The six major contributions which took place all along the 2000 issue of the worldwide gas congress have permitted to draw out a precise status of the international opportunities and challenges that natural gas industry will have to face in order to make natural gas the first energy source of the 21 century. Despite the different national contexts, all intervening parties agreed with the undeniable stakes of natural gas which will have a promising development provided that deregulation effects are mastered and investments are maintained in new technologies R and D and in the settlement of reliable international infrastructures. This article summarizes the main content of these contributions: Gaz de France group in the new European context: opportunities and strategies of a big operator; gas industry in the US: perspectives for the millennium; leading elements of the gas industry in Europe: liberalization, regulation and technology; structural transformations of the international gas industry and its strategies: towards a worldwide gas market; the future of gas industry in Russia in the 21 century; perspectives for natural gas in Asia. (J.S.)
Streptococcus iniae and S. agalactiae are important emergent pathogens that affect many fish species worldwide, especially in warm-water regions. In marine and freshwater systems, these Gram-positive bacteria cause significant economic losses, estimated at hundreds of millions of dollars annually. ...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — PETROS is a worldwide data bank of major element chemical analyses of igneous rocks compiled for research and teaching purposes by Dr. Felix Mutschler and Staff at...
Macintosh, Janelle L B; Eden, Lacey M; Luthy, Karlen E; Schouten, Aimee E
Immunizations are one of the most important health interventions of the 20th century, yet people in many areas of the world do not receive adequate immunizations. Approximately 3 million people worldwide die every year from vaccine-preventable diseases; about half of these deaths are young children and infants. Global travel is more common; diseases that were once localized now can be found in communities around the world. Multiple barriers to immunizations have been identified. Healthcare access, cost, and perceptions of safety and trust in healthcare are factors that have depressed global immunization rates. Several global organizations have focused on addressing these barriers as part of their efforts to increase immunization rates. The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, The World Health Organization, and the United Nations Children's Emergency Fund each have a part of their organization that is concentrated on immunizations. Maternal child nurses worldwide can assist in increasing immunization rates. Nurses can participate in outreach programs to ease the burden of patients and families in accessing immunizations. Nurses can work with local and global organizations to make immunizations more affordable. Nurses can improve trust and knowledge about immunizations in their local communities. Nurses are a powerful influence in the struggle to increase immunization rates, which is a vital aspect of global health promotion and disease prevention.
Baecker, Aileen; Liu, Xing; La Vecchia, Carlo; Zhang, Zuo-Feng
To facilitate regionally specific liver cancer prevention and control, this study estimates the fraction of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cases attributable to five major liver cancer risk factors by geographic region. Prevalence estimates of major HCC risk factors, including chronic infection with hepatitis B and hepatitis C, alcohol drinking, tobacco smoking, obesity, and diabetes, were extracted for each country from the literature, along with recent incidence and risk estimate data, to calculate regionally specific population attributable fractions. Overall, 44% of HCC cases worldwide were attributable to chronic hepatitis B infection, with the majority of cases occurring in Asia. Hepatitis C was responsible for 21% of cases. Lifestyle risk factors such as alcohol drinking and obesity were responsible for a larger percentage of cases in North America and Western, Central, and Eastern Europe. In addition, strong sex disparities were observed when looking at lifestyle risk factors, particularly tobacco smoking, in Asia and Africa. Prominent risk factors for HCC vary depending on the region. Our findings provide useful data for developing regionally specific guidelines for liver cancer prevention and control worldwide.
Lee, I-Min; Shiroma, Eric J; Lobelo, Felipe
Strong evidence shows that physical inactivity increases the risk of many adverse health conditions, including major non-communicable diseases such as coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and breast and colon cancers, and shortens life expectancy. Because much of the world's population...... is inactive, this link presents a major public health issue. We aimed to quantify the eff ect of physical inactivity on these major non-communicable diseases by estimating how much disease could be averted if inactive people were to become active and to estimate gain in life expectancy at the population level....
Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; Cabello-Vílchez, Alfonso Martín; Martín-Navarro, Carmen M; Martínez-Carretero, Enrique; Piñero, José E; Valladares, Basilio
Balamuthia mandrillaris is an opportunistic, free-living amoeba that can cause skin lesions and the typically fatal Balamuthia amoebic encephalitis (BAE) both in immunocompromised and immunocompetent individuals. Available data for BAE cases indicate that this disease is difficult to detect because knowledge of predisposing factors is lacking, causing a challenge for diagnosing BAE. The number of reported BAE cases is increasing worldwide, and this is a major concern because little is known about the pathogen, no standardized detection tools are available, and most of the treatments are almost empirical. The recently reported cases, novel diagnostics tools, and successful therapeutic approaches against BAE infections are reviewed here. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Catalano, Richard F; Fagan, Abigail A; Gavin, Loretta E; Greenberg, Mark T; Irwin, Charles E; Ross, David A; Shek, Daniel T L
The burden of morbidity and mortality from non-communicable disease has risen worldwide and is accelerating in low-income and middle-income countries, whereas the burden from infectious diseases has declined. Since this transition, the prevention of non-communicable disease as well as communicable disease causes of adolescent mortality has risen in importance. Problem behaviours that increase the short-term or long-term likelihood of morbidity and mortality, including alcohol, tobacco, and other drug misuse, mental health problems, unsafe sex, risky and unsafe driving, and violence are largely preventable. In the past 30 years new discoveries have led to prevention science being established as a discipline designed to mitigate these problem behaviours. Longitudinal studies have provided an understanding of risk and protective factors across the life course for many of these problem behaviours. Risks cluster across development to produce early accumulation of risk in childhood and more pervasive risk in adolescence. This understanding has led to the construction of developmentally appropriate prevention policies and programmes that have shown short-term and long-term reductions in these adolescent problem behaviours. We describe the principles of prevention science, provide examples of efficacious preventive interventions, describe challenges and potential solutions to take efficacious prevention policies and programmes to scale, and conclude with recommendations to reduce the burden of adolescent mortality and morbidity worldwide through preventive intervention. PMID:22538180
Conciliating recent findings from molecular genetics, evolutionary biology, and clinical observations together point to new understandings regarding the mechanism, development and the persistent worldwide prevalence of major mental disorders (MMDs), which should be considered the result of an evolutionary downside trade off. Temperamental/trait variability, by facilitating choices for individual and group responses, confers robustness flexibility and resilience crucial to success of our species. Extreme temperamental variants, originating evolutionarily from the asocial aspect of human nature, also constitute the premorbid personality of the disorders. The latter create vulnerable individuals out of whom some will develop MMDs but at much higher rate to that of the general population. Significantly, similar temperamental "lopsidedness" enables many of these vulnerable individuals, if intelligent, tenacious, and curious, to be creative and contribute to our survival while some may also develop MMDs. All have a common neural-developmental origin and share characteristics in their clinical expression and pharmacological responses also expressed as mixed syndromes or alternating ones over time. Over-pruning of synaptic neurons may be considered the trigger of such occurrences or conversely, the failure to prevent them in spite of it. The symptoms of the major mental disorders are made up of antithetical substitutes as an expression of a disturbed over-all synchronizing property of brain function for all higher faculties previously unconsidered in their modeling. The concomitant presence of psychosis is a generic common occurrence.
Peronospora sparsa is a downy mildew-causing oomycete that can infect roses, blackberries and other members of the rose family. During the last 20 years, this disease has become a serious problem for rose growers in the U.S. and worldwide. While much is known about the disease and its treatment, inc...
M. van Oven (Mannis); M.H. Kayser (Manfred); A. Ralf (Arwin)
textabstractAbstract The Y chromosome is paternally inherited and therefore serves as an evolutionary marker of patrilineal descent. Worldwide DNA variation within the non-recombining portion of the Y chromosome can be represented as a monophyletic phylogenetic tree in which the branches
Sinniger, Frédéric; Pawlowski, Jan; Harii, Saki
in 39 deep-sea sediment samples from bathyal and abyssal depths worldwide. The eDNA dataset was dominated by meiobenthic taxa and we identified all animal phyla commonly found in the deep-sea benthos; yet, the diversity within these phyla remains largely unknown. The large numbers of taxonomically...... for pure and applied deep-sea environmental research but also emphasizes the necessity to integrate such new approaches with traditional morphology-based examination of deep-sea organisms....
Thornicroft, Graham; Deb, Tanya; Henderson, Claire
This paper aims to give an overview of the key issues facing those who are in a position to influence the planning and provision of mental health systems, and who need to address questions of which staff, services and sectors to invest in, and for which patients. The paper considers in turn: a) definitions of community mental health care; b) a conceptual framework to use when evaluating the need for hospital and community mental health care; c) the potential for wider platforms, outside the health service, for mental health improvement, including schools and the workplace; d) data on how far community mental health services have been developed across different regions of the world; e) the need to develop in more detail models of community mental health services for low‐ and middle‐income countries which are directly based upon evidence for those countries; f) how to incorporate mental health practice within integrated models to identify and treat people with comorbid long‐term conditions; g) possible adverse effects of deinstitutionalization. We then present a series of ten recommendations for the future strengthening of health systems to support and treat people with mental illness. PMID:27717265
Jebara, Karim Ben; Cáceres, Paula; Berlingieri, Francesco; Weber-Vintzel, Laure
This article gives an overview of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Worldwide Animal Disease Notification System and highlights the major achievements during the past decade. It describes the different types of disease notification reports received and processed by the OIE. It also evaluates the three strategies implemented by the OIE in the recent years aimed at improving disease notification: introduction and use of a secure online notification system World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS) and its database interface World Animal Health Information Database (WAHID); implementation of active search and verification procedures for non-official information; and enhanced building of capacity for animal disease notification to the OIE by Members Countries. The improvements are evidenced by the increasing number of reports submitted on an annual basis and the reduction in submission time together with an improvement in the quality and quantity of the immediate notifications and follow-up reports, six-monthly and annual reports submitted by Veterinary Authorities. In the recent years, the OIE's notification system provides an early warning system more sensitive and global. Consequently, there is a greater knowledge of animal diseases' distribution worldwide. As a result, it is possible to ensure better prevention, more accurate risk assessment and evaluation by diminishing the spread of known or newly emerging pathogens. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
As a result of cultural factors, perinatal mortality may not be the most appropriate measure of health. Comparisons of the health of different countries should not be based on only 1 criterion unless general attitudes are the same. In developed countries, where abortion is widely available, unwanted pregnancies are handled before delivery. In some developing countries in Africa, however, population control may take the form of allowing a newborn to die of starvation, for example. Given this cultural difference, Third World countries rank lowest in perinatal health. It is suggested that mortality and morbidity should be calculated decade by decade before an index is derived. A 20-year old from a developing country, where there is no drug problem and attempted suicide is rare, might receive a higher health rating than his counterpart in developed countries.
Karas, J; Oesch, P
The most recent studies show that particles contained in the air that we breathe may have harmful effects on the health of asthmatics, children and old people in particular. Particle material found in ambient air is formed by emissions resulting from traffic, industry and other use of fuels. Nature`s own sources also have a significant effect on particle concentrations. The mechanisms by which fine particles may produce negative health effects are so far unknown. At present it is therefore impossible to assess the effects of emissions of fine particles resulting, for instance, from the use of fossil fuels
The impact of pesticide residues on human health is a worldwide problem, as human exposure to pesticides can occur through ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact. Regulatory jurisdictions have promulgated the standard values for pesticides in residential soil, air, drinking water, and agricultural commodity for years. Until now, more than 19,400 pesticide soil regulatory guidance values (RGVs) and 5400 pesticide drinking water maximum concentration levels (MCLs) have been regulated by 54 and 102 nations, respectively. Over 90 nations have provided pesticide agricultural commodity maximum residue limits (MRLs) for at least one of the 12 most commonly consumed agricultural foods. A total of 22 pesticides have been regulated with more than 100 soil RGVs, and 25 pesticides have more than 100 drinking water MCLs. This research indicates that those RGVs and MCLs for an individual pesticide could vary over seven (DDT drinking water MCLs), eight (Lindane soil RGVs), or even nine (Dieldrin soil RGVs) orders of magnitude. Human health risk uncertainty bounds and the implied total exposure mass burden model were applied to analyze the most commonly regulated and used pesticides for human health risk control. For the top 27 commonly regulated pesticides in soil, there are at least 300 RGVs (8% of the total) that are above all of the computed upper bounds for human health risk uncertainty. For the top 29 most-commonly regulated pesticides in drinking water, at least 172 drinking water MCLs (5% of the total) exceed the computed upper bounds for human health risk uncertainty; while for the 14 most widely used pesticides, there are at least 310 computed implied dose limits (28.0% of the total) that are above the acceptable daily intake values. The results show that some worldwide standard values were not derived conservatively enough to avoid human health risk by the pesticides, and that some values were not computed comprehensively by considering all major human exposure
Li, Zijian; Jennings, Aaron
Abstract : The impact of pesticide residues on human health is a worldwide problem, as human exposure to pesticides can occur through ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact. Regulatory jurisdictions have promulgated the standard values for pesticides in residential soil, air, drinking water, and agricultural commodity for years. Until now, more than 19,400 pesticide soil regulatory guidance values (RGVs) and 5400 pesticide drinking water maximum concentration levels (MCLs) have been regulated by 54 and 102 nations, respectively. Over 90 nations have provided pesticide agricultural commodity maximum residue limits (MRLs) for at least one of the 12 most commonly consumed agricultural foods. A total of 22 pesticides have been regulated with more than 100 soil RGVs, and 25 pesticides have more than 100 drinking water MCLs. This research indicates that those RGVs and MCLs for an individual pesticide could vary over seven (DDT drinking water MCLs), eight (Lindane soil RGVs), or even nine (Dieldrin soil RGVs) orders of magnitude. Human health risk uncertainty bounds and the implied total exposure mass burden model were applied to analyze the most commonly regulated and used pesticides for human health risk control. For the top 27 commonly regulated pesticides in soil, there are at least 300 RGVs (8% of the total) that are above all of the computed upper bounds for human health risk uncertainty. For the top 29 most-commonly regulated pesticides in drinking water, at least 172 drinking water MCLs (5% of the total) exceed the computed upper bounds for human health risk uncertainty; while for the 14 most widely used pesticides, there are at least 310 computed implied dose limits (28.0% of the total) that are above the acceptable daily intake values. The results show that some worldwide standard values were not derived conservatively enough to avoid human health risk by the pesticides, and that some values were not computed comprehensively by considering all major human
Global Summit on Student Affairs and Services. “We are seeing ... universities in China were offering courses, counselling and professional help. ... Botswana, said mental health issues varied, as students had different needs. ... in the job market, and to cope with academics and adjustment to universities and colleges.
Gernand, Alison D.; Schulze, Kerry J.; Stewart, Christine P.; West, Keith P.; Christian, Parul
Micronutrients, vitamins and minerals accessible from the diet, are essential for biologic activity. Micronutrient status varies widely throughout pregnancy and across populations. Women in low-income countries often enter pregnancy malnourished, and the demands of gestation can exacerbate micronutrient deficiencies with health consequences to the fetus. Examples of efficacious single micronutrient interventions include folic acid to prevent neural tube defects, iodine to prevent cretinism, zinc to reduce of preterm birth, and iron to reduce the risk of low birth weight. Folic acid and vitamin D might also increase birth weight. While extensive mechanism and association research links antenatal multiple micronutrients to plausible materno-fetal health advantages, hypothesized benefits have often been absent, minimal or unexpected in trials. These findings suggest a role for population context in determining health responses and extensive gaps in knowledge. Multiple micronutrient supplements reduce risks of being born low birth weight, small for gestational age or stillborn in undernourished settings, and justify micronutrient interventions with antenatal care. Measurable health effects of gestational micronutrient exposure may persist into childhood but few data exists on potential long-term benefits. In this Review, we discuss micronutrient intake recommendations, risks and consequences of deficiencies, and the effects of interventions with a particular emphasis on offspring. PMID:27032981
In this paper I argue that a global bioethics is possible. Specifically, I present the view that there are within feminist approaches to bioethics some conceptual and methodological tools necessary to forge a bioethics that embraces the health-related concerns of both developing and developed nations equally. To support my argument I discuss some of the challenges that have historically confronted feminists. If feminists accept the idea that women are entirely the same, then feminists present as fact the fiction of the essential "Woman." Not only does "Woman" not exist, -she" obscures important racial, ethnic, cultural, and class differences among women. However, if feminists stress women's differences too much, feminists lose the power to speak coherently and cogently about gender justice, women's rights, and sexual equality in general. Analyzing the ways in which the idea of difference as well as the idea of sameness have led feminists astray, I ask whether it is possible to avoid the Scylla of absolutism (imperialism, colonialism, hegemony) on the one hand and the Charybdis of relativism (postmodernism, fragmentation, Balkanization) on the other. Finally, after reflecting upon the work of Uma Narayan, Susan Muller Okin, and Martha Nussbaum, I conclude that there is a way out of this ethical bind. By focusing on women's, children's, and men's common human needs, it is possible to lay the foundation for a just and caring global bioethics.
This publication presents the results of the worldwide proficiency test PTXRFIAEA09 on the determination of major, minor and trace elements in river clay. Methodologies, a data evaluation approach, a summary evaluation of each element and individual evaluation reports for each laboratory are also described. The test was carried out within the IAEA project Nuclear Spectrometry for Analytical Applications, under the Nuclear Science Programme. The main objective of the project was to enhance the capability of interest Member States in effective utilization of nuclear spectrometries and analytical services in industry, human health and agriculture, and in monitoring and evaluating environmental pollution
Stucki, Gerold; Bickenbach, Jerome; Melvin, John
A complete understanding of the experience of health requires information relevant not merely to the health indicators of mortality and morbidity but also to functioning-that is, information about what it means to live in a health state, "the lived experience of health." Not only is functioning information relevant to healthcare and the overall objectives of person-centered healthcare but to the successful operation of all components of health systems.In light of population aging and major epidemiological trends, the health strategy of rehabilitation, whose aim has always been to optimize functioning and minimize disability, will become a key health strategy. The increasing prominence of the rehabilitative strategy within the health system drives the argument for the integration of functioning information as an essential component in national health information systems.Rehabilitation professionals and researchers have long recognized in WHO's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health the best prospect for an internationally recognized, sufficiently complete and powerful information reference for the documentation of functioning information. This paper opens the discussion of the promise of integrating the ICF as an essential component in national health systems to secure access to functioning information for rehabilitation, across health systems and countries.
Naujokas, Marisa F; Anderson, Beth; Ahsan, Habibul; Aposhian, H Vasken; Graziano, Joseph H; Thompson, Claudia; Suk, William A
Concerns for arsenic exposure are not limited to toxic waste sites and massive poisoning events. Chronic exposure continues to be a major public health problem worldwide, affecting hundreds of millions of persons. We reviewed recent information on worldwide concerns for arsenic exposures and public health to heighten awareness of the current scope of arsenic exposure and health outcomes and the importance of reducing exposure, particularly during pregnancy and early life. We synthesized the large body of current research pertaining to arsenic exposure and health outcomes with an emphasis on recent publications. Locations of high arsenic exposure via drinking water span from Bangladesh, Chile, and Taiwan to the United States. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant level (MCL) in drinking water is 10 µg/L; however, concentrations of > 3,000 µg/L have been found in wells in the United States. In addition, exposure through diet is of growing concern. Knowledge of the scope of arsenic-associated health effects has broadened; arsenic leaves essentially no bodily system untouched. Arsenic is a known carcinogen associated with skin, lung, bladder, kidney, and liver cancer. Dermatological, developmental, neurological, respiratory, cardiovascular, immunological, and endocrine effects are also evident. Most remarkably, early-life exposure may be related to increased risks for several types of cancer and other diseases during adulthood. These data call for heightened awareness of arsenic-related pathologies in broader contexts than previously perceived. Testing foods and drinking water for arsenic, including individual private wells, should be a top priority to reduce exposure, particularly for pregnant women and children, given the potential for life-long effects of developmental exposure.
Non-science majors often misunderstand the process of science, potentially leading to a fear or mistrust of scientific inquiry and current scientific theory. Citizen science projects are a critical means of reaching this audience, as many will only take a limited number of science courses during their undergraduate careers. For the past three years, our freshman Earth Science students have participated in both Globe at Night and the Great Worldwide Star Count, citizen science programs that encourage simple astronomical observations which can be compiled globally to investigate a number of issues. Our focus has been introducing students to the effect of light pollution on observational astronomy in an effort to highlight the effect of increasing urbanization in the U.S. on amateur astronomy. These programs, although focused on astronomy, often awaken natural curiosity about the Earth and man's effect on the natural world, a concept that can easily be translated to other areas of Earth science. Challenges encountered include content specific issues, such as misinterpreting the location or magnitude of the constellation being observed, as well as student disinterest or apathy if the project is not seen as being vital to their performance in the course. This presentation reports on lessons learned in the past three years, and offers suggestions for engaging these students more fully in future projects.
Di Biagio, C.; Formenti, P.; Caponi, L.; Cazaunau, M.; Pangui, E.; Journet, E.; Nowak, S.; Caquineau, S.; Andreae, M. O.; Kandler, K.; Saeed, T.; Piketh, S.; Seibert, D.; Williams, E.; Balkanski, Y.; Doussin, J. F.
Mineral dust is one of the most abundant aerosol species in the atmosphere and strongly contributes to the global and regional direct radiative effect. Still large uncertainties persist on the magnitude and overall sign of the dust direct effect, where indeed one of the main unknowns is how much mineral dust absorbs light in the shortwave (SW) spectral range. Aerosol absorption is represented both by the imaginary part (k) of the complex refractive index or the single scattering albedo (SSA, i.e. the ratio of the scattering to extinction coefficient). In this study we present a new dataset of SW complex refractive indices and SSA for mineral dust aerosols obtained from in situ measurements in the 4.2 m3 CESAM simulation chamber at LISA (Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systemes Atmospheriques) in Créteil, France. Investigated dust aerosol samples were issued from major desert sources worldwide, including the African Sahara and Sahel, Eastern Asia, the Middle East, Southern Africa, Australia, and the Americas, with differing iron oxides content. Results from the present study provide a regional mapping of the SW absorption by dust and show that the imaginary part of the refractive index largely varies (by up to a factor 6, 0.003-0.02 at 370 nm and 0.001-0.003 at 950 nm) for the different source areas due to the change in the particle iron oxide content. The SSA for dust varies between 0.75-0.90 at 370 nm and 0.95-0.99 at 950 nm, with the largest absorption observed for Sahelian and Australian dust aerosols. Our range of variability for k and SSA is well bracketed by already published literature estimates, but suggests that regional‒dependent values should be used in models. The possible relationship between k and the dust iron oxides content is investigated with the aim of providing a parameterization of the regional‒dependent dust absorption to include in climate models.
The paper lists major construction projects in worldwide processing and pipelining, showing capacities, contractors, estimated costs, and time of construction. The lists are divided into refineries, petrochemical plants, sulfur recovery units, gas processing plants, pipelines, and related fuel facilities. This last classification includes cogeneration plants, coal liquefaction and gasification plants, biomass power plants, geothermal power plants, integrated coal gasification combined-cycle power plants, and a coal briquetting plant
Leder, Ron S
History provides common access to technology for both technical and non technical persons and for youngsters. Placed in an historical context complex health technology and health care can be more understandable and therefore more accessible to the general public; technical persons can understand past health technology advances to help propel the field. History is a reference for experts disguised as a story that anyone can understand and enjoy. This can be useful and effective at improving self advocate based health care.
Palacios, Cristina; Gonzalez, Lilliana
Vitamin D deficiency is a major public health problem worldwide in all age groups, even in those residing in countries with low latitude, where it was generally assumed that UV radiation was adequate enough to prevent this deficiency, and in industrialized countries, where vitamin D fortification has been implemented now for years. However, most countries are still lacking data, particularly population representative data, with very limited information in infants, children, adolescents and pregnant women. Since the number of recent publications is escalating, with a broadening of the geographic diversity, the objective of the present report was to conduct a more recent systematic review of global vitamin D status, with particular emphasis in at risk groups. A systematic review was conducted in PubMed/Medline in April-June 2013 to identify articles on vitamin D status worldwide published in the last 10 years in apparently healthy individuals. Only studies with vitamin D status prevalence were included. If available, the first source selected was population-based or representative samples studies. Clinical trials, case-control studies, case reports or series, reviews, validation studies, letters, editorials, or qualitative studies were excluded. A total of 103 articles were eligible and included in the present report. Maps were created for each age group, providing an updated overview of global vitamin D status. In areas with available data, the prevalence of low vitamin D status is a global problem in all age groups, in particular in girls and women from the Middle East. These maps also evidenced the regions with missing data for each specific population groups. There is striking lack of data in infants, children and adolescents worldwide, and in most countries of South America and Africa. In conclusion, vitamin D deficiency is a global public health problem in all age groups, particularly in those from the Middle East. This article is part of a Special Issue
Full Text Available Objectives: The World Health Organization (WHO provides data on national indices of health, environment and economy. When we were asked, why air pollution is negatively correlated with cancer mortality, our first response (presumably the mortality data are not age-adjusted was not sufficient to explain the paradox. Material and Methods: A table including all-cause, cancer and childhood mortality, life expectancy, gross national product per person, smoking prevalence, physician density and particulate matter (PM10 per country (N = 193 was developed. For explorative purposes weighted cross-sectional multiple linear regressions models were built. Results: Air pollution is positively correlated with infant and overall mortality and negatively with life expectancy. This might not only depict a true causal effect of PM10 because air quality is also an indicator of a country’s prosperity and general state of environment. Cancer mortality is negatively correlated with PM10. However, this association turns positive when economic or health system indicators are controlled. Conclusions: The World Health Organization’s world-wide data sets demonstrate the large disparity of our world. A careful and professional approach is needed as interpretation is difficult, especially for lay persons. Therefore, with publicly available data WHO should also provide interpretation and guidance.
Piette, John D.; List, Justin; Rana, Gurpreet K.; Townsend, Whitney; Striplin, Dana; Heisler, Michele
We examined evidence on whether mobile health (mHealth) tools, including Interactive Voice Response (IVR) calls, short message service (SMS) or text messaging, and smartphones, can improve lifestyle behaviors and management related to cardiovascular diseases throughout the world. We conducted a state-of-the-art review and literature synthesis of peer-reviewed and grey literature published since 2004. The review prioritized randomized trials and studies focused on cardiovascular diseases and risk factors, but included other reports when they represented the best available evidence. The search emphasized reports on the potential benefits of mHealth interventions implemented in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). IVR and SMS interventions can improve cardiovascular preventive care in developed countries by addressing risk factors including weight, smoking, and physical activity. IVR and SMS-based interventions for cardiovascular disease management also have shown benefits with respect to hypertension management, hospital readmissions, and diabetic glycemic control. Multi-modal interventions including web-based communication with clinicians and mHealth-enabled clinical monitoring with feedback also have shown benefits. The evidence regarding the potential benefits of interventions using smartphones and social media is still developing. Studies of mHealth interventions have been conducted in more than 30 LMICs, and evidence to date suggests that programs are feasible and may improve medication adherence and disease outcomes. Emerging evidence suggests that mHealth interventions may improve cardiovascular-related lifestyle behaviors and disease management. Next generation mHealth programs developed worldwide should be based on evidence-based behavioral theories and incorporate advances in artificial intelligence for adapting systems automatically to patients’ unique and changing needs. PMID:26596977
Fiorati, Regina Celia; Arcêncio, Ricardo A; Segura Del Pozo, Javier; Ramasco-Gutiérrez, Milagros; Serrano-Gallardo, Pilar
To determine the impact that intersectoral policies and social participation, implemented worldwide, have had on the modification of the social determinants for health and on the reduction of social health inequities. A scoping review of the literature published in the period 2005-2015 was performed. The literature search was conducted on PubMed and Scielo databases. Two researchers reviewed each document. Data were analysed according to the intersectoral action and social participation variables and according to the theoretical frameworks of the Social Determinants Model of the Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) and the theoretical constructs of Social Capital (SC) and Life Course (LC). Out of 45 documents likely to be selected for final review, all of them based on title and abstract, 20 documents were eventually picked out and analysed; most them (n = 8) were conducted in all Latin America and Latin America's countries. Twelve documents reported intersectoral action associated with social participation in partnership with different institutions. Regarding theoretical frameworks, most of studies (n = 8) used CSDH and SC. In relation to health outcomes, the studies showed mainly: increased access to health and education, follow-up of pregnant women, increasing in prenatal examinations, reduction in malnutrition/child mortality, reduction in extreme poverty/hunger; reduction in epidemics/tuberculosis, control of alcohol/drug consumption, promotion of health/mental as well as basic sanitation improvements. Intersectoral and social participation experiences studied yielded positive outcomes regarding health status and quality of life in the communities in which such experiences were implemented. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Piette, John D; List, Justin; Rana, Gurpreet K; Townsend, Whitney; Striplin, Dana; Heisler, Michele
We examined evidence on whether mobile health (mHealth) tools, including interactive voice response calls, short message service, or text messaging, and smartphones, can improve lifestyle behaviors and management related to cardiovascular diseases throughout the world. We conducted a state-of-the-art review and literature synthesis of peer-reviewed and gray literature published since 2004. The review prioritized randomized trials and studies focused on cardiovascular diseases and risk factors, but included other reports when they represented the best available evidence. The search emphasized reports on the potential benefits of mHealth interventions implemented in low- and middle-income countries. Interactive voice response and short message service interventions can improve cardiovascular preventive care in developed countries by addressing risk factors including weight, smoking, and physical activity. Interactive voice response and short message service-based interventions for cardiovascular disease management also have shown benefits with respect to hypertension management, hospital readmissions, and diabetic glycemic control. Multimodal interventions including Web-based communication with clinicians and mHealth-enabled clinical monitoring with feedback also have shown benefits. The evidence regarding the potential benefits of interventions using smartphones and social media is still developing. Studies of mHealth interventions have been conducted in >30 low- and middle-income countries, and evidence to date suggests that programs are feasible and may improve medication adherence and disease outcomes. Emerging evidence suggests that mHealth interventions may improve cardiovascular-related lifestyle behaviors and disease management. Next-generation mHealth programs developed worldwide should be based on evidence-based behavioral theories and incorporate advances in artificial intelligence for adapting systems automatically to patients' unique and changing needs
Marek L Grabowski
Full Text Available Solec Spa is health resort in south-eastern Poland. Its unique balneorehabilitation significance worldwide is determined by chloride-iodine-sodium water with a high content of hydrogen sulphide. This water, classified as highly mineralized sodium-chloride (seltzer sulphide, bromide, iodide, boron water, contains naturally approximately 0.9 g/l divalent sulphur compounds, which is the highest concentration noted among the mineral waters of the world. The effectiveness of the Solec waters is proven in: inflammatory and autoimmunological locomotor system diseases, degenerative joint disorders (osteoarthritis, post-traumatic and post-operative orthopedic diseases, skin diseases and allergic disorders. One of the main indications for balneotherapy in Solec Spa and Busko Spa is chronic brucellosis.
Freeman, Matthew C; Stocks, Meredith E; Cumming, Oliver; Jeandron, Aurelie; Higgins, Julian P T; Wolf, Jennyfer; Prüss-Ustün, Annette; Bonjour, Sophie; Hunter, Paul R; Fewtrell, Lorna; Curtis, Valerie
To estimate the global prevalence of handwashing with soap and derive a pooled estimate of the effect of hygiene on diarrhoeal diseases, based on a systematic search of the literature. Studies with data on observed rates of handwashing with soap published between 1990 and August 2013 were identified from a systematic search of PubMed, Embase and ISI Web of Knowledge. A separate search was conducted for studies on the effect of hygiene on diarrhoeal disease that included randomised controlled trials, quasi-randomised trials with control group, observational studies using matching techniques and observational studies with a control group where the intervention was well defined. The search used Cochrane Library, Global Health, BIOSIS, PubMed, and Embase databases supplemented with reference lists from previously published systematic reviews to identify studies published between 1970 and August 2013. Results were combined using multilevel modelling for handwashing prevalence and meta-regression for risk estimates. From the 42 studies reporting handwashing prevalence we estimate that approximately 19% of the world population washes hands with soap after contact with excreta (i.e. use of a sanitation facility or contact with children's excreta). Meta-regression of risk estimates suggests that handwashing reduces the risk of diarrhoeal disease by 40% (risk ratio 0.60, 95% CI 0.53-0.68); however, when we included an adjustment for unblinded studies, the effect estimate was reduced to 23% (risk ratio 0.77, 95% CI 0.32-1.86). Our results show that handwashing after contact with excreta is poorly practiced globally, despite the likely positive health benefits. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Previsani, Nicoletta; Tangermann, Rudolph H; Tallis, Graham; Jafari, Hamid S
In 1988, the World Health Assembly of the World Health Organization (WHO) resolved to eradicate polio worldwide. Among the three wild poliovirus (WPV) types (type 1, type 2, and type 3), WPV type 2 (WPV2) has been eliminated in the wild since 1999, and WPV type 3 (WPV3) has not been reported since 2012. In 2015, only Afghanistan and Pakistan have reported WPV transmission. On May 25, 2015, all WHO Member States endorsed World Health Assembly resolution 68.3 on full implementation of the Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-2018 (the Endgame Plan), and with it, the third Global Action Plan to minimize poliovirus facility-associated risk (GAPIII). All WHO Member States have committed to implementing appropriate containment of WPV2 in essential laboratory and vaccine production facilities* by the end of 2015 and of type 2 oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV2) within 3 months of global withdrawal of OPV2, which is planned for April 2016. This report summarizes critical steps for essential laboratory and vaccine production facilities that intend to retain materials confirmed to contain or potentially containing type-specific WPV, vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV), or OPV/Sabin viruses, and steps for nonessential facilities† that process specimens that contain or might contain polioviruses. National authorities will need to certify that the essential facilities they host meet the containment requirements described in GAPIII. After certification of WPV eradication, the use of all OPV will cease; final containment of all polioviruses after polio eradication and OPV cessation will minimize the risk for reintroduction of poliovirus into a polio-free world.
Carlsen, Lars; Bruggemann, Rainer; Kenessov, Bulat
Urban air pollution with benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylenes (BTEX) is a common phenomenon in major cities where the pollution mainly originates from traffic as well as from residential heating. An attempt to rank cities according to their BTEX air pollution is not necessarily straight forward as we are faced with several individual pollutants simultaneously. A typical procedure is based on aggregation of data for the single compounds, a process that not only hides important information but is also subject to compensation effects. The present study applies a series of partial ordering tools to circumvent the aggregation. Based on partial ordering, most important indicators are disclosed, and an average ranking of the cities included in the study is derived. Since air pollution measurements are often subject to significant uncertainties, special attention has been given to the possible effect of uncertainty and/or data noise. Finally, the effect of introducing weight regimes is studied. In a concluding section the gross national income per person (GNI) is brought into play, demonstrating a positive correlation between BTEX air pollution and GNI. The results are discussed in terms of the ability/willingness to combat air pollution in the cities studied. The present study focuses on Almaty, the largest city in Kazakhstan and compares the data from Almaty to another 19 major cities around the world. It is found that the benzene for Almaty appears peculiar high. Overall Almaty appears ranked as the 8th most BTEX polluted city among the 20 cities included in the study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Li, Ming; Bui, Michelle; Yang, Ting; Bowman, Christian S; White, Bradley J; Akbari, Omar S
The development of CRISPR/Cas9 technologies has dramatically increased the accessibility and efficiency of genome editing in many organisms. In general, in vivo germline expression of Cas9 results in substantially higher activity than embryonic injection. However, no transgenic lines expressing Cas9 have been developed for the major mosquito disease vector Aedes aegypti Here, we describe the generation of multiple stable, transgenic Ae. aegypti strains expressing Cas9 in the germline, resulting in dramatic improvements in both the consistency and efficiency of genome modifications using CRISPR. Using these strains, we disrupted numerous genes important for normal morphological development, and even generated triple mutants from a single injection. We have also managed to increase the rates of homology-directed repair by more than an order of magnitude. Given the exceptional mutagenic efficiency and specificity of the Cas9 strains we engineered, they can be used for high-throughput reverse genetic screens to help functionally annotate the Ae. aegypti genome. Additionally, these strains represent a step toward the development of novel population control technologies targeting Ae. aegypti that rely on Cas9-based gene drives. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.
Lee, Hyun Jung; Ryu, Dojin
Cereal grains and their processed food products are frequently contaminated with mycotoxins. Among many, five major mycotoxins of aflatoxins, ochratoxins, fumonisins, deoxynivalenol, and zearalenone are of significant public health concern as they can cause adverse effects in humans. Being airborne or soilborne, the cosmopolitan nature of mycotoxigenic fungi contribute to the worldwide occurrence of mycotoxins. On the basis of the global occurrence data reported during the past 10 years, the incidences and maximum levels in raw cereal grains were 55% and 1642 μg/kg for aflatoxins, 29% and 1164 μg/kg for ochratoxin A, 61% and 71,121 μg/kg for fumonisins, 58% and 41,157 μg/kg, for deoxynivalenol, and 46% and 3049 μg/kg for zearalenone. The concentrations of mycotoxins tend to be lower in processed food products; the incidences varied depending on the individual mycotoxins, possibly due to the varying stability during processing and distribution of mycotoxins. It should be noted that more than one mycotoxin, produced by a single or several fungal species, may occur in various combinations in a given sample or food. Most studies reported additive or synergistic effects, suggesting that these mixtures may pose a significant threat to public health, particularly to infants and young children. Therefore, information on the co-occurrence of mycotoxins and their interactive toxicity is summarized in this paper.
Gutenbrunner, Christoph; Bender, Tamas; Cantista, Pedro; Karagülle, Zeki
, and the use of climatic factors for therapy is called climatotherapy. Reflecting the effects of health resort medicine, it is important to take other environmental factors into account. These can be classified within the framework of the ICF (International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health). Examples include receiving health care by specialised doctors, being well educated (ICF-domain: e355), having an environment supporting social contacts (family, peer groups) (cf. ICF-domains: d740, d760), facilities for recreation, cultural activities, leisure and sports (cf. ICF-domain: d920), access to a health-promoting atmosphere and an environment close to nature (cf. ICF-domain: e210). The scientific field dealing with health resort medicine is called health resort sciences. It includes the medical sciences, psychology, social sciences, technical sciences, chemistry, physics, geography, jurisprudence, etc. Finally, this paper proposes a systematic international discussion of descriptions in the field of Health Resort Medicine, Balneology, Medical Hydrology and Climatology, and discusses short descriptive terms with the goal of achieving internationally accepted distinct terms. This task should be done via a structured consensus process and is of major importance for the publication of scientific results as well as for systematic reviews and meta-analyses.
Gutenbrunner, Christoph; Bender, Tamas; Cantista, Pedro; Karagülle, Zeki
hydrotherapy, and the use of climatic factors for therapy is called climatotherapy. Reflecting the effects of health resort medicine, it is important to take other environmental factors into account. These can be classified within the framework of the ICF (International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health). Examples include receiving health care by specialised doctors, being well educated (ICF-domain: e355), having an environment supporting social contacts (family, peer groups) (cf. ICF-domains: d740, d760), facilities for recreation, cultural activities, leisure and sports (cf. ICF-domain: d920), access to a health-promoting atmosphere and an environment close to nature (cf. ICF-domain: e210). The scientific field dealing with health resort medicine is called health resort sciences. It includes the medical sciences, psychology, social sciences, technical sciences, chemistry, physics, geography, jurisprudence, etc. Finally, this paper proposes a systematic international discussion of descriptions in the field of Health Resort Medicine, Balneology, Medical Hydrology and Climatology, and discusses short descriptive terms with the goal of achieving internationally accepted distinct terms. This task should be done via a structured consensus process and is of major importance for the publication of scientific results as well as for systematic reviews and meta-analyses.
Bruffaerts, Ronny; Posada-Villa, Jose; Al-Hamzawi, Ali Obaid; Gureje, Oye; Huang, Yueqin; Hu, Chiyi; Bromet, Evelyn J.; Viana, Maria Carmen; Hinkov, Hristo Ruskov; Karam, Elie G.; Borges, Guilherme; Florescu, Silvia E.; Williams, David R.; Demyttenaere, Koen; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Matschinger, Herbert; Levinson, Daphna; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Ono, Yutaka; de Graaf, Ron; Browne, Mark Oakley; Bunting, Brendan; Xavier, Miguel; Haro, Josep Maria; Kessler, Ronald C.
Background Previous research suggests that many people receiving mental health treatment do not meet criteria for a mental disorder but are rather ‘the worried well’. Aims To examine the association of past-year mental health treatment with DSM-IV disorders. Method The World Health Organization’s World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys interviewed community samples of adults in 23 countries (n = 62 305) about DSM-IV disorders and treatment in the past 12 months for problems with emotions, alcohol or drugs. Results Roughly half (52%) of people who received treatment met criteria for a past-year DSM-IV disorder, an additional 18% for a lifetime disorder and an additional 13% for other indicators of need (multiple subthreshold disorders, recent stressors or suicidal behaviours). Dose-response associations were found between number of indicators of need and treatment. Conclusions The vast majority of treatment in the WMH countries goes to patients with mental disorders or other problems expected to benefit from treatment. PMID:25395690
Bushe, Chris J; Slooff, Cees J; Haddad, Peter M; Karagianis, Jamie L
Weight change data from randomized clinical trials are often of limited duration and trials do not always report a full range of clinically relevant categorical end points. We conducted a post hoc analysis of data from the observational Worldwide Schizophrenia Outpatient Health Outcomes database (2000-2005) on weight change in 4,626 patients completing 3 years of antipsychotic monotherapy with amisulpride, clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, and oral and depot first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs). Reported outcomes included mean and categorical weight changes and the trajectories of different measures of weight change. Mean weight gain was lowest with amisulpride (1.8 kg; 95% CI, 0.2-3.3) and highest with olanzapine (4.2 kg; 95% CI, 3.9-4.5). Weight change for all antipsychotics was most rapid during the first 6 months; subsequent weight change was slower but did not plateau. All drugs showed considerable individual variation in weight change. The proportion losing ≥7% of their baseline bodyweight was highest with quetiapine (10%; 95% CI, 7%-16%) and lowest with depot FGAs (5%; 95% CI, 3%-10%). Between 7% and 15% of patients moved into an overweight or obese body mass index (kg/m2)category (≥25). The degree of weight gain varied between antipsychotics. All antipsychotics were associated with significant (≥7%) weight loss and gain from baseline. The mean rate of weight gain was maximal during the first 6 months but continued over 3 years without a plateau in this specific cohort. Patients should receive regular monitoring of weight throughout treatment. © Copyright 2012 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.
Regina Celia Fiorati
Full Text Available Objective: To determine the impact that intersectoral policies and social participation, implemented worldwide, have had on the modification of the social determinants for health and on the reduction of social health inequities. Method: A scoping review of the literature published in the period 2005-2015 was performed. The literature search was conducted on PubMed and Scielo databases. Two researchers reviewed each document. Data were analysed according to the intersectoral action and social participation variables and according to the theoretical frameworks of the Social Determinants Model of the Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH and the theoretical constructs of Social Capital (SC and Life Course (LC. Results: Out of 45 documents likely to be selected for final review, all of them based on title and abstract, 20 documents were eventually picked out and analysed; most them (n = 8 were conducted in all Latin America and Latin America's countries. Twelve documents reported intersectoral action associated with social participation in partnership with different institutions. Regarding theoretical frameworks, most of studies (n = 8 used CSDH and SC. In relation to health outcomes, the studies showed mainly: increased access to health and education, follow-up of pregnant women, increasing in prenatal examinations, reduction in malnutrition/child mortality, reduction in extreme poverty/hunger; reduction in epidemics/tuberculosis, control of alcohol/drug consumption, promotion of health/mental as well as basic sanitation improvements. Conclusions: Intersectoral and social participation experiences studied yielded positive outcomes regarding health status and quality of life in the communities in which such experiences were implemented. Resumen: Objetivo: Determinar el impacto que las políticas intersectoriales y la participación social, implementadas en todo el mundo, han tenido tanto en la modificación de los determinantes sociales
Gomes, Sandra; Lopes, Carla; Pinto, Elisabete
To summarize the recommendations on folate intake and folic acid supplementation and fortification in the periconceptional period, aimed at prevention of neural tube defects (NTD), provided by official health organizations in different countries worldwide and WHO. Information on recommendations for folate and folic acid intake in the periconceptional period was gathered from the websites of official national health organizations of several countries worldwide and from the WHO website. WHO, selected developed countries and emerging economies, totalling thirty-six countries worldwide (some European, BRICS, G8, Asian Tiger/Asian Dragon and Australia). Recommendations differ between countries, although the majority (69·4 %) recommend a healthy diet plus a folic acid supplement of 400 µg/d from preconception (4-12 weeks) until the end of the first trimester of pregnancy (8-12 weeks). The same recommendation is issued by the WHO. Dosages for women at high risk of NTD are up to 4-5 mg/d (for 41·7 % of studied countries). The recommended intake for folate is in the range of 300-400 µg/d for women of childbearing age and 500-600 µg/d for pregnant women in different countries and WHO. Five countries emphasize the importance of a healthy diet rendering supplementation needless. By contrast, five others advise a healthy diet and supplementation plus mandatory fortification. Only one mentions the importance of ensuring an adequate folate status and refers to checking with a health-care provider on the need for supplements. Different recommendations regarding folate and folic acid, seeking NTD prevention, are available worldwide; however, most countries and WHO focus on a healthy diet and folic acid supplementation of 400 µg/d periconceptionally.
Walshe, Kieran; Shortell, Stephen M
Concern about patient safety, caused in part by high-profile major failures in which many patients have been harmed, is rising worldwide. This paper draws on examples of such failures from several countries to analyze how these events are dealt with and to identify lessons and recommendations for policy. Better systems are needed for reporting and investigating failures and for implementing the lessons learned. The culture of secrecy, professional protectionism, defensiveness, and deference to authority is central to such major failures, and preventing future failures depends on cultural as much as structural change in health care systems and organizations.
Hoven, Christina W; Doan, Thao; Musa, George J; Jaliashvili, Tea; Duarte, Cristiane S; Ovuga, Emilio; Ismayilov, Fuad; Rohde, Luis A; Dmitrieva, Tatjana; Du, Yasong; Yeghiyan, Maruke; Din, Amira Seif El; Apter, Alan; Mandell, Donald J
To temper untoward mental health outcomes in children and adolescents, the World Psychiatric Association's Presidential Global Child Mental Health Programme, in collaboration with the WHO and the International Association of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Allied Professionals, established a Child Mental Health Awareness Task Force headed by Sam Tyano. Its task was to develop methodologies to increase awareness among policy-makers, community leaders, health professionals, teachers, parents, and children. Based on a prior comprehensive international search for effective techniques for information dissemination, an awareness manual was written for use by health professionals in diverse communities so as to guide the design and implementation of location specific awareness campaigns. We assessed the children, parents and teachers both before and after the campaign to determine changes in knowledge, attitudes and understanding of mental health. The school-based studies were conducted in selected communities in nine countries on five different continents distinguished by their different languages, cultures and their differing levels of economic development: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Brazil, China, Egypt, Georgia, Israel, Russia, and Uganda. In the six sites that completed all assessments, indicators of positive change in awareness of child mental health were identified, and results demonstrated an increased willingness to discuss emotional problems freely. These data support the utility of collaborating with schools so as to foster better child mental health in such under-resourced communities.
Sweileh, Waleed M; Al-Jabi, Samah W; AbuTaha, Adham S; Zyoud, Sa'ed H; Anayah, Fathi M A; Sawalha, Ansam F
The advancement of mobile technology had positively influenced healthcare services. An emerging subfield of mobile technology is mobile health (m-Health) in which mobile applications are used for health purposes. The aim of this study was to analyze and assess literature published in the field of m-Health. SciVerse Scopus was used to retrieve literature in m-Health. The study period was set from 2006 to 2016. ArcGIS 10.1 was used to present geographical distribution of publications while VOSviewer was used for data visualization. Growth of publications, citation analysis, and research productivity were presented using standard bibliometric indicators. During the study period, a total of 5465 documents were published, giving an average of 496.8 documents per year. The h-index of retrieved documents was 81. Core keywords used in literature pertaining to m-Health included diabetes mellitus, adherence, and obesity among others. Relative growth rate and doubling time of retrieved literature were stable from 2009 to 2015 indicating exponential growth of literature in this field. A total of 4638 (84.9%) documents were multi-authored with a mean collaboration index of 4.1 authors per article. The United States of America ranked first in productivity with 1926 (35.2%) published documents. India ranked sixth with 183 (3.3%) documents while China ranked seventh with 155(2.8%) documents. VA Medical Center was the most prolific organization/institution while Journal of Medical Internet Research was the preferred journal for publications in the field of m-Health. Top cited articles in the field of m-Health included the use of mobile technology in improving adherence in HIV patients, weight loss, and improving glycemic control in diabetic patients. The size of literature in m-Health showed a noticeable increase in the past decade. Given the large volume of citations received in this field, it is expected that applications of m-Health will be seen into various health aspects and
Saint-Pierre, Sylvain; Kidd, Steve
This paper presents the WNA's worldwide nuclear industry overview on the anticipated growth of the front-end nuclear fuel cycle from uranium mining to conversion and enrichment, and on the related key health, safety, and environmental (HSE) issues and challenges. It also puts an emphasis on uranium mining in new producing countries with insufficiently developed regulatory regimes that pose greater HSE concerns. It introduces the new WNA policy on uranium mining: Sustaining Global Best Practices in Uranium Mining and Processing-Principles for Managing Radiation, Health and Safety and the Environment, which is an outgrowth of an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) cooperation project that closely involved industry and governmental experts in uranium mining from around the world. Copyright © 2010 Health Physics Society
Karwowska, Paulina; Breda, Joao
Iodine deficiency has been one of the most prevalent micronutrient deficiencies in the world, causing many health disorders, particularly in pregnant women and children. Despite increased salt iodization in some countries and regions, the process has lacked global coordination and sustainability, two prerequisites for reaching the aim of eliminating iodine deficiency. This goal can be reached only by evidence-based, effectively monitored joint and committed actions of all countries. The aim of the article is to present the role of WHO in leading and coordinating public health actions aiming elimination of iodine deficiency. WHO was given a mandate to coordinate such public health actions, including developing and strengthening relevant public health legislation, issuing technically sound and evidence-based norms and standards, and monitoring the health situation and trends. WHO has coordinated and fostered collaboration between countries, international organizations, scientific associations and non-governmental organization to reach the goal of eliminating iodine deficiency. No recent patents are discussed for this WHO report. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at email@example.com.
The 39th World Health Assembly, which met in May 1986, recognized the escalating health problem of smoking-related diseases and affirmed that tobacco smoking and its use in other forms are incompatible with the attainment of "Health for All by the Year 2000." If properly implemented, antismoking campaigns can decrease the prevalence of smoking. Nations as a whole must work toward changing smoking habits, and governments must support these efforts by officially stating their stand against smoking. Over 60 countries have introduced legislation affecting smoking. The variety of policies range from adopting a health education program designed to increase peoples' awareness of its dangers to increasing taxes to deter smoking by increasing tobacco prices. Each country must adopt an antismoking campaign which works most effectively within the cultural parameters of the society. Other smoking policies include: printed warnings on cigarette packages; health messages via radio, television, mobile teams, pamphlets, health workers, clinic walls, and newspapers; prohibition of smoking in public areas and transportation; prohibition of all advertisement of cigarettes and tobacco; and the establishment of upper limits of tar and nicotine content in cigarettes. The tobacco industry spends about $2000 million annually on worldwide advertising. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), controlling this overabundance of tobacco advertisements is a major priority in preventing the spread of smoking. Cigarette and tobacco advertising can be controlled to varying degrees, e.g., over a dozen countries have enacted a total ban on advertising on television or radio, a mandatory health warning must accompany advertisements in other countries, and tobacco companies often are prohibited from sponsoring sports events. Imposing a substantial tax on cigarettes is one of the most effective means to deter smoking. However, raising taxes and banning advertisements is not enough because
Hussein Hasan Abulreesh
Full Text Available Epidemiological data suggest that Campylobacter remains a worldwide leading cause of gastrointestinal infections. Improperly prepared meat products, unpasteurized milk as well as non chlorinated drinking water were shown to be the main sources of campylobacteriosis. The Campylobacter survival mechanism in various environments facilitated the transmission of Campylobacter-associated infections; however the exact mode of transmission remains to be elucidated. This review aims to summarize recent insights on the incidence and survival of Campylobacter in the environment. Besides, methods of detection and risk assessment for public health safety are also addressed.
Lee, Kye Hwa; Kim, Grace Juyun; Kim, Ju Han
The relationship between the number of withdrawn/restricted drugs and socioeconomic, health, and welfare indicators were investigated in a comprehensive review of drug regulation information in the United Nations (UN) countries. A total of of 362 drugs were withdrawn and 248 were restricted during 1950-2010, corresponding to rates of 12.02 ± 13.07 and 5.77 ± 8.69 (mean ± SD), respectively, among 94 UN countries. A socioeconomic, health, and welfare analysis was performed for 33 OECD countries for which data were available regarding withdrawn/restricted drugs. The gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, GDP per hour worked, health expenditure per GDP, and elderly population rate were positively correlated with the numbers of withdrawn and restricted drugs (P < 0.05), while the out-of-pocket health expenditure payment rate was negatively correlated. The number of restricted drugs was also correlated with the rate of drug-related deaths (P < 0.05). The World Bank data cross-validated the findings of 33 OECD countries. The lists of withdrawn/restricted drugs showed markedly poor international agreement between them (Fleiss's kappa = -0.114). Twenty-seven drugs that had been withdrawn internationally by manufacturers are still available in some countries. The wide variation in the numbers of drug withdrawals and restrictions among countries indicates the need to improve drug surveillance systems and regulatory communication networks.
Aylward, R Bruce; Acharya, Arnab; England, Sarah; Agocs, Mary; Linkins, Jennifer
The Global Polio Eradication Initiative was launched in 1988. Assessment of the politics, production, financing, and economics of this international effort has suggested six lessons that might be pertinent to the pursuit of other global health goals. First, such goals should be based on technically sound strategies with proven operational feasibility in a large geographical area. Second, before launching an initiative, an informed collective decision must be negotiated and agreed in an appropriate international forum to keep to a minimum long-term risks in financing and implementation. Third, if substantial community engagement is envisaged, efficient deployment of sufficient resources at that level necessitates a defined, time-limited input by the community within a properly managed partnership. Fourth, although the so-called fair-share concept is arguably the best way to finance such goals, its limitations must be recognised early and alternative strategies developed for settings where it does not work. Fifth, international health goals must be designed and pursued within existing health systems if they are to secure and sustain broad support. Finally, countries, regions, or populations most likely to delay the achievement of a global health goal should be identified at the outset to ensure provision of sufficient resources and attention. The greatest threats to poliomyelitis eradication are a financing gap of US 210 million dollars and difficulties in strategy implementation in at most five countries.
Full Text Available Thalassemia major is a genetic blood disorder that is detected by the symptoms of chronic and severe anemia, enlarged liver and spleen, failure to thrive and bone deformities in particular deformed face and bulging forehead. Due to changes in physical appearance, the disease can influence on other aspects of the patient's life, so the disease can have a strong impact on the mental health of these patients and their families. Previous studies showed that 80% of patients with thalassemia major have at least one psychiatric disorder. The aim of this paper was to review the mental health status of patients with Beta-thalassemia major in Iran.
Idrovo, Alvaro J; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Myriam; Manzano-Patiño, Abigail P
To analyze whether the relationship between income inequality and human health is mediated through social capital, and whether political regime determines differences in income inequality and social capital among countries. Path analysis of cross sectional ecological data from 110 countries. Life expectancy at birth was the outcome variable, and income inequality (measured by the Gini coefficient), social capital (measured by the Corruption Perceptions Index or generalized trust), and political regime (measured by the Index of Freedom) were the predictor variables. Corruption Perceptions Index (an indirect indicator of social capital) was used to include more developing countries in the analysis. The correlation between Gini coefficient and predictor variables was calculated using Spearman's coefficients. The path analysis was designed to assess the effect of income inequality, social capital proxies and political regime on life expectancy. The path coefficients suggest that income inequality has a greater direct effect on life expectancy at birth than through social capital. Political regime acts on life expectancy at birth through income inequality. Income inequality and social capital have direct effects on life expectancy at birth. The "class/welfare regime model" can be useful for understanding social and health inequalities between countries, whereas the "income inequality hypothesis" which is only a partial approach is especially useful for analyzing differences within countries.
Full Text Available We performed a literature review to investigate how epidemiological studies have been used to assess the health consequences of living in the vicinity of industries. 77 papers on the chronic effects of air pollution around major industrial areas were reviewed. Major health themes were cancers (27 studies, morbidity (25 studies, mortality (7 studies, and birth outcome (7 studies. Only 3 studies investigated mental health. While studies were available from many different countries, a majority of papers came from the United Kingdom, Italy, and Spain. Several studies were motivated by concerns from the population or by previous observations of an overincidence of cases. Geographical ecological designs were largely used for studying cancer and mortality, including statistical designs to quantify a relationship between health indicators and exposure. Morbidity was frequently investigated through cross-sectional surveys on the respiratory health of children. Few multicenter studies were performed. In a majority of papers, exposed areas were defined based on the distance to the industry and were located from 20 km from the plants. Improving the exposure assessment would be an asset to future studies. Criteria to include industries in multicenter studies should be defined.
Full Text Available Vitamin D and calcium insufficiencies are risk factors for multiple chronic diseases. Data from 46 recent studies from Europe, North America, South-East Asia and the South Pacific area clearly indicate that a low vitamin D status and inadequate calcium nutrition are highly prevalent in the general population (30–80%, affecting both genders. The extent of insufficiencies is particularly high in older populations, and in some geographical areas, also in children and in young women of child-bearing age, in ethnic minorities and immigrants, as well as in people of low socio-economic status. Enrichment of cereal grain products with vitamin D and calcium would be a viable approach to increase consumption and improve health outcomes in the general population worldwide.
Zascavage, Victoria; Winterman, Kathleen G.; Buot, Max; Wies, Jennifer R.; Lyzinski, Natalie
In order to better understand the effects of student-life stress on Education and Health Service majors (n = 195) at a private, religious, Midwestern university in the USA, we assessed student perception of overall stress level and physical stress level using the Student-life Stress Inventory. The targeted sample consisted of students with…
A cross sectional study was conducted to identify the major livestock health problems in southern zone of Tigray, northern Ethiopia from July 2014 to June 2016. Questionnaire survey and case observational study were employed for data collection. A total of 120 respondents were interviewed for the questionnaire survey.
Hoffman, Karen; Cole, Elaine; Playford, E Diane; Grill, Eva; Soberg, Helene L; Brohi, Karim
Trauma is a global disease and is among the leading causes of disability in the world. The importance of outcome beyond trauma survival has been recognised over the last decade. Despite this there is no internationally agreed approach for assessment of health outcome and rehabilitation of trauma patients. To systematically examine to what extent outcomes measures evaluate health outcomes in patients with major trauma. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL (from 2006-2012) were searched for studies evaluating health outcome after traumatic injuries. Studies of adult patients with injuries involving at least two body areas or organ systems were included. Information on study design, outcome measures used, sample size and outcomes were extracted. The World Health Organisation International Classification of Function, Disability and Health (ICF) were used to evaluate to what extent outcome measures captured health impacts. 34 studies from 755 studies were included in the review. 38 outcome measures were identified. 21 outcome measures were used only once and only five were used in three or more studies. Only 6% of all possible health impacts were captured. Concepts related to activity and participation were the most represented but still only captured 12% of all possible concepts in this domain. Measures performed very poorly in capturing concepts related to body function (5%), functional activities (11%) and environmental factors (2%). Outcome measures used in major trauma capture only a small proportion of health impacts. There is no inclusive classification for measuring disability or health outcome following trauma. The ICF may provide a useful framework for the development of a comprehensive health outcome measure for trauma care.
Full Text Available Trauma is a global disease and is among the leading causes of disability in the world. The importance of outcome beyond trauma survival has been recognised over the last decade. Despite this there is no internationally agreed approach for assessment of health outcome and rehabilitation of trauma patients.To systematically examine to what extent outcomes measures evaluate health outcomes in patients with major trauma.MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL (from 2006-2012 were searched for studies evaluating health outcome after traumatic injuries.Studies of adult patients with injuries involving at least two body areas or organ systems were included. Information on study design, outcome measures used, sample size and outcomes were extracted. The World Health Organisation International Classification of Function, Disability and Health (ICF were used to evaluate to what extent outcome measures captured health impacts.34 studies from 755 studies were included in the review. 38 outcome measures were identified. 21 outcome measures were used only once and only five were used in three or more studies. Only 6% of all possible health impacts were captured. Concepts related to activity and participation were the most represented but still only captured 12% of all possible concepts in this domain. Measures performed very poorly in capturing concepts related to body function (5%, functional activities (11% and environmental factors (2%.Outcome measures used in major trauma capture only a small proportion of health impacts. There is no inclusive classification for measuring disability or health outcome following trauma. The ICF may provide a useful framework for the development of a comprehensive health outcome measure for trauma care.
Beck, Deva-Marie; Dossey, Barbara M; Rushton, Cynda H
The Nightingale Initiative for Global Health (NIGH) is a major grassroots-to-global movement of "daring, caring and sharing" of nursing and others around the world inspired by the outstanding legacy of Florence Nightingale. The Nightingale Initiative envisions and emulates what Nightingale might have accomplished if she lived in the digital age and with international agencies such as the United Nations and World Health Organization. It challenges nurses everywhere to think and act both locally and globally, to raise their voices about the contribution of nursing, and to become authentic advocates, particularly in addressing the United Nations Millennium Development Goals.
This mixed methods study examined the relationship between the motivations for attending college of undergraduate students with a focus on students with a public health major, and their desire to pursue graduate training in public health and subsequently, public health careers. The study highlighted the current public health workforce shortage and…
The term "crisis" in different cultures (such as ancient Greece or China) can have a positive meaning, since it indicates a time of growth, change and opportunity. Over the centuries there have been times of severe economic and social crisis that led to the implementation of major reforms and improved population health. Nowadays, despite the new economic crisis which has also affected health care for its rising costs, health economics does not hesitate to affirm the importance of key objectives such as prevention and medical assistance. Prevention is not prediction. Prevention means "going upstream" and fixing a problem at the source; the goal is to reduce diseases' effects, causes and risk factors, thereby reducing the prevalence of costly medical conditions.
Luis Teles de Carvalho, Ricardo
global environmental health risk, since these sources are important contributors to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the ambient air that increase climate and health risks. This thesis explores the social-technical dimensions of both the use of wood-burning stoves (WBSs) and transition to the use......More than any time in our history, the wood-burning stove continues to be the most popular technology used for cooking and heating worldwide. According to the World Health Organization and recent scientific studies, the inefficient use of solid-fuels in traditional stoves constitutes the major...... systems, improved efficient retrofits and advanced stove innovations. In chapter 3, four popular wood-burning practices found in five countries were singled-out to be examined closely in four case studies: “cooking in Brazil”, “cooking and heating in Peru”, “heating in Portugal” and “recreational heat...
Gow, Neil A R; Netea, Mihai G
Fungi cause more than a billion skin infections, more than 100 million mucosal infections, 10 million serious allergies and more than a million deaths each year. Global mortality owing to fungal infections is greater than for malaria and breast cancer and is equivalent to that owing to tuberculosis (TB) and HIV. These statistics evidence fungal infections as a major threat to human health and a major burden to healthcare budgets worldwide. Those patients who are at greatest risk of life-threatening fungal infections include those who have weakened immunity or have suffered trauma or other predisposing infections such as HIV. To address these global threats to human health, more research is urgently needed to understand the immunopathology of fungal disease and human disease susceptibility in order to augment the advances being made in fungal diagnostics and drug development. Here, we highlight some recent advances in basic research in medical mycology and fungal immunology that are beginning to inform clinical decisions and options for personalized medicine, vaccine development and adjunct immunotherapies.This article is part of the themed issue 'Tackling emerging fungal threats to animal health, food security and ecosystem resilience'. © 2016 The Authors.
India's increase of 12 million people each year nullifies almost all the considerable progress the country made in agriculture and industrial production during 19 years of her freedom. Today she ranks 2nd in population and 7th in land area of the world. She claims 15% of the world's population, on about 2.4% of the world's land area. The Government of India has taken family planning as a major national health program under her Five-Year Plans, but impact of this program is not felt as yet. Since this is a difficult complex problem with many facets, it has to be attacked forcefully, drastically, and on all fronts. An all-out war has to be waged against the population growth. India should attack it with all the weapons she had: education, propaganda, taxation, legalization of abortion, and even compulsory sterilization. Overnight change in the fertility pattern of the people is impossible.
Jorm, Anthony; Sawyer, Michael; Gillett, Joy
Australian Rotary Health (ARH) was established in 1981 with the goal of supporting family health research in Australia. Since 2000, ARH has supported research relevant to mental health and mental illness. This article describes the early history of the fund, the reasons for the move to mental illness research, some examples of research projects that have had a beneficial impact and the branching out into mental health community awareness raising and stigma reduction. ARH has emerged as a major non-government supporter of mental illness research. It has also effectively engaged Rotary clubs at a local level to increase community awareness of mental illness and to reduce stigma.
Thomas, Sian; Thomson, Hilary; Scott, John; Hamilton, Val; Hanlon, Phil; Morrison, David S; Bond, Lyndal
Objective To assess the effects of major multi-sport events on health and socioeconomic determinants of health in the population of the city hosting the event. Design Systematic review. Data sources We searched the following sources without language restrictions for papers published between 1978 and 2008: Applied Social Science Index and Abstracts (ASSIA), British Humanities Index (BHI), Cochrane database of systematic reviews, Econlit database, Embase, Education Resources Information Center (ERIC) database, Health Management Information Consortium (HMIC) database, International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (IBSS), Medline, PreMedline, PsycINFO, Sociological Abstracts, Sportdiscus, Web of Knowledge, Worldwide Political Science Abstracts, and the grey literature. Review methods Studies of any design that assessed the health and socioeconomic impacts of major multi-sport events on the host population were included. We excluded studies that used exclusively estimated data rather than actual data, that investigated host population support for an event or media portrayals of host cities, or that described new physical infrastructure. Studies were selected and critically appraised by two independent reviewers. Results Fifty four studies were included. Study quality was poor, with 69% of studies using a repeat cross-sectional design and 85% of quantitative studies assessed as being below 2+ on the Health Development Agency appraisal scale, often because of a lack of comparison group. Five studies, each with a high risk of bias, reported health related outcomes, which were suicide, paediatric health service demand, presentations for asthma in children (two studies), and problems related to illicit drug use. Overall, the data did not indicate clear negative or positive health impacts of major multi-sport events on host populations. The most frequently reported outcomes were economic outcomes (18 studies). The outcomes used were similar enough to allow us to perform a
McCartney, Gerry; Thomas, Sian; Thomson, Hilary; Scott, John; Hamilton, Val; Hanlon, Phil; Morrison, David S; Bond, Lyndal
To assess the effects of major multi-sport events on health and socioeconomic determinants of health in the population of the city hosting the event. Systematic review. We searched the following sources without language restrictions for papers published between 1978 and 2008: Applied Social Science Index and Abstracts (ASSIA), British Humanities Index (BHI), Cochrane database of systematic reviews, Econlit database, Embase, Education Resources Information Center (ERIC) database, Health Management Information Consortium (HMIC) database, International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (IBSS), Medline, PreMedline, PsycINFO, Sociological Abstracts, Sportdiscus, Web of Knowledge, Worldwide Political Science Abstracts, and the grey literature. Review methods Studies of any design that assessed the health and socioeconomic impacts of major multi-sport events on the host population were included. We excluded studies that used exclusively estimated data rather than actual data, that investigated host population support for an event or media portrayals of host cities, or that described new physical infrastructure. Studies were selected and critically appraised by two independent reviewers. Fifty four studies were included. Study quality was poor, with 69% of studies using a repeat cross-sectional design and 85% of quantitative studies assessed as being below 2+ on the Health Development Agency appraisal scale, often because of a lack of comparison group. Five studies, each with a high risk of bias, reported health related outcomes, which were suicide, paediatric health service demand, presentations for asthma in children (two studies), and problems related to illicit drug use. Overall, the data did not indicate clear negative or positive health impacts of major multi-sport events on host populations. The most frequently reported outcomes were economic outcomes (18 studies). The outcomes used were similar enough to allow us to perform a narrative synthesis, but the overall
Background: Major depression is a common and disabling complication of the postpartum period in women. It is thought to occur three times more commonly in the developing than in developed countries. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of and factors associated with major ...
Aaron, Daniel G; Siegel, Michael B
Obesity is a pervasive public health problem in the U.S. Reducing soda consumption is important for stemming the obesity epidemic. However, several articles and one book suggest that soda companies are using their resources to impede public health interventions that might reduce soda consumption. Although corporate sponsorship by tobacco and alcohol companies has been studied extensively, there has been no systematic attempt to catalog sponsorship activities of soda companies. This study investigates the nature, extent, and implications of soda company sponsorship of U.S. health and medical organizations, as well as corporate lobbying expenditures on soda- or nutrition-related public health legislation from 2011 to 2015. Records of corporate philanthropy and lobbying expenditures on public health legislation by soda companies in the U.S. during 2011-2015 were found through Internet and database searches. From 2011 to 2015, the Coca-Cola Company and PepsiCo were found to sponsor a total of 95 national health organizations, including many medical and public health institutions whose specific missions include fighting the obesity epidemic. During the study period, these two soda companies lobbied against 29 public health bills intended to reduce soda consumption or improve nutrition. There is surprisingly pervasive sponsorship of national health and medical organizations by the nation's two largest soda companies. These companies lobbied against public health intervention in 97% of cases, calling into question a sincere commitment to improving the public's health. By accepting funding from these companies, health organizations are inadvertently participating in their marketing plans. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Allemani, Claudia; Coleman, Michel P
CONCORD is a programme for the global surveillance of cancer survival. In 2015, the second cycle of the program (CONCORD-2) established long-term surveillance of cancer survival worldwide, for the first time, in the largest cancer survival study published to date. CONCORD-2 provided cancer survival trends for 25,676,887 patients diagnosed during the 15-year period between 1995 and 2009 with 1 of 10 common cancers that collectively represented 63% of the global cancer burden in 2009. Herein, the authors summarize the past, describe the present, and outline the future of the CONCORD programme. They discuss the difference between population-based studies and clinical trials, and review the importance of international comparisons of population-based cancer survival. This study will focus on the United States. The authors explain why population-based survival estimates are crucial for driving effective cancer control strategies to reduce the wide and persistent disparities in cancer survival between white and black patients, which are likely to be attributable to differences in access to early diagnosis and optimal treatment. Cancer 2017;123:4977-81. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Whitcombe, Anne; Cooper, Kay; Palmer, Emma
The objective of this mixed methods systematic review is to examine the relationship between organizational culture and the health and wellbeing of hospital nurses, and to develop an aggregated synthesis of quantitative and qualitative systematic reviews to derive recommendations for policy and practice.Organizational culture comprises factors such as leadership, management and support, a health and safety oriented workplace climate and job characteristics.The quantitative component of this review will explore the relationship between organizational culture and the following outcomes in hospital nurses which may be indicators of health and wellbeing: work-related injury such as needlestick or sharp injuries, musculoskeletal injuries and conditions such as low back pain, burnout and general wellbeing.The qualitative component of this review will explore the perceptions of hospital nurses in relation to the impact of organizational culture on their own health and wellbeing and those of their nursing colleagues.
Hoek, Wim van der; Konradsen, F; Athukorala, K
pesticides is the most important reason for this high number of poisoning cases. The frequent application of highly hazardous pesticides in high concentrations was often irrational and posed serious health and financial risks to the farmers. Sales promotion activities and credit facilities promoted...
Dirkzwager, A.J.E.; IJzermans, C.J.; Kerssens, J.J.
Background: In May 2000, a firework factory exploded in a residential area in the Netherlands, resulting in 22 deaths, 947 wounded people, and about 2.000 severely damaged houses. Following the explosion, a largescale monitoring study was implemented to examine disaster-related health consequences
Dirkzwager, A.; IJzermans, J.
In May 2000, a firework factory exploded in a residential area in the Netherlands, resulting in 22 death, 947 wounded people, 500 destroyed houses, and 1.500 severely damaged houses. Following the explosion, a large-scale monitoring study was implemented to investigate disaster-related health
Damen Haile Mariam1. One of the articles in this issue demonstrates how road traffic accident is a serious, but neglected, health problem in Ethiopia using secondary data collected by the Amhara National Regional State. Police Commission from 2007-2011 (1). Fatalities due to traffic accidents are reported to be among.
Palipudi, Krishna; Mbulo, Lazarous; Kosen, Soewarte; Tjandra, Aditama; Kadarmanto; Qureshi, Farukh; Andes, Linda; Sinha, Dhirendra N; Asma, Samira
Tobacco smoking is a major cause of preventable disease and death worldwide. Kreteks are clove-flavored cigarettes made from a combination of tobacco and ground-clove mixed with a sauce, smoked widely in Indonesia. Because health and social consequences of kretek smoking are potentially as great as those of traditional cigarettes, this study examines the prevalence of kretek smoking in Indonesia and associated risk factors. The study used nationally representative Indonesia Global Adult Tobacco Survey data. Multiple logistic regression analysis was employed to identify correlates of kretek smoking. One- third of Indonesian adults smoked tobacco of which about 90.0% smoked kreteks. Prevalence of kretek smoking among men (60.9%) was more than 25 times the rate among women (2.3%). Overall, the highest prevalence of kretek use was in the age group 45-54 years (36.5%), followed by 34-44 (35.1%), 25-34 (34.2 %), and 55-64 years (32.8%). By wealth index, prevalence of kreteks smoking among those in the middle index was almost 50% above the rate for the wealthiest group (36.4% vs 24.8% respectively). Logistic regression results showed that being male, being older, having less education, and being less wealthy were significant predictors of kretek smoking, while urban vs rural residence was not. Kretek smoking is common in Indonesia and is entrenched in the sociocultural fabric of the country. However, potential consequences of kretek smoking, particularly as risks for noncommunicable diseases, underscore the importance of a comprehensive approach to tobacco control as outlined in the World Health Organization's MPOWER strategies.
Man and the physical and natural resources necessary to support him in a civilized society are on a collision course. It is simple to say that man cannot continue to grow in number at an ever-increasing rate without a destructive effect upon the environment. Positive scientific proof for this impending calamity is not now available, yet many indications--sometimes physical and sometimes natural--point toward major world-wide environmental troubles in the near future. A number of environmental problems are described, particularly as they relate to the total world system. A computer model simulating future world-wide environmental trends from 1900 to 2100 A.D. is evaluated and suggested as a major tool for data-gathering purposes to determine the extent of world-wide environmental problems. It is suggested that scientists take an active role in the study of the environment, particularly in relation to man's future on earth
Inaya eHajj Hussein
Full Text Available Multiple cornerstones have shaped the history of vaccines, which may contain live attenuated viruses, inactivated organisms/viruses, inactivated toxins, or merely segments of the pathogen that could elicit an immune response.The story began with Hippocrates 400 B.C. with his description of mumps and diphtheria. No further discoveries were recorded until 1100 A.D. when the smallpox vaccine was described. During the 18th century, vaccines for cholera and yellow fever were reported and Edward Jenner, the father of vaccination and immunology, published his work on small pox.The 19th century was a major landmark, with the Germ Theory of disease of Louis Pasteur, the discovery of the germ tubercle bacillus for tuberculosis by Robert Koch, and the isolation of pneumococcus organism by George Miller Sternberg. Another landmark was the discovery of diphtheria toxin by Emile Roux and its serological treatment by Emil Von Behring and Paul Ehrlih. In addition, Pasteur was able to generate the first live attenuated viral vaccine against rabies. Typhoid vaccines were then developed, followed by the plague vaccine of Yersin. At the beginning of World War I, the tetanus toxoid was introduced, followed in 1915 by the pertussis vaccine. In 1974, The Expanded Program of Immunization was established within the WHO for BCG, Polio, DTP, measles, yellow fever and hepatitis B. The year 1996 witnessed the launching of the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative. In 1988, the WHO passed a resolution to eradicate polio by the year 2000 and in 2006; the first vaccine to prevent cervical cancer was developed. In 2010 The Decade of vaccines was launched, and on April 1st 2012, the United Nations launched the shot@Life campaign. In brief, the armamentarium of vaccines continues to grow with more emphasis on safety, availability and accessibility. This mini review highlights the major historical events and pioneers in the course of development of vaccines, which have eradicated
James, P T; Leach, R; Kalamara, E; Shayeghi, M
The recent World Health Organization (WHO) agreement on the standardized classification of overweight and obese, based on body mass index (BMI), allows a comparable analysis of prevalence rates worldwide for the first time. In Asia, however, there is a demand for a more limited range for normal BMIs (i.e., 18.5 to 22.9 kg/m(2) rather than 18.5 to 24.9 kg/m(2)) because of the high prevalence of comorbidities, particularly diabetes and hypertension. In children, the International Obesity Task-Force age-, sex-, and BMI-specific cutoff points are increasingly being used. We are currently evaluating BMI data globally as part of a new millennium analysis of the Global Burden of Disease. WHO is analyzing data in terms of 20 or more principal risk factors contributing to the primary causes of disability and lost lives in the 191 countries within the WHO. The prevalence rates for overweight and obese people are different in each region, with the Middle East, Central and Eastern Europe, and North America having higher prevalence rates. In most countries, women show a greater BMI distribution with higher obesity rates than do men. Obesity is usually now associated with poverty, even in developing countries. Relatively new data suggest that abdominal obesity in adults, with its associated enhanced morbidity, occurs particularly in those who had lower birth weights and early childhood stunting. Waist measurements in nationally representative studies are scarce but will now be needed to estimate the full impact of the worldwide obesity epidemic.
Griffiths, Simon D; Chappell, Philip; Entwistle, Jane A; Kelly, Frank J; Deary, Michael E
Public exposure to significantly elevated levels of particulate matter (PM) as a result of major fires at industrial sites is a worldwide problem. Our paper describes how the United Kingdom developed its Air Quality in Major Incidents (AQinMI) service to provide fire emission plume concentration data for use by managers at the time of the incident and to allow an informed public health response. It is one of the first civilian services of its type anywhere in the world. Based on the involvement of several of the authors in the AQinMI service, we describe the service's function, detail the nature of fires covered by the service, and report for the first time on the concentration ranges of PM to which populations may be exposed in major incident fires. We also consider the human health impacts of short-term exposure to significantly elevated PM concentrations and reflect on the appropriateness of current short-term guideline values in providing public health advice. We have analysed monitoring data for airborne PM (≤10μm, PM 10 ;≤2.5μm, PM 2.5 and ≤1.0μm, PM 1 ) collected by AQinMI teams using an Osiris laser light scattering monitor, the UK Environment Agency's 'indicative standard' equipment, during deployment to 23 major incident industrial fires. In this context, 'indicative' is applied to monitoring equipment that provides confirmation of the presence of particulates and indicates a measured mass concentration value. Incident-averaged concentrations ranged from 38 to 1450μgm -3 for PM 10 and 7 to 258μgm -3 for PM 2.5 . Of concern was that, for several incidents, 15-min averaged concentrations reached >6500μgm -3 for PM 10 and 650μgm -3 for PM 2.5 , though such excursions tended to be of relatively short duration. In the absence of accepted very short-term (15-min to 1-h) guideline values for PM 10 and PM 2.5, we have analysed the relationship between the 1-h and 24-h threshold values and whether the former can be used as a predictor of longer
Vaccari, Vittorio; Passerino, Costantino; Giagnorio, Maria Laura
The search for a strategy that can optimise resources far the financing of health systems is currently the subject of numerous worldwide experiments. This interest stems from the fact that in most countries, although having each one different specific characteristics, governments try to improve the efficiency and equity of health care. This worle analyses how innovative financing options at national level can be combined with decision-making processes typical of quality management to devise strategies far funding health services that are oriented towards their continuous improvement. The paper discusses, in particular, the strategy adopted in England, where the new law Equity and Excellence, liberating the NHS radically changes the management of the NHS, giving patients the choice of using different types of structures and therefore the possibility to find the most convenient combination in order to obtain the required service.
Hoffman, Karen P; Playford, Diane E; Grill, Eva; Soberg, Helene L; Brohi, Karim
Measurement of long term health outcome after trauma remains non-standardized and ambiguous which limits national and international comparison of burden of injuries. The World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended the application of the International Classification of Function, Disability and Health (ICF) to measure rehabilitation and health outcome worldwide. No previous poly-trauma studies have applied the ICF comprehensively to evaluate outcome after injury. To apply the ICF categorization in patients with traumatic injuries to identify a minimum data set of important rehabilitation and health outcomes to enable national and international comparison of outcome data. A mixed methods design of patient interviews and an on-line survey. An ethnically diverse urban major trauma center in London. Adult patients with major traumatic injuries (poly-trauma) and international health care professionals (HCPs) working in acute and post-acute major trauma settings. Mixed methods investigated patients and health care professionals (HCPs) perspectives of important rehabilitation and health outcomes. Qualitative patient data and quantitative HCP data were linked to ICF categories. Combined data were refined to identify a minimum data set of important rehabilitation and health outcome categories. Transcribed patient interview data (N.=32) were linked to 234 (64%) second level ICF categories. Two hundred and fourteen HCPs identified 121 from a possible 140 second level ICF categories (86%) as relevant and important. Patients and HCPs strongly agreed on ICF body structures and body functions categories which include temperament, energy and drive, memory, emotions, pain and repair function of the skin. Conversely, patients prioritised domestic tasks, recreation and work compared to HCP priorities of self-care and mobility. Twenty six environmental factors were identified. Patient and HCP data were refined to recommend a 109 possible ICF categories for a minimum data set. The
World uranium production will continue to change in most major producing nations. Canadian production will increase and will be increasingly dominated by western producers as eastern Canadian high-cost production declines. Australian production will increase as major projects come into operation before 2000. US production will stabilize through the end of the century. South African production will be dependent upon the worldwide support for economic sanctions. China's entry into the world market injects yet another variable into the already cloudy supply picture. Many risks and uncertainties will face uranium producers through the 1980s. Recognizing that the uranium industry is not a fast-growing market, many existing and potential producers are seeking alternate investment courses, causing a restructuring of the world uranium production industry in ways not anticipated even a few years ago. During the restructuring process, world uranium production will most likely continue to exceed uranium consumption, resulting in a further buildup of world uranium inventories. Inventory sales will continue to redistribute this material. As inventory selling runs its course, users will turn to normal sources of supply, stimulating additional production to meet needs. Stimulation in the form of higher prices will be determined by how fast producers are willing and able to return to the market. Production costs are expected to have an increasing impact as it has become apparent that uranium resources are large in comparison to projected consumption. Conversely, security-of-supply issues have seemed to be of decreasing magnitude as Canada, Australia, and other non-US producers continue to meet delivery commitments
Christiani, Yodi; Byles, Julie E; Tavener, Meredith; Dugdale, Paul
We examined women's access to health insurance in Indonesia. We analyzed IFLS-4 data of 1,400 adult women residing in four major cities. Among this population, the health insurance coverage was 24%. Women who were older, involved in paid work, and with higher education had greater access to health insurance (p health insurance across community levels (Median Odds Ratios = 3.40). Given the importance of health insurance for women's health, strategies should be developed to expand health insurance coverage among women in Indonesia, including the disparities across community levels. Such problems might also be encountered in other developing countries with low health insurance coverage.
Smith, O. E.; Sommerville, P. N.
Classifying worldwide cloudiness into homogeneous regions, using a satellite data set containing day IR, night IR, incoming, and absorbed solar radiation measurements on a 2.5-degree latitude-longitude grid is considered. Methods of analysis are presented.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Worldwide Airfield Summary contains a selection of climatological data produced by the U.S. Air Force, Air Weather Service. The reports were compiled from dozens...
Full Text Available Science Translational Medicine’s mission is to improve human health care worldwide by providing a forum for communication and interdisciplinary idea exchange between basic scientists and clinical research practitioners from all relevant established and emerging disciplines. The weekly journal debuted in October 2009 and is published by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS, the publisher of Science and Science Signaling. The journal features peer-reviewed research articles, perspectives and commentary, and is guided by an international Advisory Board, led by Chief Scientific Adviser, Elias A. Zerhouni, M.D., former Director of the National Institutes of Health, and Senior Scientific Adviser, Elazer R. Edelman, M.D., Ph.D., Thomas D. and Virginia W. Cabot Professor of Health Sciences and Technology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The Science Translational Medicine editorial team is led by Katrina L. Kelner, Ph.D., AAAS. A profound transition is required for the science of translational medicine. Despite 50 years of advances in our fundamental understanding of human biology and the emergence of powerful new technologies, the rapid transformation of this knowledge into effective health measures is not keeping pace with the challenges of global health care. Creative experimental approaches, novel technologies, and new ways of conducting scientific explorations at the interface of established and emerging disciplines are now required to an unprecedented degree if real progress is to be made. To aid in this reinvention, Science and AAAS have created a new interdisciplinary journal, Science Translational Medicine. The following interview exemplefies the pioneering content found in Science Translational Medicine. It is an excerpt from a Podcast interview with Dr. Samuel Broder, former director of the National Cancer Institute and current Chief Medical Officer at Celera. The Podcast was produced in tangent with Dr
Lyons-Ruth, Karlen; Todd Manly, Jody; Von Klitzing, Kai; Tamminen, Tuula; Emde, Robert; Fitzgerald, Hiram; Paul, Campbell; Keren, Miri; Berg, Astrid; Foley, Maree; Watanabe, Hisako
Children worldwide experience mental and emotional disorders. Mental disorders occurring among young children, especially infants (birth -3 years), often go unrecognized. Prevalence rates are difficult to determine because of lack of awareness and difficulty assessing and diagnosing young children. Existing data, however, suggest that rates of disorders in young children are comparable to those of older children and adolescents (von Klitzing, Dohnert, Kroll, & Grube, ). The lack of widespread recognition of disorders of infancy is particularly concerning due to the unique positioning of infancy as foundational in the developmental process. Both the brain and behavior are in vulnerable states of development across the first 3 years of life, with potential for enduring deviations to occur in response to early trauma and deprivation. Intervention approaches for young children require sensitivity to their developmental needs within their families. The primacy of infancy as a time of unique foundational risks for disorder, the impact of trauma and violence on young children's development, the impact of family disruption on children's attachment, and existing literature on prevalence rates of early disorders are discussed. Finally, global priorities for addressing these disorders of infancy are highlighted to support prevention and intervention actions that may alleviate suffering among our youngest world citizens. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Fletcher, Terace M.; Ershler, Jeff
Learner-centered molecular modeling exercises in college science courses can be especially challenging for nonchemistry majors as students typically have a higher degree of anxiety and may not appreciate the relevance of the work. This article describes a learner-centered project given to allied health majors in a Biochemistry course. The project…
Cummings, Janet R.; Druss, Benjamin G.
Objective: Little is known about racial/ethnic differences in the receipt of treatment for major depression in adolescents. This study examined differences in mental health service use in non-Hispanic white, black, Hispanic, and Asian adolescents who experienced an episode of major depression. Method: Five years of data (2004-2008) were pooled…
Ray, P.; Liaw, S.-T.
Summary Objectives This paper is a systematic literature review intended to gain an understanding of the most original, excellent, state-of-the-art research in the application of eHealth (including mHealth) in the management of chronic diseases with a focus on cancer over the past two years. Method This review looks at peer-reviewed papers published between 2013 and 2015 and examines the background and trends in this area. It systematically searched peer-reviewed journals in databases PubMed, Proquest, Cochrane Library, Elsevier, Sage and the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE Digital Library) using a set of pre-defined keywords. It then employed an iterative process to filter out less relevant publications. Results From an initial search return of 1,519,682 results returned, twenty nine of the most relevant peer reviewed articles were identified as most relevant. Conclusions Based on the results we conclude that innovative eHealth and its subset mHealth initiatives are rapidly emerging as an important means of managing cancer and other chronic diseases. The adoption is following different paths in the developed and developing worlds. Besides governance and regulatory issues, barriers still exist around information management, interoperability and integration. These include medical records available online information for clinicians and consumers on cancer and other chronic diseases, mobile app bundles that can help manage co-morbidities and the capacity of supporting communication technologies. PMID:27830236
In this short paper the author provides a list of tables and charts concerning the nuclear energy worldwide, the clean air benefits of nuclear energy, the nuclear competitiveness and the public opinion. He shows that the nuclear energy has a vital role to play in satisfying global energy and environmental goals. (A.L.B)
Although the higher cost of enhanced oil recovery has taken its toll in projects, the Journal's worldwide EOR survey reveals that production from EOR is a significant and growing component of the world's oil production. This paper outlines hundreds of projects in 14 countries. Pilot, field wide, and planned projects are all included
Knowledge transfer: a worldwide challenge in child mental health: a recommendation to the readership of CAPMH concerning the revised version of the IACAPAP Textbook of Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Maier, Anna T; Brown, Rebecca C; Fegert, Joerg M
Transfer of knowledge is an important issue throughout all scientific disciplines, especially in the medical and psycho-social field. The issue of worldwide knowledge transfer in child mental health is one of the aims and goals of the journal Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health (CAPMH). The demand for mental health training is high worldwide, and especially in low- to lower-middle income countries, where inadequate access to knowledge resources in the field of child and adolescent mental health (CAMH) is prevalent. At the same time, many of these countries are showing an increased risk for mental health issues in children and adolescents. The International Association for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Allied Professions (IACAPAP) Textbook of Child and Adolescent Mental Health counters this problem. It is an open-access e-textbook aiming to provide an overview of current and established treatment and practical approaches for child and adolescent psychiatrists, psychotherapists and allied (mental health) professionals worldwide. First published in 2012, the updated and revised version was launched in 2015. The aim of this commentary is to review and disseminate the usefulness and practicability of content and further material included in the new version of the textbook. Overall, the textbook contains ten sections divided into 59 chapters, with a total of 1435 pages. The original version of the textbook was written in English. The revised version contains translations of 49 chapters into different languages (to date French, Spanish, Hebrew, Arabic, Portuguese, Russian, Norwegian and/or Japanese), with additional material for knowledge dissemination and self-directed learning (e.g. videos and quizzes) for several chapters. The textbook and the add-on materials for dissemination are of high quality and convey a great introduction to important topics concerning mental health. Apart from knowledge transfer, there is a pragmatic focus on clinical
Liu, Liyue; Pan, Luyuan; Li, Kuoyu; Zhang, Yun; Zhu, Zuoyan; Sun, Yonghua
In China, the use of zebrafish as an experimental animal in the past 15 years has widely expanded. The China Zebrafish Resource Center (CZRC), which was established in 2012, is becoming one of the major resource centers in the global zebrafish community. Large-scale use and regular exchange of zebrafish resources have put forward higher requirements on zebrafish health issues in China. This article reports the current aquatic infrastructure design, animal husbandry, and health-monitoring programs in the CZRC. Meanwhile, through a survey of 20 Chinese zebrafish laboratories, we also describe the current health status of major zebrafish facilities in China. We conclude that it is of great importance to establish a widely accepted health standard and health-monitoring strategy in the Chinese zebrafish research community.
Walsh, J J; Lenes, J M; Weisberg, R H; Zheng, L; Hu, C; Fanning, K A; Snyder, R; Smith, J
Reductions of zooplankton biomasses and grazing pressures were observed during overfishing-induced trophic cascades and concurrent oil spills at global scales. Recent phytoplankton increments followed, once Fe-, P-, and N-nutrient limitations of commensal diazotrophs and dinoflagellates were also eliminated by respective human desertification, deforestation, and eutrophication during climate changes. Si-limitation of diatoms instead ensued during these last anthropogenic perturbations of agricultural effluents and sewage loadings. Consequently, ~15% of total world-wide annual asthma trigger responses, i.e. amounting to ~45 million adjacent humans during 2004, resulted from brevetoxin and palytoxin poisons in aerosol forms of western boundary current origins. They were denoted by greater global harmful algal bloom [HAB] abundances and breathing attacks among sea-side children during prior decadal surveys of asthma prevalence, compiled here in ten paired shelf ecosystems of western and eutrophied boundary currents. Since 1965, such inferred onshore fluxes of aerosolized DOC poisons of HABs may have served as additional wind-borne organic carriers of toxic marine MeHg, phthalate, and DDT/DDE vectors, traced by radio-iodine isotopes to potentially elicit carcinomas. During these exchanges, as much as 40% of mercury poisonings may instead have been effected by inhalation of collateral HAB-carried marine neurotoxic aerosols of MeHg, not just from eating marine fish. Health impacts in some areas were additional asthma and pneumonia episodes, as well as endocrine disruptions among the same adjacent humans, with known large local rates of thyroid cancers, physician-diagnosed pulmonary problems, and ubiquitous high indices of mercury in hair, pesticides in breast milk, and phthalates in urine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lee, Haewon; Ahn, Deborah Y; Choi, Soyoung; Kim, Youngchan; Choi, Hyunju; Park, Sang Min
We investigated the major trends in health aid financing in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) by identifying the primary donor organizations and examining several data sources to track overall health aid trends. We collected gross disbursements from bilateral donor countries and international organizations toward the DPRK according to specific health sectors by using the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development creditor reporting system database and the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs financial tracking service database. We analyzed sources of health aid to the DPRK from the Republic of Korea (ROK) using the official records from the ROK's Ministry of Unification. We identified the ROK, United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), and The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM) as the major donor entities not only according to their level of health aid expenditures but also their growing roles within the health sector of the DPRK. We found that health aid from the ROK is comprised of funding from the Inter-Korean Cooperation Fund, private organizations, local governments, and South Korean branches of international organizations such as WHO and UNICEF. We also distinguished medical equipment aid from developmental aid to show that the majority of health aid from the ROK was developmental aid. This study highlights the valuable role of the ROK in the flow of health aid to the DPRK, especially in light of the DPRK's precarious international status. Although global health aid from many international organizations has decreased, organizations such as GFATM and UNFPA continue to maintain their focus on reproductive health and infectious diseases.
Brandt, Mary; Brown, Clive; Burkhart, Joe; Burton, Nancy; Cox-Ganser, Jean; Damon, Scott; Falk, Henry; Fridkin, Scott; Garbe, Paul; McGeehin, Mike; Morgan, Juliette; Page, Elena; Rao, Carol; Redd, Stephen; Sinks, Tom; Trout, Douglas; Wallingford, Kenneth; Warnock, David; Weissman, David
Extensive water damage after major hurricanes and floods increases the likelihood of mold contamination in buildings. This report provides information on how to limit exposure to mold and how to identify and prevent mold-related health effects. Where uncertainties in scientific knowledge exist, practical applications designed to be protective of a person's health are presented. Evidence is included about assessing exposure, clean-up and prevention, personal protective equipment, health effects, and public health strategies and recommendations. The recommendations assume that, in the aftermath of major hurricanes or floods, buildings wet for health effects in susceptible persons regardless of the type of mold or the extent of contamination. For the majority of persons, undisturbed mold is not a substantial health hazard. Mold is a greater hazard for persons with conditions such as impaired host defenses or mold allergies. To prevent exposure that could result in adverse health effects from disturbed mold, persons should 1) avoid areas where mold contamination is obvious; 2) use environmental controls; 3) use personal protective equipment; and 4) keep hands, skin, and clothing clean and free from mold-contaminated dust. Clinical evaluation of suspected mold-related illness should follow conventional clinical guidelines. In addition, in the aftermath of extensive flooding, health-care providers should be watchful for unusual mold-related diseases. The development of a public health surveillance strategy among persons repopulating areas after extensive flooding is recommended to assess potential health effects and the effectiveness of prevention efforts. Such a surveillance program will help CDC and state and local public health officials refine the guidelines for exposure avoidance, personal protection, and clean-up and assist health departments to identify unrecognized hazards.
Armani, R; Mitchell, L E; Allen-Graham, J; Heriot, N R; Kotsimbos, T; Wilson, J W
The current health system in Australia is comprised of both electronic- and paper-based medical records. The Federal Government has approved funding for the development of an individual health identifier and a universally adopted online health repository. To determine attitudes and beliefs of patients and healthcare workers regarding the use of stored medical information and the personally controlled electronic health record (PCEHR) in selected major hospitals in Victoria. Qualitative survey of patients and healthcare workers (n = 600 each group) conducted during 2014 across five major hospitals in Melbourne to measure the awareness, attitudes and barriers to electronic health and the PCEHR. Of the patients, 93.3% support the concept of a shared electronic healthcare record, 33.7% were aware of the PCEHR and only 11% had registered. The majority of healthcare workers believed that the presence of a shared health record would result in an increased appropriateness of care and patient safety by reducing adverse drug events and improving the timeliness of care provided. However, only 46% of healthcare workers were aware of the PCEHR. This study provides a baseline evaluation of perceptions surrounding eHealth and PCHER in acute health services in five metropolitan centres. While there appears to be a readiness for adoption of these strategies for healthcare documentation, patients require motivation to register for the PCEHR, and healthcare workers require more information on the potential benefits to them to achieve more timely and efficient care. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.
Silveira, Missifany; Araújo Neto, Mário Diniz de
The prospect of multidisciplinary assessment that considers the environmental impacts on the health of the population during the implementation of potentially polluting projects is incipient in Brazil. Considering the scenario of major undertakings in the country, broadening the outlook on the health and environment relationship based on social and economic development processes striving for environmentally sustainable projects is a key strategy. This article examines the debate on the relationship between the current development model, the risks, the environment and health and discusses the importance of the participation of the health sector in the environmental licensing procedures, which is the instrument of the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). Seeking to create more environmentally and socially sustainable territories, the health sector has been looking for opportunities to participate in the licensing processes of major undertakings from the EIA standpoint. Results of research conducted by the Ministry of Health have demonstrated the form of participation in these processes, highlighting the strengths and weaknesses that favor or hinder the increase of preventive actions in public health in the implementation of major undertakings in Brazil.
Gopal K. Singh
Full Text Available Eight major federal data systems, including the National Vital Statistics System (NVSS, National Health Interview Survey (NHIS, National Survey of Children’s Health, National Longitudinal Mortality Study, and American Community Survey, were used to examine health differentials between immigrants and the US-born across the life course. Survival and logistic regression, prevalence, and age-adjusted death rates were used to examine differentials. Although these data systems vary considerably in their coverage of health and behavioral characteristics, ethnic-immigrant groups, and time periods, they all serve as important research databases for understanding the health of US immigrants. The NVSS and NHIS, the two most important data systems, include a wide range of health variables and many racial/ethnic and immigrant groups. Immigrants live 3.4 years longer than the US-born, with a life expectancy ranging from 83.0 years for Asian/Pacific Islander immigrants to 69.2 years for US-born blacks. Overall, immigrants have better infant, child, and adult health and lower disability and mortality rates than the US-born, with immigrant health patterns varying across racial/ethnic groups. Immigrant children and adults, however, fare substantially worse than the US-born in health insurance coverage and access to preventive health services. Suggestions and new directions are offered for improvements in health monitoring and for strengthening and developing databases for immigrant health assessment in the USA.
Behbod, Behrooz; Leonardi, Giovanni; Motreff, Yvon; Beck, Charles R; Yzermans, Joris; Lebret, Erik; Muravov, Oleg I; Bayleyegn, Tesfaye; Wolkin, Amy Funk; Lauriola, Paolo; Close, Rebecca; Crabbe, Helen; Pirard, Philippe
Epidemiological preparedness is vital in providing relevant, transparent, and timely intelligence for the management, mitigation, and prevention of public health impacts following major environmental health incidents. A register is a set of records containing systematically collected, standardized data about individual people. Planning for a register of people affected by or exposed to an incident is one of the evolving tools in the public health preparedness and response arsenal. We compared and contrasted the instigation and design of health registers in the epidemiological response to major environmental health incidents in England, France, Italy, the Netherlands, and the United States. Consultation with experts from the 5 nations, supplemented with a review of gray and peer-reviewed scientific literature to identify examples where registers have been used. Populations affected by or at risk from major environmental health incidents in England, France, Italy, the Netherlands, and the United States. Nations were compared with respect to the (1) types of major incidents in their remit for considering a register; (2) arrangements for triggering a register; (3) approaches to design of register; (4) arrangements for register implementation; (5) uses of registers; and (6) examples of follow-up studies. Health registers have played a key role in the effective public health response to major environmental incidents, including sudden chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear, as well as natural, more prolonged incidents. Value has been demonstrated in the early and rapid deployment of health registers, enabling the capture of a representative population. The decision to establish a health register must ideally be confirmed immediately or soon after the incident using a set of agreed criteria. The establishment of protocols for the instigation, design, and implementation of health registers is recommended as part of preparedness activities. Key stakeholders must be
Henshaw, S K; Singh, S; Haas, T
Accurate measurement of induced abortion levels has proven difficult in many parts of the world. Health care workers and policymakers need information on the incidence of both legal and illegal induced abortion to provide the needed services and to reduce the negative impact of unsafe abortion on women's health. Numbers and rates of induced abortions were estimated from four sources: official statistics or other national data on legal abortions in 57 countries; estimates based on population surveys for two countries without official statistics; special studies for 10 countries where abortion is highly restricted; and worldwide and regional estimates of unsafe abortion from the World Health Organization. Approximately 26 million legal and 20 million illegal abortions were performed worldwide in 1995, resulting in a worldwide abortion rate of 35 per 1,000 women aged 15-44. Among the subregions of the world, Eastern Europe had the highest abortion rate (90 per 1,000) and Western Europe to the lowest rate (11 per 1,000). Among countries where abortion is legal without restriction as to reason, the highest abortion rate, 83 per 1,000, was reported for Vietnam and the lowest, seven per 1,000, for Belgium and the Netherlands. Abortion rates are no lower overall in areas where abortion is generally restricted by law (and where many abortions are performed under unsafe conditions) than in areas where abortion is legally permitted. Both developed and developing countries can have low abortion rates. Most countries, however, have moderate to high abortion rates, reflecting lower prevalence and effectiveness of contraceptive use. Stringent legal restrictions do not guarantee a low abortion rate.
This publication is a collection of abstracts of papers presented at the Indoor Air and Human Health symposium. Session titles include: Radon, Microorganisms, Passive Cigarette Smoke, Combustion Products, Organics, and Panel and Audience Discussion
This publication is a collection of abstracts of papers presented at the Indoor Air and Human Health symposium. Session titles include: Radon, Microorganisms, Passive Cigarette Smoke, Combustion Products, Organics, and Panel and Audience Discussion.
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examines the opinions of health professionals about the capacity and performance of the 'técnico de cirurgia', a surgically trained assistant medical officer in the Mozambican health system. Particular attention is paid to the views of medical doctors and maternal and child health nurses. Methods The results are derived from a qualitative study using both semi-structured interviews and group discussions. Health professionals (n = 71 were interviewed at both facility and system level. Eight group discussion sessions of about two hours each were run in eight rural hospitals with a total of 48 participants. Medical doctors and district officers were excluded from group discussion sessions due to their hierarchical position which could have prevented other workers from expressing opinions freely. Results Health workers at all levels voiced satisfaction with the work of the "técnicos de cirurgia". They stressed the life-saving skills of these cadres, the advantages resulting from a reduction in the need for patient referrals and the considerable cost reduction for patients and their families. Important problems in the professional status and remuneration of "técnicos de cirurgia" were identified. Conclusion This study, the first one to scrutinize the judgements and attitudes of health workers towards the "técnico de cirurgia", showed that, despite some shortcomings, this cadre is highly appreciated and that the health delivery system does not recognize and motivate them enough. The findings of this study can be used to direct efforts to improve motivation of health workers in general and of técnicos de cirurgia in particular.
Riley, Emily; Harris, Patrick; Kent, Jennifer; Sainsbury, Peter; Lane, Anna; Baum, Fran
Transport policy and practice impacts health. Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) are regulated public policy mechanisms that can be used to consider the health impacts of major transport projects before they are approved. The way health is considered in these environmental assessments (EAs) is not well known. This research asked: How and to what extent was human health considered in EAs of four major transport projects in Australia. We developed a comprehensive coding framework to analyse the Environmental Impact Statements (EISs) of four transport infrastructure projects: three road and one light rail. The coding framework was designed to capture how health was directly and indirectly included. We found that health was partially considered in all four EISs. In the three New South Wales (NSW) projects, but not the one South Australian project, this was influenced by the requirements issued to proponents by the government which directed the content of the EIS. Health was assessed using human health risk assessment (HHRA). We found this to be narrow in focus and revealed a need for a broader social determinants of health approach, using multiple methods. The road assessments emphasised air quality and noise risks, concluding these were minimal or predicted to improve. The South Australian project was the only road project not to include health data explicitly. The light rail EIS considered the health benefits of the project whereas the others focused on risk. Only one project considered mental health, although in less detail than air quality or noise. Our findings suggest EIAs lag behind the known evidence linking transport infrastructure to health. If health is to be comprehensively included, a more complete model of health is required, as well as a shift away from health risk assessment as the main method used. This needs to be mandatory for all significant developments. We also found that considering health only at the EIA stage may be a significant
Walsh, J.J.; Lenes, J.M.; Weisberg, R.H.; Zheng, L.; Hu, C.; Fanning, K.A.; Snyder, R.; Smith, J.
Reductions of zooplankton biomasses and grazing pressures were observed during overfishing-induced trophic cascades and concurrent oil spills at global scales. Recent phytoplankton increments followed, once Fe-, P-, and N-nutrient limitations of commensal diazotrophs and dinoflagellates were also eliminated by respective human desertification, deforestation, and eutrophication during climate changes. Si-limitation of diatoms instead ensued during these last anthropogenic perturbations of agricultural effluents and sewage loadings. Consequently, ~ 15% of total world-wide annual asthma trigger responses, i.e. amounting to ~ 45 million adjacent humans during 2004, resulted from brevetoxin and palytoxin poisons in aerosol forms of western boundary current origins. They were denoted by greater global harmful algal bloom [HAB] abundances and breathing attacks among sea-side children during prior decadal surveys of asthma prevalence, compiled here in ten paired shelf ecosystems of western and eutrophied boundary currents. Since 1965, such inferred onshore fluxes of aerosolized DOC poisons of HABs may have served as additional wind-borne organic carriers of toxic marine MeHg, phthalate, and DDT/DDE vectors, traced by radio-iodine isotopes to potentially elicit carcinomas. During these exchanges, as much as 40% of mercury poisonings may instead have been effected by inhalation of collateral HAB-carried marine neurotoxic aerosols of MeHg, not just from eating marine fish. Health impacts in some areas were additional asthma and pneumonia episodes, as well as endocrine disruptions among the same adjacent humans, with known large local rates of thyroid cancers, physician-diagnosed pulmonary problems, and ubiquitous high indices of mercury in hair, pesticides in breast milk, and phthalates in urine. - Highlights: • Oil spills, heavy metals, and overfishing decimated zooplankton grazers • Desert expansions and eutrophication concurrently fueled diazotrophs to set free
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a serious health problem and will be the second leading cause of burden of disease worldwide by 2030. To be able to prevent MDD, insight into risk factors for the onset of MDD is of clear importance. On the other hand, if onset of MDD has occurred, one may argue
Queiroz, Luiz Paulo
Studying the epidemiology of fibromyalgia (FM) is very important to understand the impact of this disorder on persons, families and society. The recent modified 2010 classification criteria of the American College of Rheumatology (ACR), without the need of tender points palpation, allows that larger and nationwide surveys may be done, worldwide. This article reviews the prevalence and incidence studies done in the general population, in several countries/continents, the prevalence of FM in special groups/settings, the association of FM with some sociodemographic characteristics of the population, and the comorbidity of FM with others disorders, especially with headaches.
Worldwide nuclear power (WNP) is a companion volume to UPDATE. Our objective in the publication of WNP is to provide factual information on nuclear power programs and policies in foreign countries to U.S. policymakers in the Federal Government who are instrumental in defining the direction of nuclear power in the U.S. WNP is prepared by the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Energy from reports obtained from foreign Embassies in Washington, U.S. Embassies overseas, foreign and domestic publications, participation in international studies, and personal communications. Domestic nuclear data is included only where its presence is needed to provide easy and immediate comparisons with foreign data
Worldwide electric energy production data are easy to compile, according to the informations given by individual countries. On the contrary, thermal applications of geothermics are difficult to quantify due to the variety of applications and the number of countries concerned. Exhaustive informations sometimes cannot be obtained from huge countries (China, Russia..) because of data centralization problems or not exploitable data transmission. Therefore, installed power data for geothermal heat production are given for 26 countries over the 57 that have answered the International Geothermal Association questionnaire. (J.S.). 1 fig., 2 tabs., 1 photo
Martin, Graham P; Carter, Pam; Dent, Mike
Objectives Calls for major reconfigurations of health services have been accompanied by recommendations that wide ranging stakeholders be involved. In particular, patients and the wider public are seen as critical contributors as both funders and beneficiaries of public health care. But public involvement is fraught with challenges, and little research has focused on involvement in the health service transformation initiatives. This paper examines the design and function of public involvement in reconfiguration of health services within the English NHS. Methods Qualitative data including interviews, observation and documents were collected in two health service 'transformation' programmes; interviews include involved public and professional participants. Data were analysed using parallel deductive and inductive approaches. Results Public involvement in the programmes was extensive but its terms of reference, and the individuals involved, were restricted by policy pressures and programme objectives. The degree to which participants descriptively or substantively represented the wider public was limited; participants sought to 'speak for' this public but their views on what was 'acceptable' and likely to influence decision-making led them to constrain their contributions. Conclusions Public involvement in two major service reconfiguration programmes in England was seen as important and functional, and could not be characterized as tokenistic. Yet involvement in these programmes fell short of normative ideals, and could inadvertently reduce, rather than enlarge, public influence on health service reconfiguration decisions.
Many observers have considered the Affordable Care Act (ACA) the most significant health care overhaul since Medicare, in the tradition of Great Society programs. And yet, in opinion polls, Americans across the political spectrum repeatedly express their strong support for Medicare, alongside their disapproval of the ACA. This feature of American public opinion is often seen as a contradiction and often explained as "incoherence," a mere feature of Americans' "muddled mind." In this article I argue that what explains this seeming contradiction is not any peculiarity of Americans' psychology but rather the grip of the corporate class on the political process and on key social institutions (e.g., mass media, judiciary), no less extraordinary today than in the past. I also argue that ordinary Americans, like millions of their counterparts in the world, would eagerly support a single-payer national health program that speaks to their interests rather than to those of the 1 percent. I will describe the ACA, compare it to Medicare, explain the concept of single payer, and conclude that the task is not to persuade presumably recalcitrant Americans to support the ACA but rather to organize a mass movement to struggle for what is right and join the rest of the world in the road toward health justice.
Worldwide Nuclear Power (WNP) is a companion volume to Update. Our objective in the publication of WNP is to provide factual information on nuclear power programs and policies in foreign countries to U.S. policymakers in the Federal Government. Facts about the status of nuclear activities abroad should be available to those who are instrumental in defining the direction of nuclear power in the U.S. WNP is prepared by the Office of Nuclear Energy from reports obtained from foreign embassies in Washington, U.S. Embassies overseas, foreign and domestic publications, participation in international studies, and personal communications. It consists of two types of information, tabular and narrative. Domestic nuclear data is included only where its presence is needed to provide easy and immediate comparisons with foreign data. In general, complete U.S. information will be found in Update
Tsan, Jack Y; Stock, Eileen M; Greenawalt, David S; Zeber, John E; Copeland, Laurel A
The purpose of this study was to examine mental health treatment use among Vietnam Veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder and determine whether undergoing major surgery interrupted mental health treatment or increased the risk of psychiatric hospitalization. Using retrospective data from Veterans Health Administration's electronic medical record system, a total of 3320 Vietnam-era surgery patients with preoperative posttraumatic stress disorder were identified and matched 1:4 with non-surgical patients with posttraumatic stress disorder. The receipt of surgery was associated with a decline in overall mental health treatment and posttraumatic stress disorder-specific treatment 1 month following surgery but not during any subsequent month thereafter. Additionally, surgery was not associated with psychiatric admission. © The Author(s) 2014.
Lavoie-Tremblay, Mélanie; Aubry, Monique; Cyr, Guylaine; Richer, Marie-Claire; Fortin-Verreault, Jean-François; Fortin, Claude; Marchionni, Caroline
To explore the characteristics that influence project management offices acceptance and adoption in healthcare sector. The creation of project management offices has been suggested as a promising avenue to promote successful organisational change and facilitate evidence-based practice. However, little is known about the characteristics that promote their initial adoption and acceptance in health care sector. This knowledge is important in the context where many organisations are considering implementing project management offices with nurse managers as leaders. A descriptive multiple case study design was used. The unit of analysis was the project management offices. The study was conducted in three university-affiliated teaching hospitals in 2013-14 (Canada). Individual interviews (n = 34) were conducted with senior managers. Results reveal that project management offices dedicated to project and change management constitute an innovation and an added value that addresses tangible needs in the field. Project management offices are an innovation highly compatible with health care managers and their approach has parallels to the process of clinical problem solving and reasoning well-known to adopters. This knowledge is important in a context where many nurses hold various roles in project management offices, such as Director, project manager, clinical expert and knowledge broker. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Shawyer, Frances; Enticott, Joanne C; Özmen, Mehmet; Inder, Brett; Meadows, Graham N
While mindfulness-based cognitive therapy is effective in reducing depressive relapse/recurrence, relatively little is known about its health economic properties. We describe the health economic properties of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy in relation to its impact on depressive relapse/recurrence over 2 years of follow-up. Non-depressed adults with a history of three or more major depressive episodes were randomised to mindfulness-based cognitive therapy + depressive relapse active monitoring (n = 101) or control (depressive relapse active monitoring alone) (n = 102) and followed up for 2 years. Structured self-report instruments for service use and absenteeism provided cost data items for health economic analyses. Treatment utility, expressed as disability-adjusted life years, was calculated by adjusting the number of days an individual was depressed by the relevant International Classification of Diseases 12-month severity of depression disability weight from the Global Burden of Disease 2010. Intention-to-treat analysis assessed the incremental cost-utility ratios of the interventions across mental health care, all of health-care and whole-of-society perspectives. Per protocol and site of usual care subgroup analyses were also conducted. Probabilistic uncertainty analysis was completed using cost-utility acceptability curves. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy participants had significantly less major depressive episode days compared to controls, as supported by the differential distributions of major depressive episode days (modelled as Poisson, p cognitive therapy group compared to controls, e.g., 31 and 55 days, respectively. From a whole-of-society perspective, analyses of patients receiving usual care from all sectors of the health-care system demonstrated dominance (reduced costs, demonstrable health gains). From a mental health-care perspective, the incremental gain per disability-adjusted life year for mindfulness
Adams, Richard E; Boscarino, Joseph A
A number of studies have assessed the association between acculturation and psychological outcomes following a traumatic event. Some suggest that low acculturation is associated with poorer health outcomes, while others show no differences or that low acculturation is associated with better outcomes. One year after the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center, we surveyed a multi-ethnic population of New York City adults (N= 2,368). We assessed posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depression, panic attack, anxiety symptoms, and general physical and mental health status. We classified study respondents into "low," "moderate," or "high" acculturation, based on survey responses. Bivariate results indicated that low acculturation individuals were more likely to experience negative life events, have low social support, and less likely to have pre-disaster mental health disorders. Those in the low acculturation group were also more likely to experience post-disaster perievent panic attacks, have higher anxiety, and have poorer mental health status. However, using logistic regression to control for confounding, and adjusting for multiple comparisons, we found that none of these outcomes were associated with acculturation status. Thus, our study suggests that acculturation was not associated with mental health outcomes following a major traumatic event.
Full Text Available Purpose: to reveal the current condition of medical equipment in Bulgaria related to those major groups of socially significant diseases and to make an attempt to define guidelines for its optimization in view of improving the functioning and management of the healthcare system in this field. Material and methods: The following research methods have been applied: 1. Document review method – research, processing and analysis of medical statistical information taken from data from WHO and annual reports of NRA. The study includes data from 2009 - 2015. 2. Graphical method – summarizing data in relevant tables and diagram presentations. Results: The article analyzes the condition of medical equipment in the field of oncologic and cardiologic medical aid in Bulgaria based on data taken from WHO (World Health Organization and annual reports of NRA (Nuclear Regulatory Agency. Six types of diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy devices have been studied: Magnetic Resonance Imaging units (MRI; Computed Tomography Scanners (CT, Positron Emission Tomography Scanners, Mammographs, Linear accelerators and Telecobalt units (Cobalt-60. The condition of medical equipment since 2009 has been analyzed, results have been reported and trends - studied. Conclusion: The oncologic and cardiologic medical equipment in Bulgaria has been gradually improving in the last seven years, but quantitative indicators regarding the devices studied are still far away from the figures recommended by WHO with one single exception, i.e. Computed Tomography Scanners.
Amutah-Onukagha, Ndidiamaka N; Doamekpor, Lauren A; Gardner, Michelle
Black women disproportionately share the distribution of risk factors for physical and mental illnesses. The goal of this study was to examine the sociodemographic and health correlates of major depressive disorder (MDD) symptoms among black women. Pooled data from the 2005-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used to assess the sociodemographic and health correlates of MDD symptoms among black women (n = 227). Multivariate logistic regression techniques assessed the association between MDD symptoms and age, socioeconomic status, health status, and health behaviors. Poverty income ratio and smoking status were significantly associated with the likelihood of having MDD symptoms. Black women who were smokers were also more likely to have MDD symptoms compared to non-smokers [OR = 8.05, 95% CI = (4.56, 14.23)]. After controlling for all other socioeconomic and health variables, this association remained statistically significant. In addition, after controlling for all other variables, the multivariate analyses showed that black women below 299% federal poverty level (FPL) were nearly three times more likely to have MDD symptoms compared to women above 300% FPL [OR = 2.82, 95% CI = (1.02, 7.96)]. These analyses suggest that poverty and smoking status are associated with MDD symptoms among black women. A deeper understanding of the underlying mechanisms and key factors which influence MDD symptoms are needed in order to develop and create mental health programs targeting women of color.
Adams, Richard E.; Boscarino, Joseph A.
A number of studies have assessed the association between acculturation and psychological outcomes following a traumatic event. Some suggest that low acculturation is associated with poorer health outcomes, while others show no differences or that low acculturation is associated with better outcomes. One year after the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center, we surveyed a multi-ethnic population of New York City adults (N=2,368). We assessed posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major de...
This Greenpeace report shows: nuclear materials transport is an extremely hazardous business. There is no safe protection against accidents, kidnapping, or sabotage. Any moment of a day, at any place, a nuclear transport accident may bring the world to disaster, releasing plutonium or radioactive fission products to the environment. Such an event is not less probable than the MCA at Chernobyl. The author of the book in hand follows the secret track of radioactive materials around the world, from uranium mines to the nuclear power plants, from reprocessing facilities to the waste repositories. He explores the routes of transport and the risks involved, he gives the names of transport firms and discloses incidents and carelessness, tells about damaged waste drums and plutonium that 'disappeared'. He also tells about worldwide, organised resistance to such nuclear transports, explaining the Greenpeace missions on the open sea, or the 'day X' operation at the Gorleben site, informing the reader about protests and actions for a world freed from the threat of nuclear energy. (orig./HP) [de
Aviv M. Weinstein
Full Text Available As part of an increasing worldwide use of designer drugs, recent use of compounds containing cathinones and synthetic cannabinoids is especially prevalent. Here, we reviewed current literature on the prevalence, epidemiology, bio-behavioral effects, and detection of these compounds. Gender differences and clinical effects will also be examined. Chronic use of synthetic cathinone compounds can have major effects on the central nervous system and can induce acute psychosis, hypomania, paranoid ideation, and delusions, similar to the effects of other better-known amphetamine-type stimulants. Synthetic cannabinoid products have effects that are somewhat similar to those of natural cannabis but more potent and long-lasting than THC. Some of these compounds are potent and dangerous, having been linked to psychosis, mania, and suicidal ideation. Novel compounds are developed rapidly and new screening techniques are needed to detect them as well as a rigorous regulation and legislation reinforcement to prevent their distribution and use. Given the rapid increase in the use of synthetic cathinones and cannabinoid designer drugs, their potential for dependence and abuse, and harmful medical and psychiatric effects, there is a need for research and education in the areas of prevention and treatment.
Henry I Z Requejo
Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is the worldwide disseminated causative agent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. HIV is a member of the Lentivirus genus of Retroviridae family and is grouped in two types named HIV-1 and HIV-2. These viruses have a notable ability to mutate and adapt to the new conditions of human environment. A large incidence of errors at the transcriptional level results in changes on the genetic bases during the reproductive cycle. The elevated genomic variability of HIV has carried important implications for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention as well as epidemiologic investigations. The present review describes important definitions and geographical distribution of subtypes, circulating recombinant forms and other genomic variations of HIV. The present study aimed at leading students of Biomedical Sciences and public health laboratory staff guidance to general and specific knowledge about the genomic variability of the HIV.
Kim, Harris Hyun-soo
Much evidence suggests that social capital (e.g. networks, trust, organizational memberships) has a significant effect on self-reported health. Previous research, however, has focused primarily on Western countries. The current research seeks to remedy this problem by investigating the association between multiple social capital indicators and subjective health in a novel empirical setting. The data come from the Comparative Values Survey of Islamic Countries (1999-2006) which consists of probabilistic samples from Muslim majority nations. Three-way multilevel analysis is used to examine the social determinants of health. Statistical results from hierarchical linear modeling shows that frequent contact with strong and intermediate ties (i.e. family members and friends, respectively) is significant, while interaction with weak ties (coworkers) has no association. General trust and trust in the central government are also significantly related to subjective health, as is trust in religious authority, albeit in an inverse way. This study calls for a more contingent view of the relationship between social capital and self-reported health. Future research needs to take this into consideration in hypothesizing and testing the potential health benefits of social capital.
Gill, A Malcolm; Stephens, Scott L; Cary, Geoffrey J
The worldwide "wildfire" problem is headlined by the loss of human lives and homes, but it applies generally to any adverse effects of unplanned fires, as events or regimes, on a wide range of environmental, social, and economic assets. The problem is complex and contingent, requiring continual attention to the changing circumstances of stakeholders, landscapes, and ecosystems; it occurs at a variety of temporal and spatial scales. Minimizing adverse outcomes involves controlling fires and fire regimes, increasing the resistance of assets to fires, locating or relocating assets away from the path of fires, and, as a probability of adverse impacts often remains, assisting recovery in the short-term while promoting the adaptation of societies in the long-term. There are short- and long-term aspects to each aspect of minimization. Controlling fires and fire regimes may involve fire suppression and fuel treatments such as prescribed burning or non-fire treatments but also addresses issues associated with unwanted fire starts like arson. Increasing the resistance of assets can mean addressing the design and construction materials of a house or the use of personal protective equipment. Locating or relocating assets can mean leaving an area about to be impacted by fire or choosing a suitable place to live; it can also mean the planning of land use. Assisting recovery and promoting adaptation can involve insuring assets and sharing responsibility for preparedness for an event. There is no single, simple, solution. Perverse outcomes can occur. The number of minimizing techniques used, and the breadth and depth of their application, depends on the geographic mix of asset types. Premises for policy consideration are presented.
Singh, Gopal K; Daus, Gem P; Allender, Michelle; Ramey, Christine T; Martin, Elijah K; Perry, Chrisp; Reyes, Andrew A De Los; Vedamuthu, Ivy P
This study describes key population health concepts and examines major empirical trends in US health and healthcare inequalities from 1935 to 2016 according to important social determinants such as race/ethnicity, education, income, poverty, area deprivation, unemployment, housing, rural-urban residence, and geographic location. Long-term trend data from the National Vital Statistics System, National Health Interview Survey, National Survey of Children's Health, American Community Survey, and Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were used to examine racial/ethnic, socioeconomic, rural-urban, and geographic inequalities in health and health care. Life tables, age-adjusted rates, prevalence, and risk ratios were used to examine health differentials, which were tested for statistical significance at the 0.05 level. Life expectancy of Americans increased from 69.7 years in 1950 to 78.8 years in 2015. However, despite the overall improvement, substantial gender and racial/ethnic disparities remained. In 2015, life expectancy was highest for Asian/Pacific Islanders (87.7 years) and lowest for African-Americans (75.7 years). Life expectancy was lower in rural areas and varied from 74.5 years for men in rural areas to 82.4 years for women in large metro areas, with rural-urban disparities increasing during the 1990-2014 time period. Infant mortality rates declined dramatically during the past eight decades. However, racial disparities widened over time; in 2015, black infants had 2.3 times higher mortality than white infants (11.4 vs. 4.9 per 1,000 live births). Infant and child mortality was markedly higher in rural areas and poor communities. Black infants and children in poor, rural communities had nearly three times higher mortality rate compared to those in affluent, rural areas. Racial/ethnic, socioeconomic, and geographic disparities were particularly marked in mortality and/or morbidity from cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, COPD, HIV/AIDS, homicide
health services than among those who had visited clinics during pregnancy . According to Dr. Standfield of AMREF. there were two ways of preventing...Olu Akin- yanju lamented that Nigeria leads the world with a yearly child-birth rate of 80,420 sickle cell anaemia carriers followed by Zaire...Affected animals develop anaemia , become weak and lose weight. Besides, breeding ani- mals may abort or become infer- tile and may die.. In man, the
A table showing the current status of abortion in the world based on two recent and detailed studies is presented. Countries are categorized according to whether they totally prohibit abortion, permit it to save the mother's life, permit it to preserve her physical health or mental health, permit it for maternal socioeconomic reasons, or provide it at the mother's request. The countries are grouped into 5 geographic areas: America and the Caribbean; Central Asia, Middle East, and North Africa; East and South Asia and the Pacific; Europe; sub-Saharan Africa. The trend toward liberalization of laws is clear. The development of abortion laws is moving in the direction of complete legalization, that is, the creation of health norms that facilitate abortion for all women, with guarantees of medical safety. There are still countries that move to restrict access to abortion, and in a few cases, such as Colombia and Poland, legalization and prohibition have alternated depending on the social and political circumstances of the moment. In the past 12 years, 28 countries liberalized their laws in some way, while 4 countries with close ties to the Vatican restricted or prohibited access.
MacGregor, Hayley; Bloom, Gerald
This paper discusses health policy and systems research in complex and rapidly changing contexts. It focuses on ethical issues at stake for researchers working with government policy makers to provide evidence to inform major health systems change at scale, particularly when the dynamic nature of the context and ongoing challenges to the health system can result in unpredictable outcomes. We focus on situations where 'country ownership' of HSR is relatively well established and where there is significant involvement of local researchers and close ties and relationships with policy makers are often present. We frame our discussion around two country case studies with which we are familiar, namely China and South Africa and discuss the implications for conducting 'embedded' research. We suggest that reflexivity is an important concept for health system researchers who need to think carefully about positionality and their normative stance and to use such reflection to ensure that they can negotiate to retain autonomy, whilst also contributing evidence for health system change. A research process informed by the notion of reflexive practice and iterative learning will require a longitudinal review at key points in the research timeline. Such review should include the convening of a deliberative process and should involve a range of stakeholders, including those most likely to be affected by the intended and unintended consequences of change. © 2016 The Authors Developing World Bioethics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Enevoldsen, Carsten; Sørensen, J.T.
Four, 7-, and 10-wk dry periods were randomly assigned to 366 dairy cows in eight herds. A multiple polytomous logistic regression analysis was conducted with the objective to reveal possible important effects of the dry period on the risk of contracting major clinical health disorders. Several...... complex statistical interactions were revealed. Complications around and after drying off occurred least frequently at 7-wk dry periods. There was little evidence of an effect of the dry period on the risk of clinical mastitis and other severe clinical disorders around and after calving. With short...... like milk yield at drying off and previous mastitis are much more important predisposing factors....
Gunn, John S; Ledford, Cynthia H; Mousetes, Steven J; Grever, Michael R
Many students entering professional degree programs, particularly M.D., Ph.D., and M.D./Ph.D., are not well prepared regarding the breadth of scientific knowledge required, communication skills, research experience, reading and understanding the scientific literature, and significant shadowing (for M.D.-related professions). In addition, physician scientists are a needed and necessary part of the academic research environment but are dwindling in numbers. In response to predictions of critical shortages of clinician investigators and the lack of proper preparation as undergraduates for these professions, the Biomedical Science (BMS) undergraduate major was created at The Ohio State University to attract incoming college freshmen with interests in scientific research and the healthcare professions. The intent of this major was to graduate an elite cohort of highly talented individuals who would pursue careers in the healthcare professions, biomedical research, or both. Students were admitted to the BMS major through an application and interview process. Admitted cohorts were small, comprising 22 to 26 students, and received a high degree of individualized professional academic advising and mentoring. The curriculum included a minimum of 4 semesters (or 2 years) of supervised research experience designed to enable students to gain skills in clinical and basic science investigation. In addition to covering the prerequisites for medicine and advanced degrees in health professions, the integrated BMS coursework emphasized research literacy as well as skills related to work as a healthcare professional, with additional emphasis on independent learning, teamwork to solve complex problems, and both oral and written communication skills. Supported by Ohio State's Department of Internal Medicine, a unique clinical internship provided selected students with insights into potential careers as physician scientists. In this educational case report, we describe the BMS
Full Text Available Background Previous studies on diet have primarily focused on individual nutrients or foods. Recently, the analysis of dietary patterns has emerged as a possible approach for examining food consumption. A literature review revealed no studies of dietary patterns in elderly Iranians. Objectives Our objective was to identify the major dietary intake patterns among the elderly in the health homes located in Zone 5 of Tehran city, Iran. Patients and Methods In this cross-sectional study (descriptive, 368 elderly people (≥ 60 years old were randomly selected. Their usual dietary intake during the past year was assessed using a 168-item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Major food patterns were derived using factor analysis after the classification of food items into 26 groups. Results Four major dietary patterns were identified in the studied population: 1 healthy pattern, characterized by a higher intake of vegetables, tomato and tomato sauce, vegetable oil, olive, and fruits; 2 unhealthy pattern, characterized by a higher intake of red meat, fast food, snacks, sugar, honey and jam, soft drinks, and high-fat dairy products; 3. traditional pattern characterized by intake of whole grains, hydrogenated oil and animal fat, beans, salt, and pickles; and 4 protein-rich pattern, characterized by intake of chicken and poultry, fish, grains, and organ meats. These four major dietary patterns explained 16.3%, 7.5%, 6.7%, and 5.7% of the total variance, respectively. Conclusions Four major dietary patterns were identified in the present studied population that can be used to provide tangible dietary advice for the elderly.
Cao, Yuping; Li, Wen; Shen, Jingjin; Malison, Robert T; Zhang, Yalin; Luo, Xingguang
Patients suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD) have been reported to have substantial long-lasting limitations in multiple domains of health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The thoughtful assessment of HRQoL and the impact of treatment response on HRQoL are emerging as important issues in the care of patients with major depressive disorder. One hundred and three patients meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) criteria for MDD took fluoxetine (20 mg/d) for 6 weeks and were assessed by the Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36), the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating (HAMD-17) and the Clinical Global Impression (CGI) scales. Relationships between SF-36 scores and depressive symptom severity and early change of these symptoms were tested. SF-36 component scores at week 6 were higher than those at baseline (all P ≤ 0.0058). Scores for general health were significantly higher in responders than non-responders (P = 0.0009). The overall HAMD-17 and CGI scores at 2- and 6-week follow-up were significantly lower than those at baseline (P ≤ 0.0001). Higher scores for anxiety/somatization were significantly associated with poorer SF-36 scores at baseline (P = 0.0001); role-physical scores at week 6 were positively correlated with reduction rate of anxiety/somatization in 2-week follow-up (P = 0.0002). Depressive symptom severity was associated with HRQoL in patients with MDD. HRQoL may vary with severity of depression and/or anxiety-somatization at baseline. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Schaefer, A [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Center for Technology, Policy and Industrial Development and the MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, Cambridge, MA (United States)
Existing methods are inadequate for developing aggregate (regional and global) and long-term (several decades) passenger transport demand scenarios, since they are mainly based on simple extensions of current patterns rather than causal relationships that account for the competition among transport modes (aircraft, automobiles, buses and trains) to provide transport services. The demand scenario presented in this paper is based on two empirically proven invariances of human behavior. First, transport accounts for 10 to 15 percent of household total expenditures for those owning an automobile, and around 5 percent for non-motorized households on average (travel money budget). Second, the mean time spent traveling is approximately one hour per capita per day (travel time budget). These two budgets constraints determine the dynamics of the scenario: rising income increases per capita expenditure on travel which, in turn, increase demand for mobility. Limited travel time constraints travelers to shift to faster transport systems. The scenario is initiated with the first integrated historical data set on traffic volume in 11 world regions and the globe from 1960 to 1990 for all major modes of motorized transport. World average per capita traffic volume, which was 1,800 kilometers in 1960 and 4,2090 in 1990, is estimated to rise to 7,900 kilometers in 2020 - given a modest average increase in Gross World Product of 1.9% per year. Higher economic growth rates in Asian regions result in an increase in regional per capita traffic volume up to a factor of 5.3 from 1990 levels. Modal splits continue shifting to more flexible and faster modes of transport. At one point, passenger cars can no longer satisfy the increasing demand for speed (i.e. rising mobility within a fixed time budget). In North America it is estimated that the absolute traffic volume of automobiles will gradually decline starting in the 2010s. (author) 13 figs., 6 tabs., 35 refs.
Dauwe, Tom; Janssens, Ellen; Eens, Marcel
We examined the possible effects of heavy metal exposure on the quality and health of adult great tits (Parus major) at four study sites along a pollution gradient near a non-ferrous smelter in Belgium. Tarsus length, wing length, body mass and condition of great tits were compared with respect to study site, age (first-year and older great tits), sex and season (birds caught in winter and during breeding). Tarsus length did not differ significantly among study sites. The wing length of great tits was larger at the study site furthest from the smelter, especially for older great tits. The length of the outermost tail feathers, however, did not differ significantly among study sites. We found no signs of loss of body mass or condition towards the pollution source. The body mass and condition was lowest for female great tits at the site furthest from the smelter, especially during winter. Haematocrit values did not differ significantly among sites. Overall, we found no clear significant effects of heavy metal pollution on morphological measurements and health parameters of great tits. - Heavy metal pollution had no clear effect on condition and health, but this may have been masked by habitat quality differences and gene flow
Vataire, Anne-Lise; Aballéa, Samuel; Antonanzas, Fernando; Roijen, Leona Hakkaart-van; Lam, Raymond W; McCrone, Paul; Persson, Ulf; Toumi, Mondher
A review of existing economic models in major depressive disorder (MDD) highlighted the need for models with longer time horizons that also account for heterogeneity in treatment pathways between patients. A core discrete event simulation model was developed to estimate health and cost outcomes associated with alternative treatment strategies. This model simulated short- and long-term clinical events (partial response, remission, relapse, recovery, and recurrence), adverse events, and treatment changes (titration, switch, addition, and discontinuation) over up to 5 years. Several treatment pathways were defined on the basis of fictitious antidepressants with three levels of efficacy, tolerability, and price (low, medium, and high) from first line to third line. The model was populated with input data from the literature for the UK setting. Model outputs include time in different health states, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and costs from National Health Service and societal perspectives. The codes are open source. Predicted costs and QALYs from this model are within the range of results from previous economic evaluations. The largest cost components from the payer perspective were physician visits and hospitalizations. Key parameters driving the predicted costs and QALYs were utility values, effectiveness, and frequency of physician visits. Differences in QALYs and costs between two strategies with different effectiveness increased approximately twofold when the time horizon increased from 1 to 5 years. The discrete event simulation model can provide a more comprehensive evaluation of different therapeutic options in MDD, compared with existing Markov models, and can be used to compare a wide range of health care technologies in various groups of patients with MDD. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Global rates of foreshock occurrence involving shallow M ??? 6 and M ??? 7 mainshocks and M ??? 5 foreshocks were measured, using earthquakes listed in the Harvard CMT catalog for the period 1978-1996. These rates are similar to rates ones measured in previous worldwide and regional studies when they are normalized for the ranges of magnitude difference they each span. The observed worldwide rates were compared to a generic model of earthquake clustering, which is based on patterns of small and moderate aftershocks in California, and were found to exceed the California model by a factor of approximately 2. Significant differences in foreshock rate were found among subsets of earthquakes defined by their focal mechanism and tectonic region, with the rate before thrust events higher and the rate before strike-slip events lower than the worldwide average. Among the thrust events a large majority, composed of events located in shallow subduction zones, registered a high foreshock rate, while a minority, located in continental thrust belts, measured a low rate. These differences may explain why previous surveys have revealed low foreshock rates among thrust events in California (especially southern California), while the worldwide observations suggest the opposite: California, lacking an active subduction zone in most of its territory, and including a region of mountain-building thrusts in the south, reflects the low rate apparently typical for continental thrusts, while the worldwide observations, dominated by shallow subduction zone events, are foreshock-rich.
Electron accelerator is an important radiation source for radiation technology, which covers broad fields such as industry, health care, food and environmental protection. There are about 1,000 electron accelerators for radiation processing worldwide. Electron accelerator has advantage over Co-60 irradiator in term of high dose rate and power, assurance of safety, and higher economic performance at larger volume of irradiation. Accelerator generating higher energy in the range of 10 MeV and high power electron beam is now commercially available. There is a trend to use high-energy electron accelerator replacing Co-60 in case of large through-put of medical products. Irradiated foods, in particular species, are on the commercial market in 35 countries. Electron accelerator is used efficiently and economically for production of new or modified polymeric materials through radiation-induced cross-linking, grafting and polymerization reaction. Another important application of electron beam is the curing of surface coatings in the manufacture of products. Electron accelerators of large capacity are used for cleaning exhaust gases in industrial scale. Economic feasibility studies of this electron beam process have shown that this technology is more cost effective than the conventional process. It should be noted that the conventional limestone process produce gypsum as a by-product, which cannot be used in some countries. By contrast, the by-product of the electron beam process is a valuable fertilizer. (Y. Tanaka)
Machi, Sueo [Japan Atomic Industrial Forum, Inc., Tokyo (Japan)
Electron accelerator is an important radiation source for radiation technology, which covers broad fields such as industry, health care, food and environmental protection. There are about 1,000 electron accelerators for radiation processing worldwide. Electron accelerator has advantage over Co-60 irradiator in term of high dose rate and power, assurance of safety, and higher economic performance at larger volume of irradiation. Accelerator generating higher energy in the range of 10 MeV and high power electron beam is now commercially available. There is a trend to use high-energy electron accelerator replacing Co-60 in case of large through-put of medical products. Irradiated foods, in particular species, are on the commercial market in 35 countries. Electron accelerator is used efficiently and economically for production of new or modified polymeric materials through radiation-induced cross-linking, grafting and polymerization reaction. Another important application of electron beam is the curing of surface coatings in the manufacture of products. Electron accelerators of large capacity are used for cleaning exhaust gases in industrial scale. Economic feasibility studies of this electron beam process have shown that this technology is more cost effective than the conventional process. It should be noted that the conventional limestone process produce gypsum as a by-product, which cannot be used in some countries. By contrast, the by-product of the electron beam process is a valuable fertilizer. (Y. Tanaka)
Aahlin, E K; Tranø, G; Johns, N; Horn, A; Søreide, J A; Fearon, K C; Revhaug, A; Lassen, K
Major upper abdominal surgery is often associated with reduced health-related quality of life and reduced survival. Patients with upper abdominal malignancies often suffer from cachexia, represented by preoperative weight loss and sarcopenia (low skeletal muscle mass) and this might affect both health-related quality of life and survival. We aimed to investigate how health-related quality of life is affected by cachexia and how health-related quality of life relates to long-term survival after major upper abdominal surgery. From 2001 to 2006, 447 patients were included in a Norwegian multicenter randomized controlled trial in major upper abdominal surgery. In this study, six years later, these patients were analyzed as a single prospective cohort and survival data were retrieved from the National Population Registry. Cachexia was derived from patient-reported preoperative weight loss and sarcopenia as assessed from computed tomography images taken within three months preoperatively. In the original trial, self-reported health-related quality of life was assessed preoperatively at trial enrollment and eight weeks postoperatively with the health-related quality of life questionnaire Short Form 36. A majority of the patients experienced improved mental health-related quality of life and, to a lesser extent, deteriorated physical health-related quality of life following surgery. There was a significant association between preoperative weight loss and reduced physical health-related quality of life. No association between sarcopenia and health-related quality of life was observed. Overall survival was significantly associated with physical health-related quality of life both pre- and postoperatively, and with postoperative mental health-related quality of life. The association between health-related quality of life and survival was particularly strong for postoperative physical health-related quality of life. Postoperative physical health-related quality of life
Full Text Available Most analyses of risks to health focus on the total burden of their aggregate effects. The distribution of risk-factor-attributable disease burden, for example by age or exposure level, can inform the selection and targeting of specific interventions and programs, and increase cost-effectiveness.For 26 selected risk factors, expert working groups conducted comprehensive reviews of data on risk-factor exposure and hazard for 14 epidemiological subregions of the world, by age and sex. Age-sex-subregion-population attributable fractions were estimated and applied to the mortality and burden of disease estimates from the World Health Organization Global Burden of Disease database. Where possible, exposure levels were assessed as continuous measures, or as multiple categories. The proportion of risk-factor-attributable burden in different population subgroups, defined by age, sex, and exposure level, was estimated. For major cardiovascular risk factors (blood pressure, cholesterol, tobacco use, fruit and vegetable intake, body mass index, and physical inactivity 43%-61% of attributable disease burden occurred between the ages of 15 and 59 y, and 87% of alcohol-attributable burden occurred in this age group. Most of the disease burden for continuous risks occurred in those with only moderately raised levels, not among those with levels above commonly used cut-points, such as those with hypertension or obesity. Of all disease burden attributable to being underweight during childhood, 55% occurred among children 1-3 standard deviations below the reference population median, and the remainder occurred among severely malnourished children, who were three or more standard deviations below median.Many major global risks are widely spread in a population, rather than restricted to a minority. Population-based strategies that seek to shift the whole distribution of risk factors often have the potential to produce substantial reductions in disease burden.
Setting priorities for zinc-related health research to reduce children's disease burden worldwide: an application of the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative's research priority-setting method.
Brown, Kenneth H; Hess, Sonja Y; Boy, Erick; Gibson, Rosalind S; Horton, Susan; Osendarp, Saskia J; Sempertegui, Fernando; Shrimpton, Roger; Rudan, Igor
To make the best use of limited resources for supporting health-related research to reduce child mortality, it is necessary to apply a suitable method to rank competing research options. The Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI) developed a new methodology for setting health research priorities. To broaden experience with this priority-setting technique, we applied the method to rank possible research priorities concerning the control of Zn deficiency. Although Zn deficiency is not generally recognized as a direct cause of child mortality, recent research indicates that it predisposes children to an increased incidence and severity of several of the major direct causes of morbidity and mortality. Leading experts in the field of Zn research in child health were identified and invited to participate in a technical working group (TWG) to establish research priorities. The individuals were chosen to represent a wide range of expertise in Zn nutrition. The seven TWG members submitted a total of ninety research options, which were then consolidated into a final list of thirty-one research options categorized by the type of resulting intervention. The identified priorities were dominated by research investment options targeting Zn supplementation, and were followed by research on Zn fortification, general aspects of Zn nutrition, dietary modification and other new interventions. In general, research options that aim to improve the efficiency of an already existing intervention strategy received higher priority scores. Challenges identified during the implementation of the methodology and suggestions to modify the priority-setting procedures are discussed.
Roeder, A [ABB Asea Brown Boveri Ltd., Zurich (Switzerland)
One third of primary energy consumption is today being used to generate electrical power. The author discusses with the aid of statistics and diagrams, the various uses of energy, and the per capita energy consumption throughout the world. He considers that future demand for power depends to a large extent on GNP but also on fuel prices and reserves, energy policies and environmental concerns. On balance, these will lead to the introduction of clean coal technologies and a renaissance of nuclear power stations in the near future but until then gas-fired power plant will continue to play a dominant role in meeting power demands. 9 figs., 8 tabs.
Crits-Christoph, Paul; Gallop, Robert; Diehl, Caroline K; Yin, Seohyun; Gibbons, Mary Beth Connolly
This study examined the relation of change in theory-relevant cognitive variables to depressive symptom change over the course of cognitive therapy, as well as the specificity of change mechanisms to cognitive therapy as compared with dynamic therapy. There were 237 adult outpatients who were randomized to either cognitive (n = 119) or dynamic (n = 118) therapy for major depressive disorder in a community mental health setting. Assessments of compensatory skills (Ways of Responding Community Version and Self-Report Version), dysfunctional attitudes (Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale), and depressogenic schemas (Psychological Distance Scaling Task) were obtained at baseline and months 1, 2, and 5 following baseline. Primary outcome was measured using the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. Across both therapy conditions, change in all 3 cognitive domains was associated with concurrent change in depressive symptoms. After controlling for other cognitive variables, increased interconnectedness of the positive achievement-related schema was significantly associated with concurrent symptom change in cognitive (rp = .26, p therapy (rp = .08, p = .29). Increases in positive compensatory skills were associated with subsequent change in depressive symptoms in cognitive therapy (rp = -.36, p = .003), but not in dynamic therapy (rp = .11, p = .386). Results provide support for the compensatory skills model of cognitive therapy (CT) within a community mental health setting. Additional research is necessary to understand other possible mechanisms of change in CT in the community setting. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Saeed, Lamya M.; Majeed, Vian O.
Thalassemias are a heterogeneous group of genetic disorders characterized by hypochromic microcytic anemia that caused by deficient synthesis of one or more of globin subunits of human hemoglobin. This study has been conducted in the Northern part of Iraq among 238 subjects having β-thalassemia major (BTM). To evaluate their oral health status, dentofacial anomalies of patients who attended the Thalassemic center in Erbil city, were compared to 258 subjects of a control group according to the criteria suggested by the WHO in 1997, which is used to assess permanent teeth. Only 8.51% of the total study group demonstrated crowding of anterior teeth in one or both segments compared to the control group. Spacing in the incisal segments was higher, namely 19.23% in BTM compared to13.6% in the control group with a statistically significant difference (p<0.05). A higher percentage of both study and control groups were having an overbite grade (0.3-5.0 mm) of 49.59%, and 56.81%, respectively. It was found that the distal deviation from the normal anteroposterior molar relation in BTM was higher compared to the control group. Nearly similar percentages of patients were found to have an over jet grade(0.0-3.5 mm). Values of plaque and gingival health indices were recorded to be higher among the study group (plaque index = 1.570, ∓0.321 and gingival index = 1.205, ∓0.308). Differences were statistically highly significant for all indices (p<0.01). This may indicate that there is a negative attitude and poor dental knowledge of thalassemic subjects and their parents toward proper oral hygiene and dental health.
Sunstein, Cass R.; Reisch, Lucia A.; Rauber, Julius
diverse countries, investigating what people actually think about nudges and nudging. The study covers Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Japan, Russia, South Africa, and South Korea. Generally, we find strong majority support for nudges in all countries, with the important exception of Japan......, and with spectacularly high approval rates in China and South Korea. We connect the findings here to earlier studies involving Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Our primary conclusion is that while citizens generally approve of health and safety nudges, the nations...
Webcasts, and generic Web tools such as CMS-TV for broadcasting live monitoring and outreach information. Being Web-based and experiment-independent, these systems could easily be extended to other organizations. We describe the experiences of using CMS Centres Worldwide in the CMS data-taking operations as well as for major media events with several hundred TV channels, radio stations, and many more press journalists simultaneously around the world.
This report covers activity in the electric power industry worldwide. The report is divided into three sections: Asia; Europe, Middle East, and Africa; and the Americas. The topics of the articles include major expansion programs for the primary power generating options, selected plant profiles; effect of the availability of natural gas on plans for coal-fired plants; and the pioneering of technologies in North America
High energy physics experiments in future colliders are inevitably large scale international collaborations. In these experiments, software development has to be done by a large number of physicists, software engineers and computer scientists, dispersed all over the world. The major subject of this paper is to discuss on various aspects of software development in the worldwide environment. These include software engineering and methodology, software development process and management. (orig.)
Riihimäki, K A; Vuorilehto, M S; Melartin, T K; Isometsä, E T
Primary health care provides treatment for most patients with depression. Despite their importance for organizing services, long-term course of depression and risk factors for poor outcome in primary care are not well known. In the Vantaa Primary Care Depression Study, a stratified random sample of 1119 patients representing primary care patients in a Finnish city was screened for depression with the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders. SCID-I/P and SCID-II interviews were used to diagnose Axis I and II disorders. The 137 patients with DSM-IV depressive disorder were prospectively followed up at 3, 6, 18 and 60 months. Altogether, 82% of patients completed the 5-year follow-up, including 102 patients with a research diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD) at baseline. Duration of the index episode, recurrences, time spent in major depressive episodes (MDEs) and partial or full remission were examined with a life-chart. Of the MDD patients, 70% reached full remission, in a median time of 20 months. One-third had at least one recurrence. The patients spent 34% of the follow-up time in MDEs, 24% in partial remission and 42% in full remission. Baseline severity of depression and substance use co-morbidity predicted time spent in MDEs. This prospective, naturalistic, long-term study of a representative cohort of primary care patients with depression indicated slow or incomplete recovery and a commonly recurrent course, which need to be taken into account when developing primary care services. Severity of depressive symptoms and substance use co-morbidity should be systematically evaluated in planning treatment.
Morlino, Massimo; Polese, Daniela; Bruni, Andrea; Renato, Bellinello
The aim of this study was to verify the presence of cultural variety among the psychiatric journals available on PubMed, the major online tool for accessing literature. Data for analysis were taken from a survey of the world psychiatric journals indexed in Index Medicus 1999 (IM), the alphabetical list used by PubMed, and from the mean impact factor (IF) values of the journals. Approximately 80% of international psychiatric literature available on PubMed is published in Anglo-Saxon countries, especially in the USA (59.8% of the total). The widespread use of the English language (94.9% of all the journals) further stresses the dominance of the Anglo-Saxon cultural model, as do the mean IF values of Anglo-Saxon journals compared to non-Anglo-Saxon publications (3.252 vs. 1.693; P=0.0079). The under-representation of non-Anglo-Saxon cultural models on PubMed plays a negative role for bringing about a truly multicultural literature in psychiatry.
Glanz, Karen; Resnicow, Ken; Seymour, Jennifer; Hoy, Kathy; Stewart, Hayden; Lyons, Mark; Goldberg, Jeanne
Increased away-from-home eating is associated with lower diet quality, and may contribute to the increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity. Healthier food choices in restaurants may help mitigate the rise in obesity and improve diet quality. This study sought to understand the views of executives at major U.S. restaurant chains regarding the process, motivation for, and challenges of offering healthier options on their menus. The Healthy Menu Study used in-depth structured telephone interviews with 41 senior menu development and marketing executives at leading casual dining and fast-food restaurant chains. The interview guide covered menu trends, influences on introduction and continuation of new menu items, and barriers to adding healthy foods. Data analysis included tabulation of responses, identification of themes, and examination of subgroup differences. Growing sales and increasing profits are the most important considerations, mentioned by 61% of respondents; health and nutrition were noted as important by 21%. Restaurants may try to avoid losing groups with a "health seeker" by offering healthier foods (low in fat and calories, more fruits and vegetables) (27% of chains), but operators believe demand for healthier foods is not widespread. Additional obstacles to including healthier menu items are short shelf life of produce (46%), increased preparation time, low sales, and high labor costs. Not surprisingly, profit margins are the primary determinants of why restaurants do or do not add and continue to serve healthier food options. Without an increase in consumer demand, it is unlikely the restaurant industry will increase their offering of healthy food choices. Insight into the restaurant industry perspective is important for developing promising strategies to encourage healthier eating patterns.
Simon R A Pickett
Full Text Available Sexual selection requires both that there is heritable variation in traits related to fitness, and that either some of this variation is linked to traits of the parents, and/or that there are direct benefits of choosing particular individuals as mates. This suggests that if direct benefits are important offspring performance should be predicted by traits of the rearing adults. But if indirect benefits are more significant offspring performance should be predicted by traits of the adults at the nest-of-origin. We conducted cross-fostering experiments in great tits (Parus major over four years, in two of which we manipulated environmental conditions by providing supplemental food. In a third year, some nestlings were directly supplemented with carotenoids. Nestlings in broods whose rearing adults received supplemental food were heavier and had improved immune responses even when controlling for body mass. Nestling immune function was related to measures of the yellow plumage color of both the rearing male and the putative father. Nestling body mass was influenced by the coloration of both the rearing female and the genetic mother. Our results suggest that features of both their social and putative genetic parents influence nestling health and growth. From this it would appear that females could be gaining both direct and indirect benefits through mate choice of male plumage traits and that it would be possible for males to similarly gain through mate choice of female traits.
Full Text Available Concern about the adverse effects of mercury on human health and ecosystems has led to tightening emission controls since the mid 1980s. But the resulting mercury emissions reductions in many parts of the world are believed to be offset or even surpassed by the increasing emissions in rapidly industrializing countries. Consequently, concentrations of atmospheric mercury are expected to remain roughly constant. Here we show that the worldwide atmospheric mercury concentrations have decreased by about 20 to 38 % since 1996 as indicated by long-term monitoring at stations in the Southern and Northern Hemispheres combined with intermittent measurements of latitudinal distribution over the Atlantic Ocean. The total reduction of the atmospheric mercury burden of this magnitude within 14 years is unusually large among most atmospheric trace gases and is at odds with the current mercury emission inventories with nearly constant anthropogenic emissions over this period. This suggests a major shift in the biogeochemical cycle of mercury including oceans and soil reservoirs. Decreasing reemissions from the legacy of historical mercury emissions are the most likely explanation for this decline since the hypothesis of an accelerated oxidation rate of elemental mercury in the atmosphere is not supported by the observed trends of other trace gases. Acidification of oceans, climate change, excess nutrient input and pollution may also contribute by their impact on the biogeochemistry of ocean and soils. Consequently, models of the atmospheric mercury cycle have to include soil and ocean mercury pools and their dynamics to be able to make projections of future trends.
Full Text Available Abstract Background For companies operating in malaria endemic countries, malaria represents a substantial risk to workers and their dependants, and can lead to significantly reduced worker productivity. This study provides an overview of the malaria epidemiology within an oil palm plantation in Popondetta, south-eastern Papua New Guinea, its implication for the company with its employees and their families and the potential for control. Methods In 2006, we carried out a cross-sectional study within six company villages, which included the determination of parasite rates by conventional microscopy, interviews and haemoglobin measurements. Passive surveillance data were collected from the 13 company aid posts for the years 2005 and 2006. Results Malaria prevalence was found to be high: all-age prevalence was 33.5% (95% CI 30.1–37.0 in 723 individuals. Plasmodium falciparum was the dominant species, followed by Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium malariae. Children between five and nine years of age were most affected (40.3%, 95% CI 0.32–0.49. Haemoglobin levels were found to be low; 11.0 g/dl (95% CI 10.8–11.1 for men and 10.4 g/dl (95% CI 10.3–10.5 for women, respectively. Plasmodium falciparum infections were significantly associated with anaemia (Hb Conclusion Malaria was found to be a major health burden in the Higaturu Oil Palm plantation, posing a high risk for company staff and their relatives, including expatriates and other non-immune workers. Reducing the malaria risk is a highly recommended investment for the company.
Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Alonso, Jordi; Angermeyer, Matthias; Bromet, Evelyn; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Jonge, Peter; Demyttenaere, Koen; Florescu, Silvia E.; Gruber, Michael J.; Gureje, Oye; Hu, Chiyi; Huang, Yueqin; Karam, Elie G.; Jin, Robert; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Levinson, Daphna; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Medina-Mora, María E.; O’Neill, Siobhan; Ono, Yutaka; Posada-Villa, José A.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Scott, Kate M.; Shahly, Victoria; Stein, Dan J.; Viana, Maria C.; Zarkov, Zahari; Kessler, Ronald C.
Background Although irritability is a core symptom of DSM-IV major depressive disorder (MDD) for youth but not adults, clinical studies find comparable rates of irritability between nonbipolar depressed adults and youth. Including irritability as a core symptom of adult MDD would allow detection of depression-equivalent syndromes with primary irritability hypothesized to be more common among males than females. We carried out a preliminary examination of this issue using cross-national community-based survey data from 21 countries in the World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys (n = 110,729). Methods The assessment of MDD in the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview includes one question about persistent irritability. We examined two expansions of the definition of MDD involving this question: (1) cases with dysphoria and/or anhedonia and exactly four of nine Criterion A symptoms plus irritability; and (2) cases with two or more weeks of irritability plus four or more other Criterion A MDD symptoms in the absence of dysphoria or anhedonia. Results Adding irritability as a tenth Criterion A symptom increased lifetime prevalence by 0.4% (from 11.2 to 11.6%). Adding episodes of persistent irritability increased prevalence by an additional 0.2%. Proportional prevalence increases were significantly higher, but nonetheless small, among males compared to females. Rates of severe role impairment were significantly lower among respondents with this irritable depression who did not meet conventional DSM-IV criteria than those with DSM-IV MDD. Conclusion Although limited by the superficial assessment in this single question on irritability, results do not support expanding adult MDD criteria to include irritable mood. PMID:23364997
Full Text Available This paper develops multirelational data base for major depression costs. It lists how data are collected and stored into the fact base and dimension base. Uncertain data is described linguistically and modelled by fuzzy sets. Linguistic expressions are stored in dimension base. Models of major depression treatment costs are developed for each patient and all population. On the basis of this model and multirelational data base MD-OLAP a model for major depression treatment costs is developed.
McGuire, Sandra L.
Life expectancy is increasing worldwide. Unfortunately, people are generally not prepared for this long life ahead and have ageist attitudes that inhibit maximizing the "longevity dividend" they have been given. Aging education can prepare people for life's later years and combat ageism. It can reimage aging as a time of continued…
EPRI's Steam Generator Strategic Management Project issues an annual report on the progress being made in tackling steam generator problems worldwide, containing a wealth of detailed statistics on the status of operating units and degradation mechanisms encountered. A few highlights are presented from the latest report, issued in October 1993, which covers the period to 31 December 1992. (Author)
All of mankind is exposed to ionizing radiation from natural sources, from human practices that release natural and artificial radionuclides to the environment, and from medical radiation procedures. This paper reviews the assessment in the UNSCEAR 1993 Report of the exposures of human populations worldwide to the various sources of ionizing radiation
Frick, Ulrich; Irving, Hyacinth; Rehm, Jürgen
To empirically determine the impact of the capacity to sustain social relationships on valuing health states. 68 clinical experts conducted a health state valuation exercise in five sites using pairwise comparison, ranking, and person trade-off as elicitation methods. 23,840 pairwise comparisons of a total of 379 health states were analyzed by conditional logistic regression. Social relationships had a clear monotonic association with perceived disability: the more limited the capacity to sustain social relationships, the more disabling the resulting health state valuations. The highest level of limitations with respect to social relationships was associated with slightly lower impact on health state valuations compared to the highest level of limitations in physical functioning. Social relationships showed an independent contribution to health state valuations and should be included in health state measures.
Provides electronic mail addresses for resources and discussion groups related to the following academic majors: art, biology, business, chemistry, computer science, economics, health sciences, history, literature, math, music, philosophy, political science, psychology, sociology, and theater. (AEF)
Pascal, Mathilde; Pascal, Laurence; Bidondo, Marie-Laure; Cochet, Amandine; Sarter, Hélène; Stempfelet, Morgane; Wagner, Vérène
We performed a literature review to investigate how epidemiological studies have been used to assess the health consequences of living in the vicinity of industries. 77 papers on the chronic effects of air pollution around major industrial areas were reviewed. Major health themes were cancers (27 studies), morbidity (25 studies), mortality (7 studies), and birth outcome (7 studies). Only 3 studies investigated mental health. While studies were available from many different countries, a majority of papers came from the United Kingdom, Italy, and Spain. Several studies were motivated by concerns from the population or by previous observations of an overincidence of cases. Geographical ecological designs were largely used for studying cancer and mortality, including statistical designs to quantify a relationship between health indicators and exposure. Morbidity was frequently investigated through cross-sectional surveys on the respiratory health of children. Few multicenter studies were performed. In a majority of papers, exposed areas were defined based on the distance to the industry and were located from 20 km from the plants. Improving the exposure assessment would be an asset to future studies. Criteria to include industries in multicenter studies should be defined.
Nielsen, Signe Smith; Krasnik, Allan
Objectives Knowledge about self-perceived health can help us understand the health status and needs among migrants and ethnic minorities in the European Union (EU) which is essential to improve equity and integration. The objective was to examine and compare self-perceived health among migrant....... Results Publications were identified in 5 out of the 27 EU-countries. In all aspects of self-perceived health, most migrants and ethnic minority groups appeared to be disadvantaged as compared to the majority population even after controlling for age, gender, and socioeconomic factors. Only limited cross......-country comparisons could be carried out, still, they revealed a parallel pattern of self-perceived health among similar migrants/ethnic minority groups. Conclusions Policies to improve social and health status, contextual factors, and access to healthcare among migrants and ethnic minorities are essential...
Spence, Deborah; Garrick, Helen; McKay, Marie
Concerns relating to the adequacy of nurses' preparation for the care of people with mental illness prompted significant revision of the mental health component in a Bachelor of Health Science nursing programme in New Zealand that prepares approximately 200 students per year. Working collaboratively with clinical providers, university staff developed and introduced three courses (equivalent to 450 hours of learning) specifically focused on mental health science, inpatient practice, and primary community mental health practice. This paper provides an overview of the new courses and reports the findings of an appreciative inquiry evaluation of this curriculum innovation. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing © 2012 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Koomey, Jonathan G
The direct electricity used by data centers has become an important issue in recent years as demands for new Internet services (such as search, music downloads, video-on-demand, social networking, and telephony) have become more widespread. This study estimates historical electricity used by data centers worldwide and regionally on the basis of more detailed data than were available for previous assessments, including electricity used by servers, data center communications, and storage equipment. Aggregate electricity use for data centers doubled worldwide from 2000 to 2005. Three quarters of this growth was the result of growth in the number of the least expensive (volume) servers. Data center communications and storage equipment each contributed about 10% of the growth. Total electricity use grew at an average annual rate of 16.7% per year, with the Asia Pacific region (without Japan) being the only major world region with growth significantly exceeding that average. Direct electricity used by information technology equipment in data centers represented about 0.5% of total world electricity consumption in 2005. When electricity for cooling and power distribution is included, that figure is about 1%. Worldwide data center power demand in 2005 was equivalent (in capacity terms) to about seventeen 1000 MW power plants.
Koomey, Jonathan G.
The direct electricity used by data centers has become an important issue in recent years as demands for new Internet services (such as search, music downloads, video-on-demand, social networking, and telephony) have become more widespread. This study estimates historical electricity used by data centers worldwide and regionally on the basis of more detailed data than were available for previous assessments, including electricity used by servers, data center communications, and storage equipment. Aggregate electricity use for data centers doubled worldwide from 2000 to 2005. Three quarters of this growth was the result of growth in the number of the least expensive (volume) servers. Data center communications and storage equipment each contributed about 10% of the growth. Total electricity use grew at an average annual rate of 16.7% per year, with the Asia Pacific region (without Japan) being the only major world region with growth significantly exceeding that average. Direct electricity used by information technology equipment in data centers represented about 0.5% of total world electricity consumption in 2005. When electricity for cooling and power distribution is included, that figure is about 1%. Worldwide data center power demand in 2005 was equivalent (in capacity terms) to about seventeen 1000 MW power plants.
This small folder presents a digest of some useful information concerning the nuclear power plants worldwide and the situation of nuclear industry at the end of 1997: power production of nuclear origin, distribution of reactor types, number of installed units, evolution and prediction of reactor orders, connections to the grid and decommissioning, worldwide development of nuclear power, evolution of power production of nuclear origin, the installed power per reactor type, market shares and exports of the main nuclear engineering companies, power plants constructions and orders situation, evolution of reactors performances during the last 10 years, know-how and development of nuclear safety, the remarkable facts of 1997, the future of nuclear power and the energy policy trends. (J.S.)
Lacroix, E; Chaton, C
The number of households in fuel poverty is growing. Individuals increasingly struggle to heat their homes, and therefore, a growing number of individuals are exposed to low temperatures, which can affect their health. This study sought to determine the link between a subjective measure of fuel poverty (self-reported feeling cold) and self-reported health. The impact of other particular individual and environmental features on self-reported health were also analysed. Econometric analysis. The study method uses self-reported perception of thermal discomfort (self-reported feeling cold) as a proxy for fuel poverty. The French database of the Healthcare and Insurance survey carried by the Institute for Research and Information on Health Economics (IRDES) was used to estimate a dichotomous probit model. The estimation allows us to infer a negative impact of fuel poverty on self-reported health. Thus, a person in fuel poverty is 2.36 percentage points more likely to report poor or fair health status than a person who is not in fuel poverty. It may be appropriate to reduce the impacts of fuel poverty to provide support for the most vulnerable categories of individuals with respect to the health impacts of fuel poverty and cold homes, e.g., chronic patients who experience difficulty heating their homes. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The aim of this paper is to broadly examine the current situation in the LWR fuel reprocessing services market on a worldwide basis through 2010. The main factors influencing this market (nuclear programs, fuel discharges, reprocessing capacities, buyer philosophies, etc.) are identified in the paper and the most important are highlighted and discussed in more detail. Emphasis has been placed on the situation with respect to reprocessing in those countries having a significant influence on the reprocessing market
Bowyer, J. M.; Frankfort, M.; Steinnagel, K. M.
The forecast is for the years 1981 - 2000 with benchmark years at 1985, 1990 and 2000. Two typs of markets are considered for this study: Hardware (worldwide total) - satellites, earth stations and control facilities (includes replacements and spares); and non-hardware (addressable by U.S. industry) - planning, launch, turnkey systems and operations. These markets were examined for the INTELSAT System (international systems and domestic and regional systems using leased transponders) and domestic and regional systems. Forecasts were determined for six worldwide regions encompassing 185 countries using actual costs for existing equipment and engineering estimates of costs for advanced systems. Most likely (conservative growth rate estimates) and optimistic (mid range growth rate estimates) scenarios were employed for arriving at the forecasts which are presented in constant 1980 U.S. dollars. The worldwide satellite market demand forecast predicts that the market between 181 and 2000 will range from $35 to $50 billion. Approximately one-half of the world market, $16 to $20 billion, will be generated in the United States.
Guerrier, P.; Tardif, G.
Objectives of a research project to protect the health of riparian populations in the event of a major oil spill in the St. Lawrence river were summarized. The project is a part of the health component of the St. Lawrence Vision 2000 (SLV-2000) action plan, which is a product of co-operation among Environment Canada, Health Canada, le ministere de la Sante et des Services sociaux du Quebec, and other government departments, designed to protect and conserve the St. Lawrence river and its environment
Hamilton, Travis; Dade Lunsford, L
OBJECTIVE The role of Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) has expanded worldwide during the past 3 decades. The authors sought to evaluate whether experienced users vary in their estimate of its potential use. METHODS Sixty-six current Gamma Knife users from 24 countries responded to an electronic survey. They estimated the potential role of GKRS for benign and malignant tumors, vascular malformations, and functional disorders. These estimates were compared with published disease epidemiological statistics and the 2014 use reports provided by the Leksell Gamma Knife Society (16,750 cases). RESULTS Respondents reported no significant variation in the estimated use in many conditions for which GKRS is performed: meningiomas, vestibular schwannomas, and arteriovenous malformations. Significant variance in the estimated use of GKRS was noted for pituitary tumors, craniopharyngiomas, and cavernous malformations. For many current indications, the authors found significant variance in GKRS users based in the Americas, Europe, and Asia. Experts estimated that GKRS was used in only 8.5% of the 196,000 eligible cases in 2014. CONCLUSIONS Although there was a general worldwide consensus regarding many major indications for GKRS, significant variability was noted for several more controversial roles. This expert opinion survey also suggested that GKRS is significantly underutilized for many current diagnoses, especially in the Americas. Future studies should be conducted to investigate health care barriers to GKRS for many patients.
Full Text Available Large number of studies provided convincing evidence for adverse effects of exposure to outdoor air pollution on human health, and served as basis for current USA and EU Air Quality Standards and limit values. Still, new knowledge is emerging, expanding our understanding of vast effects of exposure to air pollution on human health of this ubiquitous exposure affecting millions of people in urban setting. This paper focuses on the studies of health effects of long-term (chronic exposures to air pollution, and includes major chronic and acute diseases in adults and especially elderly, which will present increasing public health burden, due to improving longevity and projected increasing numbers of elderly. The paper gives overview over the most relevant and latest literature presented by different health outcomes: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, pneumonia, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes.
Kumar, Ramesh; Lim, Jaims; Mekary, Rania A; Rattani, Abbas; Dewan, Michael C; Sharif, Salman Y; Osorio-Fonseca, Enrique; Park, Kee B
Traumatic spinal injury (TSI) results from injury to bony, ligamentous, and/or neurologic structures of the spinal column and can cause significant morbidity and mortality. The global burden of TSI is poorly understood, so we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the global volume of TSI. We performed a systematic review through PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Databases on TSI studies reported from 2000 to 2016. Collected data were used to perform a meta-analysis to estimate the annual incidence of TSI across World Health Organization regions and World Bank income groups using random-effect models. Incorporating global population figures, the annual worldwide volume of TSI was estimated. A total of 102 studies were included in the systematic review and 19 studies in the meta-analysis. The overall global incidence of TSI was 10.5 cases per 100,000 persons, resulting in an estimated 768,473 [95% confidence interval, 597,213-939,732] new cases of TSI annually worldwide. The incidence of TSI was higher in low- and middle-income countries (8.72 per 100,000 persons) compared with high-income countries (13.69 per 100,000 persons). Road traffic accidents, followed by falls, were the most common mechanism of TSI worldwide. Overall, 48.8% of patients with TSI required surgery. TSI is a major source of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Largely preventable mechanisms, including road traffic accidents and falls, are the main causes of TSI globally. Further investigation is needed to delineate local and regional TSI incidences and causes, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jan 11, 2018 ... Health in particular is acting as a strong driver for positive change. ... censuses, and information gathering exercises which are viewed as simply ... in the hands of select groups, this serves only to reinforce power imbalances.
The culmination of two years of detailed negotiations saw the formation of Reviss Services in April 1992. This joint venture company is a collaboration between Amersham International (Health Science Group), the Mayak Production Association (manufacturer of radioisotopes) and AO Techsnabexport (the Russian export agency). It is set up to enable a variety of Russian-manufactured radioisotopes to be marketed worldwide. Formation of the joint venture company was made possible by the recent political changes in the former Soviet Union, allowing the three parties to extend their long-standing commercial trading relationship into a full working partnership. (Author)
Raj, S; Sharma, V L; Singh, A J; Goel, S
Background. The available health information on websites should be reliable and accurate in order to make informed decisions by community. This study was done to assess the quality and readability of health information websites on World Wide Web in India. Methods. This cross-sectional study was carried out in June 2014. The key words "Health" and "Information" were used on search engines "Google" and "Yahoo." Out of 50 websites (25 from each search engines), after exclusion, 32 websites were evaluated. LIDA tool was used to assess the quality whereas the readability was assessed using Flesch Reading Ease Score (FRES), Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level (FKGL), and SMOG. Results. Forty percent of websites (n = 13) were sponsored by government. Health On the Net Code of Conduct (HONcode) certification was present on 50% (n = 16) of websites. The mean LIDA score (74.31) was average. Only 3 websites scored high on LIDA score. Only five had readability scores at recommended sixth-grade level. Conclusion. Most health information websites had average quality especially in terms of usability and reliability and were written at high readability levels. Efforts are needed to develop the health information websites which can help general population in informed decision making.
Köteles, Ferenc; Simor, Péter
Modern health worries (MHWs) were related to somatic symptoms and to preference of holistic healing methods in previous studies. The study aimed to investigate the contribution of symptom-related and holism-related factors to MHWs. Participants (visitors of an Internet news portal; N = 16152; 64.1 % males) completed a questionnaire assessing MHWs, somatosensory amplification, somatic symptoms, positive and negative affect, spirituality, holistic health beliefs, and various aspects of health care utilization (both conventional and alternative). Exploratory factor analysis with oblique rotation revealed two independent dimensions ("Somatic symptom distress" and "Holism") MHWs were involved with factor loadings of 0.294 and 0.417, respectively. The existence of two factors was supported by the results of confirmatory factor analysis. No practically significant interaction between the two factors was found in binary logistic regression analysis. Positive and negative affect, somatosensory amplification, spirituality, and holistic health beliefs were positively connected, while self-rated health status was negatively connected to MHWs even after controlling for socio-demographic and treatment-related variables. Holistic thinking and symptom-related behavioral and psychological factors are independently associated with MHWs. Modern health worries can be conceptualized as symptom-related by-products of a holistic-spiritual worldview.
Kessler, R.C.; Sampson, N.A.; Berglund, P.; Gruber, M.J.; Al-Hamzawi, A.; Andrade, L.; Bunting, B.; Demyttenaere, K.; Florescu, S.; de Girolamo, G.; Gureje, O.; He, Y.; Hu, C.; Huang, Y.; Karam, E.; Kovess-Masfety, V.; Lee, S; Levinson, D.; Mora, M.E. Medina; Moskalewicz, J.; Nakamura, Y.; Navarro-Mateu, F.; Oakley Browne, Mark A.; Piazza, M.; Posada-Villa, J.; Slade, T.; ten Have, M.; Torres, Y.; Vilagut, G.; Xavier, M.; Zarkov, Z.; Shahly, V.; Wilcox, M.A.
AIMS To examine cross-national patterns and correlates of lifetime and 12-month comorbid DSM-IV anxiety disorders among people with lifetime and 12-month DSM-IV major depressive disorder (MDD). METHODS Nationally or regionally representative epidemiological interviews were administered to 74,045 adults in 27 surveys across 24 countries in the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys. DSM-IV MDD, a wide range of comorbid DSM-IV anxiety disorders, and a number of correlates were assessed with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). RESULTS 45.7% of respondents with lifetime MDD (32.0–46.5% inter-quartile range [IQR] across surveys) had one of more lifetime anxiety disorders. A slightly higher proportion of respondents with 12-month MDD had lifetime anxiety disorders (51.7%, 37.8–54.0% IQR) and only slightly lower proportions of respondents with 12-month MDD had 12-month anxiety disorders (41.6%, 29.9–47.2% IQR). Two-thirds (68%) of respondents with lifetime comorbid anxiety disorders and MDD reported an earlier age-of-onset of their first anxiety disorder than their MDD, while 13.5% reported an earlier age-of-onset of MDD and the remaining 18.5% reported the same age-of-onset of both disorders. Women and previously married people had consistently elevated rates of lifetime and 12-month MDD as well as comorbid anxiety disorders. Consistently higher proportions of respondents with 12-month anxious than non-anxious MDD reported severe role impairment (64.4% vs. 46.0%; χ21=187.0, pdepression in the 12 months before interview, but this difference was more pronounced in high income countries (68.8% vs. 45.4%; χ21=108.8, p<.001) than low/middle income countries (30.3% vs. 20.6%; χ21=11.7, p<.001). CONCLUSIONS Patterns and correlates of comorbid DSM-IV anxiety disorders among people with DSM-IV MDD are similar across WMH countries. The narrow IQR of the proportion of respondents with temporally prior AOO of anxiety disorders than comorbid MDD (69
In the framework of a working group on the major installations, a study has been realized on a today coal combustion installation. The direct risk by inhalation and the risks bond to indirect exposure of atmospheric releases were analyzed. The calculation method is explained and the uncertainties are discussed to present the results. (A.L.B.)
Wodschow, Kirstine; Hansen, Birgitte; Schullehner, Jörg
Concentrations and spatial variations of the four cations Na, K, Mg and Ca are known to some extent for groundwater and to a lesser extent for drinking water. Using Denmark as case, the purpose of this study was to analyze the spatial and temporal variations in the major cations in drinking water...
Wylie, Ann; Leedham-Green, Kathleen
Despite the economic, environmental and patient-related imperatives to prepare medical students to become health promoting doctors, health promotion remains relatively deprioritised in medical curricula. This paper uses an in-depth case study of a health promotion curriculum implementation at a large UK medical school to provide insights into the experiences of teachers and learners across a range of topics, pedagogies, and teaching & assessment modalities. Topics included smoking cessation, behavioural change approaches to obesity, exercise prescribing, social prescribing, maternal and child health, public and global health; with pedagogies ranging from e-learning to practice-based project work. Qualitative methods including focus groups, analysis of reflective learning submissions, and evaluation data are used to illuminate motivations, frustrations, practicalities, successes and limiting factors. Over this three year implementation, a range of challenges have been highlighted including: how adequately to prepare and support clinical teachers; the need to establish relevance and importance to strategic learners; the need for experiential learning in clinical environments to support classroom-based activities; and the need to rebalance competing aspects of the curriculum. Conclusions are drawn about heterogeneous deep learning over standardised surface learning, and the impacts, both positive and negative, of different assessment modalities on these types of learning.
Gilman, T.R.; Lesinski, M.L.
Although as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA)/health physics is viewed as necessary support for nuclear power plant outage work, it can be the last area to which attention is given in preparing for a large-scope outage. Inadequate lead times cause last-minute preparations resulting in delays in planned work. The Dresden Unit 3 Recirculation Piping Replacement Project is examined from a planning viewpoint. The attention that was given the various areas of a comprehensive ALARA/health physics program is examined, and approximate recommended lead times are discussed. The discussion will follow a chronological path from project inception to the beginning stages of outage work. Initially, the scope of work needs to be assessed by individuals familiar with similar projects of equivalent magnitude. Those individuals need to be health physics professionals who understand the particular utility and/or the site's way of doing business. They should also possess a good understanding of preferred industry practices
Management Office (PMO) and the customers (returnees and buyers) 23 will be developed or adapted from existing software programs. The hardware could be... customer requirements and desires is the first aspect to be approached. Sections 4.7 to 4.11 were dedicated to inivestigate those relationships and...R x NTIS CRA&I DTIC TAB WORLDWIDE WAREHOUSE: Ju’a-noj1c0[ed 0 A CUSTOMER PERSPECTIVE J-f-c-.tion .......... THESIS By D i s ib , tio
Pace Consultants Inc., Houston, has started a multiclient study of world-wide petroleum coke production, examining environmental initiatives and eventually forecasting prices of fuel grade coke. Pace expects coker expansions, increased operating severity, and reduced cycle times to boost coke supply to more than 50 million metric tons/year in 2000, compared with 39.7 million metric tons in 1992. Increased supply and tightened environmental rules in countries consuming large amounts of petroleum coke will be the main factors affecting coke markets. The paper discusses coke quality and the Japanese market
Chan, Kitty S; Bird, Chloe E; Weiss, Robert; Duan, Naihua; Meredith, Lisa S; Sherbourne, Cathy D
We sought to determine whether patient-provider gender concordance influences the detection and care of depression and comorbid anxiety and substance use in patients with major depression Cross-sectional analyses of baseline patient survey data linked with provider data were performed. Data based on routine primary care visits in clinics from a variety of health systems serving diverse patient populations across the United States. Participants all had major depression. Depression care was examined in the Quality Improvement for Depression (QID) Collaboration sample (n patients = 1,428, n providers = 389). In a subanalysis of data solely from 714 patients and 157 providers from Partners-In-Care, one of the projects participating in QID, we also examined detection of anxiety disorder and alcohol or drug problems. Rates of detection and care of mental health problems in primary care were low even among patients with major depression. Except for anxiety counseling in female patients, patient-provider gender concordance did not improve care as hypothesized. However, female providers were more likely to counsel on anxiety and less likely to counsel on alcohol or drug use than male providers. Female patients were less likely to be counseled on alcohol or drug use compared with male patients. Detection and care of mental health and substance use problems for patients with major depression is not influenced by patient-provider gender concordance. However, depressed female patients may have greater unmet needs for alcohol and drug use counseling than their male counterparts.
Objective We tested the effects of structured health care for the diabetic foot in one region in Germany aiming to reduce the number of major amputations. Research design and methods In a prospective study we investigated patients with diabetic foot in a structured system of outpatient, in-patient and rehabilitative treatment. Subjects were recruited between January 1st, 2000 and December 31, 2007. All participants underwent a two-year follow-up. The modified University of Texas Wound Classification System (UT) was the basis for documentation and data analysis. We evaluated numbers of major amputations, rates of ulcer healing and mortality. In order to compare the effect of the structured health care program with usual care in patients with diabetic foot we evaluated the same parameters at another regional hospital without interdisciplinary care of diabetic foot (controls). Results 684 patients with diabetic foot and 508 controls were investigated. At discharge from hospital 28.3% (structured health care program, SHC) vs. 23.0% (controls) of all ulcers had healed completely. 51.5% (SHC) vs. 49.8% (controls) were in UT grade 1. Major amputations were performed in 32 subjects of the structured health care program group (4.7%) vs. 110 (21.7%) in controls (p<0.0001). Mortality during hospitalization was 2.5% (SHC) vs. 9.4% in controls (p<0.001). Conclusions With the structured health care program we achieved a significant reduction of major amputation rates by more than 75% as compared to standard care. PMID:23497152
Prokofieva, Margarita; Koukia, Evmorfia; Dikeos, Dimitris
The aim of the study was to assess nursing diagnoses and nursing interventions that were accordingly implemented during the care of inpatients with major depression in Greece. Twelve nurses working in three major psychiatric hospitals were recruited. Semi-structured interviews were used and audio-recorded data indicated that risk for suicide, social isolation, low self-esteem, sleep problems, and imbalanced nutrition are the nursing diagnoses most commonly reported. Establishing trust and rapport is the primary intervention, followed by specific interventions according to each diagnosis and the individualized care plan. The findings of the study also highlight the need for nursing training in order to teach nurses initial assessment procedures and appropriate evidence-based intervention techniques.
Allen, Harris; Hubbard, David; Sullivan, Sean
The objective of this study was to examine the burden of pain on employee health and productivity at a Fortune 100 company headquartered in the northeastern United States to prioritize target areas for reducing this burden. An electronic survey was conducted in late 2004, which produced a reasonably representative national sample of 1039 active employee respondents. A total of 28.6% of respondents met the study definition for pain. Pain was linked to: 1) drops of more than 45% and 23%, respectively, in Overall Physical and Mental Health; 2) a fivefold increase in health-induced limitations in work performance; and 3) nearly three and two thirds workdays lost to presenteeism and absenteeism over a 4-week period. Afflicted workers displayed considerable room for improvement in their capacity for pain control and management. The prevalence of pain and its impact on those with the condition combine to make it an area of much opportunity for improving workforce health and productivity. Musculoskeletal diseases offer a promising initial target for corporate intervention.
Devlin-Scherer, Roberta; Zaccone, Paula R.
Losses to the workforce and drains on the national economy posed by illnesses, injuries, and environmental hazards dictate that schools operate to prevent, intervene, and help resolve these social and personal health issues. The costs to society for the medical care of children born to addicted and abusive parents, exposure to smoke and pollution,…
Lipson, Sarah Ketchen; Zhou, Sasha; Wagner, Blake, III; Beck, Katie; Eisenberg, Daniel
This article explores variations in mental health and service utilization across academic disciplines using a random sample of undergraduate and graduate students (N = 64,519) at 81 colleges and universities. We report prevalence of depression, anxiety, suicidality, and self-injury, and rates of help-seeking across disciplines, including results…
Kulkarni, Manisha A; Berrang-Ford, Lea; Buck, Peter A; Drebot, Michael A; Lindsay, L Robbin; Ogden, Nicholas H
In Canada, the emergence of vector-borne diseases may occur via international movement and subsequent establishment of vectors and pathogens, or via northward spread from endemic areas in the USA. Re-emergence of endemic vector-borne diseases may occur due to climate-driven changes to their geographic range and ecology. Lyme disease, West Nile virus (WNV), and other vector-borne diseases were identified as priority emerging non-enteric zoonoses in Canada in a prioritization exercise conducted by public health stakeholders in 2013. We review and present the state of knowledge on the public health importance of these high priority emerging vector-borne diseases in Canada. Lyme disease is emerging in Canada due to range expansion of the tick vector, which also signals concern for the emergence of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, babesiosis, and Powassan virus. WNV has been established in Canada since 2001, with epidemics of varying intensity in following years linked to climatic drivers. Eastern equine encephalitis virus, Jamestown Canyon virus, snowshoe hare virus, and Cache Valley virus are other mosquito-borne viruses endemic to Canada with the potential for human health impact. Increased surveillance for emerging pathogens and vectors and coordinated efforts among sectors and jurisdictions will aid in early detection and timely public health response.
Runhaar, H.A.C.; Driessen, P.P.J.; Bree, L. van; Sluijs, J.P. van der
Internationally but also within countries, large differences exist regarding how environmental health risks (EHRs) are governed. Despite these differences, at a meta-level some general trends can be discerned that may point to a convergence of EHR governance regimes. One, EHR governance regimes are
Houtman, I.L.D.; Eekhout, I.; Venema, A.; Bakhuys Roozeboom, M.; Buuren, S. van
This report presents the key findings of a joint analysis of EU-OSHA’s second European Survey of Enterprises on New and Emerging Risks (ESENER-2), Eurostat’s Labour Force Survey (LFS) 2013 ad hoc module on accidents at work and other work-related health problems, and Eurofound’s 6th European Working
MILIVOJEVIC, Jasminka; MAKSIMOVIC, Vuk; MAKSIMOVIC, Jelena DRAGISIC
The chemical fruit composition, phenolic profile, and corresponding total antioxidant activity of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) and 2 commercial blueberry cultivars (Vaccinium corymbosum) were analyzed. Results from this study showed that cultivar Berkeley yielded the highest glucose and fructose contents (70.8 and 88.8 mg/g FW, respectively), and the sweetness index expressed a similar trend, achieving the highest value for cultivar Berkeley (279.2). Citric acid was the major organic acid i...
Major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder are among the most commonly diagnosed mental illnesses in Canada; both are associated with a high societal and economic burden. Treatment for major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder consists of pharmacological and psychological interventions. Three commonly used psychological interventions are cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), interpersonal therapy, and supportive therapy. The objectives of this report were to assess the effectiveness and safety of these types of therapy for the treatment of adults with major depressive disorder and/or generalized anxiety disorder, to assess the cost-effectiveness of structured psychotherapy (CBT or interpersonal therapy), to calculate the budget impact of publicly funding structured psychotherapy, and to gain a greater understanding of the experiences of people with major depressive disorder and/or generalized anxiety disorder. We performed a literature search on October 27, 2016, for systematic reviews that compared CBT, interpersonal therapy, or supportive therapy with usual care, waitlist control, or pharmacotherapy in adult outpatients with major depressive disorder and/or generalized anxiety disorder. We developed an individual-level state-transition probabilistic model for a cohort of adult outpatients aged 18 to 75 years with a primary diagnosis of major depressive disorder to determine the cost-effectiveness of individual or group CBT (as a representative form of structured psychotherapy) versus usual care. We also estimated the 5-year budget impact of publicly funding structured psychotherapy in Ontario. Finally, we interviewed people with major depressive disorder and/or generalized anxiety disorder to better understand the impact of their condition on their daily lives and their experience with different treatment options, including psychotherapy. Interpersonal therapy compared with usual care reduced posttreatment major depressive disorder
McMartin, Kristen; Gajic-Veljanoski, Olga; Wells, David; Higgins, Caroline; Walter, Melissa
Background Major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder are among the most commonly diagnosed mental illnesses in Canada; both are associated with a high societal and economic burden. Treatment for major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder consists of pharmacological and psychological interventions. Three commonly used psychological interventions are cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), interpersonal therapy, and supportive therapy. The objectives of this report were to assess the effectiveness and safety of these types of therapy for the treatment of adults with major depressive disorder and/or generalized anxiety disorder, to assess the cost-effectiveness of structured psychotherapy (CBT or interpersonal therapy), to calculate the budget impact of publicly funding structured psychotherapy, and to gain a greater understanding of the experiences of people with major depressive disorder and/or generalized anxiety disorder. Methods We performed a literature search on October 27, 2016, for systematic reviews that compared CBT, interpersonal therapy, or supportive therapy with usual care, waitlist control, or pharmacotherapy in adult outpatients with major depressive disorder and/or generalized anxiety disorder. We developed an individual-level state-transition probabilistic model for a cohort of adult outpatients aged 18 to 75 years with a primary diagnosis of major depressive disorder to determine the cost-effectiveness of individual or group CBT (as a representative form of structured psychotherapy) versus usual care. We also estimated the 5-year budget impact of publicly funding structured psychotherapy in Ontario. Finally, we interviewed people with major depressive disorder and/or generalized anxiety disorder to better understand the impact of their condition on their daily lives and their experience with different treatment options, including psychotherapy. Results Interpersonal therapy compared with usual care reduced
Nielsen, Signe Smith; Krasnik, Allan
Objectives Knowledge about self-perceived health can help us understand the health status and needs among migrants and ethnic minorities in the European Union (EU) which is essential to improve equity and integration. The objective was to examine and compare self-perceived health among migrant...... and ethnic minority groups in the EU-countries. Methods Publications were ascertained by a systematic search of PUBMED and EMBASE. Eligibility of studies was based on the abstracts and the full texts. Additional articles were identified via the references. The final number of studies included was 17....... Results Publications were identified in 5 out of the 27 EU-countries. In all aspects of self-perceived health, most migrants and ethnic minority groups appeared to be disadvantaged as compared to the majority population even after controlling for age, gender, and socioeconomic factors. Only limited cross...
Best, R.E.; Garrison, R.F.
This paper presents an overview of the worldwide transportation requirements for spent fuel. Included are estimates of numbers and types of shipments by mode and cask type for 1985 and the year 2000. In addition, projected capital and transportation costs are presented. For the year 1977 and prior years inclusive, there is a cumulative worldwide requirement for approximately 300 MTU of spent fuel storage at away-from-reactor (AFR) facilities. The cumulative requirements for years through 1985 are projected to be nearly 10,000 MTU, and for the years through 2000 the requirements are conservatively expected to exceed 60,000 MTU. These AFR requirements may be related directly to spent fuel transportation requirements. In total nearly 77,000 total cask shipments of spent fuel will be required between 1977 and 2000. These shipments will include truck, rail, and intermodal moves with many ocean and coastal water shipments. A limited number of shipments by air may also occur. The US fraction of these is expected to include 39,000 truck shipments and 14,000 rail shipments. European shipments to regional facilities are expected to be primarily by rail or water mode and are projected to account for 16,000 moves. Pacific basin shipments will account for 4500 moves. The remaining are from other regions. Over 400 casks will be needed to meet the transportation demands. Capital investment is expected to reach $800,000,000 in 1977 dollars. Cumulative transport costs will be a staggering $4.4 billion dollars
Background No recent Australian studies or literature, provide evidence of the extent of coverage of multicultural health issues in Australian healthcare research. A series of systematic literature reviews in three major Australian healthcare journals were undertaken to discover the level, content, coverage and overall quality of research on multicultural health. Australian healthcare journals selected for the study were The Medical Journal of Australia (MJA), The Australian Health Review (AHR), and The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health (ANZPH). Reviews were undertaken of the last twelve (12) years (1996-August 2008) of journal articles using six standard search terms: 'non-English-speaking', 'ethnic', 'migrant', 'immigrant', 'refugee' and 'multicultural'. Results In total there were 4,146 articles published in these journals over the 12-year period. A total of 90 or 2.2% of the total articles were articles primarily based on multicultural issues. A further 62 articles contained a major or a moderate level of consideration of multicultural issues, and 107 had a minor mention. Conclusions The quantum and range of multicultural health research and evidence required for equity in policy, services, interventions and implementation is limited and uneven. Most of the original multicultural health research articles focused on newly arrived refugees, asylum seekers, Vietnamese or South East Asian communities. While there is some seminal research in respect of these represented groups, there are other communities and health issues that are essentially invisible or unrepresented in research. The limited coverage and representation of multicultural populations in research studies has implications for evidence-based health and human services policy. PMID:20044938
Garrett, Pamela W; Dickson, Hugh G; Whelan, Anna Klinken; Whyte, Linda
No recent Australian studies or literature, provide evidence of the extent of coverage of multicultural health issues in Australian healthcare research. A series of systematic literature reviews in three major Australian healthcare journals were undertaken to discover the level, content, coverage and overall quality of research on multicultural health. Australian healthcare journals selected for the study were The Medical Journal of Australia (MJA), The Australian Health Review (AHR), and The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health (ANZPH). Reviews were undertaken of the last twelve (12) years (1996-August 2008) of journal articles using six standard search terms: 'non-English-speaking', 'ethnic', 'migrant', 'immigrant', 'refugee' and 'multicultural'. In total there were 4,146 articles published in these journals over the 12-year period. A total of 90 or 2.2% of the total articles were articles primarily based on multicultural issues. A further 62 articles contained a major or a moderate level of consideration of multicultural issues, and 107 had a minor mention. The quantum and range of multicultural health research and evidence required for equity in policy, services, interventions and implementation is limited and uneven. Most of the original multicultural health research articles focused on newly arrived refugees, asylum seekers, Vietnamese or South East Asian communities. While there is some seminal research in respect of these represented groups, there are other communities and health issues that are essentially invisible or unrepresented in research. The limited coverage and representation of multicultural populations in research studies has implications for evidence-based health and human services policy.
Busch, Alisa B; Yoon, Frank; Barry, Colleen L; Azzone, Vanessa; Normand, Sharon-Lise T; Goldman, Howard H; Huskamp, Haiden A
The Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act requires insurance parity for mental health/substance use disorder and general medical services. Previous research found that parity did not increase mental health/substance use disorder spending and lowered out-of-pocket spending. Whether parity's effects differ by diagnosis is unknown. The authors examined this question in the context of parity implementation in the Federal Employees Health Benefits (FEHB) Program. The authors compared mental health/substance use disorder treatment use and spending before and after parity (2000 and 2002, respectively) for two groups: FEHB enrollees diagnosed in 1999 with bipolar disorder, major depression, or adjustment disorder (N=19,094) and privately insured enrollees unaffected by the policy in a comparison national sample (N=10,521). Separate models were fitted for each diagnostic group. A difference-in-difference design was used to control for secular time trends and to better reflect the specific impact of parity on spending and utilization. Total spending was unchanged among enrollees with bipolar disorder and major depression but decreased for those with adjustment disorder (-$62, 99.2% CI=-$133, -$11). Out-of-pocket spending decreased for all three groups (bipolar disorder: -$148, 99.2% CI=-$217, -$85; major depression: -$100, 99.2% CI=-$123, -$77; adjustment disorder: -$68, 99.2% CI=-$84, -$54). Total annual utilization (e.g., medication management visits, psychotropic prescriptions, and mental health/substance use disorder hospitalization bed days) remained unchanged across all diagnoses. Annual psychotherapy visits decreased significantly only for individuals with adjustment disorders (-12%, 99.2% CI=-19%, -4%). Parity implemented under managed care improved financial protection and differentially affected spending and psychotherapy utilization across groups. There was some evidence that resources were preferentially preserved for diagnoses that are typically more
Full Text Available Abstract Background In Australia, the Home and Community Care (HACC program provides services in the community to frail elderly living at home and their carers. Surprisingly little is known about the health of people who use these services. In this study we sought to describe health-related factors associated with use of HACC services, and to identify potential opportunities for targeting preventive services to those at high risk. Methods We obtained questionnaire data from the 45 and Up Study for 103,041 men and women aged 45 years and over, sampled from the general population of New South Wales, Australia in 2006-2007, and linked this with administrative data about HACC service use. We compared the characteristics of HACC clients and non-clients according to a range of variables from the 45 and Up Study questionnaire, and estimated crude and adjusted relative risks for HACC use with generalized linear models. Results 4,978 (4.8% participants used HACC services in the year prior to completing the questionnaire. Increasing age, female sex, lower pre-tax household income, not having a partner, not being in paid work, Indigenous background and living in a regional or remote location were strongly associated with HACC use. Overseas-born people and those speaking languages other than English at home were significantly less likely to use HACC services. People who were underweight, obese, sedentary, who reported falling in the past year, who were current smokers, or who ate little fruit or vegetables were significantly more likely to use HACC services. HACC service use increased with decreasing levels of physical functioning, higher levels of psychological distress, and poorer self-ratings of health, eyesight and memory. HACC clients were more likely to report chronic health conditions, in particular diabetes, stroke, Parkinson's disease, anxiety and depression, cancer, heart attack or angina, blood clotting problems, asthma and osteoarthritis
Mandin, C.; Ezratty, V.
This article intends to do a synthesis of knowledge about the relationship between the indoor air pollution and the use of solid fuels ( such wood or biomass) for heating and cooking, from publications since 200 by specifying the fuels, the pollutants and the concerned geographical areas as well as the sanitary effects and more generally the impact in term of public health. (N.C.)
Gupta, Prakash C; Ray, Cecily S; Sinha, Dhirendra N; Singh, Poonam K
Smokeless tobacco use is on the upswing in some parts of the world, including parts of SEAR. It is therefore important to monitor this problem and understand the possible consequences on public health. Material for this review was obtained from documents and data of the World Health Organization, co-authors, colleagues, and searches on key words in PubMed and on Google. Smokeless tobacco use in SEAR, as betel quid with tobacco, declined with increased marketing of cigarettes from the early twentieth century. Smokeless tobacco use began to increase in the 1970s in South Asia, with the marketing of new products made from areca nut and tobacco and convenient packaging. As a consequence, oral precancerous conditions and cancer incidence in young adults have increased significantly. Thailand's successful policies in reducing betel quid use through school health education from the 1920s and in preventing imports of smokeless tobacco products from 1992 are worth emulating by many SEAR countries. India, the largest manufacturing country of smokeless tobacco in the Region, is considering ways to regulate its production. Best practices require the simultaneous control of smokeless and smoking forms of tobacco. Governments in SEAR would do well to adopt strong measures now to control this problem.
Sen, C.K.; Gordillo, G.M.; Roy, S.
. Forty million inpatient surgical procedures were performed in the United States in 2000, followed closely by 31.5 million outpatient surgeries. The need for post-surgical wound care is sharply on the rise. Emergency wound care in an acute setting has major significance not only in a war setting but also...... in homeland preparedness against natural disasters as well as against terrorism attacks. An additional burden of wound healing is the problem of skin scarring, a $12 billion annual market. The immense economic and social impact of wounds in our society calls for allocation of a higher level of attention...
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a serious health problem and will be the second leading cause of burden of disease worldwide by 2030. To be able to prevent MDD, insight into risk factors for the onset of MDD is of clear importance. On the other hand, if onset of MDD has occurred, one may argue that different course patterns of MDD can be identified and that it is essential to examine their relationship to symptoms and function over time. Insight into these course patterns could assist in p...
Harris, Patrick J.; Harris, Elizabeth; Thompson, Susan; Harris-Roxas, Ben; Kemp, Lynn
Internationally the inclusion of health within environmental impact assessment (EIA) has been shown to be limited. While Australian EIA documentation has not been studied empirically to date, deficiencies in practice have been documented. This research developed an audit tool to undertake a qualitative descriptive analysis of 22 Major Project EAs in New South Wales, Australia. Results showed that health and wellbeing impacts were not considered explicitly. They were, however, included indirectly in the identification of traditional public health exposures associated with the physical environment and to a lesser extent the inclusion of social and economic impacts. However, no health data was used to inform any of the assessments, there was no reference to causal pathways between exposures or determinants and physical or mental health effects, and there was no inclusion of the differential distribution of exposures or health impacts on different populations. The results add conceptually and practically to the long standing integration debate, showing that health is in a position to add value to the EIA process as an explicit part of standard environmental, social and economic considerations. However, to overcome the consistently documented barriers to integrating health in EIA, capacity must be developed amongst EIA professionals, led by the health sector, to progress health related knowledge and tools.
I'm going to talk about the worldwide market for scientific lasers. I felt we should start with a quote from our soon-to-be President and learn from him how he feels about the commitment that the government should make to R&D. "R&D is the economic Fountain of Youth, and we really should take good care of it because that is where our business is for the future." If you read through that quote, it is very clear that at least before the election, he made a very strong commitment to this. It will be interesting to see over the next four years whether he keeps to that commitment or not, but I happen to totally agree with what he is saying here. The R&D market, as I see it, is certainly, as far as lasers are concerned, the growth place for new technology and applications.
Nayak, Chetan S; Isaacson, Glenn
To clarify the multiracial occurrence of Waardenburg syndrome, we present a case series and literature review. A computerized review of the English-language literature was conducted to assess the distribution of reported occurrences of Waardenburg syndrome in populations around the world. We detail the clinical features of 2 family cohorts: one of Western European origin and the other from South Asia. A computerized literature review found sporadic cases of the syndrome in many ethnic groups, including Japanese, Taiwanese, and Middle Eastern families. The highest reported incidence is among Kenyan Africans. Waardenburg syndrome accounts for between 2% and 5% of cases of congenital deafness. It was first described in Northern European cohorts and is widely identified in fair-skinned populations. We hope to raise awareness of the worldwide distribution of this important cause of hearing loss.
Uebelacker, L A; Tremont, G; Gillette, L T; Epstein-Lubow, G; Strong, D R; Abrantes, A M; Tyrka, A R; Tran, T; Gaudiano, B A; Miller, I W
The objective of this study was to determine whether hatha yoga is an efficacious adjunctive intervention for individuals with continued depressive symptoms despite antidepressant treatment. We conducted a randomized controlled trial of weekly yoga classes (n = 63) v. health education classes (Healthy Living Workshop; HLW; n = 59) in individuals with elevated depression symptoms and antidepressant medication use. HLW served as an attention-control group. The intervention period was 10 weeks, with follow-up assessments 3 and 6 months afterwards. The primary outcome was depression symptom severity assessed by blind rater at 10 weeks. Secondary outcomes included depression symptoms over the entire intervention and follow-up periods, social and role functioning, general health perceptions, pain, and physical functioning. At 10 weeks, we did not find a statistically significant difference between groups in depression symptoms (b = -0.82, s.e. = 0.88, p = 0.36). However, over the entire intervention and follow-up period, when controlling for baseline, yoga participants showed lower levels of depression than HLW participants (b = -1.38, s.e. = 0.57, p = 0.02). At 6-month follow-up, 51% of yoga participants demonstrated a response (⩾50% reduction in depression symptoms) compared with 31% of HLW participants (odds ratio = 2.31; p = 0.04). Yoga participants showed significantly better social and role functioning and general health perceptions over time. Although we did not see a difference in depression symptoms at the end of the intervention period, yoga participants showed fewer depression symptoms over the entire follow-up period. Benefits of yoga may accumulate over time.
In the European Union, Council Directive 96/82/EC requires operators producing, using, or handling significant amounts of dangerous substances to improve their safety management systems in order to better manage the major accident potentials deriving from human error. A new safety management system for the Viikinmäki wastewater treatment plant in Helsinki, Finland, was implemented in this study. The system was designed to comply with both the new safety liabilities and the requirements of OHSAS 18001 (British Standards Institute, 1999). During the implementation phase experiences were gathered from the development processes in this small organisation. The complete documentation was placed in the intranet of the plant. Hyperlinks between documents were created to ensure convenience of use. Documentation was made accessible for all workers from every workstation.
Reynolds, John R; Turner, R Jay
Researchers have employed varying strategies in an effort to better understand variation in responses to stress. This article argues that crisis theory makes a useful contribution to these efforts, particularly when studying variable response to major life events that are of high threat potential. Regression analyses of depressive symptomatology, mastery, and self-esteem in a community sample of adults (n = 1,542) provide preliminary support for the central tenets of crisis theory that specify the conditions under which experienced events are minimally and maximally hazardous. The results also offer mixed support for the proposition that successfully resolved crises can even yield emotional and coping benefits. Longitudinal models and further development of survey-based measures for distinguishing the occurrence of a crisis and assessing the adequacy of its resolution are needed to more thoroughly test crisis theory.
Malmqvist, E; Oudin, A; Pascal, M; Medina, S
The aim of this review is to identify the key contextual and methodological differences in health impact assessments (HIA) of ambient air pollution performed for Europe. We limited our review to multi-country reviews. An additional aim is to quantify some of these differences by applying them in a HIA template in three European cities. Several HIAs of ambient air pollution have been performed for Europe, and their key results have been largely disseminated. Different studies have, however, come up with substantial differences in attributed health effects. It is of importance to review the background contributing to these differences and to quantify their importance for decision makers who will use them. We identified several methodological differences that could explain the discrepancy behind the number of attributable deaths or years of life lost. The main differences are due to the exposure-response functions chosen, the ways of assessing air pollution levels, the air pollution scenarios and the study population. In the quantification part, we found that using risk estimates from the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE) instead of the American Cancer Society (ACS) study could nearly double the attributable burden of ambient air pollution. This study provides some insights into the differential results in previously published HIAs on air pollution in Europe. These results are important for stakeholders in order to make informed decisions.
Partial Contents: Epidemiology, Human Diseases, Health, Malaria, AIDS, Homosexual Male, Medical Administration, Rabies, Tuberculosis, Encephalitis Statistics, Gastroenteritie, Mystery Diseases, Children, Epidemics...
Clark, David A.
Thanks to the World Wide Web, a new paradigm has been born. ESCORT (steady state data system) facilities can now be configured to use a Web-based test logger, enabling worldwide participation in tests. NASA Lewis Research Center's new Web-based test logger for ESCORT automatically writes selected test and facility parameters to a browser and allows researchers to insert comments. All data can be viewed in real time via Internet connections, so anyone with a Web browser and the correct URL (universal resource locator, or Web address) can interactively participate. As the test proceeds and ESCORT data are taken, Web browsers connected to the logger are updated automatically. The use of this logger has demonstrated several benefits. First, researchers are free from manual data entry and are able to focus more on the tests. Second, research logs can be printed in report format immediately after (or during) a test. And finally, all test information is readily available to an international public.
Williams, M.C. [Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States)
Fuel cell technologies for stationary power are set to play a role in power generation applications worldwide. The worldwide fuel cell vision is to provide powerplants for the emerging distributed generation and on-site markets. Progress towards commercialization has occurred in all fuel cell development areas. Around 100 ONSI phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) units have been sold, with significant foreign sales in Europe and Japan. Fuji has apparently overcome its PAFC decay problems. Industry-driven molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) programs in Japan and the U.S. are conducting megawatt (MW)-class demonstrations, which are bringing the MCFC to the verge of commercialization. Westinghouse Electric, the acknowledged world leader in tubular solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology, continues to set performance records and has completed construction of a 4-MW/year manufacturing facility in the U.S. Fuel cells have also taken a major step forward with the conceptual development of ultra-high efficiency fuel cell/gas turbine plants. Many SOFC developers in Japan, Europe, and North America continue to make significant advances.
Hay Simon I
Full Text Available Abstract Background Most Ministries of Health across Africa invest substantial resources in some form of health management information system (HMIS to coordinate the routine acquisition and compilation of monthly treatment and attendance records from health facilities nationwide. Despite the expense of these systems, poor data coverage means they are rarely, if ever, used to generate reliable evidence for decision makers. One critical weakness across Africa is the current lack of capacity to effectively monitor patterns of service use through time so that the impacts of changes in policy or service delivery can be evaluated. Here, we present a new approach that, for the first time, allows national changes in health service use during a time of major health policy change to be tracked reliably using imperfect data from a national HMIS. Methods Monthly attendance records were obtained from the Kenyan HMIS for 1 271 government-run and 402 faith-based outpatient facilities nationwide between 1996 and 2004. A space-time geostatistical model was used to compensate for the large proportion of missing records caused by non-reporting health facilities, allowing robust estimation of monthly and annual use of services by outpatients during this period. Results We were able to reconstruct robust time series of mean levels of outpatient utilisation of health facilities at the national level and for all six major provinces in Kenya. These plots revealed reliably for the first time a period of steady nationwide decline in the use of health facilities in Kenya between 1996 and 2002, followed by a dramatic increase from 2003. This pattern was consistent across different causes of attendance and was observed independently in each province. Conclusion The methodological approach presented can compensate for missing records in health information systems to provide robust estimates of national patterns of outpatient service use. This represents the first such use of
Furberg, Curt D; Sealey, Jean E; Blumenfeld, Jon D
About one-half of all hypertensive adults do not have their blood pressure controlled. They are often prescribed medications that conform to national guidelines but they continue to have elevated blood pressure. This public health problem might be improved by applying plasma renin guided therapy. A contributor to the public health problem of unsuccessfully treated hypertension is that the circulating renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is not recognized in treatment guidelines as clinically relevant for the treatment of hypertension or as important as the body salt status for determining blood pressure levels. Another contributor to the problem is the lack of specificity in the package inserts for antihypertensive drugs. They do not specifically state under the heading "Indications" that RAS blockers are primarily most effective in hypertensive subjects with medium and high plasma renin levels; by contrast, natriuretic drugs are most effective in those with low plasma renin levels. Literature review. To address the problem of unsuccessfully treated hypertension, we recommend that the "Indications" section of package inserts for antihypertensive drugs be more specific. The primary indication for RAS blockers ought to be hypertension with medium and high plasma renin levels, and natriuretic agents for those with low plasma renin levels. Similar language ought to be added to treatment guidelines. Additionally, 3 other reasons for lack of blood pressure control also need to be addressed-failure to prescribe antihypertensive drugs to hypertensive subjects, failure of patients to fill prescriptions, and low drug adherence. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2017. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Eclampsia is very common obstetric emergency and major cause of both maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality in India. AIM The aim of study was to evaluate its incidence, clinical profile and maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality associated with it in our hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS A retrospective study was conducted in Government medical college, Haldwani from August 2014 to July 2015 for a period of one year. Out of 3432 deliveries a total of 53 cases of eclampsia were admitted .Cases were studied with respect to age, parity, period of gestation, blood pressure at the time of admission, severity of proteinuria ,maternal complications and mortality, mode of delivery and perinatal outcome. RESULTS Incidence of eclampsia in our study was 1.45%. Majority of patient were primigravida (62.26% It was more common in age group of 21 to 25 years (43.39% followed by age group of 26 to 30 years (26.41%.In most of patient first episode of convulsion occurred at term pregnancy with gestational age more than 37 weeks in our study (52.83%.Among 53 patients of eclampsia 48 presented with antepartum eclampsia (90.57% and 5 presented as postpartum eclampsia (9.43%. There was no case of intrapartum eclampsia in our study. Most common mode of delivery was Lower Segment Caesarean Section (62.26% in our study. Among 53 cases of eclampsia 3 patient had pulmonary oedema, 3 patient developed postpartum pyrexia and 4 patient had placental abruption. In one case postpartum haemorrhage occurred and one patient was in acute renal failure. There was one maternal mortality in our study. 6 patient had intrauterine foetal death (11.32%. 25 had preterm delivery (47.16% and 16 newborns were of low birth weight less than 2.5 Kilograms (30.19%. Most patient who developed eclampsia were unbooked or had irregular or no antenatal check-up (94.33%. CONCLUSION Improvement in antenatal care and neonatal facilities is of paramount importance in decreasing
Martin, Julie Langan; Lowrie, Richard; McConnachie, Alex; McLean, Gary; Mair, Frances; Mercer, Stewart; Smith, Daniel
In the UK, the Quality and Outcome Framework (QOF) has specific targets for general practictioners to record body-mass index (BMI) and blood pressure (BP) in major mental illness, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease. Although incentives are given for aspects of major mental illness (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and related psychoses), barriers to care can occur. Our aim was to compare recording of specific targets for BP and BMI in individuals with major mental illness relative to diabetes and chronic kidney disease across the UK. Using 2012 and 2013 QOF data from 9731 general practices across all four countries in the UK, we calculated median payment, population achievement, and exception rates for BP indicators in major mental illness and chronic kidney disease and BMI indicators in major mental illness and diabetes. Differences in unweighted rates between practices in the same UK country were tested with a sign test. Differences in population achievement rate between practices in different countries were compared with those in England by use of a quantile regression analysis. UK payment and population achievement rates for BMI recording in major mental illness were significantly lower than were those in diabetes (payment 92·7% vs 95·5% and population achievement 84·0% vs 92·5%, pmental illness than for chronic kidney disease (94·1% vs 97·8% and 87·0% vs 97·1%, pmental illness were significantly lower in Scotland than in England (for BMI -1·5%, 99% CI -2·7 to -0·3, and for BP -1·8%, -2·7 to -0·9; pmental illness than in diabetes and chronic kidney disease throughout the UK. We also found variation in these rates between countries. This finding is probably multifactorial, reflecting a combination of patient, clinician, and wider organisational factors; however, it might also suggest inequality in access to certain aspects of health care for people with major mental illness. None. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The CMS Experiment at the LHC has established a network of more than fifty inter-connected 'CMS Centres' at CERN and in institutes in the Americas, Asia, Australasia, and Europe. These facilities are used by people doing CMS detector and computing grid operations, remote shifts, data quality monitoring and analysis, as well as education and outreach. We present the computing, software, and collaborative tools and videoconferencing systems. These include permanently running 'telepresence' video links (hardware-based H.323, EVO and Vidyo), Webcasts, and generic Web tools such as CMS-TV for broadcasting live monitoring and outreach information. Being Web-based and experiment-independent, these systems could easily be extended to other organizations. We describe the experiences of using CMS Centres Worldwide in the CMS data-taking operations as well as for major media events with several hundred TV channels, radio stations, and many more press journalists simultaneously around the world.
Abbe, Adeline; Falissard, Bruno
Internet is a particularly dynamic way to quickly capture the perceptions of a population in real time. Complementary to traditional face-to-face communication, online social networks help patients to improve self-esteem and self-help. The aim of this study was to use text mining on material from an online forum exploring patients' concerns about treatment (antidepressants and anxiolytics). Concerns about treatment were collected from discussion titles in patients' online community related to antidepressants and anxiolytics. To examine the content of these titles automatically, we used text mining methods, such as word frequency in a document-term matrix and co-occurrence of words using a network analysis. It was thus possible to identify topics discussed on the forum. The forum included 2415 discussions on antidepressants and anxiolytics over a period of 3 years. After a preprocessing step, the text mining algorithm identified the 99 most frequently occurring words in titles, among which were escitalopram, withdrawal, antidepressant, venlafaxine, paroxetine, and effect. Patients' concerns were related to antidepressant withdrawal, the need to share experience about symptoms, effects, and questions on weight gain with some drugs. Patients' expression on the Internet is a potential additional resource in addressing patients' concerns about treatment. Patient profiles are close to that of patients treated in psychiatry. ©Adeline Abbe, Bruno Falissard. Originally published in JMIR Mental Health (http://mental.jmir.org), 23.10.2017.
Kelleher, M J; Chambers, D; Corcoran, P; Keeley, H S; Williamson, E
The present paper examines the occurrence of matters relating to the ending of life, including active euthanasia, which is, technically speaking, illegal worldwide. Interest in this most controversial area is drawn from many varied sources, from legal and medical practitioners to religious and moral ethicists. In some countries, public interest has been mobilized into organizations that attempt to influence legislation relating to euthanasia. Despite the obvious international importance of euthanasia, very little is known about the extent of its practice, whether passive or active, voluntary or involuntary. This examination is based on questionnaires completed by 49 national representatives of the International Association for Suicide Prevention (IASP), dealing with legal and religious aspects of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide, as well as suicide. A dichotomy between the law and medical practices relating to the end of life was uncovered by the results of the survey. In 12 of the 49 countries active euthanasia is said to occur while a general acceptance of passive euthanasia was reported to be widespread. Clearly, definition is crucial in making the distinction between active and passive euthanasia; otherwise, the entire concept may become distorted, and legal acceptance may become more widespread with the effect of broadening the category of individuals to whom euthanasia becomes an available option. The "slippery slope" argument is briefly considered.
The JSC Flight Safety Office has developed this compilation of historical information on spacecraft crew hatches to assist the Safety Tech Authority in the evaluation and analysis of worldwide spacecraft crew hatch design and performance. The document is prepared by SAIC s Gary Johnson, former NASA JSC S&MA Associate Director for Technical. Mr. Johnson s previous experience brings expert knowledge to assess the relevancy of data presented. He has experience with six (6) of the NASA spacecraft programs that are covered in this document: Apollo; Skylab; Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP), Space Shuttle, ISS and the Shuttle/Mir Program. Mr. Johnson is also intimately familiar with the JSC Design and Procedures Standard, JPR 8080.5, having been one of its original developers. The observations and findings are presented first by country and organized within each country section by program in chronological order of emergence. A host of reference sources used to augment the personal observations and comments of the author are named within the text and/or listed in the reference section of this document. Careful attention to the selection and inclusion of photos, drawings and diagrams is used to give visual association and clarity to the topic areas examined.
The worldwide ionospheric data base is scattered over the entire globe. Different data sets are held at different institutions in the U.S., U.S.S.R., Australia, Europe, and Asia. The World Data Centers on the different continents archive and distribute part of the huge data base; the scope and cross section of the individual data holdings depend on the regional and special interest of the center. An attempt is made to pull together all the strings that point toward different ionospheric data holdings. Requesters are provided with the information about what is available and where to get it. An attempt is also made to evaluate the reliability and compatibility of the different data sets based on the consensus in the ionospheric research community. The status and accuracy of the standard ionospheric models are also discussed because they may facilitate first order assessment of ionospheric effects. This is a first step toward an ionospheric data directory within the framework of NSSDC's master directory.
The worldwide ionospheric data base is scattered over the entire globe. Different data sets are held at different institutions in the U.S., U.S.S.R., Australia, Europe, and Asia. The World Data Centers on the different continents archive and distribute part of the huge data base; the scope and cross section of the individual data holdings depend on the regional and special interest of the center. An attempt is made to pull together all the strings that point toward different ionospheric data holdings. Requesters are provided with the information about what is available and where to get it. An attempt is also made to evaluate the reliability and compatibility of the different data sets based on the consensus in the ionospheric research community. The status and accuracy of the standard ionospheric models are also discussed because they may facilitate first order assessment of ionospheric effects. This is a first step toward an ionospheric data directory within the framework of NSSDC's master directory
The International Atomic Energy Agency convened a technical committee meeting on high temperature reactors (HTRs) from 12-14 Dec. 1977 at Agency Headquarters to provide a forum for the exchange of information on the status of HTR development programmes and to receive advice on the Agency programme in this field. The continuing high level of international interest in HTRs was evidenced by the participation from 11 countries and 2 organizations: Austria, Belgium, France, Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, Netherlands, Poland, Switzerland, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, United Kingdom of Great Britain, United States of America, Commission of the European Communities, and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. In order to promote the continuing exchange of technical information through the offices of the IAEA, a recommendation was made that the Agency establish a standing International Working Group on High Temperature Reactors (IWGHTR). This recommendation is being implemented in 1978. Considerable information on recent progress in HTR development was present at the technical committee meeting in technical reports and in progress reports on HTR development programmes. Since this material will not be published, this summary report on the worldwide status of HTR development at the beginning of 1978 has been prepared, based primarily on information presented at the December 1977 meeting
A well-documented discussion is presented dealing with the worldwide potential of wind energy as a source of electrical and mechanical power. It is pointed out that 2% of the solar insolation is converted to wind kinetic energy; it is constantly renewed and nondepletable. Efficiency of windmills are discussed (20 to 40%) and payback periods of less than 5 years are cited. Effects of wind velocity and site location are described. Wind pumps are reviewed and the need for wind pumps, particularly in the developing countries is stressed. The generation of electricity by windmills using small turbines is reviewed and appears promising in areas with wind velocities greater than 12 mi/hr. The development of large windmills and groups of windmills (windfarms) for large scale electrical power is discussed, illustrated, and reviewed (offshore sites included). Environmental and safety problems are considered as well as the role of electrical utilities, government support and research activities. It is concluded that the potential contribution of wind energy is immense and that mechanical windmills may become one of the most important renewable technologies. Electrical generating potential is estimated at 20 to 30% of electrical needs. International programs are discussed briefly. 57 references. (MJJ)
Tang, Li; Lee, Andy H; Binns, Colin W; Yang, Yuxiong; Wu, Yan; Li, Yanxia; Qiu, Liqian
The potential health risks of infant formula feeding are well established. This study investigated the opinions and perceptions of mothers and recommendations by hospital staff with respect to infant formula usage in China. A cross-sectional survey of 726 mothers within 6 months postpartum and 241 hospital staff, using structured questionnaires, was conducted in Hangzhou and Shenzhen, China. Overall, 474 of 726 (65.3%) infants aged within 6 months had consumed some infant formula. About 40.0 percent of mothers chose a hybrid brand of formula (manufactured in China but owned by a foreign company), over imported (< 32.0%) and domestic brands (< 28.0%), despite their higher level of confidence on the quality of imported brands. Perceived insufficient breastmilk production (86.2%) was the most common reason for giving infant formula, followed by return to work (24.6%). Of the 241 hospital staff, 97 (40.2%) gave no recommendation about infant formula brand for infants at any age. However, 47.2 percent of the remaining staff recommended a hybrid brand in combination with an imported and/or a domestic product. Perceptions by mothers and recommendations from hospital staff appear to contribute to the widespread usage of infant formula in China. It is important to ensure breastmilk substitutes are prescribed to Chinese infants strictly for medical reasons. Maternal education programs incorporating information on food safety issues and establishment of breastfeeding-friendly workplaces could curtail the common practice of formula feeding in China. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Ultraviolet (UV irradiation is one of the several environmental hazards that may cause inflammatory reactions in ocular tissues, especially the cornea. One of the important factors that affect how much ultraviolet radiation (UVR humans are exposed to is travel. Hence, traveling is considered to include a more acute UVR effect, and ophthalmologists frequently evaluate and manage the ocular manifestations of UV irradiation, including UV-induced keratitis. The purpose of this paper is to provide an evidence-based analysis of the clinical effect of UVR in ocular tissues. An extensive review of English literature was performed to gather all available articles from the National Library of Medicine PubMed database of the National Institute of Health, the Ovid MEDLINE database, Scopus, and ScienceDirect that had studied the effect of UVR on the eye and its complications, between January 1970 and June 2014. The results show that UVR at 300 nm causes apoptosis in all three layers of the cornea and induces keratitis. Apoptosis in all layers of the cornea occurs 5 h after exposure. The effect of UVR intensity on the eye can be linked to numerous factors, including solar elevation, time of day, season, hemisphere, clouds and haze, atmospheric scattering, atmospheric ozone, latitude, altitude, longitudinal changes, climate, ground reflection, and geographic directions. The most important factor affecting UVR reaching the earth's surface is solar elevation. Currently, people do not have great concern over eye protection. The methods of protection against UVR include avoiding direct sunlight exposure, using UVR-blocking eyewear (sunglasses or contact lenses, and wearing hats. Hence, by identifying UVR intensity factors, eye protection factors, and public education, especially in travelers, methods for safe traveling can be identified.
Izadi, M; Jonaidi-Jafari, N; Pourazizi, M; Alemzadeh-Ansari, M H; Hoseinpourfard, M J
Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation is one of the several environmental hazards that may cause inflammatory reactions in ocular tissues, especially the cornea. One of the important factors that affect how much ultraviolet radiation (UVR) humans are exposed to is travel. Hence, traveling is considered to include a more acute UVR effect, and ophthalmologists frequently evaluate and manage the ocular manifestations of UV irradiation, including UV-induced keratitis. The purpose of this paper is to provide an evidence-based analysis of the clinical effect of UVR in ocular tissues. An extensive review of English literature was performed to gather all available articles from the National Library of Medicine PubMed database of the National Institute of Health, the Ovid MEDLINE database, Scopus, and ScienceDirect that had studied the effect of UVR on the eye and its complications, between January 1970 and June 2014. The results show that UVR at 300 nm causes apoptosis in all three layers of the cornea and induces keratitis. Apoptosis in all layers of the cornea occurs 5 h after exposure. The effect of UVR intensity on the eye can be linked to numerous factors, including solar elevation, time of day, season, hemisphere, clouds and haze, atmospheric scattering, atmospheric ozone, latitude, altitude, longitudinal changes, climate, ground reflection, and geographic directions. The most important factor affecting UVR reaching the earth's surface is solar elevation. Currently, people do not have great concern over eye protection. The methods of protection against UVR include avoiding direct sunlight exposure, using UVR-blocking eyewear (sunglasses or contact lenses), and wearing hats. Hence, by identifying UVR intensity factors, eye protection factors, and public education, especially in travelers, methods for safe traveling can be identified.
Ryan, Timothy; Specht, Jessica; Smith, Sarah; DelGaudio, John M
Analyze the correlation between online-based review websites and the Press Ganey Patient Satisfaction Survey (PGPSS) in an academic otolaryngology department. Retrospective cross sectional. Tertiary academic institution. All available data were collected for Vitals.com and Healthgrades.com, along with PGPSS data for 16 otolaryngology attending physicians from 2012 to 2014. A mean rating was calculated for each topic category for online websites and compared with 7 PGPSS content questions using zero-order correlations. A paired t test was used to analyze the difference between the PGPSS and online scores. There were no statistically significant correlations between time spent with the patient (r = 0.391, P = .208) and overall provider scores (r = 0.193, P = .508) when compared between Vitals.com and the PGPSS. The correlations were not statistically significant when Healthgrades.com was compared with the PGPSS in the items "probability of recommending the provider" (r = -0.122, P = .666) and "trust in provider" (r = -0.025, P = .929). The most important factors in a patient recommending the provider were as follows, per resource: time spent with the patient for Vitals.com (r = 0.685, P = .014), listening for Healthgrades.com (r = 0.981, P ≤ .001), and trust in the provider for the PGPSS (r = 0.971, P ≤ .001). This study suggests that online-based reviews do not have statistically significant correlations with the widely used PGPSS and may not be an accurate source of information for patients. Patients should have access to the most reliable and least biased surveys available to the public to allow for better-informed decisions regarding their health care. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.
Manuilova, I A
The work of the Soviet Family Health Association (SFHA) is described. Created in January, 1989, the organization boasts 25 state-paid workers, and as of June 1991, membership of 15,000 corporate and individual members. Individual annual membership fee is 5 rubles, and entitles members to counseling and family planning (FP) services. The SFHA works in cooperation with the Commission on Family Planning Problems of the USSR's Academy of Sciences, and has been a member of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) since 1990. Association activities include lectures for students, newly-weds, adolescents, and working women on modern contraceptive methods; research on attitude regarding sex, sex behaviors, and the perceived need for effective contraception; clinical trials of contraceptive suitability for women; and the training of doctors in FP and contraceptives. Problems central to the SFHA's operations include insufficient service and examination equipment, a shortage of hard currency, and the small number of FP specialists in the country. Solutions to these obstacles are sought through collaboration with the government, non-governmental organizations in the Soviet Union, and international groups. The SFHA has a series of activities planned for 1991 designed to foster wider acceptance of FP. Increased FP services at industrial enterprises, establishing more FP centers throughout the Soviet Union, and studying FP programs in other countries are among Association targets for the year. Research on and promotion of contraceptives has been virtually stagnant since abortion was declared illegal in 1936. Catching up on these lost decades and remaining self-reliant are challenges to the SPHA.
Druery, Martha; Newcombe, Peter A; Cameron, Cate M; Lipman, Jeffrey
The goal of burn care is that 'the quality of the outcome must be worth the pain of survival'. More research is needed to understand how best to deliver care for patients with burns to achieve this aim. Loss of independence, function as well as loss of income for patients with burns and carers cause a significant burden at both individual and societal levels. Much is being done to advance knowledge in the clinical care field; however, there has been a paucity of research exploring psychosocial outcomes. This paper describes the study background and methods, as implemented in an Australian cohort study of psychosocial outcomes after major burn injuries. In this inception cohort study, a target sample of 230 participants, aged 18 years or over, admitted to a single statewide burns centre with a burn injury are identified by hospital staff for inclusion. Baseline survey data are collected either in person or by telephone within 28 days of the injury and participants then followed up with telephone interviews at 3, 6 and 12 months postburn. Injury and burns treatment information is collected from medical records. Social support is measured as a predictor variable using the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Outcome data are collected via standardised measures in the domains of Quality of Life (SF-12, EQ-5D, BSHS-B), depression (PHQ-9), post-traumatic stress disorder (PCL-C, PAS), community integration (CIQ-R) and Quality-Adjusted Life Years (EQ-5D). Additional survey questions measure life satisfaction, return to work and public services utilisation at 12 months postinjury. Data analysis methods will include analysis of variance, Pearson correlation and hierarchical multiple regression analyses. Hospital-based and University of Queensland Human Research Ethics Committees have approved the protocol. Results from the study will be disseminated at national and international conferences, in peer-reviewed journals and in a doctoral thesis. Australia New
Farahmand, Vahid; Hassanzadeh, Ramezan; Mirzaian, Bahram; Fayyazi Bordbar, Mohammad Reza; Feizi, Jaleh
The present research aims to analyze the efficacy of group metacognitive therapy (MCT) on self-esteem and mental Health of those who suffer from major depressive disorder. The research was a randomized clinical controlled trial, using pretest and posttest with 2 months of follow-up. Twenty-two patients with major depressive disorder based on DSM-IV-TR criteria were selected through available sampling from patients of two psychiatric hospitals of Mashhad, Iran, in 2011. They were allocated randomly into two groups of trial (n = 11) and control (n = 11). Citalopram and sertraline were prescribed as antidepressant to both groups. The experimental group also attended nine 90-minute sessions of MCT (a 5-week program). Eysenck self-esteem scale (ESES) and Mental Health Checklist (MHC) were used in pretest, posttest, and follow-up as the study instrument. The data were analyzed by analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) using SPSS. ANCOVA revealed that the patients receiving group MCT had significantly increased (p self-esteem in posttest, which remained significant in the follow up (p self-steam and recuperation of mental health in MDD patients.
Christiani, Yodi; Byles, Julie E; Tavener, Meredith; Dugdale, Paul
Inhabitants of rural areas can be tempted to migrate to urban areas for the type and range of facilities available. Although urban inhabitants may benefit from greater access to human and social services, living in a big city can also bring disadvantages to some residents due to changes in social and physical environments. We analysed data from 4,208 women aged >15 years old participating in the fourth wave of the Indonesia Family Life Survey. Chronic condition risk factors - systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), body mass index (BMI), and tobacco use - among women in four major cities in Indonesia (Jakarta, Surabaya, Medan, and Bandung) were compared against other cities. Fractional polynomial regression models were applied to examine the association between living in the major cities and SBP, DBP, BMI, and tobacco use. The models were also adjusted for age, education, employment status, migration status, ethnic groups, and religion. The patterns of SBP, DBP, and BMI were plotted and contrasted between groups of cities. Chronic condition prevalence was higher for women in major cities than in contrasting cities (p<0.005). Living in major cities increased the risk of having higher SBP, DBP, BMI and being a current smoker. Chronic disease risk factors in major cities were evident from younger ages. Women residing in Indonesia's major cities have a higher risk of developing chronic conditions, starting at younger ages. The findings highlight the challenges inherent in providing long-term healthcare with its associated cost within major Indonesian cities and the importance of chronic disease prevention programmes targeting women at an early age.
Full Text Available Background: Inhabitants of rural areas can be tempted to migrate to urban areas for the type and range of facilities available. Although urban inhabitants may benefit from greater access to human and social services, living in a big city can also bring disadvantages to some residents due to changes in social and physical environments. Design: We analysed data from 4,208 women aged >15 years old participating in the fourth wave of the Indonesia Family Life Survey. Chronic condition risk factors – systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP, body mass index (BMI, and tobacco use – among women in four major cities in Indonesia (Jakarta, Surabaya, Medan, and Bandung were compared against other cities. Fractional polynomial regression models were applied to examine the association between living in the major cities and SBP, DBP, BMI, and tobacco use. The models were also adjusted for age, education, employment status, migration status, ethnic groups, and religion. The patterns of SBP, DBP, and BMI were plotted and contrasted between groups of cities. Results: Chronic condition prevalence was higher for women in major cities than in contrasting cities (p<0.005. Living in major cities increased the risk of having higher SBP, DBP, BMI and being a current smoker. Chronic disease risk factors in major cities were evident from younger ages. Conclusions: Women residing in Indonesia's major cities have a higher risk of developing chronic conditions, starting at younger ages. The findings highlight the challenges inherent in providing long-term healthcare with its associated cost within major Indonesian cities and the importance of chronic disease prevention programmes targeting women at an early age.
for this disease. Chancroid accounted for 24,9 percent, non-gonnococcal urethritis for 11,3 percent, lymphogranuloma venereum for 8,2 percent and...second major change was the decrease in chancroid and the possibility that education programmes contributed should not be overlooked. [Text] [Harare
Young, S; Erdem, S A
It has been stated that one of the major challenges for the international marketer is the design of an efficient strategy for marketing services to international markets. This paper reviews some of the issues associated with services marketing in global markets along with the basic variables of service industries. An exploratory assessment of the health care services industry results in a list composed of several inquiry areas which should be examined by multinational companies. It is hoped that the review of the issues raised in this paper provides a basis for decision making and further research.
Muula, A S; Phiri, A
Health workers and support staff at Malawi's major referral hospital, the Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre, were on strike between 5th and 19th October 2001. The health workers' grievances included: lack of risk allowances; poor professional allowances; low salaries; and low housing allowances. The strike resulted in almost total closure of the 1500-bed hospital; only the burns and orthopaedic wards continued to serve patients. Volunteer staff, comprising the Red Cross, and nursing and medical students provided services. Verbal and written threats by the authorities had minimal effect on terminating the strike; rather, they encouraged the resolve to continue with the industrial action. We report aspects of the genesis, progress and resolution of the strike. Although not much seems to have been achieved, both the employer and the workers need to draw lessons from the experience.
Cao, Yuping; Li, Wen; Shen, Jingjin; Zhang, Yalin
To investigate the association between health related quality of life (HRQoL) and severity of depression in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Short Form 36 Health Survey Questionnaire (SF-36) was administered to 103 MDD patients at the baseline and 6-week follow-up. Hamilton Depression Rating for Depression (HAMD) and Clinical Global Impression (CGI) were administered at the baseline, 2- and 6-week follow-up, respectively. All SF-36 component scores in the 6-week follow-up were significantly higher than those at the baseline (Pphysical, general health, vitality, social functioning, role-emotion and mental health were significantly higher in the remission group than those in the non-remission group (Phealth transition was significantly associated with higher scores of HAMD and sleep disturbance at the baseline (Phealth and role-emotion were strongly associated with higher score of anxiety/somatization at the baseline (both Phealth was positively associated with reduction rate of cognitive disturbance at the 2-week endpoint (Phealth transition were positively associated with the reduction rate of sleep disturbance at the 2-week endpoint (both Pdepression was significantly associated with a worse HRQoL in patients with MDD. A 6-week antidepressant treatment may result in comparable HRQoL improvements. The components of HRQoL vary with severity of various symptoms of depression at the baseline and their early improvement after the treatment.
Leclerc, Camille; Courchamp, Franck; Bellard, Céline
The global loss of biodiversity can be attributed to numerous threats. While pioneer studies have investigated their relative importance, the majority of those studies are restricted to specific geographic regions and/or taxonomic groups and only consider a small subset of threats, generally in isolation despite their frequent interaction. Here, we investigated 11 major threats responsible for species decline on islands worldwide. We applied an innovative method of network analyses to disentangle the associations of multiple threats on vertebrates, invertebrates, and plants in 15 insular regions. Biological invasions, wildlife exploitation, and cultivation, either alone or in association, were found to be the three most important drivers of species extinction and decline on islands. Specifically, wildlife exploitation and cultivation are largely associated with the decline of threatened plants and terrestrial vertebrates, whereas biological invasions mostly threaten invertebrates and freshwater fish. Furthermore, biodiversity in the Indian Ocean and near the Asian coasts is mostly affected by wildlife exploitation and cultivation compared to biological invasions in the Pacific and Atlantic insular regions. We highlighted specific associations of threats at different scales, showing that the analysis of each threat in isolation might be inadequate for developing effective conservation policies and managements.
Stöckl, Heidi; Dekel, Bianca; Morris-Gehring, Alison; Watts, Charlotte; Abrahams, Naeemah
This study aims to describe child homicide perpetrators and estimate their global and regional proportion to inform prevention strategies to reduce child homicide mortality worldwide. A systematic review of 9431 studies derived from 18 databases led to the inclusion of 126 studies after double screening. All included studies reported a number or proportion of child homicides perpetrators. 169 countries and homicide experts were surveyed in addition. The median proportion for each perpetrator category was calculated by region and overall and by age groups and sex. Data were obtained for 44 countries. Overall, parents committed 56.5% (IQR 23.7-69.6) of child homicides, 58.4% (0.0-66.7) of female and 46.8% (14.1-63.8) of male child homicides. Acquaintances committed 12.6% (5.9-31.3) of child homicides. Almost a tenth (9.2% (IQR 0.0-21.9) of child homicides had missing information on the perpetrator. The largest proportion of parental homicides of children was found in high-income countries (64.2%; 44.7-71.8) and East Asia and Pacific Region (61.7%; 46.7-78.6). Parents committed the majority (77.8% (61.5-100.0)) of homicides of children under the age of 1 year. For adolescents, acquaintances were the main group of homicide perpetrators (36.9%, 6.6-51.8). There is a notable lack of studies from low-income and middle-income countries and children above the age of 1 year. Children face the highest risk of homicide by parents and someone they know. Increased investment into the compilation of routine data on child homicide, and the perpetrators of this homicide is imperative for understanding and ultimately reducing child homicide mortality worldwide. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42015030125.
recently been reduced to 25 percent of the national territory, that is, about 201,806 square kilometers, according to information received by PRESENCIA ...reported cases of malaria. Subsequently, they treat the patient. [Excerpts] [La Paz PRESENCIA in Spanish 9 Oct 82 p 9] 8568 CSO: 5400/2011...the Cuban doctors in our hospitals," said the secretary of health and social affairs, Comrade Paulo Carlos Medina, the day before yesterday at the
LEPROSY TREATMENT, FUNDING—Mr Somchai Opbun, the director of the Chiang Mai Mackken Lepers Welfare Institute, has revealed that, at present...Spreading a Serious Disease"] [Text] The meat markets in Chiang Mai are in turmoil. The people do not dare consume [meat]; they are afraid of...slaughtered here. Dr Sutham Hirannarutmon, the acting public health officer in Chiang Mai Province, made a statement at a press conference last Tuesday
Blum, Steven I; Tourkodimitris, Stavros; Ruth, Adam
Levomilnacipran extended-release (ER) is an FDA-approved serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) for treating major depressive disorder (MDD). SF-36v2 Health Survey outcomes from a Phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study (NCT00969709) were evaluated. Prospective and post hoc analyses of SF-36 Mental and Physical Component Summaries (MCS, PCS), and individual domains compared pooled levomilnacipran ER doses (40, 80, 120 mg/day) with placebo. Patients (18-65 years) had MDD, depressive episode ≥ 8 weeks, and Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale total score ≥ 30. SF-36 score changes from baseline to Week 8 were analyzed using ANCOVA and the observed cases approach (Intent-to-Treat [ITT] Population). Minimally important differences (MID) evaluated clinical relevance. Baseline MCS scores reflected marked mental deficits in the ITT Population (levomilnacipran ER = 529; placebo = 175). MCS change at Week 8 was significantly greater for levomilnacipran ER than placebo (LSMD [SE] = 4.8 [1.5]; P = 0.0011); MID exceeded the 3-point threshold. Baseline PCS scores suggested minimal physical deficits; no between-group difference at Week 8 was noted. LSMD was nominally statistically significant (P Health [2.44; P = 0.0010], Vitality [2.48; P = 0.0307], Social Functioning [3.25; P = 0.0097], Role-Emotional [3.38; P = 0.0078], Mental Health [4.34; P = 0.0005]); changes in Vitality, Social Functioning, and Mental Health exceeded MID. The trial was limited by short duration; analyses were post hoc and adjustments were not made for multiplicity. Statistically significant and clinically meaningful improvement on the MCS and several individual domains suggest overall and dimensional improvement in health-related functioning for patients with MDD treated with levomilnacipran ER versus placebo. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The aim of the research was to identify the major factors that can positively or negatively effect the state of the socio-psychological climate in the medical team of healthcare institutions. The psychological study of the social-psychologic climate of 152 health care workers of two hospitals of Kherson region (N 1, n=80; N 2, n=72 was conducted. It is established that the level of self-esteem of climate in the institution №1 was significantly lower than in institution N 2 (р<0,007. Moreover, these two institutions differed significantly by experience of joint work of health workers (р<0.05 and length of service of the head physicians. Health care workers with less joint work experience have been working in the institution N 1, and it was headed by the head physician with less leading experience. By the opinion of health workers of both institutions, such factors as "interesting and meaningful work", "attentive head", "relations with colleagues", have the most positive impact on the state of climate the most negative influence — "unsatisfactory management style", "tensions in the team", "lack of financial motivation", "poor working conditions". Each team has its own combination of factors that positively or negatively affect the state of the climate. It is established, that depending on the work experience of the head physician and the work experience of joint work of employees, the main factors that affect the climate in the team are "attentive manager" and "relationships with colleagues". The more work experience of the leader, the more it will affect the state of the climate in the team. The less experience of joint work of employees, the more "relationship with colleagues" will affect its condition. Evaluation of the state of socio-psychological climate and its factors by the personnel may be the indicator of efficiency of personnel management in the health care institution.
Haefliger, E; Rieder, H L
The mortality rate still is an important index for assessment of tuberculosis. Statistical records are kept on the mortality rate on a worldwide basis--more than in the case of other tuberculosis parameters. They allow us to make valuable comparisons. They are also useful because the mortality is closely related to the morbidity. The present thesis is based on comparative figures from the 1989 volume of the WHO Health Statistics Annual. Various countries have been specially selected by the publisher--and subsequently also by us--for sake of clarity. The figures vary strongly within these countries, which was to be expected. The mortality rate varies in Europe (for each 100,000 residents) e.g. from 0.2 in the Netherlands to 8.15 in the Soviet Union. In the Americas the rates vary from 0.4 for Canada to 12.9 for Ecuador. In the Western Pacific region the mortality rates vary from 0.35 for Australia to 14.65 for China. On a worldwide basis, the share of deaths from tuberculosis among all causes of death varies from 0.02% in the Netherlands to 2.10% in the Republic of Korea. The relation of tuberculosis deaths with regard to sexes in Switzerland: 75.7% men, 24.3% women, which is more or less the European average. The lower the mortality rate for tuberculosis are, the lower the difference between the sexes appears to be. Similar facts are found with regard to the distribution of tuberculosis deaths according to age groups: the lower the tuberculosis rate, the more tuberculosis is found in older age groups. The tuberculosis deaths are percentage-wise similarly distributed to the respiratory organs and the other tuberculosis forms.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Shaikh, Maaz; Woodward, Mark; Rahimi, Kazem; Patel, Anushka; Rath, Santosh; MacMahon, Stephen; Jha, Vivekanand
Information about use of major surgery in India is scarce. This study aims to bridge this gap by auditing hospital claims from the Rajiv Aarogyasri Community Health Insurance Scheme (RACHIS) that provides access to free tertiary care for major surgery through state-funded insurance to 68 million beneficiaries with limited household incomes-81% of population in states of Telangana and Andhra Pradesh (combined Human Development Index 0·485). Beneficiary households receive an annual coverage of INR 200 000 (US$3333) for admissions to any empanelled public or private hospital. Publicly available deidentified hospital claim data for all surgical procedures conducted between mid-2008 and mid-2012 were compiled across all 23 districts in Telangana and Andhra Pradesh. 677 332 surgical admissions (80% at private hospitals) were recorded at a mean annual rate of 259 per 100 000 beneficiaries (95% CI 235-283), excluding cataract and caesarean sections as these were not covered under the insurance programme. Men accounted for 56% of admissions. Injury was the most common cause for surgical admission (185 733; 27%) with surgical correction of long bone fractures being the most common procedure (144 997; 20%) identified in the audit. Diseases of digestive (110 922; 16%), genitourinary (82 505; 12%), and musculoskeletal system (70 053; 10%) were other leading causes for surgical admissions. Most hospital bed-days were used for injuries (584 days per 100 000 person years; 31%), digestive diseases (314 days; 17%), and musculoskeletal system (207 days; 11%), costing 19% (INR 4·4 billion), 13% (3·03 billion), and 11% (2·5 billion) of claims, respectively. Cardiovascular surgeries (53 023; 8%) alone accounted for 21% (INR 4·9 billion) of cost. Annual per capita cost of surgical claims was US$1·49 (95% CI 1·32-1·65). Our findings are limited to a population socioeconomically representative of India and other countries with low-income and middle
Cummings, Janet R; Case, Brady G; Ji, Xu; Chae, David H; Druss, Benjamin G
Racial/ethnic differences in the course of treatment for a major depressive episode (MDE) among adolescents may arise, in part, from variation in the perceived rationale for treatment. We examined racial/ethnic differences in the perceived reasons for receiving mental health (MH) treatment among adolescents with an MDE. A total of 2,789 adolescent participants who experienced an MDE and received MH treatment in the past year were drawn from the 2005 to 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Adolescents reported the settings in which they received care and reasons for their most recent visit to each setting. Distributions of specific depressive symptoms were compared across racial/ethnic groups. Racial/ethnic differences in endorsing each of 11 possible reasons for receiving treatment were examined using weighted probit regressions adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, health and mental health status, treatment setting, and survey year. Despite similar depressive symptom profiles, Hispanic adolescents were more likely than whites to endorse "breaking rules" or getting into physical fights as reasons for MH treatment. Black adolescents were more likely than white adolescents to endorse "problems at school" but less likely to endorse "felt very afraid or tense" or "eating problems" as reasons for treatment. Asian adolescents were more likely to endorse "problems with people other than friends or family" but less likely than whites to endorse "suicidal thoughts/attempt" and "felt depressed" as reasons for treatment. Racial/ethnic minority participants were more likely than white participants to endorse externalizing or interpersonal problems and less likely to endorse internalizing problems as reasons for MH treatment. Understanding racial/ethnic differences in the patient's perceived treatment rationale can offer opportunities to enhance outcomes for depression among diverse populations. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Child and Adolescent
Stalder, Jean-Francois; Bernier, Claire; Ball, Alan; De Raeve, Linda; Gieler, Uwe; Deleuran, Mette; Marcoux, Danielle; Eichenfield, Lawrence F; Lio, Peter; Lewis-Jones, Sue; Gelmetti, Carlo; Takaoka, Roberto; Chiaverini, Christine; Misery, Laurent; Barbarot, Sébastien
Therapeutic patient education (TPE) has proven effective in increasing treatment adherence and improving quality of life (QoL) for patients with numerous chronic diseases, especially atopic dermatitis (AD). This study was undertaken to identify worldwide TPE experiences in AD treatment. Experts from 23 hospitals, located in 11 countries, responded to a questionnaire on 10 major items. Patients in TPE programs were mainly children and adolescents with moderate to severe AD or markedly affected QoL. Individual and collective approaches were used. Depending on the center, the number of sessions varied from one to six (corresponding to 2 to 12 hours of education), and 20 to 200 patients were followed each year. Each center's education team comprised multidisciplinary professionals (e.g., doctors, nurses, psychologists). Evaluations were based on clinical assessment, QoL, a satisfaction index, or some combination of the three. When funding was obtained, it came from regional health authorities (France), insurance companies (Germany), donations (United States), or pharmaceutical firms (Japan, Italy). The role of patient associations was always highlighted, but their involvement in the TPE process varied from one country to another. Despite the nonexhaustive approach, our findings demonstrate the increasing interest in TPE for managing individuals with AD. In spite of the cultural and financial differences between countries, there is a consensus among experts to integrate education into the treatment of eczema. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Pereira, Eduardo Mazzaroppi Barao
Health has become a priority issue on the agenda in relation to Brazilian international technical cooperation in the last decade. This applies to Mozambique which is a strategic partner of Brazil's when one takes into consideration the volume of projects that have been undertaken between the two countries and the available resources on offer. There has been a shift in the foreign policy paradigm which has resulted in a new Brazilian foreign policy posture that promotes bilateral agreements and international cooperation. On conducting a retrospective and current analysis it is clear that there are, however, major obstacles and challenges for bilateral agreements and technical international cooperation that require in-depth study and which need to be dealt with in the area of health. This paper seeks to identify and analyze these obstacles with a view to providing proposals for ways forward. It takes the approach of using the methodology of reviewing specialized journals on this topic as well as using qualitative research from the main actors and institutions involved in bilateral cooperation.
Ebneter, Daria S; Latner, Janet D
The aim of the current article was to compare stigmatizing attitudes toward eating disorders (EDs), including anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED), with stigma toward another weight-related condition (obesity) and a non-weight-related mental disorder (major depressive disorder [MDD]). Participants (N = 447) read five vignettes describing a woman with AN, BN, BED, obesity, or MDD and responded to questionnaires examining stigmatizing attitudes. The targets with EDs were blamed more for their condition than the targets with MDD, whereas persons with obesity were held more responsible for their condition than any other target. On the other hand, the target with MDD was perceived as more impaired than any other target. Lack of self-discipline was attributed more to the development of BED and obesity than to any other condition. Stigmatizing attitudes vary across mental health disorders, and future research should aim to specifically target stigmatizing beliefs to reduce and prevent discrimination toward mental health disorders and obesity.
Yoon, Gihyun; Petrakis, Ismene L; Rosenheck, Robert A
This study assesses medical and psychiatric comorbidities, service utilization, and psychotropic medication prescriptions in veterans with comorbid major depressive disorder (MDD) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) relative to veterans with MDD alone. Using cross-sectional administrative data (fiscal year [FY]2012: October 1, 2011-September 30, 2012) from the Veterans Health Administration (VHA), we identified veterans with a diagnosis of current (12-month) MDD nationally (N = 309,374), 18.8% of whom were also diagnosed with current (12-month) AUD. Veterans with both MDD and AUD were compared to those with MDD alone on sociodemographic characteristics, current (12-month) medical and psychiatric disorders, service utilization, and psychotropic prescriptions. We then used logistic regression analyses to calculate odds ratio and 95% confidence interval of characteristics that were independently different between the groups. Dually diagnosed veterans with MDD and AUD, relative to veterans with MDD alone, had a greater number of comorbid health conditions, such as liver disease, drug use disorders, and bipolar disorder as well as greater likelihood of homelessness and higher service utilization. Dually diagnosed veterans with MDD and AUD had more frequent medical and psychiatric comorbidities and more frequently had been homeless. These data suggest the importance of assessing the presence of comorbid medical/psychiatric disorders and potential homelessness in order to provide appropriately comprehensive treatment to dually diagnosed veterans with MDD and AUD and indicate a need to develop more effective treatments for combined disorders. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.
Nearly every measles infection results in well-recognized clinical disease. In nonimmunized populations almost every child will get measles early in life. The universality of the disease in nonimmunized communities, particularly those in the developing world, has led to a more or less passive acceptance of measles as an unavoidable risk of early life. The clinical spectrum of measles ranges from a mild, self-limiting illness to a fatal disease. Conditions encountered mainly in the developing world, e.g., unfavorable nutrition, high risk of concurrent infection, and inadequate case management -- particularly at home -- favor the development of complications and adverse outcome. Conversely, good clinical management of an otherwise healthy child, a situation seen mostly in the developed world, greatly influences the course of the disease. Hence many in the medical profession believe that measles is a mild disease except among populations living under particularly unfavorable conditions. Measles vaccine is effective in preventing disease in the individual and in controlling it in the community if it is given at the critical age when maternal antibodies wane and the risk of natural infection increases sharply and if a high immunization rate is maintained in the target population. The experience with immunization, particularly in sub-saharan Africa, is rewarding: mothers who had previously accepted measles as an unavoidable risk clamour for immunization of their children once its effectiveness has been demonstrated. No reason exists for measles to claim its present toll of morbidity and mortality. With extension of the Expanded Programme on Immunization of the World Health Organization, the impact of measles should progressively decline.
Georgios P. Antoniou
Full Text Available Throughout history, various civilizations developed methodologies for the collection and disposal of human waste. The methodologies throughout the centuries have been characterized by technological peaks on the one hand, and by the disappearance of the technologies and their reappearance on the other. The purpose of this article is to trace the development of sewage collection and transport with an emphasis on toilets in ancient civilizations. Evolution of the major achievements in the scientific fields of sanitation with emphasis on the lavatory (or toilets technologies through the centuries up to the present are presented. Valuable insights into ancient wastewater technologies and management with their apparent characteristics of durability, adaptability to the environment, and sustainability are provided. Gradual steps improved the engineering results until the establishment of the contemporary toilet system, which provides a combined solution for flushing, odor control, and the sanitation of sewerage. Even though the lack of proper toilet facilities for a great percentage of the present day global population is an embarrassing fact, the worldwide efforts through millennia for the acquisition of a well-engineered toilet were connected to the cultural level of each period.
Wada, Yoshihide; Van Beek, Ludovicus P H; Wanders, Niko; Bierkens, Marc F P
Over the past 50 years, human water use has more than doubled and affected streamflow over various regions of the world. However, it remains unclear to what degree human water consumption intensifies hydrological drought (the occurrence of anomalously low streamflow). Here, we quantify over the period 1960–2010 the impact of human water consumption on the intensity and frequency of hydrological drought worldwide. The results show that human water consumption substantially reduced local and downstream streamflow over Europe, North America and Asia, and subsequently intensified the magnitude of hydrological droughts by 10–500%, occurring during nation- and continent-wide drought events. Also, human water consumption alone increased global drought frequency by 27 (±6)%. The intensification of drought frequency is most severe over Asia (35 ± 7%), but also substantial over North America (25 ± 6%) and Europe (20 ± 5%). Importantly, the severe drought conditions are driven primarily by human water consumption over many parts of these regions. Irrigation is responsible for the intensification of hydrological droughts over the western and central US, southern Europe and Asia, whereas the impact of industrial and households’ consumption on the intensification is considerably larger over the eastern US and western and central Europe. Our findings reveal that human water consumption is one of the more important mechanisms intensifying hydrological drought, and is likely to remain as a major factor affecting drought intensity and frequency in the coming decades. (letter)
The major worldwide offshore rig markets have improved slightly this year, while the onshore markets generally lagged slightly. Offshore rig utilization rates have remained strong worldwide, with some areas reaching nearly 100%. Total worldwide offshore rig (jack ups, semisubmersible, drillships, submersibles, and barges) utilization was about 86%. Offshore drilling activity is driven primarily by oil and natural gas price expectations. Natural gas prices tend to drive North American offshore drilling activity, including the shallow waters in the Gulf of Mexico. International offshore drilling activity and deepwater projects in the Gulf of Mexico are more closely tied to oil prices. The paper discusses US rig count, directional drilling activity, jack up rig demand, semisubmersibles demand, rig replacement costs, and new construction
Wokem Gloria Ngozika
Full Text Available Background: Tuberculosis is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and is spread mainly through contact with air droplets and respiratory fluid from an infected person. Drug of choice for its treatment are rifampicin and isoniazid respectively. However, in recent times, resistance to these drugs as with other antibiotics has been observed across the globe. This study was thus aimed at determining the prevalence of rifampicin resistance strain among TB patients attending two major hospitals (Braithwaite Memorial Hospital and University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital in Port Harcourt. Method: Sputum of patients was collected, tested for the presence of TB and rifampicin resistance of the isolates were determined using GeneXpert assay approach. Result: A total of 158 isolates from patients who were TB positive were tested for rifampicin resistance. 13.3% of these were resistant to rifampicin drug. 8.9% was from UPTH while 4.4% was from BMSH. 9.5% were less than age 45 while 3.8% were greater than or equal to age 45 (≥45. Males made up 8.2% of the total prevalence while females made up 5.1% of the total prevalence. Alternative drugs to rifampicin and isoniazid drug should however, be prescribed in confirmed cases of resistance outcome in our health facilities especially in the rural communities. Conclusion: Nonetheless, the use of antibiotics indiscriminately without the effective laboratory assay and physician’s prescription should be discouraged at all levels and patients receiving treatment should be monitored to adhere strictly to the desired dosage as non-adhering to the gold standard option may lead to drug resistance outcome among vulnerable patients who are literally exposed to lack of health education and functional health facilities in the remote communities which are also hard to reach area due to the environmental terrine
Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Major depressive disorder (MDD is a prevalent psychiatric disorder associated with impaired patient functioning and reductions in health-related quality of life (HRQL. The present study describes the impact of MDD on patients' HRQL and examines preference-based health state differences by patient features and clinical characteristics. Methods 95 French primary care practitioners recruited 250 patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of MDD for inclusion in an eight-week follow-up cohort. Patient assessments included the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS, the Clinical Global Impression of Severity (CGI, the Short Form-36 Item scale (SF-36, the Quality of Life Depression Scale (QLDS and the EuroQoL (EQ-5D. Results The mean EQ-5D utility at baseline was 0.33, and 8% of patients rated their health state as worse than death. There were no statistically significant differences in utilities by demographic features. Significant differences were found in mean utilities by level of disease severity assessed by CGI. The different clinical response profiles, assessed by MADRS, were also revealed by EQ-5D at endpoint: 0.85 for responders remitters, 0.72 for responders non-remitter, and 0.58 for non-responders. Even if HRQL and EQ-5D were moderately correlated, they shared only 40% of variance between baseline and endpoint. Conclusions Self-reported patient valuations for depression are important patient-reported outcomes for cost-effectiveness evaluations of new antidepressant compounds and help in further understanding patient compliance with antidepressant treatment.
Baez, Albert V.
The purpose of this book is to promote improvements in science education, world-wide, but particularly in developing countries. It is addressed to those in positions to make effective contributions to the improvement of science education. The world-wide role of science education, the goals of innovative activities, past experience in efforts to…
Diop, Ousmane M; Burns, Cara C; Wassilak, Steven G; Kew, Olen M
In 1988, the World Health Assembly resolved to eradicate poliomyelitis worldwide. One of the main tools used in polio eradication efforts has been live, attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV), an inexpensive vaccine easily administered by trained volunteers. OPV might require several doses to induce immunity, but then it provides long-term protection against paralytic disease through durable humoral immunity. Rare cases of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis can occur among immunologically normal OPV recipients, their contacts, and persons who are immunodeficient. In addition, vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs) can emerge in areas with low OPV coverage to cause polio outbreaks and can replicate for years in persons who have primary, B-cell immunodeficiencies. This report updates previous surveillance summaries and describes VDPVs detected worldwide during July 2012-December 2013. Those include a new circulating VDPV (cVDPV) outbreak identified in Pakistan in 2012, with spread to Afghanistan; an outbreak in Afghanistan previously identified in 2009 that continued into 2013; a new outbreak in Chad that spread to Cameroon, Niger, and northeastern Nigeria; and an outbreak that began in Somalia in 2008 that continued and spread to Kenya in 2013. A large outbreak in Nigeria that was identified in 2005 was nearly stopped by the end of 2013. Additionally, 10 newly identified persons in eight countries were found to excrete immunodeficiency-associated VDPVs (iVDPVs), and VDPVs were found among immunocompetent persons and environmental samples in 13 countries. Because the majority of VDPV isolates are type 2, the World Health Organization has developed a plan for coordinated worldwide replacement of trivalent OPV (tOPV) with bivalent OPV (bOPV; types 1 and 3) by 2016, preceded by introduction of at least 1 dose of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) containing all three poliovirus serotypes into routine immunization schedules worldwide to ensure high population
Mariwan M M Al-Bajalan
Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is a neglected worldwide, zoonotic, vector-borne, tropical disease that is a threat to public health. This threat may spread from endemic to non-endemic areas. Current research has exploited epidemiological, molecular and phylogenetical studies to determine the danger of an outbreak of CL in the borderline area between northern and central Iraq from 2014-2017.For the first time, using sequence analysis of the cytochrome b gene, the occurrence of CL in the borderline area between northern and central Iraq was confirmed to be due to Leishmania major. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that it was closely related to the L. major MRHO/IR/75/ER strain in Iran.In conclusion, the genotype confirmation of the L. major strain will improve our understanding of the epidemiology of the disease. This is important for facilitating control programs to prevent the further spread of CL. Furthermore, this area could be considered as a model for further research on the risk of global CL epidemics in other non-endemic countries where both reservoir hosts and sandfly vectors are present.
Al-Bajalan, Mariwan M M; Al-Jaf, Sirwan M A; Niranji, Sherko S; Abdulkareem, Dler R; Al-Kayali, Khudhair K; Kato, Hirotomo
Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a neglected worldwide, zoonotic, vector-borne, tropical disease that is a threat to public health. This threat may spread from endemic to non-endemic areas. Current research has exploited epidemiological, molecular and phylogenetical studies to determine the danger of an outbreak of CL in the borderline area between northern and central Iraq from 2014-2017. For the first time, using sequence analysis of the cytochrome b gene, the occurrence of CL in the borderline area between northern and central Iraq was confirmed to be due to Leishmania major. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that it was closely related to the L. major MRHO/IR/75/ER strain in Iran. In conclusion, the genotype confirmation of the L. major strain will improve our understanding of the epidemiology of the disease. This is important for facilitating control programs to prevent the further spread of CL. Furthermore, this area could be considered as a model for further research on the risk of global CL epidemics in other non-endemic countries where both reservoir hosts and sandfly vectors are present.
Riosmena, Fernando; Kuhn, Randall; Jochem, Warren C.
Despite being newcomers, immigrants often exhibit better health relative to native-born populations in industrialized societies. We extend prior efforts to identify whether self-selection and/or protection explain this advantage. We examine migrant height and smoking levels just prior to immigration to test for self-selection; and we analyze smoking behavior since immigration, controlling for self-selection, to assess protection. We study individuals aged 20–49 from five major national origins: India, China, the Philippines, Mexico, and the Dominican Republic. To assess self-selection, we compare migrants, interviewed in the National Health and Interview Surveys (NHIS), with nonmigrant peers in sending nations, interviewed in the World Health Surveys. To test for protection, we contrast migrants’ changes in smoking since immigration with two counterfactuals: (1) rates that immigrants would have exhibited had they adopted the behavior of U.S.-born non-Hispanic whites in the NHIS (full —assimilation ); and (2) rates that migrants would have had if they had adopted the rates of nonmigrants in sending countries (no-migration scenario). We find statistically significant and substantial self-selection, particularly among men from both higher-skilled (Indians and Filipinos in height, Chinese in smoking) and lower-skilled (Mexican) undocumented pools. We also find significant and substantial protection in smoking among immigrant groups with stronger relative social capital (Mexicans and Dominicans). PMID:28092071
Thorsen, Sannie Vester; Rugulies, Reiner; Hjarsbech, Pernille U; Bjorner, Jakob Bue
Questionnaires are valuable for population surveys of mental health. Different survey instruments may however give different results. The present study compares two mental health instruments, the Major Depression Inventory (MDI) and the Mental Health Inventory (MHI-5), in regard to their prediction of long-term sickness absence. Questionnaire data was collected from N = 4153 Danish employees. The questionnaire included the MDI and the MHI-5. The information of long-term sickness absence was obtained from a register. We used Cox regression to calculate covariance adjusted hazard ratios for long-term sickness absence for both measures. Both the MDI and the MHI-5 had a highly significant prediction of long-term sickness absence. A one standard deviation change in score was associated with an increased risk of long-term sickness absence of 27% for the MDI and 37% for the MHI-5. When both measures were included in the same analysis, the MHI-5 performed best. In general population surveys, the MHI-5 is a better predictor of long-term sickness absence than the MDI.
L. F. Dolina
Full Text Available Purpose. The paper analyzes the state of water management in Ukraine and worldwide, as well as the best practices in this area. Methodology. The study was carried out based on the analysis of literature sources and reporting data on the state of water management in Ukraine, European countries, the USA (2010-2016. Findings. The water state analysis in the regions of Ukraine showed that the quality in most cases is close to or meets the requirements for drinking water. Drinking tap water requires post-treatment in all regions of the country. The main issue for today is the production of the necessary equipment for treatment plants. Unfortunately, not all equipment is produced in Ukraine. The condition of rural water pipelines is of particular concern. Among the tested pipelines 7.3% do not comply with the rules and regulations. At the same time, only 25% of villages in Ukraine are provided with centralized water supply. Originality. The authors presented the results of a comprehensive review of the world's issues on disinfection of drinking and waste water, where various methods are used, partly in combination with each other in Ukraine and the worldwide. The main unresolved issue today is the issue of the residual quantity of drugs in the drinking water. The main environmental threat of the world scale is the presence of medicines in drinking water. The treatment facilities are not suitable for the decomposition or trapping of medicinal products. Nowhere in the world there is protection from these substances. One of the key issues in the solution of drinking water production is seawater desalination. To reduce the cost of desalination of sea water the SWRO-membrane technology is used. Practical value. Water problems are number one problems all over the world and in Ukraine as well. It is necessary to provide for additional financing to solve problems in the preparation and purification of waters, not with whatever funds remain, taking into
Duthé, Géraldine; Rossier, Clémentine; Bonnet, Doris; Soura, Abdramane Bassiahi; Corker, Jamaica
In sub-Saharan African cities, the epidemiological transition has shifted a greater proportion of the burden of non-communicable diseases, including mental and behavioral disorder, to the adult population. The burden of major depressive disorder and its social risk factors in the urban sub-Saharan African population are not well understood and estimates vary widely. We conducted a study in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, in order to estimate the prevalence of major depressive episodes among adults in this urban setting. The Ouagadougou Health and Demographic System Site (HDSS) has followed the inhabitants of five outlying neighborhoods of the city since 2008. In 2010, a representative sample of 2,187 adults (aged 15 and over) from the Ouaga HDSS was interviewed in depth regarding their physical and mental health. Using criteria from the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), we identified the prevalence of a major depressive episode at the time of the interview among respondents and analyzed its association with demographic, socioeconomic, and health characteristics through a multivariate analysis. Major depressive episode prevalence was 4.3 % (95 % CI: 3.1-5.5 %) among the survey respondents. We found a strong association between major depressive episode and reported chronic health problems, functional limitations, ethnicity and religion, household food shortages, having been recently a victim of physical violence and regularly drinking alcohol. Results show a U-shaped association of the relationship between major depressive episode and standard of living, with individuals in both the poorest and richest groups most likely to suffer from major depressive disorder than those in the middle. Though, the poorest group remains the most vulnerable one, even when controlling by health characteristics. Major depressive disorder is a reality for many urban residents in Burkina Faso and likely urbanites throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Countries in the region
Nigatu, Yeshambel T; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; de Jonge, Peter; van Rossum, Elisabeth; Bültmann, Ute
Background Obesity and major depressive disorder (MDD)/anxiety disorders often co-occur and aggravate each other resulting in adverse health-related outcomes. As little is known about the potential effects of interaction between obesity and MDD and/or anxiety disorders on health-related quality of
Nigatu, Yeshambel T.; Bultmann, Ute; Schoevers, Robert A.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.
Background: Evidence lacks on whether obesity along with major depression (MD)/anxiety leads to higher health care use (HCU) and health care-related costs (HCC) compared with either condition alone. The objective of the study was to examine the longitudinal associations of obesity, MD/anxiety, and
Valenza, Gaetano; Garcia, Ronald G; Citi, Luca; Scilingo, Enzo P; Tomaz, Carlos A; Barbieri, Riccardo
Nonlinear digital signal processing methods that address system complexity have provided useful computational tools for helping in the diagnosis and treatment of a wide range of pathologies. More specifically, nonlinear measures have been successful in characterizing patients with mental disorders such as Major Depression (MD). In this study, we propose the use of instantaneous measures of entropy, namely the inhomogeneous point-process approximate entropy (ipApEn) and the inhomogeneous point-process sample entropy (ipSampEn), to describe a novel characterization of MD patients undergoing affective elicitation. Because these measures are built within a nonlinear point-process model, they allow for the assessment of complexity in cardiovascular dynamics at each moment in time. Heartbeat dynamics were characterized from 48 healthy controls and 48 patients with MD while emotionally elicited through either neutral or arousing audiovisual stimuli. Experimental results coming from the arousing tasks show that ipApEn measures are able to instantaneously track heartbeat complexity as well as discern between healthy subjects and MD patients. Conversely, standard heart rate variability (HRV) analysis performed in both time and frequency domains did not show any statistical significance. We conclude that measures of entropy based on nonlinear point-process models might contribute to devising useful computational tools for care in mental health.
Pedrelli, Paola; Borsari, Brian; Lipson, Sarah Ketchen; Heinze, Justin E; Eisenberg, Daniel
Although major depressive disorder (MDD) and heavy episodic drinking (HED, 4+/5+ drinks in a single sitting for women/men) are common among young adults in college, the relationship between the two remains unclear. This study examined the association between MDD and HED in this population, the effect of gender on this association, and whether comorbid MDD and heavy alcohol use are associated with higher rates of mental health treatment engagement. The study comprised 61,561 (65.3% female) undergraduate students who answered an online survey on depression, alcohol use, and treatment engagement in the past year. Hierarchical linear regressions examined the association between MDD and alcohol use (HED and peak blood alcohol concentration [pBAC]) and whether gender moderated these associations. Logistic regressions were then conducted to examine the influence of MDD, heavy alcohol use, and gender on treatment engagement. Students with MDD reported more frequent HED and higher pBAC than did students without MDD; this was especially true for female students. Rates of treatment engagement were higher among women than men, among students with MDD than students without MDD, and among female students with HED than women without HED. The presence of an association between MDD and heavy alcohol use suggests the need for systematic screenings of both conditions. Low rates of treatment engagement in college students with MDD and heavy alcohol use calls for the development of strategies to engage this high-risk group in treatment.
Grogan, Kathleen E; Sauther, Michelle L; Cuozzo, Frank P; Drea, Christine M
Across species, diversity at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is critical to individual disease resistance and, hence, to population health; however, MHC diversity can be reduced in small, fragmented, or isolated populations. Given the need for comparative studies of functional genetic diversity, we investigated whether MHC diversity differs between populations which are open, that is experiencing gene flow, versus populations which are closed, that is isolated from other populations. Using the endangered ring-tailed lemur ( Lemur catta ) as a model, we compared two populations under long-term study: a relatively "open," wild population ( n = 180) derived from Bezà Mahafaly Special Reserve, Madagascar (2003-2013) and a "closed," captive population ( n = 121) derived from the Duke Lemur Center (DLC, 1980-2013) and from the Indianapolis and Cincinnati Zoos (2012). For all animals, we assessed MHC-DRB diversity and, across populations, we compared the number of unique MHC-DRB alleles and their distributions. Wild individuals possessed more MHC-DRB alleles than did captive individuals, and overall, the wild population had more unique MHC-DRB alleles that were more evenly distributed than did the captive population. Despite management efforts to maintain or increase genetic diversity in the DLC population, MHC diversity remained static from 1980 to 2010. Since 2010, however, captive-breeding efforts resulted in the MHC diversity of offspring increasing to a level commensurate with that found in wild individuals. Therefore, loss of genetic diversity in lemurs, owing to small founder populations or reduced gene flow, can be mitigated by managed breeding efforts. Quantifying MHC diversity within individuals and between populations is the necessary first step to identifying potential improvements to captive management and conservation plans.
Izewska, J.; Svensson, H.; Ibbott, G.
A number of national or international organizations have developed various types and levels of external audits for radiotherapy dosimetry. There are three major programmes who make available external audits, based on mailed TLD (thermoluminescent dosimetry), to local radiotherapy centres on a regular basis. These are the IAEA/WHO TLD postal dose audit service operating worldwide, the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ESTRO) system, EQUAL, in European Union (EU) and the Radiological Physics Center (RPC) in North America. The IAEA, in collaboration with WHO, was the first organization to initiate TLD audits on an international scale in 1969, using mailed system, and has a well-established programme for providing dose verification in reference conditions. Over 32 years, the IAEA/WHO TLD audit service has checked the calibration of more than 4300 radiotherapy beams in about 1200 hospitals world-wide. Only 74% of those hospitals who receive TLDs for the first time have results with deviation between measured and stated dose within acceptance limits of ±5%, while approximately 88% of the users that have benefited from a previous TLD audit are successful. EQUAL, an audit programme set up in 1998 by ESTRO, involves the verification of output for high energy photon and electron beams, and the audit of beam parameters in non-reference conditions. More than 300 beams are checked each year, mainly in the countries of EU, covering approximately 500 hospitals. The results show that although 98% of the beam calibrations are within the tolerance level of ±5%, a second check was required in 10% of the participating centres, because a deviation larger than ±5% was observed in at least one of the beam parameters in non-reference conditions. EQUAL has been linked to another European network (EC network) which tested the audit methodology prior to its application. The RPC has been funded continuously since 1968 to monitor radiation therapy dose delivery at
Todd, E C
the world do show some common elements. Salmonella is still the most important agent causing acute foodborne disease, with Salmonella enteritidis and S. typhimurium being of most concern. Foods of animal origin, particularly, meat and eggs, were most often implicated. Desserts, ice cream and confectionery items were products also mentioned, but some of these would have egg as a raw or incompletely cooked ingredient. Incidents most frequently occurred in homes or restaurants, and the main factors contributing to outbreaks were poor temperature control in preparing, cooking and storing food. Clostridium botulinum, Salmonella and VTEC are more frequently documented in industrialized than in developing countries. ETEC, EPEC, Shigella, Vibrio cholerae and parasites are the main scourges in developing countries, but it is uncertain how many cases are attributed to food, to water or to person-to-person transmission. The apparent decrease of S. aureus and C. perfringens outbreaks in industrialized countries may be related to improved temperature control in the kitchen. An increasing number of illnesses are international in scope, with contamination in a commercial product occurring in one country and affecting persons in several other countries, or tourists being infected abroad and possibly transmitting the pathogen to others at home. For Salmonella, a rapid alert and response coordination is being encouraged through Salm-Net and other international programs. However, unless such a network is worldwide, tracking clusters of illnesses is going to fall on the countries where the first cases occur, and some of these have very limited resources for investigation and control. It was heartening to see funds recently being allocated to foodborne disease surveillance and control in several industrialized countries, but the same commitment is required by the World Health Organization for the international community.
Alimoglu, Orhan; Sagiroglu, Julide; Eren, Tunc; Kinik, Kerem
In Africa, there is critical shortage of surgeons. Majority of the surgeons work in urban centers, and almost none of them is working in the rural areas. This study documents surgical interventions performed in Guinea-Bissau by Doctors Worldwide Turkey. A group of surgeons from the Doctors Worldwide Turkey performed various surgical interventions in the Simao Mendes, Gabu and Bafata community hospitals. Demographics, surgical methods, anesthesia techniques and complications were recorded. Sixty- four procedures were undertaken between 5-16 February 2010 and 6-11 May 2011. The patient population consisted of 47 male (82.5%) and 10 female (17.5%) patients with a mean age of 44.5 (range: 6-81) years. Five emergency cases were observed. Hartmann's procedure for rectal carcinoma; modified radical mastectomy for breast carcinoma; 2 right total thyroidectomies, 1 bilateral subtotal thyroidectomy; 2 incisional hernia repairs with mesh, 1 breast lumpectomy, 3 mass excisions, 2 keloidectomies, and various techniques of hernia repair for 35 inguinal hernias (4 bilateral, 3 strangulated and 2 coexisting with hydrocele), Winkelmann's procedure for 5 hydroceles (1 bilateral), and unilateral orchiectomy for 1 bilateral hydrocele were recorded. Sixteen patients received general (23.5%), 23 spinal (33.8%), 7 epidural (10.3%), 15 local (22.1%), and 7 ketamine (10.3%) anesthesia. There was no mortality. Surgical diseases, majority of which are hernias threaten public health in underdeveloped regions of Africa. Blitz surgery may be an efficient temporary solution.
Nakayama, K; Yamaguchi, K; Maruyama, S; Morimoto, K
To examine the relationship lifestyle factors, personal character, mental health status, and job strain a self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted among employees of a leading electrical manufacturing company in Japan. A total of 2,327 workers (Male=1,668, Female=659) responded to the survey. We analyzed the relationships of health practices based on such factors as: Free child (FC) from the Egogram, the Working-life satisfaction, and the General Health Questionnaire-28 through Path-analysis techniques.The following results were obtained: The mental health status was significantly affected by such factors as health practices, Working-life satisfaction, personal character (FC), life satisfaction, and age. Health practices and personal character (FC) showed a direct relationship to the mental health status and an indirect relationship to the Working-life satisfaction and life satisfaction. The variances accounting for mental health status were 41.8% in male workers and 43.8% in female workers.Path-analysis data suggested that mental health status was affected about 40% by lifestyle, personal character, Working-life satisfaction, and life satisfaction. It was suggested that there might be important factors affecting mental health status but which are unknown to us by as much as 60% in the present day. These findings suggested the necessity of further investigation of the relationship among lifestyle factors, mental health status, and job strain among employees of a reputable company in the present day.
Operating as a global company, inside AREVA the Fuel Sector implements a common strategy among three Business Units of fuel activities. These Business Units which are in Framatome ANP Zirconium, Manufacturing and Design and Sales Units, are operated in Germany (former Siemens activity), in USA (former BWFC Babcock and Wilcox Fuel Co,. and SPC Siemens Power Co. activities), in Belgium and in France (former Framatome activity). They have resources and facilities which are cooperatively working on R and D, engineering, project management, sales and services to achieve synergy on a cross-business basis. Based on its experience of worldwide activities and taking advantage of its diversified fuel design knowledge, Framatome ANP proposes a full range of fuel products and services on the BWR and PWR markets. With the ability to supply all fuel assembly arrays and fuel pellet types, supplemented by the range of stationary and movable core components, and completed by a full-range of on-site fuel services and performance of fuel packing and delivery, Framatome ANP is positioned as a major participant on the world fuel market. Today, Framatome ANP takes advantage of the cross-fertilization in the short term of existing products which include four original PWR fuel designs of HTP TM alloy as the reference material for cladding tubes, guide thimbles, and grids, -- Gradual incorporation of the valuable high-stiffiness MONOBLOC tM guide thimble, -- Progressive integressive integration of the High Mechanical Performance (HMP) Inconel end grid, -- Planned standardization of mechanical components such as nozzles, holddown systems and top and bottom connections. As a continuation of its existing technology, Framatome ANP is developing improved technical features within the scope of the Alliance fuel assembly qualification program. With an irradiation program ranging up to a burnup of 70 MWd/kgU expected to be reached in 2006, Alliance shows excellent behaviour with very low corrosion
This book ia an authority for immediate information on the industry. You can use it to find new business, analyze market trends, and to stay in touch with existing contacts while making new ones. The possibilities for business applications are numerous. Arranged by country, all listings in the directory include address, phone, fax and telex numbers, a description of the company's activities, names of key personnel and their titles, corporate headquarters, branch offices and plant sites. This newly revised edition lists more than 2000 companies and nearly 3000 branch offices and plant locations. This east-to-use reference also includes several of the most vital and informative surveys of the industry, including the U.S. Refining Survey, the Worldwide Construction Survey in Refining, Sulfur, Gas Processing and Related Fuels, the Worldwide Refining and Gas Processing Survey, the Worldwide Catalyst Report, and the U.S. and Canadian Lube and Wax Capacities Report from the National Petroleum Refiner's Association
Depression - major; Depression - clinical; Clinical depression; Unipolar depression; Major depressive disorder ... providers do not know the exact causes of depression. It is believed that chemical changes in the ...
Tang, Wanjie; Zhao, Jingdong; Lu, Yi; Yan, Tingting; Wang, Lijuan; Zhang, Jun; Xu, Jiuping
Millions of children were exposed to major earthquake in China, with serious psychological and developmental consequences. To obtain accurate rate of post-disaster related disorder and identify predictors may help inform post-disaster rescue and rehabilitation efforts. The present longitudinal study explored correlations of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of juvenile survivors of the Ya'an and Wenchuan earthquakes in China with their trajectories of post-disaster related disorder. A total of 435 Chinese children and adolescents who survived the 2013 Ya'an earthquake were recruited from six primary, secondary and high schools in Baoxing County. All survivors were assessed at 12months after the disaster, when a trained psychiatrist assessed mental health problems in a face-to-face structured interview, and 153 survivors were followed up at 30months after the earthquake via telephone. The 12-month assessment indicated a post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) prevalence of 43.9% as well as depression (20.9%) or the criteria for both PTSD and depression (18.2%) and the other disorder (0.9%). The 30-month assessment indicated that 15.7% of subjects met the criteria for PTSD, 21.6% met the criteria for depression. No subjects met the criteria for other affective or anxiety disorders. Significant predictors of PTSD and depression were death in the family, previous earthquake experience, a poor parent-child relationship and economic pressure or poverty. Clinical interview face to face is quite different from via telephone and the attrition rate in the longitudinal cohort is high, which would directly affect our results of the assessment. PTSD and depression may be as prevalent and persistent in disaster victims in China as elsewhere, and high co-comorbidities remain poorly understood. Although many adolescents recover over time, some exhibit chronic, delayed-onset PTSD and depression, especially those with poor relationships with their parents or those living
Full Text Available Unlike in adults, diagnosis of TB can be challenging in children, as signs and symptoms of paediatric TB can be very non-specific and similar to other common childhood chest infections, which may lead to under or delayed diagnosis of TB disease. In spite of the increasing availability of rapid high-sensitivity diagnostics in public and private sectors, majority of paediatric TB cases are empirically diagnosed, without laboratory confirmation. To address these diagnostic challenges, World Health Organization (WHO has recommended upfront Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert testing for the diagnosis of TB in paediatric presumptive pulmonary and extra-pulmonary TB (EPTB cases. However, in spite of the increasing availability of rapid high-sensitivity diagnostics, a significant gap exists in its application with Xpert being rarely used as an upfront diagnostic among patients presumed to have TB. Under an ongoing paediatric project since April 2014, which provided free-of-cost upfront Xpert testing, several low-cost outreach and education interventions were undertaken to increase the diagnostic uptake by different providers catering to the paediatric population, thereby increasing adherence to global guidance.Providers catering to paediatric population in the project cities were systematically mapped and contacted using different outreach strategies. The focus of outreach efforts was to increase provider literacy and increase their awareness of the availability of free rapid diagnostic services with the goal of changing their diagnostic approaches.From April 2014 to June 2016, more than 5,700 providers/facilities were mapped and 3,670 of them were approached. The number of providers/facilities engaged under the project increased more than 10-fold (43 in April, 2014 to 466 in June, 2016, with significant increase in project uptake, both from public and private sector. Overall 42,238 paediatric presumptive TB cases were enrolled in the project, across the four cities
Excess production and production capacity reasserted their influence in worldwide petroleum markets last year, pushing crude oil prices to their lowest levels since before the Persian Gulf crisis. The development ended the relative price stability that has characterized the period since the crisis ended in January 1991. One of the major questions now being asked is whether there has been a downward shift in the seasonal range of crude prices. In the near future, OPEC's degree of success in balancing the market will be a key to prices. Another is politics in the Middle East. If it were not for a United Nations embargo, the market would have another 2--3 million b/d of oil supply--from Iraq. The paper discusses worldwide demand, economic trends, the supply in 1993, the supply outlook, prices, and international drilling activities
Full Text Available If Australia has been subject to major influences by the United States and European countries, why is its economy healthier than their counter partners? What are the economic foundations that underline this anti-counter cycle of financial worldwide crisis from Australia? What are some of the lessons that countries from Europe that have not fared during the current financial worldwide crisis should learn from Australia? The purpose of this paper is to review the present Australian management system. Four changes are identified including embracement of corporate governance, a shift to adopt more R&D activities, a shift to adopt environmental sustainability practices and emerging corporate social responsibility. On the conclusions settings, a recap and recommendation on how Portugal, a member of the PIGS (Portugal, Italy, Greece and Spain Southern European Countries club forgot to embrace directives that have been applied in Australia, to avoid the actual financial and identity crisis.
Falkenberg, Helena; Fransson, Eleonor I; Westerlund, Hugo; Head, Jenny A
To investigate short- and long-term effects of major organisational change on minor psychiatric disorder and self-rated health for women and men in different employment grades. Minor psychiatric disorder and self-rated health among 6710 British civil servants (1993 women and 4717 men) in three employment grades from the Whitehall II study were examined from 1985 to 1988 under stable employment conditions. The short-term effects of organisational change were investigated in 1991-1993 after a time of major restructuring aiming at increasing the influence of market forces in the civil service and the long-term effects were investigated in 1997-1999. Those who had experienced organisational change and those who anticipated organisational change reported more negative short-term health effects (minor psychiatric disorder and poor self-rated health) compared with those who reported no change. No major differences were found depending on employment grade or gender. The negative health effects had diminished during 1997-1999 for those who reported that a major change had happened before 1991-1993. Those who anticipated an organisational change in 1991-1993 still reported more ill-health in 1997-1999 (both minor psychiatric disorder and self-reported health) than those in the comparison group. The results indicate that organisational change affects employees' health negatively in the short term but also that it is possible to recover from such negative effects. As it was not possible to discern any definite difference between the gender and grades, the results point at the importance of working proactively to implement organisational change for women and men at all levels.
behaviors, for exam- ple, adherence to medical regiments, proper exercise, and diet. Social cognitive theory was developed by Albert Bandura and...and Health Education: Theory, Research and Practtce.3rd ed. San Francisco, CA. Jossey-Bass; 2002:214-245. 19. Bandura A. Social cognitive theory: an...SoclaLCognitlve_Theory_Overview. htm. Accessed April 2006. 21. Bandura A. Health promotion by social cogni- tive means. Health Educ Bebav. 2004;31(2):143- 164. 318
Roberto G. Lucchini
Full Text Available Abstract Background The disasters at Seveso, Three Mile Island, Bhopal, Chernobyl, the World Trade Center (WTC and Fukushima had historic health and economic sequelae for large populations of workers, responders and community members. Methods Comparative data from these events were collected to derive indications for future preparedness. Information from the primary sources and a literature review addressed: i exposure assessment; ii exposed populations; iii health surveillance; iv follow-up and research outputs; v observed physical and mental health effects; vi treatment and benefits; and vii outreach activities. Results Exposure assessment was conducted in Seveso, Chernobyl and Fukushima, although none benefited from a timely or systematic strategy, yielding immediate and sequential measurements after the disaster. Identification of exposed subjects was overall underestimated. Health surveillance, treatment and follow-up research were implemented in Seveso, Chernobyl, Fukushima, and at the WTC, mostly focusing on the workers and responders, and to a lesser extent on residents. Exposure-related physical and mental health consequences were identified, indicating the need for a long-term health care of the affected populations. Fukushima has generated the largest scientific output so far, followed by the WTCHP and Chernobyl. Benefits programs and active outreach figured prominently in only the WTC Health Program. The analysis of these programs yielded the following lessons: 1 Know who was there; 2 Have public health input to the disaster response; 3 Collect health and needs data rapidly; 4 Take care of the affected; 5 Emergency preparedness; 6 Data driven, needs assessment, advocacy. Conclusions Given the long-lasting health consequences of natural and man-made disasters, health surveillance and treatment programs are critical for management of health conditions, and emergency preparedness plans are needed to prevent or minimize the impact of
Lucchini, Roberto G; Hashim, Dana; Acquilla, Sushma; Basanets, Angela; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Bushmanov, Andrey; Crane, Michael; Harrison, Denise J; Holden, William; Landrigan, Philip J; Luft, Benjamin J; Mocarelli, Paolo; Mazitova, Nailya; Melius, James; Moline, Jacqueline M; Mori, Koji; Prezant, David; Reibman, Joan; Reissman, Dori B; Stazharau, Alexander; Takahashi, Ken; Udasin, Iris G; Todd, Andrew C
The disasters at Seveso, Three Mile Island, Bhopal, Chernobyl, the World Trade Center (WTC) and Fukushima had historic health and economic sequelae for large populations of workers, responders and community members. Comparative data from these events were collected to derive indications for future preparedness. Information from the primary sources and a literature review addressed: i) exposure assessment; ii) exposed populations; iii) health surveillance; iv) follow-up and research outputs; v) observed physical and mental health effects; vi) treatment and benefits; and vii) outreach activities. Exposure assessment was conducted in Seveso, Chernobyl and Fukushima, although none benefited from a timely or systematic strategy, yielding immediate and sequential measurements after the disaster. Identification of exposed subjects was overall underestimated. Health surveillance, treatment and follow-up research were implemented in Seveso, Chernobyl, Fukushima, and at the WTC, mostly focusing on the workers and responders, and to a lesser extent on residents. Exposure-related physical and mental health consequences were identified, indicating the need for a long-term health care of the affected populations. Fukushima has generated the largest scientific output so far, followed by the WTCHP and Chernobyl. Benefits programs and active outreach figured prominently in only the WTC Health Program. The analysis of these programs yielded the following lessons: 1) Know who was there; 2) Have public health input to the disaster response; 3) Collect health and needs data rapidly; 4) Take care of the affected; 5) Emergency preparedness; 6) Data driven, needs assessment, advocacy. Given the long-lasting health consequences of natural and man-made disasters, health surveillance and treatment programs are critical for management of health conditions, and emergency preparedness plans are needed to prevent or minimize the impact of future threats.
Curtis, Elizabeth M; Moon, Rebecca J; Harvey, Nicholas C; Cooper, Cyrus
Osteoporosis constitutes a major public health problem, through its association with age-related fractures, particularly of the hip, vertebrae, distal forearm and humerus. Substantial geographic variation has been noted in the incidence of osteoporotic fractures worldwide, with Western populations (North America, Europe and Oceania), reporting increases in hip fracture throughout the second half of the 20th century, with a stabilisation or decline in the last two decades. In developing populations however, particularly in Asia, the rates of osteoporotic fracture appears to be increasing. The massive global burden consequent to osteoporosis means that fracture risk assessment should be a high priority among health measures considered by policy makers. The WHO operational definition of osteoporosis, based on a measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), has been used globally since the mid-1990s. However, although this definition identifies those at greatest individual risk of fracture, in the population overall a greater total number of fractures occur in individuals with BMD values above the threshold for osteoporosis diagnosis. A number of web-based tools to enable the inclusion of clinical risk factors, with or without BMD, in fracture prediction algorithms have been developed to improve the identification of individuals at high fracture risk, the most commonly used globally being FRAX®. Access to DXA, osteoporosis risk assessment, case finding and treatment varies worldwide, but despite such advances studies indicate that a minority of men and women at high fracture risk receive treatment. Importantly, research is ongoing to demonstrate the clinical efficacy and cost-effectiveness of osteoporosis case finding and risk assessment strategies worldwide. The huge burden caused by osteoporosis related fractures to individuals, healthcare systems and societies should provide a clear impetus for the progression of such
Curtis, Elizabeth M; Moon, Rebecca J; Harvey, Nicholas C; Cooper, Cyrus
Osteoporosis constitutes a major public health problem, through its association with age-related fractures, particularly of the hip, vertebrae, distal forearm and humerus. Substantial geographic variation has been noted in the incidence of osteoporotic fractures worldwide, with Western populations (North America, Europe and Oceania), reporting increases in hip fracture throughout the second half of the 20th century, with a stabilisation or decline in the last two decades. In developing populations however, particularly in Asia, the rates of osteoporotic fracture appears to be increasing. The massive global burden consequent to osteoporosis means that fracture risk assessment should be a high priority amongst health measures considered by policy makers. The WHO operational definition of osteoporosis, based on a measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), has been used globally since the mid-1990s. However, although this definition identifies those at greatest individual risk of fracture, in the population overall a greater total number of fractures occur in individuals with BMD values above threshold for osteoporosis diagnosis. A number of web-based tools to enable the inclusion of clinical risk factors, with or without BMD, in fracture prediction algorithms have been developed to improve the identification of individuals at high fracture risk, the most commonly used globally being FRAX ® . Access to DXA, osteoporosis risk assessment, case finding and treatment varies worldwide, but despite such advances studies indicate that a minority of men and women at high fracture risk receive treatment. Importantly, research is ongoing to demonstrate the clinical efficacy and cost-effectiveness of osteoporosis case finding and risk assessment strategies worldwide. The huge burden caused by osteoporosis related fractures to individuals, healthcare systems and societies should provide a clear impetus for the progression of such
Patel, Dilip R; Stier, Bernhard; Luckstead, Eugene F
Sports are part of the sociocultural fabric of all countries. Although different sports have their origins in different countries, many sports are now played worldwide. International sporting events bring athletes of many cultures together and provide the opportunity not only for athletic competition but also for sociocultural exchange and understanding among people. This article reviews five major sports with international appeal and participation: cricket, martial arts, field hockey, soccer, and tennis. For each sport, the major aspects of physiological and biomechanical demands, injuries, and prevention strategies are reviewed.
Full Text Available Young Gon Kang,1 Eunkyung Suh,2 Jae-woo Lee,3 Dong Wook Kim,4 Kyung Hee Cho,5 Chul-Young Bae1 1Department of R&D, MediAge Research Center, Seongnam, Republic of South Korea; 2Department of Family Medicine, College of Medicine, CHA University, Chaum, Seoul, Republic of South Korea; 3Department of Family Medicine, College of Medicine, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Republic of South Korea; 4Department of Policy Research Affairs, National Health Insurance Service Ilsan Hospital, Goyang, Republic of South Korea; 5Department of Family Medicine, National Health Insurance Service Ilsan Hospital, Goyang, Republic of South KoreaPurpose: A comprehensive health index is needed to measure an individual’s overall health and aging status and predict the risk of death and age-related disease incidence, and evaluate the effect of a health management program. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the validity of estimated biological age (BA in relation to all-cause mortality and age-related disease incidence based on National Sample Cohort database.Patients and methods: This study was based on National Sample Cohort database of the National Health Insurance Service – Eligibility database and the National Health Insurance Service – Medical and Health Examination database of the year 2002 through 2013. BA model was developed based on the National Health Insurance Service – National Sample Cohort (NHIS – NSC database and Cox proportional hazard analysis was done for mortality and major age-related disease incidence.Results: For every 1 year increase of the calculated BA and chronological age difference, the hazard ratio for mortality significantly increased by 1.6% (1.5% in men and 2.0% in women and also for hypertension, diabetes mellitus, heart disease, stroke, and cancer incidence by 2.5%, 4.2%, 1.3%, 1.6%, and 0.4%, respectively (p<0.001.Conclusion: Estimated BA by the developed BA model based on NHIS – NSC database is expected to be
Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy (DR, a major microvascular complication of diabetes, has a significant impact on the world′s health systems. Globally, the number of people with DR will grow from 126.6 million in 2010 to 191.0 million by 2030, and we estimate that the number with vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy (VTDR will increase from 37.3 million to 56.3 million, if prompt action is not taken. Despite growing evidence documenting the effectiveness of routine DR screening and early treatment, DR frequently leads to poor visual functioning and represents the leading cause of blindness in working-age populations. DR has been neglected in health-care research and planning in many low-income countries, where access to trained eye-care professionals and tertiary eye-care services may be inadequate. Demand for, as well as, supply of services may be a problem. Rates of compliance with diabetes medications and annual eye examinations may be low, the reasons for which are multifactorial. Innovative and comprehensive approaches are needed to reduce the risk of vision loss by prompt diagnosis and early treatment of VTDR.
Macintyre, Sally; McKay, Laura; Ellaway, Anne
There is an extensive literature within anthropology, sociology and psychology about lay concepts of determinants of health and illness. Many of these studies have used single sex or social class samples, often in narrow age bands, and many are qualitative in approach. We asked respondents in a health survey to say how important (on a five-point…
Discussion of software tools for accessing information on the Internet focuses on the WorldWideWeb (WWW) system, which was developed at the European Particle Physics Laboratory (CERN) in Switzerland to build a worldwide network of hypertext links using available networking technology. Its potential for use with multimedia documents is also…
Interest in youth purpose is growing among scholars around the world. With globalization, better understanding of life purposes in different countries becomes more important as this generation's youth are influenced by ideas and events anywhere. This special issue contributes to this inclusive, worldwide frame of mind by showcasing work done…
Andrew B. Carey
Meeting the needs of expanding human populations has changed land use worldwide and presented a biodiversity crisis. Emerging related concerns are threats to native species from homogenization of world flora and the spread of exotic species by human activities (Soule 1990, United States Congress, Office of Technology Assessment 1993, Wilcove and others 1998, Soule and...
Berners-Lee, Tim; And Others
Describes the World-Wide Web (W3) project, which is designed to create a global information universe using techniques of hypertext, information retrieval, and wide area networking. Discussion covers the W3 data model, W3 architecture, the document naming scheme, protocols, document formats, comparison with other systems, experience with the W3…
A worldwide power distribution automation system is outlined. Distribution automation is defined and the status of utility automation is discussed. Other topics discussed include a distribution management system, substation feeder, and customer functions, potential benefits, automation costs, planning and engineering considerations, automation trends, databases, system operation, computer modeling of system, and distribution management systems
Zweigle, O.; Molengraft, van de M.J.G.; D'Andrea, R.; Häussermann, K.
In this paper, we present the core concept and the benefits of an approach called RoboEarth which will be highly beneficial for future robotic applications in science and industry. RoboEarth is a world-wide platform which robots can use to exchange position and map information as well as
The report presents a digest of geothermal energy technology. The worldwide distribution of geothermal resources is described, and the degree to which various countries are exploiting their resources estimated. Detailed information about US technologies is presented, from exploration through applications to cost factors. (ACR)
Ferro, Ana; Peleteiro, Bárbara; Malvezzi, Matteo; Bosetti, Cristina; Bertuccio, Paola; Levi, Fabio; Negri, Eva; La Vecchia, Carlo; Lunet, Nuno
Gastric cancer incidence and mortality decreased substantially over the last decades in most countries worldwide, with differences in the trends and distribution of the main topographies across regions. To monitor recent mortality trends (1980-2011) and to compute short-term predictions (2015) of gastric cancer mortality in selected countries worldwide, we analysed mortality data provided by the World Health Organization. We also analysed incidence of cardia and non-cardia cancers using data from Cancer Incidence in Five Continents (2003-2007). The joinpoint regression over the most recent calendar periods gave estimated annual percent changes (EAPC) around -3% for the European Union (EU) and major European countries, as well as in Japan and Korea, and around -2% in North America and major Latin American countries. In the United States of America (USA), EU and other major countries worldwide, the EAPC, however, were lower than in previous years. The predictions for 2015 show that a levelling off of rates is expected in the USA and a few other countries. The relative contribution of cardia and non-cardia gastric cancers to the overall number of cases varies widely, with a generally higher proportion of cardia cancers in countries with lower gastric cancer incidence and mortality rates (e.g. the USA, Canada and Denmark). Despite the favourable mortality trends worldwide, in some countries the declines are becoming less marked. There still is the need to control Helicobacter pylori infection and other risk factors, as well as to improve diagnosis and management, to further reduce the burden of gastric cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Luzianovich, L.Ch.; Fardeau, J.C.; Darras, M.
Environment, safety and health were the three topics discussed by the WOC 8 working group of the worldwide gas congress. Environment protection has become a major preoccupation and constraint for natural gas industry at the dawn of the new millennium. It is closely linked with the safety of installation and with the health of workmen who exploit or use natural gas energy: methane emissions, health and safety in gas industry, environment management and evaluation. (J.S.)
Rodrigues, Daniel Francisco Santos; Nunes, Carla
The economic crisis has placed Portugal in a situation of budgetary constraints with repercussions on mental health, since 2009. This study analyses the association between economic crisis and the inpatient profile of major depression in the working-age population in Portuguese National Health System hospitals. This was an observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study. An individual analysis of hospitalisation and an ecological analysis at district level, were performed before 2008 and during the crisis (2013). Data on the hospitalisation episodes, working-age population and psychiatric inpatient beds were analysed. An increase in hospitalisation rates for major depression were observed, and across country, high spatial variations were perceived: districts with lower rates of urbanisation and population density had higher hospitalisation rates for major depression. Hospitalisation rates were positively influenced by the available inpatient beds. The results for 2013 were more critical (higher hospitalisation rates, less beds). Further research is needed to understand all patterns, considering other individual and contextual information.
Stavros I. Yannopoulos
Full Text Available The evolution of the major achievements in water lifting devices with emphasis on the major technologies over the centuries is presented and discussed. Valuable insights into ancient water lifting technologies with their apparent characteristics of durability, adaptability, and sustainability are provided. A comparison of the relevant technological developments in several early civilizations is carried out. These technologies are the underpinning of modern achievements in water engineering. They represent the best paradigm of probing the past and facing the future. A timeline of the historical development of water pumps worldwide through the last 5500 years of the history of mankind is presented. A chronological order is followed with emphasis on the major civilizations.
Kooistra, L. C.; Ruwaard, J.; Wiersma, J. E.
the costs of mental health care, by reducing treatment duration and/or therapist contact. However, knowledge on blended care for depression is still limited. Objectives: To develop a blended cognitive behavioural treatment (bCBT) for depressed patients in an outpatient specialized mental health care centre...... with depressed patients (n = 9) in specialized mental health care. Patients' clinical profiles were established based on pre-treatment diagnostic information and patient self-reports on clinical measures. Patient treatment adherence rates were explored, together with patient ratings of credibility and expectancy...... the potential to be a valuable treatment option for patients with severe depression in specialized mental health care settings. Further exploration of the effectiveness of our bCBT protocol by means of a randomized controlled trial is warranted. © 2016 The Authors....
Luis Teles de Carvalho, Ricardo; Jensen, Ole Michael; Tarelho, Luis A. C.
environmental health risk. Research stressed the need to increase the performance of conventional interplays between users, stoves and buildings. This scientific review aims to characterize the performance and environmental effects of 9 wood-burning stove categories by installations worldwide...
Klavans, Richard (SciTech Strategies, Inc., Berwyn, PA); Boyack, Kevin W.
This article describes recent improvements in mapping a highly representative set of the world-wide scientific literature. The process described in this article extends existing work in this area in three major ways. First, we argue that a separate structural analysis of current literature vs. reference literature is required for R&D planning. Second, visualization software is used to improve coverage of the literature while maintaining structural integrity. Third, quantitative techniques for measuring the structural integrity of a map are introduced. Maps with high structural integrity, covering far more of the available literature, are presented.
Full Text Available Background. The available health information on websites should be reliable and accurate in order to make informed decisions by community. This study was done to assess the quality and readability of health information websites on World Wide Web in India. Methods. This cross-sectional study was carried out in June 2014. The key words “Health” and “Information” were used on search engines “Google” and “Yahoo.” Out of 50 websites (25 from each search engines, after exclusion, 32 websites were evaluated. LIDA tool was used to assess the quality whereas the readability was assessed using Flesch Reading Ease Score (FRES, Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level (FKGL, and SMOG. Results. Forty percent of websites (n=13 were sponsored by government. Health On the Net Code of Conduct (HONcode certification was present on 50% (n=16 of websites. The mean LIDA score (74.31 was average. Only 3 websites scored high on LIDA score. Only five had readability scores at recommended sixth-grade level. Conclusion. Most health information websites had average quality especially in terms of usability and reliability and were written at high readability levels. Efforts are needed to develop the health information websites which can help general population in informed decision making.
Mustufa, Muhammad Ayaz; Jamali, Abdul Karim; Sameen, Ifra; Burfat, Fateh Muhammad; Baloch, Mir Yousaf; Baloch, Abdul Hameed; Baloch, Ghulam Rasool; Lashari, Shazia Kulsoom; Ayaz, Sobiya Mohiuddin; Baloch, Muhammad Younus
This survey was focusing on health and oral hygiene status of primary school children at Lasbela district considering the comparatively less developed and socio demographically deprived part of the Country. A cross sectional survey was conducted to determine the health status of primary school children in seven tehseels of district Lasbela, Balochistan after applying proportionate sampling technique from March 2015 to July 2015. Field teams visited assigned schools to screen children and collect health related data on predesigned and pre coded proforma. Out of 200 schools, 196 schools found opened, while 2% of schools (04) remained closed. A total of 6363 students were clinically screened. About 45% of the school children had normal body mass index (BMI) and rest were falling in different categories of malnutrition. More than 19% had ear, nose and throat (ENT) problems and around 19% presented with clinical anemia. Less than 50% of children had scar of BCG vaccination and 4% informed about use of gutka/supari chewing (smokeless tobacco use). In conclusion, we estimated high prevalence of malnutrition, poor oral health including smokeless tobacco use, and low BCG coverage among primary school children at Lasbela. Current scenario suggests immediate and contextually focused interventions to confine existing public health risks and avoid future burden of disease.
In the Western world during 1984, some 26 new reactors with a total capacity of about 26 GWe were commissioned. This review discusses political and economic factors affecting nuclear power worldwide. Developments, or the lack of them, in the following areas are considered: U.S.A., Japan, Western Europe, Turkey, South East Asia, China, India, South and Central America and Eastern Europe. China is predicted to be the next big market
ACTIVITIES AT KIEV VEGETABLE MARKET Moscow SOVETSKAYA ROSSIYA in Russian 16 May 86 p 6 PARTY COMMITrEE ACTIVITIES AT C(1ERNOBYL Moscow PRAVDA in...Agreement (Martin F. Yriart; Buenos Aires AMBITO FINANCIERO , 12 May 86) 22 NEAR EAST/SOUTH ASIA BANGLADESH OBSERVER: Nuclear Technology Growth Playing...University physicists. Scanditronix began to market the product in earnest worldwide in the mid- seventies. At the same time, anxiety was growing within FOA
Fariello, Maria-Ines; Servin, Bertrand; Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola; Rupp, Rachel; Moreno, Carole; San Cristobal, Magali; Boitard, Simon; Drögemüller, Cord; The International Sheep Genomics Consortium, ISGC
The diversity of populations in domestic species offers great opportunities to study genome response to selection. The recently published Sheep HapMap dataset is a great example of characterization of the world wide genetic diversity in sheep. In this study, we re-analyzed the Sheep HapMap dataset to identify selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations. Compared to previous analyses, we made use of statistical methods that (i) take account of the hierarchical structure of sheep popula...
Fariello, Maria-Ines; Servin, Bertrand; Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola; Rupp, Rachel; Moreno, Carole; Cristobal, Magali San; Boitard, Simon
The diversity of populations in domestic species offers great opportunities to study genome response to selection. The recently published Sheep HapMap dataset is a great example of characterization of the world wide genetic diversity in sheep. In this study, we re-analyzed the Sheep HapMap dataset to identify selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations. Compared to previous analyses, we made use of statistical methods that (i) take account of the hierarchical structure of sheep popula...
With a growing up worldwide population and a better standard of living, the global energy consumption will rise. The CO 2 emissions will increase too because of todays share of fossil fuels in the energy sources. This paper analyzes the possible contribution of nuclear energy in this context: economical and environmental aspects, political aspects (distribution of energy resources, energy dependence), energy efficiency, reduction of CO 2 emissions. (J.S.)
Reddy, Doodipala Samba; Volkmer, Randy
Aside from brain injury and genetic causes, there is emerging information on brain infection and inflammation as a common cause of epilepsy. Neurocysticercosis (NCC), the most common cause of epilepsy worldwide, is caused by brain cysts from the Taenia solium tapeworm. In this article, we provide a critical analysis of current and emerging information on the relationship between NCC infection and epilepsy occurrence. We searched PubMed and other databases for reports on the prevalence of NCC and incidence of epilepsy in certain regions worldwide. NCC is caused by brain cysts from the T. solium and related tapeworms. Many people with NCC infection may develop epilepsy but the rates are highly variable. MRI imaging shows many changes including localization of cysts as well as the host response to treatment. Epilepsy, in a subset of NCC patients, appears to be due to hippocampal sclerosis. Serologic and brain imaging profiles are likely diagnostic biomarkers of NCC infection and are also used to monitor the course of treatments. Limited access to these tools is a key limitation to identify and treat NCC-related epilepsy in places with high prevalence of this parasite infestation. Overall, NCC is a common infection in many patients with epilepsy worldwide. Additional clinical and animal studies could confirm common pathology of NCC as a postinfectious epilepsy that is curable. Copyright © 2017 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Leiknes, Kari Ann; Jarosh-von Schweder, Lindy; Høie, Bjørg
To explore contemporary (from 1990) utilization and practice of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) worldwide. Systematic search (limited to studies published 1990 and after) was undertaken in the databases Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, SveMed, and EBSCO/Cinahl. Primary data-based studies/surveys with reported ECT utilization and practice in psychiatric institutions internationally, nationally, and regionally; city were included. Two reviewers independently checked study titles and abstracts according to inclusion criteria, and extracted ECT utilization and practice data from those retrieved in full text. Seventy studies were included, seven from Australia and New Zealand, three Africa, 12 North and Latin America, 33 Europe, and 15 Asia. Worldwide ECT differences and trends were evident, average number ECTs administered per patient were eight; unmodified (without anesthesia) was used in Asia (over 90%), Africa, Latin America, Russia, Turkey, Spain. Worldwide preferred electrode placement was bilateral, except unilateral at some places (Europe and Australia/New Zealand). Although mainstream was brief-pulse wave, sine-wave devices were still used. Majority ECT treated were older women with depression in Western countries, versus younger men with schizophrenia in Asian countries. ECT under involuntary conditions (admissions), use of ambulatory-ECT, acute first line of treatment, as well as administered by other professions (geriatricians, nurses) were noted by some sites. General trends were only some institutions within the same country providing ECT, training inadequate, and guidelines not followed. Mandatory reporting and overall country ECT register data were sparse. Many patients are still treated with unmodified ECT today. Large global variation in ECT utilization, administration, and practice advocates a need for worldwide sharing of knowledge about ECT, reflection, and learning from each other's experiences. PMID:22741102
Wittekind, Anna; Walton, Janette
Estimating trends in dietary intake data is integral to informing national nutrition policy and monitoring progress towards dietary guidelines. Dietary intake of sugars is a controversial public health issue and guidance in relation to recommended intakes is particularly inconsistent. Published data relating to trends in sugars intake are relatively sparse. The purpose of the present review was to collate and review data from national nutrition surveys to examine changes and trends in dietary sugars intake. Only thirteen countries (all in the developed world) appear to report estimates of sugars intake from national nutrition surveys at more than one point in time. Definitions of dietary sugars that were used include 'total sugars', 'non-milk extrinsic sugars', 'added sugars', sucrose' and 'mono- and disaccharides'. This variability in terminology across countries meant that comparisons were limited to within countries. Hence trends in dietary sugars intake were examined by country for the whole population (where data permitted), and for specific or combined age and sex subpopulations. Findings indicate that in the majority of population comparisons, estimated dietary sugars intake is either stable or decreasing in both absolute (g/d) and relative (% energy) terms. An increase in sugars intake was observed in few countries and only in specific subpopulations. In conclusion, the findings from the present review suggest that, in the main, dietary sugars intake are decreasing or stable. A consistent approach to estimation of dietary sugars intake from national nutrition surveys is required if more valid estimates of changes in dietary sugars intakes are required in the future.
Bradley, Katharine A; Rubinsky, Anna D; Sun, Haili
Patients who screen positive for alcohol misuse on the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test Consumption Questionnaire (AUDIT-C ≥5 points) have significantly increased postoperative complications. Severe alcohol misuse (AUDIT-C ≥9 points) is associated with increased postoperative health care...
Brüggmann, D; Mäule, L-S; Klingelhöfer, D; Schöffel, N; Gerber, A; Jaque, J M; Groneberg, D A
While research activities on osteoporosis grow constantly, no concise description of the global research architecture exists. Hence, we aim to analyze and depict the world-wide scientific output on osteoporosis combining bibliometric tools, density-equalizing mapping projections and gender analysis. Using the NewQIS platform, we analyzed all osteoporosis-related publications authored from 1900 to 2012 and indexed by the Web of Science. Bibliometric details were analyzed related to quantitative and semi-qualitative aspects. The majority of 57 453 identified publications were original research articles. The USA and Western Europe dominated the field regarding cooperation activity, publication and citation performance. Asia, Africa and South America played a minimal role. Gender analysis revealed a dominance of male scientists in almost all countries except Brazil. Although the scientific performance on osteoporosis is increasing world-wide, a significant disparity in terms of research output was visible between developed and low-income countries. This finding is particularly concerning since epidemiologic evaluations of future osteoporosis prevalences predict enormous challenges for the health-care systems in low-resource countries. Hence, our study underscores the need to address these disparities by fostering future research endeavors in these nations with the aim to successfully prevent a growing global burden related to osteoporosis.
Boncompain, Carina Andrea; Suárez, Cristian Alejandro; Morbidoni, Héctor Ricardo
Staphylococcus aureus causes numerous mild to severe infections in humans, both in health facilities and in the community. Patients and health care workers (HCWs) may disseminate strains during regular medical examinations or hospitalization. The aim of this study was to determine the nasal carriage rate of methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant S. aureus among health care workers at Hospital Provincial del Centenario, a public general hospital in Rosario, Argentina. A transversal study was conducted on 320 health care workers. Nasal swabs were taken and presumptive S. aureus colonies were isolated. Bacterial identity and methicillin resistance status were confirmed by amplification of the nuc and mec genes. Chi square test and Fisher exact test were used for statistical analysis. Of 320 HCWs, 96 (30%) were nasal carriers of S. aureus, 20 of whom (6.3%) carried methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and 76 (23.7%) methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA). Carriage was within thepublished values for physicians (30%) and higher for technicians (57%). Accompanying resistance (62/96, 64.6%) was detected, including resistance to fluoroquinolones (23/96, 24%), aminoglucosides (13/96, 13.5%) or to macrolides (33/96, 34.4%). All the strains were susceptible to vancomycin whereas only 3.1% (3/96), all of them on MSSA strains, were resistant to mupirocin. This study is the first one of its kind in Argentina and one of the few performed in South America, to highlight the relevance of nasal carriage of MRSA and MSSA in health care personnel and brings to light the need for consensus recommendations for regular S. aureus carriage screening as well as for decolonization strategies. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Alwahaibi, Adil; Zeka, Ariana
Sohar industrial zone (SIZ), Oman, which started operating in 2006, contains many industries that potentially affect the health of the local population. This study's aim was to evaluate the health effects in a young population living near SIZ. Patient visits to state health clinics for acute respiratory diseases (ARD), asthma, conjunctivitis and dermatitis were obtained for the period of 2006 to 2010, for children ages 5 to 10, ≥20 km to represent high, intermediate and control exposure zones, respectively. Age-specific and gender-specific monthly counts of visits were modelled using generalised additive models controlling for time trends. The high and intermediate exposure zones were later combined together due to the similarity of associations. Exposure effect modification by age, gender and socioeconomic status (SES) was also tested. Living within 10 km from SIZ showed a greater association with ARD (risk ratio (RR)=2.5; 95% CI=2.3 to 2.7), asthma (RR=3.7; 95% CI=3.1 to 4.5), conjunctivitis (RR=3.1; 95% CI=2.9 to 3.5) and dermatitis (RR=2.7; 95% CI=2.5 to 3.0) when compared with the control zone. No differences in associations were found for gender and SES groups; greater effects were noticed in the ≤14-year-old group for asthma. This is the first study conducted in Oman to examine the health effects of a young population living near an industrial park. We hope that these findings will contribute in future developments of environmental health policies in Oman. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Spaulding, Anne C; Eldridge, Gloria D; Chico, Cynthia E; Morisseau, Nancy; Drobeniuc, Ana; Fils-Aime, Rebecca; Day, Carolyn; Hopkins, Robyn; Jin, Xingzhong; Chen, Junyu; Dolan, Kate A
Smoking tobacco contributes to 11.5% of deaths worldwide and, in some countries, more hospitalizations than alcohol and drugs combined. Globally in 2015, 25% of men and 5% of women smoked. In the United States, a higher proportion of people in prison smoke than do community-dwelling individuals. To determine smoking prevalence in prisons worldwide, we systematically reviewed the literature using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines; we also examined whether prisons banned smoking or treated smokers. We searched databases for articles published between 2012 and 2016 and located 85 relevant articles with data representing 73.5% of all incarcerated persons from 50 countries. In 35 of 36 nations (97%) with published prevalence data, smoking for the incarcerated exceeded community rates 1.04- to 62.6-fold. Taking a conservative estimate of a 2-fold increase, we estimated that, globally, 14.5 million male and 26,000 female smokers pass through prisons annually. Prison authorities' responses include permitting, prohibiting, or treating tobacco use. Bans may temporarily improve health and reduce in-prison health care costs but have negligible effect after prison release. Evidence-based interventions for smoking cessation effective outside prisons are effective inside; effects persist after release. Because smoking prevalence is heightened in prisons, offering evidence-based interventions to nearly 15 million smokers passing through yearly would improve global health.
Lisa C. Kooistra
Discussion: Although no conclusions can be drawn based on the current study, our observations suggest that a blended CBT approach might shorten treatment duration and has the potential to be a valuable treatment option for patients with severe depression in specialized mental health care settings. Further exploration of the effectiveness of our bCBT protocol by means of a randomized controlled trial is warranted.
Full Text Available Abstract: This study aimed to describe the diagnosis of health problems and to evaluate the cost of their treatment for cattle raised in feedlots to be slaughtered or to be sold as sires for cow-calf systems. Bovine respiratory disease and digestive disorders were the main problems diagnosed in the feedlot for slaughter; the cost for treatment was high, accounting for 9.7 to 20.9 kg of live weight (LW or the equivalent of 7 to 15% of total LW gained over the days on feed. Due to the high intake of starch-rich concentrate, rumen and fecal pH was lower, whilst rumen osmolarity and blood lactate were higher in cattle fed for slaughter. Cattle affected by digestive disorders spent on average four additional days in the feedlot. Diseases and cost of treatments were associated with lower average daily gain and considerable economic losses. Health problems commonly observed in the feedlots for slaughter were not observed in the feedlots for males to be sold as sires. The most likely reason for this observation was the more careful nutrition and prophylactic health management in sire production systems, which produce animals of much higher selling price. Results from this study suggest that health problems found in feedlots for slaughter may not only reduce animal productivity and proﬁtability, but also the welfare of the animals. The systemic understaffing of livestock cattle workers and veterinarians in large feedlots in Brazil results in under reporting of diseases and lack to understand epidemiological context and disease prevention.
Fogel, Robert W; Grotte, Nathaniel
This paper discusses findings from The Changing Body: Health, Nutrition, and Human Development in the Western World since 1700 (Cambridge University Press) The book is built on the authors' work with 300 years of height and nutrition data and discusses their findings in the context of technophysio evolution, a uniquely modern form of rapid physiological development, the result of humanity's ability to control its environment and create technological innovations to adapt to it.
Marcellin, Patrick; Kutala, Blaise K
CLDs represent an important, and certainly underestimated, global public health problem. CLDs are highly prevalent and silent, related to different, sometimes associated causes. The distribution of the causes of these diseases is slowly changing, and within the next decade, the proportion of virus-induced CLDs will certainly decrease significantly while the proportion of NASH will increase. There is an urgent need for effective global actions including education, prevention and early diagnosis to manage and treat CLDs, thus preventing cirrhosis-related morbidity and mortality. Our role is to increase the awareness of the public, healthcare professionals and public health authorities to encourage active policies for early management that will decrease the short- and long-term public health burden of these diseases. Because necroinflammation is the key mechanism in the progression of CLDs, it should be detected early. Thus, large-scale screening for CLDs is needed. ALT levels are an easy and inexpensive marker of liver necroinflammation and could be the first-line tool in this process. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Maheri, Aghbabak; Sadeghi, Roya; Shojaeizadeh, Davoud; Tol, Azar; Yaseri, Mehdi; Ebrahimi, Mojtaba
A health-promoting lifestyle (HPL) is a factor that affects the quality of life (QoL) in patients with beta-thalassemia (β-thalassemia). Due to the lack of studies of this issue, this study aimed to determine the association between HPL and QoL among adults with β-thalassemia. This cross-sectional (descriptive-analytic) study was conducted among 389 adult patients with β-thalassemia in Tehran, Iran. The research instrument included a questionnaire consisting of three parts: demographic items, the Short-Form Health Survey and the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 23.0. The results were considered significant at the conventional pthalassemia; these four dimensions explained 37.9% of the variance in QoL. QoL and HPL were not at acceptable levels among patients with thalassemia. Therefore, educational interventions emphasizing spiritual growth, physical activity, and interpersonal relations are necessary for patients with thalassemia.
Lavoie-Tremblay, Melanie; Bonin, Jean-Pierre; Lesage, Alain D; Bonneville-Roussy, Arielle; Lavigne, Geneviève L; Laroche, Dominique
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between 4 dimensions of the psychosocial work environment (psychological demands, decision latitude, social support, and effort-reward) among health care professionals as well as their psychological distress during a reorganization process. A correlational descriptive design was used for this quantitative study. A total of 159 health care professionals completed the questionnaire at T1, and 141 at T2. First, before the work reorganization, effort-reward imbalance was the sole variable of the psychological work environment that significantly predicted psychological distress. Second, the high overall level of psychological distress increased during the process of organizational change (from T1 to T2). Finally, effort-reward imbalance, high psychological demands, and low decision latitude were all significant predictors of psychological distress at T2, during the organizational change. In conclusion, to reduce the expected negative outcomes of restructuring on health care practitioners, managers could increase the number of opportunities for rewards, carefully explain the demands, and clarify the tasks to be performed by each of the employees to reduce their psychological burden and increase their perceptions of autonomy.
Myers, Jonathan; McAuley, Paul; Lavie, Carl J; Despres, Jean-Pierre; Arena, Ross; Kokkinos, Peter
The evolution from hunting and gathering to agriculture, followed by industrialization, has had a profound effect on human physical activity (PA) patterns. Current PA patterns are undoubtedly the lowest they have been in human history, with particularly marked declines in recent generations, and future projections indicate further declines around the globe. Non-communicable health problems that afflict current societies are fundamentally attributable to the fact that PA patterns are markedly different than those for which humans were genetically adapted. The advent of modern statistics and epidemiological methods has made it possible to quantify the independent effects of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and PA on health outcomes. Based on more than five decades of epidemiological studies, it is now widely accepted that higher PA patterns and levels of CRF are associated with better health outcomes. This review will discuss the evidence supporting the premise that PA and CRF are independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) as well as the interplay between both PA and CRF and other CVD risk factors. A particular focus will be given to the interplay between CRF, metabolic risk and obesity. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Ali, M.; Tarafdar, S.A.
Arsenic content in drinking water and in scalp hair of the arsenic affected areas in Bangladesh were measured using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) to determine the contribution of drinking water to body burden and health risks. Around 61% of the water analyzed from tube-wells has arsenic content above 0.05 mg/l and about 13% have arsenic content above 0.01 mg/l. The mean concentration of arsenic in contaminated water is about 0.26 mg/l with the maximum level of 0.83 mg/l. The contaminated water thus contributes a significant amount to the arsenic budget in humans in Bangladesh and consequently, to their health hazards. The average concentration of arsenic in hair of a patient group drinking contaminated water is 14.1 mg/kg where the normal levels are <3.0 mg/kg. The distribution of arsenic in water and in hair is compared and discussed with the data reported in the literature. The daily dietary intake value of arsenic by the adult population in Bangladesh is estimated and assessed signifying health effects. (author)
Mojtabai, Ramin; Chen, Lian-Yu; Kaufmann, Christopher N; Crum, Rosa M
Barriers to both mental health and substance use disorder treatments have rarely been examined among individuals with comorbid mental health and substance use disorders. In a sample of 393 adults with 12-month major depressive episodes and substance use disorders, we compared perceived barriers to these two types of treatments. Data were drawn from the 2005-2011 U.S. National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. Overall, the same individuals experienced different barriers to mental health treatment versus substance use disorder treatment. Concerns about negative views of the community, effects on job, and inconvenience of services were more commonly reported as reasons for not receiving substance use disorder treatment. Not affording the cost of care was the most common barrier to both types of treatments, but more commonly reported as a barrier to mental health treatment. Improved financial access through the Affordable Care Act and parity legislation and integration of mental health and substance use disorder services may help to reduce treatment barriers among individuals with comorbid mental health and substance disorders. © 2013.
Sartelli, Massimo; Baiocchi, Gian L; Di Saverio, Salomone; Ferrara, Francesco; Labricciosa, Francesco M; Ansaloni, Luca; Coccolini, Federico; Vijayan, Deepak; Abbas, Ashraf; Abongwa, Hariscine K; Agboola, John; Ahmed, Adamu; Akhmeteli, Lali; Akkapulu, Nezih; Akkucuk, Seckin; Altintoprak, Fatih; Andreiev, Aurelia L; Anyfantakis, Dimitrios; Atanasov, Boiko; Bala, Miklosh; Balalis, Dimitrios; Baraket, Oussama; Bellanova, Giovanni; Beltran, Marcelo; Melo, Renato Bessa; Bini, Roberto; Bouliaris, Konstantinos; Brunelli, Daniele; Castillo, Adrian; Catani, Marco; Che Jusoh, Asri; Chichom-Mefire, Alain; Cocorullo, Gianfranco; Coimbra, Raul; Colak, Elif; Costa, Silvia; Das, Koray; Delibegovic, Samir; Demetrashvili, Zaza; Di Carlo, Isidoro; Kiseleva, Nadezda; El Zalabany, Tamer; Faro, Mario; Ferreira, Margarida; Fraga, Gustavo P; Gachabayov, Mahir; Ghnnam, Wagih M; Giménez Maurel, Teresa; Gkiokas, Georgios; Gomes, Carlos A; Griffiths, Ewen; Guner, Ali; Gupta, Sanjay; Hecker, Andreas; Hirano, Elcio S; Hodonou, Adrien; Hutan, Martin; Ioannidis, Orestis; Isik, Arda; Ivakhov, Georgy; Jain, Sumita; Jokubauskas, Mantas; Karamarkovic, Aleksandar; Kauhanen, Saila; Kaushik, Robin; Kavalakat, Alfie; Kenig, Jakub; Khokha, Vladimir; Khor, Desmond; Kim, Dennis; Kim, Jae I; Kong, Victor; Lasithiotakis, Konstantinos; Leão, Pedro; Leon, Miguel; Litvin, Andrey; Lohsiriwat, Varut; López-Tomassetti Fernandez, Eudaldo; Lostoridis, Eftychios; Maciel, James; Major, Piotr; Dimova, Ana; Manatakis, Dimitrios; Marinis, Athanasio; Martinez-Perez, Aleix; Marwah, Sanjay; McFarlane, Michael; Mesina, Cristian; Pędziwiatr, Michał; Michalopoulos, Nickos; Misiakos, Evangelos; Mohamedahmed, Ali; Moldovanu, Radu; Montori, Giulia; Mysore Narayana, Raghuveer; Negoi, Ionut; Nikolopoulos, Ioannis; Novelli, Giuseppe; Novikovs, Viktors; Olaoye, Iyiade; Omari, Abdelkarim; Ordoñez, Carlos A; Ouadii, Mouaqit; Ozkan, Zeynep; Pal, Ajay; Palini, Gian M; Partecke, Lars I; Pata, Francesco; Pędziwiatr, Michał; Pereira Júnior, Gerson A; Pintar, Tadeja; Pisarska, Magdalena; Ploneda-Valencia, Cesar F; Pouggouras, Konstantinos; Prabhu, Vinod; Ramakrishnapillai, Padmakumar; Regimbeau, Jean-Marc; Reitz, Marianne; Rios-Cruz, Daniel; Saar, Sten; Sakakushev, Boris; Seretis, Charalampos; Sazhin, Alexander; Shelat, Vishal; Skrovina, Matej; Smirnov, Dmitry; Spyropoulos, Charalampos; Strzałka, Marcin; Talving, Peep; Teixeira Gonsaga, Ricardo A; Theobald, George; Tomadze, Gia; Torba, Myftar; Tranà, Cristian; Ulrych, Jan; Uzunoğlu, Mustafa Y; Vasilescu, Alin; Occhionorelli, Savino; Venara, Aurélien; Vereczkei, Andras; Vettoretto, Nereo; Vlad, Nutu; Walędziak, Maciej; Yilmaz, Tonguç U; Yuan, Kuo-Ching; Yunfeng, Cui; Zilinskas, Justas; Grelpois, Gérard; Catena, Fausto
Acute appendicitis (AA) is the most common surgical disease, and appendectomy is the treatment of choice in the majority of cases. A correct diagnosis is key for decreasing the negative appendectomy rate. The management can become difficult in case of complicated appendicitis. The aim of this study is to describe the worldwide clinical and diagnostic work-up and management of AA in surgical departments. This prospective multicenter observational study was performed in 116 worldwide surgical departments from 44 countries over a 6-month period (April 1, 2016-September 30, 2016). All consecutive patients admitted to surgical departments with a clinical diagnosis of AA were included in the study. A total of 4282 patients were enrolled in the POSAW study, 1928 (45%) women and 2354 (55%) men, with a median age of 29 years. Nine hundred and seven (21.2%) patients underwent an abdominal CT scan, 1856 (43.3%) patients an US, and 285 (6.7%) patients both CT scan and US. A total of 4097 (95.7%) patients underwent surgery; 1809 (42.2%) underwent open appendectomy and 2215 (51.7%) had laparoscopic appendectomy. One hundred eighty-five (4.3%) patients were managed conservatively. Major complications occurred in 199 patients (4.6%). The overall mortality rate was 0.28%. The results of the present study confirm the clinical value of imaging techniques and prognostic scores. Appendectomy remains the most effective treatment of acute appendicitis. Mortality rate is low.
The article covers the topic of nuclear power from the point of view of a representative of the World Nuclear Association (WNA). It is to address not only global trends, but also to provide an opportunity to describe his impressions to a German whose main job is with an international company in Paris, and whose WNA desk is set up in London. In retrospect, there had hardly been a time when nuclear power was held in the same high regard, internationally, as it is now. In the most recent World Climate Report, which is always the result of international consensus, nuclear power is referred to as one of the currently available, economically viable key technologies in the fight against climate change. Worldwide, roughly half the electricity generated practically without any CO 2 emissions is produced in nuclear power plants. Moreover, it is not only climate protection which gives a boost to nuclear power. Also the threats facing important sources of fossil fuel supply have greatly contributed to this development. As regards the use of nuclear power in Germany, the facts are known: Longer periods of operation of nuclear power plants could save a lot of money and even more CO 2 . This is good for the environment, the economy and, ultimately, for the population in Germany. Competence preservation is an important topic in our industry. We are on the right way, worldwide, in this respect. One example to be mentioned is the common initiative of international organizations, co-initiated especially also by WNA, to establish the World Nuclear University. This institution is in the process of becoming a wellspring of talent specializing in nuclear technology worldwide. (orig.)
Worldwide interest has been evident over the past few years in reexamining the merits of recovering the actinides from spent light-water reactor (LWR) fuel and transmuting them in fast reactors to reduce hazards in geologic repositories. This paper will summarize some of the recent activities in this field. Several countries are embarked on programs of reprocessing and vitrification of present wastes, from which removal of the actinides is largely precluded. The United States is assessing the ideas related to the fast reactor program and the potential application to defense wastes. 18 refs., 2 figs
Larsen, R.J.; Juzdan, Z.R.
The deposition of 90 Sr in the Northern Hemisphere during 1984 was 0.3 PBq (0.008 MCi), while that of the Southern Hemisphere was 0.1 PBq (0.003 MCi). This resulted in a total deposition on the surface of the earth during 1984 of 0.4 PBq (0.011 MCi). This is the lowest total yearly deposit since the initiation of the Environmental Measurements Laboratory's global fallout program in the mid-1950's. The worldwide cumulative deposit decreased to 357 PBq (9.6 MCi)
Dinesh K Dhanwal
Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a major health problem, especially in elderly populations, and is associated with fragility fractures at the hip, spine, and wrist. Hip fracture contributes to both morbidity and mortality in the elderly. The demographics of world populations are set to change, with more elderly living in developing countries, and it has been estimated that by 2050 half of hip fractures will occur in Asia. This review conducted using the PubMed database describes the incidence of hip fracture in different regions of the world and discusses the possible causes of this wide geographic variation. The analysis of data from different studies show a wide geographic variation across the world, with higher hip fracture incidence reported from industrialized countries as compared to developing countries. The highest hip fracture rates are seen in North Europe and the US and lowest in Latin America and Africa. Asian countries such as Kuwait, Iran, China, and Hong Kong show intermediate hip fracture rates. There is also a north-south gradient seen in European studies, and more fractures are seen in the north of the US than in the south. The factors responsible of this variation are population demographics (with more elderly living in countries with higher incidence rates and the influence of ethnicity, latitude, and environmental factors. The understanding of this changing geographic variation will help policy makers to develop strategies to reduce the burden of hip fractures in developing countries such as India, which will face the brunt of this problem over the coming decades.
Chen, Xichao; Luo, Qian; Wang, Donghong; Gao, Jijun; Wei, Zi; Wang, Zijian; Zhou, Huaidong; Mazumder, Asit
Owing to the growing public awareness on the safety and aesthetics in water sources, more attention has been given to the adverse effects of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on aquatic organisms and human beings. In this study, 77 target VOCs (including 54 common VOCs, 13 carbonyl compounds, and 10 taste and odor compounds) were detected in typical drinking water sources from 5 major river basins (the Yangtze, the Huaihe, the Yellow, the Haihe and the Liaohe River basins) and their occurrences were characterized. The ecological, human health, and olfactory assessments were performed to assess the major hazards in source water. The investigation showed that there existed potential ecological risks (1.30 × 10 ≤ RQ_t_o_t_a_ls ≤ 8.99 × 10) but little human health risks (6.84 × 10"−"7 ≤ RQ_t_o_t_a_ls ≤ 4.24 × 10"−"4) by VOCs, while that odor problems occurred extensively. The priority contaminants in drinking water sources of China were also listed based on the present assessment criteria. - Highlights: • VOCs with various polarities were screened in typical water sources of China. • Ecological, human health and olfactory assessments were simultaneously performed. • The risk assessments were used to identify the major hazards by VOCs. • The detected VOCs posed potential ecological risks but little human health risks. • Odor problems occurred extensively in source water of China. - Detected VOCs with various polarities caused odor problems and posed potential ecological risks but little human health risks in drinking water sources in China.
Owens, T.; Ungers, L.; Briggs, T.
The purpose of this study is to estimate both quantitatively and qualitatively, the worker and societal risks attributable to four photovoltaic cell (solar cell) production processes. Quantitative risk values were determined by use of statistics from the California semiconductor industry. The qualitative risk assessment was performed using a variety of both governmental and private sources of data. The occupational health statistics derived from the semiconductor industry were used to predict injury and fatality levels associated with photovoltaic cell manufacturing. The use of these statistics to characterize the two silicon processes described herein is defensible from the standpoint that many of the same process steps and materials are used in both the semiconductor and photovoltaic industries. These health statistics are less applicable to the gallium arsenide and cadmium sulfide manufacturing processes, primarily because of differences in the materials utilized. Although such differences tend to discourage any absolute comparisons among the four photovoltaic cell production processes, certain relative comparisons are warranted. To facilitate a risk comparison of the four processes, the number and severity of process-related chemical hazards were assessed. This qualitative hazard assessment addresses both the relative toxicity and the exposure potential of substances in the workplace. In addition to the worker-related hazards, estimates of process-related emissions and wastes are also provided.
Full Text Available Western honey bees, Apis mellifera, live in highly eusocial colonies that are each typically headed by a single queen. The queen is the sole reproductive female in a healthy colony, and because long-term colony survival depends on her ability to produce a large number of offspring, queen health is essential for colony success. Honey bees have recently been experiencing considerable declines in colony health. Among a number of biotic and abiotic factors known to impact colony health, disease and queen failure are repeatedly reported as important factors underlying colony losses. Surprisingly, there are relatively few studies on the relationship and interaction between honey bee diseases and queen quality. It is critical to understand the negative impacts of pests and pathogens on queen health, how queen problems might enable disease, and how both factors influence colony health. Here, we review the current literature on queen reproductive potential and the impacts of honey bee parasites and pathogens on queens. We conclude by highlighting gaps in our knowledge on the combination of disease and queen failure to provide a perspective and prioritize further research to mitigate disease, improve queen quality, and ensure colony health.
Mettler, F.A. Jr.; Davis, M.; Kelsey, C.A.; Rosenberg, R.; Williams, A.
An analytical model was developed to estimate the availability and frequency of medical radiation use on a worldwide basis. This model includes medical and dental x-ray, nuclear medicine, and radiation therapy. The development of an analytical model is necessary as the first step in estimating the radiation dose to the world's population from this source. Since there is no data about the frequency of medical radiation use in more than half the countries in the world and only fragmentary data in an additional one-fourth of the world's countries, such a model can be used to predict the uses of medical radiation in these countries. The model indicates that there are approximately 400,000 medical x-ray machines worldwide and that approximately 1.2 billion diagnostic medical x-ray examinations are performed annually. Dental x-ray examinations are estimated at 315 million annually and approximately 22 million in-vivo diagnostic nuclear medicine examinations. Approximately 4 million radiation therapy procedures or courses of treatment are undertaken annually
Stapanian, Martin A.; Paragamian, Vaughn L.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Jackson, James R.; Lappalainen, Jyrki; Evenson, Matthew J.; Neufeld, Matthew D.
Although burbot (Lota lota Gadidae) are widespread and abundant throughout much of their natural range, there are many populations that have been extirpated, endangered or are in serious decline. Due in part to the species’ lack of popularity as a game and commercial fish, few regions consider burbot in management plans. We review the worldwide population status of burbot and synthesize reasons why some burbot populations are endangered or declining, some burbot populations have recovered and some burbot populations do not recover despite management measures. Burbot have been extirpated in much of Western Europe and the United Kingdom and are threatened or endangered in much of North America and Eurasia. Pollution and habitat change, particularly the effects of dams, appear to be the main causes for declines in riverine burbot populations. Pollution and the adverse effects of invasive species appear to be the main reasons for declines in lacustrine populations. Warmer water temperatures, due either to discharge from dams or climate change, have been noted in declining burbot populations at the southern extent of their range. Currently, fishing pressure does not appear to be limiting burbot populations world-wide. We suggest mitigation measures for burbot population recovery, particularly those impacted by dams and invasive species.
Achicanoy, Harold A.; Bjorkman, Anne D.; Navarro-Racines, Carlos; Guarino, Luigi; Flores-Palacios, Ximena; Engels, Johannes M. M.; Wiersema, John H.; Dempewolf, Hannes; Sotelo, Steven; Ramírez-Villegas, Julian; Castañeda-Álvarez, Nora P.; Fowler, Cary; Jarvis, Andy; Rieseberg, Loren H.; Struik, Paul C.
Research into the origins of food plants has led to the recognition that specific geographical regions around the world have been of particular importance to the development of agricultural crops. Yet the relative contributions of these different regions in the context of current food systems have not been quantified. Here we determine the origins (‘primary regions of diversity’) of the crops comprising the food supplies and agricultural production of countries worldwide. We estimate the degree to which countries use crops from regions of diversity other than their own (‘foreign crops’), and quantify changes in this usage over the past 50 years. Countries are highly interconnected with regard to primary regions of diversity of the crops they cultivate and/or consume. Foreign crops are extensively used in food supplies (68.7% of national food supplies as a global mean are derived from foreign crops) and production systems (69.3% of crops grown are foreign). Foreign crop usage has increased significantly over the past 50 years, including in countries with high indigenous crop diversity. The results provide a novel perspective on the ongoing globalization of food systems worldwide, and bolster evidence for the importance of international collaboration on genetic resource conservation and exchange.
Gutiérrez-Alba, Gaudencio; González-Block, Miguel Ángel; Reyes-Morales, Hortensia
To identify, prioritize and relate barriers and facilitators in the implementation of Clinical Practice Guidelines (GPC, in Spanish). We used qualitative methods to study and compare the introduction of GPC across the domains of the consolidated research implementation framework in hospitals of the three main public institutions in a state of Mexico. Authorities and hospital staff were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. The main barriers to implementation are the absence of standards, training, resources and incentives. The most important implementation facilitators are the characteristics of the GPC, which are perceived as properly designed and with simple language as well as with capacity to improve the work environment. The barriers to implementation must be solved to achieve the goal of standardizing the healthcare process across the sector; the positive perception of the GPC should promote the continuous actualization of the evidence and a sectoral view from their development stage to ensure adoption in the heterogeneous environments that characterize health institutions.
Prescott, Susan L
Early-life nutritional exposures are significant determinants of the development and future health of all organ systems. The dramatic rise in infant immune diseases, most notably allergy, indicates the specific vulnerability of the immune system to early environmental changes. Dietary changes are at the center of the emerging epigenetic paradigms that underpin the rise in many modern inflammatory and metabolic diseases. There is growing evidence that exposures in pregnancy and the early postnatal period can modify gene expression and disease susceptibility. Although modern dietary changes are complex and involve changing patterns of many nutrients, there is also interest in the developmental effects of specific nutrients. Oligosaccharides (soluble fiber), antioxidants, polyunsaturated fatty acids, folate and other vitamins have documented effects on immune function as well as metabolism. Some have also been implicated in modified risk of allergic diseases in observational studies. Intervention studies are largely limited to trials with polyunsaturated fatty acids and oligosaccharides, showing preliminary but yet unconfirmed benefits in allergy prevention. Understanding how environmental influences disrupt the finely balanced development of immune and metabolic programming is of critical importance. Diet-sensitive pathways are likely to be crucial in these processes. While an epigenetic mechanism provides a strong explanation of how nutritional exposures can affect fetal gene expression and subsequent disease risk, other diet-induced tissue compositional changes may also contribute directly to altered immune and metabolic function--including diet-induced changes in the microbiome. A better understanding of nutritional programming of immune health, nutritional epigenetics and the biological processes sensitive to nutritional exposures early in life may lead to dietary strategies that provide more tolerogenic conditions during early immune programming and reduce the
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for major roads (interstates and trunk highways) found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. These roadways are current...
R. Zoleko Manego
Full Text Available Abstract Background Sub-Saharan Africa is undergoing an epidemiological transition from a predominance of infectious diseases to non-communicable and lifestyle related conditions. However, the pace of this transition and the pattern of disease epidemiology are uneven between affluent urban and rural poor populations. To address this question for a remote rural region located in the central African rainforest region of Gabon, this study was conducted to assess reasons for health care attendance and to characterize the epidemiology of malaria and other major infectious diseases for the department of Tsamba Magotsi. Methods Major causes for health care attendance were collected from local hospital records. Cross sectional population based surveys were performed for the assessment of local malaria epidemiology. Pregnant women attending antenatal care services were surveyed as a sentinel population for the characterization of chronic viral and parasitic infections in the community. Results Infectious diseases were responsible for 71% (7469 of a total of 10,580 consultations at the formal health care sector in 2010. Overall, malaria – defined by clinical syndrome – remained the most frequent cause for health care attendance. A cross sectional malaria survey in 840 asymptomatic individuals residing in Tsamba Magotsi resulted in a Plasmodium spp. infection prevalence of 37%. The infection rate in 2–10 year old asymptomatic children – a standard measure for malaria endemicity – was 46% (100 of 217 with P. falciparum as predominant species (79%. Infection with other plasmodial species (P. ovale and P. malariae presented most commonly as coinfections (23.2%. Prevalence of HIV, HBV, and syphilis were 6.2, 7.3, and 2.5%, respectively, in cross-sectional assessments of antenatal care visits of pregnant women. Urogenital schistosomiasis and the filarial pathogens Loa loa and Mansonella perstans are highly prevalent chronic parasitic infections
Weikl, F; Radl, V; Munch, J C; Pritsch, K
Fungi are, after pollen, the second most important producers of outdoor airborne allergens. To identify sources of airborne fungal allergens, a workflow for qPCR quantification from environmental samples was developed, thoroughly tested, and finally applied. We concentrated on determining the levels of allergenic fungi belonging to Alternaria, Cladosporium, Fusarium, and Trichoderma in plant and soil samples from agricultural fields in which cereals were grown. Our aims were to identify the major sources of allergenic fungi and factors potentially influencing their occurrence. Plant materials were the main source of the tested fungi at and after harvest. Amounts of A. alternata and C. cladosporioides varied significantly in fields under different management conditions, but absolute levels were very high in all cases. This finding suggests that high numbers of allergenic fungi may be an inevitable side effect of farming in several crops. Applied in large-scale studies, the concept described here may help to explain the high number of sensitization to airborne fungal allergens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hogan, Michael J; Leyden, Kevin M; Conway, Ronan; Goldberg, Abraham; Walsh, Deirdre; McKenna-Plumley, Phoebe E
A growing body of research suggests that urban design has an effect on health and well-being. There have been very few studies to date, however, that compare these effects across the lifespan. The current study examines the direct and indirect effects of the city environment on happiness. It was hypothesised that citizens' ratings of their city along dimensions of performance (e.g., basic - usually government - services related to education, healthcare, social services, and policing) and place (e.g., the beauty of the city and a built environment that provides access to cultural, sport, park, transport, and shopping amenities) would be significant predictors of happiness but that the nature of these effects would change over the lifespan. 5000 adults aged 25-85 years old living in Berlin, Paris, London, New York, and Toronto completed the Quality of Life Survey in 2007. Respondents reported their happiness levels and evaluated their city along place and performance dimensions. The results of the study demonstrate an interesting, and complex relationship between the city environment and happiness of residents across the lifespan. Findings suggest that the happiness of younger residents is a function of having easy access to cultural, shopping, transport, parks and sport amenities and the attractiveness of their cities (i.e. place variables). The happiness of older residents is associated more with the provision of quality governmental services (i.e., performance variables). Place and performance variables also have an effect on health and social connections, which are strongly linked to happiness for all residents. Younger adults' happiness is more strongly related to the accessibility of amenities that add to the quality of a city's cultural and place characteristics; older adults' happiness is more strongly related to the quality of services provided within a city that enable residents to age in place. These results indicate that, in order to be all things to all
Faybishenko, Boris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Birkholzer, Jens [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Persoff, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sassani, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swift, Peter N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
An important issue for present and future generations is the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Over the past over forty years, the development of technologies to isolate both spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and other high-level nuclear waste (HLW) generated at nuclear power plants and from production of defense materials, and low- and intermediate-level nuclear waste (LILW) in underground rock and sediments has been found to be a challenging undertaking. Finding an appropriate solution for the disposal of nuclear waste is an important issue for protection of the environment and public health, and it is a prerequisite for the future of nuclear power. The purpose of a deep geological repository for nuclear waste is to provide to future generations, protection against any harmful release of radioactive material, even after the memory of the repository may have been lost, and regardless of the technical knowledge of future generations. The results of a wide variety of investigations on the development of technology for radioactive waste isolation from 19 countries were published in the First Worldwide Review in 1991 (Witherspoon, 1991). The results of investigations from 26 countries were published in the Second Worldwide Review in 1996 (Witherspoon, 1996). The results from 32 countries were summarized in the Third Worldwide Review in 2001 (Witherspoon and Bodvarsson, 2001). The last compilation had results from 24 countries assembled in the Fourth Worldwide Review (WWR) on radioactive waste isolation (Witherspoon and Bodvarsson, 2006). Since publication of the last report in 2006, radioactive waste disposal approaches have continued to evolve, and there have been major developments in a number of national geological disposal programs. Significant experience has been obtained both in preparing and reviewing cases for the operational and long-term safety of proposed and operating repositories. Disposal of radioactive waste is a complex issue, not only because of the nature
Kuepper-Nybelen, J; Lamerz, A; Bruning, N; Hebebrand, J; Herpertz-Dahlmann, B; Brenner, H
To investigate the prevalence of overweight according to nationality in preschool children living in Germany, and to establish the determinants responsible for differences in body mass index. The study was performed within the context of the 2001/2002 obligatory health examination before school entry in the city of Aachen, Germany. Of 2020 eligible children 1979 children were recruited (participation rate: 98%). Children's height and weight were measured using a standardised protocol. The parents completed a standardised questionnaire on sociodemographic factors and possible determinants of nutritional status. Being overweight was defined according to age and sex specific reference values for German children as well as according to international reference values. The study population included 452 (22.9%) children with other than German nationality. Among these children the prevalence of overweight was twice as high than among German children (14.8% v 7.2%). Prevalence of most known risk factors for overweight, such as low physical activity, high consumption of soft drinks, and frequent visits to fast-food restaurants was higher in the children with other nationalities than in the German children. Multivariate analyses revealed that most of the difference in prevalence of obesity by nationality is explained by known risk factors of overweight, especially education of mother and watching TV. The apparent ethnic differences could be explained by two non-ethnic but socioeconomic factors. In preventing overweight in children, there is the need to identify and deal with high risk environments rather than high risk ethnic groups.
Varni, Vanina; Ruybal, Paula; Lauthier, Juan José; Tomasini, Nicolás; Brihuega, Bibiana; Koval, Ariel; Caimi, Karina
Leptospirosis is a neglected zoonosis of global importance. Several multilocus sequence typing (MLST) methods have been developed for Leptospira spp., the causative agent of leptospirosis. In this study we reassessed the most commonly used MLST schemes in a set of worldwide isolates, in order to select the loci that achieve the maximum power of discrimination for typing Leptospira spp. Global eBURST algorithm was used to detect clonal complexes among STs and phylogenetic relationships among concatenated and individual sequences were inferred through maximum likelihood (ML) analysis. The evaluation of 12 loci combined to type a subset of strains rendered 57 different STs. Seven of these loci were selected into a final scheme upon studying the number of alleles and polymorphisms, the typing efficiency, the discriminatory power and the ratio dN/dS per nucleotide site for each locus. This new 7-locus scheme was applied to a wider collection of worldwide strains. The ML tree constructed from concatenated sequences of the 7 loci identified 6 major clusters corresponding to 6 Leptospira species. Global eBURST established 8 CCs, which showed that genotypes were clearly related by geographic origin and host. ST52 and ST47, represented mostly by Argentinian isolates, grouped the higher number of isolates. These isolates were serotyped as serogroups Pomona and Icterohaemorrhagiae, showing a unidirectional correlation in which the isolates with the same ST belong to the same serogroup. In summary, this scheme combines the best loci from the most widely used MLST schemes for Leptospira spp. and supports worldwide strains classification. The Argentinian isolates exhibited congruence between allelic profile and serogroup, providing an alternative to serological methods. Published by Elsevier B.V.
While the completion of the SNR 300 was accompanied by manifold discussions on questions relevant to safety and energy policies in the Federal Republic of Germany and as a result considerable scheduling delays and exceeding of budgets were recorded, breeder reactor technology has been progressing worldwide. The transition from the development phase with small trial reactors to the construction and operation of large performance reactors was completed systematically, in particular in France and the Soviet Union. Even though the uranium supply situation does not make a short-term and comprehensive employment of fast breeder reactors essential, technology has meanwhile been advanced to such a level and extensive operating experience is on hand to enable the construction and safe operation of fast breeder reactors. A positive answer has long been found to the question of the realization of a breeding rate to guarantee the breeding effect. There remain now the endeavors to achieve a reduction in investment and fuel cycle costs. (orig.) [de
Paulus, Michal; Kristoufek, Ladislav
We inspect a possible clustering structure of the corruption perception among 134 countries. Using the average linkage clustering, we uncover a well-defined hierarchy in the relationships among countries. Four main clusters are identified and they suggest that countries worldwide can be quite well separated according to their perception of corruption. Moreover, we find a strong connection between corruption levels and a stage of development inside the clusters. The ranking of countries according to their corruption perfectly copies the ranking according to the economic performance measured by the gross domestic product per capita of the member states. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first one to present an application of hierarchical and clustering methods to the specific case of corruption.
Bjerregaard, Peter; Andersen, Lars Bo; Bugge, Anna
BACKGROUND: One of the global targets for non-communicable diseases is to halt, by 2025, the rise in the age-standardised adult prevalence of diabetes at its 2010 levels. We aimed to estimate worldwide trends in diabetes, how likely it is for countries to achieve the global target, and how changes...... in prevalence, together with population growth and ageing, are affecting the number of adults with diabetes. METHODS: We pooled data from population-based studies that had collected data on diabetes through measurement of its biomarkers. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate trends in diabetes...... prevalence-defined as fasting plasma glucose of 7.0 mmol/L or higher, or history of diagnosis with diabetes, or use of insulin or oral hypoglycaemic drugs-in 200 countries and territories in 21 regions, by sex and from 1980 to 2014. We also calculated the posterior probability of meeting the global diabetes...
Berners-Lee, Tim; Groff, Jean-Francois; Pollermann, Bernd
Purpose - The World-Wide Web (W-3) initiative is a practical project designed to bring a global information universe into existence using available technology. This paper seeks to describe the aims, data model, and protocols needed to implement the "web" and to compare them with various contemporary systems. Design/methodology/approach - Since Vannevar Bush's article, men have dreamed of extending their intellect by making their collective knowledge available to each individual by using machines. Computers provide us two practical techniques for human-knowledge interface. One is hypertext, in which links between pieces of text (or other media) mimic human association of ideas. The other is text retrieval, which allows associations to be deduced from the content of text. The W-3 ideal world allows both operations and provides access from any browsing platform. Findings - Various server gateways to other information systems have been produced, and the total amount of information available on the web is...
Rao, Mahendra; Mason, Chris; Solomon, Susan
The regenerative medicine field is large, diverse and active worldwide. A variety of different organizational and product models have been successful, and pioneering entrepreneurs have shown both what can work and, critically, what does not. Evolving regulations, novel funding mechanisms combined with new technological breakthroughs are keeping the field in a state of flux. The field struggles to cope with the lack of infrastructure and investment, it nevertheless has evolved from its roots in human stem cell therapy and tissue and organ transplants to a field composed of a variety of products from multiple cell sources with approval for use in numerous countries. Currently, tens of thousands of patients have been treated with some kind of cell therapy.
Godar, D. E.
The incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) has been increasing at a steady rate in fair-skinned populations around the world for decades. Scientists are not certain why CMM has been steadily increasing, but strong, intermittent UVB (290-320 nm) exposures, especially sunburn episodes, probably initiate, CMM, while UVA (321-400 nm) passing through glass windows in offices and cars probably promotes it. The CMM incidence may be increasing at an exponential rate around the world, but it definitely decreases with increasing latitude up to∼ 50 degree N where it reverses and increases with the increasing latitude. The inversion in the incidence of CMM may occur because there is more UVA relative to UVB for most of the year at higher latitudes. If windows, allowing UVA to enter our indoor-working environment and cars, are at least partly responsible for the increasing incidence of CMM, then UV filters can be applied to reduce the rate of increase worldwide.
Fariello, Maria-Ines; Servin, Bertrand; Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola; Rupp, Rachel; Moreno, Carole; San Cristobal, Magali; Boitard, Simon
The diversity of populations in domestic species offers great opportunities to study genome response to selection. The recently published Sheep HapMap dataset is a great example of characterization of the world wide genetic diversity in sheep. In this study, we re-analyzed the Sheep HapMap dataset to identify selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations. Compared to previous analyses, we made use of statistical methods that (i) take account of the hierarchical structure of sheep populations, (ii) make use of linkage disequilibrium information and (iii) focus specifically on either recent or older selection signatures. We show that this allows pinpointing several new selection signatures in the sheep genome and distinguishing those related to modern breeding objectives and to earlier post-domestication constraints. The newly identified regions, together with the ones previously identified, reveal the extensive genome response to selection on morphology, color and adaptation to new environments.
P. L. Woodworth
Full Text Available This paper describes how we are contributing to worldwide height system unification (WHSU by using ocean models together with sea level (tide gauge and altimeter information, geodetic (GPS and levelling data, and new geoid models based on information from the GRACE and GOCE gravity missions, to understand how mean sea level (MSL varies from place to place along the coast. For the last two centuries, MSL has been used to define datums for national levelling systems. However, there are many problems with this. One consequence of WHSU will be the substitution of conventional datums as a reference for heights with the use of geoid, as the only true "level" or datum. This work is within a number of GOCE-related activities funded by the European Space Agency. The study is focused on the coastlines of North America and Europe where the various datasets are most copious.
Foreman, T.; Rising, J. A.
Coffee (Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora) plays a vital role in many countries' economies, providing necessary income to 25 million members of tropical countries, and supporting a $81 billion industry, making it one of the most valuable commodities in the world. At the same time, coffee is at the center of many issues of sustainability. It is vulnerable to climate change, with disease outbreaks becoming more common and suitable regions beginning to shift. We develop a statistical production model for coffee which incorporates temperature, precipitation, frost, and humidity effects using a new database of worldwide coffee production. We then use this model to project coffee yields and production into the future based on a variety of climate forecasts. This model can then be used together with a market model to forecast the locations of future coffee production as well as future prices, supply, and demand.
symptoms of mania or hypomania or reference to presence or absence (prior or current) of specific symptoms of mania or hypoma- nia , such as any of the...October 2004, pp. 493– 505 . Zahran, Hatice S., Rosemarie Kobau, David G. Moriarty, Matthew M. Zack, James Holt, and Ralph Donehoo, “Health-Related
Chamberlain, Peter N.; Goldney, Robert D.; Taylor, Anne W.; Eckert, Kerena A.
Mental health literacy is the knowledge and beliefs about mental disorders that aid their recognition, management, or prevention and is considered to be an important determinant of help-seeking. This has relevance in suicide prevention, as depression, the clinical condition most frequently associated with suicidality, has been the target of…
Rafferty, L A; Cawkill, P E; Stevelink, S A M; Greenberg, K; Greenberg, N
Dementia is currently incurable, irreversible and a major cause of disability for the world's older population. The association between mental health difficulties, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD), and dementia has a long history within the civilian population. Despite the increased importance of this link within the military veteran population, who suffer a greater propensity of mental health difficulties and consist largely of over 65s, attention is only recently being paid to the salience of such an association for this group. This paper aims to explore the relationship between PTSD and MDD with dementia within the military veteran population. A systematic review was conducted on articles from 1990 to July 2016 on MEDLINE, EMBASE, EBSCO and Web of Science electronic databases with an update conducted in February 2017. Six empirical studies were identified from the review, the majority of which originated from the USA. Five of the studies asserted that veterans with a diagnosis of either PTSD or MDD are at a significantly greater risk of developing dementia than 'healthy' controls. The final study, conducted in Australia, found only a small, but non-significant, correlation between earlier MDD and future dementia, but no concurrent correlation. While causality cannot be determined, it is likely that PTSD and depressive disorders are related to an increased risk of dementia in military veterans. Potential pathological explanations and risk factors are reviewed and the clinical and neuroscience implications of these findings are explored.
Our world is largely dependent upon the forestry productions. Through the exploitation of forest reserves, we manufacture various industrial products, furniture, and obtain fuel and energy. Forestry productions should be conducted without large-scale deforestation and environmental degradation. In present study we perform a review and forecast analysis on forestry productions worldwide, with the objectives of providing an insight into the trend for several types of forestry productions in the future, and providing referential data for sustainable forestry productions and environmental management. Polynomial functions are used to fit trajectories of forestry productions since 1961 and forecasts during the coming 20 years are given in detail. If the past pattern continues, world fibreboard production would dramatically grow and reach 224,300,000 +/- 44,400,000 m(3) by the year 2020, an increase up to 240.7 to 408.9% as compared to the present level. Roundwood production of the world would change by -55.5 to 70.4% and reach 3,526,600,000 +/- 2,066,800,000 m(3) by 2020. In 2020 world production of sawlogs and veneer logs would change by -100 to 164.6% and reach 1,212,900,000 +/- 1,242,600,000 m(3). Global wood fuel production would change by -68.9 to 1.4% and reach 1,130,900,000 +/- 600,800,000 m(3) by 2020. Forestry productions in developed countries would largely surpass productions in developing countries in the near future. World forestry production grew since 1961 excluding wood fuel. Roundwood and wood fuel account for the critical proportions in the forestry productions. Wood fuel production has being declined and rapid growing of roundwood production has slowed in recent years. Widespread use of regenerative wood substitutes and worldwide afforestation against deforestation will be among the most effective ways to reduce deforestation and environment degradation associated with forestry productions.
Marius C. BARBU
Full Text Available The tendency in recent decades for manufacturing plants of semi-finished products such as composite panels, has been to invest in order to achieve high production capacities (>2,000 m³/day for panels and >3,000 t/day for paper with one line. The trend of concentrating the primary processing capacities and manufacturing wood-based panels will continue for the next few years not only in Europe but in North and South America as well. The ten largest panel manufacturers had a combined manufacturing capacity that exceeded a third of the worldwide production capacity. The financial crisis that started in 2008 has caused the closure of a large number of factories especially in North America and Central Europe. Small- and medium-sized producers will only survive if they will continue to specialize in the manufacture of panel types and sizes (niche products that are “unprofitable” for mega-groups. The installed production capacity worldwide of all wood-based composite panels combined (includes PY, PB, MDF, OSB rose by more than 2.5 times between 1980 and 2005 (225 mil.m³, and continues to increase despite the crises reaching approx. 300 mil.m³ in 2013. The forecast for the coming years varies greatly from continent to continent. In North America and Central Europe, both a consolidation of the available production capacities and the closure of less efficient older lines are expected. The lowest point of the effect of the financial crisis on the building industry seems to have been overcome. The furniture production companies will continue to move from one continent and region to another.
Wang, Louise; Haberland, Corinna; Thurm, Cary; Bhattacharya, Jay; Park, K T
Over 9.6 million ED visits occur annually for abdominal pain in the US, but little is known about the medical outcomes of these patients based on demographics. We aimed to identify disparities in outcomes among children presenting to the ED with abdominal pain linked to race and SES. Data from 4.2 million pediatric encounters of abdominal pain were analyzed from 43 tertiary US children's hospitals, including 2.0 million encounters in the emergency department during 2004-2011. Abdominal pain was categorized as functional or organic abdominal pain. Appendicitis (with and without perforation) was used as a surrogate for abdominal pain requiring emergent care. Multivariate analysis estimated likelihood of hospitalizations, radiologic imaging, ICU admissions, appendicitis, appendicitis with perforation, and time to surgery and hospital discharge. Black and low income children had increased odds of perforated appendicitis (aOR, 1.42, 95% CI, 1.32- 1.53; aOR, 1.20, 95% CI 1.14 - 1.25). Blacks had increased odds of an ICU admission (aOR, 1.92, 95% CI 1.53 - 2.42) and longer lengths of stay (aHR, 0.91, 95% CI 0.86 - 0.96) than Whites. Minorities and low income also had lower rates of imaging for their appendicitis, including CT scans. The combined effect of race and income on perforated appendicitis, hospitalization, and time to surgery was greater than either separately. Based on race and SES, disparity of health outcomes exists in the acute ED setting among children presenting with abdominal pain, with differences in appendicitis with perforation, length of stay, and time until surgery.
Ding, Fei; Peng, Wei
The assessment of biological activities of imidacloprid and its two major metabolites, namely 6-chloronicotinic acid and 2-imidazolidone for nontarget organism, by employing essentially functional biomacromolecules, albumin and hemoglobin as a potentially model with the use of circular dichroism (CD), fluorescence, extrinsic 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid (ANS) fluorescence as well as molecular modeling is the theme of this work. By dint of CD spectra and synchronous fluorescence, it was clear that the orderly weak interactions between amino acid residues within globular proteins were disturbed by imidacloprid, and this event led to marginally alterations or self-regulations of protein conformation so as to lodge imidacloprid more tightly. Both steady state and time-resolved fluorescence suggested that the fluorescence of Trp residues in proteins was quenched after the presence of imidacloprid, corresponding to noncovalent protein-imidacloprid complexes formation and, the reaction belongs to moderate association (K=1.888/1.614×10(4)M(-1) for albumin/hemoglobin-imidacloprid, respectively), hydrogen bonds and π stacking performed a vital role in stabilizing the complexes, as derived from thermodynamic analysis and molecular modeling. With the aid of hydrophobic ANS experiments, subdomain IIA and α1β2 interface of albumin and hemoglobin, respectively, were found to be preserved high-affinity for imidacloprid. These results ties in with the subsequently molecular modeling laying imidacloprid in the Sudlow's site I and close to Trp-213 residue on albumin, while settling down B/Trp-37 residue nearby in hemoglobin, and these conclusions further confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis and molecular dynamics simulation. But, at the same time, several crucial noncovalent bonds came from other amino acid residues, e.g. Arg-194 and Arg-198 (albumin) and B/Arg-40, B/Asp-99 and B/Asn-102 (hemoglobin) cannot be ignored completely. Based on the comparative studies of
The Poaceae family comprises over 12 000 wind-pollinated species, which release large amounts of pollen into the atmosphere. Poaceae pollen is currently regarded as the leading airborne biological pollutant and the chief cause of pollen allergy worldwide. Sensitization rates vary by country, and those variations are reviewed here. Grass pollen allergens are grouped according to their protein structure and function. In Poaceae, although species belonging to different subfamilies are characterized by distinct allergen subsets, there is a considerable degree of cross-reactivity between many species. Cross-reactivity between grass pollen protein and fresh fruit pan-allergens is associated with the appearance of food allergies. The additional influence of urban pollution may prompt a more severe immunological response. The timing and the intensity of the pollen season are governed by species genetics, but plant phenology is also influenced by climate; as a result, climate changes may affect airborne pollen concentrations. This article reviews the findings of worldwide research which has highlighted the major impact of climate change on plant phenology and also on the prevalence and severity of allergic disease. © 2017 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.
Friedman, Bruce; Heisel, Marnin; Delavan, Rachel
To examine criterion and construct validity of the five-item Mental Health Index (MHI-5) of the 36-item Short Form health survey (SF-36) in relation to the presence of major depression in functionally impaired, community-dwelling elderly patients and of eight subsamples defined by cognitive functioning, levels of functional impairment, and proxy report versus self-report. Cross-sectional observational. Nineteen counties in western New York, West Virginia, and Ohio. One thousand four hundred forty-four functionally impaired, community-dwelling Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 and older who participated in the Medicare Primary and Consumer-Directed Care Demonstration. MHI-5, Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview Major Depressive Episode (MINI-MDE) module. The MHI-5 demonstrated sufficient criterion validity (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve=0.837; sensitivity=78.7% and specificity=72.1% using a cutpoint of 59/60) with respect to the presence of depression for the entire sample. A significant correlation between MHI-5 scores and presence of major depression as identified using the MINI-MDE (Spearman correlation=-0.426, Pvalidity. Additional evidence is provided by decline in mean MHI-5 score as level of formal education and number of close friends and relatives decreased. All eight subsamples demonstrated similar criterion and construct validity. A Cronbach alpha of 0.794 demonstrated internal consistency reliability. This study provides evidence for adequate criterion and construct validity of the MHI-5 in relation to the presence of major depression among functionally impaired, community-dwelling elderly Medicare patients.
Klag, Malvina; Richer, Marie-Claire
This paper describes the emergence of an "information brokerage" in the project management office of the McGill University Health Centre (MUHC) in Montreal. This process evolved during unprecedented transformation linked to a redevelopment project. Information brokering became a core function in the MUHC's context of major change. To develop an information brokering model, the paper draws upon the literature on knowledge brokering, applies Daft and Lengel's (1986) seminal framework on information processing in organizations, and builds on the MUHC experience. The paper proposes that knowledge brokering and information brokering are related, yet distinct in content, purpose and structure.
Guerrier, P.; Manon, P.
A project was initiated to protect the health of people living in the St-Lawrence basin from contaminants associated with an oil or chemical spill. Between 1980 and 1990, more than 240 chemical spills and 300 oil spills were recorded in the region which has prompted concerns regarding the possible contamination of drinking water sources. 45% of Quebec's population relies on the St-Lawrence River as a source of drinking water. Thus far, the project has identified the major chemical and oil products transported on the St-Lawrence River, and the main health risks associated with these products. Computerized dispersion models which can determine the migration of the contaminants in water, are available. Simulation exercises have been carried out to train personnel in the event of an actual spill. 1 ref
De Cock, Kevin M; Simone, Patricia M; Davison, Veronica; Slutsker, Laurence
Global health reflects the realities of globalization, including worldwide dissemination of infectious and noninfectious public health risks. Global health architecture is complex and better coordination is needed between multiple organizations. Three overlapping themes determine global health action and prioritization: development, security, and public health. These themes play out against a background of demographic change, socioeconomic development, and urbanization. Infectious diseases remain critical factors, but are no longer the major cause of global illness and death. Traditional indicators of public health, such as maternal and infant mortality rates no longer describe the health status of whole societies; this change highlights the need for investment in vital registration and disease-specific reporting. Noncommunicable diseases, injuries, and mental health will require greater attention from the world in the future. The new global health requires broader engagement by health organizations and all countries for the objectives of health equity, access, and coverage as priorities beyond the Millennium Development Goals are set.
Rosenzweig, Cynthia E.; Antle, John; Elliott, Joshua
The combination of a warming Earth and an increasing population will likely strain the world's food systems in the coming decades. Experts involved with the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) focus on quantifying the changes through time. AgMIP, a program begun in 2010, involves about 800 climate scientists, economists, nutritionists, information technology specialists, and crop and livestock experts. In mid-September 2015, the Aspen Global Change Institute convened an AgMIP workshop to draft plans and protocols for assessing global- and regional-scale modeling of crops, livestock, economics, and nutrition across major agricultural regions worldwide. The goal of this Coordinated Global and Regional Integrated Assessments (CGRA) project is to characterize climate effects on large- and small-scale farming systems.
Maria Ramona Sarbu
Full Text Available The flows of foreign direct investments constitutes a major component of the phenomena that manifest themselves in the world economy, these representing financial resources geared toward a particular investment area that allow those who invest to develop operations over which they have the control and the decision-making power. Given the fact that the world economy is characterized by the increasing interconnectedness of national states as a result of spreading the links in the spheres of economic, political, social and cultural life, following starting with 2008 a period of unusual developments, the purpose of the paper is to analyze the evolution of worldwide foreign direct investment (FDI inflows, before and after the onset of the global economic crisis.
Diop, Ousmane M; Burns, Cara C; Sutter, Roland W; Wassilak, Steven G; Kew, Olen M
Since the World Health Assembly's 1988 resolution to eradicate poliomyelitis, one of the main tools of the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) has been the live, attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). OPV might require several doses to induce immunity but provides long-term protection against paralytic disease. Through effective use of OPV, GPEI has brought polio to the threshold of eradication. Wild poliovirus type 2 (WPV2) was eliminated in 1999, WPV3 has not been detected since November 2012, and WPV1 circulation appears to be restricted to parts of Pakistan and Afghanistan. However, continued use of OPV carries two key risks. The first, vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) has been recognized since the early 1960s. VAPP is a very rare event that occurs sporadically when an administered dose of OPV reverts to neurovirulence and causes paralysis in the vaccine recipient or a nonimmune contact. VAPP can occur among immunologically normal vaccine recipients and their contacts as well as among persons who have primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) manifested by defects in antibody production; it is not associated with outbreaks. The second, the emergence of genetically divergent, neurovirulent vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs) was recognized more recently. Circulating VDPVs (cVDPVs) resemble WPVs and, in areas with low OPV coverage, can cause polio outbreaks. Immunodeficiency-associated VDPVs (iVDPVs) can replicate and be excreted for years in some persons with PIDs; GPEI maintains a registry of iVDPV cases. Ambiguous VDPVs (aVDPVs) are isolates that cannot be classified definitively. This report updates previous surveillance summaries and describes VDPVs detected worldwide during January 2014-March 2015. Those include new cVDPV outbreaks in Madagascar and South Sudan, and sharply reduced type 2 cVDPV (cVDPV2) circulation in Nigeria and Pakistan during the latter half of 2014. Eight newly identified persons in
Østlie, Kristin; Magnus, Per; Skjeldal, Ola H; Garfelt, Beate; Tambs, Kristian
To assess how upper limb amputation affects mental health and life satisfaction. Cross-sectional study comparing the mental health and perceived satisfaction with life among adult acquired major upper limb amputees in Norway with a control group drawn from the Norwegian general population. The scales used were the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) and the Hopkins Symptom Check List 25-item (SCL-25). The groups were compared using multiple linear regression analyses. The amputees scored significantly lower on life satisfaction than the control group. A tendency to poorer mental health in the amputee group was observed, but there was no clear evidence of such a difference. The amputation effect on life satisfaction seemed to be mediated mainly by changes in occupational status and by the occurrence of short- or long-term complications related to the amputation. Our findings imply that rehabilitation of upper limb amputees should emphasise facilitating return to work as well as the prevention of short- and long-term complications, and that this will be of importance not only for the amputees' physical function, but for the maintenance of acceptable life satisfaction. Further studies on the effect of upper limb amputation on mental health are recommended.
Xu, Bin; Hao, Jinliang
The air quality in the subway metro indoor microenvironment has been of particular public concern. With specific reference to the growing demand of green transportation and sustainable development, subway metro systems have been rapidly developed worldwide in last decades. The number of metro commuters has continuously increased over recent years in metropolitan cities. In some cities, metro system has become the primary public transportation mode. Although commuters typically spend only 30-40min in metros, the air pollutants emitted from various interior components of metro system as well as air pollutants carried by ventilation supply air are significant sources of harmful air pollutants that could lead to unhealthy human exposure. Commuters' exposure to various air pollutants in metro carriages may cause perceivable health risk as reported by many environmental health studies. This review summarizes significant findings in the literature on air quality inside metro indoor environment, including pollutant concentration levels, chemical species, related sources and health risk assessment. More than 160 relevant studies performed across over 20 countries were carefully reviewed. These comprised more than 2000 individual measurement trips. Particulate matters, aromatic hydrocarbons, carbonyls and airborne bacteria have been identified as the primary air pollutants inside metro system. On this basis, future work could focus on investigating the chronic health risks of exposure to various air pollutants other than PM, and/or further developing advanced air purification unit to improve metro in-station air quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cardenas, Martha; Danies, Giovanna; Tabima, Javier; Bernal, Adriana; Restrepo, Silvia
Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of late blight disease in potato and other members of the Solanaceae family, is responsible for causing the Irish potato famine and, even today, it causes enormous economic losses all over the world. For the establishment of an adequate pest management strategy, the determination of the pathogen's population structure is required. To characterize P. infestans populations worldwide two allozymes, Gpi (Glucose-6-phospate isomerase) and Pep (Pep tidase), the RG57 DNA RFLP fingerprinting probe, as well as resistance to the fungicide metalaxyl and mating type, have been used as markers. P. infestans populations in Mexico have been one of the main focuses of research in the population biology of this pathogen because this country has been considered as one of the possible centers of origin of this oomycete. In this review we present the population structure of P. infestans in Mexico, Europe, Africa, Asia, North America, and South America, expanding it on the present situation of P. infestans in Colombia. Finally, we will discuss different lines of research that are being carried out today with respect to P. infestans in Colombia, which have shown the importance of continuing the study of this devastating plant pathogen in our country.
Martha Cárdenas Toquica
Full Text Available Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of late blight disease in potato and other members of the Solanaceae family, is responsible for causing the Irish potato famine and, even today, it causes enormous economic losses all over the world. For the establishment of an adequate pest management strategy, the determination of population structure is required. To characterize P. infestans populations worldwide two allozymes, Gpi (Glucose-6-phospate isomerase and Pep (Peptidase, the RG57 DNA RFLP fingerprinting probe, as well as resistance to the fungicide metalaxyl and the mating type, have been used as markers. P. infestans populations in Mexico have been one of the main focuses of research in the population biology of this pathogen because this country has been considered as one of the possible centers of origin of this oomycete. In this review we present the population structure of P. infestans in Mexico, Europe, Africa, Asia, North America, and South America expanding on the present situation of P. infestans in Colombia. Finally, we will discuss different lines of research that are being carried out today with respect to P. infestans in Colombia, which have shown the importance of continuing the study of this devastating plant pathogen in our country.
Ruzie, G.; Baubron, G.
The detection of nuclear explosions around the globe requires the setting up of networks of sensors on a worldwide basis. Such equipment should be able to transmit on-line data in real-time or pseudo real-time to a center or processing centers. The high level of demanded reliability for the data (generally better than 99 %) also has an impact on the accuracy and precision of the sensors and the communications technology, as well as the systems used for on-line checking. In the light of these requirements, DAM has developed a data gathering network based on the principle of VSTA duplex links which ensures the on-line transmission of data and operational parameters towards the Processing Centre via a hub. In the other direction, the Centre can act on a number of parameters in order to correct them if necessary, or notify the local maintenance team. To optimize the reliability of the main components of this system, the detection stations as well as their associated beacons have low consumption and can be supplied by solar panels, thus facilitating the installation of the networks. The seismic network on the French national territory is composed of 40 stations built on the principles outlined above. In order to gather data from stations established outside France, DAM is planning to use an analogue system to transmit data in on-line as well as off-line mode. (authors)
Almost 40 years after the Agency’s founding, the IEA responsibility for ensuring access to global oil supplies is still a core mandate. Yet over the course of its history, the IEA’s responsibilities have expanded along with both the international energy economy and conceptions of energy security itself. Our mission to promote secure and sustainable energy provision spans the energy mix. At the same time, a changing global energy map means that the industrialised nations of the world no longer dominate energy consumption. The IEA must work in close co-operation with partner countries and organisations worldwide to achieve its three core objectives: energy security, economic prosperity, and environmental sustainability. Working toward international commitments to reduce greenhouse gas emissions that cause global climate change; facilitating energy technology exchange, innovation and deployment; improving modern energy access to the billions of people who are without it; bolstering both cleanliness and security through energy efficiency; and promoting flexible and functioning energy markets – these efforts complement our traditional core responsibilities of mitigating the effects of supply disruptions and improving statistical transparency.
Anderson, E.L.; Howlett, E.; Jayko, K.; Reed, M.; Spaulding, M.; Kolluru, V.
The Worldwide Oil Spill Model (WOSM) is a standalone microcomputer-based state-of-the-art oil spill model system for use in oil spill response decision support, planning, research, training, and contingency planning. WOSM was developed under support provided by a consortium of oil companies and government agencies. WOSM represents the next generation of oil spill model beyond the OILMAP modelling system (Spaulding et al, 1992). WOSM is designed in a shell architecture in which the only parameters that change are those that describe the area in which the spill model is to be applied. A limited function geographic information system (GIS) is integrated within the model system, and the spill modelling shell has been extended to include interfaces to other GIS systems and digital data. WOSM contains all the databases, data manipulation and graphical display tools, and models to simulate any type of oil spill. The user has control over which weathering processes are to be modelled, and WOSM data input tools enable continual refinement of model predictions as more refined data is imported. Use of WOSM is described and illustrated, showing sample screens and applications. WOSM algorithms and file structure are also outlined. An example test case of a spill in the Juan de Fuca strait is included. 29 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab
Dianne E. Godar
Full Text Available The incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM has been increasing at a steady rate in fair-skinned populations around the world for decades. Scientists are not certain why CMM has been steadily increasing, but strong, intermittent UVB (290–320 nm exposures, especially sunburn episodes, probably initiate, CMM, while UVA (321–400 nm passing through glass windows in offices and cars probably promotes it. The CMM incidence may be increasing at an exponential rate around the world, but it definitely decreases with increasing latitude up to ~50°N where it reverses and increases with the increasing latitude. The inversion in the incidence of CMM may occur because there is more UVA relative to UVB for most of the year at higher latitudes. If windows, allowing UVA to enter our indoor-working environment and cars, are at least partly responsible for the increasing incidence of CMM, then UV filters can be applied to reduce the rate of increase worldwide.
Framatome-ANP is organized according to a matrix structure with 4 business groups and 3 regional divisions. The fuel business group with a workforce of about 4600 people is active in all the trades needed to design and manufacture nuclear fuel. The activity ranges from the production of zirconium alloys to the production of finished fuel assemblies, facilities are located in France, Germany and Usa. Framatome-ANP is the foremost vendor of LWR fuel worldwide with 41 % of the PWR market share and 22 % of the BWR market share. The global operating experience built up is based on more than 150.000 fuel assemblies delivered to 169 reactors in 18 countries. This long history has allowed Framatome-ANP to develop an efficient quality-improvement program based on experience feedback, for instance fuel rod failures induced by debris have been almost completely eliminated with the introduction of anti-debris devices equipping bottom nozzles. Framatome-ANP has developed a large range of engineering services, for instance core design teams can provide the most cost-effective fuel management schemes for cycle lengths from 6 to 24 months. The first technology transfer between China entities and Framatome related to the AFA-2G technology started in 1991 and was completed successfully in 1994. Since this date the Chinese manufacturer has supplied fuel reload for the units of Daya-Bay. (A.C.)
Shuba Olena А.
Full Text Available The article is aimed at researching bitcoin, the digital currency. It has been found that Bitcoin is a cryptocurrency, that is, the virtual money, which has no material equivalent. The history of creation and development of cryptocurrency was reviewed. There is a reduction in volatility, which guarantees the security of currency, as well as the increase in currency volume and the inability to estimate the profitability of bitcoins. The dynamics of the value of digital currency in US dollars over recent years has been analyzed. Improvement of attitude of many countries to the considered cryptocurrency, in particular the USA, Germany, Spain, Canada, Australia, Israel and Scandinavian countries has been identified. The reasons of Ukraine’s interest in Bitcoin have been considered. Possibilities of creation of cryptocurrency on the territory of Ukraine have been analyzed, i.e. cost of electricity for mining, the legal status of mining firms, and the attitude of the National Bank of Ukraine to the digital currency. It has been concluded that the recognition of Bitcoin by the world countries in the future will allow it to be granted the status of world-wide currency.
Ana V. Pejcic
Full Text Available The aim of this literature review was to summarize available findings from publications that reported expenditure on traditional/complementary and alternative medicine (TM/CAM within a representative general population sample of a nation or a defined geographical area. A total of 24 publications met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. The expenditure on TM/CAM varies worldwide, but direct comparison of the findings of publications included in this review is limited due to the differences in the definitions of TM/CAM, inclusion of various forms of TM/CAM, use of different names and categorization, as well as differences in reported currencies and time periods in which data were collected. Data about the expenditure on TM/CAM in most countries throughout the world are scarce. Further national studies should be conducted in order to provide up-to-date assessment of the TM/CAM related expenditure patterns and use. Uniform nomenclature, definition of TM/CAM and standardized instruments would provide basis for comparability of data of studies conducted in various regions and time periods.
Chen, Xichao; Luo, Qian; Wang, Donghong; Gao, Jijun; Wei, Zi; Wang, Zijian; Zhou, Huaidong; Mazumder, Asit
Owing to the growing public awareness on the safety and aesthetics in water sources, more attention has been given to the adverse effects of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on aquatic organisms and human beings. In this study, 77 target VOCs (including 54 common VOCs, 13 carbonyl compounds, and 10 taste and odor compounds) were detected in typical drinking water sources from 5 major river basins (the Yangtze, the Huaihe, the Yellow, the Haihe and the Liaohe River basins) and their occurrences were characterized. The ecological, human health, and olfactory assessments were performed to assess the major hazards in source water. The investigation showed that there existed potential ecological risks (1.30 × 10 ≤ RQtotals ≤ 8.99 × 10) but little human health risks (6.84 × 10(-7) ≤ RQtotals ≤ 4.24 × 10(-4)) by VOCs, while that odor problems occurred extensively. The priority contaminants in drinking water sources of China were also listed based on the present assessment criteria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Freedman, Michael; Jackson, Brendan R; McCotter, Orion; Benedict, Kaitlin
Coccidioidomycosis causes substantial illness and death in the United States each year. Although most cases are sporadic, outbreaks provide insight into the clinical and environmental features of coccidioidomycosis, high-risk activities, and the geographic range of Coccidioides fungi. We identified reports published in English of 47 coccidioidomycosis outbreaks worldwide that resulted in 1,464 cases during 1940-2015. Most (85%) outbreaks were associated with environmental exposures; the 2 largest outbreaks resulted from an earthquake and a large dust storm. More than one third of outbreaks occurred in areas where the fungus was not previously known to be endemic, and more than half of outbreaks involved occupational exposures. Coccidioidomycosis outbreaks can be difficult to detect and challenging to prevent given the unknown effectiveness of environmental control methods and personal protective equipment; therefore, increased awareness of coccidioidomycosis outbreaks is needed among public health professionals, healthcare providers, and the public.
Full Text Available Graham E Quinn Division of Ophthalmology, The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Wood Center, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Blindness due to retinopathy of prematurity (ROP is an increasing problem worldwide as improved levels of neonatal care are provided in countries with developing neonatal intensive care units. The occurrence of ROP blindness varies dramatically with the socioeconomic development of a country. In regions with high levels of neonatal care and adequate resources, ROP blindness is largely restricted to premature infants with very low birth weight and low gestational age while in middle- and low-income countries with regional variation in technology and capacity, limited health resources may well limit the care of the premature newborn. Keywords: ROP, international, blindness
Montresor, Antonio; Palmer, Kevin
Pig production has increased significantly worldwide in recent years. Small-scale pig husbandry has become a popular source of income in rural and resource-poor communities in most of developing countries. A parallel increase of human Taenia carrier and human cysticercosis is expected but detailed data are not available. However, Taenia solium is considered responsible for over 10% of acute case admission to the neurological ward of countries where it is endemic. The control strategy that seems at the moment more promising is a combination of the different tools available and includes the identification of areas at high risk and the presumptive treatment of the suspected cases and their families. This active finding and treatment of probable tapeworm carriers should be accompanied by health education and control swine cysticercosis. WHO invites all endemic countries to recognize the importance of taeniasis/cysticercosis control and to collect epidemiological data and to adopt policies and strategies for its control.
Anne J. Wanders
Full Text Available After the discovery that trans fat increases the risk of coronary heart disease, trans fat content of foods have considerably changed. The aim of this study was to systematically review available data on intakes of trans fat and its dietary sources in general populations worldwide. Data from national dietary surveys and population studies published from 1995 onward were searched via Scopus and websites of national public health institutes. Relevant data from 29 countries were identified. The most up to date estimates of total trans fat intake ranged from 0.3 to 4.2 percent of total energy intake (En% across countries. Seven countries had trans fat intakes higher than the World Health Organization recommendation of 1 En%. In 16 out of 21 countries with data on dietary sources, intakes of trans fat from animal sources were higher than that from industrial sources. Time trend data from 20 countries showed substantial declines in industrial trans fat intake since 1995. In conclusion, nowadays, in the majority of countries for which data are available, average trans fat intake is lower than the recommended maximum intake of 1 En%, with intakes from animal sources being higher than from industrial sources. In the past 20 years, substantial reductions in industrial trans fat have been achieved in many countries.
Wanders, Anne J.; Zock, Peter L.; Brouwer, Ingeborg A.
After the discovery that trans fat increases the risk of coronary heart disease, trans fat content of foods have considerably changed. The aim of this study was to systematically review available data on intakes of trans fat and its dietary sources in general populations worldwide. Data from national dietary surveys and population studies published from 1995 onward were searched via Scopus and websites of national public health institutes. Relevant data from 29 countries were identified. The most up to date estimates of total trans fat intake ranged from 0.3 to 4.2 percent of total energy intake (En%) across countries. Seven countries had trans fat intakes higher than the World Health Organization recommendation of 1 En%. In 16 out of 21 countries with data on dietary sources, intakes of trans fat from animal sources were higher than that from industrial sources. Time trend data from 20 countries showed substantial declines in industrial trans fat intake since 1995. In conclusion, nowadays, in the majority of countries for which data are available, average trans fat intake is lower than the recommended maximum intake of 1 En%, with intakes from animal sources being higher than from industrial sources. In the past 20 years, substantial reductions in industrial trans fat have been achieved in many countries. PMID:28783062
J. Malcolm Walker
Full Text Available Disorders of haemoglobin synthesis are the commonest monogenetic disorders worldwide. When first described, thalassaemia was universally fatal in childhood, but after the adoption of regular blood transfusion survival until early teenage and adulthood was to be expected. At that stage in the life of these affected individuals organ failure followed, due to accumulated iron, for which the human has no excretory capacity. Principal amongst the tissues affected by iron overload is the heart and even to the present day, heart disease accounts for the overwhelming majority of premature deaths in this population. Managing transfusion derived iron overload was the next hurdle for clinicians and the families of the patients. For nearly four decades the only available treatment was the demanding regime of parenteral chelation therapy, required on a daily basis, to achieve growth, development and survival with limited or no organ damage. Despite the adoption of these treatment strategies the outlook for thalassaemia patients remained poor, with a 30% to 40% mortality occurring between late teenage and 30 years of age, even in well organised health care systems, such as in the UK, where regular transfusion and desferioxamine treatment were readily available. This dreadful early mortality, largely as a consequence of myocardial iron overload, (1,2 is now improving so that in the UK and other developed nations, heart failure in thalassaemic patients has become uncommon and premature death a much rarer tragedy. This editorial reviews, from a personal viewpoint of a cardiologist involved in the care of these patients for the last 20 years, the progress in the management of the cardiovascular complications of thalassaemia major (TM, which has followed better techniques of identifying those thalassaemic individuals at greatest risk, improved chelation strategies making best use of the three chelating agents that are now available and improved co
Virta, Robert L.
This Circular updates and supersedes U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Open-File Report 03–083, "Worldwide Asbestos Supply and Consumption Trends from 1900 to 2000," with the addition of supply and consumption estimates and analysis from 2001 through 2003 and revisions to the consumption estimates for 1998 through 2000. The text from Open-File Report 03–083 also has been updated in this Circular to include revisions to and expansion of the time-series coverage. The use of asbestos is one of the most controversial issues surrounding the industrial minerals industry. Its carcinogenic nature, an overall lack of knowledge of minimum safe exposure levels, its widespread use for more than 100 years, and the long latency for the development of lung cancer and mesothelioma are the main contributing factors to these controversies. Another factor is that, despite decades of research, the mechanisms responsible for its carcinogenic properties are still largely unknown. The United States produced about 3.29 million metric tons (Mt) of asbestos and used approximately 31.5 Mt between 1900 and 2003. About half of this amount was used after 1960. In 2002, the last asbestos mine in the United States closed, marking the end of more than 110 years of U.S. asbestos production. Cumulative world production from 1900 through 2003 was about 181 Mt. If one assumes that unusually large stocks were not maintained and that world consumption roughly equaled production, then about half of the world production and consumption occurred between the end of 1976 and the end of 2003. The United States and Western European nations were the largest consumers of asbestos during the first two-thirds of the 20th century. They were surpassed by the collective production and consumption of Kazakhstan and Russia by the 1970s. After the onset of the health issues concerning asbestos in the late 1960s and early 1970s, the decline in world production and consumption began to be evident in the late 1970s and
Yang, Ya-Ling; Yang, Hsiao-Ling; Shiao, S Pamela K
Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy (HDP) are devastating health hazards for both women and children. Both methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase ( MTHFR ) gene polymorphisms and air pollution can affect health status and result in increased risk of HDP for women. The major objective of this study was to investigate the effect of MTHFR polymorphisms, air pollution, and their interaction on the risk of HDP by using meta-predictive analytics. We searched various databases comprehensively to access all available studies conducted for various ethnic populations from countries worldwide, from 1997 to 2017. Seventy-one studies with 8064 cases and 13,232 controls for MTHFR C677T and 11 studies with 1425 cases and 1859 controls for MTHFR A1298C were included. MTHFR C677T homozygous TT (risk ratio (RR) = 1.28, p worldwide. Additionally, in countries with higher air pollution levels, the pregnant women with wild-type CC MTHFR 677 had a protection effect against HDP ( p = 0.014), whereas, the homozygous TT of MTHFR C677T polymorphism was a risk genotype for developing HDP. Air pollution level is an environmental factor interacting with increased MTHFR C677T polymorphisms, impacting the susceptibility of HDP for women.
Povinec, P.P.; Togawa, O.
A growing number of sources of radioactivity from human activities are found in the marine environment. They are known to include global nuclear fallout following atmospheric weapons tests, the Chernobyl accident, discharges of radionuclides from nuclear installations, past dumping of radioactive wastes, nuclear submarine accidents, contributions from nuclear testing sites, loss of radioactive sources, and the burn-up of satellites using radioisotopes as power sources. Overall, the world's marine environment contains radionuclides that differ from one region to another. Differences are due to dynamic marine environmental processes and the particular source of radionuclides in a region. Scientific assessments of marine radioactivity, therefore, require knowledge of both the source terms and oceanic processes. Radioactivity now is deposited unevenly over the world's oceans. Global fallout is known to be mainly due to nuclear weapon tests carried out in the 1960s. On the other hand, discharges from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants or past dumping of liquid and solid radioactive wastes generally are confined to more localized areas. Even so, soluble radionuclides have been transported over long distances by prevailing ocean currents. To estimate radionuclide inputs from local sources, scientists need to better understand the distribution of radionuclides throughout the world's oceans and seas. The understanding is important for analysing the results from scientific investigations of localized areas, such as part dumping sites, which then can be reviewed more thoroughly. As a contribution to fuller understanding of the marine environment, the IAEA's Marine Environment Laboratory (MEL) started a five-year project in 1996 entitled ''Research on Worldwide Marine Radioactivity (MARS)''. The work is supported by Japan's Science and Technology Agency (STA). This article briefly review this project, and describes related research activities and scientific investigations of MEL
De Ladoucette, Ph.; Chevalier, J.M.; Barbaso, F.; Becache, P.; Belmans, P.; Brottes, F.; Chevet, P.F.; Chone, F.; David, A.; Delorme, Ph.; Hadjsaid, N.; Jalabert, M.; Julliard, Y.; Kott, B.; Lenoir, J.C.; Lewiner, C.; Maillard, D.; Moisan, F.; Pelletier, Ph.; Poniatowski, L.; Rozes, St.; Rytoft, C.; Sanchez Jimenez, M.; Seyrling, G.; Vu, A.
The increase of power consumption, the development of renewable energy sources and the emergence of new usages like the electric-powered car are as many challenges that put the reliability and the reactivity of our power grids to the test. These grids have to change to become 'intelligent' thanks to the integration of new information and communication technologies over the overall supply chain, from the energy generation to its end use by consumers. For the first time in France, the actors of this change explain their opinion about this revolution and put it in perspective with its full extent and complexity. Changing power grids to make them intelligent is first of all a technical challenge but also a society challenge: the consumer will become an actor involved in the mastery of his energy demand and a renewable energy producer capable to interact with the grid in an increasing manner. This worldwide change that we are going to be the witnesses comes up against numerous obstacles. The aim of this book is to examine the determining factors of the success of this large scale change through its technical, economical and social dimensions. It shows that the emergence of such an advanced power system cannot be possible neither without the reconciliation between some contradictory goals, nor without a strong coordination between the actors. Content: Part 1 - intelligent power networks to answer the 21. century challenges: 1 - the European and French dimension of the electric power sector; 2 - towards a carbon-free economy; 3 - a power grid facing new challenges; 4 - the pre-figuration of intelligent power grids; 5 - the deployment of intelligent (smart) grids; Part 2 - perspectives of smart grids development: 1 - the future of power networks; 2 - a new industrial era; Part 3 - the consumer's position in the deployment of future grids: 1 - changing behaviours; 2 - making the consumer a 'consum'actor'. Synthesis and conclusion. (J.S.)
Armour, Cherie; Contractor, Ateka; Elhai, Jon D; Stringer, Maurice; Lyle, Gary; Forbes, David; Richardson, J Don
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been consistently reported as being highly comorbid with major depressive disorder (MDD) and as being associated with health related functional impairment (HRF). We used archival data from 283 previously war-zone deployed Canadian veterans. Latent profile analysis (LPA) was used to uncover patterns of PTSD and MDD comorbidity as measured via the PTSD Checklist-Military version (PCL-M) and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Individual membership of latent classes was used in a series of one-way ANOVAs to ascertain group differences related to HRF as measured via the Short-Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36). LPA resulted in three discrete patterns of PTSD and MDD comorbidity which were characterized by high symptoms of PTSD and MDD, moderate symptoms, and low symptoms. All ANOVAs comparing class membership on the SF-36 subscales were statistically significant demonstrating group differences across levels of HRF. The group with the highest symptoms reported the worst HRF followed by the medium and low symptom groups. These findings are clinically relevant as they demonstrate the need for continual assessment and targeted treatment of co-occurring PTSD and MDD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
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Migration, both within and between countries, has increased worldwide in recent years. While migration in itself need not present a risk to health, it is often characterized by increased stress and individual vulnerability to disease and inequalities in access to care.
Migrants from high tuberculosis (TB prevalence countries may be at risk of TB before leaving their country, during travel and after resettlement. In many high-income countries, more than half of the TB cases emerging today occur in patients born in another country. In less affluent countries, shifts in TB epidemiology associated with population movements are also being reported. Foreign-born persons often face several barriers to care in a new country as a result of inadequate knowledge of, or coverage by, the health care services, differences in culture and language, lack of money, comorbidity, concern about discrimination and fear of expulsion. National authorities apply different policies to screen migrants for TB and to provide preventive or curative treatment, with varying coverage, yield and effectiveness.
If screening is to be of use, it needs to fit into a broader national strategy for TB care and management. Appropriate treatment needs to be provided in a manner conducive to its full completion. This is critical both for the individual patient and for public health. We discuss the main associations between TB and migration based on data from recent publications on surveillance, policy and practice.
Heap, Ian; Duke, Stephen O
Glyphosate is the most widely used and successful herbicide discovered to date, but its utility is now threatened by the occurrence of several glyphosate-resistant weed species. Glyphosate resistance first appeared in Lolium rigidum in an apple orchard in Australia in 1996, ironically the year that the first glyphosate-resistant crop (soybean) was introduced in the USA. Thirty-eight weed species have now evolved resistance to glyphosate, distributed across 37 countries and in 34 different crops and six non-crop situations. Although glyphosate-resistant weeds have been identified in orchards, vineyards, plantations, cereals, fallow and non-crop situations, it is the glyphosate-resistant weeds in glyphosate-resistant crop systems that dominate the area infested and growing economic impact. Glyphosate-resistant weeds present the greatest threat to sustained weed control in major agronomic crops because this herbicide is used to control weeds with resistance to herbicides with other sites of action, and no new herbicide sites of action have been introduced for over 30 years. Industry has responded by developing herbicide resistance traits in major crops that allow existing herbicides to be used in a new way. However, over reliance on these traits will result in multiple-resistance in weeds. Weed control in major crops is at a precarious point, where we must maintain the utility of the herbicides we have until we can transition to new weed management technologies. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.
Lilja, Aina; DeMarinis, Valerie; Lehti, Arja; Forssén, Annika
Objective To explore existential meaning-making in an ethnic-majority subgroup with mental ill health and to increase knowledge about the importance of gaining access to such information in mental healthcare. Design Qualitative study using in-depth interviews and systematic text condensation analysis. Participants 17 devote Christians with an ethnic-Swedish background, 12 women and 5 men, 30–73 years old, from different congregations across Sweden, having sought medical care for mental ill health of any kind. Setting The secular Swedish society. Results A living, although asymmetric, relationship with God often was seen as the most important relationship, giving hope and support when ill, but creating feelings of abandonment and fear if perceived as threatened. Symptoms were interpreted through an existential framework influenced by their view of God. A perceived judging God increased feelings of guilt, sinfulness and shame. A perceived merciful God soothed symptoms and promoted recovery. Existential consequences, such as being unable to pray or participate in congregational rituals, caused feelings of ‘spiritual homelessness’. Participants gave biopsychosocial explanations of their mental ill health, consonant with and sometimes painfully conflicting with existential explanations, such as being attacked by demons. Three different patterns of interaction among biopsychosocial and existential dimensions in their explanatory systems of illness causation were identified: (a) comprehensive thinking and consensus; (b) division and parallel functions and (c) division and competitive functions. Conclusions Prevailing medical models for understanding mental ill health do not include the individual's existential experiences, which are important for identifying risk and protective factors as well as possible resources for recovery. The various expressions of existential meaning-making identified in this devout religious subgroup illustrate that existential
Vieites, David R.; Nieto-Román, Sandra; Palanca, Antonio; Ferrer, Xavier; Vences, Miguel
Oil spills caused by maritime transport of petroleum products are still an important source of ocean pollution, especially in main production areas and along major transport routes. We here provide a historical and geographic analysis of the major oil spills (>700 t) since 1960. Spills were recorded from several key marine ecosystems and marine biodiversity hotspots. The past four decades have been characterized by an overall decrease in the number of accidents and tonnes of oil spilled in the sea, but this trend was less distinct in the European Atlantic area. Recent black tides from the Erika and Prestige vessels provided new evidence for the high risk of accidents with serious ecological impact in this area, which according to our analysis is historically the most important oil spill hotspot worldwide. The English Channel and waters around Galicia in Spain were the areas with most accidents. Maritime transport in European Atlantic waters has been predicted to continue increasing. Together with our own results this suggests that, in addition to measures for increased traffic safety, deployment of emergency capacities in the spill hotspot areas may be crucial for a sustainable conservation of sea resources and ecosystems.
Cabraal, A.; Delasanta, D.; Rosen, J.; Nolfi, J.; Ulmer, R.
Agricultural sector PV market assessments conducted in the Phillippines, Nigeria, Mexico, Morocco, and Colombia are extrapolated worldwide. The types of applications evaluated are those requiring less than 15 kW of power and operate in a stand alone mode. The major conclusions were as follows: PV will be competitive in applications requiring 2 to 3 kW of power prior to 1983; by 1986 PV system competitiveness will extend to applications requiring 4 to 6 kW of power, due to capital constraints, the private sector market may be restricted to applications requiring less than about 2 kW of power; the ultimate purchase of larger systems will be governments, either through direct purchase or loans from development banks. Though fragmented, a significant agriculture sector market for PV exists; however, the market for PV in telecommunications, signalling, rural services, and TV will be larger. Major market related factors influencing the potential for U.S. PV Sales are: lack of awareness; high first costs; shortage of long term capital; competition from German, French and Japanese companies who have government support; and low fuel prices in capital surplus countries. Strategies that may aid in overcoming some of these problems are: setting up of a trade association aimed at overcoming problems due to lack of awareness, innovative financing schemes such as lease arrangements, and designing products to match current user needs as opposed to attempting to change consumer behavior.
Tiku, Yohannes Samuel; Mekonnen, Tefera Chane; Workie, Shimelash Bitew; Amare, Endale
Globally, a large number of children aged 6-59 months are affected by anaemia. In Ethiopia, like other developing countries, more than 40% of children under 5 years are affected by anaemia. Anaemia during infancy and childhood period is associated with poor health and impaired cognitive development, leading to reduced academic achievement and earning potential in their adult life. The aim of this research was to assess whether anaemia remained a major public health problem among children aged 6-59 months or not in Duggina Fanigo District of Wolaita Zone, South Ethiopia in 2016. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from February to March 2016, on 404 mothers with children aged 6-59 months who were selected through the systematic sampling method. Socio-demographic and other data on associated factors was collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. Capillary blood was taken from the fingertip of each child and hemoglobin was measured using Haemo-Cue digital photometer. All the necessary safety measures were taken during blood collection. Data analysis was made using SPSS version 21. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association of independent variables with outcome variables and to control the possible confounding factors. The overall prevalence of anaemia was 51.4%. Anaemia was common among young children as compared to older children. After controlling the effect of confounding and adjusting for age, gender and altitude, explanatory variables like low dietary diversity (AOR = 3.24; 95% CI [1.68-6.23]), food insecurity (AOR = 3.63; 95% CI [2.18-6.04]), stunting (AOR = 2.60; 95% CI [1.56-4.35]), underweight (AOR = 2.46; 95% CI [1.29-4.67]) and fever within 2 weeks (AOR = 2.49; 95% CI [1.29-4.81]) prior to the survey were significantly associated with anaemia. In conclusion, the overall prevalence of anaemia among children aged 6-59 months has remained a major public health importance in the study area. Integrated
Vidovich, Mladen I., E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Khan, Asrar A. [Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Xie, Hui [Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics and Cancer Center, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Shroff, Adhir R. [Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States)
Objectives: To determine opinions and perceptions of interventional cardiologists on the topic of radiation and vascular access choice. Background: Transradial approach for cardiac catheterization has been increasing in popularity worldwide. There is evidence that transradial access (TRA) may be associated with increasing radiation doses compared to transfemoral access (TFA). Methods: We distributed a questionnaire to collect opinions of interventional cardiologists around the world. Results: Interventional cardiologists (n = 5332) were contacted by email to complete an on-line survey from September to October 2013. The response rate was 20% (n = 1084). TRA was used in 54% of percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs). Most TRAs (80%) were performed with right radial access (RRA). Interventionalists perceived that TRA was associated with higher radiation exposure compared to TFA and that RRA was associated with higher radiation exposure that left radial access (LRA). Older interventionalists were more likely to use radiation protection equipment and those who underwent radiation safety training gave more importance to ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable). Nearly half the respondents stated they would perform more TRA if the radiation exposure was similar to TFA. While interventionalists in the United States placed less importance to certain radiation protective equipment, European operators were more concerned with physician and patient radiation. Conclusions: Interventionalists worldwide reported higher perceived radiation doses with TRA compared to TFA and RRA compared to LRA. Efforts should be directed toward encouraging consistent radiation safety training. Major investment and application of novel radiation protection tools and radiation dose reduction strategies should be pursued. - Highlights: • We examined radiation safety and arterial access practices among 1000 cardiologists. • Radial access is perceived as having higher radiation dose compared to
Petersen, Poul Erik
The World Health Organization (WHO) Global Oral Health Programme has worked hard over the past five years to increase the awareness of oral health worldwide as an important component of general health and quality of life. Meanwhile, oral disease is still a major public health problem in high income...... countries and the burden of oral disease is growing in many low- and middle income countries. In the World Oral Health Report 2003, the WHO Global Oral Health Programme formulated the policies and the necessary actions for the improvement of oral health. The strategy is that oral disease prevention...... and the promotion of oral health needs to be integrated with chronic disease prevention and general health promotion as the risks to health are linked. The World Health Assembly (WHA) and the Executive Board (EB) are supreme governance bodies of WHO and for the first time in 25 years oral health was subject...
Burgess, K M; O'Donnell, W J; Bennett, A A; von Vietinghoff-Scheel, K
Once limited to U.S. corporations, employee assistance programs (EAPs) are now spreading around the world. The authors review global EAP trends and identify similarities and differences among EAPs in North America, Europe, Central and South America, the Asia-Pacific region, and the Caribbean. Through affiliations between international professional associations and services to multinational corporations, the EAP field is quietly creating globalized behavioral health services.
Wittekind, Anna; Walton, Janette
Estimating trends in dietary intake data is integral to informing national nutrition policy and monitoring progress towards dietary guidelines. Dietary intake of sugars is a controversial public health issue and guidance in relation to recommended intakes is particularly inconsistent. Published data relating to trends in sugars intake are relatively sparse. The purpose of the present review was to collate and review data from national nutrition surveys to examine changes and trends in dietary...
Vincent, Jean-Louis; Marshall, John C; Namendys-Silva, Silvio A; François, Bruno; Martin-Loeches, Ignacio; Lipman, Jeffrey; Reinhart, Konrad; Antonelli, Massimo; Pickkers, Peter; Njimi, Hassane; Jimenez, Edgar; Sakr, Yasser
Global epidemiological data regarding outcomes for patients in intensive care units (ICUs) are scarce, but are important in understanding the worldwide burden of critical illness. We, therefore, did an international audit of ICU patients worldwide and assessed variations between hospitals and countries in terms of ICU mortality. 730 participating centres in 84 countries prospectively collected data on all adult (>16 years) patients admitted to their ICU between May 8 and May 18, 2012, except those admitted for fewer than 24 h for routine postoperative monitoring. Participation was voluntary. Data were collected daily for a maximum of 28 days in the ICU and patients were followed up for outcome data until death or hospital discharge. In-hospital death was analysed using multilevel logistic regression with three levels: patient, hospital, and country. 10,069 patients were included from ICUs in Europe (5445 patients; 54·1%), Asia (1928; 19·2%), the Americas (1723; 17·1%), Oceania (439; 4·4%), the Middle East (393; 3·9%), and Africa (141; 1·4%). Overall, 2973 patients (29·5%) had sepsis on admission or during the ICU stay. ICU mortality rates were 16·2% (95% CI 15·5-16·9) across the whole population and 25·8% (24·2-27·4) in patients with sepsis. Hospital mortality rates were 22·4% (21·6-23·2) in the whole population and 35·3% (33·5-37·1) in patients with sepsis. Using a multilevel analysis, the unconditional model suggested significant between-country variations (var=0·19, p=0·002) and between-hospital variations (var=0·43, prisk of in-hospital death. There was a stepwise increase in the adjusted risk of in-hospital death according to decrease in global national income. This large database highlights that sepsis remains a major health problem worldwide, associated with high mortality rates in all countries. Our findings also show a significant association between the risk of death and the global national income and suggest that ICU organisation
van Dalen, H.P.; Henkens, C.J.I.M.
How does publication pressure in modern-day universities affect the intrinsic and extrinsic rewards in science? By using a worldwide survey among demographers in developed and developing countries, the authors show that the large majority perceive the publication pressure as high, but more so in
van Dalen, H.P.; Henkens, C.J.I.M.
Abstract: How does publication pressure in modern-day universities affect the intrinsic and extrinsic rewards in science? By using a worldwide survey among demographers in developed and developing countries, we show that the large majority perceive the publication pressure as high, but more so in
van Dalen, H.P.; Henkens, C.J.I.M.
How does publication pressure in modern-day universities affect the intrinsic and extrinsic rewards in science? By using a worldwide survey among demographers in developed and developing countries, the authors show that the large majority perceive the publication pressure as high, but more so in
JBA Chevallier is first known for his publication in 1850 of his book on falsifications. But he had also a major role for the opening of the pharmacy world to toxicological and Public Health issues, through the founding in 1825, and the management for more than 50 years, of the Journal de chimie médicale, de pharmacie et de toxicologie (Journal of Medical Chemistry, of Pharmacy and of Toxicology). The purpose of the present study has been to look at the evolution of that publication over the years and to compare its content with the reference pharmaceutical journal at that time : the Journal de pharmacie et de chimie (Journal of Pharmacy and Chemistry). One can observe that the editorial lines of both journals will progressively diverge from each other, but Chevallier remained strongly connected with pharmacy, his journal merging finally in 1876 with the Répertoire de pharmacie (Index of Pharmacy).
This book provides information for the natural gas industry, just as other PennWell directories have for the petroleum industry. Comprehensive in scope, each company listing includes address, phone, fax telex and cable numbers, key personnel, subsidiaries, branches and brief descriptions. The directory is organized in major areas of operation and includes sections on: Distribution, Drilling/Exploration/Production, Gas Utilities, Gathering/Transmission, Industry Associations/Organizations, LNG, LPG, Marketing, Processing, Regulatory Agencies, and Service, Supply and Manufacturers. An invaluable reference source for the natural gas professional
Thirty-five years after the Agency's founding, the IEA responsibility for ensuring access to global oil supplies is still a core mandate -- but new energy-related concerns have arisen. Energy security is no longer only about oil. And the industrialised nations of the world are no longer the only major consumers of energy. Climate change driven by greenhouse gas emissions -- 60% of which derive from energy production or use -- is a growing threat. So energy policy was tasked with a new objective: to cut greenhouse gas emissions while maintaining economic growth.
Alfonso Legaspi Garcia Jr.
Full Text Available As a response to the call for an Outcomes- Based Education instructional design and initiatives by the Commission on Higher Education in the Teacher Education Curriculum, the Bachelor in Secondary Education major in Music, Arts Physical Education and Health (BSED-MAPEH of one state college in the Philippines, organized and trained community-based choirs in their localities in the province of Sorsogon, Philippines as an Outcomes-Based Education project/immersion. This observation-participatory qualitative research described and analyzed the four community- based choir organized by the Bachelor in Secondary Education Major in MAPEH fourth year students from Teacher Education department for the School Year 2015-2016. There were 15 key informants. Data are gathered through questionnaire, structured and unstructured interview, direct observation and participation and it was analyzed using triangulation, cross-matrix analysis, documentary (pictures and videos. Results show that the four-organized community-based choir groups have similarities and differences in terms of their vision, organizational structures, membership, song repertoire, practices, rehearsals and concert theme/presentation. It is also revealed that the students- organizers faced and hurdled challenges along; training of choir, leadership and management skills, Event management, resources management and communication skills (oral and written. And the activity as an Outcomes-Based Education practicum/immersion gave remarkable impacts on their personality development, choral music skills, communication skills, leadership, organization and management skills and financial or resource management.
Roberts, Derek J; Das, Debanjana; Mercado, Michelle; Vis, Christine; Kortbeek, John B; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W; Ball, Chad G
Injury epidemiology fluctuates with economic activity in many countries. These relationships remain unclear in Canada. The annual risk of admission for major injury (Injury Severity Score ≥12) to a high-volume, level-1 Canadian trauma center was compared with indicators of economic activity over a 16-year period using linear regression. An increased risk of injured patient admissions was associated with rising mean gross domestic product (GDP [millions of chained 2002 dollars]) (.36 person increase per 100,000 population/$1,000 increase in GDP; P = .001) and annual gasoline prices (.47 person increase per 100,000 population/cent increase in gasoline price; P = .001). Recreation-related vehicle injuries were also associated with economic affluence. The risk of trauma patient mortality with increasing mean annual GDP (P = .72) and gasoline prices (P = .32) remained unchanged. Hospital admissions for major injury, but not trauma patient mortality, were associated with economic activity in a large Canadian health care region. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Income related health inequalities have been estimated for various groups of individuals at local, state, or national levels. Almost all of theses estimates are based on individual data from sample surveys. Lack of consistent individual data worldwide has prevented estimates of international income related health inequalities. This paper uses the (population weighted aggregate data available from many countries around the world to estimate worldwide income related health inequalities. Since the intra-country inequalities are subdued by the aggregate nature of the data, the estimates would be those of the inter-country or international health inequalities. As well, the study estimates the contribution of major socioeconomic variables to the overall health inequalities. The findings of the study strongly support the existence of worldwide income related health inequalities that favor the higher income countries. Decompositions of health inequalities identify inequalities in both the level and distribution of income as the main source of health inequality along with inequalities in education and degree of urbanization as other contributing determinants. Since income related health inequalities are preventable, policies to reduce the income gaps between the poor and rich nations could greatly improve the health of hundreds of millions of people and promote global justice. Keywords: global, income, health inequality, socioeconomic determinants of health
The results on the concentrations of thorium, uranium and plutonium in human tissues of world-wide general populations are summarized. The majority of thorium and uranium are accumulated in the skeleton, whereas, plutonium is divided between two major organs: the liver and skeleton. However, there is a wide variation in the fractions of plutonium in the liver and the skeleton of the different populations. (author) 44 refs.; 15 figs
Cristina Elena ALBU
Full Text Available We live in a society marked by major changes in the tourism field. Tourist destinations make all possible efforts to best promote their tourist offer and attract as different tourist categories as there might be. However, these tourist destinations are sometimes associated with terrorist attacks that can turn a famous tourist area into a highly avoided one. Terrorism may be permanently detrimental to a tourist destination on both social and economic levels. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the impact that terrorist attacks have on tourism around the globe. The research method used for the achievement of this article is documentary research. Through the proportions and forms that it has taken, terrorism has become one of the more and more active and threatening calamities that affect the international community. For some organizations, terrorism has become a means of solving their political, cultural and religious problems, taking tourism as a niche through which they can carry out their targets.
The objective of this chapter is to provide as firm a factual basis as possible for debate about patterns of mineral exploration spending throughout the world, both geographically and over time. The data compiled for this purpose are presented in the chapter. After describing some of the major problems in gathering, arranging, and utilizing these data, the chapter focuses on a few of the many possible conclusions that can be drawn from them. The section summarize statistics on mineral exploration expenditures, discuss trends in these expenditures, consider aspects of exploration costs such as the relative effectiveness of expenditures in different parts of the world, and describe the roles of public and private organizations that are active in the various stages of exploration
Deb, Lokesh; Laishram, Surbala; Khumukcham, Nongalleima; Ningthoukhongjam, Dhaneshwor; Nameirakpam, Surjit Singh; Dey, Amitabha; Moirangthem, Dinesh Singh; Talukdar, Narayan Chandra; Ningthoukhongjam, Tombi Raj
Traditional health care practices are still being followed extensively in Manipur, North-East India. This is the major or the only medical facility available in some rural areas of Manipur. Cross cultural ethno-pharmacological survey was conducted to document traditional health care practices by Maiba-Maibi (male-female traditional health care practitioners of Manipur). All together 59 traditional practitioners belonging to 12 ethnic communities in nine districts of the Manipur state were interviewed. A predesigned questionnaire was used for interviews, which included queries for type of ailments treating, symptoms, bioresources used, method of preparation, dosage forms, formulation, unit doses. The entire interviews were done in the residence of respective Maiba-Maibi, their patient handing and preparation of medicinal formulations were documented in written and audio-visual format. The survey recorded traditional knowledge on 949 formulations used for 66 human ailments. Five hundred forty six plant products, 42 animal products and 22 organic/inorganic materials were found to be used in these 949 formulations. Five plant species - Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae), Cocos nucifera (Arecaceae), Oroxylum indicum (Bignonaceae), Curcuma longa (Zingiberaceae) and Allium sativum (Liliaceae) used by maximum number of Maiba and Maibi in maximum number of formulations. This particular method of documentation keeps traditional knowledge alive. The WHO estimated perspective of traditional medicine across the world. These observations support therapeutic worth of Manipur Traditional medicines (MTM). Having generated a large database in course of this survey, next focus targeted for the scientific justification of MTM with an aim to develop commercially viable products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hu, Yuanan; Zhang, Wenfeng; Chen, Gang; Cheng, Hefa; Tao, Shu
Because most chickens are reared in intensive farms, where a range of feed additives are used routinely, concerns have been raised on the potential public health risk of chicken product consumption. This study was conducted to characterize the contents of trace metals in fresh chicken tissues (354 samples) on the food markets in Guangdong province of southern China, a major region of chicken production with heavy per capita chicken consumption, and to assess the public health risk from chronic dietary exposure to the trace metals through chicken consumption. With the exception of Cr, Ni, and Pb, the contents of trace metals were generally higher in the chicken giblets (livers, gizzards, hearts, and kidneys) compared to muscles (breasts and drumsticks). Chicken tissues from the urban markets generally contained higher levels of As, Cu, Mn, and Zn than those from the rural markets, while the contents of Pb were typically higher in the chicken muscles from the rural markets. Results of statistical analyses indicate that Cu, Zn, and As in the chicken tissues derived mainly from the feeds, which is consistent with the widespread use of Cu, Zn, and phenylarsenic compounds as feed supplements/additives in intensive poultry farming. No non-carcinogenic risk is found with the consumption of fresh chicken meat products on the food markets, while approximately 70% of the adult population in Guangzhou and 30% of those in Lianzhou have bladder and lung cancer risk above the serious or priority level (10 -4 ), which arises from the inorganic arsenic contained in the chicken tissues. These findings indicate that the occurrence of inorganic arsenic at elevated levels in chicken tissues on the food markets in Guangdong province poses a significant public health risk, thus the use of phenylarsenic feed additives in China's poultry farming should be significantly reduced and eventually phased out. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Markkula, Niina; Suvisaari, Jaana; Saarni, Samuli I; Pirkola, Sami; Peña, Sebastian; Saarni, Suoma; Ahola, Kirsi; Mattila, Aino K; Viertiö, Satu; Strehle, Jens; Koskinen, Seppo; Härkänen, Tommi
Up-to-date epidemiological data on depressive disorders is needed to understand changes in population health and health care utilization. This study aims to assess the prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) and dysthymia in the Finnish population and possible changes during the past 11 years. In a nationally representative sample of Finns aged 30 and above (BRIF8901), depressive disorders were diagnosed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (M-CIDI) in 2000 and 2011. To account for nonresponse, two methods were compared: multiple imputation (MI) utilizing data from the hospital discharge register and from the interview in 2000 and statistical weighting. The MI-corrected 12-month prevalence of MDD was 7.4% (95% CI 5.7-9.0) and of dysthymia was 4.5% (95% CI 3.1-5.9), whereas the corresponding figures using weights were 5.4% (95% CI 4.7-6.1) for MDD and 2.0% (95% CI 1.6-2.4) for dysthymia. Women (OR 2.33, 95% CI 1.6-3.4) and unmarried people (OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.2-2.0) had a higher risk of depressive disorders. There was a significant increase in the prevalence of depressive disorders during the follow-up period from 7.3% in 2000 to 9.6% in 2011. Prevalences were two percentage points higher, on average, when using MI compared to weighting. Hospital treatments for depressive disorders and other mental disorders were strongly associated with nonparticipation. The CIDI response rate dropped from 75% in 2000 to 57% in 2011, but this was accounted for by MI and weighting. Depressive disorders are a growing public health concern in Finland. Non-participation of persons with severe mental disorders may bias the prevalence estimates of mental disorders in population-based studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Saragoussi, Delphine; Christensen, Michael Cronquist; Hammer-Helmich, Lene; Rive, Benoît; Touya, Maëlys; Haro, Josep Maria
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with significant impairments in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and everyday functioning. This cohort study investigated the long-term development of HRQoL in patients with MDD and its association with patient characteristics, including depressive symptom severity and cognitive symptoms. The Prospective Epidemiological Research on Functioning Outcomes Related to Major depressive disorder (PERFORM) study was a longitudinal cohort study conducted in 1,159 outpatients aged 18-65 years with MDD in France, Germany, Spain, Sweden, and the UK. The patients were either initiating antidepressant monotherapy or undergoing their first switch of antidepressant. HRQoL was assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 12-item Health Survey (SF-12) up to month 12 and the EuroQol Five Dimensions questionnaire up to month 24 (UK only). Depressive symptom severity was assessed up to month 24 by the patient-reported Patient Health Questionnaire and cognitive symptoms by the Perceived Deficit Questionnaire. Multivariate analyses were performed to identify patient characteristics associated with HRQoL. Mental HRQoL was severely impaired at baseline versus normative data (mean [SD] SF-12 mental component summary [MCS], 26.5 [9.2]); mean (SD) physical component summary (PCS) total score was 45.2 (12.1). SF-12 MCS improved over 12 months of follow-up (38.7 [11.6] at month 12), while SF-12 PCS remained stable (45.3 [11.1]). At each assessment time point, there was a clear pattern of lower SF-12 MCS and PCS total score in patients experiencing greater cognitive problems. The mean EuroQol Five Dimensions questionnaire utility index score generally decreased (i.e., worsened) with increasing severity of cognitive and depressive symptoms at all time points up to 24 months. Multivariate analyses identified both depression severity and cognitive symptoms as strongly and significantly associated with poor HRQoL. These findings highlight
Rieder, Michael; Choonara, Imti
Armed conflict has a major impact on child health throughout the world. One in six children worldwide lives in an area of armed conflict and civilians are more likely to die than soldiers as a result of the conflict. In stark contrast to the effect on children, the international arms trade results in huge profits for the large corporations involved in producing arms, weapons and munitions. Armed conflict is not inevitable but is an important health issue that should be prevented.
The potential of livestock to sustain family and local economies have been acknowledged worldwide. However, the major constraints to the attainment of this potential especially in the tropics have been the incidence of disease and sundry ill health. Thus the development of an effective animal health management strategy ...
Tiburcio, Nelson Jose; Kressel, David
Therapeutic communities posit favorable treatment outcomes by relying on the community as the healing agent (Deleon 2000). Active treatment participation and treatment tenure are two domains that are positive predictors of positive treatment outcomes over time. Some of the more important domains that remain to be thoroughly investigated in international research on therapeutic community (TC) treatment outcome studies are the underlying effects of culture on the treatment process. Cultural components play a significant role, as also reported by various TC participants over the years (such as the effects of health literacy on sustaining abstinence from drug use over the long term, Tiburcio 2008). In recent years, health literacy has taken on a significant role in order for individuals to readily understand their needs (Schillinger et al 2002; Jorm et al 1997); or as pertains to feeling shamed in the process (Parikh et al 1996). As these and other studies suggest, the cultural competence of the providers is equally important. To our knowledge the " International TC Study " and findings presented herein constitute one of only a few studies that have conducted investigations comparing therapeutic community treatment modifications internationally, from the perspective of the participants themselves and which consider cultural components of this process. One key advantage of the resulting Qualitative datasets and analyses is that it not only includes residents' perspectives, and staff experiential elements, but importantly, incorporates staff debriefings about their respective interactions at each of the international treatment modalities, presenting well rounded depictions of each of these milieus. To that end, the data examined here presents an enhanced portrait of the provider-patient treatment dynamic, and lends voice to the various aspects of treatment participation in light of these cultural issues, and from the perspective of providers, as well as the participants.
Tuninetti, M.; Tamea, S.; Dalin, C.
Water is a renewable but limited resource. Most human use of freshwater resources is for agriculture, and global water demand for agriculture is increasing because of the growth in food demand, driven by increasing population and changing diets. Hence, measuring the pressure exerted by agriculture on freshwater sources is a key issue. The sustainability of water use depends on the water source renewability rate: the water use is not sustainable (depleting the water storage) where/when it exceeds the renewable freshwater availability. In this study, we explore the sustainability of rain and irrigation water use for the production of nine major crops, globally at a 5'x5' spatial resolution. We split the crop water use into soil moisture (from rainfall) and irrigation, with, for the first time, separating ground- and surface-water sources, which is a key distinction because the renewability of these two water sources can be very different. In order to physically quantify the extent to which crop water use is sustainable, we measure the severity of the source depletion as the number of years required for the hydrological cycle to replenish the water resource used by the annual crop production, namely the Water Debt. This newly developed indicator allows one to compare the depletion level of the three water sources at a certain location for a specific crop. Hence, we mapped, for each crop, the number of years required to replenish the water withdrawn from soil-, surface- and ground-water resources. Each map identifies the hotspots for each water source, highlighting regions and crops that threaten most the water resource. We found that the water debt with soil moisture is heterogeneous in space but always lower than one year indicating a non-surprising sustainability of rain-fed agriculture. Rice and sugarcane make the largest contribution to global soil moisture depletion. Water debt in surface water is particularly high in areas of intense wheat and cotton production
Seckeler, Michael D; Hoke, Tracey R
Acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and rheumatic heart disease (RHD) are significant public health concerns around the world. Despite decreasing incidence, there is still a significant disease burden, especially in developing nations. This review provides background on the history of ARF, its pathology and treatment, and the current reported worldwide incidence of ARF and prevalence of RHD. PMID:21386976
The challenges that the petroleum industry faces in winning all the oil resources in the North Sea are reviewed. All these hydrocarbons that will soon sustain governments, bolster the standard of living, and bring profits to investors will one day be gone, perhaps. The author says, ''if demand for oil continues to rise by a few percent each year for the next 25 years the prospect of the North Sea drained of its riches is real. Even if Britain makes no more demands on it than those needs of today, the global concept of the oil business will mean that other markets will place the North Sea reserves at risk of exhaustion. Two major factors affect this assumption: market forces and government-implemented depletion rates.'' After explaining these two assumptions, the author graphically portrays what life will be like when petrol becomes a luxury item. It is forgotten that the hydrocarbons are being consumed in a lifetime, when it took several millions of years to put them together. (MCW)
The world nuclear industry has entered a phase of low activity since the beginning of the 90's. The opening of electricity markets to competition, the reserve of part of the public opinion with respect to nuclear energy and the competition of other power production sources explain the lack of dynamism of nuclear markets. In this context of uncertainties, the nuclear sector has started a re-structuration in depth with new strategic trends which will be decisive for the perenniality of the nuclear industry. The front-end of the fuel cycle is disturbed by production over-capacities which lead to strong tensions on prices. The veering of the German and Belgian policies has had strong impacts on the spent fuels reprocessing activity and the reactor construction activity is in decline in Europe and in the US. On the other hand, services are developing with the extension of the service life of nuclear plants and the waste management and dismantling markets are emerging. The main stakes that the occidental nuclear actors have to face today are: improving the competitiveness of nuclear industry, mastering the management of long-living radioactive wastes, proving the safeness of nuclear power, countering the arrival of Asian competitors. In front of these stakes, the nuclear actors have to take initiatives such as: concentration, vertical integration, technological innovation, communication, diversification etc.. This study examines the overall segments of the world nuclear industry. It comprises also a behaviour and strategy analysis of 13 major actors of this sector. (J.S.)
The paper is focussed on the progress which has been made over 50 years in the science, technology and application of NDT, particularly in relation to inspection of welds and safety critical components used in mining, oil and gas offshore, pipelines, power generation, petrochemical, shipbuilding, pulp and paper, mineral processing, and defence industries - both during manufacture and in-service. New techniques not dreamt of 50 years ago and new technology such as personal computers, lasers and robotics which are now common-place in everyday life have transformed some aspects of NDT. But other aspects have remained unchanged, including the continued use of the more basic NDT methods and the challenges of recruitment, training, certification and motivation of personnel. There have been major changes in the world scene over 50 years including the globalisation of trade, the emergence of new countries as industrial powers, and the ageing of safety critical infrastructure. These have impacted on NDT business and on the activities of the international NDT community (including ICNDT, the International Committee for NDT). The paper will conclude by introducing the activities championed by ICNDT to promote the understanding of the importance of NDT, to support the development of NDT Societies around the world, to educate users on the correct use of personnel certification and to pursue the objective of global harmonisation and recognition of third party certification.
The goals of the ATLAS Data Challenges (DC) are the validation of the Computing Model, of the complete software suite, of the data model, and to ensure the correctness of the technical choices to be made. It is understood that these Data Challenges should be of increasing complexity and that their results will be used as input for a Computing TDR and for preparing an MoU in due time. A major feature of the current computing activities (DC1) in ATLAS is the preparation and deployment of the software required for the production of large event samples for the High Level Trigger (HLT) and physics communities, and the actual production of those samples. It should be noted that it is not an option to "run everything at CERN" even if we wanted to; the resources are not available at CERN to carry out the production on a reasonable time-scale. We have therefore had to face the great challenge of organising and then carrying out this large-scale production at a significant number of sites around the world. However, th...
major challenge and varies across health facilities with high, medium and low retention rates. We therefore recommend further studies to understand the organization of care in health facilities with high, medium and low retention rates. It is also imperative that early initiation of patients on ART is taken seriously as more than 79% of the patients had baseline CD4-cell counts less than 200 cells per micro-liter of blood. Finally, we recommend that the shift to second-line ART might be too low and warrants close monitoring.
Full Text Available In the last 40 years, the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, indigenous to East Asia, has colonized every continent except Antarctica. Its spread is a major public health concern, given that this species is a competent vector for numerous arboviruses, including those causing dengue, chikungunya, West Nile and the recently emerged Zika fever. To acquire more information on the ancestral source(s of adventive populations and the overall diffusion process from its native range, we analyzed the mitogenome variation of 27 individuals from representative populations of Asia, the Americas and Europe. Phylogenetic analyses revealed five haplogroups in Asia, but population surveys appear to indicate that only three of these (A1a1, A1a2 and A1b were involved in the recent worldwide spread. We also found out that a derived lineage (A1a1a1 within A1a1, which is now common in Italy, most likely arose in North America from an ancestral Japanese source. These different genetic sources now coexist in many of the recently colonized areas, thus probably creating novel genomic combinations which might be one of the causes of the apparently growing ability of Ae. albopictus to expand its geographical range.
Patrinos, George P; Al Aama, Jumana; Al Aqeel, Aida; Al-Mulla, Fahd; Borg, Joseph; Devereux, Andrew; Felice, Alex E; Macrae, Finlay; Marafie, Makia J; Petersen, Michael B; Qi, Ming; Ramesar, Rajkumar S; Zlotogora, Joel; Cotton, Richard GH
Developing countries have significantly contributed to the elucidation of the genetic basis of both common and rare disorders, providing an invaluable resource of cases due to large family sizes, consanguinity, and potential founder effects. Moreover, the recognized depth of genomic variation in indigenous African populations, reflecting the ancient origins of humanity on the African continent, and the effect of selection pressures on the genome, will be valuable in understanding the range of both pathological and nonpathological variations. The involvement of these populations in accurately documenting the extant genetic heterogeneity is more than essential. Developing nations are regarded as key contributors to the Human Variome Project (HVP; http://www.humanvariomeproject.org), a major effort to systematically collect mutations that contribute to or cause human disease and create a cyber infrastructure to tie databases together. However, biomedical research has not been the primary focus in these countries even though such activities are likely to produce economic and health benefits for all. Here, we propose several recommendations and guidelines to facilitate participation of developing countries in genetic variation data documentation, ensuring an accurate and comprehensive worldwide data collection. We also summarize a few well-coordinated genetic data collection initiatives that would serve as paradigms for similar projects. Hum Mutat 31:1–8, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:21089065
Ali A Velayati
Full Text Available Even in the 21st century, we are losing the battle against eradication of tuberculosis (TB. In 2015, 9.6 million people were estimated to have fallen ill with TB, of which 1.5 million people died. This is the real situation despite the well-structured treatment programs and availability of effective treatment options since the 1950s. The high mortality rate has been associated with other risk factors, such as the HIV epidemic, underlying diseases, and decline of socioeconomic standards. Furthermore, the problem of drug resistance that was recognized in the early days of the chemotherapeutic era raises serious concerns. Although resistance to a single agent is the most common type, resistance to multiple agents is less frequent but of greater concern. The World Health Organization estimated approximately 5% of all new TB cases involved multidrug-resistant (MDR-TB. The estimation for MDR-TB is 3.3% for new cases, and 20.5% for previously treated cases. Failure to identify and appropriately treat MDR-TB patients has led to more dangerous forms of resistant TB. Based on World Health Organization reports, 5% of global TB cases are now considered to be extensively drug resistant (XDR, defined as MDR with additional resistance to both fluoroquinolones and at least one second-line injectable drug. XDR-TB had been reported by 105 countries by 2015. An estimated 9.7% of people with MDR-TB have XDR-TB. More recently, another dangerous form of TB bacillus was identified, which was named totally drug resistant (TDR-TB or extremely drug resistant TB. These strains were resistant to all first- and second-line anti-TB drugs. Collectively, it is accepted that 2% of MDR-TB strains turn to be TDR-TB. This number, however, may not reflect the real situation, as many laboratories in endemic TB countries do not have proper facilities and updated protocols to detect the XDR or TDR-TB strains. Nevertheless, existing data emphasize the need for additional control
Pearson, J E
Animal diseases impact food supplies, trade and commerce, and human health and well-being in every part of the world. Outbreaks draw the attention of those in agriculture, regulatory agencies, and government, as well as the general public. This was demonstrated by the 2000-2001 foot and mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks that occurred in Europe, South America, Asia and Africa and by the recent increased occurrence of emerging diseases transmitted from animals to humans. Examples of these emerging zoonotic diseases are highly pathogenic avian influenza, bovine spongiform encephalopathy, West Nile virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome. There is also the risk of well-known and preventable zoonotic diseases, such as rabies, brucellosis, leishmaniasis, and echinococcosis/hydatidosis, in certain countries; these diseases have a high morbidity with the potential for a very high mortality. Animal agriculturalists should have a global disease awareness of disease risks and develop plans of action to deal with them; in order to better respond to these diseases, they should develop the skills and competencies in politics, media interactions, and community engagement. This issue of Veterinaria Italiana presents information on the risk of animal diseases; their impact on animals and humans at the international, national, industry, and societal levels; and the responses to them. In addition, specific information is provided on national and international disease monitoring, surveillance and reporting, the risk of spread of disease by bioterrorism and on import risk analysis.
Rickhi, Badri; Kania-Richmond, Ania; Moritz, Sabine; Cohen, Jordan; Paccagnan, Patricia; Dennis, Charlotte; Liu, Mingfu; Malhotra, Sonya; Steele, Patricia; Toews, John
Depression in adolescents and young adults is a major mental health condition that requires attention. Research suggests that approaches that include spiritual concepts and are delivered through an online platform are a potentially beneficial approach to treating/managing depression in this population. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an 8-week online spirituality informed e-mental health intervention (the LEAP Project) on depression severity, and secondary outcomes of spiritual well-being and self-concept, in adolescents and young adults with major depressive disorder of mild to moderate severity. A parallel group, randomized, waitlist controlled, assessor-blinded clinical pilot trial was conducted in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. The sample of 62 participants with major depressive disorder (DSM-IV-TR) was defined by two age subgroups: adolescents (ages 13 to 18 years; n = 31) and young adults (ages 19 to 24 years; n = 31). Participants in each age subgroup were randomized into the study arm (intervention initiated upon enrolment) or the waitlist control arm (intervention initiated after an 8-week wait period). Comparisons were made between the study and waitlist control arms at week 8 (the point where study arm had completed the intervention and the waitlist control arm had not) and within each arm at four time points over 24-week follow-up period. At baseline, there was no statistical difference between study and waitlist participants for both age subgroups for all three outcomes of interest. After the intervention, depression severity was significantly reduced; comparison across arms at week 8 and over time within each arm and both age subgroups. Spiritual well-being changes were not significant, with the exception of an improvement over time for the younger participants in the study arm (p = 0.01 at week 16 and p = 0.0305 at week 24). Self-concept improved significantly for younger participants immediately after the
Rickets is a childhood disease that causes a softening of the bones, potentially leading to fractures and deformity. Eighty years ago it was thought to have largely been eradicated from the U.K. However a recent increase in cases of rickets, not just in Britain but around the world, has proven this isn't the case. Today the disease affects children from all types of socio-economic backgrounds, not just the poorer ones, and it is primarily caused by low levels of vitamin D and certain foods. In January 2011 the government's chief medical officer Dame Sally Davies recommended all children aged six months to five should be given vitamin D supplements, particularly during winter months when natural sunshine is limited. The irony is that the advice in recent years for children to wear a high factor sunscreen and remain covered up while playing outdoors are partly felt to be behind the reason for its re-emergence. Parents and health professionals alike were shocked when it was revealed that a school girl living on the Isle of Wight developed rickets precisely because of her mother's vigilance at following sun safety rules. NICE, in their latest report (Jan 2011) stated that: "Exposure to the sun has a number of benefits. For example, it increases people's sense of wellbeing, allows them to synthesise vitamin D and provides opportunities for physical activity". A tendency for children to stay indoors and watch TV or play on computer games, rather than play outside when the sun is shining, is arguably also another contributing factor.
Irfan A. Rather
Full Text Available ZIKA virus (ZIKV poses a severe threat to the world. Recent outbreaks of ZIKV after 2007 along with its quick transmission have made this virus a matter of international concern. The virus shows symptoms that are similar to those caused in the wake of dengue virus (DENV and other flaviviruses, which makes it difficult to discern the viral infection. Diagnosis is further complicated as the virus cross-reacts with antibodies of other viruses. Currently, molecular diagnosis of the virus is being performed by RT-PCR and IgM-captured enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAC-ELISA. The real brunt of the virus is, however, borne by children and adults alike. Case studies of the ZIKV outbreaks in the French Polynesia and other places have suggested that there is a close link between the ZIKV and Gullian-Barre syndrome (GBS. The GBS has closely followed in areas facing ZIKV outbreaks. Although solid evidence is yet to emerge, clinical data integration has revealed a large number of ZIKV patients having GBS. Moreover, the amniotic fluids, blood cord, and miscarriage tissues of mothers have been detected with ZIKV, which indicates that the virus either gets transferred from mother to fetus or seeks direct entry in the fetus, causing microcephaly and other brain anomalies in the newborn babies. Studies on mice have confirmed the link between the ZIKV infection during pregnancy and microcephaly in babies. Reports have highlighted the sexual transmission of the ZIKV, as it has been detected in the semen and saliva of affected persons. The intensity with which the ZIKA is spreading can collapse the health sector of several countries, which are poor. A comprehensive strategy is a need of an hour to combat this virus so as to prevent its transmission and avert the looming threat. At the same time, more research on the cure of the ZIKV is imperative.
Alves, Eduardo Q.; Macario, Kita; Ascough, Philippa; Bronk Ramsey, Christopher
When a carbon reservoir has a lower radiocarbon content than the atmosphere, this is referred to as a reservoir effect. This is expressed as an offset between the radiocarbon ages of samples from the two reservoirs at a single point in time. The marine reservoir effect (MRE) has been a major concern in the radiocarbon community, as it introduces an additional source of error that is often difficult to accurately quantify. For this reason, researchers are often reluctant to date marine material where they have another option. The influence of this phenomenon makes the study of the MRE important for a broad range of applications. The advent of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) has reduced sample size requirements and increased measurement precision, in turn increasing the number of studies seeking to measure marine samples. These studies rely on overcoming the influence of the MRE on marine radiocarbon dates through the worldwide quantification of the local parameter ΔR, that is, the local variation from the global average MRE. Furthermore, the strong dependence on ocean dynamics makes the MRE a useful indicator for changes in oceanic circulation, carbon exchange between reservoirs, and the fate of atmospheric CO2, all of which impact Earth's climate. This article explores data from the Marine Reservoir Database and reviews the place of natural radiocarbon in oceanic records, focusing on key questions (e.g., changes in ocean dynamics) that have been answered by MRE studies and on their application to different subjects.
Sasaki, Tomio; Hashiguchi, Kimiaki; Yoshimoto, Koji; Nakamizo, Akira; Mizoguchi, Masahiro
Based on the data reported in the National Institute of Science and Technology Policy 2010, Japan is ranked in fourth place in the world in terms of the numbers of the articles in the fields of clinical medicine. However, there had not been any objective data regarding the numbers of publications by neurosurgeons. As it is important for neurosurgeons to realize the extent of academic contributions by the neurosurgeons in different countries, the numbers of publications in the major journals by the members of the Japan Neurosurgical Society and those from neurosurgical institutions around the world were analyzed using both the biomedical literature database PubMed and the publication database "ISI Web of Knowledge." Parts of the results were presented in the 69th Annual Meeting of the Japan Neurosurgical Society. As to the number of neurosurgical publications in English from the top 9 countries, the US has been consistently in first place and Japan in second. However, the number of publications from Japan has been decreasing since 2000. With regards to the "top 8 journals" such as the Lancet and the Journal of the American Medical Association, the number of first-author publications by Japanese neurosurgeons increased in the late 1980s and had been 2-9 articles per year until recently. In the "top 12 neuroscience journals" which include Stroke, Neuro-Oncology, Cancer Research, and others, Japan had been in the third next to the US and UK till 2004, but Germany surpassed Japan in 2005. In the "top 6 clinical journals" such as the Journal of Neurosurgery and Neurosurgery, the US has been consistently keeping first place and Japan second place since 1977. Searches using the key word elucidated that Japanese neurosurgeons are greatly contributing in the field of "aneurysm." Regarding the number of publications per neurosurgeon, Canada and UK are in the forefront and Japan is down to eighth place. Japanese neurosurgeons have been contributing greatly next to the
Magyari, Ferenc; Kósa, Karolina; Berecz, Roland; Illés, Anna; Miltényi, Zsófia; Simon, Zsófia; Illés, Árpád
Due to risk and response adapted treatment strategies, more than 80% of newly diagnosed classical Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) patients can be cured, and become long-term survivors. However, a high proportion of survivors suffer from treatment-related long-term side effects such as secondary malignancy, organ failure, persistent fatigue and psychological distress. The aim of this study was to evaluate psychological distress and its risk factors among our HL survivors. One hundred sixty-three (50% female) adult HL survivors were contacted between January 1, 2012 and march 31, 2015 in our outpatient centre. The patients were asked to complete a standardized, validated, self-administered Hungarian questionnaire with demographic questions and the following scales: Hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS14), general health questionnaire (GHQ12), sense of coherence (SOC13) perceived stress scale (PSS4), dysfunctional attitude scale (DAS17). Disease and treatment data were acquired from hospital records. Majority of HL survivors are in early adulthood, our most important goal should be to return them to normal life after their lymphoma is cured. The employment status at the time of survey seemed to be crucial so patients were divided into either active (n = 93) or inactive (n = 47) group. Retired survivors (n = 19) were excluded from the subgroup analysis. Psychological distress was significantly lower in active patients. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed significant differences between the inactive and active subgroups, such as age at diagnosis (≥30 years or below, p = 0.001), education level (below college vs. college, p = 0.032) and treatment related long-term side effects (yes vs. no, p employment status and treatment-related long-term side effects play a critical role in the health related quality of life outcome among Hungarian HL survivors.
Shaikh, Maaz; Woodward, Mark; Rahimi, Kazem; Patel, Anushka; Rath, Santosh; MacMahon, Stephen; Jha, Vivekanand
Information on the use of major surgery in India is scarce. In this study we aimed to bridge this gap by auditing hospital claims from Rajiv Aarogyasri Community Health Insurance Scheme, which provides access to free hospital care through state-funded insurance to 68 million beneficiaries, an estimated 81% of population in the states of Telangana and Andhra Pradesh. Publicly available deidentified hospital claim data for all surgery procedures conducted between mid-2008 and mid-2012 were compiled across all 23 districts in Telangana and Andhra Pradesh. A total of 677,332 operative admissions (80% at private hospitals) were recorded at an annual rate of 259 per 100,000 beneficiaries, with male subjects accounting for 56% of admissions. Injury was the most common cause for operative admission (27%) with operative correction of long bone fractures being the most common procedure (20%) identified in the audit. Diseases of the digestive (16%), genitourinary (12%), and musculoskeletal (10%) systems were other leading causes for operative admissions. Most hospital bed-days were used by admissions for injuries (31%) and diseases of the digestive (17%) and musculoskeletal system (11%) costing 19%, 13%, and 11% of reimbursement. Operations on the circulatory system (8%) accounted for 21% of reimbursements. Annual per capita cost of operative claims was US$1.48. The use of surgery by an insured population in India continued to be low despite access to financing comparable with greater spending countries, highlighting need for strategies, beyond traditional health financing, that prioritize improvement in access, delivery, and use of operative care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Guo, Boliang; Kaylor-Hughes, Catherine; Garland, Anne; Nixon, Neil; Sweeney, Tim; Simpson, Sandra; Dalgleish, Tim; Ramana, Rajini; Yang, Min; Morriss, Richard
The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) is a widely used instrument for measuring levels of depression in patients in clinical practice and academic research; its factor structure has been investigated in various samples, with limited evidence of measurement equivalence/invariance (ME/I) but not in patients with more severe depression of long duration. This study aims to explore the factor structure of the PHQ-9 and the ME/I between treatment groups over time for these patients. 187 secondary care patients with persistent major depressive disorder (PMDD) were recruited to a randomised controlled trial (RCT) with allocation to either a specialist depression team arm or a general mental health arm; their PHQ-9 score was measured at baseline, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. Exploratory Structural Equational Modelling (ESEM) was performed to examine the factor structure for this specific patient group. ME/I between treatment arm at and across follow-up time were further explored by means of multiple-group ESEM approach using the best-fitted factor structure. A two-factor structure was evidenced (somatic and affective factor). This two-factor structure had strong factorial invariance between the treatment groups at and across follow up times. Participants were largely white British in a RCT with 40% attrition potentially limiting the study's generalisability. Not all two-factor modelling criteria were met at every time-point. PHQ-9 has a two-factor structure for PMDD patients, with strong measurement invariance between treatment groups at and across follow-up time, demonstrating its validity for RCTs and prospective longitudinal studies in chronic moderate to severe depression. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Kinser, Patricia Anne; Elswick, R K; Kornstein, Susan
Despite pharmacologic and psychotherapeutic advances over the past decades, many individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) experience recurrent depressive episodes and persistent depressive symptoms despite treatment with the usual care. Yoga is a mind-body therapeutic modality that has received attention in both the lay and research literature as a possible adjunctive therapy for depression. Although promising, recent findings about the positive mental health effects of yoga are limited because few studies have used standardized outcome measures and none of them have involved long-term follow-up beyond a few months after the intervention period. The goal of our research study was to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and effects of a yoga intervention for women with MDD using standardized outcome measures and a long follow-up period (1year after the intervention). The key finding is that previous yoga practice has long-term positive effects, as revealed in both qualitative reports of participants' experiences and in the quantitative data about depression and rumination scores over time. Although generalizability of the study findings is limited because of a very small sample size at the 1-year follow-up assessment, the trends in the data suggest that exposure to yoga may convey a sustained positive effect on depression, ruminations, stress, anxiety, and health-related quality of life. Whether an individual continues with yoga practice, simple exposure to a yoga intervention appears to provide sustained benefits to the individual. This is important because it is rare that any intervention, pharmacologic or non-pharmacologic, for depression conveys such sustained effects for individuals with MDD, particularly after the treatment is discontinued. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Armstrong, Gregory; Vijayakumar, Lakshmi; Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas; Jayaseelan, Mala; Kannan, Ramya; Pirkis, Jane; Jorm, Anthony F
Suicide rates in India are among the highest in the world, resulting in an estimated 250,000 suicide deaths annually. How the media communicates with the Indian public on the topic of suicide has thus far gone without sufficient scrutiny. The objective of our study was to assess the quality of newspaper reporting of suicide-related news in India against World Health Organization suicide reporting guidelines. We used content analysis to assess the quality of suicide reporting against World Health Organization guidelines in nine of the most highly read daily newspapers in the southern state of Tamil Nadu between June and December 2016. Five of the nine newspapers under review were in the top 20 most circulated daily newspapers in the country. A total of 1681 suicide articles were retrieved. The mean number of suicide articles per day per newspaper was 0.9%, and 54.5% of articles were 10 sentences or less. The vast majority (95.9%) of articles primarily focused on reporting specific suicide incidents. Harmful reporting practices were very common (e.g. a detailed suicide method was reported in 43.3% of articles), while helpful reporting practices were rare (e.g. just 2.5% gave contact details for a suicide support service). We observed that a daily diet of short and explicit suicide-related news was served up to readers of newspapers. Attempts should be made to understand the perspectives of media professionals in relation to suicide reporting, and to devise strategies to boost the positive contribution that media can make to suicide prevention.
Janssens, Ellen; Dauwe, Tom; Pinxten, Rianne; Bervoets, Lieven; Blust, Ronny; Eens, Marcel
Pollutants reduced nestling body mass and condition and delayed fledging time. - In this study we examined the possible effects of heavy metal exposure on the condition and health of great tit nestlings (Parus major) at four study sites along a pollution gradient near a large non-ferrous smelter in Belgium during three consecutive breeding seasons. Our results showed that nestlings were indeed exposed to large amounts of heavy metals. Excrements contained significantly higher concentrations of several heavy metals (silver, arsenic, cadmium, mercury, lead) near the pollution source than at study sites farther away. When taking into account the number of young in the nest at the time of sampling, nestling body mass and condition were significantly reduced at the most polluted site. Nestlings at the two most polluted sites fledged significantly later than at the least polluted site. We also observed growth abnormalities of the legs near the pollution source. Tarsus length, wing length and haematocrit values did not differ significantly among study sites.
Mutue T. Fujii
Full Text Available In Brazil, the Laurencia complex is represented by twenty taxa: Laurencia s.s. with twelve species, Palisada with four species (including Chondrophycus furcatus now that the proposal of its transference to Palisada is in process, and Osmundea and Yuzurua with two species each. The majority of the Brazilian species of the Laurencia complex have been phylogenetically analyzed by 54 rbcL sequences, including five other Rhodomelacean species as outgroups. The analysis showed that the Laurencia complex is monophyletic with high posterior probability value. The complex was separated into five clades, corresponding to the genera: Chondrophycus, Laurencia, Osmundea, Palisada, and Yuzurua. A bibliographical survey of the terpenoids produced by Brazilian species showed that only six species of Laurencia and five of Palisada (including C. furcatcus have been submitted to chemical analysis with 48 terpenoids (47 sesquiterpenes and one triterpene isolated. No diterpenes were found. Of the total, 23 sesquiterpenes belong to the bisabolane class and eighteen to the chamigrene type, whose biochemical precursor is bisabolane, two are derived from lauranes and four are triquinols. Despite the considerable number of known terpenes and their ecological and pharmacological importance, few experimental biological studies have been performed. In this review, only bioactivities related to human health were considered.
Janssens, Ellen; Dauwe, Tom; Pinxten, Rianne; Bervoets, Lieven; Blust, Ronny; Eens, Marcel
Pollutants reduced nestling body mass and condition and delayed fledging time. - In this study we examined the possible effects of heavy metal exposure on the condition and health of great tit nestlings (Parus major) at four study sites along a pollution gradient near a large non-ferrous smelter in Belgium during three consecutive breeding seasons. Our results showed that nestlings were indeed exposed to large amounts of heavy metals. Excrements contained significantly higher concentrations of several heavy metals (silver, arsenic, cadmium, mercury, lead) near the pollution source than at study sites farther away. When taking into account the number of young in the nest at the time of sampling, nestling body mass and condition were significantly reduced at the most polluted site. Nestlings at the two most polluted sites fledged significantly later than at the least polluted site. We also observed growth abnormalities of the legs near the pollution source. Tarsus length, wing length and haematocrit values did not differ significantly among study sites
Tsuchiya, Masao; Kawakami, Norito; Ono, Yutaka; Nakane, Yoshibumi; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Tachimori, Hisateru; Iwata, Noboru; Uda, Hidenori; Nakane, Hideyuki; Watanabe, Makoto; Naganuma, Yoichi; Furukawa, Toshiaki A; Hata, Yukihiro; Kobayashi, Masayo; Miyake, Yuko; Takeshima, Tadashi; Kikkawa, Takehiko; Kessler, Ronald C
Although often considered of minor significance in themselves, evidence exists that early-onset phobic disorders might be predictors of later more serious disorders, such as major depressive disorder (MDD). The purpose of this study is to investigate the association of phobic disorders with the onset of MDD in the community in Japan. Data from the World Mental Health Japan 2002-2004 Survey were analyzed. A total of 2,436 community residents aged 20 and older were interviewed using the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview 3.0 (response rate, 58.4%). A Cox proportional hazard model was used to predict the onset of MDD as a function of prior history of DSM-IV specific phobia, agoraphobia, or social phobia, adjusting for gender, birth-cohort, other anxiety disorders, education, and marital status at survey. Social phobia was strongly associated with the subsequent onset of MDD (hazard ratio [HR]=4.1 [95% CI: 2.0-8.7]) after adjusting for sex, birth cohort, and the number of other anxiety disorders. The association between agoraphobia or specific phobia and MDD was not statistically significant after adjusting for these variables. Social phobia is a powerful predictor of the subsequent first onset of MDD in Japan. Although this finding argues against a simple neurobiological model and in favor of a model in which the cultural meanings of phobia play a part in promoting MDD, an elucidation of causal pathways will require more fine-grained comparative research.
Ogada, Darcy L; Keesing, Felicia; Virani, Munir Z
Vultures are nature's most successful scavengers, and they provide an array of ecological, economic, and cultural services. As the only known obligate scavengers, vultures are uniquely adapted to a scavenging lifestyle. Vultures' unique adaptations include soaring flight, keen eyesight, and extremely low pH levels in their stomachs. Presently, 14 of 23 (61%) vulture species worldwide are threatened with extinction, and the most rapid declines have occurred in the vulture-rich regions of Asia and Africa. The reasons for the population declines are varied, but poisoning or human persecution, or both, feature in the list of nearly every declining species. Deliberate poisoning of carnivores is likely the most widespread cause of vulture poisoning. In Asia, Gyps vultures have declined by >95% due to poisoning by the veterinary drug diclofenac, which was banned by regional governments in 2006. Human persecution of vultures has occurred for centuries, and shooting and deliberate poisoning are the most widely practiced activities. Ecological consequences of vulture declines include changes in community composition of scavengers at carcasses and an increased potential for disease transmission between mammalian scavengers at carcasses. There have been cultural and economic costs of vulture declines as well, particularly in Asia. In the wake of catastrophic vulture declines in Asia, regional governments, the international scientific and donor communities, and the media have given the crisis substantial attention. Even though the Asian vulture crisis focused attention on the plight of vultures worldwide, the situation for African vultures has received relatively little attention especially given the similar levels of population decline. While the Asian crisis has been largely linked to poisoning by diclofenac, vulture population declines in Africa have numerous causes, which have made conserving existing populations more difficult. And in Africa there has been little
Copley, Antoinette Mary
Objective: The leading causes of death among older Irish adults are diseases of the circulatory system. These are in a major part, diseases of lifestyle and so health behaviours across the lifecycle, including older age, are important targets for prevention. It is imperative to understand older adults’ engagement in preventive health behaviours such as not smoking and drinking sensibly. While research on the association between ageing self-perceptions and health behaviours is relatively no...
Park, Eun Sug; Symanski, Elaine; Han, Daikwon; Spiegelman, Clifford
A major difficulty with assessing source-specific health effects is that source-specific exposures cannot be measured directly; rather, they need to be estimated by a source-apportionment method such as multivariate receptor modeling. The uncertainty in source apportionment (uncertainty in source-specific exposure estimates and model uncertainty due to the unknown number of sources and identifiability conditions) has been largely ignored in previous studies. Also, spatial dependence of multipollutant data collected from multiple monitoring sites has not yet been incorporated into multivariate receptor modeling. The objectives of this project are (1) to develop a multipollutant approach that incorporates both sources of uncertainty in source-apportionment into the assessment of source-specific health effects and (2) to develop enhanced multivariate receptor models that can account for spatial correlations in the multipollutant data collected from multiple sites. We employed a Bayesian hierarchical modeling framework consisting of multivariate receptor models, health-effects models, and a hierarchical model on latent source contributions. For the health model, we focused on the time-series design in this project. Each combination of number of sources and identifiability conditions (additional constraints on model parameters) defines a different model. We built a set of plausible models with extensive exploratory data analyses and with information from previous studies, and then computed posterior model probability to estimate model uncertainty. Parameter estimation and model uncertainty estimation were implemented simultaneously by Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC*) methods. We validated the methods using simulated data. We illustrated the methods using PM2.5 (particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter) speciation data and mortality data from Phoenix, Arizona, and Houston, Texas. The Phoenix data included counts of cardiovascular deaths and daily PM2
In January 2012, completion of polio eradication was declared a programmatic emergency for global public health by the Executive Board of the World Health Organization (WHO). Despite major progress since the launch of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) in 1988, circulation of indigenous wild poliovirus (WPV) continues in three countries (Afghanistan, Nigeria, and Pakistan). India has not reported a polio case since January 2011, and is considered polio-free since February 2012. This report highlights progress toward global polio eradication during January 2011-March 2012. The number of polio cases reported globally decreased by 52%, from 1,352 in 2010 to 650 in 2011. Those 650 cases included 341 (53%) reported from the four polio-endemic countries (Afghanistan, India, Nigeria, and Pakistan), 230 (35%) from previously polio-free countries in which WPV importations led to reestablished transmission for ≥12 months (Angola, Chad, and Democratic Republic of the Congo [DRC]), and 79 (12%) from nine countries affected by outbreaks. Compared with 2010, WPV cases increased in 2011 in Afghanistan (69%), Nigeria (66%), and Pakistan (27%), but decreased in India (98%). During January-March 2012, 59% fewer cases were reported worldwide (as of May 15) compared with the same period in 2011, and all cases in 2012 have been reported from Afghanistan, Chad, Nigeria, and Pakistan. Although progress toward polio eradication was substantial in 2011, persistent WPV circulation in 2012, particularly in Nigeria and Pakistan, poses an ongoing threat to eradication efforts, underscoring the need for emergency measures by polio-affected countries and those at risk for outbreaks after importation.
Full Text Available Susan P Fisher-HochDivision of Epidemiology, Human Genetics and Environmental Science, University of Texas School of Public Health, Brownsville Campus, Brownsville, TX, USAAbstract: Diabetes presents a greater threat to global tuberculosis (TB control than previously appreciated, with risk of reversing the achievements of several decades. An estimated 382 million people worldwide currently have diabetes, half of whom are undiagnosed. Most live in low- and middle-income countries alongside many of the two billion individuals infected with TB. Though the frequency of TB in type 1 diabetes was known for centuries, only recently have we observed the tripling of TB in type 2 diabetes, most significantly in high-burden TB populations such as in Peru, Russia, and the People's Republic of China. In India diabetes is estimated to have increased TB cases by 46% between 1998 and 2008. Diabetes is a greater long-term threat to TB control than human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS since ten-fold more people are affected by diabetes than HIV/AIDS in larger geographic areas. Diabetes in TB increases drug resistance, treatment failure, and mortality, and may increase the spread of drug-resistant strains. Delayed or missed diagnosis fuels transmission of TB and hinders control of diabetes. Tailored treatment for diabetes patients requires well-designed clinical trials. The World Health Organization (WHO framework for care and control of diabetes and TB needs improved screening strategies. Determination of how best to establish bi-directional screening is hampered by lack of affordable and reliable methods. Recommendations include education of health care providers, patients, and communities. Structured diabetes programs with registries and effective follow-up could be modeled on and communicate with existing TB programs. Vital research should address new diagnostic tools, lowering cost and evaluation of intervention
Ana Maria Fernandez-Pujals
Full Text Available The heritability of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD has been estimated at 37% based largely on twin studies that rely on contested assumptions. More recently, the heritability of MDD has been estimated on large populations from registries such as the Swedish, Finnish, and Chinese cohorts. Family-based designs utilise a number of different relationships and provide an alternative means of estimating heritability. Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study (GS:SFHS is a large (n = 20,198, family-based population study designed to identify the genetic determinants of common diseases, including Major Depressive Disorder. Two thousand seven hundred and six individuals were SCID diagnosed with MDD, 13.5% of the cohort, from which we inferred a population prevalence of 12.2% (95% credible interval: 11.4% to 13.1%. Increased risk of MDD was associated with being female, unemployed due to a disability, current smokers, former drinkers, and living in areas of greater social deprivation. The heritability of MDD in GS:SFHS was between 28% and 44%, estimated from a pedigree model. The genetic correlation of MDD between sexes, age of onset, and illness course were examined and showed strong genetic correlations. The genetic correlation between males and females with MDD was 0.75 (0.43 to 0.99; between earlier (≤ age 40 and later (> age 40 onset was 0.85 (0.66 to 0.98; and between single and recurrent episodic illness course was 0.87 (0.72 to 0.98. We found that the heritability of recurrent MDD illness course was significantly greater than the heritability of single MDD illness course. The study confirms a moderate genetic contribution to depression, with a small contribution of the common family environment (variance proportion = 0.07, CI: 0.01 to 0.15, and supports the relationship of MDD with previously identified risk factors. This study did not find robust support for genetic differences in MDD due to sex, age of onset, or illness course. However
Fernandez-Pujals, Ana Maria; Adams, Mark James; Thomson, Pippa; McKechanie, Andrew G; Blackwood, Douglas H R; Smith, Blair H; Dominiczak, Anna F; Morris, Andrew D; Matthews, Keith; Campbell, Archie; Linksted, Pamela; Haley, Chris S; Deary, Ian J; Porteous, David J; MacIntyre, Donald J; McIntosh, Andrew M
The heritability of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) has been estimated at 37% based largely on twin studies that rely on contested assumptions. More recently, the heritability of MDD has been estimated on large populations from registries such as the Swedish, Finnish, and Chinese cohorts. Family-based designs utilise a number of different relationships and provide an alternative means of estimating heritability. Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study (GS:SFHS) is a large (n = 20,198), family-based population study designed to identify the genetic determinants of common diseases, including Major Depressive Disorder. Two thousand seven hundred and six individuals were SCID diagnosed with MDD, 13.5% of the cohort, from which we inferred a population prevalence of 12.2% (95% credible interval: 11.4% to 13.1%). Increased risk of MDD was associated with being female, unemployed due to a disability, current smokers, former drinkers, and living in areas of greater social deprivation. The heritability of MDD in GS:SFHS was between 28% and 44%, estimated from a pedigree model. The genetic correlation of MDD between sexes, age of onset, and illness course were examined and showed strong genetic correlations. The genetic correlation between males and females with MDD was 0.75 (0.43 to 0.99); between earlier (≤ age 40) and later (> age 40) onset was 0.85 (0.66 to 0.98); and between single and recurrent episodic illness course was 0.87 (0.72 to 0.98). We found that the heritability of recurrent MDD illness course was significantly greater than the heritability of single MDD illness course. The study confirms a moderate genetic contribution to depression, with a small contribution of the common family environment (variance proportion = 0.07, CI: 0.01 to 0.15), and supports the relationship of MDD with previously identified risk factors. This study did not find robust support for genetic differences in MDD due to sex, age of onset, or illness course. However, we found
Full Text Available French general practitioners (GPs refer their patients with major depression to psychiatrists or for psychotherapy at particularly low rates.This qualitative study aims to explore general practitioners' (GP opinions about psychotherapy, their relationships with mental health professionals, their perceptions of their role and that of psychiatrists in treating depression, and the relations between these factors and the GPs' strategies for managing depression.In 2011, in-depth interviews based on a semi-structured interview guide were conducted with 32 GPs practicing in southeastern France. Verbatim transcripts were examined by analyzing their thematic content.We identified three profiles of physicians according to their opinions and practices about treatment strategies for depression: pro-pharmacological treatment, pro-psychotherapy and those with mixed practices. Most participants considered their relationships with psychiatrists unsatisfactory, would like more and better collaboration with them and shared the same concept of management in general practice. This concept was based both on the values and principles of practice shared by GPs and on their strong differentiation of their management practices from those of psychiatrists.Several attitudes and values common to GPs might contribute to their low rate of referrals for psychotherapy in France: strong occupational identity, substantial variations in GPs' attitudes and practices regarding depression treatment strategies, representations sometimes unfavorable toward psychiatrists. Actions to develop a common culture and improve cooperation between GPs and psychiatrists are essential. They include systems of collaborative care and the development of interdisciplinary training common to GPs and psychiatrists practicing in the same area.
Dumesnil, Hélène; Apostolidis, Thémis; Verger, Pierre
Background French general practitioners (GPs) refer their patients with major depression to psychiatrists or for psychotherapy at particularly low rates. Objectives This qualitative study aims to explore general practitioners' (GP) opinions about psychotherapy, their relationships with mental health professionals, their perceptions of their role and that of psychiatrists in treating depression, and the relations between these factors and the GPs' strategies for managing depression. Methods In 2011, in-depth interviews based on a semi-structured interview guide were conducted with 32 GPs practicing in southeastern France. Verbatim transcripts were examined by analyzing their thematic content. Results We identified three profiles of physicians according to their opinions and practices about treatment strategies for depression: pro-pharmacological treatment, pro-psychotherapy and those with mixed practices. Most participants considered their relationships with psychiatrists unsatisfactory, would like more and better collaboration with them and shared the same concept of management in general practice. This concept was based both on the values and principles of practice shared by GPs and on their strong differentiation of their management practices from those of psychiatrists, Conclusion Several attitudes and values common to GPs might contribute to their low rate of referrals for psychotherapy in France: strong occupational identity, substantial variations in GPs' attitudes and practices regarding depression treatment strategies, representations sometimes unfavorable toward psychiatrists. Actions to develop a common culture and improve cooperation between GPs and psychiatrists are essential. They include systems of collaborative care and the development of interdisciplinary training common to GPs and psychiatrists practicing in the same area. PMID:29385155
People with a major neurocognitive disorder (PwND) are found to have a lower health related quality of life (HRQoL) than those without neurocognitive disorder. This research study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a psycho-education group in improving the HRQoL of Chinese PwND. By adopting randomized control trial (RCT), Chinese PwND were randomly assigned to either a 10-session psycho-education group or the control group. Family caregivers of treatment group were encouraged to take part in two sessions focusing on the caring and communication skills. Control group and their family caregivers received standardized educational materials on basic information on neurocognitive disorder for them to read at home. Standardized assessment was conducted both with PwND and their caregivers independently to give the self-rated and caregiver-rated HRQoL of PwND in the pre- and post- treatment periods by a research assistant who was blind to the group assignment of the participants. Moreover, qualitative interviews were also conducted for ten participants and five family caregivers of the treatment group to identify those group elements relating to its effectiveness. 2 × 2 repeated measures ANCOVA demonstrated that the treatment group (n = 32) was significantly more effective than the control group (n = 32) in improving the caregiver-rated HRQoL (F[1, 61] = 4.35, p = .04 psycho-education group significantly improves caregiver-rated HRQoL of PwND, supporting the feasibility and effectiveness of the psycho-education group.
Young, Daniel Kim-Wan; Ng, Petrus Yat-Nam; Kwok, Timothy
The present research study aimed to identify and compare the clinical and non-clinical factors that predict the self-reported and proxy-reported health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of people with major neurocognitive disorder (PwND) who are living at home in a Chinese society. A total of 57 Chinese PwND-family caregiver dyads that were using the services of local senior centers were recruited through a cross-sectional survey with convenience sampling. Each PwND and caregiver rated the PwND's HRQoL independently by using the Quality of Life-Alzheimer's disease measure. Additional measures included the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), Index for Managing Memory Loss, Geriatric Depression Scale, Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia and Zarit Burden Inventory. The results of hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses showed that the PwND's self-rated HRQoL and caregiver-rated HRQoL were found to be predicted by different clinical and non-clinical variables. In particular, the self-esteem of PwND had the highest predictive power for the self-rated HRQoL, whereas the caregiver burden is the only significant predictor for the caregiver-rated HRQoL. In the present study, the self-esteem of PwND and the caregiver's burden were found to be important factors predicting self-rated HRQoL and caregiver-rated HRQoL respectively, which is probably because of the influence of traditional Chinese cultural values. Thus, it is important for non-pharmacological interventions to address these special needs to promote HRQoL for this population. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 2319-2328. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.
The history of the organic farming worldwide was reviewed in this paper. The development of the organic farming worldwide had gone through three stages, emergence, expansion, and growth. The contributors and their thoughts during the different development stages of the organic farming were briefly introduced. And the development status of the organic farming worldwide was reviewed from the aspects of land area under organic management, land area under organic management in percentage of total agricultural area, and world markets for organic products. Besides, the main existing problems for the further development of the world's organic farming, as well as the development status, problems and strategies of the Chinese organic farming were discussed.
Petersen, Poul Erik
The World Health Organization (WHO) Global Oral Health Programme has worked hard over the past 5 years to increase the awareness of oral health worldwide as oral health is important component of general health and quality of life. Meanwhile, oral disease is still a major public health problem...... in high income countries and the burden of oral disease is growing in many low- and middle income countries. In the World Oral Health Report 2003, the WHO Global Oral Health Programme formulated the policies and necessary actions to the continuous improvement of oral health. The strategy is that oral...... disease prevention and the promotion of oral health needs to be integrated with chronic disease prevention and general health promotion as the risks to health are linked. The World Health Assembly (WHA) and the Executive Board (EB) are supreme governance bodies of WHO and for the first time in 25 years...
Full Text Available Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy (HDP are devastating health hazards for both women and children. Both methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR gene polymorphisms and air pollution can affect health status and result in increased risk of HDP for women. The major objective of this study was to investigate the effect of MTHFR polymorphisms, air pollution, and their interaction on the risk of HDP by using meta-predictive analytics. We searched various databases comprehensively to access all available studies conducted for various ethnic populations from countries worldwide, from 1997 to 2017. Seventy-one studies with 8064 cases and 13,232 controls for MTHFR C677T and 11 studies with 1425 cases and 1859 controls for MTHFR A1298C were included. MTHFR C677T homozygous TT (risk ratio (RR = 1.28, p < 0.0001 and CT plus TT (RR = 1.07, p = 0.0002 were the risk genotypes, while wild-type CC played a protective role (RR = 0.94, p = 0.0017 for HDP. The meta-predictive analysis found that the percentage of MTHFR C677T TT plus CT (p = 0.044 and CT (p = 0.043 genotypes in the HDP case group were significantly increased with elevated levels of air pollution worldwide. Additionally, in countries with higher air pollution levels, the pregnant women with wild-type CC MTHFR 677 had a protection effect against HDP (p = 0.014, whereas, the homozygous TT of MTHFR C677T polymorphism was a risk genotype for developing HDP. Air pollution level is an environmental factor interacting with increased MTHFR C677T polymorphisms, impacting the susceptibility of HDP for women.
Cristancho, Sergio; Garces, D Marcela; Peters, Karen E; Mueller, Benjamin C
Hispanic immigrants are increasingly residing in rural communities, including in the midwestern United States. Limitations in the ability of rural Hispanics to access and utilize health care contribute to patterns of poor health and health disparity. A conceptual model of "vulnerability" guides this community-based participatory assessment project designed to explore rural Hispanics' perceived barriers to accessing and utilizing health care. Findings from a series of 19 focus groups with 181 participants from three communities in the upper Midwest identified perceived barriers at the individual and health care system levels. The most commonly perceived barriers were the lack of and limitations in health insurance coverage, high costs of health care services, communication issues involving patients and providers, legal status/discrimination, and transportation concerns. Findings imply that these barriers could be addressed using multiple educational and health service delivery policy-related strategies that consider the vulnerable nature of this growing population.
responding editors reported having access to the Internet, making participation in ... of improving the quality of medical science and practice.! A critical activity of ... undertook a worldwide survey of medical editors to determine their interest in a ...
Joanne L. McLean; Remo G. Lobetti; Johan P. Schoeman
Since first reported in the late 1970s, there has been a steady but dramatic increase in the worldwide prevalence of hyperthyroidism in cats. It is now regarded as the most common feline endocrine disorder, with diabetes mellitus coming a close second. Not only is there evidence for an increased worldwide prevalence of feline hyperthyroidism, but also for geographical variation in the prevalence of the disease. Despite its frequency, the underlying cause(s) of this common disease is or are no...
Siersma, V.; Thorsen, H.; Holstein, P.E.
healing, major amputation and death.Research design and methodsWe followed 1088 patients with new diabetic foot ulcers presenting for treatment at one of the 14 centers in 10 European countries participating in the Eurodiale study, prospectively until healing (76.9%), major amputation (4.6%) or death (6...... for major amputation (Mobility, Self-Care, Usual Activities) and death (Self-care, Usual Activities, Pain/Discomfort).ConclusionsLow HRQoL appears to be predictive for major amputation and death, but high HRQoL does not increase healing. Future studies into the influence of HRQoL on ulcer outcome...
Catalina Avendaño V
Full Text Available Cryptosporidium is a zoonotic parasite very important in animal health as well as in public health. It is because this is one of the main causes of diarrhea in children, calves, lambs and other variety of youth mammalians in a lot of countries. The globalization has enabled the exchange of biological material in different regions worldwide, encouraging the spread of diseases and exposure to these biological agents to different environmental conditions, inducing adaptation through genetic changes. Based in the polymorphism of the gene for GP60, this review intended to present the distribution of Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis in humans and calves worldwide. The subtype that affects cattle more frequently corresponds to IIaA15G2R; while the subtype most frequently isolated from human samples is IaA19G2.
Odén, A; McCloskey, E V; Kanis, J A; Harvey, N C; Johansson, H
The number of individuals aged 50 years or more at high risk of osteoporotic fracture worldwide in 2010 was estimated at 158 million and is set to double by 2040. The aim of this study was to quantify the number of individuals worldwide aged 50 years or more at high risk of osteoporotic fracture in 2010 and 2040. A threshold of high fracture probability was set at the age-specific 10-year probability of a major fracture (clinical vertebral, forearm, humeral or hip fracture) which was equivalent to that of a woman with a BMI of 24 kg/m(2) and a prior fragility fracture but no other clinical risk factors. The prevalence of high risk was determined worldwide and by continent using all available country-specific FRAX models and applied the population demography for each country. Twenty-one million men and 137 million women had a fracture probability at or above the threshold in the world for the year 2010. The greatest number of men and women at high risk were from Asia (55 %). Worldwide, the number of high-risk individuals is expected to double over the next 40 years. We conclude that individuals with high probability of osteoporotic fractures comprise a very significant disease burden to society, particularly in Asia, and that this burden is set to increase markedly in the future. These analyses provide a platform for the evaluation of risk assessment and intervention strategies.
Wang, JianLi; Patten, Scott B; Lam, Raymond W; Attridge, Mark; Ho, Kendall; Schmitz, Norbert; Marchand, Alain; Lashewicz, Bonnie M
Background Major depression (MDE) is prevalent in men and affects men?s health and productivity. Because of the stigma against depression and social/gender norms, men are less likely to seek help for emotion and stress-related issues. Therefore, innovative solutions tailored for men are needed. With rapid development of the Internet and information technologies, one promising solution that has drawn considerable attentions is electronic mental (e-mental) health programs and services. Objectiv...
Russell, Neal J; Seale, Anna C; O'Driscoll, Megan; O'Sullivan, Catherine; Bianchi-Jassir, Fiorella; Gonzalez-Guarin, Juan; Lawn, Joy E; Baker, Carol J; Bartlett, Linda; Cutland, Clare; Gravett, Michael G; Heath, Paul T; Le Doare, Kirsty; Madhi, Shabir A; Rubens, Craig E; Schrag, Stephanie; Sobanjo-Ter Meulen, Ajoke; Vekemans, Johan; Saha, Samir K; Ip, Margaret
Maternal rectovaginal colonization with group B Streptococcus (GBS) is the most common pathway for GBS disease in mother, fetus, and newborn. This article, the second in a series estimating the burden of GBS, aims to determine the prevalence and serotype distribution of GBS colonizing pregnant women worldwide. We conducted systematic literature reviews (PubMed/Medline, Embase, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature [LILACS], World Health Organization Library Information System [WHOLIS], and Scopus), organized Chinese language searches, and sought unpublished data from investigator groups. We applied broad inclusion criteria to maximize data inputs, particularly from low- and middle-income contexts, and then applied new meta-analyses to adjust for studies with less-sensitive sampling and laboratory techniques. We undertook meta-analyses to derive pooled estimates of maternal GBS colonization prevalence at national and regional levels. The dataset regarding colonization included 390 articles, 85 countries, and a total of 299924 pregnant women. Our adjusted estimate for maternal GBS colonization worldwide was 18% (95% confidence interval [CI], 17%-19%), with regional variation (11%-35%), and lower prevalence in Southern Asia (12.5% [95% CI, 10%-15%]) and Eastern Asia (11% [95% CI, 10%-12%]). Bacterial serotypes I-V account for 98% of identified colonizing GBS isolates worldwide. Serotype III, associated with invasive disease, accounts for 25% (95% CI, 23%-28%), but is less frequent in some South American and Asian countries. Serotypes VI-IX are more common in Asia. GBS colonizes pregnant women worldwide, but prevalence and serotype distribution vary, even after adjusting for laboratory methods. Lower GBS maternal colonization prevalence, with less serotype III, may help to explain lower GBS disease incidence in regions such as Asia. High prevalence worldwide, and more serotype data, are relevant to prevention efforts. © The Author 2017. Published by
Bonvalot, S.; Balmino, G.; Briais, A.; Peyrefitte, A.; Vales, N.; Biancale, R.; Gabalda, G.; Reinquin, F.
We present here a set of digital maps of the Earth's gravity anomalies (surface "free air", Bouguer and isostatic), computed at Bureau Gravimetric International (BGI) as a contribution to the Global Geodetic Observing Systems (GGOS) and to the global geophysical maps published by the Commission for the Geological Map of the World (CGMW). The free air and Bouguer anomaly concept is extensively used in geophysical interpretation to investigate the density distributions in the Earth's interior. Complete Bouguer anomalies (including terrain effects) are usually computed at regional scales by integrating the gravity attraction of topography elements over and beyond a given area (under planar or spherical approximations). Here, we developed and applied a worldwide spherical approach aimed to provide a set of homogeneous and high resolution gravity anomaly maps and grids computed at the Earth's surface, taking into account a realistic Earth model and reconciling geophysical and geodetic definitions of gravity anomalies. This first version (1.0) has been computed by spherical harmonics analysis / synthesis of the Earth's topography-bathymetry up to degree 10800. The detailed theory of the spherical harmonics approach is given in Balmino et al., (Journal of Geodesy, submitted). The Bouguer and terrain corrections have thus been computed in spherical geometry at 1'x1' resolution using the ETOPO1 topography/bathymetry, ice surface and bedrock models from the NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) and taking into account precise characteristics (boundaries and densities) of major lakes, inner seas, polar caps and of land areas below sea level. Isostatic corrections have been computed according to the Airy Heiskanen model in spherical geometry for a constant depth of compensation of 30km. The gravity information given here is provided by the Earth Geopotential Model (EGM2008), developed at degree 2160 by the National Geospatial Intelligence Agency (NGA) (Pavlis
Violence against women has been recognized as both a major public health problem and a human rights violation worldwide. Research has documented the association between physical/sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) and mental health, measured by the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) among women in reproductive age. This study…
Full Text Available Modern medicine has developed from an essentially Christian world-view and in Western countries has been greatly influenced by the Christian tradition of hospitality and caring for the sick. However, during the 20th century, medical education became increasingly secularised and focussed on the bio-physical model of disease, losing sight of a holistic view of the person that includes awareness of a spiritual dimension. Former Communist countries in particular have little recent tradition of caring, and medical education there tends to be characterised by poor role-models and out-dated didactic teaching. In the resource poor countries of the global South there are many Christian hospitals and clinics but often a lack of experienced medical teachers. Partnerships in International Medical Education (PRIME’s vision and mission is to support health-care education worldwide to restore a Christian-based holistic approach to patients, and act as a resource where needed, tailoring medical educational programmes to meet the needs of overseas partners (or colleagues in the NHS. Using interactive leaner-centred and problem-based educational methods, PRIME tutors (all experienced and qualified Christian medical educators seek to model patient-centred care by using learner-centred teaching, valuing each person as a bearer of the image of God. Most of PRIME’s teaching involves the doctor-patient relationship, communication skills, compassion, ethics and professionalism, often based around particular clinical scenarios to suit the learners. Small teams of voluntary tutors visiting partner institutions and colleagues for a few weeks a year can have a surprisingly large impact, as those grasping the vision become advocates for positive change in their own situations. Training of trainers and teachers in learner-centred, androgogic methodology to build capacity and sustainability is also a major part of the work.
Martins, Silvia S; Sampson, Laura; Cerdá, Magdalena; Galea, Sandro
Drug overdose is an important, yet an inadequately understood, public health problem. Global attention to unintentional drug overdose has been limited by comparison with the scope of the problem. There has been a substantial increase in drug overdose incidence and prevalence in several countries worldwide over the past decade, contributing to both increased costs and mortality. The aim of this study was to systematically synthesize the peer-reviewed literature to document the global epidemiological profile of unintentional drug overdoses and the prevalence, time trends, mortality rates, and correlates of drug overdoses. We searched different combinations of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms in PubMed for articles published from 1980 until July 2013, and we organized these results in tabular spreadsheets and compared them. We restricted the search to English-language articles that deal with unintentional overdose, focusing on 1 or more of the following key constructs: prevalence, time trends, mortality rates, and correlates. The term "overdose" as a MeSH major topic yielded 1076 publications. In addition, we searched the following combinations of nonmajor MeSH terms: "street drugs" and "overdose" yielded 180, "death" and "overdose" yielded 114, and "poisoning" and "drug users" yielded 17. There was some overlap among the searches. Based on the search and inclusion and exclusion criteria, we selected a total of 169 relevant articles for this article based on a close review of abstracts. We found wide variability in lifetime prevalence of experiencing a nonfatal overdose or witnessing an overdose, and in mortality rates attributable to overdose. Lifetime prevalence of witnessed overdose among drug users (n = 17 samples) ranged from 50% to 96%, with a mean of 73.3%, a median of 70%, and a standard deviation of 14.1%. Lifetime prevalence of drug users personally experiencing a nonfatal overdose (n = 27 samples), ranged from 16.6% to 68.0% with a mean of 45
Cummins, M. R.; Gundlapalli, A. V.; Murray, P.; Park, H.-A.; Lehmann, C. U.
Summary Introduction Official recognition and certification for informatics professionals are essential aspects of workforce development. Objective: To describe the history, pathways, and nuances of certification in nursing informatics across the globe; compare and contrast those with board certification in clinical informatics for physicians. Methods (1) A review of the representative literature on informatics certification and related competencies for nurses and physicians, and relevant websites for nursing informatics associations and societies worldwide; (2) similarities and differences between certification processes for nurses and physicians, and (3) perspectives on roles for nursing informatics professionals in healthcare Results The literature search for ‘nursing informatics certification’ yielded few results in PubMed; Google Scholar yielded a large number of citations that extended to magazines and other non-peer reviewed sources. Worldwide, there are several nursing informatics associations, societies, and workgroups dedicated to nursing informatics associated with medical/health informatics societies. A formal certification program for nursing informatics appears to be available only in the United States. This certification was established in 1992, in concert with the formation and definition of nursing informatics as a specialty practice of nursing by the American Nurses Association. Although informatics is inherently interprofessional, certification pathways for nurses and physicians have developed separately, following long-standing professional structures, training, and pathways aligned with clinical licensure and direct patient care. There is substantial similarity with regard to the skills and competencies required for nurses and physicians to obtain informatics certification in their respective fields. Nurses may apply for and complete a certification examination if they have experience in the field, regardless of formal training. Increasing
Nga, Tran T. T.; de Vries, Peter J.; Abdoel, Theresia H.; Smits, Henk L.
To determine the presence of brucellosis among patients with acute febrile illness at health care facilities in Binh Thuan province, Vietnam. A retrospective seroepidemiological study on serum samples collected at 13 not adjacent health care facilities using the Rose Bengal test as a rapid screening
Beer, K.T.; Greiner, R.H.; Zehnder, D.; Lussi, A.
Background: Has a conscious exclusion of the contralateral major salivary glands (parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands) a significant impact on the milieu of the oral cavity (saliva flow, pH, buffer capacity, and colonisation with Streptococcus mutans) in patients with ENT tumors receiving radical radiotherapy? Patients and Methods: 20 consecutive consentient patients with ENT tumors were evaluated once before, weekly during, and 6 weeks after the end of treatment in regard to saliva flow, pH, buffer capacity, and colonisation with Streptococcus mutans. In 13 patients the major salivary glands on both sides were included in the treated volume, in seven patients the treatment portals excluded consciously the contralateral major salivary glands. Results: The stimulated saliva flow decreases already during the 1st week of radiotherapy, the decrease follows the dose exponentially; the saliva flow is further reduced in the weeks after the end of treatment. The effect is less pronounced in patients with sparing of contralateral major salivary glands. The majority of patients with unilateral sparing of the major salivary glands retain the baseline value of buffer capacity, whereas buffer capacity of all patients with inclusion of all major salivary glands is markedly reduced with 20 Gy already, without signs of recovery when treatment has stopped. With unilateral salivary gland sparing the pH always remains basic, in bilaterally irradiated patients the pH changes from a mean of 7.3 to 5.8 during treatment. The colonisation with Streptococcus mutans varies little in both groups during the radiotherapy; after the end of therapy, it is higher in bilaterally irradiated patients. Conclusions: The conscious arrangement of irradiation portals in order to spare contralateral major salivary glands in patients with radical radiotherapy of ENT tumors has a significant influence on the oral environment: the stimulated saliva flow is higher, the buffer capacity retains the
Moliere, Michel; Girardot, Amelie; Jones, Robert M.
In forthcoming decades we will see major changes in the landscape of the worldwide power sector as CO2 management and incipient hydrocarbon scarcity exert their increasing influence. The power generation community must be prepared to satisfy a particularly complex and challenging set of requirements. These issues include curbing CO2 emissions, coping with surging primary energy prices, and compliance with regional and local emissions requirements such as SOx and NOx-while maintaining maximum efficiency. In this context, as confirmed by International Energy Agency forecasts, thermal power will maintain a prominent position in overall power generation since it enables the large capacity additions required in emerging countries. Thanks to their reliable assets (such as energy efficiency and environment) gas turbine-based power systems, including Gas Turbine Combined Cycles (GTCC) and Combined Heat & Power (CHP), will continue to be major contributors to worldwide power generation. However, evolving changes in the spectrum of fuels will create an additional challenge for power generation equipment manufacturers-requiring innovative technologies in fuel processing, combustion, and emission controls to address these needs. This paper reviews the factors underlining the changing power generation environment worldwide, including the increasing scarcity of conventional fuels and the growing interest in biofuels and hydrogen. Insights will be offered into various technologies needed to support the growing need for increased fuel flexibility.
Kang,Young Gon; Suh,Eunkyung; Lee,Jae-woo; Kim,Dong Wook; Cho,Kyung Hee; Bae,Chul-Young
Young Gon Kang,1 Eunkyung Suh,2 Jae-woo Lee,3 Dong Wook Kim,4 Kyung Hee Cho,5 Chul-Young Bae1 1Department of R&D, MediAge Research Center, Seongnam, Republic of South Korea; 2Department of Family Medicine, College of Medicine, CHA University, Chaum, Seoul, Republic of South Korea; 3Department of Family Medicine, College of Medicine, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Republic of South Korea; 4Department of Policy Research Affairs, National Health Insurance Service Ilsan Hospital...
Full Text Available We provide a list of the 392 described species of Staphylinidae confined to coastal habitats worldwide. The list is in taxonomic sequence by subfamily, tribe, and genus and includes 91 genera. We provide the page reference of the original description of every species and genus listed and of many synonyms. We note the existence of recent reviews, phylogenies and keys of each of the tribes and genera included. Coastal Staphylinidae contain eight subfamilies: Microsilphinae, Omaliinae, Pselaphinae, Aleocharinae, Oxytelinae, Scydmaeninae, Paederinae, and Staphylininae. By ‘coastal habitats’ we mean habitats existing on the sea coast and subject to inundation or at least splashing by the very highest tides. This includes rocky, boulder, coral, sandy, and muddy seashores, and at least portions of salt-marshes, estuaries, and mangrove swamps. We exclude the sand dune habitat and higher parts of sea-cliffs. The list notes distribution of all the species, first according to the ocean or sea on whose shores it has been recorded, and second by country (and for the larger countries by province or state. Although this distribution is undoubtedly incomplete, it provides a basis for future development of a dedicated database. The ‘Habitats, Habits, and Classificatory Notes’ section is designed to provide ecologists with further taxonomic and ecological information. It includes references to descriptions of the immature stages, behavior of adults and immatures, their food, natural enemies, and habitat. We would have preferred to separate these entities, but current knowledge of ecology is developed in few instances beyond natural history. The Pacific Ocean basin was the origin and contributed to the dispersal of the majority of specialist coastal Staphylinidae at the level of genus. However, at the level of species, species belonging to non-coastal-specialist genera are about as likely to occur on the shores of other oceans as on the shores of the
Witherspoon Editor, P.A.; Bodvarsson Editor, G.S.
The broad range of activities on radioactive waste isolation that are summarized in Table 1.1 provides a comprehensive picture of the operations that must be carried out in working with this problem. A comparison of these activities with those published in the two previous reviews shows the important progress that is being made in developing and applying the various technologies that have evolved over the past 20 years. There are two basic challenges in perfecting a system of radioactive waste isolation: choosing an appropriate geologic barrier and designing an effective engineered barrier. One of the most important developments that is evident in a large number of the reports in this review is the recognition that a URL provides an excellent facility for investigating and characterizing a rock mass. Moreover, a URL, once developed, provides a convenient facility for two or more countries to conduct joint investigations. This review describes a number of cooperative projects that have been organized in Europe to take advantage of this kind of a facility in conducting research underground. Another critical development is the design of the waste canister (and its accessory equipment) for the engineered barrier. This design problem has been given considerable attention in a number of countries for several years, and some impressive results are described and illustrated in this review. The role of the public as a stakeholder in radioactive waste isolation has not always been fully appreciated. Solutions to the technical problems in characterizing a specific site have generally been obtained without difficulty, but procedures in the past in some countries did not always keep the public and local officials informed of the results. It will be noted in the following chapters that this procedure has caused some problems, especially when approval for a major component in a project was needed. It has been learned that a better way to handle this problem is to keep all
Witherspoon Editor, P.A.; Bodvarsson Editor, G.S.
The broad range of activities on radioactive waste isolation that are summarized in Table 1.1 provides a comprehensive picture of the operations that must be carried out in working with this problem. A comparison of these activities with those published in the two previous reviews shows the important progress that is being made in developing and applying the various technologies that have evolved over the past 20 years. There are two basic challenges in perfecting a system of radioactive waste isolation: choosing an appropriate geologic barrier and designing an effective engineered barrier. One of the most important developments that is evident in a large number of the reports in this review is the recognition that a URL provides an excellent facility for investigating and characterizing a rock mass. Moreover, a URL, once developed, provides a convenient facility for two or more countries to conduct joint investigations. This review describes a number of cooperative projects that have been organized in Europe to take advantage of this kind of a facility in conducting research underground. Another critical development is the design of the waste canister (and its accessory equipment) for the engineered barrier. This design problem has been given considerable attention in a number of countries for several years, and some impressive results are described and illustrated in this review. The role of the public as a stakeholder in radioactive waste isolation has not always been fully appreciated. Solutions to the technical problems in characterizing a specific site have generally been obtained without difficulty, but procedures in the past in some countries did not always keep the public and local officials informed of the results. It will be noted in the following chapters that this procedure has caused some problems, especially when approval for a major component in a project was needed. It has been learned that a better way to handle this problem is to keep all
The knowledge of the global distribution of death, diseases and risk factors is important to make clear to the general public and to governments that health inequalities are incredibly high, at the dawn of this 21(st) century, and to help fight these. More than 20% of the 56 millions of deaths in 2001 were of children less than 5 years old. There are at least 1 million deaths per year from malaria. Diarrhoea kill more than 1.5 million, and measles more than half a million. The large majority of deaths by infectious diseases occur in underdeveloped countries. Moreover, chronic diseases kill an increasing number in underdeveloped countries, because populations are aging, because expansive health care which is needed to prevent and control these diseases is unavailable, and because the inhabitants are increasingly exposed to risk factors. In particular, smoking is increasing dramatically in underdeveloped countries as a result of the aggressive marketing of tobacco companies, the delay in implementing antismoking regulations, and because the public perception of the risk of smoking is still low. More than 4 million deaths per year are presently attributed to smoking, and reports forecast a death toll of 10 million in 2030. The WHO, Harvard University and the World Bank are at the origin of comprehensive data analyses on the "global burden of diseases" which help to identify health priorities. Unfortunately, global data are still scarce and of low quality, particularly in those underdeveloped countries where they would be most useful. Precise knowledge of the variations of mortality, morbidity and exposure to risk factors would be essential to monitor the improvements, or failures of health care progress. The optimal interpretation of the available data requires expertise in demography, epidemiology, statistics, and computer sciences, which are rarely found in this area. Thus, improvements in the collection of data and in the research effort in this field are necessary.
Stroud, Brad; Callesen, Henrik
For the twentieth consecutive year, the Data Retrieval Committee of the international Embryo Transfer Society (IETS) can report global embryo transfer (ET) statistics. The number of bovine in vivoderived (IVD) embryos collected/flushed worldwide in 2010 increased to 732,000, a 4% increase from 2009...... the committee’s regional data collectors indicates that the embryo transfer industry is doing well. It is important to note that this report does not include every country’s statistics, and very few, if any, country has 100% of its activity represented; however, it is the best worldwide report available about...... the commercial embryo transfer business....
Status of post irradiation examinations in Studsvik's facilities, cooperation and worldwide utilization of facilities, was described. Studsvik cooperate with irradiation facilities, as Halden, CEA and JAEA, as well as other hot cell facilities (examples, PSI, ITU and NFD) universities (example, the Royal Institute of Technology in Sweden) in order to be able to provide everything asked for by the nuclear community. Worldwide cooperation for effective use of expensive and highly specialized facilities is important, and the necessity of cooperation will be more and more recognized in the future. (author)
Energy-related emissions of atmospheric pollutants are currently suspected as the source of a number of major environmental problems. Early concerns about local and regional air quality and respiratory health risks, greatly alleviated in the case of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) emissions by the use of tall stacks, have been superseded by ''global problems,'' such as acidification of the biosphere, increase in tropospheric ozone (O 3 ), visibility impairment, long-term exposure to toxic pollutants, and buildup of ''greenhouse gases''. Chapter 1 assesses the sources and physical/chemical atmospheric processes of energy-related atmospheric pollution (ERAP). It is not an exhaustive review but rather a documented statement of the state-of-art knowledge on issues critical to effective environmental decision-making. Chapter 2 looks at the effects on man, the environment and materials, and chapter 3 presents an overview and policy options. (author)