WorldWideScience

Sample records for major world energy

  1. World energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    Three major concerns face mankind's future: the impending energy crisis as caused by the depletion of the world's fossil fuel reserves, world atmospheric pollution as caused by the burning of these fuels, and mankind's destruction if the vast energy contained in nuclear weapons stockpiles is released in a global conflict. This paper describes an ambitious, combined solution to these problems by the use of deep underground detonations of thermonuclear devices/bombs to provide a virtually pollution free, world energy source into the far distant future, while achieving a significant increase in mutual trust between the superpowers and all nations. The key is believed to be thermonuclear geothermal stimulation to produce the electrical power needed for a hydrogen economy

  2. Country analysis briefs: 1994. Profiles of major world energy producers, consumers, and transport centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    Country Analysis Briefs: 1994 is a compilation of country profiles prepared by the Energy Markets and Contingency Information Division (EMCID) of the Office of Energy Markets and End Use. EMCID maintains Country Analysis Briefs (CABs) for specific countries or geographical areas that are important to world energy markets. As a general rule, CABs are prepared for all members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), major non-OPEC oil producers (i.e., the North Sea, Russia), major energy transit areas (i.e., Ukraine), and other areas of current interest to energy analysts and policy makers. As of January 1995, EMCID maintained over 40 CABs, updated on an annual schedule and subject to revision as events warrant. This report includes 25 CABs updated during 1994. All CABs contain a profile section, a map showing the country`s location, and a narrative section. The profile section includes outlines of the country`s economy, energy sector, and environment. The narrative provides further information and discussion of these topics. Some CABs also include a detailed map displaying locations of major oil and gas fields, pipelines, ports, etc. These maps were created as a result of special individual requests and so are not typically a standard feature of the CABs. They are presented here wherever available as a supplement to the information contained in the CABs.

  3. U.S. and South Korean Cooperation in the World Nuclear Energy Market: Major Policy Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    system and other major components. • Samsung C&T Corporation. Plant construction. • Hyundai Engineering and Construction. Plant construction...market. Other countries that have been mentioned in the news media include Vietnam, Malaysia , Thailand, and Middle East neighbors of the UAE.25 A Korean

  4. Key World Energy Statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The IEA produced its first handy, pocket-sized summary of key energy data in 1997. This new edition responds to the enormously positive reaction to the book since then. Key World Energy Statistics produced by the IEA contains timely, clearly-presented data on supply, transformation and consumption of all major energy sources. The interested businessman, journalist or student will have at his or her fingertips the annual Canadian production of coal, the electricity consumption in Thailand, the price of diesel oil in Spain and thousands of other useful energy facts. It exists in different formats to suit our readers' requirements.

  5. World energy scene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bondi, H

    1980-01-01

    Coal will have an increasing role in world energy in the next three decades. The coming dependence on coal as the major fuel will radically affect international cooperation, as the US, USSR, and China account for approx. 85% of the known geological resources, and coal's likely economic marginality poses questions as to which producer will be capable of a profitable export trade. Energy transportability is becoming more important, as people can no longer move near to the sources. Also discussed are the uncompetitiveness of wasteful energy expenditure; the crucial relation of energy consumption to a country's gross national product; the energy intensities of selected industries; the necessity of elasticity in responding to changing energy supplies; the need for increased energy consumption in building up the developing countries; and good control, made achievable via advances in solid-state electronics, as the deciding factor in proper energy management.

  6. World energy insight 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    The World Energy Insight 2011 is the official publication of the World Energy Council. It includes interviews, articles and case studies from a distinguished panel of World Energy Council Officers, CEOs, government ministers, academics and opinion formers from all areas of the energy sector and provides perspectives from around the globe. Government, industry and NGO's offer both policy and technology perspectives. The insights within this publication add to the work that WEC is doing to provide the forum for energy leaders, along with the on-going WEC studies and programmes on Energy Policies, 2050 Energy Scenarios, Energy Resources & Technologies, Energy for Urban Innovation, Rules Of Energy Trade and Global Energy Access.

  7. World Energy Outlook 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-11-07

    The 2008 report provides invaluable analysis to help policy makers around the world assess and address the challenges posed by worsening oil supply prospects, higher energy prices and rising emissions of greenhouse gases. In the WEO-2008 Reference Scenario, which assumes no new government policies, world primary energy demand grows by 1.6% per year on average between 2006 and 2030 - an increase of 45%. This is slower than projected last year, mainly due to the impact of the economic slowdown, prospects for higher energy prices and some new policy initiatives. Demand for oil rises from 85 million barrels per day now to 106 mb/d in 2030 - 10 mb/d less than projected last year. Demand for coal rises more than any other fuel in absolute terms, accounting for over a third of the increase in energy use. Modern renewables grow most rapidly, overtaking gas to become the second-largest source of electricity soon after 2010. China and India account for over half of incremental energy demand to 2030 while the Middle East emerges as a major new demand centre. The share of the world's energy consumed in cities grows from two-thirds to almost three-quarters in 2030. Almost all of the increase in fossil-energy production occurs in non-OECD countries. These trends call for energy-supply investment of $26.3 trillion to 2030, or over 1 trillion US dollars/year. Yet the credit squeeze could delay spending, potentially setting up a supply-crunch that could choke economic recovery. In addition to providing a comprehensive update of long-term energy projections to 2030, WEO-2008 takes a detailed look at the prospects for oil and gas production. Oil will remain the world's main source of energy for many years to come, even under the most optimistic of assumptions about the development of alternative technology. But the sources of oil, the cost of producing it and the prices that consumers will have to pay for it are extremely uncertain. It is far from certain that companies will be

  8. World Energy Outlook 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-11-07

    The 2008 report provides invaluable analysis to help policy makers around the world assess and address the challenges posed by worsening oil supply prospects, higher energy prices and rising emissions of greenhouse gases. In the WEO-2008 Reference Scenario, which assumes no new government policies, world primary energy demand grows by 1.6% per year on average between 2006 and 2030 - an increase of 45%. This is slower than projected last year, mainly due to the impact of the economic slowdown, prospects for higher energy prices and some new policy initiatives. Demand for oil rises from 85 million barrels per day now to 106 mb/d in 2030 - 10 mb/d less than projected last year. Demand for coal rises more than any other fuel in absolute terms, accounting for over a third of the increase in energy use. Modern renewables grow most rapidly, overtaking gas to become the second-largest source of electricity soon after 2010. China and India account for over half of incremental energy demand to 2030 while the Middle East emerges as a major new demand centre. The share of the world's energy consumed in cities grows from two-thirds to almost three-quarters in 2030. Almost all of the increase in fossil-energy production occurs in non-OECD countries. These trends call for energy-supply investment of $26.3 trillion to 2030, or over 1 trillion US dollars/year. Yet the credit squeeze could delay spending, potentially setting up a supply-crunch that could choke economic recovery. In addition to providing a comprehensive update of long-term energy projections to 2030, WEO-2008 takes a detailed look at the prospects for oil and gas production. Oil will remain the world's main source of energy for many years to come, even under the most optimistic of assumptions about the development of alternative technology. But the sources of oil, the cost of producing it and the prices that consumers will have to pay for it are extremely uncertain. It is far from certain that companies

  9. World Energy Outlook 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    In a world where big differences in regional energy prices impact competitiveness, who are the potential winners and losers? Huge volumes of oil are needed to meet growing demand and offset declines in existing fields. Where will it all come from? What could trigger a rapid convergence in natural gas prices between Asia, Europe and North America, and how would it affect energy markets? Is the growth in renewable energy self-sustaining and is it sufficient to put us on track to meet global climate goals? How much progress is being made in phasing out fossil-fuel subsidies and expanding access to modern energy services to the world’s poor? The answers to these and many other questions are found in WEO-2013, which covers the prospects for all energy sources, regions and sectors to 2035. Oil is analysed in-depth: resources, production, demand, refining and international trade. Energy efficiency – a major factor in the global energy balance – is treated in much the same way as conventional fuels: Its prospects and contribution are presented in a dedicated chapter. And the report examines the outlook for Brazil's energy sector in detail and the implications for the global energy landscape.

  10. World energy resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clerici A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As energy is the main “fuel” for social and economic development and since energy-related activities have significant environmental impacts, it is important for decision-makers to have access to reliable and accurate data in an user-friendly format. The World Energy Council (WEC has for decades been a pioneer in the field of energy resources and every three years publishes its flagship report Survey of Energy Resources. A commented analysis in the light of latest data summarized in such a report, World Energy Resources (WER 2013, is presented together with the evolution of the world energy resources over the last twenty years.

  11. World energy resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerici, A.; Alimonti, G.

    2015-08-01

    As energy is the main "fuel" for social and economic development and since energy-related activities have significant environmental impacts, it is important for decision-makers to have access to reliable and accurate data in an user-friendly format. The World Energy Council (WEC) has for decades been a pioneer in the field of energy resources and every three years publishes its flagship report Survey of Energy Resources. A commented analysis in the light of latest data summarized in such a report, World Energy Resources (WER) 2013, is presented together with the evolution of the world energy resources over the last twenty years.

  12. Key World Energy Statistics 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Key World Energy Statistics contains timely, clearly-presented data on supply, transformation and consumption of all major energy sources. The interested businessman, journalist or student will have at his or her fingertips the annual Canadian production of coal, the electricity consumption in Thailand, the price of diesel oil in Spain and thousands of other useful energy facts.

  13. World energy insight 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    The World Energy Insight 2011 is the official publication of the World Energy Council. It includes interviews, articles and case studies from a distinguished panel of World Energy Council Officers, CEOs, government ministers, academics and opinion formers from all areas of the energy sector and provides perspectives from around the globe. Government, industry and NGO's offer both policy and technology perspectives. The insights within this publication add to the work that WEC is doing to provide the forum for energy leaders, along with the on-going WEC studies and programmes on Energy Policies, 2050 Energy Scenarios, Energy Resources & Technologies, Energy for Urban Innovation, Rules Of Energy Trade and Global Energy Access.

  14. World Energy Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, G.; Schilling, H.D.

    1979-01-01

    After making some general remarks about goals, tasks, and works of the World Energy Conference the topics and the frame of the 11th World Energy Conference which will take place in Munich from 8th to 12th September 1980 are outlined. This conference is held under the general topic 'energy for our world' and deals with the reciprocal relation between energy supply, environment, and society. The main part of the publication presented here is the German version of the most important sections of the investigation 'World Energy-Looking Ahead to 2020' by the Conservation Commission (CC) of the World Energy Conference. Added to this is the German original brief version of a report by the Mining-Research Company (Bergbau-Forschung GmbH) to the CC which deals with the estimation of the world's coal resources and their future availability. This report was presented on the 10th World Energy Conference in Istanbul together with the corresponding reports concerning the other energy sources. Finally, an introduction to the technical programme for the 11th World Energy Conference 1980 is given. (UA) [de

  15. World Energy Future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbes, A.; Van der Linde, C.; Nicola, S.

    2009-01-01

    In the section World Energy Future of this magazine two articles, two interviews and one column are presented. The article 'A green example to the world' refers briefly to the second World Future Energy Summit in Abu Dhabi, which was held from 18-21 January, 2009. The second article, 'Green Utopia in the desert' attention is paid to the Abu Dhabi government-driven Masdar Initiative. The two interviews concern an interview with BP Alternative Energy ceo Vivienne Cox, and an interview with the founder and CEO of New Energy Finance Michael Liebreich. The column ('An efficient response') focuses on the impact of the economic crisis on energy policy

  16. The International Energy Agency's world energy outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Dell, S.

    1996-01-01

    The 1996 edition of the World Energy Outlook to 2010 was reviewed. An overview of the energy projections was provided based on assumptions about economic growth and energy prices, geological potential, technological developments, the availability of traditional fuels outside the OECD and the future preferences of energy users. Demand vs. price movements were modelled, based on 'capacity constraints' and 'energy saving ' scenarios. Three major conclusions derived from the projections were: (1) world primary energy demand will grow steadily as it has over the past two decades, (2) fossil fuels will account for 90 per cent of total primary energy demand in 2010, and (3) a structural shift in the shares of different regions in world energy demand is likely to occur, i.e., the OECD share will fall in favor of the share of the ROW (rest of the world). 4 tabs., 9 figs

  17. World energy outlook 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The World Energy Outlook is the most complete and authoritative energy publication and has received several prestigious awards from government and industry in recognition of its analytical excellence. The new edition offers: - Analysis: Over 550 pages of detailed analysis with 150 graphs and tables. - Projections: Supply and demand projections to 2030 for oil, gas, coal, renewables, nuclear and electricity, plus projections of energy related CO 2 emissions. -World Alternative Policy Scenario:A detailed assessment of the impact of possible climate change policies and energy efficient technologies. -Russia: An in-depth study of the 'most important energy country'. - Energy and Development: An analysis of energy's role in overcoming world poverty. - Reserves: A detailed analysis of world oil and gas reserves and of the problems involved in measuring them

  18. The World energy issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nifenecker, Herve

    2011-01-01

    This Power Point document proposes figures and data about the current world energy consumption, the various energy sources, the share of primary energy consumption by different sectors, and the levels of energy reserves. It addresses the issue of global warming (evolution of temperature, regional anomalies, the challenge of limitation of temperature, the greenhouse gas emissions), the strategic role of electricity (energy mix, heat production with electricity), energy savings, electricity production (key data on solar, wind, solar and biomass energy, possibilities of carbon capture, nuclear energy, costs of these different energies)

  19. The world energy status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meritet, S.

    2010-01-01

    As energy consumption increased by a factor 20 during the 20. century, energy has not only an economic, but also a political role, and its management involves diplomatic, social, and now environmental issues. The author discusses the primary role still hold by fossil energies (coal, gas and oil) in the world energy consumption, comments the energy reserve assessments, outlines the financial needs for a renewable energy development, and questions the future evolution of reserves and consumption, as well as the consequences of climate change or the uncertainty about economic growth. The world energy assessment shows important differences between inhabitants: a US citizen consumes more than eight times more than a Chinese one. The shares of the different energy sources are also different from one country to another. In order to decrease the demand in energy, energy efficiency must be improved and user behaviour must evolve

  20. Estimate of Cost-Effective Potential for Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in 13 Major World Economies Energy Savings, Environmental and Financial Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letschert, Virginie E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bojda, Nicholas [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ke, Jing [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McNeil, Michael A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This study analyzes the financial impacts on consumers of minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) for appliances that could be implemented in 13 major economies around the world. We use the Bottom-Up Energy Analysis System (BUENAS), developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), to analyze various appliance efficiency target levels to estimate the net present value (NPV) of policies designed to provide maximum energy savings while not penalizing consumers financially. These policies constitute what we call the “cost-effective potential” (CEP) scenario. The CEP scenario is designed to answer the question: How high can we raise the efficiency bar in mandatory programs while still saving consumers money?

  1. World Energy Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forbes, A.; Van der Linde, C.; Nicola, S.

    2009-03-15

    In the section World Energy Future of this magazine two articles, two interviews and one column are presented. The article 'A green example to the world' refers briefly to the second World Future Energy Summit in Abu Dhabi, which was held from 18-21 January, 2009. The second article, 'Green Utopia in the desert' attention is paid to the Abu Dhabi government-driven Masdar Initiative. The two interviews concern an interview with BP Alternative Energy ceo Vivienne Cox, and an interview with the founder and CEO of New Energy Finance Michael Liebreich. The column ('An efficient response') focuses on the impact of the economic crisis on energy policy.

  2. World energy outlook 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-11-07

    The World Energy Outlook 2006 sets out the IEA's latest projections of world energy supply and demand to 2030 for oil, gas, coal, renewables, nuclear and electricity, plus projections on energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions. The publication is in three parts. Part A: The reference scenario has chapters entitled: Key assumptions; Global Energy Trends; Oil market outlook; Gas market outlook; Coal market outlook; and Power sector outlook. Part B: The alternative policy scenario contains chapters on: Mapping a new energy future; Assessing the cost-effectiveness of alternative policies; Deepening the analysis results by sector; and Getting to and going beyond the alternative policy scenario. Part C: Focus on key topics contains: The impact of higher energy prices; Current trends in oil and gas investment; Prospects for nuclear power; The outlook for biofuels; Energy for coking in developing countries; and Focus on Brazil. 224 figs., 84 tabs., 5 annexes.

  3. World energy outlook 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-11-07

    The World Energy Outlook 2006 sets out the IEA's latest projections of world energy supply and demand to 2030 for oil, gas, coal, renewables, nuclear and electricity, plus projections on energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions. The publication is in three parts. Part A: The reference scenario has chapters entitled: Key assumptions; Global Energy Trends; Oil market outlook; Gas market outlook; Coal market outlook; and Power sector outlook. Part B: The alternative policy scenario contains chapters on: Mapping a new energy future; Assessing the cost-effectiveness of alternative policies; Deepening the analysis results by sector; and Getting to and going beyond the alternative policy scenario. Part C: Focus on key topics contains: The impact of higher energy prices; Current trends in oil and gas investment; Prospects for nuclear power; The outlook for biofuels; Energy for coking in developing countries; and Focus on Brazil. 224 figs., 84 tabs., 5 annexes.

  4. World energy outlook 2014

    CERN Document Server

    International Energy Agency. Paris

    2014-01-01

    The global energy landscape is evolving at a rapid pace, reshaping long-held expectations for our energy future. The 2014 edition of the World Energy Outlook (WEO) will incorporate all the latest data and developments to produce a comprehensive and authoritative analysis of medium- and longer-term energy trends. It will complement a full set of energy projections – which extend from today through, for the first time, the year 2040 – with strategic insights into their meaning for energy security, the economy and the environment. Oil, natural gas, coal, renewables and energy efficiency will be covered, along with updates on trends in energy-related CO2 emissions, fossil-fuel and renewable energy subsidies, and universal access to modern energy services.

  5. The world energy outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2005-01-01

    The oil and gas resources of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) will be critical to meeting the world's growing appetite for energy. The greater part of the world's remaining reserves lie in that region. They are relatively under-exploited and are sufficient to meet rising global demand for the next quarter century and beyond. The export revenues they would generate would help sustain the region's economic development. But there is considerable uncertainty about the pace at which investment in the region's upstream industry will occur, how quickly production capacity will expand and, given rising domestic energy needs, how much of the expected increase in supply will be available for export. The implications for both MENA producers and consuming countries are profound. The World Energy Outlook, published by the International Energy Agency (IEA), seeks to shed light on these very complex issues

  6. World energy insight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-09-15

    The 21st World Energy Congress offers a unique opportunity for all stake-holders of the energy sector to meet and exchange visions, strategies and practices, during four days of very intensive and interesting sessions, round-tables and exhibitions. More than 3,000 energy leaders gather from around the world from both developed and developing countries, from all types of energy, from public and private companies and government organisations, in order to think together about how to bring about a sustainable and acceptable energy future. The truth is that nobody has the choice any longer. All energy leaders have to take decisions every day, and they need to have a clear analysis of what is at stake, what the risks are, and what the solutions can be.

  7. World nuclear energy paths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, T.J.; Hansen, U.; Jaek, W.; Beckurts, K.H.

    1979-01-01

    In examing the world nuclear energy paths, the following assumptions were adopted: the world economy will grow somewhat more slowly than in the past, leading to reductions in electricity demand growth rates; national and international political impediments to the deployment of nuclear power will gradually disappear over the next few years; further development of nuclear power will proceed steadily, without serious interruption but with realistic lead times for the introduction of advanced technologies. Given these assumptions, this paper attempts a study of possible world nuclear energy developments, disaggregated on a regional and national basis. The scenario technique was used and a few alternative fuel-cycle scenarios were developed. Each is an internally consistent model of technically and economically feasible paths to the further development of nuclear power in an aggregate of individual countries and regions of the world. The main purpose of this modeling exercise was to gain some insight into the probable international locations of reactors and other nuclear facilities, the future requirements for uranium and for fuel-cycle services, and the problems of spent-fuel storage and waste management. The study also presents an assessment of the role that nuclear power might actually play in meeting future world energy demand

  8. World Energy Outlook 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-11-09

    The world appears to be emerging from the worst economic crisis in decades. Many countries have made pledges under the Copenhagen Accord to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions. Commitments have also been made by the G-20 and APEC to phase out inefficient fossil-fuel subsidies. Are we, at last, on the path to a secure, reliable and environmentally sustainable energy system? Updated projections of energy demand, production, trade and investment, fuel by fuel and region by region to 2035 are provided in the 2010 edition of the World Energy Outlook (WEO). It includes, for the first time, a new scenario that anticipates future actions by governments to meet the commitments they have made to tackle climate change and growing energy insecurity. WEO-2010 shows: what more must be done and spent to achieve the goal of the Copenhagen Accord to limit the global temperature increase to 2 deg. C and how these actions would impact on oil markets; how emerging economies -- led by China and India -- will increasingly shape the global energy landscape; what role renewables can play in a clean and secure energy future; what removing fossil-fuel subsidies would mean for energy markets, climate change and state budgets; the trends in Caspian energy markets and the implications for global energy supply; the prospects for unconventional oil; and how to give the entire global population access to modern energy services. With extensive data, projections and analysis, this publication provides invaluable insights into how the energy system could evolve over the next quarter of a century. The book is essential reading for anyone with a stake in the energy sector.

  9. World Energy Outlook 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-11-10

    What will the credit crunch and economic recession mean for energy markets? Will investment cutbacks lead us towards a supply crunch a few years down the line? How could the transition to a clean global energy system be financed? These are just three of the questions that World Energy Outlook 2009 addresses. Incorporating recent developments in energy and environmental policy, this year's Outlook draws on the latest data reflecting the impact of the global financial and economic crisis and takes into account ongoing gyrations in energy prices. The resulting analysis presents a full update of energy projections through to 2030, fuel by fuel, and with more country-level detail than ever before. WEO-2009 puts the spotlight on three special topics: (1) Financing energy investment under a post-2012 climate framework: What policy action is needed to increase deployment of new energy technologies? Where are the most cost-effective opportunities for carbon mitigation? This ground-breaking analysis, which zooms in on the crucial period through to 2020, provides a robust quantitative basis for United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change negotiations in the lead-up to the crucial climate meeting in Copenhagen in December 2009. (2) Prospects for global natural gas markets: How hard will the credit crisis and economic recession hit gas demand and investment in gas supply? How will geology and geopolitics affect future gas supplies? Through field-by-field analysis of production trends of the world's key gas fields and a bottom-up analysis of upstream costs and investment, WEO-2009 takes a hard look at future global gas supply. (3) Energy trends in Southeast Asia: In recognition of the growing influence Southeast Asia is having on global energy markets, WEO-2009 includes an in-depth analysis of this fast-growing region. The annual WEO report -- the flagship publication of the IEA -- is widely recognised as the most authoritative source of global energy

  10. World Energy Outlook 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Industry and government decision-makers and others with a stake in the energy sector all benefit from the contents of World Energy Outlook (WEO) 2012. It presents authoritative projections of energy trends through to 2035 and insights into what they mean for energy security, environmental sustainability and economic development. Oil, coal, natural gas, renewables and nuclear power are all covered, together with an update on climate change issues. Global energy demand, production, trade, investment and carbon dioxide emissions are broken down by region or country, by fuel and by sector. Special strategic analyses cover: What unlocking the purely economic potential for energy efficiency could do, country by country and sector by sector, for energy markets, the economy and the environment; The Iraqi energy sector, examining both its importance in satisfying the country’s own needs and its crucial role in meeting global oil and gas demand; The water-energy nexus, as water resources become increasingly stressed and access more contentious; Measures of progress towards providing universal access to modern energy services. There are many uncertainties, but many decisions cannot wait. The insights of this publication are invaluable to those who must shape our energy future.

  11. Key World Energy Statistics 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-01

    The IEA produced its first handy, pocket-sized summary of key energy data in 1997 and every year since then it has been more and more successful. Key World Energy Statistics contains timely, clearly-presented data on supply, transformation and consumption of all major energy sources. The interested businessman, journalist or student will have at his or her fingertips the annual Canadian production of coal, the electricity consumption in Thailand, the price of diesel oil in Spain and thousands of other useful energy facts.

  12. Nuclear energy in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grippi, Sidney

    2006-01-01

    The chapter reports the nuclear energy beginning in the world including a chronology of the atomic bomb birth, the annual growth rate of electronuclear energy in the world, a comparison of energy production in thermoelectric bases

  13. MAJOR PROJECTS THAT INFLUENCE WORLD TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEORGE CORNEL DUMITRESCU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In 1869, with the opening of the Suez Canal, world trade entered a new era of development. The commercial routes linking the Far East to the western countries were shortened considerably as compared to the maritime corridor around the Cape of Good Hope. In 1914, the opening of the Panama Canal sealed the new deal in world trade, opening for business the shortest commercial routes around the world. After 145 years from the inauguration of the Suez Canal, world trade is on the eve of a new expansion. Two major projects: the expansion of both the Suez and Panama canals, planned to be completed in the next two years, will double their transit capacity. This paper does a comparative analysis of these two strategic projects, underlining the main benefits for Egypt, Panama and world trade, based on the available statistical data, reports and literature in the field.

  14. Energy for a sustainable world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldemberg, Jose; Reddy, A.K.N.; Williams, R.H.

    1988-01-01

    The book is devoted to the problem of energy planning for a sustainable world. The principal objective of the conventional approach to energy problem is economic growth and consequently the primary goal of conventional energy planning is to make energy supply expansion possible. This conventional approach is aggravating societal inequalities, environmental and security problems, and eroding self-reliance. On the other hand societal goals in energy planning should be equity, economic efficiency, environmental harmony, long-term viability, self-reliance and peace. These goals are relevant to both developing and industrialised countries. These goals should, therefore, be incorporated in a normative approach to energy planning. This can be done by focussing on end-uses of energy and the services which energy performs. In the first chapter, the relation of global energy problem with other major global problems such as North-South disparities, environmental degradation, climate change, population explosion and nuclear weapons is brought out. The energy strategies for industrialized countries and for developing countries are examined in chapters 2 and 3 respectively. The focus in both chapters is on end-uses of enegy, management of energy demand and exploitation of synergisms. In chapter 4, rough estimates of global energy demand are given and an illustrative energy scenario compatible with societal goals is described. In chapter 5, the policies necessary to implement end-use-oriented energy strategies are outlined. These policies relate to market mechanisms, administrative allocation of energy carriers, regulation and taxes. In the concluding chapter 6, the political feasibility of implementing the kind of energy future envisaged is discussed. The main finding of the authors is that it is possible to formulate energy strategies compatible with the solution of major global problems referred to in chapter 1 with about the same level of global energy use as today. (M.G.B.)

  15. World Energy Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferriter, JP.

    1996-01-01

    This document deals with the importance of fossil fuels in energy consumption. In the future, the increasing energy demand will still be met by fossil fuels, although the latter will be consumed mainly in newly industrializing nations and less in developed countries. This demand for fossil fuels must be met while satisfying the objectives of security of supply and environmental protection. As far as security is concerned, it requires the maintenance and improvement of emergency response capability. Energy policy options must be developed to sustain economic growth while minimising environmental degradation. Eventually, since industrializing countries are growing in importance, new forms of association should be explored between the IEA and major energy players. (TEC)

  16. Clean energy : nuclear energy world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-10-15

    This book explains the nuclear engineering to kids with easy way. There are explanations of birth of nuclear energy such as discover of nuclear and application of modern technology of nuclear energy, principles and structure of nuclear power plant, fuel, nuclear waste management, use of radiation for medical treatment, food supplies, industry, utilization of neutron. It indicates the future of nuclear energy as integral nuclear energy and nuclear fusion energy.

  17. World energy prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruttley, E.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show that the real basis for energy projection has changed by little and that we should not be deluded by the present apparent glut of certain primary energy resources, nor by excess electricity generation into believing that the fundamentals of the energy problem have changed. Not the energy problem, but the economics have changed. Various aspects of energy, including energy demand, energy conversion, energy consumption, energy policy, as well as different sources of energy are discussed. The question is asked whether these resources would be able to supply in the energy demand

  18. Non-energy use of fossil fuels and resulting carbon dioxide emissions: bottom-up estimates for the world as a whole and for major developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weiss, M.; Neelis, M.L.; Blok, K.; Patel, M.K.

    2009-01-01

    We present and apply a simple bottom–up model for estimating non-energy use of fossil fuels and resulting CO2 (carbon dioxide) emissions.We apply this model for the year 2000: (1) to the world as a whole, (2) to the aggregate of Annex I countries and non-Annex I countries, and (3) to the ten

  19. World energy perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Basic facts on energy reserves and main environmental effects of energy production are recalled. Physical constraints associated to the different energy production means are summarized, and present cost estimates are given. (author)

  20. Energy for Tomorrow's world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report treats of principal challenges in the field of energy. It takes in account following factors: the increase of energy demand of a population in continual growth; efforts to promote technologies, economical in energy and protecting for environment; getting capital to invest in developing countries and a harmonious combination of energies to have a stable supply

  1. World progress toward fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, J.F.

    1989-09-01

    This paper will describe the progress in fusion science and technology from a world perspective. The paper will cover the current technical status, including the understanding of fusion's economic, environmental, and safety characteristics. Fusion experiments are approaching the energy breakeven condition. An energy gain (Q) of 30 percent has been achieved in magnetic confinement experiments. In addition, temperatures required for an ignited plasma (Ti = 32 KeV) and energy confinements about 75 percent of that required for ignition have been achieved in separate experiments. Two major facilities have started the experimental campaign to extend these results and achieve or exceed Q = 1 plasma conditions by 1990. Inertial confinement fusion experiments are also approaching thermonuclear conditions and have achieved a compression factor 100-200 times liquid D-T. Because of this progress, the emphasis in fusion research is turning toward questions of engineering feasibility. Leaders of the major fusion R and D programs in the European Community (EC), Japan, the United States, and the U.S.S.R. have agreed on the major steps that are needed to reach the point at which a practical fusion system can be designed. The United States is preparing for an experiment to address the last unexplored scientific issue, the physics of an ignited plasma, during the late 1990's. The EC, Japan, U.S.S.R., and the United States have joined together under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to jointly design and prepare the validating R and D for an international facility, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), to address all the remaining scientific issues and to explore the engineering technology of fusion around the turn of the century. In addition, a network of international agreements have been concluded between these major parties and a number of smaller fusion programs, to cooperate on resolving a complete spectrum of fusion science and

  2. Rethinking the World's energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Wilson da

    2012-01-01

    Can we really shift the world completely away from fossil fuels in the next 20 years? In June 2011 at the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Canada, forty physicists from around the world came together for the Equinox Summit: 2030. They discussed how to power modern civilisation this century without warming the planet to catastrophic levels, by using science. Five key solutions, dubbed 'exemplar pathways' emerged; large-scale storage, enhanced geothermal, advanced nuclear, off-grid electricity and smart urbanization.

  3. World governance for energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerebel, C.; Keppler, J.H.

    2009-01-01

    As energy is a strategic stake for industrial societies through supply security, economical competitiveness and environmental performance, it is well-founded and useful to consider the way that energy production and consumption are organized. This document introduces the notion of energy governance and its different interpretations, then analyses its stakes and challenges (petroleum, natural gas, investment needs), and discusses some of the debates already in progress, such as the UNO's negotiations on greenhouse gas emission reduction or the impact of the WTO talks on energy exchanges

  4. World energy projections to 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Criqui, P.; Kouvaritakis, N.

    2000-01-01

    This paper provides a description of the international energy projections elaborated with the POLES energy model for the purpose of analysing, in other papers of this issue, the impacts of technological change at world level and to 2030. Section 2 describes the key exogenous hypotheses on population and economic growth used for this projection, as well as the main resulting changes for the world energy system and in terms of CO 2 emissions. In Section 3 the dynamics of the energy systems are further analysed for four main world regions, while Section 4 is dedicated to the identification of the key uncertainties and of their possible impacts on future energy development. Finally, the last section presents the key messages of this outlook, which shows a rapidly growing world economy and energy consumption with increasing oil and gas prices, although this last feature remains subject to uncertainties on resource endowment estimates. (orig.)

  5. World trends in wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, Mamadou

    2016-01-01

    A set of articles proposes an overview of some recent, important and characteristic trends in the field of wind energy all over the world. China, with 30,8 GW of newly installed capacities in 2015 has just overtaken the European Union as far as the total installed power is concerned (145 GW against 142 GW). Job growth in the wind energy sector has reached 20 per cent in the USA in 2015. In this country, major companies held 52 per cent of the market in 2015 while a new American research plan has been approved for the development of offshore wind energy. In South Africa, a German company specialised in blade inspection and repair will provide the Obelisk group with its services on blades and towers for wind turbines. As far as the UK is concerned, the article outlines and comments the continuing decrease of production costs. In India, General Electric is about to launch a new technology of digital wind farm which is supposed to improve production by simulating availability and productivity over the farm lifetime while reducing costs. In Norway, a Norwegian company proposes a new battery-based storage solution, Batwind, for offshore wing energy

  6. Energy independence versus world market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, P.

    2003-01-01

    The geo-policy is the unity of the rules and political actions coming from taking into account the problem of the national energy demands facing the world energy market. The aim of this paper is to show that these actions are confronted to two paradigms of public policy. One is the research of the energy policy, the other is the effort of building and safety of the world market. (A.L.B.)

  7. World energy outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Pursuant to Article 1 of the Convention signed in Paris on 14th December 1960, and which came into force on 30th September 1961, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) shall promote policies designed: - to achieve the highest sustainable economic growth and employment and a rising standard of living in Member countries, while maintaining financial stability, and thus to contribute to the development of the world economy; -to contribute to sound economic expansion in Member as well as non-member countries in the process of economic development; and - to contribute to the expansion of world trade on a multilateral, non-discriminatory basis in accordance with international obligations. The original Member countries of the OECD are Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, the United Kingdom and the United States. The following countries became Members subsequently through accession at the dates indicated hereafter: Japan (28th April 1964), Finland (28th January 1969), Australia (7th June 1971), New Zealand (29th May 1973), Mexico (18th May 1994) and the Czech Republic (21st December 1995). The Commission of the European Communities takes part in the work of the OECD (Article 13 of the OECD Convention). (author)

  8. World energy rivalry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafargue, Francois

    2008-01-01

    The economic development of China and India changes significantly the energy balances, and these countries try to diversify their hydrocarbon supplies in order to reduce their dependence on the Middle-East. As the USA have the same objective, there is an actual competition between these three countries for the access to hydrocarbons. The author first proposes an overview of the evolution of US and Chinese oil policies, of their suppliers and of their consumption. He discusses the energy relationships these both countries have with Russia and India, and then the relationships the USA, China and India have with African countries, Latin American countries, and Central Asian countries. The author discusses the consequences of this competition between the three countries. They can be political (support to autocratic regimes), or concern other sectors like agriculture (high oil prices result in higher farm production costs, and the development of biofuels has consequences on crop prices). The author concludes that this rivalry may result in an economic instability and in political tensions

  9. Geothermal energy in the world energy scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbier, E.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on the world energy consumption between 1960 and 1984 from primary energy sources (coal, natural gas, oil, hydropower, nuclear energy) and the same in percentages from 1925. This highlights the diminishing role of coal and the increased consumption of gas and oil. The latter has stabilized around 42% of the total after the drop in demand resulting from the oil crisis of 1973. The world energy consumption has then been divided into industrialized and developing countries. It appears that the latter, with a population equal to 68% of the total world population, consumed 23% of the world energy in 1982. Furthermore, the consumption figures show that the demand for domestic energy is much smaller in developing countries, and it is well-known that domestic energy consumed is one of the parameters used to assess standard of living. The total installed electric capacity throughout the world is then reported, divided between developed and developing countries, showing that the latter consumed 11% of all the electricity generated in the world in 1981. The world installed electric power of geothermal origin at the end of 1985 is shown, along with estimates for 1990. Geothermal energy represents 0.2% of the world electric power. This is obviously a small figure and indicates that geothermal energy plays a minor role on the world energy scene. However, if we distinguish between industrialized and developing countries, we can observe that, with their currently limited electrical consumption but good geothermal prospects, the developing countries could achieve quite a significant contribution to their total electric energy from that of geothermal origin, increasing at the moment from 3 to 19%. Finally, a comparison is made between electricity generating costs of different sources, showing that geothermal energy is competitive. A table illustrates the world evolution in installed geothermal capacity from 1950 to 1985. The non-electric uses of geothermal energy

  10. Energy and the New World Order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sander, M.

    1997-01-01

    Two major trends determine energy demand and supply; population growth and economic growth. This type of analysis very often forgets political and military events, both global and regional. This paper presents the major events influencing energy during the cold war and after the break-up of the USSR in so called ''New World Order'' which have politically and military determined energy supply and demand or, better to say, its price. The main accent is on oil and such events as the OPEC oil embargo in 1973 and the Gulf War in 1991. The relationship between oil and the other forms of primary energy production (coal, nuclear energy) as well as with energy in traffic and transportation are presented. All options in the period that we like to designate with the expression ''New World Order'' one discussed. (author)

  11. Key world energy statistics. 2004 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Key World Energy Statistics from the IEA contains timely, clearly-presented data on the supply, transformation and consumption of all major energy sources. The IEA energy balances and statistics databases on CD-Rom provide annual historical energy data extracted from four IEA/OECD data bases: energy statistics and energy balances, which contain data for most of the OECD countries for the years 1960 to 2002 and energy statistics and balances for more than 100 non-OECD countries for the years 1971 to 2002. The CDs and/or hard-copies and PDFs can be purchased individually: Energy Balances of OECD Countries 2004; Energy Statistics of OECD Countries 2004; Energy Balances of Non OECD Countries 2004; Energy Statistics of Non-OECD Countries 2004

  12. 1999 world energy consumption (ENERDATA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    Here is given a compilation of detailed statistical tables on various aspects of world energy production and consumption over the years 1994 to 1999. The present tables indicate the production, trade and consumption of crude oil, liquefied natural gas, oil products, natural gas, coal, lignite, electric power; the energy balance for the year 1999; the total energy consumption in European Union, Western Europe, North America, Japan and Pacific, CIS and Central Europe, Latin America, Asia, Middle East and Africa for the years 1994 to 1999. The CO 2 emissions for these countries are also given. These data are an extraction of the energy statistics yearbook, ENERDATA, June 2000. They are commented by Mr J.M. Martin. According to ENERDATA, the 1999 world energy consumption stagnates. (O.M.)

  13. A New World Energy Order is coming. Energy debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odell, P.; Guillet, J.; Birol, F.; Kramer, M.; Van Gool, M.

    2007-01-01

    Peter Odell, Professor Emeritus of International Energy Studies of Erasmus University Rotterdam, Netherlands, recently wrote a remarkably succinct and provocative paper in which he described his vision of the new world energy order that is on the way in the form of eight propositions. The editors of this new magazine asked three experienced energy analysts as well as the CEO of a major energy company, the Dutch gas producer Gasunie, for a response

  14. World supply of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecqueur, Michel.

    1981-01-01

    At the end of 1980 nuclear energy accounted for 9% of the world production of electricity stemming from 262 power stations, utilising mainly the process of water reactors and representing an installed capacity of 142 GWe. This production, apparently limited, already represents the equivalent of 150 million TOE. The 600 nuclear power stations in service, under construction or ordered represent a total of 450 GWe. In 1985, their production ought to cover 15% of the world requirements of electricity, which corresponds to a doubling of the share of nuclear energy within 6 years. During these recent years, the development of nuclear energy has undergone a significant slowing down and the number of orders for new nuclear power stations has dropped considerably in particular in the United States. Considering the time required and the available industrial capacity, the accumulated capacity which could be installed worlwide by 1990 could attain 530 GWe, equivalent to 650 MTOE covering 24% of the world production of electricity and 7% of the world consumption of primary energy. A determined effort for the end of this century could end up by the installation of 1200 GWe of capacity, generating 1.5 GTOE. The share of nuclear energy would then represent 35% of the production of electricity [fr

  15. World energy: Building a sustainable future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schipper, L.; Meyers, S.

    1992-04-01

    As the 20th century draws to a close, both individual countries and the world community face challenging problems related to the supply and use energy. These include local and regional environmental impacts, the prospect of global climate and sea level change associated with the greenhouse effect, and threats to international relations in connection with oil supply or nuclear proliferation. For developing countries, the financial cost of providing energy to provide basic needs and fuel economic development pose an additional burden. To assess the magnitude of future problems and the potential effectiveness of response strategies, it is important to understand how and why energy use has changed in the post and where it is heading. This requires study of the activities for which energy is used, and of how people and technology interact to provide the energy services that are desired. The authors and their colleagues have analyzed trends in energy use by sector for most of the world`s major energy-consuming countries. The approach we use considers three key elements in each sector: the level of activity, structural change, and energy intensity, which expresses the amount of energy used for various activities. At a disaggregated level, energy intensity is indicative of energy efficiency. But other factors besides technical efficiency also shape intensity.

  16. Energy content of world trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Gernot [Environmental Defense Fund, 257 Park Avenue South, New York, NY 10010 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    This paper constructs a comprehensive dataset of oil and total energy embedded in world trade of manufacturing goods for 73 countries from 1978 to 2000. Applying the data to debates on the dependency on foreign energy sources makes clear that achieving complete energy independence in the foreseeable future is unlikely to be feasible and may not be desirable. Applying it to the discussion of environmental Kuznets curves (EKCs) highlights an important distinction between production and consumption of energy. Richer countries use relatively less energy in their industrial production yet still consume relatively large amounts of energy indirectly. A further investigation largely excludes structural shifts of production in and out of the manufacturing sector as an explanation for the downward-sloping portion of the EKC. Country-level analyses add caveats but show tentative support for the cross-country conclusions. (author)

  17. World energy resources. International Geohydroscience and Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, C.E.

    2002-01-01

    World Energy Resources is an explanatory energy survey of the countries and major regions of the world, their geographic and economic settings, and significant inter-relationships. This book attempts to combine several interacting energy themes that encompass a historical development, energy issues and forecasts, economic geography, environmental programs, and world energy use. The main thrust of this book -World Energy Resources - is based on principles of energy science, applied geology, geophysics, and other environmental sciences as they relate to the exploration, exploitation, and production of resources in this country and throughout the world. This work is an analysis of the United States (USA) and world oil, gas, coal, and alternative energy resources and their associated issues, forecasts, and related policy. This book could not have been attempted without a broad geological exposure and international geographic awareness. Much information is scattered among federal and state agencies, schools, and other institutions, and this book has attempted to combine some of the vast information base. This attempt can only skim the information surface at best, but its regional and topical coverage is broad in scope. Part I introduces conventional energy resources and their historical developments, and includes chapters 1 to 7. The basic concepts and supporting facts on energy sources are presented here for the general education of energy analysts, policy makers, and scientists that desire a brief review of advanced technologies and history. Part II includes chapters 8 to 14 and provides discussions of the renewable energy sources and the available alternative energy sources and technologies to oil, gas, coal, and nuclear sources. Part III includes chapters 15 to 20 and provides an analysis of United States energy markets and forecasts through the first quarter of the 21st century, while including some world energy data. Widely-used energy forecasting models are

  18. Energy efficiency: 2004 world overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Since 1992 the World Energy Council (WEC) has been collaborating with ADEME (Agency for Environment and Energy Efficiency, France) on a joint project 'Energy Efficiency Policies and Indicators'. APERC (Asia Pacific Energy Research Centre) and OLADE (Latin American Energy Organisation) have also participated in the study, which has been monitoring and evaluating energy efficiency policies and their impacts around the world. WEC Member Committees have been providing data and information and ENERDATA (France) has provided technical assistance. This report, published in August 2004, presents and evaluates energy efficiency policies in 63 countries, with a specific focus on five policy measures, for which in-depth case studies were prepared by selected experts: - Minimum energy efficiency standards for household electrical appliances; - Innovative energy efficiency funds; - Voluntary/negotiated agreements on energy efficiency/ CO 2 ; - Local energy information centres; - Packages of measures. In particular, the report identifies the policy measures, which have proven to be the most effective, and can be recommended to countries which have recently embarked on the development and implementation of energy demand management policies. During the past ten years, the Kyoto Protocol and, more recently, emerging concerns about security of supply have raised, both the public and the political profile of energy efficiency. Almost all OECD countries and an increasing number of other countries are implementing energy efficiency policies adapted to their national circumstances. In addition to the market instruments (voluntary agreements, labels, information, etc.), regulatory measures are widely introduced where the market fails to give the right signals (buildings, appliances). In developing countries, energy efficiency is equally important, even if the drivers are different compared to industrialized countries. Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and local pollution often have a

  19. World Energy Roadmap - A Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alharthi, A.A.; Alfehaid, M.A.

    2007-07-01

    The dialogue between energy consumers and producers that has been going on for the past fifteen years has revealed the basic parameters of the complex energy scene. While the consumers are concerned with security of supply, the producers have equal concern with access to markets. A common ground for the two groups is sustainable development because both aim at the continuous flow of oil to ensure continued economic growth. Both have valid concerns and share equal responsibility towards the world at large where competitive advantages available to both groups are employed to achieve global sustainable development. The key to achieving this goal in a world of competing and (to some extent) conflicting priorities is not only a sizable and irreversible investment by both groups, but also the desire to relax unwarranted regulations that have hindered progress in the energy industry. (auth)

  20. Energy content of world trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, Gernot

    2010-01-01

    This paper constructs a comprehensive dataset of oil and total energy embedded in world trade of manufacturing goods for 73 countries from 1978 to 2000. Applying the data to debates on the dependency on foreign energy sources makes clear that achieving complete energy independence in the foreseeable future is unlikely to be feasible and may not be desirable. Applying it to the discussion of environmental Kuznets curves (EKCs) highlights an important distinction between production and consumption of energy. Richer countries use relatively less energy in their industrial production yet still consume relatively large amounts of energy indirectly. A further investigation largely excludes structural shifts of production in and out of the manufacturing sector as an explanation for the downward-sloping portion of the EKC. Country-level analyses add caveats but show tentative support for the cross-country conclusions. - Research highlights: →Energy dependency goes beyond direct imports; energy is also embedded in trade. →Production-based energy use follows an inverse U-shape, consumption-based energy use does not. →Richer countries import energy-intensive products and, thus, export pollution.

  1. Energy and the third world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johns, M.W.

    1980-01-01

    For the past 300 years Western society has been experiencing a growth in the availability of cheap energy, to the point where per capita energy consumption in 1977 was around 8000 watts. In less developed countries, on the other hand, per capita consumption has stayed between 400 and 500 watts, the same as in ancient Greece. With abundant energy comes more abundant life. The developed countires therefore have a moral obligation to help the rest of the world develop useable energy sources, including nuclear power. It has been said that nuclear power is unsuitable for developing countires; such an attitude is arrogant and condescending. It is up to the developing countries to choose what form of energy they will exploit. (LL)

  2. World energy use - 2000 developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stritar, A.

    2001-01-01

    The paper is presenting the analysis of World energy consumption in the year 2000. Special emphasis is given to the contribution of primary energy use to the global greenhouse effect. The analysis is based on data published by British Petroleum. It is also an update of my analysis published at the same conference one year ago. It can be seen that nuclear power is still the fastest growing primary energy sector in the World, that its share in primary energy mix is increasing and that it is even the fastest increasing share of all sources. Nuclear consumption in Europe is still increasing, but surprisingly the use of coal has increased too in the last year. Consumption is rapidly increasing in North America, while nuclear share there is still fastest growing. In Asia the rate of nuclear growths has slowed down in the last year, gas is now the fastest growing primary energy source. In countries of the former Soviet Union the nuclear energy is the only sector that has reached the level of production of ten years ago. It is worrying that in the countries of OECD the coal consumption is increasing again. Finally, it is also very worrying that the overall consumption of fossil fuels worldwide is increasing. What will happen with the greenhouse effect?(author)

  3. World energy outlook. Energy efficiency policies in the World: what works and what does not

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Long considered simply as an 'option' in the OECD countries, energy efficiency is spreading, with notable progress in all major regions of the world. The experience gained by the OECD countries benefits so-called emerging countries, as demonstrated by the study of energy efficiency in the world conducted by ADEME for the World Energy Council. A relative international consensus is emerging. It sees energy efficiency as a beneficial strategy for each stakeholder: reducing dependence on energy imports, reducing emissions of greenhouse gas emissions related to energy, preserving the competitiveness of companies and household purchasing power, etc. This good news appears to be an illusion, however, with a general decrease in energy efficiency over the recent years. Regional disparities remain and new solutions must be found to take the reality of each country into account and thus move to the next level

  4. World energy assessment. Energy and the challenge of sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldemberg, J. (ed.)

    2001-09-01

    The report, prepared by a team with Professor Goldemberg as chair, is a comprehensive volume on energy policy. It begins with a concise overview which has also been published as a 40-page pamphlet. Part I, energy and major global issues, places energy in the context of poverty, population, gender, urbanization, environment, health and security. Part II considers world energy resources and technology options, including renewable energy technologies and end-use efficiency. Part III asks 'Are sustainable futures possible?' and examines six scenarios of energy systems developed by IIASA and the World Energy Council, Part IV asks 'Where do we go from here' and Part V contains further information and reference material.

  5. Energy policy in a changing world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priddle, R.

    1997-01-01

    The outlook of world energy markets was described with a focus on the prospects for oil and gas supply and reserves. Implications of this outlook for energy policy-making were discussed. The three major projections of world primary energy demand were described. According to these projections world primary energy demand will grow steadily. Demand is expected to rise 46 per cent between now and 2010. Fossil-based fuels will account for almost 90 per cent of total primary energy demand in 2010 which is about the same share as today. A structural shift in the shares of different regions in world commercial energy demand is likely to occur, i.e. the OECD share of world energy demand will fall in favour of that of the developing regions. It was also projected that oil will remain the dominant fuel with a share of about 40 per cent in 2010. World gas demand was also projected to grow at an average annual rate of 3 per cent over the outlook period. The rising fossil fuel consumption implies rising greenhouse gas emissions. It was noted that by 2010, without active policy intervention to change the course of energy demand, the world energy-related carbon emissions could be almost 50 per cent greater than 1990 levels. It was suggested that the main role for governments should be to establish a framework to enable competitive energy markets to function efficiently while ensuring that energy security and environmental concerns are addressed. Emergency response measures should be maintained in relation to oil, and the implications of growing dependence on imports of oil and gas from remote and potentially insecure countries should be monitored. The role of government should also include regulation of the environmental consequences of energy supply and use at the local, regional and global level. Government should also regulate the natural monopoly elements of the grid-based industries. There is also a role for government in continuing to encourage research and development

  6. World energy: Building a sustainable future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schipper, L.; Meyers, S.

    1992-04-01

    As the 20th century draws to a close, both individual countries and the world community face challenging problems related to the supply and use energy. These include local and regional environmental impacts, the prospect of global climate and sea level change associated with the greenhouse effect, and threats to international relations in connection with oil supply or nuclear proliferation. For developing countries, the financial cost of providing energy to provide basic needs and fuel economic development pose an additional burden. To assess the magnitude of future problems and the potential effectiveness of response strategies, it is important to understand how and why energy use has changed in the post and where it is heading. This requires study of the activities for which energy is used, and of how people and technology interact to provide the energy services that are desired. The authors and their colleagues have analyzed trends in energy use by sector for most of the world's major energy-consuming countries. The approach we use considers three key elements in each sector: the level of activity, structural change, and energy intensity, which expresses the amount of energy used for various activities. At a disaggregated level, energy intensity is indicative of energy efficiency. But other factors besides technical efficiency also shape intensity.

  7. World energy and the Venezuelan energy sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrillo, F

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this study of world energy and the Venezuelan energy sector is to provide a comprehensive survey of this basic element essential to life itself and to the progress of humankind. It begins with a brief historical review from the beginning of the twentieth century to the present day and then gives, most importantly, a forecast for the twenty-first century which takes account of past and present trends and looks towards the end of the present century and to the beginning of the future.

  8. World energy data system (WENDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lareau, W.E.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents a unique application of System 2000: the storage of preformatted textual information in a completely user oriented data base. The World Energy Data System is an information system which allows qualified users online access to non-classified management level data on worldwide energy technology and research and development activities. WENDS has been used to transmit up-to-date informaion on foreign energy technology and research and development programs to DOE program divisions, the Congress, and other U.S. government officials going abroad. The WENDS concept is first described. Then, the method of storage of the textual information is discussed followed by a discussion of the retrieval system which is thoroughly designed to serve the user

  9. Energy the enabler, in our changing world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koomanoff, F.A.

    1992-01-01

    Historical industrial and social development made possible by energy technologies throughout the world serves as a paradigm for looking into the future. Energy usage is directly responsible for productivity. World population is increasing rapidly necessitating still more energy. The number of college students (a measure of new ideas and demands) has also increased rapidly. The U.S. has led in energy usage and the resultant growth in transportation and communication but changes are occurring. Urbanization - another effect of energy - shows the majority of high density populations now are in developing countries. Societies are changing from single nation states to interdependent loosely-knit larger socio-economic-environmental areas - Economic Communities. Successful technology must now engage producers, users, governments, as well as communities of interest. Political management systems must recognize these changes to permit the continued development of energy technologies. Looking toward the 21st Century and our continued development in a changing world necessitates recognition of the need for a systems orientation, interdisciplinary approach to find multi-answers to problems. All must participate in the decision making process - looking for solutions (rather than identification of problems) learning together and from each other - and most importantly, managing conflict before it manages us. (orig.)

  10. World progress toward fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, N.A.

    1989-01-01

    The author discusses international progress in fusion research during the last three years. Much of the technical progress has been achieved through international collaboration in magnetic fusion research. This progress has stimulated political interest in a multinational effort, aimed at designing and possibly constructing the world's first experimental fusion reactor. This interest was reflected in recent summit-level discussions involving President Mitterand, General Secretary Gorbachev, and President Reagan. Most recently, the European Community (EC), Japan, the United States, and the U.S.S.R. have decided to begin serious preparation for taking the next step toward practical fusion energy. These parties have agreed to begin the design and supporting R and D for an International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The initiation of this international program to prepare for a fusion test reactor is discussed

  11. Continuing growth for world energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2000-01-01

    The World Energy Outlook of the global energy markets from 1971 to 2020, recently released by the International Energy Agency, is summarised. Covering demand, supply and energy prices, it provides an in-depth review of oil, gas, coal, biomass and power generation. With projections for all energy sectors, it offers a valuable insight into the development of the international energy business. The projections cover all world regions, including industrial and developing countries, and provide a comprehensive view of the main developments and issues affecting demand and supply on a global basis. The Outlook's projections have been derived from a 'reference scenario' that assumes global economic growth of more than 3% per annum, but a slowdown in population growth. Fossil-fuel prices are generally assumed to remain flat throughout the first decade of the projection period (to 2020), with oil and gas prices increasing after 2010 in response to the supply-side pressures. The scenario takes account of a range of major new policies and measures adopted in OECD countries, many of which relate to commitments under the Kyoto Protocol enacted or announced up to mid-2000. Despite the policies and measures in the OECD countries, energy-related carbon dioxide emissions will increase, averaging 2.1% per annum to 2020. This amounts to 60% increase between 1997 and 2020. Fast-growing developing countries heavily contributing to increase in carbon dioxide, as they do in global energy demand

  12. Nuclear energy in Europe and the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, H.H.; Brown, Boveri und Cie A.G., Mannheim

    1982-01-01

    The author provides an account of opinions expressed at the 1982 Euratom Congress on the world's economical situation, public views on nuclear energy, the energy problem of the third world an on the development status of nuclear technology. (orig.) [de

  13. Energy in the Developing World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadgil, Ashok; Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; Sosler, Andree; Kirchstetter, Thomas; Phadke, Amol

    2011-11-01

    The five billion persons at the lower economic levels are not only poor, but commonly use technologies that are less efficient and more polluting, wasting their money, hurting their health, polluting their cites, and increasing carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Many first-world researchers, including the authors, are seeking to help these persons achieve a better life by collaborating on need-driven solutions to energy problems. Here we examine three specific examples of solutions to energy problems, and mitigation strategies in the developing world: (1) Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling in China. Between 1990 and 2025, China will add 675 million new urban residents, all of whom expect housing, electricity, water, transportation, and other energy services. Policies and institutions must be rapidly set up to manage the anticipated rapid rise in household and commercial energy consumption. This process has progressed from legislating, and setting up oversight of minimum energy performance standards in 1989 (now on 30 products) to voluntary efficiency labels in 1999 (now on 40 products) and to mandatory energy labels in 2005 (now on 21 products). The savings from just the standards and labels in place by 2007 would result in cumulative savings of 1188 teraWatt—hours (TWh) between 2000-2020. By 2020, China would save 110 TWh/yr, or the equivalent of 12 gigaWatts (GW) of power operating continuously. (2) Fuel-efficient biomass cookstoves to reduce energy consumption and reduce pollution. Compared to traditional cooking methods in Darfur, the BDS cooks faster, reduces fuel requirement, and emits less carbon monoxide air pollution. A 2010 survey of 100 households showed that users reduced spending on fuelwood in North Darfur camps from 1/2 of household non-fuelwood budget to less than 1/4 of that budget. The survey showed that each 20 stove puts 330/year in the pocket of the women using the stove, worth 1600 over the stove-life of 5 years. Per capita income of

  14. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-23

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1989 is the thirteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments, with particular reference to the 23 major energy companies (the FRS companies'') required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major lines of business including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, and other energy operations. Domestic and international operations are examined separately in this report. It also traces key developments affecting the financial performance of major energy companies in 1989, as well as review of important trends.

  15. Performance profiles of major energy producers, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1991 is the fifteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments, with particular reference to the 23 major energy companies (the FRS companies) required to report annually on Form EIA-28. It also traces key developments affecting the financial performance of major energy companies in 1991, as well as reviews important trends. Financial information is reported by major lines of business including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, and other energy operations. Domestic and international operations are examined separately in this report

  16. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1994 is the eighteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments in energy markets, with particular reference to the 24 major U.S. energy companies required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major lines of business, including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, other energy operations, and nonenergy businesses. Financial and operating results are presented in the context of energy market developments with a view toward identifying changing corporate strategies and measuring the performance of ongoing operations both in the United States and abroad.

  17. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1992 is the sixteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments, with particular reference to the 25 major energy companies (the FRS companies) required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major lines of business, including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, and other energy operations. Domestic and international operations are examined separately in this report. The data are presented in the context of key energy market developments with a view toward identifying changing strategies of corporate development and measuring the apparent success of current ongoing operations

  18. Visual Perspectives on Majority-World Adolescent Thriving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Catherine Ann; Theron, Linda; Tapanya, Sombat; Li, Chun; Lau, Cindy; Liebenberg, Linda; Ungar, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This paper offers socio-ecological, situated perspectives on adolescent resilience derived from an application of interpretive visual methodologies to deepen understanding of adaptive youth development in diverse majority-world cultural contexts (South Africa, Thailand, China, Mexican migration to Canada). The research is not…

  19. A database of major breakwaters around the world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allsop, N.W.H.; Cork, R.S.; Verhagen, H.J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a co-operative project between HR Wallingford UK (HRW) and Delft University of Technology, Netherlands, (TUD) to develop, populate, and then to apply a database on all major breakwaters around the world. It builds on, and revives, similar initiatives that originate in the late

  20. The energy in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung, M.; Comby, B.

    2001-12-01

    In the future the energy demand will double and the electric power demand will treble. In this framework and after a presentation of the energy price and the energy needs, the authors propose actions domains. (A.L.B.)

  1. An overview of world future energy demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkin, F.P.

    1995-01-01

    The World Energy Council Commission's report Energy for Tomorrow's World was published in September 1993. The Commission's three year study of world energy problems involved both bottom-up studies, undertaken by groups of experts in nine main regions of the world, and top-down studies of global aspects. The latter included the preparation of energy demand and supply projections up to the study horizon of 2020, together with a brief look at prospects up to 2100. This Paper is based on the Commission's work. (author)

  2. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1993 is the seventeenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments in energy markets, with particular reference to the 25 major US energy companies required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major liens of business, including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, other energy operations, and nonenergy businesses. Financial and operating results are presented in the context of energy market developments with a view toward identifying changing corporate strategies and measuring the performance of ongoing operations both in the US and abroad. This year`s report analyzes financial and operating developments for 1993 (Part 1: Developments in 1993) and also reviews key developments during the 20 years following the Arab Oil Embargo of 1973--1974 (Part 2: Major Energy Company Strategies Since the Arab Oil Embargo). 49 figs., 104 tabs.

  3. Long-range prospects of world energy demands and future energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozaki, Yasuji

    1998-01-01

    The long-range prospects for world energy demands are reviewed, and the major factors which are influential in relation to energy demands are discussed. The potential for various kinds of conventional and new energy sources such as fossil fuels, solar energies, nuclear fission, and fusion energies to need future energy demands is also discussed. (author)

  4. Alleviating energy poverty for the world's poor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagar, Ambuj D.

    2005-01-01

    Improving energy services for poor households in developing countries remains one of the most pressing challenges facing the development community. The dependence of these households on traditional forms of energy leads to significant health impacts as well as other major disbenefits, yet there has been little progress in meeting this challenge. This viewpoint argues for an 'energy-poverty alleviation' fund to help provide modern energy services to these households. It also proposes an approach through which to create such a fund, namely by introducing an incremental levy on petroleum. Notably, this scheme does not need a global agreement since a levy could be introduced by major oil-exporting countries. The implementation of this mechanism would result in a climate-friendly outcome (even before taking into account the elimination of products of incomplete combustion resulting from the traditional household use of biomass-based fuels) while providing immense socio-economic benefits to the world's poor. Such an approach would allow significant progress on the sustainable development front while reducing global greenhouse gas emissions, and therefore is very much consistent with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

  5. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This publication examines developments in the operations of the major US e energy-producing companies on a corporate level, by major line of business, by major function within each line of business, and by geographic area. In 1996, 24 companies filed Form EIA-28. The analysis and data presented in this report represents the operations of the Financial Reporting System companies in the context of their worldwide operations and in the context of the major energy markets which they serve. Both energy and nonenergy developments of these companies are analyzed. Although the focus is on developments in 1996, important trends prior to that time are also featured. Sections address energy markets in 1996; key financial developments; oil and gas exploration, development, and production; downstream petroleum in 1996; coal and alternative energy; and foreign direct investment in US energy. 30 figs., 104 tabs

  6. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This publication examines developments in the operations of the major US e energy-producing companies on a corporate level, by major line of business, by major function within each line of business, and by geographic area. In 1996, 24 companies filed Form EIA-28. The analysis and data presented in this report represents the operations of the Financial Reporting System companies in the context of their worldwide operations and in the context of the major energy markets which they serve. Both energy and nonenergy developments of these companies are analyzed. Although the focus is on developments in 1996, important trends prior to that time are also featured. Sections address energy markets in 1996; key financial developments; oil and gas exploration, development, and production; downstream petroleum in 1996; coal and alternative energy; and foreign direct investment in US energy. 30 figs., 104 tabs.

  7. The messages of the world energy outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cozzi, L.

    2001-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the International Energy Agency's 2000 edition of the World Energy Outlook, Global and regional energy demand, supply and CO 2 emissions to the year 2020 are discussed under the Reference Scenario assumption. Main challenges that actors of global energy scene will be asked to cope with in the next two decade are derived [it

  8. Energy for tomorrow's world. Acting now

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The statement 2000 of WEC (World Energy Council) is an extremely important document, committed to overcoming the energy shortage where it is found, pointing out, from one hand, the importance of quality and safety in the energy supply, and, from the other hand, the necessity of minimizing the impact of energy development on the environment and mankind health [it

  9. World potential of renewable energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dessus, B; Devin, B; Pharabod, F

    1991-07-01

    A comprehensive analysis, region by region, of the actually accessible renewable energies at a given horizon, is presented. The same methodology as the one employed to derive ``proven fossil energy reserves`` from ``energy resources`` is adopted, in which resources are defined by quantitative information on physical potential, while reserves take into account technical and economical accessibility. As renewable resources are fluctuating with time and are diluted in space and not readily transportable or storeable, it is necessary to consider the presence of populations or activities near enough to be able to profit by these diluted and volatile energies.

  10. World energy. The facts and the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedley, D.

    1981-01-01

    This book examines how energy [including nuclear energy] is used in the world and how much energy is used; fuel resources - where they are, how long they will last, which countries have the fuel and which countries need it the most; the implications of the energy crisis for transport; the development of synthetics; the impact of conservation; the renewable energy sources and what progress is being made with them. The book forecasts how the world energy economy will have changed by the year 2000 and what is likely to happen beyond. (author)

  11. Energy planning in the Arab world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elshafei, A.N.

    1979-09-01

    Efficient use of energy is of interest to the energy-surplus regions as well as the energy-deficit regions. Similarly, concern about energy conservation is not confined to the industrially developed regions of the world. This article discusses energy planning from the Arab point of view. A framework for Arab energy modeling is first described. Then the application of a computer model - that of Mesarovic and Pestel - to Arab energy-planning needs is discussed and some of the results are presented. Finally, current priorities in Arab energy-modeling studies are outlined. The Appendix surveys some existing models which address regional and international energy problems.

  12. World Energy Prospects and Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    In recent years, demand for energy has surged. This unrelenting increase has helped fuel global economic growth but placed considerable pressure on suppliers buffeted by geopolitics, violent weather conditions and other potentially disruptive factors.

  13. Thorium Energy for the World

    CERN Document Server

    Revol, Jean-Pierre; Bourquin, Maurice; Kadi, Yacine; Lillestol, Egil; De Mestral, Jean-Christophe; Samec, Karel

    2016-01-01

    The Thorium Energy Conference (ThEC13) gathered some of the world’s leading experts on thorium technologies to review the possibility of destroying nuclear waste in the short term, and replacing the uranium fuel cycle in nuclear systems with the thorium fuel cycle in the long term. The latter would provide abundant, reliable and safe energy with no CO2 production, no air pollution, and minimal waste production. The participants, representatives of 30 countries, included Carlo Rubbia, Nobel Prize Laureate in physics and inventor of the Energy Amplifier; Jack Steinberger, Nobel Prize Laureate in physics; Hans Blix, former Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Rolf Heuer, Director General of CERN; Pascal Couchepin, former President of the Swiss Confederation; and Claude Haegi, President of the FEDRE, to name just a few. The ThEC13 proceedings are a source of reference on the use of thorium for energy generation. They offer detailed technical reviews of the status of thorium energy ...

  14. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-13

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1992 is the sixteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments, with particular reference to the 25 major energy companies (the FRS companies) required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major lines of business, including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, and other energy operations. Domestic and international operations are examined separately in this report. The data are presented in the context of key energy market developments with a view toward identifying changing strategies of corporate development and measuring the apparent success of current ongoing operations.

  15. Energy and development in the Third World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchanan, J.

    1982-08-01

    The subject is discussed in chapters, entitled: introduction (general statement of Third World problems); the other energy crisis - firewood and dung (erosion of traditional sources); Third World energy policies (concentration on commercial sources; fossil fuels; a grassroots approach); why not nukes (arguments against use of nuclear power, on grounds of economics, politics, unreliability, radiation hazards, potential earthquake hazards, radioactive waste management, proliferation of nuclear weapons); appropriate energy for what sort of development (renewable energy sources; energy conservation); problems of economics, politics and the technological fix (the Reagan solution; the Brandt report: the transnational corporations; 'North' and 'South'; production for need); a way out of the crisis. (U.K.)

  16. World energy tendencies: social and environmental implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichs, Ramon

    2007-01-01

    The current world energy situation is the result of the combination of diverse economic, political, technological, social and environmental tendencies that conform a crisis panorama for the high price of the hydrocarbons and especially in the petroleum. Under the current conditions the necessity of a global energy restructuring is imposed that changes the current patterns of generation and energy consumption significantly

  17. Potential of energy efficiency measures in the world steel industry.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galama, Tjebbe

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The world steel industry plays a major role in energy use and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions now and in the future. Implementing energy efficiency measures is among one of the most cost-effective investments that the industry could make in improv

  18. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to examine year-to-year developments in the operations of 26 major US energy companies on a corporate level and also by major line of energy business and by major functions within each line of business. The period covered is 1977 to 1979. Comparisons of income and investment flow are featured and related to functionally allocated net investment in place. The presentation seeks to identify similarities and dissimilarities in results across lines-of-business activity or by firm size

  19. World offshore energy loss statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, Mark J.

    2007-01-01

    Offshore operations present a unique set of environmental conditions and adverse exposure not observed in a land environment taking place in a confined space in a hostile environment under the constant danger of catastrophe and loss. It is possible to engineer some risks to a very low threshold of probability, but losses and unforeseen events can never be entirely eliminated because of cost considerations, the human factor, and environmental uncertainty. Risk events occur infrequently but have the potential of generating large losses, as evident by the 2005 hurricane season in the Gulf of Mexico, which was the most destructive and costliest natural disaster in the history of offshore production. The purpose of this paper is to provide a statistical assessment of energy losses in offshore basins using the Willis Energy Loss database. A description of the loss categories and causes of property damage are provided, followed by a statistical assessment of damage and loss broken out by region, cause, and loss category for the time horizon 1970-2004. The impact of the 2004-2005 hurricane season in the Gulf of Mexico is summarized

  20. IEA World Energy Outlook 2010-A comment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatib, Hisham

    2011-01-01

    The World Energy Outlook 2010 is a comprehensive energy report issued by the IEA. It is rewritten annually to reflect the world's changing energy and economy realities; it also introduces new issues relevant to the energy sector. This year it dealt with Caspian Energy, Energy Poverty and Energy Subsidies. WEO is controversial in few aspects; it still promotes a 450 Scenario which has become out of reach. This year however it introduced a more realistic New Policies Scenario which will need a lot of good will and investments to accomplish. Governmental policies are going to chart future energy sector performance; increasingly this is becoming decided by non-OECD countries. A more pragmatic future energy outlook is needed to reflect developing countries priorities for growth and utilization of local resources and how to accommodate this with abatement priorities through energy efficiency measures and technologies. - Research highlights: → We critically review the findings of the IEA - World Energy Outlook 2010. → The main '450 Scenario' is no longer realistic. → Some of the other indicators like the Energy Development Index are also critically reviewed and improvements proposed.

  1. Performance profiles of major energy producers, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    The energy industry generally and petroleum and natural gas operations in particular are frequently reacting to a variety of unsettling forces. Falling oil prices, economic upswings, currency devaluations, increasingly rigorous environmental quality standards, deregulation of electricity markets, and continued advances in exploration and production technology were among the challenges and opportunities to the industry in 1997. To analyze the extent to which these and other developments have affected energy industry financial and operating performance, strategies, and industry structure, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) maintains the Financial Reporting Systems (FRS). Through Form EIA-28, major US energy companies annually report to the FRS. Financial and operating information is reported by major lines of business, including oil and gas production (upstream), petroleum refining and marketing (downstream), other energy operations, and nonenergy business. Performance Profiles of Major Producers 1997 examines the interplays of energy markets, companies` strategies, and government policies (in 1997 and in historical context) that gave rise to the results given here. The report also analyzes other key aspects of energy company financial performance as seen through the multifaceted lens provided by the FRS data and complementary data for industry overall. 41 figs., 77 tabs.

  2. World energy projection system: Model documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    The World Energy Project System (WEPS) is an accounting framework that incorporates projects from independently documented models and assumptions about the future energy intensity of economic activity (ratios of total energy consumption divided by gross domestic product) and about the rate of incremental energy requirements met by hydropower, geothermal, coal, and natural gas to produce projections of world energy consumption published annually by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) in the International Energy Outlook (IEO). Two independently documented models presented in Figure 1, the Oil Market Simulation (OMS) model and the World Integrated Nuclear Evaluation System (WINES), provide projections of oil and nuclear power consumption published in the IEO. Output from a third independently documented model, and the International Coal Trade Model (ICTM), is not published in the IEO but is used in WEPS as a supply check on projections of world coal consumption produced by WEPS and published in the IEO. A WEPS model of natural gas production documented in this report provides the same type of implicit supply check on the WEPS projections of world natural gas consumption published in the IEO. Two additional models are included in Figure 1, the OPEC Capacity model and the Non-OPEC Oil Production model. These WEPS models provide inputs to the OMS model and are documented in this report.

  3. World energy projection system: Model documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    The World Energy Project System (WEPS) is an accounting framework that incorporates projects from independently documented models and assumptions about the future energy intensity of economic activity (ratios of total energy consumption divided by gross domestic product) and about the rate of incremental energy requirements met by hydropower, geothermal, coal, and natural gas to produce projections of world energy consumption published annually by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) in the International Energy Outlook (IEO) (Figure 1). Two independently documented models presented in Figure 1, the Oil Market Simulation (OMS) model and the World Integrated Nuclear Evaluation System (WINES) provide projections of oil and nuclear power consumption published in the IEO. Output from a third independently documented model, and the International Coal Trade Model (ICTM), is not published in the IEO but is used in WEPS as a supply check on projections of world coal consumption produced by WEPS and published in the IEO. A WEPS model of natural gas production documented in this report provides the same type of implicit supply check on the WEPS projections of world natural gas consumption published in the IEO. Two additional models are included in Figure 1, the OPEC Capacity model and the Non-OPEC Oil Production model. These WEPS models provide inputs to the OMS model and are documented in this report

  4. Energy data book. France in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catz, H.

    1999-01-01

    This memento about energy provides a series of tables with numerical data relative to energy resources and uses in France, in the European Union and in the rest of the world: energy consumption and demand (primary energy demand, consumption, and efficiency per region and per source; forecasting, CO 2 emissions, energy independence, supplies, uses and imports, demand scenarios, energy savings..), power production (production per geopolitical region, in OECD countries and in France; peak load demand, power consumption and generation in France; hydro-power and thermal plants in France; total capacity, forecasts and exports), nuclear power (production, forecasting, reactors population, characteristics of French PWRs, uranium needs and fuel cycle), energy resources (renewable energies, fossil fuels and uranium reserves and production), economic data (gross national product, economic and energy indicators, prices and cost estimations), energy units and conversion factors (counting, calorific value of coals, production costs, energy units). (J.S.)

  5. The world energy consumption in 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapillonne, B.

    2006-01-01

    Based on Enerdata 2005 data, this analysis presents the situation of the world energy consumption in 2005, the electric power consumption per region and production per source, the consumption increase for each energy source and the petroleum and gas consumption increase. (A.L.B.)

  6. Hydropower and the world's energy future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-11-01

    The potential role of hydropower in the context of world-wide demographic growth and increasing demand for energy, and the benefits inherent in hydroelectric power in comparison with other energy options are discussed. Environmental and social impacts, and examples of mitigation measures are reviewed. Recommendations regarding best practices in the future development of hydroelectric power projects proposed

  7. The United States and world energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsay, W.C.

    1992-01-01

    The United States, dominating the world's energy markets as a producer and consumer, is sensitive to changes in this market and intends to influence the development of global energy policy. Supply will be increased by nations such as Venezuela, Indonesia and perhaps in the future a United Yemen and the Commonwealth of Independent States, moving to freer market economies which will allow investment opportunities previously inaccessible to foreign companies. Although world energy demand will grow, little of this will be in the US where, under the National Energy Strategy, comprehensive measures are being introduced to improve energy efficiency. The US energy security will be further improved by such measures as diversification of supply, larger domestic production and increasing interdependence between suppliers, traders and consumers. (author)

  8. To understand the new world of energy - Energy saving and energy efficiency: the world of energy 2.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maestroni, Myriam; Chevalier, J.M.; Derdevet, Michel

    2013-01-01

    This bibliographical note contains the table of contents and a brief presentation of a book which proposes a general overview of the world of modern energy, focuses on the main associated political and climatic stakes and challenges. It also addresses the crucial issue of energy efficiency and energy savings which are the pillars of the current energy transition. The chapters address the world energy stakes and challenges, the emergence of a new energetic paradigm, the issues of energy efficiency and energy savings, the main sources of energy savings to be exploited and valorised, the situation in Europe and in the World regarding energy efficiency, the relationship between energy transition and local territories, the necessary continuous innovation

  9. World energy prospects: to where trends lead?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This conference was organized after the publication by the International Energy Agency (IEA) of the 2004 World Energy Outlook (WEO) study. The WEO study presented two projection scenarios, a tendentious one and an alternate one, but both unacceptable. Two presentations were given, followed by a debate with the participants. This document gathers the transparencies of the presentations and a summary of the presentations and of the debate. The first presentation by Fatih Birol, Chief Economist at the IEA, is entitled 'World Energy Outlook 2004'. It describes the two scenarios: Global Energy Trends and Strategic Challenges, Oil Markets, European Union Energy Outlook, An Alternative Policy Scenario, Summary and Conclusions. The conclusions are as follows: - On current policies, world energy needs will be almost 60% higher in 2030 than now; - Energy resources are more than adequate to meet demand until 2030 and well beyond; - But projected market trends raise serious concerns: increased vulnerability to supply disruptions, rising CO 2 emissions, huge energy-investment needs, persistent energy poverty; - More vigorous policies would save energy and reduce emissions significantly; - But a truly sustainable energy system will call for faster technology development and deployment; - Urgent and decisive government action is needed. The second presentation by Jean-Marie Chevalier (Paris 9 Dauphine Univ.) is entitled 'IEA Outlook 2004: some important innovations'. It analyzes the following points: the sustainability of demand projections, the role of nuclear energy and its possible re-launching, the key-role of energy efficiency, the access to energy of deprived people; the new articulation of powers: what are the remnants of a national energy policy, what is the European vision of energy: diversification, security of supplies, energy efficiency, abatement of greenhouse gas emissions; the need for a worldwide regulation. It presents also: the world energy environment: the

  10. World energy, technology and climate policy outlook 2030. WETO 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Starting from a set of clear key assumptions on economic activity, population and hydrocarbon resources, WETO describes in detail scenarios for the evolution of World and European energy systems, power generation technologies and impacts of climate change policy in the main world regions or countries.It presents a coherent framework to analyse the energy, technology and environment trends and issues over the period to 2030, focusing on Europe in a world context. Three of the key results of this work are: (1) in a Reference scenario, i.e.if no strong specific policy initiatives and measures are taken, world CO2 emissions are expected to double in 2030 and, with a share of 90%, fossil fuels will continue to dominate the energy system; (2) the great majority of the increase in oil production will come from OPEC countries and the EU will rely predominantly on natural gas imported from the CIS; and (3) as the largest growing energy demand and CO2 emissions originate from developing countries (mainly China and India), Europe will have to intensify its co-operation, particularly in terms of transfer of technologies. The analysis of long-term scenarios and a particular attention to the energy world context, is an important element for efficient energy, technology and environment policies towards a sustainable world

  11. Major economies Forum on energy and climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The Major Economies Forum is intended to facilitate an open dialogue among major developed and developing economies, help generate the political leadership necessary to achieve a successful outcome at the United Nations climatic change conference in Copenhagen, and advance the exploration of concrete initiatives and joint ventures that increase the supply of clean energy while cutting greenhouse gas emissions. The Forum's second preparatory meeting was held in Paris in May 2009, mainly focused on greenhouse gas emissions reduction actions and objectives, the diffusion of clean technologies, the financing of activities for climate protection and adaptation to climatic change impacts

  12. Energy [r]evolution - a sustainable world energy outlook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teske, S.; Muth, J.; Sawyer, S.; Pregger, T.; Simon, S.; Naegler, T.; O'Sullivan, M.; Schmid, S; Pagenkopf, J.; Frieske, B.; Graus, W.H.J.; Kermeli, K.; Zittel, W.; Rutovitz, J.; Harris, S.; Ackermann, T.; Ruwahata, R.; Martense, N.

    2012-01-01

    Energy [R]evolution 2012 provides a consistent fundamental pathway for how to protect our climate: getting the world from where we are now to where we need to be by phasing out fossil fuels and cutting CO2 emissions while ensuring energy security.The Energy [R]evolution Scenario has become a well

  13. Energy financing in today's world - a banker's viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackrell, Ian

    1991-01-01

    If the world runs on energy, the energy industry runs on finance. Supplying the industry's huge appetite for funds -on the scale and in the form required - has always posed a major challenge to the international banking community. But in some respects that challenge is greater today than it has ever been, not only because of the industry's escalating requirements but also because of the way bank's attitudes have been changing in the recent past. One reason for this is the rapidly evolving scene within the energy business in response to the harsher competitive conditions and the greater uncertainties of tomorrow. However, the other major factor is that banking itself has been undergoing significant change as a result of severe pressures and constraints, both internal and external. Some of the key global trends and issues affecting energy financing in today's world are considered here. (author)

  14. Energy financing in today's world - a banker's viewpoint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackrell, Ian [Barclays Bank plc, London (GB)

    1991-07-01

    If the world runs on energy, the energy industry runs on finance. Supplying the industry's huge appetite for funds -on the scale and in the form required - has always posed a major challenge to the international banking community. But in some respects that challenge is greater today than it has ever been, not only because of the industry's escalating requirements but also because of the way bank's attitudes have been changing in the recent past. One reason for this is the rapidly evolving scene within the energy business in response to the harsher competitive conditions and the greater uncertainties of tomorrow. However, the other major factor is that banking itself has been undergoing significant change as a result of severe pressures and constraints, both internal and external. Some of the key global trends and issues affecting energy financing in today's world are considered here. (author).

  15. Nuclear energy education scenario around the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barabas, Roberta de Carvalho; Sabundjian, Gaiane

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear energy has been used as a source of clean energy with many benefits. Nevertheless, it is still addressed with prejudice. The atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki during World War II (1945), the Three Mile Island accident (1979), Chernobyl accident (1986), the crash of the cesium-137 in Goiana, Brazil (1987), and the recent accident in Fukushima (2011) may have been responsible for the negative image of nuclear energy. Researches on education have been conducted with students concerning the conceptual and practical issues of nuclear energy. This work aims to review the literature about nuclear energy education around the world in both, elementary school and high school. Since most educational researches on nuclear energy were published after 1980, this literature review covered the researches that have been published since 1980. The data were presented in chronological order. The results from the literature review provided a clear visualization of the global nuclear energy educational scenario, showing that the theme is still addressed with prejudice due to an incorrect view of nuclear energy and a limited view of its benefits. Concerning the science textbooks, the literature reports that the theme should be better addressed, encouraging students to research more about it. The data from this literature review will serve as a reference for a future proposal for a teaching training program for Brazilian science/physics high school teachers using a new teaching approach. (author)

  16. Nuclear energy education scenario around the world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barabas, Roberta de Carvalho; Sabundjian, Gaiane, E-mail: praroberta@uol.com.br, E-mail: gdjian@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Nuclear energy has been used as a source of clean energy with many benefits. Nevertheless, it is still addressed with prejudice. The atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki during World War II (1945), the Three Mile Island accident (1979), Chernobyl accident (1986), the crash of the cesium-137 in Goiana, Brazil (1987), and the recent accident in Fukushima (2011) may have been responsible for the negative image of nuclear energy. Researches on education have been conducted with students concerning the conceptual and practical issues of nuclear energy. This work aims to review the literature about nuclear energy education around the world in both, elementary school and high school. Since most educational researches on nuclear energy were published after 1980, this literature review covered the researches that have been published since 1980. The data were presented in chronological order. The results from the literature review provided a clear visualization of the global nuclear energy educational scenario, showing that the theme is still addressed with prejudice due to an incorrect view of nuclear energy and a limited view of its benefits. Concerning the science textbooks, the literature reports that the theme should be better addressed, encouraging students to research more about it. The data from this literature review will serve as a reference for a future proposal for a teaching training program for Brazilian science/physics high school teachers using a new teaching approach. (author)

  17. Energy for development in the real world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geel, P. van

    2005-01-01

    Developing countries have a right to economic growth. They need it to combat poverty. But growth is impossible without access to modern energy. If we are to do something about that, we must start with the basic needs of developing countries. At least one-third of humanity, most of whom live in rural areas in developing countries, do not have an adequate supply of energy to meet their daily needs, or for health care and education. This limited and unreliable energy supply is a direct obstacle to economic development. Millions of people spend a lot of time trying to gather enough firewood to survive. Companies cannot operate because of power cuts. Schools and hospitals cannot function properly. Energy is also needed to cool medicines, and to provide light so that children can do their homework in the evenings. The industrialised world must help developing countries to secure an energy supply. And more importantly, an energy supply that is sustainable

  18. World energy outlook in 2020 focusing on China's energy impacts on the world and Northeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komiyama, R.; Ito, K.; Li Zhidong

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a consistent international energy projection developed by an integrated econometric model for the purpose of analysing China's energy impacts on the energy markets in the world and Northeast Asia to 2020. Vigorous economic growth, soaring electricity demand and progressive motorisation are going to expand the primary energy demand in China, which accounts for a large part of the world primary energy increase, eventually positioning China as an important player in the world energy market and in terms of CO 2 emissions. Focusing on Northeast Asia, considerable oil demand growth in China, which has only a limited oil production, would increase the regional reliance on Middle Eastern oil thereby underlining a serious energy security problem of oil importing countries in this region. It is becoming increasingly important for the energy issue to be addressed as one where all Northeast Asian countries have a common stake and can commit themselves. (author)

  19. World energy: a study in inequality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fells, I.

    1984-01-01

    The proceedings of the 12th World Energy Conference are discussed under the headings: developing countries' standpoint (energy and food famine, great increase in population); biogas perhaps the answer; coal - 'expensive misjudgement' (over-optimistic predictions of demand, but developing countries an important future coal market); price of stack gas clean-up; explaining the nuclear case (need to explain nuclear case to counter the anti-nuclear lobby); collaborative fast reactor development in Europe; nuclear energy in developing countries; fuel for transport - a neglected subject. (U.K.)

  20. Energy for Tomorrow's World - Acting Now

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-06-01

    WEC, with over 75 years of history, is concentrating on study and research about production and utilization of sustainable energy and regional and technology program for the maximum benefit of human beings. WEC is a global multi energy organization with supports from private companies, public corporations, governments, academics and famous people in around one hundred countries. The activities of WEC include major energy production and consumption market. 18 figs., 17 tabs.

  1. How a future energy world could look?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewert M.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The future energy system will change significantly within the next years as a result of the following Mega Trends: de-carbonization, urbanization, fast technology development, individualization, glocalization (globalization and localization and changing demographics. Increasing fluctuating renewable production will change the role of non-renewable generation. Distributed energy from renewables and micro generation will change the direction of the energy flow in the electricity grids. Production will not follow demand but demand has to follow production. This future system is enabled by the fast technical development of information and communication technologies which will be present in the entire system. In this paper the results of a comprehensive analysis with different scenarios is summarized. Tools were used like the analysis of policy trends in the European countries, modelling of the European power grid, modelling of the European power markets and the analysis of technology developments with cost reduction potentials. With these tools the interaction of the main actors in the energy markets like conventional generation and renewable generation, grid transport, electricity storage including new storage options from E-Mobility, Power to Gas, Compressed Air Energy storage and demand side management were considered. The potential application of technologies and investments in new energy technologies were analyzed within existing frameworks and markets as well as new business models in new markets with different frameworks. In the paper the over all trend of this analysis is presented by describing a potential future energy world. This world represents only one of numerous options with comparable characteristics.

  2. How a future energy world could look?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, M.

    2012-10-01

    The future energy system will change significantly within the next years as a result of the following Mega Trends: de-carbonization, urbanization, fast technology development, individualization, glocalization (globalization and localization) and changing demographics. Increasing fluctuating renewable production will change the role of non-renewable generation. Distributed energy from renewables and micro generation will change the direction of the energy flow in the electricity grids. Production will not follow demand but demand has to follow production. This future system is enabled by the fast technical development of information and communication technologies which will be present in the entire system. In this paper the results of a comprehensive analysis with different scenarios is summarized. Tools were used like the analysis of policy trends in the European countries, modelling of the European power grid, modelling of the European power markets and the analysis of technology developments with cost reduction potentials. With these tools the interaction of the main actors in the energy markets like conventional generation and renewable generation, grid transport, electricity storage including new storage options from E-Mobility, Power to Gas, Compressed Air Energy storage and demand side management were considered. The potential application of technologies and investments in new energy technologies were analyzed within existing frameworks and markets as well as new business models in new markets with different frameworks. In the paper the over all trend of this analysis is presented by describing a potential future energy world. This world represents only one of numerous options with comparable characteristics.

  3. Energy security in a competitive world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, M.G.

    1989-01-01

    The world is shrinking and becoming increasingly interconnected. Events in one part of the world quickly impact other parts of the world. Rising standards of living in developed countries, along with rapid communications and growing, mobile populations, go hand in hand with greater worldwide interconnectedness but at the same time are leading to a greater rate of resource depletion. Adequate and economical energy resources are one of the crucial factors in maintaining and increasing standards of living around the world, yet nonrenewable energy resources are being depleted. The international marketplace is also becoming more tightly interconnected and competitive. Increasing trade competition among nations may lead to greater economic efficiency and, on the whole, to improved living standards in successful countries, but competition also contributes to barriers against cooperation. International trade competition may be leading to a tendency for competing nations to become more parochial in technology research and development. The impact of growing populations and rising living standards on the world's environment is also increasing and becoming more pervasive. Solid waste disposal is an increasingly aggravating problem, and hazardous waste and toxic wastes are even more difficult to deal with. Acid rain, global climate change, ozone-layer depletion, stream and harbor pollution, and the resulting pollution of the oceans are all evidence of a highly interconnected world. It is easy to argue that solutions must be political, economic, and social. In large part this must be the case; but as technologists, we want to do all we can to give political, economic, and social forces the best opportunity to succeed. Technology will be part of the solution and not just part of the problem of securing adequate energy supplies with acceptable environmental impact. 2 refs

  4. Nuclear energy and the developing world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafa, A.

    1982-01-01

    The importance of cooperation between the developed and developing countries with regard to nuclear power is discussed. Moves towards global interdependence were strengthened when OAPEC was set up with proposals for cooperation and depletion of world reserves of gas and oil will encourage this. Developing countries will increasingly look to nuclear power to meet their energy needs, particularly in the light of depleting oil and gas reserves, their increasing cost and the possible 'greenhouse effect' produced by fossil fuels. International cooperation concerning uranium reserves, reprocessing and technology transfer may need World Bank funding. (U.K.)

  5. Summary of the World Energy Investment Outlook 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The current edition of the World Energy Investment Outlook published by the International Energy Agency (IEA) focuses on the foreseeable worldwide investment requirement in the energy sector. The study lists these conclusions, among others: -Total investments of U.S. dollar 16,000 billion worldwide are needed for the energy supply infrastructure over the period 2001 to 2030. They are necessary to add to the power supply capacities and to replace existing power systems and power supply systems. - The financial resources available worldwide are sufficient, basically, to finance the energy investments forecast in the study. The framework conditions necessary for this purpose must be established. - The world energy resources are sufficient to meet the projected demand. Mobilizing the investments depends on the ability of the energy sector to hold its own in the competition for capital with other sectors of the economy. - Energy investments will be dominated by the electricity sector. This sector is likely to absorb nearly U.S. dollar 10,000 billion, or 60% of the total investment. - The developing countries, where energy generation and consumption are going to increase at the fastest rate, will take nearly half of the energy investment worldwide. - A major share of these energy investments is needed to keep up the present level of supply. - The largest share of investments into fossil sources of energy will be spent on extraction costs, exploration included, with different shares applying to the different sources of energy. (orig.) [de

  6. Mexico's energy dilemmas in an interdependent world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, M.

    2008-01-01

    Mexico's energy system is overwhelmingly dependent on hydrocarbons. Although a significant producer of oil and gas, and a considerable exporter of crude oil, it is increasingly dependent on imports of oil products and natural gas for its internal energy demand. In a World where free trade is increasing the interdependence of the industrialized economies, Mexico's energy policy dilemma is basically between maintaining as much as possible its self sufficiency; or relying on imports, while generating oil revenues through exports to invest in developing a diversified economy. Energy demand projections to 2030 are carried out that exhibit the limitations of present available oil and gas proved reserves under past policies. Alternative energy policy scenarios are then examined. (authors)

  7. Brazil in the global energy world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Frank D.; Vossoughi, Shapour [University of Kansas (KU), KS (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Brazil is the 10th largest energy consumer in the world and the third largest in the Western Hemisphere, behind the United States and Canada. Total primary energy consumption in Brazil has increased significantly in recent years; and over the past decade, Brazil has made great strides in increasing its total energy production, particularly oil. Brazil has the second-largest crude oil reserves in South America (behind Venezuela), and is one of the fastest growing oil producers in the world. According to United States Energy Information Administration (EIA), Brazil had 12.2 billion barrels of proven oil reserves in 2008. In 2007, Brazil's state owned Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS) announced that it had discovered an estimated 5-8 billion barrels of recoverable reserves (including both oil and natural gas) in the Tupi field, located in the Santos Basin. In 2008, subsequent discoveries were announced, to include Jupiter and Carioca (aka Sugar Loaf). Although PETROBRAS has yet to confirm the size of the discoveries, some industry analysts estimate the total extent of recoverable oil and natural gas reserves in the entire pre-salt layer have approached 40 to 80 billion barrels of oil equivalent. The reserves occur below a salt zone that is estimated to be 7,000 meters below the ocean surface. However, Brazil faces many challenges to recover the hydrocarbons to include technical, political, fiscal, and infrastructure hurdles. In spite of the challenges ahead, these discoveries transformed the nature and focus of Brazil's oil industry, economy, and future; and the potential impact of the pre-salt discoveries upon world oil markets is vast. The purpose of this paper is to discuss how the recent discoveries will affect Brazil's future and the impact it will have on the global energy world. (author)

  8. Future World Energy Constraints and the Direction for Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lightfoot, H.D.

    2004-09-12

    This paper was originally written in response to the concern that rising levels of CO2 in the atmosphere caused by burning of fossil fuels will ultimately contribute to global warming. Now we are beginning to see evidence of coming problems in the supply of fuels for transportation. This paper describes the benefits of adequate energy supply and the problems of future energy supply. Partial solutions are suggested for immediate application as well as longer term solutions to address both of these concerns. To evaluate the situation and solutions we must understand: (1) how much primary energy is currently used world-wide and might be needed in 2100, (2) how important energy is to the welfare of people, (3) the forms of energy sources and end uses and (4) where new sources may come from. The major portion of world primary energy demand is provided by fossil fuels. This portion dropped from 93% in 1970 to 85% in 1995, mainly because of the increased use of nuclear energy. How ever, since the mid-1990s fossil fuels have maintained their 85% share of world energy supply. The importance of the relationship between per capita energy consumption and per capita income for the world is discussed. The limits of conservation, energy efficiency and renewable energies are examined. The contribution of renewable energies is compared to 41 different views of world energy demand in 2100. Without new technology for large scale storage of intermittent electricity from wind and solar the contribution of renewable energies is not likely to grow significantly beyond the current level of 7-8%. The paper offers conclusions and partial solutions that we can work on immediately. Examination of the forms of energy supplied by the sun, which is powered by nuclear fusion, and the way in which nuclear fission currently supplies energy to the world sets the research framework for longer term solutions. This framework points towards two possible longer term complementary res earch projects which

  9. Future World Energy Constraints and the Direction for Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lightfoot, H.D.

    2004-01-01

    This paper was originally written in response to the concern that rising levels of CO2 in the atmosphere caused by burning of fossil fuels will ultimately contribute to global warming. Now we are beginning to see evidence of coming problems in the supply of fuels for transportation. This paper describes the benefits of adequate energy supply and the problems of future energy supply. Partial solutions are suggested for immediate application as well as longer term solutions to address both of these concerns. To evaluate the situation and solutions we must understand: (1) how much primary energy is currently used world-wide and might be needed in 2100, (2) how important energy is to the welfare of people, (3) the forms of energy sources and end uses and (4) where new sources may come from. The major portion of world primary energy demand is provided by fossil fuels. This portion dropped from 93% in 1970 to 85% in 1995, mainly because of the increased use of nuclear energy. How ever, since the mid-1990s fossil fuels have maintained their 85% share of world energy supply. The importance of the relationship between per capita energy consumption and per capita income for the world is discussed. The limits of conservation, energy efficiency and renewable energies are examined. The contribution of renewable energies is compared to 41 different views of world energy demand in 2100. Without new technology for large scale storage of intermittent electricity from wind and solar the contribution of renewable energies is not likely to grow significantly beyond the current level of 7-8%. The paper offers conclusions and partial solutions that we can work on immediately. Examination of the forms of energy supplied by the sun, which is powered by nuclear fusion, and the way in which nuclear fission currently supplies energy to the world sets the research framework for longer term solutions. This framework points towards two possible longer term complementary res earch projects which

  10. Nuclear energy and the modern world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1971-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency is an autonomous organization within the United Nations system, with its headquarters in Vienna, Austria. Its objectives, as defined in its Statute, are to 'seek to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world', and to 'ensure, so far as it is able, that assistance provided by it or at its request or under its supervision or control is not used in such a way as to further any military purpose'. This issue of the Bulletin contains a series of articles describing some of the ways in which the Agency works to fulfil its role. (author)

  11. World Energy Projection System model documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutzler, M.J.; Anderson, A.T.

    1997-09-01

    The World Energy Projection System (WEPS) was developed by the Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting within the Energy Information Administration (EIA), the independent statistical and analytical agency of the US Department of Energy. WEPS is an integrated set of personal computer based spreadsheets containing data compilations, assumption specifications, descriptive analysis procedures, and projection models. The WEPS accounting framework incorporates projections from independently documented models and assumptions about the future energy intensity of economic activity (ratios of total energy consumption divided by gross domestic product GDP), and about the rate of incremental energy requirements met by natural gas, coal, and renewable energy sources (hydroelectricity, geothermal, solar, wind, biomass, and other renewable resources). Projections produced by WEPS are published in the annual report, International Energy Outlook. This report documents the structure and procedures incorporated in the 1998 version of the WEPS model. It has been written to provide an overview of the structure of the system and technical details about the operation of each component of the model for persons who wish to know how WEPS projections are produced by EIA

  12. World Energy Projection System model documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutzler, M.J.; Anderson, A.T.

    1997-09-01

    The World Energy Projection System (WEPS) was developed by the Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting within the Energy Information Administration (EIA), the independent statistical and analytical agency of the US Department of Energy. WEPS is an integrated set of personal computer based spreadsheets containing data compilations, assumption specifications, descriptive analysis procedures, and projection models. The WEPS accounting framework incorporates projections from independently documented models and assumptions about the future energy intensity of economic activity (ratios of total energy consumption divided by gross domestic product GDP), and about the rate of incremental energy requirements met by natural gas, coal, and renewable energy sources (hydroelectricity, geothermal, solar, wind, biomass, and other renewable resources). Projections produced by WEPS are published in the annual report, International Energy Outlook. This report documents the structure and procedures incorporated in the 1998 version of the WEPS model. It has been written to provide an overview of the structure of the system and technical details about the operation of each component of the model for persons who wish to know how WEPS projections are produced by EIA.

  13. Future petroleum energy resources of the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlbrandt, T.S.

    2002-01-01

    and gas endowment estimates. Whereas petroleum resources in the world appear to be significant, certain countries such as the United States may run into import deficits, particularly oil imports from Mexico and natural gas from both Canada and Mexico. The new assessment has been used as the reference supply case in energy supply models by the International Energy Agency and the Energy Information Agency of the Department of Energy. Climate energy modeling groups such as those at Stanford University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and others have also used USGS estimates in global climate models. Many of these models using the USGS estimates converge on potential oil shortfalls in 2036-2040. However, recent articles using the USGS (2000) estimates suggest peaking of oil in 2020-2035 and peaking of non-OPEC (Organization of Petroleum-Exporting Countries) oil in 2015-2020. Such a short time framework places greater emphasis on a transition to increased use of natural gas; i.e., a methane economy. Natural gas in turn may experience similar supply concerns in the 2050-2060 time frame according to some authors. Coal resources are considerable and provide significant petroleum potential either by extracting natural gas from them, by directly converting them into petroleum products, or by utilizing them to generate electricity, thereby reducing natural gas and oil requirements by fuel substitution. Non-conventional oil and gas are quite common in petroleum provinces of the world and represent a significant resources yet to be fully studied and developed. Seventeen non-conventional AU including coal-bed methane, basin-center gas, continuous oil, and gas hydrate occurrences have been preliminarily identified for future assessment. Initial efforts to assess heavy oil deposits and other non-conventional oil and gas deposits also are under way.

  14. World's energy appetite may crave nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulkerson, W.; Anderson, T.D.

    1996-01-01

    As scientists come to agree that global warming is a real phenomenon, it may be time to jumpstart the stalled nuclear industry. World population is expected to double by the end of the 21st century, and the lion's share of growth will be in developing nations. open-quotes More people and more economic activity will require more energy,close quotes say William Fulkerson, a senior fellow at the Joint Institute for Energy and the Environment in Knoxville, Tennessee, and Truman D. Anderson, formerly director of planning at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. There are only three viable options to fossil fuel plants, the authors say: nuclear fission, nuclear fusion, and such renewable energy sources as solar and wind. The advantages of nuclear energy are well known, the authors say. open-quotes It emits no greenhouse gases, and potentially it can be expanded almost without limit anywhere in the world, providing the controversies that surround it can be resolved.close quotes However, to garner public acceptance, a new generation of supersafe nuclear reactors, invulnerable to terrorism and conversion to weapons, will need to be developed, the authors say

  15. Status of geothermal energy amongst the world's energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fridleifsson, I.B.

    2003-01-01

    The world primary energy consumption is about 400 EJ/year, mostly provided by fossil fuels (80%), The renewables collectively provide 14% of the primary energy, in the form of traditional biomass (10%), large (>10 MW) hydropower stations (2%), and the ''new renewables''(2%). Nuclear energy provides 6%. The World Energy Council expects the world primary energy consumption to have grown by 50-275% in 2050, depending on different scenarios. The renewable energy sources are expected to provide 20-40% of the primary energy in 2050 and 30-80% in 2100. The technical potential of the renewables is estimated at 7600 EJ/year, and thus certainly sufficiently large to meet future world energy requirements. Of the total electricity production from renewables of 2826 TWh in 1998, 92% came from hydropower, 5.5% from biomass, 1.6% from geothermal and 0.6% from wind. Solar electricity contributed 0.05% and tidal 0.02%. The electricity cost is 2-10 UScents/kWh for geothermal and hydro, 5-13 UScents/kWh for wind, 5-15 UScents/kWh for biomass, 25-125 UScents/kWh for solar photovoltaic and 12-18 UScents/kWh for solar thermal electricity. Biomass constitutes 93% of the total direct heat production from renewables, geothermal 5%, and solar heating 2%. Heat production from renewables is commercially competitive with conventional energy sources. Direct heat from biomass costs 1-5 UScents/kWh, geothermal 0.5-5 UScents/kWh, and solar heating 3-20 UScents/kWh. (author)

  16. Materials aspects of world energy needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-01

    Plenary session papers presented by participants from both developed and developing countries contributed to the information base on materials and energy outlook, international cooperation, economic aspects, and environmental considerations and established the theme for the subsequent workshop sessions. Workshops on ten major aspects of materials-energy interrelationships provided the opportunity of open and informal discussion of critical issues in each area and the development of reasonable consensus on problems and potential solutions. A separate abstract for each of the 10 plenary-session papers, the 10 workshop reports, and the 4 selected papers will appear in Energy Research Abstracts (ERA) and Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA). The brief issue summaries (preprints) will appear individually (total of 75) only in the DOE Energy Data Base.

  17. The World Power Conference and atomic energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1962-01-15

    The possibility that emerged after the last World War that useful power could be produced from nuclear fission led to optimistic estimates that nuclear power would prove to be the solution to the world's energy problems. The possible advantages of nuclear methods of power production compared with conventional means are discussed at the World Power Conference. The 1962 Conference with its theme 'The Changing Pattern of Power' will undoubtedly attract great interest in a world where the change-over from conventional to nuclear fuels for power production has started in some countries and is being actively examined in others. It is generally being realized that even though a country may possess indigenous supplies of uranium or thorium minerals, the building up of a nuclear industry i s a long and expensive process and the alternative of depending on countries more advanced in nuclear technology for the supply of materials, skill and know-how is costly in foreign exchange and international prestige. Many of the industrialized countries, still possessing supplies of conventional fuels, are preparing for the day when their reserves will become depleted and are embarking on training schemes to ensure a continuing supply of engineers and scientists skilled in nuclear arts

  18. Japan, world leader of photovoltaic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strasser, F.

    2006-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 1970's, the potentialities of photovoltaic energy has been recognized by the Japanese government which has sustained this technology in two ways. First, by the financing of R and D programs, and second, by giving subsidies to citizens for the installation of solar panels. Today, Japan is the world leader of photovoltaic energy, both for the installed power and for the production of solar cells. In 2003, the International Energy Agency was reporting 1.809 GW of worldwide installed capacity among which 48% was in Japan (0.86 GW) with respect to 0.4 GW in Germany, 0.275 GW in the USA and only 20 MW in France. This capacity would have exceeded 1.1 GW at the end of 2004. Half of the solar modules are manufactured in Japan. The ministry of economy, trade and industry (METI) has fixed ambitious goals for 2010: the overall new energy sources much represent 3% of the primary energy (with respect to 1% today) and the installed capacity must reach 4.8 GW. The road-map of the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organisation (NEDO) foresees 100 GW by 2030. (J.S.)

  19. Renewable energy outlook in Iran and World's energy structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azarm, D.; Adl, M.

    2001-01-01

    Limited fossil fuel resources and environmental impact of energy production technologies causing Global Warming have encouraged wide spread used of renewable energies. This article reviews the characteristics of renewable energy sources as well as their status within IR of Iran and pro-countries. According to the mentioned Information and Status, currently 22% of world electricity is produced through conversion of various renewable energies and expected to grow even further. This trend has been a main factor in reduction of end-used renewable energy prices. Consideration of social and environmental costs of fossil fuel use will help to reveal compatibility of renewable energies. Utilization of renewable energy potentials apart from proven environmental advantages and job creation effects may conserve country's conventional fossil fuel resources. In general, growth of renewable energy in a country is direct result of existing energy policies with respect to increasing the share of clean energies in the energy basket. Nevertheless in Iran yearly demand hikes for energy and considering the fact the fossil fuel reservoirs are limited, utilization of renewable energy potentials is inevitable

  20. World Energy Scenarios: Composing energy futures to 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frei, Christoph; Whitney, Rob; Schiffer, Hans-Wilhelm; Rose, Karl; Rieser, Dan A.; Al-Qahtani, Ayed; Thomas, Philip; Turton, Hal; Densing, Martin; Panos, Evangelos; Volkart, Kathrin

    2013-01-01

    The World Energy Scenarios: Composing energy futures to 2050 is the result of a three-year study conducted by over 60 experts from nearly 30 countries, with modelling provided by the Paul Scherrer Institute. The report assesses two contrasting policy scenarios, the more consumer driven Jazz scenario and the more voter-driven Symphony scenario with a key differentiator being the ability of countries to pass through the Doha Climate Gateway. The WEC scenarios use an explorative approach to assess what is actually happening in the world now, to help gauge what will happen in the future and the real impact of today's choices on tomorrow's energy landscape. Rather than telling policy-makers and senior energy leaders what to do in order to achieve a specific policy goal, the WEC's World Energy Scenarios allow them to test the key assumptions that decision-makers decide to better shape the energy of tomorrow This document includes the French and English versions of the executive summary and the English version of the full report

  1. Bioethanol as a major source of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anagha, Phani

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Achieving sustainability in agriculture requires taking into account many different factors: global climate, pollution, better use of industrial water, options regarding the use of fertilizers, pesticides, and herbicides, and also economic sustainability in terms of costs, competitiveness, and the number and quality of jobs created. The sugarcane industry is a good example of the integration of such concerns. It also illustrates what can be attained when people in developing countries receive the training they need to develop their own technologies. Bioethanol has taken precedence as Prime Biofuel after lot of controversy erupted on international food shortages and spiraling food prices. In spite of all the controversy Shrouding Biofuels, there has been universal acceptance and understanding that we need to continually look at alternate sources of fuels and feed stock's which are non food and this has seen visible interest for Sugarcane based Bioethanol to wheat, Maize and other food crops. In July 2008 alone, big investments in sugarcane/ethanol production were announced across the globe in sugar producing countries in the order of over 500 million dollars. The preceding months saw planned investment in the billions of dollars in the sector. The International Energy Agency sees world Biofuels production rising from 1.35 million barrels a day in 2008 to 1.95 million barrels a day in 2013- only five years away- and it is a safe bet that most of this increase will come from sugarcane ethanol. Dow Jones notes the sector seems impervious to the liquidity crunch with new investment being announced in Brazil despite high levels of existing debt. Pressure is also mounting on the developed countries to free up current import. (author)

  2. World Energy Outlook 2011 Special Report: Energy for All

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    What impact will the return of high energy prices have on the fragile economic recovery? Will geopolitical unrest, price volatility and policy inaction defer investment in the oil sector and amplify risks to our energy security? What will renewed uncertainty surrounding the role of nuclear power mean for future energy and environmental trends? Is the gap between our climate actions and our climate goals becoming insurmountable? World Energy Outlook 2011 tackles these and other pressing questions. The latest data, policy developments, and the experience of another turbulent year are brought together to provide robust analysis and insight into global energy markets. WEO-2011 once again gives detailed energy demand and supply projections out to 2035, broken down by region, fuel, sector and scenario.

  3. World Sustainable Energy Days Next 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Egger, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    These conference proceedings contain contributions to one of Europe’s largest annual conferences on energy efficiency and renewable energy. From two main fields – biomass and energy efficiency in buildings – contributions offer an insight into the research work and the scientific findings and developments of young researchers from all over the world. The papers were selected by a high-level scientific committee for oral presentation. They also communicate results, trends and opinions that will concern and influence the world’s energy experts and policy makers over the next decades. The conference was held from 26-27 February 2014. The conference The conference is organized by the Energy Agency of Upper Austria (OÖ Energiesparverband) and held in Wels annually in February or March. It attracts more than 700 experts from over 50 countries every year. The Editors Christiane Egger is the deputy managing director of the OÖ Energiesparverband and the Manager of the Ökoenergie-Cluster, a network of 160 co...

  4. Some comments on the future world energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemperiere, F.

    2011-06-01

    The key problem is the possibility to get mid century the energy necessary for the world development at acceptable cost and impacts with 70 or 80% of renewable energies (essentially solar, wind, hydro and biomass). In 2050 a population of 9 billion (7 in sunny countries) will have probably a gross product 3 or 4 times the present one with a reduced energy intensity; the need of energy may be the double of the present one. The Primary Energy is not an useful reference for most 2050 sources: for instance closing a thermal or nuclear plant supplying 1 TWh and generating 2 TWh more by wind, PV or hydraulics double the Final Energy when reducing the Primary Energy. Presently the Primary Energy is close to 150.000 TWh/year and the Final Energy utilisation to 100.000 TWh. But the present need of Final Energy is lower because many utilizations could use other sources reducing the relevant Final Energy: as examples using PV for cooking in Asia or Africa should divide by over 5 the relevant final energy and using electric cars could divide the Final Energy for transports by 3. The need of Final Energy in 2050 may thus be between 150.000 and 200.000 TWh/year. Anyway the final energy used from many sources will be limited, i.e. a total probably between 60 and 90.000 TWh/year, much under needs of 150.000 to 200.000 TWh/year. There is thus a great uncertainly but it is very likely that the gap will be mid century in the range of 100.000 TWh/year, to be met by coal, wind or solar, essentially through electricity. Electricity will be close to 100.000 TWh/year, with 20.000 from hydro, nuclear, oil and gas and the balance: 80.000 from coal, wind and solar. It is possible to get quite all from wind and solar under 4 conditions: - Coal resources could supply up to 50.000 TWh/year along most of the century at a direct cost lower (before 2040) than solar power by few cents per KWh (at least before 2030 or 2040), i.e. a saving which may be possibly 0,5 or 1% of the gross product. This

  5. World energy, technology and climate policy outlook 2030 - WETO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    WETO describes in detail scenarios for the evolution of World and European energy systems, power generation technologies and impacts of climate change policy in the main world regions or countries. It presents a coherent framework to analyse the energy, technology and environment trends and issues over the period to 2030, focusing on Europe in a world context. The document highlights three key topics. First, in a Reference scenario, i.e. if no strong specific policy initiatives and measures are taken, world CO 2 emissions are expected to double in 2030 and, with a share of 90%, fossil fuels will continue to dominate the energy system. Secondly, the great majority of the increase in oil production will come from OPEC countries and the EU will rely predominantly on natural gas imported from the CIS. Lastly, as the largest growing energy demand and CO 2 emissions originate from developing countries (mainly China and India), Europe will have to intensify its co-operation, particularly in terms of transfer of technologies. (A.L.B.)

  6. The world's energy reserves. Vol. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leibson, I

    1982-01-01

    A review is given of the world's energy reserves and their production, prices for fuel today and in the future, expenditures for enterprises for the production of synthetic fuels (gasification of coal, liquefaction of coal, producing MeOH from coal). It is thought that the production of synthetic fuel in the 1980 to 1990 time frame will be profitable if the cost for the production of traditional fuels rises by at least 2 percent per year more rapidly than inflation and if the cost of natural gas approaches the cost of oil (converted for the produced energy). The cost of synthetic fuels from fuel shales is lower than from coal and fuel shales will apparently be the most probable raw material for the production of synthetic fuels even today.

  7. Energy [R]evolution 2008-a sustainable world energy perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krewitt, Wolfram; Teske, Sven; Simon, Sonja; Pregger, Thomas; Graus, Wina; Blomen, Eliane; Schmid, Stephan; Schaefer, Oliver

    2009-01-01

    The Energy [R]evolution 2008 scenario is an update of the Energy [R]evolution scenario published in 2007. It takes up recent trends in global socio-economic developments, and analyses to which extent they affect chances for achieving global climate protection targets. The main target is to reduce global CO 2 emissions to 10 Gt per year in 2050, thus limiting global average temperature increase to 2 deg. C and preventing dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. A review of sector and region specific energy efficiency measures resulted in the specification of a global energy demand scenario incorporating strong energy efficiency measures. The corresponding energy supply scenario has been developed in an iterative process in close cooperation with stakeholders and regional counterparts from academia, NGOs and the renewable energy industry. The Energy [R]evolution scenario shows that renewable energy can provide more than half of the world's energy needs by 2050. Developing countries can virtually stabilise their CO 2 emissions, whilst at the same time increasing energy consumption through economic growth. OECD countries will be able to reduce their emissions by up to 80%.

  8. Thorium: An energy source for the world of tomorrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revol J.-P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To meet the tremendous world energy needs, systematic R&D has to be pursued to replace fossil fuels. Nuclear energy, which produces no green house gases and no air pollution, should be a leading candidate. How nuclear energy, based on thorium rather than uranium, could be an acceptable solution is discussed. Thorium can be used both to produce energy and to destroy nuclear waste. The thorium conference, organized by iThEC at CERN in October 2013, has shown that thorium is seriously considered by some major developing countries as a key element of their energy strategy. However, developed countries do not seem to move fast enough in that direction, while global cooperation is highly desirable in this domain. Thorium is not fissile. Various possible ways of using thorium will be reviewed. However, an elegant option is to drive an “Accelerator Driven System (ADS” with a proton accelerator, as suggested by Nobel Prize laureate Carlo Rubbia .

  9. Sectorial survey: energy in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mons, L.

    2001-06-01

    After 3 years of quasi-stagnation, the consumption of primary energy started again in the year 2000 with a +2.1% of growth. Petroleum remains the first energy source consumed in the world, in front of coal which is closely followed by natural gas. The increase of oil prices all along the year 2000 up to the beginning of 2001 has had serious impacts on natural gas prices. In this context, the energy actors have had an offensive behaviour based on the acquisition of market shares in the areas in progress of deregulation. The historical actors of the gas back-end sector have had to face both the offensive of the oil companies on the one hand and of the electric utilities on the other hand. In this changing competition environment the 2000 financial year has been felt differently by the oil, natural gas and electric companies. This study makes a clear and detailed status of the oil, gas, coal, electricity and nuclear markets situation through the economical analysis of 8 companies of the energy sector. (J.S.)

  10. French participation in the world energy council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carouge, Ch.; Roussely, F.; Francony, M.; Ailleret, F.; Bosseboeuf, D.; Moisan, F.; Villaron, Th.

    1999-01-01

    The Revue de l'Energie is presenting the most influential French interventions at the 17. Congress of the World Energy Council held in September 1998 in Houston, (USA). These represent only part of French participation in the congress since a total of 16 individuals from France took part in the various sessions. Their presentations cover very varied topics and are one of the things that testify to the interest that our energy industries have in the works and operations of the WEC. Some other figures also bear witness to this interest: 184 French congress members, which is one of the largest delegations after that of the United States, the host country of the congress; 11 technical presentation, covering a wide range of subjects: from the nuclear reactor of the future to the use of bagasse (cane trash) for the production of electricity, from the underground storage of natural gas to the production of extra-heavy crude petroleum. The technical exhibition associated to the Congress was a great success and there again the French presence was able to make its mark: five exhibitors were gathered in the France of 600 m 2 , the most sizeable non-American national area.But French participation in the work of the WEC is not limited to congresses. The French Energy Council [Conseil francais de l'Energie] is careful to ensure its presence both in the formal proceedings of the WEC and within the studies undertaken under its three-year programme. This active French presence is also essential in order to defend the official English-French bilingualism of the World Energy Council. In spite of the good will of the organizers and the support of the general secretary's office in London, the Houston Congress showed how difficult it was to maintain the use of the French language on English-speaking territory. This is a difficult task, one that has to be undertaken anew each time, but one that France and other French-speaking nations have decided to pursue to the end. (authors)

  11. Energy for tomorrow. The World Energy Council calls for global action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doucet, G.

    2000-01-01

    In April 2000, the World Energy Council (WEC) issued a statement that reexamined the world energy situation, revising its Energy for Tomorrow report published in 1993. The WEC Statement 2000 critically reviews the earlier scenarios and proposes a new set of goals and policy actions. The objective was to draw on actual experience during the last eight years, both in terms of analysis and clearer set of policy actions. The WEC dedicated its statement to help overcome energy poverty wherever it occurs; enhance the quality and reliability of delivered energy; and minimize negative environmental and health impacts of energy development. The WEC Statement sets the energy goals and defines the policy actions which, if taken now, would provide grounds for reasonable optimism in facing the task ahead. This article is based on the Statement's executive summary and highlights the main points in the context of major developments over past eight years

  12. The World energy outlook in 2020: a presentation of the World energy outlook 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cattier, F.

    2000-01-01

    In November 2000, the International Energy Agency published the new edition of the 'World Energy Outlook'. This work presents forecasts from the energy sector for the next 20 years. It describes changes in the supply and demand of energy as well as their consequences in terms of CO 2 emissions. The forecasts emerging are: continued growth in energy consumption and the associated carbon emissions; the ever preponderant role of fossil fuels, the importance of the developing countries in the global energy situation, the key role of the electrical sector and transport in changes in energy consumption and carbon emissions; the increased dependency of OECD and Asian countries; as well as the necessity of implementing additional policies and measures to reach the objectives detailed in the Kyoto Protocol. (author)

  13. Major changes ahead for Dutch energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kort, C.J.M.

    1996-01-01

    The Dutch energy distribution companies are again facing important adaptations to current market forces. The operational activities of the conventional energy distribution companies are split into monopoly tasks and commercial activities. By separation of functions and by further technological developments and market trends quite different types of companies will emerge, such as grid operators, energy-telecommunications-environment concerns and energy sellers. Some companies will focus on grid operation, while others will clearly opt for more commercial enterprising. Just like other private companies energy companies will develop new activities in other markets based on their own corporate strategies. Grid operation may then become only a mirror element or be abandoned altogether. 5 figs

  14. World Energy Outlook Special Report 2012: Iraq Energy Outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Iraq is already the world’s third largest oil exporter. It has the resources and intention to increase its oil production vastly. Contracts are already in place. Will Iraq’s ambitions be realised? And what would the implications be for Iraq’s economy and for world oil markets? The obstacles are formidable: political, logistical, legal, regulatory, financial, lack of security and sufficient skilled labour. One example: in 2011 grid electricity could meet only 55% of demand. The International Energy Agency has studied these issues with the support and close cooperation of the government of Iraq and many other leading officials, commentators, industry representatives and international experts. This special report, in the World Energy Outlook series, presents the findings.

  15. Oil and the world energy crisis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    Almost half of the needs for primary in the world are covered by oil. The rapid growth in oil prices because of the 1973 oil crisis caused a growth in prices for other source of energy as well, primarily coal and natural gas. The sale price of 1 m/sup 3/ of oil in 1973 equalled--$18.87, and later $31.45. In recent years, the cost of 1 m/sup 3/ of oil reached $188.69, and by the end of the century, according to forecasts, should reach $628.98. The cost of extracting 1 m/sup 3/ of oil in the Near East equals $1.57, and in the North Sea $44.03-75.48. The cost of producing 1 m/sup 3/ of synthetic oil from bitumenous sands equals $94.35-157.25, and from fuel shales $94.35-122.14. The explored oil reserves at the end of 1979 were, in million T: in the OPEC countries 58, 265, including 22, 261 in Saudi Arabia, and 25, 539 in the rest of the world. Oil extraction in 1979 was, in million T: in the OPEC countries 1574 (100%), including 510 (32.4%) in Saudi Arabia, 175 ((11.1%) in Iraq, 145 (9.2%) in Iran, 130 (8.2%) in Kuwait, 125 (7.9%) in Venezuela, 114 (7.2%) in Nigeria, 101 (6.4%) in Libya, 88 (5.6%) in the United Arab Emirates, other OPEC countries 186 (11.8%), in the other countries of the world 1550 (100%), including the United States 479 (30.9%), 108 (7.0%) in The Chinese People's Republic, 86 (5.5%) in Canada, 80 (5.2%) in Mexico, 79 (5.1%) in Great Britain, 28 (1.8%) in Arab Republic of Egypt, 18 (1.2%) in Norway, and 86 (5.5%) in other countries.

  16. World nuclear atlas. A step toward energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepage, Corinne; Laborde, Xemartin

    2015-01-01

    Illustrated by more than 120 maps and figures, this book proposes an overview of the world nuclear industry, of its development, and of the various strategies chosen within the perspective of energy transition. It proposes an overview of the status of nuclear energy in the world (presentation of the nuclear energy, development during the X X century, uranium production, fuel production and processing, the nuclear reactor industry), addresses the main controversies (health and environmental impact, waste management, opacity of the information, major accidents), the new challenges faced by the nuclear sector (a difficult assessment of huge costs, competition with renewable energies, a competitive environment, a technological uncertainty, transparency and democracy), the solutions chosen by big countries (USA, China, India, Japan, Europe, the German energy transition), and proposes a focus on France which is the only country which chose an all-nuclear strategy (history, nuclear installations, main actors, the myth of the French energy independence, the post-Fukushima French fleet, the case of the Fessenheim reactor, the EPR in question, the challenge of waste storage with the Cigeo project, the debate on the nuclear cost)

  17. World Energy Data System (WENDS). Volume V. International organization data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    The World Energy Data System contains organized data on those countries and international organizations that may have critical impact on the world energy scene. WENDS has acquired and organized information on the following energy-related organizations: Asian Development Bank; European Economic Community; Inter-American Development Bank; International Atomic Energy Agency; International Energy Agency; Nuclear Energy Agency; United Nations; and World Bank. Within each organizational grouping most of the following topics are addressed: organization background, government background, energy background (energy policy and objectives), energy research and development activities, and international activities.

  18. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1995, January 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    This publication examines developments in the operations of the major U.S. energy-producing companies on a corporate level, by major line of business, by major function within each line of business, and by geographic area.

  19. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1995, January 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This publication examines developments in the operations of the major U.S. energy-producing companies on a corporate level, by major line of business, by major function within each line of business, and by geographic area

  20. World Energy Data System (WENDS). Volume VI. International agreement profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    The World Energy Data System contains organized data on those countries and international organizations that may have critical impact on world energy. The international agreement profiles in WENDS are all energy-related and are organized by energy technology. These are: coal; conservation; fusion; geothermal; nuclear fission; oil, gas, and shale; solar, wind, and ocean thermal; and other (cooperation in electrical power equipment acquisition, energy, energy research, etc.). The agreement profiles are accessible by energy technology and alphabetically by country.

  1. Energy markets and European Integration: The World Energy Council role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, J.

    2002-01-01

    Energy market reform brings many benefits. Central and East Europe's challenge is to establish such markets when, at list in the case of electricity, the established market economies are still wrestling with how to apply competitive principles to this market. Design challenges include the natural monopoly elements within the electricity supply chain and the fact that it is, in practical terms, as essential social service. There is no one single model suitable to all markets at all stages of development. At the same time, there is a need for sustainable energy pricing, which means prices should cover all costs, with transparent and time-limited subsidies bringing the afford ability gap. Cross-border integration extends the benefits available from market reform by overcoming constraints at the national level and by broadening the geographical limits of a market. The World Energy Council works with its Central and East European members to analyse, understand and meet these challenges. (author)

  2. World energy: the facts and the future. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedley, Don.

    1986-01-01

    The world energy situation is examined. Since the first edition of the book was written, the 1979 oil price rise has added weight to the argument that the economics of the second half of the twentieth century have been dominated by the economics of the barrel of oil. This book looks at the major fuels available - coal, natural gas, oil, nuclear energy and electricity. Each is considered in turn, looking at the reserves, costs, demand and the prospects for the future. Questions about the fuels discussed in the book include: how far will the price of oil fall, can nuclear power ever gain full public acceptance, can conservation be the 'fifth fuel', when will the development of synthetic fuels and renewable energy sources regain momentum. The energy supply and demand throughout the world is then presented taking each country, or group of countries in turn and considering each fuel. The future is then considered -prospects for synthetic fuels, renewable energy sources, eg wind and solar power and nuclear fusion. 115 tables present the data on which the book is based and its conclusions drawn. (UK)

  3. Energy for the world of tomorrow. The time for action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ailleret, F.

    2000-01-01

    This article introduces 'Energy for the world of tomorrow' which is the year 2000 version of the study bearing the same title published in 1993 by the World Energy Council. This version also has the sub-heading 'The time for action'. Seven years after the first study, major changes have affected the energy sector and new challenges have arisen. This new study examines these changes and introduces the statistical bases and economic forecasting scenarios used today by the WEC. It deliberately focuses upon the strategy to be adopted in order to meet the three main objectives of accessibility, availability and acceptability which the energy system needs to achieve between now and 2020. The strategy is defined by an action plan containing 10 main priority areas recommended by the WEC and submitted to political and economic decision-makers in order to put the energy system on the path to sustainable development. These objectives and actions are briefly presented in this article, which also makes use of significant extracts taken from this report. (author)

  4. World Energy Outlook Special Report 2013: Redrawing the Energy Climate Map

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    Governments have decided collectively that the world needs to limit the average global temperature increase to no more than 2°C and international negotiations are engaged to that end. Yet any resulting agreement will not emerge before 2015 and new legal obligations will not begin before 2020. Meanwhile, despite many countries taking new actions, the world is drifting further and further from the track it needs to follow. The energy sector is the single largest source of climate-changing greenhouse-gas emissions and limiting these is an essential focus of action. The World Energy Outlook has published detailed analysis of the energy contribution to climate change for many years. But, amid major international economic preoccupations, there are worrying signs that the issue of climate change has slipped down the policy agenda. This Special Report seeks to bring it right back on top by showing that the dilemma can be tackled at no net economic cost.

  5. World Energy Outlook Special Report 2013: Redrawing the Energy Climate Map (Executive Summary)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    Governments have decided collectively that the world needs to limit the average global temperature increase to no more than 2 °C and international negotiations are engaged to that end. Yet any resulting agreement will not emerge before 2015 and new legal obligations will not begin before 2020. Meanwhile, despite many countries taking new actions, the world is drifting further and further from the track it needs to follow. The energy sector is the single largest source of climate-changing greenhouse-gas emissions and limiting these is an essential focus of action. The World Energy Outlook has published detailed analysis of the energy contribution to climate change for many years. But, amid major international economic preoccupations, there are worrying signs that the issue of climate change has slipped down the policy agenda. This Special Report seeks to bring it right back on top by showing that the dilemma can be tackled at no net economic cost.

  6. World Bank support for renewable energy - the ASTAE experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaeffer, L.

    1999-01-01

    Historically, the World Bank has helped finance the generation, transmission and distribution of electricity as well as improvements in supply-side energy efficiency. The World Bank's ability to mainstream renewable energy technologies in developing countries is enhanced by the Global Energy Facility (GEF), the World Bank Solar Initiative (and the nascent Solar Development Corporation), the International Finance Corporation and the Asia Alternative Energy Unit (ASTAE). (orig./RHM)

  7. World Bank support for renewable energy - the ASTAE experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaeffer, L. [World Bank, Washington, DC (United States). Asia Alternative Energy Unit

    1999-07-01

    Historically, the World Bank has helped finance the generation, transmission and distribution of electricity as well as improvements in supply-side energy efficiency. The World Bank's ability to mainstream renewable energy technologies in developing countries is enhanced by the Global Energy Facility (GEF), the World Bank Solar Initiative (and the nascent Solar Development Corporation), the International Finance Corporation and the Asia Alternative Energy Unit (ASTAE). (orig./RHM)

  8. Reflections on the world energy situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brand, B.

    1978-01-01

    After explaining the terms 'useful energy', 'primary energy' and 'end energy' this popular article gives a survey of the available potential and the utilisation of the primary energy sources (coal, petroleum, natural gas, oil shales and oil sands, nuclear energy, solar energy, geophysical processes, chemical-biological processes) as well as of the tendencies and consequences for the energy demand. (GG) [de

  9. Relationship between Major Developed Equity Markets and Major Frontier Equity Markets of World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Mansoor Baig

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The core aim of this study is to compute the long run relationship between frontier equity markets Pakistan (KSE 100 Index, Argentina (MERVAL BUENOS AIRES stock Exchange, NSE.20 (Kenya, MSM 30 (MSI Oman and equity markets of developed world (OMXS30 Sweden, SMI (Switzerland, SSE Composite Index (China and STI index (Singapore by taking weekly values from stock return prices for the period 1st week of January-2000 to last week of January/2014. Descriptive statistic, Correlation, Augmented dickey fuller (ADF, Phillips Perron test, Johanson and Jelseluis test of co-integration, Granger causality test, Variance Decomposition Test and Impulse Response are used to find the relationship among frontier and developed markets. The results of this study reveal that frontier markets have no long run relationship with equity markets of developed world. Furthermore, this study is helpful for investors to enhance the returns by diversifying the unsystematic risk at given level of profit because results of this study confirm that markets are no cointegrated.

  10. Major energy users and reforms of the German energy industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfaffenberger, W

    1994-06-01

    There is a historic tradition of industrial autoproduction of electricity in Germany. Major energy users in the past used to be and today often still are autoproducers of electric power. The public utility sector, according to present legal standards, operates in a framework that protects local and regional monopolies. The large consumers and autoproducers are an important countervailing power in the whole system of the electricity supply industry. Electric utilities (EU) in Germany are semi-public or private enterprises of a wide variety of size. The large producer utilities operate the high voltage grid on the basis of private contracts. Regional distribution companies mostly without a considerable share in production often in cooperation with local distributors deliver electricity (el) in the non-urban areas whereas mostly city owned EU supply the large cities often on the basis of considerable parts of autoproduction and often also with a considerable share of el produced in cogeneration plants. The equilibrium between the parts of this system in the past was ensured by a legal framework protecting local monopolies as well as long term contracts between producers and distributors. Deregulation trends inherent in European legislation on competition have threatened this stability. In the first phase resistance against a more competitive order seemed unanimous. In the meantime however the different actors had time to rethink their position: The European Council has now proposed a more moderate regulation. The German Government has made a proposal for some important changes in the Energy Law and connected passages in the Competition Law, which would introduce some more competitive elements into the system without anticipating the results of a competitive process.

  11. Proceedings of World Renewable Energy Congress '99

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaruzzaman Sopian; Mohd Yusof Othman; Baharuddin Yatim

    2000-01-01

    The congress discussed the following subjects, 1. The role of renewable energy in the next millenium; 2. Challenges in the commercialization of renewable energy; 3. The role and agenda for renewable energy towards sustainable development. Topics covered in the technical session were biomass conversion; solar thermal technologies and systems; solar photovoltaic s; renewable energy economics, financing and policy; renewable energy education; climate and the environment; energy and architecture; energy management; wind and hydro technologies and systems; hydrogen and fuel cell

  12. Some Major Issues Influencing Nuclear Energy Prospective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feretic, D.

    2012-01-01

    The presentation analyses some issues which are of particular importance for future nuclear power application. These include duration of uranium reserves and high level radioactive waste decay period in function of uranium reserves (determined, assumed and speculative) and type of fuel cycle used. Public acceptance during essential historical milestones of nuclear power use, influence of safety and compatibility evaluations, quantified risk, externalities and nuclear accidents. Short review of major accidents, causes, consequences, impact of LNT and hormesis hypothesis. Particular problem for future of nuclear power is potential shortage of experienced personnel due to long period without plants construction. To address some of problems which may face future investors a brief review of specific events experienced during construction of NPP Krsko is presented. Such events could be of interest to countries planning to construct nuclear power plant.(author).

  13. World energy up to the year 2020. Pt.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Alonso, M.

    1980-01-01

    A large report by the Conservation Commission of the World Energy Conference (''World Energy: looking ahead to 2020'') has been summarized, with some emphasis on the reference made to Spain. In this first part, orojections of primary energy demand are made for the whole world and its three main economic regions, taking into account the rising prices of energy and the possibilities of conservation. An average growth of 3% per year in world energy demand is estimated for the next decades. Also the projections for potential energy supply around the world are described, arising from the resources and reserves of the different energy sources, both conventional and unconventional, revewable and non-renewable. (auth.)

  14. Energy landscapes in a crowded world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasqualetti, Martin; Stremke, Sven

    2018-01-01

    One of the main drivers of landscape transformation has been our demand for energy. We refer to the results of such transformations as "energy landscapes". This paper examines the definition of energy landscapes within a conceptual framework, proposes a classification of energy landscapes, and

  15. Energy efficiency in the world and Turkey and investigation of energy efficiency in Turkish Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavak, K.

    2005-09-01

    The reserves of fossil fuels which currently respond to the major part of world energy requirements are being running out very fast. Because it is forecasted that reserves of some fossil fuels like oil and natural gas will come to an end in the second half of this century, exploiting all energy resources in an efficient manner has great importance. Throughout the world where the energy demand grows continuously but the resources decrease gradually, many types of programs are implemented to provide efficient energy use. In Turkey, although there have been some efforts in last two decades, the importance of the issue could not be undersood yet. Turkey'sgeneral energy policy still focuses on supply security and finding ways to meet the growing demand, rather than decreasing the demand by energy efficiency. In this study, the possible opportunities and benefits that Turkey would gain by energy efficiency is pointed out. The studies about energy efficiency which have been conducted in the world and Turkey are examined. The measurement that can be taken in the sectors such as industry, power plants, buildings, transportation and the utilities of these measures for energy economy are indicated. The successful practices of energy efficiency studies in various countries, the state of some countries which pioneer efficiency implementations. Turkey's situation in energy in the light of basic indicators such as energy consumption per capita and enrgy intensity, the energy efficiency studies that have been done and should be done in various sectors of Turkey are also discussed in this thesis. Turkish industry's energy comsumption is analyzed as a seperate chapter by taking into consideration energy efficiency, energy intensity and energy resources. The general energy consumption and energy intensity tendencies of main manufacturing industries between 1995 and 2002 are explored and resource utilization ratios are investigated. This chapter provides to find out what kind of

  16. Natural gas central to world's future energy mix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, M.M.

    1997-01-01

    Continued growth in demand for natural gas is one of three pillars around which the energy mix of the future will take shape and upon which energy strategies should be based. The others are consumption efficiency and growth of renewable energy sources. This paper evaluates world energy supply and demand and includes an analysis of world pipeline gas, electricity, and LNG trends. The paper discusses the natural gas resource, proved reserves, reserves growth, gas prices and demand, country demand trends, world energy use, gas pipeline construction, power generation, electricity consumption and prices, and global carbon emissions

  17. Nuclear energy in the world future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haefele, W.; Jaek, W.

    1983-01-01

    Starting from the actual position in the electricity market nuclear energy will grow up to the stabilizing factor in this field. The market penetration of breeding and fusion systems, therefore, will be the next important milestones of nuclear energy development. On the other hand nuclear energy as well as the electric grid itself are good examples for the reconstruction of the non-electric energy market which is dominated by resource and environmental problems. To overcome these problems the installation of a refining step for fossil energy resources and a new transport system besides the electric grid are the next steps toward a crisis-proof energy supply system. (orig.) [de

  18. A multiplicative environmental DEA approach to measure efficiency changes in the world's major polluters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valadkhani, Abbas; Roshdi, Israfil; Smyth, Russell

    2016-01-01

    We propose a multiplicative environmental data envelopment analysis (ME-DEA) approach to measure the performance of 46 countries that generate most of the world's carbon dioxide (CO_2) emissions. In the model, we combine economic (labour and capital), environmental (freshwater) and energy inputs with a desirable output (GDP) and three undesirable outputs (CO_2, methane and nitrous oxide emissions). We rank each country according to the optimum use of its resources employing a multiplicative extension of environmental DEA models. By computing partial efficiency scores for each input and output separately, we thus identify major sources of inefficiency for all sample countries. Based on the partial efficiency scores obtained from the model, we define aggregate economic, energy and environmental efficiency indexes for 2002, 2007 and 2011, reflecting points in time before and after the official enactment of the Kyoto Protocol. We find that for most countries efficiency scores increase over this period. In addition, there exists a positive relationship between economic and environmental efficiency, although, at the same time, our results suggest that environmental efficiency cannot be realized without first reaching a certain threshold of economic efficiency. We also find support for the Paradox of Plenty, whereby an abundance of natural and energy resources results in their inefficient use. - Highlights: • This study proposes a multiplicative extension of environmental DEA models. • We examine how countries utilize energy, labour, capital and freshwater over time. • We measure how efficiently countries minimize the emissions of greenhouse gases. • Results support the Paradox of Plenty among 46 countries in 2002, 2007 and 2011. • Countries richest in oil and gas exhibited the worst energy efficiency.

  19. Geopolitics of energy in a transition world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, A.

    1995-01-01

    Here is a study about worldwide energy forecasting from an economic analysis of our days, in developed countries, and with a forecasting about energy demand in developing countries. Nuclear power, petroleum, natural gas, coal are studied. The problem of environment protection which help some energy like gas or be prejudicial to some other like coal is evoked. The most important question is about the formidable energy demand for south-east Asia countries and how it will be answered. 13 figs

  20. Energy Efficiency Policies around the World: Review and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-01-15

    Since 1992 the World Energy Council (WEC) and ADEME (Agency for Environment and Energy Efficiency, France) have been collaborating on a joint project ''Energy Efficiency Policies and Indicators'' with technical assistance by ENERDATA (France). The latest report presents and evaluates energy efficiency policies in nearly 70 countries around the world, with a specific focus on five policy measures: mandatory energy audits, ESCO's, energy incentives for cars, energy efficiency obligations for utilities, and 'packages of measures' for solar water heaters. The report describes the implemented measures and identifies those proven most effective.

  1. Wind energy in a global world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjuler Jensen, Peter

    2007-01-01

    For the past 25 years there has been a dramatic development in the wind energy sector, with regard to the increase in overall utilisation of wind energy as well as technological development, the development of markets and expectations to the role of wind energy in the global electricity supply...... system. The purpose of this paper is to outline developments in the global capacity of wind energy this past quarter of a century, including technology, market aspects, scientific developments, testing and certification, formulation of standards and scenarios for the future development of wind energy...

  2. Prospects for the world nuclear energy market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-04-01

    Over the last few years projections of nuclear power generating capacity growth for the next two decades have progressively decreased. Dwindling load growth, increasing load lead time, costs of delays and high cost inflation, industrial recession, and fuel cycle delays are discussed as the main causes of the setback. The state of the fuel cycle business in the world market is examined and data are presented and discussed for predicted world supply and demand. Nuclear plans and fuel policies and requirements are then examined for individual countries.

  3. Hawaii energy strategy project 2: Fossil energy review. Task 1: World and regional fossil energy dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breazeale, K. [ed.; Isaak, D.T.; Yamaguchi, N.; Fridley, D.; Johnson, C.; Long, S.

    1993-12-01

    This report in the Hawaii Energy Strategy Project examines world and regional fossil energy dynamics. The topics of the report include fossil energy characteristics, the world oil industry including reserves, production, consumption, exporters, importers, refining, products and their uses, history and trends in the global oil market and the Asia-Pacific market; world gas industry including reserves, production, consumption, exporters, importers, processing, gas-based products, international gas market and the emerging Asia-Pacific gas market; the world coal industry including reserves, classification and quality, utilization, transportation, pricing, world coal market, Asia-Pacific coal outlook, trends in Europe and the Americas; and environmental trends affecting fossil fuels. 132 figs., 46 tabs.

  4. Future energy supplies. Lessons from the world energy outlook 2001. Insights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cattier, F.

    2002-01-01

    At a global level, primary energy resources are amply sufficient to meet the growing needs expected over the coming decades. Energy supplies may however be affected by economic, technological or political conditions. Supplies of oil and natural gas will be dependent in particular on the carrying out of the necessary investments in the field of development, production capacity, transport and distribution within a suitable time. The future for coal is above all linked to future environmental policies to be put in place and on the capacity of 'clean' coal technologies to respond to these. Due to their costs, which remain high, and to a lack of incentive policies, renewable energy sources should find it difficult to gain a major share of world energy markets. Finally, the future for nuclear energy remains dependent upon policies concerning security of supply or the fight against climatic change. (author)

  5. 2010 World bio-energy conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    After having evoked the bio-energy price awarded to a Brazilian for his works on the use of eucalyptus as energy source, this report proposes a synthesis of the highlights of the conference: discussions about sustainability, bio-energies as an opportunity for developing countries, the success of bio-energies in Sweden, and more particularly some technological advances in the field of biofuels: a bio-LPG by Biofuel-solution AB, catalysis, bio-diesel from different products in a Swedish farm, a second generation ethanol by the Danish company Inbicon, a large scale methanization in Goteborg, a bio-refinery concept in Sweden, bio-gases

  6. Yield trends and yield gap analysis of major crops in the world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengsdijk, H.; Langeveld, J.W.A.

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to quantify the gap between current and potential yields of major crops in the world, and the production constraints that contribute to this yield gap. Using an expert-based evaluation of yield gaps and the literature, global and regional yields and yield trends of major crops are

  7. Long-term strategies in world energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haefele, W.

    1980-01-01

    The International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis of Laxenburg, Austria has carried out a comprehensive systems analysis in which the problems of the long-term world energy supply are treated first qualitatively and then quantiatively. The results of this five-year study have been published in a book entitled 'Energy in a Finite World: a Global Energy Systems Analysis.' This summary of the book indicates that the world's energy supply in the next fifty years will not be limited by resources, but the rates at which new technologies will be built up. (orig.) [de

  8. World Energy Council 15th Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consejo Mundial de la Energia.

    1992-01-01

    All energetic aspects collected within the main topic 'Energy and life' are gathered in 14 volumes. Environmental questions were devoted special attention because of public concern. The congress resolved to promote clean technologies and renewable energies with less environmental impact but without forgetting profitability. Experts in energetic topics attended the Congress

  9. The strictest energy requirements in the world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Erik Hagelskjær; Jensen, Jens Stissing

    2013-01-01

    50 years of progressively strengthened energy requirements in the Danish building code appear to be a success, as the energy consumption has remained constant despite an increase in the total area in requirement of heating. This article however argues that the building code mechanism is heavily...... influenced by path dependent regime structuration processes, and that the mechanism constitutes a barrier to more radical developments within low energy housing. Few and poorly organized frontrunner activities within low energy housing have accordingly taken place in a Danish context during the past decades....... Finally it is proposed that the current development within the energy system provides opportunities for cultivating an improved transitional awareness and for carrying out experimental activities that may challenge the path dependencies of prevailing regime structuration processes....

  10. World energy outlook 2007 -- China and India insights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-11-07

    World leaders have pledged to act to change the energy future. Some new policies are in place. But the trends in energy demand, imports, coal use and greenhouse gas emissions to 2030 in this year's World Energy Outlook are even worse than projected in WEO 2006. China and India are the emerging giants of the world economy. Their unprecedented pace of economic development will require ever more energy, but it will transform living standards for billions. There can be no question of asking them selectively to curb growth so as to solve problems which are global. So how is the transition to be achieved to a more secure, lower-carbon energy system? WEO 2007 provides the answers. With extensive statistics, projections in three scenarios, analysis and advice, it shows China, India and the rest of the world why we need to co-operate to change the energy future and how to do it.

  11. World energy outlook 2007 -- China and India insights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-11-07

    World leaders have pledged to act to change the energy future. Some new policies are in place. But the trends in energy demand, imports, coal use and greenhouse gas emissions to 2030 in this year's World Energy Outlook are even worse than projected in WEO 2006. China and India are the emerging giants of the world economy. Their unprecedented pace of economic development will require ever more energy, but it will transform living standards for billions. There can be no question of asking them selectively to curb growth so as to solve problems which are global. So how is the transition to be achieved to a more secure, lower-carbon energy system? WEO 2007 provides the answers. With extensive statistics, projections in three scenarios, analysis and advice, it shows China, India and the rest of the world why we need to co-operate to change the energy future and how to do it.

  12. Estimate of Technical Potential for Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in 13 Major World Economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letschert, Virginie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Desroches, Louis-Benoit [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ke, Jing [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McNeil, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    As part of the ongoing effort to estimate the foreseeable impacts of aggressive minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) programs in the world’s major economies, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has developed a scenario to analyze the technical potential of MEPS in 13 major economies around the world1 . The “best available technology” (BAT) scenario seeks to determine the maximum potential savings that would result from diffusion of the most efficient available technologies in these major economies.

  13. Energy independence versus world market; Independance energetique versus marche mondial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel, P

    2003-07-01

    The geo-policy is the unity of the rules and political actions coming from taking into account the problem of the national energy demands facing the world energy market. The aim of this paper is to show that these actions are confronted to two paradigms of public policy. One is the research of the energy policy, the other is the effort of building and safety of the world market. (A.L.B.)

  14. Energy for the future: the world view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinel, M.P.; Meinel, A.B.

    1983-01-01

    The relationship between gross national product and energy use is studied for a number of countries and for the United States is particular. The relationship between income inequalities and energy use is also examined. The similarity between income inequality in an economic system and temperature differences in a thermodynamic system is noted. An economic chain analysis is used to derive income inequality distributions for a less-developed country and for a very-developed country. Finally the role of expensive but domestic-origin energy is examined. (U.K.)

  15. Energy demand in the world of tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oehme, W.

    1979-01-01

    The ability to make use of energy has been one of the main incentives of human development - a matter of course which was never thought about until the availability of energy became uncertain. This explains why people feel deeply concerned when hearing or reacting the words 'energy' and 'future'. Formerly, these words had been connected with the hope for a better future - nowadays people are afraid that their present standard of living may turn out to be nothing but a stage of transition. (orig.) [de

  16. World Energy Outlook 2007 Special Report: Focus on Energy Poverty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Energy poverty affects many Indians and is an important issue for the Indian government. The number of households with access to electricity has risen over the past couple of decades, but access is still far from universal and the availability of modern cooking fuels and technologies is still limited, especially in rural areas. We use an energy development index, based on access to electricity and cleaner cooking fuels and on overall electricity generation per capita, to emphasise the disparity in energy poverty across India and relative to other developing countries. There are still some 412 million people without access to electricity in India. In all three WEO scenarios, the number of people without access declines, but it falls much faster in the High Growth Scenario. In that scenario, all households in India have access to electricity in 2030. In the Reference Scenario, the electrification rate in 2030 in India is 96% but nearly 60 million people in rural areas will still lack access. At an investment cost of $41 per person, it would cost some $17 billion to connect all those without electricity today to the central grid. But gridbased electrification is often not available to remote villages and households, because of the high cost of expanding the network. Diesel generators, mini-hydro, wind turbines, biomass gasifiers and photovoltaics, or a combination of these, could be more economic. The number of people relying on fuelwood and dung for cooking and heating declines from 668 million in 2005 to 395 million in 2030 in the High Growth Scenario, 77 million fewer people than in the Reference Scenario. About 22% of the population would still rely on these fuels in India in 2030, even with higher growth. According to the World Health Organization, the use of fuelwood and dung for cooking and heating causes over 400 000 premature deaths in India annually, mostly women and children. The concentration of particulate matter in the air in Indian households using

  17. World Energy Resources and New Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmyd, Janusz S.

    2016-01-01

    The development of civilisation is linked inextricably with growing demand for electricity. Thus, the still-rapid increase in the level of utilisation of natural resources, including fossil fuels, leaves it more and more urgent that conventional energy technologies and the potential of the renewable energy sources be made subject to re-evaluation. It is estimated that last 200 years have seen use made of more than 50% of the available natural resources. Equally, if economic forecasts prove accurate, for at least several more decades, oil, natural gas and coal will go on being the basic primary energy sources. The alternative solution represented by nuclear energy remains a cause of considerable public concern, while the potential for use to be made of renewable energy sources is seen to be very much dependent on local environmental conditions. For this reason, it is necessary to emphasise the impact of research that focuses on the further sharpening-up of energy efficiency, as well as actions aimed at increasing society's awareness of the relevant issues. The history of recent centuries has shown that rapid economic and social transformation followed on from the industrial and technological revolutions, which is to say revolutions made possible by the development of power-supply technologies. While the 19th century was "the age of steam" or of coal, and the 20th century the era of oil and gas, the question now concerns the name that will at some point come to be associated with the 21st century. In this paper, the subjects of discussion are primary energy consumption and energy resources, though three international projects on the global scale are also presented, i.e. ITER, Hydrates and DESERTEC. These projects demonstrate new scientific and technical possibilities, though it is unlikely that commercialisation would prove feasible before 2050. Research should thus be focused on raising energy efficiency. The development of high-efficiency technologies that

  18. World Energy Outlook - 2050: Policy Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghouri, Salman Saif

    2007-07-01

    The paper analyzes the historical trends, resource distribution and forecasts the regional total primary energy consumption (TPEC) to 2050. The purpose is to provide a most probable path so that appropriate policies can be made to enhance/slowdown the energy consumption without hampering economic growth. Global TPEC is most likely to reach 763-1259 Quadrillion Btu (QBtu) to 2050 with reference case trending between and stood at 978 QBtu. By 2050 the equation of TPEC is expected to be tilted in favor of developing countries when their share is increased from 47 percent in 2003 to 59 percent. Asia developing region becomes the largest consumer of TPEC; however on per capita basis it remains the lowest after Africa. The forecast gives some guidance to policy makers. Which policy measures should be taken to ensure availability of predicted level of energy resources? How should we mobilize sizeable investment to increase the expected production/capacity/logistic both in the producing and consuming countries? Simultaneously, what strategic measures should be taken: to improve energy efficiency/conservation, development/promotion of renewable sources of energies and check population growth to downward shift the probable TPEC path without compromising economic growth, productivity and quality of life? (auth)

  19. Geothermal energy in Croatia and the world until 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jelic, K.; Kevric, I.; Cubric, S.

    1996-01-01

    The use of geothermal energy in watering place, heating, the production of electric power, and for other purposes is increasing throughout the world. Over the past ten years, besides traditional production from natural thermal wells, this energy has also been produced in Croatia from geothermal wells discovered as a results of deep exploration drilling for hydrocarbons. This paper analyses the current state of geothermal energy both in the world and in Croatia, and makes projections about its immediate future. Energy potential data on the croatian part of the Panonian basin are given along with perspective locations for producing this ecologically acceptable and partially reusable energy. (author)

  20. A Comparison of Three Major Academic Rankings for World Universities: From a Research Evaluation Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Mu-hsuan Huang

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces three current major university ranking systems. The Performance Ranking of Scientific Papers for World Universities by Higher Education Evaluation and Accreditation Council of Taiwan (HEEACT Ranking) emphasizes both the quality and quantity of research and current research performance. The Academic Ranking of World Universities by Shanghai Jiao Tung University (ARWU) focuses on outstanding performance of universities with indicators such as Nobel Prize winners. The QS Wo...

  1. Energy and climate: the essential world cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesourne, J.

    2008-01-01

    Considering the double challenge of energy supply for economic development and of greenhouse gas emission management to struggle against climate change, the author identifies what can be done at different levels: between governments and households (in terms of energy costs, public transport development, information and education), between governments and firms (in terms of standards, network leakage reductions, intellectual property on new technologies), and between governments. He identifies the related objectives for the European Union, the United States of America, Japan, Russia, China, India, Brazil, the Middle-East, and Sub-Saharan Africa

  2. Clean fuel technology for world energy security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunjay, Sunjay

    2010-09-15

    Clean fuel technology is the integral part of geoengineering and green engineering with a view to global warming mitigation. Optimal utilization of natural resources coal and integration of coal & associated fuels with hydrocarbon exploration and development activities is pertinent task before geoscientist with evergreen energy vision with a view to energy security & sustainable development. Value added technologies Coal gasification,underground coal gasification & surface coal gasification converts solid coal into a gas that can be used for power generation, chemical production, as well as the option of being converted into liquid fuels.

  3. The situation of the nuclear energy in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Jair Albo Marques de

    1996-12-01

    This work presents an overview of the nuclear energy in the world. It approaches the following main topics: kinds of nuclear power plants; operation experience of the nuclear plants; environmental and social aspects of the nuclear energy; economic aspects of the nuclear energy; development of the reactors technology and supply of the nuclear fuel

  4. World energy needs and their impact on nuclear reactor development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foell, W.K.

    1977-01-01

    This presentation will place primary emphasis upon energy demand. The presentation will cover the following areas: energy reserves and resources; energy demand: past and future (mid-and long-term); industrialized regions of the world; developing countries: Mexico and Iran as examples; and potential impact on nuclear development

  5. Major changes in the world's nuclear power at the beginning of the new century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumitrache, Ion

    2002-01-01

    In the last decade of the 20th century the world nuclear power recorded some characteristic trends among which one can mention the following: - Almost total absence of investments in new NPPs in the industrialized countries except Japan and South Korea; - Policy of some governments to decrease the nuclear power sector in their countries up to a complete stop of electricity production in a foreseeable future (as in case of Sweden, Germany, Nederland and Belgium); - Projections indicating a steady decline of nuclear share in the national power production as for instance in USA, Germany, Great Britain, and other industrialized countries; - pressures upon countries late owners of soviet type NPPs in order to shut down completely the RBMK and WWER reactors; - a drastic reduction of the funds afforded for research dedicated to fission reactors of new concept, except Japan and South Korea; - almost negligible effects of the Kyoto protocol upon nuclear power, hopes being directed towards renewable energy sources. After second half of the year 1998 modest signals of future changes in the energy policy occurred. The US government admitted on basis of performance assessments and projections that the important role of nuclear power in US will be extended still for long after the years 2020-2030. Consequently, research concerning the future demand for fission based power began be financed. Gradually the countries of EU and Canada modified also their official position towards the role of nuclear fission in ensuring the electric energy needs of the future. The beginning of the new century was marked by a significant acceleration of changes of opinions in favor of nuclear power. Japan and South Korea stated that at least in the first half of the 21th century the fission NPP's will play a major role. Russia promoted new WWER reactor types of safety standards equivalent or higher than the western ones. Also China and India launched ambitious plans for building new NPPs. These new

  6. Building up of an energy world in 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouneau, S.; David, S.; Meplan, O.

    2009-01-01

    The present work is the result of a reflection regarding the 2050 energy landscape at the world scale. It is not a prospective work but the construction of a 2050 energy mix, based on global data and hypotheses which are fully explained (energy consumption, world allocation, CO 2 emissions). The results allow us to bring out pertinent trends and quantitative information on energy needs and energy sources situated in the different large economic regions of the world in 2050. The goal of the present study is to build a representation of the world energy demand taking into account in a simple but realistic way all the relevant parameters on which it depends: population, total energy consumption, climate constraint, potential of available energy sources, appropriateness of these sources to the needs. The aim of this study is not to predict the evolution of theses parameters from today to 2050, but to choose or define their values in 2050 and then to be able to describe the resulting energy world. The initial assumptions for 2050 are a human population of 9 billions, a total energy consumption limited to 20- Gtoe/y, and a cut by a factor 2 of the CO 2 emissions which requires a fossil fuel consumption with CO 2 emissions limited to 4.2 Gtoe/y. The proposed method to describe the world energy demand in 2050 is based on simple hypotheses, which are detailed and argued. This method leads to a quantitative view on a world energy mix constrained by a total energy production of 20 Gtoe/y and the reduction by half of CO 2 emissions. This work shows that a '20 Gtoe/y' scenario requires a reduction of the energy consumption of the rich populations, without insuring a significant increase of the energy consumption of the poorest. The construction of the energy mix in 2050 demonstrates that it is necessary to deploy all new energy sources at their maximum level of potential: renewable energies, CO 2 mitigation and nuclear power. These results can provide an order of magnitude of

  7. An overview of energy consumption of the globalized world economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Z.M.; Chen, G.Q.

    2011-01-01

    For the globalized world economy with intensive international trade, an overview of energy consumption is presented by an embodied energy analysis to track both direct and indirect energy uses based on a systems input-output simulation. In 2004, the total amounts of energy embodied in household consumption, government consumption, and investment are 7749, 874, and 2009 Mtoe (million tons of oil equivalent), respectively. The United States is shown as the world's biggest embodied energy importer (683 Mtoe) and embodied energy surplus receiver (290 Mtoe), in contrast to China as the biggest exporter (662 Mtoe) and deficit receiver (274 Mtoe). Energy embodied in consumption per capita varies from 0.05 (Uganda) to 19.54 toe (Rest of North America). Based on a forecast for 2005-2035, China is to replace the United States as the world's leading embodied energy consumer in 2027, when its per capita energy consumption will be one quarter of that of the United States. - Highlights: → We present an overview of global energy profile in terms of embodied energy. → The US and China are top embodied energy consumers as well as traders in 2004. → Equality issue is studied by analyzing per capita embodied energy consumption. → The US remains to be the leading energy consumer until replaced by China in 2027.

  8. Worlds Largest Wave Energy Project 2007 in Wales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars; Friis-Madsen, Erik; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces world largest wave energy project being developed in Wales and based on one of the leading wave energy technologies. The background for the development of wave energy, the total resource ands its distribution around the world is described. In contrast to wind energy turbines...... Dragon has to be scaled in accordance with the wave climate at the deployment site, which makes the Welch demonstrator device the worlds largest WEC so far with a total width of 300 meters. The project budget, the construction methods and the deployment site are also given....... a large number of fundamentally different technologies are utilised to harvest wave energy. The Wave Dragon belongs to the wave overtopping class of converters and the paper describes the fundamentals and the technical solutions used in this wave energy converter. An offshore floating WEC like the Wave...

  9. The world energy consumption in 2001. Statistical yearbook ENERDATA 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Statistical data on the world energy consumption are given to illustrate the following situation in 2001: the deceleration of the world economic growth and the high prices of oil slowed down the progression of the energy consumption: 0,7 % in 2001; stagnation of the gas and oil consumption and strong progression for coal and electricity in 2001; the deceleration for gas marks a strong inflection compared to the past trends. (A.L.B.)

  10. Yield trends and yield gap analysis of major crops in the world

    OpenAIRE

    Hengsdijk, H.; Langeveld, J.W.A.

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to quantify the gap between current and potential yields of major crops in the world, and the production constraints that contribute to this yield gap. Using an expert-based evaluation of yield gaps and the literature, global and regional yields and yield trends of major crops are quantified, yield gaps evaluated by crop experts, current yield progress by breeding estimated, and different yield projections compared. Results show decreasing yield growth for wheat and rice, but ...

  11. Coalbed methane: Clean energy for the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, A.-J.; Johnston, S.; Boyer, C.; Lambert, S.W.; Bustos, O.A.; Pashin, J.C.; Wray, A.

    2009-01-01

    Coalbed methane (CBM) has the potential to emerge as a significant clean energy resource. It also has the potential to replace other diminishing hydrocarbon reserves. The latest developments in technologies and methodologies are playing a key role in harnessing this unconventional resource. Some of these developments include adaptations of existing technologies used in conventional oil and gas generations, while others include new applications designed specifically to address coal's unique properties. Completion techniques have been developed that cause less damage to the production mechanisms of coal seams, such as those occurring during cementing operations. Stimulation fluids have also been engineered specifically to enhance CBM production. Deep coal deposits that remain inaccessible by conventional mining operations offer CBM development opportunities.

  12. World nonrenewable conventional energy resources as of December 31, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parent, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    Energy analysts present year-end 1982 estimates for world proved reserves, remaining recoverable resources, annual production rates, and cumulative production of the non-renewable convectional energy resources: coal, natural gas, crude oil, natural gas liquids, bitumens, shale oil, and uranium oxide. Life indices for world fossil fuels are also given for several annual growth rates. The world's proved and currently recoverable natural gas reserves amount to 2649-3250 trillion CF; the estimated total remaining recoverable is 6693-7462 TCF. In 1982, 54 TCF of gas was produced for a cumulative production of 1320 TCF (not counting vented or flared gas)

  13. Energy [R]evolution 2010-a sustainable world energy outlook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teske, S.; Pregger, T.; Simon, S.; Naegler, T.; Graus, W.H.J.; Lins, C.

    2011-01-01

    The Energy [R]evolution 2010 scenario is an update of the Energy [R]evolution scenarios published in 2007 and 2008. It takes up recent trends in global energy demand and production and analyses to which extent this affects chances for achieving climate protection targets. The main target is to

  14. Energy in a changing world. Inaugural lecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Linde, C.

    2005-01-01

    In her lecture she emphasised that the expectation of the United States and the European Union after 1989 was 'strong globalisation' with increased integration of countries in international markets and multilateral organisations. In this system the US is mores-setter and the European Union its most important supporter. This expectation has only partially become reality. Different countries with different motivations have shun away from full integration and have at the same time shown economic successes, most notable China and to a lesser extent Russia since 2000. The result is a form of 'weak globalisation' that might become the most dominant trend for the future, threatening the mores of the market system. Many producing countries of oil and natural gas seem to opt for 'weak globalisation'. This has consequences for security of supply policies of consumer states. Especially countries that count on the international energy markets to deliver supplies, including most of the EU member states, have to critically review current policies. At this moment the EU is not tooled out for these developments and, as yet, incapable of collectively finding an answer to weak globalisation. [nl

  15. Development and supply of the world energy requirement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, E.

    1981-01-01

    Recently published research reveals that the world energy requirement can and must grow more slowly than previously anticipated. In order to supply developing nations with the energy necessary for the expansion of their economies, energy saving and oil substitution assume greater significance in the industrialised countries such as the Federal Republic. Future fulfillment of the world energy requirement will be characterised by escalating costs for supply, especially for the current main energy carrier oil, on the one hand and by increased use of coal and nuclear energy as well unconventional fossils such as regenerative energies on the other. Nuclear energy and thus the electricity economy must play a key function in the future energy supply of industrial nations such as Federal Germany. Nuclear energy enables, both directly and indirectly, the substitution of oil in the heat market, supplies the process heat required for coal production and, due to the ease of storage or uranium, provides a hedge against fluctuations on the world energy market. (orig.) [de

  16. The energy future in the world at the 21. century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frot, J.

    2006-04-01

    After a presentation of the world context of the energy consumption (the growth, the petroleum and the natural gas last, the greenhouse effect gases impacts on the climate), and the today research and development domains in the energy sector (petroleum, gas, generation IV nuclear reactors, carbon sequestration, renewable energies, hydrogen, energy storage), the author examines, using 4 scenario, the margins of action, the energy efficiency, the Gross Domestic Product de-materialization and the costs. Then he discusses the hopes and problems in the domains of the transports and the carbon sequestration. A special attention is devoted to the energy efficiency importance. (A.L.B.)

  17. World energy supply and demand and the future of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lantzke, U.

    1977-01-01

    The OECD's world energy outlook analyses projected trends in energy damnd and supply for the OECD area and other major global regions to 1985. It provides a brief discussion of trends after 1985. OECD energy consumption is projected to grow more slowly than in the past. Conservation effects will increase efficiency of energy use per unit of economic growth. All domestic energy supplies in the OECD are projected to expand faster than in the past. The relative share of non-fossil energy sources in total production will be almost doubled. Assuming moderate economic growth, existing energy policies and a constnat real price for oil, the outlook's reference case projects OECD oil import at 35 million barrels a day by 1985. This level of import demand, when combined with the import needs of other oil importing areas, could approach the limit of availability of world oil supplies and as a result cause severe disequilibrium in world energy markets. The outlook indicates such severe disruption can be avoided by action to improve the world energy supply and demand balance without impeding economic growth objectives. Strong measures will be required both to conserve energy and to develop new energy supplies. The biggest increment to the OECD's energy supply by 1985 is expected to come from nuclear power. This substantial nuclear contribution will be inevitable and irreplaceable. As a result urgent solutions to problems concerning safety, availability of fuel cycle services, the environment, cost escalation and construction delays will be required

  18. World in transition 3 towards sustainable energy systems

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    'The publication of World in Transition: Towards Sustainable Energy Systems is timely indeed. The World Summit on Sustainable Development gave great prominence to this challenge, but failed to agree on a quantitative, time-bound target for the introduction of renewable energy sources. The German Advisory Council on Global Change (WBGU) has now produced a report with a global focus, which is essential in view of the global impacts of climate change. The report provides a convincing long-term analysis, which is also essential. Global energy policies have to take a long-term perspective, over the

  19. Energy in the world: The present situation and future options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogner, H.H.

    1989-01-01

    It is reported that the most notable changes on the world energy scene since 1973 concerned the shift in OPEC's role from a base to a swing producer, the disruption of the fast market penetration of nuclear power and the impacts caused by the technical advances at essentially all stages of the energy system. Further, several parts of the world witnessed a strong environmental movement which attracted public attention to the conduct of the energy industry and its social implications and environmental consequences. The lecture illuminates these events in some detail and evaluate their impacts on present and future energy demand, supply and trade patterns. The future energy outlook includes two fundamentally different scenarios. Each scenario in itself appears internally consistent. The diverging projections of future energy demand and supply mixes underlying these scenarios are the result of the inclusion/omission of technical change or dynamics of technology into the analyses. 19 refs, 22 figs

  20. Russian energy imperialism: the world mapped along the gas pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    Baločkaitė, Rasa

    2012-01-01

    Energy imperialism refers to the use of natural resources for political purposes, i.e. weaponization of energy. At the state level, it means specific institutional structure, as the state building is predetermined by oil led developments. At the international level, it means international nets of energy dependency, centered around the mother state possessing oil, gas and other natural resources. In a paradox way, the so called Western world (Western Europe and North America) becomes increasin...

  1. The development of the world's population as a factor determining future energy requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vossebrecker, H.; Henssen, H.

    1988-01-01

    Urgently desired economic developments improving the conditions of living in the developing countries and, in the long term, introducing a stabilization of the world's population, result in a considerable rise in world energy requirement. This, in turn, causes conflicts and raises major ecological dangers because of the accelerated depletion of fossil sources of energy it entails. The severity of the CO 2 problem emerges clearly only when seen in connection with the population growth of the developing countries. Undoubtedly, therefore, the fossil sources of energy will have to give up their present leading role in world energy supply because of the intolerable environmental pollution they produce and because of the dwindling oil and gas reserves. The only hope remaining for the present is the possibility of nuclear power and renewable energies pointly being able to meet requirements, while all economically reasonable conservation potentials are being exploited. (orig./UA) [de

  2. World-wide termination of nuclear energy application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quirin, W.

    1991-01-01

    It is easy to require the widely discussed termination of nuclear energy application, but it is hardly possible to realise it, unless one is prepared to accept enormous economic and ecological problems. The article investigates, whether the other energy carriers or energy saving methods, respectively, would be in a position to replace the nuclear energy. Thereby the aspects of securing the supply and its economy are of considerable importance. The author describes furthermore the effects of terminating nuclear energy on the growing world population and the economy of trading countries. Ecological problems that may also be aggravated are dealt with, too. (orig.) [de

  3. Geo-economy of world energy supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauthier, Jean-Michel

    2009-01-01

    For over 50 years now, the global primary energy demand structure has been based on fossil fuels for more than 80%. In 25 years, our energy needs will still be covered by an over 80% fossil energy mix according to the reference scenario of most energy agencies. Over this period of time, the economics of energy will be radically altered as a result of a long term sustained global demand of energy and a growing constraint on some hydrocarbon production, conventional oil in particular. The oil production profile on currently operated oil fields, essentially in the OECD, will further decline or require significantly increasing investments. Non conventional oil sources are already proving to be even more capital-intensive. In the face of dwindling reserves in the old OECD hydrocarbon basins, the only resource-rich region in the world with low extraction costs and available swing supply capacities is the Middle East. Tomorrow's oil industry and markets will therefore represent a risk concentrated around a single region in the world, whilst the global gas industry will face a risk concentrated around two regions in the world, including Russia and the Middle East. Massive investments in energy infrastructures will be necessary to bring gas from these two sources to the remote markets in Asia, Europe or the US. The era of cheap energy is definitely gone. Far from being an obsolete fuel, coal is and will remain the most abundant, competitive and favoured source of energy for power generation across the world. CO_2 emissions from coal use are coal's only handicap. The vision of our energy future is in front of us: the environment will be filthy, energy will be costly and geopolitical tensions between producers and consumers will be strong

  4. World Best Practice Energy Intensity Values for SelectedIndustrial Sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn; Neelis, Maarten; Galitsky,Christina; Zhou, Nan

    2007-06-05

    "World best practice" energy intensity values, representingthe most energy-efficient processes that are in commercial use in atleast one location worldwide, are provided for the production of iron andsteel, aluminium, cement, pulp and paper, ammonia, and ethylene. Energyintensity is expressed in energy use per physical unit of output for eachof these commodities; most commonly these are expressed in metric tonnes(t). The energy intensity values are provided by major energy-consumingprocesses for each industrial sector to allow comparisons at the processlevel. Energy values are provided for final energy, defined as the energyused at the production facility as well as for primary energy, defined asthe energy used at the production facility as well as the energy used toproduce the electricity consumed at the facility. The "best practice"figures for energy consumption provided in this report should beconsidered as indicative, as these may depend strongly on the materialinputs.

  5. A systematic review of religious beliefs about major end-of-life issues in the five major world religions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Rajshekhar; El-Jawahri, Areej R; Litzow, Mark R; Syrjala, Karen L; Parnes, Aric D; Hashmi, Shahrukh K

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the religious/spiritual beliefs of followers of the five major world religions about frequently encountered medical situations at the end of life (EoL). This was a systematic review of observational studies on the religious aspects of commonly encountered EoL situations. The databases used for retrieving studies were: Ovid MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, Ovid PsycINFO, Ovid Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Ovid Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Scopus. Observational studies, including surveys from healthcare providers or the general population, and case studies were included for review. Articles written from a purely theoretical or philosophical perspective were excluded. Our search strategy generated 968 references, 40 of which were included for review, while 5 studies were added from reference lists. Whenever possible, we organized the results into five categories that would be clinically meaningful for palliative care practices at the EoL: advanced directives, euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide, physical requirements (artificial nutrition, hydration, and pain management), autopsy practices, and other EoL religious considerations. A wide degree of heterogeneity was observed within religions, depending on the country of origin, level of education, and degree of intrinsic religiosity. Our review describes the religious practices pertaining to major EoL issues and explains the variations in EoL decision making by clinicians and patients based on their religious teachings and beliefs. Prospective studies with validated tools for religiosity should be performed in the future to assess the impact of religion on EoL care.

  6. Possible limitations to SSPS use due to distribution of world population and world energy consumption centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claverie, M.J.; Dupas, A.P.

    1980-09-01

    Satellite solar power stations, as envisioned now, would be very large energy systems from the point of view of power output (about 5 GW) and of land requirements (more than 400 sq km for a rectenna and the associated exclusion area). These size constraints could lead to limitations in the use of SSPS in significant parts of the world, due to three main incompatibilities: too high population density, insufficient density of electrical demand, and obligation for a single power station to provide less than about 20% of the total electrical demand in a given geographical zone to assure reliability. The extent of these three possible limitations was assessed, using a future world energy model developed previously. The rationale behind this model is to divide the world into 10 deg latitude by 10 deg longitude zones, in which future electrical demands (in 2000 and 2020/2025) are computed according to energetical previsions of the Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) and of the World Energy Conference (WEC). The results are world wide maps of electrical demand densities in 2000 and 2020/2025.

  7. Necessity of nuclear energy in energetic world context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Rodriguez, M.

    1981-01-01

    Different opinions on nuclear energy make the middle citizen feel confounded and wonder hundreds of questions to wwhich an easy reply is not found. May be if nuclear energy is really necessary, the first of these questions, without noticing that necessity is a vague concept with a double interpretation. To some, those support a total change in the actual society into more primitive situations, the energy pattern the world has chosen -both the East and West models- is annoying, and they consider a pattern based on ''soft energies''to be the solution to the social scheme they imagined. To others, those who think on an economic, industrial and social development in the countries, it should be based on a strong energy pattern, which could supply what the world needs more and more, nuclear energy is, at least nowadays, an unavoidable necessity and an inevitable option. The document shown has been prepared on the conclusions of the most recent works on the subject, and it is deduced from all of them what everybody considers to be the future energy demand for the year 2000 and its distribution into energy sources, nuclear energy includes. The two basic parameters for tAe valuation of this demand are the increasing of population and gross national product. Available energy resources are mentioned on the document and, mainly, the nuclear capacity of each country. (author) [es

  8. World trends in wind energy. A focus per country. Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, Mamadou

    2016-01-01

    A set of articles highlights and comments various trends related to the development of wind energy in 2015. More specifically, the articles outline that 2015 has been a record year for wind energy in the World (an increase of 63.900 MW in installed power), that wind energy covers 11.4 per cent of energy demand in Europe, that the wind energy sector is still in a very good health in the USA (more megawatts have been installed during the last quarter of 2015 than during the whole 2014 year and perspectives seem promising in terms of installed power, share of energy, costs and prices), that Denmark holds the world record of wind energy consumption in 2015 (42.1 per cent of its energy consumption in 2015), that Mauritania could be the engine of the wind energy sector in western Africa (a first important wind farm has been installed in 2012, followed by others with a higher production, and a 100 MW project), that Scotland awarded a 53 MW project to Siemens (using the Siemens G2 platform), and that Kenya signed a partnership with a Chinese company for a 102 MW project. The last article outlines that renewable energies appear to be resilient in front of the oil crisis

  9. The great transformation of global energy supply. Central messages of the world energy congress; Die Grosse Transformation der Weltenergieversorgung. Zentrale Botschaften des World Energy Congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffer, Hans-Wilhelm [World Energy Council, London (United Kingdom). World Energy Resources

    2016-12-15

    The 23rd World Energy Congress, held in Istanbul from October 9 to 13, 2016, brought together some 4500 delegates from around the world. It is the world's largest international energy conference held every three years by the World Energy Council in changing world regions. The congress was a unique opportunity to present a comprehensive view of current and long-term global energy issues. [German] Der 23. Weltenergie-Kongress, veranstaltet vom 9. bis 13.10.2016 in Istanbul, brachte etwa 4500 Delegierte aus der ganzen Welt zusammen. Es ist die weltweit groesste internationale Energiekonferenz, die alle drei Jahre vom World Energy Council in wechselnden Weltregionen ausgerichtet wird. Mit dem Kongress wurde die einzigartige Gelegenheit wahrgenommen, einen umfassenden Blick sowohl auf die aktuellen als auch auf die langfristig global relevanten Energiethemen zu richten.

  10. The role of electricity in the world energy mix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multon, Bernard

    2015-10-01

    As energy has become the engine of development and electricity some kind of ideal energy, the author first comments the trends and levels of energy demand and world electricity production, and then the geographical distribution of electricity production per primary sources (geothermal, wind, biomass, solar, hydraulic, marine, non renewable wastes, nuclear, and fossil). He also comments the evolutions of energy production by these different sources and the production of some important countries during the last decade. Figures illustrate the cases of Europe, China, USA and France (shares of different sources in the production)

  11. Energy history chronology from World War II to the present

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, P.C.

    1982-08-01

    This report provides a basic guide to the major Presidential, Legislative, Judicial, and Federal agency actions relating to energy policy, research, development, and regulation in recent years. The chronology is arranged synoptically, allowing users to reference easily the historical context in which each event occurred. Summaries of Presidential, Legislative, and Judicial actions relating to energy, rosters of federal energy officials, and a genealogy of federal energy agencies are also provided in separate appendices. The Energy History Chronology was prepared in conjunction with the History Division's series of pamphlets on the Institutional Origins of the Department of Energy. The series includes concise histories of the Department of Energy, the Energy Research and Development Administration, the Federal Energy Administration, and the Atomic Energy Commission. All significant events and achievements noted in the institutional history are also listed.

  12. The world energy demand in 2005: confirmed increase in energy consumptions, despite soaring crude oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chateau, Bertrand

    2006-01-01

    The world energy demand growth remains strong: 2004 experienced the highest growth since 19987, and brent prices had moderate impact in 2005: Very strong rise of energy consumptions despite high oil prices, Economic situation still favorable, Evolutions principally due to China. 2005 world energy consumption: 11,4 Gtoe: Asia accounts for 35% of the world energy consumption, China's weight (15%) continues to increase by one point every year (+5 points since 2000). Asia increases its pressure on the world energy growth in 2005: China accounts for almost half of the world energy consumption increase in 2005, the whole Asia accounts for 70%; The European consumption growth represents less than 5% of China's Growth; The American energy consumption decreases for the first time. 2005 world consumption by energy: With an increasing market share by 0,7 points, coal penetration increases; The oil market has lost 0,4 point, with an accelerating relative decrease; The relative weight of gas remains stable, with 21%. Energy efficiency and energy intensity of GDP: Slow-down of the world energy intensity decrease since 2001, whereas the economic growth is faster, due to changes in trends in China (increase in the recent years). Increase less sharp in China in 2005 (price effect). Energy intensity trends of GDP: Fast decrease in CIS since the recovery of the economic growth; Slow-down of the decrease in EU since 2000 and recovery in 2005 whereas the decrease has accelerated in the USA. Since 2000, the energy consumption increases less rapidly than the GDP almost everywhere, except for the Middle East. Projections until 2020: China and India could represent one third of the world energy growth, the whole of Asia more than 50%; Growth prospects for energy demand are low in the EU and CIS; America would account for 20% of the world energy growth (8% USA); In the rest of the world, high growth in Africa and in the Middle East. Gas could cover more than 40% of the world energy

  13. Atlas of world energies. Which choices for tomorrow?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barre, Bertrand; Merenne-Schoumaker, Bernadette; Bailly, Anne

    2015-01-01

    This book proposes maps and graphics to present and describe the complexity of energy stakes in the 21. century. It addresses various issues related to energy consumption (growth and inequity, a very contrasted energy consumption with respect to resources, energy and development, an always more expensive energy, the major issue of climate change, energy-related pollutions, waste management, risk prevention), the main conventional energies (sources, vectors and networks, electricity and storage, crude oil, natural gas, coal, nuclear and fissile materials, non conventional hydrocarbons, future technologies, the possibility of clean conventional energies), renewable energies at the heart of energy transition (biomass, hydraulic energy, wind energy, solar energies, other renewable resources, the viability of renewable energies), the energy geopolitics (trades, tensions and power games, the main energy actors, the Middle East, Russia and USA as the three main producers, EU, China and India as different consumers, sub-Saharan Africa), and the time for action (to increase energy efficiency and sobriety, to diversify resources and supplies, transports and mobility, land and city planning, modes of consumption, to reduce inequities)

  14. Energy and the World Summit on Sustainable Development: what next?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalding-Fecher, Randall; Winkler, Harald; Mwakasonda, Stanford

    2005-01-01

    Given the importance of energy issues to sustainable development, energy was a priority issue at the World Summit on Sustainable Development in August 2002. The objective of this paper is to examine the outcomes of the Summit on energy, and to assess them against proposals to address the lack of access to modern energy and the need to move toward a cleaner energy system. We find that lack of political leadership from key countries prevented agreement not only on targets for renewable energy, but also on a programme to promote access. The achievements of the Summit were limited to enabling activities such as capacity building and technology transfer, rather than substantive agreements. While WSSD put energy higher on the agenda than before, no institutional home or programme to take the issues forward has emerged. This therefore remains a critical challenge to be addressed. Achieving this broad goal will require building a coalition to promote cleaner energy, and committing resources to programme for energy access. Based on analysis of proposals and the negotiations, we propose several key areas where progress is still possible and necessary, including: shifting more international public and private energy financing toward access investments and cleaner energy investments, advancing regional approaches to access and renewable energy targets, and a range of mechanisms to strengthen institutional capacity for integrating energy and sustainable development

  15. Geopolitics of energy in 2017 in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romain Chicheportiche

    2017-10-01

    Whereas geopolitical stakes related to energy have a very important influence on national energy policies throughout the world, this publication proposes a set of discussions of these issues by considering different regions of the World. It starts with Europe with comments on a controversial report published by a French public agency on the German Energiewende, comments on the British policy of support to electric vehicles, on the example of El Hierro in the Canaries Islands, on the building up of new wind energy projects in Germany without any public subsidy, on the good position of European manufacturers on the world wind turbine market, and on the new gas pipe connecting Russia to Crimea. The next set of articles addresses the American continent with comments on the surprising backward step of Brazil on renewable energy projects, on Trump's policy in favour of hydrocarbons, on the tension between the USA and North Korea, and on the emerging trend noticed in Latin America with technologically neutral tenders (with no discrimination between energy sources). The third part concerns Asia with comments on the OPEC strategy, on the blacklisting of Qatar, on the resuming of oil deliveries by Saudi Arabia to Egypt, on the authorisation given by Iran to many oil companies, and on the renewable production in China which is smaller than expected. The last part deals with Africa with comments on the increased presence of Total in Senegal, and on the development of wind energy in Kenya (the largest fleet in Africa)

  16. World energy outlook 2006: the International energy Agency (I.E.A.) report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorin, F.

    2006-01-01

    Between the increasing of energy consumption and then, increasing of carbon dioxide emissions, and the decreasing of hydrocarbon reserves it is urgent to find others energy supplies strategies. The nuclear energy is able to bring a determining contribution to the solution of the world energy problem. (N.C.)

  17. Energy for a righteous world with a safe future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, D.J.

    1977-01-01

    We are in charge of our energy future and thus of the future itself. Energy decisions in the past were made on a too narrow and short-term basis, and we can daily clearly observe their inadequacy. The policy's quality does not correspond to the significance of the problem. A greater approximation leads to a consequent policy of the development of energy alternatives, of which some considerably deviate from those which would result at a closer look. This lecture deals with two aspects of the problem, both concern the future of nuclear energy. The first aspect treats extensively the energy possibilities available to the world in the future; the second deals more with the problem of the acceptibility of nuclear energy, reprocessing of nuclear fuels, the relationship to atomic armament and the thus involved problems. (orig.) [de

  18. Proceedings of the 14. forum: Croatian Energy Day: Energy: Its reality and outlook - World - Europe - Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granic, G.; Jelavic, B.

    2005-01-01

    This year the Croatian Energy Society is organizing its 14. Forum. For this occasion we chose the topic Energy perspectives today and tomorrow, World-Europe-Croatia, which in recent years is increasingly in the focus of interest not only of energy experts but of broad public as well. Namely, the end of the 20. and beginning of the 21st century saw the changes that, in many ways, influenced the energy market development. Views on the future and energy supply stability as they were in the era of divisions (free and communist world, developed and undeveloped world) must be substantially and urgently changed, because the geopolitical landscape of the world has been changing as well as development dynamics of countries and parts of continents. For Europe (Croatia included), which has deficit of primary energy sources and depends on energy import, reliability, availability security and economy of imported energy are key assumptions of sustainable economic and ecological development. The Forum shall discuss the following issues, which strongly influence or will influence the energy perspectives in the next 50 years: Reserves and potentials (size, geo-allocation of resources, transport possibilities, renewable sources); Technologies (exploitation, production, transport, distribution, consumption: appliances, consumers, and processes); Economic development and energy demand (development levels, richness and poverty, price of energy and social influence, energy efficiency); Environmental protection (Kyoto Protocol, legislation, economic capacities, nuclear energy); Energy trade liberalization (market development, restructuring, common legislation, privatization); Security of supply (local, European and global level); Population growth; Political changes and conflicts, military conflicts, terrorism. World Energy Council (WEC) initiated work on global study on energy development: Energy Scenario to 2050. The energy community around the world is equally interested in this study

  19. Financial crises and the outlook for the world energy economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scanlan, Tony

    1999-01-01

    With respect to world energy, two subjects are preoccupying energy economists. They are (1) how will production of oil and gas hold up with the lowest oil prices since 1945 and (2) are the recessions in Asia, parts of Latin America and the CIS rendering futile any attempts to balance the energy markets? The fundamental question asked is: What kind of market are we in? The paper is structured to provide answers or discuss the following sub-questions. (i) does the energy market operate by the same rules as the global economy; (ii) what lessons can be learned from disconnection of the oil market problems of 1973 and the collapse of the tanker market and (iii) how should the markets be regulated. A detailed analysis of world energy growth in the second half of this century and how it may develop in the next 20 years is given. Special attention is paid to the role of the Asia/Pacific market, the strength of the world economic system, the impact of privatisation in Russia and possible turbulence in share markets. (UK)

  20. Modified holographic dark energy in DGP brane world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Dao-Jun; Wang, Hua; Yang, Bin

    2010-01-01

    In this Letter, the cosmological dynamics of a modified holographic dark energy which is derived from the UV/IR duality by considering the black hole mass in higher dimensions as UV cutoff, is investigated in Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati (DGP) brane world model. We choose Hubble horizon and future event horizon as IR cutoff respectively. And the two branches of the DGP model are both taken into account. When Hubble horizon is considered as IR cutoff, the modified holographic dark energy (HDE) behaves like an effect dark energy that modification of gravity in pure DGP brane world model acts and it can drive the expansion of the universe speed up at late time in ε=-1 branch which in pure DGP model cannot undergo an accelerating phase. When future event horizon acts as IR cutoff, the equation of state parameter of the modified HDE can cross the phantom divide.

  1. The energy world in 2002. Statistical yearbook ENERDATA 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This document summarizes the world energy key data for 2002 (total energy consumption and per gross domestic product unit, petroleum, gas, coal and lignite, and electric power consumptions, CO 2 emissions). Data are grouped according to five main areas (Africa and Middle East, America, Asia and Pacific area, Western Europe, Eastern Europe and ex-USSR). The data show a restart of the world energy consumption (1.4% in 2002 with respect to 0.5% in 2001) despite a relatively low economic growth (1.6% with respect to 2.6% for the previous decade, as an average), a strong growth of the electricity and coal consumption, a restart of the gas consumption and a stagnation of the petroleum consumption. (J.S.)

  2. Energy for the world economy of tomorrow. Energie fuer die Weltwirtschaft von morgen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennewitz, J

    1984-01-01

    Will the world's energy resources suffice to secure the world economy's supply in the face of the continuing growth of the world population. This question is answered. The development of the world population shows patterns which make possible an estimation of the future populations of industrial and developing countries. The rise of the primary energy carriers is described. An analysis of the reserves and resources concludes that, if energy policies remain unchanged, reserves will be exhausted by the middle of the next century. In this connection, the introduction of atomic energy according to present plans and the possibilities of energy sources which may be re-generated are considered. The availability of liquid energy carriers based on petroleum will probably become a decisive bottleneck for the world's energy supply before the end of this century. The danger of coming to an energy disaster in our life-time can be averted. Possibilities for securing the energy supply in the future are proposed. In this connection, the positive effects on unemployment are spelled out. The idea of 'World Energy Management' is discussed.

  3. Real-World Outcomes and Critical Thinking: Differential Analysis by Academic Major and Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Franco

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Real-World Outcomes is an inventory that measures everyday problematic behaviors that represent decisions where critical thinking is presumably absent; assessing the negative outcomes of poor daily decisions helps to infer the degree of critical thinking that mediates everyday reasoning. In the present paper, we describe the process of translation and cultural adaptation of this inventory to Portuguese. We present evidence of its administration to 259 college students concerning reliability, and differences based on academic major and gender. No statistically significant differences were found, either due to academic major or gender. Results suggest the value of this instrument to assessing daily decision making and life outcomes, and also, to estimate the quality of critical thinking in everyday life.

  4. World Energy Scenarios to 2050: the Europe Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeda, E.

    2006-01-01

    The topic of this paper is an overview of the Energy Policy Scenarios to 2050 study objectives, with emphasis on The Report for the Europe Region. The study is focused on achievement of the 3A's global energy goal (Accessibility, Availability, and Acceptability) by using various policy scenarios. The heart of the study will therefore be Policy Scenarios postulated within the context of two dimensions of government policy uncertainty. One with the dimension indicating whether the world is heading towards increased globalism and co-operation between governments and/or business and industry, or more towards bilateralism and nationalism outside global governance institutions. As outcomes, there is particularly described each of the four predicted scenarios: L'Europe des Patries, Fortress Europe, Confident Europe and Trailer Europe considering five main common indicators: political context, energy security, market forces/competition, environment/climate change, and energy mix/energy technology.(author)

  5. IEA World Energy Outlook 2011—A comment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatib, Hisham

    2012-01-01

    There are increasing numbers of annual and periodical energy studies that look into future energy demand and sustainability issues. Among these the World Energy Outlook stands out as the most important futuristic energy study and analysis. The 2011 Outlook is in four parts and gives a full update of energy demand and supply projections to 2035. It analyses the possible evolution of energy markets under three scenarios. The core scenarios rest on common assumptions about macroeconomic conditions and population growth, while their assumptions about government policy differ. This year's Outlook offers an in-depth analysis of prospects for energy supply and use in Russia. It also provides an expanded assessment of the prospects for coal. It reviewed the future of nuclear energy after Fukushima, as well as the strategic challenges of energy poverty. Last it dealt with the important aspect of energy subsidies. In spite of its extensiveness and in depth analysis some of the Outlook assumptions and conclusions need careful analysis and review.

  6. A Comparison of Three Major Academic Rankings for World Universities: From a Research Evaluation Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu-hsuan Huang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces three current major university ranking systems. The Performance Ranking of Scientific Papers for World Universities by Higher Education Evaluation and Accreditation Council of Taiwan (HEEACT Ranking emphasizes both the quality and quantity of research and current research performance. The Academic Ranking of World Universities by Shanghai Jiao Tung University (ARWU focuses on outstanding performance of universities with indicators such as Nobel Prize winners. The QS World University Ranking (2004-2009 by Times Higher Education (THE-QS emphasizes on peer review with high weighting in evaluation. This paper compares the 2009 ranking results from the three ranking systems. Differences exist in the top 20 universities in three ranking systems except the Harvard University, which scored top one in all of the three rankings. Comparisons also revealed that the THE-QS favored UK universities. Further, obvious differences can be observed between THE-QS and the other two rankings when ranking results of some European countries (Germany, UK, Netherlands, & Switzerland and Chinese speaking regions were compared.

  7. EU Energy Policy in a Supply-constrained World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jong, J.; Van der Linde, C.

    2008-10-01

    evaluate its robustness against the background of the different energy landscapes in the world. Striking a balance between the priorities of energy policy is, however, difficult in an EU where a wide diversity of energy mixes and import dependencies prevails, and where foreign policy and security approaches are even more diverse. The current weaknesses of the EU energy policy, which is in essence comprised of an internal market and competition policy, a nascent sustainable energy policy and an absent security of supply policy will either be addressed under the mounting pressures of the outside world or will derail any hopes of a common energy policy. The main challenges to this common policy are thus political, both internally and externally.

  8. Solar energy solutions for an environmentally sustainable world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozov, A.I.; Pustovitov, V.D.

    1992-01-01

    The United Nations Conference of Environment and Development has focused the world's attention on the complex relationship between the environment and economic development. The essence of this relationship, and the emerging theme of UNCED, is the concept of sustainability. Sustainable economic development improves quality of life and raises standards of living by using the Earth's resources in a way that ensures that they are continually renewed, and will continue to support future generations. This is the subject of this report. While energy resources are essential to economic development, the authors current patterns of energy use are not sustainable. Reliance on fossil fuels, nuclear energy, and large-scale hydroelectric projects has contributed to serious environmental problems, including atmospheric pollution, loss of land productivity, loss of biological diversity, ocean and fresh water pollution, and hazardous waste generation. Thus, if they are to achieve sustainability in their patterns of energy consumption, it is imperative that they bring about a rapid and widespread transition to the utilization of environmentally sound energy sources and technologies. Solar energy technologies are environmentally sound, socially beneficial, and economically practical. They have been proven in a wide variety of applications around the world. The barriers to the widespread implementation of solar technologies are no longer technical, but rather social, economic, and political. These barriers can and must be removed

  9. The 18. World energy congress in Buenos Aires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boiteux, M.; Bellec, G.

    2001-01-01

    The World Energy Council held its 18. congress in Buenos Aires, Argentina, from 21 to 25 October 2001 on the theme: 'Energy markets: challenges of the new millennium'. Despite recent events, 3 sitting Heads of State, 25 ministers, around 3,000 delegates from 99 countries and numerous company managers took part in the congress. During the congress closing ceremony on 25 October, the World Energy Prize was awarded to Mr Marcel Boiteux, honorary president of WEC and EDF. In this paper, we publish the speech Mr. Boiteux pronounced during the congress as well as the tribute paid by French Energy Council President Mr. Ailleret. Our readers will also find the congress conclusions and recommendations as well as Gilles Bellec's impressions after the congress. On 13 December, the French Energy Council organised a conference in Paris to discuss the results of the Buenos Aires congress. We publish the conclusions hereafter, which have taken the form of a round table called 'What have we remembered about the Buenos Aires congress ?'. The half-day presentation of the congress works will be published in the French Energy Congress' next letter, due in February 2002. (authors)

  10. World Energy Prospects and Stakes. A New Paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laponche, Bernard; DEVERNOIS, Nils

    2008-01-01

    To pursue the present path in the development of energy systems would lead to growing insecurity of supply and an unacceptable increase in greenhouse gas emissions. Both climate change (and other environmental hazards) and security of supply would rapidly become formidable obstacles for peace and development if energy consumption follows such an 'impossible path'. Energy security and environmental constraints converge to offer mankind both a challenge and opportunity: to invent a new model compatible with sustainable development, in order to 'meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs'. Energy efficiency comes first, because it presents the largest potential, it is applicable to all sectors of activities in all countries and because it is a pre-requisite to slow down the depletion rate of fossil fuel resources and to ensure a rational and significant increase of the share of renewable energy sources in total energy requirements. An energy efficiency strategy is not a slight adjustment to an energy supply policy but a new concept of economic policy which takes into account the costs of environmental degradation, growing energy insecurity and the medium and long term trend of increasing energy costs. Industrialised countries can and must reduce their total energy consumption. Most developing countries must increase their energy consumption for their economic development, but they can reach this objective with much lower growth than industrialised countries in the past by applying energy efficiency strategies. At world level, priority should be given to energy efficiency in the Transport sector, literally tied to oil products, and to electricity consumption in the household and service sectors since electricity production is a voracious and expensive consumer of natural resources. (author)

  11. World Energy Prospects and Stakes. A New Paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laponche, B.

    2008-01-01

    To pursue the present path in the development of energy systems would lead to growing insecurity of supply and an unacceptable increase in greenhouse gas emissions. Both climate change (and other environmental hazards) and security of supply would rapidly become formidable obstacles for peace and development if energy consumption follows such an 'impossible path'. Energy security and environmental constraints converge to offer mankind both a challenge and opportunity: to invent a new model compatible with sustainable development, in order to 'meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs'. Energy efficiency comes first, because it presents the largest potential, it is applicable to all sectors of activities in all countries and because it is a pre-requisite to slow down the depletion rate of fossil fuel resources and to ensure a rational and significant increase of the share of renewable energy sources in total energy requirements. An energy efficiency strategy is not a slight adjustment to an energy supply policy but a new concept of economic policy which takes into account the costs of environmental degradation, growing energy insecurity and the medium and long term trend of increasing energy costs. Industrialized countries can and must reduce their total energy consumption. Most developing countries must increase their energy consumption for their economic development, but they can reach this objective with much lower growth than industrialized countries in the past by applying energy efficiency strategies. At world level, priority should be given to energy efficiency in the Transport sector, literally tied to oil products, and to electricity consumption in the household and service sectors since electricity production is a voracious and expensive consumer of natural resources. (authors)

  12. Communication Capacity Research in the Majority World: Supporting the human right to communication specialist services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopf, Suzanne C

    2018-02-01

    Receipt of accessible and appropriate specialist services and resources by all people with communication and/or swallowing disability is a human right; however, it is a right rarely achieved in either Minority or Majority World contexts. This paper considers communication specialists' efforts to provide sustainable services for people with communication difficulties living in Majority World countries. The commentary draws on human rights literature, particularly Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the Communication Capacity Research program that includes: (1) gathering knowledge from policy and literature; (2) gathering knowledge from the community; (3) understanding speech, language and literacy use and proficiency; and (4) developing culturally and linguistically appropriate resources and assessments. To inform the development of resources and assessments that could be used by speech-language pathologists as well as other communication specialists in Fiji, the Communication Capacity Research program involved collection and analysis of data from multiple sources including 144 community members, 75 school students and their families, and 25 teachers. The Communication Capacity Research program may be applicable for achieving the development of evidence-based, culturally and linguistically sustainable SLP services in similar contexts.

  13. Development of the world energy requirement until 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, D.

    1977-01-01

    In its final report entitled 'Energy Global Prospects 1985 - 2000' and in three technical reports the Workshop on Alternative Energy Strategies (WAES), which was attended by 70 experts from 15 countries, in the summer of this year published the first worldwide forecast of the energy requirement up to the year 2000. The uncertainties affecting the long term development caused the WAES to employ a scenario in which the variables were economic growth, price levels of energy (and oil, respectively), and energy policy. Additional variables included to describe the long term problems arising in meeting the energy requirement are the coal vs. nuclear power alternative, the gross additions to the oil reserves, and assumptions about OPEC production limits. In view of the long lead times of technological developments and the extraordinarily high capital investments involved, rethinking is necessary right now, according to the WAES study, to find a possibility to change to other sources of fossil energy, nuclear power and, finally, renewable sources of energy, in view of the impending scarcity of the most important present source of energy, i.e., oil. Since the chances to meet a growing energy requirement by natural gas are viewed sceptically and a major contribution of new sources of energy is not expected to come forth before the next century, coal and nuclear power will be the main sources of energy supply for a foreseeable period of time to come. (orig.) [de

  14. Nuclear energy - stabilising factor in the world economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legassov, V.; Feoktistov, L.; Kouzmine, I.

    1986-01-01

    One of the most important factors for international stability is the development of the economy, reducing the risk of local armed conflicts which could escalate into world-wide nuclear war. Economic progress which plays such a vital part is in turn heavily dependent on energy supplies. The article takes a brief look at the role of nuclear power in this context. (B.M.S.)

  15. World uranium reserves and assurance of energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warnecke, S.J.

    1980-01-01

    This book deals mainly with those aspects of energy policy which concern uranium supply. A different complexion is put on the quantitative estimates of world uranium supplies available which are being overshadowed by political problems resulting from the special properties of this primary energy source as well as from its geographical distribution. The national policy of non-proliferation and the resource policy are demonstrated, taking the largest uranium supply countries as examples. The consumers' policy is explained, taking Europe and Japan as an example. Furthermore, a few possible political solutions are suggested. (UA) [de

  16. Thorium: An energy source for the world of tomorrow ?

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    To meet the tremendous world energy needs, systematic R&D has to be pursued to replace fossil fuels. The ThEC13 conference organized by iThEC at CERN last October has shown that thorium is seriously considered by developing countries as a key element of their energy strategy. Developed countries are also starting to move in the same direction. How thorium could make nuclear energy (based on thorium) acceptable to society will be discussed. Thorium can be used both to produce energy and to destroy nuclear waste. As thorium is not fissile, one elegant option is to use an accelerator, in so-called “Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS)”, as suggested by Carlo Rubbia. CERN’s important contributions to R&D on thorium related issues will be mentioned as well as the main areas where CERN could contribute to this field in the future.

  17. What Change Can The New Developments In Energy Sector Bring Into the World`s Energypolitical and Geopolitical Order?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur TUTULMAZ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent developments bring US to a leading natural gas and oil producer position. The attempts in last 20 years to bring new horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technologies together have developed a success in shale gas and oil production in US; the production volumes has reached to a position to redefine the market. Last estimations are bringing more information about the shale capacities of the major basins of the world. However, the estimates are based on a wide range of assumptions and consequently their results vary in a large scale. In any case, these developments have crucial economic, political and geopolitical consequences on the energy market, petroleum producer and consumer countries and regions. Despite the wide range of ambiguity of the estimated size of the resources, the estimations show US and North America has one of the biggest potential, already turning technology into the giant production numbers. Some of the estimations allege so big numbers can even mean to a new world order. The asymmetric nature of the potential, can also be said, increases some of the expected impacts too. In this study, basically, we want to supply an initial solid and economical evaluation to this ambiguity. We are trying to shape a frame for the new energy potential and to put it in a place in the current practice of the world. Secondly, in this context, we are underlying here some of the possible economic and geopolitical consequences each of which can constitute a subject of deeper study.

  18. World renewable energy and environmental conference: abstract book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The energy is a wrap of the life and the main source of it is sources. The protection continuity of the energy is important cause of the scientific research development which we observe it on our energy every day life. But instead of the importance of the oil a main energy source which all the world depend on, there are many notes from the scientist, researchers and the environment institutions about the risks of the dependence on the traditional energy sources, and stressed on the study of it is negative effect on the environment human life and global community, also the call for looking for another substitutions about more safe sources and suitable for the environment. This comes on the interest frame which the university of Sebha and Libya in general gives it is special concern and reflect it is care of the scientific research and technical development to ascent our higher education institutions level in Libya, and it is contribution in the investigation and study of scientific issues which serve the aims of the society and it is anticipation and to be a good event for the meeting between the specialists and researchers from all over the world. (author)

  19. Energies in the world in 2011 and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauquis, P.R.

    2012-01-01

    The oil production will reach its ceiling by 2020 at a level of about 100*10 6 barrels a day. The exploitation of oil from native rocks will give this ceiling a waved shape. As for natural gas important new reserves have been found and the Fukushima accident has strongly increased the gas consumption because of the shutting down of nuclear power plants in Japan and Europe. As a consequence, oil and gas prices are on a rise trend over a long-term period. As for renewable energies, China confirms its leading role before the Usa: in 2011 a total of 200*10 9 dollar have been invested in this sector throughout the world and China's share represents 25%. In the wind energy sector and the solar energy sector it is difficult to make forecasts as these sectors are so dependent on state energy policies. As for nuclear power, the impact of the Fukushima accident must not be overestimated: 69 reactors are being built in the world (6 in Europe) and projects of new reactors are being studied in Great-Britain, Sweden, Finland, Poland, Hungary, Lithuania, Bulgaria and Check Republic. In fact the renaissance of nuclear energy seems to keep on. A study has shown that electricity produced by third generation reactors (such as the EPR) will remain competitive but largely more expensive than the electricity produced by the previous generation. (A.C.)

  20. Current situation of wind energy in the world and Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alper Kaplan, Yusuf; San, Ismail [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Anadolu University (Turkey)], email: yakaplan@anadolu.edu.tr, email: isan@anadolu.edu.tr

    2011-07-01

    This paper gives an overview of the current situation of wind power in Turkey and in the world by evaluating installed wind power using current data. It also looks at the political conditions of Turkey in relation to the current installed wind energy power in Turkey compared with that of certain developed countries. The problems encountered are also illustrated as a basis for proposing solutions. Turkey's wind energy potential is 48,000 MW but installed wind power was only 1,329 MW as of 2011. Wind energy is at present one of the most cost-competitive renewable energy technologies in the world when technical, geographical and social issues are taken into consideration. Economic sources should be researched. The development of current potential and the market entry of renewable energy resources requires a legal and regulatory framework that support suitable mechanisms. Local support is recommended together with tax exemptions. Long-term fixed-price guarantees should also be considered by government.

  1. Future of Energy in Egypt and the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hani Nokraschy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available If the whole world, which Egypt is a part of, continues business as usual in the field of electricitygeneration, namely, using the same regimes adopts today, burning fossil fuels and Uranium fission,both fuels will run out within sixty years at most and the world will definitely return to the Stone Age.Shall this be the end of the Egyptian people … the history makers?Generating energy is the next necessity to human life after water and food, since it is the majorstimulus of development. However, what is the aim of development if it is only momentary; thenfollowed by an endless abyss?Shall we wait till fossil and nuclear fuels run out? Jostling over the remaining fuel will certainly befierce and we will pay a high price for it, a matter that will subsequently lead to demolishing theingredients of development.Considering that oil is now dominating our way of life, it shall be wise to start immediately planning forthe post-oil age, provided that it is a sustainable plan set up to continue its validity as long as humanslive on this planet; this cannot be achieved except if we shift to renewable energies.Looking at Egypt and its available renewable energy sources, it becomes evident that the solarenergy, particularly in Upper Egypt, can give more than the present and future needs of the Egyptiansociety and even cover the demand of the whole world for electricity.

  2. World energy strategies into the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, H.W.

    1986-01-01

    In mid-1990s, tighter oil supply and firmer and higher price will be projected due to the declining production in non-OPEC countries. The OPEC members have the oil production capacity of 30 million barrels a day, but last year, OPEC produced 17 million barrels a day. World oil demand was down about 600,000 barrels a day due primarily to the continued substitution with natural gas, coal and nuclear power. The conclusion of the UK coal strike also contributed to the drop of the demand for residual fuel oil. Economic growth was too sluggish to offset the substitution effect. The crude oil production from non-OPEC sources has increased, but low price will reverse the trend of non-OPEC production. Energy supply will be ample to meet the projected demand through the next decade. The annual growth rate of less than 2 % was forecast for the primary energy demand in non-communist world, assuming the economic growth of 3 % a year worldwide. The trend of the use of natural gas, coal and nuclear power is discussed. At the beginning of the 21st century, world energy will be supplied 42 % by oil, 18 % by natural gas, 24 % by coal and 8 % by nuclear power. (Kako, I.)

  3. Simplified scheme for energy in the world in 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouneau, S.; David, S.; Loiseaux, J.M.; Meplan, O.; Treiner, J.

    2013-01-01

    We have built a scheme for predicting the world energy mix in 2050. We have divided the world into 4 economically equivalent areas and the population into 3 types depending on their standard of living. 2 constraints have been added. First the climatic constraint: we impose to reduce by 2050 by a factor 2 the today's releases of CO 2 due to energy uses. Secondly we have limited the worldwide energy consumption to 20 Gtep/year in 2050, this limit is in fact an average value made on various existing perspective studies, in 2009 this consumption neared 12 Gtep a year. In the first step the global energy demand (20 Gtep a year) has been broken into the 4 main consumption sectors (transport, industry, households, electrical power) for the 3 types of population. The second step has been to assess the potential of renewable energies: compared to 2008 figures, the wind power is expected to grow by a factor 20 while photovoltaic power will grow by a factor 2000, carbon sequestration is expected to be used at a rate between 0.25 and 0.66 tep/inhabitant/year. The third step has been to build an energy mix meeting the constraints and expectations. The results show that it seems almost impossible to assure a worldwide economic growth and to comply with the climatic constraint without the development of both nuclear energy and carbon sequestration. Another striking result is that the lack of enough energy resources for transport and heating will lead to more demand on electricity while present French standards favor gas and oil-fired heating. (A.C.)

  4. Rogeaulito: a world energy scenario modeling tool for transparent energy system thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léo eBenichou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rogeaulito is a world energy model for scenario building developed by the European think tank The Shift Project. It’s a tool to explore world energy choices from a very long-term and systematic perspective. As a key feature and novelty it computes energy supply and demand independently from each other revealing potentially missing energy supply by 2100. It is further simple to use, didactic and open source. As such, it targets a broad user group and advocates for reproducibility and transparency in scenario modeling as well as model-based learning. Rogeaulito applies an engineering approach using disaggregated data in a spreadsheet model.

  5. Rogeaulito: A World Energy Scenario Modeling Tool for Transparent Energy System Thinking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benichou, Léo; Mayr, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Rogeaulito is a world energy model for scenario building developed by the European think tank The Shift Project. It’s a tool to explore world energy choices from a very long-term and systematic perspective. As a key feature and novelty it computes energy supply and demand independently from each other revealing potentially missing energy supply by 2100. It is further simple to use, didactic, and open source. As such, it targets a broad user group and advocates for reproducibility and transparency in scenario modeling as well as model-based learning. Rogeaulito applies an engineering approach using disaggregated data in a spreadsheet model.

  6. Rogeaulito: A World Energy Scenario Modeling Tool for Transparent Energy System Thinking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benichou, Léo, E-mail: leo.benichou@theshiftproject.org [The Shift Project, Paris (France); Mayr, Sebastian, E-mail: communication@theshiftproject.org [Paris School of International Affairs, Sciences Po., Paris (France)

    2014-01-13

    Rogeaulito is a world energy model for scenario building developed by the European think tank The Shift Project. It’s a tool to explore world energy choices from a very long-term and systematic perspective. As a key feature and novelty it computes energy supply and demand independently from each other revealing potentially missing energy supply by 2100. It is further simple to use, didactic, and open source. As such, it targets a broad user group and advocates for reproducibility and transparency in scenario modeling as well as model-based learning. Rogeaulito applies an engineering approach using disaggregated data in a spreadsheet model.

  7. World Energy Markets Observatory. November 2017 - 19. Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewiner, Colette; Stoneman, Perry; Modi, Gaurav; Lindhaus, Jan

    2017-11-01

    The study reveals that progress in the sector's generation technologies has caused an acceleration in the Energy Transition, while related renewable growth continues to destabilize the wholesale electricity markets and key players. The study also highlights a profound change in customer energy usage, behaviors and expectations, with, for example, self-consumption, Smart Homes, Smart Buildings, Smart Plants, Smart Cities and the creation of communities to purchase or manage energy differently. As a result, the financial situation of established Utilities remains challenging. The report encourages Utilities to accelerate their transformation efforts and to leverage increasingly the power of Digital Transformation. The three main findings of the 2017 edition of the World Energy Markets Observatory report are: 1. Rapid evolution of generation technologies makes the renewables penetration unstoppable, thanks to their competitiveness gains, and despite the end of feed-in tariffs in Europe; 2. Empowered Smart Energy consumers are pushing Utilities to deliver new energy services; 3. Established Utilities, heavily hit by Energy Transition and customers' evolving expectations, have started large transformations. It's now time to accelerate by leveraging Digital Transformation

  8. Energy for sustainable development: perspectives from the industrialised world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pronk, J.P.

    1994-01-01

    The Dutch Minister for Development Cooperation identifies a number of major problems related to sustainable development including those caused by fossil fuels, low energy prices, under-utilisation of renewable energy, low investment in the electricity sector in the south and lack of energy policies (including a policy on biomass) in some countries of the South. He explains the problems facing the South in solving the problem of reducing carbon dioxide emissions. He advocates the need for establishing regional cooperation structures and instruments for effective planning, cost-effective resource allocation and optimum use of resources. A global energy institution would in the author's view be the appropriate body for planning a sustainable and secure global energy future

  9. World energy policy. [Design for balance of supplies and consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thring, M W

    1977-01-01

    In an attempt to formulate energy policies, countries have instigated short-term solutions, mostly leading to disaster. Among the examples of such short term dilemmas one can list are: the attempt in the U.S. to avoid air pollution from vehicles which lead to a 20% increase in fuel consumption; the dilemma of censorship and corrupting literature; the dilemma of arms escalation and defense; and the dilemma of inflation, unemployment, and bankruptcy. In many parts of the world the people are in grave danger of experiencing one of the four disasters. This would result in: famine and pestilence killing millions instead of just thousands as at present; World War 3 with the unrestricted use of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons; breakdown of law and order through crime, violence, muggings, hijackings and random bombing to the point where the ordinary citizen has to go around armed and is prepared to shoot his neighbor in self defense; or an 1984 situation in which 'big brother' allow no one any freedom of thought, word or action, so that life has no joy in it (zero quality of life) and people don't care whether they are alive or dead; the author says. The author then reviews statistics pointing out the imbalance of energy consumption by various countries and concludes that this vast gap in standard of living between countries must essentially vanish if the tension leading to World War 3 are to be avoided. With 7,000 million population forecast for the first decade of the 21st century, the author lays out 2 essential conditions for a decent world:(1) energy consumption per capita in rich countries must decrease to around the present world average of 1.8 TCE and poor countries will have to increase to that figure; and (2) only those energy conversion processes should exist that can be constructed to satisfy the needs of the populace within the limited capital resources of the earth. He then shows how these conditions may be satisfied. (MCW)

  10. Outlook for world nuclear power generation and long-term energy supply and demand situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Yuhji

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a long-term outlook for the world's nuclear generating capacity, taking into account the nuclear policy changes after Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. World primary energy demand will grow from 11.2 billion tons of oil equivalent (toe) in 2009 to 17.3 billion toe in 2035. Along with this rapid increase in global energy consumption, the world's nuclear generating capacity will grow from 392 GW in 2010 to 484 GW in 2020 and 574 GW in 2035 in the 'Reference scenario'. Even in the 'Low nuclear scenario', where the maximum impact of Fukushima accident to the nuclear policies of each government is assumed, it will continue to grow in the future, exceeding 500 GW in 2035. In particular, Asian countries such as China and India will lead the growth both in the energy demand and in the nuclear power capacity. Therefore, it is essential to better ensure the safety of nuclear power generation. It is important for technologically developed countries, including Japan, to make active contributions to the establishment of a global nuclear safety control system. On the other hand, energy security and global warming will continue to be major issues, which will make it indispensable to make the best effort to save energy and expand renewable energy utilization. Japan is competitive in energy-saving and environmental conservation technologies, thus further development and utilization of there technologies should be a key option of Japan's growth growth strategy in the future. (author)

  11. Present status on world alternative energy developments to oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddington, J.

    1980-01-01

    The IEA was established about five years ago in the OECD immediately after the oil crisis, and 20 countries have participated in it. Progress was observed in the control of the expansion of energy demand. The energy utilization in IEA member countries became efficient due to the contribution of new technologies, and owing to the improvement of productivity, the growth of energy consumption was less than 1% despite the GDP grew at the yearly rate of 2.5%. The expansion of the utilization of natural gas and coal is promising, but the projects of nuclear power generation are behind schedule. The short term prospect in petroleum market is discussed, and the price of crude oil tends to be stabilized. ''The prospect of energy in the world by 2000'' will be published by the IEA in the latter half of 1980. The scale of the development of nuclear power generation was reduced because the prediction of the rate of power generation growth was changed from 5.2% to 3.1%. The effect of new energy technologies on future energy market has been studied by the support of 15 countries, and it was recommended to give financial aid to heat pumps, coal liquefaction and the efficient recovery of oil and natural gas. Also the techniques for operating existing facilities under strict environment and safety regulations have been studied. (Kako, I.)

  12. CO2 and energy. France and the World. Edition 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    While providing many graphs, tables and drawings, this report gives an overview of climate change (greenhouse effect, influence of human activity, greenhouse gases tanks and fluxes, increase of greenhouse gas atmospheric stock, greenhouse gas concentration and temperatures, climate warming and its consequences), of greenhouse gases in Europe and in the world, of CO 2 emissions related to energy production and combustion in the world, in Europe and in France (globally and by transports, industry and buildings). The authors present the different economic tools designed for the struggle against climate change: the Kyoto protocol, the clean development mechanism, the joint implementation mechanism, the negotiable emission permit market, the European Union commitments, the European emission trade system, the emergence of CO 2 ton price, and other emission reduction initiatives

  13. Anxious and non-anxious major depressive disorder in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, R.C.; Sampson, N.A.; Berglund, P.; Gruber, M.J.; Al-Hamzawi, A.; Andrade, L.; Bunting, B.; Demyttenaere, K.; Florescu, S.; de Girolamo, G.; Gureje, O.; He, Y.; Hu, C.; Huang, Y.; Karam, E.; Kovess-Masfety, V.; Lee, S; Levinson, D.; Mora, M.E. Medina; Moskalewicz, J.; Nakamura, Y.; Navarro-Mateu, F.; Oakley Browne, Mark A.; Piazza, M.; Posada-Villa, J.; Slade, T.; ten Have, M.; Torres, Y.; Vilagut, G.; Xavier, M.; Zarkov, Z.; Shahly, V.; Wilcox, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    AIMS To examine cross-national patterns and correlates of lifetime and 12-month comorbid DSM-IV anxiety disorders among people with lifetime and 12-month DSM-IV major depressive disorder (MDD). METHODS Nationally or regionally representative epidemiological interviews were administered to 74,045 adults in 27 surveys across 24 countries in the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys. DSM-IV MDD, a wide range of comorbid DSM-IV anxiety disorders, and a number of correlates were assessed with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). RESULTS 45.7% of respondents with lifetime MDD (32.0–46.5% inter-quartile range [IQR] across surveys) had one of more lifetime anxiety disorders. A slightly higher proportion of respondents with 12-month MDD had lifetime anxiety disorders (51.7%, 37.8–54.0% IQR) and only slightly lower proportions of respondents with 12-month MDD had 12-month anxiety disorders (41.6%, 29.9–47.2% IQR). Two-thirds (68%) of respondents with lifetime comorbid anxiety disorders and MDD reported an earlier age-of-onset of their first anxiety disorder than their MDD, while 13.5% reported an earlier age-of-onset of MDD and the remaining 18.5% reported the same age-of-onset of both disorders. Women and previously married people had consistently elevated rates of lifetime and 12-month MDD as well as comorbid anxiety disorders. Consistently higher proportions of respondents with 12-month anxious than non-anxious MDD reported severe role impairment (64.4% vs. 46.0%; χ21=187.0, pdepression in the 12 months before interview, but this difference was more pronounced in high income countries (68.8% vs. 45.4%; χ21=108.8, p<.001) than low/middle income countries (30.3% vs. 20.6%; χ21=11.7, p<.001). CONCLUSIONS Patterns and correlates of comorbid DSM-IV anxiety disorders among people with DSM-IV MDD are similar across WMH countries. The narrow IQR of the proportion of respondents with temporally prior AOO of anxiety disorders than comorbid MDD (69

  14. New world balance and emerging countries - democracy, energy, technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulom, Steve

    2011-01-01

    The serious economic crisis which rages since 2008 has been the result of a troubled era which started years before and contributed to aggravate the phenomenon. Energy crisis, biodiversity loss, global warming and its effects, markets deregulation have added up to economic recession. We are today the witnesses of a new deal of the cards illustrated by the social revolts of several Arab countries around the Mediterranean Sea. In this changing world, the declining occident cannot impose its economical or political leadership and the main emerging countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa: BRICS) play a more and more important role. With 30% of population increase expected in 2050, the emerging countries represent the driver of the world growth and have become the keys of development questions. In front of this irreversible movement, urgent and worldwide changes have to be done. First of all, huge technological efforts and changes of the existing international institutions (IMF, UNO, WTO) and of their governance are necessary to build up a sustainable economy and energy policy with emerging countries. Such a transformation will be painful for the Occident as it will change its vision of growth based on political domination and search of financial wealth, energy and resources. It is this effort that the author aims to present in this book in a practical and visionary way, where technological progress occupies an important place

  15. New nuclear projects in the world. Sustainable Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, P. T.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear power has experienced a major boom in the last few years, primarily because it is a non-CO 2 emitting energy source, it can be produced at competitive costs and it can boost a country's security of supply. there are still two issues to be addressed in relation to the currently used technologies: the degree to which the energy content of nuclear fuel is used, and wastes. A solution to both these aspects would ut nuclear power in the category of sustainable energy. The article provides details on current nuclear plans in the wold, the impact of the Fukushima accident on different countries nuclear plans and the European initiatives for sustainable nuclear energy development. (Author)

  16. Can the future, world-wide energy supply be achieved without nuclear energy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugeler, K.

    1995-01-01

    In the future the world-wide energy demand is going to increase considerably. The use of nuclear energy will continuously grow if the demand of climate researchers for a reduction of the world-wide CO 2 emission is fulfilled and if the possible contribution of regenerative energy sources is assessed realistically. In the future a world-wide use of nuclear energy will be realised according to even higher safety standards. The modification of the German Atom Law, which determines the limitation of damage caused to the reactor plant for future reactors fulfils this demand. The efforts in the field of nuclear technical development will concentrate on the proof of the required safety properties. (orig.) [de

  17. Asia energy outlook to 2030: Impacts of energy outlook in China and India on the world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komiyama, R.

    2007-07-01

    This paper presents an international energy outlook, focusing on an analysis of energy impacts of Asia, particularly China and India, on the world energy markets to 2030. Based on vigorous economic growth, soaring electricity demand and progressive motorisation in China and India, Asia's primary energy demand is expected to double, eventually positioning Asia as the largest energy-consuming region with largest CO{sub 2} emissions in the world. This paper also discusses energy security challenges for Asia, in particular East Asian region, where steady oil demand growth will lead to increasing dependency on imported oil from Middle East and sea lane security in the Malacca Strait. Furthermore, this paper explores various future scenarios for Asia including 'Technological Advanced Scenario' to highlight the differences in possible energy futures in Asia and its implication to the global energy market. In Technological Advanced Scenario, which assumes the stepped-up implementation of energy and environmental policies in Asian countries, Asia's primary energy demand in 2030 is expected to be 15%, or 943 Mtoe, lower than the Reference Scenario. The paper concludes that successful implementation of such an energy strategy will decrease the energy demand and greatly mitigate the growth of CO{sub 2} emissions from the energy sector. (auth)

  18. Mobility - the motor of energy consumption. Swiss National Committee in the World Energy Council: Report on the 16th world energy congress in Tokyo in 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartl, R.

    1996-01-01

    Two events at the 16th World Energy Congress focussed on the subject of mobility, which is a determining factor of worldwide mineral oil consumption. The study 'Global transport sector energy demand towards 2020', written by a working group led by the Norwegian Statoil company, served as a basis for the debates. (orig.) [de

  19. White paper on renewable energies. Renewable energies: to be in line with World momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bal, Jean-Louis; Apolit, Robin; Audigane, Nicolas; Billerey, Elodie; Bortolotti, Celine; Burie, Ony; Carabot, Cyril; Conan, Stephanie; Duclos, Paul; Fuseliez, Sabrina; Gaulmyn, Louis De; Gondolo, Mathieu; Jouet, Francoise; Kiersnowski, Marlene; Le Guen, Claire; Lequatre, Delphine; Lettry, Marion; Mathieu, Mathilde; Mathon, Damien; Molton, Catherine; Poubeau, Romain; Richard, Axel; Chartier, Philippe; Guignard, Eric

    2017-01-01

    After an introduction on the recent evolutions of the context for renewable energies in France and in the World (an economic revolution, simplification of the legal and regulatory framework, the more active role of consumers), and a graphical presentation of the present status and perspectives of renewable energies in France, this publication first discusses the main strategic orientations for the development of renewable energies: visibility of sectors, clear and balanced economic framework, a new industrial and territorial dynamics. It discusses various operational measures for different sectors: ground-based wind energy, renewable marine energies, hydroelectricity, photovoltaic solar energy, thermodynamic solar energy, thermal solar energy, valorisation of biomass potentials, bio-fuels, biogas, wastes, emerging sectors, domestic wood heating, low and high temperature geothermal energy. The next part proposes and comments transverse operational measures regarding electric grids, overseas territories, Corsica, the housing sector, and international trade

  20. Strategies for OPEC's pricing decisions. [Using model of world energy market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gately, D; Kyle, J F; Fischer, D

    1977-11-01

    A model of the world energy market that incorporates price expectations and lagged adjustments of demand and supply is used to examine implications of various price-paths that could be selected by OPEC. After demonstrating the sensitivity of the results to changes in functional specifications and certain parameter values, the authors discuss a variety of rule-of-thumb pricing strategies under which OPEC sets prices in response to available market signals. A strategy that is relatively cautious about further major price increases serves OPEC relatively well in comparison with other stategies, but there exists a real possibility of major, abrupt price increases within the next ten years.

  1. Mineral composition and ash content of six major energy crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monti, Andrea; Venturi, Gianpietro [Department of Agroenvironmental Science and Technologies (DiSTA), University of Bologna, Viale G. Fanin, 44, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Di Virgilio, Nicola [Institute of Biometeorology, National Research Council, Via P. Gobetti, 101 I, 40129 Bologna (Italy)

    2008-03-15

    The chemical composition of biofuels has not received adequate attention given that it is an important aspect in the introduction of energy crops. In this study, the ash content and mineral composition (C, N, Al, Ca, Cl, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P, S, Si) of stems, leaves and reproductive organs of some promising energy crops were determined and compared with the respective recommended thresholds reported in literature. Overall, cynara exhibited the highest ash and mineral contents, which indicate high slagging, fouling and corrosion tendencies. However, cynara also showed the lowest Si content, both in leaves (4.3 g kg{sup -1}) and in stems (0.9 g kg{sup -1}). Sweet sorghum and giant reed exhibited the highest N content (up to 16 g kg{sup -1}), which greatly exceeded the recommended limits in leaves. Importantly, Cl always exceeded the recommended limits (up to 18 mg kg{sup -1} in cynara), both in stems and in leaves, thus resulting in a major stumbling block for all crops. Several significant correlations among elements were found at a single plant part; conversely these correlations were generally very weak considering different plant components, with the exception of K (r=0.91**), P (r=0.94**) and ashes (r=0.64**). Generally, leaves resulted in a significant deterioration of biofuel quality when compared with stems and flower heads. Therefore, agricultural strategies aimed at reducing the leaf component (e.g. by delaying the harvest) may considerably improve the suitability of biofuels for current combustion plants. (author)

  2. Increased atmospheric ammonia over the world's major agricultural areas detected from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, J. X.; Dickerson, R. R.; Wei, Z.; Strow, L. L.; Wang, Y.; Liang, Q.

    2017-03-01

    This study provides evidence of substantial increases in atmospheric ammonia (NH3) concentrations (14 year) over several of the worlds major agricultural regions, using recently available retrievals from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) aboard NASA's Aqua satellite. The main sources of atmospheric NH3 are farming and animal husbandry involving reactive nitrogen ultimately derived from fertilizer use; rates of emission are also sensitive to climate change. Significant increasing trends are seen over the U.S. (2.61% yr-1), the European Union (EU) (1.83% yr-1), and China (2.27% yr-1). Over the EU, the trend results from decreased scavenging by acid aerosols. Over the U.S., the increase results from a combination of decreased chemical loss and increased soil temperatures. Over China, decreased chemical loss, increasing temperatures, and increased fertilizer use all play a role. Over South Asia, increased NH3 emissions are masked by increased SO2 and NOx emissions, leading to increased aerosol loading and adverse health effects.

  3. The International Energy Agency`s role in world-wide wind energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangi, R. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Ancona, D. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Wind energy is now being deployed world-wide at a rapidly increasing rate and the International Energy Agency (IEA) has a changing role in its growth. IEA was founded in 1974 within the framework of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to collaborate on comprehensive international energy programs. IEA membership consists of eighteen parties from sixteen countries and the European Commission. Recently there has been increasing interest in IEA participation from both OECD and non-OECD countries. Non-OECD countries participating in various IEA Agreements include: China, India, Israel, Korea, and Russia. Because of its diverse international makeup, the IEA is viewed as a source of reliable technical and economic information. The World Bank has approached the Executive Committee for Wind Energy R & D, through the IEA Renewable Energy Working Party, to assist in the expansion of wind deployment. In addition, IEA is moving from R & D programs to include tracking of implementation incentives offered by its members.

  4. Merging Energy Policy Decision Support, Education, and Communication: The 'World Energy' Simulation Role-Playing Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney-varga, J. N.; Franck, T.; Jones, A.; Sterman, J.; Sawin, E.

    2013-12-01

    To meet international goals for climate change mitigation and adaptation, as well as energy access and equity, there is an urgent need to explore and define energy policy paths forward. Despite this need, students, citizens, and decision-makers often hold deeply flawed mental models of the energy and climate systems. Here we describe a simulation role-playing game, World Energy, that provides an immersive learning experience in which participants can create their own path forward for global energy policy and learn about the impact of their policy choices on carbon dioxide emissions, temperature rise, energy supply mix, energy prices, and energy demand. The game puts players in the decision-making roles of advisors to the United Nations Sustainable Energy for All Initiative (drawn from international leaders from industry, governments, intergovernmental organizations, and citizens groups) and, using a state-of-the-art decision-support simulator, asks them to negotiate a plan for global energy policy. We use the En-ROADS (Energy Rapid Overview and Decision Support) simulator, which runs on a laptop computer in <0.1 sec. En-ROADS enables users to specify many factors, including R&D-driven cost reductions in fossil fuel-based, renewable, or carbon-neutral energy technologies; taxes and subsidies for different energy sources; performance standards and energy efficiency; emissions prices; policies to address other greenhouse gas emissions (e.g., methane, nitrous oxide, chlorofluorocarbons, etc.); and assumptions about GDP and population. In World Energy, participants must balance climate change mitigation goals with equity, prices and access to energy, and the political feasibility of policies. Initial results indicate participants gain insights into the dynamics of the energy and climate systems and greater understanding of the potential impacts policies.

  5. World Energy Scenarios 2050: Impact of the Energy Governance Models to the Future of the European Energy Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisel, E.

    2014-01-01

    World Energy Council has explored the impact of two extreme governance models of energy sector to the global economic and climate developments. Scenario 'Jazz' describes the world, where investments in the energy markets are made by the companies on the purely economic basis. Scenario 'Symphony' describes the world, where decisions about the energy investments are made by the governments. It appears that in case of Scenario 'Jazz' we would reach lower energy prices, but it would also bring along higher and wider consumption of energy, and much higher environmental impact. In case of Scenario 'Symphony' energy prices would be somewhat higher, but environmental and energy efficiency would deliver better results, and there will be more energy-poor people around the world. It can also be observed, that resulting energy mixes of these two scenarios are very different. When Scenario 'Jazz' would leave the share of fossil fuels nearly to the current levels, then Scenario 'Symphony' supports strongly development of Solar and Carbon Capture, Utilisation and Sequestration Technologies. The modelling was also made separately for different regions of the world, the results for Europe can be observed from the report as well. This provides a fruit for thought about the role of the governments in the implementation of the EU 2030 Energy and Climate Strategy. The presentation would describe shortly the methodology of the study, clarifies the assumptions of the scenarios and highlights the main outcomes of the study in for the world and for European energy sector. (author).

  6. Energy and the public as viewed by the World Energy Conference. Energie und Oeffentlichkeit aus der Sicht der WEK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiedemann, P.M. (Kernforschungsanlage Juelich GmbH (Germany, F.R.). Programmgruppe Technik und Gesellschaft); Jungermann, H. (Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Psychologie)

    1989-09-01

    The committee 'Energy and the Public', set up by the World Energy Conference, at this year's meeting of the WEK presented a comparative international study on the attitude of the public towards systems of energy production, respectively energy supply. Attitudes towards a certain energy system depend on different aspects: With nuclear energy it is above all the safety aspect; for the rest, environmental-protection and economic aspects are important. But the conflict between materialistic and postmaterialistic values also influences people's energy-political convictions. What this study documents is the origin of a world-wide problem-consciousness that energy policy has to contend with if it wants to be economically, environmentally, and socially compatible. (orig./UA).

  7. World Renewable Energy Congress - To Be Held In Denver In 1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    ) announced today that they will host the World Renewable Energy Congress IV in Denver from June 15-21, 1996 to be held outside of the United Kingdom. The World Renewable Energy Congress, which meets every two include world leaders in renewable energy, banking and business. The Congress' objectives are to support

  8. Brazilian energy statistics - 1993. Annual bulletin of the Brazilian Committee of the World Energy Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This bulletin deals with the primary sources that carry most weight in the Brazilian energy balance: hydraulic energy, petroleum, natural gas and coal. It contains data on ethyl alcohol derived from sugar cane since it is of special importance in Brazil's energy scenario. Some aspects about the opening or closing of the oil sector are also analysed, including the petroleum and petroleum products business; oil consumption issue; share of energy sources in world scenarios for the year 2020; reserves; prices and investments and the vulnerability of private companies. 12 figs., 16 tabs

  9. 75 FR 66008 - Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction for New Federal Buildings and Major...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ... Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction for New Federal Buildings and Major Renovations of Federal Buildings; Correction AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of... the fossil fuel- generated energy consumption [[Page 66009

  10. IRRITABLE MOOD IN ADULT MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER: RESULTS FROM THE WORLD MENTAL HEALTH SURVEYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Alonso, Jordi; Angermeyer, Matthias; Bromet, Evelyn; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Jonge, Peter; Demyttenaere, Koen; Florescu, Silvia E.; Gruber, Michael J.; Gureje, Oye; Hu, Chiyi; Huang, Yueqin; Karam, Elie G.; Jin, Robert; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Levinson, Daphna; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Medina-Mora, María E.; O’Neill, Siobhan; Ono, Yutaka; Posada-Villa, José A.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Scott, Kate M.; Shahly, Victoria; Stein, Dan J.; Viana, Maria C.; Zarkov, Zahari; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although irritability is a core symptom of DSM-IV major depressive disorder (MDD) for youth but not adults, clinical studies find comparable rates of irritability between nonbipolar depressed adults and youth. Including irritability as a core symptom of adult MDD would allow detection of depression-equivalent syndromes with primary irritability hypothesized to be more common among males than females. We carried out a preliminary examination of this issue using cross-national community-based survey data from 21 countries in the World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys (n = 110,729). Methods The assessment of MDD in the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview includes one question about persistent irritability. We examined two expansions of the definition of MDD involving this question: (1) cases with dysphoria and/or anhedonia and exactly four of nine Criterion A symptoms plus irritability; and (2) cases with two or more weeks of irritability plus four or more other Criterion A MDD symptoms in the absence of dysphoria or anhedonia. Results Adding irritability as a tenth Criterion A symptom increased lifetime prevalence by 0.4% (from 11.2 to 11.6%). Adding episodes of persistent irritability increased prevalence by an additional 0.2%. Proportional prevalence increases were significantly higher, but nonetheless small, among males compared to females. Rates of severe role impairment were significantly lower among respondents with this irritable depression who did not meet conventional DSM-IV criteria than those with DSM-IV MDD. Conclusion Although limited by the superficial assessment in this single question on irritability, results do not support expanding adult MDD criteria to include irritable mood. PMID:23364997

  11. Future role of Gulf oil in world energy demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eltony, M.N.

    1998-01-01

    The view that there will be a growing dependence on oil from the Gulf countries is shared by a great number of oil market analysts. This view is based on the fact that Gulf countries dominate the global oil reserves. Energy analyst argue that as the world demand for oil continues to grow driven largely by the growth in developing countries' consumption coupled with constrained non-OPEC supply, the end result will be that the call on Gulf oil will grow substantially. In summary, this paper has challenged the view of growing dependence on oil from the Gulf using available information in conjunction with reasonable and fairly plausible arguments. The aim was to point out to the GCC member counties the danger of relying on these views in shaping their economic policies and in setting their oil market strategies. They may run the ultimate risk of being left with huge oil reserves that no one wants. (orig.)

  12. Man and energy: Reality versus utopia. Swiss National Committee in the World Energy Council: Report on the 16th world energy congress in Tokyo in 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsch, B.

    1996-01-01

    The future of our environmental and energy problems will be decided next century in today's developing countries, particularly in the large agglomerations of the Third World. It is unlikely that fossil fuels will to any great degree be replaced by renewable energy sources and/or nuclear energy. The excellent efficiency of thermal power plants now achieved in the industrial countries should as fast as possible also be realised in the developing countries, and the process of electrification there should be accelerated. The greatest obstacle to a rapid worldwide spread of efficient energy systems are the political imponderabilities in many developing countries. (orig.) [de

  13. Vocational Education and Training: A Major Shift in World Bank Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Phillip

    1992-01-01

    Comments on the World Bank's policy paper on vocational and technical education and training. Argues that past failures in establishing effective vocational and technical education were a result of not applying conventional neoclassical economic theory. Asserts that the World Bank's policy paper corrects this approach. (CFR)

  14. A Sustainable Energy Laboratory Course for Non-Science Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Stephen A.; Loxsom, Fred

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable energy is growing in importance as the public becomes more aware of climate change and the need to satisfy our society's energy demands while minimizing environmental impacts. To further this awareness and to better prepare a workforce for "green careers," we developed a sustainable energy laboratory course that is suitable…

  15. The energies all over the world; Le tour du monde des energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoine, B.; Renaud, E

    2008-07-01

    From january to August 2007, the authors travel around the world to discover implemented solutions to think the energy in a different way. They presents many different realizations: the rural electrification in Morocco, fuel cells in Japan, giant dams controversy or plastic solar cells. They describes the technological, economical and environmental impacts of these solutions. (A.L.B.)

  16. World Energy Balance Outlook and OPEC Production Capacity: Implications for Global Oil Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh M. Rouhani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The imbalance between energy resource availability, demand, and production capacity, coupled with inherent economic and environmental uncertainties make strategic energy resources planning, management, and decision-making a challenging process. In this paper, a descriptive approach has been taken to synthesize the world’s energy portfolio and the global energy balance outlook in order to provide insights into the role of Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC in maintaining “stability” and “balance” of the world’s energy market. This synthesis illustrates that in the absence of stringent policies, i.e., if historical trends of the global energy production and consumption hold into the future, it is unlikely that non-conventional liquid fuels and renewable energy sources will play a dominant role in meeting global energy demand by 2030. This should be a source of major global concern as the world may be unprepared for an ultimate shift to other energy sources when the imminent peak oil production is reached. OPEC’s potential to impact the supply and price of oil could enable this organization to act as a facilitator or a barrier for energy transition policies, and to play a key role in the global energy security through cooperative or non-cooperative strategies. It is argued that, as the global energy portfolio becomes more balanced in the long run, OPEC may change its typical high oil price strategies to drive the market prices to lower equilibria, making alternative energy sources less competitive. Alternatively, OPEC can contribute to a cooperative portfolio management approach to help mitigate the gradually emerging energy crisis and global warming, facilitating a less turbulent energy transition path while there is time.

  17. Real world financing opportunities for energy conservation projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tramonte, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    Do you have the resources, dollars, people expertise and general know-how to do all the energy conservation measures. If you have the funds, do it yourself. Historically you would save more if you hired a private concern because that is the only job the contractor does for you. You have other hats to wear and fires to put out. Using third-party financing can be a good decision based on your specific needs. Procrastination is not the answer - the cost of delay is extensive. Financing energy conservation measures is no different from financing your automobile or home. If the benefits outweigh the negatives, the answer is obvious. Remember, in any case of using private sector financing, your are joining a partnership arrangement. The only way to succeed is to be honest with each other on the front end. There need not be any surprises. Any reputable company will gladly have your attorney evaluate all agreements, amortization schedules, and attachments. Real world financing alternatives will continue to change as the market matures. It's not too good to be true. It is no more than a vehicle to make the efforts of capital improvements streamlined. The money or financing is the catalyst to the project and makes the other areas meld.

  18. Towards a new world: The contributions of nuclear energy to a sustainable future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffey, R. B.; Miller, A. I.; Fehrenbach, P. J.; Kuran, S.; Tregunno, D.; Suppiah, S.

    2007-01-01

    Over the last few years, the world has seen growing concern about the sustainability of the Planet when supplying increasing energy use. The major issues are: increased energy prices in the world markets; growing energy demand in emerging economies; security and stability of oil and gas supply; potentially adverse climate change due to carbon-based emissions; and the need to deploy economic, sustainable and reliable alternates. Large undefined 'wedges' of alternate energy technologies are needed. In light of these major difficulties, there is renewed interest and need for a greater role for nuclear energy as a safe, sustainable and economic energy contributor. The shift has been, from being viewed by some as politically discounted, to being accepted as absolutely globally essential. We have carefully considered, and systematically, extensively and technically analyzed the contributions that nuclear energy can and should make to a globally sustainable energy future. These include restraining emissions, providing safe and secure power, operating synergistically with other sources, and being both socially and fiscally attractive. Therefore, we quantify in this paper the major contributions: a) The reduction in climate change potential and the global impact of future nuclear energy deployment through emissions reduction, using established analysis tools which varying the plausible future penetration and scale of nuclear energy. b) The minimization of economic costs and the maximization of global benefits, including investment requirements, carbon price implications, competitive market penetration, and effect of variable daily pricing. c) The introduction of fuel switching, including base-load nuclear energy synergistically enabling both hydrogen production and the introduction of significant wind power. d) The management and reduction of waste streams, utilizing intelligent designs and fuel cycles that optimize fuel resource use and minimize emissions, waste disposal

  19. World and energy. Geopolitical stakes. 1 - the clues to understand. 2 - the maps in hands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furfari, S.

    2007-01-01

    In the energy domain, globalization has become a visible reality since several decades, in particular since the first petroleum shock of 1974/1975, but in reality since the first world war when petroleum started to play a key role. The aim of this book is to explain geopolitics and to foresee the Earth's future at the time of a major energy turn. In the first volume, the author explores the different eras of the energy world. A large part is devoted to the main energy resources with some precision about reserves, exploitation means and their impacts on the environment and on the climatic change. The second volume describes the main energy markets and their foreseeable evolution through a geopolitical analysis of maps. A large part is devoted to the European supplies and to the East-West relations which control them, in particular because of the huge gas reserves of Russia and of its former satellite countries. Another part is devoted to the big wold consumers, the present day ones (the USA) and the new ones (China and India), who stake both on North-South relations (Middle East and South America for the USA and Africa for China and India), and on areas which were traditionally of Europe's interests. (J.S.)

  20. Solar heating as a major source of energy for Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morse, R. N.

    1977-07-01

    Solar energy can make its most effective contribution to Australian primary energy in the form of heat for industrial applications. About 50% of all end use energy is required as heat and it is estimated that 40% of this amounting to 1 EJ/a by 2000 could be supplied by solar heat generating systems. This would be 12% of estimated primary energy requirements by that time, and could help reduce the country's increasing dependence on imported oil. Energy self-sufficiency for Australia is possible, based on coal, solar energy and natural gas as primary energy sources. The reason for the present orientation towards residential solar water heaters is that there are many places where electric power for water heating costs between 2 and 4 cents per kWh which makes a solar water heater an attractive proposition. There is also a growing interest in the solar heating of swimming pools, mostly for private homes but also in larger installations for public and institutional pools. Industrial applications, on the other hand, are inhibited by the current low energy prices in Australia, which in some cases are around 0.13 cents/MJ (.47 cents/kWh). Industry, however, uses 40% of Australian primary energy, and represents by far the greatest potential for solar heat generating systems. Demonstration plants are being planned to obtain data on capital and running costs, and at the same time build up professional design and constructional skills in this area. The first demonstration solar industrial process heating system was commissioned in December 1976 and supplies portion of the heat requirements of a soft drink plant in conjunction with the existing oil fired boiler. Integrated solar/oil fired systems of this sort ensure continuous operation of the plant and over a year can result in significant oil savings.

  1. Solar heating as a major source of energy for Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morse, R.N.

    1977-07-01

    Solar energy can make its most effective contribution to Australian primary energy in the form of heat for industrial applications. About 50% of all end use energy is required as heat and it is estimated that 40% of this amounting to 1 EJ/a by 2000 could be supplied by solar heat generating systems. This would be 12% of estimated primary energy requirements by that time, and could help reduce the country's increasing dependence on imported oil. Energy self-sufficiency for Australia is possible, based on coal, solar energy and natural gas as primary energy sources. The reason for the present orientation towards residential solar water heaters is that there are many places where electric power for water heating costs between 2 and 4 cents per kWh which makes a solar water heater an attractive proposition. There is also a growing interest in the solar heating of swimming pools, mostly for private homes but also in larger installations for public and institutional pools. Industrial applications, on the other hand, are inhibited by the current low energy prices in Australia, which in some cases are around 0.13 cents/MJ (.47 cents/kWh). Industry, however, uses 40% of Australian primary energy, and represents by far the greatest potential for solar heat generating systems. Demonstration plants are being planned to obtain data on capital and running costs, and at the same time build up professional design and constructional skills in this area. The first demonstration solar industrial process heating system was commissioned in December 1976 and supplies portion of the heat requirements of a soft drink plant in conjunction with the existing oil fired boiler. Integrated solar/oil fired systems of this sort ensure continuous operation of the plant and over a year can result in significant oil savings.

  2. Energy planning and management Current situation in the World, Turkey and ITU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onaygil, Sermin

    2006-01-01

    There exist several development indicators for every country in the world today, such as energy supply for supporting economical and social development; effective saving in energy production processes; and decreasing the hazardous impacts on the environment. Although priorities and demands in the field of energy can be different for every country, it is considered that national agenda and tendencies are increasingly determined by international policies. For instance, in the period of globalization, while neo-liberal policies are becoming dominant within the scope of economy, creating liberal markets on the basis of environmental protection together with the energy supply security turn out to be the major purposes in the energy sector. Even though this purpose is common almost in all countries, as significant investments are required to build the infrastructure for the application of these policies, there are great varieties among developed and developing economies. In spite of all complications, it can be confirmed that diversification of energy sources and rational use of energy, in other words energy efficiency, are important measures to be taken in case of energy planning and management. For every country, energy intensity is directly related with maintaining competitive positions and sustained economical developments by all countries. The low value of energy intensity, which is defined as consumed energy to produce one unit product or in general the consumed energy as Ton Oil Equivalent (TOE) over Gross Domestic Production (GDP), indicates that energy is used efficiently. In the study of International Energy Agency (IEA) entitled 'Experiences obtained by Energy Efficiency Policies and Programs of IEA Member Countries', it is emphasized that industrialized countries like France, Germany, Italy, Japan, United Kingdom (UK) and United States of America (US) have reduced their energy intensities in vast proportion for 30 years and this reduction is caused by energy

  3. Problems of world energy supply until the turn of the millenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolinski, U.

    1981-01-01

    After a historical review of energy supply, world energy consumption until the year 2000 is estimated along with the potential of oil, natural gas, coal, nuclear power, and renewable energy sources. (UA) [de

  4. 18th world hydrogen energy conference 2010. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This CD-ROM contains lectures, power points slides and posters presented on the 18th World Hydrogen Energy Conference. The topics of the conference are: (A). Fuel Cell Basics: 1. Electrochemistry of PEM Fuell Cells; 2. PEM/HT-PEM Fuel Cells: Electrolytes, Stack Components; 3. Direct Fuel Cells; 4. High-Temperature Fuel Cells; 5. Advanced Modelling (B). Existing and Emerging Markets: 1. Off-Grid Power Supply and Premium Power Generation; 2. Space and Aeronautic Applications; 3. APUs for LDV, Trucks, Ships and Airplanes; 4. Portable Applications and Light Traction. (C). Stationary Applications: 1. High-Temperature Fuel Cells; 2. Fuell Cells for Buildings. (D). Transportation Applications: 1. Fuel-Cell Power Trains; 3. Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engines; 4. Systems Analysis and Well-to-Wheel Studies; 5. Demonstration Projects, Costs and Market Introduction; 6 Electrification in Transportation Systems. (E). Fuel Infrastructures: 1. Hydrogen Distribution Technologies; 2. Hydrogen Deployment; 3. Fuel Provision for Early Market Applications. (G). Hydrogen Production Technologies: 1a. Photobiological Hydrogen Production; 1b. Fermentative Hydrogen Production; 1c. The HYVOLUTION Project. (H). Thermochemical Cycles: 3a. Hydrogen from Renewable Electricity; 3b. High-Temperature Electrolysis; 3c Alcaline Electrolysis; 3d PEM Electrolysis; 4a Reforming and Gasification-Fossil Energy Carriers; 4b Reforming and Gasification-Biomass; 5. Hydrogen-Separation Membranes; 6. Hydrogen Systems Assessment;.7. Photocatalysis (I). Storages: 1. Physical Hydrogen Storage; 2a. Metal Hydrides; 2b. Complex Hydrides; 3. Adsorption Technologies; (J). Strategic Analyses: 1. Research + Development Target and Priorities; 2. Life-Cycle Assessment and Economic Impact; 3. Socio-Economic Studies; 4. Education and Public Awareness; 5. Market Introduction; 7. Regional Activities; 8. The Zero Regio Project. (K). Safety Issues: 1. Vehicle and Infrastructural Safety; 2. Regulations, Codes, Standards and Test

  5. 18th world hydrogen energy conference 2010. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This CD-ROM contains lectures, power points slides and posters presented on the 18th World Hydrogen Energy Conference. The topics of the conference are: (A). Fuel Cell Basics: 1. Electrochemistry of PEM Fuell Cells; 2. PEM/HT-PEM Fuel Cells: Electrolytes, Stack Components; 3. Direct Fuel Cells; 4. High-Temperature Fuel Cells; 5. Advanced Modelling (B). Existing and Emerging Markets: 1. Off-Grid Power Supply and Premium Power Generation; 2. Space and Aeronautic Applications; 3. APUs for LDV, Trucks, Ships and Airplanes; 4. Portable Applications and Light Traction. (C). Stationary Applications: 1. High-Temperature Fuel Cells; 2. Fuell Cells for Buildings. (D). Transportation Applications: 1. Fuel-Cell Power Trains; 3. Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engines; 4. Systems Analysis and Well-to-Wheel Studies; 5. Demonstration Projects, Costs and Market Introduction; 6 Electrification in Transportation Systems. (E). Fuel Infrastructures: 1. Hydrogen Distribution Technologies; 2. Hydrogen Deployment; 3. Fuel Provision for Early Market Applications. (G). Hydrogen Production Technologies: 1a. Photobiological Hydrogen Production; 1b. Fermentative Hydrogen Production; 1c. The HYVOLUTION Project. (H). Thermochemical Cycles: 3a. Hydrogen from Renewable Electricity; 3b. High-Temperature Electrolysis; 3c Alcaline Electrolysis; 3d PEM Electrolysis; 4a Reforming and Gasification-Fossil Energy Carriers; 4b Reforming and Gasification-Biomass; 5. Hydrogen-Separation Membranes; 6. Hydrogen Systems Assessment;.7. Photocatalysis (I). Storages: 1. Physical Hydrogen Storage; 2a. Metal Hydrides; 2b. Complex Hydrides; 3. Adsorption Technologies; (J). Strategic Analyses: 1. Research + Development Target and Priorities; 2. Life-Cycle Assessment and Economic Impact; 3. Socio-Economic Studies; 4. Education and Public Awareness; 5. Market Introduction; 7. Regional Activities; 8. The Zero Regio Project. (K). Safety Issues: 1. Vehicle and Infrastructural Safety; 2. Regulations, Codes, Standards and Test

  6. Perspectives of nuclear energy in the view of the World Energy Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doucet, G.

    2003-01-01

    Since 1930, the World Energy Council (WEC) has been closely involved in problems associated with the use of nuclear power. At the meeting then held by the WEC Executive Committee in Berlin, Albert Einstein drew the attention of power utilities to this new source of energy. In addition to optimized use, technical progress, and waste management, the WEC regards aspects of safety, proliferation, and sustainability of nuclear power as matters of special importance. In the energy scenarios elaborated by the WEC since the 1980s, nuclear power plays one of the leading roles in the future energy mix. The sustainable management of energy resources, worldwide climate protection, but also equal access to energy for all people, require the use of nuclear power and the furtherance of its options. Moreover, the use of nuclear power in the industrialized countries helps to stabilize energy prices worldwide. This is in the interest especially of developing countries, for which low-cost, accessible energy sources are vital factors. The electricity supply crisis in California in 2001 has shown the continuity of supply to be one of the factors important in the deregulation of energy markets. Bottlenecks in electricity supply because of a lack of acceptance of electricity generation are problems affecting the future of industrialized countries. For instance, the increasing digitization of every-day life demands reliable power supply. In its studies of all available energy sources the WEC found no alternative to nuclear power. Factors of importance in the future development and use of nuclear power are public acceptance and the ability, and willingness, to take decisions in economic issues. Waste management, proliferation, safety, and research and development are other priorities. As a source of power protecting the climate, stabilizing costs, and offering a considerable potential, nuclear power is compatible with the objectives of sustainable development for the world of tomorrow

  7. Nuclear energy in Texas: major issues and policy recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    On December 15, 1978 the Texas Energy Advisory Council (TEAC) adopted the Texas Energy Policy, 1978 Update. The Council recognized the great complexity of technical, economic, social, and political issues which have an impact on nuclear power, and therefore decided that a special committee was needed to examine in greater detail the nuclear energy issues facing Texas. This report summarizes the work of the Advisory Committee on Nuclear energy. Topics discussed include: biological affects of low levels of radiation; transportation of radioactive material in Texas; uranium mining and milling; severance tax on uranium mining; alternate reactor designs and fuel cycles; financing nuclear plant construction; cost of disposing of nuclear wastes and decommissioning nuclear plants; low-level wastes; disposal of high-level wastes; commercial spent nuclear fuel reprocessing; and transmutation of radioactive wastes

  8. The world energy demand in 2007: How high oil prices impact the global energy demand? June 9, 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    How high oil prices impact the global energy demand? The growth of energy demand continued to accelerate in 2007 despite soaring prices, to reach 2,8 % (+ 0,3 point compared to 2006). This evolution results from two diverging trends: a shrink in energy consumption in most of OECD countries, except North America, and a strong increase in emerging countries. Within the OECD, two contrasting trends can be reported, that compensate each other partially: the reduction of energy consumption in Japan (-0.8%) and in Europe (-1.2%), particularly significant in the EU-15 (-1.9%); the increase of energy consumption in North America (+2%). Globally, the OECD overall consumption continued to increase slightly (+0.5%), while electricity increased faster (2,1%) and fuels remained stable. Elsewhere, the strong energy demand growth remained very dynamic (+5% for the total demand, 8% for electricity only), driven by China (+7.3%). The world oil demand increased by 1% only, but the demand has focused even more on captive end usages, transports and petrochemistry. The world gasoline and diesel demand increased by around 5,7% in 2007, and represents 53% of the total oil products demand in 2007 (51% in 2006). If gasoline and diesel consumption remained quasi-stable within OECD countries, the growth has been extremely strong in the emerging countries, despite booming oil prices. There are mainly two factors explaining this evolution where both oil demand and oil prices increased: Weak elasticity-prices to the demand in transport and petrochemistry sectors Disconnection of domestic fuel prices in major emerging countries (China, India, Latin America) compared to world oil market prices Another striking point is that world crude oil and condensate production remained almost stable in 2007, hence the entire demand growth was supported by destocking. During the same period, the OPEC production decreased by 1%, mainly due to the production decrease in Saudi Arabia, that is probably more

  9. World energy outlook: how to share the efforts to be achieved by 2030?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This conference was organized a month after the publication by the International Energy Agency (IEA) of the 2007 World Energy Outlook (WEO) study. The energy situation at that time was marked by the repercussions on the environment and on the security of supplies in relation with the accelerated development of China and India. This document gathers the transparencies of the two presentations given at this conference. The first presentation by Fatih Birol, Chief Economist at the IEA, is entitled 'World Energy Outlook 2007: China and India Insights'. It presents the Cooperation with China's National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) and Energy Research Institute (ERI), and with India's Energy and Resources Institute (TERI) for the establishment of energy scenarios. Then the different scenarios are reviewed: Reference Scenario, Alternative Policy Scenario and 450 Stabilisation Case, High Growth Scenario (China/India). Finally, a full global update of projections (all scenarios) is presented and the impact of China and India on global economy, energy markets and environment is analyzed. The conclusions are as follows: - Global energy system is on an increasingly unsustainable path; - China and India are transforming the global energy system by their sheer size; - Challenge for all countries is to achieve transition to a more secure, lower carbon energy system; - New policies now under consideration would make a major contribution; - Next 10 years are critical (The pace of capacity additions will be most rapid, Technology will be 'locked-in' for decades, Growing tightness in oil and gas markets); - Challenge is global so solutions must be global. The second presentation by Jean-Charles Hourcade (CIRED) is entitled 'The WEO 2007 A few comments about the Emerging Giants... and us'. The presentation focusses on 4 points: - What implications of higher growth in the Asian Giants on the world economy through higher pressure on energy resources; - Economic questions

  10. Future World Energy Demand and Supply: China and India and the Potential Role of Fusion Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, John

    2005-01-01

    Massive increases in energy demand are projected for countries such as China and India over this century e.g., many 100s of megawatts of electricity (MWe) of additional electrical capacity by 2050, with more additions later, are being considered for each of them. All energy sources will be required to meet such a demand. Fortunately, while world energy demand will be increasing, the world is well endowed with a variety of energy resources. However, their distribution does not match the areas of demand and there are many environmental issues.Such geopolitical issues affect China and India and make it important for them to be able to deploy improved technologies. In this regard, South Korea is an interesting example of a country that has developed the capability to do advanced technologies - such as nuclear power plants. International collaborations in developing these technologies, such as the International Thermonuclear Reactor (ITER), may be important in all energy areas. Fusion energy is viewed as an interesting potential option in these three countries

  11. Risoe energy report 10. Energy for smart cities in an urbanised world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Hans; Soenderberg Petersen, L [eds.

    2011-11-15

    This Risoe Energy Report is the tenth in a series which began in 2002. Volume 10 takes as its point of reference the rapid urbanisation of the world. UN population statistics show that global population is expected to surpass 9 billion by 2050, and nearly 6.3 billion people will be living in urban areas. Urban regions will thus absorb most of the world's population increase in the next four decades while drawing in some of the rural population as well: by 2050 there will be 600 million fewer people in rural areas. The large cities and megacities created by this rapid urbanisation contribute to climate change, and in turn are affected by its consequences. For these and other reasons we need a new approach to what cities should do to become more liveable, economically successful, and environmentally responsible. Megacities of the future need to be smart cities: that is, energy-efficient, consumer-focused and technologydriven. This cannot be achieved simply by improving existing technologies. Instead we need a new smart approach based on smart solutions. With this background the report addresses energy related issues for smart cities, including energy infrastructure, onsite energy production, transport, economy, sustainability, housing, living and governance, including incentives and barriers influencing smart energy for smart cities. (LN)

  12. Risoe energy report 10. Energy for smart cities in an urbanised world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Hans; Soenderberg Petersen, L. (eds.)

    2011-11-15

    This Risoe Energy Report is the tenth in a series which began in 2002. Volume 10 takes as its point of reference the rapid urbanisation of the world. UN population statistics show that global population is expected to surpass 9 billion by 2050, and nearly 6.3 billion people will be living in urban areas. Urban regions will thus absorb most of the world's population increase in the next four decades while drawing in some of the rural population as well: by 2050 there will be 600 million fewer people in rural areas. The large cities and megacities created by this rapid urbanisation contribute to climate change, and in turn are affected by its consequences. For these and other reasons we need a new approach to what cities should do to become more liveable, economically successful, and environmentally responsible. Megacities of the future need to be smart cities: that is, energy-efficient, consumer-focused and technologydriven. This cannot be achieved simply by improving existing technologies. Instead we need a new smart approach based on smart solutions. With this background the report addresses energy related issues for smart cities, including energy infrastructure, onsite energy production, transport, economy, sustainability, housing, living and governance, including incentives and barriers influencing smart energy for smart cities. (LN)

  13. Past and future trends in grey water footprints of anthropogenic nitrogen and phosphorus inputs to major world rivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, C.; Kroeze, C.; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Gerbens-Leenes, Winnie

    2012-01-01

    The grey water footprint (GWF) is an indicator of aquatic pollution. We calculate past and future trends in GWFs related to anthropogenic nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) inputs into major rivers around the world. GWFs were calculated from past, current and future nutrient loads in river basins using

  14. Distribution and frequency of Bru1, a major brown rust resistance gene, in the sugarcane world collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown rust, caused by Puccinia melanocephala, is an important disease of sugarcane worldwide. Molecular markers for a major brown rust resistance gene, Bru1, were used to screen a total of 1,282 clones in the World Collection of Sugarcane and Related Grasses (WCSRG) to determine the distribution and...

  15. Caloric beverages were major sources of energy among children and adults in Mexico, 1999-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Dalia; Piernas, Carmen; Barquera, Simon; Rivera, Juan A; Popkin, Barry M

    2014-06-01

    Mexico, with 1 of the highest obesity prevalences in the world, instituted a 10% excise tax for any sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) starting on 1 January 2014. Understanding the recent patterns and trends in beverage intake and sales in Mexico provides both background and baseline data for the importance of SSBs and other beverages in the Mexican diet. We analyzed a single 24-h dietary recall from 2 nationally representative surveys: the Mexican Nutrition Survey 1999 (n = 6049) and the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012 (n = 10,343). To describe trends and patterns in beverages, we calculated the volume and energy intake per capita and per consumer and the proportion of consumers of each beverage group in each survey. A commercial sales dataset was used to describe beverage sales trends from 1999 to 2012. From 1999 to 2012, total daily energy from beverages increased among children aged 5-11 y (+45.3 kcal), females aged 12-19 y (+57.3 kcal), and adult females aged 20-49 y (+96.4 kcal) (P energy intake per capita in children aged 1-19 y and adults aged ≥20 y, respectively. In 2012, flavored milk beverages, caloric soda, and high-fat milk were the top 3 major contributors to total daily energy intake per capita in all children aged 1-19 y. Caloric soda, caloric coffee/tea, and agua fresca were the top 3 major energy contributors in adults aged ≥20 y. From 1999 to 2012, sales of soda, fruit-flavored drinks, and flavored waters increased. In conclusion, consumption of several beverages with added sugars increased among children and adult females in Mexico. Because caloric soda is currently 1 of the top beverages consumed, a 10% tax on SSBs might help to significantly reduce added sugars intake in Mexico. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. The energy challenge of a post-fossil world: Seasonal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.

    2009-01-01

    Fossil fuels are an energy source and an energy storage system. The demand for electricity and heat varies daily, weekly, and seasonally with seasonal variations often varying by a factor of two or more. The variable demand is met by fossil fuels because 1) fossil fuels are inexpensive to store in coal piles, oil tanks, and underground natural gas storage facilities and 2) the capital cost of the equipment to burn fossil fuels and convert the energy to heat or electricity is small relative to the cost of the fossil fuels. Concerns about climate change may limit the conventional use of fossil fuels. The alternative low-carbon energy production systems (nuclear, fossil fuels with carbon dioxide sequestration, wind, and solar) are capital-intensive energy sources with low operating costs. To obtain favorable economics these technologies must operate at full capacity; but, their output does not match energy demand. We have energy alternatives to fossil fuels but no replacements for the energy storage capabilities or fossil fuels. Proposed strategies and technologies to address the grand storage challenge (including seasonal storage of electricity) are described. The options suggest a nuclear-renewable future to address seasonal energy storage needs in a low-carbon world.

  17. 5. world inventory of the electric power produced by renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-03-01

    This fifth edition of the electric power production in the world by renewable energies sources, has been realized by the renewable energies observatory for ''Electricite de France''. It proposes an evaluation of the situation, providing data and analysis for each renewable energy sources, hydro electric power, wind energy, biomass, geothermal energy, photovoltaic and the green energy. (A.L.B.)

  18. The energy challenges in the 21. century according to the World Energy Council (WEC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ailleret, F.

    2000-01-01

    The World Energy Council (WEC) published a study in 1993 concerning energy for the future. The predictions made at that time are still valid, and the decision was made to complete the document by explaining the lines of action to be followed for the future. The time frame selected was 2020, with a larger horizon extending to the first half of the century. Some assumptions were modified. The first one concerned the expected world population in 2020. It is now expected to reach 8 billion in 2050 versus the 10 billion previously predicted, with the bulk of the increases being felt in urban areas. Economic growth was slower than expected during the past ten years and is now expected to continue at 3 per cent expansion per annum, with increasing inequities between North and South in developed countries. The protection of the environment is gaining momentum, from local concerns such as air pollution and the control of urban, industrial, and agricultural pollution, to regional concerns like acid rains to global concerns about climate changes. The WEC elaborated on the energy challenges by grouping them into three categories: accessibility, availability, and acceptability. Accessibility means supplying an additional 2 billion people with commercial energy in the world by 2020. All energy resources will be called upon. It also represents an economic challenge. Availability is concerned with continuity and quality of the energy supplied. Once again, all resources will be required, with necessary diversification of sources and supply lines. Renewable energies might be part of the solution, but the costs inherent to their exploitation imposes constraints. Acceptability is related to the use of certain technologies for the production of energy, like nuclear technology for the production of electricity. In the case of fossil fuels, natural gas is the number one choice for a number of applications. Individual transportation needs will continue to rely primarily on petroleum. Coal

  19. How Are Non-Geography Majors Motivated in a Large Introductory World Geography Course?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seung Won; Huynh, Niem Tu

    2015-01-01

    University students who do not declare geography as their major are at risk of poor motivation to learn in an introductory geography class. However, research exploring the role of non-majors' motivation is lacking. This study examines motivational factors impacting non-geography students' engagement and performance. The findings suggest that…

  20. Leishmania in the Old World: 1. The geographical and hostal distribution of L. major zymodemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Blancq, S M; Schnur, L F; Peters, W

    1986-01-01

    135 stocks of Leishmania major from man, reservoir hosts and sandflies were characterized using thin-layer starch-gel electrophoresis of 13 enzymes: MDH, 6PGD, GD, SOD, ASAT, ALAT, PK, PGM, ES, NH, PEPD, MPI, GPI. Homogeneity in this species was demonstrated by identical electrophoretic mobilities in nine enzymes. Polymorphism in four enzymes: 6PGD, GPI, PEPD, ES, gave six zymodemes among the collection. Stocks from sandflies and several species of burrowing rodents were indistinguishable from those from man in the same areas. Stocks of Leishmania from North-West India were identified as L. major. In some foci the distribution of zymodemes has some correlation with the presence of particular rodent reservoir hosts. The enzymic homogeneity of L. major throughout its geographical and host range appears to be correlated with the close association between L. major and sandflies of the subgenus Phlebotomus. The status of L. major as a distinct species is supported.

  1. Energy challenges for the century according to the World Energy Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldemberg, J.; Laponche, B.

    2000-01-01

    A study was published by the World Energy Assessment (WEA) to serve as a basis for international discussion and intergovernmental negotiations on Agenda 21 and sustainable development. It was part of the preparation process for CDD9, the ninth session of the United Nations Commission on sustainable development, to be held in 2001. The objective of the study was the evaluation of the social, economic, environmental and security aspects concerning energy supplies. The study also examined the compatibility between the different energy options available for the twenty-first century and the different objectives of these options to enable decision makers the possibility to elaborate better energy policies. The WEA chose a methodology which associates the United Nations with the World Energy Council, where energy producers around the world communicate with national committees from 98 countries. It was partly financed by the United Nations Foundation, Norway, Austria, and Sweden. The process moved from an examination of the interactions between the different energy supply systems and the issues related to sustainable development, to an examination of the alternatives available concerning the evolution of sustainable development based on the long term, followed by an in-depth evaluation of the energy resources, needs, and technological advancements in the field. Lastly, a series of scenarios was developed and a few were selected to produce an analysis of economic and energy policies based on the course of action corresponding to the scenarios. The authors then provided an overview of the different chapters that constitute the study. Criteria were developed to assist in the characterization of the situation in a specific country concerning sustainable development perspectives. One of the criteria is the elimination of poverty through better access to energy. Environmental factors were considered, such as the impacts of fossil fuels on the environment, the forestry sector

  2. A small-world methodology of analysis of interchange energy-networks: The European behaviour in the economical crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dassisti, M.; Carnimeo, L.

    2013-01-01

    European energy policy pursues the objective of a sustainable, competitive and reliable supply of energy. In 2007, the European Commission adopted a proper energy policy for Europe supported by several documents and included an action plan to meet the major energy challenges Europe has to face. A farsighted diversified yearly mix of energies was suggested to countries, aiming at increasing security of supply and efficiency, but a wide and systemic view of energy interchanges between states was missing. In this paper, a Small-World methodology of analysis of Interchange Energy-Networks (IENs) is presented, with the aim of providing a useful tool for planning sustainable energy policies. A proof case is presented to validate the methodology by considering the European IEN behaviour in the period of economical crisis. This network is approached as a Small World Net from a modelling point of view, by supposing that connections between States are characterised by a probability value depending on economic/political relations between countries. - Highlights: • Different view of the imports and exports of electric energy flows between European for potential use in ruling exchanges. • Panel data from 1996 to 2010 as part of a network of exchanges was considered from Eurostat official database. • The European import/export energy flows modelled as a network with Small World phenomena, interpreting the evolution over the years. • Interesting systemic tool for ruling and governing energy flows between countries

  3. Potential Impacts of Climate Change on World Food Supply: Datasets from a Major Crop Modeling Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Datasets from a Major Crop Modeling Study contain projected country and regional changes in grain crop yields due to global climate change. Equilibrium and transient...

  4. Energy in the Third World: selected references. [Booklet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurford, G; Atkinson, J D [comps.

    1980-01-01

    This bibliography of 209 documents was drawn mainly from material held in the UK Department of Energy Library, most of which has been published within the last 10 years. Nuclear power is not covered, and the following categories: energy resources and conservation; energy policies and development; conventional sources of energy, including general fuels, wood and coal solid fuels, liquid fuels, gas, and electricity; alternative and renewable energy sources, including solar energy, geothermal energy, wind power, water power, and energy from biomass and waste sources; energy usage; statistics; and abstracts and digests. (DCK)

  5. World Energy Data System (WENDS). Volume II. Country data, CZ-KS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    The World Energy Data System contains organized data on those countries and international organizations that may have critical impact on the world energy scene. Included in this volume, Vol. II, are Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Egypt, Finland, France, Germany (East), Germany (West), Greece, Guinea, India, Indonesia, Iran, Italy, Japan, and Korea (South). The following topics are covered for most of the countries: economic, demographic, and educational profiles; energy policy; indigenous energy resources and uses; forecasts, demand, exports, imports of energy supplies; environmental considerations of energy use; power production facilities; energy industries; commercial applications of energy; research and development activities of energy; and international activities.

  6. World Energy Data System (WENDS). Volume III. Country data, LY-PO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    The World Energy Data System contains organized data on those countries and international organizations that may have critical impact on the world energy scene. Included in this volume, Vol. III, are Libya, Luxembourg, Malaysia, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Peru, Philippines, Poland, and Portugal. The following topics are covered for most of the countries: economic, demographic, and educational profiles; energy policy; indigenous energy resources and uses; forecasts, demand, exports, imports of energy supplies; environmental considerations of energy supplies; power production facilities; energy industries; commercial applications of energy; research and development activities of energy; and international activities.

  7. World Energy Data System (WENDS). Volume IV. Country data, SG-YO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    The World Energy Data System contains organized data on those countries and international organizations that may have critical impact on the world energy scene. Included in this volume, Vol. IV, are Senegal, South Africa, Soviet Union, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States, Upper Volta, Venezuela, and Yugoslavia. The following topics are covered for most of the countries: economic, demographic, and educational profiles; energy policy; indigenous energy resources and uses; forecasts, demand, exports, imports of energy supplies; environmental considerations of energy supplies; power production facilities; energy industries; commercial applications of energy; research and development activities of energy; and international activities.

  8. World's third-largest producer of nuclear power. Japan in need of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    Japan is the third largest oil consumer in the world behind the United States and China, and the second largest net importer of oil. Japan boasts one of the largest economies in the world. The country continues to experience a moderate economic recovery that began in 2003, following a decade of economic stagnation. Japan's real gross domestic product (GDP) grew by 2.5% in 2005 and 2.3% in 2004. The modest upturn over the last few years reflects higher business confidence in Japan, a surge in export demand led by exports to China, and robust consumer spending. Unemployment in Japan fell to 4.4% in 2005, down from an early 2003 peak of 5.5%. Japan has virtually no domestic oil or natural gas reserves, and in 2005 was the second largest net importer of crude oil in the world. Despite the country's dearth of hydrocarbon resources, Japanese companies have actively pursued upstream oil and natural gas projects overseas. Japan remains one of the major exporters of energy-sector capital equipment, and Japanese companies provide engineering, construction, and project management services for energy projects. (orig.)

  9. Brazilian energy statistics - 1990. Annual bulletin of the Brazilian National Committee of the World Energy Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This bulletin deals with the primary sources that carry most weight in the Brazilian energy balance: hydroelectric energy, petroleum, natural gas and coal. It contains data on ethyl alcohol derived from sugar cane since it is of major importance in Brazil's energy scenario. The Brazilian Power Sector's Environmental Master Plan is also described including the expansion planning and the handling of socio-environmental issues; the power sector's evolution in the treatment of socio-environmental issues; the guidelines for socio-environmental planning and management and the institutional and technical development in the socio-environmental area. 15 figs., 16 tabs

  10. International wind energy development. World marked update 1999. Forecast 2000-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-03-01

    This is the fifth issue of the annual World Market Update by BTM Consult ApS, covering the year 1999. All figures in the status refer to the end of year 1999. It is the last update from the 20th century, in which wind energy developed during the last two decades to become a very serious part of the world electricity supply. As in previous reports, the past 3 years' development in the wind energy sector is assessed, and the forecast looks 5 years ahead. Wind power is the world's fastest growing energy source, with an average annual growth rate of 40 % over the last five years. Wind energy is a clean and abundant energy source, and it is becomming a preferred source of energy not only due to the environmental benefits, but also because it has become increasingly cost competitive in the world energy markets. One of the most significant figures and trends from this fast growing market during 1999 was that the annual installation of new wind power capacity increased by 51 %, resulting in a cumulative installation by the end of 1999 of 13,932 MW. The growth rates in the wind industry can easily be compared to the growth rates in the IT sector, although the growth differ much from country to country. The high growth rates are still very much influenced by political and economical issues, but the continuously improved technology and thus also the redused cost of energy becomes more and more significant, and there are hardly any arguments left why wind energy should not play a very significant role in the electricity supply. Approximately 81 % of the new capacity of 3,922 were installed in Europe, emphasizing that this region is still the major market place. The US market picked up close to the PTC expiry date (Production Tax Credit) on June 30, 1999. In terms of single markets it was, however, the German market which once again took the lead with installed capacity of 1,568 MW. Germany thereby consolidated the position as the leading wind energy country in the world. Spain

  11. Minerals and energy: major development projects - April 2005 listing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ian Haine (and others) [Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics (ABARE), Canberra, ACT (Australia)

    2005-06-01

    The article describes trends in project development and investment in the minerals and energy sector in Australia. It lists competed projects and committed projects. Black coal projects completed during November 2004 to April 2005 were: Dendrobium underground and Mandalong longwall mining expansion projects in New South Wales and development of Curragh North and Eaglefield opencut mine in Queensland. One of the more significant newly listed projects is Macarthur Coal's Queensland Coke Project near Rockhampton. Capital cost and values of projects are included. The full listing of 229 projects is available electronically from ABARE. The list is released around May and November each year. 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. World energy demand down for the first time in 30 years. Key findings of the world energy demand in 2009 by Enerdata based its global energy database - 8 June 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Key findings of the world energy demand in 2009 by Enerdata based its global energy database: World energy demand down for the first time in 30 years. The first 2009 world energy industry data, now available in the Enerdata Yearbook, confirms trends identified in May 2010 by Enerdata analysts. The economic and financial crisis resulted in a reduction of world energy demand in 2009 by 1% or 130 Mtoe. It is the first demand decrease in 30 years, and the first decrease in electricity demand since World War II. (authors)

  13. Consuming the world's energy: Update series. Energy efficiency trends in oil countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This issue of Energy Detente addresses energy efficiency in selected oil producing countries over time and compare the varying effects of important crude oil price changes. As economies around the world heighten their benefits from conservation and efficient use of energy, oil producers will be crucial examples not only for their own sakes, but for consuming countries dependent upon their exports. In this sense, their potential for leadership and vision seems greater than ever. Specifically, 6 oil-exporting countries are featured: Australia, Kuwait, Indonesia, Nigeria, the United Kingdom, and Venezuela. This issue also presents the following: (1) the ED Refining Netback Data Series for the US Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore as of February 21, 1992; and (2) the ED Fuel Price/Tax Series for countries of the Eastern Hemisphere, February, 1992 edition

  14. The energy sector changes the face of the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludrovsky, P.

    2012-01-01

    Energy systems are becoming more and more complicated every day. The growing number of wind and solar power plants is changing the structure of grids in a fundamental way. However, energy production from fossil fuels still remains of the greatest importance within the energy sector. Old and new energy sources must learn to coexist together. (Authors)

  15. The current status of wind energy in Turkey and in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilkilic, Cumali; Aydin, Hueseyin; Behcet, Rasim

    2011-01-01

    The rapid increase in world energy demand, the depletion of conventional energy sources and the pollution caused by conventional fuels have increased the importance of developing new and renewable energy sources. Additionally, technological developments have resulted in increased energy demand for the entire world, including Turkey, especially for electrical energy. At present, wind energy is receiving considerable attention. This report focuses on the current status of wind energy in Turkey and in the world. An overview of wind energy in Turkey is presented, and its current status, application, support mechanisms and associated legislation in Turkey are described. Wind energy and its status in the world are also addressed. It can be concluded from this analysis that wind energy utilization in Turkey and throughout world has sharply increased. Turkey has an abundance of wind energy sources. - Research highlights: →The importance of wind energy utilization. →Wind energy status, potential, applications, legislations and supports in Turkey. →An overview of wind energy the world.

  16. World status of geothermal energy use: past and potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, John

    2000-01-01

    The past and potential development of geothermal energy is reviewed, and the use of geothermal energy for power generation and direct heat utilisation is examined. The energy savings that geothermal energy provides in terms of fuel oil and carbon savings are discussed. Worldwide development of geothermal electric power (1940-2000) and direct heat utilisation (1960 to 2000), regional geothermal use in 2000, the national geothermal contributions of geothermal energy, and the installed geothermal electric generating capacities in 2000 are tabulated

  17. Nuclear energy world Report 2012. September 2013 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2013-11-15

    At the end of 2012, 437 nuclear power plants were available for energy supply in 31 countries of the world. This means that the number was unchanged compared to the previous year's number on 31 December 2011. The aggregate gross power of the plants amounted to approx. 392,793 MWe, the aggregate net power, to 372,572 MWe. This indicates a slight increase of gross and net capacity (gross: 389,367 MWe, net: 369,371 MWe). Two units were commissioned in 2012; one unit in China and the Republic of Korea each. Two reactors in Canada resumed commercial operation after a long-term shutdown. The units have been layed-up since the mid 1990ies. Four units were shut down permanently in 2012; 2 units in the United Kingdom, and one unit in Canada and Spain each. The shut-downs in the United Kingdom and Canada have been planned on a long-term base. 68 nuclear generating units - 5 more than at the end of 2011 - were under construction in late 2012 in 14 countries with an aggregate gross power of approx. 70,933 MWe and net power of approx. 66,244 MWe. 9 new projects have been started in 2012 in three countries (China, United Arab Emirates, USA). Worldwide, some 110 new nuclear power plants are in the concrete project design, planning, and licensing phases; in some of these cases license applications have been submitted or contracts have already been signed. Some 100 further projects are planned. Net electricity generation in nuclear power plants worldwide in 2012 achieved a level of approx. 2,350.80 billion (109) kWh (2011: approx. 2,497.10 billion kWh). The main cause for the lower production have been the permanent shut-downs of almost all nuclear power plants in Japan since the natural disaster on 11 March 2011. Since the first generation of electricity in a nuclear power plant in the EBR-I fast breeder (USA) on December 20, 1951, cumulated net production has reached approx. 67,950 billion kWh, and operating experience has grown to some 15,050 reactor years. (orig.)

  18. Energy - economy - policy: considerations on the world energy market. Energie - Oekonomie - Politik: wirtschaftstheoretische und wirtschaftspolitische Betrachtungen zum Weltenergiemarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giesel, H B

    1991-07-11

    Worldwide, there is no technical scarcity of energy resources, there is a scarcity of those which might be recovered cost-effectively. The approach of the traditional resource theory is orientated to the optimum distribution of the finite energy resources between the generations. The present distribution problem is, however, the excessive demand for cost-advantageous energy resources of the Third World by the industrialized countries. The industrialized countries themselves own abundant energy resources (e.g. 'non-conventional' oils) which, however, cannot be cost-effectively recovered unless a substantially higher energy price level assures economic viability. This analysis raises fundamental questions concerning an optimized balance of interests in the field of utilization of resources between the North (rich countries) and the South (poor countries, need for energy; increasing overpopulation). Alternative solutions aiming at better conservation of cost-effectively recoverable resources to the advantage of the Third World countries are discussed as well as viable instruments to be used within the framework of an international energy policy. 21 refs., 5 figs.

  19. [Problems resulting from the absorption of small towns into urban areas in major Third World cities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckee, D L

    1985-01-01

    The tendency toward hypertrophy of large metropolitan areas in the Third World has been a subject of concern to economists and other social scientists for some time. Inability to absorb vast waves of migrants into the organized labor force or to provide adequate infrastructure and services are serious problems in many growing cities of Asia, Africa, and Latin America. A different phenomenon created by perpetual urban expansion has been relatively neglected: the problems caused when preexisting urban areas are absorbed into the metropolis. The tendency of squatter settlements to constrict normal urban growth and expansion and to impede rational provision of services has been recognized, but the absorption of small cities does not necessarily produce identical problems. Small cities absorbed into a metropolis lose their identity in the successive waves of suburban proliferation. Los Angeles in the US may be considered the prototype of the phenomenon in which multiple preexisting urban zones are absorbed into the same metropolis without formation of any visible center of gravity. In some cases, small cities may be completely engulfed by the encroaching metropolis, if transit routes or availability of land makes them interesting to developers. The livelihood of residents may be threatened if they are no longer able to cultivate gardens or raise small animals. Local services may deteriorate. The youngest and most able residents are likely to abandon such places for the greater opportunities of the city, leaving the aged and less qualified to fend for themselves. Jobs may disappear and traditional commercial relations may be destroyed without being replaced. The future wellbeing of residents depends on their ability to maneuver in the new metropolitan environment, but many will be unable to adjust for lack of training, the weight of immovable property, or diverse personal considerations. Planning could help to reduce the problems that occasional survival of some small

  20. World Energy Needs and Offshore Potential of hydro energy and pump storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemperiere, F.

    2008-09-01

    In 2008, 6,5 Billion people have an overall income of 50.000 Billion US $, use 10 Billion oil equivalent of primary energy, partly through 15.000 TWh of electric power. Most is used by 1 Billion people from industrialized countries, with 10.000 KWh/ year per capita at a cost of 10 cents per KWh, i.e. 1.000 $/year, 3 % of their income close to 30.000 $ per year. In the second half of the Century, we may hope that 10 Billion people will reach this average income per capita; with a better energetic efficiency but a larger share of it through electricity. The world Electricity needs may well be multiplied by 5 along the century. It is possible at a reasonable cost to transport electricity along thousands of Km but this is used only now for 1 %. It is possible to store electricity after generation (pumped storage plants between 2 lakes) but it is used now for only 1 %; energy storage is usually before electricity generation (fuel storage or lakes). But these two possibilities of storage of electricity after generation and long distance transport are the key of the future utilization of renewable energies. The key problem of wind and solar electricity is the intermittent supply and the relevant need of storage along 1 or 2 days. Without storage, wind and solar energies may be used one third of time and should be associated with much more fossil fuel power for two thirds. As fossil fuel power will be limited, wind and solar should be very limited. 2) With storage, wind and solar energies may be used over 80 % of time, much more than fossil fuel. For 10.000 TWh/year of wind energy, a 2 days storage requires a 55 TWh/storage. For 30.000 TWh/year of sun energy, a 16 hours storage requires a 55 TWh/storage. As some storage may be common and as there may be storage is some solar plants, the total storage need may be 80 to 100 TWh. It may be between two lakes: - Possibly 10 to 20 TWh between 2 onshore lakes, as for 2 TWh now (100 GW x 20 hours) - Possibly 10 to 20 TWh from

  1. Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Foland, Andrew Dean

    2007-01-01

    Energy is the central concept of physics. Unable to be created or destroyed but transformable from one form to another, energy ultimately determines what is and isn''t possible in our universe. This book gives readers an appreciation for the limits of energy and the quantities of energy in the world around them. This fascinating book explores the major forms of energy: kinetic, potential, electrical, chemical, thermal, and nuclear.

  2. Energy and poverty. The world needs far more electricity to power development, latest global energy study finds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The latest edition published in September 2002 by the International IEA of the OECD, depicts a future in which energy use continues to grow inexorably, fossil fuels continue to dominate the energy mix and developing countries fast approach OECD countries as the largest consumers of commercial energy. The Earth's energy resources are undoubtedly adequate to meet rising demand for at least the next three decades. But the projections in this Outlook raise serious concerns about the security of energy supplies, investment in energy infrastructure, the threat of environmental damage caused by energy production and use and the unequal access of the world's population to modern energy. Governments will have to take strenuous action in many areas of energy use and supply if these concerns are to be met. The Outlook's core projections are derived from a Reference Scenario that takes into account only those government polices and measures that had been adopted by mid-2002. A separate Alternative Policy Scenario assesses the impact of a range of new energy and environmental policies that OECD countries are considering adopting as well as of faster deployment of new energy technologies. Both scenarios confirm the extent of the policy challenges facing governments around the world. A key result of the Outlook is that energy trade will expand rapidly. In particular, the major oil- and gas-consuming regions will see their imports grow substantially. This trade will increase mutual dependence among nations. But it will also intensify concerns about the world's vulnerability to energy supply disruptions, as production is increasingly concentrated in a small number of producing countries. Supply security has moved to the top of the energy policy agenda. The governments of oil- and gas-importing countries will need to take a more proactive role in dealing with the energy security risks inherent in fossil-fuel trade. They will need to pay more attention to maintaining will look anew

  3. Minerals and energy: major development projects - April 2006 listing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William Mollard [Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics (ABARE), Canberra, ACT (Australia)

    2006-06-15

    ABARE's project list, released around May and November each year, lists completed and committed projects in the minerals and energy sector in Australia. Santos' $200 million Casino gas field project in Bass Strait will produce natural gas and condensate while output from Berwyndale South will be coal seam methane. Five coal projects were completed in the six months to April 2006. The largest of these was Xstrata's Newlands Northern underground mine. In the same region, BMA's (BHP Billiton Mitsubishi Alliance) $102 million Broadmeadow underground mine and BHP/Mitsui Coal's $50 million Poitrel opencut mine, both near Moranbah, were brought into production. In New South Wales, two projects a new mine and a mine infrastructure development, both near Singletonwere commissioned. Xstrata's new Ravensworth West opencut mine will produce up to 1.5 million tonnes a year of thermal coal. Excel Coal's $73 million Wambo Rail project involved building a rail loop and loading facilities at its Wambo operation. Queensland coal mine projects and coal infrastructure developments account for 19 per cent (or $6.3 billion) of the estimated capital cost of $34 billion for all advanced projects. The largest coal mine development is the $1 billion Dawson mine expansion which is expected to add around 12 million tonnes of coking and thermal coal capacity, commencing in early 2007. Anglo Coal/Mitsui is also developing the large new Lake Lindsay opencut mine. Rio Tinto is developing its $440 million Clermont opencut mine. Twelve other advanced coal mine developments in Queensland are expected to raise coal production capacity by around 30 million tonnes a year by 2008. 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. ITER, a major step toward nuclear fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, K.; Holtkamp, N.; Pick, M.; Gauche, F.; Garin, P.; Bigot, B.; Luciani, J.F.; Mougniot, J.C.; Watteau, J.P.; Saoutic, B.; Becoulet, A.; Libeyre, P.; Beaumont, B.; Simonin, A.; Giancarli, L.; Rosenvallon, S.; Gastaldi, O.; Marbach, G.; Boudot, C.; Ioki, K.; Mitchell, N.; Girard, J.Ph.; Giraud, B.; Lignini, F.; Giguet, E.; Bofusch, E.; Friconneau, J.P.; Di Pace, L.; Pampin, R.; Cook, I.; Maisonnier, D.; Campbell, D.; Hayward, J.; Li Puma, A.; Norajitra, P.; Sardain, P.; Tran, M.Q.; Ward, D.; Moslang, A.; Carre, F.; Serpantie, J.P.

    2007-01-01

    This document gathers together a series of articles dedicated to ITER. They are organized into 5 parts. The first part describes the potential of fusion as a source of energy that will be able to face the challenge of a continuously increasing demand. After a reminder of the main fusion reactions and the conditions to obtain fusion, the second part focuses on the magnetic fusion based concepts with a special emphasis on the tokamak configuration. In the third part the main components of ITER are described: first the plasma facing components, then the vacuum vessel, the superconducting magnets and the heating systems. In the fourth part short papers concerning ITER safety, the maintenance through remote handling systems, the tritium breeding blanket, are given, along with a full article on the waste management. It is interesting to notice that the nuclear wastes will represent: -) between 1600 and 3800 tons of housekeeping and process wastes produced during the 20 years of operation of ITER (20% very low level waste, 75% low or medium activity with short life and 5% medium activity with long life), -) about 750 tons from component replacement during ITER active operation, and -) about 30000 tons from the decommissioning of ITER. The last part presents the European concepts for a power plant based on a fusion reactor. A basic design is given along with a state of the art of the research on the materials that will be used for the structures. It is highlighted that synergies between fission and fusion technologies exist in at least 4 areas: nuclear design code system, high temperature materials, safety approach, and in-service inspection, maintenance and dismantling. (A.C.)

  5. How the world should invest in energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrell, D.; Remes, J.K.

    2008-01-01

    A program that targets cost-effective opportunities in energy productivity could halve the growth in energy demand, cut emissions of greenhouse gases, and generate attractive returns. Boosting energy efficiency will help stretch energy resources and slow down the increase in carbon emissions. It will also create opportunities for businesses and consumers to invest 170 billion USD a year from now until 2020, at a 17 percent average internal rate of return. However, a wide range of information gaps, market failures, and policy imperfections could slow the pace of investment. Public- and private-sector leaders can encourage higher energy productivity by setting efficiency standards for appliances and equipment, financing energy efficiency upgrades, raising corporate standards for energy efficiency, and collaborating with energy intermediaries

  6. Major Harvey Cushing's difficulties with the British and American armies during World War I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Michael E

    2014-08-01

    This historical review explores Harvey Cushing's difficulties with both the British and American armies during his World War I service to definitively examine the rumor of his possible court martial. It also provides a further understanding of Cushing the man. While in France during World War I, Cushing was initially assigned to British hospital units. This service began in May 1917 and ended abruptly in May 1918 when the British cashiered him for repeated censorship violations. Returning to American command, he feared court martial. The army file on this matter (retrieved from the United States National Archives) indicates that US Army authorities recommended that Cushing be reprimanded and returned to the US for his violations. The army carried out neither recommendation, and no evidence exists that a court martial was considered. Cushing's army career and possible future academic life were protected by the actions of his surgical peers and Merritte Ireland, Chief Surgeon of the US Army in France. After this censorship episode, Cushing was made a neurosurgical consultant but was also sternly warned that further rule violations would not be tolerated by the US Army. Thereafter, despite the onset of a severe peripheral neuropathy, probably Guillian Barré's syndrome, Cushing was indefatigable in ministering to neurosurgical needs in the US sector in France. Cushing's repeated defying of censorship regulations reveals poor judgment plus an initial inability to be a "team player." The explanations he offered for his censorship violations showed an ability to bend the truth. Cushing's war journal is unclear as to exactly what transpired between him and the British and US armies. It also shows no recognition of the help he received from others who were instrumental in preventing his ignominious removal from service in France. Had that happened, his academic future and ability to train future neurosurgical leaders may have been seriously threatened. Cushing's foibles

  7. Ludwik Zamenhof: a major contributor to world culture, on the 150(th) anniversary of his birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzybowski, Andrzej

    2010-01-01

    More than 200 universal languages have been proposed to replace the nearly 3,000 existing languages. Esperanto, developed by the Polish-Jewish ophthalmologist Ludwik Zamenhof in 1887, became the most widely used artificial language of the 20(th) century. It is estimated that between one million and 15 million people in the world can speak or read Esperanto. Zamenhof was nominated 14 times for the Nobel Peace Prize, and also received the French Legion of Honor, and the Medal of Isabelle of Spain the Catholic. Ludwik Zamenhof started his professional training in ophthalmology at the Jewish Hospital in Warsaw, later spent several months in Vienna, and finally started a private ophthalmology practice in Warsaw, where he remained for most of his life. His son Adam was an associate professor of ophthalmology at the University of Warsaw and head of ophthalmology in the Jewish Hospital in Czyste, the biggest and most modern hospital in Warsaw at that time. Some lesser known aspects of Zamenhof's life and work drawn from the original 19(th) century Russian and 20(th) century Esperanto documents are described. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Identifying core, exciting, and hybrid attributes in fans' assessments of major (World Cup) spectator sports events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gau, Li-Shiue

    2013-12-01

    This paper adopts a methodology of asymmetrical analyses to investigate the relevant importance of spectator sport attributes in terms of their non-linear associations with the benefits that fans experience while watching sports. Questionnaires tapping 16 attributes (e.g., teamwork, sportsmanship, level of competition) and 16 benefits (e.g., good mood, exciting experience, support for my favorite team) were distributed to a sample of fans at the outdoor broadcast of the 2010 World Cup final game at the National Stadium in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. 427 participants rated the importance and benefit of each attribute experienced from watching the game. Attributes were categorized as core, exciting, or hybrid attributes. The star player was the core attribute; rivalry, popularity, and coach were the exciting attributes; and the other 12 attributes were hybrid. Two-dimensional space analyses showed that attributes "sportsmanship, teamwork, and supporting a team" were both explicitly and implicitly important attributes. The methodology of asymmetrical analyses can help managers prioritize the focus of attributes and allocate resources effectively.

  9. Major Aspects of Transformations of International Companies in a Changing World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Yurievna Konina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic globalization and demographic changes as well rapidly changing technologies are the most important factors of the firm's environment. The rapid development of information technology radically changes the very essence of the creation of new value. The pace of technological change and innovations increases. In the most advanced sectors of global economy the knowledge is a key resource. The world economy has not finally recovered after the crisis of 2008-2009. The global economy his becoming more multicentre and the vector of economic power is shifting to China and India. The main actors and the anchor of today global economy are leading international companies (transnational corporations- TNCs. Several thousands of TNCs together with their value chain dominate the global economy. The economic power allows the largest TNCs significantly push the boundaries of the company. Globalization has changed external networks of TNCs, their corporate governance, corporate ownership as well transfer pricing schemes as well relations between the headquarter and its subsidiaries and affiliates. A remarkable feature of TNCs recent FDI flows is not Greenfield investment but mergers and acquisitions. Key features of TNC activities are defined by industry. A growing number of TNCs are changing their strategic activities, basing on the latest technology trends. The most important aspects of TNCs activities are linked to innovation, financial operations, advanced management technique, increase in intangible assets. Innovation activity of TNCs is shifting to Asia.

  10. World Energy Issues: An Inquiry-Based Lesson Using ArcGIS Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Injeong

    2018-01-01

    This 45 minute inquiry lesson can be used for a high school world geography or AP Human Geography course when the class discusses various issues regarding world energy resources. The lesson focuses on two particular issues: fossil fuel dependency and the growing energy demand. Students will examine the geographic distribution of current energy…

  11. Medical mycology and fungal immunology: new research perspectives addressing a major world health challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, Neil A R; Netea, Mihai G

    2016-12-05

    Fungi cause more than a billion skin infections, more than 100 million mucosal infections, 10 million serious allergies and more than a million deaths each year. Global mortality owing to fungal infections is greater than for malaria and breast cancer and is equivalent to that owing to tuberculosis (TB) and HIV. These statistics evidence fungal infections as a major threat to human health and a major burden to healthcare budgets worldwide. Those patients who are at greatest risk of life-threatening fungal infections include those who have weakened immunity or have suffered trauma or other predisposing infections such as HIV. To address these global threats to human health, more research is urgently needed to understand the immunopathology of fungal disease and human disease susceptibility in order to augment the advances being made in fungal diagnostics and drug development. Here, we highlight some recent advances in basic research in medical mycology and fungal immunology that are beginning to inform clinical decisions and options for personalized medicine, vaccine development and adjunct immunotherapies.This article is part of the themed issue 'Tackling emerging fungal threats to animal health, food security and ecosystem resilience'. © 2016 The Authors.

  12. Thromboembolic and Major Bleeding Events With Rivaroxaban Versus Warfarin Use in a Real-World Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo-Alvarez, Giavanna; Martinez, Kathryn A; Valente, Megan; Bena, James; Hu, Bo; Luxenburg, Jennifer; Chaitoff, Alexander; Ituarte, Catherine; Brateanu, Andrei; Rothberg, Michael B

    2018-01-01

    Although randomized trials demonstrate the noninferiority of rivaroxaban compared with warfarin in the context of nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF), little is known about how these drugs compare in practice. To assess the relative effectiveness and safety of rivaroxaban versus warfarin in a large health system and to evaluate this association by time in therapeutic range (TTR). We conducted a retrospective cohort study with propensity matching in the Cleveland Clinic Health System. The study included patients initiated on warfarin or rivaroxaban for thromboembolic prevention in nonvalvular AF between January 2012 and July 2016. The main outcomes were thromboembolic events and major bleeds. Analyses were stratified by warfarin patients' TTR. The cohort consisted of 472 propensity-matched pairs. The mean age was 73.6 years (SD = 11.7), and the mean CHADS 2 score was 1.8. The median TTR for warfarin patients was 64%. In the propensity-matched analysis, there was no significant difference in thromboembolic or major bleeding events between groups. Among warfarin patients with a TTR warfarin and rivaroxaban were associated with similar safety and effectiveness, even among those with suboptimal therapeutic control. Individualized decision making, taking into account the nontherapeutic tradeoffs associated with these medications (eg, monitoring, half-life, cost) is warranted.

  13. How UK is preparing for major push towards world's first SMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalton, David [NucNet, Bruessel (Belgium)

    2017-01-15

    The UK Department of Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy is finalising a roadmap for the development of SMRs in the UK in parallel with the first phase of the competition. The roadmap will be published early in 2017, although whether it will be affected by the change in personnel at the top of government following the June 2016 vote for Brexit remains to be seen. The UK seems to be taking a lead in the development of SMRs. In its 2015 autumn budget statement, the government announced it would invest pound 250 m in an ''ambitious nuclear research and development programme'', including in the SMR competition.

  14. The prospects for the world nuclear energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Over the last few years projections of nuclear power generating capacity growth for the next two decades have progressively decreased. Dwindling load growth, increasing load lead time, costs of delays and high cost inflation, industrial recession and fuel cycle delays are discussed as the main causes of the setback. The state of the fuel cycle business in the world market is examined and data are presented and discussed for predicted world supply and demand. Nuclear plans and fuel policies and requirements are then examined for individual countries. (U.K.)

  15. Differing perspectives of major oil firms on future energy developments: An illustrative framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Youngho; Yong Jiayun

    2007-01-01

    This study develops a framework to analyse the perspectives of major oil firms in terms of their perceptions of current energy developments and projections of future energy potentials, and illustrates their views on the possibility of a paradigm shift in fuel use. The three A's themes-availability of resource (AV), applicability of technology (AP) and acceptability by society (AC)-make up the analytical framework. Divergence in oil firms' behaviour and perspectives are captured by the 3-A triangle that illustrates how the four largest oil firms in the world balance their stakes among the three A's. ExxonMobil's position is markedly skewed towards the theme of AV, whilst BP has the most balanced approach among the four. Shell and Total both share a similarly shaped 3-A triangle with more stakes placed on the theme of AP. The results would imply that a paradigm shift in resource use or a full-scale transition to a backstop technology is unlikely in the coming decades

  16. Review of experience of major reform of railways of the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V.Martsenyuk

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the possibility of the foreign countries experience in the reforming of railway transport of Ukraine. Methodology. On the basis of comparative analysis the suitability of foreign experience of infrastructure branches reformation, dividing the range of problems to the questions of ideological and methodological character, and of course, taking into account the peculiarities of the situation in Ukraine is estimated. As for the first range of problems, it is, first of all, the choice of the form of ownership. Findings. Experience shows that both types of property have not only the beneficial but also the negative impacts. On the one hand, it is the state railways have the conditions for development and implementation of the new technologies such as high-speed trains, construction of which, as well as construction of specialized lines would be impossible without appropriate research base, and without public funding. On the other – private companies. operating on a concession basis, usually provide a higher level of services at affordable rates. Originality. It can be concluded that there is no direct correlation between the ownership form of railroads and economic or qualitative characteristics of their work. The necessity of various forms of technical and economic relationships, the existence of separate railways at the regional and local levels, which offers a great opportunity to overcome the monotony of operation, in the development of railways towards greater differentiation of service levels is proved. This however does not mean that the only alternative is to sell concessions to private enterprises, especially if the transfer of ownership is not supplemented by commitments to support public transport at a certain level. Practical value. Examples of positive governance are opposed to the equal examples of private management and vice versa. Deep analysis of reforming experience of world leading railways will prevent from

  17. World Energy Outlook 2004. The new report of the International Energy Agency; World Energy Outlook 2004. Le nouveau rapport de l'Agence Internationale de l'Energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2004-12-01

    Here is given the complete text of the summary of the World Energy Outlook report of the International Energy Agency. This report includes an alternative scenario which gives the image of an energy future more efficient and more respectful of the environment than those of the reference scenario. (O.M.)

  18. Introduction: Energy Systems Modelling for a Sustainable World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Labriet, Maryse; Giannakidis, George; Karlsson, Kenneth Bernard

    2018-01-01

    Technology Systems Analysis Program (IEA-ETSAP) to support the definition of energy and climate policies in an increasing number of countries. It also provides an overview of the 23 case studies presented in this book, all exploring the potential for feasible roadmaps at global, national or local scale......Since the first oil crisis more than forty years ago, concerns regarding energy security, economic impacts, air pollution, climate change, energy poverty, and societal well-being have been repeatedly calling for an energy revolution. The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the Paris...

  19. Long term trends in world energy demand and supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frisch, J.

    1992-01-01

    In this address, the author discusses projected changes in fuel use, shifts in energy consumption and projected increases in carbon dioxide emissions. He expects these energy issues to cause geopolitical uncertainties that will complicate attempts to reduce greenhouse gases. There is great concern for the poverty-stricken areas of Asia and Africa. Thirty-five to forty-five percent of their energy needs will be supplied by scarce fuelwood and poor animal and vegetal residues by the year 2020. International cooperation will be needed to alleviate the tensions caused by these inequities of energy supplies

  20. National Renewable Energy Policy in a Global World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Minji

    Increasing trade of renewable energy products has significantly contributed to reducing the costs of renewable energy sources, but at the same time, it has generated protectionist policies, which may negatively affect the trend of the cost reduction. Although a few recent studies examined the rise of renewable energy protectionism and trade disputes, they are limited in addressing the conflict between the original goal of traditional renewable energy policies and the new protectionist policies under the globalized renewable energy industry. To fill this gap, this dissertation explores how the globalized renewable energy industry has changed national renewable energy policies. Through three analyses, three aspects of the globalized renewable energy industry are examined: the rise of multinational corporations, international interactions among actors, and the changes of the global and domestic market conditions. First analysis investigates how multinational renewable energy corporations have affected national policies. A content analysis of the annual reports of 15 solar photovoltaic multinational corporation shows that solar multinationals have been influenced by national policies and have adapted to the changes rather than having attempted to change national policies. Second analysis examines how diverse actors have framed renewable energy trade issues through a network analysis of the Chinese solar panel issue in the United States. The result shows that the Chinese solar panel issue was framed differently from the traditional environmental frame of renewable energy, being dominated by multinational corporations headquartered in other countries. Third analysis explores what has caused the increasing diversity in national renewable energy policies through the case studies of the U.S. and South Korea. The result reveals that the globalization of solar industry has affected the diversification of solar policies in two countries by generating both challenges, which

  1. The US and UK in the Eyes of English Majors in the Arab World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mais Qutami

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The current study examines the attitudes of Jordanian female college students whose major is English language and literature towards the United States of America and the United Kingdom. It also looks into the reasons for their held beliefs about the West, the US and UK, in particular. A survey and semi- structured interviews were conducted with forty Muslim female students from various cities and villages in Jordan for this purpose. The selected students are in their final semester in the English program and have completed various courses in language and literature. In these courses, students have been mostly exposed to British and American literature throughout the four year period of their study. The study also examines whether student attitudes towards the West resemble those of the general Arab public. The findings certainly challenge the theory of the “Clash of civilizations.” In fact, the results demonstrate that students have a more favourable opinion of the UK than the US and that this has everything to do with their dissatisfaction with the current American foreign policies and nothing to do with the “American way of life.”

  2. French participation in the world energy council; Presence francaise au conseil mondial de l`energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carouge, Ch. [Secretariat General du Conseil francais de l`Energie (France); Roussely, F.; Francony, M. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France); Ailleret, F. [Conseil francais de l`Energie (France); Bosseboeuf, D.; Moisan, F. [ADEME, Agence de l`Environnement et de la Maitrise de l`Energie, 75 - Paris (France); Villaron, Th. [Conseil Mondial de l`Energie (France)

    1999-02-01

    The Revue de l`Energie is presenting the most influential French interventions at the 17. Congress of the World Energy Council held in September 1998 in Houston, (USA). These represent only part of French participation in the congress since a total of 16 individuals from France took part in the various sessions. Their presentations cover very varied topics and are one of the things that testify to the interest that our energy industries have in the works and operations of the WEC. Some other figures also bear witness to this interest: 184 French congress members, which is one of the largest delegations after that of the United States, the host country of the congress; 11 technical presentation, covering a wide range of subjects: from the nuclear reactor of the future to the use of bagasse (cane trash) for the production of electricity, from the underground storage of natural gas to the production of extra-heavy crude petroleum. The technical exhibition associated to the Congress was a great success and there again the French presence was able to make its mark: five exhibitors were gathered in the France of 600 m{sup 2}, the most sizeable non-American national area.But French participation in the work of the WEC is not limited to congresses. The French Energy Council [Conseil francais de l`Energie] is careful to ensure its presence both in the formal proceedings of the WEC and within the studies undertaken under its three-year programme. This active French presence is also essential in order to defend the official English-French bilingualism of the World Energy Council. In spite of the good will of the organizers and the support of the general secretary`s office in London, the Houston Congress showed how difficult it was to maintain the use of the French language on English-speaking territory. This is a difficult task, one that has to be undertaken anew each time, but one that France and other French-speaking nations have decided to pursue to the end. (authors)

  3. mobile nuclear energy power plants for Turkey and III. world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oezden, H.

    2001-01-01

    It is estimated that if there is no alternative energy source, there will be increase in building nuclear energy power plants. This source of energy and know how along with technology must be put into the possession of Turkey. Since almost all of Turkey is 1 st degree earthquake region and in view of the regional political instability, the requirement of ample amount of water for prolonged times, the density of settlement, environmental problems, high cost of building nuclear energy power plants it becomes necessary to think about their application techniques. In this study, mobile nuclear energy power plants having a wide area of use in conditions prevailing in Turkey , their draft drawings for making them by using metal/steel are shown. The positive-negative aspects of the topic is presented for discussions

  4. Energy in India and the world: 2012-13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, B.G.

    2014-01-01

    A number of publications have been recently available from international and national agencies in the field of energy statistics. Analysis of data from these publications shows that per capita energy consumption remains low; simply because 40-50% of the population does not have access to electricity and other commercial fuels. To achieve good standard of living for everyone, consumption of electricity and other sources has to rise substantially. India is depending heavily on imported oil, coal and gas. To achieve energy security, improve balance of payment and reduce emissions, energy efficiency offers the most cost-effective solutions. Energy policy has to shift drastically from supply side to demand side management. Organizations like BEE, PCRA, GEDA, MEDA have to be given significantly large human and financial resources. Importance has to be given to residential sector and small and medium industries. Public transport and railways need heavy investment compared to private vehicles and expressways. (author)

  5. Cultural Adaptations: Conceptual, Ethical, Contextual, and Methodological Issues for Working with Ethnocultural and Majority-World Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Guillermo; Adames, Cristina

    2017-08-01

    Mayor advancements have been achieved in research on the cultural adaptation of prevention and treatment interventions that are conducted with diverse ethnocultural groups. This commentary addresses conceptual, ethical, contextual, and methodological issues related to cultural adaptations. The articles in this special issue represent a major contribution to the study of cultural adaptations in prevention science. We frame our analysis of fidelity to core intervention components using a conceptual approach that examines (a) the propositional model (theory of change), (b) the procedural model (theory of action, methods), and (c) the philosophical assumptions that undergird these models. Regarding ethics, we caution against imposing the norms, values, and world views of the Western dominant society onto vulnerable populations such as ethnocultural groups. Given that the assumption of universality in behavioral science has been questioned, and as randomized clinical trials (RCTs) seldom examine the ecological validity of evidence-based interventions and treatments (EBI/T), imposing such interventions onto ethnocultural groups is problematic since these interventions contain values, norms, beliefs, and worldviews that may be contrary to those held by many ethnocultural groups. Regarding methods, several innovative designs are discussed that serve as alternatives to the RCT and represent an important contribution to prevention science. Also, we discuss guidelines for conducting cultural adaptations. Finally, the articles in this special issue make a major contribution to the growing field of cultural adaptation of preventive interventions with ethnocultural groups and majority-world populations.

  6. Major oil exporters may profit rather than lose, in a carbon-constrained world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Tobias A.; Azar, C.; Johansson, D.; Lindgren, K.

    2007-01-01

    The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) claims compensation for losses in expected oil export revenues due to CO 2 mitigation measures in developing countries. These losses are expected for two primary reasons: a reduction in the consumption of oil in importing countries and a reduction in the producer price of oil (taxation in an importing country implies a transfer of rents from producers to consumers). So far, most studies have focused on these two mechanisms and corroborated that revenue losses for OPEC are to be expected. However, there are also mechanisms that may be expected to raise the price of oil products. In a cost-effective regime for dealing with climate change, i.e., a regime in which all or most countries participate and in which the same carbon price is applied on all carbon-emitting activities, the cost of using unconventional oil, or synthetic diesel from coal, will increase even more than the cost of using conventional oil. Given that reserves of conventional oil are expected to dwindle over time, heavy oils and coal to liquids might set the long-run price for liquid fuels, which means that the price of oil would increase beyond the carbon fee; i.e., the rent on conventional oil would increase. We use an energy-economic optimization model to analyze these three mechanisms. We find that the net present value of OPEC revenue from conventional oil increases slightly (at most by 4 percent) with a global CO 2 restriction regime. We also consider conditions under which this result does not hold

  7. Nuclear energy in a nuclear weapon free world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilat, Joseph [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The prospect of a nuclear renaissance has revived a decades old debate over the proliferation and terrorism risks of the use of nuclear power. This debate in the last few years has taken on an added dimension with renewed attention to disarmament. Increasingly, concerns that proliferation risks may reduce the prospects for realizing the vision of a nuclear-weapon-free world are being voiced.

  8. Energy efficiency throughout the world. On the way to transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dessus, Benjamin; Laponche, Bernard; Blaustein, Edgar; Chappoz, Loic; Labrousse, Michel; Humberset, Suzanne; Peullemeulle, Justine; Magnin, Gerard; Lacassagne, Sylvie; Bertinat, Pablo; Soumaila, Ibrahim; Rialhe, Anne; Clain, Cristina; Poveda, Mentor; Scalambrini Coasta, Heitor; Diniz, Silvio; Osman, Nejib; Singh, Daljit; Sant, Girish; Kokino, Issairo; Methe Myrand, Lea; Raoust, Michel; Novel, Aymeric; Narain, Sunita; D'Monte, Darryl; Lopez, Jose; Mohanty, Brahmanand; Mezghani, Mohamed; Chamonin, Denis

    2012-10-01

    This document gathers several articles from different countries on different topics related to energy transition. The first part deals with the challenge of energy efficiency as a mean on the way to energy transition (in France, in Europe, in Latin America, in Asian developing countries). The second part illustrates through examples the importance of governance issues and political will (access to energy in West Africa, a network in Latin America and the Caribbean, use of LEDs for public lighting in Brazil, Tunisian policy, role of regulation authorities, situation in India). The third part proposes examples illustrating the importance of the local dimension in any policy aimed at energy efficiency (a project in Africa, public support in housing construction in Austin, the Swedish city of Vaxjo, the French city of Montdidier, the example of two quarters of Geneva using the lake water as cooling or heating source, the refrigerator fleet in a Palestinian village). The last part reports several experiments made in different sectors (building thermal rehabilitation in China, green buildings in India, the building sector in India, a new strategy in India for domestic and commercial electric equipment, stimulation of energy efficiency in the Japanese industry, public transport in sub-Saharan cities, energy efficiency in Indian agriculture)

  9. Issues and problems raised by a world energy policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantzke, U

    1983-07-14

    The author begins by welcoming the participants to the occupational group of conference and then proceeds to examine the current situation affecting the oil market. He presents the oil consumption figures for OECD countries and explains the industrial causes behind the decline in oil consumption. The effects are investigated of the dramatic oil price increase of 1973/74, i.e. the balance of payments, economic growth, inflation and unemployment. The author then discusses future energy prospects and examines the technical and economic assumptions on which these forecasts are based. The paper deals with those measures aimed at safeguarding energy supplies (oil, gas, coal and uranium) and examines the situation in western Europe with regard to energy self-sufficiency. The creation of the IEA and the resolve of the industrial nations to develop the 3 other energy sources - coal, nuclear power and gas is described. The paper concludes with a brief assessment of the way ahead.

  10. Energy efficiency policy in a non-cooperative world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barla, Philippe; Proost, Stef

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we explore energy efficiency policies in the presence of a global environmental problem and international cost interdependency associated with R and D activities. We develop a simple model with two regions where the cost of an appliance in one region depends upon the level of energy efficiency in that region and the level of R and D activities by the appliance industry. In our model, the cooperative outcome can be decentralized by imposing a tax on energy. However, we show that when regions do not cooperate, they have an incentive to adopt additional instruments to increase energy efficiency. The reason is that the lack of cooperation leads to under-taxation of the environmental externality which in turn creates an incentive to try to reduce emissions produced abroad. We illustrate this phenomenon with the Californian vehicle greenhouse gas standards.

  11. The high temperature reactor - an important tool in meeting the challenge of world energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knizia, K.; Schwarz, D.

    1988-01-01

    A growing and, in its majority, poor mankind will need increasing amounts of energy at moderate prices. At the same time, ecological stresses on our environment, on the forests of the Third World (firewood crisis), and on the climate must be limited. The High Temperature Reactor (HTR) is a well-suited answer to all challenges, as it can supply electricity safely and economically, be built close to process steam and district heat consumers, procure more hydrocarbons from coal relative to a given release of CO 2 , and has the potential of splitting water with high efficiency. At times of affluent fossile fuels, however, and not yet apparent need to restrict their use for reasons of climate, individual companies cannot bear the development and introduction of HTRs all by themselves. Therefore governments are called upon for support. (orig.)

  12. Assessing the role of coal in the world energy future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hibbard Junior, W.R.

    1981-01-01

    Ten recent extensive studies of long range energy futures were evaluated and a consensus of findings developed. Progress toward the consensus was determined. In the next 20 years the United States will need all of the coal, nuclear, oil shale and tar sands that public consensus and the legislatures will permit. Concerns include the cost and availability of OPEC oil, energy efficiency, acid rain, and carbon dioxide build-up. (Author) [pt

  13. The Impact of Energy Consumption on the Surface Urban Heat Island in China’s 32 Major Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weilin Liao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Supported by the rapid economic development in the last few decades, China has become the largest energy consumer in the world. Alongside this, the effect of the anthropogenic heat released from energy consumption is increasingly apparent. We quantified the daytime and nighttime surface urban heat island intensity (SUHII for the 32 major cities in mainland China, using MODIS land surface temperature data from 2008 to 2012, and estimated the energy consumption intensity (ECI based on the correlation between energy consumption and the sum of nighttime lights. On this basis, the impact of energy consumption on the surface urban heat island in China’s 32 major cities was analyzed, by directly examining the relationship between SUHII and the urban-suburban difference in ECI. The results show that energy consumption has a significantly positive correlation with the nighttime SUHII, but no correlation with the daytime SUHII. It indicates that the cities with a larger urban-suburban difference in ECI have a far greater impact on SUHII during the nighttime. Therefore, the statistical analysis of the historical observation data in this study provides evidence for a long-held hypothesis that the anthropogenic heat released from energy consumption is an important contributor to the urban thermal environment.

  14. World Energy Data System (WENDS). Volume I. Country data, AF-CO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    The World Energy Data System contains organized data on those countries and international organizations that may have critical impact on the world energy scene. Volumes 1 through 4 include energy-related information concerning 57 countries. Additional volumes (5 through 11) present review information on international organizations, summaries of energy-related international agreements, and fact sheets on nuclear facilities. Country data on Afghanistan, Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Burma, Canada, China, and Colombia are included in Volume 1. The following topics are covered for most of the countries: economic, demographic, and educational profiles; energy policy; indigenous energy resources and uses; forecasts, demand, exports, imports of energy supplies; environmental considerations; power production facilities; energy industries; commercial applications of energy; research and development activities of energy; and international activities.

  15. Ship-Based Nuclear Energy Systems for Accelerating Developing World Socioeconomic Advance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroski, Robert; Wood, Lowell

    2014-07-01

    those having intermittency characteristics. Consideration is directed to the relative economics of ship-based and land-based nuclear power stations, and the costs of undersea transmission lines and suitable moorings are discussed, as well as station-maintenance expenses. Potential cost savings from reduced seismic engineering, serialized production, and reduction/elimination of site-specific engineering are determined to be likely to enable large floating nuclear energy systems to be deployed at both significantly lower cost and with lower financial risk than comparable land-based systems. Such plants thus appear to be a compelling option for agilely supplying flexible energy-flows to developing regions, especially as they allow major components of the overhead costs and time-delays of large-scale energy systems to be avoided. Finally, the critical set of issues related to appropriately regulating and insuring floating nuclear power plants designed for export is examined. Approaches to ensuring adequate safety and environmental stewardship while properly allocating risks between system owners/operators and host countries of floating nuclear energy systems are discussed, along with possible pathways toward implementation. Robustness of exemplary nuclear energy systems from all forms of misuse, including materials diversion, is noted, thus ensuring suitability for complications-free, non-discriminatory global deployments. Availability of abundant, low-cost nuclear energy which can flexibly satisfy the full spectrum of energy demands of the economies of developing countries will inevitably result in significantly earlier and more environmentally-sound energy intensification of societies enjoying such advantages. This will help spur autocatalytic gains in human well-being and economic development rates similar to those seen in the developed world during the last two-thirds of a century, while avoiding some of the undesirable sideeffects often associated with those gains

  16. Results of a real-world study on vortioxetine in patients with major depressive disorder in South East Asia (REVIDA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Cheuk Ngen; Zain, Azhar; Hemrungrojn, Solaphat; Ung, Eng Khean; Kwansanit, Patanon; Au Yong, Koon Choong; Chong, Marvin Swee Woon; Inpa, Chalowat; Yen, Teck Hoe; Yeoh, Boon Beng David; Tay, Liam Kai; Bernardo, Carmina; Lim, Lionel Chee-Chong; Yap, Chin Hong; Fones, Calvin; Nayak, Ashwini; Nelleman, Lars

    2018-05-17

    The REVIDA study aimed to assess the evolution of major depression symptoms in South East Asian (SEA) patients treated with vortioxetine for major depression in real-world clinical practice. This non-interventional study was conducted from Aug 2016 to Apr 2017. A total of 138 patients (aged 18-65 years) with an active episode of major depression were recruited from Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. Vortioxetine was initiated on the first visit and patients were followed for 3 months. Depression severity was assessed using the PHQ-9 questionnaire (patient-assessed) and CGI-S scale (physician-assessed); cognitive function was assessed with the PDQ-D questionnaire; work productivity and activity impairment (WPAI) was assessed with the WPAI questionnaire. At baseline, 89.9% of patients were moderately to severely depressed (PHQ-9 score ≥ 10). During the 3-month treatment period, mean±SD PHQ-9 score decreased from 18.7±5.7 to 5.0±5.3, mean±SD CGI-S score decreased from 4.4±0.7 to 2.2±1.1, and mean±SD PDQ-D score decreased from 42.1±18.8 to 13.4±13.0. By month 3, response and remission rates reached 80.8% and 59.0%, respectively. Work productivity loss decreased from 73.6% to 30.5%, while activity impairment decreased from 71.5% to 24.6%. Positive correlations were observed between PHQ-9, PDQ-D, and WPAI work productivity loss and activity impairment. By month 3, 82.0% of patients were either not depressed or only mildly depressed (PHQ-9 score ≤ 9). In real-world clinical settings, vortioxetine was effective in reducing depression severity and improving cognitive function and work productivity in SEA patients with major depression.

  17. Global energy - investment requirements. A presentation of the world energy investments outlook 2003 - insights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cattier, F.

    2003-01-01

    In order to meet the World's energy requirements for the next 30 years, 16 000 billion dollars will be necessary. Some 60% of this investment will go to the electricity sector and almost half of the total investment must be made in the developing countries. Where fossil fuels are concerned the bulk of the investments will a devoted to exploration and development activities. Transportation and distribution will account for 54 % of the investment in the electricity sector. The financing of these investments is currently the subject of various uncertainties. The conditions for access to resources will be decisive for the oil and gas sectors. The impact of liberalization in the countries of the OECD and the profitability of the investments in developing countries constitute the main challenges for the electricity sector. (authors)

  18. Energy efficiency in urban management: Russian and world experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryadko, Igor

    2017-10-01

    The article discusses the role of energetics in creating a comfortable and safe environment of modern megacities, and the problem is considered in the socio-economic aspect. The object is the energy security of the city, and the subject is the influence of urban society on the formation of energy security. In particular, the problems are raised: ecological problems of urban energy supply, the condition of surface layer of the atmosphere near electric power lines. The author assesses the actions, implemented by the urban authorities in Mytischi, in the southwestern areas of New Moscow. The author assesses these sample areas on the basis of Ch. Landry’s concept of self-training, designated for municipal authorities and urban communities, and offers several successfully implemented self-study cases and in the light of modern methods of ensuring energy security. The forecasts of creation of energy-safe space, made by modern sociologist-urbanist Leo Hollis, are taken into account. The author also considers some of the economic aspects of biosphere safety. In particular, he insists that biosphere safety, convenience, and comfort have developed into competitive advantages in the housing market.

  19. The decline of sectorial components of the world's energy intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldemberg, José; Siqueira Prado, Luiz Tadeo

    2013-01-01

    The world's primary energy consumption in the last 40 years has been increasing at 2.2%/year while GDP growth has been 3.4%/years over the same period. The decline of the energy intensity (I=E/GDP) has been, therefore, of 1.2%/year. In order to reduce the world's consumption growth proposal have been made to reduce the world's energy intensity by 40% by 2030 which corresponds to a reduction of 2.5%/year, roughly the double of the historical decline. Our analysis shoes that such goal could only be achieved by an unprecedented reduction of the energy intensity of “services” (which represent less than half the world energy consumption) since energy intensity of industry has remained practically constant in the last 40 years. - Highlights: ► GDP and world's energy consumption are split in 2 main sectors: industry and “services”, etc. ► The evolution of the energy intensity for these sectors since 1971 is calculated. ► The energy intensity of the industry sector is practically constant since 1971. ► All the decline of the energy intensity since 1971 comes from the “services” sector

  20. Energy strategies for the world. A case for international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brundtland, G.H.

    1994-01-01

    The conference paper deals with policy aspects on environmental protection. The conclusion of the paper goes on the cooperation between the Government and industry to lay the foundation for a common, cooperative energy future. To achieve security of energy supplies and environmental protection, there is a need of developing stable market and framework conditions. According to the author, a good example is development of gas where long term commercial relations are needed to develop production and markets. This should also be acknowledged by governments in their policy making

  1. The situation of the nuclear energy in the world; A situacao da energia nucleoeletrica no mundo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Jair Albo Marques de [and others

    1996-12-01

    This work presents an overview of the nuclear energy in the world. It approaches the following main topics: kinds of nuclear power plants; operation experience of the nuclear plants; environmental and social aspects of the nuclear energy; economic aspects of the nuclear energy; development of the reactors technology and supply of the nuclear fuel.

  2. The situation of the nuclear energy in the world (Oct. 1991)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    This work presents an overview of the nuclear energy in the world. It approaches the following main topics: kinds of nuclear power plants; operation experience of the nuclear plants; environmental and social aspects of the nuclear energy; economic aspects of the nuclear energy; development of the reactors technology and supply of the nuclear fuel

  3. The situation of the nuclear energy in the world (Sep. 1992)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Jair Albo Marques de

    1992-09-01

    This work presents an overview of the nuclear energy in the world. It approaches the following main topics: kinds of nuclear power plants; operation experience of the nuclear plants; environmental and social aspects of the nuclear energy; economic aspects of the nuclear energy; development of the reactors technology and supply of the nuclear fuel

  4. World energy consumption 1800-2000: definitions and measurements, information sources, results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin-Amouroux, Jean-Marie

    2015-10-01

    A first article discusses definitions and measurements used to assess world energy consumption, notably the differences between primary, secondary, final and useful levels. The author identifies the different sources of primary energies (endo-somatic and exo-somatic), the various measurement units, and the spatial organisation of consumption statistics (national data bases, regional consolidations). The second article comments the available sources of information and their history (existing long chronological series at the world scale before and after World War 2), presents the evolution of world energy consumption according to Palmer Putnam, indicates and comments national studies on energy consumption for very long periods (USA, UK, France, and other countries). Then the author discusses the assessment of non commercial consumptions. He mentions and comments studies performed in the USA, in France, in Italy and in other countries, and also some assessments of biomass consumption. He finally discusses the availability of statistics on the evolution of world population. The third article presents and comments results obtained for the evolution of world consumption (world consumption per source of primary energy, per region) for the evolution of energy consumption in Africa, in Northern America, in Latin America, in Asia, in Russia and Eastern Europe and in Western Europe since 1800. Tables give these evolutions for coal, oil, natural gas, electricity, and biomass

  5. Energy policies and politics for sustainable world-system development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf

    politics, put into perspective by (b) R.C.-Dupont 1993 as the movement of the US in a field of tension between eco- and geopolitics; and (c) a 2006 declaration of ten former environmental ministers to end the nuclear age and to reform the UN mandate of the International Atomic Energy Agency....

  6. Energy fair - further selection from the 15th world energy conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heck, H.

    1993-01-01

    As a quintessence the author quotes the statement made by Knizia in November 1992 before the Nuclear Society: Problems such as population growth, impending distribution wars and enormous migration movements or atmosphere damaging seem to be of secondary importance if in the public the hazards of nuclear energy are conjured up. Isn't that the only way of understanding that many hundreds of politicians met in Rio in order to deplore the threat to the atmosphere by CO 2 overloading, but none of the statesmen of the Western world, which because of its scientific, technological and investigation potentials would be able to do so, mentions the utilization of nuclear energy as a possible remedy. Is it not the only way of understanding that an appeal by various hundreds of scientists, among them more than 50 Nobel prize winners, to the heads of state assembled in Rio, goes unheard, may be because it contained sentences such as: We view with concern how on the threshold of the 21st century an irrational ideology is spreading which counteracts scientific and industrial progress, thus hindering economic and social development. (orig./HSCH) [de

  7. A population-induced renewable energy timeline in nine world regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, Kevin J.; Jones, Glenn A.

    2017-01-01

    Approximately 1.1 billion people worldwide do not have access to electricity. The World Bank's Sustainable Energy for All initiative seeks to provide universal access to energy by the year 2030. The current world population of 7.3 billion is projected to reach 8.5 billion by 2030 and 11.2 billion by 2100. Population growth and increasing energy access are incongruous with forecasts of declining non-renewable energy production and climate change concerns. Previous studies have examined these issues at global or at individual regional or national levels. Here we use a nine region model of the world with two per capita energy consumption scenarios to find that significant restructuring of the current energy mix will be necessary in order to support population projections. Modelled interaction between the regions highlights the importance of examining energy and population concerns in a systemic manner, as each of the nine regions faces unique energy-population challenges in the coming decades. As non-renewable energy reserves decline globally, the transition to a renewable energy infrastructure will develop at different times in each region. - Highlights: • A 9-region model of energy, population, and development through 2100 is presented. • Developing >50% renewable energy is required in 8 regions, though not concurrently. • Population growth and development will compound energy scarcity issues. • Early and significant renewable energy investment is key to realizing development. • Each region will face unique, though interlacing, challenges this century.

  8. Energy Transformations of Soil Organic Matter in a Changing World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, A. M.; Coucheney, E.; Grice, S. M.; Ritz, K.; Harris, J.

    2011-12-01

    The role of soils in governing the terrestrial carbon balance is acknowledged as being important but remains poorly understood within the context of climate change. Soils exchange energy with their surroundings and are therefore open systems thermodynamically, but little is known how energy transformations of decomposition processes are affected by temperature. Soil organic matter and the soil biomass can be conceptualised as analogous to the 'fuel' and 'biological engine' of the earth, respectively, and are pivotal in driving the belowground carbon cycle. Thermodynamic principles of soil organic matter decomposition were evaluated by means of isothermal microcalorimetry (TAM Air, TA Instruments, Sollentuna Sweden: (i) Mineral forest soils from the Flakaliden long-term nitrogen fertilisation experiment (Sweden) were amended with a range of different substrates representing structurally simple to complex, ecologically pertinent organic matter and heat signatures were determined at temperatures between 5 and 25°C. (ii) Thermodynamic and resource-use efficiencies of the biomass were determined in arable soils which received contrasting long-term management regimes with respect to organic matter and nitrogen since 1956. The work showed that (i) structurally labile components have higher activation energy and temperature dependence than structurally more complex organic components. This is, however, in contrast to the thermodynamic argument which suggests the opposite that reactions metabolising structurally complex, aromatic components have higher temperature dependence than reactions metabolising structurally more labile components. (ii) Microbial communities exposed to long-term stress by heavy metal and low pH were less thermodynamic efficient and showed a decrease in resource-use efficiency in comparison with conventional input regimes. Differences in efficiencies were mirrored in both the phenotypic and functional profiles of the communities. We will present our

  9. How Third World rural households adapt to dietary energy stress

    OpenAIRE

    Payne, Philip; Lipton, Michael

    1994-01-01

    People can adjust to environmental changes by calling on a wide range of physical attributes, capabilities, and behaviors. For survival, probably the most important are those that make it possible to prevent serious imbalances between food energy needs and the amount of food that can be acquired at acceptable cost. Those who formulate food and agricultural policies need to know the scope, costs, and benefits of the more common adaptive strategies used by poor people, who are normally at great...

  10. World situation of atomic energy and nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szili, G.

    1978-01-01

    At the International Conference organized by the IAEA in May 1976, several sections dealt with problems of the production of atomic energy and of the nuclear fuel cycle. However, the whole spectrum of these problems was discussed including problems of economic policy, politics and ethical problems, too. Reports were presented on trends of the development of atomic energy in developed and developing countries. Besides the systems of nuclear power plants and the trends of their development, the Conference attached prominent importance to the supply of nuclear fuels and to the fuel cycle, respectively. Owing to important factors, the reprocessing of the spent nuclear fuel was emphasized. The problem area of the treatment of radioactive wastes, the protection of workers in immediate contact and of environment against radiations, the possibilities of ensuring nuclear safety, the degrees of hazards and the methods of protection of fast breeder reactors and up-to-date equipments were discussed. In contrast to earlier conferences the complex problem of the correlation of atomic energy to public opinion played an important role, too. (P.J.)

  11. Energy, technology and climatic policy: the world perspectives at the 2030 prospect. Key messages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This paper comments the different points of the reference scenario described in the WETO study (World energy, technology and climate policy outlook). This scenario describes a world energy situation, assuming a continuation of the present day trends and structural changes. A comment is made for each of the following aspects of the scenario: world energy demand, share of fossil fuels in the world energy supplies, world CO 2 emissions, petroleum reserves, world petroleum, gas and coal productions, petroleum and gas prices trend, end-use energy demand, power production and natural gas share in power generation. Then, the document analyses the impact of changes linked with hydrocarbon resources and technology developments: reduction of hydrocarbon resources, increase of gas resources, acceleration of technological developments in power generation. A third part analyzes the natural gas market of the European Union in a world perspective: market, reserves, demand, supply risks. Finally, the last part presents the impact of environmental policies in the case of a CO 2 tax and in the case of a carbon abatement scenario. (J.S.)

  12. Proceedings of the Bio-Energy '80 world congress and exposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-01

    Many countries are moving with increasing urgency to obtain larger fractions of their energy from biomass. Over 1800 leading experts from 70 countries met on April 21 to 24 in Atlanta to conduct a World Congress and Exposition on Bio-Energy. This summary presents highlights of the Congress and thoughts stimulated by the occasion. Topics addressed include a comparison of international programs, world and country regionalism in the development of energy supplies, fuel versus food or forest products, production of ethyl alcohol, possibilities for expanded production of terrestrial vegetation and marine flora, and valuable chemicals from biomass. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 164 papers for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  13. Indirect Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Major Rivers in the World: Integration of a Process-based Model with Observational Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B.; Yao, Y.; Xu, R.; Yang, J.; WANG, Z.; Pan, S.; Tian, H.

    2016-12-01

    The atmospheric concentration of nitrous oxide (N2O), one of major greenhouse gases, has increased over 121% compared with the preindustrial level, and most of the increase arises from anthropogenic activities. Previous studies suggested that indirect emissions from global rivers remains a large source of uncertainty among all the N2O sources and restricted the assessment of N2O budget at both regional and global scales. Here, we have integrated a coupled biogeochemical model (DLEM) with observational data to quantify the magnitude and spatio-temporal variation of riverine N2O emission and attribute the environmental controls of indirect N2O emission from major rivers in the world. Our preliminary results indicate that the magnitude of indirect N2O emission from rivers is closely associated with the stream orders. To include N2O emissions from headwater streams is essential for reducing uncertainty in the estimation of indirect N2O emission. By implementing a set of factorial simulations, we have further quantified the relative contributions of climate, nitrogen deposition, nitrogen fertilizer use, and manure application to riverine N2O emission. Finally, this study has identified major knowledge gaps and uncertainties associated with model structure, parameters and input data that need to be improved in future research.

  14. Local Power -- Global Connections: linking the world to a sustainable future through decentralized energy technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brent, Richard; Sweet, David

    2007-07-01

    Various international dynamics are converging to increase the attractiveness of decentralized energy as a complement to existing centralized energy infrastructures. Decentralized energy (DE) technologies, including onsite renewables, high efficiency cogeneration and industrial energy recycling, offer considerable benefits to those seeking working alternatives to emerging challenges in the energy sector. DE is ideally suited to provide clean affordable energy to areas where modern energy services are currently lacking. Having smaller generators close to where energy is required ensures a safe, reliable and secure energy supply when the energy is required. Furthermore, because DE is a much cleaner alternative than conventional central power plants and the energy provided comes at a much smaller price tag DE is an increasingly acceptable alternative both in the developed and developing world. DE is sure to play a key role in any plan to build a sustainable energy future. (auth)

  15. Sustainability, energy policy, climatic change, world food supply. Political and legal challenges of the 21th century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haertel, Ines

    2014-01-01

    The book on sustainability, energy policy, climatic change, world food supply as political challenges in the 21th century includes contributions on the following topics: sustainability and environment, energy and climatic change, agriculture and world food supply.

  16. Uranium: War, Energy and the Rock That Shaped the World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoellner, T.

    2009-01-01

    Having traveled extensively through the savannah of Africa, the mountains of Eastern Europe, and the deserts of Utah, the author delves into the complex science, politics and history of uranium, which presents the best and worst of mankind: the capacity for scientific progress and political genius; the capacity for nihilism, exploitation, and terror. Because the author covers so much ground, from the discovery of radioactivity, through the development of the atomic bomb, he does not go into great depth on any one topic. Nonetheless, he paints vivid pictures of uranium's impact, including forced labor in Soviet mines and lucky prospectors who struck it rich in harsh environments, the spread of uranium smuggling, as well as an explanation of why it was absurd to claim that Saddam Hussein was attempting to purchase significant quantities of uranium from Niger. The only shortcoming is the author's omission of the issue of radioactive wastes generated by nuclear power. The author knows well what uranium looks like, why peril pulses in its every atom, and how scientists exploit its nuclear volatility. The drama is found in the weaponry uranium has spawned as demonstrated at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In pursuit of this raw power, the U.S. let Navajos die extracting needed ore and let southwestern cities sicken beneath clouds from reckless testing. The Soviet Union sentenced tens of thousands to lethal gulag mines. Israel diverted ore through deception on the high seas. Pakistan stole European refining technology. Alive with devious personalities, the author's narrative ultimately exposes the frightening vulnerability of a world with too many sources of a dangerous substance and too little wisdom to control it

  17. How is Russia adapting to a threatening new energy world?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boncourt, Maite de; Parmigiani, Laura

    2013-07-01

    The US shale gas revolution has shaken global gas markets. The US is on the eve of becoming self-sufficient in natural gas (and oil), thanks to the massive discoveries of unconventional resources on their territory, while being able to export part of their production. These developments have been closely watched by traditional oil and gas producers. The sharpening of competitive pressure on global gas markets is indeed shaking their positions. A range of reactions has been observed among producing countries: exploration and production contracts were revised in order to ease foreign direct investments and to attract new technologies developed by the majors; some concession were made towards consumers with new gas contracts' pricing formula - the most touchy issue -; massive investments were made in LNG and upstream projects. What about Russia, the largest natural gas reserves holder, and the largest natural gas producer and exporter? Has it been too slow to react, as often underlined by many commentators? (authors)

  18. Solar energy - substitute energy of the future. Energy problems all over the world. Sonne - Ersatzenergie der Zukunft. Energieprobleme in aller Welt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Following some remarks on the current energy situation, with the focus on petroleum and nuclear energy, explanations on a wall-map are given which illustrates in simplified form the key figures of a world scenario for the year 2030 (population-energy consumption) and a solar energy balance. For the scenario, figures of the International Institute of Applied System Analysis (IIASA) were used.

  19. Energy Reforms in The Developing World: Sustainable Development Compromised?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Mbogo Abdallah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Energy sector reforms with an emphasis on electricity growth have been taking place extensively and rapidly worldwide Particularly, motivated chiefly by classical economics’ standpoint of efficiency and market considerations, reforms have been made in the developed North. Models of reforms in the North have in turn been replicated in developing countries. However, questions arise as to whether the models used are suitable for the mostly rural and socioeconomically disadvantaged economies in the South. It is argued in this paper that a sustainability focused mode of reforms guided by futures studies is needed for such economies. Reforms taking place in Kenya and neighbouring countries are in particular examined from a sustainable future perspective; and appropriate improvements and further research are recommended.

  20. The convenient truth LPG: clean energy for a low carbon world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolland, M.

    2008-01-01

    In the context of climate change, no one solution is future-proof. It is going to take a coordinated worldwide effort to find the right mix of energy policies while balancing diverse and sometimes competing priorities. The WLPGA Climate Change Working Group (CCWG) seeks to demonstrate that the technologies needed to continue current rates of development while mitigating climate change already exist and that LP gas can be a major part of today's solutions to this challenge. LP gas is not a zero-GHG fuel. However, in most cases it can make major and immediate contributions to delivering real GHG emissions reductions. In some ways LP Gas can claim to be ahead of its time, for its clean-burning, low-carbon advantage is available at once, so that even using today's technology, most industries can exceed Kyoto GHG reduction targets by switching to LP Gas. The fact is that LP Gas produces lower GHG emissions compared to conventional energy supplies in virtually every application it is used, from stationary applications such as water heating, space heating, cooking and industrial boilers to transportation applications. There are opportunities to switch to clean burning LP gas for virtually every industry as a means meet GHG targets. LP gas is also portable, making it a perfect complement to distributed renewable energy source such as solar, wind and wave energy (and soon the fuel cell), thereby reducing our reliance centrally produced electricity. LP Gas used in combination with these renewable sources also can improve energy reliability while reducing the overall life-cycle costs. The portable and clean burning nature of LP Gas also makes it an ideal substitute for solid fuels in domestic cooking and heating applications. Household solid fuel use, overwhelmingly concentrated in developing countries, accounts for up to 30% of black carbon emissions worldwide according to some statistics. Switching to LP Gas could lower global GHG emissions as well as help to diminish

  1. The costs of failure: A preliminary assessment of major energy accidents, 1907-2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.

    2008-01-01

    A combination of technical complexity, tight coupling, speed, and human fallibility contribute to the unexpected failure of large-scale energy technologies. This study offers a preliminary assessment of the social and economic costs of major energy accidents from 1907 to 2007. It documents 279 incidents that have been responsible for $41 billion in property damage and 182,156 deaths. Such disasters highlight an often-ignored negative externality to energy production and use, and emphasize the need for further research

  2. The energy transition in a climate-constrained world: Regional vs. global optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brede, M.; de Vries, B.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a stylized economy-energy-climate model and discuss the role of the atmosphere, fossil fuels, and a stock of accumulated knowledge about renewable energy technologies in collaboratively and competitively managed worlds. The model highlights that assumptions about the 'degree

  3. Interactions among energy consumption, economic development and greenhouse gas emissions in Japan after World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    The long-term dynamic changes in the triad, energy consumption, economic development, and Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, in Japan after World War II were quantified, and the interactions among them were analyzed based on an integrated suite of energy, emergy and economic indices...

  4. Batteries: An Important Piece in the Puzzle of Renewable Energies for a Better World

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younesi, Reza, E-mail: reyo@dtu.dk [Department of Energy Conversion and Storage, Technical University of Denmark, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2014-04-14

    Along with the rapid growth in the world population, the concerns regarding the production and consumption of energy originating from fossil fuels have been increasing in recent years. Therefore, there is higher demand to develop “clean” renewable energies to reduce the use of fossil fuel.

  5. Energy and society in 2050. The Netherlands in different worlds. Discussion paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noordhoek, J.

    2000-01-01

    This publication is intended to stimulate ideas and discussion about the Netherlands energy supply in the long term. The text is in two parts: (1) the central section: Energy and society in 2050: the Netherlands in Different Worlds; and (2) the factual background in Annexes 1 and 2

  6. Cars and Kinetic Energy--Some Simple Physics with Real-World Relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, Raghuveer

    2012-01-01

    Understanding energy usage is crucial to understanding modern civilization, as well as many of the challenges it faces. Energy-related issues also offer real-world examples of important physical concepts, and as such have been the focus of several articles in "The Physics Teacher" in the past few decades (e.g., Refs. 1-5, noted further below).…

  7. Twenty years of development and transformation in exploiting nuclear energy in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khazaneh, R.

    1992-01-01

    Problems concern to exploiting nuclear energy in the world in two decades from 1970-1990 is briefly investigated. Historical prelude of technical evolution of nuclear energy is included to be recognized the relevant events occurred in the seventies. The intention is to give general information to those who have not sufficient time to study deeply in the field

  8. Batteries: an important piece in the puzzle of renewable energies for a better world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Younesi, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Along with the rapid growth in the world population, the concerns regarding the production and consumption of energy originating from fossil fuels have been increasing in recent years. Therefore, there is higher demand to develop “clean” renewable energies to reduce the use of fossil fuel....

  9. International wind energy development. World market update 2009. Forecast 2010-2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-03-15

    This is the fifteenth edition of the annual World Market Update produced by BTM Consult ApS, and covers developments in the wind energy sector during 2009. As in previous editions, the report also assesses important changes over the last three years and forecasts progress for five years ahead. The special topic in this year's WMU is an evaluation of the aftermath of the COP-15 climate change negotiations in relation to future wind power development. The global market for wind power not only produced a record for new installations in 2009 of 38 GW installed capacity, it also created a new order in the balance of international wind power. The rapid increase in the rate of installations in both Asia and the US was already clear in 2008; that trend has continued at a faster pace in 2009. By far the largest number of new wind projects were seen in the US and China. Another new reality is that most of the world's manufacturing of wind turbines now takes place in China. As a result three Chinese companies are among the world's top ten turbine manufacturers. At the same time a rapid expansion of manufacturing capacity by European turbine makers has taken place in the US. Europe contributed 28.2% of the newly added capacity - 10,738 MW - taking the continent's total wind power generation capacity to 76,553 MW. The growth in Asia's markets has once again been staggering. With 14,991 MW of new installations, South and East Asia accounted for 39.4% of the global total in 2009. China was the major contributor, with 13,750 MW of new capacity, more than double that installed in 2008. In terms of cumulative installed wind power, the US is still the world leader, with 35,159 MW. China overtook Germany with a margin of less than 50 MW. China now has a total of 25,853 MW, followed by Germany's 25,813 MW. A new world order in wind power has become a reality. The forecast released in this WMU shows an average growth rate of 13.5% for the period 2010

  10. The Peak of the Oil Age - Analyzing the world oil production Reference Scenario in World Energy Outlook 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleklett, Kjell; Hoeoek, Mikael; Jakobsson, Kristofer; Lardelli, Michael; Snowden, Simon; Soederbergh, Bengt

    2010-01-01

    The assessment of future global oil production presented in the IEA's World Energy Outlook 2008 (WEO 2008) is divided into 6 fractions; four relate to crude oil, one to non-conventional oil, and the final fraction is natural-gas-liquids (NGL). Using the production parameter, depletion-rate-of-recoverable-resources, we have analyzed the four crude oil fractions and found that the 75 Mb/d of crude oil production forecast for year 2030 appears significantly overstated, and is more likely to be in the region of 55 Mb/d. Moreover, analysis of the other fractions strongly suggests lower than expected production levels. In total, our analysis points to a world oil supply in 2030 of 75 Mb/d, some 26 Mb/d lower than the IEA predicts. The connection between economic growth and energy use is fundamental in the IEA's present modelling approach. Since our forecast sees little chance of a significant increase in global oil production, our findings suggest that the 'policy makers, investors and end users' to whom WEO 2008 is addressed should rethink their future plans for economic growth. The fact that global oil production has very probably passed its maximum implies that we have reached the Peak of the Oil Age.

  11. Minority-World Preservice Teachers' Understanding of Contextually Appropriate Practice While Working in Majority-World Early Childhood Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrid Akpovo, Samara; Nganga, Lydiah; Acharya, Diptee

    2018-01-01

    International field experiences in Kenya and Nepal supplied data for two collaborative ethnographic research projects that analyze, using the concept of contextually appropriate practice (CAP), how minority-world early childhood preservice teachers define "quality" practices. The term "minority-world" is used for educators who…

  12. International wind energy development. World market update 2000. Forecast 2001-2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-03-01

    In the year 2000, the wind power development took another major step forward. Installed capacity set a new record with the additon of 4,495 MW of new generating capacity, this is 574 MW more than the record set in 1999. Growth in new capacity declined from 51% in 1999 to 15% in 2000. Nevertheless, the trend of wind energy being preferred over other technologies for new generating capacity is continuing. Europe remains the major market for wind power. Of the new capacity added in 2000, 86% was installed in Europe. Germany again took the lead as the single most active market with the installation of 1,665 MW in new capacity, 100 MW more than in the previous year. In doing so, Germany extended its reign as the world's leading developer of wind energy. Spain also took a major step towards meeting its renewable energy goals with the installation of some 1,024 MW of new wind generating capacity. Denmark replaced the United States as the world's third largest market. The Danes installed a new record of 603 MW. This was due to a last-minute rush of contracts signed at the end of 1999 in order to utilize attractive payment rates for new installations, which expired at the end of the year. The turbines were then installed in 2000. Market leaders among wind turbine manufacturers changed from previous years. Vestas Wind Systems A/S is now the world's largest manufacturer of wind turbines, followed by Gamesa S.A. of Spain (Vestas owns 40% of the shares in the Spanish company). Enercon GmbH has become the third largest manufacturer of wind turbines. It is interesting to note that Enercon GmbH made steady progress in sales to several emerging markets throughout the world. New on the Top-10 list is an Indian manufacturer. Suzlon Energy Ltd. installed 103 MW of capacity and thereby becomes the number 10 in the list of the worlds largest manufacturer. The cumulative installed capacity of 18,449 MW at the end of 2000 will supply approximately 37 TWh (37 billion kWh) per year. The

  13. Atlas of world energies: is a fair and clean development possible?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merenne-Schoumaker, B.; Barre, B.; Bailly, A.

    2011-01-01

    There is no possible human activity without a minimum of energy. The differences in the access to energy explains the huge disparities between regions. While developed countries have the possibility to limit their energy consumption without threatening the quality of life of their citizens, the energy needs for the economic development of the rest of the world are enormous. There is no energy production and consumption without harmful effect and environmental impact. This impact is increasing with the population and is threatening the low income groups first. This atlas, rich of more than 200 maps and info-graphies, takes stock of the energy question and allows to understand the different energy stakes that make the core of the 21. century dilemma: how to conciliate the development of societies and the environmental constraints? Can we cultivate even more biofuels without starving the Earth? Is nuclear energy the solution for the environment? Can coal be clean? Are renewable energy sources viable? (J.S.)

  14. Detroit, 22-27 September 1974: Report on ninth world energy conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1974-07-01

    The acceleration of world demand for energy during the last forty years has led to a projection of future needs far in excess of present capacity, and one which threatens exhaustion of today's conventional sources at some future time. Coupled with this premise is the realization of two inter-related facts: inadequate, uneconomic sources of energy cripple a man, his nation, and his world and lead to insecurity, famine and ignorance; on the other hand, excessive, uncontrolled use of energy sources leads to wastage of resources, pollution and human misery that likewise respects no national boundaries. These dominating concerns led to the selection of the main theme of the Ninth World Energy Conference - 'The Economic and Environmental Challenges of Future Energy Requirements'. This theme was broadly broken down into six main categories: energy needs, sources of energy, energy conversion and utilization, conservation of energy, economics and environmental considerations. A total of 229 formal papers were considered by the several thousand participants who represented more than 60 countries and a number of international organizations at the Conference.

  15. Detroit, 22-27 September 1974: Report on ninth world energy conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    The acceleration of world demand for energy during the last forty years has led to a projection of future needs far in excess of present capacity, and one which threatens exhaustion of today's conventional sources at some future time. Coupled with this premise is the realization of two inter-related facts: inadequate, uneconomic sources of energy cripple a man, his nation, and his world and lead to insecurity, famine and ignorance; on the other hand, excessive, uncontrolled use of energy sources leads to wastage of resources, pollution and human misery that likewise respects no national boundaries. These dominating concerns led to the selection of the main theme of the Ninth World Energy Conference - 'The Economic and Environmental Challenges of Future Energy Requirements'. This theme was broadly broken down into six main categories: energy needs, sources of energy, energy conversion and utilization, conservation of energy, economics and environmental considerations. A total of 229 formal papers were considered by the several thousand participants who represented more than 60 countries and a number of international organizations at the Conference

  16. The energy in the world; L'energie dans le monde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lung, M.; Comby, B. [Societe Generale pour les Techniques Nouvelles (SGN), 78 - Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines (France)

    2001-12-01

    In the future the energy demand will double and the electric power demand will treble. In this framework and after a presentation of the energy price and the energy needs, the authors propose actions domains. (A.L.B.)

  17. 75 FR 57016 - Top of the World Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-2522-000] Top of the World Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...-referenced proceeding of Top of the World Wind Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority...

  18. Development of the energy situation in the world and in Hungary, the future of the nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levai, A.

    1977-01-01

    At present the source of the energy consumption per person increases with 3.6% yearly in the world and this rate is estimated to be 2.8% in 2000. In Hungary the increase of the energy demands was 4.2% and in the following years it will be 4%. The ratio of the hydrocarbons will yet increase and the ratio of coal will decrease till 1980. The amount of the imported energy has always been significant and will further increase. The quantity of the fissile materials is about 1% of the whole energy store in the world. The problem can be temporarily solved by breeder reactors but the permanent solution can be based on solar energy or on the utilization of nuclear fusion. Participation of the nuclear energy in the world's energy production is still 1-2% but it increases quickly. At present the light water reactors dominate over the gas-cooled and heavy water reactors. There are a lot of problems in connection with breeder reactors. (V.N.)

  19. International wind energy development. World market update 2002. Forecast 2003-2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-03-01

    This report highlights the development of the international wind power market during 2002 and the new forecast up to 2007. The data presented includes both supply side and demand side information. With 7,227 MW of new installations the total installed capacity of wind power grew to over 32,000 MW. This is the highest figure ever in a single year. The growth rate of 6% over 2001, however, was the lowest since 1996. In spite of this modest figure, the average growth rate over the past five years (from 1997) has been much higher, at 35.7%, and last year's record growth (2001 over 2000) was 52%. The key features of development during 2002 were: 7,227 MW new installed wind power; cumulative installed capacity by the end of 2002 had reached 32,037 MW, consisting of around 61,500 wind turbines dispersed over more than 40 countries; A major share of new installations took place in Europe, with 85.4% of the total. Germany accounted for 53% of the European total; America fell back form its peak level of 1,745 MW in 2001 to a modest 494 MW in 2002, with the majority installed in the USA; Development in Asia was lower than in 2001; Of the emerging markets in the Far East/Pacific, China and Australia were the only two markets to show growth over 2001; The Top Ten markets in the world are headed by Germany, Spain, Denmark and the USA. Newcomers to the Top Ten markets ranking were Australia and the Netherlands; In terms of cumulative installation, the German market passed the 10,000 MW milestone and is by far the largest market in the world. There were 12,000 MW installed in Germany by end of 2002. Spain became No. 2 with 5,042 MW; Penetration of wind power in the world's electricity supply had reached 0.4% by end of 2002. Ten of the world's roughly 25 suppliers of wind turbines are responsible for more than 90% of total supply in the global market. This trend is continuing, with the Top Ten manufacturers in 2002 delivering 95% of the total record installation. Vestas Wind

  20. 16th World energy congress - No all clear signal; 16. Weltenergiekongress: Keine Entwarnung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brabeck, A.

    1995-11-07

    The future organisation of the global energy supply was the central theme of the 16th Congress of the World Energy Council, which was held from 8 to 13 October 1995 in Tokyo. Under the basic theme ``Energy for our common world - what will the future ask for us`` ecological and development policy aspects were also included in the discussion of energy policy. Because of these relationships and the importance of the subject also for the future of the German mining industry Glueckauf is reproducing below two publications issued in connection with the World Energy Conference. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die zukuenftige Gestaltung der globalen Energieversorgung war Kernthema des 16. Kongresses des Weltenergierates, der vom 8. bis 13. Oktober 1995 in Tokio stattfand. Unter dem Leitmotiv ``Energy for our common world - what will the future ask of us`` wurden gerade auch oekologische und entwicklungspolitische Aspekte in die energiepolitische Diskussion einbezogen. Aufgrund dieser Zusammenhaenge und der Bedeutung dieser Thematik auch fuer die Zukunft der deutschen Bergbauindustrie, gibt GLUeCKAUF nachfolgend zwei Veroeffentlichungen zur Weltenergiekonferenz im Wortlaut wieder: Zum einen eine Presseinformation des Deutschen Nationalen Komitees des Weltenergierates vom 12. Oktober 1995 mit dem Titel ``Fortschritte; aber noch keine Entwarnung`` und zum anderen ein Statement von Dipl.-Kfm. Guenter Meyhoefer, Vorstandsvorsitzender des Eschweiler Bergwerks-Vereins AG, Herzogenrath, Generalbevollmaechtigter der Ruhrkohle AG, Essen, und Vizepraesident des Gesamtverbands des deutschen Steinkohlenbergbaus, Essen. (orig.)

  1. World potential of renewable energies actually accessible in the nineties and environmental impacts analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dessus, B.; Devin, B.; Pharabod, F.

    1992-01-01

    The role that renewable energies could play in the world's regional and global energy balances gives rise to varied and often quite different evaluations including almost unbounded ones. Reliable information is still available on the different technologies and their economic costs. But, as the commercial development of these renewables is generally very weak, the arguments for postponing their real possible world and regional impact are frequently confused with short term market type considerations. To overcome that difficulty it is proposed to achieve a comprehensive analysis, region by region, of the actually accessible renewable energies at a given horizon. Then we adopt a methodology as the one employed to derive proven renewable energy reserves from energy renewable resources in which resources are defined by quantitative information on physical potential, when reserves take into account technical and economical accessibility

  2. Consumption of energy in the world should be 50% upper in the year 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadonneix, P.

    1994-01-01

    From the study headed: 'Energy for tomorrow world', required by the International Council of Energy, it appeared that worldwide energy consumption would increase about 50%. There is no risk of shortage to satisfy the demand. Fossil fuels would represent 75% of the whole demand. A first consequence of this point is to make difficult the object of stabilizing the carbon dioxide emission. Only industrialized countries are able to make technological and financial efforts needed in this field. The second consequence is an aggravation of energy dependence for the most of countries. Some questions to finish: How is it possible to limit the increasing of energy demand without limiting the growth of economy for developing countries. Can we conciliate economy growth and environment protection. And if thirty thousand milliards of dollars are necessary to develop efficient technologies, as they are only 5% of gross national product over the world for each year, will it be a financial problem

  3. International wind energy development. World market update 2010. Forecast 2011-2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-03-15

    This is the sixteenth edition of the annual World Market Update produced by BTM Consult ApS - a part of Navigant Consulting, and covers developments in the wind energy sector during 2010. As in previous editions, the report also assesses important changes over the last three years and forecasts progress for five years ahead. The special topic in this year's WMU is a review of Direct-Drive concept versus traditional Drive Train with gearbox. The global market for wind power produced a record for new installations in 2010 of 39.4 GW installed capacity, however, with a much lower growth rate than in the period 2005 to 2009. The rapid increase in the rate of installations in both Asia and the US was already clear in 2008-09. That trend has continued in China but the US experienced a significant slow-down in 2010. Europe stayed relatively stable - old markets stagnated but new emerging markets grew. Another new reality is that most of the world's manufacturing of wind turbines now takes place in China. Companies producing wind turbines there have experienced an explosive rate of growth. As a result four Chinese companies are among the world's Top Ten turbine manufacturers. An inevitable impact of this shift is that the market shares of the traditional industry leaders from the US and Europe have decreased significantly with Vestas and Siemens as exception in 2010. At the same time a rapid expansion of manufacturing capacity by European turbine makers has taken place in the US. Europe contributed 29.9% of the newly added capacity - 10,920 MW - taking the continent's total wind power generation capacity to 87,565 MW. The growth in Asia's markets has once again been staggering. With 21,130 MW of new installations, South and East Asia accounted for 53.6% of the global total in 2010.China was the major contributor, with 18,928 MW of new capacity, 37% over that of 2009. In terms of cumulative installed wind power, China surpassed the US in 2010, with

  4. The development of energy in the twenty first century in the world and in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujime, Kazuya

    1995-01-01

    Humankind will go into the 21st century in five years. People tend to talk about the end of this century and don't talk much about what will happen on the earth and in the field of energy in the 21st century because the economic, politics and social affairs in the future after 2000 are uncertain and cloudy in the world and in Japan. Japan is facing serious difficulties of economic deflation which might continue at least for more five years. She is also facing political and social turmoil such as a strong distrust in the political issues particularly in the behaviors of political people and Aum crazy murders. However I would like to adventure to make the clear outlook up to 2010 of energy problems in the world and Japan. People will face the serious unsuitability in the energy supply security in the world, in the Asian countries and in Japan. (author)

  5. A population-induced renewable energy timeline in nine world regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Kevin; Jones, Glenn

    2016-04-01

    Population growth and increasing energy access are incongruous with forecasts of declining non-renewable energy production and climate change concerns. The current world population of 7.3 billion is projected to reach 8.4 billion by 2030 and 11.2 billion by 2100. Currently, 1.2 billion people worldwide do not have access to electricity. The World Bank's Sustainable Energy for All initiative seeks to provide universal global access to energy by the year 2030. Though universal energy access is desirable, a significant reduction in fossil fuel usage is required before mid-century if global warming is to be limited to 50% renewable energy needs to occur by 2028 in a energy demand in 2100 will be more than double that of today; of this demand, 82% will need to be derived from renewable sources. More renewable energy production will be required in 2100 than the 2014 total global energy production. Given the required rate and magnitude of this transition to renewable energy, it is unlikely that the energy demand and to limit warming to 2.5-3°C by 2100.

  6. The Occurrence of the Day-of-the-Week Effects on Polish and Major World Stock Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamróz Paweł

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the occurrence of the so called day of the week effects in market return time series from the period of January 2003 to September 2013 (and additionally January 1999 to December 2002. The study focuses on four indices of the Warsaw Stock Exchange (WIG, WIG20, mWIG40 and sWIG80 and additionally five indices of major world stock exchanges (NIKKEI 225, DAX, CAC40, S&P 500, and IBEX. The main data sample was divided into three subperiods in order to determine whether or not the intensity of day of the week anomalies is constant in time. The study revealed a substantial number of the day of the week anomalies in earliest subperiods and very limited evidence of those effects in later ones, giving rise to the conclusion that the intensity of the day of the week anomalies is diminishing with time. The most common effect identified on the WSE was a positive Friday effect. The Monday effect often described in early literature on the subject matter seems to currently occur very rarely. The study also indicates that the day of the week effects were more persistent among stocks with smaller market capitalization on the WSE.

  7. Major models and data sources for residential and commercial sector energy conservation analysis. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    Major models and data sources are reviewed that can be used for energy-conservation analysis in the residential and commercial sectors to provide an introduction to the information that can or is available to DOE in order to further its efforts in analyzing and quantifying their policy and program requirements. Models and data sources examined in the residential sector are: ORNL Residential Energy Model; BECOM; NEPOOL; MATH/CHRDS; NIECS; Energy Consumption Data Base: Household Sector; Patterns of Energy Use by Electrical Appliances Data Base; Annual Housing Survey; 1970 Census of Housing; AIA Research Corporation Data Base; RECS; Solar Market Development Model; and ORNL Buildings Energy Use Data Book. Models and data sources examined in the commercial sector are: ORNL Commercial Sector Model of Energy Demand; BECOM; NEPOOL; Energy Consumption Data Base: Commercial Sector; F.W. Dodge Data Base; NFIB Energy Report for Small Businesses; ADL Commercial Sector Energy Use Data Base; AIA Research Corporation Data Base; Nonresidential Buildings Surveys of Energy Consumption; General Electric Co: Commercial Sector Data Base; The BOMA Commercial Sector Data Base; The Tishman-Syska and Hennessy Data Base; The NEMA Commercial Sector Data Base; ORNL Buildings Energy Use Data Book; and Solar Market Development Model. Purpose; basis for model structure; policy variables and parameters; level of regional, sectoral, and fuels detail; outputs; input requirements; sources of data; computer accessibility and requirements; and a bibliography are provided for each model and data source.

  8. Brazilian energy statistics - 2000. Annual bulletin of the Brazilian Committee of the World Energy Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This bulletin deals with the primary sources that carry most weight in the Brazilian energy balance: hydroelectric energy, petroleum, natural gas, nuclear energy and coal. It also contains data on ethyl alcohol derived of sugar cane since it is of special importance in Brazil's energy scenario

  9. Brazilian energy statistics - 1999. Annual bulletin of the Brazilian Committee of the World Energy Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This bulletin deals with the primary sources that carry most weight in the Brazilian energy balance: hydroelectric energy, petroleum, natural gas, nuclear energy and coal. It also contains data on ethyl alcohol derived of sugar cane since it is of special importance in Brazil's energy scenario

  10. Toward a low-energy development concept for the Third World

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heierli, U

    1976-02-01

    The author discusses the perspectives of development concepts after the energy crisis, which caused a considerable rise in energy prices, including prices of fertilizers and other energy-intensive products, and shattered the dream of the ''industrialization of the whole world.'' He outlines approaches--for the sake of both greater efficiency in terms of input-output ratio of energy in different technologies and more equality, which cannot be achieved by energy-intensive development strategies--to a low-energy development strategy, which, of course, also implies a reduction of energy consumption in highly industrialized countries. The accent in low-energy development strategies has to be on decentralization so as to check urbanization and the consequent infrastructural demand, especially relating to transportation, and ecological disequilibrium.

  11. An energy and cost efficient majority-based RAM cell in quantum-dot cellular automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milad Bagherian Khosroshahy

    Full Text Available Nanotechnologies, notably quantum-dot cellular automata, have achieved major attentions for their prominent features as compared to the conventional CMOS circuitry. Quantum-dot cellular automata, particularly owning to its considerable reduction in size, high switching speed and ultra-low energy consumption, is considered as a potential alternative for the CMOS technology. As the memory unit is one of the most essential components in a digital system, designing a well-optimized QCA random access memory (RAM cell is an important area of research. In this paper, a new five-input majority gate is presented which is suitable for implementing efficient single-layer QCA circuits. In addition, a new RAM cell with set and reset capabilities is designed based on the proposed majority gate, which has an efficient and low-energy structure. The functionality, performance and energy consumption of the proposed designs are evaluated based on the QCADesigner and QCAPro tools. According to the simulation results, the proposed RAM design leads to on average 38% lower total energy dissipation, 25% smaller area, 20% lower cell count, 28% lower delay and 60% lower QCA cost as compared to its previous counterparts. Keywords: Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA, Majority gate, Random access memory (RAM, Energy efficiency

  12. Structural changes in the world energy supply - adaptations up to current and future challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuermann, H.J.

    1985-03-11

    In this analysis of world energy markets in which he pays particular attention to mineral oil, and with a background of world economic problems which have not yet been solved, the author presents a piece of modern economic history in which he also highlights the political aspects of the supply of crude oil. The world-wide contraction in oil consumption which followed two price escalations, has been caused, it is held by structural factors and is therefore of a long-term nature. Of course, in the foreseeable future, oil will easily remain the most important energy-carrier. However, it will be of less importance for Western Europe and Japan than for North America, trading states and developing countries. Nevertheless, diversification should be encouraged as quickly as possible. This does include natural gas still but for the long-term also coal and atomic energy. The author pleads for world-wide trade relations based on coal and gas in order to complement the fully integrated world oil markets. Similarly atomic energy should be developed as quickly as possible.

  13. The determinants of household energy-saving behavior: Survey and comparison in five major Asian cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, Shiro; Kondo, Kayoko; Nogata, Daisuke; Ben, Han

    2013-01-01

    It is difficult to control household energy consumption through regulation. From a policy standpoint, it is particularly challenging to identify the factors that influence people’s actions. Moreover, whatever these factors are, they are unlikely to uniformly span multiple cities in the Asian region. In this paper, we conduct a survey of energy-saving behavior to clarify the differences among such factors across five major Asian cities. The results from these surveys in Dalian, Chongqing, Fukuoka, Bangkok, and Ho Chi Minh indicate that global warming consciousness, environmental behavior, and social interaction significantly affect energy-saving behavior. Income and age also had weak positive effects on energy-saving behaviors. Social interaction was strongly linked to energy-saving behaviors, particularly in the rural areas of Dalian and Chongqing. This result indicates that community-based activities impact energy-saving behaviors. - Highlights: ► We conduct a survey of energy saving behavior in household in major Asian cities. ► We identify the factors that influence people's actions. ► Global warming consciousness and social interaction affect people behavior. ► This indicates community-based activities impact energy-saving behaviors in Asia.

  14. Living in a material world: Development and evaluation of a new materials science course for non-science majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brust, Gregory John

    This study was designed to discover if there is a difference in the scientific attitudes and process skills between a group of students who were instructed with Living in a Material World and groups of students in non-science majors sections of introductory biology, chemistry, and geology courses at the University of Southern Mississippi (USM). Each of the four courses utilized different instructional techniques. Students' scientific attitudes were measured with the Scientific Attitudes Inventory (SAI II) and their knowledge of science process skills were measured with the Test of Integrated Process Skills (TIPS II). The Group Assessment of Logical Thinking (GALT) was also administered to determine if the cognitive levels of students are comparable. A series of four questionnaires called Qualitative Course Assessments (QCA) were also administered to students in the experimental course to evaluate subtle changes in their understanding of the nature and processes of science and attitudes towards science. Student responses to the QCA questionnaires were triangulated with results of the qualitative instruments, and students' work on the final project. Results of the GALT found a significant difference in the cognitive levels of students in the experimental course (PSC 190) and in one of the control group, the introductory biology (BSC 107). Results of the SAI II and the TIPS II found no significant difference between the experimental group and the control groups. Qualitative analyses of students' responses to selected questions from the TIPS II, selected items on the SAI II, QCA questionnaires, and Materials that Fly project reports demonstrate an improvement in the understanding of the nature and processes of science and a change to positive attitude toward science of students in the experimental group. Students indicated that hands-on, inquiry-based labs and performance assessment were the most effective methods for their learning. These results indicate that science

  15. Analysis of Upper Bound Power Output for a Wrist-Worn Rotational Energy Harvester from Real-World Measured Inputs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, T; Roundy, S; Ma, X; Rahn, C

    2014-01-01

    Energy harvesting from human motion addresses the growing need for battery-free health and wellness sensors in wearable applications. The major obstacles to harvesting energy in such applications are low and random frequencies due to the nature of human motion. This paper presents a generalized rotational harvester model in 3 dimensions to determine the upper bound of power output from real world measured data. Simulation results indicate much space for improvement on power generation comparing to existing devices. We have developed a rotational energy harvester for human motion that attempts to close the gap between theoretical possibility and demonstrated devices. Like previous work, it makes use of magnetically plucked piezoelectric beams. However, it more fully utilizes the space available and has many degrees of freedom available for optimization. Finally we present a prototype harvester based on the coupled harvester model with preliminary experimental validation

  16. The Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region: A major role in China's renewable energy future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee Kwan, Calvin

    2010-01-01

    Because the IMAR is China's second largest coal producing region and the entire nation depends on over half of its energy demand from coal, the issue about more coal becoming part of the energy supply is of grave concern to the region and central government. In addition to that, China has been building more structures that demand more and more energy. The options for energy in China are to dig for more coal, discover oil and gas or import these fossil fuels. However, consideration for the environment and climate change along with concern for national security has forced China to consider a non-fossil fuel option: conservation and efficiency along with renewable energy power generation. IMAR has vast regions and areas where wind and solar have already been installed. By 2009, almost 1 GW of renewable energy systems had been installed and operating in all of China. Most of the energy was generated by hydroelectricity, though wind power - a rapidly technology in China- accounted for almost one fourth. More GWs of energy are possible along with geothermal and related renewable power sources such as the run of river and bio-mass. Major energy companies in the region are now advancing and exploring these renewable energy options along with western companies as joint ventures that create new industries, create jobs and lessen both IMAR and China's dependency on fossil fuels. (author)

  17. Hydrocarbons and conflicts in the world - Energy strategies and present stakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardillier-Carras, Francoise; Boulanger, Philippe; Ortolland, Didier

    2012-01-01

    This document briefly presents a book in which the authors discuss the role of energy resources as factors of tension or conflicts between countries. After an overview of the issue of energy geo-strategy, they describe the geography of conflict sources in terms of territories, energy fields, reserves and exploitation. Then, they address the case hydrocarbons which are a matter of conflicts and strategic tensions in the world, and notably between States and non-State actors. They identify different types of conflicts about hydrocarbons, and their role in peace and reconstruction. In a third part, they address the issue of energy routes: the big game about pipelines, and maritime routes

  18. Second world renewable energy assembly (WREA) 2007; 2. Weltversammlung fuer Erneuerbare Energien (WREA) 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Within the Second World Renewable Energy Assembly at 19th to 21st November, 2007, in Bonn (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) How to motivate common people, scientists, companies and policy makers for renewable energy (Volker Thomsen); (2) Renewables 2007 Global Status Report (Eric Martinot); (3) Renewable Energy in Africa (Ibrahim Togola); (4) Legislation, the great challenge for renewable energies in Latin America (Mauro Passos); (5) Building Strategic North American Alliances to Maximize the Implementation of Renewable Energy (Jose Etcheverry); (6) Renewable Energy and Sustainable Development (Shi DingHuan); (7) Renewable Energies in EU27 (Wolfgang Palz); (8) The health costs of conventional energies (Susanne Weber-Mosdorf); (9) The need for a EU-wide Moratorium on Incentives for Agrofuels and Imports of Agrofuels (Sergio Oceransky); (10) The nuclear power is no solution (Eike Schwarz); (11) Carbon Trading - a critical conversation on climate change, privatisation and power (Jutta Kil); (12) The culminating energy insecurity (Joerg Schindler); (13) 100 % Renewables Scenarios an Overview (Harry Lehmann); (14) ICLEI's Local Renewables Initiative What local governments can do to promote the generation and use of renewable energy (Monika Zimmermann); (15) 100 % Projects for cities, countries and regions - an overview (Michael Stoehr); (16) Conceptualizing RE Strategies (Heinz-Wolfgang Boehnke); (17) Negawatts and Micropower: The Coming Electrical Revolution (Amory Lovins); (18) Renewable Energies, Sustainability and World Trade - Overcoming the double standard (Doerte Fouquet); (19) Financing strategies for Renewable Energies in Latin America and The Caribbean (Pablo Rosenthal); (20) Overcoming the Double-Standards: Subsidies for Nuclear and Fossil Energy (Doug Koplow); (21) The prepossession of international institutions for energy (Hans-Josef Fell); (22) The bias of the international energy institutions: The case of IAEO (Wolfgang

  19. Second world renewable energy assembly (WREA) 2007; 2. Weltversammlung fuer Erneuerbare Energien (WREA) 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Within the Second World Renewable Energy Assembly at 19th to 21st November, 2007, in Bonn (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) How to motivate common people, scientists, companies and policy makers for renewable energy (Volker Thomsen); (2) Renewables 2007 Global Status Report (Eric Martinot); (3) Renewable Energy in Africa (Ibrahim Togola); (4) Legislation, the great challenge for renewable energies in Latin America (Mauro Passos); (5) Building Strategic North American Alliances to Maximize the Implementation of Renewable Energy (Jose Etcheverry); (6) Renewable Energy and Sustainable Development (Shi DingHuan); (7) Renewable Energies in EU27 (Wolfgang Palz); (8) The health costs of conventional energies (Susanne Weber-Mosdorf); (9) The need for a EU-wide Moratorium on Incentives for Agrofuels and Imports of Agrofuels (Sergio Oceransky); (10) The nuclear power is no solution (Eike Schwarz); (11) Carbon Trading - a critical conversation on climate change, privatisation and power (Jutta Kil); (12) The culminating energy insecurity (Joerg Schindler); (13) 100 % Renewables Scenarios an Overview (Harry Lehmann); (14) ICLEI's Local Renewables Initiative What local governments can do to promote the generation and use of renewable energy (Monika Zimmermann); (15) 100 % Projects for cities, countries and regions - an overview (Michael Stoehr); (16) Conceptualizing RE Strategies (Heinz-Wolfgang Boehnke); (17) Negawatts and Micropower: The Coming Electrical Revolution (Amory Lovins); (18) Renewable Energies, Sustainability and World Trade - Overcoming the double standard (Doerte Fouquet); (19) Financing strategies for Renewable Energies in Latin America and The Caribbean (Pablo Rosenthal); (20) Overcoming the Double-Standards: Subsidies for Nuclear and Fossil Energy (Doug Koplow); (21) The prepossession of international institutions for energy (Hans-Josef Fell); (22) The bias of the international energy institutions: The case of IAEO

  20. Energy History Chronology from World War II to the Present [1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, P. C.

    1982-08-01

    This report provides a basic guide to the major Presidential, Legislative, Judicial, and Federal agency actions relating to energy policy, research, development, and regulation in recent years. The chronology is arranged synoptically, allowing users to reference easily the historical context in which each event occurred. Summaries of Presidential, Legislative, and Judicial actions relating to energy, rosters of federal energy officials, and a genealogy of federal energy agencies are also provided in separate appendices. The Energy History Chronology was prepared in conjunction with the History Division's series of pamphlets on the Institutional Origins of the Department of Energy. The series includes concise histories of the Department of Energy, the Energy Research and Development Administration, the Federal Energy Administration, and the Atomic Energy Commission. All significant events and achievements noted in the institutional history are also listed.

  1. Central Asia: A major emerging energy player in the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorian, James P.

    2006-01-01

    Energy is the most abundant and valuable natural resource of Central Asia and northwest China and includes oil, gas, coal, electricity, and renewables. Kazakhstan has large reserves of oil and coal. Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan have significant reserves of gas. Kyrgyzstan produces significant amounts of hydroelectric power. Xinjiang, China has significant coal resources and an uncertain, although generally promising, potential for oil in the Tarim basin. These energy reserves form the basis for future economic growth and development in the region, and energy exports are beginning to generate important foreign exchange revenues. Although Central Asia enjoys vast energy development potential, there are obstacles to exploiting these resources, including limited infrastructure for transporting energy-notably oil and gas pipelines and electric transmission lines-in the region, political turmoil, payment difficulties, and inadequate energy policies. Despite these challenges, however, with appropriate government planning Central Asia is poised to become a significant world supplier of energy, especially in the oil and gas sectors, and the region is likely to diminish OPEC's influence of the global oil market over the long term. (author)

  2. Energy production and storage inorganic chemical strategies for a warming world

    CERN Document Server

    Crabtree, Robert H

    2013-01-01

    Energy production and storage are central problems for our time. In principle, abundant energy is available from the sun to run the earth in a sustainable way. Solar energy can be directly harnessed by agricultural and photovoltaic means, but the sheer scale of the energy demand poses severe challenges, for example any major competition between biomass production and food production would simply transfer scarcity from energy to food. Indirect use of solar energy in the form of wind looks also promising, especially for those regions not blessed with abundant sunlight. Other modes such as tidal

  3. Sustaining the future: the role of nuclear power in meeting future world energy needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffey, R.; Sun, Y.

    2003-01-01

    A description is given of recently informed analyses showing the potential that nuclear power has in meeting global energy demands. For both the electricity and transportation sectors, we can quantify the beneficial effects on the environment, and we show how nuclear power deserves credit for its role in assisting future world energy, environmental and economic sustainability. The continuing expansion of the world's and Asia's energy needs, coupled with the need to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) and other emissions, will require new approaches for large scale energy production and use. This is particularly important for China and Asia with respect to meeting both the energy demand and sustainability challenges. We show and explore the role of nuclear power for large-scale energy applications, including electricity production and hydrogen for transportation. Advanced nuclear technologies, such as those like CANDU's next generation ACR, can meet future global energy market needs, avoid emissions, and mitigate the potential for global climate change. We use the latest IPCC Scenarios out to the year 2100 as a base case, but correct them to examine the sensitivity to large scale nuclear and hydrogen fuel penetration. We show a significant impact of nuclear energy on energy market penetration, and in reducing GHGs and other emissions in the coming century, particularly in the industrial developing world and in Asia. This is achieved without needing emissions credits, as are used or needed as economic support for other sources, or for subsidies via emissions trading schemes. Nuclear power offers the relatively emissions-free means, both to provide electricity for traditional applications and, by electrolytic production of hydrogen, to extend its use deep into the transportation sector. For the published IPCC Marker Scenarios for Asia we show the reduction in GHG emissions when electrolysis using electricity from nuclear power assists the introduction of hydrogen as a fuel

  4. 10th World Energy Conference. Division 2. Conservation in energy utilization. [30 papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-07-01

    A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 30 papers and a position paper. All of the abstracts will appear both in Energy Research Abstracts (ERA) and Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA). (MCW)

  5. Report of studies programme of CME (Energy World Committee) from 1992 to 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergougnoux, J.

    1995-01-01

    Here is a forecasting in the energy area for the world. The increasing energy demand for developing countries, the situation of Eastern Europe going to a market economy are such factors which give some ideas how the demand in energy can evolve. The low prices of energy do not oblige to look after an efficiency of energy, the important needs for developing countries can make forget the environment problem with greenhouse effect, the increasing of energy demand for transport in developed and developing countries will make the demand grow up. The incertitudes about nuclear power future do not help to have ideas. All these questions and incertitudes make clear that the market cannot answer itself to solve all problems: financing, efficiency, transport, long term studies and rural energy development in developing countries are such priority themes

  6. Subsidies to energy in the world: their extent, their efficiency and their necessary reorientation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finon, D.

    2010-10-01

    This report aims at analyzing the extent of subsidies to energy in the world, at assessing theoretical and practical arguments against different forms of subsidy, and at synthesizing reflections on reforms of subsidies to energy, mainly in developing countries. In the first part, the author recalls the theoretical and practical backgrounds of subsidies to energy, indicates the different forms of support to energy production and consumption, and discusses the existing assessments in the world and in some regions while specifying subsidies to fuels in the transport sector. In a second part, he addresses theoretical and practical critics of subsidies (notably in terms of environmental and economical inefficiency), assessments of economical and environmental benefits of their withdrawal, and ways of reorienting subsidies for fossil fuels in developing countries

  7. Brazilian energy statistics - 1998. Annual bulletin of the Brazilian Committee of the World Energy Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This bulletin deals with the primary sources that carry most weight in the Brazilian energy balance: hydroelectric energy, petroleum, natural gas and coal. It also contains data on ethyl alcohol derived of sugar cane since it is of special importance in Brazil's energy scenario

  8. Brazilian energy statistics - 1991. Annual bulletin of the Brazilian National Committee of the World Energy Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This bulletin deals with the primary sources that carry most weight in the Brazilian energy balance: hydraulic energy, petroleum, natural gas and coal. It contains data on ethyl alcohol derived from sugar cane since it is of special importance in Brazil's energy scenario. 13 figs., 22 tabs

  9. Brazilian energy statistics - 1994. Annual bulletin of the Brazilian Committee of the World Energy Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This bulletin deals with the primary sources that carry most weight in the Brazilian energy balance: hydraulic energy, petroleum, natural gas and coal. It also contains data on ethyl alcohol derived from sugar cane since it is of special importance in Brazil's energy scenario. 10 figs., 11 tabs

  10. Brazilian energy statistics - 1996. Annual bulletin of the Brazilian Committee of the World Energy Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This bulletin deals with the primary sources that carry most weight in the Brazilian energy balance: hydroelectric energy, petroleum, natural gas and coal. It also contains data on ethyl alcohol derived of sugar cane since it is of special importance in Brazil's energy scenario. Domestic production, petroleum and petroleum product imports, as well as natural gas production statistics are furnished in this bulletin

  11. Trends of world energy consumption and possibilities of environment protective power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frischengruber, K.

    1991-01-01

    The population of the world will duplicate within the next three to four decades. The primary energy consumption will increase accordingly. Considering the limited reach of our fossil energy resources and their negative impact on the global climate, alternative strategies for the power generation have to be developed. The contribution of the renewable energy sources will be important, but not sufficient, due to their high generation costs. The nuclear power, which already today participates essentially in the energy supply, will remain one of the most important options for environment protecting energy generation. Especially for the developing countries, which -in general- have currently a not covered energy demand, the build up of reasonable energy generation structures means enormous volumes of investments, which can only be financed with the assistance of the industrialized countries. Those, on the other hand, have to economize their energy consumption and have to undertake any effort in continuing with the development of clean, safe and competitive renewable resources. To provide increasing world population with sufficient energy and at the same time to reduce CO 2 emissions is one of the biggest challenges that mankind has ever faced. (Author)

  12. Interactions between the energy economy and the world economy in the next 10 to 15 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nydegger, A.

    1984-01-01

    The present economic depression is unlikely to be succeeded by a lengthy lasting period of growth. An exponential increase in energy demand appears improbable. Into the nineties, the cause will not be an insufficient supply but the factors determining the demand. Later, scarcity may be important. This could seriously damage the world economy and keep the demand for energy at a relatively low level. (R.S.)

  13. Selection, trans-species polymorphism, and locus identification of major histocompatibility complex class IIβ alleles of New World ranid frogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiemnec-Tyburczy, Karen M.; Richmond, Jonathan Q.; Savage, Anna E.; Zamudio, Kelly R.

    2010-01-01

    Genes encoded by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) play key roles in the vertebrate immune system. However, our understanding of the evolutionary processes and underlying genetic mechanisms shaping these genes is limited in many taxa, including amphibians, a group currently impacted by emerging infectious diseases. To further elucidate the evolution of the MHC in frogs (anurans) and develop tools for population genetics, we surveyed allelic diversity of the MHC class II ??1 domain in both genomic and complementary DNA of seven New World species in the genus Rana (Lithobates). To assign locus affiliation to our alleles, we used a "gene walking" technique to obtain intron 2 sequences that flanked MHC class II?? exon 2. Two distinct intron sequences were recovered, suggesting the presence of at least two class II?? loci in Rana. We designed a primer pair that successfully amplified an orthologous locus from all seven Rana species. In total, we recovered 13 alleles and documented trans-species polymorphism for four of the alleles. We also found quantitative evidence of selection acting on amino acid residues that are putatively involved in peptide binding and structural stability of the ??1 domain of anurans. Our results indicated that primer mismatch can result in polymerase chain reaction (PCR) bias, which influences the number of alleles that are recovered. Using a single locus may minimize PCR bias caused by primer mismatch, and the gene walking technique was an effective approach for generating single-copy orthologous markers necessary for future studies of MHC allelic variation in natural amphibian populations. ?? 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  14. International wind energy development. World market update 2001. Forecast 2002-2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-03-01

    In the year 2001, the wind power development took another major step forward. Installed capacity set a new record with the addition of 6,824 MW of new generating capacity. This is 2,329 MW more than the record set in year 2000. Growth in new capacity is up from 15% in year 2000 to 52% in 2001. This confirmed that the trend of wind energy being the preferred technology over other technologies for new generating capacity is continuing. Europe is the leading region for wind power. Of the new capacity added in 2001, 4,527 MW was installed in Europe. Germany once more shows this country's potential as the single most active market with the installation of 2,627 MW in new capacity, nearly 1,000 MW more than in the previous year. Germany consolidated its position as the world's leading developer of wind energy. The market in the US is once again the second largest wind energy market ahead of Spain. The expiration of the PTC at the end of the year 2001 gave some rush in the installation at the end of the year. The Danish market is on a deroute and lost pace completely in a changed political climate which means that the development of windpower is slowing down. Denmark has a very high penetration of windpower. On the supplier side Vestas Wind Systems A/S maintained its position as being the world's largest manufacturer of wind turbines. Vestas Wind Systems is now followed by Enercon GmbH. Without counting the US market figures Vestas Wind Systems A/S and Enercon has become the very closed in terms of sold MW. In the 3rd place is the Danish company NEG Micon A/S. Newcomers in the Top Ten list are Mitsubishi (JP) and REpower (GE). The most significant technological trend in the market is the continuing upscaling of machines. From year 2001 the average size of WTGs is 915 kW (in 2000: 800kW). In the very near future there will be erected wind turbines mainly dedicated for the upcoming offshore market of 4.5-5.0 MW. On Offshore there is only 10 MW installed during the year 2001

  15. The Three Mile Island accident, a world premiere for nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouvier, Yves

    2015-01-01

    When it happened on 28 March 1979, the accident at the Three Mile Island nuclear power station in Pennsylvania took experts and operators by surprise. Although human losses were minor, this world shaking media event significantly changed public attitudes towards nuclear energy and put a definitive stop to the development of nuclear power in the USA. (author)

  16. Declaration of the G8 of Saint Petersburg, the 16 July 2006 on the world energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This document presents in a first part the energy problems which the G8 is confronted with, the response of the international community and the declaration on the principles of the world energy security. The second part is devoted to the action plan of Saint Petersburg, actions in the following domains: reinforcement of the world energy markets transparency and stability, improvement of the investments climate in the energy sector, reinforcement of the energy efficiency and the energy conservation, diversification of the energies resources, security of the vital energy infrastructures, decrease of the energy dearth, fight against the climatic change and help to the sustainable development. (A.L.B.)

  17. Brazilian energy statistics - 1989. Annual bulletin of the Brazilian National Committee of the World Energy Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This bulletin deals with the primary sources that carry most weight in the Brazilian energy balance: hydraulic energy, petroleum, natural gas and coal. It contains data on ethyl alcohol derived from sugar cane and some aspects about nuclear energy in Brazil. Graphs, annual statistics and historical data of electric power, petroleum and petroleum products, natural gas, coal and alcohol are also included. 17 figs., 12 tabs

  18. Brazilian energy statistics - 1988. Annual bulletin of the Brazilian National Committee of the World Energy Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This bulletin deals with the primary sources that carry most weight in the Brazilian energy balance: hydraulic energy, petroleum, natural gas and coal. It contains data on ethyl alcohol derived from sugar cane and some information about the Brazilian Action Plan for the petroleum sector, nuclear energy, ecology and Chernobyl. Graphs, annual statistics and long range data of electric power, petroleum and derivates, natural gas, coal and alcohol are also included. 19 figs., 15 tabs

  19. Introduction condition of a tokamak fusion power plant as an advanced technology in world energy scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiwatari, R.; Tokimatsu, K.; Asaoka, Y.; Okano, K.; Konishi, S.; Ogawa, Y.

    2005-01-01

    The present study reveals the following two introduction conditions of a tokamak fusion power plant in a long term world energy scenario. The first condition is the electric breakeven condition, which is required for the fusion energy to be recognized as a suitable candidate of an alternative energy source in the long term world energy scenario. As for the plasma performance (normalized beta value β N , confinement improvement factor for H-mode HH, the ratio of plasma density to Greenwald density limit fn GW ), the electric breakeven condition requires the simultaneous achievement of 1.2 N GW tmax =16 T, thermal efficiency η e =30%, and current drive power P NBI N ∼1.8, HH∼1.0, and fn GW ∼0.9, which correspond to the ITER reference operation parameters, have a strong potential to achieve the electric breakeven condition. The second condition is the economic breakeven condition, which is required to be selected as an alternative energy source. By using a long term world energy and environment model, the potential of the fusion energy in the long term world energy scenario is being investigated. Under the constraint of 550 ppm CO 2 concentration in the atmosphere, a breakeven price for introduction of the fusion energy in the year 2050 is estimated from 65mill/kWh to 135mill/kWh, which is considered as the economic breakeven condition in the present study. Under the conditions of B tmax =16T, η e =40%, plant availability 60%, and a radial build with/without CS coil, the economic breakeven condition requires β N ∼2.5 for 135mill/kWh of higher breakeven price case and β N ∼6.0 for 65mill/kWh of lower breakeven price case. Finally, the demonstration of steady state operation with β N ∼3.0 in the ITER project leads to the prospect to achieve the upper region of breakeven price in the world energy scenario. (author)

  20. An energy and cost efficient majority-based RAM cell in quantum-dot cellular automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosroshahy, Milad Bagherian; Moaiyeri, Mohammad Hossein; Navi, Keivan; Bagherzadeh, Nader

    Nanotechnologies, notably quantum-dot cellular automata, have achieved major attentions for their prominent features as compared to the conventional CMOS circuitry. Quantum-dot cellular automata, particularly owning to its considerable reduction in size, high switching speed and ultra-low energy consumption, is considered as a potential alternative for the CMOS technology. As the memory unit is one of the most essential components in a digital system, designing a well-optimized QCA random access memory (RAM) cell is an important area of research. In this paper, a new five-input majority gate is presented which is suitable for implementing efficient single-layer QCA circuits. In addition, a new RAM cell with set and reset capabilities is designed based on the proposed majority gate, which has an efficient and low-energy structure. The functionality, performance and energy consumption of the proposed designs are evaluated based on the QCADesigner and QCAPro tools. According to the simulation results, the proposed RAM design leads to on average 38% lower total energy dissipation, 25% smaller area, 20% lower cell count, 28% lower delay and 60% lower QCA cost as compared to its previous counterparts.

  1. Locally Appropriate Energy Strategies for the Developing World: A focus on Clean Energy Opportunities in Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Rebekah Grace

    This dissertation focuses on an integration of energy modeling tools to explore energy transition pathways for emerging economies. The spate of growth in the global South has led to a global energy transition, evidenced in part by a surge in the development of large scale energy infrastructure projects for the provision of reliable electricity service. The rational of energy security and exigency often usher these large scale projects through to implementation with minimal analysis of costs: social and environmental impact, ecological risk, or opportunity costs of alternative energy transition pathways foregone. Furthermore, development of energy infrastructure is inherently characterized by the involvement of a number of state and non-state actors, with varying interests, objectives and access to authority. Being woven through and into social institutions necessarily impacts the design, control and functionality of infrastructure. In this dissertation I therefore conceptualize energy infrastructure as lying at the intersection, or nexus, of people, the environment and energy security. I argue that energy infrastructure plans and policy should, and can, be informed by each of these fields of influence in order to appropriately satisfy local development needs. This case study explores the socio-techno-environmental context of contemporary mega-dam development in northern Borneo. I describe the key actors of an ongoing mega-dam debate and the constellation of their interaction. This highlights the role that information may play in public discourse and lends insight into how inertia in the established system may stymie technological evolution. I then use a combination of power system simulation, ecological modeling and spatial analysis to analyze the potential for, and costs and tradeoffs of, future energy scenarios. In this way I demonstrate reproducible methods that can support energy infrastructure decision making by directly addressing data limitation barriers. I

  2. The world energy situation and the response of the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, L.

    1980-01-01

    In reviewing the World energy situation the lecturer points out that there is trouble over oil supplies earlier than was expected and that large sections of the public and parliaments do not yet appreciate the implications of this on the rest of the energy policy, especially with reference to the nuclear option. Subjects considered include; oil market situation, public education, transfer of wealth, limitation of oil imports, Community energy policy, future Community policy, economics, nuclear policies and the effect of the Harrisburg accident. The ensuing discussion is reported. (UK)

  3. CO2 and the world energy system: The role of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulkerson, W.; Jones, J.E. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The greenhouse effect, and other transnational and global environment, health and safety issues, require energy system planning on an international scale. Consideration of equity between nations and regions, particularly between the industrialized and developing countries, is an essential ingredient. For the immediate future, the next several decades at least, fossil fuels will remain the predominant energy sources. More efficient use of energy seems to be the only feasible strategy for the near to mid-term to provide growing energy services for the world economy while moderating the increasing demand for fossil fuels. In the longer term, nonfossil sources are essential for a sustainable world energy system, and nuclear power can play an important, if not dominant, role. The challenge is to design and implement a safe and economic nuclear power world enterprise which is socially acceptable and is complimentary to other nonfossil sources. The elements of such an enterprise seem clear and include: much safer reactors, preferably passively safe, which can be developed at various scales; development of economic resource extension technologies; effective and permanent waste management strategies; and strengthened safeguards against diversion of nuclear materials to weapons. All of these elements can best be developed as cooperative international efforts. In the process, institutional improvements are equally as important as technological improvements; the two must proceed hand-in-hand. 14 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  4. CO2 and the world energy system: the role of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulkerson, W.; Jones, J.E. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The greenhouse effect, and other transnational and global environment, health and safety issues, require energy system planning on an international scale. Consideration of equity between nations and regions, particularly between the industrialized and developing countries, is an essential ingredient. For the immediate future, the next several decades at least, fossil fuels will remain the predominant energy sources. More efficient use of energy seems to be the only feasible strategy for the near to mid-term to provide growing energy services for the world economy while moderating the increasing demand for fossil fuels. In the longer term, nonfossil sources are essential for a sustainable world energy system, and nuclear power can play an important, if not dominant, role. The challenge is to design and implement a safe and economic nuclear power world enterprise which is socially acceptable and is complimentary to other nonfossil sources. The elements of such an enterprise seem clear and include: much safer reactors, preferably passively safe, which can be deployed at various scales; development of economic resource extension technologies; effective and permanent waste management strategies; and strengthened safeguards against diversion of nuclear materials to weapons. All of these elements can best be developed as cooperative international efforts. In the process, institutional improvements are equally as important as technological improvements; the two must proceed hand-in-hand. (orig.)

  5. Energy, world should not chose nuclear energy to fight against climatic change. Nuclear and climatic change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besson, S.

    2007-06-01

    This document proposes an abstract of the conclusions of an expert group, the Oxford Research Group, which criticizes the today boost in favor of the electricity from nuclear energy. They explain that the nuclear energy should not be a solution for the fight against the climatic change. (A.L.B.)

  6. The energy demand in the world in 2004: very strong rise of energy consumptions, mainly due to China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chateau, Bertrand

    2005-01-01

    2004, the highest energy growth since 1987: Very strong rise of energy consumptions, strongest annual growth since 1987, due to a favorable economic situation, China is the motor of this evolution. Total energy in the world in 2004: 11,1 Gtep. Asia represents almost one third of the world energy consumption, China's weight (14%) continues to increase by one point every year since 2000. China accounts for 42% of the world energy consumption growth, Asia for 62%. The European consumption growth represents less than 10% of China's growth, and 40% only of USA's growth. Since 2000, coal's market share has increased by 2 points, the oil market share has receded by 1 point. The relative weight of gas remains stable, with 21%. Coal accounts for 37% of the world energy consumption increase in 2004. The oil consumption increase has been more than twice higher than gas increase. Recovery of hydraulic and nuclear power. 78% of coal consumption growth is due to China, 99% from the whole Asia. Since 2000, the strongest growths are in Asia: China, Taiwan, Korea, Japan, India. 50% of the consumption growth is due to the power sector. The oil demand growth accelerates in 2004, driven by China (+14%) and the developing countries. Two giants of the oil demand growth: China and USA (+59 Mt, 58% of total 2004 growth). In the OECD, only North America increases significantly in 2004. Except China, the world growth is relatively steady since 1990, with 1.1%/ year. Oil demand is concentrated on captive usages. 55% of the world demand of oil products is concentrated on transport and petro-chemical sectors (67% in Europe (+ 9 points since 1990) and 81% in North America. Transport and petro-chemical sectors represent 2/3 of the world oil demand growth in 2004. The Middle-East has supplied half of the oil demand increase between 2003 and 2004. Except the Middle-East, only the CIS, Latin America and Africa regions have increased their production in 2004. Despite soaring crude oil prices, North

  7. International wind energy development. World market update 2011. Forecast 2012-2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-03-15

    The World Market Update 2011 is BTM Consult's seventeenth edition of this annual wind energy market report. The report includes more than 80 tables, charts and graphs illustrating global wind market development, as well as a wind market forecast for 2012 - 2016 and predictions for the wind market through 2021. The report delivers several views on the fast-growing wind market, including: 1) Record installation of 41.7 GW. 2) Strong presence of four Chinese wind turbine suppliers in the Top 10 list. 3) China maintains the No. 1 market position in the world, with 17.6 GW of new capacity. 4) Offshore wind is on track for increased contribution to wind power in Europe. 5) Market value will grow from Euro 52.2 billion in 2011 to Euro 86.3 billion in 2016. 6) Direct drive turbines now account for 21.2% of the world's supply of wind power capacity. 7) Wind power will deliver 2.26% of the world's electricity in 2012. 8) Forecasts and predictions to 2021 indicate that wind power can meet 8.0% of the world's consumption of electricity by 2021. International Wind Energy Development - World Update 2011 includes individual country wind market assessments, incentives around the world, and detailed analysis of both the demand and supply sides of the wind market in 2011. This year's report reviews the latest developments in hydraulic drivetrains, identifies the pros and cons, and compares the hydraulic technology to the industry's three currently established drivetrain technologies: conventional gear-, direct and hybrid-drivetrains. (Author)

  8. CO2 emissions due to energy combustion in the World in 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Florine

    2014-01-01

    This publication presents and comments data, graphs and tables which illustrate the evolution of CO 2 emissions in the world (data are given for different countries and regions of the World), and more particularly those due to energy combustion. These emissions increased in 2011. It also discusses the evolution of CO 2 emission intensity with respect to GDP (1 pc decrease in 2011). When studying emission data with respect to the number of inhabitants, it appears that USA are emitting 20 times more CO 2 per inhabitant than Africa

  9. Brazilian energy statistics - 1992. Annual bulletin of the Brazilian National Committee of the World Energy Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This bulletin deals with the primary sources that carry most weight in the Brazilian energy balance: hydraulic energy, petroleum, natural gas and coal. It contains data on ethyl alcohol derived from sugar cane since it is of special importance in Brazil's energy scenario. A brief picture of Brazil's electric power status with regard to bordering countries is also presented, giving an idea of the prospects for progress in electric power integration through the implementation of new international electric power interconnection projects. (author). 13 figs., 19 tabs

  10. Nuclear fusion and its large potential for the future world energy supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ongena Jef

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An overview of the energy problem in the world is presented. The colossal task of ‘decarbonizing’ the current energy system, with ~85% of the primary energy produced from fossil sources is discussed. There are at the moment only two options that can contribute to a solution: renewable energy (sun, wind, hydro, etc. or nuclear fission. Their contributions, ~2% for sun and wind, ~6% for hydro and ~5% for fission, will need to be enormously increased in a relatively short time, to meet the targets set by policy makers. The possible role and large potential for fusion to contribute to a solution in the future as a safe, nearly inexhaustible and environmentally compatible energy source is discussed. The principles of magnetic and inertial confinement are outlined, and the two main options for magnetic confinement, tokamak and stellarator, are explained. The status of magnetic fusion is summarized and the next steps in fusion research, ITER and DEMO, briefly presented.

  11. Alternative projection of the world energy consumption-in comparison with the 2010 international energy outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Yusang; Lee, Jinsoo; Yoon, Hyerim

    2012-01-01

    A projection of future energy consumption is a vital input to many analyses of economic, energy, and environmental policies. We provide a benchmark projection which can be used to evaluate any other projection. Specifically, we base our projection of future energy consumption on its historical trend, which can be identified by an experience model. We compare our projection with forecasts by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) for eight countries—U.S., China, India, Brazil, Japan, South Korea, Canada, and Mexico. We find that the EIA's projections are lower than ours in the case of China, the U.S., India, Japan, and Mexico. This indicates that for these five countries, the EIA uses assumptions which cannot be rationalized by historical data.

  12. The 2 oC scenario-A sustainable world energy perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krewitt, Wolfram; Simon, Sonja; Graus, Wina; Teske, Sven; Zervos, Arthouros; Schaefer, Oliver

    2007-01-01

    A target-oriented scenario of future energy demand and supply is developed in a backcasting process. The main target is to reduce global CO 2 emissions to around 10 Gt/a in 2050, thus limiting global average temperature increase to 2 o C and preventing dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. A 10-region energy system model is used for simulating global energy supply strategies. A review of sector and region-specific energy efficiency measures resulted in the specification of a global energy demand scenario incorporating strong energy efficiency measures. The corresponding supply scenario has been developed in an iterative process in close cooperation with stakeholders and regional counterparts from academia, NGOs and the renewable energy industry. The 2 o C scenario shows that renewable energy could provide as much as half of the world's energy needs by 2050. Developing countries can virtually stabilise their CO 2 emissions, while at the same time increasing energy consumption through economic growth. OECD countries will be able to reduce their emissions by up to 80%

  13. Energy situation in France and in the World - What political choices?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-05-01

    Energy production and distribution play a key-role in the evolution of our societies. The resources coming from the Earth's crust are limited and our energy production system has negative impacts on the environment which have to be minimized. Political projects have to take these constraints into consideration with a long-term vision. The French Society of Physics (SFP) approached the experts of the Energy-Environment commission to shade light on the energy debate in France and in the rest of the world. A precise and brief analysis of the French and worldwide energy situation is presented in a first part (situation and prospective, costs, benefits and risks, decarbonization, R and D, energy saving and conservation..). Then, a series of 10 thematic information sheets summarizes different economical, environmental and political aspects of the energy question: resources and reserves, environmental impact of various power generation sources, risks, costs and benefits of the different energy industries, energy costs, production irregularity management, networks and storage facilities, European transportation networks and super-networks for electricity, gas, petroleum and CO 2 , consumption abatement, decarbonization strategies, energy policy choices for France from 2010 to 2050

  14. Financing energy investments world-wide and in the economies in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brendow, K.

    1998-01-01

    The necessity of mobilizing the finance under given circumstances is pointed out. The energy sector investments needs correspond to only 3-4% of world GDP or 6-7% of world capital formation. In most developing countries mobilizing financing is a issue, where the risk/return ratio of a given energy investment project does not compare favourably with competing projects and if their handicap is not compensating for by public financing or government guarantees. Compared to the other regions, the energy systems of the economies in transition absorb a high proportion of domestic capital. This is due to past and continuing supply-oriented energy policies and inefficiencies and the export orientation of the energy-rich countries, and to limited domestic capital markets. As a result only a estimated 9-13% of long-term investment 'needs' is presently financed. The root of the problem is slow progress in the reform of energy and capital markets at a time government withdraw from financing and guaranteeing energy investments. Recommendations include transition to sustainable energy strategies ; the liberalization of energy prices and tariffs; the phasing out of subsides and cross-subsides; the stabilization of tax and depreciation regimes; neutrality with regard of the various forms of ownership; reliable law enforcement; non-discrimination of foreign investors, shareholders, competitors; the ratification of the Energy Charter Treaty; and generally, institutional and regulatory frameworks that address market imperfections. Regarding domestic capital markets the goal is to increase traded volume, reduce volatility, and avoid discrimination and favour international integration

  15. The trend of energy and power situation in the world (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    It consists of four chapters such as nuclear power generation in the world, development of nuclear power and risk deduction policy at market liberalization, the trend of nuclear power generation in each country and the trend of renewable energy in each country. The nuclear power generation in the world was 432 units in operation and 66 units under construction and 38,916 million kW of total generating capacity, a decrease of 129 million kW compared with the previous year. Asian area and old U.S.S.R are building many units. The trends of nuclear power generation of USA, England, France, German, Sweden, Russia, East Europe, Korea, and China are stated. The renewable Energy of USA, England, France, German, and China are reported. The nuclear power plants in the world, risk deduction policy and raising capital for development of nuclear power, the nuclear power plants in operation in China, national renewable energy action plan for the United Kingdom, and the share of renewable energy in each field in German are illustrated. (S.Y.)

  16. Dutch energy policies from a European perspective. Major developments in 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Arkel, W.; Bruijn, A.; Kets, A.; De Lange, T.; Schaeffer, G.J.; Scheepers, M.; Sijm, J.; Uyterlinde, M.; Van Werven, M.

    2004-04-01

    ECN is not only active in technological research and development; it also plays a major role in policy research and development. Since national energy policy is increasingly influenced by developments at the European level and vice versa, ECN is shifting its attention from a national to a European focus. More and more, national energy and environmental policies are implemented within the framework of EU (European Union) directives, while reversibly the success of European policies is dependent on harmonised national actions in a liberalised European energy market. To demonstrate this shifting research orientation towards a European position ECN decided to highlight four major national topics that dominated policy discussions in the Netherlands during 2003 in this special publication. The first topic concerns changes in national renewable energy policy. Earlier policies had led to a dramatic increase in imports of renewable electricity with major fiscal consequences and it was decided to redress the balance towards stimulating domestic investment in renewable energy capacity. In the summer of 2003 extreme weather events led to an electricity supply crisis providing a short-term argument to look into the policy options for preventing shortages. The opportunities and limitations of demand side response to electricity supply shortages is the second topic addressed. Regarding climate change policies the most notable development undoubtedly concerns the impending implementation of a greenhouse gas emissions trading scheme. The focus in this chapter is on the interaction between the EU directive on emissions trading and the Dutch approach. As a relatively small country the Netherlands has always found it difficult to make appropriate energy research and development choices. During 2003 new directions in RD and D policies were determined. Apart from the optimal choice of nationally relevant research priorities, an additional vexing problem concerns the relative amounts of

  17. Energy 3.0 - Transforming the energetic world to stimulate growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provoost, Rudy

    2013-01-01

    This bibliographical note presents a book in which the author describes the possibilities created by the introduction of digital technologies in the energy sector. As well as there is a Web 2.0 model, an Energy 2.0 is emerging: buildings are not only an envelope to be insulated, but may produce energy, and energy can be shared between buildings as well as between centralised or decentralised infrastructures. This new approach is notably based on advances in distribution (smart grids, bidirectional and interconnected energy transport grid). The author considers that these evolutions are still insufficient and require the involvement and commitment of final consumers who will become energy producers (with positive energy buildings and renewable energies) and actors in energy management. He names this approach Energy 3.0. He discusses related issues: energetic equality and end of energy poverty, balance between energy saving and productivist trend to generate an increase of purchasing power without loss of comfort, health and comfort as major levers for a better life quality, economic growth to favour job creation, a more efficient approach to energy transition

  18. The incredible challenge of producing energy in a deeply changing world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mestrallet, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    Major trends in the energy sector - emerging countries thirsty for energy, unconventional fossil fuels (a development roiling geopolitics around the globe) or the deep alterations occurring in the EU's energy policy - are forcing professionals to design a new planetary model. This sector is anticipating trends, innovating and thus proving its ability to change. These trends arise locally in response to customer needs, whether of businesses or private persons. Plans for the future will be oriented by the uses to which energy will be put. There will be room for decentralized, renewable forms of energy and related services; and priority will go to reducing the insecurity of the energy supply. The big challenge we now face is to cope with changes in the sources of energy and in related techniques and, too, with geopolitical trends

  19. Energy intensity developments in 40 major economies: Structural change or technology improvement?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voigt, Sebastian; De Cian, Enrica; Schymura, Michael; Verdolini, Elena

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes energy intensity trends and drivers in 40 major economies using the WIOD database, a novel harmonized and consistent dataset of input–output table time series accompanied by environmental satellite data. We use logarithmic mean Divisia index decomposition to (1) attribute efficiency changes to either changes in technology or changes in the structure of the economy, (2) study trends in global energy intensity between 1995 and 2007, and (3) highlight sectoral and regional differences. For the country analysis we apply the traditional two factor index decomposition approach, while for the global analysis we use a three factor decomposition which includes the consideration of regional structural changes in the global economy. We first show that heterogeneity within each sector across countries is high. These general trends within sectors are dominated by large economies, first and foremost the United States. In most cases, heterogeneity is lower within each country across the different sectors. Regarding changes of energy intensity at the country level, improvements between 1995 and 2007 are largely attributable to technological change while structural change is less important in most countries. Notable exceptions are Japan, the United States, Australia, Taiwan, Mexico and Brazil where a change in the industry mix was the main driver behind the observed energy intensity reduction. At the global level we find that despite a shift of the global economy to more energy-intensive countries, aggregate energy efficiency improved mostly due to technological change

  20. Meeting world energy needs. The economic and environmental aspects of the nuclear option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, D.P.; Chalpin, D.M.

    1994-01-01

    Tabulated capital, operating, and overall production costs for nuclear, coal, and gas-fuelled power show that nuclear power is a viable option for meeting the world's energy needs. The advantage of nuclear, otherwise limited to certain markets, is seen to be much greater when credit is taken for environmental factors, namely emissions of carbon dioxide and acidic gases by fossil-fuelled plants. 5 figs

  1. Petroleum and international relations: Saudi Arabia, victim of the new world energy deal?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maraval, M.

    2002-01-01

    The US-Saudi Arabia partnership is, on the aspect of international relations, the main victim of September 11, 2001 terror events. If it is excessive today to claim that the President Bush government wishes to weaken the Saudi state, the 2002 trends of the US foreign policy have deeply modify the world energy deal to the detriment of OPEC and its main producing country

  2. FEATURES OF THE USE OF ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES IN UKRAINE AND THE WORLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Liutak

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the work is to consider the theoretical applied foundations of the use of alternative sources of energy in Ukraine and the world, the study of the theoretical bases, and specificity of the use of existing alternative energy sources in the context of globalization, the world practice of the use of alternative sources of energy; lighted up the features of the use of alternative energy sources in Ukraine in modern conditions. A special attention is focused on the analysis of energy efficiency of Ukrainian regions and its determinants, and investigated the general trend regarding the situation in the oil market and investment in renewable energy. Methodology The study is based on the indicators of renewable energy and energy efficiency of the regions of Ukraine in 2015 and the inclusion of indicators of the average oil price, investment in renewable energy sources, the rate of growth of prices, growth rates of investments in 2004–2016. In general, in mainland Ukraine, there are several dozens of solar power plants capacity from 1 to 15 MW, and more than a dozen SES have a capacity from 20 to 120 MW (some under construction. Thanks to a special “green tariff”, which is valid since 2011, solar energy has become a lucrative business that has attracted foreign investors. According to statistics, the volume of commissioning of new solar power plants in 2013 almost doubled compared to 2012. Results. It is determined that an important element of policy implementation in the field of energy saving and use of alternative sources is the introduction of financial, organizational and economic activities that give the opportunity to implement principles of sustainable development in public administration, and in terms of decentralization – by local governments. In the management, the determining are such policies in the field of energy efficiency as: pricing mechanisms; mechanisms of regulation and control; financial measures and fiscal

  3. Promotion COPERNIC Energy and Society the interrogations on the world demand evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-12-01

    In the framework of a prospective reflexion emergence on the energy demand, this document presents an analysis of the prospective approach and of recent studies: challenges, interests, limits, validity of the models and hypothesis and results relevance. With this analysis, the authors aim to identify the main interrogations bond to the world energy demand evolution. They then analyse these interrogations in the framework of a sectoral approach (agriculture, industry, transports, residential) in order to detail the demand and to forecast the evolution. Facing the consumption attitudes, they also suggest some new action avenues to favor a sustainable growth. (A.L.B.)

  4. Facts and data concerning energy in France and in the world during 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavergne, R.; Meuric, L.; Gombert, M.; Paquel, V.; Vaillant, C.; Quintaine, Th.

    1999-01-01

    This series of short articles presents a preliminary study of the energy consumption in France in 1998. The electricity production and the consumption of natural gas, of solid fossil fuels and of petroleum are detailed through various tables. In 1998 the global cost of energy for France was cut by 29% in comparison with 1997. This drop in costs is due to the fall of crude oil prices (-33,2% for Brent oil) whereas the dollar exchange rate remained quite constant through the year. The CO 2 emissions computed from the quantity of energy burnt show a 4,7% rise in comparison with 1997. Different tables give the consumption of energy in the world, they allow the reader to situate the position of France. (A.C.)

  5. Geothermal Program Review XV: proceedings. Role of Research in the Changing World of Energy Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Geothermal Technologies conducted its annual Program Review XV in Berkeley, March 24-26, 1997. The geothermal community came together for an in-depth review of the federally-sponsored geothermal research and development program. This year`s theme focussed on {open_quotes}The Role of Research in the Changing World of Energy Supply.{close_quotes} This annual conference is designed to promote technology transfer by bringing together DOE-sponsored researchers; utility representatives; geothermal developers; equipment and service suppliers; representatives from local, state, and federal agencies; and others with an interest in geothermal energy. Separate abstracts have been indexed to the database for contributions to this conference.

  6. World mineral energy resources and their distribution in time and space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toens, P.D.; Camisani-Calzolari, F.A.G.M.; Van der Merwe, P.J.; Andreoli, M.A.G.

    1985-01-01

    If the estimated total geological potential of the world mineral energy resources is reduced to a common denominator, then the total resources are estimated at 20 600 terawatt years (TWyr). Assuming that all these resources are recoverable, and applying today's technology, they would suffice for 1 700 years under no-growth conditions and approximately 130 years assuming an annual growth rate of 3%. It should, however, be borne in mind that only about 15% (or 3 100 TWry) of the world's resources can be regarded as proved or partly proved and recoverable at current price levels and with current technology. Assuming a no-growth scenario, these resources will meet future energy requirements for a period of approximately 260 years. At a 3% annual growth rate resources will last for about 70 years. From these figures it is clear that the known mineral energy resources will be depleted in the near future. The challenge to the geologist to locate additional energy potential is enormous and in order to do so, the distribution of known resources in time and space was reappraised. The present investigation confirms the time-bound character of the mineralising processes. These took place in a series of clearly defined rhythms ranging from the early Proterozoic to the Recent. Uranium and thorium constitute the only energy resources of the Proterozoic. In contrast, the Phanerozoiceon contains the totality of fossil fuels and at least 60% of the nuclear resources; strata younger than 600 Ma therefore represent the most favourable target areas for prospecting

  7. Eighteenth Semiannual Report of the Commission to the Congress. Major Activities in the Atomic Energy Programs, January - June 1955

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, Lewis L.

    1955-07-30

    The document represents the eighteenth semiannual Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) report to Congress. The report sums up the major activities and developments in the national atomic energy program covering the period January - June 1955.

  8. Twelfth Semiannual Report of the Commission to the Congress. Major Activities in the Atomic Energy Programs, January - June 1952

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, Gordon

    1952-07-01

    The document represents the twelfth semiannual Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) report to Congress. The report sums up the major activities and developments in the national atomic energy program covering the period January - June 1952.

  9. Fourteenth Semiannual Report of the Commission to the Congress. Major Activities in the Atomic Energy Programs, January - June 1953

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, Gordon

    1953-07-31

    The document represents the fourteenth semiannual Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) report to Congress. The report sums up the major activities and developments in the national atomic energy program covering the period January - June 1953.

  10. Fifteenth Semiannual Report of the Commission to the Congress. Major Activities in the Atomic Energy Programs, July - December 1953

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, Gordon

    1954-01-31

    The document represents the fifteenth semiannual Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) report to Congress. The report sums up the major activities and developments in the national atomic energy program covering the period July - December 1953.

  11. Reliable energy supply. The new measuring of the world; Energiesicherheit. Die neue Vermessung der Welt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller-Kraenner, S.

    2007-07-01

    The author presents a convincing final speech for a cooperative energy policy in an European frame, which supplies our economy with energy from different sources: payable, nonpolluting, reliable. The main topics are: what is reliability of energy supply; new measuring of the world during exploitation of new energy resources; energy superpower Russia; way up of Asia; common European energy policy; the defence of the last paradise's; ways out of dependency - sun or atom; the power of right and the diplomacy of the future. (GL) [German] Beim Run auf die letzten Energieressourcen wird derzeit die Welt neu vermessen. Die internationalen Machtverhaeltnisse verschieben sich entlang der Frage, wer die Ressourcen und den Zugang zum Weltmarkt kontrolliert. Das neue Sorgenkind der Weltgemeinschaft heisst Energiesicherheit. Der Begriff meint nicht nur die sichere und bezahlbare Versorgung mit Energie, sondern eine Politik, die im Kampf um Rohstoffe nicht neue Konflikte schafft und die Umwelt schaedigt. Was bedeutet es, wenn Russland die neue Erdgaspipeline durch die Ostsee fuehren will, ueber Meeresboden, in dem die Giftgasgranaten zweier Weltkriege liegen? Gibt es eine Alternative zu der gefaehrlichen Grossmachtpolitik, die Laender wie China, die USA und Russland derzeit verfolgen? Als Antwort auf die weltweite Energiekrise plaediert Mueller-Kraenner fuer eine kooperative Energiepolitik im europaeischen Rahmen, die unsere Wirtschaft mit Energie aus unterschiedlichen Quellen versorgt: bezahlbar, umweltfreundlich, sicher. (orig.)

  12. Proceedings of the 7. world wind energy conference 2008 : community power : energy autonomy for local economies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This international conference profiled the topic of community power within the dynamic renewable energy sector. The objective was to promote international technology transfer and bring a new perspective to community development, economic growth and environmental awareness in the context of climate change. It was attended by academics and industry representatives from 20 countries who focused on leading edge research on the topic of innovative technology in the rapidly growing renewable power market. The topics of discussion addressed issues such as ownership of renewable energy projects by local communities, including farmers, landowners, cooperatives, Aboriginal groups, municipalities, utilities and educational institutions. Presentations focused on policy development, financial mechanisms, ownership models, technology advancements, grid interconnection issues, governance and capacity building. The conference featured more than 100 presentations, of which 65 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  13. World energy resources, demand and supply of energy, and the prospects for the fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haefele, W.

    1978-01-01

    In the past it was taken for granted that the prime role of fast breeder reactors was to complement light water reactors, mainly because of their similar and compatible fuel cycles. In particular, the plutonium converted in LWRs is most intelligently disposed of and used in FBRs. Evaluation of the time horizon of such reactor strategies generally extended only to the year 2000. It is important to realize, however, that the salient task in the breeder field after 2000 - besides electricity generation - will be to substitute for conventional ''cheap'' oil. Electricity today makes up only 10% to 12% of the total secondary energy, while liquids essentially command up to about 50%. Thus the future application of the FBR technology will have to be geared more to the production of a liquid secondary energy carrier than to electricity. A new yardstick for all these considerations is the strongly rising energy prices. They may double, for example, leading to an oil price of US 24/bbl. Under these circumstances it is prudent to generalize the scope for future fast breeders. The key element of such a new fast breeder strategy would be the production of hydrogen by electrolysis or thermolysis or a combination of both. For example, methanol synthesized from hydrogen and residual fossil fuels would thus become economically attractive. The FBR breeding gain, on the other hand, would be used for the continued supply of LWRs generating electricity. The paper identifies order-of-magnitude considerations most important for such a fast breeder application against a global energy demand scenario for the year 2030. (author)

  14. The need for nuclear power. Viewpoint on the world's challenging energy future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, R.; Beller, D.

    2000-01-01

    To meet the world's growing need for energy, the Royal Society and Royal Academy report proposes 'the formation of an international body for energy research and development, funded by contributions from individual nations on the basis of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) or total national energy consumption'. The body would be 'a funding agency supporting research, development and demonstrators elsewhere, not a research center itself'. Its budget might build to an annual level of some $25 billion, 'roughly 1% of the total global energy budget'. If it truly wants to develop efficient and responsible energy supplies, such a body should focus on the nuclear option, on establishing a secure international nuclear-fuel storage and reprocessing system, and on providing expertise for siting, financing, and licensing modular nuclear power systems to developing nations. According to authors, who study the dynamics of energy technologies, 'the share of energy supplied by electricity is growing rapidly in most countries and worldwide'. Throughout history, humankind has gradually decarbonized its dominant fuels, moving steadily away from the more polluting, carbon-rich sources. Thus the world has gone from coal (which has one hydrogen atom per carbon atom and was dominant from 1880 to 1950) to oil (with two hydrogens per carbon, dominant from 1950 to today). Natural gas (four hydrogens per carbon) is steadily increasing its market share. But nuclear fission produces no carbon at all. Physical reality - not arguments about corporate greed, hypothetical risks, radiation exposure, or waste disposal - ought to inform decisions vital to the future of the world. Because diversity and redundancy are important for safety and security, renewable energy sources ought to retain a place in the energy economy of the century to come. But nuclear power should be central. Despite its outstanding record, it has instead been relegated by its opponents to the same twilight zone of contentious

  15. Energy R and D in the Industrialized World: Retrenchment and Refocusing; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JJ Dooley; PJ Runci; E Luiten

    1999-01-01

    This report presents preliminary findings from an ongoing research project examining trends in energy R and D investments in selected industrialized countries (The United States, Japan, Germany, the Netherlands, and the European Union). Its underlying purpose is to assess the adequacy of current energy R and D, in terms of investment levels and programmatic scope considering the likely energy technology demands associated with international efforts to address global climate change. It finds that, while overall levels of public and private investment in all forms of R and D have risen significantly across the countries studied, investments in energy R and D have declined in real terms. Causes of the observed decline might include the ongoing deregulation of the energy industries, the absence of acute energy crises, and shifts in domestic social and policy priorities in the post-Cold War period. In addition, it finds noteworthy shifts within industrialized countries' energy R and D investment portfolios. In most countries, nuclear R and D has declined (by more than 90% in key countries such as the U.S. and Germany) while the remaining R and D resources are shifting toward shorter-term projects, most notably in the energy efficiency area. Research on carbon sequestration, hydrogen production, and fuel cells is gaining in prominence public sector energy R and D, often displacing traditional fossil energy R and D projects. Future research associated with this project will include the preparation of reports on several additional industrialized countries, including the United Kingdom, France, Italy, Canada, and Switzerland. Collectively, the small set of countries addressed in this project account for over 95% of the world's energy R and D

  16. Major Findings from The Changing Body: Health, Nutrition, and Human Development in the Western World since 1700.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Robert W; Grotte, Nathaniel

    2011-12-01

    This paper discusses findings from The Changing Body: Health, Nutrition, and Human Development in the Western World since 1700 (Cambridge University Press) The book is built on the authors' work with 300 years of height and nutrition data and discusses their findings in the context of technophysio evolution, a uniquely modern form of rapid physiological development, the result of humanity's ability to control its environment and create technological innovations to adapt to it.

  17. Scenarios with an intensive contribution of the nuclear energy to the world energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nifenecker, H.; Heuer, D.; Huffer, E.; David, S.; Loiseaux, J.M.; Meplan, O.; Nuttin, A.; Martin, J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Temperature stabilization requires that CO 2 emissions be limited to less than 3 Gt Carbon equivalent, from the present level of more than 6 Gt. Despite an increase of primary energy demand by 250% in 2050 we find that a nuclear intensive scenario assuming the development of a 3000 GWe pool of PWR reactors by 2030 and of an additional 6000 GWe pool of U-Pu or Th-U reactors by 2050 would lead to temperature stabilization at a level 2 degrees above the pre-industrial level. (authors)

  18. Scenarios with an intensive contribution of nuclear energy to the world energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nifenecker, H.; Heuer, D.; Loiseaux, J.M.; Meplan, O.; Nuttin, A.; David, S.; Martin, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Temperature stabilization requires that Co2 emissions be limited to less than 3 Gt Carbon equivalent, from the present level of more than 6 Gt. Despite an increase of primary energy demand by 250% in 2050 we find that a nuclear intensive scenario assuming the development of a 3000 GW pool of PWR reactors by 2030 and of an additional 6000 GW pool of U-Pu or Th-U reactors by 2050 would lead to temperature stabilization at a level 2 degrees above the pre-industrial level. (author)

  19. The state of exploitation of geothermal energy and some interesting achievements in geothermal research and development in the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Rajver

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the latest status of geothermal energy use worldwide and the comparison with the previous period, both in electricity generation as well as in the various categories of direct use. Electricity production takes place in 26 countries and has at the end of 2014 reached 73,700 GWh from geothermal power plants with nearly 12.8 GW of installed power. This is still only 0.31 % of the total electricity produced in the world and it will be interesting to monitor the future share of geothermal energy in doing so. In the last 5-year period the development was particularly rapid in countries where it was slower in the past and, however, with favorable geological (tectonic conditions (Iceland, Kenya, New Zealand, Turkey, etc.. Direct use of geothermal energy covers a signifiant number of countries, today there are 82, although some of them are such where it takes place almost solely by geothermal (ground-source heat pumps (GHP on shallow subsurface energy (Finland. Installed capacity in the direct use is 70,885 MWt and geothermal energy used, including the GHP, is 592,638 TJ/year (end of 2014. Within the used energy the share of GHP dominates with 55.2 %, followed by the bathing and swimming pools complexes incl. balneology by 20.2 %, space heating by 15.0 % (the majority of it is district heating, heating of greenhouses and soil with 4.9 %, etc. The second part presents some interesting technological and scientifi innovations in exploration and exploitation of geothermal energy.

  20. Renewable energy sources for the world's poor: a review of current international development assistance programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashworth, J. H.

    1979-10-01

    Foreign assistance funding of the creation, testing, and use of renewable energy sources concerning worldwide efforts to provide energy for Third World development is examined. Donor agencies and developing nations give serious attention to technologies that have been considered exotic and marginal: small-scale hydroelectric generation, solar water heating and distillation, biomass conversion to methane gas and alcohol, wind power, photovoltaic-powered small-scale irrigation, and village-level solar-powered absorption refrigeration. An initial effort to assist in the international coordination of donor activity and in the sharing of information generated by foreign-assistance projects that use renewable energy sources is reported. The report mainly provides information about specific development projects. It contains only a few of the projects that have been approved and funded by 1 June 1979. (MCW)