic Moment Experiments

    Alvarez, C.; Mann, R. B.

    1995-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of testing of the Einstein Equivalence Principle (EEP) using measurements of anomalous magnetic moments of elementary particles. We compute the one loop correction for the $g-2$ anomaly within the class of non metric theories of gravity described by the \\tmu formalism. We find several novel mechanisms for breaking the EEP whose origin is due purely to radiative corrections. We discuss the possibilities of setting new empirical constraints on these effects.

  6. Anomalous scaling in an age-dependent branching model

    Keller-Schmidt, Stephanie; Tugrul, Murat; Eguiluz, Victor M.; Hernandez-Garcia, Emilio; Klemm, Konstantin

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a one-parametric family of tree growth models, in which branching probabilities decrease with branch age $\\tau$ as $\\tau^{-\\alpha}$. Depending on the exponent $\\alpha$, the scaling of tree depth with tree size $n$ displays a transition between the logarithmic scaling of random trees and an algebraic growth. At the transition ($\\alpha=1$) tree depth grows as $(\\log n)^2$. This anomalous scaling is in good agreement with the trend observed in evolution of biological species, thus p...

  7. Anomalous transport due to shear-Alfven waves

    Lee, W.W.; Chance, M.S.; Okuda, H.

    1980-10-01

    The behavior of shear-Alfven eigenmodes and the accompanied anomalous transport have been investigated. In the particle simulation, equilibrium thermal fluctuations associated with the eigenmodes have been observed to nullify the zeroth-order shear near the rational surface through the induced second-order eddy current, and, in turn, give rise to the formation of magnetic islands which cause rapid electron energy transport in the region. The theoretical verification of the observed behavior is discussed

  8. Anomalous nuclear enhancement of inclusive spectra at large transverse momentum

    Krzywicki, Andre.

    1976-01-01

    A parton model interpretation of the anomalous nuclear enhancement of inclusive spectra, observed by Cronin et al is proposed. It seems that the picture representing a nucleus as a collection of quasi-free nucleons in slow relative motion is incorrect when the nucleus is probed during a very short time. This conjecture rests on an extension to nuclei of the Kuti and Weisskopf parton model. A list of observable predictions concerning both hadronic and leptonic interactions with nuclei is given [fr

  9. From large N nonplanar anomalous dimensions to open spring theory

    Mello Koch, Robert de, E-mail: robert@neo.phys.wits.ac.za [National Institute for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics and Centre for Theoretical Physics University of Witwatersrand, Wits, 2050 (South Africa); Kemp, Garreth, E-mail: Garreth.Kemp@students.wits.ac.za [National Institute for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics and Centre for Theoretical Physics University of Witwatersrand, Wits, 2050 (South Africa); Smith, Stephanie, E-mail: Stephanie.Smith@students.wits.ac.za [National Institute for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics and Centre for Theoretical Physics University of Witwatersrand, Wits, 2050 (South Africa)

    2012-05-23

    In this Letter we compute the nonplanar one-loop anomalous dimension of restricted Schur polynomials that have a bare dimension of O(N). This is achieved by mapping the restricted Schur polynomials into states of a specific U(p) irreducible representation. In this way the dilatation operator is mapped into a u(p) valued operator and, as a result, can easily be diagonalized. The resulting spectrum is reproduced by a model of springs between masses.

  10. Time moments of the energy flow of optical pulses in highly dispersive media

    Nanda, Lipsa; Wanare, Harshawardhan; Ramakrishna, S Anantha

    2010-01-01

    We use the time moments of the Poynting vector associated with an electromagnetic pulse to characterize the traversal times and temporal pulse widths as the pulse propagates in highly dispersive media. The behaviour of these quantities with the propagation distance is analysed in three canonical cases: Lorentz absorptive medium, a Raman gain doublet amplifying medium and a medium exhibiting electromagnetically induced transparency. We find that superluminal pulse propagation in the first two cases with anomalous dispersion is usually accompanied by pulse compression and eventually the pulse becomes subluminal with increasing distance of propagation. In a medium with electromagnetically induced transparency with large normal dispersion, we identify a range of frequencies for which the pulse undergoes minimal temporal expansion while propagating with ultra-slow speed.

  11. Visible continuum pulses based on enhanced dispersive wave generation for endogenous fluorescence imaging.

    Cui, Quan; Chen, Zhongyun; Liu, Qian; Zhang, Zhihong; Luo, Qingming; Fu, Ling

    2017-09-01

    In this study, we demonstrate endogenous fluorescence imaging using visible continuum pulses based on 100-fs Ti:sapphire oscillator and a nonlinear photonic crystal fiber. Broadband (500-700 nm) and high-power (150 mW) continuum pulses are generated through enhanced dispersive wave generation by pumping femtosecond pulses at the anomalous dispersion region near zero-dispersion wavelength of high-nonlinear photonic crystal fibers. We also minimize the continuum pulse width by determining the proper fiber length. The visible-wavelength two-photon microscopy produces NADH and tryptophan images of mice tissues simultaneously. Our 500-700 nm continuum pulses support extending nonlinear microscopy to visible wavelength range that is inaccessible to 100-fs Ti:sapphire oscillators and other applications requiring visible laser pulses.

  12. Anomalous Behaviors of Block Copolymers at the Interface of an Immiscible Polymer Blend

    Ryu, Ji Ho; Lee, Won Bo

    We investigate the effects of structure and stiffness of block copolymers on the interface of an immiscible polymer blend using coarse-grained molecular dynamics (CGMD) simulation. The diblock and grafted copolymers, which are described by Kremer and Grest bead spring model, are used to compare the compatibilization efficiency, that is, reduction of the interfacial tension. It is found that, overall, the grafted copolymers are located more compactly at the interface and show better compatibilization efficiency than diblock copolymers. In addition, it is noted that an increase in the stiffness of one block of diblock copolymer causes inhomogeneous interfacial coverage due to bundle formation among the stiff blocks and orientational constraint on bundled structures near the interface, which makes copolymers poor compatibilizers. The dependence of anomalous orientational constraint on the chain length of homopolymers is also investigated. Theoretical and Computational Soft Matters Lab.

  13. Anomalous refraction of light through slanted-nanoaperture arrays on metal surface

    Kim, Myungji; Jung, Yun Suk; Xi, Yonggang; Kim, Hong Koo

    2015-01-01

    We report a nanoapertured metal surface that demonstrates anomalous refraction of light for a wide range of incident angles. A nanoslit aperture is designed to serve as a tilted vertical-dipole whose radiation pattern orients to a glancing angle direction to substrate. An array of such slanted nanoslits formed in a metal film redirects an incident beam into the direction of negative refraction angle: the aperture-transmitted wave makes a far-field propagation to the tilt-oriented direction of radiation pattern. The thus-designed nanoaperture array demonstrates the −1st order diffraction (i.e., to the negative refraction-angle direction) with well-suppressed background transmission (the zero-order direct transmission and other higher-order diffractions). Engineering the radiation pattern of nanoaperture offers an approach to overcoming the limits of conventional diffractive/refractive optics and complementing metasurface-based nano-optics

  14. Sample-angle feedback for diffraction anomalous fine-structure spectroscopy

    Cross, J.O.; Elam, W.T.; Harris, V.G.; Kirkland, J.P.; Bouldin, C.E.; Sorensen, L.B.

    1998-01-01

    Diffraction anomalous fine-structure (DAFS) experiments measure Bragg peak intensities as continuous functions of photon energy near a core-level excitation. Measuring the integrated intensity at each energy makes the experiments prohibitively slow; however, in many cases DAFS can be collected quickly by measuring only the peak intensity at the center of the rocking curve. A piezoelectric-actuator-driven stage has been designed and tested as part of a sample-angle feedback circuit for locking onto the maximum of the rocking curve while the energy is scanned. Although software peak-tracking requires only a simple calculation of diffractometer angles, it is found that the additional hardware feedback dramatically improves the reproducibility of the data

  15. Anomalous Transport of Cosmic Rays in a Nonlinear Diffusion Model

    Litvinenko, Yuri E. [Department of Mathematics, University of Waikato, P. B. 3105, Hamilton 3240 (New Zealand); Fichtner, Horst; Walter, Dominik [Institut für Theoretische Physik IV, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universitätsstrasse 150, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)

    2017-05-20

    We investigate analytically and numerically the transport of cosmic rays following their escape from a shock or another localized acceleration site. Observed cosmic-ray distributions in the vicinity of heliospheric and astrophysical shocks imply that anomalous, superdiffusive transport plays a role in the evolution of the energetic particles. Several authors have quantitatively described the anomalous diffusion scalings, implied by the data, by solutions of a formal transport equation with fractional derivatives. Yet the physical basis of the fractional diffusion model remains uncertain. We explore an alternative model of the cosmic-ray transport: a nonlinear diffusion equation that follows from a self-consistent treatment of the resonantly interacting cosmic-ray particles and their self-generated turbulence. The nonlinear model naturally leads to superdiffusive scalings. In the presence of convection, the model yields a power-law dependence of the particle density on the distance upstream of the shock. Although the results do not refute the use of a fractional advection–diffusion equation, they indicate a viable alternative to explain the anomalous diffusion scalings of cosmic-ray particles.

  16. Anomalous relaxation in binary mixtures: a dynamic facilitation picture

    Moreno, A J; Colmenero, J

    2007-01-01

    Recent computational investigations of polymeric and non-polymeric binary mixtures have reported anomalous relaxation features when both components exhibit very different mobilities. Anomalous relaxation is characterized by sublinear power-law behaviour for mean-squared displacements, logarithmic decay in dynamic correlators, and a striking concave-to-convex crossover in the latter by tuning the relevant control parameter, in analogy with predictions of the mode-coupling theory for state points close to higher-order transitions. We present Monte Carlo simulations on a coarse-grained model for relaxation in binary mixtures. The liquid structure is substituted by a three-dimensional array of cells. A spin variable is assigned to each cell, representing unexcited and excited local states of a mobility field. Changes in local mobility (spin flip) are permitted according to kinetic constraints determined by the mobilities of the neighbouring cells. We introduce two types of cell ('fast' and 'slow') with very different rates for spin flip. This coarse-grained model qualitatively reproduces the mentioned anomalous relaxation features observed for real binary mixtures

  17. Anomalous Nernst effect in type-II Weyl semimetals

    Saha, Subhodip; Tewari, Sumanta

    2018-01-01

    Topological Weyl semimetals (WSM), a new state of quantum matter with gapless nodal bulk spectrum and open Fermi arc surface states, have recently sparked enormous interest in condensed matter physics. Based on the symmetry and fermiology, it has been proposed that WSMs can be broadly classified into two types, type-I and type-II Weyl semimetals. While the undoped, conventional, type-I WSMs have point like Fermi surface and vanishing density of states (DOS) at the Fermi energy, the type-II Weyl semimetals break Lorentz symmetry explicitly and have tilted conical spectra with electron and hole pockets producing finite DOS at the Fermi level. The tilted conical spectrum and finite DOS at Fermi level in type-II WSMs have recently been shown to produce interesting effects such as a chiral anomaly induced longitudinal magnetoresistance that is strongly anisotropic in direction and a novel anomalous Hall effect. In this work, we consider the anomalous Nernst effect in type-II WSMs in the absence of an external magnetic field using the framework of semi-classical Boltzmann theory. Based on both a linearized model of time-reversal breaking WSM with a higher energy cut-off and a more realistic lattice model, we show that the anomalous Nernst response in these systems is strongly anisotropic in space, and can serve as a reliable signature of type-II Weyl semimetals in a host of magnetic systems with spontaneously broken time reversal symmetry.

  18. Small Bowel Obstruction due to Anomalous Congenital Bands in Children

    Basak Erginel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of the study was to evaluate our children who are operated on for anomalous congenital band while increasing the awareness of this rare reason of intestinal obstruction in children which causes a diagnostic challenge. Patients and Methods. We retrospectively reviewed the records of fourteen children treated surgically for intestinal obstructions caused by anomalous congenital bands. Results. The bands were located between the following regions: the ascending colon and the mesentery of the terminal ileum in 4 patients, the jejunum and mesentery of the terminal ileum in 3 patients, the ileum and mesentery of the terminal ileum in 2 patients, the ligament of Treitz and mesentery of the jejunum in one patient, the ligament of Treitz and mesentery of the terminal ileum in one patient, duodenum and duodenum in one patient, the ileum and mesentery of the ileum in one patient, the jejunum and mesentery of the jejunum in one patient, and Meckel’s diverticulum and its ileal mesentery in one patient. Band excision was adequate in all of the patients except the two who received resection anastomosis for intestinal necrosis. Conclusion. Although congenital anomalous bands are rare, they should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with an intestinal obstruction.

  19. Utilizing Weak Indicators to Detect Anomalous Behaviors in Networks

    Egid, Adin Ezra [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-02-06

    We consider the use of a novel weak in- dicator alongside more commonly used weak indicators to help detect anomalous behavior in a large computer network. The data of the network which we are studying in this research paper concerns remote log-in information (Virtual Private Network, or VPN sessions) from the internal network of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The novel indicator we are utilizing is some- thing which, while novel in its application to data science/cyber security research, is a concept borrowed from the business world. The Her ndahl-Hirschman Index (HHI) is a computationally trivial index which provides a useful heuristic for regulatory agencies to ascertain the relative competitiveness of a particular industry. Using this index as a lagging indicator in the monthly format we have studied could help to detect anomalous behavior by a particular or small set of users on the network. Additionally, we study indicators related to the speed of movement of a user based on the physical location of their current and previous logins. This data can be ascertained from the IP addresses of the users, and is likely very similar to the fraud detection schemes regularly utilized by credit card networks to detect anomalous activity. In future work we would look to nd a way to combine these indicators for use as an internal fraud detection system.

  20. Degree-strength correlation reveals anomalous trading behavior.

    Sun, Xiao-Qian; Shen, Hua-Wei; Cheng, Xue-Qi; Wang, Zhao-Yang

    2012-01-01

    Manipulation is an important issue for both developed and emerging stock markets. Many efforts have been made to detect manipulation in stock markets. However, it is still an open problem to identify the fraudulent traders, especially when they collude with each other. In this paper, we focus on the problem of identifying the anomalous traders using the transaction data of eight manipulated stocks and forty-four non-manipulated stocks during a one-year period. By analyzing the trading networks of stocks, we find that the trading networks of manipulated stocks exhibit significantly higher degree-strength correlation than the trading networks of non-manipulated stocks and the randomized trading networks. We further propose a method to detect anomalous traders of manipulated stocks based on statistical significance analysis of degree-strength correlation. Experimental results demonstrate that our method is effective at distinguishing the manipulated stocks from non-manipulated ones. Our method outperforms the traditional weight-threshold method at identifying the anomalous traders in manipulated stocks. More importantly, our method is difficult to be fooled by colluded traders.

  1. Degree-strength correlation reveals anomalous trading behavior.

    Xiao-Qian Sun

    Full Text Available Manipulation is an important issue for both developed and emerging stock markets. Many efforts have been made to detect manipulation in stock markets. However, it is still an open problem to identify the fraudulent traders, especially when they collude with each other. In this paper, we focus on the problem of identifying the anomalous traders using the transaction data of eight manipulated stocks and forty-four non-manipulated stocks during a one-year period. By analyzing the trading networks of stocks, we find that the trading networks of manipulated stocks exhibit significantly higher degree-strength correlation than the trading networks of non-manipulated stocks and the randomized trading networks. We further propose a method to detect anomalous traders of manipulated stocks based on statistical significance analysis of degree-strength correlation. Experimental results demonstrate that our method is effective at distinguishing the manipulated stocks from non-manipulated ones. Our method outperforms the traditional weight-threshold method at identifying the anomalous traders in manipulated stocks. More importantly, our method is difficult to be fooled by colluded traders.

  2. A structural framework for anomalous change detection and characterization

    Prasad, Lakshman [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Theiler, James P [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    We present a spatially adaptive scheme for automatically searching a pair of images of a scene for unusual and interesting changes. Our motivation is to bring into play structural aspects of image features alongside the spectral attributes used for anomalous change detection (ACD). We leverage a small but informative subset of pixels, namely edge pixels of the images, as anchor points of a Delaunay triangulation to jointly decompose the images into a set of triangular regions, called trixels, which are spectrally uniform. Such decomposition helps in image regularization by simple-function approximation on a feature-adaptive grid. Applying ACD to this trixel grid instead of pixels offers several advantages. It allows: (1) edge-preserving smoothing of images, (2) speed-up of spatial computations by significantly reducing the representation of the images, and (3) the easy recovery of structure of the detected anomalous changes by associating anomalous trixels with polygonal image features. The latter facility further enables the application of shape-theoretic criteria and algorithms to characterize the changes and recognize them as interesting or not. This incorporation of spatial information has the potential to filter out some spurious changes, such as due to parallax, shadows, and misregistration, by identifying and filtering out those that are structurally similar and spatially pervasive. Our framework supports the joint spatial and spectral analysis of images, potentially enabling the design of more robust ACD algorithms.

  3. Sampling and Characterization of 618-2 Anomalous Material

    Zacharias, A.E.

    2006-01-01

    This as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) Level II review documents radiological engineering and administrative controls necessary for the sampling and characterization of anomalous materials discovered during the remediation of the 618-2 solid waste burial ground. The goals of these engineering and administrative controls are to keep personnel exposure ALARA, control contamination levels, and minimize potential for airborne contamination. Excavation of the 618-2 Burial Ground has produced many items of anomalous waste. Prior to temporary packaging and/or storage, these items have been characterized in the field to identify radiological and industrial safety conditions. Further sampling and characterization of these items, as well as those remaining from an excavated combination safe, is the subject of this ALARA Level II review. An ALARA in-progress review will also be performed prior to sampling and characterization of 618-2 anomalous materials offering risks of differing natures. General categories of anomalies requiring further characterization include the following: (1) Containers of unknown liquids and/or solids and powders (excluding transuranics); (2) Drums containing unknown liquids and/or solids; (3) Metal containers with unknown contents; and (4) Known or suspected transuranic material.

  4. Constraints on Anomalous Quartic Gauge Boson Couplings from $\

    Abbiendi, G; Åkesson, P F; Alexander, G; Allison, J; Amaral, P; Anagnostou, G; Anderson, K J; Asai, S; Axen, D A; Azuelos, Georges; Bailey, I; Barberio, E; Barillari, T; Barlow, R J; Batley, J Richard; Bechtle, P; Behnke, T; Bell, K W; Bell, P J; Bella, G; Bellerive, A; Benelli, G; Bethke, Siegfried; Biebel, O; Boeriu, O; Bock, P; Boutemeur, M; Braibant, S; Brigliadori, L; Brown, R M; Büsser, K; Burckhart, H J; Campana, S; Carnegie, R K; Carter, A A; Carter, J R; Chang, C Y; Charlton, D G; Ciocca, C; Csilling, Akos; Cuffiani, M; Dado, S; de Roeck, A; De Wolf, E A; Desch, Klaus; Dienes, B; Donkers, M; Dubbert, J; Duchovni, E; Duckeck, G; Duerdoth, I P; Etzion, E; Fabbri, Franco Luigi; Feld, L; Ferrari, P; Fiedler, F; Fleck, I; Ford, M; Frey, A; Gagnon, P; Gary, J W; Gaycken, G; Geich-Gimbel, C; Giacomelli, G; Giacomelli, P; Giunta, M; Goldberg, J; Gross, E; Grunhaus, Jacob; Gruwé, M; Günther, P O; Sen-Gupta, A; Hajdu, C; Hamann, M; Hanson, G G; Harel, A; Hauschild, M; Hawkes, C M; Hawkings, R; Hemingway, Richard J; Herten, G; Heuer, R D; Hill, J C; Hoffman, K; Horváth, D; Igo-Kemenes, P; Ishii, K; Jeremie, H; Jovanovic, P; Junk, T R; Kanaya, N; Kanzaki, J; Karlen, Dean A; Kawagoe, K; Kawamoto, T; Keeler, Richard K; Kellogg, R G; Kennedy, B W; Kluth, S; Kobayashi, T; Kobel, M; Komamiya, S; Kramer, T; Krieger, P; Von Krogh, J; Krüger, K; Kühl, T; Kupper, M; Lafferty, G D; Landsman, Hagar Yaël; Lanske, D; Layter, J G; Lellouch, D; Letts, J; Levinson, L; Lillich, J; Lloyd, S L; Loebinger, F K; Lü, J; Ludwig, A; Ludwig, J; Mader, W; Marcellini, S; Martin, A J; Masetti, G; Mashimo, T; Mättig, P; McKenna, J A; McPherson, R A; Meijers, F; Menges, W; Merritt, F S; Mes, H; Meyer, N; Michelini, Aldo; Mihara, S; Mikenberg, G; Miller, D J; Moed, S; Mohr, W; Mori, T; Mutter, A; Nagai, K; Nakamura, I; Nanjo, H; Neal, H A; Nisius, R; O'Neale, S W; Oh, A; Oreglia, M J; Orito, S; Pahl, C; Pásztor, G; Pater, J R; Pilcher, J E; Pinfold, J L; Plane, D E; Poli, B; Pooth, O; Przybycien, M B; Quadt, A; Rabbertz, K; Rembser, C; Renkel, P; Roney, J M; Rozen, Y; Runge, K; Sachs, K; Saeki, T; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E; Schaile, A D; Schaile, O; Scharff-Hansen, P; Schieck, J; Schörner-Sadenius, T; Schröder, M; Schumacher, M; Scott, W G; Seuster, R; Shears, T G; Shen, B C; Sherwood, P; Skuja, A; Smith, A M; Sobie, R J; Söldner-Rembold, S; Spanó, F; Stahl, A; Strom, D; Ströhmer, R; Tarem, S; Tasevsky, M; Teuscher, R; Thomson, M A; Torrence, E; Toya, D; Tran, P; Trigger, I; Trócsányi, Z L; Tsur, E; Turner-Watson, M F; Ueda, I; Ujvári, B; Vollmer, C F; Vannerem, P; Vertesi, R; Verzocchi, M; Voss, H; Vossebeld, Joost Herman; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Wells, P S; Wengler, T; Wermes, N; Wilson, G W; Wilson, J A; Wolf, G; Wyatt, T R; Yamashita, S; Zer-Zion, D; Zivkovic, L

    2004-01-01

    Anomalous quartic couplings between the electroweak gauge bosons may contribute to the vv gamma gamma and qq gamma gamma final states produced in e+e- collisions. This analysis uses the LEP2 OPAL data sample at centre-of-mass energies up to 209 GeV. Event selections identify vv gamma gamma and qq gamma gamma events in which the two photons are reconstructed within the detector acceptance. The cross-section for the process e+e- -> qq gamma gamma is measured. Averaging over all energies, the ratio of the observed e+e- -> qq gamma gamma cross-section to the Standard Model expectation is R(data/SM) = 0.92 +- 0.07 +- 0.04 where the errors represent the statistical and systematic uncertainties respectively. The vv gamma gamma and qq gamma gamma data are used to constrain possible anomalous W+W- gamma gamma and ZZ gamma gamma couplings. Combining with previous OPAL results from the W+W- gamma final state, the 95% confidence level limits on the anomalous coupling parameters aoz, acz, aow and acw are found to be: -0.0...

  5. Statistical Thermodynamics of Disperse Systems

    Shapiro, Alexander

    1996-01-01

    Principles of statistical physics are applied for the description of thermodynamic equilibrium in disperse systems. The cells of disperse systems are shown to possess a number of non-standard thermodynamic parameters. A random distribution of these parameters in the system is determined....... On the basis of this distribution, it is established that the disperse system has an additional degree of freedom called the macro-entropy. A large set of bounded ideal disperse systems allows exact evaluation of thermodynamic characteristics. The theory developed is applied to the description of equilibrium...

  6. Geometry of physical dispersion relations

    Raetzel, Dennis; Rivera, Sergio; Schuller, Frederic P.

    2011-01-01

    To serve as a dispersion relation, a cotangent bundle function must satisfy three simple algebraic properties. These conditions are derived from the inescapable physical requirements that local matter field dynamics must be predictive and allow for an observer-independent notion of positive energy. Possible modifications of the standard relativistic dispersion relation are thereby severely restricted. For instance, the dispersion relations associated with popular deformations of Maxwell theory by Gambini-Pullin or Myers-Pospelov are not admissible. Dispersion relations passing the simple algebraic checks derived here correspond to physically admissible Finslerian refinements of Lorentzian geometry.

  7. Round beams generated by vertical dispersion

    Bagley, P.

    1990-01-01

    Simulations suggest that in e + e - storage rings collisions of round beams (equal emittances and equal β*) can produce very large tune shifts and luminosities. We understand how to make equal β*s, but generating equal emittances is more difficult. We describe an equal emittance scheme that uses several skew quads to couple horizontal dispersion into vertical dispersion. These skew quads also produce a coupling bump. At the interaction point and at other points outside the coupling bump, the motion is not coupled, so that the 'A' normal mode corresponds to horizontal motion and the 'B' normal mode corresponds to vertical motion. We present a round beam lattice for CESR that incorporates this scheme

  8. Dispersion approach to anomalies in the axial-vector Ward-Takahashi identities

    Nishijima, K. Sasaki, R. (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physic)

    1975-01-01

    On the basis of dispersion relations and unitarity anomalous Ward-Takahashi identities for the axial-vector current are derived in quantum electrodynamics. In this derivation use of divergent unrenormalized expressions is intentionally avoided, and only finite renormalized expressions are employed from the start. The origin of the anormalies is attributed to a mismatch of the subtraction conditions present in the naive Ward-Takahashi identities. The resulting anomalous Ward-Takahashi identities are valid in every order of the perturbation expansion and can be cast in the form of an operator equation. In the course of this derivation we encounter the problem of how to regularize operator products and a possible solution of this problem is provided in terms of subtraction conditions.

  9. Dispersion approach to anomalies in the axial-vector Ward-Takahashi identities

    Nishijima, Kazuhiko; Sasaki, Ryu

    1975-01-01

    On the basis of dispersion relations and unitarity anomalous Ward-Takahashi identities for the axial-vector current are derived in quantum electrodynamics. In this derivation use of divergent unrenormalized expressions is intentionally avoided, and only finite renormalized expressions are employed from the start. The origin of the anormalies is attributed to a mismatch of the subtraction conditions present in the naive Ward-Takahashi identities. The resulting anomalous Ward-Takahashi identities are valid in every order of the perturbation expansion and can be cast in the form of an operator equation. In the course of this derivation we encounter the problem of how to regularize operator products and a possible solution of this problem is provided in terms of subtraction conditions. (auth.)

  10. Dispersion bias, dispersion effect, and the aerosol-cloud conundrum

    Liu Yangang; Daum, Peter H; Guo Huan; Peng Yiran

    2008-01-01

    This work examines the influences of relative dispersion (the ratio of the standard deviation to the mean radius of the cloud droplet size distribution) on cloud albedo and cloud radiative forcing, derives an analytical formulation that accounts explicitly for the contribution from droplet concentration and relative dispersion, and presents a new approach to parameterize relative dispersion in climate models. It is shown that inadequate representation of relative dispersion in climate models leads to an overestimation of cloud albedo, resulting in a negative bias of global mean shortwave cloud radiative forcing that can be comparable to the warming caused by doubling CO 2 in magnitude, and that this dispersion bias is likely near its maximum for ambient clouds. Relative dispersion is empirically expressed as a function of the quotient between cloud liquid water content and droplet concentration (i.e., water per droplet), yielding an analytical formulation for the first aerosol indirect effect. Further analysis of the new expression reveals that the dispersion effect not only offsets the cooling from the Twomey effect, but is also proportional to the Twomey effect in magnitude. These results suggest that unrealistic representation of relative dispersion in cloud parameterization in general, and evaluation of aerosol indirect effects in particular, is at least in part responsible for several outstanding puzzles of the aerosol-cloud conundrum: for example, overestimation of cloud radiative cooling by climate models compared to satellite observations; large uncertainty and discrepancy in estimates of the aerosol indirect effect; and the lack of interhemispheric difference in cloud albedo.

  11. Anomalous scattering, transport, and spatial distribution of X-ray fluorescence at the exit of polycapillary structures

    Mazuritskiy, M. I., E-mail: mazurmik@gmail.com; Lerer, A. M.; Makhno, P. V. [Southern Federal University (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    The angular distribution of the X-ray intensity at the exit of microchannel plates at grazing incidence of monochromatic radiation on the walls of microcapillaries has been investigated. The angles and energies of the primary radiation quanta at which the synchrotron beam excites X-ray fluorescence propagating inside polycapillary structures have been determined. The angular dependences of the intensity distribution of X-rays transmitted through the microcapillaries have been studied theoretically and experimentally for energies corresponding to the region of anomalous dispersion near the L{sub 2,3} absorption edges of silicon. The propagation of waves in hollow polycapillary waveguides, the excitation of X-ray fluorescence, and the X-ray diffraction at the exit of microchannel plates have been modeled mathematically. The mathematical model takes into account the presence of a transition layer on the microchannel surface.

  12. Anomalous metal concentrations in soil and till at the Ballinalack Zn-Pb deposit, Ireland

    Kalveram, Ann-Kristin; McClenaghan, Seán H.; Kamber, Balz S.

    2017-04-01

    Metals such as zinc, iron, arsenic and lead are commonly found in low concentrations within soils. These signatures may occur as a result of natural dispersion from metal-bearing geological formations and (or) from anthropogenic sources. Prior to investigating any high or anomalous concentrations of metals in the surficial environment, it is important to reconcile potential sources of metals and verify whether element anomalies are in response to buried mineralization. Here we show how to distinguish true elevated concentrations from naturally occurring variations within a soil system. The research area is situated above the limestone-hosted Ballinalack Zn-Pb deposit in the central Irish Midlands. To investigate the pedogenesis and its related geochemical signature, top of the till and the BC soil horizon were sampled. Although the area can be described as pasture land, it does not preclude previous anthropogenic influences from former agricultural use and local small scale peat harvesting. For the soil BC horizon as well as in the top of the till, aqua regia-digestible element concentrations vary significantly and locally reach anomalous levels: Zn (median: 104 ppm; range: 27 - 13150 ppm), Pb (median: 16 ppm; range: 2 - 6430 ppm), As (median: 7.7 ppm; range: 1.4 - 362 ppm), Ag (median: 0.12 ppm; range: 0.04 - 19.9 ppm), Ba (median: 40 ppm; range: 10 - 1230 ppm), Cd (median: 1.5 ppm; range: 0.2 - 68 ppm), Co (median: 7.3 ppm; range: 0.5 - 22 ppm), Ni (median: 37 ppm; range: 3 - 134 ppm), Fe (median: 17900 ppm; range: 5000 - 52300 ppm), Ga (median: 2.4 ppm; range: 0.3 - 7.6 ppm), Sb (median: 1.2 ppm; range: 0.1 - 197 ppm) and Tl (median: 0.3 ppm; range: 0.02 - 8.6 ppm). Comparison with background levels from the area and grouped according to underlying geology, enrichment factor calculations (against Nb and Zr) indicate an elemental response to metalliferous-bearing bedrock. These results confirm that soil anomalies of Zn, Pb, As, Ag, Ba, Cd, Ni, Sb and Tl, are

  13. Model : making

    Bottle, Neil

    2013-01-01

    The Model : making exhibition was curated by Brian Kennedy in collaboration with Allies & Morrison in September 2013. For the London Design Festival, the Model : making exhibition looked at the increased use of new technologies by both craft-makers and architectural model makers. In both practices traditional ways of making by hand are increasingly being combined with the latest technologies of digital imaging, laser cutting, CNC machining and 3D printing. This exhibition focussed on ...

  14. Auroral electron time dispersion

    Kletzing, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    A sounding rocket flight was launched from Greenland in 1985 to study high latitude, early morning auroral physics. The payload was instrumented with electron and ion detectors, AC and DC electric field experiments, a plasma density experiment, and a magnetometer to measure the ambient field. The rocket was launched during disturbed conditions, when the polar cap was in a contracted state with visible aurora overhead. The electron data contained numerous signatures indicative of time-of-flight energy dispersion characterized by a coherent structure in which lower energy electrons arrived at the rocket after higher energy electrons. A model was constructed to explain this phenomena by the sudden application of a region of parallel electric field along a length of magnetic field line above the rocket. The model incorporates detector response and uses an altitudinal density profile based on auroral zone measurements. Three types of potential structures were tried: linear, quadratic and cubic. Of the three it was found that the cubic (electric field growing in a quadratic manner moving up the field line) produced the best fit to the data. The potential region was found to be approximately 1-2 R e in extent with the lower edge 3000-4000 km away from the rocket. The background electron temperature in the model which produced the best fit to the data was of the order of 15 eV

  15. Progress in urban dispersion studies

    Batchvarova, E.; Gryning, Sven-Erik

    2006-01-01

    The present Study addresses recent achievements in better representation Of the urban area structure in meteorology and dispersion parameterisations. The setup and Main Outcome of several recent dispersion experiments in Urban areas and their use in model validation are discussed. The maximum con...

  16. Nest-mediated seed dispersal

    Robert J. Warren; Jason P. Love; Mark A. Bradford

    2017-01-01

    Many plant seeds travel on the wind and through animal ingestion or adhesion; however, an overlooked dispersal mode may lurk within those dispersal modes. Viable seeds may remain attached or embedded within materials birds gather for nest building. Our objective was to determine if birds inadvertently transport seeds when they forage for plant materials to...

  17. Definition of global dispersion coefficients

    Naff, R.L.

    1983-10-01

    For estimation of a global longitudinal dispersivity at the Gorleben site, data available primarily consist of suites of geophysical logs from wells penetrating the Quaternary aquifer. A length scale for the principle aquifer at Gorleben is to be found. Samples are to be taken separately to estimate the variance in hydraulic conductivity (Taylor Analysis, Fickian dispersion process). (DG)

  18. Steel making

    Chakrabarti, A K

    2014-01-01

    "Steel Making" is designed to give students a strong grounding in the theory and state-of-the-art practice of production of steels. This book is primarily focused to meet the needs of undergraduate metallurgical students and candidates for associate membership examinations of professional bodies (AMIIM, AMIE). Besides, for all engineering professionals working in steel plants who need to understand the basic principles of steel making, the text provides a sound introduction to the subject.Beginning with a brief introduction to the historical perspective and current status of steel making together with the reasons for obsolescence of Bessemer converter and open hearth processes, the book moves on to: elaborate the physiochemical principles involved in steel making; explain the operational principles and practices of the modern processes of primary steel making (LD converter, Q-BOP process, and electric furnace process); provide a summary of the developments in secondary refining of steels; discuss principles a...

  19. Self-action of few-cycle pulses in a dispersive medium

    Balakin, A. A.; Litvak, A. G.; Mironov, V. A.; Skobelev, S. A.

    2009-01-01

    Basing on the nonlinear wave equation as the reflection-free approximation, we study the self-focusing dynamics of laser pulses under rather general assumptions about media dispersion. The methods for qualitative investigation of the self-action dynamics of ultrashort pulses are developed. It is shown that a new effect here is steepening of the longitudinal pulse profile, which is determined by the dependence of group velocity on the amplitude. Results of numerical simulation in media without dispersion and with anomalous dispersion confirm the conclusion about outrunning formation of a shock wave during pulse self-focusing. The formation of a power spectrum of the field, which is characteristic for a shock wave, is retained also when medium ionization is taken into account. In the case of a normal-dispersion medium, nonlinear dispersion leads to a violation of the symmetry in the longitudinal splitting of the pulse in the process of self-focusing. The possibility of tuning of the optical-pulse frequency into the short-wave area is shown for the pulse self-action near the zero-dispersion point.

  20. Spacetime dependence of the anomalous exponent of electric transport in the disorder model

    Egami, Takeshi; Suzuki, Koshiro; Watanabe, Katsuhiro

    2012-01-01

    Spacetime dependence of the anomalous exponent of electric transport in the disorder model is investigated. We show that the anomalous exponent evolves with time, according to the time evolution of the number of the effective neighbouring sites. Transition from subdiffusive to normal transport is recovered at macroscopic timescales. Plateaus appear in the history of the anomalous exponent due to the discreteness of the hopping sites, which is compatible with the conventional treatment to regard the anomalous exponent as a constant. We also show that, among various microscopic spatial structures, the number of the effective neighbouring sites is the only element which determines the anomalous exponent. This is compatible with the mesoscopic model of Scher–Montroll. These findings are verified by means of Monte Carlo simulation. The well-known expression of the anomalous exponent in the conventional multiple trapping model is derived by deducing it as a special case of the disorder model. (paper)

  1. Fully interferometric controllable anomalous refraction efficiency using cross modulation with plasmonic metasurfaces.

    Liu, Zhaocheng; Chen, Shuqi; Li, Jianxiong; Cheng, Hua; Li, Zhancheng; Liu, Wenwei; Yu, Ping; Xia, Ji; Tian, Jianguo

    2014-12-01

    We present a method of fully interferometric, controllable anomalous refraction efficiency by introducing cross-modulated incident light based on plasmonic metasurfaces. Theoretical analyses and numerical simulations indicate that the anomalous and ordinary refracted beams generated from two opposite-helicity incident beams and following the generalized Snell's law will have a superposition for certain incident angles, and the anomalous refraction efficiency can be dynamically controlled by changing the relative phase of the incident sources. As the incident wavelength nears the resonant wavelength of the plasmonic metasurfaces, two equal-amplitude incident beams with opposite helicity can be used to control the anomalous refraction efficiency. Otherwise, two unequal-amplitude incident beams with opposite helicity can be used to fully control the anomalous refraction efficiency. This Letter may offer a further step in the development of controllable anomalous refraction.

  2. General PFG signal attenuation expressions for anisotropic anomalous diffusion by modified-Bloch equations

    Lin, Guoxing

    2018-05-01

    Anomalous diffusion exists widely in polymer and biological systems. Pulsed-field gradient (PFG) anomalous diffusion is complicated, especially in the anisotropic case where limited research has been reported. A general PFG signal attenuation expression, including the finite gradient pulse (FGPW) effect for free general anisotropic fractional diffusion { 0 integral modified-Bloch equation, were extended to obtain general PFG signal attenuation expressions for anisotropic anomalous diffusion. Various cases of PFG anisotropic anomalous diffusion were investigated, including coupled and uncoupled anisotropic anomalous diffusion. The continuous-time random walk (CTRW) simulation was also carried out to support the theoretical results. The theory and the CTRW simulation agree with each other. The obtained signal attenuation expressions and the three-dimensional fractional modified-Bloch equations are important for analyzing PFG anisotropic anomalous diffusion in NMR and MRI.

  3. Anomalous transport phenomena in Fermi liquids with strong magnetic fluctuations

    Kontani, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present recent developments in the theory of transport phenomena based on the Fermi liquid theory. In conventional metals, various transport coefficients are scaled according to the quasiparticles relaxation time, τ, which implies that the relaxation time approximation (RTA) holds well. However, such a simple scaling does not hold in many strongly correlated electron systems. The most famous example would be high-T c superconductors (HTSCs), where almost all the transport coefficients exhibit a significant deviation from the RTA results. This issue has been one of the most significant unresolved problems in HTSCs for a long time. Similar anomalous transport phenomena have been observed in metals near their antiferromagnetic (AF) quantum critical point (QCP). The main goal of this study is to demonstrate whether the anomalous transport phenomena in HTSC is evidence of a non-Fermi liquid ground state, or just RTA violation in strongly correlated Fermi liquids. Another goal is to establish a unified theory of anomalous transport phenomena in metals with strong magnetic fluctuations. For these purposes, we develop a method for calculating various transport coefficients beyond the RTA by employing field theoretical techniques. In a Fermi liquid, an excited quasiparticle induces other excited quasiparticles by collision, and current due to these excitations is called a current vertex correction (CVC). Landau noticed the existence of CVC first, which is indispensable for calculating transport coefficients in accord with the conservation laws. Here, we develop a transport theory involving resistivity and the Hall coefficient on the basis of the microscopic Fermi liquid theory, by considering the CVC. In nearly AF Fermi liquids, we find that the strong backward scattering due to AF fluctuations induces the CVC with prominent momentum dependence. This feature of the CVC can account for the significant enhancement in the Hall coefficient, magnetoresistance

  4. Axial Dispersion during Hanford Saltcake Washing

    Josephson, Gary B.; Geeting, John GH; Lessor, Delbert L.; Barton, William B.

    2006-01-01

    Clean up of Hanford salt cake wastes begins with dissolution retrieval of the sodium rich salts that make up the dominant majority of mass in the tanks. Water moving through the porous salt cake dissolves the soluble components and also displaces the soluble radionuclides (e.g. 137Cs and 99TcO4- ). The separation that occurs from this displacement, known as Selective dissolution, is an important component in Hanford?s pretreatment of low activity wastes for subsequent Supplemental treatment. This paper describes lab scale testing conducted to evaluate Selective dissolution of cesium from non-radioactive Hanford tank 241-S-112 salt cake simulant containing the primary chemicals found the actual tank. An modified axial dispersion model with increasing axial dispersion was developed to predict cesium removal. The model recognizes that water dissolves the salt cake during washing, which causes an increase in the axial dispersion during the wash. This model was subsequently compared with on-line cesium measurements from the retrieval of tank 241-S-112. The model had remarkably good agreement with both the lab scale and full scale data

  5. Experimental study of parametric instabilities and anomalous heating in plasma

    Batanov, G.M.; Rabinovich, M.S.

    1975-01-01

    Over the last few years the study of the dissipation of electromagnetic wave energy in a hot plasma has become perhaps one of the main problems of high-temperature plasma physics and controlled thermonuclear fusion. The focus of attention is on the processes by which electromagnetic energy is transformed into potential plasma waves and the processes involving relaxation of the latter. In this paper the authors summarize the experimental research into these processes conducted at the Lebedev Physics Institute over the 10 cm wave band. In the case of an isotropic plasma the authors recorded non-linear generation of Langmuir noise, the energy density of which was found to be comparable, in order of magnitude, with that of a pump wave. They detected the generation of fast-electron streams, the non-stationary character of the latter with respect to time, and non-linear transmissivity of the plasma layer. In the case of a magnetoactive plasma they studied the parametric excitation of oscillations at the upper hybrid frequency during its resonance with the first overtone of the pump wave. Excitation of plasma noise was found to be accompanied by a flux of fast-electrons, in the energy spectrum of which separate groups were detected. It was also found that the effective collision frequency increased by 1-3 orders, compared to the pari-collision frequency. In the region of magnetic waves close to the electron cyclotron resonance the authors observed forced Mandel'shtam-Brillouin scattering and kinetic instability of the plasma. It was found that the excitation of ionic Langmuir noise preceded ''anomalous absorption'' of waves and ''anomalous heating'' of electrons. The authors further consider the possibility of an experimental study of anomalous heating in plasma in the region of the lower hybrid frequencies, using the Institute's L-2 stellarator. (author)

  6. Asymmetry in species regional dispersal ability and the neutral theory.

    Jiajia Liu

    Full Text Available The neutral assumption that individuals of either the same or different species share exactly the same birth, death, migration, and speciation probabilities is fundamental yet controversial to the neutral theory. Several theoretical studies have demonstrated that a slight difference in species per capita birth or death rates can have a profound consequence on species coexistence and community structure. Whether asymmetry in migration, a vital demographic parameter in the neutral model, plays an important role in community assembly still remains unknown. In this paper, we relaxed the ecological equivalence assumption of the neutral model by introducing differences into species regional dispersal ability. We investigated the effect of asymmetric dispersal on the neutral local community structure. We found that per capita asymmetric dispersal among species could reduce species richness of the local community and result in deviations of species abundance distributions from those predicted by the neutral model. But the effect was moderate compared with that of asymmetries in birth or death rates, unless very large asymmetries in dispersal were assumed. A large difference in species dispersal ability, if there is, can overwhelm the role of random drift and make local community dynamics deterministic. In this case, species with higher regional dispersal abilities tended to dominate in the local community. However, the species abundance distribution of the local community under asymmetric dispersal could be well fitted by the neutral model, but the neutral model generally underestimated the fundamental biodiversity number but overestimated the migration rate in such communities.

  7. Wave-equation dispersion inversion

    Li, Jing

    2016-12-08

    We present the theory for wave-equation inversion of dispersion curves, where the misfit function is the sum of the squared differences between the wavenumbers along the predicted and observed dispersion curves. The dispersion curves are obtained from Rayleigh waves recorded by vertical-component geophones. Similar to wave-equation traveltime tomography, the complicated surface wave arrivals in traces are skeletonized as simpler data, namely the picked dispersion curves in the phase-velocity and frequency domains. Solutions to the elastic wave equation and an iterative optimization method are then used to invert these curves for 2-D or 3-D S-wave velocity models. This procedure, denoted as wave-equation dispersion inversion (WD), does not require the assumption of a layered model and is significantly less prone to the cycle-skipping problems of full waveform inversion. The synthetic and field data examples demonstrate that WD can approximately reconstruct the S-wave velocity distributions in laterally heterogeneous media if the dispersion curves can be identified and picked. The WD method is easily extended to anisotropic data and the inversion of dispersion curves associated with Love waves.

  8. Modelling of hydrogen sulfide dispersion from the geothermal power plants of Tuscany (Italy)

    Renato, Somma; Domenico, Granieri; Claudia, Troise; Carlo, Terranova; Natale Giuseppe, De; Maria, Pedone

    2017-04-01

    The hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is one of the main gaseous substances contained in deep fluids exploited by geo-thermoelectric plant. Therefore, it is a "waste" pollutant product by plants for energy production. Hydrogen sulfide is perceived by humans at very low concentrations in the air ( 0,008 ppm, World Health Organization, hereafter WHO, 2003) but it becomes odorless in higher concentrations (> 100 ppm, WHO, 2003) and, for values close to the ones lethal (> 500 ppm), produces an almost pleasant smell. The typical concentration in urban areas is <0.001ppm (<1ppb); in volcanic plumes it reaches values between 0.1 and 0.5 ppm. WHO defines the concentration and relative effects on human health. We applied the Eulerian code DISGAS (DISpersion of GAS) to investigate the dispersion of the hydrogen sulfide (H2S) from 32 geothermal power plants (out of 35 active) belonging to the geothermal districts of Larderello, Travale-Radicondoli and Monte Amiata, in Tuscany (Italy). DISGAS code has simulated scenarios consistent with the prevailing wind conditions, estimating reasonable H2S concentrations for each area, and for each active power plant. The results suggest that H2S plumes emitted from geothermal power plants are mainly concentrated around the stacks of emission (H2S concentration up to 1100 ug/m3) and rapidly dilute along the dominant local wind direction. Although estimated values of air H2S concentrations are orders of magnitude higher than in unpolluted areas, they do not indicate an immediate health risk for nearby communities, under the more frequent local atmospheric conditions. Starting from the estimated values, validated by measurements in the field, we make some considerations about the environmental impact of the H2S emission in all the geothermal areas of the Tuscany region. Furthermore, this study indicates the potential of DISGAS as a tool for an improved understanding of the atmospheric and environmental impacts of the H2S continuous degassing from

  9. The dispersion and detection patterns of mtDNA-assigned red fox Vulpes vulpes scats in Tasmania are anomalous.

    Marks, Clive A; Obendorf, David; Pereira, Filipe; Edwards, Ivo; Hall, Graham P

    2014-08-01

    Models used for resource allocation in eradication programmes must be based on replicated data of known quality and have proven predictive accuracy, or they may provide a false indication of species presence and/or distribution. In the absence of data corroborating the presence of extant foxes Vulpes vulpes in Tasmania, a habitat-specific model based upon mtDNA data (Sarre et al . 2012. Journal Applied Ecology , 50, 459-468) implied that foxes were widespread. Overall, 61 of 9940 (0·6%) surveyed scats were assigned as mtDNA fox positive by the fox eradication programme (FEP). We investigated the spatiotemporal distribution of the 61 mtDNA-assigned fox scats and modelled the probability of replicating scat detection in independent surveys using detection dogs based upon empirically derived probabilities of scat detection success obtained by the FEP using imported fox scats. In a prior mainland study, fox genotypes were recurrently detected in a consecutive four-day pool of scats. In Tasmania, only three contemporaneously collected scat pairs of unknown genotype were detected by the FEP within an area corresponding to a conservatively large mainland fox home range (639 ha) in a decade. Nearest neighbour pairs were widely spaced (mean = 7·0 km; circular area = 153 km 2 ) and generated after a mean of 281 days. The majority of assigned mtDNA positive scats were found in urban and peri-urban environments corresponding to small mainland fox home ranges (30-45 ha) that imply higher scat density and more certain replication. Using the lowest empirically determined scat detection success for dogs, the failure to replicate fox scat detection on 34 of 36 occasions in a large (639 ha) home range is highly improbable ( P  = 0·00001) and suggestive of Type I error. Synthesis and applications . Type I error, which may have various sources, should be considered when scat mtDNA data are few, accumulated over many years, uncorroborated by observations of extant specimens, inadequately replicated in independent surveys within an expected spatiotemporal scale and reported in geographically isolated environments unlikely to have been colonized.

  10. Noncausal two-stage image filtration at presence of observations with anomalous errors

    S. V. Vishnevyy; S. Ya. Zhuk; A. N. Pavliuchenkova

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. It is necessary to develop adaptive algorithms, which allow to detect such regions and to apply filter with respective parameters for suppression of anomalous noises for the purposes of image filtration, which consist of regions with anomalous errors. Development of adaptive algorithm for non-causal two-stage images filtration at pres-ence of observations with anomalous errors. The adaptive algorithm for noncausal two-stage filtration is developed. On the first stage the adaptiv...

  11. Anomalous behavior of 2+ excitations around 132Sn

    Terasaki, J.; Engel, J.; Nazarewicz, W.; Stoitsov, M.

    2002-01-01

    In certain neutron-rich Te isotopes, a decrease in the energy of the first excited 2 + state is accompanied by a decrease in the E2 strength to that state from the ground state, contradicting simple systematics and general intuition about quadrupole collectivity. We use a separable quadrupole-plus-pairing Hamiltonian and the quasiparticle random phase approximation to calculate energies, B(E2,0 + →2 + ) strengths, and g factors for the lowest 2 + states near 132 Sn (Z≥50). We trace the anomalous behavior in the Te isotopes to a reduced neutron pairing above the N=82 magic gap

  12. Lepton anomalous magnetic moments from twisted mass fermions

    Burger, Florian; Hotzel, Grit

    2014-11-01

    We present our results for the leading-order hadronic quark-connected contributions to the electron, the muon, and the tau anomalous magnetic moments obtained with four dynamical quarks. Performing the continuum limit and an analysis of systematic effects, full agreement with phenomenological results is found. To estimate the impact of omitting the quark-disconnected contributions to the hadronic vacuum polarisation we investigate them on one of the four-flavour ensembles. Additionally, the light quark contributions on the four-flavour sea are compared to the values obtained for N f =2 physically light quarks. In the latter case different methods to fit the hadronic vacuum polarisation function are tested.

  13. Anomalous resistivity and the evolution of magnetic field topology

    Parker, E. N.

    1993-01-01

    This paper explores the topological restructuring of a force-free magnetic field caused by the hypothetical sudden onset of a localized region of strong anomalous resistivity. It is shown that the topological complexity increases, with the primitive planar force-free field with straight field lines developing field lines that wrap half a turn around each other, evidently providing a surface of tangential discontinuity in the wraparound region. It is suggested that the topological restructuring contributes to the complexity of the geomagnetic substorm, the aurora, and perhaps some of the flare activity on the sun, or other star, and the Galactic halo.

  14. Antibiotic-Induced Anomalous Statistics of Collective Bacterial Swarming

    Benisty, Sivan; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Ariel, Gil; Be'er, Avraham

    2015-01-01

    Under sublethal antibiotics concentrations, the statistics of collectively swarming Bacillus subtilis transitions from normal to anomalous, with a heavy-tailed speed distribution and a two-step temporal correlation of velocities. The transition is due to changes in the properties of the bacterial motion and the formation of a motility-defective subpopulation that self-segregates into regions. As a result, both the colonial expansion and the growth rate are not affected by antibiotics. This phenomenon suggests a new strategy bacteria employ to fight antibiotic stress.

  15. On the anomalous afterglow seen in a chameleon afterglow search

    Steffen, Jason H.; Baumbaugh, Alan; Chou, Aaron S.; Tomlin, Ray; Upadhye, Amol

    2012-01-01

    We present data from our investigation of the anomalous orange-colored afterglow that was seen in the GammeV Chameleon Afterglow Search (CHASE). These data include information about the broadband color of the observed glow, the relationship between the glow and the temperature of the apparatus, and other data taken prior to, and during the science operations of CHASE. While differing in several details, the generic properties of the afterglow from CHASE are similar to luminescence seen in some vacuum compounds. Contamination from this, or similar, luminescent signatures will likely impact the design of implementation of future experiments involving single photon detectors and high intensity light sources in a cryogenic environment.

  16. Anomalous couplings in WZ production beyond NLO QCD

    Campanario, Francisco; Roth, Robin; Zeppenfeld, Dieter [Institute for Theoretical Physics, KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany); Sapeta, Sebastian [CERN PH-TH, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2016-07-01

    We study WZ production with anomalous couplings (AC) at anti nNLO QCD using the LoopSim method in combination with the Monte Carlo program VBFNLO. Higher order corrections to WZ production are dominated by additional hard jet radiation. Those contributions are insensitive to AC and should thus be suppressed in analyses. We do this using a dynamical jet veto based on the transverse energy of the QCD and EW final state particles. This removes jet dominated events without introducing problematic logs like a fixed p{sub T} jet veto.

  17. Anomalous Transport in Natural Fracture Networks Induced by Tectonic Stress

    Kang, P. K.; Lei, Q.; Lee, S.; Dentz, M.; Juanes, R.

    2017-12-01

    Fluid flow and transport in fractured rock controls many natural and engineered processes in the subsurface. However, characterizing flow and transport through fractured media is challenging due to the high uncertainty and large heterogeneity associated with fractured rock properties. In addition to these "static" challenges, geologic fractures are always under significant overburden stress, and changes in the stress state can lead to changes in the fracture's ability to conduct fluids. While confining stress has been shown to impact fluid flow through fractures in a fundamental way, the impact of confining stress on transportthrough fractured rock remains poorly understood. The link between anomalous (non-Fickian) transport and confining stress has been shown, only recently, at the level of a single rough fracture [1]. Here, we investigate the impact of geologic (tectonic) stress on flow and tracer transport through natural fracture networks. We model geomechanical effects in 2D fractured rock by means of a finite-discrete element method (FEMDEM) [2], which can capture the deformation of matrix blocks, reactivation of pre-existing fractures, and propagation of new cracks, upon changes in the stress field. We apply the model to a fracture network extracted from the geological map of an actual rock outcrop to obtain the aperture field at different stress conditions. We then simulate fluid flow and particle transport through the stressed fracture networks. We observe that anomalous transport emerges in response to confining stress on the fracture network, and show that the stress state is a powerful determinant of transport behavior: (1) An anisotropic stress state induces preferential flow paths through shear dilation; (2) An increase in geologic stress increases aperture heterogeneity that induces late-time tailing of particle breakthrough curves. Finally, we develop an effective transport model that captures the anomalous transport through the stressed fracture

  18. Anomalous rostral lumbosacral root emergence from the thecal sac

    Peyster, R.G.; Parghi, A.; Siegal, T.; Hershey, B.L.; Yablon, J.; Jaffe, S.

    1989-01-01

    Anomalous rostral lumbosacral root emergence (AARE) has important clinical implications and has received little attention. The authors have studied the occurrence of this anomaly and presentation of cases in which it was paramount in causing radiculopathy. AARE was noted with the following occurrence rates in 500 cases: L3, 0%; L4, 1%; L5, 9%, and S1, 16%. In ARRE, the roots lie laterally between the superior facet and the annulus and are subject to compression by minimal disk bulging or facet hypertrophy. One must track the individual nerve roots on lumbar CT and MR imaging to detect this subtle condition

  19. Urbanization effects on natural radiation in anomalous areas

    Affonseca, M.S. de.

    1993-10-01

    The urbanization effects and their possible causes on the environmental gamma radiation levels, in an anomalous area, were studied. The field work was accomplished in Guarapari, located in the seacoast of the Brazilian state of Espirito Santo, which is rich in monazite sands, with thorium and uranium contents. The results show clearly that there was a reduction in the levels of external exposition in the streets and squares of Guarapari. It was ascertained that the reduction was due to the materials used in the urbanization. (L.C.J.A.)

  20. Anomalous magnetic nucleon moments in a Bethe-Salpeter model

    Chak Wing Chan.

    1978-01-01

    We investigate the anomalous magnetic moment of the nucleon in a field theoretic many-channel model for the electromagnetic form factors of the N anti N, the ππ, the K anti K, the πω and the πrho systems. Propagator self-energy corrections from the Ward idendity and phenomenological strong vertex corrections are both included. The photon is coupled minimally to pions, kaons and nucleons with power multiplicative renormalization. With solutions in the framework of the Bethe-Salpeter equation we obtain a value 1.84 for the isovector moment and a value -0.02 for the isoscalar moment. (orig.)