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Sample records for makespan open-shop scheduling

  1. On-line scheduling of two-machine open shops where jobs arrive over time

    Chen, B.; Vestjens, A.P.A.; Woeginger, G.J.

    1998-01-01

    We investigate the problem of on-line scheduling two-machine open shops with the objective of minimizing the makespan.Jobs arrive independently over time, and the existence of a job is not known until its arrival. In the clairvoyant on-line model, the processing requirement of every job becomes

  2. The power of reordering for online minimum makespan scheduling

    Englert, Matthias; Özmen, Deniz; Westermann, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    In the classic minimum makespan scheduling problem, we are given an input sequence of jobs with processing times. A scheduling algorithm has to assign the jobs to m parallel machines. The objective is to minimize the makespan, which is the time it takes until all jobs are processed. In this paper, we consider online scheduling algorithms without preemption. However, we do not require that each arriving job has to be assigned immediately to one of the machines. A reordering buffer with limited...

  3. A hybrid approach for minimizing makespan in permutation flowshop scheduling

    Govindan, Kannan; Balasundaram, R.; Baskar, N.

    2017-01-01

    This work proposes a hybrid approach for solving traditional flowshop scheduling problems to reduce the makespan (total completion time). To solve scheduling problems, a combination of Decision Tree (DT) and Scatter Search (SS) algorithms are used. Initially, the DT is used to generate a seed...... solution which is then given input to the SS to obtain optimal / near optimal solutions of makespan. The DT used the entropy function to convert the given problem into a tree structured format / set of rules. The SS provides an extensive investigation of the search space through diversification...

  4. Job shop scheduling with makespan objective: A heuristic approach

    Mohsen Ziaee

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Job shop has been considered as one of the most challenging scheduling problems and there are literally tremendous efforts on reducing the complexity of solution procedure for solving job shop problem. This paper presents a heuristic method to minimize makespan for different jobs in a job shop scheduling. The proposed model is based on a constructive procedure to obtain good quality schedules, very quickly. The performance of the proposed model of this paper is examined on standard benchmarks from the literature in order to evaluate its performance. Computational results show that, despite its simplicity, the proposed heuristic is computationally efficient and practical approach for the problem.

  5. Two-agent scheduling in open shops subject to machine availability and eligibility constraints

    Ling-Huey Su

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aims of this article are to develop a new mathematical formulation and a new heuristic for the problem of preemptive two-agent scheduling in open shops subject to machine maintenance and eligibility constraints. Design/methodology: Using the ideas of minimum cost flow network and constraint programming, a heuristic and a network based linear programming are proposed to solve the problem. Findings: Computational experiments show that the heuristic generates a good quality schedule with a deviation of 0.25% on average from the optimum and the network based linear programming model can solve problems up to 110 jobs combined with 10 machines without considering the constraint that each operation can be processed on at most one machine at a time. In order to satisfy this constraint, a time consuming Constraint Programming is proposed. For n = 80 and m = 10, the average execution time for the combined models (linear programming model combined with Constraint programming exceeds two hours. Therefore, the heuristic algorithm we developed is very efficient and is in need. Practical implications: Its practical implication occurs in TFT-LCD and E-paper manufacturing wherein units go through a series of diagnostic tests that do not have to be performed in any specified order. Originality/value: The main contribution of the article is to split the time horizon into many time intervals and use the dispatching rule for each time interval in the heuristic algorithm, and also to combine the minimum cost flow network with the Constraint Programming to solve the problem optimally. 

  6. A novel particle swarm optimization algorithm for permutation flow-shop scheduling to minimize makespan

    Lian Zhigang; Gu Xingsheng; Jiao Bin

    2008-01-01

    It is well known that the flow-shop scheduling problem (FSSP) is a branch of production scheduling and is NP-hard. Now, many different approaches have been applied for permutation flow-shop scheduling to minimize makespan, but current algorithms even for moderate size problems cannot be solved to guarantee optimality. Some literatures searching PSO for continuous optimization problems are reported, but papers searching PSO for discrete scheduling problems are few. In this paper, according to the discrete characteristic of FSSP, a novel particle swarm optimization (NPSO) algorithm is presented and successfully applied to permutation flow-shop scheduling to minimize makespan. Computation experiments of seven representative instances (Taillard) based on practical data were made, and comparing the NPSO with standard GA, we obtain that the NPSO is clearly more efficacious than standard GA for FSSP to minimize makespan

  7. On the Runtime of Randomized Local Search and Simple Evolutionary Algorithms for Dynamic Makespan Scheduling

    Neumann, Frank; Witt, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    combinatorial optimization problem, namely makespan scheduling. We study the model of a strong adversary which is allowed to change one job at regular intervals. Furthermore, we investigate the setting of random changes. Our results show that randomized local search and a simple evolutionary algorithm are very...

  8. A novel discrete PSO algorithm for solving job shop scheduling problem to minimize makespan

    Rameshkumar, K.; Rajendran, C.

    2018-02-01

    In this work, a discrete version of PSO algorithm is proposed to minimize the makespan of a job-shop. A novel schedule builder has been utilized to generate active schedules. The discrete PSO is tested using well known benchmark problems available in the literature. The solution produced by the proposed algorithms is compared with best known solution published in the literature and also compared with hybrid particle swarm algorithm and variable neighborhood search PSO algorithm. The solution construction methodology adopted in this study is found to be effective in producing good quality solutions for the various benchmark job-shop scheduling problems.

  9. Scheduling stochastic two-machine flow shop problems to minimize expected makespan

    Mehdi Heydari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, despite tremendous contribution on deterministic flow shop problem, there are only limited number of works dedicated on stochastic cases. This paper examines stochastic scheduling problems in two-machine flow shop environment for expected makespan minimization where processing times of jobs are normally distributed. Since jobs have stochastic processing times, to minimize the expected makespan, the expected sum of the second machine’s free times is minimized. In other words, by minimization waiting times for the second machine, it is possible to reach the minimum of the objective function. A mathematical method is proposed which utilizes the properties of the normal distributions. Furthermore, this method can be used as a heuristic method for other distributions, as long as the means and variances are available. The performance of the proposed method is explored using some numerical examples.

  10. Parallel-Batch Scheduling with Two Models of Deterioration to Minimize the Makespan

    Cuixia Miao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the bounded parallel-batch scheduling with two models of deterioration, in which the processing time of the first model is pj=aj+αt and of the second model is pj=a+αjt. The objective is to minimize the makespan. We present O(n log n time algorithms for the single-machine problems, respectively. And we propose fully polynomial time approximation schemes to solve the identical-parallel-machine problem and uniform-parallel-machine problem, respectively.

  11. A Heuristic Scheduling Algorithm for Minimizing Makespan and Idle Time in a Nagare Cell

    M. Muthukumaran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adopting a focused factory is a powerful approach for today manufacturing enterprise. This paper introduces the basic manufacturing concept for a struggling manufacturer with limited conventional resources, providing an alternative solution to cell scheduling by implementing the technique of Nagare cell. Nagare cell is a Japanese concept with more objectives than cellular manufacturing system. It is a combination of manual and semiautomatic machine layout as cells, which gives maximum output flexibility for all kind of low-to-medium- and medium-to-high- volume productions. The solution adopted is to create a dedicated group of conventional machines, all but one of which are already available on the shop floor. This paper focuses on the development of heuristic scheduling algorithm in step-by-step method. The algorithm states that the summation of processing time of all products on each machine is calculated first and then the sum of processing time is sorted by the shortest processing time rule to get the assignment schedule. Based on the assignment schedule Nagare cell layout is arranged for processing the product. In addition, this algorithm provides steps to determine the product ready time, machine idle time, and product idle time. And also the Gantt chart, the experimental analysis, and the comparative results are illustrated with five (1×8 to 5×8 scheduling problems. Finally, the objective of minimizing makespan and idle time with greater customer satisfaction is studied through.

  12. Revisiting the NEH algorithm- the power of job insertion technique for optimizing the makespan in permutation flow shop scheduling

    A. Baskar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Permutation flow shop scheduling problems have been an interesting area of research for over six decades. Out of the several parameters, minimization of makespan has been studied much over the years. The problems are widely regarded as NP-Complete if the number of machines is more than three. As the computation time grows exponentially with respect to the problem size, heuristics and meta-heuristics have been proposed by many authors that give reasonably accurate and acceptable results. The NEH algorithm proposed in 1983 is still considered as one of the best simple, constructive heuristics for the minimization of makespan. This paper analyses the powerful job insertion technique used by NEH algorithm and proposes seven new variants, the complexity level remains same. 120 numbers of problem instances proposed by Taillard have been used for the purpose of validating the algorithms. Out of the seven, three produce better results than the original NEH algorithm.

  13. A discrete firefly meta-heuristic with local search for makespan minimization in permutation flow shop scheduling problems

    Nader Ghaffari-Nasab

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available During the past two decades, there have been increasing interests on permutation flow shop with different types of objective functions such as minimizing the makespan, the weighted mean flow-time etc. The permutation flow shop is formulated as a mixed integer programming and it is classified as NP-Hard problem. Therefore, a direct solution is not available and meta-heuristic approaches need to be used to find the near-optimal solutions. In this paper, we present a new discrete firefly meta-heuristic to minimize the makespan for the permutation flow shop scheduling problem. The results of implementation of the proposed method are compared with other existing ant colony optimization technique. The preliminary results indicate that the new proposed method performs better than the ant colony for some well known benchmark problems.

  14. Integrating the sequence dependent setup time open shop problem and preventive maintenance policies

    K. Naboureh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In most industrial environments, it is usually considered that machines are accessible throughout the planning horizon, but in real situation, machines may be unavailable due to a scheduled preventive maintenance where the periods of unavailability are known in advance. The main idea of this paper is to consider different preventive maintenance policies on machines regarding open shop scheduling problem (OSSP with sequence dependent setup times (SDST using immune algorithm. The preventive maintenance (PM policies are planned for maximizing availability of machines or keeping minimum level of reliability through the production horizon. The objective function of the paper is to minimize makespan. In total, the proposed algorithm extensively is compared with six adaptations of existing heuristic and meta-heuristic methods for the problem through data sets from benchmarks based on Taillard’s instances with some adjustments. The results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms other algorithms for this problem.

  15. Nonstrict vector simulation in multi-operation scheduling

    Sevastianov, S.V.

    1995-01-01

    We consider several multi??operation scheduling problems with m machines and n jobs??, including fl??ow shop??, open shop,?? assembly line,?? and a few special cases of job shop with the makespan criterion. It is demonstrated that the problems in question can be effi??ciently solved by approximation

  16. A Local and Global Search Combine Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm for Job-Shop Scheduling to Minimize Makespan

    Zhigang Lian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Job-shop scheduling problem (JSSP is a branch of production scheduling, which is among the hardest combinatorial optimization problems. Many different approaches have been applied to optimize JSSP, but for some JSSP even with moderate size cannot be solved to guarantee optimality. The original particle swarm optimization algorithm (OPSOA, generally, is used to solve continuous problems, and rarely to optimize discrete problems such as JSSP. In OPSOA, through research I find that it has a tendency to get stuck in a near optimal solution especially for middle and large size problems. The local and global search combine particle swarm optimization algorithm (LGSCPSOA is used to solve JSSP, where particle-updating mechanism benefits from the searching experience of one particle itself, the best of all particles in the swarm, and the best of particles in neighborhood population. The new coding method is used in LGSCPSOA to optimize JSSP, and it gets all sequences are feasible solutions. Three representative instances are made computational experiment, and simulation shows that the LGSCPSOA is efficacious for JSSP to minimize makespan.

  17. Analysis of multi-stage open shop processing systems

    Eggermont, C.E.J.; Schrijver, A.; Woeginger, G.J.; Schwentick, T.; Dürr, C.

    2011-01-01

    We study algorithmic problems in multi-stage open shop processing systems that are centered around reachability and deadlock detection questions. We characterize safe and unsafe system states. We show that it is easy to recognize system states that can be reached from the initial state (where the

  18. Minimizing makespan for a no-wait flowshop using genetic algorithm

    This paper explains minimization of makespan or total completion time .... lead to a natural reduction of the no-wait flow shop problem to the travelling sales- ... FCH can also be applied in real time scheduling and rescheduling for no-wait flow.

  19. Lower bounds for online makespan minimization on a small number of related machines

    Jeż, Łukasz; Schwartz, J.; Sgall, J.; Békési, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 5 (2013), s. 539-547 ISSN 1094-6136 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190902; GA ČR GBP202/12/G061 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : online algorithms * scheduling * makespan Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.186, year: 2013 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10951-012-0288-7

  20. Evolutionary heuristic for makespan minimization in no-idle flow shop production systems - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i2.12534

    Marcelo Seido Nagano

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with no-idle flow shop scheduling problem with the objective of minimizing makespan. A new hybrid metaheuristic is proposed for the scheduling problem solution. The proposed method is compared with the best method reported in the literature. Experimental results show that the new method provides better solutions regarding the solution quality to set of problems evaluated.  

  1. Constraint-based job shop scheduling with ILOG SCHEDULER

    Nuijten, W.P.M.; Le Pape, C.

    1998-01-01

    We introduce constraint-based scheduling and discuss its main principles. An approximation algorithm based on tree search is developed for the job shop scheduling problem using ILOG SCHEDULER. A new way of calculating lower bounds on the makespan of the job shop scheduling problem is presented and

  2. A review of lot streaming in a flow shop environment with makespan criteria

    Pedro Gómez-Gasquet

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper reviews current literature and contributes a set of findings that capture the current state-of-the-art of the topic of lot streaming in a flow-shop. Design/methodology/approach: A literature review to capture, classify and summarize the main body of knowledge on lot streaming in a flow-shop with makespan criteria and, translate this into a form that is readily accessible to researchers and practitioners in the more mainstream production scheduling community. Findings and Originality/value: The existing knowledge base is somewhat fragmented. This is a relatively unexplored topic within mainstream operations management research and one which could provide rich opportunities for further exploration. Originality/value: This paper sets out to review current literature, from an advanced production scheduling perspective, and contributes a set of findings that capture the current state-of-the-art of this topic.

  3. Unit-time scheduling problems with time dependent resources

    Tautenhahn, T.; Woeginger, G.

    1997-01-01

    We investigate the computational complexity of scheduling problems, where the operations consume certain amounts of renewable resources which are available in time-dependent quantities. In particular, we consider unit-time open shop problems and unit-time scheduling problems with identical parallel

  4. Optimal Algorithms and a PTAS for Cost-Aware Scheduling

    L. Chen; N. Megow; R. Rischke; L. Stougie (Leen); J. Verschae

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractWe consider a natural generalization of classical scheduling problems in which using a time unit for processing a job causes some time-dependent cost which must be paid in addition to the standard scheduling cost. We study the scheduling objectives of minimizing the makespan and the

  5. USE OF EXCEL WORKSHEETS WITH USER-FRIENDLY INTERFACE IN BATCH PROCESS (PSBP TO MINIMIZE THE MAKESPAN

    Rony Peterson da Rocha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the chemical industry, the necessity for scheduling is becoming more pronounced, especially in batch production mode. Nowadays, planning industrial activities is a necessity for survival. Intense competition requires diversified products and delivery in accordance with the requirements of consumers. These activities require quick decision making and the lowest possible cost, through an efficient Production Scheduling. So, this work addresses the Permutation Flow Shop scheduling problem, characterized as Production Scheduling in Batch Process (PSBP, with the objective of minimizing the total time to complete the schedule (Makespan. A method to approach the problem of production scheduling is to turn it into Mixed Integer Linear Programming- MILP, and to solve it using commercial mathematical programming packages. In this study an electronic spreadsheet with user-friendly interface (ESUFI was developed in Microsoft Excel. The ease of manipulation of the ESUFI is quite evident, as with the use of VBA language a user-friendly interface could be created between the user and the spreadsheet itself. The results showed that it is possible to use the ESUFI for small problems.

  6. Minimizing makespan in a two-stage flow shop with parallel batch-processing machines and re-entrant jobs

    Huang, J. D.; Liu, J. J.; Chen, Q. X.; Mao, N.

    2017-06-01

    Against a background of heat-treatment operations in mould manufacturing, a two-stage flow-shop scheduling problem is described for minimizing makespan with parallel batch-processing machines and re-entrant jobs. The weights and release dates of jobs are non-identical, but job processing times are equal. A mixed-integer linear programming model is developed and tested with small-scale scenarios. Given that the problem is NP hard, three heuristic construction methods with polynomial complexity are proposed. The worst case of the new constructive heuristic is analysed in detail. A method for computing lower bounds is proposed to test heuristic performance. Heuristic efficiency is tested with sets of scenarios. Compared with the two improved heuristics, the performance of the new constructive heuristic is superior.

  7. A new Nawaz-Enscore-Ham-based heuristic for permutation flow-shop problems with bicriteria of makespan and machine idle time

    Liu, Weibo; Jin, Yan; Price, Mark

    2016-10-01

    A new heuristic based on the Nawaz-Enscore-Ham algorithm is proposed in this article for solving a permutation flow-shop scheduling problem. A new priority rule is proposed by accounting for the average, mean absolute deviation, skewness and kurtosis, in order to fully describe the distribution style of processing times. A new tie-breaking rule is also introduced for achieving effective job insertion with the objective of minimizing both makespan and machine idle time. Statistical tests illustrate better solution quality of the proposed algorithm compared to existing benchmark heuristics.

  8. PENJADWALAN PRODUKSI MENGGUNAKAN ALGORITMA JADWAL NON DELAY UNTUK MEMINIMALKAN MAKESPAN STUDI KASUS DI CV. BIMA MEBEL

    Setyo Harto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available CV. Mebel Bima merupakan sebuah perusahaan yang bergerak dalam bidang pengerjaan kayu khususnya pembuatan berbagai model daun pintu dan kusen. Tipe aliran produksi di perusaaan adalah job shop dikarenakan pengerjaan setiap job memiliki aliran yang berbeda di setiap mesinnya. Penjadwalan produksi di perusahaan adalah diurutkan berdasarkan total waktu penyelesaian job terlama sampai yang terkecil. Permasalahan di perusahaan selama ini adalah besarnya makespan yang dihasilkan oleh penjadwalan dengan metode perusahaan sehingga perusahaan mengalami keterlambatan penyelesaian job dari waktu yang sudah ditetapkan sebelumnya. Berdasarkan masalah tersebut penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan urutan pengerjaan job dengan makespan yang lebih kecil menggunakan algoritma jadwal non delay dengan prioritas SPT. Tahap-tahap dalam penelitian ini adalah dimulai dari observasi langsung di perusahaan, studi literatur, perumusan masalah, pengambilan data, pengolahan data, dan terakhir adalah pembandingan hasil penjadwalan. Metode penjadwalan produksi yang digunakan di perusahaan menghasilkan makespan sebesar 194,4 jam atau 25 hari kerja (1 hari terdapat 8 jam kerja, sedangkan usulan penjadwalan dengan menggunakan algoritma jadwal non delay menghasilkan makespan sebesar 168,79 jam atau 22 hari kerja, dengan demikian Penjadwalan dengan menggunakan algoritma jadwal non delay dapat menghemat total waktu pengerjaan sebesar 24,85 jam atau 3 hari kerja lebih 0,85 jam.

  9. PENJADWALAN JOB SHOP STATIK DENGAN METODE SIMULATED ANNEALING UNTUK MEMINIMASI WAKTU MAKESPAN

    Moh.Husen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Penjadwalan bagi perusahaan adalah aspek yang sangat penting, karena penjadwalan merupakan salah satu elemen perencanaan dan pengendalian produksi, sehingga perusahaan dapat mengirim barang sesuai dengan waktu yang telah ditentukan, agar diperoleh waktu total penyelesaian yang minimum. Dalam penelitian ini, penjadwalan menggunakan metode Simulated Annealing (SA dengan bantuan Matlab diharapkan dapat menghasilkan waktu total penyelesaian (makespan lebih cepat dari penjadwalan yang ada pada perusahaan. Metode SA mensimulasikan proses annealing pada pembuatan materi yang terdiri dari butiran Kristal atau logam. Tujuan dari proses ini adalah menghasilkan struktur kristal yang baik dengan menggunakan energi seminimal mungkin. Permasalahan yang dihadapi oleh perusahaan adalah perusahaan belum mempertimbangkan makespan dalam penyelesaian produk dan penjadwalan produksi untuk produk paket satu rumah kos-kosan. Hal ini berdasarkan data produksi yang terjadi keterlambatan dilihat dari waktu penyelesaian (makespan produksi, sehingga perusahaan harus menambah 2-5 hari lagi untuk bisa menyelesaikan keseluruhan produk. Dengan menggunakan metode SA menghasilkan makespan 23 jam, lebih cepat 2 jam dari pada penjadwalan awal.

  10. Very Large-Scale Neighborhoods with Performance Guarantees for Minimizing Makespan on Parallel Machines

    Brueggemann, T.; Hurink, Johann L.; Vredeveld, T.; Woeginger, Gerhard

    2006-01-01

    We study the problem of minimizing the makespan on m parallel machines. We introduce a very large-scale neighborhood of exponential size (in the number of machines) that is based on a matching in a complete graph. The idea is to partition the jobs assigned to the same machine into two sets. This

  11. An Integrated Approach to Locality-Conscious Processor Allocation and Scheduling of Mixed-Parallel Applications

    Vydyanathan, Naga; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Sabin, Gerald M.; Catalyurek, Umit V.; Kurc, Tahsin; Sadayappan, Ponnuswamy; Saltz, Joel H.

    2009-08-01

    Complex parallel applications can often be modeled as directed acyclic graphs of coarse-grained application-tasks with dependences. These applications exhibit both task- and data-parallelism, and combining these two (also called mixedparallelism), has been shown to be an effective model for their execution. In this paper, we present an algorithm to compute the appropriate mix of task- and data-parallelism required to minimize the parallel completion time (makespan) of these applications. In other words, our algorithm determines the set of tasks that should be run concurrently and the number of processors to be allocated to each task. The processor allocation and scheduling decisions are made in an integrated manner and are based on several factors such as the structure of the taskgraph, the runtime estimates and scalability characteristics of the tasks and the inter-task data communication volumes. A locality conscious scheduling strategy is used to improve inter-task data reuse. Evaluation through simulations and actual executions of task graphs derived from real applications as well as synthetic graphs shows that our algorithm consistently generates schedules with lower makespan as compared to CPR and CPA, two previously proposed scheduling algorithms. Our algorithm also produces schedules that have lower makespan than pure taskand data-parallel schedules. For task graphs with known optimal schedules or lower bounds on the makespan, our algorithm generates schedules that are closer to the optima than other scheduling approaches.

  12. An optimal algorithm for preemptive on-line scheduling

    Chen, B.; Vliet, van A.; Woeginger, G.J.

    1995-01-01

    We investigate the problem of on-line scheduling jobs on m identical parallel machines where preemption is allowed. The goal is to minimize the makespan. We derive an approximation algorithm with worst-case guarantee mm/(mm - (m - 1)m) for every m 2, which increasingly tends to e/(e - 1) ˜ 1.58 as m

  13. Cloud Service Scheduling Algorithm Research and Optimization

    Hongyan Cui

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a cloud service scheduling model that is referred to as the Task Scheduling System (TSS. In the user module, the process time of each task is in accordance with a general distribution. In the task scheduling module, we take a weighted sum of makespan and flowtime as the objective function and use an Ant Colony Optimization (ACO and a Genetic Algorithm (GA to solve the problem of cloud task scheduling. Simulation results show that the convergence speed and output performance of our Genetic Algorithm-Chaos Ant Colony Optimization (GA-CACO are optimal.

  14. Multi-objective ACO algorithms to minimise the makespan and the total rejection cost on BPMs with arbitrary job weights

    Jia, Zhao-hong; Pei, Ming-li; Leung, Joseph Y.-T.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate the batch-scheduling problem with rejection on parallel machines with non-identical job sizes and arbitrary job-rejected weights. If a job is rejected, the corresponding penalty has to be paid. Our objective is to minimise the makespan of the processed jobs and the total rejection cost of the rejected jobs. Based on the selected multi-objective optimisation approaches, two problems, P1 and P2, are considered. In P1, the two objectives are linearly combined into one single objective. In P2, the two objectives are simultaneously minimised and the Pareto non-dominated solution set is to be found. Based on the ant colony optimisation (ACO), two algorithms, called LACO and PACO, are proposed to address the two problems, respectively. Two different objective-oriented pheromone matrices and heuristic information are designed. Additionally, a local optimisation algorithm is adopted to improve the solution quality. Finally, simulated experiments are conducted, and the comparative results verify the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed algorithms, especially on large-scale instances.

  15. Flowshop Scheduling Problems with a Position-Dependent Exponential Learning Effect

    Mingbao Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a permutation flowshop scheduling problem with a position-dependent exponential learning effect. The objective is to minimize the performance criteria of makespan and the total flow time. For the two-machine flow shop scheduling case, we show that Johnson’s rule is not an optimal algorithm for minimizing the makespan given the exponential learning effect. Furthermore, by using the shortest total processing times first (STPT rule, we construct the worst-case performance ratios for both criteria. Finally, a polynomial-time algorithm is proposed for special cases of the studied problem.

  16. Multiobjective genetic algorithm approaches to project scheduling under risk

    Kılıç, Murat; Kilic, Murat

    2003-01-01

    In this thesis, project scheduling under risk is chosen as the topic of research. Project scheduling under risk is defined as a biobjective decision problem and is formulated as a 0-1 integer mathematical programming model. In this biobjective formulation, one of the objectives is taken as the expected makespan minimization and the other is taken as the expected cost minimization. As the solution approach to this biobjective formulation genetic algorithm (GA) is chosen. After carefully invest...

  17. Preemptive scheduling of independent jobs on identical parallel machines subject to migration delays

    Fishkin, A.V.; Jansen, K.; Sevastyanov, S.V.; Sitters, R.A.; Leonardi, S.

    2005-01-01

    We present hardness and approximation results for the problem of scheduling n independent jobs on m identical parallel machines subject to a migration delay d so as to minimize the makespan. We give a sharp threshold on the value of d for which the complexity of the problem changes from polynomial

  18. Preemptive scheduling in a two-stage multiprocessor flow shop is NP-hard

    Hoogeveen, J.A.; Lenstra, J.K.; Veltman, B.

    1996-01-01

    In 1954, Johnson gave an efficient algorithm for minimizing makespan in a two-machine flow shop; there is no advantage to preemption in this case. McNaughton's wrap-around rule of 1959 finds a shortest preemptive schedule on identical parallel machines in linear time. A similarly efficient algorithm

  19. Preemptive scheduling of independent jobs on identical parallel machines subject to migration delays

    Sevastyanov, S. V.; Sitters, R. A.; Fishkin, A.V.

    2010-01-01

    We present hardness and approximation results for the problem of preemptive scheduling of n independent jobs on m identical parallel machines subject to a migration delay d with the objective to minimize the makespan. We give a sharp threshold on the value of d for which the complexity of the

  20. Scheduling projects with multiskill learning effect.

    Zha, Hong; Zhang, Lianying

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the project scheduling problem with multiskill learning effect. A new model is proposed to deal with the problem, where both autonomous and induced learning are considered. In order to obtain the optimal solution, a genetic algorithm with specific encoding and decoding schemes is introduced. A numerical example is used to illustrate the proposed model. The computational results show that the learning effect cannot be neglected in project scheduling. By means of determining the level of induced learning, the project manager can balance the project makespan with total cost.

  1. Solving a large-scale precedence constrained scheduling problem with elastic jobs using tabu search

    Pedersen, C.R.; Rasmussen, R.V.; Andersen, Kim Allan

    2007-01-01

    exploitation of the elastic jobs and solve the problem using a tabu search procedure. Finding an initial feasible solution is in general -complete, but the tabu search procedure includes a specialized heuristic for solving this problem. The solution method has proven to be very efficient and leads......This paper presents a solution method for minimizing makespan of a practical large-scale scheduling problem with elastic jobs. The jobs are processed on three servers and restricted by precedence constraints, time windows and capacity limitations. We derive a new method for approximating the server...... to a significant decrease in makespan compared to the strategy currently implemented....

  2. The comparison of predictive scheduling algorithms for different sizes of job shop scheduling problems

    Paprocka, I.; Kempa, W. M.; Grabowik, C.; Kalinowski, K.; Krenczyk, D.

    2016-08-01

    In the paper a survey of predictive and reactive scheduling methods is done in order to evaluate how the ability of prediction of reliability characteristics influences over robustness criteria. The most important reliability characteristics are: Mean Time to Failure, Mean Time of Repair. Survey analysis is done for a job shop scheduling problem. The paper answers the question: what method generates robust schedules in the case of a bottleneck failure occurrence before, at the beginning of planned maintenance actions or after planned maintenance actions? Efficiency of predictive schedules is evaluated using criteria: makespan, total tardiness, flow time, idle time. Efficiency of reactive schedules is evaluated using: solution robustness criterion and quality robustness criterion. This paper is the continuation of the research conducted in the paper [1], where the survey of predictive and reactive scheduling methods is done only for small size scheduling problems.

  3. Optimal Results and Numerical Simulations for Flow Shop Scheduling Problems

    Tao Ren

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the m-machine flow shop problem with two objectives: makespan with release dates and total quadratic completion time, respectively. For Fm|rj|Cmax, we prove the asymptotic optimality for any dense scheduling when the problem scale is large enough. For Fm‖ΣCj2, improvement strategy with local search is presented to promote the performance of the classical SPT heuristic. At the end of the paper, simulations show the effectiveness of the improvement strategy.

  4. Minimizing the Makespan for a Two-Stage Three-Machine Assembly Flow Shop Problem with the Sum-of-Processing-Time Based Learning Effect

    Win-Chin Lin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-stage production process and its applications appear in many production environments. Job processing times are usually assumed to be constant throughout the process. In fact, the learning effect accrued from repetitive work experiences, which leads to the reduction of actual job processing times, indeed exists in many production environments. However, the issue of learning effect is rarely addressed in solving a two-stage assembly scheduling problem. Motivated by this observation, the author studies a two-stage three-machine assembly flow shop problem with a learning effect based on sum of the processing times of already processed jobs to minimize the makespan criterion. Because this problem is proved to be NP-hard, a branch-and-bound method embedded with some developed dominance propositions and a lower bound is employed to search for optimal solutions. A cloud theory-based simulated annealing (CSA algorithm and an iterated greedy (IG algorithm with four different local search methods are used to find near-optimal solutions for small and large number of jobs. The performances of adopted algorithms are subsequently compared through computational experiments and nonparametric statistical analyses, including the Kruskal–Wallis test and a multiple comparison procedure.

  5. Scheduling permutation flowshops with initial availability constraint: Analysis of solutions and constructive heuristics

    Pérez González, Paz; Framiñán Torres, José Manuel

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of scheduling a set of jobs in a flowshop with makespan objective. In contrast to the usual assumption of machine availability presented in most research, we consider that machines may not be available at the beginning of the planning period, due to processing of previously scheduled jobs. We first formulate the problem, analyse the structure of solutions depending on a number of factors (such as machines, jobs, structure of the processing times, availabi...

  6. An improved sheep flock heredity algorithm for job shop scheduling and flow shop scheduling problems

    Chandramouli Anandaraman

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Job Shop Scheduling Problem (JSSP and Flow Shop Scheduling Problem (FSSP are strong NP-complete combinatorial optimization problems among class of typical production scheduling problems. An improved Sheep Flock Heredity Algorithm (ISFHA is proposed in this paper to find a schedule of operations that can minimize makespan. In ISFHA, the pairwise mutation operation is replaced by a single point mutation process with a probabilistic property which guarantees the feasibility of the solutions in the local search domain. A Robust-Replace (R-R heuristic is introduced in place of chromosomal crossover to enhance the global search and to improve the convergence. The R-R heuristic is found to enhance the exploring potential of the algorithm and enrich the diversity of neighborhoods. Experimental results reveal the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, whose optimization performance is markedly superior to that of genetic algorithms and is comparable to the best results reported in the literature.

  7. Adaptive Incremental Genetic Algorithm for Task Scheduling in Cloud Environments

    Kairong Duan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is a new commercial model that enables customers to acquire large amounts of virtual resources on demand. Resources including hardware and software can be delivered as services and measured by specific usage of storage, processing, bandwidth, etc. In Cloud computing, task scheduling is a process of mapping cloud tasks to Virtual Machines (VMs. When binding the tasks to VMs, the scheduling strategy has an important influence on the efficiency of datacenter and related energy consumption. Although many traditional scheduling algorithms have been applied in various platforms, they may not work efficiently due to the large number of user requests, the variety of computation resources and complexity of Cloud environment. In this paper, we tackle the task scheduling problem which aims to minimize makespan by Genetic Algorithm (GA. We propose an incremental GA which has adaptive probabilities of crossover and mutation. The mutation and crossover rates change according to generations and also vary between individuals. Large numbers of tasks are randomly generated to simulate various scales of task scheduling problem in Cloud environment. Based on the instance types of Amazon EC2, we implemented virtual machines with different computing capacity on CloudSim. We compared the performance of the adaptive incremental GA with that of Standard GA, Min-Min, Max-Min , Simulated Annealing and Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm in finding the optimal scheme. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can achieve feasible solutions which have acceptable makespan with less computation time.

  8. A lower bound on deterministic online algorithms for scheduling on related machines without preemption

    Ebenlendr, Tomáš; Sgall, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 1 (2015), s. 73-81 ISSN 1432-4350 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP202/12/G061; GA AV ČR IAA100190902 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : online algorithms * scheduling * makespan Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 0.719, year: 2015 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00224-013-9451-6

  9. Heuristics methods for the flow shop scheduling problem with separated setup times

    Marcelo Seido Nagano

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the permutation flow shop scheduling problem with separated machine setup times. As a result of an investigation on the problem characteristics, four heuristics methods are proposed with procedures of the construction sequencing solution by an analogy with the asymmetric traveling salesman problem with the objective of minimizing makespan. Experimental results show that one of the new heuristics methods proposed provide high quality solutions in comparisons with the evaluated methods considered in the literature.

  10. Simultaneous Scheduling of Jobs, AGVs and Tools Considering Tool Transfer Times in Multi Machine FMS By SOS Algorithm

    Sivarami Reddy, N.; Ramamurthy, D. V., Dr.; Prahlada Rao, K., Dr.

    2017-08-01

    This article addresses simultaneous scheduling of machines, AGVs and tools where machines are allowed to share the tools considering transfer times of jobs and tools between machines, to generate best optimal sequences that minimize makespan in a multi-machine Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS). Performance of FMS is expected to improve by effective utilization of its resources, by proper integration and synchronization of their scheduling. Symbiotic Organisms Search (SOS) algorithm is a potent tool which is a better alternative for solving optimization problems like scheduling and proven itself. The proposed SOS algorithm is tested on 22 job sets with makespan as objective for scheduling of machines and tools where machines are allowed to share tools without considering transfer times of jobs and tools and the results are compared with the results of existing methods. The results show that the SOS has outperformed. The same SOS algorithm is used for simultaneous scheduling of machines, AGVs and tools where machines are allowed to share tools considering transfer times of jobs and tools to determine the best optimal sequences that minimize makespan.

  11. SOLVING FLOWSHOP SCHEDULING PROBLEMS USING A DISCRETE AFRICAN WILD DOG ALGORITHM

    M. K. Marichelvam

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The problem of m-machine permutation flowshop scheduling is considered in this paper. The objective is to minimize the makespan. The flowshop scheduling problem is a typical combinatorial optimization problem and has been proved to be strongly NP-hard. Hence, several heuristics and meta-heuristics were addressed by the researchers. In this paper, a discrete African wild dog algorithm is applied for solving the flowshop scheduling problems. Computational results using benchmark problems show that the proposed algorithm outperforms many other algorithms addressed in the literature.

  12. A note on resource allocation scheduling with group technology and learning effects on a single machine

    Lu, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Ji-Bo; Ji, Ping; He, Hongyu

    2017-09-01

    In this article, single-machine group scheduling with learning effects and convex resource allocation is studied. The goal is to find the optimal job schedule, the optimal group schedule, and resource allocations of jobs and groups. For the problem of minimizing the makespan subject to limited resource availability, it is proved that the problem can be solved in polynomial time under the condition that the setup times of groups are independent. For the general setup times of groups, a heuristic algorithm and a branch-and-bound algorithm are proposed, respectively. Computational experiments show that the performance of the heuristic algorithm is fairly accurate in obtaining near-optimal solutions.

  13. Application of Tabu Search Algorithm in Job Shop Scheduling

    Betrianis Betrianis

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Tabu Search is one of local search methods which is used to solve the combinatorial optimization problem. This method aimed is to make the searching process of the best solution in a complex combinatorial optimization problem(np hard, ex : job shop scheduling problem, became more effective, in a less computational time but with no guarantee to optimum solution.In this paper, tabu search is used to solve the job shop scheduling problem consists of 3 (three cases, which is ordering package of September, October and November with objective of minimizing makespan (Cmax. For each ordering package, there is a combination for initial solution and tabu list length. These result then  compared with 4 (four other methods using basic dispatching rules such as Shortest Processing Time (SPT, Earliest Due Date (EDD, Most Work Remaining (MWKR dan First Come First Served (FCFS. Scheduling used Tabu Search Algorithm is sensitive for variables changes and gives makespan shorter than scheduling used by other four methods.

  14. An Entropy-Based Upper Bound Methodology for Robust Predictive Multi-Mode RCPSP Schedules

    Angela Hsiang-Ling Chen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Projects are an important part of our activities and regardless of their magnitude, scheduling is at the very core of every project. In an ideal world makespan minimization, which is the most commonly sought objective, would give us an advantage. However, every time we execute a project we have to deal with uncertainty; part of it coming from known sources and part remaining unknown until it affects us. For this reason, it is much more practical to focus on making our schedules robust, capable of handling uncertainty, and even to determine a range in which the project could be completed. In this paper we focus on an approach to determine such a range for the Multi-mode Resource Constrained Project Scheduling Problem (MRCPSP, a widely researched, NP-complete problem, but without adding any subjective considerations to its estimation. We do this by using a concept well known in the domain of thermodynamics, entropy and a three-stage approach. First we use Artificial Bee Colony (ABC—an effective and powerful meta-heuristic—to determine a schedule with minimized makespan which serves as a lower bound. The second stage defines buffer times and creates an upper bound makespan using an entropy function, with the advantage over other methods that it only considers elements which are inherent to the schedule itself and does not introduce any subjectivity to the buffer time generation. In the last stage, we use the ABC algorithm with an objective function that seeks to maximize robustness while staying within the makespan boundaries defined previously and in some cases even below the lower boundary. We evaluate our approach with two different benchmarks sets: when using the PSPLIB for the MRCPSP benchmark set, the computational results indicate that it is possible to generate robust schedules which generally result in an increase of less than 10% of the best known solutions while increasing the robustness in at least 20% for practically every

  15. Sort-Mid tasks scheduling algorithm in grid computing

    Naglaa M. Reda

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Scheduling tasks on heterogeneous resources distributed over a grid computing system is an NP-complete problem. The main aim for several researchers is to develop variant scheduling algorithms for achieving optimality, and they have shown a good performance for tasks scheduling regarding resources selection. However, using of the full power of resources is still a challenge. In this paper, a new heuristic algorithm called Sort-Mid is proposed. It aims to maximizing the utilization and minimizing the makespan. The new strategy of Sort-Mid algorithm is to find appropriate resources. The base step is to get the average value via sorting list of completion time of each task. Then, the maximum average is obtained. Finally, the task has the maximum average is allocated to the machine that has the minimum completion time. The allocated task is deleted and then, these steps are repeated until all tasks are allocated. Experimental tests show that the proposed algorithm outperforms almost other algorithms in terms of resources utilization and makespan.

  16. Sort-Mid tasks scheduling algorithm in grid computing.

    Reda, Naglaa M; Tawfik, A; Marzok, Mohamed A; Khamis, Soheir M

    2015-11-01

    Scheduling tasks on heterogeneous resources distributed over a grid computing system is an NP-complete problem. The main aim for several researchers is to develop variant scheduling algorithms for achieving optimality, and they have shown a good performance for tasks scheduling regarding resources selection. However, using of the full power of resources is still a challenge. In this paper, a new heuristic algorithm called Sort-Mid is proposed. It aims to maximizing the utilization and minimizing the makespan. The new strategy of Sort-Mid algorithm is to find appropriate resources. The base step is to get the average value via sorting list of completion time of each task. Then, the maximum average is obtained. Finally, the task has the maximum average is allocated to the machine that has the minimum completion time. The allocated task is deleted and then, these steps are repeated until all tasks are allocated. Experimental tests show that the proposed algorithm outperforms almost other algorithms in terms of resources utilization and makespan.

  17. A non-permutation flowshop scheduling problem with lot streaming: A Mathematical model

    Daniel Rossit

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the use of lot streaming in non-permutation flowshop scheduling problems. The objective is to minimize the makespan subject to the standard flowshop constraints, but where it is now permitted to reorder jobs between machines. In addition, the jobs can be divided into manageable sublots, a strategy known as lot streaming. Computational experiments show that lot streaming reduces the makespan up to 43% for a wide range of instances when compared to the case in which no job splitting is applied. The benefits grow as the number of stages in the production process increases but reach a limit. Beyond a certain point, the division of jobs into additional sublots does not improve the solution.

  18. Makespan estimation and order acceptance in batch process industries when processing times are uncertain

    Ivanescu, V.C.; Fransoo, J.C.; Bertrand, J.W.M.

    2002-01-01

    Batch process industries are characterized by complex precedence relationships between operations, which renders the estimation of an acceptable workload very difficult. A detailed schedule based model can be used for this purpose, but for large problems this may require a prohibitive large amount

  19. Minimizing worst-case and average-case makespan over scenarios

    Feuerstein, Esteban; Marchetti-Spaccamela, Alberto; Schalekamp, Frans; Sitters, R.A.; van der Ster, Suzanne; Stougie, Leen; van Zuylen, Anke

    2017-01-01

    We consider scheduling problems over scenarios where the goal is to find a single assignment of the jobs to the machines which performs well over all scenarios in an explicitly given set. Each scenario is a subset of jobs that must be executed in that scenario. The two objectives that we consider

  20. A new genetic algorithm for flexible job-shop scheduling problems

    Driss, Imen; Mouss, Kinza Nadia; Laggoun, Assia

    2015-01-01

    Flexible job-shop scheduling problem (FJSP), which is proved to be NP-hard, is an extension of the classical job-shop scheduling problem. In this paper, we propose a new genetic algorithm (NGA) to solve FJSP to minimize makespan. This new algorithm uses a new chromosome representation and adopts different strategies for crossover and mutation. The proposed algorithm is validated on a series of benchmark data sets and tested on data from a drug manufacturing company. Experimental results prove that the NGA is more efficient and competitive than some other existing algorithms.

  1. A new genetic algorithm for flexible job-shop scheduling problems

    Driss, Imen; Mouss, Kinza Nadia; Laggoun, Assia [University of Batna, Batna (Algeria)

    2015-03-15

    Flexible job-shop scheduling problem (FJSP), which is proved to be NP-hard, is an extension of the classical job-shop scheduling problem. In this paper, we propose a new genetic algorithm (NGA) to solve FJSP to minimize makespan. This new algorithm uses a new chromosome representation and adopts different strategies for crossover and mutation. The proposed algorithm is validated on a series of benchmark data sets and tested on data from a drug manufacturing company. Experimental results prove that the NGA is more efficient and competitive than some other existing algorithms.

  2. GLOA: A New Job Scheduling Algorithm for Grid Computing

    Zahra Pooranian

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of grid computing is to produce a virtual supercomputer by using free resources available through widespread networks such as the Internet. This resource distribution, changes in resource availability, and an unreliable communication infrastructure pose a major challenge for efficient resource allocation. Because of the geographical spread of resources and their distributed management, grid scheduling is considered to be a NP-complete problem. It has been shown that evolutionary algorithms offer good performance for grid scheduling. This article uses a new evaluation (distributed algorithm inspired by the effect of leaders in social groups, the group leaders' optimization algorithm (GLOA, to solve the problem of scheduling independent tasks in a grid computing system. Simulation results comparing GLOA with several other evaluation algorithms show that GLOA produces shorter makespans.

  3. Heuristics for no-wait flow shop scheduling problem

    Kewal Krishan Nailwal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available No-wait flow shop scheduling refers to continuous flow of jobs through different machines. The job once started should have the continuous processing through the machines without wait. This situation occurs when there is a lack of an intermediate storage between the processing of jobs on two consecutive machines. The problem of no-wait with the objective of minimizing makespan in flow shop scheduling is NP-hard; therefore the heuristic algorithms are the key to solve the problem with optimal solution or to approach nearer to optimal solution in simple manner. The paper describes two heuristics, one constructive and an improvement heuristic algorithm obtained by modifying the constructive one for sequencing n-jobs through m-machines in a flow shop under no-wait constraint with the objective of minimizing makespan. The efficiency of the proposed heuristic algorithms is tested on 120 Taillard’s benchmark problems found in the literature against the NEH under no-wait and the MNEH heuristic for no-wait flow shop problem. The improvement heuristic outperforms all heuristics on the Taillard’s instances by improving the results of NEH by 27.85%, MNEH by 22.56% and that of the proposed constructive heuristic algorithm by 24.68%. To explain the computational process of the proposed algorithm, numerical illustrations are also given in the paper. Statistical tests of significance are done in order to draw the conclusions.

  4. Energy-efficient approach to minimizing the energy consumption in an extended job-shop scheduling problem

    Tang, Dunbing; Dai, Min

    2015-09-01

    The traditional production planning and scheduling problems consider performance indicators like time, cost and quality as optimization objectives in manufacturing processes. However, environmentally-friendly factors like energy consumption of production have not been completely taken into consideration. Against this background, this paper addresses an approach to modify a given schedule generated by a production planning and scheduling system in a job shop floor, where machine tools can work at different cutting speeds. It can adjust the cutting speeds of the operations while keeping the original assignment and processing sequence of operations of each job fixed in order to obtain energy savings. First, the proposed approach, based on a mixed integer programming mathematical model, changes the total idle time of the given schedule to minimize energy consumption in the job shop floor while accepting the optimal solution of the scheduling objective, makespan. Then, a genetic-simulated annealing algorithm is used to explore the optimal solution due to the fact that the problem is strongly NP-hard. Finally, the effectiveness of the approach is performed smalland large-size instances, respectively. The experimental results show that the approach can save 5%-10% of the average energy consumption while accepting the optimal solution of the makespan in small-size instances. In addition, the average maximum energy saving ratio can reach to 13%. And it can save approximately 1%-4% of the average energy consumption and approximately 2.4% of the average maximum energy while accepting the near-optimal solution of the makespan in large-size instances. The proposed research provides an interesting point to explore an energy-aware schedule optimization for a traditional production planning and scheduling problem.

  5. Flexible job-shop scheduling based on genetic algorithm and simulation validation

    Zhou Erming

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper selects flexible job-shop scheduling problem as the research object, and Constructs mathematical model aimed at minimizing the maximum makespan. Taking the transmission reverse gear production line of a transmission corporation as an example, genetic algorithm is applied for flexible jobshop scheduling problem to get the specific optimal scheduling results with MATLAB. DELMIA/QUEST based on 3D discrete event simulation is applied to construct the physical model of the production workshop. On the basis of the optimal scheduling results, the logical link of the physical model for the production workshop is established, besides, importing the appropriate process parameters to make virtual simulation on the production workshop. Finally, through analyzing the simulated results, it shows that the scheduling results are effective and reasonable.

  6. A comparison of mixed-integer linear programming models for workforce scheduling with position-dependent processing times

    Moreno-Camacho, Carlos A.; Montoya-Torres, Jairo R.; Vélez-Gallego, Mario C.

    2018-06-01

    Only a few studies in the available scientific literature address the problem of having a group of workers that do not share identical levels of productivity during the planning horizon. This study considers a workforce scheduling problem in which the actual processing time is a function of the scheduling sequence to represent the decline in workers' performance, evaluating two classical performance measures separately: makespan and maximum tardiness. Several mathematical models are compared with each other to highlight the advantages of each approach. The mathematical models are tested with randomly generated instances available from a public e-library.

  7. Comparative Simulation Study of Production Scheduling in the Hybrid and the Parallel Flow

    Varela Maria L.R.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Scheduling is one of the most important decisions in production control. An approach is proposed for supporting users to solve scheduling problems, by choosing the combination of physical manufacturing system configuration and the material handling system settings. The approach considers two alternative manufacturing scheduling configurations in a two stage product oriented manufacturing system, exploring the hybrid flow shop (HFS and the parallel flow shop (PFS environments. For illustrating the application of the proposed approach an industrial case from the automotive components industry is studied. The main aim of this research to compare results of study of production scheduling in the hybrid and the parallel flow, taking into account the makespan minimization criterion. Thus the HFS and the PFS performance is compared and analyzed, mainly in terms of the makespan, as the transportation times vary. The study shows that the performance HFS is clearly better when the work stations’ processing times are unbalanced, either in nature or as a consequence of the addition of transport times just to one of the work station processing time but loses advantage, becoming worse than the performance of the PFS configuration when the work stations’ processing times are balanced, either in nature or as a consequence of the addition of transport times added on the work stations’ processing times. This means that physical layout configurations along with the way transport time are including the work stations’ processing times should be carefully taken into consideration due to its influence on the performance reached by both HFS and PFS configurations.

  8. Study on multi-objective flexible job-shop scheduling problem considering energy consumption

    Zengqiang Jiang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Build a multi-objective Flexible Job-shop Scheduling Problem(FJSP optimization model, in which the makespan, processing cost, energy consumption and cost-weighted processing quality are considered, then Design a Modified Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II based on blood variation for above scheduling model.Design/methodology/approach: A multi-objective optimization theory based on Pareto optimal method is used in carrying out the optimization model. NSGA-II is used to solve the model.Findings: By analyzing the research status and insufficiency of multi-objective FJSP, Find that the difference in scheduling will also have an effect on energy consumption in machining process and environmental emissions. Therefore, job-shop scheduling requires not only guaranteeing the processing quality, time and cost, but also optimizing operation plan of machines and minimizing energy consumption.Originality/value: A multi-objective FJSP optimization model is put forward, in which the makespan, processing cost, energy consumption and cost-weighted processing quality are considered. According to above model, Blood-Variation-based NSGA-II (BVNSGA-II is designed. In which, the chromosome mutation rate is determined after calculating the blood relationship between two cross chromosomes, crossover and mutation strategy of NSGA-II is optimized and the prematurity of population is overcome. Finally, the performance of the proposed model and algorithm is evaluated through a case study, and the results proved the efficiency and feasibility of the proposed model and algorithm.

  9. A Bee Colony Optimization Approach for Mixed Blocking Constraints Flow Shop Scheduling Problems

    Mostafa Khorramizadeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The flow shop scheduling problems with mixed blocking constraints with minimization of makespan are investigated. The Taguchi orthogonal arrays and path relinking along with some efficient local search methods are used to develop a metaheuristic algorithm based on bee colony optimization. In order to compare the performance of the proposed algorithm, two well-known test problems are considered. Computational results show that the presented algorithm has comparative performance with well-known algorithms of the literature, especially for the large sized problems.

  10. A Local Search Algorithm for the Flow Shop Scheduling Problem with Release Dates

    Tao Ren

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the flow shop scheduling problem to minimize the makespan with release dates. By resequencing the jobs, a modified heuristic algorithm is obtained for handling large-sized problems. Moreover, based on some properties, a local search scheme is provided to improve the heuristic to gain high-quality solution for moderate-sized problems. A sequence-independent lower bound is presented to evaluate the performance of the algorithms. A series of simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms.

  11. Solving a large-scale precedence constrained scheduling problem with elastic jobs using tabu search

    Pedersen, C.R.; Rasmussen, R.V.; Andersen, Kim Allan

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a solution method for minimizing makespan of a practical large-scale scheduling problem with elastic jobs. The jobs are processed on three servers and restricted by precedence constraints, time windows and capacity limitations. We derive a new method for approximating the server...... exploitation of the elastic jobs and solve the problem using a tabu search procedure. Finding an initial feasible solution is in general -complete, but the tabu search procedure includes a specialized heuristic for solving this problem. The solution method has proven to be very efficient and leads...

  12. Multi-objective AGV scheduling in an FMS using a hybrid of genetic algorithm and particle swarm optimization.

    Maryam Mousavi

    Full Text Available Flexible manufacturing system (FMS enhances the firm's flexibility and responsiveness to the ever-changing customer demand by providing a fast product diversification capability. Performance of an FMS is highly dependent upon the accuracy of scheduling policy for the components of the system, such as automated guided vehicles (AGVs. An AGV as a mobile robot provides remarkable industrial capabilities for material and goods transportation within a manufacturing facility or a warehouse. Allocating AGVs to tasks, while considering the cost and time of operations, defines the AGV scheduling process. Multi-objective scheduling of AGVs, unlike single objective practices, is a complex and combinatorial process. In the main draw of the research, a mathematical model was developed and integrated with evolutionary algorithms (genetic algorithm (GA, particle swarm optimization (PSO, and hybrid GA-PSO to optimize the task scheduling of AGVs with the objectives of minimizing makespan and number of AGVs while considering the AGVs' battery charge. Assessment of the numerical examples' scheduling before and after the optimization proved the applicability of all the three algorithms in decreasing the makespan and AGV numbers. The hybrid GA-PSO produced the optimum result and outperformed the other two algorithms, in which the mean of AGVs operation efficiency was found to be 69.4, 74, and 79.8 percent in PSO, GA, and hybrid GA-PSO, respectively. Evaluation and validation of the model was performed by simulation via Flexsim software.

  13. Multi-objective AGV scheduling in an FMS using a hybrid of genetic algorithm and particle swarm optimization.

    Mousavi, Maryam; Yap, Hwa Jen; Musa, Siti Nurmaya; Tahriri, Farzad; Md Dawal, Siti Zawiah

    2017-01-01

    Flexible manufacturing system (FMS) enhances the firm's flexibility and responsiveness to the ever-changing customer demand by providing a fast product diversification capability. Performance of an FMS is highly dependent upon the accuracy of scheduling policy for the components of the system, such as automated guided vehicles (AGVs). An AGV as a mobile robot provides remarkable industrial capabilities for material and goods transportation within a manufacturing facility or a warehouse. Allocating AGVs to tasks, while considering the cost and time of operations, defines the AGV scheduling process. Multi-objective scheduling of AGVs, unlike single objective practices, is a complex and combinatorial process. In the main draw of the research, a mathematical model was developed and integrated with evolutionary algorithms (genetic algorithm (GA), particle swarm optimization (PSO), and hybrid GA-PSO) to optimize the task scheduling of AGVs with the objectives of minimizing makespan and number of AGVs while considering the AGVs' battery charge. Assessment of the numerical examples' scheduling before and after the optimization proved the applicability of all the three algorithms in decreasing the makespan and AGV numbers. The hybrid GA-PSO produced the optimum result and outperformed the other two algorithms, in which the mean of AGVs operation efficiency was found to be 69.4, 74, and 79.8 percent in PSO, GA, and hybrid GA-PSO, respectively. Evaluation and validation of the model was performed by simulation via Flexsim software.

  14. Shuffled Frog Leaping Algorithm for Preemptive Project Scheduling Problems with Resource Vacations Based on Patterson Set

    Yi Han

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a shuffled frog leaping algorithm (SFLA for the single-mode resource-constrained project scheduling problem where activities can be divided into equant units and interrupted during processing. Each activity consumes 0–3 types of resources which are renewable and temporarily not available due to resource vacations in each period. The presence of scarce resources and precedence relations between activities makes project scheduling a difficult and important task in project management. A recent popular metaheuristic shuffled frog leaping algorithm, which is enlightened by the predatory habit of frog group in a small pond, is adopted to investigate the project makespan improvement on Patterson benchmark sets which is composed of different small and medium size projects. Computational results demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of SFLA in reducing project makespan and minimizing activity splitting number within an average CPU runtime, 0.521 second. This paper exposes all the scheduling sequences for each project and shows that of the 23 best known solutions have been improved.

  15. Refinery scheduling

    Magalhaes, Marcus V.; Fraga, Eder T. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Shah, Nilay [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    This work addresses the refinery scheduling problem using mathematical programming techniques. The solution adopted was to decompose the entire refinery model into a crude oil scheduling and a product scheduling problem. The envelope for the crude oil scheduling problem is composed of a terminal, a pipeline and the crude area of a refinery, including the crude distillation units. The solution method adopted includes a decomposition technique based on the topology of the system. The envelope for the product scheduling comprises all tanks, process units and products found in a refinery. Once crude scheduling decisions are Also available the product scheduling is solved using a rolling horizon algorithm. All models were tested with real data from PETROBRAS' REFAP refinery, located in Canoas, Southern Brazil. (author)

  16. Car painting process scheduling with harmony search algorithm

    Syahputra, M. F.; Maiyasya, A.; Purnamawati, S.; Abdullah, D.; Albra, W.; Heikal, M.; Abdurrahman, A.; Khaddafi, M.

    2018-02-01

    Automotive painting program in the process of painting the car body by using robot power, making efficiency in the production system. Production system will be more efficient if pay attention to scheduling of car order which will be done by considering painting body shape of car. Flow shop scheduling is a scheduling model in which the job-job to be processed entirely flows in the same product direction / path. Scheduling problems often arise if there are n jobs to be processed on the machine, which must be specified which must be done first and how to allocate jobs on the machine to obtain a scheduled production process. Harmony Search Algorithm is a metaheuristic optimization algorithm based on music. The algorithm is inspired by observations that lead to music in search of perfect harmony. This musical harmony is in line to find optimal in the optimization process. Based on the tests that have been done, obtained the optimal car sequence with minimum makespan value.

  17. Performance comparison of heuristic algorithms for task scheduling in IaaS cloud computing environment

    Madni, Syed Hamid Hussain; Abd Latiff, Muhammad Shafie; Abdullahi, Mohammed; Usman, Mohammed Joda

    2017-01-01

    Cloud computing infrastructure is suitable for meeting computational needs of large task sizes. Optimal scheduling of tasks in cloud computing environment has been proved to be an NP-complete problem, hence the need for the application of heuristic methods. Several heuristic algorithms have been developed and used in addressing this problem, but choosing the appropriate algorithm for solving task assignment problem of a particular nature is difficult since the methods are developed under different assumptions. Therefore, six rule based heuristic algorithms are implemented and used to schedule autonomous tasks in homogeneous and heterogeneous environments with the aim of comparing their performance in terms of cost, degree of imbalance, makespan and throughput. First Come First Serve (FCFS), Minimum Completion Time (MCT), Minimum Execution Time (MET), Max-min, Min-min and Sufferage are the heuristic algorithms considered for the performance comparison and analysis of task scheduling in cloud computing. PMID:28467505

  18. Relative performance of priority rules for hybrid flow shop scheduling with setup times

    Helio Yochihiro Fuchigami

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses the hybrid flow shop scheduling problem with explicit and sequence-independent setup times. This production environment is a multistage system with unidirectional flow of jobs, wherein each stage may contain multiple machines available for processing. The optimized measure was the total time to complete the schedule (makespan. The aim was to propose new priority rules to support the schedule and to evaluate their relative performance at the production system considered by the percentage of success, relative deviation, standard deviation of relative deviation, and average CPU time. Computational experiments have indicated that the rules using ascending order of the sum of processing and setup times of the first stage (SPT1 and SPT1_ERD performed better, reaching together more than 56% of success.

  19. Performance comparison of heuristic algorithms for task scheduling in IaaS cloud computing environment.

    Madni, Syed Hamid Hussain; Abd Latiff, Muhammad Shafie; Abdullahi, Mohammed; Abdulhamid, Shafi'i Muhammad; Usman, Mohammed Joda

    2017-01-01

    Cloud computing infrastructure is suitable for meeting computational needs of large task sizes. Optimal scheduling of tasks in cloud computing environment has been proved to be an NP-complete problem, hence the need for the application of heuristic methods. Several heuristic algorithms have been developed and used in addressing this problem, but choosing the appropriate algorithm for solving task assignment problem of a particular nature is difficult since the methods are developed under different assumptions. Therefore, six rule based heuristic algorithms are implemented and used to schedule autonomous tasks in homogeneous and heterogeneous environments with the aim of comparing their performance in terms of cost, degree of imbalance, makespan and throughput. First Come First Serve (FCFS), Minimum Completion Time (MCT), Minimum Execution Time (MET), Max-min, Min-min and Sufferage are the heuristic algorithms considered for the performance comparison and analysis of task scheduling in cloud computing.

  20. Parallel-Machine Scheduling with Time-Dependent and Machine Availability Constraints

    Cuixia Miao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the parallel-machine scheduling problem in which the machines have availability constraints and the processing time of each job is simple linear increasing function of its starting times. For the makespan minimization problem, which is NP-hard in the strong sense, we discuss the Longest Deteriorating Rate algorithm and List Scheduling algorithm; we also provide a lower bound of any optimal schedule. For the total completion time minimization problem, we analyze the strong NP-hardness, and we present a dynamic programming algorithm and a fully polynomial time approximation scheme for the two-machine problem. Furthermore, we extended the dynamic programming algorithm to the total weighted completion time minimization problem.

  1. JIT single machine scheduling problem with periodic preventive maintenance

    Shahriari, Mohammadreza; Shoja, Naghi; Zade, Amir Ebrahimi; Barak, Sasan; Sharifi, Mani

    2016-09-01

    This article investigates a JIT single machine scheduling problem with a periodic preventive maintenance. Also to maintain the quality of the products, there is a limitation on the maximum number of allowable jobs in each period. The proposed bi-objective mixed integer model minimizes total earliness-tardiness and makespan simultaneously. Due to the computational complexity of the problem, multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO) algorithm is implemented. Also, as well as MOPSO, two other optimization algorithms are used for comparing the results. Eventually, Taguchi method with metrics analysis is presented to tune the algorithms' parameters and a multiple criterion decision making technique based on the technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution is applied to choose the best algorithm. Comparison results confirmed the supremacy of MOPSO to the other algorithms.

  2. Optimal Rules for Single Machine Scheduling with Stochastic Breakdowns

    Jinwei Gu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the problem of scheduling a set of jobs on a single machine subject to stochastic breakdowns, where jobs have to be restarted if preemptions occur because of breakdowns. The breakdown process of the machine is independent of the jobs processed on the machine. The processing times required to complete the jobs are constants if no breakdown occurs. The machine uptimes are independently and identically distributed (i.i.d. and are subject to a uniform distribution. It is proved that the Longest Processing Time first (LPT rule minimizes the expected makespan. For the large-scale problem, it is also showed that the Shortest Processing Time first (SPT rule is optimal to minimize the expected total completion times of all jobs.

  3. A New Evolutionary Algorithm Based on Bacterial Evolution and Its Application for Scheduling A Flexible Manufacturing System

    Chandramouli Anandaraman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new evolutionary computation algorithm, Superbug algorithm, which simulates evolution of bacteria in a culture, is proposed. The algorithm is developed for solving large scale optimization problems such as scheduling, transportation and assignment problems. In this work, the algorithm optimizes machine schedules in a Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS by minimizing makespan. The FMS comprises of four machines and two identical Automated Guided Vehicles (AGVs. AGVs are used for carrying jobs between the Load/Unload (L/U station and the machines. Experimental results indicate the efficiency of the proposed algorithm in its optimization performance in scheduling is noticeably superior to other evolutionary algorithms when compared to the best results reported in the literature for FMS Scheduling.

  4. ROBUST-HYBRID GENETIC ALGORITHM FOR A FLOW-SHOP SCHEDULING PROBLEM (A Case Study at PT FSCM Manufacturing Indonesia

    Johan Soewanda

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the application of Robust Hybrid Genetic Algorithm to solve a flow-shop scheduling problem. The proposed algorithm attempted to reach minimum makespan. PT. FSCM Manufacturing Indonesia Plant 4's case was used as a test case to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm. The proposed algorithm was compared to Ant Colony, Genetic-Tabu, Hybrid Genetic Algorithm, and the company's algorithm. We found that Robust Hybrid Genetic produces statistically better result than the company's, but the same as Ant Colony, Genetic-Tabu, and Hybrid Genetic. In addition, Robust Hybrid Genetic Algorithm required less computational time than Hybrid Genetic Algorithm

  5. Schedule Analytics

    2016-04-30

    Warfare, Naval Sea Systems Command Acquisition Cycle Time : Defining the Problem David Tate, Institute for Defense Analyses Schedule Analytics Jennifer...research was comprised of the following high- level steps :  Identify and review primary data sources 1...research. However, detailed reviews of the OMB IT Dashboard data revealed that schedule data is highly aggregated. Program start date and program end date

  6. ENHANCED HYBRID PSO – ACO ALGORITHM FOR GRID SCHEDULING

    P. Mathiyalagan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Grid computing is a high performance computing environment to solve larger scale computational demands. Grid computing contains resource management, task scheduling, security problems, information management and so on. Task scheduling is a fundamental issue in achieving high performance in grid computing systems. A computational GRID is typically heterogeneous in the sense that it combines clusters of varying sizes, and different clusters typically contains processing elements with different level of performance. In this, heuristic approaches based on particle swarm optimization and ant colony optimization algorithms are adopted for solving task scheduling problems in grid environment. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO is one of the latest evolutionary optimization techniques by nature. It has the better ability of global searching and has been successfully applied to many areas such as, neural network training etc. Due to the linear decreasing of inertia weight in PSO the convergence rate becomes faster, which leads to the minimal makespan time when used for scheduling. To make the convergence rate faster, the PSO algorithm is improved by modifying the inertia parameter, such that it produces better performance and gives an optimized result. The ACO algorithm is improved by modifying the pheromone updating rule. ACO algorithm is hybridized with PSO algorithm for efficient result and better convergence in PSO algorithm.

  7. JOB SHOP SCHEDULING BIOBJETIVO MEDIANTE ENFRIAMIENTO SIMULADO Y ENFOQUE DE PARETO JOB-SHOP SCHEDULING: BIO-OBJECTIVE THROUGH SIMULATED COOLING AND PARETO PRINCIPLE

    Juan Carlos Osorio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El problema del scheduling es uno de los problemas más ampliamente tratados en la literatura; sin embargo, es un problema complejo NP hard. Cuando, además, se involucra más de un objetivo, este problema se convierte en uno de los más complejos en el campo de la investigación de operaciones. Se presenta entonces un modelo biobjetivo para el job shop scheduling que incluye el makespan y el tiempo de flujo medio. Para resolver el modelo se ha utilizado una propuesta que incluye el uso del meta-heurístico Recocido Simulado (SA y el enfoque de Pareto. Este modelo es evaluado en tres problemas presentados en la literatura de tamaños 6x6, 10x5 y 10x10. Los resultados del modelo se comparan con otros meta-heurísticos y se encuentra que este modelo presenta buenos resultados en los tres problemas evaluados.The scheduling problem is one of the most widely treated problems in literature; however, it is an NP hard complex problem. Also, when more than one objective is involved, this problem becomes one of the most complex ones in the field of operations research. A bio-objective model is then emerged for the Job-Shop Scheduling, including makespan and mean flow time. For solving the model a proposal which includes the use of Simulated Annealing (SA metaheuristic and Pareto Principle. This model is evaluated in three problems described in literature with the following sizes: 6x6, 10x5 and 10x10. Results of the model are compared to other metaheuristics and it has been found that this model shows good results in the three problems evaluated.

  8. Hybrid Symbiotic Organisms Search Optimization Algorithm for Scheduling of Tasks on Cloud Computing Environment.

    Abdullahi, Mohammed; Ngadi, Md Asri

    2016-01-01

    Cloud computing has attracted significant attention from research community because of rapid migration rate of Information Technology services to its domain. Advances in virtualization technology has made cloud computing very popular as a result of easier deployment of application services. Tasks are submitted to cloud datacenters to be processed on pay as you go fashion. Task scheduling is one the significant research challenges in cloud computing environment. The current formulation of task scheduling problems has been shown to be NP-complete, hence finding the exact solution especially for large problem sizes is intractable. The heterogeneous and dynamic feature of cloud resources makes optimum task scheduling non-trivial. Therefore, efficient task scheduling algorithms are required for optimum resource utilization. Symbiotic Organisms Search (SOS) has been shown to perform competitively with Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). The aim of this study is to optimize task scheduling in cloud computing environment based on a proposed Simulated Annealing (SA) based SOS (SASOS) in order to improve the convergence rate and quality of solution of SOS. The SOS algorithm has a strong global exploration capability and uses fewer parameters. The systematic reasoning ability of SA is employed to find better solutions on local solution regions, hence, adding exploration ability to SOS. Also, a fitness function is proposed which takes into account the utilization level of virtual machines (VMs) which reduced makespan and degree of imbalance among VMs. CloudSim toolkit was used to evaluate the efficiency of the proposed method using both synthetic and standard workload. Results of simulation showed that hybrid SOS performs better than SOS in terms of convergence speed, response time, degree of imbalance, and makespan.

  9. Hybrid Symbiotic Organisms Search Optimization Algorithm for Scheduling of Tasks on Cloud Computing Environment.

    Mohammed Abdullahi

    Full Text Available Cloud computing has attracted significant attention from research community because of rapid migration rate of Information Technology services to its domain. Advances in virtualization technology has made cloud computing very popular as a result of easier deployment of application services. Tasks are submitted to cloud datacenters to be processed on pay as you go fashion. Task scheduling is one the significant research challenges in cloud computing environment. The current formulation of task scheduling problems has been shown to be NP-complete, hence finding the exact solution especially for large problem sizes is intractable. The heterogeneous and dynamic feature of cloud resources makes optimum task scheduling non-trivial. Therefore, efficient task scheduling algorithms are required for optimum resource utilization. Symbiotic Organisms Search (SOS has been shown to perform competitively with Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO. The aim of this study is to optimize task scheduling in cloud computing environment based on a proposed Simulated Annealing (SA based SOS (SASOS in order to improve the convergence rate and quality of solution of SOS. The SOS algorithm has a strong global exploration capability and uses fewer parameters. The systematic reasoning ability of SA is employed to find better solutions on local solution regions, hence, adding exploration ability to SOS. Also, a fitness function is proposed which takes into account the utilization level of virtual machines (VMs which reduced makespan and degree of imbalance among VMs. CloudSim toolkit was used to evaluate the efficiency of the proposed method using both synthetic and standard workload. Results of simulation showed that hybrid SOS performs better than SOS in terms of convergence speed, response time, degree of imbalance, and makespan.

  10. Secure Scientific Applications Scheduling Technique for Cloud Computing Environment Using Global League Championship Algorithm

    Abdulhamid, Shafi’i Muhammad; Abd Latiff, Muhammad Shafie; Abdul-Salaam, Gaddafi; Hussain Madni, Syed Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Cloud computing system is a huge cluster of interconnected servers residing in a datacenter and dynamically provisioned to clients on-demand via a front-end interface. Scientific applications scheduling in the cloud computing environment is identified as NP-hard problem due to the dynamic nature of heterogeneous resources. Recently, a number of metaheuristics optimization schemes have been applied to address the challenges of applications scheduling in the cloud system, without much emphasis on the issue of secure global scheduling. In this paper, scientific applications scheduling techniques using the Global League Championship Algorithm (GBLCA) optimization technique is first presented for global task scheduling in the cloud environment. The experiment is carried out using CloudSim simulator. The experimental results show that, the proposed GBLCA technique produced remarkable performance improvement rate on the makespan that ranges between 14.44% to 46.41%. It also shows significant reduction in the time taken to securely schedule applications as parametrically measured in terms of the response time. In view of the experimental results, the proposed technique provides better-quality scheduling solution that is suitable for scientific applications task execution in the Cloud Computing environment than the MinMin, MaxMin, Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) scheduling techniques. PMID:27384239

  11. Secure Scientific Applications Scheduling Technique for Cloud Computing Environment Using Global League Championship Algorithm.

    Abdulhamid, Shafi'i Muhammad; Abd Latiff, Muhammad Shafie; Abdul-Salaam, Gaddafi; Hussain Madni, Syed Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Cloud computing system is a huge cluster of interconnected servers residing in a datacenter and dynamically provisioned to clients on-demand via a front-end interface. Scientific applications scheduling in the cloud computing environment is identified as NP-hard problem due to the dynamic nature of heterogeneous resources. Recently, a number of metaheuristics optimization schemes have been applied to address the challenges of applications scheduling in the cloud system, without much emphasis on the issue of secure global scheduling. In this paper, scientific applications scheduling techniques using the Global League Championship Algorithm (GBLCA) optimization technique is first presented for global task scheduling in the cloud environment. The experiment is carried out using CloudSim simulator. The experimental results show that, the proposed GBLCA technique produced remarkable performance improvement rate on the makespan that ranges between 14.44% to 46.41%. It also shows significant reduction in the time taken to securely schedule applications as parametrically measured in terms of the response time. In view of the experimental results, the proposed technique provides better-quality scheduling solution that is suitable for scientific applications task execution in the Cloud Computing environment than the MinMin, MaxMin, Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) scheduling techniques.

  12. Aplicación de un algoritmo ACO al problema de taller de flujo de permutación con tiempos de preparación dependientes de la secuencia y minimización de makespan An ant colony algorithm for the permutation flowshop with sequence dependent setup times and makespan minimization

    Eduardo Salazar Hornig

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se estudió el problema de secuenciamiento de trabajos en el taller de flujo de permutación con tiempos de preparación dependientes de la secuencia y minimización de makespan. Para ello se propuso un algoritmo de optimización mediante colonia de hormigas (ACO, llevando el problema original a una estructura semejante al problema del vendedor viajero TSP (Traveling Salesman Problem asimétrico, utilizado para su evaluación problemas propuestos en la literatura y se compara con una adaptación de la heurística NEH (Nawaz-Enscore-Ham. Posteriormente se aplica una búsqueda en vecindad a la solución obtenida tanto por ACO como NEH.This paper studied the permutation flowshop with sequence dependent setup times and makespan minimization. An ant colony algorithm which turns the original problem into an asymmetric TSP (Traveling Salesman Problem structure is presented, and applied to problems proposed in the literature and is compared with an adaptation of the NEH heuristic. Subsequently a neighborhood search was applied to the solution obtained by the ACO algorithm and the NEH heuristic.

  13. A Distributed Particle Swarm Optimization Zlgorithmfor Flexible Job-hop Scheduling Problem

    LIU Sheng--hui

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the characteristics of the Flexible job shop scheduling problem the minimum makespan as measures we proposed a distributed particle swarm optimization algorithm aiming to solve flexible job shop scheduling problem. The algorithm adopts the method of distributed ideas to solve problems and we are established for two multi agent particle swarm optimization model in this algorithm it can solve the traditional particle swarm optimization algorithm when making decisions in real time according to the emergencies. Finally some benthmark problems were experimented and the results are compared with the traditional algorithm. Experimental results proved that the developed distributed PSO is enough effective and efficient to solve the FJSP and it also verified the reasonableness of the multi}gent particle swarm optimization model.

  14. Evolutionary approaches for scheduling a flexible manufacturing system with automated guided vehicles and robots

    Ramaraj Natarajan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the scheduling of machines, an Automated Guided Vehicle (AGV and two robots in a Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS formed in three loop layouts, with objectives to minimize the makespan, mean flow time and mean tardiness. The scheduling optimization is carried out using Sheep Flock Heredity Algorithm (SFHA and Artificial Immune System (AIS algorithm. AGV is used for carrying jobs between the Load/Unload station and the machines. The robots are used for loading and unloading the jobs in the machines, and also used for transferring jobs between the machines. The algorithms are applied for test problems taken from the literature and the results obtained using the two algorithms are compared. The results indicate that SFHA performs better than AIS for this problem.

  15. Outsourcing and scheduling for a two-machine flow shop with release times

    Ahmadizar, Fardin; Amiri, Zeinab

    2018-03-01

    This article addresses a two-machine flow shop scheduling problem where jobs are released intermittently and outsourcing is allowed. The first operations of outsourced jobs are processed by the first subcontractor, they are transported in batches to the second subcontractor for processing their second operations, and finally they are transported back to the manufacturer. The objective is to select a subset of jobs to be outsourced, to schedule both the in-house and the outsourced jobs, and to determine a transportation plan for the outsourced jobs so as to minimize the sum of the makespan and the outsourcing and transportation costs. Two mathematical models of the problem and several necessary optimality conditions are presented. A solution approach is then proposed by incorporating the dominance properties with an ant colony algorithm. Finally, computational experiments are conducted to evaluate the performance of the models and solution approach.

  16. Efficient bounding schemes for the two-center hybrid flow shop scheduling problem with removal times.

    Hidri, Lotfi; Gharbi, Anis; Louly, Mohamed Aly

    2014-01-01

    We focus on the two-center hybrid flow shop scheduling problem with identical parallel machines and removal times. The job removal time is the required duration to remove it from a machine after its processing. The objective is to minimize the maximum completion time (makespan). A heuristic and a lower bound are proposed for this NP-Hard problem. These procedures are based on the optimal solution of the parallel machine scheduling problem with release dates and delivery times. The heuristic is composed of two phases. The first one is a constructive phase in which an initial feasible solution is provided, while the second phase is an improvement one. Intensive computational experiments have been conducted to confirm the good performance of the proposed procedures.

  17. Metaheuristic Based Scheduling Meta-Tasks in Distributed Heterogeneous Computing Systems

    Hesam Izakian

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Scheduling is a key problem in distributed heterogeneous computing systems in order to benefit from the large computing capacity of such systems and is an NP-complete problem. In this paper, we present a metaheuristic technique, namely the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO algorithm, for this problem. PSO is a population-based search algorithm based on the simulation of the social behavior of bird flocking and fish schooling. Particles fly in problem search space to find optimal or near-optimal solutions. The scheduler aims at minimizing makespan, which is the time when finishes the latest task. Experimental studies show that the proposed method is more efficient and surpasses those of reported PSO and GA approaches for this problem.

  18. Evaluation of Meta scheduler Architectures and Task assignment Policies for High throughput Computing

    Caron, E; Tsaregorodtsev, A Yu

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present a model and simulator for many clusters of heterogeneous PCs belonging to a local network. These clusters are assumed to be connected to each other through a global network and each cluster is managed via a local scheduler which is shared by many users. We validate our simulator by comparing the experimental and analytical results of a M/M/4 queuing system. These studies indicate that the simulator is consistent. Next, we do the comparison with a real batch system and we obtain an average error of 10.5\\% for the response time and 12\\% for the makespan. We conclude that the simulator is realistic and well describes the behaviour of a large-scale system. Thus we can study the scheduling of our system called \\dirac in a high throughput context. We justify our decentralized, adaptive and opportunistic approach in comparison to a centralized approach in such a context.

  19. A Hybrid Differential Evolution and Tree Search Algorithm for the Job Shop Scheduling Problem

    Rui Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The job shop scheduling problem (JSSP is a notoriously difficult problem in combinatorial optimization. In terms of the objective function, most existing research has been focused on the makespan criterion. However, in contemporary manufacturing systems, due-date-related performances are more important because they are essential for maintaining a high service reputation. Therefore, in this study we aim at minimizing the total weighted tardiness in JSSP. Considering the high complexity, a hybrid differential evolution (DE algorithm is proposed for the problem. To enhance the overall search efficiency, a neighborhood property of the problem is discovered, and then a tree search procedure is designed and embedded into the DE framework. According to the extensive computational experiments, the proposed approach is efficient in solving the job shop scheduling problem with total weighted tardiness objective.

  20. A Mutualism Quantum Genetic Algorithm to Optimize the Flow Shop Scheduling with Pickup and Delivery Considerations

    Jinwei Gu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A mutualism quantum genetic algorithm (MQGA is proposed for an integrated supply chain scheduling with the materials pickup, flow shop scheduling, and the finished products delivery. The objective is to minimize the makespan, that is, the arrival time of the last finished product to the customer. In MQGA, a new symbiosis strategy named mutualism is proposed to adjust the size of each population dynamically by regarding the mutual influence relation of the two subpopulations. A hybrid Q-bit coding method and a local speeding-up method are designed to increase the diversity of genes, and a checking routine is carried out to ensure the feasibility of each solution; that is, the total physical space of each delivery batch could not exceed the capacity of the vehicle. Compared with the modified genetic algorithm (MGA and the quantum-inspired genetic algorithm (QGA, the effectiveness and efficiency of the MQGA are validated by numerical experiments.

  1. A Scheduling Algorithm for Cloud Computing System Based on the Driver of Dynamic Essential Path.

    Xie, Zhiqiang; Shao, Xia; Xin, Yu

    2016-01-01

    To solve the problem of task scheduling in the cloud computing system, this paper proposes a scheduling algorithm for cloud computing based on the driver of dynamic essential path (DDEP). This algorithm applies a predecessor-task layer priority strategy to solve the problem of constraint relations among task nodes. The strategy assigns different priority values to every task node based on the scheduling order of task node as affected by the constraint relations among task nodes, and the task node list is generated by the different priority value. To address the scheduling order problem in which task nodes have the same priority value, the dynamic essential long path strategy is proposed. This strategy computes the dynamic essential path of the pre-scheduling task nodes based on the actual computation cost and communication cost of task node in the scheduling process. The task node that has the longest dynamic essential path is scheduled first as the completion time of task graph is indirectly influenced by the finishing time of task nodes in the longest dynamic essential path. Finally, we demonstrate the proposed algorithm via simulation experiments using Matlab tools. The experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm can effectively reduce the task Makespan in most cases and meet a high quality performance objective.

  2. Solving Flexible Job-Shop Scheduling Problem Using Gravitational Search Algorithm and Colored Petri Net

    Behnam Barzegar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Scheduled production system leads to avoiding stock accumulations, losses reduction, decreasing or even eliminating idol machines, and effort to better benefitting from machines for on time responding customer orders and supplying requested materials in suitable time. In flexible job-shop scheduling production systems, we could reduce time and costs by transferring and delivering operations on existing machines, that is, among NP-hard problems. The scheduling objective minimizes the maximal completion time of all the operations, which is denoted by Makespan. Different methods and algorithms have been presented for solving this problem. Having a reasonable scheduled production system has significant influence on improving effectiveness and attaining to organization goals. In this paper, new algorithm were proposed for flexible job-shop scheduling problem systems (FJSSP-GSPN that is based on gravitational search algorithm (GSA. In the proposed method, the flexible job-shop scheduling problem systems was modeled by color Petri net and CPN tool and then a scheduled job was programmed by GSA algorithm. The experimental results showed that the proposed method has reasonable performance in comparison with other algorithms.

  3. Evaluating the performance of constructive heuristics for the blocking flow shop scheduling problem with setup times

    Mauricio Iwama Takano

    2019-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the minimization of makespan for the permutation flow shop scheduling problem with blocking and sequence and machine dependent setup times, a problem not yet studied in previous studies. The 14 best known heuristics for the permutation flow shop problem with blocking and no setup times are pre-sented and then adapted to the problem in two different ways; resulting in 28 different heuristics. The heuristics are then compared using the Taillard database. As there is no other work that addresses the problem with blocking and sequence and ma-chine dependent setup times, a database for the setup times was created. The setup time value was uniformly distributed between 1% and 10%, 50%, 100% and 125% of the processing time value. Computational tests are then presented for each of the 28 heuristics, comparing the mean relative deviation of the makespan, the computational time and the percentage of successes of each method. Results show that the heuristics were capable of providing interesting results.

  4. Hypergraph+: An Improved Hypergraph-Based Task-Scheduling Algorithm for Massive Spatial Data Processing on Master-Slave Platforms

    Bo Cheng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Spatial data processing often requires massive datasets, and the task/data scheduling efficiency of these applications has an impact on the overall processing performance. Among the existing scheduling strategies, hypergraph-based algorithms capture the data sharing pattern in a global way and significantly reduce total communication volume. Due to heterogeneous processing platforms, however, single hypergraph partitioning for later scheduling may be not optimal. Moreover, these scheduling algorithms neglect the overlap between task execution and data transfer that could further decrease execution time. In order to address these problems, an extended hypergraph-based task-scheduling algorithm, named Hypergraph+, is proposed for massive spatial data processing. Hypergraph+ improves upon current hypergraph scheduling algorithms in two ways: (1 It takes platform heterogeneity into consideration offering a metric function to evaluate the partitioning quality in order to derive the best task/file schedule; and (2 It can maximize the overlap between communication and computation. The GridSim toolkit was used to evaluate Hypergraph+ in an IDW spatial interpolation application on heterogeneous master-slave platforms. Experiments illustrate that the proposed Hypergraph+ algorithm achieves on average a 43% smaller makespan than the original hypergraph scheduling algorithm but still preserves high scheduling efficiency.

  5. Algoritmo genético para reducir el makespan en un flow shop híbrido flexible con máquinas paralelas no relacionadas y tiempos de alistamiento dependientes de la secuencia

    Juan Camilo López-Vargas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo propone el algoritmo genético simple o estándar (AGS como enfoque de solución al problema de programación de produc - ción para un ambiente tipo flow shop híbrido flexible minimizando el makespan. La codificación del algoritmo propuesto permite obtener resultados con tiempos de cómputo bastante razonables y con un nivel de convergencia del makespan cercano al 2%, con mejores solu - ciones que un algoritmo alternativo diseñado para el mismo caso de programación de producción. A partir de los resultados obtenidos en el proceso de experimentación y del posterior análisis comparativo, se concluye que a partir del modelamiento más completo de las condiciones reales de producción, el algoritmo genético ejecuta la programación de producción reduciendo el tiempo máximo de procesamiento, o makespan. En futuros trabajos, el enfoque de investigación será la búsqueda de más escenarios alternativos de producción, con el fin de incrementar la aplicación de este tipo de herramientas y generar impacto en los entornos empresariales reales.

  6. Scheduling the scheduling task : a time management perspective on scheduling

    Larco Martinelli, J.A.; Wiers, V.C.S.; Fransoo, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Time is the most critical resource at the disposal of schedulers. Hence, an adequate management of time from the schedulers may impact positively on the scheduler’s productivity and responsiveness to uncertain scheduling environments. This paper presents a field study of how schedulers make use of

  7. Inter-terminal transfer between port terminals. A continuous mathematical programming model to optimize scheduling and deployment of transport units

    Morales Fusco, P.; Pedrielli, G.; Zhou, C.; Hay Lee, L.; Peng Chew, E.

    2016-07-01

    In most large port cities, the challenge of inter-terminal transfers (ITT) prevails due to the long distance between multiple terminals. The quantity of containers requiring movement between terminals as they connect from pre-carrier to on-carrier is increasing with the formation of the mega-alliances. The paper proposes a continuous time mathematical programming model to optimize the deployment and schedule of trucks and barges to minimize the number of operating transporters, their makespan, costs and the distance travelled by the containers by choosing the right combination of transporters and container movements while fulfilling time window restrictions imposed on reception of the containers. A multi-step routing problem is developed where transporters can travel from one terminal to another and/or load or unload containers from a specific batch at each step. The model proves successful in identifying the costless schedule and means of transportation. And a sensibility analysis over the parameters used is provided. (Author)

  8. An improved ant colony optimization algorithm with fault tolerance for job scheduling in grid computing systems.

    Hajara Idris

    Full Text Available The Grid scheduler, schedules user jobs on the best available resource in terms of resource characteristics by optimizing job execution time. Resource failure in Grid is no longer an exception but a regular occurring event as resources are increasingly being used by the scientific community to solve computationally intensive problems which typically run for days or even months. It is therefore absolutely essential that these long-running applications are able to tolerate failures and avoid re-computations from scratch after resource failure has occurred, to satisfy the user's Quality of Service (QoS requirement. Job Scheduling with Fault Tolerance in Grid Computing using Ant Colony Optimization is proposed to ensure that jobs are executed successfully even when resource failure has occurred. The technique employed in this paper, is the use of resource failure rate, as well as checkpoint-based roll back recovery strategy. Check-pointing aims at reducing the amount of work that is lost upon failure of the system by immediately saving the state of the system. A comparison of the proposed approach with an existing Ant Colony Optimization (ACO algorithm is discussed. The experimental results of the implemented Fault Tolerance scheduling algorithm show that there is an improvement in the user's QoS requirement over the existing ACO algorithm, which has no fault tolerance integrated in it. The performance evaluation of the two algorithms was measured in terms of the three main scheduling performance metrics: makespan, throughput and average turnaround time.

  9. Multi-objective flexible job shop scheduling problem using variable neighborhood evolutionary algorithm

    Wang, Chun; Ji, Zhicheng; Wang, Yan

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, multi-objective flexible job shop scheduling problem (MOFJSP) was studied with the objects to minimize makespan, total workload and critical workload. A variable neighborhood evolutionary algorithm (VNEA) was proposed to obtain a set of Pareto optimal solutions. First, two novel crowded operators in terms of the decision space and object space were proposed, and they were respectively used in mating selection and environmental selection. Then, two well-designed neighborhood structures were used in local search, which consider the problem characteristics and can hold fast convergence. Finally, extensive comparison was carried out with the state-of-the-art methods specially presented for solving MOFJSP on well-known benchmark instances. The results show that the proposed VNEA is more effective than other algorithms in solving MOFJSP.

  10. A Hybrid Multiobjective Evolutionary Approach for Flexible Job-Shop Scheduling Problems

    Jian Xiong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses multiobjective flexible job-shop scheduling problem (FJSP with three simultaneously considered objectives: minimizing makespan, minimizing total workload, and minimizing maximal workload. A hybrid multiobjective evolutionary approach (H-MOEA is developed to solve the problem. According to the characteristic of FJSP, a modified crowding distance measure is introduced to maintain the diversity of individuals. In the proposed H-MOEA, well-designed chromosome representation and genetic operators are developed for FJSP. Moreover, a local search procedure based on critical path theory is incorporated in H-MOEA to improve the convergence ability of the algorithm. Experiment results on several well-known benchmark instances demonstrate the efficiency and stability of the proposed algorithm. The comparison with other recently published approaches validates that H-MOEA can obtain Pareto-optimal solutions with better quality and/or diversity.

  11. A Mathematical Model for Scheduling a Batch Processing Machine with Multiple Incompatible Job Families, Non-identical Job dimensions, Non-identical Job sizes, Non-agreeable release times and due dates

    Ramasubramaniam, M; Mathirajan, M

    2013-01-01

    The paper addresses the problem scheduling a batch processing machine with multiple incompatible job families, non-identical job dimensions, non-identical job sizes and non-agreeable release dates to minimize makespan. The research problem is solved by proposing a mixed integer programming model that appropriately takes into account the parameters considered in the problem. The proposed is validated using a numerical example. The experiment conducted show that the model can pose significant difficulties in solving the large scale instances. The paper concludes by giving the scope for future work and some alternative approaches one can use for solving these class of problems.

  12. A FAST AND ELITIST BI-OBJECTIVE EVOLUTIONARY ALGORITHM FOR SCHEDULING INDEPENDENT TASKS ON HETEROGENEOUS SYSTEMS

    G.Subashini

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available To meet the increasing computational demands, geographically distributed resources need to be logically coupled to make them work as a unified resource. In analyzing the performance of such distributed heterogeneous computing systems scheduling a set of tasks to the available set of resources for execution is highly important. Task scheduling being an NP-complete problem, use of metaheuristics is more appropriate in obtaining optimal solutions. Schedules thus obtained can be evaluated using several criteria that may conflict with one another which require multi objective problem formulation. This paper investigates the application of an elitist Nondominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II, to efficiently schedule a set of independent tasks in a heterogeneous distributed computing system. The objectives considered in this paper include minimizing makespan and average flowtime simultaneously. The implementation of NSGA-II algorithm and Weighted-Sum Genetic Algorithm (WSGA has been tested on benchmark instances for distributed heterogeneous systems. As NSGA-II generates a set of Pareto optimal solutions, to verify the effectiveness of NSGA-II over WSGA a fuzzy based membership value assignment method is employed to choose the best compromise solution from the obtained Pareto solution set.

  13. Solving multi-objective job shop scheduling problems using a non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm

    Piroozfard, Hamed; Wong, Kuan Yew

    2015-05-01

    The efforts of finding optimal schedules for the job shop scheduling problems are highly important for many real-world industrial applications. In this paper, a multi-objective based job shop scheduling problem by simultaneously minimizing makespan and tardiness is taken into account. The problem is considered to be more complex due to the multiple business criteria that must be satisfied. To solve the problem more efficiently and to obtain a set of non-dominated solutions, a meta-heuristic based non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm is presented. In addition, task based representation is used for solution encoding, and tournament selection that is based on rank and crowding distance is applied for offspring selection. Swapping and insertion mutations are employed to increase diversity of population and to perform intensive search. To evaluate the modified non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm, a set of modified benchmarking job shop problems obtained from the OR-Library is used, and the results are considered based on the number of non-dominated solutions and quality of schedules obtained by the algorithm.

  14. Proposed algorithm to improve job shop production scheduling using ant colony optimization method

    Pakpahan, Eka KA; Kristina, Sonna; Setiawan, Ari

    2017-12-01

    This paper deals with the determination of job shop production schedule on an automatic environment. On this particular environment, machines and material handling system are integrated and controlled by a computer center where schedule were created and then used to dictate the movement of parts and the operations at each machine. This setting is usually designed to have an unmanned production process for a specified interval time. We consider here parts with various operations requirement. Each operation requires specific cutting tools. These parts are to be scheduled on machines each having identical capability, meaning that each machine is equipped with a similar set of cutting tools therefore is capable of processing any operation. The availability of a particular machine to process a particular operation is determined by the remaining life time of its cutting tools. We proposed an algorithm based on the ant colony optimization method and embedded them on matlab software to generate production schedule which minimize the total processing time of the parts (makespan). We test the algorithm on data provided by real industry and the process shows a very short computation time. This contributes a lot to the flexibility and timelines targeted on an automatic environment.

  15. Multi-Objective Flexible Flow Shop Scheduling Problem Considering Variable Processing Time due to Renewable Energy

    Xiuli Wu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy is an alternative to non-renewable energy to reduce the carbon footprint of manufacturing systems. Finding out how to make an alternative energy-efficient scheduling solution when renewable and non-renewable energy drives production is of great importance. In this paper, a multi-objective flexible flow shop scheduling problem that considers variable processing time due to renewable energy (MFFSP-VPTRE is studied. First, the optimization model of the MFFSP-VPTRE is formulated considering the periodicity of renewable energy and the limitations of energy storage capacity. Then, a hybrid non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm with variable local search (HNSGA-II is proposed to solve the MFFSP-VPTRE. An operation and machine-based encoding method is employed. A low-carbon scheduling algorithm is presented. Besides the crossover and mutation, a variable local search is used to improve the offspring’s Pareto set. The offspring and the parents are combined and those that dominate more are selected to continue evolving. Finally, two groups of experiments are carried out. The results show that the low-carbon scheduling algorithm can effectively reduce the carbon footprint under the premise of makespan optimization and the HNSGA-II outperforms the traditional NSGA-II and can solve the MFFSP-VPTRE effectively and efficiently.

  16. Scheduling of hybrid types of machines with two-machine flowshop as the first type and a single machine as the second type

    Hsiao, Ming-Chih; Su, Ling-Huey

    2018-02-01

    This research addresses the problem of scheduling hybrid machine types, in which one type is a two-machine flowshop and another type is a single machine. A job is either processed on the two-machine flowshop or on the single machine. The objective is to determine a production schedule for all jobs so as to minimize the makespan. The problem is NP-hard since the two parallel machines problem was proved to be NP-hard. Simulated annealing algorithms are developed to solve the problem optimally. A mixed integer programming (MIP) is developed and used to evaluate the performance for two SAs. Computational experiments demonstrate the efficiency of the simulated annealing algorithms, the quality of the simulated annealing algorithms will also be reported.

  17. Flowshop Scheduling Using a Network Approach | Oladeinde ...

    In this paper, a network based formulation of a permutation flow shop problem is presented. Two nuances of flow shop problems with different levels of complexity are solved using different approaches to the linear programming formulation. Key flow shop parameters inclosing makespan of the flow shop problems were ...

  18. Job shop scheduling by simulated annealing

    Laarhoven, van P.J.M.; Aarts, E.H.L.; Lenstra, J.K.

    1992-01-01

    We describe an approximation algorithm for the problem of finding the minimum makespan in a job shop. The algorithm is based on simulated annealing, a generalization of the well known iterative improvement approach to combinatorial optimization problems. The generalization involves the acceptance of

  19. A hybrid electromagnetism-like algorithm for a multi-mode resource-constrained project scheduling problem

    Mohammad Hossein Sadeghi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, two different sub-problems are considered to solve a resource constrained project scheduling problem (RCPSP, namely i assignment of modes to tasks and ii scheduling of these tasks in order to minimize the makespan of the project. The modified electromagnetism-like algorithm deals with the first problem to create an assignment of modes to activities. This list is used to generate a project schedule. When a new assignment is made, it is necessary to fix all mode dependent requirements of the project activities and to generate a random schedule with the serial SGS method. A local search will optimize the sequence of the activities. Also in this paper, a new penalty function has been proposed for solutions which are infeasible with respect to non-renewable resources. Performance of the proposed algorithm has been compared with the best algorithms published so far on the basis of CPU time and number of generated schedules stopping criteria. Reported results indicate excellent performance of the algorithm.

  20. Performance evaluation of different types of particle representation procedures of Particle Swarm Optimization in Job-shop Scheduling Problems

    Izah Anuar, Nurul; Saptari, Adi

    2016-02-01

    This paper addresses the types of particle representation (encoding) procedures in a population-based stochastic optimization technique in solving scheduling problems known in the job-shop manufacturing environment. It intends to evaluate and compare the performance of different particle representation procedures in Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) in the case of solving Job-shop Scheduling Problems (JSP). Particle representation procedures refer to the mapping between the particle position in PSO and the scheduling solution in JSP. It is an important step to be carried out so that each particle in PSO can represent a schedule in JSP. Three procedures such as Operation and Particle Position Sequence (OPPS), random keys representation and random-key encoding scheme are used in this study. These procedures have been tested on FT06 and FT10 benchmark problems available in the OR-Library, where the objective function is to minimize the makespan by the use of MATLAB software. Based on the experimental results, it is discovered that OPPS gives the best performance in solving both benchmark problems. The contribution of this paper is the fact that it demonstrates to the practitioners involved in complex scheduling problems that different particle representation procedures can have significant effects on the performance of PSO in solving JSP.

  1. TAGUCHI METHOD FOR THREE-STAGE ASSEMBLY FLOW SHOP SCHEDULING PROBLEM WITH BLOCKING AND SEQUENCE-DEPENDENT SET UP TIMES

    AREF MALEKI-DARONKOLAEI

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article considers a three-stage assembly flowshop scheduling problem minimizing the weighted sum of mean completion time and makespan with sequence-dependent setup times at the first stage and blocking times between each stage. To tackle such an NP-hard, two meta-heuristic algorithms are presented. The novelty of our approach is to develop a variable neighborhood search algorithm (VNS and a well-known simulated annealing (SA for the problem. Furthermore, to enhance the performance of the (SA, its parameters are optimized by the use of Taguchi method, but to setting parameters of VNS just one parameter has been used without Taguchi. The computational results show that the proposed VNS is better in mean and standard deviation for all sizes of the problem than SA, but on the contrary about CPU Time SA outperforms VNS.

  2. A Hybrid Metaheuristic for Multi-Objective Scientific Workflow Scheduling in a Cloud Environment

    Nazia Anwar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing has emerged as a high-performance computing environment with a large pool of abstracted, virtualized, flexible, and on-demand resources and services. Scheduling of scientific workflows in a distributed environment is a well-known NP-complete problem and therefore intractable with exact solutions. It becomes even more challenging in the cloud computing platform due to its dynamic and heterogeneous nature. The aim of this study is to optimize multi-objective scheduling of scientific workflows in a cloud computing environment based on the proposed metaheuristic-based algorithm, Hybrid Bio-inspired Metaheuristic for Multi-objective Optimization (HBMMO. The strong global exploration ability of the nature-inspired metaheuristic Symbiotic Organisms Search (SOS is enhanced by involving an efficient list-scheduling heuristic, Predict Earliest Finish Time (PEFT, in the proposed algorithm to obtain better convergence and diversity of the approximate Pareto front in terms of reduced makespan, minimized cost, and efficient load balance of the Virtual Machines (VMs. The experiments using different scientific workflow applications highlight the effectiveness, practicality, and better performance of the proposed algorithm.

  3. A Variable Interval Rescheduling Strategy for Dynamic Flexible Job Shop Scheduling Problem by Improved Genetic Algorithm

    Lei Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In real-world manufacturing systems, production scheduling systems are often implemented under random or dynamic events like machine failure, unexpected processing times, stochastic arrival of the urgent orders, cancellation of the orders, and so on. These dynamic events will lead the initial scheduling scheme to be nonoptimal and/or infeasible. Hence, appropriate dynamic rescheduling approaches are needed to overcome the dynamic events. In this paper, we propose a dynamic rescheduling method based on variable interval rescheduling strategy (VIRS to deal with the dynamic flexible job shop scheduling problem considering machine failure, urgent job arrival, and job damage as disruptions. On the other hand, an improved genetic algorithm (GA is proposed for minimizing makespan. In our improved GA, a mix of random initialization population by combining initialization machine and initialization operation with random initialization is designed for generating high-quality initial population. In addition, the elitist strategy (ES and improved population diversity strategy (IPDS are used to avoid falling into the local optimal solution. Experimental results for static and several dynamic events in the FJSP show that our method is feasible and effective.

  4. Multi-objective group scheduling with learning effect in the cellular manufacturing system

    Mohammad Taghi Taghavi-fard

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Group scheduling problem in cellular manufacturing systems consists of two major steps. Sequence of parts in each part-family and the sequence of part-family to enter the cell to be processed. This paper presents a new method for group scheduling problems in flow shop systems where it minimizes makespan (Cmax and total tardiness. In this paper, a position-based learning model in cellular manufacturing system is utilized where processing time for each part-family depends on the entrance sequence of that part. The problem of group scheduling is modeled by minimizing two objectives of position-based learning effect as well as the assumption of setup time depending on the sequence of parts-family. Since the proposed problem is NP-hard, two meta heuristic algorithms are presented based on genetic algorithm, namely: Non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II and non-dominated rank genetic algorithm (NRGA. The algorithms are tested using randomly generated problems. The results include a set of Pareto solutions and three different evaluation criteria are used to compare the results. The results indicate that the proposed algorithms are quite efficient to solve the problem in a short computational time.

  5. Optimization of multi-objective integrated process planning and scheduling problem using a priority based optimization algorithm

    Ausaf, Muhammad Farhan; Gao, Liang; Li, Xinyu

    2015-12-01

    For increasing the overall performance of modern manufacturing systems, effective integration of process planning and scheduling functions has been an important area of consideration among researchers. Owing to the complexity of handling process planning and scheduling simultaneously, most of the research work has been limited to solving the integrated process planning and scheduling (IPPS) problem for a single objective function. As there are many conflicting objectives when dealing with process planning and scheduling, real world problems cannot be fully captured considering only a single objective for optimization. Therefore considering multi-objective IPPS (MOIPPS) problem is inevitable. Unfortunately, only a handful of research papers are available on solving MOIPPS problem. In this paper, an optimization algorithm for solving MOIPPS problem is presented. The proposed algorithm uses a set of dispatching rules coupled with priority assignment to optimize the IPPS problem for various objectives like makespan, total machine load, total tardiness, etc. A fixed sized external archive coupled with a crowding distance mechanism is used to store and maintain the non-dominated solutions. To compare the results with other algorithms, a C-matric based method has been used. Instances from four recent papers have been solved to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. The experimental results show that the proposed method is an efficient approach for solving the MOIPPS problem.

  6. A Hybrid Genetic Algorithm with a Knowledge-Based Operator for Solving the Job Shop Scheduling Problems

    Hamed Piroozfard

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Scheduling is considered as an important topic in production management and combinatorial optimization in which it ubiquitously exists in most of the real-world applications. The attempts of finding optimal or near optimal solutions for the job shop scheduling problems are deemed important, because they are characterized as highly complex and NP-hard problems. This paper describes the development of a hybrid genetic algorithm for solving the nonpreemptive job shop scheduling problems with the objective of minimizing makespan. In order to solve the presented problem more effectively, an operation-based representation was used to enable the construction of feasible schedules. In addition, a new knowledge-based operator was designed based on the problem’s characteristics in order to use machines’ idle times to improve the solution quality, and it was developed in the context of function evaluation. A machine based precedence preserving order-based crossover was proposed to generate the offspring. Furthermore, a simulated annealing based neighborhood search technique was used to improve the local exploitation ability of the algorithm and to increase its population diversity. In order to prove the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, numerous benchmarked instances were collected from the Operations Research Library. Computational results of the proposed hybrid genetic algorithm demonstrate its effectiveness.

  7. A PMBGA to Optimize the Selection of Rules for Job Shop Scheduling Based on the Giffler-Thompson Algorithm

    Rui Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Most existing research on the job shop scheduling problem has been focused on the minimization of makespan (i.e., the completion time of the last job. However, in the fiercely competitive market nowadays, delivery punctuality is more important for maintaining a high service reputation. So in this paper, we aim at solving job shop scheduling problems with the total weighted tardiness objective. Several dispatching rules are adopted in the Giffler-Thompson algorithm for constructing active schedules. It is noticeable that the rule selections for scheduling consecutive operations are not mutually independent but actually interrelated. Under such circumstances, a probabilistic model-building genetic algorithm (PMBGA is proposed to optimize the sequence of selected rules. First, we use Bayesian networks to model the distribution characteristics of high-quality solutions in the population. Then, the new generation of individuals is produced by sampling the established Bayesian network. Finally, some elitist individuals are further improved by a special local search module based on parameter perturbation. The superiority of the proposed approach is verified by extensive computational experiments and comparisons.

  8. Immunization Schedules for Adults

    ... ACIP Vaccination Recommendations Why Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics Immunization Schedule for Adults (19 Years of Age and ... diseases that can be prevented by vaccines . 2018 Immunization Schedule Recommended Vaccinations for Adults by Age and ...

  9. Instant Childhood Immunization Schedule

    ... Recommendations Why Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics Instant Childhood Immunization Schedule Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Get ... date. See Disclaimer for additional details. Based on Immunization Schedule for Children 0 through 6 Years of ...

  10. Web Publishing Schedule

    Section 207(f)(2) of the E-Gov Act requires federal agencies to develop an inventory and establish a schedule of information to be published on their Web sites, make those schedules available for public comment. To post the schedules on the web site.

  11. Preemptive scheduling with rejection

    Hoogeveen, H.; Skutella, M.; Woeginger, Gerhard

    2003-01-01

    We consider the problem of preemptively scheduling a set of n jobs on m (identical, uniformly related, or unrelated) parallel machines. The scheduler may reject a subset of the jobs and thereby incur job-dependent penalties for each rejected job, and he must construct a schedule for the remaining

  12. Preemptive scheduling with rejection

    Hoogeveen, J.A.; Skutella, M.; Woeginger, G.J.; Paterson, M.

    2000-01-01

    We consider the problem of preemptively scheduling a set of n jobs on m (identical, uniformly related, or unrelated) parallel machines. The scheduler may reject a subset of the jobs and thereby incur job-dependent penalties for each rejected job, and he must construct a schedule for the remaining

  13. Outage scheduling and implementation

    Allison, J.E.; Segall, P.; Smith, R.R.

    1986-01-01

    Successful preparation and implementation of an outage schedule and completion of scheduled and emergent work within an identified critical path time frame is a result of careful coordination by Operations, Work Control, Maintenance, Engineering, Planning and Administration and others. At the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) careful planning has been responsible for meeting all scheduled outage critical paths

  14. Scheduling with Time Lags

    X. Zhang (Xiandong)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractScheduling is essential when activities need to be allocated to scarce resources over time. Motivated by the problem of scheduling barges along container terminals in the Port of Rotterdam, this thesis designs and analyzes algorithms for various on-line and off-line scheduling problems

  15. A hybrid algorithm for flexible job-shop scheduling problem with setup times

    Ameni Azzouz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Job-shop scheduling problem is one of the most important fields in manufacturing optimization where a set of n jobs must be processed on a set of m specified machines. Each job consists of a specific set of operations, which have to be processed according to a given order. The Flexible Job Shop problem (FJSP is a generalization of the above-mentioned problem, where each operation can be processed by a set of resources and has a processing time depending on the resource used. The FJSP problems cover two difficulties, namely, machine assignment problem and operation sequencing problem. This paper addresses the flexible job-shop scheduling problem with sequence-dependent setup times to minimize two kinds of objectives function: makespan and bi-criteria objective function. For that, we propose a hybrid algorithm based on genetic algorithm (GA and variable neighbourhood search (VNS to solve this problem. To evaluate the performance of our algorithm, we compare our results with other methods existing in literature. All the results show the superiority of our algorithm against the available ones in terms of solution quality.

  16. Flexible Job Shop Scheduling Problem Using an Improved Ant Colony Optimization

    Lei Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As an extension of the classical job shop scheduling problem, the flexible job shop scheduling problem (FJSP plays an important role in real production systems. In FJSP, an operation is allowed to be processed on more than one alternative machine. It has been proven to be a strongly NP-hard problem. Ant colony optimization (ACO has been proven to be an efficient approach for dealing with FJSP. However, the basic ACO has two main disadvantages including low computational efficiency and local optimum. In order to overcome these two disadvantages, an improved ant colony optimization (IACO is proposed to optimize the makespan for FJSP. The following aspects are done on our improved ant colony optimization algorithm: select machine rule problems, initialize uniform distributed mechanism for ants, change pheromone’s guiding mechanism, select node method, and update pheromone’s mechanism. An actual production instance and two sets of well-known benchmark instances are tested and comparisons with some other approaches verify the effectiveness of the proposed IACO. The results reveal that our proposed IACO can provide better solution in a reasonable computational time.

  17. Effective Iterated Greedy Algorithm for Flow-Shop Scheduling Problems with Time lags

    ZHAO, Ning; YE, Song; LI, Kaidian; CHEN, Siyu

    2017-05-01

    Flow shop scheduling problem with time lags is a practical scheduling problem and attracts many studies. Permutation problem(PFSP with time lags) is concentrated but non-permutation problem(non-PFSP with time lags) seems to be neglected. With the aim to minimize the makespan and satisfy time lag constraints, efficient algorithms corresponding to PFSP and non-PFSP problems are proposed, which consist of iterated greedy algorithm for permutation(IGTLP) and iterated greedy algorithm for non-permutation (IGTLNP). The proposed algorithms are verified using well-known simple and complex instances of permutation and non-permutation problems with various time lag ranges. The permutation results indicate that the proposed IGTLP can reach near optimal solution within nearly 11% computational time of traditional GA approach. The non-permutation results indicate that the proposed IG can reach nearly same solution within less than 1% computational time compared with traditional GA approach. The proposed research combines PFSP and non-PFSP together with minimal and maximal time lag consideration, which provides an interesting viewpoint for industrial implementation.

  18. Flow shop scheduling decisions through Techniques for Order Preference by Similarity to an Ideal Solution (TOPSIS

    Arun Gupta

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The flow-shop scheduling problem (FSP has been widely studied in the literature and having a very active research area. Over the last few decades, a number of heuristic/meta-heuristic solution techniques have been developed. Some of these techniques offer excellent effectiveness and efficiency at the expense of substantial implementation efforts and being extremely complicated. This paper brings out the application of a Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM method known as techniques for order preference by similarity to an ideal solution (TOPSIS using different weighting schemes in flow-shop environment. The objective function is identification of a job sequence which in turn would have minimum makespan (total job completion time. The application of the proposed method to flow shop scheduling is presented and explained with a numerical example. The results of the proposed TOPSIS based technique of FSP are also compared on the basis of some benchmark problems and found compatible with the results obtained from other standard procedures.

  19. Comparing Mixed & Integer Programming vs. Constraint Programming by solving Job-Shop Scheduling Problems

    Renata Melo e Silva de Oliveira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Scheduling is a key factor for operations management as well as for business success. From industrial Job-shop Scheduling problems (JSSP, many optimization challenges have emerged since de 1960s when improvements have been continuously required such as bottlenecks allocation, lead-time reductions and reducing response time to requests.  With this in perspective, this work aims to discuss 3 different optimization models for minimizing Makespan. Those 3 models were applied on 17 classical problems of examples JSSP and produced different outputs.  The first model resorts on Mixed and Integer Programming (MIP and it resulted on optimizing 60% of the studied problems. The other models were based on Constraint Programming (CP and approached the problem in two different ways: a model CP1 is a standard IBM algorithm whereof restrictions have an interval structure that fail to solve 53% of the proposed instances, b Model CP-2 approaches the problem with disjunctive constraints and optimized 88% of the instances. In this work, each model is individually analyzed and then compared considering: i Optimization success performance, ii Computational processing time, iii Greatest Resource Utilization and, iv Minimum Work-in-process Inventory. Results demonstrated that CP-2 presented best results on criteria i and ii, but MIP was superior on criteria iii and iv and those findings are discussed at the final section of this work.

  20. Double Girder Bridge Crane with Double Cycling: Scheduling Strategy and Performance Evaluation

    Dandan Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a novel quay crane design, double girder bridge crane (DGBC. DGBC is capable of handling containers of two adjacent bays simultaneously, avoiding crane collisions, saving travelling and reposition cost, and eventually improving terminal efficiency. This problem is formulated as a resource-constrained project scheduling with objective to minimize the maximum completion time. A two-stage heuristic algorithm is proposed in which an operating sequences on each bay is obtained by double cycling, and the integrated timetable for both bays is constructed by solving resource conflicts using the proposed minimum cost strategy. We examine effectiveness and performance of applying DGBC with double cycling. A case study is presented to illustrate how DGBC works with the two-stage method. Three extreme cases with respective conflict types are investigated to develop the performance bounds of DGBC with double cycling. The results show that DGBC can significantly improve terminal productivity, and outperforms single girder crane in both makespan and the lift operation percentage. The highest DGBC efficiency does not require maximum double cycles in two bay schedules; rather the integrated timetable for two bays is the main contribution to the DGBC performance as it yields better cooperation between two spreaders and the driver.

  1. NASA scheduling technologies

    Adair, Jerry R.

    1994-01-01

    This paper is a consolidated report on ten major planning and scheduling systems that have been developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). A description of each system, its components, and how it could be potentially used in private industry is provided in this paper. The planning and scheduling technology represented by the systems ranges from activity based scheduling employing artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to constraint based, iterative repair scheduling. The space related application domains in which the systems have been deployed vary from Space Shuttle monitoring during launch countdown to long term Hubble Space Telescope (HST) scheduling. This paper also describes any correlation that may exist between the work done on different planning and scheduling systems. Finally, this paper documents the lessons learned from the work and research performed in planning and scheduling technology and describes the areas where future work will be conducted.

  2. Hybrid Pareto artificial bee colony algorithm for multi-objective single machine group scheduling problem with sequence-dependent setup times and learning effects.

    Yue, Lei; Guan, Zailin; Saif, Ullah; Zhang, Fei; Wang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Group scheduling is significant for efficient and cost effective production system. However, there exist setup times between the groups, which require to decrease it by sequencing groups in an efficient way. Current research is focused on a sequence dependent group scheduling problem with an aim to minimize the makespan in addition to minimize the total weighted tardiness simultaneously. In most of the production scheduling problems, the processing time of jobs is assumed as fixed. However, the actual processing time of jobs may be reduced due to "learning effect". The integration of sequence dependent group scheduling problem with learning effects has been rarely considered in literature. Therefore, current research considers a single machine group scheduling problem with sequence dependent setup times and learning effects simultaneously. A novel hybrid Pareto artificial bee colony algorithm (HPABC) with some steps of genetic algorithm is proposed for current problem to get Pareto solutions. Furthermore, five different sizes of test problems (small, small medium, medium, large medium, large) are tested using proposed HPABC. Taguchi method is used to tune the effective parameters of the proposed HPABC for each problem category. The performance of HPABC is compared with three famous multi objective optimization algorithms, improved strength Pareto evolutionary algorithm (SPEA2), non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGAII) and particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO). Results indicate that HPABC outperforms SPEA2, NSGAII and PSO and gives better Pareto optimal solutions in terms of diversity and quality for almost all the instances of the different sizes of problems.

  3. Discrete particle swarm optimization to solve multi-objective limited-wait hybrid flow shop scheduling problem

    Santosa, B.; Siswanto, N.; Fiqihesa

    2018-04-01

    This paper proposes a discrete Particle Swam Optimization (PSO) to solve limited-wait hybrid flowshop scheduing problem with multi objectives. Flow shop schedulimg represents the condition when several machines are arranged in series and each job must be processed at each machine with same sequence. The objective functions are minimizing completion time (makespan), total tardiness time, and total machine idle time. Flow shop scheduling model always grows to cope with the real production system accurately. Since flow shop scheduling is a NP-Hard problem then the most suitable method to solve is metaheuristics. One of metaheuristics algorithm is Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), an algorithm which is based on the behavior of a swarm. Originally, PSO was intended to solve continuous optimization problems. Since flow shop scheduling is a discrete optimization problem, then, we need to modify PSO to fit the problem. The modification is done by using probability transition matrix mechanism. While to handle multi objectives problem, we use Pareto Optimal (MPSO). The results of MPSO is better than the PSO because the MPSO solution set produced higher probability to find the optimal solution. Besides the MPSO solution set is closer to the optimal solution

  4. Modeling the Hybrid Flow Shop Scheduling Problem Followed by an Assembly Stage Considering Aging Effects and Preventive Maintenance Activities

    Seyyed Mohammad Hassan Hosseini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Scheduling problem for the hybrid flow shop scheduling problem (HFSP followed by an assembly stage considering aging effects additional preventive and maintenance activities is studied in this paper. In this production system, a number of products of different kinds are produced. Each product is assembled with a set of several parts. The first stage is a hybrid flow shop to produce parts. All machines can process all kinds of parts in this stage but each machine can process only one part at the same time. The second stage is a single assembly machine or a single assembly team of workers. The aim is to schedule the parts on the machines and assembly sequence and also determine when the preventive maintenance activities get done in order to minimize the completion time of all products (makespan. A mathematical modeling is presented and its validation is shown by solving an example in small scale. Since this problem has been proved strongly NP-hard, in order to solve the problem in medium and large scale, four heuristic algorithms is proposed based on the Johnson’s algorithm. The numerical experiments are used to run the mathematical model and evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithms.

  5. Scheduling for decommissioning projects

    Podmajersky, O.E.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the Project Scheduling system being employed by the Decommissioning Operations Contractor at the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project (SSDP). Results from the planning system show that the project continues to achieve its cost and schedule goals. An integrated cost and schedule control system (C/SCS) which uses the concept of earned value for measurement of performance was instituted in accordance with DOE orders. The schedule and cost variances generated by the C/SCS system are used to confirm management's assessment of project status. This paper describes the types of schedules and tools used on the SSDP project to plan and monitor the work, and identifies factors that are unique to a decommissioning project that make scheduling critical to the achievement of the project's goals. 1 fig

  6. Program reference schedule baseline

    1986-07-01

    This Program Reference Schedule Baseline (PRSB) provides the baseline Program-level milestones and associated schedules for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. It integrates all Program-level schedule-related activities. This schedule baseline will be used by the Director, Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), and his staff to monitor compliance with Program objectives. Chapter 1 includes brief discussions concerning the relationship of the PRSB to the Program Reference Cost Baseline (PRCB), the Mission Plan, the Project Decision Schedule, the Total System Life Cycle Cost report, the Program Management Information System report, the Program Milestone Review, annual budget preparation, and system element plans. Chapter 2 includes the identification of all Level 0, or Program-level, milestones, while Chapter 3 presents and discusses the critical path schedules that correspond to those Level 0 milestones

  7. Approximating Preemptive Stochastic Scheduling

    Megow Nicole; Vredeveld Tjark

    2009-01-01

    We present constant approximative policies for preemptive stochastic scheduling. We derive policies with a guaranteed performance ratio of 2 for scheduling jobs with release dates on identical parallel machines subject to minimizing the sum of weighted completion times. Our policies as well as their analysis apply also to the recently introduced more general model of stochastic online scheduling. The performance guarantee we give matches the best result known for the corresponding determinist...

  8. Revisiting Symbiotic Job Scheduling

    Eyerman , Stijn; Michaud , Pierre; Rogiest , Wouter

    2015-01-01

    International audience; —Symbiotic job scheduling exploits the fact that in a system with shared resources, the performance of jobs is impacted by the behavior of other co-running jobs. By coscheduling combinations of jobs that have low interference, the performance of a system can be increased. In this paper, we investigate the impact of using symbiotic job scheduling for increasing throughput. We find that even for a theoretically optimal scheduler, this impact is very low, despite the subs...

  9. Alternative Work Schedules: Definitions

    Journal of the College and University Personnel Association, 1977

    1977-01-01

    The term "alternative work schedules" encompasses any variation of the requirement that all permanent employees in an organization or one shift of employees adhere to the same five-day, seven-to-eight-hour schedule. This article defines staggered hours, flexible working hours (flexitour and gliding time), compressed work week, the task system, and…

  10. Range Scheduling Aid (RSA)

    Logan, J. R.; Pulvermacher, M. K.

    1991-01-01

    Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: satellite control network; current and new approaches to range scheduling; MITRE tasking; RSA features; RSA display; constraint based analytic capability; RSA architecture; and RSA benefits.

  11. The triangle scheduling problem

    Dürr, Christoph; Hanzálek, Zdeněk; Konrad, Christian; Seddik, Yasmina; Sitters, R.A.; Vásquez, Óscar C.; Woeginger, Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel scheduling problem, where jobs occupy a triangular shape on the time line. This problem is motivated by scheduling jobs with different criticality levels. A measure is introduced, namely the binary tree ratio. It is shown that the Greedy algorithm solves the problem to

  12. Lower Bounds and Semi On-line Multiprocessor Scheduling

    T.C. Edwin Cheng

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available We are given a set of identical machines and a sequence of jobs from which we know the sum of the job weights in advance. The jobs have to be assigned on-line to one of the machines and the objective is to minimize the makespan. An algorithm with performance ratio 1.6 and a lower bound of 1.5 is presented. This improves recent results by Azar and Regev who published an algorithm with performance ratio 1.625 for the less general problem that the optimal makespan is known in advance.

  13. NASA Schedule Management Handbook

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of schedule management is to provide the framework for time-phasing, resource planning, coordination, and communicating the necessary tasks within a work effort. The intent is to improve schedule management by providing recommended concepts, processes, and techniques used within the Agency and private industry. The intended function of this handbook is two-fold: first, to provide guidance for meeting the scheduling requirements contained in NPR 7120.5, NASA Space Flight Program and Project Management Requirements, NPR 7120.7, NASA Information Technology and Institutional Infrastructure Program and Project Requirements, NPR 7120.8, NASA Research and Technology Program and Project Management Requirements, and NPD 1000.5, Policy for NASA Acquisition. The second function is to describe the schedule management approach and the recommended best practices for carrying out this project control function. With regards to the above project management requirements documents, it should be noted that those space flight projects previously established and approved under the guidance of prior versions of NPR 7120.5 will continue to comply with those requirements until project completion has been achieved. This handbook will be updated as needed, to enhance efficient and effective schedule management across the Agency. It is acknowledged that most, if not all, external organizations participating in NASA programs/projects will have their own internal schedule management documents. Issues that arise from conflicting schedule guidance will be resolved on a case by case basis as contracts and partnering relationships are established. It is also acknowledged and understood that all projects are not the same and may require different levels of schedule visibility, scrutiny and control. Project type, value, and complexity are factors that typically dictate which schedule management practices should be employed.

  14. Improved teaching-learning-based and JAYA optimization algorithms for solving flexible flow shop scheduling problems

    Buddala, Raviteja; Mahapatra, Siba Sankar

    2017-11-01

    Flexible flow shop (or a hybrid flow shop) scheduling problem is an extension of classical flow shop scheduling problem. In a simple flow shop configuration, a job having `g' operations is performed on `g' operation centres (stages) with each stage having only one machine. If any stage contains more than one machine for providing alternate processing facility, then the problem becomes a flexible flow shop problem (FFSP). FFSP which contains all the complexities involved in a simple flow shop and parallel machine scheduling problems is a well-known NP-hard (Non-deterministic polynomial time) problem. Owing to high computational complexity involved in solving these problems, it is not always possible to obtain an optimal solution in a reasonable computation time. To obtain near-optimal solutions in a reasonable computation time, a large variety of meta-heuristics have been proposed in the past. However, tuning algorithm-specific parameters for solving FFSP is rather tricky and time consuming. To address this limitation, teaching-learning-based optimization (TLBO) and JAYA algorithm are chosen for the study because these are not only recent meta-heuristics but they do not require tuning of algorithm-specific parameters. Although these algorithms seem to be elegant, they lose solution diversity after few iterations and get trapped at the local optima. To alleviate such drawback, a new local search procedure is proposed in this paper to improve the solution quality. Further, mutation strategy (inspired from genetic algorithm) is incorporated in the basic algorithm to maintain solution diversity in the population. Computational experiments have been conducted on standard benchmark problems to calculate makespan and computational time. It is found that the rate of convergence of TLBO is superior to JAYA. From the results, it is found that TLBO and JAYA outperform many algorithms reported in the literature and can be treated as efficient methods for solving the FFSP.

  15. A Novel Memetic Algorithm Based on Decomposition for Multiobjective Flexible Job Shop Scheduling Problem

    Chun Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel multiobjective memetic algorithm based on decomposition (MOMAD is proposed to solve multiobjective flexible job shop scheduling problem (MOFJSP, which simultaneously minimizes makespan, total workload, and critical workload. Firstly, a population is initialized by employing an integration of different machine assignment and operation sequencing strategies. Secondly, multiobjective memetic algorithm based on decomposition is presented by introducing a local search to MOEA/D. The Tchebycheff approach of MOEA/D converts the three-objective optimization problem to several single-objective optimization subproblems, and the weight vectors are grouped by K-means clustering. Some good individuals corresponding to different weight vectors are selected by the tournament mechanism of a local search. In the experiments, the influence of three different aggregation functions is first studied. Moreover, the effect of the proposed local search is investigated. Finally, MOMAD is compared with eight state-of-the-art algorithms on a series of well-known benchmark instances and the experimental results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms or at least has comparative performance to the other algorithms.

  16. Independent tasks scheduling in cloud computing via improved estimation of distribution algorithm

    Sun, Haisheng; Xu, Rui; Chen, Huaping

    2018-04-01

    To minimize makespan for scheduling independent tasks in cloud computing, an improved estimation of distribution algorithm (IEDA) is proposed to tackle the investigated problem in this paper. Considering that the problem is concerned with multi-dimensional discrete problems, an improved population-based incremental learning (PBIL) algorithm is applied, which the parameter for each component is independent with other components in PBIL. In order to improve the performance of PBIL, on the one hand, the integer encoding scheme is used and the method of probability calculation of PBIL is improved by using the task average processing time; on the other hand, an effective adaptive learning rate function that related to the number of iterations is constructed to trade off the exploration and exploitation of IEDA. In addition, both enhanced Max-Min and Min-Min algorithms are properly introduced to form two initial individuals. In the proposed IEDA, an improved genetic algorithm (IGA) is applied to generate partial initial population by evolving two initial individuals and the rest of initial individuals are generated at random. Finally, the sampling process is divided into two parts including sampling by probabilistic model and IGA respectively. The experiment results show that the proposed IEDA not only gets better solution, but also has faster convergence speed.

  17. Near-Optimal Heuristics for Just-In-Time Jobs Maximization in Flow Shop Scheduling

    Helio Yochihiro Fuchigami

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The number of just-in-time jobs maximization in a permutation flow shop scheduling problem is considered. A mixed integer linear programming model to represent the problem as well as solution approaches based on enumeration and constructive heuristics were proposed and computationally implemented. Instances with up to 10 jobs and five machines are solved by the mathematical model in an acceptable running time (3.3 min on average while the enumeration method consumes, on average, 1.5 s. The 10 constructive heuristics proposed show they are practical especially for large-scale instances (up to 100 jobs and 20 machines, with very good-quality results and efficient running times. The best two heuristics obtain near-optimal solutions, with only 0.6% and 0.8% average relative deviations. They prove to be better than adaptations of the NEH heuristic (well-known for providing very good solutions for makespan minimization in flow shop for the considered problem.

  18. Estimation of distribution algorithm with path relinking for the blocking flow-shop scheduling problem

    Shao, Zhongshi; Pi, Dechang; Shao, Weishi

    2018-05-01

    This article presents an effective estimation of distribution algorithm, named P-EDA, to solve the blocking flow-shop scheduling problem (BFSP) with the makespan criterion. In the P-EDA, a Nawaz-Enscore-Ham (NEH)-based heuristic and the random method are combined to generate the initial population. Based on several superior individuals provided by a modified linear rank selection, a probabilistic model is constructed to describe the probabilistic distribution of the promising solution space. The path relinking technique is incorporated into EDA to avoid blindness of the search and improve the convergence property. A modified referenced local search is designed to enhance the local exploitation. Moreover, a diversity-maintaining scheme is introduced into EDA to avoid deterioration of the population. Finally, the parameters of the proposed P-EDA are calibrated using a design of experiments approach. Simulation results and comparisons with some well-performing algorithms demonstrate the effectiveness of the P-EDA for solving BFSP.

  19. Physician Fee Schedule Search

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This website is designed to provide information on services covered by the Medicare Physician Fee Schedule (MPFS). It provides more than 10,000 physician services,...

  20. Clinical Laboratory Fee Schedule

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Outpatient clinical laboratory services are paid based on a fee schedule in accordance with Section 1833(h) of the Social Security Act. The clinical laboratory fee...

  1. CERN confirms LHC schedule

    2003-01-01

    The CERN Council held its 125th session on 20 June. Highlights of the meeting included confirmation that the LHC is on schedule for a 2007 start-up, and the announcement of a new organizational structure in 2004.

  2. DMEPOS Fee Schedule

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The list contains the fee schedule amounts, floors, and ceilings for all procedure codes and payment category, jurisdication, and short description assigned to each...

  3. Project Schedule Simulation

    Mizouni, Rabeb; Lazarova-Molnar, Sanja

    2015-01-01

    overrun both their budget and time. To improve the quality of initial project plans, we show in this paper the importance of (1) reflecting features’ priorities/risk in task schedules and (2) considering uncertainties related to human factors in plan schedules. To make simulation tasks reflect features......’ priority as well as multimodal team allocation, enhanced project schedules (EPS), where remedial actions scenarios (RAS) are added, were introduced. They reflect potential schedule modifications in case of uncertainties and promote a dynamic sequencing of involved tasks rather than the static conventional...... this document as an instruction set. The electronic file of your paper will be formatted further at Journal of Software. Define all symbols used in the abstract. Do not cite references in the abstract. Do not delete the blank line immediately above the abstract; it sets the footnote at the bottom of this column....

  4. Decentralized Ground Staff Scheduling

    Sørensen, M. D.; Clausen, Jens

    2002-01-01

    scheduling is investigated. The airport terminal is divided into zones, where each zone consists of a set of stands geographically next to each other. Staff is assigned to work in only one zone and the staff scheduling is planned decentralized for each zone. The advantage of this approach is that the staff...... work in a smaller area of the terminal and thus spends less time walking between stands. When planning decentralized the allocation of stands to flights influences the staff scheduling since the workload in a zone depends on which flights are allocated to stands in the zone. Hence solving the problem...... depends on the actual stand allocation but also on the number of zones and the layout of these. A mathematical model of the problem is proposed, which integrates the stand allocation and the staff scheduling. A heuristic solution method is developed and applied on a real case from British Airways, London...

  5. Reactor outage schedule (tentative)

    Walton, R.P.

    1969-11-01

    This single page document is the November 1, 1969 reactor refueling outage schedule for the Hanford Production Reactor. It also contains data on the amounts and types of fuels to be loaded and relocated in the production reactor.

  6. Reactor outage schedule (tentative)

    Walton, R.P.

    1969-10-01

    This single page document is the October 1, 1969 reactor refueling outage schedule for the Hanford Production Reactor. It also contains data on the amounts and types of fuels to be loaded and relocated in the Production Reactor.

  7. Reactor outage schedule (tentative)

    Walton, R.P.

    1969-10-15

    This single page document is the October 15, 1969 reactor refueling outage schedule for the Hanford Production Reactor. It also contains data on the amounts and types of fuels to be loaded and relocated in the Production Reactor.

  8. Reactor outage schedule (tentative)

    Walton, R.P.

    1969-09-15

    This single page document is the September 15, 1969 reactor refueling outage schedule for the Hanford Production Reactor. It also contains data on the amounts and types of fuels to be loaded and relocated in the Production Reactor.

  9. Reactor outage schedule (tentative)

    Walton, R.P.

    1969-12-15

    This single page document is the December 16, 1969 reactor refueling outage schedule for the Hanford Production Reactor. It also contains data on the amounts and types of fuels to be loaded and relocated in the Production reactor.

  10. Reactor outage schedule (tentative)

    Walton, R.P.

    1969-12-01

    This single page document is the December 1, 1969 reactor refueling outage schedule for the Hanford Production Reactor. It also contains data on the amounts and types of fuels to be loaded and relocated in the Production reactor.

  11. Fee Schedules - General Information

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A fee schedule is a complete listing of fees used by Medicare to pay doctors or other providers-suppliers. This comprehensive listing of fee maximums is used to...

  12. CMS Records Schedule

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CMS Records Schedule provides disposition authorizations approved by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) for CMS program-related records...

  13. ATLAS construction schedule

    Kotamaki, M

    The goal during the last few months has been to freeze and baseline as much as possible the schedules of various ATLAS systems and activities. The main motivations for the re-baselining of the schedules have been the new LHC schedule aiming at first collisions in early 2006 and the encountered delays in civil engineering as well as in the production of some of the detectors. The process was started by first preparing a new installation schedule that takes into account all the new external constraints and the new ATLAS staging scenario. The installation schedule version 3 was approved in the March EB and it provides the Ready For Installation (RFI) milestones for each system, i.e. the date when the system should be available for the start of the installation. TCn is now interacting with the systems aiming at a more realistic and resource loaded version 4 before the end of the year. Using the new RFI milestones as driving dates a new summary schedule has been prepared, or is under preparation, for each system....

  14. Planning and scheduling - A schedule's performance

    Whitman, N.M.

    1993-01-01

    Planning and scheduling is a process whose time has come to PSI Energy. With an awareness of the challenges ahead, individuals must look for ways to enhance the corporate competitiveness. Working toward this goal means that each individual has to dedicate themselves to this more competitive corporate environment. Being competitive may be defined as the ability of each employee to add value to the corporation's economic well being. The timely and successful implementation of projects greatly enhances competitiveness. Those projects that do not do well often suffer from lack of proper execution - not for lack of talent or strategic vision. Projects are consumers of resources such as cash and people. They produce a return when completed and will generate a better return when properly completed utilizing proven project management techniques. Completing projects on time, within budget and meeting customer expectations is the way a corporation builds it's future. This paper offers suggestions on implementing planning and scheduling and provides a review of results in the form of management reports

  15. Constraint-based scheduling

    Zweben, Monte

    1993-01-01

    The GERRY scheduling system developed by NASA Ames with assistance from the Lockheed Space Operations Company, and the Lockheed Artificial Intelligence Center, uses a method called constraint-based iterative repair. Using this technique, one encodes both hard rules and preference criteria into data structures called constraints. GERRY repeatedly attempts to improve schedules by seeking repairs for violated constraints. The system provides a general scheduling framework which is being tested on two NASA applications. The larger of the two is the Space Shuttle Ground Processing problem which entails the scheduling of all the inspection, repair, and maintenance tasks required to prepare the orbiter for flight. The other application involves power allocation for the NASA Ames wind tunnels. Here the system will be used to schedule wind tunnel tests with the goal of minimizing power costs. In this paper, we describe the GERRY system and its application to the Space Shuttle problem. We also speculate as to how the system would be used for manufacturing, transportation, and military problems.

  16. SPANR planning and scheduling

    Freund, Richard F.; Braun, Tracy D.; Kussow, Matthew; Godfrey, Michael; Koyama, Terry

    2001-07-01

    SPANR (Schedule, Plan, Assess Networked Resources) is (i) a pre-run, off-line planning and (ii) a runtime, just-in-time scheduling mechanism. It is designed to support primarily commercial applications in that it optimizes throughput rather than individual jobs (unless they have highest priority). Thus it is a tool for a commercial production manager to maximize total work. First the SPANR Planner is presented showing the ability to do predictive 'what-if' planning. It can answer such questions as, (i) what is the overall effect of acquiring new hardware or (ii) what would be the effect of a different scheduler. The ability of the SPANR Planner to formulate in advance tree-trimming strategies is useful in several commercial applications, such as electronic design or pharmaceutical simulations. The SPANR Planner is demonstrated using a variety of benchmarks. The SPANR Runtime Scheduler (RS) is briefly presented. The SPANR RS can provide benefit for several commercial applications, such as airframe design and financial applications. Finally a design is shown whereby SPANR can provide scheduling advice to most resource management systems.

  17. Efficient Scheduling of Scientific Workflows with Energy Reduction Using Novel Discrete Particle Swarm Optimization and Dynamic Voltage Scaling for Computational Grids

    M. Christobel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most significant and the topmost parameters in the real world computing environment is energy. Minimizing energy imposes benefits like reduction in power consumption, decrease in cooling rates of the computing processors, provision of a green environment, and so forth. In fact, computation time and energy are directly proportional to each other and the minimization of computation time may yield a cost effective energy consumption. Proficient scheduling of Bag-of-Tasks in the grid environment ravages in minimum computation time. In this paper, a novel discrete particle swarm optimization (DPSO algorithm based on the particle’s best position (pbDPSO and global best position (gbDPSO is adopted to find the global optimal solution for higher dimensions. This novel DPSO yields better schedule with minimum computation time compared to Earliest Deadline First (EDF and First Come First Serve (FCFS algorithms which comparably reduces energy. Other scheduling parameters, such as job completion ratio and lateness, are also calculated and compared with EDF and FCFS. An energy improvement of up to 28% was obtained when Makespan Conservative Energy Reduction (MCER and Dynamic Voltage Scaling (DVS were used in the proposed DPSO algorithm.

  18. Solving a mathematical model integrating unequal-area facilities layout and part scheduling in a cellular manufacturing system by a genetic algorithm.

    Ebrahimi, Ahmad; Kia, Reza; Komijan, Alireza Rashidi

    2016-01-01

    In this article, a novel integrated mixed-integer nonlinear programming model is presented for designing a cellular manufacturing system (CMS) considering machine layout and part scheduling problems simultaneously as interrelated decisions. The integrated CMS model is formulated to incorporate several design features including part due date, material handling time, operation sequence, processing time, an intra-cell layout of unequal-area facilities, and part scheduling. The objective function is to minimize makespan, tardiness penalties, and material handling costs of inter-cell and intra-cell movements. Two numerical examples are solved by the Lingo software to illustrate the results obtained by the incorporated features. In order to assess the effects and importance of integration of machine layout and part scheduling in designing a CMS, two approaches, sequentially and concurrent are investigated and the improvement resulted from a concurrent approach is revealed. Also, due to the NP-hardness of the integrated model, an efficient genetic algorithm is designed. As a consequence, computational results of this study indicate that the best solutions found by GA are better than the solutions found by B&B in much less time for both sequential and concurrent approaches. Moreover, the comparisons between the objective function values (OFVs) obtained by sequential and concurrent approaches demonstrate that the OFV improvement is averagely around 17 % by GA and 14 % by B&B.

  19. Efficient Scheduling of Scientific Workflows with Energy Reduction Using Novel Discrete Particle Swarm Optimization and Dynamic Voltage Scaling for Computational Grids

    Christobel, M.; Tamil Selvi, S.; Benedict, Shajulin

    2015-01-01

    One of the most significant and the topmost parameters in the real world computing environment is energy. Minimizing energy imposes benefits like reduction in power consumption, decrease in cooling rates of the computing processors, provision of a green environment, and so forth. In fact, computation time and energy are directly proportional to each other and the minimization of computation time may yield a cost effective energy consumption. Proficient scheduling of Bag-of-Tasks in the grid environment ravages in minimum computation time. In this paper, a novel discrete particle swarm optimization (DPSO) algorithm based on the particle's best position (pbDPSO) and global best position (gbDPSO) is adopted to find the global optimal solution for higher dimensions. This novel DPSO yields better schedule with minimum computation time compared to Earliest Deadline First (EDF) and First Come First Serve (FCFS) algorithms which comparably reduces energy. Other scheduling parameters, such as job completion ratio and lateness, are also calculated and compared with EDF and FCFS. An energy improvement of up to 28% was obtained when Makespan Conservative Energy Reduction (MCER) and Dynamic Voltage Scaling (DVS) were used in the proposed DPSO algorithm. PMID:26075296

  20. Estimating exponential scheduling preferences

    Hjorth, Katrine; Börjesson, Maria; Engelson, Leonid

    2015-01-01

    of car drivers' route and mode choice under uncertain travel times. Our analysis exposes some important methodological issues related to complex non-linear scheduling models: One issue is identifying the point in time where the marginal utility of being at the destination becomes larger than the marginal......Different assumptions about travelers' scheduling preferences yield different measures of the cost of travel time variability. Only few forms of scheduling preferences provide non-trivial measures which are additive over links in transport networks where link travel times are arbitrarily...... utility of being at the origin. Another issue is that models with the exponential marginal utility formulation suffer from empirical identification problems. Though our results are not decisive, they partly support the constant-affine specification, in which the value of travel time variability...

  1. Post LS1 schedule

    Lamont, M

    2014-01-01

    The scheduling limits for a typical long year taking into account technical stops, machine development, spe- cial physics runs are presented. An attempt is then made to outline a ten year post LS1 schedule taking into account the disparate requirements outlined in the previous talks in this session. The demands on the planned long shutdowns and the impact of these demands on their proposed length will be discussed. The option of using ion running as a pre-shutdown cool-down period will be addressed.

  2. Automated Scheduling Via Artificial Intelligence

    Biefeld, Eric W.; Cooper, Lynne P.

    1991-01-01

    Artificial-intelligence software that automates scheduling developed in Operations Mission Planner (OMP) research project. Software used in both generation of new schedules and modification of existing schedules in view of changes in tasks and/or available resources. Approach based on iterative refinement. Although project focused upon scheduling of operations of scientific instruments and other equipment aboard spacecraft, also applicable to such terrestrial problems as scheduling production in factory.

  3. CMS multicore scheduling strategy

    Yzquierdo, Antonio Pérez-Calero; Hernández, Jose; Holzman, Burt; Majewski, Krista; McCrea, Alison

    2014-01-01

    In the next years, processor architectures based on much larger numbers of cores will be most likely the model to continue 'Moore's Law' style throughput gains. This not only results in many more jobs in parallel running the LHC Run 1 era monolithic applications, but also the memory requirements of these processes push the workernode architectures to the limit. One solution is parallelizing the application itself, through forking and memory sharing or through threaded frameworks. CMS is following all of these approaches and has a comprehensive strategy to schedule multicore jobs on the GRID based on the glideinWMS submission infrastructure. The main component of the scheduling strategy, a pilot-based model with dynamic partitioning of resources that allows the transition to multicore or whole-node scheduling without disallowing the use of single-core jobs, is described. This contribution also presents the experiences made with the proposed multicore scheduling schema and gives an outlook of further developments working towards the restart of the LHC in 2015.

  4. Harmonious personnel scheduling

    Fijn van Draat, Laurens; Post, Gerhard F.; Veltman, Bart; Winkelhuijzen, Wessel

    2006-01-01

    The area of personnel scheduling is very broad. Here we focus on the ‘shift assignment problem’. Our aim is to discuss how ORTEC HARMONY handles this planning problem. In particular we go into the structure of the optimization engine in ORTEC HARMONY, which uses techniques from genetic algorithms,

  5. Hybrid job shop scheduling

    Schutten, Johannes M.J.

    1995-01-01

    We consider the problem of scheduling jobs in a hybrid job shop. We use the term 'hybrid' to indicate that we consider a lot of extensions of the classic job shop, such as transportation times, multiple resources, and setup times. The Shifting Bottleneck procedure can be generalized to deal with

  6. Practical job shop scheduling

    Schutten, Johannes M.J.

    1998-01-01

    The Shifting Bottleneck procedure is an intuitive and reasonably good approximation algorithm for the notoriously difficult classical job shop scheduling problem. The principle of decomposing a classical job shop problem into a series of single-machine problems can also easily be applied to job shop

  7. "Creative" Work Schedules.

    Blai, Boris

    Many creative or flexible work scheduling options are becoming available to the many working parents, students, handicapped persons, elderly individuals, and others who are either unable or unwilling to work a customary 40-hour work week. These options may be broadly categorized as either restructured or reduced work time options. The three main…

  8. Algoritmo genético aplicado a la programación en talleres de maquinado//Genetic algorithm applied to scheduling in machine shops

    José Eduardo Márquez-Delgado

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se utiliza la metaheurística nombrada algoritmo genético, para dos variantes típicas de problemas de planificación presentes en un taller de maquinado de piezas: las variantes flujo general y flujo regular, y se ha seleccionado la minimización del tiempo de finalización de todos los trabajos ocamino máximo, como objetivo a optimizar en un plan de trabajo. Este problema es considerado de difícil solución y es típico de la optimización combinatoria. Los resultados demuestran la calidad de las soluciones encontradas en correspondencia con el tiempo de cómputo empleado, al ser comparados conproblemas clásicos reportados por otros autores. La representación propuesta de cada cromosoma genera el universo completo de soluciones factibles, donde es posible encontrar valores óptimos globales de solución y cumple con las restricciones del problema.Palabras claves: algoritmo genético, cromosomas, flujo general, flujo regular, planificación, camino máximo._____________________________________________________________________________AbstractIn this paper we use the metaheuristic named genetic algorithm, for two typical variants of problems of scheduling present in a in a machine shop parts: the variant job shop and flow shop, and the minimization of the time of finalization of all the works has been selected, good known as makespan, as objective tooptimize in a work schedule. This problem is considered to be a difficult solution and is typical in combinatory optimization. The results demonstrate the quality of the solutions found in correspondence with the time of used computation, when being compared with classic problems reported by other authors.The proposed representation of each chromosome generates the complete universe of feasible solutions, where it is possible to find global good values of solution and it fulfills the restrictions of the problem.Key words: genetic algorithm, chromosomes, flow shop, job shop

  9. Scheduling techniques in the Request Oriented Scheduling Engine (ROSE)

    Zoch, David R.

    1991-01-01

    Scheduling techniques in the ROSE are presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: agenda; ROSE summary and history; NCC-ROSE task goals; accomplishments; ROSE timeline manager; scheduling concerns; current and ROSE approaches; initial scheduling; BFSSE overview and example; and summary.

  10. Location-based Scheduling

    Andersson, Niclas; Christensen, Knud

    on the market. However, CPM is primarily an activity based method that takes the activity as the unit of focus and there is criticism raised, specifically in the case of construction projects, on the method for deficient management of construction work and continuous flow of resources. To seek solutions...... to the identified limitations of the CPM method, an alternative planning and scheduling methodology that includes locations is tested. Location-based Scheduling (LBS) implies a shift in focus, from primarily the activities to the flow of work through the various locations of the project, i.e. the building. LBS uses...... the graphical presentation technique of Line-of-balance, which is adapted for planning and management of work-flows that facilitates resources to perform their work without interruptions caused by other resources working with other activities in the same location. As such, LBS and Lean Construction share...

  11. Modelling altered fractionation schedules

    Fowler, J.F.

    1993-01-01

    The author discusses the conflicting requirements of hyperfractionation and accelerated fractionation used in radiotherapy, and the development of computer modelling to predict how to obtain an optimum of tumour cell kill without exceeding normal-tissue tolerance. The present trend is to shorten hyperfractionated schedules from 6 or 7 weeks to give overall times of 4 or 5 weeks as in new schedules by Herskovic et al (1992) and Harari (1992). Very high doses are given, much higher than can be given when ultrashort schedules such as CHART (12 days) are used. Computer modelling has suggested that optimum overall times, to yield maximum cell kill in tumours ((α/β = 10 Gy) for a constant level of late complications (α/β = 3 Gy) would be X or X-1 weeks, where X is the doubling time of the tumour cells in days (Fowler 1990). For median doubling times of about 5 days, overall times of 4 or 5 weeks should be ideal. (U.K.)

  12. Estimating exponential scheduling preferences

    Hjorth, Katrine; Börjesson, Maria; Engelson, Leonid

    Extended abstract Choice of departure time is a travel choice dimension that transportation planners often need to forecast in appraisal. A traveller may shift departure time in response to changes in expected travel time or travel time variability (TTV) or in response to time-differentiated cong......Extended abstract Choice of departure time is a travel choice dimension that transportation planners often need to forecast in appraisal. A traveller may shift departure time in response to changes in expected travel time or travel time variability (TTV) or in response to time...... from the underlying scheduling preferences (Noland and Small, 1995, Bates et al., 2001, Fosgerau and Karlström, 2010). The scheduling preferences can be formally represented as time-dependent rates of utility derived at different locations. Assuming that the travellers are rational and choose departure......’ departure time choice. The assumption underlying the scheduling approach is that the traveller rationally maximises her total utility obtained during a period of time. The total utility depends on time of departure from the origin and time of arrival to the destination. The total utility is usually assumed...

  13. An efficient genetic algorithm for a hybrid flow shop scheduling problem with time lags and sequence-dependent setup time

    Farahmand-Mehr Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a hybrid flow shop scheduling problem with a new approach considering time lags and sequence-dependent setup time in realistic situations is presented. Since few works have been implemented in this field, the necessity of finding better solutions is a motivation to extend heuristic or meta-heuristic algorithms. This type of production system is found in industries such as food processing, chemical, textile, metallurgical, printed circuit board, and automobile manufacturing. A mixed integer linear programming (MILP model is proposed to minimize the makespan. Since this problem is known as NP-Hard class, a meta-heuristic algorithm, named Genetic Algorithm (GA, and three heuristic algorithms (Johnson, SPTCH and Palmer are proposed. Numerical experiments of different sizes are implemented to evaluate the performance of presented mathematical programming model and the designed GA in compare to heuristic algorithms and a benchmark algorithm. Computational results indicate that the designed GA can produce near optimal solutions in a short computational time for different size problems.

  14. A short-term operating room surgery scheduling problem integrating multiple nurses roster constraints.

    Xiang, Wei; Yin, Jiao; Lim, Gino

    2015-02-01

    Operating room (OR) surgery scheduling determines the individual surgery's operation start time and assigns the required resources to each surgery over a schedule period, considering several constraints related to a complete surgery flow and the multiple resources involved. This task plays a decisive role in providing timely treatments for the patients while balancing hospital resource utilization. The originality of the present study is to integrate the surgery scheduling problem with real-life nurse roster constraints such as their role, specialty, qualification and availability. This article proposes a mathematical model and an ant colony optimization (ACO) approach to efficiently solve such surgery scheduling problems. A modified ACO algorithm with a two-level ant graph model is developed to solve such combinatorial optimization problems because of its computational complexity. The outer ant graph represents surgeries, while the inner graph is a dynamic resource graph. Three types of pheromones, i.e. sequence-related, surgery-related, and resource-related pheromone, fitting for a two-level model are defined. The iteration-best and feasible update strategy and local pheromone update rules are adopted to emphasize the information related to the good solution in makespan, and the balanced utilization of resources as well. The performance of the proposed ACO algorithm is then evaluated using the test cases from (1) the published literature data with complete nurse roster constraints, and 2) the real data collected from a hospital in China. The scheduling results using the proposed ACO approach are compared with the test case from both the literature and the real life hospital scheduling. Comparison results with the literature shows that the proposed ACO approach has (1) an 1.5-h reduction in end time; (2) a reduction in variation of resources' working time, i.e. 25% for ORs, 50% for nurses in shift 1 and 86% for nurses in shift 2; (3) an 0.25h reduction in

  15. NRC comprehensive records disposition schedule

    1982-07-01

    Effective January 1, 1982, NRC will institute records retention and disposal practices in accordance with the approved Comprehensive Records Disposition Schedule (CRDS). CRDS is comprised of NRC Schedules (NRCS) 1 to 4 which apply to the agency's program or substantive records and General Records Schedules (GRS) 1 to 22 which apply to housekeeping or facilitative records. The schedules are assembled functionally/organizationally to facilitate their use. Preceding the records descriptions and disposition instructions for both NRCS and GRS, there are brief statements on the organizational units which accumulate the records in each functional area, and other information regarding the schedules' applicability

  16. A Practical and Robust Execution Time-Frame Procedure for the Multi-Mode Resource-Constrained Project Scheduling Problem with Minimal and Maximal Time Lags

    Angela Hsiang-Ling Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Modeling and optimizing organizational processes, such as the one represented by the Resource-Constrained Project Scheduling Problem (RCPSP, improve outcomes. Based on assumptions and simplification, this model tackles the allocation of resources so that organizations can continue to generate profits and reinvest in future growth. Nonetheless, despite all of the research dedicated to solving the RCPSP and its multi-mode variations, there is no standardized procedure that can guide project management practitioners in their scheduling tasks. This is mainly because many of the proposed approaches are either based on unrealistic/oversimplified scenarios or they propose solution procedures not easily applicable or even feasible in real-life situations. In this study, we solve a more true-to-life and complex model, Multimode RCPSP with minimal and maximal time lags (MRCPSP/max. The complexity of the model solved is presented, and the practicality of the proposed approach is justified depending on only information that is available for every project regardless of its industrial context. The results confirm that it is possible to determine a robust makespan and to calculate an execution time-frame with gaps lower than 11% between their lower and upper bounds. In addition, in many instances, the solved lower bound obtained was equal to the best-known optimum.

  17. Multimode Resource-Constrained Multiple Project Scheduling Problem under Fuzzy Random Environment and Its Application to a Large Scale Hydropower Construction Project

    Xu, Jiuping

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an extension of the multimode resource-constrained project scheduling problem for a large scale construction project where multiple parallel projects and a fuzzy random environment are considered. By taking into account the most typical goals in project management, a cost/weighted makespan/quality trade-off optimization model is constructed. To deal with the uncertainties, a hybrid crisp approach is used to transform the fuzzy random parameters into fuzzy variables that are subsequently defuzzified using an expected value operator with an optimistic-pessimistic index. Then a combinatorial-priority-based hybrid particle swarm optimization algorithm is developed to solve the proposed model, where the combinatorial particle swarm optimization and priority-based particle swarm optimization are designed to assign modes to activities and to schedule activities, respectively. Finally, the results and analysis of a practical example at a large scale hydropower construction project are presented to demonstrate the practicality and efficiency of the proposed model and optimization method. PMID:24550708

  18. Multimode resource-constrained multiple project scheduling problem under fuzzy random environment and its application to a large scale hydropower construction project.

    Xu, Jiuping; Feng, Cuiying

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an extension of the multimode resource-constrained project scheduling problem for a large scale construction project where multiple parallel projects and a fuzzy random environment are considered. By taking into account the most typical goals in project management, a cost/weighted makespan/quality trade-off optimization model is constructed. To deal with the uncertainties, a hybrid crisp approach is used to transform the fuzzy random parameters into fuzzy variables that are subsequently defuzzified using an expected value operator with an optimistic-pessimistic index. Then a combinatorial-priority-based hybrid particle swarm optimization algorithm is developed to solve the proposed model, where the combinatorial particle swarm optimization and priority-based particle swarm optimization are designed to assign modes to activities and to schedule activities, respectively. Finally, the results and analysis of a practical example at a large scale hydropower construction project are presented to demonstrate the practicality and efficiency of the proposed model and optimization method.

  19. Practical quantum appointment scheduling

    Touchette, Dave; Lovitz, Benjamin; Lütkenhaus, Norbert

    2018-04-01

    We propose a protocol based on coherent states and linear optics operations for solving the appointment-scheduling problem. Our main protocol leaks strictly less information about each party's input than the optimal classical protocol, even when considering experimental errors. Along with the ability to generate constant-amplitude coherent states over two modes, this protocol requires the ability to transfer these modes back-and-forth between the two parties multiple times with very low losses. The implementation requirements are thus still challenging. Along the way, we develop tools to study quantum information cost of interactive protocols in the finite regime.

  20. Scheduling theory, algorithms, and systems

    Pinedo, Michael L

    2016-01-01

    This new edition of the well-established text Scheduling: Theory, Algorithms, and Systems provides an up-to-date coverage of important theoretical models in the scheduling literature as well as important scheduling problems that appear in the real world. The accompanying website includes supplementary material in the form of slide-shows from industry as well as movies that show actual implementations of scheduling systems. The main structure of the book, as per previous editions, consists of three parts. The first part focuses on deterministic scheduling and the related combinatorial problems. The second part covers probabilistic scheduling models; in this part it is assumed that processing times and other problem data are random and not known in advance. The third part deals with scheduling in practice; it covers heuristics that are popular with practitioners and discusses system design and implementation issues. All three parts of this new edition have been revamped, streamlined, and extended. The reference...

  1. A New Approach to Solve Flowshop Scheduling Problems by Artificial Immune Systems = Akış Tipi Çizelgeleme Problemlerinin Yapay Bağışıklık Sistemleri ile Çözümünde Yeni Bir Yaklaşım

    Alper DÖYEN

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The n-job, m-machine flow shop scheduling problem is one of the most general job scheduling problems. This study deals with the criteria of makespan minimization for the flow shop scheduling problem. Artificial Immune Systems (AIS are new intelligent problem solving techniques that are being used in scheduling problems. AIS can be defined as computational systems inspired by theoretical immunology, observed immune functions, principles and mechanisms in order to solve problems. In this research, a computational method based on clonal selection principle and affinity maturation mechanisms of the immune response is used. The operation parameters of meta-heuristics have an important role on the quality of the solution. Thus, a generic systematic procedure which bases on a multi-step experimental design approach for determining the efficient system parameters for AIS is presented. Experimental results show that, the artificial immune system algorithm is more efficient than both the classical heuristic flow shop scheduling algorithms and simulated annealing.

  2. Perceptions of randomized security schedules.

    Scurich, Nicholas; John, Richard S

    2014-04-01

    Security of infrastructure is a major concern. Traditional security schedules are unable to provide omnipresent coverage; consequently, adversaries can exploit predictable vulnerabilities to their advantage. Randomized security schedules, which randomly deploy security measures, overcome these limitations, but public perceptions of such schedules have not been examined. In this experiment, participants were asked to make a choice between attending a venue that employed a traditional (i.e., search everyone) or a random (i.e., a probability of being searched) security schedule. The absolute probability of detecting contraband was manipulated (i.e., 1/10, 1/4, 1/2) but equivalent between the two schedule types. In general, participants were indifferent to either security schedule, regardless of the probability of detection. The randomized schedule was deemed more convenient, but the traditional schedule was considered fairer and safer. There were no differences between traditional and random schedule in terms of perceived effectiveness or deterrence. Policy implications for the implementation and utilization of randomized schedules are discussed. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  3. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules : 2007 General Rate Schedule Provisions.

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-11-01

    This schedule is available for the contract purchase of Firm Power to be used within the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Priority Firm (PF) Power may be purchased by public bodies, cooperatives, and Federal agencies for resale to ultimate consumers, for direct consumption, and for Construction, Test and Start-Up, and Station Service. Rates in this schedule are in effect beginning October 1, 2006, and apply to purchases under requirements Firm Power sales contracts for a three-year period. The Slice Product is only available for public bodies and cooperatives who have signed Slice contracts for the FY 2002-2011 period. Utilities participating in the Residential Exchange Program (REP) under Section 5(c) of the Northwest Power Act may purchase Priority Firm Power pursuant to the Residential Exchange Program. Rates under contracts that contain charges that escalate based on BPA's Priority Firm Power rates shall be based on the three-year rates listed in this rate schedule in addition to applicable transmission charges. This rate schedule supersedes the PF-02 rate schedule, which went into effect October 1, 2001. Sales under the PF-07 rate schedule are subject to BPA's 2007 General Rate Schedule Provisions (2007 GRSPs). Products available under this rate schedule are defined in the 2007 GRSPs. For sales under this rate schedule, bills shall be rendered and payments due pursuant to BPA's 2007 GRSPs and billing process.

  4. Rostering and Task Scheduling

    Dohn, Anders Høeg

    . The rostering process is non-trivial and especially when service is required around the clock, rostering may involve considerable effort from a designated planner. Therefore, in order to minimize costs and overstaffing, to maximize the utilization of available staff, and to ensure a high level of satisfaction...... as possible to the available staff, while respecting various requirements and rules and while including possible transportation time between tasks. This thesis presents a number of industrial applications in rostering and task scheduling. The applications exist within various contexts in health care....... Mathematical and logic-based models are presented for the problems considered. Novel components are added to existing models and the modeling decisions are justified. In one case, the model is solved by a simple, but efficient greedy construction heuristic. In the remaining cases, column generation is applied...

  5. Scheduling the powering tests

    Barbero-Soto, E; Casas-Lino, M P; Fernandez-Robles, C; Foraz, K; Pojer, M; Saban, R; Schmidt, R; Solfaroli-Camillocci, M; Vergara-Fernandez, A

    2008-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider is now entering in its final phase before receiving beam, and the activities at CERN between 2007 and 2008 have shifted from installation work to the commissioning of the technical systems ("hardware commissioning"). Due to the unprecedented complexity of this machine, all the systems are or will be tested as far as possible before the cool-down starts. Systems are firstly tested individually before being globally tested together. The architecture of LHC, which is partitioned into eight cryogenically and electrically independent sectors, allows the commissioning on a sector by sector basis. When a sector reaches nominal cryogenic conditions, commissioning of the magnet powering system to nominal current for all magnets can be performed. This paper briefly describes the different activities to be performed during the powering tests of the superconducting magnet system and presents the scheduling issues raised by co-activities as well as the management of resources.

  6. Sport Tournament Automated Scheduling System

    Raof R. A. A; Sudin S.; Mahrom N.; Rosli A. N. C

    2018-01-01

    The organizer of sport events often facing problems such as wrong calculations of marks and scores, as well as difficult to create a good and reliable schedule. Most of the time, the issues about the level of integrity of committee members and also issues about errors made by human came into the picture. Therefore, the development of sport tournament automated scheduling system is proposed. The system will be able to automatically generate the tournament schedule as well as automatically calc...

  7. NRC comprehensive records disposition schedule

    1992-03-01

    Title 44 United States Code, ''Public Printing and Documents,'' regulations cited in the General Services Administration's (GSA) ''Federal Information Resources Management Regulations'' (FIRMR), Part 201-9, ''Creation, Maintenance, and Use of Records,'' and regulation issued by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) in 36 CFR Chapter XII, Subchapter B, ''Records Management,'' require each agency to prepare and issue a comprehensive records disposition schedule that contains the NARA approved records disposition schedules for records unique to the agency and contains the NARA's General Records Schedules for records common to several or all agencies. The approved records disposition schedules specify the appropriate duration of retention and the final disposition for records created or maintained by the NRC. NUREG-0910, Rev. 2, contains ''NRC's Comprehensive Records Disposition Schedule,'' and the original authorized approved citation numbers issued by NARA. Rev. 2 totally reorganizes the records schedules from a functional arrangement to an arrangement by the host office. A subject index and a conversion table have also been developed for the NRC schedules to allow staff to identify the new schedule numbers easily and to improve their ability to locate applicable schedules

  8. Schedules of Controlled Substances: Temporary Placement of 4-Fluoroisobutyryl Fentanyl into Schedule I. Temporary scheduling order.

    2017-05-03

    The Administrator of the Drug Enforcement Administration is issuing this temporary scheduling order to schedule the synthetic opioid, N-(4-fluorophenyl)-N-(1-phenethylpiperidin-4-yl)isobutyramide (4-fluoroisobutyryl fentanyl or para-fluoroisobutyryl fentanyl), and its isomers, esters, ethers, salts and salts of isomers, esters, and ethers, into schedule I pursuant to the temporary scheduling provisions of the Controlled Substances Act. This action is based on a finding by the Administrator that the placement of 4-fluoroisobutyryl fentanyl into schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act is necessary to avoid an imminent hazard to the public safety. As a result of this order, the regulatory controls and administrative, civil, and criminal sanctions applicable to schedule I controlled substances will be imposed on persons who handle (manufacture, distribute, reverse distribute, import, export, engage in research, conduct instructional activities or chemical analysis, or possess), or propose to handle, 4-fluoroisobutyryl fentanyl.

  9. Practical principles in appointment scheduling

    Kuiper, A.; Mandjes, M.

    2015-01-01

    Appointment schedules aim at achieving a proper balance between the conflicting interests of the service provider and her clients: a primary objective of the service provider is to fully utilize her available time, whereas clients want to avoid excessive waiting times. Setting up schedules that

  10. Nontraditional work schedules for pharmacists.

    Mahaney, Lynnae; Sanborn, Michael; Alexander, Emily

    2008-11-15

    Nontraditional work schedules for pharmacists at three institutions are described. The demand for pharmacists and health care in general continues to increase, yet significant material changes are occurring in the pharmacy work force. These changing demographics, coupled with historical vacancy rates and turnover trends for pharmacy staff, require an increased emphasis on workplace changes that can improve staff recruitment and retention. At William S. Middleton Memorial Veterans Affairs Hospital in Madison, Wisconsin, creative pharmacist work schedules and roles are now mainstays to the recruitment and retention of staff. The major challenge that such scheduling presents is the 8 hours needed to prepare a six-week schedule. Baylor Medical Center at Grapevine in Dallas, Texas, has a total of 45 pharmacy employees, and slightly less than half of the 24.5 full-time-equivalent staff work full-time, with most preferring to work one, two, or three days per week. As long as the coverage needs of the facility are met, Envision Telepharmacy in Alpine, Texas, allows almost any scheduling arrangement preferred by individual pharmacists or the pharmacist group covering the facility. Staffing involves a great variety of shift lengths and intervals, with shifts ranging from 2 to 10 hours. Pharmacy leaders must be increasingly aware of opportunities to provide staff with unique scheduling and operational enhancements that can provide for a better work-life balance. Compressed workweeks, job-sharing, and team scheduling were the most common types of alternative work schedules implemented at three different institutions.

  11. Modeling the Cray memory scheduler

    Wickham, K.L.; Litteer, G.L.

    1992-04-01

    This report documents the results of a project to evaluate low cost modeling and simulation tools when applied to modeling the Cray memory scheduler. The specific tool used is described and the basics of the memory scheduler are covered. Results of simulations using the model are discussed and a favorable recommendation is made to make more use of this inexpensive technology.

  12. Flexible Work Schedules. ERIC Digest.

    Kerka, Sandra

    Flexible work schedules are one response to changes in the composition of the work force, new life-styles, and changes in work attitudes. Types of alternative work schedules are part-time and temporary employment, job sharing, and flextime. Part-time workers are a diverse group--women, the very young, and older near-retirees. Although part-time…

  13. AP1000 construction schedule

    Winters, J.W.

    2001-01-01

    Westinghouse performed this study as part of EPRI interest in advancing the use of computer aided processes to reduce the cost of nuclear power plants. EPRI believed that if one could relate appropriate portions of an advanced light water reactor plant model to activities in its construction sequence, and this relationship could be portrayed visually, then optimization of the construction sequence could be developed as never before. By seeing a 3-D representation of the plant at any point in its construction sequence, more informed decisions can be made on the feasibility or attractiveness of follow on or parallel steps in the sequence. The 3-D representation of construction as a function of time (4-D) could also increase the confidence of potential investors concerning the viability of the schedule and the plant ultimate cost. This study performed by Westinghouse confirmed that it is useful to be able to visualize a plant construction in 3-D as a function of time in order to optimize the sequence of construction activities. (author)

  14. TECHNICAL COORDINATION SCHEDULE & INTEGRATION

    W. Zeuner

    Introduction The endgame of CMS installation in the underground cavern is in full swing, with several major milestones having been passed since the last CMS week. The Tracker was installed inside the Vactank just before the CERN end-of-year shutdown. Shortly after the reopening in 2008, the two remaining endcap disks, YE-2 and YE-1, were lowered, marking the completion of eight years of assembly in the surface building SX5. The remaining tasks, before the detector can be closed for the Cosmic Run At Four Tesla (CRAFT), are the installation of the thermal shields, the cabling of the negative endcap, the cabling of the tracker and the beam pipe installation. In addition to these installation tasks, a test closure of the positive endcap is planned just before the installation of the central beam pipe. The schedule is tight and complicated but the goal to close CMS by the end of May for a cosmic test with magnetic field remains feasible. Safety With all large components now being underground, the shortage...

  15. Gain scheduling using the Youla parameterization

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Stoustrup, Jakob

    1999-01-01

    Gain scheduling controllers are considered in this paper. The gain scheduling problem where the scheduling parameter vector cannot be measured directly, but needs to be estimated is considered. An estimation of the scheduling vector has been derived by using the Youla parameterization. The use...... in connection with H_inf gain scheduling controllers....

  16. Constraint-based scheduling applying constraint programming to scheduling problems

    Baptiste, Philippe; Nuijten, Wim

    2001-01-01

    Constraint Programming is a problem-solving paradigm that establishes a clear distinction between two pivotal aspects of a problem: (1) a precise definition of the constraints that define the problem to be solved and (2) the algorithms and heuristics enabling the selection of decisions to solve the problem. It is because of these capabilities that Constraint Programming is increasingly being employed as a problem-solving tool to solve scheduling problems. Hence the development of Constraint-Based Scheduling as a field of study. The aim of this book is to provide an overview of the most widely used Constraint-Based Scheduling techniques. Following the principles of Constraint Programming, the book consists of three distinct parts: The first chapter introduces the basic principles of Constraint Programming and provides a model of the constraints that are the most often encountered in scheduling problems. Chapters 2, 3, 4, and 5 are focused on the propagation of resource constraints, which usually are responsibl...

  17. A synergetic combination of small and large neighborhood schemes in developing an effective procedure for solving the job shop scheduling problem.

    Amirghasemi, Mehrdad; Zamani, Reza

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an effective procedure for solving the job shop problem. Synergistically combining small and large neighborhood schemes, the procedure consists of four components, namely (i) a construction method for generating semi-active schedules by a forward-backward mechanism, (ii) a local search for manipulating a small neighborhood structure guided by a tabu list, (iii) a feedback-based mechanism for perturbing the solutions generated, and (iv) a very large-neighborhood local search guided by a forward-backward shifting bottleneck method. The combination of shifting bottleneck mechanism and tabu list is used as a means of the manipulation of neighborhood structures, and the perturbation mechanism employed diversifies the search. A feedback mechanism, called repeat-check, detects consequent repeats and ignites a perturbation when the total number of consecutive repeats for two identical makespan values reaches a given threshold. The results of extensive computational experiments on the benchmark instances indicate that the combination of these four components is synergetic, in the sense that they collectively make the procedure fast and robust.

  18. Solving a supply chain scheduling problem with non-identical job sizes and release times by applying a novel effective heuristic algorithm

    Pei, Jun; Liu, Xinbao; Pardalos, Panos M.; Fan, Wenjuan; Wang, Ling; Yang, Shanlin

    2016-03-01

    Motivated by applications in manufacturing industry, we consider a supply chain scheduling problem, where each job is characterised by non-identical sizes, different release times and unequal processing times. The objective is to minimise the makespan by making batching and sequencing decisions. The problem is formalised as a mixed integer programming model and proved to be strongly NP-hard. Some structural properties are presented for both the general case and a special case. Based on these properties, a lower bound is derived, and a novel two-phase heuristic (TP-H) is developed to solve the problem, which guarantees to obtain a worst case performance ratio of ?. Computational experiments with a set of different sizes of random instances are conducted to evaluate the proposed approach TP-H, which is superior to another two heuristics proposed in the literature. Furthermore, the experimental results indicate that TP-H can effectively and efficiently solve large-size problems in a reasonable time.

  19. Immunization Schedules for Infants and Children

    ... ACIP Vaccination Recommendations Why Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics Immunization Schedule for Infants and Children (Birth through 6 ... any questions please talk to your doctor. 2018 Immunization Schedule Recommended Vaccinations for Infants and Children Schedule ...

  20. Operating Theatre Planning and Scheduling.

    Hans, Elias W.; Vanberkel, P.T.; Hall, R.

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter we present a number of approaches to operating theatre planning and scheduling. We organize these approaches hierarchically which serves to illustrate the breadth of problems confronted by researchers. At each hierarchicalplanning level we describe common problems, solution

  1. Schedule Sales Query Raw Data

    General Services Administration — Schedule Sales Query presents sales volume figures as reported to GSA by contractors. The reports are generated as quarterly reports for the current year and the...

  2. Multiagent scheduling models and algorithms

    Agnetis, Alessandro; Gawiejnowicz, Stanisław; Pacciarelli, Dario; Soukhal, Ameur

    2014-01-01

    This book presents multi-agent scheduling models in which subsets of jobs sharing the same resources are evaluated by different criteria. It discusses complexity results, approximation schemes, heuristics and exact algorithms.

  3. Executive Schedule C System (ESCS)

    Office of Personnel Management — Used to store information on Federal employees in the Senior Executive Service (SES) and appointed employees in the Schedule C System. Every four years, just after...

  4. Future aircraft networks and schedules

    Shu, Yan

    2011-07-01

    Because of the importance of air transportation scheduling, the emergence of small aircraft and the vision of future fuel-efficient aircraft, this thesis has focused on the study of aircraft scheduling and network design involving multiple types of aircraft and flight services. It develops models and solution algorithms for the schedule design problem and analyzes the computational results. First, based on the current development of small aircraft and on-demand flight services, this thesis expands a business model for integrating on-demand flight services with the traditional scheduled flight services. This thesis proposes a three-step approach to the design of aircraft schedules and networks from scratch under the model. In the first step, both a frequency assignment model for scheduled flights that incorporates a passenger path choice model and a frequency assignment model for on-demand flights that incorporates a passenger mode choice model are created. In the second step, a rough fleet assignment model that determines a set of flight legs, each of which is assigned an aircraft type and a rough departure time is constructed. In the third step, a timetable model that determines an exact departure time for each flight leg is developed. Based on the models proposed in the three steps, this thesis creates schedule design instances that involve almost all the major airports and markets in the United States. The instances of the frequency assignment model created in this thesis are large-scale non-convex mixed-integer programming problems, and this dissertation develops an overall network structure and proposes iterative algorithms for solving these instances. The instances of both the rough fleet assignment model and the timetable model created in this thesis are large-scale mixed-integer programming problems, and this dissertation develops subproblem schemes for solving these instances. Based on these solution algorithms, this dissertation also presents

  5. Construction schedules slack time minimizing

    Krzemiński, Michał

    2017-07-01

    The article presents two copyright models for minimizing downtime working brigades. Models have been developed for construction schedules performed using the method of work uniform. Application of flow shop models is possible and useful for the implementation of large objects, which can be divided into plots. The article also presents a condition describing gives which model should be used, as well as a brief example of optimization schedule. The optimization results confirm the legitimacy of the work on the newly-developed models.

  6. NRC comprehensive records disposition schedule

    1983-05-01

    Effective January 1, 1982, NRC will institute records retention and disposal practives in accordance with the approved Comprehensive Records Disposition Schedule (CRDS). CRDS is comprised of NRC Schedules (NRCS) 1 to 4 which apply to the agency's program or substantive records and General Records Schedules (GRS) 1 to 24 which apply to housekeeping or facilitative records. NRCS-I applies to records common to all or most NRC offices; NRCS-II applies to program records as found in the various offices of the Commission, Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Panel, and the Atomic Safety and Licensing Appeal Panel; NRCS-III applies to records accumulated by the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards; and NRCS-IV applies to records accumulated in the various NRC offices under the Executive Director for Operations. The schedules are assembled functionally/organizationally to facilitate their use. Preceding the records descriptions and disposition instructions for both NRCS and GRS, there are brief statements on the organizational units which accumulate the records in each functional area, and other information regarding the schedules' applicability

  7. Multiuser switched diversity scheduling schemes

    Shaqfeh, Mohammad; Alnuweiri, Hussein M.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2012-01-01

    Multiuser switched-diversity scheduling schemes were recently proposed in order to overcome the heavy feedback requirements of conventional opportunistic scheduling schemes by applying a threshold-based, distributed, and ordered scheduling mechanism. The main idea behind these schemes is that slight reduction in the prospected multiuser diversity gains is an acceptable trade-off for great savings in terms of required channel-state-information feedback messages. In this work, we characterize the achievable rate region of multiuser switched diversity systems and compare it with the rate region of full feedback multiuser diversity systems. We propose also a novel proportional fair multiuser switched-based scheduling scheme and we demonstrate that it can be optimized using a practical and distributed method to obtain the feedback thresholds. We finally demonstrate by numerical examples that switched-diversity scheduling schemes operate within 0.3 bits/sec/Hz from the ultimate network capacity of full feedback systems in Rayleigh fading conditions. © 2012 IEEE.

  8. Sport Tournament Automated Scheduling System

    Raof R. A. A

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The organizer of sport events often facing problems such as wrong calculations of marks and scores, as well as difficult to create a good and reliable schedule. Most of the time, the issues about the level of integrity of committee members and also issues about errors made by human came into the picture. Therefore, the development of sport tournament automated scheduling system is proposed. The system will be able to automatically generate the tournament schedule as well as automatically calculating the scores of each tournament. The problem of scheduling the matches of a round robin and knock-out phase in a sport league are given focus. The problem is defined formally and the computational complexity is being noted. A solution algorithm is presented using a two-step approach. The first step is the creation of a tournament pattern and is based on known graph-theoretic method. The second one is an assignment problem and it is solved using a constraint based depth-first branch and bound procedure that assigns actual teams to numbers in the pattern. As a result, the scheduling process and knock down phase become easy for the tournament organizer and at the same time increasing the level of reliability.

  9. Multiuser switched diversity scheduling schemes

    Shaqfeh, Mohammad

    2012-09-01

    Multiuser switched-diversity scheduling schemes were recently proposed in order to overcome the heavy feedback requirements of conventional opportunistic scheduling schemes by applying a threshold-based, distributed, and ordered scheduling mechanism. The main idea behind these schemes is that slight reduction in the prospected multiuser diversity gains is an acceptable trade-off for great savings in terms of required channel-state-information feedback messages. In this work, we characterize the achievable rate region of multiuser switched diversity systems and compare it with the rate region of full feedback multiuser diversity systems. We propose also a novel proportional fair multiuser switched-based scheduling scheme and we demonstrate that it can be optimized using a practical and distributed method to obtain the feedback thresholds. We finally demonstrate by numerical examples that switched-diversity scheduling schemes operate within 0.3 bits/sec/Hz from the ultimate network capacity of full feedback systems in Rayleigh fading conditions. © 2012 IEEE.

  10. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    Bisping, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned schedule for routine sample collection for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Ground-Water Monitoring Project. The routine sampling plan for the SESP has been revised this year to reflect changing site operations and priorities. Some sampling previously performed at least annually has been reduced in frequency, and some new sampling to be performed at a less than annual frequency has been added. Therefore, the SESP schedule reflects sampling to be conducted in calendar year 1991 as well as future years. The ground-water sampling schedule is for 1991. This schedule is subject to modification during the year in response to changes in Site operation, program requirements, and the nature of the observed results. Operational limitations such as weather, mechanical failures, sample availability, etc., may also require schedule modifications. Changes will be documented in the respective project files, but this plan will not be reissued. The purpose of these monitoring projects is to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford evirons

  11. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    Bisping, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned schedule for routine sample collection for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Ground-Water Monitoring Project. The routine sampling plan for the SESP has been revised this year to reflect changing site operations and priorities. Some sampling previously performed at least annually has been reduced in frequency, and some new sampling to be performed at a less than annual frequency has been added. Therefore, the SESP schedule reflects sampling to be conducted in calendar year 1991 as well as future years. The ground-water sampling schedule is for 1991. This schedule is subject to modification during the year in response to changes in Site operation, program requirements, and the nature of the observed results. Operational limitations such as weather, mechanical failures, sample availability, etc., may also require schedule modifications. Changes will be documented in the respective project files, but this plan will not be reissued. The purpose of these monitoring projects is to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford evirons.

  12. Schedulability Analysis for Java Finalizers

    Bøgholm, Thomas; Hansen, Rene Rydhof; Søndergaard, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Java finalizers perform clean-up and finalisation of objects at garbage collection time. In real-time Java profiles the use of finalizers is either discouraged (RTSJ, Ravenscar Java) or even disallowed (JSR-302), mainly because of the unpredictability of finalizers and in particular their impact...... on the schedulability analysis. In this paper we show that a controlled scoped memory model results in a structured and predictable execution of finalizers, more reminiscent of C++ destructors than Java finalizers. Furthermore, we incorporate finalizers into a (conservative) schedulability analysis for Predictable Java...... programs. Finally, we extend the SARTS tool for automated schedulability analysis of Java bytecode programs to handle finalizers in a fully automated way....

  13. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    Bisping, L.E.

    1997-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)(a) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1997 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project. In addition, Section 3.0, Biota, also reflects a rotating collection schedule identifying the year a specific sample is scheduled for collection. The purpose of these monitoring projects is to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. The sampling methods will be the same as those described in the Environmental Monitoring Plan, US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, DOE/RL91-50, Rev. 1, US Department of Energy, Richland, Washington

  14. Endogenous scheduling preferences and congestion

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Small, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    and leisure, but agglomeration economies at home and at work lead to scheduling preferences forming endogenously. Using bottleneck congestion technology, we obtain an equilibrium queuing pattern consistent with a general version of the Vickrey bottleneck model. However, the policy implications are different....... Compared to the predictions of an analyst observing untolled equilibrium and taking scheduling preferences as exogenous, we find that both the optimal capacity and the marginal external cost of congestion have changed. The benefits of tolling are greater, and the optimal time varying toll is different....

  15. Artificial intelligence approaches to astronomical observation scheduling

    Johnston, Mark D.; Miller, Glenn

    1988-01-01

    Automated scheduling will play an increasing role in future ground- and space-based observatory operations. Due to the complexity of the problem, artificial intelligence technology currently offers the greatest potential for the development of scheduling tools with sufficient power and flexibility to handle realistic scheduling situations. Summarized here are the main features of the observatory scheduling problem, how artificial intelligence (AI) techniques can be applied, and recent progress in AI scheduling for Hubble Space Telescope.

  16. Lifetime Improvement by Battery Scheduling

    Jongerden, M.R.; Schmitt, Jens B.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the lifetime of their batteries. For devices that have multiple batteries or that have the option to connect an extra battery, battery scheduling, thereby exploiting the recovery properties of the batteries, can help to extend the system lifetime. Due to

  17. Lifetime improvement by battery scheduling

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the lifetime of its battery. For devices that have multiple batteries or that have the option to connect an extra battery, battery scheduling, thereby exploiting the recovery properties of the batteries, can help to extend the system lifetime. Due to the

  18. How useful are preemptive schedules?

    Brucker, P.; Heitmann, S.; Hurink, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    Machine scheduling admits two options to process jobs. In a preemptive mode processing may be interrupted and resumed later even on a different machine. In a nonpreemptive mode interruptions are not allowed. Usually, the possibility to preempt jobs leads to better performance values. However, also

  19. Interaction in activity location scheduling

    Tabak, V.; Vries, de B.; Dijkstra, J.; Jessurun, A.J.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the interaction in activity location scheduling which is the main subject of an ongoing research project called "User Simulation of Space Utilization". The aim of this research project is to develop an overall model for the simulation of human movement and utilization of

  20. Scheduling with target start times

    Hoogeveen, J.A.; Velde, van de S.L.; Klein Haneveld, W.K.; Vrieze, O.J.; Kallenberg, L.C.M.

    1997-01-01

    We address the single-machine problem of scheduling n independent jobs subject to target start times. Target start times are essentially release times that may be violated at a certain cost. The goal is to minimize an objective function that is composed of total completion time and maximum

  1. Stochastic scheduling on unrelated machines

    Skutella, Martin; Sviridenko, Maxim; Uetz, Marc Jochen

    2013-01-01

    Two important characteristics encountered in many real-world scheduling problems are heterogeneous machines/processors and a certain degree of uncertainty about the actual sizes of jobs. The first characteristic entails machine dependent processing times of jobs and is captured by the classical

  2. Flexible Schedules and Shift Work.

    Beers, Thomas M.

    2000-01-01

    Flexible work hours have gained prominence, as more than 25 million workers (27.6% of all full-time workers) can now vary their schedules. However, there has been little change since the mid-1980s in the proportion who work a shift other than a regular daytime shift. (JOW)

  3. Scheduling periodic tasks with slack

    Korst, J.H.M.; Aarts, E.H.L.; Lenstra, J.K.

    1997-01-01

    We consider the problem of nonpreemptively scheduling periodic tasks on a minimum number of identical processors, assuming that some slack is allowed in the time between successive executions of a periodic task. We prove that the problem is NP-hard in the strong sense. Necessary and sufficient

  4. Toward Realistic Acquisition Schedule Estimates

    2016-04-30

    replace earlier versions of the F/A-18. Joint and International Nature At the time of JSF conception, there was a clear preference at the highest levels...ALPHABET SOUP ” (Aboulafia, 2015) OF STUDIES AND CONCEPTS • … MERGED INTO JAST • … WHICH EVOLVED TO JSF • WELL-KNOWN COST AND SCHEDULE

  5. Analyzing NPS Scheduling Using OSIRIS

    1993-03-01

    School TEACHER SCHEDULE BLOCKS REPORT Date: 2/19/93 Period Name ID Term Days 1234 Adragna , Joe 170401 1 F xx Agrawal, Brij 120101 1 F xx Almquist...LOAD REPORT Date: 3/18/93 Total Max Consec Total Teacher ID Term Classes Classes Stud Adragna , Joe 170401 1 1 1 3 Agrawal, Brij 120101 1 2 2 98 Aiello

  6. Development of Watch Schedule Using Rules Approach

    Jurkevicius, Darius; Vasilecas, Olegas

    The software for schedule creation and optimization solves a difficult, important and practical problem. The proposed solution is an online employee portal where administrator users can create and manage watch schedules and employee requests. Each employee can login with his/her own account and see his/her assignments, manage requests, etc. Employees set as administrators can perform the employee scheduling online, manage requests, etc. This scheduling software allows users not only to see the initial and optimized watch schedule in a simple and understandable form, but also to create special rules and criteria and input their business. The system using rules automatically will generate watch schedule.

  7. Project management with dynamic scheduling baseline scheduling, risk analysis and project control

    Vanhoucke, Mario

    2013-01-01

    The topic of this book is known as dynamic scheduling, and is used to refer to three dimensions of project management and scheduling: the construction of a baseline schedule and the analysis of a project schedule's risk as preparation of the project control phase during project progress. This dynamic scheduling point of view implicitly assumes that the usability of a project's baseline schedule is rather limited and only acts as a point of reference in the project life cycle.

  8. The Vessel Schedule Recovery Problem

    Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Plum, Christian Edinger Munk; Vaaben, Bo

    Maritime transportation is the backbone of world trade and is accountable for around 3% of the worlds CO2 emissions. We present the Vessel Schedule Recovery Problem (VSRP) to evaluate a given disruption scenario and to select a recovery action balancing the trade off between increased bunker cons...... consumption and the impact on the remaining network and the customer service level. The model is applied to 4 real cases from Maersk Line. Solutions are comparable or superior to those chosen by operations managers. Cost savings of up to 58% may be achieved.......Maritime transportation is the backbone of world trade and is accountable for around 3% of the worlds CO2 emissions. We present the Vessel Schedule Recovery Problem (VSRP) to evaluate a given disruption scenario and to select a recovery action balancing the trade off between increased bunker...

  9. CMS Planning and Scheduling System

    Kotamaki, M

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes the procedures and the system to build and maintain the schedules needed to manage time, resources, and progress of the CMS project. The system is based on the decomposition of the project into work packages, which can be each considered as a complete project with its own structure. The system promotes the distribution of the decision making and responsibilities to lower levels in the organisation by providing a state-of-the-art system to formalise the external commitments of the work packages without limiting their ability to modify their internal schedules to best meet their commitments. The system lets the project management focus on the interfaces between the work packages and alerts the management immediately if a conflict arises. The proposed system simplifies the planning and management process and eliminates the need for a large, centralised project management system.

  10. 75 FR 42831 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 1065, Schedule C, Schedule D, Schedule K-1...

    2010-07-22

    .../or continuing information collections, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law... Income, Credits, Deductions and Other Items), Schedule L (Balance Sheets per Books), Schedule M-1 (Reconciliation of Income (Loss) per Books With Income (Loss) per Return)), Schedule M-2 (Analysis of Partners...

  11. Preemptive scheduling in overloaded systems

    Chrobak, M.; Epstein, L.; Noga, J.; Sgall, Jiří; van Stee, R.; Tichý, Tomáš; Vakhania, N.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 1 (2003), s. 183-197 ISSN 0022-0000 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/01/1195; GA MŠk ME 476; GA AV ČR IAA1019901; GA MŠk LN00A056 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1019905; CEZ:AV0Z1019905 Keywords : scheduling * online algorithms * benefit Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.795, year: 2003

  12. WCET Analysis for Preemptive Scheduling

    Altmeyer, Sebastian; Gebhard, Gernot

    2008-01-01

    Hard real-time systems induce strict constraints on the timing of the task set. Validation of these timing constraints is thus a major challenge during the design of such a system. Whereas the derivation of timing guarantees must already be considered complex if tasks are running to completion, it gets even more complex if tasks are scheduled preemptively -- especially due to caches, deployed to improve the average performance. In this paper we propose a new method to compu...

  13. Scheduling Maintenance Jobs in Networks

    Abed, Fidaa; Chen, Lin; Disser, Yann; Groß, Martin; Megow, Nicole; Meißner, Julie; Richter, Alexander T.; Rischke, Roman

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the problem of scheduling the maintenance of edges in a network, motivated by the goal of minimizing outages in transportation or telecommunication networks. We focus on maintaining connectivity between two nodes over time; for the special case of path networks, this is related to the problem of minimizing the busy time of machines. We show that the problem can be solved in polynomial time in arbitrary networks if preemption is allowed. If preemption is restricted to integral t...

  14. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    Bisping, L.E.

    1995-02-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1994 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project. Samples are routinely collected for the SESP and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. The responsibility for monitoring onsite drinking water falls outside the scope of the SESP. PNL conducts the drinking water monitoring project concurrent with the SESP to promote efficiency and consistency, utilize expertise developed over the years, and reduce costs associated with management, procedure development, data management, quality control, and reporting. The ground-water sampling schedule identifies ground-water sampling .events used by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site. Sampling is indicated as annual, semi-annual, quarterly, or monthly in the sampling schedule. Some samples are collected and analyzed as part of ground-water monitoring and characterization programs at Hanford (e.g. Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), or Operational). The number of samples planned by other programs are identified in the sampling schedule by a number in the analysis column and a project designation in the Cosample column. Well sampling events may be merged to avoid redundancy in cases where sampling is planned by both-environmental surveillance and another program

  15. Broadcast scheduling for mobile advertising

    De Reyck, B.; Degraeve, Z.

    2003-01-01

    We describe a broadcast scheduling system developed for a precision marketing firm specialized in location-sensitive permission-based mobile advertising using SMS (Short Message Service) text messaging. Text messages containing advertisements were sent to registered customers when they were shopping in one of two shopping centers in the vicinity of London. The ads typically contained a limited-time promotional offer. The company's problem was deciding which ads to send out to which customers ...

  16. Schedule of the nuclear program

    Heigl, F.

    1977-01-01

    The lecure tries to explain the main phases which must be passed to establish nuclear power plants, the feasibility phase, preconstruction and construction phase. Each phase consists of a lot of activities which are commented. Further the lecture tries to give some ideas of durances and dependence between the phases or activities to get a complete time schedule of the realization of a nuclear power project. (HP) [de

  17. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    Bisping, L.E.

    1995-02-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1994 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project. Samples are routinely collected for the SESP and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. The responsibility for monitoring onsite drinking water falls outside the scope of the SESP. PNL conducts the drinking water monitoring project concurrent with the SESP to promote efficiency and consistency, utilize expertise developed over the years, and reduce costs associated with management, procedure development, data management, quality control, and reporting. The ground-water sampling schedule identifies ground-water sampling .events used by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site. Sampling is indicated as annual, semi-annual, quarterly, or monthly in the sampling schedule. Some samples are collected and analyzed as part of ground-water monitoring and characterization programs at Hanford (e.g. Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), or Operational). The number of samples planned by other programs are identified in the sampling schedule by a number in the analysis column and a project designation in the Cosample column. Well sampling events may be merged to avoid redundancy in cases where sampling is planned by both-environmental surveillance and another program.

  18. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    Bisping, L.E.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). Samples are routinely collected and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, ground water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. This document contains the planned schedule for routine sample collection for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project.

  19. Guidelines of Decommissioning Schedule Establishment

    Oh, Jae Yong; Yun, Taesik; Kim, Younggook; Kim, Hee-Geun [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Decommissioning has recently become an issue highlighted in Korea due to the Permanent Shutdown (PS) of Kori-1 plant. Since Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power (KHNP) Company decided the PS of Kori-1 instead of further continued operation, Kori-1 will be the first decommissioning plant of the commercial reactors in Korea. Korean regulatory authority demands Initial Decommissioning Plan (IDP) for all the plants in operation and under construction. In addition, decommissioning should be considered for the completion of the life cycle of NPPs. To date, Korea has no experience regarding decommissioning of the commercial reactor and a lot of uncertainties will be expected due to its site-specific factors. However, optimized decommissioning process schedule must be indispensable in the safety and economic efficiency of the project. Differed from USA, Korea has no experience and know-hows of the operation and site management for decommissioning. Hence, in Korea, establishment of decommissioning schedule has to give more weight to safety than precedent cases. More economical and rational schedule will be composed by collecting and analyzing the experience data and site-specific data and information as the decommissioning progresses. In a long-range outlook, KHNP having capability of NPP decommissioning will try to decommissioning business in Korea and foreign countries.

  20. Shiftwork Scheduling for the 1990s.

    Coleman, Richard M.

    1989-01-01

    The author discusses the problems of scheduling shift work, touching on such topics as employee desires, health requirements, and business needs. He presents a method for developing shift schedules that addresses these three areas. Implementation hints are also provided. (CH)

  1. Robust and Flexible Scheduling with Evolutionary Computation

    Jensen, Mikkel T.

    Over the last ten years, there have been numerous applications of evolutionary algorithms to a variety of scheduling problems. Like most other research on heuristic scheduling, the primary aim of the research has been on deterministic formulations of the problems. This is in contrast to real world...... scheduling problems which are usually not deterministic. Usually at the time the schedule is made some information about the problem and processing environment is available, but this information is uncertain and likely to change during schedule execution. Changes frequently encountered in scheduling...... environments include machine breakdowns, uncertain processing times, workers getting sick, materials being delayed and the appearance of new jobs. These possible environmental changes mean that a schedule which was optimal for the information available at the time of scheduling can end up being highly...

  2. Pittsburgh International Airport - Scheduled Passenger Traffic

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Here you can find Pittsburgh International Airport’s Monthly Scheduled Traffic Reports. Each of these reports contain a year-over-year (YOY) analysis of scheduled...

  3. DME Prosthetics Orthotics, and Supplies Fee Schedule

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Durable Medical Equipment, Prosthetics-Orthotics, and Supplies Fee Schedule. The list contains the fee schedule amounts, floors, and ceilings for all procedure codes...

  4. GSA eLibrary Schedules and Contracts

    General Services Administration — GSA eLibrary (formerly Schedules e-Library) is the online source for the latest contract award information for: GSA Schedules; Department of Veterans Affairs (VA)...

  5. Interactive Anticipatory Scheduling for Two Military Applications

    Howe, Adele

    2003-01-01

    ...; these models partially explain what makes some job shop scheduling problems difficult. For the second, several algorithms for Air Force Satellite Control Network scheduling have been compared on historical and recent data...

  6. How should periods without social interaction be scheduled? Children's preference for practical schedules of positive reinforcement.

    Luczynski, Kevin C; Hanley, Gregory P

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have shown that children prefer contingent reinforcement (CR) rather than yoked noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) when continuous reinforcement is programmed in the CR schedule. Preference has not, however, been evaluated for practical schedules that involve CR. In Study 1, we assessed 5 children's preference for obtaining social interaction via a multiple schedule (periods of fixed-ratio 1 reinforcement alternating with periods of extinction), a briefly signaled delayed reinforcement schedule, and an NCR schedule. The multiple schedule promoted the most efficient level of responding. In general, children chose to experience the multiple schedule and avoided the delay and NCR schedules, indicating that they preferred multiple schedules as the means to arrange practical schedules of social interaction. In Study 2, we evaluated potential controlling variables that influenced 1 child's preference for the multiple schedule and found that the strong positive contingency was the primary variable. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  7. Network scheduling at Belene NPP construction site

    Matveev, A.

    2010-01-01

    Four types of schedules differing in the level of their detail are singled out to enhance the efficiency of Belene NPP Project implementation planning and monitoring: Level 1 Schedule–Summary Integrated Overall Time Schedule (SIOTS) is an appendix to EPC Contract. The main purpose of SIOTS is the large scale presentation of the current information on the Project implementation. Level 2 Schedule–Integrated Overall Time Schedule (IOTS)is the contract schedule for the Contractor (ASE JSC) and their subcontractors.The principal purpose of IOTS is the work progress planning and monitoring, the analysis of the effect of activities implementation upon the progress of the Project as a whole. IOTS is the reporting schedule at the Employer –Contractor level. Level 3 Schedules, Detail Time Schedules(DTS) are developed by those who actually perform the work and are agreed upon with Atomstroyexport JSC.The main purpose of DTS is the detail planning of Atomstroyexport subcontractor's activities. DTSare the reporting schedules at the level of Contractor-Subcontractor. Level 4 Schedules are the High Detail Time Schedules (HDTS), which are the day-to-day plans of work implementation and are developed, as a rule, for a week's time period.Each lower level time schedule details the activities of the higher level time schedule

  8. Vehicle and driver scheduling for public transit.

    2009-08-01

    The problem of driver scheduling involves the construction of a legal set of shifts, including allowance : of overtime, which cover the blocks in a particular vehicle schedule. A shift is the work scheduled to be performed by : a driver in one day, w...

  9. An improved scheduling algorithm for linear networks

    Bader, Ahmed; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Ayadi, Yassin

    2017-01-01

    In accordance with the present disclosure, embodiments of an exemplary scheduling controller module or device implement an improved scheduling process such that the targeted reduction in schedule length can be achieve while incurring minimal energy penalty by allowing for a large rate (or duration) selection alphabet.

  10. 40 CFR 141.702 - Sampling schedules.

    2010-07-01

    ... serving at least 10,000 people must submit their sampling schedule for the initial round of source water... submitting the sampling schedule that EPA approves. (3) Systems serving fewer than 10,000 people must submit... analytical result for a scheduled sampling date due to equipment failure, loss of or damage to the sample...

  11. An improved scheduling algorithm for linear networks

    Bader, Ahmed

    2017-02-09

    In accordance with the present disclosure, embodiments of an exemplary scheduling controller module or device implement an improved scheduling process such that the targeted reduction in schedule length can be achieve while incurring minimal energy penalty by allowing for a large rate (or duration) selection alphabet.

  12. 77 FR 41258 - FOIA Fee Schedule Update

    2012-07-13

    ... DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES SAFETY BOARD 10 CFR Part 1703 FOIA Fee Schedule Update AGENCY: Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board. ACTION: Establishment of FOIA Fee Schedule. SUMMARY: The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board is publishing its Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Fee Schedule Update pursuant to...

  13. 76 FR 43819 - FOIA Fee Schedule Update

    2011-07-22

    ... DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES SAFETY BOARD 10 CFR Part 1703 FOIA Fee Schedule Update AGENCY: Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board. ACTION: Establishment of FOIA Fee Schedule. SUMMARY: The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board is publishing its Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Fee Schedule Update pursuant to...

  14. 75 FR 7411 - Schedule of Water Charges

    2010-02-19

    ... DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION 18 CFR Part 410 Schedule of Water Charges AGENCY: Delaware River... Administrative Manual--Part III--Basin Regulations--Water Supply Charges to revise the schedule of water charges... commenter and the subject line ``Schedule of Water Charges.'' FOR FURTHER INFORMATION, CONTACT: Please...

  15. Mechanisms for scheduling games with selfish players

    Hoeksma, R.P.

    2015-01-01

    Many challenges in operations research involve optimization. In particular, scheduling treats the optimal planning of tasks. This thesis focuses on machine scheduling models, where a number of tasks, called jobs, need to be scheduled on one or more machines. The outcome is determined by which job is

  16. DESIGN OF A HYPERHEURISTIC FOR PRODUCTION SCHEDULING IN JOB SHOP ENVIRONMENTS DISEÑO DE UNA HIPERHEURISTICA PARA LA PROGRAMACION DE LA PRODUCCIÓN EN AMBIENTES JOB SHOP

    Omar Danilo Castrillón

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work is to diminish the total process time (Makespan and to increase the machine process time, by diminishing the idle time in a job-shop environment. Through the design of a hyper-heuristic based on an ant colony and genetic algorithms. This work is developed in two phases: in the first phase, a hyper-heuristic identification and definition is carried out for sequencing processes in job shop environments. In the second phase, the system effectiveness in the traditional production programming is shown. In the investigation project, an enterprise from the metal mechanic sector was chosen, where by means of a combination of an ant colony and genetic algorithms, the optimal route for an order is scheduled, achieving the optimization or suboptimization of its respective total process time in an upper percentage of 95%.El objetivo del presente trabajo es disminuir el tiempo de proceso (Makespan e incrementar el tiempo de trabajo de las maquinas, diminuyendo el tiempo de ocio en ambientes de Job Shop, a través del diseño de una Hiper-heurística basada en colonia de hormigas y algoritmos genéticos. Este trabajo se desarrolla en dos etapas: en la primera se realiza la definición e identificación de una Hiper-heurística para la secuenciación de procesos en ambientes Job shop. En la segunda etapa, es mostrada la efectividad del sistema en la programación de la producción. En el proyecto de investigación, se seleccionó una empresa del sector metalmecánico, donde por medio de una combinación de colonia de hormigas y algoritmos genéticos, se programa la ruta óptima para un pedido, logrando la optimización o suboptimización de su respectivo tiempo total de proceso en un porcentaje superior al 95%.

  17. It Is Not Just about the Schedule: Key Factors in Effective Reference Desk Scheduling and Management

    Sciammarella, Susan; Fernandes, Maria Isabel; McKay, Devin

    2008-01-01

    Reference desk scheduling is one of the most challenging tasks in the organizational structure of an academic library. The ability to turn this challenge into a workable and effective function lies with the scheduler and indirectly the cooperation of all librarians scheduled for reference desk service. It is the scheduler's sensitivity to such…

  18. Cure Schedule for Stycast 2651/Catalyst 9.

    Kropka, Jamie Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); McCoy, John D. [New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States)

    2017-11-01

    The Emerson & Cuming technical data sheet (TDS) for Stycast 2651/Catalyst 9 lists three alternate cure schedules for the material, each of which would result in a different state of reaction and different material properties. Here, a cure schedule that attains full reaction of the material is defined. The use of this cure schedule will eliminate variance in material properties due to changes in the cure state of the material, and the cure schedule will serve as the method to make material prior to characterizing properties. The following recommendation uses one of the schedules within the TDS and adds a “post cure” to obtain full reaction.

  19. Optimizing Unmanned Aircraft System Scheduling

    2008-06-01

    ASC-U uses a deterministic algorithm to optimize over a given finite time horizon to obtain near-optimal UAS mission area assignments. ASC-U...the details of the algorithm . We set an upper bound on the total number of schedules that can be generated, so as not to create unsolvable ILPs. We...COL_MISSION_NAME)) If Trim( CStr (rMissions(iRow, COL_MISSION_REQUIRED))) <> "" Then If CLng(rMissions(iRow, COL_MISSION_REQUIRED)) > CLng

  20. A System for Automatically Generating Scheduling Heuristics

    Morris, Robert

    1996-01-01

    The goal of this research is to improve the performance of automated schedulers by designing and implementing an algorithm by automatically generating heuristics by selecting a schedule. The particular application selected by applying this method solves the problem of scheduling telescope observations, and is called the Associate Principal Astronomer. The input to the APA scheduler is a set of observation requests submitted by one or more astronomers. Each observation request specifies an observation program as well as scheduling constraints and preferences associated with the program. The scheduler employs greedy heuristic search to synthesize a schedule that satisfies all hard constraints of the domain and achieves a good score with respect to soft constraints expressed as an objective function established by an astronomer-user.

  1. Routine environmental monitoring schedule, calendar year 1995

    Schmidt, J.W.; Markes, B.M.; McKinney, S.M.

    1994-12-01

    This document provides Bechtel Hanford, Inc. (BHI) and Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) a schedule of monitoring and sampling routines for the Operational Environmental Monitoring (OEM) program during calendar year (CY) 1995. Every attempt will be made to consistently follow this schedule; any deviation from this schedule will be documented by an internal memorandum (DSI) explaining the reason for the deviation. The DSI will be issued by the scheduled performing organization and directed to Near-Field Monitoring. The survey frequencies for particular sites are determined by the technical judgment of Near-Field Monitoring and may depend on the site history, radiological status, use and general conditions. Additional surveys may be requested at irregular frequencies if conditions warrant. All radioactive wastes sites are scheduled to be surveyed at least annually. Any newly discovered wastes sites not documented by this schedule will be included in the revised schedule for CY 1995

  2. Improved Harmony Search Algorithm for Truck Scheduling Problem in Multiple-Door Cross-Docking Systems

    Zhanzhong Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The key of realizing the cross docking is to design the joint of inbound trucks and outbound trucks, so a proper sequence of trucks will make the cross-docking system much more efficient and need less makespan. A cross-docking system is proposed with multiple receiving and shipping dock doors. The objective is to find the best door assignments and the sequences of trucks in the principle of products distribution to minimize the total makespan of cross docking. To solve the problem that is regarded as a mixed integer linear programming (MILP model, three metaheuristics, namely, harmony search (HS, improved harmony search (IHS, and genetic algorithm (GA, are proposed. Furthermore, the fixed parameters are optimized by Taguchi experiments to improve the accuracy of solutions further. Finally, several numerical examples are put forward to evaluate the performances of proposed algorithms.

  3. Schedule optimization study implementation plan

    1993-11-01

    This Implementation Plan is intended to provide a basis for improvements in the conduct of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program at Hanford. The Plan is based on the findings of the Schedule Optimization Study (SOS) team which was convened for two weeks in September 1992 at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Operations Office (RL). The need for the study arose out of a schedule dispute regarding the submission of the 1100-EM-1 Operable Unit (OU) Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Work Plan. The SOS team was comprised of independent professionals from other federal agencies and the private sector experienced in environmental restoration within the federal system. The objective of the team was to examine reasons for the lengthy RI/FS process and recommend ways to expedite it. The SOS team issued their Final Report in December 1992. The report found the most serious impediments to cleanup relate to a series of management and policy issues which are within the control of the three parties managing and monitoring Hanford -- the DOE, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the State of Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology). The SOS Report identified the following eight cross-cutting issues as the root of major impediments to the Hanford Site cleanup. Each of these eight issues is quoted from the SOS Report followed by a brief, general description of the proposed approach being developed

  4. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    Bisping, L.E.

    1994-02-01

    This document contains the planned 1994 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project. Samples are routinely collected for the SESP and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. The responsibility for monitoring the onsite drinking water falls outside the scope of the SESP. The Hanford Environmental Health Foundation is responsible for monitoring the nonradiological parameters as defined in the National Drinking Water Standards while PNL conducts the radiological monitoring of the onsite drinking water. PNL conducts the drinking water monitoring project concurrent with the SESP to promote efficiency and consistency, utilize the expertise developed over the years, and reduce costs associated with management, procedure development, data management, quality control and reporting. The ground-water sampling schedule identifies ground-water sampling events used by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site

  5. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    Bisping, L.E.

    1994-02-01

    This document contains the planned 1994 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project. Samples are routinely collected for the SESP and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. The responsibility for monitoring the onsite drinking water falls outside the scope of the SESP. The Hanford Environmental Health Foundation is responsible for monitoring the nonradiological parameters as defined in the National Drinking Water Standards while PNL conducts the radiological monitoring of the onsite drinking water. PNL conducts the drinking water monitoring project concurrent with the SESP to promote efficiency and consistency, utilize the expertise developed over the years, and reduce costs associated with management, procedure development, data management, quality control and reporting. The ground-water sampling schedule identifies ground-water sampling events used by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site.

  6. Planning construction of integrative schedule management for nuclear power project

    Zeng Zhenglin; Wang Wenying; Peng Fei

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces the planning construction of integrative schedule management for Nuclear Power Project. It details schedule management system and the requirement of schedulers and the mode of three schedule management flats. And analysis it combing with the implementation of construction water and all special schedules before FCD to further propose the improving and researching direction for the integrative schedule management. (authors)

  7. A Formal Product-Line Engineering Approach for Schedulers

    Orhan, Güner; Aksit, Mehmet; Rensink, Arend; Jololian, Leon; Robbins, David E.; Fernandes, Steven L.

    2017-01-01

    Scheduling techniques have been applied to a large category of software systems, such as, processor scheduling in operating systems, car scheduling in elevator systems, facility scheduling at airports, antenna scheduling in radar systems, scheduling of events, control signals and data in

  8. The CHI 2013 interactive schedule

    Satyanarayan, Arvind; Strazzulla, Daniel; Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted

    2013-01-01

    CHI 2013 offers over 500 separate events including paper presentations, panels, courses, case studies and special interest groups. Given the size of the conference, it is no longer practical to host live summaries of these events. Instead, a 30-second Video Preview summary of each event is availa......CHI 2013 offers over 500 separate events including paper presentations, panels, courses, case studies and special interest groups. Given the size of the conference, it is no longer practical to host live summaries of these events. Instead, a 30-second Video Preview summary of each event...... is available. The CHI'13 Interactive Schedule helps attendees navigate this wealth of video content in order to identify events they would like to attend. It consists of a number of large display screens throughout the conference venue which cycle through a video playlist of events. Attendees can interact...

  9. The ASDEX Upgrade discharge schedule

    Neu, G.; Engelhardt, K.; Raupp, G.; Treutterer, W.; Zasche, D.; Zehetbauer, T.

    2007-01-01

    ASDEX Upgrade's recently commissioned discharge control system (DCS) marks the transition from a traditional programmed system to a highly flexible 'data driven' one. The allocation of application processes (APs) to controllers, the interconnection of APs through uniquely named signals, and AP control parameter values are all defined as data, and can easily be adapted to the requirements of a particular discharge. The data is laid down in a set of XML documents which APs request via HTTP from a configuration server before a discharge. The use of XML allows for easy parsing, and structural validation through (XSD) schemas. The central input to the configuration process is the discharge schedule (DS), which embodies the dynamic behaviour of a planned discharge as reference trajectories grouped in segments, concatenated through transition conditions. Editing, generation and validation tools, and version control through CVS allow for efficient management of DSs

  10. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    Bisping, L E

    1992-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned schedule for routine sample collection for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Ground-Water Monitoring Project. Samples for radiological analyses include Air-Particulate Filter, gases and vapor; Water/Columbia River, Onsite Pond, Spring, Irrigation, and Drinking; Foodstuffs/Animal Products including Whole Milk, Poultry and Eggs, and Beef; Foodstuffs/Produce including Leafy Vegetables, Vegetables, and Fruit; Foodstuffs/Farm Products including Wine, Wheat and Alfalfa; Wildlife; Soil; Vegetation; and Sediment. Direct Radiation Measurements include Terrestrial Locations, Columbia River Shoreline Locations, and Onsite Roadway, Railway and Aerial, Radiation Surveys.

  11. Planning and Scheduling of Airline Operations

    İlkay ORHAN

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The Turkish Civil Aviation sector has grown at a rate of 53 % between the years 2002-2008 owing to countrywide economical developments and some removed restrictions in the aviation field. Successful international companies in the sector use advanced computer-supported solution methods for their planning and scheduling problems. These methods have been providing significant competitive advantages to those companies. There are four major scheduling and planning problems in the airline sector: flight scheduling, aircraft scheduling, crew scheduling and disruptions management. These aforementioned scheduling and planning problems faced by all airline companies in the airline sector were examined in detail. Studies reveal that companies using the advanced methods might gain significant cost reductions. However, even then, the time required for solving large scale problems may not satisfy the decision quality desired by decision makers. In such cases, using modern decision methods integrated with advanced technologies offer companies an opportunity for significant cost-advantages.

  12. Optimization of Hierarchically Scheduled Heterogeneous Embedded Systems

    Pop, Traian; Pop, Paul; Eles, Petru

    2005-01-01

    We present an approach to the analysis and optimization of heterogeneous distributed embedded systems. The systems are heterogeneous not only in terms of hardware components, but also in terms of communication protocols and scheduling policies. When several scheduling policies share a resource......, they are organized in a hierarchy. In this paper, we address design problems that are characteristic to such hierarchically scheduled systems: assignment of scheduling policies to tasks, mapping of tasks to hardware components, and the scheduling of the activities. We present algorithms for solving these problems....... Our heuristics are able to find schedulable implementations under limited resources, achieving an efficient utilization of the system. The developed algorithms are evaluated using extensive experiments and a real-life example....

  13. Multiple quay cranes scheduling for double cycling in container terminals.

    Chu, Yanling; Zhang, Xiaoju; Yang, Zhongzhen

    2017-01-01

    Double cycling is an efficient tool to increase the efficiency of quay crane (QC) in container terminals. In this paper, an optimization model for double cycling is developed to optimize the operation sequence of multiple QCs. The objective is to minimize the makespan of the ship handling operation considering the ship balance constraint. To solve the model, an algorithm based on Lagrangian relaxation is designed. Finally, we compare the efficiency of the Lagrangian relaxation based heuristic with the branch-and-bound method and a genetic algorithm using instances of different sizes. The results of numerical experiments indicate that the proposed model can effectively reduce the unloading and loading times of QCs. The effects of the ship balance constraint are more notable when the number of QCs is high.

  14. Multiple quay cranes scheduling for double cycling in container terminals.

    Yanling Chu

    Full Text Available Double cycling is an efficient tool to increase the efficiency of quay crane (QC in container terminals. In this paper, an optimization model for double cycling is developed to optimize the operation sequence of multiple QCs. The objective is to minimize the makespan of the ship handling operation considering the ship balance constraint. To solve the model, an algorithm based on Lagrangian relaxation is designed. Finally, we compare the efficiency of the Lagrangian relaxation based heuristic with the branch-and-bound method and a genetic algorithm using instances of different sizes. The results of numerical experiments indicate that the proposed model can effectively reduce the unloading and loading times of QCs. The effects of the ship balance constraint are more notable when the number of QCs is high.

  15. On Coding of Scheduling Information in OFDM

    Gunnarsson, Fredrik; Moosavi, Reza; Eriksson, Jonas; Larsson, Erik G.; Wiberg, Niklas; Frenger, Pål

    2009-01-01

    Control signaling strategies for scheduling information in cellular OFDM systems are studied. A single-cell multiuser system model is formulated that provides system capacity estimates accounting for the signaling overhead. Different scheduling granularities are considered, including the one used in the specifications for the 3G Long Term Evolution (LTE). A greedy scheduling method is assumed, where each resource is assigned to the user for which it can support the highest number of bits. The...

  16. Management of Temporal Constraints for Factory Scheduling.

    1987-06-01

    consistency of scheduling decisions were implemented in both the ISIS [Fox 84] and SOJA [LePape 85a] scheduling systems. More recent work with the...kinds of time propagation systems: the symbolic and the numeric ones. Symbolic systems combine relationships with a temporal logic a la Allen [Allen 81...maintains consistency by narrowing time windows associated with activities as decisions are made, and SOJA [LePape 85b] guarantees a schedule’s

  17. Cost effective shift schedules enhance utility operations

    Coleman, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    This article describes how new shift scheduling concepts can save utility operations millions of dollars every year and yet maintain safety and improve employee morale. The key to scheduling is to define and match the work load. This includes discretionary as well as daily, weekly, and yearly core work loads. In most power plants the overall work load (including maintenance, operations, materials handling, etc.) on day shift is greater than on other shifts, hence an unbalanced schedule would be appropriate

  18. Trustable Virtual Machine Scheduling in a Cloud

    Hermenier , Fabien; Henrio , Ludovic

    2017-01-01

    International audience; In an Infrastructure As A Service (IaaS) cloud, the scheduler deploys VMs to servers according to service level objectives (SLOs). Clients and service providers must both trust the infrastructure. In particular they must be sure that the VM scheduler takes decisions that are consistent with its advertised behaviour. The difficulties to master every theoretical and practical aspects of a VM scheduler implementation leads however to faulty behaviours that break SLOs and ...

  19. Flow shop scheduling with heterogeneous workers

    Benavides, Alexander J.; Ritt, Marcus; Miralles Insa, Cristóbal Javier

    2014-01-01

    We propose an extension to the flow shop scheduling problem named Heterogeneous Flow Shop Scheduling Problem (Het-FSSP), where two simultaneous issues have to be resolved: finding the best worker assignment to the workstations, and solving the corresponding scheduling problem. This problem is motivated by Sheltered Work centers for Disabled, whose main objective is the labor integration of persons with disabilities, an important aim not only for these centers but for any company d...

  20. A hybrid job-shop scheduling system

    Hellingrath, Bernd; Robbach, Peter; Bayat-Sarmadi, Fahid; Marx, Andreas

    1992-01-01

    The intention of the scheduling system developed at the Fraunhofer-Institute for Material Flow and Logistics is the support of a scheduler working in a job-shop. Due to the existing requirements for a job-shop scheduling system the usage of flexible knowledge representation and processing techniques is necessary. Within this system the attempt was made to combine the advantages of symbolic AI-techniques with those of neural networks.

  1. LEARNING SCHEDULER PARAMETERS FOR ADAPTIVE PREEMPTION

    Prakhar Ojha; Siddhartha R Thota; Vani M; Mohit P Tahilianni

    2015-01-01

    An operating system scheduler is expected to not allow processor stay idle if there is any process ready or waiting for its execution. This problem gains more importance as the numbers of processes always outnumber the processors by large margins. It is in this regard that schedulers are provided with the ability to preempt a running process, by following any scheduling algorithm, and give us an illusion of simultaneous running of several processes. A process which is allowed t...

  2. Spent nuclear fuel project integrated schedule plan

    Squires, K.G.

    1995-01-01

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel Integrated Schedule Plan establishes the organizational responsibilities, rules for developing, maintain and status of the SNF integrated schedule, and an implementation plan for the integrated schedule. The mission of the SNFP on the Hanford site is to provide safe, economic, environmentally sound management of Hanford SNF in a manner which stages it to final disposition. This particularly involves K Basin fuel

  3. Spent nuclear fuel project integrated schedule plan

    Squires, K.G.

    1995-03-06

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel Integrated Schedule Plan establishes the organizational responsibilities, rules for developing, maintain and status of the SNF integrated schedule, and an implementation plan for the integrated schedule. The mission of the SNFP on the Hanford site is to provide safe, economic, environmentally sound management of Hanford SNF in a manner which stages it to final disposition. This particularly involves K Basin fuel.

  4. A customizable, scalable scheduling and reporting system.

    Wood, Jody L; Whitman, Beverly J; Mackley, Lisa A; Armstrong, Robert; Shotto, Robert T

    2014-06-01

    Scheduling is essential for running a facility smoothly and for summarizing activities in use reports. The Penn State Hershey Clinical Simulation Center has developed a scheduling interface that uses off-the-shelf components, with customizations that adapt to each institution's data collection and reporting needs. The system is designed using programs within the Microsoft Office 2010 suite. Outlook provides the scheduling component, while the reporting is performed using Access or Excel. An account with a calendar is created for the main schedule, with separate resource accounts created for each room within the center. The Outlook appointment form's 2 default tabs are used, in addition to a customized third tab. The data are then copied from the calendar into either a database table or a spreadsheet, where the reports are generated.Incorporating this system into an institution-wide structure allows integration of personnel lists and potentially enables all users to check the schedule from their desktop. Outlook also has a Web-based application for viewing the basic schedule from outside the institution, although customized data cannot be accessed. The scheduling and reporting functions have been used for a year at the Penn State Hershey Clinical Simulation Center. The schedule has increased workflow efficiency, improved the quality of recorded information, and provided more accurate reporting. The Penn State Hershey Clinical Simulation Center's scheduling and reporting system can be adapted easily to most simulation centers and can expand and change to meet future growth with little or no expense to the center.

  5. 15 CFR 700.14 - Preferential scheduling.

    2010-01-01

    ...) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY INDUSTRIAL BASE REGULATIONS DEFENSE PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATIONS SYSTEM Industrial Priorities § 700.14 Preferential scheduling. (a) A...

  6. BIM-BASED SCHEDULING OF CONSTRUCTION

    Andersson, Niclas; Büchmann-Slorup, Rolf

    2010-01-01

    The potential of BIM is generally recognized in the construction industry, but the practical application of BIM for management purposes is, however, still limited among contractors. The objective of this study is to review the current scheduling process of construction in light of BIM...... and communicate. Scheduling on the detailed level, on the other hand, follows a stipulated approach to scheduling, i.e. the Last Planner System (LPS), which is characterized by involvement of all actors in the construction phase. Thus, the major challenge when implementing BIM-based scheduling is to improve...

  7. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS OF LOCATION-BASED SCHEDULING

    Andersson, Niclas; Christensen, Knud

    2007-01-01

    The traditional method for planning, scheduling and controlling activities and resources in construction projects is the CPM-scheduling, which has been the predominant scheduling method since its introduction in the late 1950s. Over the years, CPM has proven to be a very powerful technique...... that will be used in this study. LBS is a scheduling method that rests upon the theories of line-of-balance and which uses the graphic representation of a flowline chart. As such, LBS is adapted for planning and management of workflows and, thus, may provide a solution to the identified shortcomings of CPM. Even...

  8. Instructions, multiple schedules, and extinction: Distinguishing rule-governed from schedule-controlled behavior.

    Hayes, S C; Brownstein, A J; Haas, J R; Greenway, D E

    1986-09-01

    Schedule sensitivity has usually been examined either through a multiple schedule or through changes in schedules after steady-state responding has been established. This study compared the effects of these two procedures when various instructions were given. Fifty-five college students responded in two 32-min sessions under a multiple fixed-ratio 18/differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate 6-s schedule, followed by one session of extinction. Some subjects received no instructions regarding the appropriate rates of responding, whereas others received instructions to respond slowly, rapidly, or both. Relative to the schedule in operation, the instructions were minimal, partially inaccurate, or accurate. When there was little schedule sensitivity in the multiple schedule, there was little in extinction. When apparently schedule-sensitive responding occurred in the multiple schedule, however, sensitivity in extinction occurred only if differential responding in the multiple schedule could not be due to rules supplied by the experimenter. This evidence shows that rule-governed behavior that occurs in the form of schedule-sensitive behavior may not in fact become schedule-sensitive even though it makes contact with the scheduled reinforcers.

  9. 29 CFR 825.203 - Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    2010-07-01

    ... leave intermittently or on a reduced leave schedule for planned medical treatment, then the employee... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave. 825... OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the...

  10. Designing cyclic appointment schedules for outpatient clinics with scheduled and unscheduled patient arrivals

    Kortbeek, Nikky; Zonderland, Maartje E.; Braaksma, Aleida; Vliegen, Ingrid M. H.; Boucherie, Richard J.; Litvak, Nelly; Hans, Erwin W.

    2014-01-01

    We present a methodology to design appointment systems for outpatient clinics and diagnostic facilities that offer both walk-in and scheduled service. The developed blueprint for the appointment schedule prescribes the number of appointments to plan per day and the moment on the day to schedule the

  11. Designing cyclic appointment schedules for outpatient clinics with scheduled and unscheduled patient arrivals

    Kortbeek, Nikky; Zonderland, Maartje Elisabeth; Boucherie, Richardus J.; Litvak, Nelli; Hans, Elias W.

    2011-01-01

    We present a methodology to design appointment systems for outpatient clinics and diagnostic facilities that offer both walk-in and scheduled service. The developed blueprint for the appointment schedule prescribes the number of appointments to plan per day and the moment on the day to schedule the

  12. Accelerating exact schedulability analysis for fixed-priority pre-emptive scheduling

    Hang, Y.; Jiale, Z.; Keskin, U.; Bril, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    The schedulability analysis for fixed-priority preemptive scheduling (FPPS) plays a significant role in the real-time systems domain. The so-called Hyperplanes Exact Test (HET) [1] is an example of an exact schedulability test for FPPS. In this paper, we aim at improving the efficiency of HET by

  13. A dynamic approach to vehicle scheduling

    D. Huisman (Dennis); R. Freling (Richard); A.P.M. Wagelmans (Albert)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThis paper presents a dynamic approach to the vehicle scheduling problem. We discuss the potential benefit of our approach compared to the traditional one, where the vehicle scheduling problem is solved only once for a whole period and the travel times are assumed to be fixed. In our

  14. State Teacher Salary Schedules. Policy Analysis

    Griffith, Michael

    2016-01-01

    In the United States most teacher compensation issues are decided at the school district level. However, a group of states have chosen to play a role in teacher pay decisions by instituting statewide teacher salary schedules. Education Commission of the States has found that 17 states currently make use of teacher salary schedules. This education…

  15. Evolutionary Scheduler for the Deep Space Network

    Guillaume, Alexandre; Lee, Seungwon; Wang, Yeou-Fang; Zheng, Hua; Chau, Savio; Tung, Yu-Wen; Terrile, Richard J.; Hovden, Robert

    2010-01-01

    A computer program assists human schedulers in satisfying, to the maximum extent possible, competing demands from multiple spacecraft missions for utilization of the transmitting/receiving Earth stations of NASA s Deep Space Network. The program embodies a concept of optimal scheduling to attain multiple objectives in the presence of multiple constraints.

  16. Decay-usage scheduling in multiprocessors

    Epema, D.H.J.

    1998-01-01

    Decay-usage scheduling is a priority-aging time-sharing scheduling policy capable of dealing with a workload of both interactive and batch jobs by decreasing the priority of a job when it acquires CPU time, and by increasing its priority when it does not use the (a) CPU. In this article we deal with

  17. 5 CFR 950.801 - Campaign schedule.

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Campaign schedule. 950.801 Section 950... VOLUNTARY ORGANIZATIONS CFC Timetable § 950.801 Campaign schedule. (a) The Combined Federal Campaign will be.../International and International parts of the Charity List to all local campaigns by a date to be determined by...

  18. 46 CFR 525.2 - Terminal schedules.

    2010-10-01

    ... domestic law and international conventions and agreements adopted by the United States; such terminal... their own negligence, or that impose upon others the obligation to indemnify or hold-harmless the terminals from liability for their own negligence. (2) Enforcement of terminal schedules. Any schedule that...

  19. 21 CFR 1308.13 - Schedule III.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Schedule III. 1308.13 Section 1308.13 Food and... opposite it. (b) Stimulants. Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any... a stimulant effect on the central nervous sxstem, including its salts, isomers (whether optical...

  20. Management Matters. Changing to Flexible Scheduling

    Pappas, Marjorie L.

    2005-01-01

    Elementary school library media specialists state that one of the most frustrating issues they face is the fixed schedules in their library media centers. Beyond the cost effectiveness issue, the fixed schedule severely limits using the resources of the library media center for inquiry learning and collaborative teaching experiences between the…

  1. Agent-based scheduling for aircraft deicing

    Mao, X.; Ter Mors, A.W.; Roos, N.; Witteveen, C.

    2006-01-01

    The planning and scheduling of the deicing and anti-icing activities is an important and challenging part of airport departure planning. Deicing planning has to be done in a highly dynamic environment involving several autonomous and self-interested parties. Traditional centralized scheduling

  2. Robust scheduling in an uncertain environment

    Wilson, M.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis presents research on scheduling in an uncertain environment, which forms a part of the rolling stock life cycle logistics applied research and development program funded by Dutch railway industry companies. The focus therefore lies on scheduling of maintenance operations on rolling stock

  3. TECHNICAL COORDINATION, SCHEDULE AND INTEGRATION

    A. Ball

    Introduction and Schedule After nearly seven months of concentrated effort, the installation of services on YB0 moved off the CMS critical path in late November. In line with v36 planning provisions, the additional time needed to finish this challeng¬ing task was accommodated by reducing sequential dependencies between assembly tasks, putting more tasks (especially heavy logistic movements) in parallel with activities on, or within, the central wheel. Thus the lowering of wheels YB-1 and YB -2 and of disk YE-3 is already complete, the latter made possible, in the shadow of YB0 work, by inverting the order of the 3 endcap disks in the surface building. Weather conditions permitting, the Tracker will be transported to point 5 during CMS week for insertion in EB before CERN closes. The lowering of the last two disks will take place mid- and end-of January, respectively. Thus central beampipe installation can be confidently planned to start in February as foreseen, allowing closure of CMS in time for CRA...

  4. TECHNICAL COORDINATION, SCHEDULE AND INTEGRATION

    A. Ball

    Introduction Despite the holiday season affecting available manpower, many key internal milestones have been passed over the summer, thanks to the dedication and commitment of the team at point 5. In particular, the installation on, and within, YB0 has progressed steadily through several potentially difficult phases. The v36 planning contingency of lowering YB-1 and YB-1 wheels on schedule in October, before Tracker installation, will be executed in order to give more time to complete YB0 services work, whilst still being consistent with completion of heavy lowering by the end of 2007. Safety In the underground areas the peak level of activity and parallel work has been reached and this will continue for the coming months. Utmost vigilance is required of everybody working underground and this must be maintained. However, it is encouraging to note that the compliance with safety rules is, in general, good. More and more work will be carried out from scaffolding and mobile access platforms. (cherry-picke...

  5. Scheduling mammograms for asymptomatic women

    Gohagan, J.K.; Darby, W.P.; Spitznagel, E.L.; Tome, A.E.

    1988-01-01

    A decision theoretic model was used to investigate the relative importance of risk level, radiation hazard, mammographic accuracy, and cost in mammographic screening decision. The model uses woman-specific medical and family history facts and clinic-specific information regarding mammographic accuracy and practice to profile both woman and clinic, and to formulate periodic screening recommendations. Model parameters were varied extensively to investigate the sensitivity of screening schedules to input values. Multivariate risk was estimated within the program using published data from the Breast Cancer Detection Demonstration Project 5-year follow-up study. Radiation hazard estimates were developed from published radiation physics and radioepidemiologic risk data. Benchmark values for mammographic sensitivity and specificity under screening conditions were calculated from Breast Cancer Detection Demonstration Project data. Procedural costs used in the analysis were varied around values reflecting conditions at the Washington University Medical Center. Mortality advantages of early versus late breast cancer detection were accounted for using Health Insurance Plan of New York case survival rates. Results are compared with published screening policies to provide insight into implicit assumptions behind those policies. This analysis emphasizes the importance of accounting for variations in clinical accuracy under screening circumstances, in costs, in radiation exposure, and in woman-specific risk when recommending mammographic screening

  6. TECHNICAL COORDINATION, SCHEDULE AND INTEGRATION

    A. Ball

    Introduction Since the lowering of YB0 in February, less spectacular but nonetheless crucial progress has been made along the critical path to CMS completion. The YB0 has been aligned with the beamline to a fraction of a mm, and the HCAL has been fully installed. Cabling scaffolding for YB0 services has been built and one half (-z end) of the ECAL barrel has been installed. The YB0 services installation has begun, with two of the major technical challenges delaying bulk installation, namely PP1 detailed design, manufacture and installation plus Tracker cooling pipe insulation, now apparently solved. Significant difficulties in detailed design, integration and procurement of cable ducts remain. Despite this, the design of the +end is close to complete, and Tracker power cable installation on two sectors of the +end is well advanced. A new master schedule, v36.0, is being prepared to account for the updated actual situation at point 5 and for the revised LHC machine planning. Safety The enormous amount of...

  7. Scheduling nursing personnel on a microcomputer.

    Liao, C J; Kao, C Y

    1997-01-01

    Suggests that with the shortage of nursing personnel, hospital administrators have to pay more attention to the needs of nurses to retain and recruit them. Also asserts that improving nurses' schedules is one of the most economic ways for the hospital administration to create a better working environment for nurses. Develops an algorithm for scheduling nursing personnel. Contrary to the current hospital approach, which schedules nurses on a person-by-person basis, the proposed algorithm constructs schedules on a day-by-day basis. The algorithm has inherent flexibility in handling a variety of possible constraints and goals, similar to other non-cyclical approaches. But, unlike most other non-cyclical approaches, it can also generate a quality schedule in a short time on a microcomputer. The algorithm was coded in C language and run on a microcomputer. The developed software is currently implemented at a leading hospital in Taiwan. The response to the initial implementation is quite promising.

  8. NASA Instrument Cost/Schedule Model

    Habib-Agahi, Hamid; Mrozinski, Joe; Fox, George

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Office of Independent Program and Cost Evaluation (IPCE) has established a number of initiatives to improve its cost and schedule estimating capabilities. 12One of these initiatives has resulted in the JPL developed NASA Instrument Cost Model. NICM is a cost and schedule estimator that contains: A system level cost estimation tool; a subsystem level cost estimation tool; a database of cost and technical parameters of over 140 previously flown remote sensing and in-situ instruments; a schedule estimator; a set of rules to estimate cost and schedule by life cycle phases (B/C/D); and a novel tool for developing joint probability distributions for cost and schedule risk (Joint Confidence Level (JCL)). This paper describes the development and use of NICM, including the data normalization processes, data mining methods (cluster analysis, principal components analysis, regression analysis and bootstrap cross validation), the estimating equations themselves and a demonstration of the NICM tool suite.

  9. Routine environmental monitoring schedule, calendar year 1997

    Markes, B.M., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-12-10

    This document provides the Environmental Restorations Contractor (ERC) and the Project Hanford Management Contractor.(PHMC) a schedule in accordance with the WHC-CM-7-5, Environmental Compliance` and BHI- EE-02, Environmental Requirements, of monitoring and sampling routines for the Near-Field Monitoring (NFM) program during calendar year (CY) 1997. Every attempt will be made to consistently follow this schedule; any deviation from this schedule will be documented by an internal memorandum (DSI) explaining the reason for the deviation. The DSI will be issued by the scheduled performing organization and directed to Near-Field Monitoring. The survey frequencies for particular sites are determined by the technical judgment of Near- Field Monitoring and may depend on the site history, radiological status, use, and general conditions. Additional surveys may be requested at irregular frequencies if conditions warrant. All radioactive wastes sites are scheduled to be surveyed at least annually. Any newly discovered wastes sites not documented by this schedule will be included in the revised schedule for CY 1998. The outside perimeter road surveys of 200 East and West Area and the rail survey from the 300 Area to Columbia Center will be performed in the year 2000 per agreement with Department of Energy. Richland Field Office. This schedule does not discuss staffing needs, nor does it list the monitoring equipment to be used in completing specific routines. Personnel performing routines to meet this schedule shall communicate any need for assistance in completing these routines to Radiological Control management and Near-Field Monitoring. After each routine survey is completed, a copy of the survey record, maps, and data sheets will be forwarded to Near-Field Monitoring. These routine surveys will not be considered complete until this documentation is received. At the end of each month, the ERC and PHMC radiological control organizations shall forward a copy of the Routine

  10. Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant Project: construction schedule

    Purcell, W.J.; Martin, E.M.; Shivley, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    The construction schedule for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant and its evolution are described. The initial schedule basis, changes necessitated by the evaluation of the overall plant design, and constructability improvements that have been effected to assure adherence to the schedule are presented. The schedule structure and hierarchy are discussed, as are tools used to define, develop, and evaluate the schedule

  11. NRC comprehensive records disposition schedule. Revision 3

    1998-02-01

    Title 44 US Code, ''Public Printing and Documents,'' regulations issued by the General Service Administration (GSA) in 41 CFR Chapter 101, Subchapter B, ''Management and Use of Information and Records,'' and regulations issued by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) in 36 CFR Chapter 12, Subchapter B, ''Records Management,'' require each agency to prepare and issue a comprehensive records disposition schedule that contains the NARA approved records disposition schedules for records unique to the agency and contains the NARA's General Records Schedules for records common to several or all agencies. The approved records disposition schedules specify the appropriate duration of retention and the final disposition for records created or maintained by the NRC. NUREG-0910, Rev. 3, contains ''NRC's Comprehensive Records Disposition Schedule,'' and the original authorized approved citation numbers issued by NARA. Rev. 3 incorporates NARA approved changes and additions to the NRC schedules that have been implemented since the last revision dated March, 1992, reflects recent organizational changes implemented at the NRC, and includes the latest version of NARA's General Records Schedule (dated August 1995)

  12. Schedule-Aware Workflow Management Systems

    Mans, Ronny S.; Russell, Nick C.; van der Aalst, Wil M. P.; Moleman, Arnold J.; Bakker, Piet J. M.

    Contemporary workflow management systems offer work-items to users through specific work-lists. Users select the work-items they will perform without having a specific schedule in mind. However, in many environments work needs to be scheduled and performed at particular times. For example, in hospitals many work-items are linked to appointments, e.g., a doctor cannot perform surgery without reserving an operating theater and making sure that the patient is present. One of the problems when applying workflow technology in such domains is the lack of calendar-based scheduling support. In this paper, we present an approach that supports the seamless integration of unscheduled (flow) and scheduled (schedule) tasks. Using CPN Tools we have developed a specification and simulation model for schedule-aware workflow management systems. Based on this a system has been realized that uses YAWL, Microsoft Exchange Server 2007, Outlook, and a dedicated scheduling service. The approach is illustrated using a real-life case study at the AMC hospital in the Netherlands. In addition, we elaborate on the experiences obtained when developing and implementing a system of this scale using formal techniques.

  13. Mission Operations Planning and Scheduling System (MOPSS)

    Wood, Terri; Hempel, Paul

    2011-01-01

    MOPSS is a generic framework that can be configured on the fly to support a wide range of planning and scheduling applications. It is currently used to support seven missions at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in roles that include science planning, mission planning, and real-time control. Prior to MOPSS, each spacecraft project built its own planning and scheduling capability to plan satellite activities and communications and to create the commands to be uplinked to the spacecraft. This approach required creating a data repository for storing planning and scheduling information, building user interfaces to display data, generating needed scheduling algorithms, and implementing customized external interfaces. Complex scheduling problems that involved reacting to multiple variable situations were analyzed manually. Operators then used the results to add commands to the schedule. Each architecture was unique to specific satellite requirements. MOPSS is an expert system that automates mission operations and frees the flight operations team to concentrate on critical activities. It is easily reconfigured by the flight operations team as the mission evolves. The heart of the system is a custom object-oriented data layer mapped onto an Oracle relational database. The combination of these two technologies allows a user or system engineer to capture any type of scheduling or planning data in the system's generic data storage via a GUI.

  14. Scheduling multimedia services in cloud computing environment

    Liu, Yunchang; Li, Chunlin; Luo, Youlong; Shao, Yanling; Zhang, Jing

    2018-02-01

    Currently, security is a critical factor for multimedia services running in the cloud computing environment. As an effective mechanism, trust can improve security level and mitigate attacks within cloud computing environments. Unfortunately, existing scheduling strategy for multimedia service in the cloud computing environment do not integrate trust mechanism when making scheduling decisions. In this paper, we propose a scheduling scheme for multimedia services in multi clouds. At first, a novel scheduling architecture is presented. Then, We build a trust model including both subjective trust and objective trust to evaluate the trust degree of multimedia service providers. By employing Bayesian theory, the subjective trust degree between multimedia service providers and users is obtained. According to the attributes of QoS, the objective trust degree of multimedia service providers is calculated. Finally, a scheduling algorithm integrating trust of entities is proposed by considering the deadline, cost and trust requirements of multimedia services. The scheduling algorithm heuristically hunts for reasonable resource allocations and satisfies the requirement of trust and meets deadlines for the multimedia services. Detailed simulated experiments demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed trust scheduling scheme.

  15. MEDICAL STAFF SCHEDULING USING SIMULATED ANNEALING

    Ladislav Rosocha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The efficiency of medical staff is a fundamental feature of healthcare facilities quality. Therefore the better implementation of their preferences into the scheduling problem might not only rise the work-life balance of doctors and nurses, but also may result into better patient care. This paper focuses on optimization of medical staff preferences considering the scheduling problem.Methodology/Approach: We propose a medical staff scheduling algorithm based on simulated annealing, a well-known method from statistical thermodynamics. We define hard constraints, which are linked to legal and working regulations, and minimize the violations of soft constraints, which are related to the quality of work, psychic, and work-life balance of staff.Findings: On a sample of 60 physicians and nurses from gynecology department we generated monthly schedules and optimized their preferences in terms of soft constraints. Our results indicate that the final value of objective function optimized by proposed algorithm is more than 18-times better in violations of soft constraints than initially generated random schedule that satisfied hard constraints.Research Limitation/implication: Even though the global optimality of final outcome is not guaranteed, desirable solutionwas obtained in reasonable time. Originality/Value of paper: We show that designed algorithm is able to successfully generate schedules regarding hard and soft constraints. Moreover, presented method is significantly faster than standard schedule generation and is able to effectively reschedule due to the local neighborhood search characteristics of simulated annealing.

  16. Scheduling nurses’ shifts at PGI Cikini Hospital

    Nainggolan, J. C. T.; Kusumastuti, R. D.

    2018-03-01

    Hospitals play an essential role in the community by providing medical services to the public. In order to provide high quality medical services, hospitals must manage their resources (including nurses) effectively and efficiently. Scheduling of nurses’ work shifts, in particular, is crucial, and must be conducted carefully to ensure availability and fairness. This research discusses the job scheduling system for nurses in PGI Cikini Hospital, Jakarta with Goal Programming approach. The research objectives are to identify nurse scheduling criteria and find the best schedule that can meet the criteria. The model has hospital regulations (including government regulations) as hard constraints, and nurses’ preferences as soft constraints. We gather primary data (hospital regulations and nurses’ preferences) through interviews with three Head Nurses and distributing questionnaires to fifty nurses. The results show that on the best schedule, all hard constraints can be satisfied. However, only two out of four soft constraints are satisfied. Compared to current scheduling practice, the resulting schedule ensures the availability of nurses as it satisfies all hospital’s regulations and it has a higher level of fairness as it can accommodate some of the nurses’ preferences.

  17. PROMSYS, Plant Equipment Maintenance and Inspection Scheduling

    Morgan, D.L.; Srite, B.E.

    1986-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: PROMSYS is a computer system designed to automate the scheduling of routine maintenance and inspection of plant equipment. This 'programmed maintenance' provides the detailed planning and accomplishment of lubrication, inspection, and similar repetitive maintenance activities which can be scheduled at specified predetermined intervals throughout the year. The equipment items included are the typical pumps, blowers, motors, compressors, automotive equipment, refrigeration units, filtering systems, machine shop equipment, cranes, elevators, motor-generator sets, and electrical switchgear found throughout industry, as well as cell ventilation, shielding, containment, and material handling equipment unique to nuclear research and development facilities. Four related programs are used to produce sorted schedule lists, delinquent work lists, and optional master lists. Five additional programs are used to create and maintain records of all scheduled and unscheduled maintenance history. 2 - Method of solution: Service specifications and frequency are established and stored. The computer program reviews schedules weekly and prints, on schedule cards, instructions for service that is due the following week. The basic output from the computer program comes in two forms: programmed-maintenance schedule cards and programmed-maintenance data sheets. The data sheets can be issued in numerical building, route, and location number sequence as equipment lists, grouped for work assigned to a particular foreman as the foreman's equipment list, or grouped by work charged to a particular work order as the work-order list. Data sheets grouped by equipment classification are called the equipment classification list

  18. NRC comprehensive records disposition schedule. Revision 3

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    Title 44 US Code, ``Public Printing and Documents,`` regulations issued by the General Service Administration (GSA) in 41 CFR Chapter 101, Subchapter B, ``Management and Use of Information and Records,`` and regulations issued by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) in 36 CFR Chapter 12, Subchapter B, ``Records Management,`` require each agency to prepare and issue a comprehensive records disposition schedule that contains the NARA approved records disposition schedules for records unique to the agency and contains the NARA`s General Records Schedules for records common to several or all agencies. The approved records disposition schedules specify the appropriate duration of retention and the final disposition for records created or maintained by the NRC. NUREG-0910, Rev. 3, contains ``NRC`s Comprehensive Records Disposition Schedule,`` and the original authorized approved citation numbers issued by NARA. Rev. 3 incorporates NARA approved changes and additions to the NRC schedules that have been implemented since the last revision dated March, 1992, reflects recent organizational changes implemented at the NRC, and includes the latest version of NARA`s General Records Schedule (dated August 1995).

  19. Bridging the Gap Between Planning and Scheduling

    Smith, David E.; Frank, Jeremy; Jonsson, Ari K.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Planning research in Artificial Intelligence (AI) has often focused on problems where there are cascading levels of action choice and complex interactions between actions. In contrast. Scheduling research has focused on much larger problems where there is little action choice, but the resulting ordering problem is hard. In this paper, we give an overview of M planning and scheduling techniques, focusing on their similarities, differences, and limitations. We also argue that many difficult practical problems lie somewhere between planning and scheduling, and that neither area has the right set of tools for solving these vexing problems.

  20. Efficient Academic Scheduling at the U.S. Naval Academy

    Zane, David

    2003-01-01

    This research project examined academic scheduling problems at the U.S. Naval Academy. The focus was on devising methods to construct good final exam schedules and improve existing course schedules by facilitation course changes...

  1. Efficient Load Scheduling Method For Power Management

    Vijo M Joy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available An efficient load scheduling method to meet varying power supply needs is presented in this paper. At peak load times the power generation system fails due to its instability. Traditionally we use load shedding process. In load shedding process disconnect the unnecessary and extra loads. The proposed method overcomes this problem by scheduling the load based on the requirement. Artificial neural networks are used for this optimal load scheduling process. For generate economic scheduling artificial neural network has been used because generation of power from each source is economically different. In this the total load required is the inputs of this network and the power generation from each source and power losses at the time of transmission are the output of the neural network. Training and programming of the artificial neural networks are done using MATLAB.

  2. Quantify Risk to Manage Cost and Schedule

    Raymond, Fred

    1999-01-01

    Too many projects suffer from unachievable budget and schedule goals, caused by unrealistic estimates and the failure to quantify and communicate the uncertainty of these estimates to managers and sponsoring executives...

  3. Alternative Work Schedules Increase Employee Satisfaction.

    Turney, John R.; Cohen, Stanley L.

    1983-01-01

    Facets of alternative work schedules (AWS) are discussed: importance of employee control, possible negative consequences, AWS handbook, time monitoring systems, and treatment of exceptions. AWS' effect on productivity and motivation is examined. (SK)

  4. The Composition of the Master Schedule

    Thomas, Cynthia C.; Behrend, Dirk; MacMillan, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    Over a period of about four months, the IVS Coordinating Center (IVSCC) each year composes the Master Schedule for the IVS observing program of the next calendar year. The process begins in early July when the IVSCC contacts the IVS Network Stations to request information about available station time as well as holiday and maintenance schedules for the upcoming year. Going through various planning stages and a review process with the IVS Observing Program Committee (OPC), the final version of the Master Schedule is posted by early November. We describe the general steps of the composition and illustrate them with the example of the planning for the Master Schedule of the 2010 observing year.

  5. Nonblocking Scheduling for Web Service Transactions

    Alrifai, Mohammad; Balke, Wolf-Tilo; Dolog, Peter

    2007-01-01

    . In this paper, we propose a novel nonblocking scheduling mechanism that is used prior to the actual service invocations. Its aim is to reach an agreement between the client and all participating providers on what transaction processing times have to be expected, accepted, and guaranteed. This enables service......For improved flexibility and concurrent usage existing transaction management models for Web services relax the isolation property of Web service-based transactions. Correctness of the concurrent execution then has to be ensured by commit order-preserving transaction schedulers. However, local...... schedulers of service providers typically do take into account neither time constraints for committing the whole transaction, nor the individual services' constraints when scheduling decisions are made. This often leads to an unnecessary blocking of transactions by (possibly long-running) others...

  6. Schedule Sales Query Report Generation System

    General Services Administration — Schedule Sales Query presents sales volume figures as reported to GSA by contractors. The reports are generated as quarterly reports for the current year and the...

  7. Knowledge-based scheduling of arrival aircraft

    Krzeczowski, K.; Davis, T.; Erzberger, H.; Lev-Ram, I.; Bergh, C.

    1995-01-01

    A knowledge-based method for scheduling arrival aircraft in the terminal area has been implemented and tested in real-time simulation. The scheduling system automatically sequences, assigns landing times, and assigns runways to arrival aircraft by utilizing continuous updates of aircraft radar data and controller inputs. The scheduling algorithms is driven by a knowledge base which was obtained in over two thousand hours of controller-in-the-loop real-time simulation. The knowledge base contains a series of hierarchical 'rules' and decision logic that examines both performance criteria, such as delay reduction, as well as workload reduction criteria, such as conflict avoidance. The objective of the algorithms is to devise an efficient plan to land the aircraft in a manner acceptable to the air traffic controllers. This paper will describe the scheduling algorithms, give examples of their use, and present data regarding their potential benefits to the air traffic system.

  8. Scheduling Network Traffic for Grid Purposes

    Gamst, Mette

    This thesis concerns scheduling of network traffic in grid context. Grid computing consists of a number of geographically distributed computers, which work together for solving large problems. The computers are connected through a network. When scheduling job execution in grid computing, data...... transmission has so far not been taken into account. This causes stability problems, because data transmission takes time and thus causes delays to the execution plan. This thesis proposes the integration of job scheduling and network routing. The scientific contribution is based on methods from operations...... research and consists of six papers. The first four considers data transmission in grid context. The last two solves the data transmission problem, where the number of paths per data connection is bounded from above. The thesis shows that it is possible to solve the integrated job scheduling and network...

  9. Congruent Validity of the Rathus Assertiveness Schedule.

    Harris, Thomas L.; Brown, Nina W.

    1979-01-01

    The validity of the Rathus Assertiveness Schedule (RAS) was investigated by correlating it with the six Class I scales of the California Psychological Inventory on a sample of undergraduate students. Results supported the validity of the RAS. (JKS)

  10. Cure Schedule for Stycast 2651/Catalyst 11.

    Kropka, Jamie Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); McCoy, John D. [New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States)

    2017-11-01

    The Henkel technical data sheet (TDS) for Stycast 2651/Catalyst 11 lists three alternate cure schedules for the material, each of which would result in a different state of reaction and different material properties. Here, a cure schedule that attains full reaction of the material is defined. The use of this cure schedule will eliminate variance in material properties due to changes in the cure state of the material, and the cure schedule will serve as the method to make material prior to characterizing properties. The following recommendation was motivated by (1) a desire to cure at a single temperature for ease of manufacture and (2) a desire to keep the cure temperature low (to minimize residual stress build-up associated with the cooldown from the cure temperature to room temperature) without excessively limiting the cure reaction due to vitrification (i.e., material glass transition temperature, Tg, exceeding cure temperature).

  11. Job shop scheduling by local search

    Aarts, E.H.L.; Lenstra, J.K.; Laarhoven, van P.J.M.; Ulder, N.L.J.

    1992-01-01

    We present a computational performance analysis of local search algorithms for job shop scheduling. The algorithms under investigation are iterative improvement, simulated annealing, threshold accepting and genetic local search. Our study shows that simulated annealing performs best in the sense

  12. Scheduling job shop - A case study

    Abas, M.; Abbas, A.; Khan, W. A.

    2016-08-01

    The scheduling in job shop is important for efficient utilization of machines in the manufacturing industry. There are number of algorithms available for scheduling of jobs which depend on machines tools, indirect consumables and jobs which are to be processed. In this paper a case study is presented for scheduling of jobs when parts are treated on available machines. Through time and motion study setup time and operation time are measured as total processing time for variety of products having different manufacturing processes. Based on due dates different level of priority are assigned to the jobs and the jobs are scheduled on the basis of priority. In view of the measured processing time, the times for processing of some new jobs are estimated and for efficient utilization of the machines available an algorithm is proposed and validated.

  13. Job scheduling in a heterogenous grid environment

    Oliker, Leonid; Biswas, Rupak; Shan, Hongzhang; Smith, Warren

    2004-02-11

    Computational grids have the potential for solving large-scale scientific problems using heterogeneous and geographically distributed resources. However, a number of major technical hurdles must be overcome before this potential can be realized. One problem that is critical to effective utilization of computational grids is the efficient scheduling of jobs. This work addresses this problem by describing and evaluating a grid scheduling architecture and three job migration algorithms. The architecture is scalable and does not assume control of local site resources. The job migration policies use the availability and performance of computer systems, the network bandwidth available between systems, and the volume of input and output data associated with each job. An extensive performance comparison is presented using real workloads from leading computational centers. The results, based on several key metrics, demonstrate that the performance of our distributed migration algorithms is significantly greater than that of a local scheduling framework and comparable to a non-scalable global scheduling approach.

  14. The School Schedule--Servant or Mistress?

    Holmes, Mark

    1984-01-01

    Pointing out that time is a dimension of school wealth, the author explores its use in school schedules. Administrators need to be aware of the relationship between time allocation and learning consequences. (MD)

  15. Economic and psychological burden of scheduled surgery ...

    Background: Cancellation of scheduled surgery creates a financial burden for hospitals, caregivers and ..... costs and disregard some of the aspects mentioned in the ..... cancellation of elective surgical procedures in a Spanish general.

  16. Onboard Autonomous Scheduling Intelligence System, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Scheduling the daily activities of the crew on a human space mission is currently a cumbersome job performed by a large team of operations experts on the ground....

  17. Home Appliance Load Scheduling with SEMIAH

    Jacobsen, Rune Hylsberg; Ghasem Azar, Armin; Zhang, Qi

    2015-01-01

    The European research project SEMIAH aims at designing a scalable infrastructure for residential demand response. This paper presents the progress towards a centralized load scheduling algorithm for controlling home appliances taking power grid constraints and satisfaction of consumers into account....

  18. Courts, Scheduled Damages, and Medical Malpractice Insurance

    Bertoli, Paola; Grembi, Veronica

    We assess the impact of the introduction of schedules of non-economic damages (i.e. tiered caps systems) on the behavior of insurers operating in the medical liability market for hospitals while controlling the performance of the judicial system, measured as court backlog. Using a difference......-in-differences strategy on Italian data, we find that the introduction of schedules increases the presence of insurers (i.e. medical liability market attractiveness) only in inefficient judicial districts. In the same way, court inefficiency is attractive to insurers for average values of schedules penetration...... of the market, with an increasing positive impact of inefficiency as the territorial coverage of schedules increases. Finally, no significant impact is registered on paid premiums. Our analysis sheds light on a complex set of elements affecting the decisions of insurers in malpractice markets. The analysis...

  19. 76 FR 18262 - January 2011 Pay Schedules

    2011-04-01

    ... an OPM memorandum, CPM 2009-27. (See http://www.opm.gov/oca/compmemo/index.asp .) Executive Order... Schedule ($165,300 in 2011, the same level as in 2010). On December 27, 2010, OPM issued a memorandum (CPM...

  20. Minimum Makespan Multi-vehicle Dial-a-Ride

    Gørtz, Inge Li; Nagarajan, Viswanath; Ravi, R.

    2009-01-01

    be left at intermediate vertices and transported by more than one vehicle, while being moved from source to destination. Approximation algorithms for the single vehicle Dial-a-Ride problem (q = 1) have been considered in [3,10]. Our main results are an O(log3n)-approximation algorithm for preemptive multi...

  1. Minimum Makespan Multi-Vehicle Dial-a-Ride

    Gørtz, Inge Li; Nagarajan, Viswanath; Ravi, R.

    2015-01-01

    of multi-vehicle Dial-a-Ride, in which an object may be left at intermediate vertices and transported by more than one vehicle, while being moved from source to destination. Our main results are an O(log(3) n)-approximation algorithm for preemptive multi-vehicle Dial-a-Ride, and an improved O(log t...

  2. Heuristic Approach for Balancing Shift Schedules

    Kim, Dae Ho; Yun, Young Su; Lee, Yong Hee

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a heuristic approach for balancing shift schedules is proposed. For the shift schedules, various constraints which have usually been considered in realworld industry are used, and the objective is to minimize the differences of the workloads in each workgroup. The constraints and objective function are implemented in the proposed heuristic approach. Using a simple instance, the efficiency of the proposed heuristic approach is proved

  3. Algorithms for classical and modern scheduling problems

    Ott, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Subject of this thesis is the design and the analysis of algorithms for scheduling problems. In the first part, we focus on energy-efficient scheduling, where one seeks to minimize the energy needed for processing certain jobs via dynamic adjustments of the processing speed (speed scaling). We consider variations and extensions of the standard model introduced by Yao, Demers, and Shenker in 1995 [79], including the addition of a sleep state, the avoidance of preemption, and variable speed lim...

  4. Maritime wideband communication networks video transmission scheduling

    Yang, Tingting

    2014-01-01

    This Springer Brief covers emerging maritime wideband communication networks and how they facilitate applications such as maritime distress, urgency, safety and general communications. It provides valuable insight on the data transmission scheduling and protocol design for the maritime wideband network. This brief begins with an introduction to maritime wideband communication networks including the architecture, framework, operations and a comprehensive survey on current developments. The second part of the brief presents the resource allocation and scheduling for video packet transmission wit

  5. Lift scheduling organization : Lift Concept for Lemminkainen

    Mingalimov, Iurii

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the work was to make a simple schedule for the main contractors and clients to check and control workflow connected with lifts. It gathers works with electricity, construction, engineering networks, installing equipment and commissioning works. The schedule was carried out during working on the building site Aino in Saint Petersburg in Lemminkӓinen. The duration of work was 5 months. The lift concept in Lemminkӓinen is very well controlled in comparison with other buil...

  6. Revised data taking schedule with ion beams

    Gazdzicki, Marek; Aduszkiewicz, A; Andrieu, B; Anticic, T; Antoniou, N; Argyriades, J; Asryan, A G; Baatar, B; Blondel, A; Blumer, J; Boldizsar, L; Bravar, A; Brzychczyk, J; Bubak, A; Bunyatov, S A; Choi, K U; Christakoglou, P; Chung, P; Cleymans, J; Derkach, D A; Diakonos, F; Dominik, W; Dumarchez, J; Engel, R; Ereditato, A; Feofilov, G A; Fodor, Z; Ferrero, A; Gazdzicki, M; Golubeva, M; Grebieszkow, K; Grzeszczuk, A; Guber, F; Hasegawa, T; Haungs, A; Igolkin, S; Ivanov, A S; Ivashkin, A; Kadija, K; Katrynska, N; Kielczewska, D; Kikola, D; Kisiel, J; Kobayashi, T; Kolesnikov, V I; Kolev, D; Kolevatov, R S; Kondratiev, V P; Kowalski, S; Kurepin, A; Lacey, R; Laszlo, A; Lyubushkin, V V; Majka, Z; I Malakhov, A; Marchionni, A; Marcinek, A; Maris, I; Matveev, V; Melkumov, G L; Meregaglia, A; Messina, M; Mijakowski, P; Mitrovski, M; Montaruli, T; Mrówczynski, St; Murphy, S; Nakadaira, T; Naumenko, P A; Nikolic, V; Nishikawa, K; Palczewski, T; Pálla, G; Panagiotou, A D; Peryt, W; Planeta, R; Pluta, J; Popov, B A; Posiadala, M; Przewlocki, P; Rauch, W; Ravonel, M; Renfordt, R; Röhrich, D; Rondio, E; Rossi, B; Roth, M; Rubbia, A; Rybczynski, M; Sadovskii, A; Sakashita, K; Schuster, T; Sekiguchi, T; Seyboth, P; Shibata, M; Sissakian, A N; Skrzypczak, E; Slodkowski, M; Sorin, A S; Staszel, P; Stefanek, G; Stepaniak, J; Strabel, C; Ströbele, H; Susa, T; Szentpétery, I; Szuba, M; Tada, M; Taranenko, A; Tsenov, R; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Vassiliou, M; Vechernin, V V; Vesztergombi, G; Wlodarczyk, Z; Wojtaszek, A; Zipper, W; CERN. Geneva. SPS and PS Experiments Committee; SPSC

    2009-01-01

    This document presents the revised data taking schedule of NA61 with ion beams. The revision takes into account limitations due to the new LHC schedule as well as final results concerning the physics performance with secondary ion beams. It is proposed to take data with primary Ar and Xe beams in 2012 and 2014, respectively, and to test and use for physics a secondary B beam from primary Pb beam fragmentation in 2010, 2011 and 2013.

  7. Job schedul in Grid batch farms

    Gellrich, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    We present here a study for a scheduler which cooperates with the queueing system TORQUE and is tailored to the needs of a HEP-dominated large Grid site with around 10000 jobs slots. Triggered by severe scaling problems of MAUI, a scheduler, referred to as MYSCHED, was developed and put into operation. We discuss conceptional aspects as well as experiences after almost two years of running.

  8. Prescribed Travel Schedules for Fatigue Management

    Whitmire, Alexandra; Johnston, Smith; Lockley, Steven

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Fatigue Management Team is developing recommendations for managing fatigue during travel and for shift work operations, as Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Management of Circadian Desynchrony in ISS Operations. The Guidelines provide the International Space Station (ISS ) flight surgeons and other operational clinicians with evidence-based recommendations for mitigating fatigue and other factors related to sleep loss and circadian desynchronization. As much international travel is involved both before and after flight, the guidelines provide recommendations for: pre-flight training, in-flight operations, and post-flight rehabilitation. The objective of is to standardize the process by which care is provided to crewmembers, ground controllers, and other support personnel such as trainers, when overseas travel or schedule shifting is required. Proper scheduling of countermeasures - light, darkness, melatonin, diet, exercise, and medications - is the cornerstone for facilitating circadian adaptation, improving sleep, enhancing alertness, and optimizing performance. The Guidelines provide, among other things, prescribed travel schedules that outline the specific implementation of these mitigation strategies. Each travel schedule offers evidence based protocols for properly using the NASA identified countermeasures for fatigue. This presentation will describe the travel implementation schedules and how these can be used to alleviate the effects of jet lag and/or schedule shifts.

  9. Integrated Job Scheduling and Network Routing

    Gamst, Mette; Pisinger, David

    2013-01-01

    We consider an integrated job scheduling and network routing problem which appears in Grid Computing and production planning. The problem is to schedule a number of jobs at a finite set of machines, such that the overall profit of the executed jobs is maximized. Each job demands a number of resou...... indicate that the algorithm can be used as an actual scheduling algorithm in the Grid or as a tool for analyzing Grid performance when adding extra machines or jobs. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.......We consider an integrated job scheduling and network routing problem which appears in Grid Computing and production planning. The problem is to schedule a number of jobs at a finite set of machines, such that the overall profit of the executed jobs is maximized. Each job demands a number...... of resources which must be sent to the executing machine through a network with limited capacity. A job cannot start before all of its resources have arrived at the machine. The scheduling problem is formulated as a Mixed Integer Program (MIP) and proved to be NP-hard. An exact solution approach using Dantzig...

  10. Staffing, overtime, and shift scheduling project

    Lewis, P.M.

    1989-01-01

    Recent events at the Peach Bottom nuclear power plant have demonstrated the need to establish a quantifiable basis for assessing the safety significance of long work hours on nuclear power plant operators. The incidents at TMI-2, Chernobyl, and Bhopal, which all occurred during the late evening/night shift, further highlight the importance of the relationship between shift scheduling and performance. The objective of this project is to estimate, using statistical analysis on data from the nuclear industry, the effects on safety of staffing levels, overtime, and shift scheduling for operators and maintenance personnel. Regarding staffing levels, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) currently has no explicit regulation concerning the minimum acceptable levels of staffing in a plant that has an operating license. The NRC has no systematic method for collecting data on the number of licensed operators on the operating crews. In 1982 the NRC recommended that plants write into their technical specifications a model policy on overtime. Currently, 77 nuclear power plant units have the model policy or a modification of it written into their technical specifications; 33 units have no policy on overtime. The model policy sets limits on overtime for safety related personnel, although these limits can be exceeded with plant manger approval. The US nuclear power industry has three types of shift schedules: (1) forward-rotating 8-hour/day shift schedules, (2) backward-rotating 8-hour/day schedules, and (3) 12-hour/day schedules

  11. Interactive Dynamic Mission Scheduling for ASCA

    Antunes, A.; Nagase, F.; Isobe, T.

    The Japanese X-ray astronomy satellite ASCA (Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics) mission requires scheduling for each 6-month observation phase, further broken down into weekly schedules at a few minutes resolution. Two tools, SPIKE and NEEDLE, written in Lisp and C, use artificial intelligence (AI) techniques combined with a graphic user interface for fast creation and alteration of mission schedules. These programs consider viewing and satellite attitude constraints as well as observer-requested criteria and present an optimized set of solutions for review by the planner. Six-month schedules at 1 day resolution are created for an oversubscribed set of targets by the SPIKE software, originally written for HST and presently being adapted for EUVE, XTE and AXAF. The NEEDLE code creates weekly schedules at 1 min resolution using in-house orbital routines and creates output for processing by the command generation software. Schedule creation on both the long- and short-term scale is rapid, less than 1 day for long-term, and one hour for short-term.

  12. Self-scheduling with Microsoft Excel.

    Irvin, S A; Brown, H N

    1999-01-01

    Excessive time was being spent by the emergency department (ED) staff, head nurse, and unit secretary on a complex 6-week manual self-scheduling system. This issue, plus inevitable errors and staff dissatisfaction, resulted in a manager-lead initiative to automate elements of the scheduling process using Microsoft Excel. The implementation of this initiative included: common coding of all 8-hour and 12-hour shifts, with each 4-hour period represented by a cell; the creation of a 6-week master schedule using the "count-if" function of Excel based on current staffing guidelines; staff time-off requests then entered by the department secretary; the head nurse, with staff input, then fine-tuned the schedule to provide even unit coverage. Outcomes of these changes included an increase in staff satisfaction, time saved by the head nurse, and staff work time saved because there was less arguing about the schedule. Ultimately, the automated self-scheduling method was expanded to the entire 700-bed hospital.

  13. Schedule Matters: Understanding the Relationship between Schedule Delays and Costs on Overruns

    Majerowicz, Walt; Shinn, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between schedule delays and cost overruns on complex projects. It is generally accepted by many project practitioners that cost overruns are directly related to schedule delays. But what does "directly related to" actually mean? Some reasons or root causes for schedule delays and associated cost overruns are obvious, if only in hindsight. For example, unrealistic estimates, supply chain difficulties, insufficient schedule margin, technical problems, scope changes, or the occurrence of risk events can negatively impact schedule performance. Other factors driving schedule delays and cost overruns may be less obvious and more difficult to quantify. Examples of these less obvious factors include project complexity, flawed estimating assumptions, over-optimism, political factors, "black swan" events, or even poor leadership and communication. Indeed, is it even possible the schedule itself could be a source of delay and subsequent cost overrun? Through literature review, surveys of project practitioners, and the authors' own experience on NASA programs and projects, the authors will categorize and examine the various factors affecting the relationship between project schedule delays and cost growth. The authors will also propose some ideas for organizations to consider to help create an awareness of the factors which could cause or influence schedule delays and associated cost growth on complex projects.

  14. Integrating Preventive Maintenance Scheduling As Probability Machine Failure And Batch Production Scheduling

    Zahedi Zahedi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses integrated model of batch production scheduling and machine maintenance scheduling. Batch production scheduling uses minimize total actual flow time criteria and machine maintenance scheduling uses the probability of machine failure based on Weibull distribution. The model assumed no nonconforming parts in a planning horizon. The model shows an increase in the number of the batch (length of production run up to a certain limit will minimize the total actual flow time. Meanwhile, an increase in the length of production run will implicate an increase in the number of PM. An example was given to show how the model and algorithm work.

  15. Comparison of Firefly algorithm and Artificial Immune System algorithm for lot streaming in -machine flow shop scheduling

    G. Vijay Chakaravarthy

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Lot streaming is a technique used to split the processing of lots into several sublots (transfer batches to allow the overlapping of operations in a multistage manufacturing systems thereby shortening the production time (makespan. The objective of this paper is to minimize the makespan and total flow time of -job, -machine lot streaming problem in a flow shop with equal and variable size sublots and also to determine the optimal sublot size. In recent times researchers are concentrating and applying intelligent heuristics to solve flow shop problems with lot streaming. In this research, Firefly Algorithm (FA and Artificial Immune System (AIS algorithms are used to solve the problem. The results obtained by the proposed algorithms are also compared with the performance of other worked out traditional heuristics. The computational results shows that the identified algorithms are more efficient, effective and better than the algorithms already tested for this problem.

  16. Labor construction trends

    McCall, H.W.

    1976-01-01

    The increasing costs and schedule delays being experienced in construction projects have led companies to look for alternatives to their present methods of expansion. One of the facets being evaluated is the construction labor posture. As a result, more companies are employing open shop contractors. Certain benefits can be realized by open shop construction. Productivity, in terms of the time required and overall costs, is definitely improved at no sacrifice in quality. Before an owner decides to build a project open shop, however, he must be fully aware of the pro's and con's of both types of labor posture. He must know to select a capable open shop contractor and he must realize his obligations for a successful open shop program

  17. Planning and Scheduling for Environmental Sensor Networks

    Frank, J. D.

    2005-12-01

    Environmental Sensor Networks are a new way of monitoring the environment. They comprise autonomous sensor nodes in the environment that record real-time data, which is retrieved, analyzed, integrated with other data sets (e.g. satellite images, GIS, process models) and ultimately lead to scientific discoveries. Sensor networks must operate within time and resource constraints. Sensors have limited onboard memory, energy, computational power, communications windows and communications bandwidth. The value of data will depend on when, where and how it was collected, how detailed the data is, how long it takes to integrate the data, and how important the data was to the original scientific question. Planning and scheduling of sensor networks is necessary for effective, safe operations in the face of these constraints. For example, power bus limitations may preclude sensors from simultaneously collecting data and communicating without damaging the sensor; planners and schedulers can ensure these operations are ordered so that they do not happen simultaneously. Planning and scheduling can also ensure best use of the sensor network to maximize the value of collected science data. For example, if data is best recorded using a particular camera angle but it is costly in time and energy to achieve this, planners and schedulers can search for times when time and energy are available to achieve the optimal camera angle. Planning and scheduling can handle uncertainty in the problem specification; planners can be re-run when new information is made available, or can generate plans that include contingencies. For example, if bad weather may prevent the collection of data, a contingent plan can check lighting conditions and turn off data collection to save resources if lighting is not ideal. Both mobile and immobile sensors can benefit from planning and scheduling. For example, data collection on otherwise passive sensors can be halted to preserve limited power and memory

  18. Interoceanic canal excavation scheduling via computer simulation

    Baldonado, Orlino C [Holmes and Narver, Inc., Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1970-05-15

    The computer simulation language GPSS/360 was used to simulate the schedule of several nuclear detonation programs for the interoceanic canal project. The effects of using different weather restriction categories due to air blast and fallout were investigated. The effect of increasing the number of emplacement and stemming crews and the effect of varying the reentry period after detonating a row charge or salvo were also studied. Detonation programs were simulated for the proposed Routes 17A and 25E. The study demonstrates the method of using computer simulation so that a schedule and its associated constraints can be assessed for feasibility. Since many simulation runs can be made for a given set of detonation program constraints, one readily obtains an average schedule for a range of conditions. This provides a method for analyzing time-sensitive operations so that time and cost-effective operational schedules can be established. A comparison of the simulated schedules with those that were published shows them to be similar. (author)

  19. Integrated network design and scheduling problems :

    Nurre, Sarah G.; Carlson, Jeffrey J.

    2014-01-01

    We consider the class of integrated network design and scheduling problems. These problems focus on selecting and scheduling operations that will change the characteristics of a network, while being speci cally concerned with the performance of the network over time. Motivating applications of INDS problems include infrastructure restoration after extreme events and building humanitarian distribution supply chains. While similar models have been proposed, no one has performed an extensive review of INDS problems from their complexity, network and scheduling characteristics, information, and solution methods. We examine INDS problems under a parallel identical machine scheduling environment where the performance of the network is evaluated by solving classic network optimization problems. We classify that all considered INDS problems as NP-Hard and propose a novel heuristic dispatching rule algorithm that selects and schedules sets of arcs based on their interactions in the network. We present computational analysis based on realistic data sets representing the infrastructures of coastal New Hanover County, North Carolina, lower Manhattan, New York, and a realistic arti cial community CLARC County. These tests demonstrate the importance of a dispatching rule to arrive at near-optimal solutions during real-time decision making activities. We extend INDS problems to incorporate release dates which represent the earliest an operation can be performed and exible release dates through the introduction of specialized machine(s) that can perform work to move the release date earlier in time. An online optimization setting is explored where the release date of a component is not known.

  20. Maternal Nonstandard Work Schedules and Breastfeeding Behaviors.

    Zilanawala, Afshin

    2017-06-01

    Objectives Although maternal employment rates have increased in the last decade in the UK, there is very little research investigating the linkages between maternal nonstandard work schedules (i.e., work schedules outside of the Monday through Friday, 9-5 schedule) and breastfeeding initiation and duration, especially given the wide literature citing the health advantages of breastfeeding for mothers and children. Methods This paper uses a population-based, UK cohort study, the Millennium Cohort Study (n = 17,397), to investigate the association between types of maternal nonstandard work (evening, night, away from home overnight, and weekends) and breastfeeding behaviors. Results In unadjusted models, exposure to evening shifts was associated with greater odds of breastfeeding initiation (OR 1.71, CI 1.50-1.94) and greater odds of short (OR 1.55, CI 1.32-1.81), intermediate (OR 2.01, CI 1.64-2.47), prolonged partial duration (OR 2.20, CI 1.78-2.72), and prolonged exclusive duration (OR 1.53, CI 1.29-1.82), compared with mothers who were unemployed and those who work other types of nonstandard shifts. Socioeconomic advantage of mothers working evening schedules largely explained the higher odds of breastfeeding initiation and duration. Conclusions Socioeconomic characteristics explain more breastfeeding behaviors among mothers working evening shifts. Policy interventions to increase breastfeeding initiation and duration should consider the timing of maternal work schedules.

  1. Realistic Scheduling Mechanism for Smart Homes

    Danish Mahmood

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we propose a Realistic Scheduling Mechanism (RSM to reduce user frustration and enhance appliance utility by classifying appliances with respective constraints and their time of use effectively. Algorithms are proposed regarding functioning of home appliances. A 24 hour time slot is divided into four logical sub-time slots, each composed of 360 min or 6 h. In these sub-time slots, only desired appliances (with respect to appliance classification are scheduled to raise appliance utility, restricting power consumption by a dynamically modelled power usage limiter that does not only take the electricity consumer into account but also the electricity supplier. Once appliance, time and power usage limiter modelling is done, we use a nature-inspired heuristic algorithm, Binary Particle Swarm Optimization (BPSO, optimally to form schedules with given constraints representing each sub-time slot. These schedules tend to achieve an equilibrium amongst appliance utility and cost effectiveness. For validation of the proposed RSM, we provide a comparative analysis amongst unscheduled electrical load usage, scheduled directly by BPSO and RSM, reflecting user comfort, which is based upon cost effectiveness and appliance utility.

  2. Step-by-step cyclic processes scheduling

    Bocewicz, G.; Nielsen, Izabela Ewa; Banaszak, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Automated Guided Vehicles (AGVs) fleet scheduling is one of the big problems in Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) control. The problem is more complicated when concurrent multi-product manufacturing and resource deadlock avoidance policies are considered. The objective of the research is to pro......Automated Guided Vehicles (AGVs) fleet scheduling is one of the big problems in Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) control. The problem is more complicated when concurrent multi-product manufacturing and resource deadlock avoidance policies are considered. The objective of the research...... is to provide a declarative model enabling to state a constraint satisfaction problem aimed at AGVs fleet scheduling subject to assumed itineraries of concurrently manufactured product types. In other words, assuming a given layout of FMS’s material handling and production routes of simultaneously manufactured...... orders, the main objective is to provide the declarative framework aimed at conditions allowing one to calculate the AGVs fleet schedule in online mode. An illustrative example of the relevant algebra-like driven step-by-stem cyclic scheduling is provided....

  3. Interoceanic canal excavation scheduling via computer simulation

    Baldonado, Orlino C.

    1970-01-01

    The computer simulation language GPSS/360 was used to simulate the schedule of several nuclear detonation programs for the interoceanic canal project. The effects of using different weather restriction categories due to air blast and fallout were investigated. The effect of increasing the number of emplacement and stemming crews and the effect of varying the reentry period after detonating a row charge or salvo were also studied. Detonation programs were simulated for the proposed Routes 17A and 25E. The study demonstrates the method of using computer simulation so that a schedule and its associated constraints can be assessed for feasibility. Since many simulation runs can be made for a given set of detonation program constraints, one readily obtains an average schedule for a range of conditions. This provides a method for analyzing time-sensitive operations so that time and cost-effective operational schedules can be established. A comparison of the simulated schedules with those that were published shows them to be similar. (author)

  4. 78 FR 21818 - Schedules of Controlled Substances: Placement of Methylone Into Schedule I

    2013-04-12

    ..., methamphetamine, and MDMA, Schedule I and II substances. These effects included elevated body temperature... of reuptake of monoamines, and in vivo studies (microdialysis, locomotor activity, body temperature.... Yet another commenter claimed that Schedule I placement would ``cripple efforts at learning,'' make it...

  5. Parents' Family Time and Work Schedules: The Split-Shift Schedule in Spain

    Gracia, P.; Kalmijn, M.

    2016-01-01

    This study used data on couples from the 2003 Spanish Time Use Survey (N = 1,416) to analyze how work schedules are associated with family, couple, parent–child, and non-family leisure activities. Spain is clearly an interesting case for the institutionalized split-shift schedule, a long lunch break

  6. A master surgical scheduling approach for cyclic scheduling in operating room departments

    van Oostrum, Jeroen M.; van Houdenhoven, M.; Hurink, Johann L.; Hans, Elias W.; Wullink, Gerhard; Kazemier, G.

    This paper addresses the problem of operating room (OR) scheduling at the tactical level of hospital planning and control. Hospitals repetitively construct operating room schedules, which is a time-consuming, tedious, and complex task. The stochasticity of the durations of surgical procedures

  7. A model for generating master surgical schedules to allow cyclic scheduling in operating room departments

    van Oostrum, J.M.; van Houdenhoven, M.; Hurink, Johann L.; Hans, Elias W.; Wullink, Gerhard; Kazemier, G.

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of operating room scheduling at the tactical level of hospital planning and control. Hospitals repetitively construct operating room schedules, which is a time consuming tedious and complex task. The stochasticity of the durations of surgical procedures complicates

  8. 14 CFR 399.81 - Unrealistic or deceptive scheduling.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unrealistic or deceptive scheduling. 399.81... Unrealistic or deceptive scheduling. (a) It is the policy of the Board to consider unrealistic scheduling of... to the advertising of scheduled performance, it is the policy of the Board to regard as an unfair or...

  9. An introduction to optimal satellite range scheduling

    Vázquez Álvarez, Antonio José

    2015-01-01

    The satellite range scheduling (SRS) problem, an important operations research problem in the aerospace industry consisting of allocating tasks among satellites and Earth-bound objects, is examined in this book. SRS principles and solutions are applicable to many areas, including: Satellite communications, where tasks are communication intervals between sets of satellites and ground stations Earth observation, where tasks are observations of spots on the Earth by satellites Sensor scheduling, where tasks are observations of satellites by sensors on the Earth. This self-contained monograph begins with a structured compendium of the problem and moves on to explain the optimal approach to the solution, which includes aspects from graph theory, set theory, game theory and belief networks. This book is accessible to students, professionals and researchers in a variety of fields, including: operations research, optimization, scheduling theory, dynamic programming and game theory. Taking account of the distributed, ...

  10. Optimal Scheduling of Domestic Appliances via MILP

    Zdenek Bradac

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes a consumption scheduling mechanism for domestic appliances within a home area network. The aim of the proposed scheduling is to minimize the total energy price paid by the consumer and to reduce power peaks in order to achieve a balanced daily load schedule. An exact and computationally efficient mixed-integer linear programming (MILP formulation of the problem is presented. This model is verified by several problem instances. Realistic scenarios based on the real price tariffs commercially available in the Czech Republic are calculated. The results obtained by solving the optimization problem are compared with a simulation of the ripple control service currently used by many domestic consumers in the Czech Republic.

  11. Schedule and staffing of a nuclear power project

    Polliart, A.J.; Csik, B.

    1977-01-01

    Establishment of construction schedule: a) preliminary construction schedule; b) PERT (Program Evaluation Review Techniques) analytical method; c) identify key milestone target dates; d) inter-action by participants and contribution to support revised construction schedule. - Construction schedule control: a) ability to update and modify construction schedule; b) alternate plans to circumvent restraints (problems); c) critical path activity-controls; d) continuous review and report system. - Updating construction site reports to include: 1) progress, 2) accomplishments, 3) potential problems and alternate plans; b) progress reports on related support services; c) total assessment of participating groups on schedule; d) information required by management for decisions. - Typical causes for delays in project schedule. (orig.) [de

  12. Crane Scheduling for a Plate Storage

    Hansen, Jesper; Clausen, Jens

    2002-01-01

    Odense Steel Shipyard produces the worlds largest container ships. The first process of producing the steel ships is handling arrival and storage of steel plates until they are needed in production. This paper considers the problem of scheduling two cranes that carry out the movements of plates...... into, around and out of the storage. The system is required to create a daily schedule for the cranes, but also handle possible disruptions during the execution of the plan. The problem is solved with a Simulated Annealing algorithm....

  13. Autonomous scheduling technology for Earth orbital missions

    Srivastava, S.

    1982-01-01

    The development of a dynamic autonomous system (DYASS) of resources for the mission support of near-Earth NASA spacecraft is discussed and the current NASA space data system is described from a functional perspective. The future (late 80's and early 90's) NASA space data system is discussed. The DYASS concept, the autonomous process control, and the NASA space data system are introduced. Scheduling and related disciplines are surveyed. DYASS as a scheduling problem is also discussed. Artificial intelligence and knowledge representation is considered as well as the NUDGE system and the I-Space system.

  14. Anesthesiology Nurse Scheduling using Particle Swarm Optimization

    Leopoldo Altamirano

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article we present an approach designed to solve a real world problem: the Anesthesiology Nurse Scheduling Problem (ANSP at a public French hospital. The anesthesiology nurses are one of the most shared resources in the hospital and we attempt to find a fair/balanced schedule for them, taking into account a set of constraints and the nursesarsquo; stated preferences, concerning the different shifts. We propose a particle swarm optimization algorithm to solve the ANSP. Finally, we compare our technique with previous results obtained using integer programming.

  15. Real-time systems scheduling 2 focuses

    Chetto, Maryline

    2014-01-01

    Real-time systems are used in a wide range of applications, including control, sensing, multimedia, etc. Scheduling is a central problem for these computing/communication systems since it is responsible for software execution in a timely manner. This book, the second of two volumes on the subject, brings together knowledge on specific topics and discusses the recent advances for some of them.  It addresses foundations as well as the latest advances and findings in real-time scheduling, giving comprehensive references to important papers, but the chapters are short and not overloaded with co

  16. Optimal scheduling of coproduction with a storage

    Ravn, H.F.; Rygard, J.M.

    1993-02-01

    We consider the problem of optimal scheduling of a system with combined heat and heat (CHP) units and a heat storege. The purpose of the heat storage is to permit a partial decoupling of the variations in the demand for heat and electrical power. We formulate the problem of optimal scheduling as that of minimizing the total costs over the planning period. The heat demand from the district heating system and the ''shadow prices'' for the electrical power system are taken as externally given parameters. The resulting model is solved by dynamic programming. We describe implementation details and we give examples of result of the optimization. (au) (12 refs.)

  17. Long-term home care scheduling

    Gamst, Mette; Jensen, Thomas Sejr

    In several countries, home care is provided for certain citizens living at home. The long-term home care scheduling problem is to generate work plans spanning several days such that a high quality of service is maintained and the overall cost is kept as low as possible. A solution to the problem...... provides detailed information on visits and visit times for each employee on each of the covered days. We propose a branch-and-price algorithm for the long-term home care scheduling problem. The pricing problem generates one-day plans for an employee, and the master problem merges the plans with respect...

  18. Real-time systems scheduling fundamentals

    Chetto, Maryline

    2014-01-01

    Real-time systems are used in a wide range of applications, including control, sensing, multimedia, etc.  Scheduling is a central problem for these computing/communication systems since responsible of software execution in a timely manner. This book provides state of knowledge in this domain with special emphasis on the key results obtained within the last decade. This book addresses foundations as well as the latest advances and findings in Real-Time Scheduling, giving all references to important papers. But nevertheless the chapters will be short and not overloaded with confusing details.

  19. Second-order schedules of token reinforcement with pigeons: effects of fixed- and variable-ratio exchange schedules.

    Foster, T A; Hackenberg, T D; Vaidya, M

    2001-09-01

    Pigeons' key pecks produced food under second-order schedules of token reinforcement, with light-emitting diodes serving as token reinforcers. In Experiment 1, tokens were earned according to a fixed-ratio 50 schedule and were exchanged for food according to either fixed-ratio or variable-ratio exchange schedules, with schedule type varied across conditions. In Experiment 2, schedule type was varied within sessions using a multiple schedule. In one component, tokens were earned according to a fixed-ratio 50 schedule and exchanged according to a variable-ratio schedule. In the other component, tokens were earned according to a variable-ratio 50 schedule and exchanged according to a fixed-ratio schedule. In both experiments, the number of responses per exchange was varied parametrically across conditions, ranging from 50 to 400 responses. Response rates decreased systematically with increases in the fixed-ratio exchange schedules, but were much less affected by changes in the variable-ratio exchange schedules. Response rates were consistently higher under variable-ratio exchange schedules than tinder comparable fixed-ratio exchange schedules, especially at higher exchange ratios. These response-rate differences were due both to greater pre-ratio pausing and to lower local rates tinder the fixed-ratio exchange schedules. Local response rates increased with proximity to food under the higher fixed-ratio exchange schedules, indicative of discriminative control by the tokens.

  20. Departure Queue Prediction for Strategic and Tactical Surface Scheduler Integration

    Zelinski, Shannon; Windhorst, Robert

    2016-01-01

    A departure metering concept to be demonstrated at Charlotte Douglas International Airport (CLT) will integrate strategic and tactical surface scheduling components to enable the respective collaborative decision making and improved efficiency benefits these two methods of scheduling provide. This study analyzes the effect of tactical scheduling on strategic scheduler predictability. Strategic queue predictions and target gate pushback times to achieve a desired queue length are compared between fast time simulations of CLT surface operations with and without tactical scheduling. The use of variable departure rates as a strategic scheduler input was shown to substantially improve queue predictions over static departure rates. With target queue length calibration, the strategic scheduler can be tuned to produce average delays within one minute of the tactical scheduler. However, root mean square differences between strategic and tactical delays were between 12 and 15 minutes due to the different methods the strategic and tactical schedulers use to predict takeoff times and generate gate pushback clearances. This demonstrates how difficult it is for the strategic scheduler to predict tactical scheduler assigned gate delays on an individual flight basis as the tactical scheduler adjusts departure sequence to accommodate arrival interactions. Strategic/tactical scheduler compatibility may be improved by providing more arrival information to the strategic scheduler and stabilizing tactical scheduler changes to runway sequence in response to arrivals.

  1. Schedule control in Ling Ao nuclear power project

    Xie Ahai

    2007-01-01

    Ling Ao Nuclear Power Station (LANP) is first one built up by self-reliance in China with power capacity 990x2 MWe. The results of quality control, schedule control and cost control are satisfactory. The commercial operation days of Unit 1 and Unit 2 were 28th May 2002 and 8th Jan. 2003 respectively, which were 48 days and 66 days in advance of the project schedule. This paper presents the practices of self-reliance schedule control system in LANP. The paper includes 10 sections: schedule control system; targets of schedule control; schedule control at early stage of project; construction schedule; scheduling practice; Point curves; schedule control of design and procurement; a good practice of construction schedule control on site; commissioning and startup schedule; schedule control culture. Three figures are attached. The main contents of the self-reliance schedule control system are as follows: to draw up reasonable schedules and targets; to setup management mechanism and procedures; to organize powerful project management team; to establish close monitoring system; to provide timely progress reports and statistics information. Five kinds of schedule control targets are introduced, i.e. bar-chart schedule; milesones; Point curves; interface management; hydraulic test schedule of auxiliary piping loops; EMR/EMC/EESR issuance schedules. Six levels of bar-chart schedules were adopted in LANP, but the bar-chart schedules were not satisfactory for complicated erection condition on site, even using six levels of schedules. So a kind of Point curves was developed and their advantages are explained. Scheduling method of three elements: activity, duration, logic, which was adopted in LANP, is introduced. The duration of each piping activities in LANP level 2 project schedule was calculated based on the relevant working Point quantities. The analysis and adjustment of Point curves are illustrated, i.e. balance of monthly quantities; possible production in the peakload

  2. Online Scheduling in Distributed Message Converter Systems

    Risse, Thomas; Wombacher, Andreas; Surridge, Mike; Taylor, Steve; Aberer, Karl

    The optimal distribution of jobs among hosts in distributed environments is an important factor to achieve high performance. The optimal strategy depends on the application. In this paper we present a new online scheduling strategy for distributed EDI converter system. The strategy is based on the

  3. Crane Scheduling on a Plate Storage

    Hansen, Jesper

    2002-01-01

    OSS produces the worlds largest container ships. The first process of producing the steel ships is handling arrival and storage of steel plates until they are needed in production. Two gantry cranes carry out this task. The planning task is now to create a schedule of movements for the 2 cranes...

  4. Improved human performance through appropriate work scheduling

    Morisseau, D.S.; Lewis, P.M.; Persensky, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has had a policy, Generic Letter 82-12, on hours of work since 1982. The policy states that licensees should establish controls to prevent situations where fatigue could reduce the ability of operating personnel to perform their duties safely (USNRC 1982). While that policy does give guidance on hours of work and overtime, it does not address periods of longer than 7 days or work schedules other than the routine 8-hour day, 40-hour week. Recognizing that NRC policy could provide broader guidance for shift schedules and hours of overtime work, the Division of Human Factors Safety conducted a project with Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) to help the NRC better understand the human factors principles and issues concerning hours of work so that the NRC could consider updating their policy as necessary. The results of this project are recommendations for guidelines and limits for periods of 14 days, 28 days, and 1 year to take into account the cumulative effects of fatigue. In addition, routine 12-hour shifts are addressed. This latter type of shift schedule has been widely adopted in the petroleum and chemical industries and several utilities operating nuclear power plants have adopted it as well. Since this is the case, it is important to consider including guidelines for implementing this type of schedule. This paper discusses the bases for the PNL recommendations which are currently being studied by the NRC

  5. ATD-2 Surface Scheduling and Metering Concept

    Coppenbarger, Richard A.; Jung, Yoon Chul; Capps, Richard Alan; Engelland, Shawn A.

    2017-01-01

    This presentation describes the concept of ATD-2 tactical surface scheduling and metering. The concept is composed of several elements, including data exchange and integration; surface modeling; surface scheduling; and surface metering. The presentation explains each of the elements. Surface metering is implemented to balance demand and capacity• When surface metering is on, target times from surface scheduler areconverted to advisories for throttling demand• Through the scheduling process, flights with CTOTs will not get addedmetering delay (avoids potential for ‘double delay’)• Carriers can designate certain flights as exempt from metering holds• Demand throttle in Phase 1 at CLT is through advisories sent to rampcontrollers for pushback instructions to the flight deck– Push now– Hold for an advised period of time (in minutes)• Principles of surface metering can be more generally applied to otherairports in the NAS to throttle demand via spot-release times (TMATs Strong focus on optimal use of airport resources• Flexibility enables stakeholders to vary the amount of delay theywould like transferred to gate• Addresses practical aspects of executing surface metering in aturbulent real world environment• Algorithms designed for both short term demand/capacityimbalances (banks) or sustained metering situations• Leverage automation to enable surface metering capability withoutrequiring additional positions• Represents first step in Tactical/Strategic fusion• Provides longer look-ahead calculations to enable analysis ofstrategic surface metering potential usage

  6. Irrigation scheduling using soil moisture sensors

    Soil moisture sensors were evaluated and used for irrigation scheduling in humid region. Soil moisture sensors were installed in soil at depths of 15cm, 30cm, and 61cm belowground. Soil volumetric water content was automatically measured by the sensors in a time interval of an hour during the crop g...

  7. Quarterly report on program cost and schedule

    1989-07-01

    This report is intended to provide a summary of the cost and schedule performance for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. Performance data are presented for each of the major program elements. Also included in this report is the status of the Nuclear Waste Fund revenues and disbursements. This report includes project performance data reported through March 1989

  8. Schedule reconciliation tests for management prudency determination

    Howell, G.E.

    1986-01-01

    The prudency audit of a nuclear project involves engineering, construction, financial, and management dimensions. The audit must retrospectively evaluate the decisions and actions of management decision makers and then equitably allocate the cost impacts of those decisions and actions in a comprehensive and objective manner. In most situations, determination of the impact of schedule delays is a paramount issue. Manzi and Associates uses an approach to schedule reconciliation that focuses on the site-specific, as-built condition. The as-built schedule model is analyzed by a backward pass, or but-for methodology which focuses on the causes and impacts of identified delays. The objective is to demonstrate that but-for the identified delay, the project could have been built in the as-planned time frame. The but-for methodology has been used in many contract dispute cases and is currently being applied to schedule reconciliation on several nuclear plants. The potential for applying this methodology to both new construction and retrofit projects is great

  9. Algorithms for Scheduling and Network Problems

    1991-09-01

    time. We already know, by Lemma 2.2.1, that WOPT = O(log( mpU )), so if we could solve this integer program optimally we would be done. However, the...Folydirat, 15:177-191, 1982. [6] I.S. Belov and Ya. N. Stolin. An algorithm in a single path operations scheduling problem. In Mathematical Economics and

  10. Flexible Scheduling in Multimedia Kernels: An Overview

    Jansen, P.G.; Scholten, Johan; Laan, Rene; Chow, W.S.

    1999-01-01

    Current Hard Real-Time (HRT) kernels have their timely behaviour guaranteed on the cost of a rather restrictive use of the available resources. This makes current HRT scheduling techniques inadequate for use in a multimedia environment where we can make a considerable profit by a better and more

  11. Maximizing System Lifetime by Battery Scheduling

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.; Bohnenkamp, H.C.; Katoen, Joost P.

    2009-01-01

    The use of mobile devices is limited by the battery lifetime. Some devices have the option to connect an extra battery, or to use smart battery-packs with multiple cells to extend the lifetime. In these cases, scheduling the batteries over the load to exploit recovery properties usually extends the

  12. Cost-efficient scheduling of FAST observations

    Luo, Qi; Zhao, Laiping; Yu, Ce; Xiao, Jian; Sun, Jizhou; Zhu, Ming; Zhong, Yi

    2018-03-01

    A cost-efficient schedule for the Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope (FAST) requires to maximize the number of observable proposals and the overall scientific priority, and minimize the overall slew-cost generated by telescope shifting, while taking into account the constraints including the astronomical objects visibility, user-defined observable times, avoiding Radio Frequency Interference (RFI). In this contribution, first we solve the problem of maximizing the number of observable proposals and scientific priority by modeling it as a Minimum Cost Maximum Flow (MCMF) problem. The optimal schedule can be found by any MCMF solution algorithm. Then, for minimizing the slew-cost of the generated schedule, we devise a maximally-matchable edges detection-based method to reduce the problem size, and propose a backtracking algorithm to find the perfect matching with minimum slew-cost. Experiments on a real dataset from NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED) show that, the proposed scheduler can increase the usage of available times with high scientific priority and reduce the slew-cost significantly in a very short time.

  13. Approximating multi-objective scheduling problems

    Dabia, S.; Talbi, El-Ghazali; Woensel, van T.; Kok, de A.G.

    2013-01-01

    In many practical situations, decisions are multi-objective by nature. In this paper, we propose a generic approach to deal with multi-objective scheduling problems (MOSPs). The aim is to determine the set of Pareto solutions that represent the interactions between the different objectives. Due to

  14. Scheduling with time-dependent execution times

    Woeginger, G.J.

    1995-01-01

    We consider systems of tasks where the task execution times are time-dependent and where all tasks have some common deadline. We describe how to compute in polynomial time a schedule that minimizes the number of late tasks. This answers a question raised in a recent paper by Ho, Leung and Wei.

  15. FLOWSHOP SCHEDULING USING A NETWORK APPROACH ...

    eobe

    time when the last job completes on the last machine. The objective ... more jobs in a permutation flow shop scheduling problem ... processing time of a job on a machine is zero, it ..... hybrid flow shops with sequence dependent setup times ...

  16. Advance Resource Provisioning in Bulk Data Scheduling

    Balman, Mehmet

    2012-10-01

    Today?s scientific and business applications generate mas- sive data sets that need to be transferred to remote sites for sharing, processing, and long term storage. Because of increasing data volumes and enhancement in current net- work technology that provide on-demand high-speed data access between collaborating institutions, data handling and scheduling problems have reached a new scale. In this paper, we present a new data scheduling model with ad- vance resource provisioning, in which data movement operations are defined with earliest start and latest comple- tion times. We analyze time-dependent resource assign- ment problem, and propose a new methodology to improve the current systems by allowing researchers and higher-level meta-schedulers to use data-placement as-a-service, so they can plan ahead and submit transfer requests in advance. In general, scheduling with time and resource conflicts is NP-hard. We introduce an efficient algorithm to organize multiple requests on the fly, while satisfying users? time and resource constraints. We successfully tested our algorithm in a simple benchmark simulator that we have developed, and demonstrated its performance with initial test results.

  17. The Growing Diversity of Work Schedules.

    Smith, Shirley J.

    1986-01-01

    The author highlights the predominance of the five-day, 40-hour workweek. Although finding little change in recent years in the proportion of workers on 40-hour schedules, Smith notes that there have been some changes in work patterns, with a still small but growing group of workers on "compressed" full-time weeks of less than five days.…

  18. Schedule and status of irradiation experiments

    Rowcliffe, A.F.; Grossbeck, M.L.; Robertson, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    The current status of reactor irradiation experiments is presented in tables summarizing the experimental objectives, conditions, and schedule. Currently, the program has four irradiation experiments in reactor, and five experiments in the design or construction stages. Postirradiation examination and testing is in progress on ten experiments

  19. 20 CFR 402.165 - Fee schedule.

    2010-04-01

    ... requester for the services rendered. (i) Fee for copies of printed materials. When extra copies of printed... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fee schedule. 402.165 Section 402.165 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION AND RECORDS TO THE PUBLIC...

  20. Project schedule and cost estimate report

    1988-03-01

    All cost tables represent obligation dollars, at both a constant FY 1987 level and an estimated escalation level, and are based on the FY 1989 DOE Congressional Budget submittal of December 1987. The cost tables display the total UMTRA Project estimated costs, which include both Federal and state funding. The Total Estimated Cost (TEC) for the UMTRA Project is approximately $992.5 million (in 1987 escalated dollars). Project schedules have been developed that provide for Project completion by September 1994, subject to Congressional approval extending DOE's authorization under Public Law 95-604. The report contains site-specific demographic data, conceptual design assumptions, preliminary cost estimates, and site schedules. A general project overview is also presented, which includes a discussion of the basis for the schedule and cost estimates, contingency assumptions, work breakdown structure, and potential project risks. The schedules and cost estimates will be revised as necessary to reflect appropriate decisions relating to relocation of certain tailings piles, or other special design considerations or circumstances (such as revised EPA groundwater standards), and changes in the Project mission. 27 figs', 97 tabs

  1. Adaptive resource allocation for efficient patient scheduling

    Vermeulen, Ivan B.; Bohte, Sander M.; Elkhuizen, Sylvia G.; Lameris, Han; Bakker, Piet J. M.; La Poutré, Han

    2009-01-01

    Efficient scheduling of patient appointments on expensive resources is a complex and dynamic task. A resource is typically used by several patient groups. To service these groups, resource capacity is often allocated per group, explicitly or implicitly. Importantly, due to fluctuations in demand,

  2. 21 CFR 1308.14 - Schedule IV.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Schedule IV. 1308.14 Section 1308.14 Food and... isomers is possible: (1) Fenfluramine 1670 (e) Stimulants. Unless specifically excepted or unless listed... the following substances having a stimulant effect on the central nervous system, including its salts...

  3. 21 CFR 1308.12 - Schedule II.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Schedule II. 1308.12 Section 1308.12 Food and... 9733 (26) Remifentanil 9739 (27) Sufentanil 9740 (28) Tapentadol 9780 (d) Stimulants. Unless... which contains any quantity of the following substances having a stimulant effect on the central nervous...

  4. 21 CFR 1308.11 - Schedule I.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Schedule I. 1308.11 Section 1308.11 Food and Drugs...) Mecloqualone 2572 (3) Methaqualone 2565 (f) Stimulants. Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in... following substances having a stimulant effect on the central nervous system, including its salts, isomers...

  5. 21 CFR 1308.15 - Schedule V.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Schedule V. 1308.15 Section 1308.15 Food and Drugs... not less than 25 micrograms of atropine sulfate per dosage unit. (d) Stimulants. Unless specifically... which contains any quantity of the following substances having a stimulant effect on the central nervous...

  6. Intelligence amplification framework for enhancing scheduling processes

    Dobrkovic, Andrej; Liu, Luyao; Iacob, Maria Eugenia; van Hillegersberg, Jos

    2016-01-01

    The scheduling process in a typical business environment consists of predominantly repetitive tasks that have to be completed in limited time and often containing some form of uncertainty. The intelligence amplification is a symbiotic relationship between a human and an intelligent agent. This

  7. Irrigation scheduling with the neutron probe

    Travers, P.

    1987-01-01

    The operational theory of the neutron probe is briefly outlined and its application and uses discussed in relation to determination of soil compaction and irrigation scheduling. Graphic examples are given of alluvial soil moisture profiles and how this information can be used to improve trickle irrigation in vineyards. 3 refs., 7 figs

  8. Proportional green time scheduling for traffic lights

    P. Kovacs; Le, T. (Tung); R. Núñez Queija (Rudesindo); Vu, H. (Hai); N. Walton

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe consider the decentralized scheduling of a large number of urban traffic lights. We investigate factors determining system performance, in particular, the length of the traffic light cycle and the proportion of green time allocated to each junction. We study the effect of the length

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF A MAINTENANCE SCHEDULING MODEL FOR ...

    ... of minor maintenance, for each machine within this time span. In order to minimize the total cost of repairs and production. A numerical application of this development model in a case study is presented. Key words: Maintenance, modeling, scheduling, optimization. [Global Jnl Engineering Res. Vol.1(2) 2002: 107-118] ...

  10. Cross layer scheduling algorithm for LTE Downlink

    Popovska Avramova, Andrijana; Yan, Ying; Dittmann, Lars

    2012-01-01

    . This paper evaluates a cross layer scheduling algorithm that aims at minimizing the resource utilization. The algorithm makes decisions regarding the channel conditions and the size of transmission buffers and different QoS demands. The simulation results show that the new algorithm improves the resource...

  11. Scheduling drayage operations in synchromodal transport

    Rivera, Arturo E.Pérez; Mes, Martijn R.K.; Bektas, Tolga; Coniglio, Stefano; Martinez-Sykora, Antonio; Voss, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    We study the problem of scheduling drayage operations in synchromodal transport. Besides the usual decisions to time the pick-up and delivery of containers, and to route the vehicles that transport them, synchromodal transport includes the assignment of terminals for empty and loaded containers. The

  12. Simultaneous scheduling of machines and mobile robots

    Dang, Vinh Quang; Nielsen, Izabela Ewa

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of simultaneously scheduling machines and a number of autonomous mobile robots in a flexible manufacturing system (FMS). Besides capability of transporting materials between machines, the considered mobile robots are different from other material handling devices...

  13. Flexible job shop scheduling problem in manufacturing

    Curralo, Ana; Pereira, Ana I.; Barbosa, José; Leitão, Paulo

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses a real assembly cell: the AIP-PRIMECA cell at the Université de Valenciennes et du Hainaut-Cambrésis, in France. This system can be viewed as a Flexible Job Shop, leading to the formulation of a Flexible Job Shop Scheduling Problem (FJSSP).

  14. Implications of Nontraditional Work Schedules for Women

    Polit, Denise F.

    1978-01-01

    Issues, evidence, and arguments relating to the effects of alternative working arrangements on the lives of women are examined. Forms of nontraditional schedules which are analyzed include the shortened work week, flexible working hours, and part-time employment. (Author/GC)

  15. Job shop scheduling by local search

    Vaessens, R.J.M.; Aarts, E.H.L.; Lenstra, J.K.

    1994-01-01

    We survey solution methods for the job shop scheduling problem with an emphasis on local search. We discuss both cleterministic and randomized local search methods as well as the applied neighborhoods. We compare the computational performance of the various methods in terms of their effectiveness

  16. Scheduling in Engineering, Project, and Production Management

    Chien-Ho Ko

    2015-01-01

    This issue presents five papers selected from the 2013 (4th) International Conference on Engineering, Project, and Production Management (EPPM2013) held in Bangkok, Thailand. Three of the papers deal with scheduling problems faced in project and production management, while the remaining two focus on engineering management issues.

  17. Integrating job scheduling and constrained network routing

    Gamst, Mette

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the NP-hard problem of scheduling jobs on resources such that the overall profit of executed jobs is maximized. Job demand must be sent through a constrained network to the resource before execution can begin. The problem has application in grid computing, where a number...

  18. A Comparison of Software Schedule Estimators

    1990-09-01

    SLIM ...................................... 33 SPQR /20 ................................... 35 System -4 .................................... 37 Previous...24 3. PRICE-S Outputs ..................................... 26 4. COCOMO Factors by Category ........................... 28 5. SPQR /20 Activities...actual schedules experienced on the projects. The models analyzed were REVIC, PRICE-S, System-4, SPQR /20, and SEER. ix A COMPARISON OF SOFTWARE

  19. LTE uplink scheduling - flow level analysis

    Dimitrova, D.C.; van den Berg, J.L.; Heijenk, G.; Litjens, R.; Sacchi, Claudio; Bellalta, Boris; Vinel, Alexey; Schlegel, Christian; Granelli, Fabrizio; Zhang, Yan

    Long Term Evolution (LTE) is a cellular technology foreseen to extend the capacity and improve the performance of current 3G cellular networks. A key mechanism in the LTE traffic handling is the packet scheduler, which is in charge of allocating resources to active flows in both the frequency and

  20. LTE uplink scheduling - Flow level analysis

    Dimitrova, D.C.; Berg, J.L. van den; Heijenk, G.; Litjens, R.

    2011-01-01

    Long Term Evolution (LTE) is a cellular technology foreseen to extend the capacity and improve the performance of current 3G cellular networks. A key mechanism in the LTE traffic handling is the packet scheduler, which is in charge of allocating resources to active flows in both the frequency and

  1. 29 CFR 1952.221 - Developmental schedule.

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Developmental schedule. 1952.221 Section 1952.221 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Management data system operational July 1, 1973. Automated Management data system operational January 1, 1974...

  2. 29 CFR 1952.211 - Developmental schedule.

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... schedule. (a) Occupational health study accepted and implementation begun July, 1973; (b) Compliance Manual developed by July, 1973; (c) Management Information System, December, 1975; (d) Training in compliance...

  3. 29 CFR 1952.201 - Developmental schedule.

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... schedule. (a) Retraining of present occupational safety and health personnel during March-May 1973; (b... legislation, August 1, 1973; (d) Regulations on variances, August 1973; (e) Management information system...

  4. 29 CFR 1952.341 - Developmental schedule.

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Developmental schedule. 1952.341 Section 1952.341 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... State Legislature January 1975 and to become effective by May 1, 1975. (d) Management Information System...

  5. 76 FR 10233 - Schedule of Water Charges

    2011-02-24

    ... DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION 18 CFR Part 420 Schedule of Water Charges AGENCY: Delaware River..., Part III, Basin Regulations--Water Supply Charges. Accordingly, the Commission's water charging rates..., 2011. Effective Date: February 24, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For questions about the water...

  6. Split Scheduling with Uniform Setup Times

    Schalekamp, F.; Sitters, R.A.; van der Ster, S.L.; Stougie, L.; Verdugo, V.; van Zuylen, A.

    2015-01-01

    We study a scheduling problem in which jobs may be split into parts, where the parts of a split job may be processed simultaneously on more than one machine. Each part of a job requires a setup time, however, on the machine where the job part is processed. During setup, a machine cannot process or

  7. Split scheduling with uniform setup times.

    F. Schalekamp; R.A. Sitters (René); S.L. van der Ster; L. Stougie (Leen); V. Verdugo; A. van Zuylen

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractWe study a scheduling problem in which jobs may be split into parts, where the parts of a split job may be processed simultaneously on more than one machine. Each part of a job requires a setup time, however, on the machine where the job part is processed. During setup, a

  8. Physician Fee Schedule National Payment Amount File

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The significant size of the Physician Fee Schedule Payment Amount File-National requires that database programs (e.g., Access, dBase, FoxPro, etc.) be used to read...

  9. Direct block scheduling technology: Analysis of Avidity

    Felipe Ribeiro Souza

    Full Text Available Abstract This study is focused on Direct Block Scheduling testing (Direct Multi-Period Scheduling methodology which schedules mine production considering the correct discount factor of each mining block, resulting in the final pit. Each block is analyzed individually in order to define the best target period. This methodology presents an improvement of the classical methodology derived from Lerchs-Grossmann's initial proposition improved by Whittle. This paper presents the differences between these methodologies, specially focused on the algorithms' avidity. Avidity is classically defined by the voracious search algorithms, whereupon some of the most famous greedy algorithms are Branch and Bound, Brutal Force and Randomized. Strategies based on heuristics can accentuate the voracity of the optimizer system. The applied algorithm use simulated annealing combined with Tabu Search. The most avid algorithm can select the most profitable blocks in early periods, leading to higher present value in the first periods of mine operation. The application of discount factors to blocks on the Lerchs-Grossmann's final pit has an accentuated effect with time, and this effect may make blocks scheduled for the end of the mine life unfeasible, representing a trend to a decrease in reported reserves.

  10. Artificial intelligence for the CTA Observatory scheduler

    Colomé, Josep; Colomer, Pau; Campreciós, Jordi; Coiffard, Thierry; de Oña, Emma; Pedaletti, Giovanna; Torres, Diego F.; Garcia-Piquer, Alvaro

    2014-08-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) project will be the next generation ground-based very high energy gamma-ray instrument. The success of the precursor projects (i.e., HESS, MAGIC, VERITAS) motivated the construction of this large infrastructure that is included in the roadmap of the ESFRI projects since 2008. CTA is planned to start the construction phase in 2015 and will consist of two arrays of Cherenkov telescopes operated as a proposal-driven open observatory. Two sites are foreseen at the southern and northern hemispheres. The CTA observatory will handle several observation modes and will have to operate tens of telescopes with a highly efficient and reliable control. Thus, the CTA planning tool is a key element in the control layer for the optimization of the observatory time. The main purpose of the scheduler for CTA is the allocation of multiple tasks to one single array or to multiple sub-arrays of telescopes, while maximizing the scientific return of the facility and minimizing the operational costs. The scheduler considers long- and short-term varying conditions to optimize the prioritization of tasks. A short-term scheduler provides the system with the capability to adapt, in almost real-time, the selected task to the varying execution constraints (i.e., Targets of Opportunity, health or status of the system components, environment conditions). The scheduling procedure ensures that long-term planning decisions are correctly transferred to the short-term prioritization process for a suitable selection of the next task to execute on the array. In this contribution we present the constraints to CTA task scheduling that helped classifying it as a Flexible Job-Shop Problem case and finding its optimal solution based on Artificial Intelligence techniques. We describe the scheduler prototype that uses a Guarded Discrete Stochastic Neural Network (GDSN), for an easy representation of the possible long- and short-term planning solutions, and Constraint

  11. Production planning and scheduling in refinery industry

    Persson, Jan.

    1999-01-01

    In this thesis we consider production planning and scheduling in refinery industry, in particular we study the planning and scheduling at the Nynaes AB refinery and at the Scanraff AB refinery. The purpose is to contribute to the development and the use of optimization models to support efficient decision making. We identify various decision problems concerning the aggregated production planning, the shipment planning, the scheduling of operation modes, and the utilization of pipes and tanks; and we discuss the potential to successfully apply optimization models on these problems. We formulate a mixed integer linear programming model for the scheduling of operation modes at Nynaes. The model concerns decisions about which mode of operation to use at a particular point in time in order to minimize costs of changing modes and costs of keeping inventories, given demands for products. We derive several types of valid inequalities for this mathematical problem and show how these inequalities can improve the lower bound obtained from the linear programming relaxation of the problem. We also show how the valid inequalities can be used to improve the performance of a branch and bound solution approach. Further, a tabu search heuristic is developed for the scheduling problem. The solution methods are tested on data provided by the Nynaes refinery, and the performance of the methods are discussed. We present several extensions of the proposed model, and illustrate how the model can be used to support both operational and strategic decision making at the refinery. 66 refs, 6 figs, 32 tabs. Also published as: Dissertation from the International Graduate School of Management and Industrial Engineering, No 25, Licenciate Thesis

  12. Production planning and scheduling in refinery industry

    Persson, Jan

    1999-07-01

    In this thesis we consider production planning and scheduling in refinery industry, in particular we study the planning and scheduling at the Nynaes AB refinery and at the Scanraff AB refinery. The purpose is to contribute to the development and the use of optimization models to support efficient decision making. We identify various decision problems concerning the aggregated production planning, the shipment planning, the scheduling of operation modes, and the utilization of pipes and tanks; and we discuss the potential to successfully apply optimization models on these problems. We formulate a mixed integer linear programming model for the scheduling of operation modes at Nynaes. The model concerns decisions about which mode of operation to use at a particular point in time in order to minimize costs of changing modes and costs of keeping inventories, given demands for products. We derive several types of valid inequalities for this mathematical problem and show how these inequalities can improve the lower bound obtained from the linear programming relaxation of the problem. We also show how the valid inequalities can be used to improve the performance of a branch and bound solution approach. Further, a tabu search heuristic is developed for the scheduling problem. The solution methods are tested on data provided by the Nynaes refinery, and the performance of the methods are discussed. We present several extensions of the proposed model, and illustrate how the model can be used to support both operational and strategic decision making at the refinery. 66 refs, 6 figs, 32 tabs. Also published as: Dissertation from the International Graduate School of Management and Industrial Engineering, No 25, Licenciate Thesis.

  13. Production planning and scheduling in refinery industry

    Persson, Jan

    1999-06-01

    In this thesis we consider production planning and scheduling in refinery industry, in particular we study the planning and scheduling at the Nynaes AB refinery and at the Scanraff AB refinery. The purpose is to contribute to the development and the use of optimization models to support efficient decision making. We identify various decision problems concerning the aggregated production planning, the shipment planning, the scheduling of operation modes, and the utilization of pipes and tanks; and we discuss the potential to successfully apply optimization models on these problems. We formulate a mixed integer linear programming model for the scheduling of operation modes at Nynaes. The model concerns decisions about which mode of operation to use at a particular point in time in order to minimize costs of changing modes and costs of keeping inventories, given demands for products. We derive several types of valid inequalities for this mathematical problem and show how these inequalities can improve the lower bound obtained from the linear programming relaxation of the problem. We also show how the valid inequalities can be used to improve the performance of a branch and bound solution approach. Further, a tabu search heuristic is developed for the scheduling problem. The solution methods are tested on data provided by the Nynaes refinery, and the performance of the methods are discussed. We present several extensions of the proposed model, and illustrate how the model can be used to support both operational and strategic decision making at the refinery. 66 refs, 6 figs, 32 tabs. Also published as: Dissertation from the International Graduate School of Management and Industrial Engineering, No 25, Licenciate Thesis

  14. Scheduling Broadcasts in a Network of Timelines

    Manzoor, Emaad A.

    2015-05-12

    Broadcasts and timelines are the primary mechanism of information exchange in online social platforms today. Services like Facebook, Twitter and Instagram have enabled ordinary people to reach large audiences spanning cultures and countries, while their massive popularity has created increasingly competitive marketplaces of attention. Timing broadcasts to capture the attention of such geographically diverse audiences has sparked interest from many startups and social marketing gurus. However, formal study is lacking on both the timing and frequency problems. In this thesis, we introduce, motivate and solve the broadcast scheduling problem of specifying the timing and frequency of publishing content to maximise the attention received. We validate and quantify three interacting behavioural phenomena to parametrise social platform users: information overload, bursty circadian rhythms and monotony aversion, which is defined here for the first time. Our analysis of the influence of monotony refutes the common assumption that posts on social network timelines are consumed piecemeal independently. Instead, we reveal that posts are consumed in chunks, which has important consequences for any future work considering human behaviour over social network timelines. Our quantification of monotony aversion is also novel, and has applications to problems in various domains such as recommender list diversification, user satiation and variety-seeking consumer behaviour. Having studied the underlying behavioural phenomena, we link schedules, timelines, attention and behaviour by formalising a timeline information exchange process. Our formulation gives rise to a natural objective function that quantifies the expected collective attention an arrangement of posts on a timeline will receive. We apply this formulation as a case-study on real-data from Twitter, where we estimate behavioural parameters, calculate the attention potential for different scheduling strategies and, using the

  15. Online Scheduling in Manufacturing A Cumulative Delay Approach

    Suwa, Haruhiko

    2013-01-01

    Online scheduling is recognized as the crucial decision-making process of production control at a phase of “being in production" according to the released shop floor schedule. Online scheduling can be also considered as one of key enablers to realize prompt capable-to-promise as well as available-to-promise to customers along with reducing production lead times under recent globalized competitive markets. Online Scheduling in Manufacturing introduces new approaches to online scheduling based on a concept of cumulative delay. The cumulative delay is regarded as consolidated information of uncertainties under a dynamic environment in manufacturing and can be collected constantly without much effort at any points in time during a schedule execution. In this approach, the cumulative delay of the schedule has the important role of a criterion for making a decision whether or not a schedule revision is carried out. The cumulative delay approach to trigger schedule revisions has the following capabilities for the ...

  16. Analysis and Optimisation of Hierarchically Scheduled Multiprocessor Embedded Systems

    Pop, Traian; Pop, Paul; Eles, Petru

    2008-01-01

    We present an approach to the analysis and optimisation of heterogeneous multiprocessor embedded systems. The systems are heterogeneous not only in terms of hardware components, but also in terms of communication protocols and scheduling policies. When several scheduling policies share a resource......, they are organised in a hierarchy. In this paper, we first develop a holistic scheduling and schedulability analysis that determines the timing properties of a hierarchically scheduled system. Second, we address design problems that are characteristic to such hierarchically scheduled systems: assignment...... of scheduling policies to tasks, mapping of tasks to hardware components, and the scheduling of the activities. We also present several algorithms for solving these problems. Our heuristics are able to find schedulable implementations under limited resources, achieving an efficient utilisation of the system...

  17. Automated scheduling and planning from theory to practice

    Ozcan, Ender; Urquhart, Neil

    2013-01-01

      Solving scheduling problems has long presented a challenge for computer scientists and operations researchers. The field continues to expand as researchers and practitioners examine ever more challenging problems and develop automated methods capable of solving them. This book provides 11 case studies in automated scheduling, submitted by leading researchers from across the world. Each case study examines a challenging real-world problem by analysing the problem in detail before investigating how the problem may be solved using state of the art techniques.The areas covered include aircraft scheduling, microprocessor instruction scheduling, sports fixture scheduling, exam scheduling, personnel scheduling and production scheduling.  Problem solving methodologies covered include exact as well as (meta)heuristic approaches, such as local search techniques, linear programming, genetic algorithms and ant colony optimisation.The field of automated scheduling has the potential to impact many aspects of our lives...

  18. Group Elevator Peak Scheduling Based on Robust Optimization Model

    ZHANG, J.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Scheduling of Elevator Group Control System (EGCS is a typical combinatorial optimization problem. Uncertain group scheduling under peak traffic flows has become a research focus and difficulty recently. RO (Robust Optimization method is a novel and effective way to deal with uncertain scheduling problem. In this paper, a peak scheduling method based on RO model for multi-elevator system is proposed. The method is immune to the uncertainty of peak traffic flows, optimal scheduling is realized without getting exact numbers of each calling floor's waiting passengers. Specifically, energy-saving oriented multi-objective scheduling price is proposed, RO uncertain peak scheduling model is built to minimize the price. Because RO uncertain model could not be solved directly, RO uncertain model is transformed to RO certain model by elevator scheduling robust counterparts. Because solution space of elevator scheduling is enormous, to solve RO certain model in short time, ant colony solving algorithm for elevator scheduling is proposed. Based on the algorithm, optimal scheduling solutions are found quickly, and group elevators are scheduled according to the solutions. Simulation results show the method could improve scheduling performances effectively in peak pattern. Group elevators' efficient operation is realized by the RO scheduling method.

  19. Optimal investment and scheduling of distributed energy resources with uncertainty in electric vehicles driving schedules

    Cardoso, Goncalo [Technical Univ. of Lisbon (Portugal); Stadler, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Center for Energy and Innovation Technologies (Austria); Bozchalui, Mohammed C. [NEC Laboratories American Inc., Irving, TX (United States); Sharma, Ratnesh [NEC Laboratories American Inc., Irving, TX (United States); Marnay, Chris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Barbosa-Povoa, Ana [Technical Univ. of Lisbon (Portugal); Ferrao, Paulo [Technical Univ. of Lisbon (Portugal)

    2013-12-06

    The large scale penetration of electric vehicles (EVs) will introduce technical challenges to the distribution grid, but also carries the potential for vehicle-to-grid services. Namely, if available in large enough numbers, EVs can be used as a distributed energy resource (DER) and their presence can influence optimal DER investment and scheduling decisions in microgrids. In this work, a novel EV fleet aggregator model is introduced in a stochastic formulation of DER-CAM [1], an optimization tool used to address DER investment and scheduling problems. This is used to assess the impact of EV interconnections on optimal DER solutions considering uncertainty in EV driving schedules. Optimization results indicate that EVs can have a significant impact on DER investments, particularly if considering short payback periods. Furthermore, results suggest that uncertainty in driving schedules carries little significance to total energy costs, which is corroborated by results obtained using the stochastic formulation of the problem.

  20. Utilization Bound of Non-preemptive Fixed Priority Schedulers

    Park, Moonju; Chae, Jinseok

    It is known that the schedulability of a non-preemptive task set with fixed priority can be determined in pseudo-polynomial time. However, since Rate Monotonic scheduling is not optimal for non-preemptive scheduling, the applicability of existing polynomial time tests that provide sufficient schedulability conditions, such as Liu and Layland's bound, is limited. This letter proposes a new sufficient condition for non-preemptive fixed priority scheduling that can be used for any fixed priority assignment scheme. It is also shown that the proposed schedulability test has a tighter utilization bound than existing test methods.

  1. Analysis of Issues for Project Scheduling by Multiple, Dispersed Schedulers (distributed Scheduling) and Requirements for Manual Protocols and Computer-based Support

    Richards, Stephen F.

    1991-01-01

    Although computerized operations have significant gains realized in many areas, one area, scheduling, has enjoyed few benefits from automation. The traditional methods of industrial engineering and operations research have not proven robust enough to handle the complexities associated with the scheduling of realistic problems. To address this need, NASA has developed the computer-aided scheduling system (COMPASS), a sophisticated, interactive scheduling tool that is in wide-spread use within NASA and the contractor community. Therefore, COMPASS provides no explicit support for the large class of problems in which several people, perhaps at various locations, build separate schedules that share a common pool of resources. This research examines the issue of distributing scheduling, as applied to application domains characterized by the partial ordering of tasks, limited resources, and time restrictions. The focus of this research is on identifying issues related to distributed scheduling, locating applicable problem domains within NASA, and suggesting areas for ongoing research. The issues that this research identifies are goals, rescheduling requirements, database support, the need for communication and coordination among individual schedulers, the potential for expert system support for scheduling, and the possibility of integrating artificially intelligent schedulers into a network of human schedulers.

  2. Scheduling lessons learned from the Autonomous Power System

    Ringer, Mark J.

    1992-01-01

    The Autonomous Power System (APS) project at NASA LeRC is designed to demonstrate the applications of integrated intelligent diagnosis, control, and scheduling techniques to space power distribution systems. The project consists of three elements: the Autonomous Power Expert System (APEX) for Fault Diagnosis, Isolation, and Recovery (FDIR); the Autonomous Intelligent Power Scheduler (AIPS) to efficiently assign activities start times and resources; and power hardware (Brassboard) to emulate a space-based power system. The AIPS scheduler was tested within the APS system. This scheduler is able to efficiently assign available power to the requesting activities and share this information with other software agents within the APS system in order to implement the generated schedule. The AIPS scheduler is also able to cooperatively recover from fault situations by rescheduling the affected loads on the Brassboard in conjunction with the APEX FDIR system. AIPS served as a learning tool and an initial scheduling testbed for the integration of FDIR and automated scheduling systems. Many lessons were learned from the AIPS scheduler and are now being integrated into a new scheduler called SCRAP (Scheduler for Continuous Resource Allocation and Planning). This paper will service three purposes: an overview of the AIPS implementation, lessons learned from the AIPS scheduler, and a brief section on how these lessons are being applied to the new SCRAP scheduler.

  3. Medications for Sleep Schedule Adjustments in Athletes.

    Baird, Matthew B; Asif, Irfan M

    Sleep schedule adjustments are common requirements of modern-day athletes. Many nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic strategies exist to facilitate circadian rhythm shifts to maximize alertness and performance during competition. This review summarizes the evidence for commonly used pharmacologic agents and presents recommendations for the sports medicine provider. MEDLINE searches were performed using the following keywords: sleep aids, circadian rhythm adjustment, athletes and sleep, caffeine and sports, melatonin and athletes, and sleep aids and sports. Pertinent articles were extracted and discussed. Clinical review. Level 2. There are very few available studies investigating pharmacologic sleep aids in athletes. Data from studies involving shift workers and airline personnel are more abundant and were used to formulate recommendations and conclusions. Melatonin, caffeine, and nonbenzodiazepine sleep aids have a role in facilitating sleep schedule changes in athletes and maximizing sports performance through sleep enhancement.

  4. Scheduling of resource-constrained projects

    Klein, Robert

    2000-01-01

    Project management has become a widespread instrument enabling organizations to efficiently master the challenges of steadily shortening product life cycles, global markets and decreasing profit margins. With projects increasing in size and complexity, their planning and control represents one of the most crucial management tasks. This is especially true for scheduling, which is concerned with establishing execution dates for the sub-activities to be performed in order to complete the project. The ability to manage projects where resources must be allocated between concurrent projects or even sub-activities of a single project requires the use of commercial project management software packages. However, the results yielded by the solution procedures included are often rather unsatisfactory. Scheduling of Resource-Constrained Projects develops more efficient procedures, which can easily be integrated into software packages by incorporated programming languages, and thus should be of great interest for practiti...

  5. Multiprocessor scheduling for real-time systems

    Baruah, Sanjoy; Buttazzo, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of both theoretical and pragmatic aspects of resource-allocation and scheduling in multiprocessor and multicore hard-real-time systems.  The authors derive new, abstract models of real-time tasks that capture accurately the salient features of real application systems that are to be implemented on multiprocessor platforms, and identify rules for mapping application systems onto the most appropriate models.  New run-time multiprocessor scheduling algorithms are presented, which are demonstrably better than those currently used, both in terms of run-time efficiency and tractability of off-line analysis.  Readers will benefit from a new design and analysis framework for multiprocessor real-time systems, which will translate into a significantly enhanced ability to provide formally verified, safety-critical real-time systems at a significantly lower cost.

  6. Software Schedules Missions, Aids Project Management

    2008-01-01

    NASA missions require advanced planning, scheduling, and management, and the Space Agency has worked extensively to develop the programs and software suites necessary to facilitate these complex missions. These enormously intricate undertakings have hundreds of active components that need constant management and monitoring. It is no surprise, then, that the software developed for these tasks is often applicable in other high-stress, complex environments, like in government or industrial settings. NASA work over the past few years has resulted in a handful of new scheduling, knowledge-management, and research tools developed under contract with one of NASA s partners. These tools have the unique responsibility of supporting NASA missions, but they are also finding uses outside of the Space Program.

  7. Sensor Transmission Power Schedule for Smart Grids

    Gao, C.; Huang, Y. H.; Li, J.; Liu, X. D.

    2017-11-01

    Smart grid has attracted much attention by the requirement of new generation renewable energy. Nowadays, the real-time state estimation, with the help of phasor measurement unit, plays an important role to keep smart grid stable and efficient. However, the limitation of the communication channel is not considered by related work. Considering the familiar limited on-board batteries wireless sensor in smart grid, transmission power schedule is designed in this paper, which minimizes energy consumption with proper EKF filtering performance requirement constrain. Based on the event-triggered estimation theory, the filtering algorithm is also provided to utilize the information contained in the power schedule. Finally, its feasibility and performance is demonstrated using the standard IEEE 39-bus system with phasor measurement units (PMUs).

  8. Preliminary ITER cost and schedule estimates

    1990-01-01

    The cost, manpower requirements, and schedule estimates for the realization of the ITER tokamak have been studied during the Conceptual Design Activities, as a result of work by the ITER Management Committee. This work was completed during the January-March, 1990 joint work session, and is presented in this report. A possible schedule shows completion of the engineering design phase in 1995, with 180 professionals, at a cost of about $250M. The construction would be completed in 2004 with a rise in professional staff to 300, and a total cost of $4900M. The machine would be operable over an 18-year period, at an annual operating cost averaging $290M. 2 figs

  9. Load scheduling for decentralized CHP plants

    Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg, orlov 31.07.2008; Madsen, Henrik; Nielsen, Torben Skov

    ) an interactive decision support tool by which optimal schedules can be found given the forecasts or user-defined modifications of the forecasts, and (iii) an automatic on-line system for monitoring when conditions have changed so that rescheduling is appropriate. In this report the focus is on methods applicable...... be obtained. Furthermore, we believe that all relevant forecasting methods are far too complicated to allow for this integration; both uncertainties originating from the dependence of heat load on climate and from meteorological forecasts need to be taken into account. Instead we suggest that the decision....... By letting the system find optimal schedules for each of these realizations the operator can gain some insight into the importance of the uncertainties. It is shown that with modern personal computers (e.g. 1 GHz Pentium III), operating systems (e.g. RedHat Linux 6.0), and compilers (e.g. GNU C 2...

  10. Flexible work schedules, older workers, and retirement.

    Siegenthaler, J K; Brenner, A M

    2000-01-01

    Older workers in the United States indicate that they would prefer flexible work arrangements rather than abrupt retirement, yet management has done very little to make this possible. A review of two bodies of literature from the late 1980s is presented: social science writings including sociological, gerontological, and economic literature, and business and management literature. There is a clash between the way jobs are traditionally scheduled and the needs of growing numbers of older workers. Workers continue to be subject to obstacles to phased retirement due to the structuring of health care and pension benefits, downsizing, organizational inflexibility, and "corporate culture." Thus, general views among social scientists regarding the desirability of flexible schedules toward retirement will not produce real changes unless management becomes committed to such changes and they are securely embedded in company policies.

  11. Message Scheduling and Forwarding in Congested DTNs

    Elwhishi, Ahmed; Ho, Pin-Han; Shihada, Basem

    2012-01-01

    Multi-copy utility-based routing has been considered as one of the most applicable approaches to effective message delivery in Delay Tolerant Networks (DTNs). By allowing multiple message replicas launched, the ratio of message delivery or delay can be significantly reduced compared with other counterparts. Such an advantage, nonetheless, is at the expense of taking more buffer space at each node and higher complexity in message forwarding decisions. This paper investigates an efficient message scheduling and dropping policy via analytical modeling approach, aiming to achieve optimal performance in terms of message delivery delay. Extensive simulation results, based on a synthetic mobility model and real mobility traces, show that the proposed scheduling framework can achieve superb performance against its counterparts in terms of delivery delay.

  12. Message Scheduling and Forwarding in Congested DTNs

    Elwhishi, Ahmed

    2012-08-19

    Multi-copy utility-based routing has been considered as one of the most applicable approaches to effective message delivery in Delay Tolerant Networks (DTNs). By allowing multiple message replicas launched, the ratio of message delivery or delay can be significantly reduced compared with other counterparts. Such an advantage, nonetheless, is at the expense of taking more buffer space at each node and higher complexity in message forwarding decisions. This paper investigates an efficient message scheduling and dropping policy via analytical modeling approach, aiming to achieve optimal performance in terms of message delivery delay. Extensive simulation results, based on a synthetic mobility model and real mobility traces, show that the proposed scheduling framework can achieve superb performance against its counterparts in terms of delivery delay.

  13. Responsive versus scheduled feeding for preterm infants

    Watson, Julie; McGuire, William

    2016-01-01

    Version 5\\ud Background\\ud \\ud Feeding preterm infants in response to their hunger and satiation cues (responsive, cue-based, or infant-led feeding) rather than at scheduled intervals might enhance infants' and parents' experience and satisfaction, help in the establishment of independent oral feeding, increase nutrient intake and growth rates, and allow earlier hospital discharge.\\ud \\ud \\ud Objectives\\ud \\ud To assess the effect of a policy of feeding preterm infants on a responsive basis v...

  14. Streaming system scheduling for Xeon Phi

    Faltín, Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Task scheduling in operating system area is a well-known problem on traditional system architectures (NUMA, SMP). Unfortunately, it does not perform well on emerging many-core architectures, especially on Intel Xeon Phi. We collected all publicly available information about the architecture of Xeon Phi. After that, we benchmarked the Xeon Phi in order to find the missing information about its architecture. We focused especially on the information about cores and memory controllers. These are ...

  15. Prioritizing sleep for healthy work schedules

    Takahashi Masaya

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Good sleep is advantageous to the quality of life. Sleep-related benefits are particularly helpful for the working class, since poor or inadequate amounts of sleep degrade work productivity and overall health. This review paper explores the essential role of sleep in healthy work schedules and primarily focuses on the timing of sleep in relation to the work period (that is, before, during and after work). Data from laboratory, field and modeling studies indicate that consistent amoun...

  16. Development of preventive maintenance procedures and schedules

    Schlenker, H.V.; Hammel, J.

    1977-01-01

    An outline of the procedures and schedules developed for preventive maintenance in power stations within the Rheinisch-Westfaelisches Elektrizitaetswerk (RWE) is presented. After an introduction of maintenance in general the different kinds of preventive maintenance activities are described. This includes also the prerequisite identification systems. The aims of preventive maintenance and the measures are explained that have to be taken, if these aims are to be achieved. A number of examples from actual practice are cited. (orig.) [de

  17. Adapting immunisation schedules for children undergoing chemotherapy.

    Fernández-Prada, María; Rodríguez-Martínez, María; García-García, Rebeca; García-Corte, María Dolores; Martínez-Ortega, Carmen

    2018-02-01

    Children undergoing chemotherapy for cancer have special vaccination needs after completion of the treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the adaptation of post-chemotherapy vaccination schedules. An observational study was performed on a retrospective cohort that included all children aged from 0 to 14 years, who completed chemotherapy in a tertiary hospital between 2009 and 2015. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied. Immunisation was administered in accordance with the guidelines of the Vaccine Advisory Committee of the Spanish Association of Paediatrics. Primary Care immunisation and clinical records of the Preventive Medicine and Public Health Department were reviewed. Of the 99 children who had received chemotherapy, 51 (70.6% males) were included in the study. As regards the type of tumour, 54.9% had a solid organ tumour, and 45.1% had a haematological tumour. Post-chemotherapy immunisation was administered to 70.6%. The most common vaccines received were: diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis or diphtheria-tetanus (54.9%), meningococcus C (41.2%), and seasonal influenza (39.2%). The rate of adaptation of the immunisation schedule after chemotherapy was 9.8%. The pneumococcal conjugate vaccine against 7v or 13v was administered to 21.6% of study subjects. However, only 17.6% received polysaccharide 23v. None received vaccination against hepatitis A. No statistically significant differences were observed between adherence to immunisation schedules and type of tumour (P=.066), gender (P=.304), or age (P=.342). Post-chemotherapy immunisation of children with cancer is poor. The participation of health professionals in training programs and referral of paediatric cancer patients to Vaccine Units could improve the rate of schedule adaptation and proper immunisation of this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  18. A microeconomic scheduler for parallel computers

    Stoica, Ion; Abdel-Wahab, Hussein; Pothen, Alex

    1995-01-01

    We describe a scheduler based on the microeconomic paradigm for scheduling on-line a set of parallel jobs in a multiprocessor system. In addition to the classical objectives of increasing the system throughput and reducing the response time, we consider fairness in allocating system resources among the users, and providing the user with control over the relative performances of his jobs. We associate with every user a savings account in which he receives money at a constant rate. When a user wants to run a job, he creates an expense account for that job to which he transfers money from his savings account. The job uses the funds in its expense account to obtain the system resources it needs for execution. The share of the system resources allocated to the user is directly related to the rate at which the user receives money; the rate at which the user transfers money into a job expense account controls the job's performance. We prove that starvation is not possible in our model. Simulation results show that our scheduler improves both system and user performances in comparison with two different variable partitioning policies. It is also shown to be effective in guaranteeing fairness and providing control over the performance of jobs.

  19. Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule

    Bisping, L.E.

    2000-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Sampling is conducted to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program: and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. The sampling design is described in the Operations Office, Environmental Monitoring Plan, United States Department of Energy, Richland DOE/RL-91-50, Rev.2, U.S. Department of Energy, Richland, Washington. This document contains the CY 2000 schedules for the routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project. Each section includes sampling locations, sample types, and analyses to be performed. In some cases, samples are scheduled on a rotating basis and may not be collected in 2000 in which case the anticipated year for collection is provided. In addition, a map showing approximate sampling locations is included for each media scheduled for collection

  20. Prioritizing sleep for healthy work schedules

    2012-01-01

    Good sleep is advantageous to the quality of life. Sleep-related benefits are particularly helpful for the working class, since poor or inadequate amounts of sleep degrade work productivity and overall health. This review paper explores the essential role of sleep in healthy work schedules and primarily focuses on the timing of sleep in relation to the work period (that is, before, during and after work). Data from laboratory, field and modeling studies indicate that consistent amounts of sleep prior to work are fundamental to improved performance and alertness in the workplace. In addition, planned naps taken during work maintain appropriate levels of waking function for both daytime and night-time work. Clearly, sufficient sleep after work is vital in promoting recovery from fatigue. Recent data also suggest that the time interval between shifts should be adjusted according to the biological timing of sleep. Although sleep is more likely to be replaced by job and other activities in the real life, research shows that it is worthwhile to revise the work schedules in order to optimize sleep before, sometime during and after the work period. Therefore, we suggest establishing work-sleep balance, similar to work-life balance, as a principle for designing and improving work schedules. PMID:22738292

  1. Prioritizing sleep for healthy work schedules

    Takahashi Masaya

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Good sleep is advantageous to the quality of life. Sleep-related benefits are particularly helpful for the working class, since poor or inadequate amounts of sleep degrade work productivity and overall health. This review paper explores the essential role of sleep in healthy work schedules and primarily focuses on the timing of sleep in relation to the work period (that is, before, during and after work. Data from laboratory, field and modeling studies indicate that consistent amounts of sleep prior to work are fundamental to improved performance and alertness in the workplace. In addition, planned naps taken during work maintain appropriate levels of waking function for both daytime and night-time work. Clearly, sufficient sleep after work is vital in promoting recovery from fatigue. Recent data also suggest that the time interval between shifts should be adjusted according to the biological timing of sleep. Although sleep is more likely to be replaced by job and other activities in the real life, research shows that it is worthwhile to revise the work schedules in order to optimize sleep before, sometime during and after the work period. Therefore, we suggest establishing work-sleep balance, similar to work-life balance, as a principle for designing and improving work schedules.

  2. Prioritizing sleep for healthy work schedules.

    Takahashi, Masaya

    2012-03-13

    Good sleep is advantageous to the quality of life. Sleep-related benefits are particularly helpful for the working class, since poor or inadequate amounts of sleep degrade work productivity and overall health. This review paper explores the essential role of sleep in healthy work schedules and primarily focuses on the timing of sleep in relation to the work period (that is, before, during and after work). Data from laboratory, field and modeling studies indicate that consistent amounts of sleep prior to work are fundamental to improved performance and alertness in the workplace. In addition, planned naps taken during work maintain appropriate levels of waking function for both daytime and night-time work. Clearly, sufficient sleep after work is vital in promoting recovery from fatigue. Recent data also suggest that the time interval between shifts should be adjusted according to the biological timing of sleep. Although sleep is more likely to be replaced by job and other activities in the real life, research shows that it is worthwhile to revise the work schedules in order to optimize sleep before, sometime during and after the work period. Therefore, we suggest establishing work-sleep balance, similar to work-life balance, as a principle for designing and improving work schedules.

  3. Scheduling reinforcement about once a day.

    Eckerman, D A

    1999-04-01

    A pigeon earned its daily food by pecking a key according to reinforcement schedules that produced food about once per day. Fixed-interval (FI), Fixed-time (FT), and various complex schedules were arranged to demonstrate the degree to which a scalloped pattern of responding remained. Pausing continued until about an hour before the reinforcer could be earned for FIs of 12, 24, and 48 h. Pausing was not as long for FIs of 18, 19, and 23 h. Pausing of about 24 h was seen for FI 36 h. FT 24 h produced continued responding but at a diminished frequency. The pattern of responding was strongly controlled by the schedule of reinforcement and seemed relatively independent of the cycle of human activity in the surrounding laboratory. Effects of added ratio contingencies and of signaling the availability of reinforcement in FT were also examined. Signaled FTs of 5 min-3 h produced more responding during the signal (autoshaping) than did FTs of 19 or 24 h.

  4. Scheduling Aircraft Landings under Constrained Position Shifting

    Balakrishnan, Hamsa; Chandran, Bala

    2006-01-01

    Optimal scheduling of airport runway operations can play an important role in improving the safety and efficiency of the National Airspace System (NAS). Methods that compute the optimal landing sequence and landing times of aircraft must accommodate practical issues that affect the implementation of the schedule. One such practical consideration, known as Constrained Position Shifting (CPS), is the restriction that each aircraft must land within a pre-specified number of positions of its place in the First-Come-First-Served (FCFS) sequence. We consider the problem of scheduling landings of aircraft in a CPS environment in order to maximize runway throughput (minimize the completion time of the landing sequence), subject to operational constraints such as FAA-specified minimum inter-arrival spacing restrictions, precedence relationships among aircraft that arise either from airline preferences or air traffic control procedures that prevent overtaking, and time windows (representing possible control actions) during which each aircraft landing can occur. We present a Dynamic Programming-based approach that scales linearly in the number of aircraft, and describe our computational experience with a prototype implementation on realistic data for Denver International Airport.

  5. New Approaches to Irrigation Scheduling of Vegetables

    Michael D. Cahn

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Using evapotranspiration (ET data for scheduling irrigations on vegetable farms is challenging due to imprecise crop coefficients, time consuming computations, and the need to simultaneously manage many fields. Meanwhile, the adoption of soil moisture monitoring in vegetables has historically been limited by sensor accuracy and cost, as well as labor required for installation, removal, and collection of readings. With recent improvements in sensor technology, public weather-station networks, satellite and aerial imaging, wireless communications, and cloud computing, many of the difficulties in using ET data and soil moisture sensors for irrigation scheduling of vegetables can now be addressed. Web and smartphone applications have been developed that automate many of the calculations involved in ET-based irrigation scheduling. Soil moisture sensor data can be collected through wireless networks and accessed using web browser or smartphone apps. Energy balance methods of crop ET estimation, such as eddy covariance and Bowen ratio, provide research options for further developing and evaluating crop coefficient guidelines of vegetables, while recent advancements in surface renewal instrumentation have led to a relatively low-cost tool for monitoring crop water requirement in commercial farms. Remote sensing of crops using satellite, manned aircraft, and UAV platforms may also provide useful tools for vegetable growers to evaluate crop development, plant stress, water consumption, and irrigation system performance.

  6. Hanford site environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    Bisping, L.E.

    1998-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Sampling is conducted to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 5400.1 open-quotes General Environmental Protection Program,close quotes and DOE Order 5400.5, open-quotes Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment.close quotes The sampling methods are described in the Environmental Monitoring Plan, United States Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, DOE/RL91-50, Rev. 2, U.S. Department of Energy, Richland, Washington. This document contains the 1998 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project. Each section of this document describes the planned sampling schedule for a specific media (air, surface water, biota, soil and vegetation, sediment, and external radiation). Each section includes the sample location, sample type, and analyses to be performed on the sample. In some cases, samples are scheduled on a rotating basis and may not be planned for 1998 in which case the anticipated year for collection is provided. In addition, a map is included for each media showing sample locations

  7. Automatic Generation of Heuristics for Scheduling

    Morris, Robert A.; Bresina, John L.; Rodgers, Stuart M.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a technique, called GenH, that automatically generates search heuristics for scheduling problems. The impetus for developing this technique is the growing consensus that heuristics encode advice that is, at best, useful in solving most, or typical, problem instances, and, at worst, useful in solving only a narrowly defined set of instances. In either case, heuristic problem solvers, to be broadly applicable, should have a means of automatically adjusting to the idiosyncrasies of each problem instance. GenH generates a search heuristic for a given problem instance by hill-climbing in the space of possible multi-attribute heuristics, where the evaluation of a candidate heuristic is based on the quality of the solution found under its guidance. We present empirical results obtained by applying GenH to the real world problem of telescope observation scheduling. These results demonstrate that GenH is a simple and effective way of improving the performance of an heuristic scheduler.

  8. Real-time scheduling of software tasks

    Hoff, L.T.

    1995-01-01

    When designing real-time systems, it is often desirable to schedule execution of software tasks based on the occurrence of events. The events may be clock ticks, interrupts from a hardware device, or software signals from other software tasks. If the nature of the events, is well understood, this scheduling is normally a static part of the system design. If the nature of the events is not completely understood, or is expected to change over time, it may be necessary to provide a mechanism for adjusting the scheduling of the software tasks. RHIC front-end computers (FECs) provide such a mechanism. The goals in designing this mechanism were to be as independent as possible of the underlying operating system, to allow for future expansion of the mechanism to handle new types of events, and to allow easy configuration. Some considerations which steered the design were programming paradigm (object oriented vs. procedural), programming language, and whether events are merely interesting moments in time, or whether they intrinsically have data associated with them. The design also needed to address performance and robustness tradeoffs involving shared task contexts, task priorities, and use of interrupt service routine (ISR) contexts vs. task contexts. This paper will explore these considerations and tradeoffs

  9. Declarative Modeling for Production Order Portfolio Scheduling

    Banaszak Zbigniew

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A declarative framework enabling to determine conditions as well as to develop decision-making software supporting small- and medium-sized enterprises aimed at unique, multi-project-like and mass customized oriented production is discussed. A set of unique production orders grouped into portfolio orders is considered. Operations executed along different production orders share available resources following a mutual exclusion protocol. A unique product or production batch is completed while following a given activity’s network order. The problem concerns scheduling a newly inserted project portfolio subject to constraints imposed by a multi-project environment The answers sought are: Can a given project portfolio specified by its cost and completion time be completed within the assumed time period in a manufacturing system in hand? Which manufacturing system capability guarantees the completion of a given project portfolio ordered under assumed cost and time constraints? The considered problems regard finding a computationally effective approach aimed at simultaneous routing and allocation as well as batching and scheduling of a newly ordered project portfolio subject to constraints imposed by a multi-project environment. The main objective is to provide a declarative model enabling to state a constraint satisfaction problem aimed at multi-project-like and mass customized oriented production scheduling. Multiple illustrative examples are discussed.

  10. Tail-robust scheduling using Limited Processor Sharing.

    Nair, J.K.; Wierman, A.; Zwart, A.P.

    2010-01-01

    From a rare events perspective, scheduling disciplines that work well under light (exponential) tailed workload distributions do not perform well under heavy (power) tailed workload distributions, and vice versa, leading to fundamental problems in designing schedulers that are robust to

  11. Analyzing scheduling in the food-processing industry

    Akkerman, Renzo; van Donk, Dirk Pieter

    2009-01-01

    Production scheduling has been widely studied in several research areas, resulting in a large number of methods, prescriptions, and approaches. However, the impact on scheduling practice seems relatively low. This is also the case in the food-processing industry, where industry......-specific characteristics induce specific and complex scheduling problems. Based on ideas about decomposition of the scheduling task and the production process, we develop an analysis methodology for scheduling problems in food processing. This combines an analysis of structural (technological) elements of the production...... process with an analysis of the tasks of the scheduler. This helps to understand, describe, and structure scheduling problems in food processing, and forms a basis for improving scheduling and applying methods developed in literature. It also helps in evaluating the organisational structures...

  12. Rabies vaccinations: are abbreviated intradermal schedules the future?

    Wieten, R. W.; Leenstra, T.; van Thiel, P. P. A. M.; van Vugt, M.; Stijnis, C.; Goorhuis, A.; Grobusch, M. P.

    2013-01-01

    Rabies is a deadly disease, and current preexposure vaccination schedules are lengthy and expensive. We identified nine studies investigating abbreviated schedules. Although initial responses were lower, accelerated adequate immune responses were elicited after booster vaccinations. Lower-dose (and

  13. Pittsburgh International Airport - March 2018 Scheduled Passenger Traffic

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Attached is Pittsburgh International Airport’s Monthly Scheduled Traffic Report. This report contains a year-over-year (YOY) analysis of scheduled flights and...

  14. Pittsburgh International Airport - April 2018 Scheduled Passenger Traffic

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Attached is Pittsburgh International Airport’s Monthly Scheduled Traffic Report. This report contains a year-over-year (YOY) analysis of scheduled flights and...

  15. Pittsburgh International Airport - January 2018 Scheduled Passenger Traffic

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Attached is Pittsburgh International Airport’s Monthly Scheduled Traffic Report. This report contains a year-over-year (YOY) analysis of scheduled flights and...

  16. Pittsburgh International Airport - February 2018 Scheduled Passenger Traffic

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Attached is Pittsburgh International Airport’s Monthly Scheduled Traffic Report. This report contains a year-over-year (YOY) analysis of scheduled flights and...

  17. Mathematical programming and financial objectives for scheduling projects

    Kimms, Alf

    2001-01-01

    Mathematical Programming and Financial Objectives for Scheduling Projects focuses on decision problems where the performance is measured in terms of money. As the title suggests, special attention is paid to financial objectives and the relationship of financial objectives to project schedules and scheduling. In addition, how schedules relate to other decisions is treated in detail. The book demonstrates that scheduling must be combined with project selection and financing, and that scheduling helps to give an answer to the planning issue of the amount of resources required for a project. The author makes clear the relevance of scheduling to cutting budget costs. The book is divided into six parts. The first part gives a brief introduction to project management. Part two examines scheduling projects in order to maximize their net present value. Part three considers capital rationing. Many decisions on selecting or rejecting a project cannot be made in isolation and multiple projects must be taken fully into a...

  18. Limited Preemptive Scheduling in Real-time Systems

    Thekkilakattil, Abhilash

    2016-01-01

    Preemptive and non-preemptive scheduling paradigms typically introduce undesirable side effects when scheduling real-time tasks, mainly in the form of preemption overheads and blocking, that potentially compromise timeliness guarantees. The high preemption overheads in preemptive real-time scheduling may imply high resource utilization, often requiring significant over-provisioning, e.g., pessimistic Worst Case Execution Time (WCET) approximations. Non-preemptive scheduling, on the other hand...

  19. Quality-aware scheduling for key-value data stores

    Xu, Chen

    2015-01-01

    This book comprehensively illustrates quality-ware scheduling in key-value stores. In addition, it provides scheduling strategies and a prototype framework of quality-aware scheduler as well as a demonstration of online applications. The book offers a rich blend of theory and practice which is suitable for students, researchers and practitioners interested in distributed systems, NoSQL key-value stores and scheduling.

  20. CARMENES instrument control system and operational scheduler

    Garcia-Piquer, Alvaro; Guàrdia, Josep; Colomé, Josep; Ribas, Ignasi; Gesa, Lluis; Morales, Juan Carlos; Pérez-Calpena, Ana; Seifert, Walter; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Amado, Pedro J.; Caballero, José A.; Reiners, Ansgar

    2014-07-01

    The main goal of the CARMENES instrument is to perform high-accuracy measurements of stellar radial velocities (1m/s) with long-term stability. CARMENES will be installed in 2015 at the 3.5 m telescope in the Calar Alto Observatory (Spain) and it will be equipped with two spectrographs covering from the visible to the near-infrared. It will make use of its near-IR capabilities to observe late-type stars, whose peak of the spectral energy distribution falls in the relevant wavelength interval. The technology needed to develop this instrument represents a challenge at all levels. We present two software packages that play a key role in the control layer for an efficient operation of the instrument: the Instrument Control System (ICS) and the Operational Scheduler. The coordination and management of CARMENES is handled by the ICS, which is responsible for carrying out the operations of the different subsystems providing a tool to operate the instrument in an integrated manner from low to high user interaction level. The ICS interacts with the following subsystems: the near-IR and visible channels, composed by the detectors and exposure meters; the calibration units; the environment sensors; the front-end electronics; the acquisition and guiding module; the interfaces with telescope and dome; and, finally, the software subsystems for operational scheduling of tasks, data processing, and data archiving. We describe the ICS software design, which implements the CARMENES operational design and is planned to be integrated in the instrument by the end of 2014. The CARMENES operational scheduler is the second key element in the control layer described in this contribution. It is the main actor in the translation of the survey strategy into a detailed schedule for the achievement of the optimization goals. The scheduler is based on Artificial Intelligence techniques and computes the survey planning by combining the static constraints that are known a priori (i.e., target