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Sample records for major wintering centre

  1. An operational centre for managing major chemical industrial accidents.

    Kiranoudis, C T; Kourniotis, S P; Christolis, M; Markatos, N C; Zografos, K G; Giannouli, I M; Androutsopoulos, K N; Ziomas, I; Kosmidis, E; Simeonidis, P; Poupkou, N

    2002-01-28

    The most important characteristic of major chemical accidents, from a societal perspective, is their tendency to produce off-site effects. The extent and severity of the accident may significantly affect the population and the environment of the adjacent areas. Following an accident event, effort should be made to limit such effects. Management decisions should be based on rational and quantitative information based on the site specific circumstances and the possible consequences. To produce such information we have developed an operational centre for managing large-scale industrial accidents. Its architecture involves an integrated framework of geographical information system (GIS) and RDBMS technology systems equipped with interactive communication capabilities. The operational centre was developed for Windows 98 platforms, for the region of Thriasion Pedion of West Attica, where the concentration of industrial activity and storage of toxic chemical is immense within areas of high population density. An appropriate case study is given in order to illuminate the use and necessity of the operational centre.

  2. Theory-based practice in a major medical centre.

    Alligood, Martha Raile

    2011-11-01

    This project was designed to improve care quality and nursing staff satisfaction. Nursing theory structures thought and action as demonstrated by evidence of improvement in complex health-care settings. Nursing administrators selected Modelling and Role-Modelling (MRM) for the theory-based practice goal in their strategic plan. An action research approach structured implementation of MRM in a 1-year consultation project in 2001-2002. Quality of health care improved according to national quality assessment ratings, as well as patient satisfaction and nurse satisfaction. Modelling and Role-Modelling demonstrated capacity to structure nursing thought and action in patient care in a major medical centre. Uniformity of patient care language was valued by nurses as well as by allied health providers who wished to learn the holistic MRM style of practice. The processes of MRM and action research contributed to project success. A positive health-care change project was carried out in a large medical centre with action research. Introducing MRM theory-based practice was a beneficial decision by nursing administration that improved care and nurse satisfaction. Attention to nursing practice stimulated career development among the nurses to pursue bachelors, masters, and doctoral degrees. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Improving core surgical training in a major trauma centre.

    Morris, Daniel L J; Bryson, David J; Ollivere, Ben J; Forward, Daren P

    2016-06-01

    English Major Trauma Centres (MTCs) were established in April 2012. Increased case volume and complexity has influenced trauma and orthopaedic (T&O) core surgical training in these centres. To determine if T&O core surgical training in MTCs meets Joint Committee on Surgical Training (JCST) quality indicators including performance of T&O operative procedures and consultant supervised session attendance. An audit cycle assessing the impact of a weekly departmental core surgical trainee rota. The rota included allocated timetabled sessions that optimised clinical and surgical learning opportunities. Intercollegiate Surgical Curriculum Programme (ISCP) records for T&O core surgical trainees at a single MTC were analysed for 8 months pre and post rota introduction. Outcome measures were electronic surgical logbook evidence of leading T&O operative procedures and consultant validated work-based assessments (WBAs). Nine core surgical trainees completed a 4 month MTC placement pre and post introduction of the core surgical trainee rota. Introduction of core surgical trainee rota significantly increased the mean number of T&O operative procedures led by a core surgical trainee during a 4 month MTC placement from 20.2 to 34.0 (pcore surgical trainee during a 4 month MTC placement was significantly increased (0.3 vs 2.4 [p=0.04]). Those of dynamic hip screw fixation (2.3 vs 3.6) and ankle fracture fixation (0.7 vs 1.6) were not. Introduction of a core surgical trainee rota significantly increased the mean number of consultant validated WBAs completed by a core surgical trainee during a 4 month MTC placement from 1.7 to 6.6 (pcore surgical trainee rota utilising a 'problem-based' model can significantly improve T&O core surgical training in MTCs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Establishing a legal service for major trauma patients at a major trauma centre in the UK.

    Seligman, William H; Thompson, Julian; Thould, Hannah E; Tan, Charlotte; Dinsmore, Andrew; Lockey, David J

    2017-09-01

    Major trauma causes unanticipated critical illness and patients have often made few arrangements for what are sudden and life-changing circumstances. This can lead to financial, housing, insurance, legal and employment issues for patients and their families.A UK law firm worked with the major trauma services to develop a free and comprehensive legal service for major trauma patients and their families at a major trauma centre (MTC) in the UK. In 2013, a legal service was established at North Bristol NHS Trust. Referrals are made by trauma nurse practitioners and it operates within a strict ethical framework. A retrospective analysis of the activity of this legal service between September 2013 and October 2015 was undertaken. 66 major trauma patients were seen by the legal teams at the MTC. 535 hours of free legal advice were provided on non-compensation issues-an average of 8 hours per patient. This initiative confirms a demand for the early availability of legal advice for major trauma patients to address a range of non-compensation issues as well as for identification of potential compensation claims. The availability of advice at the MTC is convenient for relatives who may be spending the majority of their time with injured relatives in hospital. More data are needed to establish the rehabilitation and health effects of receiving non-compensation advice after major injury; however, the utilisation of this service suggests that it should be considered at the UK MTCs. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Major role of microbes in carbon fluxes during Austral winter in the Southern Drake Passage.

    Maura Manganelli

    Full Text Available Carbon cycling in Southern Ocean is a major issue in climate change, hence the need to understand the role of biota in the regulation of carbon fixation and cycling. Southern Ocean is a heterogeneous system, characterized by a strong seasonality, due to long dark winter. Yet, currently little is known about biogeochemical dynamics during this season, particularly in the deeper part of the ocean. We studied bacterial communities and processes in summer and winter cruises in the southern Drake Passage. Here we show that in winter, when the primary production is greatly reduced, Bacteria and Archaea become the major producers of biogenic particles, at the expense of dissolved organic carbon drawdown. Heterotrophic production and chemoautotrophic CO(2 fixation rates were substantial, also in deep water, and bacterial populations were controlled by protists and viruses. A dynamic food web is also consistent with the observed temporal and spatial variations in archaeal and bacterial communities that might exploit various niches. Thus, Southern Ocean microbial loop may substantially maintain a wintertime food web and system respiration at the expense of summer produced DOC as well as regenerate nutrients and iron. Our findings have important implications for Southern Ocean ecosystem functioning and carbon cycle and its manipulation by iron enrichment to achieve net sequestration of atmospheric CO(2.

  6. Validity of vascular trauma codes at major trauma centres.

    Altoijry, Abdulmajeed; Al-Omran, Mohammed; Lindsay, Thomas F; Johnston, K Wayne; Melo, Magda; Mamdani, Muhammad

    2013-12-01

    The use of administrative databases in vascular injury research has been increasing, but the validity of the diagnosis codes used in this research is uncertain. We assessed the positive predictive value (PPV) of International Classification of Diseases, tenth revision (ICD-10), vascular injury codes in administrative claims data in Ontario. We conducted a retrospective validation study using the Canadian Institute for Health Information Discharge Abstract Database, an administrative database that records all hospital admissions in Canada. We evaluated 380 randomly selected hospital discharge abstracts from the 2 main trauma centres in Toronto, Ont., St.Michael's Hospital and Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, between Apr. 1, 2002, and Mar. 31, 2010. We then compared these records with the corresponding patients' hospital charts to assess the level of agreement for procedure coding. We calculated the PPV and sensitivity to estimate the validity of vascular injury diagnosis coding. The overall PPV for vascular injury coding was estimated to be 95% (95% confidence interval [CI] 92.3-96.8). The PPV among code groups for neck, thorax, abdomen, upper extremity and lower extremity injuries ranged from 90.8 (95% CI 82.2-95.5) to 97.4 (95% CI 91.0-99.3), whereas sensitivity ranged from 90% (95% CI 81.5-94.8) to 98.7% (95% CI 92.9-99.8). Administrative claims hospital discharge data based on ICD-10 diagnosis codes have a high level of validity when identifying cases of vascular injury. Observational Study Level III.

  7. Planning of traumatological hospital resources for a major winter sporting event as illustrated by the 2005 Winter Universiad.

    Oberladstaetter, J; Kamelger, F S; Rosenberger, R; Dallapozza, Ch; Struve, P; Luger, T; Fink, Ch; Attal, R

    2009-03-01

    The 22nd Student World Winter Games took place in January 2005 in Innsbruck and Seefeld, Austria. Exactly 1,500 athletes of 50 nationalities competed in 69 events in ten winter sports. A total number of 750 functionaries, 800 volunteers and 85,000 spectators participated in the second largest winter sports event behind the Olympic winter games. The aim of this study was to evaluate the needed resources to ensure traumatological care for an event of that size. At the medical "call-center" all consultations, as well as patient data, diagnosis, and medical treatment were recorded using a preset protocol. Further, all patients treated in the University Hospital Innsbruck were registered with an emphasis on trauma patients. Forty-eight of 65 patients transported to the hospital as a result of the Universiade were trauma patients, 37 of whom were athletes. The gender distribution was 34:14 (m:f). Ice hockey players had the highest rate of injury (25% of all injured athletes), followed by alpine skiers (20.8% of injured athletes). The highest ISS was nine. Forty-three patients got ambulatory treatment, five were admitted to the hospital and surgical treatment was conducted in three cases. Mean patient number was 4.8 per day. No additional personnel, structural, or technical hospital resources were needed to accommodate a large winter sports event like the Universiad. Thus, a level-B trauma center with an emergency room and independent traumatological department with around the clock surgical capability seems to be sufficient to provide traumatological care for an event of this size if the possibility of patient transport to a larger facility exists in the case of catastrophic events.

  8. Haematological status of wintering great tits (Parus major) along a metal pollution gradient

    Geens, Ann, E-mail: ann.geens@ua.ac.be [Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Ethology, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Antwerp (Belgium); Dauwe, Tom [Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Ethology, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Antwerp (Belgium); VITO, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Bervoets, Lieven; Blust, Ronny [Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Eens, Marcel [Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Ethology, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2010-02-01

    In the long-term biomonitoring of wild populations inhabiting polluted areas, the use of non-destructive biomarkers as markers of condition is very important. We examined the possible effects of metal pollution on the haematological status of adult great tits (Parus major) along a well-established pollution gradient near a non-ferrous smelter in Belgium. We measured blood and feather metal concentrations and assessed the haematological status (amount of red blood cells, haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular haemoglobin) of adult great tits during winter at four study sites. Metal concentrations in blood and feathers indicated that cadmium and lead were the most important metals in the pollution gradient under study. Measurements of haematological parameters revealed that haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular haemoglobin were lower in great tits from the more polluted sites. These parameters were significantly negatively correlated with blood lead concentration. The amount of red blood cells, however, did not significantly differ among study sites. Our results indicate that the haematological status of great tits is negatively affected by metal pollution and may therefore be used as a successful biomarker for monitoring the negative impact of metal exposure in the wild.

  9. Major workplace related accidents in Singapore: A major trauma centre's experience.

    Ng, Zhi Xu; Teo, Li Tserng; Go, Karen T S; Yeo, Yen Teng; Chiu, Ming Terk

    2010-12-01

    Major workplace related accidents pose a significant healthcare resource challenge in Singapore. Our study looks at the epidemiology of patients who were admitted for workplace related accidents, in a single institution, with an Injury Severity Score of >9. There were 196 cases of major workplace related accidents admitted between January 2006 and December 2007. The median age of patients admitted was 37 years with a large percentage being males (95.4%) and non-residents (57.1%). The most common ethnic group was Chinese (53.1%) followed by Indians (23.5%). The most common mechanism of injury was fall from height (66.3%) followed by injuries as a result of falling objects at work (21.9%). The percentage of patients who required surgical intervention was 69.9%. Patients admitted for major workplace related accidents had a median length of stay of 5 days in the hospital, a median length of 24 days of medical leave (ML), certifying them unfit for duty and the average cost of stay for each patient was S$11,000. We have a better understanding of the epidemiology and socio-economic impact of workplace related accidents through this study. Workplace related accidents result in significant number of man-days lost from work and monetary cost to employers, medical insurance and the hospital. With an improved understanding, we propose methods to prevent and reduce such accidents in future. A direct consequence of which will be the possible reduction of hospitalisation costs and better allocation of healthcare resources in the future.

  10. A cross-sectional study of knife injuries at a London major trauma centre.

    Pallett, J R; Sutherland, E; Glucksman, E; Tunnicliff, M; Keep, J W

    2014-01-01

    No national recording systems for knife injuries exist in the UK. Understanding the true size and nature of the problem of knife injuries is the first stage in reducing the burden of this injury. The aim of this study was to survey every knife injury seen in a single inner city emergency department (ED) over a one-year period. A cross-sectional observational study was performed of all patients attending with a knife injury to the ED of a London major trauma centre in 2011. Demographic characteristics, patterns of injury, morbidity and mortality data were collected. A total of 938 knife injuries were identified from 127,191 attendances (0.77% of all visits) with a case fatality rate of 0.53%. A quarter (24%) of the major trauma team's caseload was for knife injuries. Overall, 44% of injuries were selfreported as assaults, 49% as accidents and 8% as deliberate self-harm. The highest age specific incident rate occurred in the 16-24 year age category (263/100,000). Multiple injuries were seen in 19% of cases, of which only 81% were recorded as assaults. The mean length of stay for those admitted to hospital was 3.04 days. Intrathoracic injury was seen in 26% of cases of chest trauma and 24% of abdominal injuries had a second additional chest injury. Violent intentional injuries are a significant contributory factor to the workload of the major trauma team at this centre. This paper contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of the nature of these injuries seen in the ED.

  11. Major trauma: the unseen financial burden to trauma centres, a descriptive multicentre analysis.

    Curtis, Kate; Lam, Mary; Mitchell, Rebecca; Dickson, Cara; McDonnell, Karon

    2014-02-01

    This research examines the existing funding model for in-hospital trauma patient episodes in New South Wales (NSW), Australia and identifies factors that cause above-average treatment costs. Accurate information on the treatment costs of injury is needed to guide health-funding strategy and prevent inadvertent underfunding of specialist trauma centres, which treat a high trauma casemix. Admitted trauma patient data provided by 12 trauma centres were linked with financial data for 2008-09. Actual costs incurred by each hospital were compared with state-wide Australian Refined Diagnostic Related Groups (AR-DRG) average costs. Patient episodes where actual cost was higher than AR-DRG cost allocation were examined. There were 16693 patients at a total cost of AU$178.7million. The total costs incurred by trauma centres were $14.7million above the NSW peer-group average cost estimates. There were 10 AR-DRG where the total cost variance was greater than $500000. The AR-DRG with the largest proportion of patients were the upper limb injury categories, many of whom had multiple body regions injured and/or a traumatic brain injury (P<0.001). AR-DRG classifications do not adequately describe the trauma patient episode and are not commensurate with the expense of trauma treatment. A revision of AR-DRG used for trauma is needed. WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THIS TOPIC? Severely injured trauma patients often have multiple injuries, in more than one body region and the determination of appropriate AR-DRG can be difficult. Pilot research suggests that the AR-DRG do not accurately represent the care that is required for these patients. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD? This is the first multicentre analysis of treatment costs and coding variance for major trauma in Australia. This research identifies the limitations of the current AR-DRGS and those that are particularly problematic. The value of linking trauma registry and financial data within each trauma centre is demonstrated. WHAT ARE THE

  12. Experiences and performance of the Harshaw dosimetry system at two major processing centres

    Tawil, R.A.; Olhalber, T.; Rathbone, B.

    1996-01-01

    The installations, operating practice, dose algorithms and results and maintenance experience at two major dosimetry processing centres are described. System selection considerations and a comprehensive quality programme are described in the light of the publication of testing requirements by various dosimetry regulatory organisations. Reported information from Siemens Dosimetry Services comprises their selection of dosemeters and processing equipment including service history, a description of their dose computation algorithm, and detailed results of their testing against DOELAP standards. Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) provides a description of their dosemeters and equipment with service history; in addition, a discussion of their new neural network approach to a dose computation algorithm and test results from that algorithm are presented. (Author)

  13. Multi-centre diagnostic classification of individual structural neuroimaging scans from patients with major depressive disorder.

    Mwangi, Benson; Ebmeier, Klaus P; Matthews, Keith; Steele, J Douglas

    2012-05-01

    Quantitative abnormalities of brain structure in patients with major depressive disorder have been reported at a group level for decades. However, these structural differences appear subtle in comparison with conventional radiologically defined abnormalities, with considerable inter-subject variability. Consequently, it has not been possible to readily identify scans from patients with major depressive disorder at an individual level. Recently, machine learning techniques such as relevance vector machines and support vector machines have been applied to predictive classification of individual scans with variable success. Here we describe a novel hybrid method, which combines machine learning with feature selection and characterization, with the latter aimed at maximizing the accuracy of machine learning prediction. The method was tested using a multi-centre dataset of T(1)-weighted 'structural' scans. A total of 62 patients with major depressive disorder and matched controls were recruited from referred secondary care clinical populations in Aberdeen and Edinburgh, UK. The generalization ability and predictive accuracy of the classifiers was tested using data left out of the training process. High prediction accuracy was achieved (~90%). While feature selection was important for maximizing high predictive accuracy with machine learning, feature characterization contributed only a modest improvement to relevance vector machine-based prediction (~5%). Notably, while the only information provided for training the classifiers was T(1)-weighted scans plus a categorical label (major depressive disorder versus controls), both relevance vector machine and support vector machine 'weighting factors' (used for making predictions) correlated strongly with subjective ratings of illness severity. These results indicate that machine learning techniques have the potential to inform clinical practice and research, as they can make accurate predictions about brain scan data from

  14. Mechanisms, patterns and outcomes of paediatric polytrauma in a UK major trauma centre.

    Naqvi, G; Johansson, G; Yip, G; Rehm, A; Carrothers, A; Stöhr, K

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Paediatric trauma is a significant burden to healthcare worldwide and accounts for a large proportion of deaths in the UK. Methods This retrospective study examined the epidemiological data from a major trauma centre in the UK between January 2012 and December 2014, reviewing all cases of moderate to severe trauma in children. Patients were included if aged ≤16 years and if they had an abbreviated injury scale score of ≥2 in one or more body region. Results A total of 213 patients were included in the study, with a mean age of 7.8 years (standard deviation [SD]: 5.2 years). The most common cause of injury was vehicle related incidents (46%). The median length of hospital stay was 5 days (interquartile range [IQR]: 4-10 days). Approximately half (52%) of the patients had to stay in the intensive care unit, for a median of 1 day (IQR: 0-2 days). The mortality rate was 6.6%. The mean injury severity score was 19 (SD: 10). Pearson's correlation coefficient showed a positive correlation for injury severity score with length of stay in hospital (p<0.001). Conclusions There is significant variation in mechanism of injury, severity and pattern of paediatric trauma across age groups. A multidisciplinary team approach is imperative, and patients should be managed in specialist centres to optimise their care and eventual functional recovery. Head injury remained the most common, with significant mortality in all age groups. Rib fractures and pelvic fractures should be considered a marker for the severity of injury, and should alert doctors to look for other associated injuries.

  15. Buckwheat: a crop from outside the major Chinese domestication centres? A review of the archaeobotanical, palynological and genetic evidence

    Hunt, Harriet Vaughan; Shang, X; Jones, Martin Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    The two cultivated species of buckwheat, Fagopyrum esculentum (common buckwheat) and F. tataricum (Tartary buckwheat) are Chinese domesticates whose origins are usually thought to lie in upland southwestern China, outside the major centres of agricultural origins associated with rice and millet. Synthesis of the macro- and microfossil evidence for buckwheat cultivation in China found just 26 records across all time periods, of which the majority are pollen finds. There are few or no identifyi...

  16. Needlestick injuries and infectious patients in a major academic medical centre from 2003 to 2010

    Frijstein, G.; Hortensius, J.; Zaaijer, H. L.

    2011-01-01

    To implement adequate preventive measures in a hospital, the number and nature of occupational exposures to blood must be known. In the Amsterdam Academic Medical Centre a standardised procedure was used to assess all reported occupational exposures to blood from 2003 to 2010. 1601 incidents were

  17. Back to the city Centre: Culture as a major growth sector for the city of Genoa.

    Alessandra Piatti

    2017-05-01

    This project is only a first step in a path of requalification which must still be concluded: after the Affresco, the urban vision suggested by Renzo Piano to Genoa in 2004, in the 2016 the architect present a second proposal, the BluePrint. The important events that Genoa hosted from 1990 to now were a stepping stone for a series of cultural proposals not only by institutional bodies but also by private or association networks, that invest in artistic initiatives in order to revitalize the peripheral areas of the historic Centre.

  18. Helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) over-triage and the financial implications for major trauma centres in NSW, Australia.

    Taylor, Colman B; Curtis, Kate; Jan, Stephen; Newcombe, Mark

    2013-07-01

    In NSW Australia, a formal trauma system including the use of helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) has existed for over 20 years. Despite providing many advantages in NSW, HEMS patients are frequently over-triaged; leading to financial implications for major trauma centres that receive HEMS patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the financial implications of HEMS over-triage from the perspective of major trauma centres in NSW. The study sample included all trauma patients transported via HEMS to 12 major trauma centres in NSW during the period: 1 July 2008 to 30 June 2009. Clinical data were gathered from individual hospital trauma registries and merged with financial information obtained from casemix units at respective hospitals. HEMS over-triage was estimated based on the local definition of minor to moderate trauma (ISS≤12) and hospital length of stay of less than 24 hrs. The actual treatment costs were determined and compared to state-wide peer group averages to obtain estimates of potential funding discrepancies. A total of 707 patients transported by HEMS were identified, including 72% pre-hospital (PH; n=507) and 28% inter-hospital (IH; n=200) transports. Over-triage was estimated at 51% for PH patients and 29% for IH patients. Compared to PH patients, IH patients were more costly to treat on average (IH: $42,604; PH: $25,162), however PH patients were more costly overall ($12,329,618 [PH]; $8,265,152 [IH]). When comparing actual treatment costs to peer group averages we found potential funding discrepancies ranging between 4% and 32% across patient groups. Using a sensitivity analysis, the potential funding discrepancy increased with increasing levels of over-triage. HEMS patients are frequently over-triaged in NSW, leading to funding implications for major trauma centres. In general, HEMS patient treatment costs are higher than the peer group average and the potential funding discrepancy varies by injury severity and the type of

  19. Incremental cost-effectiveness of trauma service improvements for road trauma casualties: experience of an Australian major trauma centre.

    Dinh, Michael M; Bein, Kendall J; Hendrie, Delia; Gabbe, Belinda; Byrne, Christopher M; Ivers, Rebecca

    2016-09-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of trauma service funding enhancements at an inner city major trauma centre. Methods The present study was a cost-effectiveness analysis using retrospective trauma registry data of all major trauma patients (injury severity score >15) presenting after road trauma between 2001 and 2012. The primary outcome was cost per life year gained associated with the intervention period (2007-12) compared with the pre-intervention period (2001-06). Incremental costs were represented by all trauma-related funding enhancements undertaken between 2007 and 2010. Risk adjustment for years of life lost was conducted using zero-inflated negative binomial regression modelling. All costs were expressed in 2012 Australian dollar values. Results In all, 876 patients were identified during the study period. The incremental cost of trauma enhancements between 2007 and 2012 totalled $7.91million, of which $2.86million (36%) was attributable to road trauma patients. After adjustment for important covariates, the odds of in-hospital mortality reduced by around half (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.48; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.27, 0.82; P=0.01). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was A$7600 per life year gained (95% CI A$5524, $19333). Conclusion Trauma service funding enhancements that enabled a quality improvement program at a single major trauma centre were found to be cost-effective based on current international and Australian standards. What is known about this topic? Trauma quality improvement programs have been implemented across most designated trauma hospitals in an effort to improve hospital care processes and outcomes for injured patients. These involve a combination of education and training, the use of audit and key performance indicators. What does this paper add? A trauma quality improvement program initiated at an Australian Major Trauma Centre was found to be cost-effective over 12 years with

  20. Seeking explanations for recent changes in abundance of wintering Eurasian Wigeon (Anas penelope) in northwest Europe

    Fox, Anthony David; Dalby, Lars; Christensen, Thomas Kjær

    2016-01-01

    the range. However, because over 75% of the population of over 1 million individuals winters in Belgium, the Netherlands, UK and France, there was no evidence for a major movement in the centre of gravity of the wintering distribution. Between-winter changes in overall flyway abundance were highly......We analysed annual changes in abundance of Eurasian Wigeon (Anas penelope) derived from mid-winter International Waterbird Census data throughout its northwest European flyway since 1988 using log-linear Poisson regression modelling. Increases in abundance in the north and east of the wintering...... range (Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Germany, Switzerland), stable numbers in the central range (Belgium,Netherlands,UKand France) and declining abundance in the west and south of the wintering range (Spain and Ireland) suggest a shift in wintering distribution consistent with milder winters throughout...

  1. ECLAMPSIA, A MAJOR BURDEN ON MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY IN TERTIARY CARE CENTRE

    Kanchan Rani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Eclampsia is very common obstetric emergency and major cause of both maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality in India. AIM The aim of study was to evaluate its incidence, clinical profile and maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality associated with it in our hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS A retrospective study was conducted in Government medical college, Haldwani from August 2014 to July 2015 for a period of one year. Out of 3432 deliveries a total of 53 cases of eclampsia were admitted .Cases were studied with respect to age, parity, period of gestation, blood pressure at the time of admission, severity of proteinuria ,maternal complications and mortality, mode of delivery and perinatal outcome. RESULTS Incidence of eclampsia in our study was 1.45%. Majority of patient were primigravida (62.26% It was more common in age group of 21 to 25 years (43.39% followed by age group of 26 to 30 years (26.41%.In most of patient first episode of convulsion occurred at term pregnancy with gestational age more than 37 weeks in our study (52.83%.Among 53 patients of eclampsia 48 presented with antepartum eclampsia (90.57% and 5 presented as postpartum eclampsia (9.43%. There was no case of intrapartum eclampsia in our study. Most common mode of delivery was Lower Segment Caesarean Section (62.26% in our study. Among 53 cases of eclampsia 3 patient had pulmonary oedema, 3 patient developed postpartum pyrexia and 4 patient had placental abruption. In one case postpartum haemorrhage occurred and one patient was in acute renal failure. There was one maternal mortality in our study. 6 patient had intrauterine foetal death (11.32%. 25 had preterm delivery (47.16% and 16 newborns were of low birth weight less than 2.5 Kilograms (30.19%. Most patient who developed eclampsia were unbooked or had irregular or no antenatal check-up (94.33%. CONCLUSION Improvement in antenatal care and neonatal facilities is of paramount importance in decreasing

  2. An advance care plan decision support video before major surgery: a patient- and family-centred approach.

    Isenberg, Sarina R; Crossnohere, Norah L; Patel, Manali I; Conca-Cheng, Alison; Bridges, John F P; Swoboda, Sandy M; Smith, Thomas J; Pawlik, Timothy M; Weiss, Matthew; Volandes, Angelo E; Schuster, Anne; Miller, Judith A; Pastorini, Carolyn; Roter, Debra L; Aslakson, Rebecca A

    2018-06-01

    Video-based advanc care planning (ACP) tools have been studied in varied medical contexts; however, none have been developed for patients undergoing major surgery. Using a patient- and family-centredness approach, our objective was to implement human-centred design (HCD) to develop an ACP decision support video for patients and their family members when preparing for major surgery. The study investigators partnered with surgical patients and their family members, surgeons and other health professionals to design an ACP decision support video using key HCD principles. Adapting Maguire's HCD stages from computer science to the surgical context, while also incorporating Elwyn et al 's specifications for patient-oriented decision support tool development, we used a six-stage HCD process to develop the video: (1) plan HCD process; (2) specify where video will be used; (3) specify user and organisational requirements; (4) produce and test prototypes; (5) carry out user-based assessment; (6) field test with end users. Over 450 stakeholders were engaged in the development process contributing to setting objectives, applying for funding, providing feedback on the storyboard and iterations of the decision tool video. Throughout the HCD process, stakeholders' opinions were compiled and conflicting approaches negotiated resulting in a tool that addressed stakeholders' concerns. Our patient- and family-centred approach using HCD facilitated discussion and the ability to elicit and balance sometimes competing viewpoints. The early engagement of users and stakeholders throughout the development process may help to ensure tools address the stated needs of these individuals. NCT02489799. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Effects of Molasses-Urea Supplementation on Weight Gain, Ruminal Fermentation and Major Microbe Populations of Winter-Grazing Sheep in Inner Mongolia

    Li Chang-qing; Alatengdalai; Xue Shu-yuan; Atsushi Asano; Atsushi Tajima; Naoto Ishikawa

    2017-01-01

    The present experiment was conducted to determine the effects of Molasses-Urea Supplementation (MUS) on weight gain, ruminal fermentation and major microbial populations in sheep on a winter grazing regime in Inner Mongolia. Total 40 sheep, allowed free consumption of MUS after grazing, served as a treatment group, while 30 sheep, fed only by pasture grazing, served as a control group. Ruminal fermentation parameters, consisted of pH, Bacterial Crude Protein (BCP) and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) were measured. In addition, numbers of five symbiotic bacteria were investigated. The results showed as follows: the average daily weight gain, concentration of NH3-N and numbers of protozoa were significantly higher (p<0.05) in the treatment group than those in the control group. Contrastingly, no significant difference was found in BCP concentration and pH between the two groups. At the end of the experiment, the populations of Selenomonas ruminantium,Anaerovibrio lipolytica,Fibrobacter succinogenes,Ruminococcus flaveciens and Ruminococcus albus in the treatment group were significantly higher than those of the control group (p<0.05). These results demonstrated that greater weight gain could be induced during winter in Inner Mongolia by improved nutritional status through promotion of microbial populations using urea and sugar.

  4. Surgical intervention for paediatric liver injuries is almost history - a 12-year cohort from a major Scandinavian trauma centre.

    Koyama, Tomohide; Skattum, Jorunn; Engelsen, Peder; Eken, Torsten; Gaarder, Christine; Naess, Pål Aksel

    2016-11-29

    Although nonoperative management (NOM) has become standard care, optimal treatment of liver injuries in children is still challenging since many of these patients have multiple injuries. Moreover, the role of angiography remains poorly defined, and a high index of suspicion of complications is warranted. This study reviews treatment and outcomes in children with liver injuries at a major Scandinavian trauma centre over a 12-year period. Patients trauma registry and medical records. A total of 66 children were included. The majority was severely injured as reflected by a median injury severity score of 20.5 (mean 22.2). NOM was attempted in 60 (90.9%) patients and was successful in 57, resulting in a NOM success rate of 95.0% [95% CI 89.3 to 100]. Only one of the three NOM failures was liver related, occurred in the early part of the study period, and consisted in operative placement of drains for bile leak. Two (3.0%) patients underwent angiographic embolization (AE). Complications occurred in 18 (27.3% [95 % CI 16.2 to 38.3]) patients. Only 2 (3.0%) patients had liver related complications, in both cases bile leak. Six (9.1%) patients underwent therapeutic laparotomy for non-liver related injuries. Two (3.0%) patients died secondary to traumatic brain injury. This single institution paediatric liver injury cohort confirms high attempted NOM and NOM success rates even in patients with high grade injuries and multiple accompanying injuries. AE can be a useful NOM adjunct in the treatment of paediatric liver injuries, but is seldom indicated. Moreover, bile leak is the most common liver-related complication and the need for liver-related surgery is very infrequent. NOM is the treatment of choice in almost all liver injuries in children, with operative management and interventional radiology very infrequently indicated.

  5. Utility of the PHQ-9 to identify major depressive disorder in adult patients in Spanish primary care centres.

    Muñoz-Navarro, Roger; Cano-Vindel, Antonio; Medrano, Leonardo Adrián; Schmitz, Florian; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Paloma; Abellán-Maeso, Carmen; Font-Payeras, Maria Antonia; Hermosilla-Pasamar, Ana María

    2017-08-09

    The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) in Spanish primary care (PC) centres is high. However, MDD is frequently underdiagnosed and consequently only some patients receive the appropriate treatment. The present study aims to determine the utility of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) to identify MDD in a subset of PC patients participating in the large PsicAP study. A total of 178 patients completed the full PHQ test, including the depression module (PHQ-9). Also, a Spanish version of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I) was implemented by clinical psychologists that were blinded to the PHQ-9 results. We evaluated the psychometric properties of the PHQ-9 as a screening tool as compared to the SCID-I as a reference standard. The psychometric properties of the PHQ-9 for a cut-off value of 10 points were as follows: sensitivity, 0.95; specificity, 0.67. Using a cut-off of 12 points, the values were: sensitivity, 0.84; specificity, 0.78. Finally, using the diagnostic algorithm for depression (DSM-IV criteria), the sensitivity was 0.88 and the specificity 0.80. As a screening instrument, the PHQ-9 performed better with a cut-off value of 12 versus the standard cut-off of 10. However, the best psychometric properties were obtained with the DSM-IV diagnostic algorithm for depression. These findings indicate that the PHQ-9 is a highly satisfactory tool that can be used for screening MDD in the PC setting. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN58437086 . Registered 20 May 2013.

  6. Predictors of surgical site infections among patients undergoing major surgery at Bugando Medical Centre in Northwestern Tanzania

    Imirzalioglu Can

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surgical site infection (SSI continues to be a major source of morbidity and mortality in developing countries despite recent advances in aseptic techniques. There is no baseline information regarding SSI in our setting therefore it was necessary to conduct this study to establish the prevalence, pattern and predictors of surgical site infection at Bugando Medical Centre Mwanza (BMC, Tanzania. Methods This was a cross-sectional prospective study involving all patients who underwent major surgery in surgical wards between July 2009 and March 2010. After informed written consent for the study and HIV testing, all patients who met inclusion criteria were consecutively enrolled into the study. Pre-operative, intra-operative and post operative data were collected using standardized data collection form. Wound specimens were collected and processed as per standard operative procedures; and susceptibility testing was done using disc diffusion technique. Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 15 and STATA. Results Surgical site infection (SSI was detected in 65 (26.0% patients, of whom 56 (86.2% and 9 (13.8% had superficial and deep SSI respectively. Among 65 patients with clinical SSI, 56(86.2% had positive aerobic culture. Staphylococcus aureus was the predominant organism 16/56 (28.6%; of which 3/16 (18.8% were MRSA. This was followed by Escherichia coli 14/56 (25% and Klebsiella pneumoniae 10/56 (17.9%. Among the Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates 9(64.3% and 8(80% were ESBL producers respectively. A total of 37/250 (14.8% patients were HIV positive with a mean CD4 count of 296 cells/ml. Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, presence of pre-morbid illness (OR = 6.1, use of drain (OR = 15.3, use of iodine alone in skin preparation (OR = 17.6, duration of operation ≥ 3 hours (OR = 3.2 and cigarette smoking (OR = 9.6 significantly predicted surgical site infection (SSI Conclusion SSI is common

  7. Diversity in clinical management and protocols for the treatment of major bleeding trauma patients across European level I Trauma Centres

    Schäfer, Nadine; Driessen, Arne; Fröhlich, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    according to clinical assessment in combination with laboratory signs of achieved haemostasis. The severity of coagulopathy and shock is mostly assessed via standard coagulation tests and partially used extended viscoelastic tests. All centres have implemented the immediate use of tranexamic acid. Initial...

  8. Predictors of HIV testing among men who have sex with men: a focus on men living outside major urban centres in Canada.

    Holtzman, Susan; Landis, Lisa; Walsh, Zachary; Puterman, Eli; Roberts, Daryle; Saya-Moore, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) represent almost half of new HIV infections in Canada each year. However, the vast majority of research on HIV testing among MSM has been conducted in major urban centres. The present study addressed this gap by investigating HIV testing behaviour and predictors of HIV testing among MSM living outside major urban centres, in the Interior of British Columbia. An anonymous online survey of 153 MSM assessed HIV testing behaviour and psychosocial factors that may impact HIV testing (internalized homophobia, disclosure to healthcare providers (HCPs) of same sex attraction, and gay community involvement). Almost one-quarter (24%) had never been tested and over one-third (35%) had not disclosed same sex attraction to HCPs. Internalized homophobia was associated with a lower likelihood of HIV testing, and this relationship was partially explained by the fact that those high in internalized homophobia were less likely to disclose same sex attraction to their HCPs. Neither formal nor informal involvement in the gay community was related to HIV testing, and both types of involvement were relatively low in our sample. Further research is needed to better understand the distinctive health issues facing MSM living outside major urban centres.

  9. A pragmatic multi-centre randomised controlled trial of fluid loading and level of dependency in high-risk surgical patients undergoing major elective surgery: trial protocol

    Norrie John

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients undergoing major elective or urgent surgery are at high risk of death or significant morbidity. Measures to reduce this morbidity and mortality include pre-operative optimisation and use of higher levels of dependency care after surgery. We propose a pragmatic multi-centre randomised controlled trial of level of dependency and pre-operative fluid therapy in high-risk surgical patients undergoing major elective surgery. Methods/Design A multi-centre randomised controlled trial with a 2 * 2 factorial design. The first randomisation is to pre-operative fluid therapy or standard regimen and the second randomisation is to routine intensive care versus high dependency care during the early post-operative period. We intend to recruit 204 patients undergoing major elective and urgent abdominal and thoraco-abdominal surgery who fulfil high-risk surgical criteria. The primary outcome for the comparison of level of care is cost-effectiveness at six months and for the comparison of fluid optimisation is the number of hospital days after surgery. Discussion We believe that the results of this study will be invaluable in determining the future care and clinical resource utilisation for this group of patients and thus will have a major impact on clinical practice. Trial Registration Trial registration number - ISRCTN32188676

  10. The Case for Information Brokering During Major Change: The Experience of the Transition Support Office of the McGill University Health Centre.

    Klag, Malvina; Richer, Marie-Claire

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the emergence of an "information brokerage" in the project management office of the McGill University Health Centre (MUHC) in Montreal. This process evolved during unprecedented transformation linked to a redevelopment project. Information brokering became a core function in the MUHC's context of major change. To develop an information brokering model, the paper draws upon the literature on knowledge brokering, applies Daft and Lengel's (1986) seminal framework on information processing in organizations, and builds on the MUHC experience. The paper proposes that knowledge brokering and information brokering are related, yet distinct in content, purpose and structure.

  11. Editorial - The winter Atomiades

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    As we wrote in our previous editorial, the Staff Association gives direct support to sports events, such as the Atomiades, a section of the Association of Sports Communities of European Research Institutes, which brings together sportsmen and women from 38 European research centres in 13 countries (Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, United Kingdom, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Luxemburg, the Netherlands, Russia, and Switzerland). The summer Atomiades take place between the months of June and September every three years. Thirteen such events have taken place since 1973, the last one in June 2009 in Berlin. As far as the winter Atomiades are concerned, also organized every three years, and alternating with the summer Atomiades, there have been eleven since 1981, the last one at the end of January this year in neighbouring France. The following article tells the wonderful adventure of the CERN staff who took part in this event. A positive outcome for CERN skiers at the winter Atomiades The 11t...

  12. Low Rates of Major Complications for Radiofrequency Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation Maintained Over 14 Years: A Single Centre Experience of 2750 Consecutive Cases.

    Voskoboinik, Aleksandr; Sparks, Paul B; Morton, Joseph B; Lee, Geoffrey; Joseph, Stephen A; Hawson, Joshua J; Kistler, Peter M; Kalman, Jonathan M

    2018-02-03

    Despite technological advances, studies continue to report high complication rates for atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation. We sought to review complication rates for AF ablation at a high-volume centre over a 14-year period and identify predictors of complications. We reviewed prospectively collected data from 2750 consecutive AF ablation procedures at our institution using radiofrequency energy (RF) between January 2004 and May 2017. All cases were performed under general anaesthetic with transoesophageal echocardiography (TEE), 3D-mapping and an irrigated ablation catheter. Double transseptal puncture was performed under TEE guidance. All patients underwent wide antral circumferential isolation of the pulmonary veins (30W anteriorly, 25W posteriorly) with substrate modification at operator discretion. Of 2255 initial and 495 redo procedures, ablation strategies were: pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) only 2097 (76.3%), PVI+lines 368 (13.4%), PVI+posterior wall 191 (6.9%), PVI+cavotricuspid isthmus 277 (10.1%). There were 23 major (0.84%) and 20 minor (0.73%) complications. Cardiac tamponade (five cases - 0.18%) and phrenic nerve palsy (one case - 0.04%) rates were very low. Major vascular complications necessitating surgery or blood transfusion occurred in five patients (0.18%). There were no cases of death, permanent disability, atrio-oesophageal fistulae or symptomatic pulmonary vein (PV) stenosis, although there were five TEE probe-related complications (0.18%). Female gender (OR 2.14; 95% CI 1.07-4.26) but not age >70 (OR 1.01) was the only multivariate predictor of complications. Atrial fibrillation ablation performed at a high-volume centre using RF can be achieved with a low major complication rate in a representative AF population over a sustained period of time. Copyright © 2018 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights

  13. Winter Wonderlands

    Coy, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Listening to people complain about the hardships of winter and the dreariness of the nearly constant gray sky prompted the author to help her sixth graders recognize and appreciate the beauty that surrounds them for nearly five months of the year in western New York. The author opines that if students could see things more artistically, the winter…

  14. The major clinical determinants of maternal death among obstetric near-miss patients: a tertiary centre experience

    Simsek, Y.; Yilmaz, E.; Celik, E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the characteristics of obstetric near-miss patients to clarify the major risk factors of maternal mortality. Methods: From among the patients referred to the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Inonu University of Medical Sciences, Turkey, between August 1, 2010 and March 1, 2012, electronic records of obstetric near-miss cases were retrospectively analysed. The obstetric and demographic characteristics of cases that were successfully treated (Group 1) as well as cases with maternal death (Group 2) were analysed and compared. SPSS 11.5 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Of the total 2687 cases handled during the study period, 95 (3.53%) were of the near-miss nature. The most frequently encountered underlying aetiology was severe preeclampsia (n=55; 57.89%) and haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelet count syndrome (n=20; 21.1%). These were followed by cases of postpartum bleeding (n=18; 18.9%). Maternal mortality occurred in 10 (10.5%) patients, representing Group 2. The amount of haemorrhage and blood transfused were significantly higher in the group. Maternal mortality cases had also significantly longer duration of intensive care unit admission. Conclusion: Early diagnosis and immediate management of the complications noted by the study can be the most important measures to prevent the occurrence of mortality. (author)

  15. Winter Chickadees

    Sarvis, Gisele Winton

    2010-01-01

    Hiking between the farmer's field and the deciduous forest at Scanlon Creek Nature Centre near Bradford, Ontario, a grade 3 class and the author were studying different types of soils. As soil explorers they were hiking to different locations to see, touch and smell clay, silt and humus soils. The author always likes to bring a sense of discovery…

  16. Breast cancer scenario in a regional cancer centre in Eastern India over eight years--still a major public health problem.

    Datta, Karabi; Choudhuri, Maitrayee; Guha, Subhas; Biswas, Jaydip

    2012-01-01

    In spite of screening and early diagnostic tests, the upward trend of breast cancer has become a matter of great concern in both developed and developing countries. The data collected by Population Based Cancer Registry in Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute, a regional cancer centre in Kolkata, from 1997 to 2004 gives an insight about the scenario of breast cancer in this part of Eastern India. The total no of female breast cancer cases were steadily increasing from 1997 to 2001 and only slightly lower from 2002 to 2004. and majority were in the 40-49 year old age group during this period. The next most commonly affected age group was 50-59 years. Regarding the distribution according to treatment, the main modality was surgery and radiotherapy followed by combined surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy and then combined surgery and chemotherapy. The commonest type was ductal followed by lobular cancer. In this eight year study in CNCI, status of patients on last day of the respective year was assessed. Number of patients alive was 43.5% in 1997. The percentage gradually increased up to 2000 and then gradually decreased to 47.4% in 2004. Also with every passing year, percentage mortality gradually decreased from 25.7% in 1997 to 16.8% in 2004. Better pattern of care (diagnosis and treatment) was reflected in this picture. However, lost to follow up, which also implies non compliance to treatment, increased to 30.8% in 1997 to 35.8% in 2004. Due to the small number of male breast cancers, only female cases were considered. In conclusion, breast cancer continues to be a major problem in Kolkata, India.

  17. A pragmatic multi-centre randomised controlled trial of fluid loading in high-risk surgical patients undergoing major elective surgery--the FOCCUS study.

    Cuthbertson, Brian H; Campbell, Marion K; Stott, Stephen A; Elders, Andrew; Hernández, Rodolfo; Boyers, Dwayne; Norrie, John; Kinsella, John; Brittenden, Julie; Cook, Jonathan; Rae, Daniela; Cotton, Seonaidh C; Alcorn, David; Addison, Jennifer; Grant, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Fluid strategies may impact on patient outcomes in major elective surgery. We aimed to study the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of pre-operative fluid loading in high-risk surgical patients undergoing major elective surgery. This was a pragmatic, non-blinded, multi-centre, randomised, controlled trial. We sought to recruit 128 consecutive high-risk surgical patients undergoing major abdominal surgery. The patients underwent pre-operative fluid loading with 25 ml/kg of Ringer's solution in the six hours before surgery. The control group had no pre-operative fluid loading. The primary outcome was the number of hospital days after surgery with cost-effectiveness as a secondary outcome. A total of 111 patients were recruited within the study time frame in agreement with the funder. The median pre-operative fluid loading volume was 1,875 ml (IQR 1,375 to 2,025) in the fluid group compared to 0 (IQR 0 to 0) in controls with days in hospital after surgery 12.2 (SD 11.5) days compared to 17.4 (SD 20.0) and an adjusted mean difference of 5.5 days (median 2.2 days; 95% CI -0.44 to 11.44; P = 0.07). There was a reduction in adverse events in the fluid intervention group (P = 0.048) and no increase in fluid based complications. The intervention was less costly and more effective (adjusted average cost saving: £2,047; adjusted average gain in benefit: 0.0431 quality adjusted life year (QALY)) and has a high probability of being cost-effective. Pre-operative intravenous fluid loading leads to a non-significant reduction in hospital length of stay after high-risk major surgery and is likely to be cost-effective. Confirmatory work is required to determine whether these effects are reproducible, and to confirm whether this simple intervention could allow more cost-effective delivery of care. Prospective Clinical Trials, ISRCTN32188676.

  18. Study on effectiveness of transfusion program in thalassemia major patients receiving multiple blood transfusions at a transfusion centre in Western India

    Shah Neeraj

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Children suffering from beta-thalassemia major require repeated blood transfusions which may be associated with dangers like iron overload and contraction of infections such as HIV, HCV, and HBsAg which ultimately curtail their life span. On the other hand, inadequate transfusions lead to severe anemia and general fatigue and debility. Materials and Methods: Data were obtained from 142 beta-thalassemia major patients aged 3 years or more receiving regular blood transfusions at a transfusion centre in Western India from 1 April 2009 to 30 June 2009. The clinical data and laboratory results were subsequently analyzed. Results: Of the 142 patients, 76 (53.5% were undertransfused (mean Hb <10 gm%. 96 (67% of the patients were taking some form of chelation therapy but out of them only 2 (2% were adequately chelated (S. ferritin <1000 ng/ml. 5 (3.5% of the patients were known diabetics on insulin therapy. 103 (72% of the patients were retarded in terms of growth. The prevalence of transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs such as HCV, HIV, and HBsAg was respectively 45%, 2%, and 2%, with the prevalence of HCV being significantly more than the general population. The HCV prevalence showed positive correlation with the age of the patients and with the total no of blood transfusions received. As many as 15% (6 out of 40 children who were born on or after 2002 were HCV positive despite the blood they received being subjected to screening for HCV. Conclusions: The study suggests the need to step up the transfusions to achieve hemoglobin goal of 10 gm% (as per the moderate transfusion regimen and also to institute urgent and effective chelation measures with the aim of keeping serum ferritin levels below 1000 ng/ml to avoid the systemic effects of iron overload. In addition, strict monitoring of the children for endocrinopathy and other systemic effects of iron overload should be done. Rigid implementation of quality control measures for the

  19. WINTER SAECULUM

    Emil Mihalina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Accumulated imbalances in the economy and on the markets cause specific financial market dynamics that have formed characteristic patterns kept throughout long financial history. In 2008 Authors presented their expectations of key macroeconomic and selected asset class markets developments for period ahead based on Saeculum theory. Use of term Secular describes a specific valuation environment during prolonged period. If valuations as well as selected macro variables are considered as a tool for understanding business cycles then market cycles become much more obvious and easily understandable. Therefore over the long run, certain asset classes do better in terms of risk reward profile than others. Further on, there is no need for frequent portfolio rebalancing and timing of specific investment positions within a particular asset class market. Current stage in cycle development suggests a need for reassessment of trends and prevailing phenomena due to cyclical nture of long lasting Saeculums. Paper reviews developments in recognizable patterns of selected metrics in current Winter Saeculum dominated with prevailing forces of delivering, deflation and decrease in velocity of money.

  20. The cost-effectiveness of physician staffed Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS) transport to a major trauma centre in NSW, Australia.

    Taylor, Colman; Jan, Stephen; Curtis, Kate; Tzannes, Alex; Li, Qiang; Palmer, Cameron; Dickson, Cara; Myburgh, John

    2012-11-01

    Helicopter Emergency Medical Services (HEMS) are highly resource-intensive facilities that are well established as part of trauma systems in many high-income countries. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of a physician-staffed HEMS intervention in combination with treatment at a major trauma centre versus ground ambulance or indirect transport (via a referral hospital) in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Cost and effectiveness estimates were derived from a cohort of trauma patients arriving at St George Hospital in NSW, Australia during an 11-year period. Adjusted estimates of in-hospital mortality were derived using logistic regression and adjusted hospital costs were estimated through a general linear model incorporating a gamma distribution and log link. These estimates along with other assumptions were incorporated into a Markov model with an annual cycle length to estimate a cost per life saved and a cost per life-year saved at one year and over a patient's lifetime respectively in three patient groups (all patients; patients with serious injury [Injury Severity Score>12]; patients with traumatic brain injury [TBI]). Results showed HEMS to be more costly but more effective at reducing in-hospital mortality leading to a cost per life saved of $1,566,379, $533,781 and $519,787 in all patients, patients with serious injury and patients with TBI respectively. When modelled over a patient's lifetime, the improved mortality associated with HEMS led to a cost per life year saved of $96,524, $50,035 and $49,159 in the three patient groups respectively. Sensitivity analyses revealed a higher probability of HEMS being cost-effective in patients with serious injury and TBI. Our investigation confirms a HEMS intervention is associated with improved mortality in trauma patients, especially in patients with serious injury and TBI. The improved benefit of HEMS in patients with serious injury and TBI leads to improved estimated cost-effectiveness. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier

  1. Winter scene of the Globe of Science and Innovation

    patrice loiez

    2005-01-01

    CERN's Globe exhibition centre is shown on a Swiss winter day. This wooden building was given to CERN in 2004 as a gift from the Swiss Confederation to mark 50 years since the Organization's foundation.

  2. Winter Weather Emergencies

    Severe winter weather can lead to health and safety challenges. You may have to cope with Cold related health problems, including ... there are no guarantees of safety during winter weather emergencies, you can take actions to protect yourself. ...

  3. Winter maintenance performance measure.

    2016-01-01

    The Winter Performance Index is a method of quantifying winter storm events and the DOTs response to them. : It is a valuable tool for evaluating the States maintenance practices, performing post-storm analysis, training : maintenance personnel...

  4. Winter weather demand considerations.

    2015-04-01

    Winter weather has varied effects on travel behavior. Using 418 survey responses from the Northern Virginia : commuting area of Washington, D.C. and binary logit models, this study examines travel related changes under : different types of winter wea...

  5. Winter-to-winter variations in indoor radon

    Mose, D.G.; Mushrush, G.W.; Kline, S.W.

    1989-01-01

    Indoor radon concentrations in northern Virginia and central Maryland show a strong dependence on weather. Winter tends to be associated with higher than average indoor radon, and summer with lower than average. However, compared to the winter of 1986-1987, the winter of 1987-1988 was warmer and drier. Consequently, winter-to-winter indoor radon decreased by about 25%. This winter-to-winter decrease is unexpectedly large, and simulates winter-to-summer variations that have been reported

  6. Major complications of high-energy microwave ablation for percutaneous CT-guided treatment of lung malignancies: single-centre experience after 4 years

    Splatt, Alexander M.; Steinke, Karin

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the rate of major complications related to percutaneous computed tomography (CT)-guided microwave ablation (MWA) of primary and secondary lung malignancies performed at our institution over a 4-year period. From May 2010 to September 2014, 70 MWAs were performed on 51 patients. All major intra- and post-procedural complications (as defined by the classification proposed by the Society of Interventional Radiology) were retrospectively analysed. The results were correlated with a systematic review of the available literature on MWA in the lung. Major complications were encountered in 14 out of 70 ablations (20%). Twenty-one separate major complications were encountered (some ablations lead to more than one major complication). One death occurred within 30 days of ablation, though the relationship to the procedure remains uncertain. Other major complications included: nine pneumothoraces requiring drain insertion (12.9%), four cases of large effusion requiring drainage (5.7%), two cases of significant pulmonary haemorrhage altering clinical management (2.9%), two infections (2.9%), one case of mechanical failure (1.4%), one chest wall burn (1.4%) and one case of pleural seeding (1.4%). Major complications were much more likely to occur if the nodule was located within 7 mm from the pleura. MWA of pulmonary tumours carries moderate risk; nevertheless, the usually manageable complications should not deter from undertaking a potentially curative therapy for poor surgical candidates.

  7. Manche centre

    1997-05-01

    After a general presentation of radioactivity and radioactive wastes and of the French national agency for the management of radioactive wastes (ANDRA), this brochure gives a general overview of the Manche low- and medium-level radioactive waste disposal centre: principles of storage safety, waste containers (first confinement barrier), storage facility and cover (second confinement barrier), the underground (third confinement barrier), the impact of the centre on its environment, and the control of radioactivity in the vicinity of the centre. (J.S.)

  8. Is trauma in Switzerland any different? epidemiology and patterns of injury in major trauma - a 5-year review from a Swiss trauma centre.

    Heim, C; Bosisio, F; Roth, A; Bloch, J; Borens, O; Daniel, R T; Denys, A; Oddo, M; Pasquier, M; Schmidt, S; Schoettker, P; Zingg, T; Wasserfallen, J B

    2014-01-01

    Switzerland, the country with the highest health expenditure per capita, is lacking data on trauma care and system planning. Recently, 12 trauma centres were designated to be reassessed through a future national trauma registry by 2015. Lausanne University Hospital launched the first Swiss trauma registry in 2008, which contains the largest database on trauma activity nationwide. Prospective analysis of data from consecutively admitted shock room patients from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2012. Shock room admission is based on physiology and mechanism of injury, assessed by prehospital physicians. Management follows a surgeon-led multidisciplinary approach. Injuries are coded by Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine (AAAM) certified coders. Over the 5 years, 1,599 trauma patients were admitted, predominantly males with a median age of 41.4 years and median injury severity score (ISS) of 13. Rate of ISS >15 was 42%. Principal mechanisms of injury were road traffic (40.4%) and falls (34.4%), with 91.5% blunt trauma. Principal patterns were brain (64.4%), chest (59.8%) and extremity/pelvic girdle (52.9%) injuries. Severe (abbreviated injury scale [AIS] score ≥ 3) orthopaedic injuries, defined as extremity and spine injuries together, accounted for 67.1%. Overall, 29.1% underwent immediate intervention, mainly by orthopaedics (27.3%), neurosurgeons (26.3 %) and visceral surgeons (13.9%); 43.8% underwent a surgical intervention within the first 24 hours and 59.1% during their hospitalisation. In-hospital mortality for patients with ISS >15 was 26.2%. This is the first 5-year report on trauma in Switzerland. Trauma workload was similar to other European countries. Despite high levels of healthcare, mortality exceeds published rates by >50%. Regardless of the importance of a multidisciplinary approach, trauma remains a surgical disease and needs dedicated surgical resources.

  9. Heterogeneity in cervical spine assessment in paediatric trauma: A survey of physicians' knowledge and application at a paediatric major trauma centre.

    Buckland, Aaron J; Bressan, Silvia; Jowett, Helen; Johnson, Michael B; Teague, Warwick J

    2016-10-01

    Evidence-based decision-making tools are widely used to guide cervical spine assessment in adult trauma patients. Similar tools validated for use in injured children are lacking. A paediatric-specific approach is appropriate given important differences in cervical spine anatomy, mechanism of spinal injury and concerns over ionising radiation in children. The present study aims to survey physicians' knowledge and application of cervical spine assessment in injured children. A cross-sectional survey of physicians actively engaged in trauma care within a paediatric trauma centre was undertaken. Participation was voluntary and responses de-idenitified. The survey comprised 20 questions regarding initial assessment, imaging, immobilisation and perioperative management. Physicians' responses were compared with available current evidence. Sixty-seven physicians (28% registrars, 17% fellows and 55.2% consultants) participated. Physicians rated altered mental state, intoxication and distracting injury as the most important contraindications to cervical spine clearance in children. Fifty-four per cent considered adequate plain imaging to be 3-view cervical spine radiographs (anterior-posterior, lateral and odontoid), whereas 30% considered CT the most sensitive modality for detecting unstable cervical spine injuries. Physicians' responses reflected marked heterogeneity regarding semi-rigid cervical collars and what constitutes cervical spine 'clearance'. Greater consensus existed for perioperative precautions in this setting. Physicians actively engaged in paediatric trauma care demonstrate marked heterogeneity in their knowledge and application of cervical spine assessment. This is compounded by a lack of paediatric-specific evidence and definitions, involvement of multiple specialties and staff turnover within busy departments. A validated decision-making tool for cervical spine assessment will represent an important advance in paediatric trauma. © 2016 Australasian

  10. Surgical management and outcome of blunt major liver injuries: experience of damage control laparotomy with perihepatic packing in one trauma centre.

    Lin, Being-Chuan; Fang, Jen-Feng; Chen, Ray-Jade; Wong, Yon-Cheong; Hsu, Yu-Pao

    2014-01-01

    This retrospective study aimed to assess the clinical experience and outcome of damage control laparotomy with perihepatic packing in the management of blunt major liver injuries. From January 1998 to December 2006, 58 patients of blunt major liver injury, American Association for the Surgery of Trauma-Organ Injury Scale (AAST-OIS) equal or greater than III, were operated with perihepatic packing at our institute. Demographic data, intra-operative findings, operative procedures, adjunctive managements and outcome were reviewed. To determine whether there was statistical difference between the survivor and non-survivor groups, data were compared by using Mann-Whitney U test for continuous variables, either Pearson's chi-square test or with Yates continuity correction for contingency tables, and results were considered statistically significant if phepatic artery ligation (n=11) and 7 patients required post-laparotomy hepatic transarterial embolization. Of the 58 patients, 28 survived and 30 died with a 52% mortality rate. Of the 30 deaths, uncontrolled liver bleeding in 24-h caused 25 deaths and delayed sepsis caused residual 5 deaths. The mortality rate versus OIS was grade III: 30% (6/20), grade IV: 54% (13/24), and grade V: 79% (11/14), respectively. On univariate analysis, the significant predictors of mortality were OIS grade (p=0.019), prolonged initial prothrombin time (PT) (p=0.004), active partial thromboplastin time (APTT) (p<0.0001) and decreased platelet count (p=0.005). The mortality rate of surgical blunt major liver injuries remains high even with perihepatic packing. Since prolonged initial PT, APTT and decreased platelet count were associated with high risk of mortality, we advocate combination of damage control resuscitation with damage control laparotomy in these major liver injuries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Awareness among Parents of β-Thalassemia Major Patients Regarding Prenatal Diagnosis and Premarital Screening in Day Care Centre of Transfusion Medicine Department.

    Rudra, S; Chakrabarty, P; Hossain, M A; Ripon, M J; Rudra, M; Mirza, T T

    2016-01-01

    Thalassemia is one of the most common genetic diseases in the world. It is a major health problem, brings much morbidity, early mortality and a great deal of misery for a family both financially and emotionally. The patients suffering from beta thalassemia major do not survive for more than 5 years without blood transfusion. Blood transfusion is usually administered every two to five weeks to maintain the pre-transfusion hemoglobin level of 9-10 gm/dL. This study carried out in the department of Transfusion Medicine of Mymensingh Medical College Hospital from January 2014 to June 2014. A total of 200 parents were interviewed. There was a slight preponderance of females which accounted for 57.5% of the parents. Ninety seven (45.5%) had an income less than Rs. 5000 per month. Nearly 50% were illiterate with only 24.5% with a higher education. Consanguinity was positive in 72.5% of the parents with extended family history of thalassemia positive in 40.8%. Only 29.5% were immunized against Hepatitis B. Around 27.5% did not know whether they should be immunized. Fifty five percent of parents knew children should receive Dysferol. Twelve percent were aware of consanguinity to be a risk factor for thalassaemia with only 5% having undergone antenatal diagnosis. Parental knowledge about thalassemia and its preventive measures is inadequate; this requires intervention in the form of public health education programs concentrating on high risk/targeted population.

  12. Assessment of the financial implications for laparoscopic liver surgery: a single-centre UK cost analysis for minor and major hepatectomy.

    Abu Hilal, Mohammed; Di Fabio, Francesco; Syed, Shareef; Wiltshire, Robert; Dimovska, Eleonora; Turner, David; Primrose, John N; Pearce, Neil W

    2013-07-01

    Laparoscopic hepatectomy is progressively gaining popularity. However, it is still unclear whether the laparoscopic approach offers cost advantages compared with the open approach, especially when major hepatectomies are required. Data providing useful insights into the costs of the laparoscopic approach for clinicians and hospitals are needed. The aim of this study is to assess the financial implications of the laparoscopic approach for two standardized minor and major hepatectomies: left lateral sectionectomy and right hepatectomy. A cost comparison analysis of patients undergoing laparoscopic right hepatectomy (LRH) and laparoscopic left lateral sectionectomy (LLLS) versus the open counterparts was performed. Data considered for the comparison analysis were operative costs (theatre cost, consumables and surgeon/anaesthetic labour cost), postoperative costs (hospital stay, complication management and readmissions) and overall costs. A total of 149 patients were included: 38 patients underwent LRH and 46 open right hepatectomy (ORH); 46 patients underwent LLLS and 19 open left lateral sectionectomy (OLLS). For LRH the mean operative, postoperative and overall costs were £10,181, £4,037 and £14,218; for ORH the mean operative, postoperative and overall costs were £6,483 (p costs were £5,460, £2,599 and £8,059; for OLLS the mean operative, postoperative and overall costs were £5,841 (p = 0.874), £5,796 (p cost advantage of the laparoscopic approach for left lateral sectionectomy and the cost neutrality for right hepatectomy.

  13. Drought and Winter Drying (Pest Alert)

    USDA Forest Service

    Drought and winter drying have periodically caused major damage to trees. Drought reduces the amount of water available in the soil. In the case of winter drying, the water may be in the soil, but freezing of the soil makes the water unavailable to the tree. In both cases, more water is lost through transpiration than is available to the plant. Symptoms of drought and...

  14. Winters fuels report

    1995-01-01

    The outlook for distillate fuel oil this winter is for increased demand and a return to normal inventory patterns, assuming a resumption of normal, cooler weather than last winter. With industrial production expected to grow slightly from last winter's pace, overall consumption is projected to increase 3 percent from last winter, to 3.4 million barrels per day during the heating season (October 1, 1995-March 31, 1996). Much of the supply win come from stock drawdowns and refinery production. Estimates for the winter are from the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) 4th Quarter 1995 Short-Tenn Energy Outlook (STEO) Mid-World Oil Price Case forecast. Inventories in place on September 30, 1995, of 132 million barrels were 9 percent below the unusually high year-earlier level. Inventories of high-sulfur distillate fuel oil, the principal type used for heating, were 13 percent lower than a year earlier. Supply problems are not anticipated because refinery production and the ready availability of imports should be adequate to meet demand. Residential heating off prices are expected to be somewhat higher than last winter's, as the effects of lower crude oil prices are offset by lower distillate inventories. Heating oil is forecast to average $0.92 per gallon, the highest price since the winter of 1992-93. Diesel fuel (including tax) is predicted to be slightly higher than last year at $1.13 per gallon. This article focuses on the winter assessment for distillate fuel oil, how well last year's STEO winter outlook compared to actual events, and expectations for the coming winter. Additional analyses include regional low-sulfur and high-sulfur distillate supply, demand, and prices, and recent trends in distillate fuel oil inventories

  15. Sources and contributions of wood smoke during winter in London

    Crilley, Leigh; Bloss, William; Yin, Jianxin; Beddows, David; Harrison, Roy; Zotter, Peter; Prevot, Andre; Green, David

    2014-05-01

    Determining the contribution of wood smoke in large urban centres such as London is becoming increasingly important with the changing nature of domestic heating partly due to the installation of biomass burning heaters to meet renewable energy targets imposed by the EU and also a rise in so-called recreational burning for aesthetic reasons (Fuller et al., 2013). Recent work in large urban centres (London, Paris and Berlin) has demonstrated an increase in the contribution of wood smoke to ambient particles during winter that can at times exceed traffic emissions. In Europe, biomass burning has been identified as a major cause of exceedances of European air quality limits during winter (Fuller et al., 2013). In light of the changing nature of emissions in urban areas there is a need for on-going measurements to assess the impact of biomass burning in cities like London. Therefore we aimed to determine quantitatively the contribution of biomass burning in London and surrounding rural areas. We also aimed to determine whether local emissions or regional sources were the main source of biomass burning in London. Sources of wood smoke during winter in London were investigated at an urban background site (North Kensington) and two surrounding rural sites (Harwell and Detling) by analysing selected wood smoke chemical tracers. Concentrations of levoglucosan, elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC) and K+ were generally well correlated, indicating a similar source of these species at the three sites. Based on the conversion factor for levoglucosan, mean wood smoke mass at Detling, North Kensington and Harwell was 0.78, 0.87 and 1.0 µg m-3, respectively. At all the sites, biomass burning was found to be a source of OC and EC, with the largest source of OC and EC found to be secondary organic aerosols and traffic emissions, respectively. Peaks in levoglucosan concentrations at the sites were observed to coincide with low ambient temperature, suggesting domestic heating as

  16. Temporal Variability and Characterization of Aerosols across the Pakistan Region during the Winter Fog Periods

    Muhammad Fahim Khokhar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Fog is a meteorological/environmental phenomenon which happens across the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP and leads to significant social and economic problems, especially posing significant threats to public health and causing disruptions in air and road traffic. Meteorological stations in Pakistan provide limited information regarding fog episodes as these provide only point observations. Continuous monitoring, as well as a spatially coherent picture of fog distribution, is possible through the use of satellite observations. This study focuses on the 2012–2015 winter fog episodes over the Pakistan region using the Moderate Resolution Image Spectrometer (MODIS, the Ozone Monitoring Instrument and the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO products. The main objective of the study was to map the spatial distribution of aerosols, their types, and to identify the aerosol origins during special weather conditions like fog in Pakistan. The study also included ground monitoring of particulate matter (PM concentrations, which were conducted during the 2014–2015 winter period only. Overall, this study is part of a multi-country project supported by the International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD, started in 2014–2015 winter period, whereby scientists from Bangladesh, India and Nepal have also conducted measurements at their respective sites. A significant correlation between MODIS (AOD and AERONET Station (AOD data from Lahore was identified. Mass concentration of PM10 at all sampling sites within Lahore city exceeded the National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS levels on most of the occasions. Smoke and absorbing aerosol were found to be major constituents of winter fog in Pakistan. Furthermore, an extended span of winter fog was also observed in Lahore city during the winter of 2014–2015. The Vertical Feature Mask (VFM provided by CALIPSO satellite confirmed the low-lying aerosol

  17. Winter Bottom Trawl Survey

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Winter Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1992 and covered offshore areas from the Mid-Atlantic to Georges Bank. Inshore strata were covered...

  18. Deer Wintering Areas

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Deer winter habitat is critical to the long term survival of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Vermont. Being near the northern extreme of the...

  19. The nuclear winter

    Velikhow, Y.P.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear winter is an example of possible secondary effects, and if we speak of secondary we are thinking of small-scale second-order effects, but a nuclear winter is not a second-order effect. If you calculate the amount of heat produced by a nuclear explosion, it is a very small amount which does not have any chance of changing the Earth's climate, but a nuclear explosion drives or stars some new mechanism - the mechanism of nuclear winter - after 100 megatons of dust are transferred to the upper atmosphere. Another example of such amplification is radioactive fall-out, especially long-life radioactive fall-out after the possible elimination of the nuclear power industry, nuclear storage and distribution of storage waste around the globe. This is a very powerful amplification mechanism

  20. Employment and winter construction

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    2011-01-01

    Reduced seasonal building activity in the construction sector is often assumed to be related to hard winter conditions for building activities and poor working conditions for construction workers, resulting in higher costs and poor quality of building products, particularly in the northern hemisp...... of contracts for workers is more likely to explain differences in seasonal activity than climatic or technological factors....

  1. Titan's Emergence from Winter

    Flasar, F. Michael; Achterberg, Richard; Jennings, Donald; Schinder, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We summarize the changes in Titans thermal structure derived from Cassini CIRS and radio-occultation data during the transition from winter to early spring. Titan's surface, and middle atmosphere show noticeable seasonal change, whereas that in most of the troposphere is mated. This can be understood in terms of the relatively small radiative relaxation time in the middle atmosphere and much larger time scale in the troposphere. The surface exhibits seasonal change because the heat capacity in an annual skin depth is much smaller than that in the lowest scale height of the troposphere. Surface temperatures rise 1 K at raid and high latitudes in the winter northern hemisphere and cool in the southern hemisphere. Changes in in the middle atmosphere are more complicated. Temperatures in the middle stratosphere (approximately 1 mbar) increase by a few kelvin at mid northern latitudes, but those at high latitudes first increase as that region moves out of winter shadow, and then decrease. This probably results from the combined effect of increased solar heating as the suit moves higher in the sky and the decreased adiabatic warming as the sinking motions associated with the cross-equatorial meridional cell weaken. Consistent with this interpretation, the warm temperatures observed higher up at the winter polar stratopause cool significantly.

  2. Communicating Certainty About Nuclear Winter

    Robock, A.

    2013-12-01

    I have been spending much of my time in the past several years trying to warn the world about the continuing danger of nuclear weapons, and that the solution is a rapid reduction in the nuclear arsenal. I feel that a scientist who discovers dangers to society has an ethical duty to issue a warning, even if the danger is so scary that it is hard for people to deal with. The debate about nuclear winter in the 1980s helped to end the nuclear arms race, but the planet still has enough nuclear weapons, even after reductions planned for 2017 under the New START treaty, to produce nuclear winter, with temperatures plunging below freezing in the summer in major agricultural regions, threatening the food supply for most of the planet. New research by myself, Brian Toon, Mike Mills, and colleagues over the past six years has found that a nuclear war between any two countries, such as India and Pakistan, using 50 atom bombs each of the size dropped on Hiroshima could produce climate change unprecedented in recorded human history, and a world food crisis because of the agricultural effects. This is much less than 1% of the current global arsenal. Communicating certainty - what we know for sure - has been much more effective than communicating uncertainty. The limited success I have had has come from persistence and serendipity. The first step was to do the science. We have published peer-reviewed articles in major journals, including Science, Nature, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Journal of Geophysical Research, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Physics Today, and Climatic Change. But policymakers do not read these journals. Through fairly convoluted circumstances, which will be described in this talk, we were able to get papers published in Scientific American and the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists. I have also published several encyclopedia articles on the subject. As a Lead Author of Chapter 8 (Radiative Forcing) of the recently published Fifth Assessment

  3. Fuel cycle centres

    Hagen, M.

    1977-01-01

    The concept of co-locating and integrating fuel cycle facilities at one site is discussed. This concept offers considerable advantages, especially in minimizing the amount of radioactive material to be transported on public roads. Safeguards and physical protection as relating to such an integrated system of facilities are analysed in detail, also industrial and commercial questions. An overall risk-benefit evaluation turns out to be in favour of fuel cycle centres. These centres seem to be specifically attractive with regard to the back end of the fuel cycle, including on-site disposal of radioactive wastes. The respective German approach is presented as an example. Special emphasis is given to the site selection procedures in this case. Time scale and cost for the implementation of this concept are important factors to be looked at. Since participation of governmental institutions in these centres seems to be indispensable their respective roles as compared to industry must be clearly defined. The idea of adjusting fuel cycle centres to regional rather than national use might be an attractive option, depending on the specific parameters in the region, though results of existing multinational ventures are inconclusive in this respect. Major difficulties might be expected e.g. because of different national safety regulations and standards as well as commercial conditions among partner countries. Public acceptance in the host country seems to be another stumbling block for the realization of this type of multinational facilities

  4. Payment mechanisms for winter road maintenance services

    Adel Abdi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In countries with severe winters a major part of the annual budget for road maintenance is allocated on performance of winter road maintenance tasks. Finding appropriate remuneration forms to compensate entrepreneurs for performed road measures during winter is not an easy task in order to minimise or eliminate disputes and satisfy both client organisations and contractors. On the other hand improper reimbursement models lead either to the client’s annual budget imbalance due to unnecessary cost overruns or affect contractor’s cash-flow. Such cases in turn affect just-in-time winter road maintenance and then traffic safety. To solve such problems, a number of countries in cold regions like Sweden have developed different remuneration models based more on weather data called Weather Index. Therefore the objective of this paper is to investigate and evaluate the payment models applied in Sweden. The study uses a number of approaches namely; domestic questionnaire survey, analysis of a number of contract documents, a series of meetings with the project managers and an international benchmarking. The study recognised four remuneration models for winter maintenance service of which one based on weather data statistics. The study reveals the payment model based on weather data statistics is only applied for the roads with higher traffic flow and the model generates most uncertainty.

  5. Risk management model of winter navigation operations

    Valdez Banda, Osiris A.; Goerlandt, Floris; Kuzmin, Vladimir; Kujala, Pentti; Montewka, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    The wintertime maritime traffic operations in the Gulf of Finland are managed through the Finnish–Swedish Winter Navigation System. This establishes the requirements and limitations for the vessels navigating when ice covers this area. During winter navigation in the Gulf of Finland, the largest risk stems from accidental ship collisions which may also trigger oil spills. In this article, a model for managing the risk of winter navigation operations is presented. The model analyses the probability of oil spills derived from collisions involving oil tanker vessels and other vessel types. The model structure is based on the steps provided in the Formal Safety Assessment (FSA) by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and adapted into a Bayesian Network model. The results indicate that ship independent navigation and convoys are the operations with higher probability of oil spills. Minor spills are most probable, while major oil spills found very unlikely but possible. - Highlights: •A model to assess and manage the risk of winter navigation operations is proposed. •The risks of oil spills in winter navigation in the Gulf of Finland are analysed. •The model assesses and prioritizes actions to control the risk of the operations. •The model suggests navigational training as the most efficient risk control option.

  6. Winter is losing its cool

    Feng, S.

    2017-12-01

    Winter seasons have significant societal impacts across all sectors ranging from direct human health to ecosystems, transportation, and recreation. This study quantifies the severity of winter and its spatial-temporal variations using a newly developed winter severity index and daily temperature, snowfall and snow depth. The winter severity and the number of extreme winter days are decreasing across the global terrestrial areas during 1901-2015 except the southeast United States and isolated regions in the Southern Hemisphere. These changes are dominated by winter warming, while the changes in daily snowfall and snow depth played a secondary role. The simulations of multiple CMIP5 climate models can well capture the spatial and temporal variations of the observed changes in winter severity and extremes during 1951-2005. The models are consistent in projecting a future milder winter under various scenarios. The winter severity is projected to decrease 60-80% in the middle-latitude Northern Hemisphere under the business-as-usual scenario. The winter arrives later, ends earlier and the length of winter season will be notably shorter. The changes in harsh winter in the polar regions are weak, mainly because the warming leads to more snowfall in the high latitudes.

  7. Nearshore hydrography off Visakhapatnam, East coast of India, during winter

    Rao, B.P.; RameshBabu, V.

    . The near bottom region in the offshore area, rather than the nearshore area, seems to be promising dumping ground for industrial waste material during winter period when the thermal inversion in the water column are major mechanisms of vertical mixing...

  8. Winter Frost and Fog

    2005-01-01

    This somewhat oblique blue wide angle Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the 174 km (108 mi) diameter crater, Terby, and its vicinity in December 2004. Located north of Hellas, this region can be covered with seasonal frost and ground-hugging fog, even in the afternoon, despite being north of 30oS. The subtle, wavy pattern is a manifestation of fog. Location near: 28oS, 286oW Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Winter

  9. How European centres diagnose, treat, and prevent CIED infections

    Bongiorni, Maria Grazia; Marinskis, Germanas; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2012-01-01

    in most centres and is substantially under 2% in the majority of centres interviewed. However, there are still differences in terms of prophylactic antibiotic therapy: 8.9% of the centres administer oxacillin as preoperative treatment, 4.4% of them do not give any antibiotic therapy, all centres use some...

  10. Decontamination and winter conditions

    Quenild, C.; Tveten, U.

    1984-12-01

    The report deals with two decontamonation experiments under winter conditions. A snow-covered parking lot was contaminated, and the snow was subsequently removed using standard snow-moving equipment. The snow left behind was collected and the content of contaminant was determined. A non-radioactive contaminant was used. A decontamination factor exceeding 100 was obtained. Although the eksperimental conditions were close to ideal, it is reason to believe that extremely efficient removal of deposited materials on a snow surface is achivable. In another investigation, run-off from agricultural surface, contaminated while covered with snow, was measured A lycimeter was used in this experiment. A stable layer of ice and snow was allowed to form before contamination. The run-off water was collected at each thaw period until all snow and ice was gone. Cs-134 was used as contaminant. Roughly 30% of the Cs-134 with which the area was contaminated ran off with the melt water. Following a reactor accident situation, this would have given a corresponding reduction in the long term doses. Both of these experiments show that consequence calculation assumptions, as they are currently applied to large accident assessment, tend to overestimate the consequences resulting from accidents taking place under winter conditions

  11. Spirit's Winter Work Site

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Version This portion of an image acquired by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment camera shows the Spirit rover's winter campaign site. Spirit was parked on a slope tilted 11 degrees to the north to maximize sunlight during the southern winter season. 'Tyrone' is an area where the rover's wheels disturbed light-toned soils. Remote sensing and in-situ analyses found the light-toned soil at Tyrone to be sulfate rich and hydrated. The original picture is catalogued as PSP_001513_1655_red and was taken on Sept. 29, 2006. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project and built the spacecraft. The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment is operated by the University of Arizona, Tucson, and the instrument was built by Ball Aerospace and Technology Corp., Boulder, Colo.

  12. Winter School Les Houches

    Lannoo, Michel; Bastard, Gérald; Voos, Michel; Boccara, Nino

    1986-01-01

    The Winter School held in Les Houches on March 12-21, 1985 was devoted to Semiconductor Heterojunctions and Superlattices, a topic which is recognized as being now one of the most interesting and active fields in semiconductor physics. In fact, following the pioneering work of Esaki and Tsu in 1970, the study of these two-dimensional semiconductor heterostructures has developed rapidly, both from the point of view of basic physics and of applications. For instance, modulation-doped heterojunctions are nowadays currently used to investigate the quantum Hall effect and to make very fast transistors. This book contains the lectures presented at this Winter School, showing in particular that many aspects of semiconductor heterojunctions and super­ lattices were treated, extending from the fabrication of these two-dimensional systems to their basic properties and applications in micro-and opto-electron­ ics. Among the subjects which were covered, one can quote as examples: molecular beam epitaxy and metallorgani...

  13. Serpins in fruit and vegetative tissues of apple (Malus domestica): expression of four serpins with distinct reactive centres and characterisation of a major inhibitory seed form, MdZ1b

    Hejgaard, Jørn; Laing, W.A.; Marttila, S.

    2005-01-01

    in a wide variety of tissues, including developing and mature fruits, seeds and vegetative buds as well as developing, mature and senescing leaves. Analysis of 46 sequences, most full-length, identified serpins with four distinct reactive centres belonging to two subfamilies (MdZ1 and MdZ2) with similar...

  14. Spirit Scans Winter Haven

    2006-01-01

    At least three different kinds of rocks await scientific analysis at the place where NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit will likely spend several months of Martian winter. They are visible in this picture, which the panoramic camera on Spirit acquired during the rover's 809th sol, or Martian day, of exploring Mars (April 12, 2006). Paper-thin layers of light-toned, jagged-edged rocks protrude horizontally from beneath small sand drifts; a light gray rock with smooth, rounded edges sits atop the sand drifts; and several dark gray to black, angular rocks with vesicles (small holes) typical of hardened lava lie scattered across the sand. This view is an approximately true-color rendering that combines images taken through the panoramic camera's 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer, and 432-nanometer filters.

  15. Winter fuels report

    1995-01-01

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for PADD's I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD's, as well as selected National average prices; residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the US and selected cities; and a 6-10 day, 30-Day, and 90-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree-days by city

  16. Winter fuels report

    1990-11-29

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and state and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks for all PADD's and product supplied on a US level; propane net product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks for Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the United States and consumption for all PADD's; residential and wholesale pricing data for propane and heating oil for those states participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the United States and selected cities; and US total heating degree-days by city. 27 figs, 12 tabs.

  17. Discussion on 'Centres of excellence' in Africa

    Riad, S.

    1999-01-01

    In Africa, Centres of Excellence should be oriented to build up scientific and technological capacity in the four topics of international Monitoring System related technologies, namely, seismic monitoring, hydro acoustic monitoring, infrasound monitoring and radionuclides monitoring. Training programs on these topics should be a major objective. A network of such centres should be established in a number of African countries. Centres should be equipped with means and materials for on-line course dispatch to interested training centres or research institutions. African centres should develop strong relationship among themselves through information and data exchange and sharing, harmonization of training programs. National data centres may be established as a component of the African Centre of Excellence. States Signatories may authorize the establishment of a specific fund to support the activities of the African center

  18. Novel psychrotolerant picocyanobacteria isolated from Chesapeake Bay in the winter.

    Xu, Yongle; Jiao, Nianzhi; Chen, Feng

    2015-08-01

    Picocyanobacteria are major primary producers in the ocean, especially in the tropical or subtropical oceans or during warm seasons. Many "warm" picocyanobacterial species have been isolated and characterized. However, picocyanobacteria in cold environments or cold seasons are much less studied. In general, little is known about the taxonomy and ecophysiology of picocyanobacteria living in the winter. In this study, 17 strains of picocyanobacteria were isolated from Chesapeake Bay, a temperate estuarine ecosystem, during the winter months. These winter isolates belong to five distinct phylogenetic lineages, and are distinct from the picocyanobacteria previously isolated from the warm seasons. The vast majority of the winter isolates were closely related to picocyanobacteria isolated from other cold environments like Arctic or subalpine waters. The winter picocyanobacterial isolates were able to maintain slow growth or prolonged dormancy at 4°C. Interestingly, the phycoerythrin-rich strains outperformed the phycocyanin-rich strains at cold temperature. In addition, winter picocyanobacteria changed their morphology when cultivated at 4°C. The close phylogenetic relationship between the winter picocyanobacteria and the picocyanobacteria living in high latitude cold regions indicates that low temperature locations select specific ecotypes of picocyanobacteria. © 2015 Phycological Society of America.

  19. The majority of sick children receive paracetamol during the winter

    Ertmann, Ruth; Møller, Janne Julie; Waldorff, Frans Boch

    2012-01-01

    Even though fever is a common symptom in childhood, it often worries parents and they may try to reduce discomfort by giving the child paracetamol, which is currently the most commonly sold over-the-counter medicine. The objective of this study was to investigate parent-administered paracetamol...

  20. Nuclear winter or nuclear fall?

    Berger, André

    Climate is universal. If a major modern nuclear war (i.e., with a large number of small-yield weapons) were to happen, it is not even necessary to have a specific part of the world directly involved for there to be cause to worry about the consequences for its inhabitants and their future. Indeed, smoke from fires ignited by the nuclear explosions would be transported by winds all over the world, causing dark and cold. According to the first study, by Turco et al. [1983], air surface temperature over continental areas of the northern mid-latitudes (assumed to be the nuclear war theatre) would fall to winter levels even in summer (hence the term “nuclear winter”) and induce drastic climatic conditions for several months at least. The devastating effects of a nuclear war would thus last much longer than was assumed initially. Discussing to what extent these estimations of long-term impacts on climate are reliable is the purpose of this article.

  1. Winter fuels report

    1995-01-13

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for PADD`s I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD`s, as well as selected National average prices; residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the US and selected cities; and a 6-10 day, 30-Day, and 90-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree-days by city.

  2. Klaus Winter (1930 - 2015)

    2015-01-01

    We learned with great sadness that Klaus Winter passed away on 9 February 2015, after a long illness.   Klaus was born in 1930 in Hamburg, where he obtained his diploma in physics in 1955. From 1955 to 1958 he held a scholarship at the Collège de France, where he received his doctorate in nuclear physics under the guidance of Francis Perrin. Klaus joined CERN in 1958, where he first participated in experiments on π+ and K0 decay properties at the PS, and later became the spokesperson of the CHOV Collaboration at the ISR. Starting in 1976, his work focused on experiments with the SPS neutrino beam. In 1984 he joined Ugo Amaldi to head the CHARM experiment, designed for detailed studies of the neutral current interactions of high-energy neutrinos, which had been discovered in 1973 using the Gargamelle bubble chamber at the PS. The unique feature of the detector was its target calorimeter, which used large Carrara marble plates as an absorber material. From 1984 to 1991, Klau...

  3. Winter fuels report

    1990-10-04

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and state and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks for all PADD's and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks for Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition, underground storage, and consumption for all PADD's; residential and wholesale pricing data for propane and heating oil for those states participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil price comparisons for the United States and selected cities; and US total heating degree-days by city. This report will be published weekly by the EIA starting the first week in October 1990 and will continue until the first week in April 1991. The data will also be available electronically after 5:00 p.m. on Thursday during the heating season through the EIA Electronic Publication System (EPUB). 12 tabs.

  4. The Unusual Southern Hemisphere Stratosphere Winter of 2002

    Newman, Paul A.; Nash, Eric R.

    2003-01-01

    The southern hemisphere stratospheric winter of 2002 was the most unusual winter yet observed in the southern hemisphere climate record. Temperatures near the edge of the Antarctic polar vortex were considerably warmer than normal over the entire course of the winter. The polar night jet was considerably weaker than normal, and was displaced more poleward than has been observed in previous winters. These record high temperatures and weak jet resulted from a series of wave events that took place over the course of the winter. The first large event occurred on 15 May, and the final warming occurred on 25 October. The propagation of these wave events from the troposphere is diagnosed from time series of Eliassen-Palm flux vectors. The wave events tended to occur irregularly over the course of the winter, and pre-conditioned the polar night jet for the extremely large wave event of 22 September. This large wave event resulted in the first ever observed major stratospheric warming in the southern hemisphere. This wave event split the Antarctic ozone hole. The combined effect of the wave events of the 2002 winter resulted in the smallest ozone hole observed since 1988.

  5. Winter/Summer Monsoon Experiment

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Winter/Summer Monsoon Experiment (MONEX) was conducted during the First Global GARP (Global Atmospheric Research Program) Experiment (FGGE). An international...

  6. The meaning of nuclear winter

    Geiger, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper the author reviews the history and origins of the basic ideas underlying nuclear winter; and findings and predictions of several groups regarding this topic. The author reviews some of the further developments and scientific analyses regarding nuclear winter since the initial announcements of 1983, touching on some of the revisions and controversies and trying to indicate the current status of the field

  7. Flowering time control in European winter wheat

    Simon Martin Langer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Flowering time is an important trait in wheat breeding as it affects adaptation and yield potential. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic architecture of flowering time in European winter bread wheat cultivars. To this end a population of 410 winter wheat varieties was evaluated in multi-location field trials and genotyped by a genotyping-by-sequencing approach and candidate gene markers. Our analyses revealed that the photoperiod regulator Ppd-D1 is the major factor affecting flowering time in this germplasm set, explaining 58% of the genotypic variance. Copy number variation at the Ppd-B1 locus was present but explains only 3.2% and thus a comparably small proportion of genotypic variance. By contrast, the plant height loci Rht-B1 and Rht-D1 had no effect on flowering time. The genome-wide scan identified six QTL which each explain only a small proportion of genotypic variance and in addition we identified a number of epistatic QTL, also with small effects. Taken together, our results show that flowering time in European winter bread wheat cultivars is mainly controlled by Ppd-D1 while the fine tuning to local climatic conditions is achieved through Ppd-B1 copy number variation and a larger number of QTL with small effects.

  8. Winter chilling speeds spring development of temperate butterflies.

    Stålhandske, Sandra; Gotthard, Karl; Leimar, Olof

    2017-07-01

    Understanding and predicting phenology has become more important with ongoing climate change and has brought about great research efforts in the recent decades. The majority of studies examining spring phenology of insects have focussed on the effects of spring temperatures alone. Here we use citizen-collected observation data to show that winter cold duration, in addition to spring temperature, can affect the spring emergence of butterflies. Using spatial mixed models, we disentangle the effects of climate variables and reveal impacts of both spring and winter conditions for five butterfly species that overwinter as pupae across the UK, with data from 1976 to 2013 and one butterfly species in Sweden, with data from 2001 to 2013. Warmer springs lead to earlier emergence in all species and milder winters lead to statistically significant delays in three of the five investigated species. We also find that the delaying effect of winter warmth has become more pronounced in the last decade, during which time winter durations have become shorter. For one of the studied species, Anthocharis cardamines (orange tip butterfly), we also make use of parameters determined from previous experiments on pupal development to model the spring phenology. Using daily temperatures in the UK and Sweden, we show that recent variation in spring temperature corresponds to 10-15 day changes in emergence time over UK and Sweden, whereas variation in winter duration corresponds to 20 days variation in the south of the UK versus only 3 days in the south of Sweden. In summary, we show that short winters delay phenology. The effect is most prominent in areas with particularly mild winters, emphasising the importance of winter for the response of ectothermic animals to climate change. With climate change, these effects may become even stronger and apply also at higher latitudes. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2017 British Ecological Society.

  9. Diagnostic Comparison of Meteorological Analyses during the 2002 Antarctic Winter

    Manney, Gloria L.; Allen, Douglas R.; Kruger, Kirstin; Naujokat, Barbara; Santee, Michelle L.; Sabutis, Joseph L.; Pawson, Steven; Swinbank, Richard; Randall, Cora E.; Simmons, Adrian J.; hide

    2005-01-01

    Several meteorological datasets, including U.K. Met Office (MetO), European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), and NASA's Goddard Earth Observation System (GEOS-4) analyses, are being used in studies of the 2002 Southern Hemisphere (SH) stratospheric winter and Antarctic major warming. Diagnostics are compared to assess how these studies may be affected by the meteorological data used. While the overall structure and evolution of temperatures, winds, and wave diagnostics in the different analyses provide a consistent picture of the large-scale dynamics of the SH 2002 winter, several significant differences may affect detailed studies. The NCEP-NCAR reanalysis (REAN) and NCEP-Department of Energy (DOE) reanalysis-2 (REAN-2) datasets are not recommended for detailed studies, especially those related to polar processing, because of lower-stratospheric temperature biases that result in underestimates of polar processing potential, and because their winds and wave diagnostics show increasing differences from other analyses between similar to 30 and 10 hPa (their top level). Southern Hemisphere polar stratospheric temperatures in the ECMWF 40-Yr Re-analysis (ERA-40) show unrealistic vertical structure, so this long-term reanalysis is also unsuited for quantitative studies. The NCEP/Climate Prediction Center (CPC) objective analyses give an inferior representation of the upper-stratospheric vortex. Polar vortex transport barriers are similar in all analyses, but there is large variation in the amount, patterns, and timing of mixing, even among the operational assimilated datasets (ECMWF, MetO, and GEOS-4). The higher-resolution GEOS-4 and ECMWF assimilations provide significantly better representation of filamentation and small-scale structure than the other analyses, even when fields gridded at reduced resolution are studied. The choice of which analysis to use is most critical for detailed transport

  10. Human-centred Governance

    Bason, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Design approaches are now being applied all over the world as a powerful approach to innovating public policies and services. Christian Bason, author of Leading public design: Discovering human-centred governance, argues that by bringing design methods into play, public managers can lead change...... with citizens at the centre, and discover a new model for steering public organisations: human-centred governance....

  11. The Search for Centre

    Nunes, April

    2006-01-01

    This paper acknowledges the importance of a dancer's centre but likewise highlights the problematic nature of the communication of this concept from dance teacher to student. After a brief introduction of orthodox approaches in finding centre, this paper suggests a method of locating centre through the ancient somatic technique.

  12. Logistics centres development in Latvia

    I. Kabashkin

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In the situation where a large increase in trade and freight transport volumes in the Baltic Sea region (BSR is expected and in which the BSR is facing a major economic restructuring, eff orts to achieve more integrated and sustainable transport and communication links within the BSR are needed. One of these eff orts is the development of logistics centres (LCs and their networking, which will continue to have an impact on improving communication links, spatial planning practices and approaches, logistics chain development and the promotion of sustainable transport modes. These factors will refl ect on logistics processes both in major gateway cities and in remote BSR areas. The importance of logistics systems as a whole is not seen clearly enough. Logistics actors see that logistics operations are not appreciated as much as other fi elds of activity. In addition, logistics centres and the importance of logistics activities to the business life of areas and the employment rate should be brought up better. In the paper main goal and tasks of national approach to LCs development are discussed. Strategic focus of new activities in this area is on the integration of various networks within and between logistics centres in order to improve and develop the quality of logistics networks as well as to spatially widen the networking activities. The key objectives are to integrate the links between logistics centres, ports and other logistics operators in a functional and sustainable way, to promote spatial integration by creating sustainable and integrated approaches to spatial planning of logistics centres and transport infrastructure, to improve ICT-based networking and communication practices of the fi elds of transport and logistics and to increase the competence of logistics centres and associated actors by organising educational and training events. The current activities include, for example, the creation of measures for transport networking and

  13. Centre of the Cell: Science Comes to Life.

    Balkwill, Frances; Chambers, Katie

    2015-01-01

    Centre of the Cell is a unique biomedical science education centre, a widening participation and outreach project in London's East End. This article describes Centre of the Cell's first five years of operation, the evolution of the project in response to audience demand, and the impact of siting a major public engagement project within a research laboratory.

  14. CMS Centre at CERN

    2007-01-01

    A new "CMS Centre" is being established on the CERN Meyrin site by the CMS collaboration. It will be a focal point for communications, where physicists will work together on data quality monitoring, detector calibration, offline analysis of physics events, and CMS computing operations. Construction of the CMS Centre begins in the historic Proton Synchrotron (PS) control room. The historic Proton Synchrotron (PS) control room, Opened by Niels Bohr in 1960, will be reused by CMS to built its control centre. TThe LHC@FNAL Centre, in operation at Fermilab in the US, will work very closely with the CMS Centre, as well as the CERN Control Centre. (Photo Fermilab)The historic Proton Synchrotron (PS) control room is about to start a new life. Opened by Niels Bohr in 1960, the room will be reused by CMS to built its control centre. When finished, it will resemble the CERN Contro...

  15. Energy market barometer report - Winter 2016

    Schleich, Joachim; Cartel, Melodie; Shao, Evan; Vernay, Anne-Lorene

    2017-01-01

    This Winter 2016 edition of the Grenoble Ecole de Management (GEM) Energy Market Barometer explores the opinion of French energy experts about the decentralization of the electricity sector in France. French experts were also asked where the focus of French energy policy should be in the next five years. Key findings: - French energy experts sense a clear trend toward the decentralization of the French electricity system; - Technology innovation and self-sufficiency for corporations and municipalities are the two major promises of decentralization; - The major barriers to faster decentralization in France are the high price of energy storage systems and the lack of political will; - 74% of experts believe that energy efficiency should be a top priority for French energy policy in the next five years; - Reducing greenhouse gas emissions and facilitating the decentralization of the electricity sector should also be a top priority for French energy policy in the next five years; - Experts are divided over the future of nuclear energy

  16. Learning through a Winter's Tale

    Vidotto, Kristie

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author shares her experience during the final semester of Year 11 Theatre Studies when she performed a monologue about Hermione from "The Winter's Tale". This experience was extremely significant to her because it nearly made her lose faith in one of the most important parts of her life, drama. She believes this…

  17. SAP Nuclear Competence Centre

    Andrlova, Z.

    2009-01-01

    In this issue we continue and introduce the SAP Nuclear Competence Centre and its head Mr. Igor Dzama. SAP Nuclear Competence Centrum is one of the fi rst competence centres outside ENEL headquarters. It should operate in Slovakia and should have competencies within the whole Enel group. We are currently dealing with the issues of organisation and funding. We are trying to balance the accountability to the NPP directors and to the management of the competence centres at Enel headquarters; we are looking at the relations between the competence centres within the group and defining the services that we will provide for the NPPs. author)

  18. Canadian Irradiation Centre

    1987-05-01

    The Canadian Irradiation Centre is a non-profit cooperative project between Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Radiochemical Company and Universite du Quebec, Institut Armand-Frappier, Centre for Applied Research in Food Science. The Centre's objectives are to develop, demonstrate and promote Canada's radiation processing technology and its applications by conducting applied research; training technical, professional and scientific personnel; educating industry and government; demonstrating operational and scientific procedures; developing processing procedures and standards, and performing product and market acceptance trials. This pamphlet outlines the history of radoation technology and the services offered by the Canadian Irradiation Centre

  19. Communications strategy for the Chernobyl Centre

    Kurilchik, Mykola; Green, Len

    2000-01-01

    This Communications Strategy was developed for the International Chernobyl Centre (ICC) as part of a joint UK/Ukraine project, sponsored by the Department of Trade and Industry and NNC Limited. The Plan was developed during four weeks of workshop discussions in the UK between staff from the centre and experienced PR Professionals from NNC Limited. The requirements for a sustained communications activity at the ICC go much further than simply enhancing or promoting the Centre's scientific and technical activities. Raising sufficient awareness of the Centre among potential funding agents and commercial partners is critical to its future development as a major centre for international co-operation and research. It is only through establishing and developing effective communications that the Centre will become well enough known and understood both within the Ukraine, and internationally, to secure its long term future. However, as the workshop programme unfolded, it also became clear that communications was in itself a legitimate and necessary function of the Centre, and part of the foundations of its existence. The Centre has a fundamental role as an 'information exchange', collecting and communicating information from within the Ukraine to the rest of the world, and interpreting world interest and attitudes to the Ukraine Government and nuclear industry. As such compliments the efforts of individual power plant and corporate PR functions within the Ukraine nuclear energy sector

  20. Spectrum of winter dermatoses in rural Yemen.

    Al-Kamel, Mohamed A

    2016-05-01

    Surveys that have been carried out to determine the prevalence of skin diseases in rural Yemen are scarce or not available. To investigate the spectrum of winter dermatoses in a rural Yemeni community. A retrospective study was conducted at the dermatology outpatient clinic of the Al-Helal Specialized Hospital (Radaa' district of Al Bayda' Governorate) using data analysis of 700 selected records of patients managed during four months of the 2013-14 winter season. Seven hundred patients with 730 diseases were reported in this study; the major bulk of patients (46.57%) were in the >18-40-year age group, and females outnumbered males. By far, dermatitis, eczematous, and allergic disorders (38.49%) topped the list of the most frequent skin disorders groups, followed by skin infections and infestations (20%) and the pigmentary disorders (13.70%) group. Contact dermatitis (10.68%) was the most prevalent skin disorder, followed by hyperpigmentations (8.77%), acne (8.08%), viral infections (5.75%), atopic dermatitis (5.62%), and parasitic infestations (5.34%). This survey has documented the spectrum of winter dermatoses in a rural Yemeni community but also reflects the pattern of common dermatoses in the whole country. Dermatitis, eczematous, and allergic disorders, skin infections, and pigmentary disorders are the commonest groups. Contact dermatitis is the most prevalent disorder, and leishmaniasis is the most prevalent skin infectious disease. Climate, occupational, social, and environmental factors are the main contributors. Such statistics can form an important basis for community-based health policies. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  1. Associating science and development - the Trieste Centre

    Hamende, A.

    1982-01-01

    The International Centre for Theoretical Physics, located in Trieste, Italy, is supported by income from the Italian Government, from UNESCO and from the IAEA. The Centre organizes research sessions, workshops and extended courses on advanced topics in the physical and mathematical sciences and encourages scientists, especially from developing countries, to visit the ICTP for extended periods. With the aim of facilitating the transfer of knowledge to scientists from developing countries, the Centre's current scientific programme is divided up into five major disciplines: physics and energy; physics and frontiers of knowledge; physics and technology; physics and the environment and natural resources; applicable mathematics

  2. Major depression

    Depression - major; Depression - clinical; Clinical depression; Unipolar depression; Major depressive disorder ... providers do not know the exact causes of depression. It is believed that chemical changes in the ...

  3. Client Centred Desing

    Ørngreen, Rikke; Nielsen, Janni; Levinsen, Karin

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we argue for the use of Client Centred preparation phases when designing complex systems. Through Client Centred Design human computer interaction can extend the focus on end-users to alse encompass the client's needs, context and resources....

  4. 36 CFR 1002.19 - Winter activities.

    2010-07-01

    ... RECREATION § 1002.19 Winter activities. (a) Skiing, snowshoeing, ice skating, sledding, innertubing, tobogganing and similar winter sports are prohibited on Presidio Trust roads and in parking areas open to...

  5. Classification guide: Sochi 2014 Paralympic Winter Games

    2014-01-01

    The Sochi 2014 Paralympic Winter Games classification guide is designed to provide National Paralympic Committees (NPCs) and International Federations (IFs) with information about the classification policies and procedures that will apply to the Sochi 2014 Paralympic Winter Games.

  6. Essential Outdoor Sun Safety Tips for Winter

    ... Weekend Warriors expand/collapse Vitamin D Essential Outdoor Sun Safety Tips for Winter Winter sports enthusiasts are ... skiing! Be Mindful of Time Spent in the Sun, Regardless of the Season If possible, ski early ...

  7. Ice and mineral licks used by caribou in winter

    Douglas C. Heard

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available In winter, barren-ground caribou obtain minerals from ice and soil licks. Between December and April we have seen caribou cratering on the surface of frozen lakes and licking the ice. Ice samples from eight licks on four lakes contained concentrations of calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, phosphorus, chloride and sulphate many times higher than in the surrounding unlicked ice or than would be expected in lake water. Soil licks being used in March and June had high concentrations of calcium, magnesium, sodium phosphorus and potassium. In winter caribou may be seeking supplements of all of the major mineral elements (calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium at ice and soil licks because lichens, their staple winter diet, are low in minerals and may also reduce the absorption of some minerals.

  8. The impact of winter heating on air pollution in China.

    Xiao, Qingyang; Ma, Zongwei; Li, Shenshen; Liu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Fossil-fuel combustion related winter heating has become a major air quality and public health concern in northern China recently. We analyzed the impact of winter heating on aerosol loadings over China using the MODIS-Aqua Collection 6 aerosol product from 2004-2012. Absolute humidity (AH) and planetary boundary layer height (PBL) -adjusted aerosol optical depth (AOD*) was constructed to reflect ground-level PM2.5 concentrations. GIS analysis, standard statistical tests, and statistical modeling indicate that winter heating is an important factor causing increased PM2.5 levels in more than three-quarters of central and eastern China. The heating season AOD* was more than five times higher as the non-heating season AOD*, and the increase in AOD* in the heating areas was greater than in the non-heating areas. Finally, central heating tend to contribute less to air pollution relative to other means of household heating.

  9. Weed seed germination in winter cereals under contrasting tillage systems

    Scherner, Ananda

    2015-01-01

    to accumulate in the top soil layer and timing of herbicide applications sometimes seems to target the emergence pattern of these weeds poorly. In contrast to the management of most diseases and pests, weed management should be considered in a time frame. The abilities to produce above and below ground...... of weeds. An important component in IWM is to understand and ultimately predict weed emergence patterns in relation to the cropping system and the tillage method applied. A better understanding of the cumulative emergence patterns of weed species in winter crops under different tillage regimes will help......Grass weeds and Gallium aparine are major weed problems in North European arable cropping systems with high proportions of winter crops, especially winter wheat (Clarke et al., 2000; Melander et al., 2008). Problems are accentuated where inverting tillage is omitted, as weed seeds tend...

  10. Learning at old age: a study on winter bees

    Andreas Behrends

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Ageing is often accompanied by a decline in learning and memory abilities across the animal kingdom. Understanding age-related changes in cognitive abilities is therefore a major goal of current research. The honey bee is emerging as a novel model organism for age-related changes in brain function, because learning and memory can easily be studied in bees under controlled laboratory conditions. In addition, genetically similar workers naturally display life expectancies from six weeks (summer bees to six months (winter bees. We studied whether in honey bees, extreme longevity leads to a decline in cognitive functions. Six-month-old winter bees were conditioned either to odours or to tactile stimuli. Afterwards, long-term memory and discrimination abilities were analysed. Winter bees were kept under different conditions (flight /no flight opportunity to test for effects of foraging activity on learning performance. Despite their extreme age, winter bees did not display an age-related decline in learning or discrimination abilities, but had a slightly impaired olfactory long-term memory. The opportunity to forage indoors led to a slight decrease in learning performance. This suggests that in honey bees, unlike in most other animals, age per se does not impair associative learning. Future research will show which mechanisms protect winter bees from age-related deficits in learning.

  11. Genetic architecture of winter hardiness and frost tolerance in triticale.

    Wenxin Liu

    Full Text Available Abiotic stress experienced by autumn-sown crops during winter is of great economic importance as it can have a severe negative impact on yield. In this study, we investigated the genetic architecture of winter hardiness and frost tolerance in triticale. To this end, we used a large mapping population of 647 DH lines phenotyped for both traits in combination with genome-wide marker data. Employing multiple-line cross QTL mapping, we identified nine main effect QTL for winter hardiness and frost tolerance of which six were overlapping between both traits. Three major QTL were identified on chromosomes 5A, 1B and 5R. In addition, an epistasis scan revealed the contribution of epistasis to the genetic architecture of winter hardiness and frost tolerance in triticale. Taken together, our results show that winter hardiness and frost tolerance are complex traits that can be improved by phenotypic selection, but also that genomic approaches hold potential for a knowledge-based improvement of these important traits in elite triticale germplasm.

  12. Leadership in American Indian Communities: Winter Lessons

    Metoyer, Cheryl A.

    2010-01-01

    Winter lessons, or stories told in the winter, were one of the ways in which tribal elders instructed and directed young men and women in the proper ways to assume leadership responsibilities. Winter lessons stressed the appropriate relationship between the leader and the community. The intent was to remember the power and purpose of that…

  13. 46 CFR 45.73 - Winter freeboard.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Winter freeboard. 45.73 Section 45.73 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Freeboards § 45.73 Winter freeboard. The minimum winter freeboard (fw) in inches is obtained by the formula: fw=f(s)+T s...

  14. Winter to winter recurrence of atmospheric circulation anomalies over East Asia and its impact on winter surface air temperature anomalies.

    Zhao, Xia; Yang, Guang

    2017-01-01

    The persistence of atmospheric circulation anomalies over East Asia shows a winter to winter recurrence (WTWR) phenomenon. Seasonal variations in sea level pressure anomalies and surface wind anomalies display significantly different characteristics between WTWR and non-WTWR years. The WTWR years are characterized by the recurrence of both a strong (weak) anomalous Siberian High and an East Asian winter monsoon over two successive winters without persistence through the intervening summer. However, anomalies during the non-WTWR years have the opposite sign between the current and ensuing winters. The WTWR of circulation anomalies contributes to that of surface air temperature anomalies (SATAs), which is useful information for improving seasonal and interannual climate predictions over East Asia and China. In the positive (negative) WTWR years, SATAs are cooler (warmer) over East Asia in two successive winters, but the signs of the SATAs are opposite in the preceding and subsequent winters during the non-WTWR years.

  15. 2010 winter games tracks energy in real time

    Anon.

    2010-01-15

    An online energy tracker was developed by BC Hydro to publicly monitor the real-time energy consumption at the Vancouver 2010 Olympic winter game sites within Vancouver, Richmond, Whistler and Whistler Blackcomb. The venues and associated sites participating in the live energy tracking project were the Richmond Olympic Oval, Canada Hockey Place, Vancouver Olympic/Paralympic Centre, South East False Creek Community Centre, Whistler Blackcomb Roundhouse Lodge and snowmaking facilities, and the Olympic and Paralympic Villages. The system was developed to allow venue managers to optimize their use of electricity on an hourly and daily basis. An energy tracking display board developed by Pulse Energy enabled them to compare their performance to similar facilities in real time, and to determine the greenhouse gas savings achieved as result of building and operating practices. Some venues had the potential to save as much as 15 to 20 per cent in energy costs with corresponding reductions in carbon emissions. Efficiency and conservation was built into the design of many new venues. The retrofits made to several existing buildings will continue to contribute to British Columbia's conservation goals long after the 2010 winter games are over.

  16. Winter Atomiades 2014: CERN skiers win 31 medals!

    CERN Bulletin

    2014-01-01

    The 12th Winter Atomiades took place at Flachau, Austria, from 8 to 15 March 2014. The event, organised by the Association of the Sports Communities of the European Research Institutes (see here), brought together 18 research centres, including CERN, AIT, ESRF, PSI and many others, with a total of about 280 participants.   Lots of fun and a great result for the 13 CERN skiers at the 2014 Winter Atomiades in Flachau, Austria. From left to right and from bottom to top: Lennart Jirden (PH), Anna Lipniacka (PH), Guillaume Michet (DGS), Vera Chetvertkova (TE), Thierry Boileau (external), Jean-Louis Grenard (EN), Clement Bovet (EN), Marc Tavlet (BE), Rob Knoops (PH), Giuseppe Lo Presti (IT), Simone Campana (IT), Sylviane Gander (external) and Javier Pablos (TE).   The team of 13 athletes from six different CERN departments won 31 medals across all disciplines, in a spirit of fun and fair play. CERN came second in the general ranking of all participating institutes! The next Winter Atomiades...

  17. Geoethnopolitical Aspect of the Caucasus Development in terms of Sochi Preparation for Winter Olympic Games

    Svetlana V. Petrova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is concerned with geopolitical problems within the Caucasus Region in terms of modern regional processes, indicates major features of the region and their impact on Sochi preparation for Winter Olympic Games.

  18. Effects of Wintering Environment and Parasite-Pathogen Interactions on Honey Bee Colony Loss in North Temperate Regions.

    Suresh D Desai

    Full Text Available Extreme winter losses of honey bee colonies are a major threat to beekeeping but the combinations of factors underlying colony loss remain debatable. We monitored colonies in two environments (colonies wintered indoors or outdoors and characterized the effects of two parasitic mites, seven viruses, and Nosema on honey bee colony mortality and population loss over winter. Samples were collected from two locations within hives in fall, mid-winter and spring of 2009/2010. Although fall parasite and pathogen loads were similar in outdoor and indoor-wintered colonies, the outdoor-wintered colonies had greater relative reductions in bee population score over winter. Seasonal patterns in deformed wing virus (DWV, black queen cell virus (BQCV, and Nosema level also differed with the wintering environment. DWV and Nosema levels decreased over winter for indoor-wintered colonies but BQCV did not. Both BQCV and Nosema concentration increased over winter in outdoor-wintered colonies. The mean abundance of Varroa decreased and concentration of Sacbrood virus (SBV, Kashmir bee virus (KBV, and Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV increased over winter but seasonal patterns were not affected by wintering method. For most viruses, either entrance or brood area samples were reasonable predictors of colony virus load but there were significant season*sample location interactions for Nosema and BQCV, indicating that care must be taken when selecting samples from a single location. For Nosema spp., the fall entrance samples were better predictors of future infestation levels than were fall brood area samples. For indoor-wintered colonies, Israeli acute paralysis virus IAPV concentration was negatively correlated with spring population size. For outdoor-wintered hives, spring Varroa abundance and DWV concentration were positively correlated with bee loss and negatively correlated with spring population size. Multivariate analyses for fall collected samples indicated

  19. The Bruce Energy Centre

    Jones, R.I.

    1982-06-01

    The Bruce Energy Centre Development Corporation is a joint venture of the Ontario Energy Corporation and 6 private companies formed to market surplus steam from the Bruce Nuclear Power Development. The corporation will also sell or lease land near Bruce NPD. The Bruce Energy Centre has an energy output of 900 BTU per day per dollar invested. Potential customers include greenhouse operators, aquaculturalists, food and beverage manufacturers, and traditional manufacturers

  20. The Aube centre

    1996-07-01

    This educational booklet is devoted to a general presentation of the Aube radioactive wastes storage centre. After a short presentation of the Andra, the French national agency for the management of radioactive wastes, it gives some general information about radioactive wastes (origin, classification), containers (quality assurance and different types), wastes transportation (planning, safety), and about the Aube centre itself: description, treatment and conditioning of drums (compacting and injection), storage facilities, geological situation of the site, and environmental controls. (J.S.)

  1. CENTRE FOR GEOMETRICAL METROLOGY

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    The objective of this Annual Report is to give a general introduction to CGM as well as to give an account of the tasks carried out using the facilities of CGM's Instrument Centre during 1998 and 1999.......The objective of this Annual Report is to give a general introduction to CGM as well as to give an account of the tasks carried out using the facilities of CGM's Instrument Centre during 1998 and 1999....

  2. Winter: Public Enemy #1 for Accessibility EXPLORING NEW SOLUTIONS

    Ernesto Morales

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Winter is expensive. For countries situated in the northern hemisphere, closer to the north pole, such as Canada, Russia and Scandinavia, winter requires the acquisition of special clothing, car tires, and sports equipment, snow removal or plowing from the streets, and is associated with the presence of ice patches, along with accidents and illnesses associated with cold weather. Fall-related injuries due to winter conditions have been estimated to cost the Canadian health care system $ 2.8 billion a year. However, the greatest cost snow entails every year is the social isolation of seniors as well as wheelchair and walker users. This results from the lack of accessibility, as it is difficult to circulate on snow-covered streets even for the able-bodied. Social isolation has been associated with other negative consequences such as depression and even suicide. This exploratory pilot study aimed at finding possible and feasible design solutions for improving the accessibility of sidewalks during winter conditions. For this project we used a Co-Design methodology. Stakeholders (City of Quebec representatives, designers, urban planners, occupational therapists, and adults with motor, visual and aural disabilities were invited to participate in the design process. In order to meet the objectives, two main steps were carried out: 1. Conception of the design solutions (through Co-design sessions in a Focus-group format with seniors, designers and researchers; and 2. Validation of the design solutions (consultation with experts and stakeholders. The results are a wide variety of possible and feasible solutions, including the reorganisation of the snow-removal procedure and the development of heated curb cuts. This project was funded by the City of Quebec in partnership with the Centre interdisciplinaire de recherche en réadaptation et intégration sociale (CIRRIS. Ultimately, the project sought to explore possible solutions to be implemented

  3. Winter therapy for the accelerators

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2016-01-01

    Hundreds of people are hard at work during the year-end technical stop as all the accelerators are undergoing maintenance, renovation and upgrade operations in parallel.   The new beam absorber on its way to Point 2 before being lowered into the LHC tunnel for installation. The accelerator teams didn’t waste any time before starting their annual winter rejuvenation programme over the winter. At the end of November, as the LHC ion run was beginning, work got under way on the PS Booster, where operation had already stopped. On 14 December, once the whole complex had been shut down, the technical teams turned their attention to the other injectors and the LHC. The year-end technical stop (YETS) provides an opportunity to carry out maintenance work on equipment and repair any damage as well as to upgrade the machines for the upcoming runs. Numerous work projects are carried out simultaneously, so good coordination is crucial. Marzia Bernardini's team in the Enginee...

  4. The DIY Digital Medical Centre.

    Timmis, James Kenneth; Timmis, Kenneth

    2017-09-01

    Healthcare systems worldwide are confronted with major economic, organizational and logistical challenges. Historic evolution of health care has led to significant healthcare sector fragmentation, resulting in systemic inefficiencies and suboptimal resource exploitation. To attain a sustainable healthcare model, fundamental, system-wide improvements that effectively network, and ensure fulfilment of potential synergies between sectors, and include and facilitate coherent strategic planning and organisation of healthcare infrastructure are needed. Critically, they must be specifically designed to sustainably achieve peak performance within the current policy environment for cost-control, and efficiency and quality improvement for service delivery. We propose creation of a new healthcare cluster, to be embedded in existing healthcare systems. It consists of (i) local 24/7 walk-in virtually autonomous do-it-yourself Digital Medical Centres performing routine diagnosis, monitoring, prevention, treatment and standardized documentation and health outcome assessment/reporting, which are online interfaced with (ii) regional 24/7 eClinician Centres providing on-demand clinical supervision/assistance to Digital Medical Centre patients. Both of these are, in turn, online interfaced with (iii) the National Clinical Informatics Centre, which houses the national patient data centre (cloud) and data analysis units that conduct patient- and population-level, personalized and predictive(-medicine) intervention optimization analyses. The National Clinical Informatics Centre also interfaces with biomedical research and prioritizes and accelerates the translation of new discoveries into clinical practice. The associated Health Policy Innovation and Evaluation Centre rapidly integrates new findings with health policy/regulatory discussions. This new cluster would synergistically link all health system components in a circular format, enable not only access by all arms of the health

  5. Energy centre microgrid model

    Pasonen, R.

    2011-09-15

    A simulation model of Energy centre microgrid made with PSCAD simulation software version 4.2.1 has been built in SGEM Smart Grids and Energy Markets (SGEM) work package 6.6. Microgrid is an autonomous electric power system which can operate separate from common distribution system. The idea of energy centre microgrid concept was considered in Master of Science thesis 'Community Microgrid - A Building block of Finnish Smart Grid'. The name of energy centre microgrid comes from a fact that production and storage units are concentrated into a single location, an energy centre. This centre feeds the loads which can be households or industrial loads. Power direction flow on the demand side remains same compared to the current distribution system and allows to the use of standard fuse protection in the system. The model consists of photovoltaic solar array, battery unit, variable frequency boost converter, inverter, isolation transformer and demand side (load) model. The model is capable to automatically switch to islanded mode when there is a fault in outside grid and back to parallel operation mode when fault is removed. The modelled system responses well to load changes and total harmonic distortion related to 50Hz base frequency is kept under 1.5% while operating and feeding passive load. (orig.)

  6. The ideal Atomic Centre

    Mas, R.

    1965-01-01

    The author presents considerations which should prove to be of interest to all those who have to design, to construct and to operate a nuclear research centre. A large number of the ideas presented can also be applied to non-nuclear scientific research centres. In his report the author reviews: various problems with which the constructor is faced: ground-plan, infrastructure, buildings and the large units of scientific equipment in the centre, and those problems facing the director: maintenance, production, supplies, security. The author stresses the relationship which ought to exist between the research workers and the management. With this aim in view he proposes the creation of National School for Administration in Research which would train administrative executives for public or private organisations; they would be specialised in the fields of fundamental or applied research. (author) [fr

  7. Major Links.

    Henderson, Tona

    1995-01-01

    Provides electronic mail addresses for resources and discussion groups related to the following academic majors: art, biology, business, chemistry, computer science, economics, health sciences, history, literature, math, music, philosophy, political science, psychology, sociology, and theater. (AEF)

  8. Major Roads

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for major roads (interstates and trunk highways) found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. These roadways are current...

  9. Winter warming from large volcanic eruptions

    Robock, Alan; Mao, Jianping

    1992-01-01

    An examination of the Northern Hemisphere winter surface temperature patterns after the 12 largest volcanic eruptions from 1883-1992 shows warming over Eurasia and North America and cooling over the Middle East which are significant at the 95-percent level. This pattern is found in the first winter after tropical eruptions, in the first or second winter after midlatitude eruptions, and in the second winter after high latitude eruptions. The effects are independent of the hemisphere of the volcanoes. An enhanced zonal wind driven by heating of the tropical stratosphere by the volcanic aerosols is responsible for the regions of warming, while the cooling is caused by blocking of incoming sunlight.

  10. Netherlands Reactor Centre

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Briefly reviews the last year's work of the twenty year old Netherlands Reactor Centre (RCN) in the fields of reactor safety, fissile material, nuclear fission, non-nuclear energy systems and overseas co-operation. The annual report thus summarised is the last one to appear under the name of RCN. The terms of reference of the organisation having been broadened to include research into energy supply in general, it is to be known in future as the Netherlands Energy Research Centre (ECN). (D.J.B.)

  11. The Structural Integrity Centre

    Tomkins, B.

    1987-01-01

    The paper concerns the development and work of the Structural Integrity Centre (SIC) at Risley Nuclear Laboratories, United Kingdom. The centre was set up to provide authoritative advice to plant designers and operators on the integrity and life assessment of structures and components across the reactor projects in the United Kingdom. A description is given of the structure and role of the SIC, as well as the Structural Integrity Assessment work. The assessment methods are described for thermally loaded structures and welded structures. Finally, defect significance assessment and environmental effects are outlined. (U.K.)

  12. Regional greenhouse gas emissions from cultivation of winter wheat and winter rapeseed for biofuels in Denmark

    Elsgaard, Lars; Olesen, Joergen E.; Hermansen, John E.; Kristensen, Inge T.; Boergesen, Christen D. [Dept. of Agroecology, Aarhus Univ., Tjele (Denmark)], E-mail: lars.elsgaard@agrsci.dk

    2013-04-15

    Biofuels from bioenergy crops may substitute a significant part of fossil fuels in the transport sector where, e.g., the European Union has set a target of using 10% renewable energy by 2020. Savings of greenhouse gas emissions by biofuels vary according to cropping systems and are influenced by such regional factors as soil conditions, climate and input of agrochemicals. Here we analysed at a regional scale the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with cultivation of winter wheat for bioethanol and winter rapeseed for rapeseed methyl ester (RME) under Danish conditions. Emitted CO{sub 2} equivalents (CO{sub 2}eq) were quantified from the footprints of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O associated with cultivation and the emissions were allocated between biofuel energy and co-products. Greenhouse gas emission at the national level (Denmark) was estimated to 22.1 g CO{sub 2}eq MJ{sup 1} ethanol for winter wheat and 26.0 g CO{sub 2}eq MJ{sup 1} RME for winter rapeseed. Results at the regional level (level 2 according to the Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics [NUTS]) ranged from 20.0 to 23.9 g CO{sub 2}eq MJ{sup 1} ethanol and from 23.5 to 27.6 g CO{sub 2}eq MJ{sup 1} RME. Thus, at the regional level emission results varied by up to 20%. Differences in area-based emissions were only 4% reflecting the importance of regional variation in yields for the emission result. Fertilizer nitrogen production and direct emissions of soil N{sub 2}O were major contributors to the final emission result and sensitivity analyses showed that the emission result depended to a large extent on the uncertainty ranges assumed for soil N{sub 2}O emissions. Improvement of greenhouse gas balances could be pursued, e.g., by growing dedicated varieties for energy purposes. However, in a wider perspective, land-use change of native ecosystems to bioenergy cropping systems could compromise the CO{sub 2} savings of bioenergy production and challenge the targets set for biofuel

  13. A national benchmarking survey of student counselling centres/units ...

    The present study further found that the majority of counselling centres/units had one or more staff members with specialised training in areas such as HIV/AIDS counselling, sexual abuse counselling and multicultural counselling. In 2007, these counselling centres/units saw on average 18 per cent of enrolled students as ...

  14. Neurotic psychopathology and alexithymia among winter swimmers and controls--a prospective study.

    Lindeman, Sari; Hirvonen, Jorma; Joukamaa, Matti

    2002-05-01

    Random samples of 25 voluntary Finnish winter swimmers (7 males, 18 females) and 11 controls (3 males, 8 females were followed prospectively during the winter season from October 1999 to May 2000 to (determine whether winter swimming is beneficial for mental well-being, as many of its practitioners claim. The Crown-Crisp Experimental Index (CCEI) was used for measuring free-floating anxiety, phobic anxiety, obsessionality, depression, somatic anxiety and hysteria, and the 20-item version of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) for measuring alexithymia. Self-reported somatic and mental health and the reasons for and the frequency of winter-swimming were asked, too. As resealed by open questions, the winter swimmers reported positive effects of winter swimming. Several of the swimmers also told that they had started winter swimming to improve their physical and mental health. Their experience was that the swimming had relieved physical symptoms and made their mood more positive. However, we found no major differences between winter swimmers and controls in any CCEI or TAS variables. The structured questionnaires do not necessarily, however, reach subjective feelings and experiences.

  15. International research centre launched

    1965-01-01

    Full text: The first scientific research and educational institution to be set up on a completely international basis was officially inaugurated in Trieste on 5 October 1964 by the Director General of IAEA, Dr. Sigvard Eklund, when he opened the first seminar of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics. As evidence of the international nature of the institution he noted that the scientists who would work and teach there during the first year represented sixteen different countries. By the end of 1964, the Centre building was nearing completion and three of the five floors were occupied. A successful symposium had been held on the subject of plasma physics, and a score of professors and fellows were at work, from Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Greece, India, Japan, Jordan, the Netherlands, Norway, Pakistan, Poland, the United Kingdom, and the United States. A dozen scientific papers had been issued as preprints. The main purpose of the Centre is to foster the advancement of theoretical physics through training and research; at first the chief subject will be high-energy and elementary particle physics. Plasma physics, low energy physics and solid-state physics will also be dealt with. Special attention is paid to the needs of the developing countries. Of the 25 fellows selected for the academic year 1964-65, more than half are from South America, Africa and Asia. In conjunction with the Research Centre, there is an Advanced School for theoretical Physics to provide graduate training for fellows who need such preparation before they embark upon research. The Centre works under the guidance of a Scientific Council comprising the president, Prof. M. Sandoval-Vallarta (Nuclear Energy Commission of Mexico); Prof. A. Abragam (Saclay, France); Prof. R. Oppenheimer (Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, USA); Dr. V. Soloviev (Dubna, USSR); Prof V.F. Weiskopf (Director General, CERN) ; Prof Abdus Salam (Imperial College, London) ; Prof. P. Budini (University of Trieste

  16. 33 CFR 100.109 - Winter Harbor Lobster Boat Race, Winter Harbor, ME.

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Winter Harbor Lobster Boat Race, Winter Harbor, ME. 100.109 Section 100.109 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.109 Winter Harbor...

  17. Centre for Political and

    user

    and definitions will be published and the data translated into the official ... The Centre provides a terminological and subject-related service to lecturers and ... postgraduate students in international politics, political studies and .... obtain financial contributions (cf. .... making of authoritative and enforceable rules (laws) for.

  18. Implementing Responsibility Centre Budgeting

    Vonasek, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Recently, institutes of higher education (universities) have shown a renewed interest in organisational structures and operating methodologies that generate productivity and innovation; responsibility centre budgeting (RCB) is one such process. This paper describes the underlying principles constituting RCB, its origin and structural elements, and…

  19. Budapest Training Technology Centre.

    Budapest Training Technology Centre (Hungary).

    The Budapest Training Technology Centre (BTTC) grew out of a 1990 agreement calling for Great Britain to help Hungary develop and implement open and flexible training methods and technology-based training to support the labor force development and vocational training needs resulting from Hungary's transition to a market economy. The BTTC would be…

  20. Official Centre Hospitality

    Sylvain Dufour

    Approved by the Management Executive Committee. - 1 -. Version 3.1.0 effective 2017-06-28. Official Centre Hospitality. 1. Objective. 2. Application. 3. Definitions. 4. Roles and Responsibilities. 5. Authorization. 6. Consultants and Contractors. 7. Reimbursement. 1. Objective. To define the circumstances under which ...

  1. Academic Drug Discovery Centres

    Kirkegaard, Henriette Schultz; Valentin, Finn

    2014-01-01

    Academic drug discovery centres (ADDCs) are seen as one of the solutions to fill the innovation gap in early drug discovery, which has proven challenging for previous organisational models. Prior studies of ADDCs have identified the need to analyse them from the angle of their economic...

  2. ATLAS Visitors Centre

    claudia Marcelloni

    2009-01-01

    ATLAS Visitors Centre has opened its shiny new doors to the public. Officially launched on Monday February 23rd, 2009, the permanent exhibition at Point 1 was conceived as a tour resource for ATLAS guides, and as a way to preserve the public’s opportunity to get a close-up look at the experiment in action when the cavern is sealed.

  3. Marketing paediatric influenza vaccination: results of a major metropolitan trial

    Van Buynder, Paul G.; Carcione, Dale; Rettura, Vince; Daly, Alison; Woods, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Van Buynder et al. (2010) Marketing paediatric influenza vaccination: results of a major metropolitan trial. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 5(1), 33–38. Objectives  After a cluster of rapidly fulminant influenza related toddler deaths in a Western Australian metropolis, children aged six to 59 months were offered influenza vaccination in subsequent winters. Some parental resistance was expected and previous poor uptake of paediatric influenza vaccination overseas was noted. A marketing campaign addressing barriers to immunization was developed to maximise uptake. Design  Advertising occurred in major statewide newspapers, via public poster displays and static ‘eye‐lite’ displays, via press releases, via a series of rolling radio advertisements, via direct marketing to child care centres, and via a linked series of web‐sites. Parents were subsequently surveyed to assess reasons for vaccination. Main Outcome Results  The campaign produced influenza vaccination coverage above that previously described elsewhere and led to a proportionate reduction in influenza notifications in this age group compared to previous seasons. Conclusions  Influenza in children comes with significant morbidity and some mortality. Paediatric influenza vaccination is safe, well tolerated and effective if two doses are given. A targeted media campaign can increase vaccine uptake if it reinforces the seriousness of influenza and addresses community ‘myths’ about influenza and influenza vaccine. The lessons learned enabling enhancements of similar programs elsewhere. PMID:21138538

  4. Interim Report 'Winter smog and traffic'.

    Bloemen, H.; Blom, T.; Bogaard, van den C.; Boluyt, N.; Bree, van L.; Brunekreef, B.; Hoek, G.; Zee, van der S.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents a halfway score of the research project "Winter smog and Traffic", one of the themes of the research programme "Air Pollution and Health". A state of the art is presented of the health effects associated with exposure to winter smog and of the toxicological effects caused by the

  5. Nuclear Winter: Scientists in the Political Arena

    Badash, Lawrence

    2001-03-01

    The nuclear winter phenomenon is used to illustrate the many paths by which scientific advice reaches decision makers in the United States government. Because the Reagan administration was hostile to the strategic policy that the scientific discovery seemed to demand, the leading proponent of nuclear winter, Carl Sagan, used his formidable talent for popularization to reach a larger audience.

  6. How to Have a Healthy Winter | Poster

    Without a doubt, winter is here. Between the icy weather and the recent hustle and bustle of the holidays, everyone is at an increased risk of getting sick. With that in mind, Occupational Health Services has a few simple tips for staying healthy this winter.

  7. Chapter 7: Migration and winter ecology

    Deborah M. Finch; Jeffrey F. Kelly; Jean-Luc E. Cartron

    2000-01-01

    The willow flycatcher (Empidonax traillii) is a Neotropical migrant that breeds in North America, but winters in Central and northern South America. Little specific information is known about migration and wintering ecology of the southwestern willow flycatcher (E. t. extimus) (Yong and Finch 1997). Our report applies principally...

  8. A Case Study of the Effects of Dredging in Narrgansett Bay (RI, USA) on Winter Flounder Eggs

    Seasonal dredging constraints have been established in several northeastern U.S. estuaries with the intent to protect winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus). A major source of concern is impacts on demersal eggs due to elevated sedimentation rates during the winter-earl...

  9. Winter Survival of Individual Honey Bees and Honey Bee Colonies Depends on Level of Varroa destructor Infestation

    Dooremalen, van C.; Gerritsen, L.J.M.; Cornelissen, B.; Steen, van der J.J.M.; Langevelde, van F.; Blacquiere, T.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Recent elevated winter loss of honey bee colonies is a major concern. The presence of the mite Varroa destructor in colonies places an important pressure on bee health. V. destructor shortens the lifespan of individual bees, while long lifespan during winter is a primary requirement to

  10. SUSTAINABLE TOURISM IN NORTHWESTERN ALPS: WINTER SPORTS IMPACT ON PASTURE LANDS

    FREPPAZ MICHELE; FILIPPA GIANLUCA; CAIMI ANGELO; ZANINI ERMANNO

    2010-01-01

    Tourism has many potential benefits for rural areas, being an important source of jobs for nonmetro communities, especially for those that are economically underdeveloped. The traditional use of lands in mountain regions is combined nowadays with surfaces devoted to recreational activities because of increasing tourist demand for winter sports. Winter-based ski tourism is a major human use of many mountain regions, with large-scale ski resorts in Europe, Asia, North and South America, New Zea...

  11. Indoor air quality in 300 homes in Kingston/Harriman, Tennessee: winter phase status report

    Hawthorne, A.R.; Uziel, M.; Vo-Dinh, T.; Cohen, M.A.; Orebaugh, C.T.; Miller, G.H.; Ironsides, K.; Monar, K.P.; Dudney, C.S.; Tyndall, R.L.

    1986-10-01

    This report summarizes the status of the 300-Home Kingston/Harriman Indoor Air Quality Study at the end of the winter phase of monitoring. Plans for the summer monitoring phase are also presented. The report is organized by the major pollutants monitored. Reporting focuses on study protocols and summaries of winter monitoring activities. A minimum of results are presented since, for many pollutants, laboratory analyses are not yet complete.

  12. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of transmural collaborative care with consultation letter (TCCCL) and duloxetine for major depressive disorder (MDD) and (sub)chronic pain in collaboration with primary care: design of a randomized placebo-controlled multi-Centre trial: TCC:PAINDIP.

    de Heer, Eric W; Dekker, Jack; van Eck van der Sluijs, Jonna F; Beekman, Aartjan Tf; van Marwijk, Harm Wj; Holwerda, Tjalling J; Bet, Pierre M; Roth, Joost; Hakkaart-Van Roijen, Leona; Ringoir, Lianne; Kat, Fiona; van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M

    2013-05-24

    The comorbidity of pain and depression is associated with high disease burden for patients in terms of disability, wellbeing, and use of medical care. Patients with major and minor depression often present themselves with pain to a general practitioner and recognition of depression in such cases is low, but evolving. Also, physical symptoms, including pain, in major depressive disorder, predict a poorer response to treatment. A multi-faceted, patient-tailored treatment programme, like collaborative care, is promising. However, treatment of chronic pain conditions in depressive patients has, so far, received limited attention in research. Cost effectiveness of an integrated approach of pain in depressed patients has not been studied. This study is a placebo controlled double blind, three armed randomized multi centre trial. Patients with (sub)chronic pain and a depressive disorder are randomized to either a) collaborative care with duloxetine, b) collaborative care with placebo or c) duloxetine alone. 189 completers are needed to attain sufficient power to show a clinically significant effect of 0.6 SD on the primary outcome measures (PHQ-9 score). Data on depression, anxiety, mental and physical health, medication adherence, medication tolerability, quality of life, patient-doctor relationship, coping, health resource use and productivity will be collected at baseline and after three, six, nine and twelve months. This study enables us to show the value of a closely monitored integrated treatment model above usual pharmacological treatment. Furthermore, a comparison with a placebo arm enables us to evaluate effectiveness of duloxetine in this population in a real life setting. Also, this study will provide evidence-based treatments and tools for their implementation in practice. This will facilitate generalization and implementation of results of this study. Moreover, patients included in this study are screened for pain symptoms, differentiating between nociceptive

  13. Representation of Northern Hemisphere winter storm tracks in climate models

    Greeves, C.Z.; Pope, V.D.; Stratton, R.A.; Martin, G.M. [Met Office Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, Exeter (United Kingdom)

    2007-06-15

    Northern Hemisphere winter storm tracks are a key element of the winter weather and climate at mid-latitudes. Before projections of climate change are made for these regions, it is necessary to be sure that climate models are able to reproduce the main features of observed storm tracks. The simulated storm tracks are assessed for a variety of Hadley Centre models and are shown to be well modelled on the whole. The atmosphere-only model with the semi-Lagrangian dynamical core produces generally more realistic storm tracks than the model with the Eulerian dynamical core, provided the horizontal resolution is high enough. The two models respond in different ways to changes in horizontal resolution: the model with the semi-Lagrangian dynamical core has much reduced frequency and strength of cyclonic features at lower resolution due to reduced transient eddy kinetic energy. The model with Eulerian dynamical core displays much smaller changes in frequency and strength of features with changes in horizontal resolution, but the location of the storm tracks as well as secondary development are sensitive to resolution. Coupling the atmosphere-only model (with semi-Lagrangian dynamical core) to an ocean model seems to affect the storm tracks largely via errors in the tropical representation. For instance a cold SST bias in the Pacific and a lack of ENSO variability lead to large changes in the Pacific storm track. Extratropical SST biases appear to have a more localised effect on the storm tracks. (orig.)

  14. "IlVulcanoInforma": The restyling of the INGV Volcanological Information Centres, Aeolian Islands, Italy

    D'Addezio, G.; Carapezza, M. L.; Riposati, D.; Team, L.

    2008-12-01

    Vulcano and Stromboli are the most active volcanoes of the Aeolian Islands. Vulcano is quiescent since the eruption of 1888-90 but in the last decades it experienced several crises with huge increase of gas output and temperature of the crater fumaroles, and variations in the magmatic gas components. Stromboli is characterized by a permanent mild explosive activity, episodically interrupted by major explosions, lava effusions, or paroxystic explosive events (October 2001: a tourist killed; December 2002: lava effusion, tsunami generated by flank collapse; April 2003: explosive paroxysm, block fallout on Ginostra village; February-March 2007: lava effusion and paroxysm). These islands are renowned tourist sites for the marvelous sea and the fascination that the volcanoes evoke. In fact, during summer risk increases as there are 10,000-15,000 persons per island (only a few hundreds in winter). Starting from the 1990 the INGV and the Civil Protection established a Volcanological Information Centre on each island with the main goal to inform population and tourists on the risks related to each volcano. During the year the two centres are visited by 8000-10,000 visitors coming from different countries. Researchers and trained students are involved in the educational activity devoted to inform visitors on the scientific aspects of volcano monitoring and hazard assessment and to ensure that tourists, willing to climb the summit crater area, will behave properly. In 2008 the Vulcano exhibition has been totally restyled. The INGV Laboratorio Grafica e Immagini has created for the project a composite and innovative graphic study. This includes a series of products (logos, brochures, panels ecc) with the intent to create new effective information means. The logo creation has been the first step for all the communications: an image with strong impact on volcano information distributed in strategic zones of the village to stimulate interest in the INGV centre and its exhibition.

  15. Physical and chemical characterization of urban winter-time aerosols by mobile measurements in Helsinki, Finland

    Pirjola, Liisa; Niemi, Jarkko V.; Saarikoski, Sanna; Aurela, Minna; Enroth, Joonas; Carbone, Samara; Saarnio, Karri; Kuuluvainen, Heino; Kousa, Anu; Rönkkö, Topi; Hillamo, Risto

    2017-06-01

    A two-week measurement campaign by a mobile laboratory van was performed in urban environments in the Helsinki metropolitan area, Finland, in winter 2012, to obtain a comprehensive view on aerosol properties and sources. The abundances and physico-chemical properties of particles varied strongly in time and space, depending on the main sources of aerosols. Four major types of winter aerosol were recognized: 1) clean background aerosol with low particle number (Ntot) and lung deposited surface area (LDSA) concentrations due to marine air flows from the Atlantic Ocean; 2) long-range transported (LRT) pollution aerosol due to air flows from eastern Europe where the particles were characterized by the high contribution of oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA) and inorganic species, particularly sulphate, but low BC contribution, and their size distribution possessed an additional accumulation mode; 3) fresh smoke plumes from residential wood combustion in suburban small houses, these particles were characterized by high biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA) and black carbon (BC) concentrations; and 4) fresh emissions from traffic while driving on busy streets in the city centre and on the highways during morning rush hours. This aerosol was characterized by high concentration of Ntot, LDSA, small particles in the nucleation mode, as well as high hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) and BC concentrations. In general, secondary components (OOA, NO3, NH4, and SO4) dominated the PM1 chemical composition during the LRT episode accounting for 70-80% of the PM1 mass, whereas fresh primary emissions (BC, HOA and BBOA) dominated the local traffic and wood burning emissions. The major individual particle types observed with electron microscopy analysis (TEM/EDX) were mainly related to residential wood combustion (K/S/C-rich, soot, other C-rich particles), traffic (soot, Si/Al-rich, Fe-rich), heavy fuel oil combustion in heat plants or ships (S with V-Ni-Fe), LRT pollutants (S

  16. A Climatic Classification for Citrus Winter Survival in China.

    Shou, Bo Huang

    1991-05-01

    The citrus tree is susceptible to frost damage. Winter injury to citrus from freezing weather is the major meteorological problem in the northern pail of citrus growing regions in China. Based on meteorological data collected at 120 stations in southern China and on the extent of citrus freezing injury, five climatic regions for citrus winter survival in China were developed. They were: 1) no citrus tree injury. 2) light injury to mandarins (citrus reticulate) or moderate injury to oranges (citrus sinensis), 3) moderate injury to mandarins or heavy injury to oranges, 4) heavy injury to mandarins, and 5) impossible citrus tree growth. This citrus climatic classification was an attempt to provide guidelines for regulation of citrus production, to effectively utilize land and climatic resources, to chose suitable citrus varieties, and to develop methods to prevent injury by freezing.

  17. Elderly Care Centre

    Wagiman, Aliani; Haja Bava Mohidin, Hazrina; Ismail, Alice Sabrina

    2016-02-01

    The demand for elderly centre has increased tremendously abreast with the world demographic change as the number of senior citizens rose in the 21st century. This has become one of the most crucial problems of today's era. As the world progress into modernity, more and more people are occupied with daily work causing the senior citizens to lose the care that they actually need. This paper seeks to elucidate the best possible design of an elderly care centre with new approach in order to provide the best service for them by analysing their needs and suitable activities that could elevate their quality of life. All these findings will then be incorporated into design solutions so as to enhance the living environment for the elderly especially in Malaysian context.

  18. International Data Centre (IDC)

    Johansson, P.

    2002-01-01

    The presentation outlines the International Data Centre (Indc) mission, objective and historical background. The Indc progressive commissioning and organizational plans are presented on charts. The IMS stations providing data to Indc operations and the global communication infrastructure are plotted on world maps. The various types of IMS data are thus listed as seismic, hydroacoustic, infrasound and radionuclide. Finally Indc products and services together with its main achievements are listed

  19. Historical centres: changing definitions

    Roberta Lazzarotti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the end of the Second World War, the architectural and planning culture has been showing a fluctuating attention to the theme of historical centres and their enhancement. First of all this uneven progress explains the difficulty to reach a homogeneous definition and this is still lacking. During a long phase of this period, the historical parts of the town were considered as objects to be preserved in an integral way, as urban monuments. This is mostly due to the high symbolic value of these settlements, that represent fundamental landmarks. Identity building and empowerment of local communities are indispensable conditions for any development programme, especially in the case of centres or other historic environments at risk of abandonment. The progressive evolution of this concept brings awareness of the impossibility of separating – either in analytical or in planning terms ­ historical centres from their urban and territorial contexts, which are linked by mutual, deep relationships. This article attempts to retrace the steps signaled by the publication of international documents and conventions, from the Charter of Gubbio (1960 to the Charter of Krakow and the European Landscape Convention (2000; they obviously represent particular points of view, not exhaustive of the richness of the positions in the debate, but extremely significant in terms of diffusion and consensus.

  20. Winter fidelity and apparent survival of lesser snow goose populations in the Pacific flyway

    Williams, C.K.; Samuel, M.D.; Baranyuk, Vasily V.; Cooch, E.G.; Kraege, Donald K.

    2008-01-01

    The Beringia region of the Arctic contains 2 colonies of lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) breeding on Wrangel Island, Russia, and Banks Island, Canada, and wintering in North America. The Wrangel Island population is composed of 2 subpopulations from a sympatric breeding colony but separate wintering areas, whereas the Banks Island population shares a sympatric wintering area in California, USA, with one of the Wrangel Island subpopulations. The Wrangel Island colony represents the last major snow goose population in Russia and has fluctuated considerably since 1970, whereas the Banks Island population has more than doubled. The reasons for these changes are unclear, but hypotheses include independent population demographics (survival and recruitment) and immigration and emigration among breeding or wintering populations. These demographic and movement patterns have important ecological and management implications for understanding goose population structure, harvest of admixed populations, and gene flow among populations with separate breeding or wintering areas. From 1993 to 1996, we neckbanded molting birds at their breeding colonies and resighted birds on the wintering grounds. We used multistate mark-recapture models to evaluate apparent survival rates, resighting rates, winter fidelity, and potential exchange among these populations. We also compared the utility of face stain in Wrangel Island breeding geese as a predictor of their wintering area. Our results showed similar apparent survival rates between subpopulations of Wrangel Island snow geese and lower apparent survival, but higher emigration, for the Banks Island birds. Males had lower apparent survival than females, most likely due to differences in neckband loss. Transition between wintering areas was low (exchange between the Banks and northern Wrangel Island populations. Face staining was an unreliable indicator of wintering area. Our findings suggest that northern and southern

  1. Advanced decision support for winter road maintenance

    2008-01-01

    This document provides an overview of the Federal Highway Administration's winter Maintenance Decision Support System (MDSS). The MDSS is a decision support tool that has the ability to provide weather predictions focused toward the road surface. The...

  2. Overview of climatic effects of nuclear winter

    Jones, E.M.; Malone, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    A general description of the climatic effects of a nuclear war are presented. This paper offers a short history of the subject, a discussion of relevant parameters and physical processes, and a description of plausible nuclear winter scenario. 9 refs

  3. Unusial winter 2011/2012 in Slovakia

    Faško, P.; Lapin, M.; Matejovič, P.; Pecho, Jozef

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 1 (2012), s. 19-26 ISSN 1335-339X Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : winter characteristics * climate variabilit * climate change * global warming Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  4. Coming to grips with nuclear winter

    Scherr, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    This editorial examines the politics related to the concept of nuclear winter which is a term used to describe temperature changes brought on by the injection of smoke into the atmosphere by the massive fires set off by nuclear explosions. The climate change alone could cause crop failures and lead to massive starvation. The author suggests that the prospect of a nuclear winter should be a deterrent to any nuclear exchange

  5. Barriers to wheelchair use in the winter.

    Ripat, Jacquie D; Brown, Cara L; Ethans, Karen D

    2015-06-01

    To test the hypothesis that challenges to community participation posed by winter weather are greater for individuals who use scooters, manual and power wheelchairs (wheeled mobility devices [WMDs]) than for the general ambulatory population, and to determine what WMD users identify as the most salient environmental barriers to community participation during the winter. Cross-sectional survey organized around 5 environmental domains: technological, natural, physical, social/attitudinal, and policy. Urban community in Canada. Convenience sample of WMD users or their proxy (N=99). Not applicable. Not applicable. Forty-two percent identified reduced outing frequency in winter months, associated with increased age (χ(3)=6.4, P=.04), lack of access to family/friends for transportation (χ(2)=8.1, P=.04), and primary type of WMD used in the winter (scooter χ(2)=8.8, P=.003). Most reported tires/casters becoming stuck in the snow (95%) or slipping on the ice (91%), difficulty ascending inclines/ramps (92%), and cold hands while using controls or pushing rims (85%); fewer identified frozen wheelchair/scooter batteries, seat cushions/backrests, or electronics. Sidewalks/roads were reported to be problematic by 99%. Eighty percent reported needing additional help in the winter. Limited community access in winter led to a sense of loneliness/isolation, and fear/anxiety related to safety. Respondents identified policies that limited participation during winter. People who use WMDs decrease their community participation in cold weather because of multiple environmental barriers. Clinicians, researchers, and policymakers can take a multidimensional approach to mitigate these barriers in order to enhance community participation by WMD users in winter. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. THE ELUSIVENESS OF LEARNER-CENTRED TEACHING

    Ervin Kovačević

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This research will explore teaching styles of university professors. Teaching style is an umbrella term for teaching decisions made during the entire teaching process – planning, delivery, and evaluation. Contemporary university teachers are advised to adopt the learner-centred teaching style which is assumed to produce remarkable possibilities. In the Fall Semester 2015 fifty-two respondents in different faculties of International University of Sarajevo were surveyed using The Principles of Adult Learning Scale inventory designed by Gary J. Conti. Inventory scores were calculated according to guidelines suggested by the author of the inventory. The scores revealed that majority of respondents strongly supported teacher-centred rather than learner-centred styles of instruction. Scores were analysed on gender lines and across three different faculties, namely: Arts and Social Sciences; Business and Administration; Engineering and Natural Sciences. In all five groups none of the seven teaching style indicators was found to conform with the learner-centred teaching criteria. There was no statistically significant difference between the two genders’ preference for a teaching style. And there was no statistically significant difference between teaching style preference across the three different faculties.The results of this research imply that the learner-centred style of instruction is not frequently implemented. Secondly, the results indicate that the requirements necessary for proper application of the learner-centred teaching style are not easy to meet in current written and unwritten norms. Finally, the results show that traditional teaching styles, which have been preserved in different scientific fields, still predominate in universities.

  7. DGNB certified Healthcare Centres

    Brunsgaard, Camilla; Larsen, Tine Steen

    2015-01-01

    for sustainability and wants a certification. This research investigates the decision‐making and design process (DMaDP) behind four DGNB certified Healthcare Centres (HCC) in Northern Jutland in Denmark. In general, knowledge about the DMaDP is important. However it is important to know what part DGNB plays...... a dialog about DGNB and energy concept is important even before anyone start sketching. Experiences with the different approaches will be further outlined in the paper.Future research has the intention to collect further knowledge about DGNB and DMaDP in practise. This project was limited to Healthcare...

  8. Town Centre Redevelopment Strategies

    Vagnby, Bo Hellisen

    After many years of urban growth Danish downtowns are facing some important choices. Shall the stake one-sidedly be on the town centres as driving forces for growth and 'city marketing', or do they still have a role to play in a broader socio-economic context? In the paper we look back on eight...... as slum clearence and urban renewal. To a certain extent parallels are drawn to international experiences, especially where these are of such a nature that they can be assumed transferred to Danish connctions. Conclusively, the strategies are discussed in the light of the turn of Danish urban planning...

  9. Seasonal overturning circulation in the Red Sea: 2. Winter circulation

    Yao, Fengchao; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Pratt, Larry J.; Bower, Amy S.; Köhl, Armin; Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh; Rivas, David

    2014-04-01

    The shallow winter overturning circulation in the Red Sea is studied using a 50 year high-resolution MITgcm (MIT general circulation model) simulation with realistic atmospheric forcing. The overturning circulation for a typical year, represented by 1980, and the climatological mean are analyzed using model output to delineate the three-dimensional structure and to investigate the underlying dynamical mechanisms. The horizontal model circulation in the winter of 1980 is dominated by energetic eddies. The climatological model mean results suggest that the surface inflow intensifies in a western boundary current in the southern Red Sea that switches to an eastern boundary current north of 24°N. The overturning is accomplished through a cyclonic recirculation and a cross-basin overturning circulation in the northern Red Sea, with major sinking occurring along a narrow band of width about 20 km along the eastern boundary and weaker upwelling along the western boundary. The northward pressure gradient force, strong vertical mixing, and horizontal mixing near the boundary are the essential dynamical components in the model's winter overturning circulation. The simulated water exchange is not hydraulically controlled in the Strait of Bab el Mandeb; instead, the exchange is limited by bottom and lateral boundary friction and, to a lesser extent, by interfacial friction due to the vertical viscosity at the interface between the inflow and the outflow.

  10. Physical and Chemical Implications of Mid-Winter Pumping of Trunda Lakes - North Slope, Alaska

    Hinzman, Larry D. (University of Alaska Fairbanks, Water and Environmental Research Center); Lilly, Michael R. (Geo-Watersheds Scientific); Kane, Douglas L. (University of Alaska Fairbanks, Water and Environmental Research Center); Miller, D. Dan (University of Alaska Fairbanks, Water and Environmental Research Center); Galloway, Braden K. (University of Alaska Fairbanks, Water and Environmental Research Center); Hilton, Kristie M. (Geo-Watersheds Scientific); White, Daniel M. (University of Alaska Fairbanks, Water and Environmental Research Center)

    2005-09-30

    Tundra lakes on the North Slope, Alaska, are an important resource for energy development and petroleum field operations. A majority of exploration activities, pipeline maintenance, and restoration activities take place on winter ice roads that depend on water availability at key times of the winter operating season. These same lakes provide important fisheries and ecosystem functions. In particular, overwintering habitat for fish is one important management concern. This study focused on the evaluation of winter water use in the current field operating areas to provide a better understanding of the current water use practices. It found that under the current water use practices, there were no measurable negative effects of winter pumping on the lakes studied and current water use management practices were appropriately conservative. The study did find many areas where improvements in the understanding of tundra lake hydrology and water usage would benefit industry, management agencies, and the protection of fisheries and ecosystems.

  11. Mid-winter European dabbling duck distributions are not linked to species body mass

    Dalby, Lars; Delany, Simon; Fox, Anthony David

    are likely to play a major role in determining the wintering distribution of short- to medium-distance migratory bird species and its inter-annual variability. As avian thermoregulatory costs scale allometrically with body size, we predicted that the mean mid-winter temperature experienced by six species...... of dabbling ducks wintering in Western Europe would be negatively correlated with body mass. We found no evidence for such a relationship in a large-scale analysis testing for a link between temperature and dabbling duck distributions, suggesting that other factors such as those related to feeding ecology......In order to understand the current changes and to predict future changes in wintering dabbling duck (Anas sp.) distributions in response to climate change, it is important to understand how species distribute themselves on a continental scale in response to temperature. Thermoregulatory costs...

  12. CMS Centres Worldwide - a New Collaborative Infrastructure

    Taylor, Lucas

    2011-01-01

    Webcasts, and generic Web tools such as CMS-TV for broadcasting live monitoring and outreach information. Being Web-based and experiment-independent, these systems could easily be extended to other organizations. We describe the experiences of using CMS Centres Worldwide in the CMS data-taking operations as well as for major media events with several hundred TV channels, radio stations, and many more press journalists simultaneously around the world.

  13. Winter Dew Harvest in Mexico City

    Arias-Torres Jorge Ernesto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents experimental and theoretical results of winter dew harvest in México City in terms of condensation rate. A simplified theoretical model based on a steady-state energy balance on a radiator-condenser was fitted, as a function of the ambient temperature, the relative humidity and the wind velocity. A glass sheet and aluminum sheet white-painted were used as samples over the outdoor experiments. A good correlation was obtained between the theoretical and experimental data. The experimental results show that there was condensation in 68% of the winter nights on both condensers. The total winter condensed mass was 2977 g/m2 and 2888 g/m2 on the glass sheet and aluminum sheet white-painted, respectively. Thus, the condensed mass on the glass was only 3% higher than that on the painted surface. The maximum nightly dew harvests occurred during December, which linearly reduced from 50 g/m2 night to 22 g/m2 night as the winter months went by. The condensation occurred from 1:00 a.m. to 9:00 a.m., with maximum condensation rates between 6:00 a.m. and 7:00 a.m. The dew harvest can provide a partial alternative to the winter water shortage in certain locations with similar climates to the winter in Mexico City, as long as pollution is not significant.

  14. Impacts of extreme winter warming events on plant physiology in a sub-Arctic heath community.

    Bokhorst, Stef; Bjerke, Jarle W; Davey, Matthew P; Taulavuori, Kari; Taulavuori, Erja; Laine, Kari; Callaghan, Terry V; Phoenix, Gareth K

    2010-10-01

    Insulation provided by snow cover and tolerance of freezing by physiological acclimation allows Arctic plants to survive cold winter temperatures. However, both the protection mechanisms may be lost with winter climate change, especially during extreme winter warming events where loss of snow cover from snow melt results in exposure of plants to warm temperatures and then returning extreme cold in the absence of insulating snow. These events cause considerable damage to Arctic plants, but physiological responses behind such damage remain unknown. Here, we report simulations of extreme winter warming events using infrared heating lamps and soil warming cables in a sub-Arctic heathland. During these events, we measured maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII), photosynthesis, respiration, bud swelling and associated bud carbohydrate changes and lipid peroxidation to identify physiological responses during and after the winter warming events in three dwarf shrub species: Empetrum hermaphroditum, Vaccinium vitis-idaea and Vaccinium myrtillus. Winter warming increased maximum quantum yield of PSII, and photosynthesis was initiated for E. hermaphroditum and V. vitis-idaea. Bud swelling, bud carbohydrate decreases and lipid peroxidation were largest for E. hermaphroditum, whereas V. myrtillus and V. vitis-idaea showed no or less strong responses. Increased physiological activity and bud swelling suggest that sub-Arctic plants can initiate spring-like development in response to a short winter warming event. Lipid peroxidation suggests that plants experience increased winter stress. The observed differences between species in physiological responses are broadly consistent with interspecific differences in damage seen in previous studies, with E. hermaphroditum and V. myrtillus tending to be most sensitive. This suggests that initiation of spring-like development may be a major driver in the damage caused by winter warming events that are predicted to become more

  15. New winter hardy winter bread wheat cultivar (Triticum aestivum L. Voloshkova

    Л. М. Голик

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Creation of Initial raw for breeding of winter wheat by change of the development type under low temperatures influence was described. Seeds of spring wheat were vernalized in aluminum weighting bottle. By using low temperatures at sawing of M2-6 at the begin ind of optimal terms of sawing of winter wheat, new winter-hardy variety of Voloshkova was bred.

  16. Marketing paediatric influenza vaccination: results of a major metropolitan trial.

    Van Buynder, Paul G; Carcione, Dale; Rettura, Vince; Daly, Alison; Woods, Emily

    2011-01-01

    After a cluster of rapidly fulminant influenza related toddler deaths in a Western Australian metropolis, children aged six to 59 months were offered influenza vaccination in subsequent winters. Some parental resistance was expected and previous poor uptake of paediatric influenza vaccination overseas was noted. A marketing campaign addressing barriers to immunization was developed to maximise uptake. Advertising occurred in major statewide newspapers, via public poster displays and static 'eye-lite' displays, via press releases, via a series of rolling radio advertisements, via direct marketing to child care centres, and via a linked series of web-sites. Parents were subsequently surveyed to assess reasons for vaccination. The campaign produced influenza vaccination coverage above that previously described elsewhere and led to a proportionate reduction in influenza notifications in this age group compared to previous seasons. Influenza in children comes with significant morbidity and some mortality. Paediatric influenza vaccination is safe, well tolerated and effective if two doses are given. A targeted media campaign can increase vaccine uptake if it reinforces the seriousness of influenza and addresses community 'myths' about influenza and influenza vaccine. The lessons learned enabling enhancements of similar programs elsewhere. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Winter Survival of Individual Honey Bees and Honey Bee Colonies Depends on Level of Varroa destructor Infestation

    van Dooremalen, Coby; Gerritsen, Lonne; Cornelissen, Bram; van der Steen, Jozef J. M.; van Langevelde, Frank; Blacquière, Tjeerd

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent elevated winter loss of honey bee colonies is a major concern. The presence of the mite Varroa destructor in colonies places an important pressure on bee health. V. destructor shortens the lifespan of individual bees, while long lifespan during winter is a primary requirement to survive until the next spring. We investigated in two subsequent years the effects of different levels of V. destructor infestation during the transition from short-lived summer bees to long-lived winter bees on the lifespan of individual bees and the survival of bee colonies during winter. Colonies treated earlier in the season to reduce V. destructor infestation during the development of winter bees were expected to have longer bee lifespan and higher colony survival after winter. Methodology/Principal Findings Mite infestation was reduced using acaricide treatments during different months (July, August, September, or not treated). We found that the number of capped brood cells decreased drastically between August and November, while at the same time, the lifespan of the bees (marked cohorts) increased indicating the transition to winter bees. Low V. destructor infestation levels before and during the transition to winter bees resulted in an increase in lifespan of bees and higher colony survival compared to colonies that were not treated and that had higher infestation levels. A variety of stress-related factors could have contributed to the variation in longevity and winter survival that we found between years. Conclusions/Significance This study contributes to theory about the multiple causes for the recent elevated colony losses in honey bees. Our study shows the correlation between long lifespan of winter bees and colony loss in spring. Moreover, we show that colonies treated earlier in the season had reduced V. destructor infestation during the development of winter bees resulting in longer bee lifespan and higher colony survival after winter. PMID:22558421

  18. Mochovce waste treatment centre

    Sedliak, D.; Endrody, J.

    2000-01-01

    The first unit of the Mochovce NPP (WWER 440 MW) was put in a test operation in October 1998. The second unit with the same power output was put in the test operation in March 2000. The Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic in its Decision No. 318/98 of 28 October 1998, by which an agreement with the operation of the Unit 1 of the Mochovce. Nuclear Power Plant was issued, requires to start the construction of the Liquid Radioactive Waste Treatment Centre until January 2004. The subject of this presentation is a system description of the Liquid Radioactive Waste (LRW) management in the Mochovce NPP. The initial part is dedicated to a short description of the radioactive waste management legislation requirements. Then the presentation continues with an information about the LRW production in the Mochovce NPP, LRW sources, chemical and radiochemical attributes, description of storage. The presentation also provides real values of its production in a comparison with the design data. The LRW production minimization principles are also mentioned there. Another part deals with the basic requirements for the technology proposal of the liquid RW treatment, especially concerning the acceptance criteria at the Republic RW Repository Mochovce. The final part is devoted to a short description of the investment procedure principles - design preparation levels and a proposed construction schedule of the centre. (authors)

  19. Winter barley mutants created in the Ukraine

    Zayats, O.M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Increasing fodder and protein production is one of the objectives of the development of agriculture in Ukraine. Higher productivity of fodder crops, due to new highly productive varieties, is the means to meet this aim. Winter barley is an important crop for fodder purposes. The climate of the Ukraine is favourable for growing this crop. The areas used for the growth of winter barley are however, small (500,000-550,000 ha) and there is a shortage of good quality varieties. The main aim of the work was therefore to create new varieties of highly productive winter barley, of good quality. The new varieties and mutation lines of winter barley were created under the influence of water solutions of N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMH - 0,012, 0,005%), N-nitroso-N-ethylurea (NEH - 0,05; 0.025; 0,012%) ethyleneimine (EI - 0,02; 0,01; 0,005%) on winter barley seeds of the varieties of local and foreign selections. On the basis of many years of investigations (1984-94) the following mutations were described: hard-grained, winter-hardiness, earliness, middle-maturity, late-maturity, wide and large leaves, narrow leaves, multinodal, great number of leaves, great number of flowers, strong stem (lodging resistant), tallness, semi-dwarfness, dwarfness, and high productivity. Particularly valuable are mutants with high productivity of green bulk. Their potential yield is 70 t/ha. As a result of the work two varieties of winter barley 'Shyrokolysty' and 'Kormovy' were released into the State register of plant varieties of the Ukraine. The other valuable mutant genotypes are used in cross breeding programmes. (author)

  20. Examining winter visitor use in Yellowstone National Park

    Mae A. Davenport; Wayne A. Freimund; William T. Borrie; Robert E. Manning; William A. Valliere; Benjamin Wang

    2000-01-01

    This research was designed to assist the managers of Yellowstone National Park (YNP) in their decision making about winter visitation. The focus of this report is on winter use patterns and winter visitor preferences. It is the author’s hope that this information will benefit both the quality of winter experiences and the stewardship of the park resources. This report...

  1. Addiction research centres and the nurturing of creativity The Norwegian Centre for Addiction Research (SERAF).

    Bramness, Jørgen G; Clausen, Thomas; Duckert, Fanny; Ravndal, Edle; Waal, Helge

    2011-08-01

    The Norwegian Centre for Addiction Research (SERAF) at the University of Oslo is a newly established, clinical addiction research centre. It is located at the Oslo University Hospital and has a major focus on opioid dependency, investigating Norwegian opioid maintenance treatment (OMT), with special interest in OMT during pregnancy, mortality, morbidity and criminality before, during and after OMT and alternatives to OMT, such as the use of naltrexone implants. The well-developed health registries of Norway are core assets that also allow the opportunity for other types of substance abuse research. This research includes health services, abuse of prescription drugs and drugs of abuse in connection with traffic. The centre also focuses upon comorbidity, investigating the usefulness and limitations of psychometric instruments, drug abuse in different psychiatric treatment settings and internet-based interventions for hazardous alcohol consumption. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  2. Call Centre- Computer Telephone Integration

    Dražen Kovačević

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Call centre largely came into being as a result of consumerneeds converging with enabling technology- and by the companiesrecognising the revenue opportunities generated by meetingthose needs thereby increasing customer satisfaction. Regardlessof the specific application or activity of a Call centre, customersatisfaction with the interaction is critical to the revenuegenerated or protected by the Call centre. Physical(v, Call centreset up is a place that includes computer, telephone and supervisorstation. Call centre can be available 24 hours a day - whenthe customer wants to make a purchase, needs information, orsimply wishes to register a complaint.

  3. Estimating winter survival of winter wheat by simulations of plant frost tolerance

    Bergjord Olsen, A.K.; Persson, T.; Wit, de A.; Nkurunziza, L.; Sindhøj, E.; Eckersten, H.

    2018-01-01

    Based on soil temperature, snow depth and the grown cultivar's maximum attainable level of frost tolerance (LT50c), the FROSTOL model simulates development of frost tolerance (LT50) and winter damage, thereby enabling risk calculations for winter wheat survival. To explore the accuracy of this

  4. Root development of fodder radish and winter wheat before winter in relation to uptake of nitrogen

    Wahlström, Ellen Margrethe; Hansen, Elly Møller; Mandel, A.

    2015-01-01

    occurred. Quantitative data is missing on N leaching of a catch crop compared to a winter cereal in a conventional cereal-based cropping system. The aim of the study was to investigate whether fodder radish (Raphanus sativus L.) (FR) would be more efficient than winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) (WW...

  5. Effects of winter road grooming on bison in YNP

    Bjornlie, Daniel D.; Garrott, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of winter recreation—specifically snowmobiling—on wildlife in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) have become high-profile management issues. The road grooming needed to support oversnow travel in YNP is also being examined for its effects on bison (Bison bison) ecology. Data were collected from November 1997 through May 1998 and from December 1998 through May 1999 on the effects of road grooming on bison in Madison–Gibbon–Firehole (MGF) area of YNP Peak bison numbers occurred during late March—early April and were strongly correlated with the snow water equivalent measurements in the Hayden Valley area (1997–1998: r* = 0.62, p:0.001: 1998–1999: r2 = 0.64, P-0.001). Data from an infrared trail monitor on the Mary Mountain trail between the Hayden and Firehole valleys suggest that this trail is the sole corridor for major bison distributional shifts between these locations. Of the 28,293 observations of individual bison made during the study, 8% were traveling and 69% were foraging. These percentages were nearly identical during the period of winter road grooming (7% and 68%, respectively). During this period, 77% of bison foraging activity and 12% of bison traveling activity involved displacing snow. Most travel took place off roads (Pgrooming, with peak use in April and lowest use during the road-grooming period. Bison in the MGF area of YNF neither seek out nor avoid groomed roads. The minimal use of roads compared to off-road areas, the short distances traveled on the roads, the decreased use of roads during the over snow vehicle (OSV) season, and the increased costs of negative interactions with OSVs suggest that grooming roads during winter does not have a major influence on bison ecology.

  6. Spatial and temporal variations of winter discharge under climate change: Case study of rivers in European Russia

    E. A. Telegina

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available An important problem in hydrology is the re-evaluation of the current resources of surface and underground waters in the context of ongoing climate changes. The main feature of the present-day changes in water regime in the major portion of European Russia (ER is the substantial increase in low-water runoff, especially in winter. In this context, some features of the spatial–temporal variations of runoff values during the winter low-water period are considered. Calculations showed that the winter runoff increased at more than 95% of hydrological gauges. Changes in the minimum and average values of runoff during winter low-water period and other characteristics are evaluated against the background of climate changes in the recent decades. The spatial and temporal variability of winter runoff in European Russia is evaluated for the first time.

  7. Sports injuries and illnesses during the Winter Olympic Games 2010.

    Engebretsen, Lars; Steffen, Kathrin; Alonso, Juan Manuel; Aubry, Mark; Dvorak, Jiri; Junge, Astrid; Meeuwisse, Willem; Mountjoy, Margo; Renström, Per; Wilkinson, Mike

    2010-09-01

    Identification of high-risk sports, including their most common and severe injuries and illnesses, will facilitate the identification of sports and athletes at risk at an early stage. To analyse the frequencies and characteristics of injuries and illnesses during the XXI Winter Olympic Games in Vancouver 2010. All National Olympic Committees' (NOC) head physicians were asked to report daily the occurrence (or non-occurrence) of newly sustained injuries and illnesses on a standardised reporting form. In addition, the medical centres at the Vancouver and Whistler Olympic clinics reported daily on all athletes treated for injuries and illnesses. Physicians covering 2567 athletes (1045 females, 1522 males) from 82 NOCs participated in the study. The reported 287 injuries and 185 illnesses resulted in an incidence of 111.8 injuries and 72.1 illnesses per 1000 registered athletes. In relation to the number of registered athletes, the risk of sustaining an injury was highest for bobsleigh, ice hockey, short track, alpine freestyle and snowboard cross (15-35% of registered athletes were affected in each sport). The injury risk was lowest for the Nordic skiing events (biathlon, cross country skiing, ski jumping, Nordic combined), luge, curling, speed skating and freestyle moguls (less than 5% of registered athletes). Head/cervical spine and knee were the most common injury locations. Injuries were evenly distributed between training (54.0%) and competition (46.0%; p=0.18), and 22.6% of the injuries resulted in an absence from training or competition. In skeleton, figure and speed skating, curling, snowboard cross and biathlon, every 10th athlete suffered from at least one illness. In 113 illnesses (62.8%), the respiratory system was affected. At least 11% of the athletes incurred an injury during the games, and 7% of the athletes an illness. The incidence of injuries and illnesses varied substantially between sports. Analyses of injury mechanisms in high-risk Olympic winter

  8. Effect of seeding rate on grain quality of winter wheat

    Veselinka Zecevic

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Planting density is important factor which influence yield and quality of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. For this reason, in scientific investigations is constantly investigated optimization of plant number per unit area. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of seeding rate in grain quality of winter wheat cultivars. The experiment was conducted with four winter wheat genotypes ('Ana Morava', 'Vizija', 'L-3027', and 'Perla' at the Small Grains Research Centre of Kragujevac, Serbia, in 3 yr at two seeding rates (SR1 = 500 and SR2 = 650 germinating seeds m-2. The 1000-kernel weight, Zeleny sedimentation, and wet gluten content in divergent wheat genotypes were investigated depending on the seeding rate and ecological factors. Significant differences in quality components were established between investigated seeding rates. The highest values of all investigated quality traits were established in SR2 variant when applied 650 seeds m-2. Genotypes reacted differently to seeding rate. 'Perla' in average had the highest mean sedimentation value (42.2 mL and wet gluten content (33.76% in SR2 variant and this cultivar responded the best to seeding rate. Significant differences for sedimentation value and wet gluten content were found among cultivars, years, seeding rate, and for all their interactions. Also, ANOVA for 1000-kernel weight showed highly significant differences among investigated varieties, seeding rate and growing seasons, but all their interactions were not significant. In all investigated genotypes, better quality was established in SR2 variant when applied 650 seeds m-2.

  9. Person-centred care in nursing documentation.

    Broderick, Margaret C

    2012-12-07

    BACKGROUND: Documentation is an essential part of nursing. It provides evidence that care has been carried out and contains important information to enhance the quality and continuity of care. Person-centred care (PCC) is an approach to care that is underpinned by mutual respect and the development of a therapeutic relationship between the patient and nurse. It is a core principle in standards for residential care settings for older people and is beneficial for both patients and staff (International Practice Development in Nursing and Healthcare, Chichester, Blackwell, 2008 and The Implementation of a Model of Person-Centred Practice in Older Person Settings, Dublin, Health Service Executive, 2010a). However, the literature suggests a lack of person-centredness within nursing documentation (International Journal of Older People Nursing 2, 2007, 263 and The Implementation of a Model of Person-Centred Practice in Older Person Settings, Dublin, Health Service Executive, 2010a). AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To explore nursing documentation in long-term care, to determine whether it reflected a person-centred approach to care and to describe aspects of PCC as they appeared in nursing records. METHOD: A qualitative descriptive study using the PCN framework (Person-centred Nursing; Theory and Practice, Oxford, Wiley-Blackwell, 2010) as the context through which nursing assessments and care plans were explored. RESULTS: Findings indicated that many nursing records were incomplete, and information regarding psychosocial aspects of care was infrequent. There was evidence that nurses engaged with residents and worked with their beliefs and values. However, nursing documentation was not completed in consultation with the patient, and there was little to suggest that patients were involved in decisions relating to their care. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: The structure of nursing documentation can be a major obstacle to the recording of PCC and appropriate care planning. Documentation

  10. Mortality impact of extreme winter temperatures

    Díaz, Julio; García, Ricardo; López, César; Linares, Cristina; Tobías, Aurelio; Prieto, Luis

    2005-01-01

    During the last few years great attention has been paid to the evaluation of the impact of extreme temperatures on human health. This paper examines the effect of extreme winter temperature on mortality in Madrid for people older than 65, using ARIMA and GAM models. Data correspond to 1,815 winter days over the period 1986 1997, during which time a total of 133,000 deaths occurred. The daily maximum temperature (Tmax) was shown to be the best thermal indicator of the impact of climate on mortality. When total mortality was considered, the maximum impact occured 7 8 days after a temperature extreme; for circulatory diseases the lag was between 7 and 14 days. When respiratory causes were considered, two mortality peaks were evident at 4 5 and 11 days. When the impact of winter extreme temperatures was compared with that associated with summer extremes, it was found to occur over a longer term, and appeared to be more indirect.

  11. The engineering approach to winter sports

    Cheli, Federico; Maldifassi, Stefano; Melzi, Stefano; Sabbioni, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    The Engineering Approach to Winter Sports presents the state-of-the-art research in the field of winter sports in a harmonized and comprehensive way for a diverse audience of engineers, equipment and facilities designers, and materials scientists. The book examines the physics and chemistry of snow and ice with particular focus on the interaction (friction) between sports equipment and snow/ice, how it is influenced by environmental factors, such as temperature and pressure, as well as by contaminants and how it can be modified through the use of ski waxes or the microtextures of blades or ski soles. The authors also cover, in turn, the different disciplines in winter sports:  skiing (both alpine and cross country), skating and jumping, bob sledding and skeleton, hockey and curling, with attention given to both equipment design and on the simulation of gesture and  track optimization.

  12. Cold pressed versus refined winterized corn oils: quality, composition and aroma

    Aydeniz Güneşer, B.; Yılmaz, E.; Ok, S.

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this study were to characterize and compare cold pressed and fully refined winterized corn oils. Free fatty acidity (FFA), peroxide (PV) and p-anisidin (p-AV) values, saponification number, total carotenoid and phenolic contents of cold pressed corn oils were higher than that of the refined winterized corn oils. Linoleic and oleic acids (approximately 53-54% and 30-31%, respectively) were detected as the major fatty acids in both oil samples. Fifteen different sterols with a majority of β-sitosterol, campesterol, and stigmasterol were quantified in both oil samples. Although phenolic compounds were not quantified in the refined winterized oil samples, some flavonoids (hesperidin, rutin) and phenolic acids (gallic, syringic, rosmaniric and trans-ferulic) were detected in the cold pressed oil samples. This study concludes that cold pressed corn oils could be superior in terms of bioactive compounds but still need some quality improvements for sensory attributes. [es

  13. Prevalence of operator fatigue in winter maintenance operations.

    Camden, Matthew C; Medina-Flintsch, Alejandra; Hickman, Jeffrey S; Bryce, James; Flintsch, Gerardo; Hanowski, Richard J

    2018-02-02

    Similar to commercial motor vehicle drivers, winter maintenance operators are likely to be at an increased risk of becoming fatigued while driving due to long, inconsistent shifts, environmental stressors, and limited opportunities for sleep. Despite this risk, there is little research concerning the prevalence of winter maintenance operator fatigue during winter emergencies. The purpose of this research was to investigate the prevalence, sources, and countermeasures of fatigue in winter maintenance operations. Questionnaires from 1043 winter maintenance operators and 453 managers were received from 29 Clear Road member states. Results confirmed that fatigue was prevalent in winter maintenance operations. Over 70% of the operators and managers believed that fatigue has a moderate to significant impact on winter maintenance operations. Approximately 75% of winter maintenance operators reported to at least sometimes drive while fatigued, and 96% of managers believed their winter maintenance operators drove while fatigued at least some of the time. Furthermore, winter maintenance operators and managers identified fatigue countermeasures and sources of fatigue related to winter maintenance equipment. However, the countermeasures believed to be the most effective at reducing fatigue during winter emergencies (i.e., naps) were underutilized. For example, winter maintenance operators reported to never use naps to eliminate fatigue. These results indicated winter maintenance operations are impacted by operator fatigue. These results support the increased need for research and effective countermeasures targeting winter maintenance operator fatigue. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of planned menus and centre characteristics with foods and beverages served in New York City child-care centres.

    Breck, Andrew; Dixon, L Beth; Kettel Khan, Laura

    2016-10-01

    The present study evaluated the extent to which child-care centre menus prepared in advance correspond with food and beverage items served to children. The authors identified centre and staff characteristics that were associated with matches between menus and what was served. Menus were collected from ninety-five centres in New York City (NYC). Direct observation of foods and beverages served to children were conducted during 524 meal and snack times at these centres between April and June 2010, as part of a larger study designed to determine compliance of child-care centres with city health department regulations for nutrition. Child-care centres were located in low-income neighbourhoods in NYC. Overall, 87 % of the foods and beverages listed on the menus or allowed as substitutions were served. Menu items matched with foods and beverages served for all major food groups by >60 %. Sweets and water had lower match percentages (40 and 32 %, respectively), but water was served 68 % of the time when it was not listed on the menu. The staff person making the food and purchasing decisions predicted the match between the planned or substituted items on the menus and the foods and beverages served. In the present study, child-care centre menus included most foods and beverages served to children. Menus planned in advance have potential to be used to inform parents about which child-care centre to send their child or what foods and beverages their enrolled children will be offered throughout the day.

  15. Climate change affects winter chill for temperate fruit and nut trees.

    Luedeling, Eike; Girvetz, Evan H; Semenov, Mikhail A; Brown, Patrick H

    2011-01-01

    Temperate fruit and nut trees require adequate winter chill to produce economically viable yields. Global warming has the potential to reduce available winter chill and greatly impact crop yields. We estimated winter chill for two past (1975 and 2000) and 18 future scenarios (mid and end 21st century; 3 Global Climate Models [GCMs]; 3 greenhouse gas emissions [GHG] scenarios). For 4,293 weather stations around the world and GCM projections, Safe Winter Chill (SWC), the amount of winter chill that is exceeded in 90% of all years, was estimated for all scenarios using the "Dynamic Model" and interpolated globally. We found that SWC ranged between 0 and about 170 Chill Portions (CP) for all climate scenarios, but that the global distribution varied across scenarios. Warm regions are likely to experience severe reductions in available winter chill, potentially threatening production there. In contrast, SWC in most temperate growing regions is likely to remain relatively unchanged, and cold regions may even see an increase in SWC. Climate change impacts on SWC differed quantitatively among GCMs and GHG scenarios, with the highest GHG leading to losses up to 40 CP in warm regions, compared to 20 CP for the lowest GHG. The extent of projected changes in winter chill in many major growing regions of fruits and nuts indicates that growers of these commodities will likely experience problems in the future. Mitigation of climate change through reductions in greenhouse gas emissions can help reduce the impacts, however, adaption to changes will have to occur. To better prepare for likely impacts of climate change, efforts should be undertaken to breed tree cultivars for lower chilling requirements, to develop tools to cope with insufficient winter chill, and to better understand the temperature responses of tree crops.

  16. Simulating the influences of various fire regimes on caribou winter habitat

    Rupp, T. Scott; Olson, Mark; Adams, Layne G.; Dale, Bruce W.; Joly, Kyle; Henkelman, Jonathan; Collins, William B.; Starfield, Anthony M.

    2006-01-01

    Caribou are an integral component of high‐latitude ecosystems and represent a major subsistence food source for many northern people. The availability and quality of winter habitat is critical to sustain these caribou populations. Caribou commonly use older spruce woodlands with adequate terrestrial lichen, a preferred winter forage, in the understory. Changes in climate and fire regime pose a significant threat to the long‐term sustainability of this important winter habitat. Computer simulations performed with a spatially explicit vegetation succession model (ALFRESCO) indicate that changes in the frequency and extent of fire in interior Alaska may substantially impact the abundance and quality of winter habitat for caribou. We modeled four different fire scenarios and tracked the frequency, extent, and spatial distribution of the simulated fires and associated changes to vegetation composition and distribution. Our results suggest that shorter fire frequencies (i.e., less time between recurring fires) on the winter range of the Nelchina caribou herd in eastern interior Alaska will result in large decreases of available winter habitat, relative to that currently available, in both the short and long term. A 30% shortening of the fire frequency resulted in a 3.5‐fold increase in the area burned annually and an associated 41% decrease in the amount of spruce–lichen forest found on the landscape. More importantly, simulations with more frequent fires produced a relatively immature forest age structure, compared to that which currently exists, with few stands older than 100 years. This age structure is at the lower limits of stand age classes preferred by caribou from the Nelchina herd. Projected changes in fire regime due to climate warming and/or additional prescribed burning could substantially alter the winter habitat of caribou in interior Alaska and lead to changes in winter range use and/or population dynamics.

  17. Establishing Winter Origins of Migrating Lesser Snow Geese Using Stable Isotopes

    Viviane Hénaux

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Increases in Snow Goose (Chen caerulescens populations and large-scale habitat changes in North America have contributed to the concentration of migratory waterfowl on fewer wetlands, reducing resource availability, and enhancing risks of disease transmission. Predicting wintering locations of migratory individuals is critical to guide wildlife population management and habitat restoration. We used stable carbon (δ13C, nitrogen (δ15N, and hydrogen (δ2H isotope ratios in muscle tissue of wintering Snow Geese to discriminate four major wintering areas, the Playa Lake Region, Texas Gulf Coast, Louisiana Gulf Coast, and Arkansas, and infer the wintering locations of individuals collected later during the 2007 and 2008 spring migrations in the Rainwater Basin (RWB of Nebraska. We predicted the wintering ground derivation of migrating Snow Geese using a likelihood-based approach. Our three-isotope analysis provided an efficient discrimination of the four wintering areas. The assignment model predicted that 53% [95% CI: 37-69] of our sample of Snow Geese from the RWB in 2007 had most likely originated in Louisiana, 38% [23-54] had wintered on Texas Gulf Coast, and 9% [0-20] in Arkansas; the assessment suggested that 89% [73-100] of our 2008 sample had most likely come from Texas Gulf Coast, 9% [0-27] from Louisiana Gulf Coast, and 2% [0-9] from Arkansas. Further segregation of wintering grounds and additional sampling of spring migrating Snow Geese would refine overall assignment and help explain interannual variations in migratory connectivity. The ability to distinguish origins of northbound geese can support the development of spatially-adaptive management strategies for the midcontinent Snow Goose population. Establishing migratory connectivity using isotope assignment techniques can be extended to other waterfowl species to determine critical habitat, evaluate population energy requirements, and inform waterfowl conservation and management

  18. Winter Insulation By Snow Accumulation in a Subarctic Treeline Ecosystem Increases Summer Carbon Cycling Rates

    Parker, T.; Subke, J. A.; Wookey, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    The effect of snow accumulation on soil carbon and nutrient cycling is attracting substantial attention from researchers. We know that deeper snow accumulation caused by high stature vegetation increases winter microbial activity and therefore carbon and nitrogen flux rates. However, until now the effect of snow accumulation, by buffering winter soil temperature, on subsequent summer soil processes, has scarcely been considered. We carried out an experiment at an alpine treeline in subarctic Sweden in which soil monoliths, contained within PVC collars, were transplanted between forest (deep winter snow) and tundra heath (shallow winter snow). We measured soil CO2efflux over two growing seasons and quantified soil microbial biomass after the second winter. We showed that respiration rates of transplanted forest soil were significantly reduced compared with control collars (remaining in the forest) as a consequence of colder, but more variable, winter temperatures. We hypothesised that microbial biomass would be reduced in transplanted forests soils but found there was no difference compared to control. We therefore further hypothesised that the similarly sized microbial pool in the control is assembled differently to the transplant. We believe that the warmer winters in forests foster more active consortia of decomposer microbes as a result of different abiotic selection pressures. Using an ecosystem scale experimental approach, we have identified a mechanism that influences summer carbon cycling rates based solely on the amount of snow that accumulates the previous winter. We conclude that modification of snow depth as a consequence of changes in vegetation structure is an important mechanism influencing soil C stocks in ecosystems where snow persists for a major fraction of the year.

  19. CAPTURING REALITY AT CENTRE BLOCK

    C. Boulanger

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Centre Block of Canada’s Parliament buildings, National Historic Site of Canada is set to undergo a major rehabilitation project that will take approximately 10 years to complete. In preparation for this work, Heritage Conservation Services (HCS of Public Services and Procurement Canada has been completing heritage documentation of the entire site which includes laser scanning of all interior rooms and accessible confined spaces such as attics and other similar areas. Other documentation completed includes detailed photogrammetric documentation of rooms and areas of high heritage value. Some of these high heritage value spaces present certain challenges such as accessibility due to the height and the size of the spaces. Another challenge is the poor lighting conditions, requiring the use of flash or strobe lighting to either compliment or completely eliminate the available ambient lighting. All the spaces captured at this higher level of detail were also captured with laser scanning. This allowed the team to validate the information and conduct a quality review of the photogrammetric data. As a result of this exercise, the team realized that in most, if not all cases, the photogrammetric data was more detailed and at a higher quality then the terrestrial laser scanning data. The purpose and motivation of this paper is to present these findings, as well provide the advantages and disadvantages of the two methods and data sets.

  20. Capturing Reality at Centre Block

    Boulanger, C.; Ouimet, C.; Yeomans, N.

    2017-08-01

    The Centre Block of Canada's Parliament buildings, National Historic Site of Canada is set to undergo a major rehabilitation project that will take approximately 10 years to complete. In preparation for this work, Heritage Conservation Services (HCS) of Public Services and Procurement Canada has been completing heritage documentation of the entire site which includes laser scanning of all interior rooms and accessible confined spaces such as attics and other similar areas. Other documentation completed includes detailed photogrammetric documentation of rooms and areas of high heritage value. Some of these high heritage value spaces present certain challenges such as accessibility due to the height and the size of the spaces. Another challenge is the poor lighting conditions, requiring the use of flash or strobe lighting to either compliment or completely eliminate the available ambient lighting. All the spaces captured at this higher level of detail were also captured with laser scanning. This allowed the team to validate the information and conduct a quality review of the photogrammetric data. As a result of this exercise, the team realized that in most, if not all cases, the photogrammetric data was more detailed and at a higher quality then the terrestrial laser scanning data. The purpose and motivation of this paper is to present these findings, as well provide the advantages and disadvantages of the two methods and data sets.

  1. Institutional profile: the London Centre for Nanotechnology.

    Weston, David; Bontoux, Thierry

    2009-12-01

    Located in the London neighborhoods of Bloomsbury and South Kensington, the London Centre for Nanotechnology is a UK-based multidisciplinary research center that operates at the forefront of science and technology. It is a joint venture between two of the world's leading institutions, UCL and Imperial College London, uniting their strong capabilities in the disciplines that underpin nanotechnology: engineering, the physical sciences and biomedicine. The London Centre for Nanotechnology has a unique operating model that accesses and focuses the combined skills of the Departments of Chemistry, Physics, Materials, Medicine, Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Biochemical Engineering and Earth Sciences across the two universities. It aims to provide the nanoscience and nanotechnology required to solve major problems in healthcare, information processing, energy and the environment.

  2. CMS Centres Worldwide - a New Collaborative Infrastructure

    Taylor, Lucas

    2011-01-01

    The CMS Experiment at the LHC has established a network of more than fifty inter-connected 'CMS Centres' at CERN and in institutes in the Americas, Asia, Australasia, and Europe. These facilities are used by people doing CMS detector and computing grid operations, remote shifts, data quality monitoring and analysis, as well as education and outreach. We present the computing, software, and collaborative tools and videoconferencing systems. These include permanently running 'telepresence' video links (hardware-based H.323, EVO and Vidyo), Webcasts, and generic Web tools such as CMS-TV for broadcasting live monitoring and outreach information. Being Web-based and experiment-independent, these systems could easily be extended to other organizations. We describe the experiences of using CMS Centres Worldwide in the CMS data-taking operations as well as for major media events with several hundred TV channels, radio stations, and many more press journalists simultaneously around the world.

  3. [Winter sport injuries in childhood (author's transl)].

    Hausbrandt, D; Höllwarth, M; Ritter, G

    1979-01-01

    3374 accidents occurring on the field of sport during the years 1975--1977 accounted for 19% of all accidents dealt with at the Institute of Kinderchirurgie in Graz. 51% of the accidents were caused by the typical winter sports: skiing, tobogganing, ice-skating and ski-jumping with skiing accounting for 75% of the accidents. The fracture localization typical of the different kinds of winter sport is dealt with in detail. The correct size and safety of the equipment were found to be particularly important in the prevention of such accidents in childhood.

  4. Severe European winters in a secular perspective

    Hoy, Andreas; Hänsel, Stephanie

    2017-04-01

    Temperature conditions during the winter time are substantially shaped by a strong year-to-year variability. European winters since the late 1980s - compared to previous decades and centuries - were mainly characterised by a high temperature level, including recent record-warm winters. Yet, comparably cold winters and severe cold spells still occur nowadays, like recently observed from 2009 to 2013 and in early 2017. Central England experienced its second coldest December since start of observations more than 350 years ago in 2010, and some of the lowest temperatures ever measured in northern Europe (below -50 °C in Lapland) were recorded in January 1999. Analysing thermal characteristics and spatial distribution of severe (historical) winters - using early instrumental data - helps expanding and consolidating our knowledge of past weather extremes. This contribution presents efforts towards this direction. We focus on a) compiling and assessing a very long-term instrumental, spatially widespread and well-distributed, high-quality meteorological data set to b) investigate very cold winter temperatures in Europe from early measurements until today. In a first step, we analyse the longest available time series of monthly temperature averages within Europe. Our dataset extends from the Nordic countries up to the Mediterranean and from the British Isles up to Russia. We utilise as much as possible homogenised times series in order to ensure reliable results. Homogenised data derive from the NORDHOM (Scandinavia) and HISTALP (greater alpine region) datasets or were obtained from national weather services and universities. Other (not specifically homogenised) data were derived from the ECA&D dataset or national institutions. The employed time series often start already during the 18th century, with Paris & Central England being the longest datasets (from 1659). In a second step, daily temperature averages are involved. Only some of those series are homogenised, but

  5. Mechanical weed control in organic winter wheat

    Euro Pannacci; Francesco Tei; Marcello Guiducci

    2017-01-01

    Three field experiments were carried out in organic winter wheat in three consecutive years (exp. 1, 2005-06; exp. 2, 2006- 07; exp. 3, 2007-08) in central Italy (42°57’ N - 12°22’ E, 165 m a.s.l.) in order to evaluate the efficacy against weeds and the effects on winter wheat of two main mechanical weed control strategies: i) spring tine harrowing used at three different application times (1 passage at T1, 2 passages at the time T1, 1 passage at T1 followed by 1 passage at T1 + 14 days) in t...

  6. Nuclear winter: The evidence and the risks

    Greene, O.

    1985-01-01

    Global concern over nuclear extinction, centered on the holocaust itself, now has turned to the more terrifying consequences of a post-war nuclear winter: ''the long-term effects - destruction of the environment, spread of epidemic diseases, contamination by radioactivity, and ... collapse of agriculture-(that) would spread famine and death to every country.'' Nuclear Winter, the latest in a series of studies by a number of different groups is clinical, analytical, systematic, and detailed. Two physicists and biologist analyze the effects on the climate, plants, animals, and living systems; the human costs; the policy implications.

  7. Nuclear winter: The evidence and the risks

    Greene, O.

    1985-01-01

    Global concern over nuclear extinction, centered on the holocaust itself, now has turned to the more terrifying consequences of a post-war nuclear winter: ''the long-term effects - destruction of the environment, spread of epidemic diseases, contamination by radioactivity, and ... collapse of agriculture-[that] would spread famine and death to every country.'' Nuclear Winter, the latest in a series of studies by a number of different groups is clinical, analytical, systematic, and detailed. Two physicists and biologist analyze the effects on the climate, plants, animals, and living systems; the human costs; the policy implications

  8. Council celebrates CERN Control Centre

    2006-01-01

    With the unveiling of its new sign, the CERN Control Centre was officially inaugurated on Thursday 16 March. To celebrate its startup, CERN Council members visited the sleek centre, a futuristic-looking room filled with a multitude of monitoring screens.

  9. The Aube centre. 1997 statement

    1998-09-01

    Since January 1992 the Aube centre ensures the storage of 90% of the short life radioactive wastes produced in France. This educational booklet describes the organization of the activities in the centre from the storage of wastes to the radioactivity surveillance of the environment (air, surface and ground waters, river sediments, plants and milk). (J.S.)

  10. CANDU 9 Control Centre Mockup

    Webster, A.; Macbeth, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper provides a summary of the design process being followed, the benefits of applying a systematic design using human factors engineering, presents an overview of the CANDU 9 control centre mockup facility, illustrates the control centre mockup with photographs of the 3D CADD model and the full scale mockup, and provides an update on the current status of the project. (author)

  11. Influence of age and sex on winter site fidelity of sanderlings Calidris alba

    Pedro M. Lourenço

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Many migratory bird species show high levels of site fidelity to their wintering sites, which confers advantages due to prior knowledge, but may also limit the ability of the individual to move away from degrading sites or to detect alternative foraging opportunities. Winter site fidelity often varies among age groups, but sexual differences have seldom been recorded in birds. We studied a population of individually colour-marked sanderlings wintering in and around the Tejo estuary, a large estuarine wetland on the western coast of Portugal. For 160 individuals, sighted a total of 1,249 times between November 2009 and March 2013, we calculated the probability that they moved among five distinct wintering sites and how this probability is affected by distance between them. To compare site fidelity among age classes and sexes, as well as within the same winter and over multiple winters, we used a Site Fidelity Index (SFI. Birds were sexed using a discriminant function based on biometrics of a large set of molecularly sexed sanderlings (n = 990. The vast majority of birds were observed at one site only, and the probability of the few detected movements between sites was negatively correlated with the distance among each pair of sites. Hardly any movements were recorded over more than 15 km, suggesting small home ranges. SFI values indicated that juveniles were less site-faithful than adults which may reflect the accumulated knowledge and/or dominance of older animals. Among adults, females were significantly less site faithful than males. A sexual difference in winter site fidelity is unusual in shorebirds. SFI values show site-faithfulness is lower when multiple winters were considered, and most birds seem to chose a wintering site early in the season and use that site throughout the winter. Sanderlings show a very limited tendency to explore alternative wintering options, which might have implications for their survival when facing habitat change

  12. RTEMS CENTRE- RTEMS Improvement

    Silva, Helder; Constantino, Alexandre; Freitas, Daniel; Coutinho, Manuel; Faustino, Sergio; Sousa, Jose; Dias, Luis; Zulianello, Marco

    2010-08-01

    During the last two years, EDISOFT's RTEMS CENTRE team [1], jointly with the European Space Agency and with the support of the worldwide RTEMS community [2], have been developing an activity to facilitate the qualification of the real-time operating system RTEMS (Real-Time Operating System for Multiprocessor Systems). This paper intends to give a high level visibility of the progress and the results obtained in the RTEMS Improvement [3] activity. The primary objective [4] of the project is to improve the RTEMS product, its documentation and to facilitate the qualification of RTEMS for future space missions, taking into consideration the specific operational requirements. The sections below provide a brief overview of the RTEMS operating system and the activities performed in the RTEMS Improvement project, which includes the selection of API managers to be qualified, the tailoring process, the requirements analysis, the reverse engineering and design of the RTEMS, the quality assurance process, the ISVV activities, the test campaign, the results obtained, the criticality analysis and the facilitation of qualification process.

  13. Thailand's nuclear research centre

    Yamkate, P.

    2001-01-01

    The Office of Atomic Energy for Peace, Thailand, is charged with three main tasks, namely, Nuclear Energy development Plan, Utilization of Nuclear Based technology Plan and Science and Technology Plan. Its activities are centred around the research reactor TRR-1/M1. The main areas of contribution include improvement in agricultural production, nuclear medicine and nuclear oncology, health care and nutrition, increasing industrial productivity and efficiency and, development of cadre competent in nuclear science and technology. The office also has the responsibility of ensuring nuclear safety, radiation safety and nuclear waste management. The office has started a new project in 1997 under which a 10 MWt research reactor, an isotope production facility and a waste processing and storage facility would be set up by General Atomic of USA. OAEP has a strong linkage with the IAEA and has been an active participant in RCA programmes. In the future OAEP will enhance its present capabilities in the use of radioisotopes and radiation and look into the possibility of using nuclear energy as an alternative energy resource. (author)

  14. The Adult Education Centre

    Olga Drofenik

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The Adult Education Centre has drafted the professional foundations for the Master Plan for Adult Education which, according to the provisions stipulated in the Adult Education Act, will be adopted by the Parliament. The Master Plan specifies the goals, priority target groups, priority areas and a draft financial projection. The professional foundations include the ratings of adult education in studies about adult education trends in Slovenia and abroad. The paper presents research results relevant to the Master Plan and documents issued by international organizations, including research into the Decisive Global Factors of EC Development after 1992, the Report of Ministers of the OECD, and the Economic Development Strategy of Slovenia . All the above-mentioned documents emphasize the importance of life­long learning in achieving a more fulfilling personal life, faster economic growth and maintenance of social ties. In principle, the same views are shared in Slovenia. However, in practice the "multi-dimensional" nature of adult education often gives way to "education for production". This is why we especially stress the importance of adult education in the social and cultural context.

  15. The effects of winter recreation on alpine and subalpine fauna: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Chloe F Sato

    Full Text Available The ski industry is often perceived as having a negative impact on sensitive alpine and subalpine communities. However, empirical evidence of such impacts is lacking. We reviewed the available literature from the last 35 years to quantify the reported effects of winter recreation on faunal communities. Overall, using one-sample binomial tests ('sign tests' we found that the effects of all types of winter recreation-related disturbances (i.e. ski runs, resort infrastructure and winter tourism were more likely to be negative or have no effect, than be positive for wildlife. More specifically, in Europe, where the majority of the available research was conducted, the impacts of winter recreation were most often negative for fauna. In terms of specific taxa, birds and to a lesser extent mammals and arthropods, responded negatively to disturbance. Results from our meta-analysis confirmed the results from our binomial tests. Richness, abundance and diversity of fauna were lower in areas affected by winter recreation when compared with undisturbed areas. For most regions and taxa, however, empirical evidence remains too limited to identify clear impacts of winter recreation. We therefore conclude that the majority of ski resorts are operating in the absence of knowledge needed to inform effective strategies for biodiversity conservation and ecologically-sound management. Thus, there is an urgent need for more empirical research to be conducted throughout this increasingly threatened ecological community, especially given the indication from the available literature that fauna often respond negatively to winter recreation.

  16. Is parental competitive ability in winter negatively affected by previous springs' family size?

    Fokkema, Rienk W; Ubels, Richard; Tinbergen, Joost M

    2017-01-01

    Reproductive behavior cannot be understood without taking the local level of competition into account. Experimental work in great tits (Parus major) showed that (1) a survival cost of reproduction was paid in environments with high levels of competition during the winter period and (2)

  17. Winter food habits of coastal juvenile steelhead and coho salmon in Pudding Creek, northern California

    Heather Anne Pert

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine winter food sources, availability, and preferences for coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in Pudding Creek, California. The majority of research on overwintering strategies of salmonids on the West Coast has been done in cooler, northern climates studying primarily the role of habitat...

  18. Winter climate change affects growing-season soil microbial biomass and activity in northern hardwood forests

    Jorge Durán; Jennifer L. Morse; Peter M. Groffman; John L. Campbell; Lynn M. Christenson; Charles T. Driscoll; Timothy J. Fahey; Melany C. Fisk; Myron J. Mitchell; Pamela H. Templer

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the responses of terrestrial ecosystems to global change remains a major challenge of ecological research. We exploited a natural elevation gradient in a northern hardwood forest to determine how reductions in snow accumulation, expected with climate change, directly affect dynamics of soil winter frost, and indirectly soil microbial biomass and activity...

  19. Winter cooling in the northern Arabian Sea

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Prasad, T.G.

    forcing that leads to the observed high productivity during winter in the northern Arabian Sea. The weak northerly winds and increased solar insolation during the inter-monsoon period, led to the development of a highly stratified upper layer with warm sea...

  20. Winter mortality in relation to climate

    Keatinge, W. R.; Donaldson, G. C.; Bucher, K.; Jendritzky, G.; Cordioli, E.; Martinelli, M.; Katsouyanni, K.; Kunst, A. E.; McDonald, C.; Näyhä, S.; Vuori, I.

    2000-01-01

    We report further details of the Eurowinter survey of cold related mortalities and protective measures against cold in seven regions of Europe, and review these with other evidence on the relationship of winter mortality to climate. Data for the oldest subject group studied, aged 65-74, showed that

  1. Come back on the french gas winter

    2006-01-01

    The document analyzes the french gas market behavior during the winter 2005/2006: the gas consumption, the imports decrease was offset by the the liquefied natural gas supply increase at Fos, the stocks levels and the transparency of the information. (A.L.B.)

  2. Winter Wheat Root Growth and Nitrogen Relations

    Rasmussen, Irene Skovby

    in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L). Field experiments on the effect of sowing date, N fertilization and cultivars were conducted on a sandy loam soil in Taastrup, Denmark. The root studies were conducted by means of the minirhizotron method. Also, a field experiment on the effect of defoliation and N...

  3. Stay Safe and Healthy This Winter!

    2010-11-23

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics offer some simple ways to stay safe and healthy during the winter holiday season.  Created: 11/23/2010 by CDC Office of Women’s Health.   Date Released: 11/23/2010.

  4. Winter Video Series Coming in January | Poster

    The Scientific Library’s annual Summer Video Series was so successful that it will be offering a new Winter Video Series beginning in January. For this inaugural event, the staff is showing the eight-part series from National Geographic titled “American Genius.” 

  5. Music Activities for Lemonade in Winter

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2014-01-01

    "Lemonade in Winter: A Book About Two Kids Counting Money" is a children's book about math; however, when sharing it in the music classroom, street cries and clapping games emerge. Jenkins' and Karas' book provides a springboard to lessons addressing several music elements, including form, tempo, and rhythm, as well as…

  6. Winter Secrets: An Instant Lesson Plan.

    Collyer, Cam

    1997-01-01

    Outdoor lesson plan aims to stimulate student interest in animals' adaptations to winter and the various signs and clues to animal behavior. Includes questions for class discussion, tips for guiding the hike, and instructions for two games that illustrate the predator-prey relationship. Notes curriculum connections to the East York (Ontario) Board…

  7. Modeling winter moth Operophtera brumata egg phenology

    Salis, Lucia; Lof, Marjolein; Asch, van Margriet; Visser, Marcel E.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between an insect's developmental rate and temperature is crucial to forecast insect phenology under climate change. In the winter moth Operophtera brumata timing of egg-hatching has severe fitness consequences on growth and reproduction as egg-hatching has to match

  8. Impact of warm winters on microbial growth

    Birgander, Johanna; Rousk, Johannes; Axel Olsson, Pål

    2014-05-01

    Growth of soil bacteria has an asymmetrical response to higher temperature with a gradual increase with increasing temperatures until an optimum after which a steep decline occurs. In laboratory studies it has been shown that by exposing a soil bacterial community to a temperature above the community's optimum temperature for two months, the bacterial community grows warm-adapted, and the optimum temperature of bacterial growth shifts towards higher temperatures. This result suggests a change in the intrinsic temperature dependence of bacterial growth, as temperature influenced the bacterial growth even though all other factors were kept constant. An intrinsic temperature dependence could be explained by either a change in the bacterial community composition, exchanging less tolerant bacteria towards more tolerant ones, or it could be due to adaptation within the bacteria present. No matter what the shift in temperature tolerance is due to, the shift could have ecosystem scale implications, as winters in northern Europe are getting warmer. To address the question of how microbes and plants are affected by warmer winters, a winter-warming experiment was established in a South Swedish grassland. Results suggest a positive response in microbial growth rate in plots where winter soil temperatures were around 6 °C above ambient. Both bacterial and fungal growth (leucine incorporation, and acetate into ergosterol incorporation, respectively) appeared stimulated, and there are two candidate explanations for these results. Either (i) warming directly influence microbial communities by modulating their temperature adaptation, or (ii) warming indirectly affected the microbial communities via temperature induced changes in bacterial growth conditions. The first explanation is in accordance with what has been shown in laboratory conditions (explained above), where the differences in the intrinsic temperature relationships were examined. To test this explanation the

  9. Nuclear Winter: The implications for civil defense

    Chester, C.V.; Perry, A.M.; Hobbs, B.F.

    1987-01-01

    ''Nuclear Winter'' is the term given to hypothesized cooling in the northern hemisphere following a nuclear war due to injection of smoke from burning cities into the atmosphere. The voluminous literature on this subject produced since the original paper in 1983 by Turco, Toon, Ackerman, Pollack, and Sagen (TTAPS) has been reviewed. The widespread use of 3-dimensional global circulation models have resulted in reduced estimates of cooling; 15 to 25 0 C for a summer war and a few degrees for a winter war. More serious may be the possibility of suppression of convective precipitation by the altered temperature profiles in the atmosphere. However, very large uncertainties remain in input parameters, the models, and the results of calculations. We believe the state of knowledge about nuclear winter is sufficiently developed to conclude: Neither cold nor drought are likely to be direct threats to human survival for populations with the wherewithal to survive normal January temperatures; The principal threat from nuclear winter is to food production, and could present problems to third parties without food reserves; and Loss of a crop year is neither a new nor unexpected threat from nuclear war to the US and the Soviet Union. Both have at least a year's food reserve at all times. Both face formidable organizational problems in distributing their reserves in a war-damaged environment. The consequences of nuclear winter could be expected to fall more heavily on the Soviet Union than the US due to its higher latitude and less productive agriculture. This may be especially true if disturbances of rainfall amounts and distribution persist for more than a year. 6 refs

  10. Nuclear Winter: Implications for civil defense

    Chester, C.V.; Perry, A.M.; Hobbs, B.F.

    1988-05-01

    ''Nuclear Winter'' is the term given to the cooling hypothesized to occur in the Northern Hemisphere following a nuclear war as the result of the injection of smoke from burning cities into the atmosphere. The voluminous literature on this subject produced since the paper was published in 1983 by Turco, Toon, Ackerman, Pollack, and Sagen (TTAPS) has been reviewed. Three-dimensional global circulation models have resulted in reduced estimates of cooling---15 to 25/degree/C for a summer war and a few degrees for a winter war. More serious may be the possibility of suppression of convective precipitation by the altered temperature profiles in the atmosphere. However, very large uncertainties remain in input parameters, the models, and the results of calculations. We believe the state of knowledge about nuclear winter is sufficiently developed to conclude: Neither cold nor drought is likely to be a direct threat to human survival for populations with the wherewithal to survive normal January temperatures. The principal threat from nuclear winter is to food production, and this could present problems to third parties who are without food reserves. Loss of a crop year is neither a new nor an unexpected threat from nuclear war to the United States and the Soviet Union. Both have at least a year's food reserve at all times. Both face formidable organizational problems in distributing their reserves in a war-damaged environment. The consequences of nuclear winter could be expected to fall more heavily on the Soviet Union than the United States due to its higher latitude and less productive agriculture. This may be especially true if disturbances of rainfall amounts and distribution persist for more than a year.

  11. Seasonal overturning circulation in the Red Sea: 2. Winter circulation

    Yao, Fengchao

    2014-04-01

    The shallow winter overturning circulation in the Red Sea is studied using a 50 year high-resolution MITgcm (MIT general circulation model) simulation with realistic atmospheric forcing. The overturning circulation for a typical year, represented by 1980, and the climatological mean are analyzed using model output to delineate the three-dimensional structure and to investigate the underlying dynamical mechanisms. The horizontal model circulation in the winter of 1980 is dominated by energetic eddies. The climatological model mean results suggest that the surface inflow intensifies in a western boundary current in the southern Red Sea that switches to an eastern boundary current north of 24N. The overturning is accomplished through a cyclonic recirculation and a cross-basin overturning circulation in the northern Red Sea, with major sinking occurring along a narrow band of width about 20 km along the eastern boundary and weaker upwelling along the western boundary. The northward pressure gradient force, strong vertical mixing, and horizontal mixing near the boundary are the essential dynamical components in the model\\'s winter overturning circulation. The simulated water exchange is not hydraulically controlled in the Strait of Bab el Mandeb; instead, the exchange is limited by bottom and lateral boundary friction and, to a lesser extent, by interfacial friction due to the vertical viscosity at the interface between the inflow and the outflow. Key Points Sinking occurs in a narrow boundary layer along the eastern boundary Surface western boundary current switches into an eastern boundary current Water exchange in the Strait of Bab el Mandeb is not hydraulically controlled © 2014. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

  12. 76 FR 44029 - North Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    2011-07-22

    .... FEMA-1986-DR; Docket ID FEMA-2011-0001] North Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of North Dakota (FEMA-1986-DR), dated May 20, 2011, and related... determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of North Dakota resulting from a severe winter storm...

  13. 75 FR 30418 - South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    2010-06-01

    .... FEMA-1914-DR; Docket ID FEMA-2010-0002] South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of South Dakota (FEMA-1914-DR), dated May 13, 2010, and related... in certain areas of the State of South Dakota resulting from a severe winter storm on April 2, 2010...

  14. Waste management in primary healthcare centres of Iran.

    Mesdaghinia, Alireza; Naddafi, Kazem; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Saeedi, Reza

    2009-06-01

    The waste management practices in primary healthcare centres of Iran were investigated in the present study. A total of 120 primary healthcare centres located across the country were selected using the cluster sampling method and the current situation of healthcare waste management was determined through field investigation. The quantities of solid waste and wastewater generation per outpatient were found to be 60 g outpatient(-1) day(-1) and 26 L outpatient(-1) day(-1), respectively. In all of the facilities, sharp objects were separated almost completely, but separation of other types of hazardous healthcare solid waste was only done in 25% of the centres. The separated hazardous solid waste materials were treated by incineration, temporary incineration and open burning methods in 32.5, 8.3 and 42.5% of the healthcare centres, respectively. In 16.7% of the centres the hazardous solid wastes were disposed of without any treatment. These results indicate that the management of waste materials in primary healthcare centres in Iran faced some problems. Staff training and awareness, separation of healthcare solid waste, establishment of the autoclave method for healthcare solid waste treatment and construction of septic tanks and disinfection units in the centres that were without access to a sewer system are the major measures that are suggested for improvement of the waste management practices.

  15. The Aube centre; Le Centre de l`Aube

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This educational booklet is devoted to a general presentation of the Aube radioactive wastes storage centre. After a short presentation of the Andra, the French national agency for the management of radioactive wastes, it gives some general information about radioactive wastes (origin, classification), containers (quality assurance and different types), wastes transportation (planning, safety), and about the Aube centre itself: description, treatment and conditioning of drums (compacting and injection), storage facilities, geological situation of the site, and environmental controls. (J.S.)

  16. Introducing the PET Centre Prague

    Belohlavek, O.

    2001-01-01

    The PET Centre Prague (www.homolka.cz/nm) was established in 1999 as the outcome of a joint project of the public Na Homolce Hospital and the Nuclear Research Institute Rez, plc, the Czech radiopharmaceutical producer. Technical and financial assistance was provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency, which perceived the Centre as its model project that could serve as a guide for the development of PET centres in countries sharing a comparable level of development with the Czech Republic. The article maps the history of the project, its design, workplace lay-out and equipment, radiation protection arrangements and spectrum of the first approx. 3000 investigations. (author)

  17. Sex-specific responses to winter flooding, spring waterlogging and post-flooding recovery in Populus deltoides

    Ling-Feng Miao; Fan Yang; Chun-Yu Han; Yu-Jin Pu; Yang Ding; Li-Jia Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Winter flooding events are common in some rivers and streams due to dam constructions, and flooding and waterlogging inhibit the growth of trees in riparian zones. This study investigated sex-specific morphological, physiological and ultrastructural responses to various durations of winter flooding and spring waterlogging stresses, and post-flooding recovery characteristics in Populus deltoides. There were no significant differences in the morphological, ultrastructural and the majority of ph...

  18. Incorporating Yearly Derived Winter Wheat Maps Into Winter Wheat Yield Forecasting Model

    Skakun, S.; Franch, B.; Roger, J.-C.; Vermote, E.; Becker-Reshef, I.; Justice, C.; Santamaría-Artigas, A.

    2016-01-01

    Wheat is one of the most important cereal crops in the world. Timely and accurate forecast of wheat yield and production at global scale is vital in implementing food security policy. Becker-Reshef et al. (2010) developed a generalized empirical model for forecasting winter wheat production using remote sensing data and official statistics. This model was implemented using static wheat maps. In this paper, we analyze the impact of incorporating yearly wheat masks into the forecasting model. We propose a new approach of producing in season winter wheat maps exploiting satellite data and official statistics on crop area only. Validation on independent data showed that the proposed approach reached 6% to 23% of omission error and 10% to 16% of commission error when mapping winter wheat 2-3 months before harvest. In general, we found a limited impact of using yearly winter wheat masks over a static mask for the study regions.

  19. Links between North Atlantic atmospheric blocking and recent trends in European winter precipitation

    Ummenhofer, Caroline; Seo, Hyodae; Kwon, Young-Oh; Joyce, Terrence

    2015-04-01

    European precipitation has sustained robust trends during wintertime (January - March) over recent decades. Central, western, and northern Europe have become wetter by an average 0.1-0.3% per annum for the period 1901-2010, while southern Europe, including the Iberian Peninsula, much of Italy and the Balkan States, has sustained drying of -0.2% per annum or more over the same period. The overall pattern is consistent across different observational precipitation products, while the magnitude of the precipitation trends varies amongst data sets. Using cluster analysis, which identifies recurrent states (or regimes) of European winter precipitation by grouping them according to an objective similarity criterion, changes in the frequency of dominant winter precipitation patterns over the past century are evaluated. Considerable multi-decadal variability exists in the frequency of dominant winter precipitation patterns: more recent decades are characterised by significantly fewer winters with anomalous wet conditions over southern, western, and central Europe. In contrast, winters with dry conditions in western and southern Europe, but above-average rainfall in western Scandinavia and the northern British Isles, have been more common recently. We evaluate the associated multi-decadal large-scale circulation changes across the broader extratropical North Atlantic region, which accompany the observed wintertime precipitation variability using the 20th Century reanalysis product. Some influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is apparent in modulating the frequency of dominant precipitation patterns. However, recent trends in the characteristics of atmospheric blocking across the North Atlantic sector indicate a change in the dominant blocking centres (near Greenland, the British Isles, and west of the Iberian Peninsula). Associated changes in sea level pressure, storm track position and strength, and oceanic heat fluxes across the North Atlantic region are also

  20. Potential impacts of climate change on the winter distribution of Afro-Palaearctic migrant passerines

    Barbet-Massin, Morgane; Walther, Bruno A; Thuiller, Wilfried

    2009-01-01

    We modelled the present and future sub-Saharan winter distributions of 64 trans-Saharan migrant passerines to predict the potential impacts of climate change. These predictions used the recent ensemble modelling developments and the latest IPCC climatic simulations to account for possible...... changes in range size and location were spatially structured, with species that winter in southern and eastern Africa facing larger range contractions and shifts. Predicted changes in regional species richness for these long-distance migrants are increases just south of the Sahara and on the Arabian...... Peninsula and major decreases in southern and eastern Africa....

  1. Emissions Inventory for the Uinta Basin of Eastern Utah, Winter 2012

    Moss, D.; Hall, C. F.; Mansfield, M. L.

    2012-12-01

    We report the results of an emissions inventory for the Uinta Basin, Duchesne and Uintah Counties, Utah, focusing on emissions categories that are poorly represented by existing inventories. We have also focused on wintertime emissions in general and on the winter season of 2012, in particular, in order to have an inventory that is relevant to winter ozone events in the basin. The inventory includes categories such as major and minor point sources, produced water evaporation ponds, wood stoves, mobile emissions, biogenic and agricultural emissions, land fills, etc.

  2. Processes Controlling Water Vapor in the Winter Arctic Tropopause Region

    Pfister, Leonhard; Selkirk, Henry B.; Jensen, Eric J.; Padolske, James; Sachse, Glen; Avery, Melody; Schoeberl, Mark R.; Mahoney, Michael J.; Richard, Erik

    2002-01-01

    This work describes transport and thermodynamic processes that control water vapor near the tropopause during the SAGE III-Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE), held during the Arctic 1999/2000 winter season. Aircraft-based water vapor, carbon monoxide, and ozone measurements were analyzed so as to establish how deeply tropospheric air mixes into the Arctic lowermost stratosphere and what the implications are for cloud formation and water vapor removal in this region of the atmosphere. There are three major findings. First, troposphere-to-stratosphere exchange extends into the Arctic stratosphere to about 13 km. Penetration is to similar levels throughout the winter, however, because ozone increases with altitude most rapidly in the early spring, tropospheric air mixes with the highest values of ozone in that season. The effect of this upward mixing is to elevate water vapor mixing ratios significantly above their prevailing stratospheric values of above 5ppmv. Second, the potential for cloud formation in the stratosphere is highest during early spring, with about 20% of the parcels which have ozone values of 300-350 ppbv experiencing ice saturation in a given 10 day period. Third, during early spring, temperatures at the troposphere are cold enough so that 5-10% of parcels experience relative humidities above 100%, even if the water content is as low as 5 ppmv. The implication is that during this period, dynamical processes near the Arctic tropopause can dehydrate air and keep the Arctic tropopause region very dry during early spring.

  3. Combining two major ATLAS inner detector components

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    The semiconductor tracker is inserted into the transition radiation tracker for the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. These make up two of the three major components of the inner detector. They will work together to measure the trajectories produced in the proton-proton collisions at the centre of the detector when the LHC is switched on in 2008.

  4. Winter climate variability and classification in the Bulgarian Mountainous Regions

    Petkova, Nadezhda; Koleva, Ekaterina

    2004-01-01

    The problems of snowiness and thermal conditions of winters are of high interest of investigations because of the more frequent droughts, occurred in the region. In the present study an attempt to reveal tendencies existing during the last 70 years of 20 th century in the course winter precipitation and,temperature as well as in some of the snow cover parameters. On the base of mean winter air temperature winters in the Bulgarian mountains were analyzed and classified. The main results of the study show that winter precipitation has decrease tendencies more significant in the highest parts of the mountains. On the other hand winter air temperature increases. It shows a relatively well-established maximum at the end of the studied period. In the Bulgarian mountains normal winters are about 35-40% of all winters. (Author)

  5. The centre of the action

    2008-01-01

    The CERN Control Centre (CCC) has all the ingredients of an action movie control room: hundreds of screens, technicians buzzing in and out, huge floor-to-ceiling windows revealing the looming vista of a mountain range, flashing lights, microphones… This is the place where not just the LHC, but the whole of CERN’s accelerator complex and technical support is based - truly the centre of the action at CERN.

  6. Training centres - organization and management

    Kovar, P.

    1986-01-01

    In the lecture 'Training centres - organization and management' some principles and requirements which influence the organization, management and activity pattern of nuclear training centres, are briefly introduced. It is demonstrated, step by step, how these general principles are implemented in the development of the Czechoslovak nuclear power programme, it means, how the training of the NPP personnel proceeds in Czechoslovak nuclear training centres. General principles which are selected: a connection between the capacity of the training centre and the scope and needs of the nuclear power programme, a position of the training center within the institutional set-up, a structure and organization of the training system which complies with the system of NPP construction, reflect the pattern and the activity of the nuclear training centre and nuclear power technical level, a research group of workers in the nuclear training centre, main tasks and technical facilities, management of the training process and a transfer of knowledge and research results into the training process. The lecture is supplemented by pictures and slides. (orig.)

  7. Bulimia and anorexia nervosa in winter depression: lifetime rates in a clinical sample.

    Gruber, N P; Dilsaver, S C

    1996-01-01

    Symptoms of an eating disorder (hyperphagia, carbohydrate craving, and weight gain) are characteristic of wintertime depression. Recent findings suggest that the severity of bulimia nervosa peaks during fall and winter months, and that persons with this disorder respond to treatment with bright artificial light. However, the rates of eating disorders among patients presenting for the treatment of winter depression are unknown. This study was undertaken to determine these rates among 47 patients meeting the DSM-III-R criteria for major depression with a seasonal pattern. All were evaluated using standard clinical interviews and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R. Twelve (25.5%) patients met the DSM-III-R criteria for an eating disorder. Eleven patients had onset of mood disorder during childhood or adolescence. The eating disorder followed the onset of the mood disorder. Clinicians should inquire about current and past symptoms of eating disorders when evaluating patients with winter depression. PMID:8580121

  8. RTEMS Centre - Support and Maintenance Centre to RTEMS Operating System

    Silva, H.; Constantino, A.; Freitas, D.; Coutinho, M.; Faustino, S.; Mota, M.; Colaço, P.; Sousa, J.; Dias, L.; Damjanovic, B.; Zulianello, M.; Rufino, J.

    2009-05-01

    RTEMS CENTRE - Support and Maintenance Centre to RTEMS Operating System is a joint ESA/Portuguese Task Force initiative to develop a support and maintenance centre to the Real-Time Executive for Multiprocessor Systems (RTEMS). This paper gives a high level visibility of the progress, the results obtained and the future work in the RTEMS CENTRE [6] and in the RTEMS Improvement [7] projects. RTEMS CENTRE started officially in November 2006, with the RTEMS 4.6.99.2 version. A full analysis of RTEMS operating system was produced. The architecture was analysed in terms of conceptual, organizational and operational concepts. The original objectives [1] of the centre were primarily to create and maintain technical expertise and competences in this RTOS, to develop a website to provide the European Space Community an entry point for obtaining support (http://rtemscentre.edisoft.pt), to design, develop, maintain and integrate some RTEMS support tools (Timeline Tool, Configuration and Management Tools), to maintain flight libraries and Board Support Packages, to develop a strong relationship with the World RTEMS Community and finally to produce some considerations in ARINC-653, DO-178B and ECSS E-40 standards. RTEMS Improvement is the continuation of the RTEMS CENTRE. Currently the RTEMS, version 4.8.0, is being facilitated for a future qualification. In this work, the validation material is being produced following the Galileo Software Standards Development Assurance Level B [5]. RTEMS is being completely tested, errors analysed, dead and deactivated code removed and tests produced to achieve 100% statement and decision coverage of source code [2]. The SW to exploit the LEON Memory Management Unit (MMU) hardware will be also added. A brief description of the expected implementations will be given.

  9. AGA predicts winter jump in residential gas price

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The American Gas Association predicts the average heating bill for residential gas consumers could increase by as much as 18% this winter. AGA Pres. Mike Baly said, Last year's winter was warmer than normal. If the 1992-93 winter is similar, AGA projects that residential natural gas heating bills will go up about 6%. If we see a return to normal winter weather, our projection show the average bill could rise by almost 18%

  10. Community Documentation Centre on Industrial Risk. Bulletin no. 8

    Masera, M.; Rasmussen, K.

    1993-01-01

    The Directorate-General for Environment, Nuclear Safety and Civil Protection of the Commission of the European Communities is responsible for the effective and harmonized implementation of the Directive 82/501/EEC on the major-accident hazards of certain industrial activities. To this end, the Commission, in collaboration with the Committee of Competent Authorities responsible for the implementation of this Directive in the twelve Member States, carries out a whole range of activities. One of the most essential areas for action identified was the need for a systematic diffusion of information concerning the practical implementation of the Directive in the Member States, including the technical rules and guidelines applied, the safety practices and the lessons learnt from major accidents. Therefore, the Commission decided to set up a Community Documentation Centre on Industrial Risks (CDCIR). This Documentation Centre is run by the European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Systems Engineering and Informatics (ISEI), at Ispra, Italy, among its support activities on the implementation of the Directive. The Documentation Centre will collect, classify and review technical rules, guidelines and documents concerning the requirements of the Directive, as well as the safety of industrial installations produced by governments, administrative, scientific or technical bodies, national or international organizations and industrial or professional associations. Documents on major accidents in the form of reports, videotapes will also be collected and reviewed. The Centre is accessible to interested visitors, documents which are not covered by copyright and are not restricted can be obtained from the Documentation Centre on request. Periodical volumes which will feature the inventory, including abstracts, of the collected material will be published and made available to all interested parties. The Centre will also publish documents devoted to compare existing

  11. Community Documentation Centre on Industrial Risk. Bulletin no. 11

    Perschke, A.; Kirchsteiger, C.; Carnevali, C.

    1997-01-01

    The Directorate-General for Environment, Nuclear Safety and Civil Protection of the Commission of the European Communities is responsible for the effective and harmonized implementation of the Directive 82/501/EEC on the major-accident hazards of certain industrial activities. To this end, the Commission, in collaboration with the Committee of Competent Authorities responsible for the implementation of this Directive in the twelve Member States, carries out a whole range of activities. One of the most essential areas for action identified was the need for a systematic diffusion of information concerning the practical implementation of the Directive in the Member States, including the technical rules and guidelines applied, the safety practices and the lessons learnt from major accidents. Therefore, the Commission decided to set up a Community Documentation Centre on Industrial Risks (CDCIR). This Documentation Centre is run by the European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Systems Engineering and Informatics (ISEI), at Ispra, Italy, among its support activities on the implementation of the Directive. The Documentation Centre will collect, classify and review technical rules, guidelines and documents concerning the requirements of the Directive, as well as the safety of industrial installations produced by governments, administrative, scientific or technical bodies, national or international organizations and industrial or professional associations. Documents on major accidents in the form of reports, videotapes will also be collected and reviewed. The Centre is accessible to interested visitors, documents which are not covered by copyright and are not restricted can be obtained from the Documentation Centre on request. Periodical volumes which will feature the inventory, including abstracts, of the collected material will be published and made available to all interested parties. The Centre will also publish documents devoted to compare existing

  12. Community Documentation Centre on Industrial Risk. Bulletin no. 9

    Perschke, A.

    1995-01-01

    The Directorate-General for Environment, Nuclear Safety and Civil Protection of the Commission of the European Communities is responsible for the effective and harmonized implementation of the Directive 82/501/EEC on the major-accident hazards of certain industrial activities. To this end, the Commission, in collaboration with the Committee of Competent Authorities responsible for the implementation of this Directive in the twelve Member States, carries out a whole range of activities. One of the most essential areas for action identified was the need for a systematic diffusion of information concerning the practical implementation of the Directive in the Member States, including the technical rules and guidelines applied, the safety practices and the lessons learnt from major accidents. Therefore, the Commission decided to set up a Community Documentation Centre on Industrial Risks (CDCIR). This Documentation Centre is run by the European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Systems Engineering and Informatics (ISEI), at Ispra, Italy, among its support activities on the implementation of the Directive. The Documentation Centre will collect, classify and review technical rules, guidelines and documents concerning the requirements of the Directive, as well as the safety of industrial installations produced by governments, administrative, scientific or technical bodies, national or international organizations and industrial or professional associations. Documents on major accidents in the form of reports, videotapes will also be collected and reviewed. The Centre is accessible to interested visitors, documents which are not covered by copyright and are not restricted can be obtained from the Documentation Centre on request. Periodical volumes which will feature the inventory, including abstracts, of the collected material will be published and made available to all interested parties. The Centre will also publish documents devoted to compare existing

  13. Community Documentation Centre on Industrial Risk. Bulletin no. 6

    Gow, H.B.F.

    1992-06-01

    The Directorate-General for Environment, Nuclear Safety and Civil Protection of the Commission of the European Communities is responsible for the effective and harmonized implementation of the Directive 82/501/EEC on the major-accident hazards of certain industrial activities. To this end, the Commission, in collaboration with the Committee of Competent Authorities responsible for the implementation of this Directive in the twelve Member States, carries out a whole range of activities. One of the most essential areas for action identified was the need for a systematic diffusion of information concerning the practical implementation of the Directive in the Member States, including the technical rules and guidelines applied, the safety practices and the lessons learnt from major accidents. Therefore, the Commission decided to set up a Community Documentation Centre on Industrial Risks (CDCIR). This Documentation Centre is run by the European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Systems Engineering and Informatics (ISEI), at Ispra, Italy, among its support activities on the implementation of the Directive. The Documentation Centre will collect, classify and review technical rules, guidelines and documents concerning the requirements of the Directive, as well as the safety of industrial installations produced by governments, administrative, scientific or technical bodies, national or international organizations and industrial or professional associations. Documents on major accidents in the form of reports, videotapes will also be collected and reviewed. The Centre is accessible to interested visitors, documents which are not covered by copyright and are not restricted can be obtained from the Documentation Centre on request. Periodical volumes which will feature the inventory, including abstracts, of the collected material will be published and made available to all interested parties. The Centre will also publish documents devoted to compare existing

  14. Community Documentation Centre on Industrial Risk. Bulletin no. 4

    Gow, H.B.F.

    1991-01-01

    The Directorate-General for Environment, Nuclear Safety and Civil Protection of the Commission of the European Communities is responsible for the effective and harmonized implementation of the Directive 82/501/EEC on the major-accident hazards of certain industrial activities. To this end, the Commission, in collaboration with the Committee of Competent Authorities responsible for the implementation of this Directive in the twelve Member States, carries out a whole range of activities. One of the most essential areas for action identified was the need for a systematic diffusion of information concerning the practical implementation of the Directive in the Member States, including the technical rules and guidelines applied, the safety practices and the lessons learnt from major accidents. Therefore, the Commission decided to set up a Community Documentation Centre on Industrial Risks (CDCIR). This Documentation Centre is run by the European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Systems Engineering and Informatics (ISEI), at Ispra, Italy, among its support activities on the implementation of the Directive. The Documentation Centre will collect, classify and review technical rules, guidelines and documents concerning the requirements of the Directive, as well as the safety of industrial installations produced by governments, administrative, scientific or technical bodies, national or international organizations and industrial or professional associations. Documents on major accidents in the form of reports, videotapes will also be collected and reviewed. The Centre is accessible to interested visitors, documents which are not covered by copyright and are not restricted can be obtained from the Documentation Centre on request. Periodical volumes which will feature the inventory, including abstracts, of the collected material will be published and made available to all interested parties. The Centre will also publish documents devoted to compare existing

  15. Community Documentation Centre on Industrial Risk. Bulletin no. 10

    Perschke, A.; Kirchsteiger, C.

    1996-01-01

    The Directorate-General for Environment, Nuclear Safety and Civil Protection of the Commission of the European Communities is responsible for the effective and harmonized implementation of the Directive 82/501/EEC on the major-accident hazards of certain industrial activities. To this end, the Commission, in collaboration with the Committee of Competent Authorities responsible for the implementation of this Directive in the twelve Member States, carries out a whole range of activities. One of the most essential areas for action identified was the need for a systematic diffusion of information concerning the practical implementation of the Directive in the Member States, including the technical rules and guidelines applied, the safety practices and the lessons learnt from major accidents. Therefore, the Commission decided to set up a Community Documentation Centre on Industrial Risks (CDCIR). This Documentation Centre is run by the European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Systems Engineering and Informatics (ISEI), at Ispra, Italy, among its support activities on the implementation of the Directive. The Documentation Centre will collect, classify and review technical rules, guidelines and documents concerning the requirements of the Directive, as well as the safety of industrial installations produced by governments, administrative, scientific or technical bodies, national or international organizations and industrial or professional associations. Documents on major accidents in the form of reports, videotapes will also be collected and reviewed. The Centre is accessible to interested visitors, documents which are not covered by copyright and are not restricted can be obtained from the Documentation Centre on request. Periodical volumes which will feature the inventory, including abstracts, of the collected material will be published and made available to all interested parties. The Centre will also publish documents devoted to compare existing

  16. Community Documentation Centre on Industrial Risk. Bulletin no. 5

    Gow, H.B.F.

    1991-11-01

    The Directorate-General for Environment, Nuclear Safety and Civil Protection of the Commission of the European Communities is responsible for the effective and harmonized implementation of the Directive 82/501/EEC on the major-accident hazards of certain industrial activities. To this end, the Commission, in collaboration with the Committee of Competent Authorities responsible for the implementation of this Directive in the twelve Member States, carries out a whole range of activities. One of the most essential areas for action identified was the need for a systematic diffusion of information concerning the practical implementation of the Directive in the Member States, including the technical rules and guidelines applied, the safety practices and the lessons learnt from major accidents. Therefore, the Commission decided to set up a Community Documentation Centre on Industrial Risks (CDCIR). This Documentation Centre is run by the European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Systems Engineering and Informatics (ISEI), at Ispra, Italy, among its support activities on the implementation of the Directive. The Documentation Centre will collect, classify and review technical rules, guidelines and documents concerning the requirements of the Directive, as well as the safety of industrial installations produced by governments, administrative, scientific or technical bodies, national or international organizations and industrial or professional associations. Documents on major accidents in the form of reports, videotapes will also be collected and reviewed. The Centre is accessible to interested visitors, documents which are not covered by copyright and are not restricted can be obtained from the Documentation Centre on request. Periodical volumes which will feature the inventory, including abstracts, of the collected material will be published and made available to all interested parties. The Centre will also publish documents devoted to compare existing

  17. Community Documentation Centre on Industrial Risk. Bulletin no. 7

    Gow, H.B.F.; Carditello, I.

    1993-04-01

    The Directorate-General for Environment, Nuclear Safety and Civil Protection of the Commission of the European Communities is responsible for the effective and harmonized implementation of the Directive 82/501/EEC on the major-accident hazards of certain industrial activities. To this end, the Commission, in collaboration with the Committee of Competent Authorities responsible for the implementation of this Directive in the twelve Member States, carries out a whole range of activities. One of the most essential areas for action identified was the need for a systematic diffusion of information concerning the practical implementation of the Directive in the Member States, including the technical rules and guidelines applied, the safety practices and the lessons learnt from major accidents. Therefore, the Commission decided to set up a Community Documentation Centre on Industrial Risks (CDCIR). This Documentation Centre is run by the European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Systems Engineering and Informatics (ISEI), at Ispra, Italy, among its support activities on the implementation of the Directive. The Documentation Centre will collect, classify and review technical rules, guidelines and documents concerning the requirements of the Directive, as well as the safety of industrial installations produced by governments, administrative, scientific or technical bodies, national or international organizations and industrial or professional associations. Documents on major accidents in the form of reports, videotapes will also be collected and reviewed. The Centre is accessible to interested visitors, documents which are not covered by copyright and are not restricted can be obtained from the Documentation Centre on request. Periodical volumes which will feature the inventory, including abstracts, of the collected material will be published and made available to all interested parties. The Centre will also publish documents devoted to compare existing

  18. Measuring Transpiration to Regulate Winter Irrigation Rates

    Samuelson, Lisa [Auburn University

    2006-11-08

    Periodic transpiration (monthly sums) in a young loblolly pine plantation between ages 3 and 6 was measured using thermal dissipation probes. Fertilization and fertilization with irrigation were better than irrigation alone in increasing transpiration of young loblolly pines during winter months, apparently because of increased leaf area in fertilized trees. Irrigation alone did not significantly increase transpiration compared with the non-fertilized and non-irrigated control plots.

  19. School in nature from spring to winter

    MLSOVÁ, Martina

    2012-01-01

    The bachelor's thesis "Outdoor school from spring to winter" deals with the influence of field teaching on the locomotor development of preschool children. Based on specialized literature its theoretical part summarizes the influence of the natural environment on the child's development. It describes the benefits of field teaching, it deals with the term "Outdoor school" nowadays and in the past and with the locomotor development of children. The practical part includes an elaborated yearlong...

  20. Postharvest tillage reduces Downy Brome infestations in winter wheat

    In the Pacific Northwest, downy brome continues to infest winter wheat producing regions especially in low-rainfall areas where the winter wheat-summer fallow rotation is the dominate production system. In Washington, a study was conducted for 2 years at each of two locations in the winter wheat -su...

  1. Sex-specific responses to winter flooding, spring waterlogging and post-flooding recovery in Populus deltoides.

    Miao, Ling-Feng; Yang, Fan; Han, Chun-Yu; Pu, Yu-Jin; Ding, Yang; Zhang, Li-Jia

    2017-05-31

    Winter flooding events are common in some rivers and streams due to dam constructions, and flooding and waterlogging inhibit the growth of trees in riparian zones. This study investigated sex-specific morphological, physiological and ultrastructural responses to various durations of winter flooding and spring waterlogging stresses, and post-flooding recovery characteristics in Populus deltoides. There were no significant differences in the morphological, ultrastructural and the majority of physiological traits in trees subjected to medium and severe winter flooding stresses, suggesting that males and females of P. deltoides were winter flooding tolerant, and insensitive to winter flooding duration. Males were more tolerant to winter flooding stress in terms of photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence than females. Females displayed greater oxidative damage due to flooding stress than males. Males developed more efficient antioxidant enzymatic systems to control reactive oxygen species. Both sexes had similarly strong post-flooding recovery capabilities in terms of plant growth, and physiological and ultrastructural parameters. However, Males had better recovery capabilities in terms of pigment content. These results increase the understanding of poplars's adaptation to winter flooding stress. They also elucidate sex-specific differences in response to flooding stress during the dormant season, and during post-flooding recovery periods.

  2. Effects of imidacloprid and clothianidin seed treatments on wheat aphids and their natural enemies on winter wheat.

    Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Xuefeng; Zhao, Yunhe; Wei, Yan; Mu, Wei; Liu, Feng

    2016-06-01

    Wheat aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is one of the major pests of winter wheat and has posed a significant threat to winter wheat production in China. Although neonicotinoid insecticidal seed treatments have been suggested to be a control method, the season-long efficacy on pests and the impact on their natural enemies are still uncertain. Experiments were conducted to determine the efficacy of imidacloprid and clothianidin on the control of aphids, the number of their natural enemies and the emergence rate and yield of wheat during 2011-2014. Imidacloprid and clothianidin seed treatments had no effect on the emergence rate of winter wheat and could prevent yield losses and wheat aphid infestations throughout the winter wheat growing season. Furthermore, their active ingredients were detected in winter wheat leaves up to 200 days after sowing. Imidacloprid and clothianidin seed treatments had no adverse effects on ladybirds, hoverflies or parasitoids, and instead increased the spider-aphid ratios. Wheat seeds treated with imidacloprid and clothianidin were effective against wheat aphids throughout the winter wheat growing season and reduced the yield loss under field conditions. Imidacloprid and clothianidin seed treatments may be an important component of the integrated management of wheat aphids on winter wheat. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. The Australian centre for RF bioeffects research (ACRBR) - an NHMRC centre of research excellence

    Wood, A.; Croft, R.; Abramson, M.; Anderson, V.; Cosic, I.; Finnie, J.; McKenzie, R.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The Australian Centre for Radiofrequency Bioeffects Research (ACRBR) is a newly established multi-institutional research centre which seeks to research questions pertaining to possible health effects of exposure to radiofrequency devices, such as mobile phones and which is funded under the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) Centres of Research Excellence funding program. The Centre of Research Excellence in Electromagnetic Energy is combining the efforts of engineers, epidemiologists, physicists, psychophysiologists and veterinary pathologists from RMIT University, the Institute of Medical and Veterinary Science in South Australia (IMVS), Monash University, Swinburne University of Technology and Telstra Research Laboratories (TRL). The centre is funded at $2.5 M over five years and will undertake a program of research to address the issue of exposure to radiofrequency (RF) devices and health. It will also train new scientists, keep the community informed of ongoing developments and help the development of government policies in this area of considerable public concern. The 5-year program has the following components: Neurobiology: One important area where there is a perceived research gap is in the area of potential neurological effects, which will hence be a major focus of this Centre. The proposed studies range from in vitro and in vivo research studies of RF effects on neuron and neural system functioning in rodents, to that of RF effects on simple neural function, cognition and subjective report in humans. The latter series of studies have been developed to account for the consensus view that more emphasis needs to be placed on possible differences in RF population sensitivity (e.g. youth versus aged, and ' electromagnetic hypersensitives'). Epidemiological studies are an important tool in studying the impact on public health from exposure of whole populations to modern radio technologies. Cancer outcomes in this area of

  4. A winter survey of domestic heating among elderly patients.

    Morgan, R; Blair, A; King, D

    1996-02-01

    Elderly people have a greater need for domestic heating given the time they spend at home and the decline in the body thermoregulation that occurs with ageing. The use of domestic heating by 200 mentally competent newly admitted elderly in patients was evaluated by means of a questionnaire survey. Most patients (69%) were aware of the addition of value added tax (VAT) to their fuel bill and 31% said they had reduced the amount of heating they use because of this. A third of patients (29.5%) said they had difficulty keeping warm prior to this admission. The majority of patients said they could not manage to keep warm in the winter without financial hardship. In addition, 29% said they had reduced the amount spent on food in order to pay for fuel bills. This study suggests that cold may contribute to hospital admissions in elderly patients. This should have implications for government spending and taxation policy on domestic heating.

  5. The influence of sowing period and seeding norm on autumn vegetation, winter hardiness and yield of winter cereal crops

    Potapova G. N.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available the winter wheat and triticale in the middle part of the Ural Mountains haven’t been seeded before. The technology of winter crop cultivation should be improved due to the production of new varieties of winter rye. Winter hardiness and yield of winter rye are higher in comparison with winter triticale and especially with winter wheat. The sowing period and the seeding rate influence the amount of yield and winter hardiness. The winter hardiness of winter cereals and the yield of the rye variety Iset sowed on August 25 and the yield of the triticale variety Bashkir short-stalked and wheat Kazanskaya 560 sowed on August 15 were higher. It is important to sow winter grain in local conditions in the second half of August. The sowing this period allows to provide plants with the necessary amount of positive temperatures (450–500 °C. This helps the plants to form 3–4 shoots of tillering and a mass of 10 dry plants reaching 3–5 grams. The winter grain crops in the middle part of the Ural Mountains should be sown with seeding rates of 6 and 7 million of sprouting grains per 1 ha, and the seeds must be cultivated with fungicidal preparation before seeding.

  6. The ideal Atomic Centre; Le Centre Atomique ideal

    Mas, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    The author presents considerations which should prove to be of interest to all those who have to design, to construct and to operate a nuclear research centre. A large number of the ideas presented can also be applied to non-nuclear scientific research centres. In his report the author reviews: various problems with which the constructor is faced: ground-plan, infrastructure, buildings and the large units of scientific equipment in the centre, and those problems facing the director: maintenance, production, supplies, security. The author stresses the relationship which ought to exist between the research workers and the management. With this aim in view he proposes the creation of National School for Administration in Research which would train administrative executives for public or private organisations; they would be specialised in the fields of fundamental or applied research. (author) [French] L'auteur propose une base de reflexions a tous ceux qui doivent concevoir, realiser et faire vivre un Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires. Un grand nombre des idees exprimees peut d'ailleurs s'appliquer a un Centre d'Etudes Scientifiques non nucleaires. Dans son ouvrage, l'auteur passe en revue les differents problemes qui se posent au constructeur: plan, masse, infrastructure, batiments et grands appareils du Centre, et ceux qu'a a resoudre le directeur: entretien, fabrication, approvisionnements, securite. L'auteur insiste sur l'aspect des rapports qui doivent exister entre les chercheurs et ceux qui les administrent. Il propose a cette fin la creation d'une Ecole Nationale d'Administration de la Recherche qui formerait des cadres administratifs pour les organismes publics ou prives, specialises dans la Recherche fondamentale ou appliquee. (auteur)

  7. IAEA establishes International Seismic Safety Centre

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The IAEA today officially inaugurated an international centre to coordinate efforts for protecting nuclear installations against the effects of earthquakes. The International Seismic Safety Centre (ISSC), which has been established within the IAEA's Department of Nuclear Safety and Security, will serve as a focal point on seismic safety for nuclear installations worldwide. ISSC will assist countries on the assessment of seismic hazards of nuclear facilities to mitigate the consequences of strong earthquakes. 'With safety as our first priority, it is vital that we pool all expert knowledge available worldwide to assist nuclear operators and regulators to be well prepared for coping with major seismic events,' said Antonio Godoy, Acting Head of the IAEA's Engineering Safety Section and leader of the ISSC. 'The creation of the ISSC represents the culmination of three decades of the IAEA's active and recognized involvement in this matter through the development of an updated set of safety standards and the assistance to Member States for their application.' To further seismic safety at nuclear installations worldwide, the ISSC will: - Promote knowledge sharing among the international community in order to avoid or mitigate the consequences of extreme seismic events on nuclear installations; - Support countries through advisory services and training courses; and - Enhance seismic safety by utilizing experience gained from previous seismic events in member states. The centre is supported by a scientific committee of high-level experts from academic, industrial and nuclear safety authorities that will advise the ISSC on implementation of its programme. Experts have been nominated from seven specialized areas, including geology and tectonics, seismology, seismic hazard, geotechnical engineering, structural engineering, equipment, and seismic risk. Japan and the United States have both contributed initial funds for creation of the centre, which will be based at

  8. The use of quality metrics in service centres

    Petkova, V.T.; Sander, P.C.; Brombacher, A.C.

    2000-01-01

    In industry it is not well realised that a service centre is potentially one of the major contributors to quality improvement. Service is able to collect vital information about the field behaviour of products in interaction with customers. If this information is well analysed and communicated, the

  9. Processing of LLRW arising from AECL nuclear research centres

    Buckley, L.P.; Le, V.T.; Beamer, N.V.; Brown, W.P.; Helbrecht, R.A.

    1988-11-01

    Operation of nuclear research reactors and laboratories results in the generation of a wide variety of solid and liquid radioactive wastes. This paper describes practical experience with processing of low-level radioactive wastes at two major nuclear research centres in Canada

  10. Why Do Some Evergreen Species Keep Their Leaves for a Second Winter, While Others Lose Them?

    Peter J. Grubb

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In subtropical montane semi-moist forest in SW China (SMSF, a large majority of evergreen tree and tall shrub species was found to have only one cohort of old leaves in early spring. In contrast, almost all species of evergreen tree and tall shrub in warm temperate rain forest (WTRF in Japan and sclerophylls in Mediterranean-climate forest (MSF of the Mediterranean Basin have two or more cohorts of old leaves in early spring; they drop their oldest cohort during or soon after leaf outgrowth in spring. Japanese WTRF has no dry season and MSF a dry summer. SMSF has a dry winter. On four evergreen Rhododendron species from SW China with only one cohort of old leaves in spring when in cultivation in Scotland, the majority of leaves in the senescing cohort fell by the end of December. We hypothesize that with dry winters, there is an advantage to dropping older leaves in autumn, because there is a low chance of appreciable positive assimilation in winter and a high chance of desiccation, reducing the resorption of dry mass and mineral nutrients from ageing leaves. Our hypothesis may be extended to cover evergreens at high altitude or high latitude that experience cold soils in winter.

  11. Intermodal Logistics Centres and Freight Corridors – Concepts and Trends

    Norbert Wagener

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available . Background: The development of international freight corridors, as the Trans European Network and new rail and inland shipping corridors in Asia and Africa, require efficient logistics centres along these corridors which serve as intermodal interfaces and provide a variety of different logistics service functions. The definition of the term logistics centre differs between countries and implies different functionalities. Locations are often selected randomly and business models are opportunity driven, especially in highly dynamic and less regulated new emerging economies. In particular Freight Villages as a special form of logistics centres have a high impact on regional development and serve as cargo generator for freight corridors. Consideration of general principles how to establish Freight Villages could improve the effectiveness of these logistics centres along freight corridors. Methods: Based on a literature review a comprehensive and hierarchical definition of logistics centres will be discussed and applied. From experiences in the development of logistics centres in several countries, especially in Germany and Lithuania, challenges and concepts concerning regulatory framework, determination of location and business and financing models are discussed. Results: Concerning the definition of logistics centres a hierarchical definition is applied which comprises different levels of logistics centres depending on the scope of the value adding and the functionality. As general principles for the development of Freight Villages the active role of the state, master planning, objective location finding, participation and co-operation of different stakeholders in the business model and a stepwise scheme for financing are introduced. Major trends for the future development of Freight Villages are the digitalization of supply chains, the application of new intermodal technologies and of innovative telematics systems, solutions for low emission and

  12. The Belgian nuclear research centre

    Moons, F.

    2001-01-01

    The Belgian Nuclear Research Centre is almost exclusively devoted to nuclear R and D and services and is able to generate 50% of its resources (out of 75 million Euro) by contract work and services. The main areas of research include nuclear reactor safety, radioactive waste management, radiation protection and safeguards. The high flux reactor BR2 is extensively used to test fuel and structural materials. PWR-plant BR3 is devoted to the scientific analysis of decommissioning problems. The Centre has a strong programme on the applications of radioisotopes and radiation in medicine and industry. The centre has plans to develop an accelerator driven spallation neutron source for various applications. It has initiated programmes to disseminate correct information on issues of nuclear energy production and non-energy nuclear applications to different target groups. It has strong linkages with the IAEA, OECD-NEA and the Euratom. (author)

  13. Technical support and emergency centre

    Bohun, L.; Kapisovsk y, M.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents technical support and emergency management center which will be on two places: Mochovce NPP Emergency Centre (Technical support center and Support working center) and Reserve Emergency Centre in Levice (Reserve emergency center and Environmental Evaluation Center). The main aims of the emergency management centers are: the management and coordination of all persons and organisations; provision of the all information needed to evaluation of the accident and its mitigation; continuous evaluation of the potential or real radiological consequences; taking measure for an early notification of the governmental bodies and the organizations, warning and protection of the public; and other aims. In the next part the data for technical support and emergency centre are discussed

  14. Presentation of TVO's visitor's centre

    Aemmaelae, V.M.

    1993-01-01

    There are four nuclear power plant units in Finland, two of which are PWR's owned by Imatran Voima Oy. The two BWR units are located at Olkiluoto and owned by Teollisuuden Voima Oy. This presentation tells about TVO's concept of informing the visitors at Olkiluoto. At the site there are located, in addition to the two nuclear power plant units, the intermediate storage for spent fuel, the repository for low and medium-active waste as well as the training centre. At the Olkiluoto Visitor's Centre all the activities of the company are presented using varied audio-visual aids. The centre has several exhibits and there are also different installations to show how the plant works. (author)

  15. International Development Research Centre Act Loi sur le Centre de ...

    1 juin 2009 ... research includes any scientific or technical inquiry or experimentation that is .... data centres and facilities for research and other activ- ities;. (b) initiate and ..... Loi sur la pension de la fonction publique ne s'applique pas aux ...

  16. Regional greenhouse gas emissions from cultivation of winter wheat and winter rapeseed for biofuels in Denmark

    Elsgaard, Lars; Olesen, Jørgen E; Hermansen, John Erik

    2013-01-01

    Biofuels from bioenergy crops may substitute a significant part of fossil fuels in the transport sector where, e.g., the European Union has set a target of using 10% renewable energy by 2020. Savings of greenhouse gas emissions by biofuels vary according to cropping systems and are influenced...... by such regional factors as soil conditions, climate and input of agrochemicals. Here we analysed at a regional scale the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with cultivation of winter wheat for bioethanol and winter rapeseed for rapeseed methyl ester (RME) under Danish conditions. Emitted CO2 equivalents...

  17. Scheduling participants of Assessment Centres

    Lysgaard, Jens; Løber, Janni

      Assessment Centres are used as a tool for psychologists and coaches to observe a number of dimensions in a person's behaviour and test his/her potential within a number of chosen focus areas. This is done in an intense course, with a number of different exercises which expose each participant...... Centres usually last two days and involve 3-6 psychologists or trained coaches as assessors. An entire course is composed of a number of rounds, with each round having its individual duration. In each round, the participants are divided into a number of groups with prespecifed pairing of group sizes...

  18. Training centres in Latin America

    NONE

    1959-04-15

    Early 1958 the Brazilian representative on the Board of Governors of the International Atomic Energy Agency - supported by the Governors from Argentina and Guatemala -proposed that a study should be made of the possibility of setting up one or more atomic energy training centres in Latin America. On the Board's recommendation, the Director General of the Agency appointed a fact-finding team to make anon-the-spot study. In drafting this report the team was invited to consider the following points: (a) The need for establishing one or more regional training centres; (b) Existing facilities that are being or could be used for training, together with technical data concerning them; (c) The general scientific technological and industrial conditions of the countries visited insofar as they have a bearing on their training needs and capabilities. The authors of the report conclude that 'a training centre in radio-botany should provide vitally needed knowledge and vitally needed specialists to all the agricultural installations in Latin America. A training centre like this might provide an excellent model upon which to base training centres in other areas'. The report recommends that: 1. The Agency should meet the requests of Latin American universities by, for example, supplying equipment and sending experts; 2. At least one specialized training centre should be established as soon as possible. Taking as an example the field of radio-botany, such a centre would provide trained specialists in radio-botany to agricultural institutions throughout Latin America and also provide basic research results vital to agriculture. The cost of new facilities might be of the order of $7 500 000, with an annual budget of approximately $650 000. Staff required: 40 scientists and 175 employees; 3. Whenever it appears feasible to gather necessary staff of high creative ability and established productivity and when funds can be made available for facilities, equipment and operating costs, at

  19. Training centres in Latin America

    1959-01-01

    Early 1958 the Brazilian representative on the Board of Governors of the International Atomic Energy Agency - supported by the Governors from Argentina and Guatemala -proposed that a study should be made of the possibility of setting up one or more atomic energy training centres in Latin America. On the Board's recommendation, the Director General of the Agency appointed a fact-finding team to make anon-the-spot study. In drafting this report the team was invited to consider the following points: (a) The need for establishing one or more regional training centres; (b) Existing facilities that are being or could be used for training, together with technical data concerning them; (c) The general scientific technological and industrial conditions of the countries visited insofar as they have a bearing on their training needs and capabilities. The authors of the report conclude that 'a training centre in radio-botany should provide vitally needed knowledge and vitally needed specialists to all the agricultural installations in Latin America. A training centre like this might provide an excellent model upon which to base training centres in other areas'. The report recommends that: 1. The Agency should meet the requests of Latin American universities by, for example, supplying equipment and sending experts; 2. At least one specialized training centre should be established as soon as possible. Taking as an example the field of radio-botany, such a centre would provide trained specialists in radio-botany to agricultural institutions throughout Latin America and also provide basic research results vital to agriculture. The cost of new facilities might be of the order of $7 500 000, with an annual budget of approximately $650 000. Staff required: 40 scientists and 175 employees; 3. Whenever it appears feasible to gather necessary staff of high creative ability and established productivity and when funds can be made available for facilities, equipment and operating costs, at

  20. Does Zoning Winter Recreationists Reduce Recreation Conflict?

    Miller, Aubrey D.; Vaske, Jerry J.; Squires, John R.; Olson, Lucretia E.; Roberts, Elizabeth K.

    2017-01-01

    Parks and protected area managers use zoning to decrease interpersonal conflict between recreationists. Zoning, or segregation, of recreation—often by non-motorized and motorized activity—is designed to limit physical interaction while providing recreation opportunities to both groups. This article investigated the effectiveness of zoning to reduce recreation conflict in the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area in Colorado, USA. Despite a zoning management system, established groomed travel routes were used by both non-motorized recreationists (backcountry skiers, snowboarders, snowshoers) and motorized recreationists (snowmobilers). We hypothesized that persistent recreation conflict reported by non-motorized recreationists was the result of recreation occurring in areas of mixed non-motorized and motorized use, mostly along groomed routes. We performed a geospatial analysis of recreation [from Global Positioning System (GPS) points, n = 1,233,449] in the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area to identify areas of mixed non-motorized and motorized use. We then surveyed non-motorized recreationists ( n = 199) to test whether reported conflict is higher for respondents who traveled in areas of mixed-use, compared with respondents traveling outside areas of mixed-use. Results from the geospatial analysis showed that only 0.7 % of the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area contained recreation from both groups, however that area contained 14.8 % of all non-motorized recreation and 49.1 % of all motorized recreation. Survey analysis results showed higher interpersonal conflict for all five standard conflict variables among non-motorized respondents who traveled in areas of mixed-use, compared with those traveling outside mixed-use areas. Management implications and recommendations for increasing the effectiveness of zoning are provided.

  1. Multi-disciplinary facilities at the centre for nuclear sciences, U.W.I

    Lalor, G.C.; Robotham, H.

    1994-01-01

    The Centre for Nuclear Sciences was established in 1984 with the mandate to introduce Caribbean scientists to the application of nuclear technology in multi-disciplinary studies, and to carry out research in areas of national and regional importance. It describes the present facilities and the major programmes being carried out at the Centre. (author) 9 refs

  2. NS Pudarka: A new winter wheat cultivar

    Hristov Nikola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The high-yielding, medium late winter wheat cultivar NS Pudarka was developed by crossing genetic divergent parents: line NMNH-07 and cv. NS 40S and Simonida. In cultivar NS Pudarka genes responsible for high yield potential, very good technological quality, resistance to lodging, low temperature and diseases, were successfully combined. It was registered by Ministry of agriculture, forestry and water management of Serbia Republic in 2013. This cultivar has wide adaptability and stability of yield that enable growing in different environments with optimal agricultural practice. On the base of technological quality this cultivar belongs to the second quality class, A2 farinograph subgroup and second technological group.

  3. Mechanical weed control in organic winter wheat

    Euro Pannacci

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Three field experiments were carried out in organic winter wheat in three consecutive years (exp. 1, 2005-06; exp. 2, 2006- 07; exp. 3, 2007-08 in central Italy (42°57’ N - 12°22’ E, 165 m a.s.l. in order to evaluate the efficacy against weeds and the effects on winter wheat of two main mechanical weed control strategies: i spring tine harrowing used at three different application times (1 passage at T1, 2 passages at the time T1, 1 passage at T1 followed by 1 passage at T1 + 14 days in the crop sowed at narrow (traditional row spacing (0.15 m; and ii split-hoeing and finger-weeder, alone and combined at T1, in the crop sowed at wider row spacing (0.30 m. At the time T1 winter wheat was at tillering and weeds were at the cotyledons-2 true leaves growth stage. The experimental design was a randomized block with four replicates. Six weeks after mechanical treatments, weed ground cover (% was rated visually using the Braun-Blanquet coverabundance scale; weeds on three squares (0.6×0.5 m each one per plot were collected, counted, weighed, dried in oven at 105°C to determine weed density and weed above-ground dry biomass. At harvest, wheat ears density, grain yield, weight of 1000 seeds and hectolitre weight were recorded. Total weed flora was quite different in the three experiments. The main weed species were: Polygonum aviculare L. (exp. 1 and 2, Fallopia convolvulus (L. Á. Löve (exp. 1 and 3, Stachys annua (L. L. (exp. 1, Anagallis arvensis L. (exp. 2, Papaver rhoeas L. (exp.3, Veronica hederifolia L. (exp. 3. In the winter wheat sowed at narrow rows, 2 passages with spring-tine harrowing at the same time seems to be the best option in order to reconcile a good efficacy with the feasibility of treatment. In wider rows spacing the best weed control was obtained by split hoeing alone or combined with finger-weeder. The grain yield, on average 10% higher in narrow rows, the lower costs and the good selectivity of spring-tine harrowing

  4. Comparison of planned menus and centre characteristics with foods and beverages served in New York City child-care centres

    Breck, Andrew; Dixon, L Beth; Khan, Laura Kettel

    2016-01-01

    Objective The present study evaluated the extent to which child-care centre menus prepared in advance correspond with food and beverage items served to children. The authors identified centre and staff characteristics that were associated with matches between menus and what was served. Design Menus were collected from ninety-five centres in New York City (NYC). Direct observation of foods and beverages served to children were conducted during 524 meal and snack times at these centres between April and June 2010, as part of a larger study designed to determine compliance of child-care centres with city health department regulations for nutrition. Setting Child-care centres were located in low-income neighbourhoods in NYC. Results Overall, 87% of the foods and beverages listed on the menus or allowed as substitutions were served. Menu items matched with foods and beverages served for all major food groups by > 60%. Sweets and water had lower match percentages (40 and 32%, respectively), but water was served 68% of the time when it was not listed on the menu. The staff person making the food and purchasing decisions predicted the match between the planned or substituted items on the menus and the foods and beverages served. Conclusions In the present study, child-care centre menus included most foods and beverages served to children. Menus planned in advance have potential to be used to inform parents about which child-care centre to send their child or what foods and beverages their enrolled children will be offered throughout the day. PMID:27280341

  5. Is parental competitive ability in winter negatively affected by previous springs' family size?

    Fokkema, Rienk W; Ubels, Richard; Tinbergen, Joost M

    2017-03-01

    Reproductive behavior cannot be understood without taking the local level of competition into account. Experimental work in great tits ( Parus major ) showed that (1) a survival cost of reproduction was paid in environments with high levels of competition during the winter period and (2) experimentally manipulated family size negatively affected the ability of parents to compete for preferred breeding boxes in the next spring. The fact that survival was affected in winter suggests that the competitive ability of parents in winter may also be affected by previous reproductive effort. In this study, we aim to investigate whether (1) such carryover effects of family size on the ability of parents to compete for resources in the winter period occurred and (2) this could explain the occurrence of a survival cost of reproduction under increased competition. During two study years, we manipulated the size of in total 168 great tit broods. Next, in winter, we induced competition among the parents by drastically reducing the availability of roosting boxes in their local environment for one week. Contrary to our expectation, we found no negative effect of family size manipulation on the probability of parents to obtain a roosting box. In line with previous work, we did find that a survival cost of reproduction was paid only in plots in which competition for roosting boxes was shortly increased. Our findings thus add to the scarce experimental evidence that survival cost of reproduction are paid under higher levels of local competition but this could not be linked to a reduced competitive ability of parents in winter.

  6. Warmed Winter Water Temperatures Alter Reproduction in Two Fish Species.

    Firkus, Tyler; Rahel, Frank J; Bergman, Harold L; Cherrington, Brian D

    2018-02-01

    We examined the spawning success of Fathead Minnows (Pimephales promelas) and Johnny Darters (Etheostoma nigrum) exposed to elevated winter water temperatures typical of streams characterized by anthropogenic thermal inputs. When Fathead Minnows were exposed to temperature treatments of 12, 16, or 20 °C during the winter, spawning occurred at 16 and 20 °C but not 12 °C. Eggs were deposited over 9 weeks before winter spawning ceased. Fathead Minnows from the three winter temperature treatments were then exposed to a simulated spring transition. Spawning occurred at all three temperature treatments during the spring, but fish from the 16° and 20 °C treatment had delayed egg production indicating a latent effect of warm winter temperatures on spring spawning. mRNA analysis of the egg yolk protein vitellogenin showed elevated expression in female Fathead Minnows at 16 and 20 °C during winter spawning that decreased after winter spawning ceased, whereas Fathead Minnows at 12 °C maintained comparatively low expression during winter. Johnny Darters were exposed to 4 °C to represent winter temperatures in the absence of thermal inputs, and 12, 16, and 20 °C to represent varying degrees of winter thermal pollution. Johnny Darters spawned during winter at 12, 16, and 20 °C but not at 4 °C. Johnny Darters at 4 °C subsequently spawned following a simulated spring period while those at 12, 16, and 20 °C did not. Our results indicate elevated winter water temperatures common in effluent-dominated streams can promote out-of-season spawning and that vitellogenin expression is a useful indicator of spawning readiness for fish exposed to elevated winter temperatures.

  7. Warmed Winter Water Temperatures Alter Reproduction in Two Fish Species

    Firkus, Tyler; Rahel, Frank J.; Bergman, Harold L.; Cherrington, Brian D.

    2018-02-01

    We examined the spawning success of Fathead Minnows ( Pimephales promelas) and Johnny Darters ( Etheostoma nigrum) exposed to elevated winter water temperatures typical of streams characterized by anthropogenic thermal inputs. When Fathead Minnows were exposed to temperature treatments of 12, 16, or 20 °C during the winter, spawning occurred at 16 and 20 °C but not 12 °C. Eggs were deposited over 9 weeks before winter spawning ceased. Fathead Minnows from the three winter temperature treatments were then exposed to a simulated spring transition. Spawning occurred at all three temperature treatments during the spring, but fish from the 16° and 20 °C treatment had delayed egg production indicating a latent effect of warm winter temperatures on spring spawning. mRNA analysis of the egg yolk protein vitellogenin showed elevated expression in female Fathead Minnows at 16 and 20 °C during winter spawning that decreased after winter spawning ceased, whereas Fathead Minnows at 12 °C maintained comparatively low expression during winter. Johnny Darters were exposed to 4 °C to represent winter temperatures in the absence of thermal inputs, and 12, 16, and 20 °C to represent varying degrees of winter thermal pollution. Johnny Darters spawned during winter at 12, 16, and 20 °C but not at 4 °C. Johnny Darters at 4 °C subsequently spawned following a simulated spring period while those at 12, 16, and 20 °C did not. Our results indicate elevated winter water temperatures common in effluent-dominated streams can promote out-of-season spawning and that vitellogenin expression is a useful indicator of spawning readiness for fish exposed to elevated winter temperatures.

  8. Chemistry programmes at a technological and nuclear centre

    Servian, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    The application of chemical principles and techniques have played a major role in the development of nuclear sciences and technology. The discovery of radioactivity, the isolation of radium and polonium, the discovery of artificial radioactivity and nuclear fission and the production of transuranium elements are historical landmarks that show the prominent role performed by chemistry. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the chemistry areas and experimental facilities for programmes of training, research and development, and service that might be designed for implementation at the Centre when appropriate. Though the areas are separately presented for analysis, they are closely related among themselves and also related to other activities of the Centre. (author)

  9. Formaldehyde in the Galactic Centre

    Cohen, R.J.; Few, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    Formaldehyde 6-cm absorption in the direction of the Galactic Centre has been surveyed using the Jodrell Bank MK II radio telescope (beam-width 10 x 9 arcmin). The observations sample the region - 2 0 = 0 and - 0 0 .5 = 0 .5, with a velocity range of 620 km s -1 , a velocity resolution of 2.1 km s -1 and an rms noise level of approximately 0.03 K. The data are presented as contour maps showing line temperature as a function of latitude and velocity (b-V maps) and as a function of longitude and velocity (l-V maps). Similar maps of the line-to-continuum ratio are also presented. The radial distribution of formaldehyde (H 2 CO) in the Galactic Centre region is derived using two different kinematic models which give similar results. Formaldehyde is strongly concentrated in the Galactic Centre in a layer of latitude extent approximately 0 0 .5 and longitude extent approximately 4 0 which contains one quarter of all the H 2 CO in the Galaxy. The distribution is centred on l approximately 1 0 . The individual H 2 CO features are described in detail. (author)

  10. The DEMETER Science Mission Centre

    Lagoutte, D.; Brochot, J.; Y.; de Carvalho, D.; Elie, F.; Harivelo, F.; Hobara, Y.; Madrias, L.; Parrot, M.; Pincon, J. L.; Berthelier, J. J.; Peschard, D.; Seran, E.; Gangloff, M.; Sauvaud, J. A.; Lebreton, J. P.; Štverák, Štěpán; Trávníček, Pavel M.; Grygorczuk, J.; Slominski, J.; Wronowski, R.; Barbier, S.; Bernard, P.; Gaboriaud, A.; Wallut, J. M.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 5 (2006), s. 428-440 ISSN 0032-0633 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Mission Centre * Data processing Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 1.509, year: 2006

  11. CENTRE OF THE MAIN INTERESTS

    DIANA DELEANU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The centre of the main interests of the debtor is a legal tool meant to settle conflicts that can arise between jurisdictions in cross-border insolvencies, based on the principles of mutual recognition and co-operation.

  12. Aspen Winter Conferences on High Energy

    None, None

    2011-02-12

    The 2011 Aspen Winter Conference on Particle Physics was held at the Aspen Center for Physics from February 12 to February 18, 2011. Ninety-four participants from ten countries, and several universities and national labs attended the workshop titled, "New Data From the Energy Frontier." There were 54 formal talks, and a considerable number of informal discussions held during the week. The week's events included a public lecture ("The Hunt for the Elusive Higgs Boson" given by Ben Kilminster from Ohio State University) and attended by 119 members of the public, and a physics cafe geared for high schoolers that is a discussion with physicists. The 2011 Aspen Winter Conference on Astroparticle physics held at the Aspen Center for Physics was "Indirect and Direct Detection of Dark Matter." It was held from February 6 to February 12, 2011. The 70 participants came from 7 countries and attended 53 talks over five days. Late mornings through the afternoon are reserved for informal discussions. In feedback received from participants, it is often these unplanned chats that produce the most excitement due to working through problems with fellow physicists from other institutions and countries or due to incipient collaborations. In addition, Blas Cabrera of Stanford University gave a public lecture titled "What Makes Up Dark Matter." There were 183 members of the general public in attendance. Before the lecture, 45 people attended the physics cafe to discuss dark matter. This report provides the attendee lists, programs, and announcement posters for each event.

  13. Monitoring water phase dynamics in winter clouds

    Campos, Edwin F.; Ware, Randolph; Joe, Paul; Hudak, David

    2014-10-01

    This work presents observations of water phase dynamics that demonstrate the theoretical Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen concepts in mixed-phase winter storms. The work analyzes vertical profiles of air vapor pressure, and equilibrium vapor pressure over liquid water and ice. Based only on the magnitude ranking of these vapor pressures, we identified conditions where liquid droplets and ice particles grow or deplete simultaneously, as well as the conditions where droplets evaporate and ice particles grow by vapor diffusion. The method is applied to ground-based remote-sensing observations during two snowstorms, using two distinct microwave profiling radiometers operating in different climatic regions (North American Central High Plains and Great Lakes). The results are compared with independent microwave radiometer retrievals of vertically integrated liquid water, cloud-base estimates from a co-located ceilometer, reflectivity factor and Doppler velocity observations by nearby vertically pointing radars, and radiometer estimates of liquid water layers aloft. This work thus makes a positive contribution toward monitoring and nowcasting the evolution of supercooled droplets in winter clouds.

  14. Winter-APK voor bijen : Helpt u deze winter mee bij het praktijkonderzoek?

    Som de Cerff, B.; Cornelissen, B.; Moens, F.

    2013-01-01

    Om de risico’s van een aanrijding bij sneeuw en gladheid te verminderen, laten steeds meer automobilisten bij het monteren van winterbanden ook een wintercontrole uitvoeren. Zou een dergelijke controle voor de winter ook schade aan onze volken in de vorm van wintersterfte kunnen verminderen? Dat zou

  15. Impacts of winter NPO on subsequent winter ENSO: sensitivity to the definition of NPO index

    Chen, Shangfeng; Wu, Renguang

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the linkage between boreal winter North Pacific Oscillation (NPO) and subsequent winter El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) based on seven different NPO indices. Results show that the influence of winter NPO on the subsequent winter El Niño is sensitive to how the NPO is defined. A significant NPO-El Niño connection is obtained when the NPO-related anomalous cyclone over the subtropical North Pacific extends to near-equatorial regions. The anomalous cyclone induces warm sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies through modulating surface heat fluxes. These warm SST anomalies are able to maintain into the following spring and summer through an air-sea coupled process and in turn induce significant westerly wind anomalies over the tropical western Pacific. In contrast, the NPO-El Niño relationship is unclear when the NPO-related anomalous cyclone over the subtropical North Pacific is confined to off-equatorial regions and cannot induce significant warm SST anomalies over the subtropical North Pacific. The present study suggests that definitions of NPO should be taken into account when using NPO to predict ENSO. In particular, we recommend defining the NPO index based on the empirical orthogonal function technique over appropriate region that does not extend too far north.

  16. Paralympic medical services for the 2010 paralympic winter games.

    Taunton, Jack; Wilkinson, Michael; Celebrini, Rick; Stewart, Robert; Stasyniuk, Treny; Van de Vliet, Peter; Willick, Stuart; Ferrer, Josep Martinez

    2012-01-01

    To present the planning and medical encounters for the 2010 Paralympic Winter Games. Prospective medical encounter study. 2010 Paralympic Winter Games. Athletes, coaches, officials, workforce, volunteers, and media. Sport type: alpine, Nordic, and sledge hockey and curling. Participant type: athlete, workforce, and spectators. Terrain and speed. Medical encounters entered in database at competitive (alpine skiing, biathlon, cross-country skiing, sledge hockey, and curling) and noncompetitive (Whistler and Vancouver Polyclinics, presentation centers, opening and closing ceremonies, media center, Paralympic Family Hotel) venues. Forty-two nations participated with 1350 Paralympic athletes, coaches, and officials. There were 2590 accredited medical encounters (657 athletes, 25.4%; 682 International Federation/National Paralympic Committee officials, 26.3%; 57 IPC, 2.2%; 8 media, 0.3%; 1075 workforce, 41.5%; 111 others, 4.3%) and 127 spectator encounters for a total of 2717 encounters. During the preopening period medical services saw 201 accredited personnel. The busiest venues during the Paralympic Games were the Whistler (1633 encounters) and Vancouver (748 encounters) Polyclinics. Alpine, sledge hockey, and curling were the busiest competitive venues. The majority of medical encounters were musculoskeletal (44.6%, n = 1156). Medical services recorded 1657 therapy treatments, 977 pharmaceutical prescriptions dispensed, 204 dental treatments, 353 imaging examinations (more than 50% from alpine skiing), and 390 laboratory tests. There were 24 ambulance transfers with 7 inpatient hospitalizations for a total of 24 inpatient days and 4 outpatient visits. The mandate to have minimal impact on the health services of Vancouver and the Olympic Corridor while offering excellent medical services to the Games was accomplished. This data will be valuable to future organizing committees.

  17. Snow Based Winter Tourism and Kinds of Adaptations to Climate Change

    Breiling, M.

    2009-04-01

    Austria is the most intensive winter tourism country in the world with some 4% contribution in the national GNP. Snow based winter tourism became the lead economy of mountain areas, covering two thirds of the country and is by far economically more important than agriculture and forestry. While natural snow was the precondition for the establishment of winter tourism, artificial snow is nowadays the precondition to maintain winter tourism in the current economic intensity. Skiing originally low tech, is developing increasingly into high tech. While skiing was comparatively cheap in previous days due to natural snow, skiing is getting more expensive and exclusive for a higher income class due to the relative high production costs. Measures to adapt to a warmer climate can be divided into three principle types: physical adaptation, technical adaptation - where artificial snow production plays a major role - and social adaptation. It will be discussed under which conditions each adaptation type seems feasible in dependence of the level of warming. In particular physical and technical adaptations are related to major investments. Practically every ski resort has to decide about what is an appropriate, economically cost efficient level of adaptation. Adapting too much reduces profits. Adapting too little does not bring enough income. The optimal level is often not clear. In many cases public subsidies help to collect funds for adaptation and to keep skiing profitable. The possibility to adapt on local, regional or on national scales will depend on the degree of warming, the future price of artificial snow production and the public means foreseen to support the winter tourism industry.

  18. Spatially explicit modeling of conflict zones between wildlife and snow sports: prioritizing areas for winter refuges.

    Braunisch, Veronika; Patthey, Patrick; Arlettaz, Raphaël

    2011-04-01

    Outdoor winter recreation exerts an increasing pressure upon mountain ecosystems, with unpredictable, free-ranging activities (e.g., ski mountaineering, snowboarding, and snowshoeing) representing a major source of stress for wildlife. Mitigating anthropogenic disturbance requires the spatially explicit prediction of the interference between the activities of humans and wildlife. We applied spatial modeling to localize conflict zones between wintering Black Grouse (Tetrao tetrix), a declining species of Alpine timberline ecosystems, and two free-ranging winter sports (off-piste skiing [including snow-boarding] and snowshoeing). Track data (snow-sports and birds' traces) obtained from aerial photographs taken over a 585-km transect running along the timberline, implemented within a maximum entropy model, were used to predict the occurrence of snow sports and Black Grouse as a function of landscape characteristics. By modeling Black Grouse presence in the theoretical absence of free-ranging activities and ski infrastructure, we first estimated the amount of habitat reduction caused by these two factors. The models were then extrapolated to the altitudinal range occupied by Black Grouse, while the spatial extent and intensity of potential conflict were assessed by calculating the probability of human-wildlife co-occurrence. The two snow-sports showed different distribution patterns. Skiers' occurrence was mainly determined by ski-lift presence and a smooth terrain, while snowshoers' occurrence was linked to hiking or skiing routes and moderate slopes. Wintering Black Grouse avoided ski lifts and areas frequented by free-ranging snow sports. According to the models, Black Grouse have faced a substantial reduction of suitable wintering habitat along the timberline transect: 12% due to ski infrastructure and another 16% when adding free-ranging activities. Extrapolating the models over the whole study area results in an overall habitat loss due to ski infrastructure of

  19. The CCCB is a cultural centre, not a tourist centre

    Elena Xirau

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Last February, Barcelona's Centre of Contemporary Culture (CCCB celebrated its first ten years in existence. During this time, this institution has looked to be a showcase to the most modern and innovative cultural expressions focused on reflecting on the concept of the city. In this interview, Josep Ramoneda offers his personal view, as the CCCB's director. He talks of how this cultural project was born, of how the concept of the institution took shape in the CCCB, of its relations with Barcelona's Strategic Plan, of how the project has evolved, of the architectural remodelling of the Casa de la Caritat building for its conversion into a cultural centre, of the relations with other institutions and its future.

  20. Gestion du Centre | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    Le Comité de gestion du Centre (CGC) est composé des membres de la haute direction du CRDI, notamment les directeurs de nos quatre bureaux régionaux et de nos principaux secteurs de programme. Le CGC travaille en collaboration avec le président afin de soutenir la recherche pour le développement, lui fournissant ...

  1. CADC and CANFAR: Extending the role of the data centre

    Gaudet, Severin

    2015-12-01

    Over the past six years, the CADC has moved beyond the astronomy archive data centre to a multi-service system for the community. This evolution is based on two major initiatives. The first is the adoption of International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA) standards in both the system and data architecture of the CADC, including a common characterization data model. The second is the Canadian Advanced Network for Astronomical Research (CANFAR), a digital infrastructure combining the Canadian national research network (CANARIE), cloud processing and storage resources (Compute Canada) and a data centre (Canadian Astronomy Data Centre) into a unified ecosystem for storage and processing for the astronomy community. This talk will describe the architecture and integration of IVOA and CANFAR services into CADC operations, the operational experiences, the lessons learned and future directions

  2. Variation in the hindgut microbial communities of the Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris over winter in Crystal River, Florida

    Merson, Samuel D.; Ouwerkerk, Diane; Gulino, Lisa-Maree; Klieve, Athol; Bonde, Robert K.; Burgess, Elizabeth A.; Lanyon, Janet M.

    2014-01-01

    The Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris, is a hindgut-fermenting herbivore. In winter, manatees migrate to warm water overwintering sites where they undergo dietary shifts and may suffer from cold-induced stress. Given these seasonally induced changes in diet, the present study aimed to examine variation in the hindgut bacterial communities of wild manatees overwintering at Crystal River, west Florida. Faeces were sampled from 36 manatees of known sex and body size in early winter when manatees were newly arrived and then in mid-winter and late winter when diet had probably changed and environmental stress may have increased. Concentrations of faecal cortisol metabolite, an indicator of a stress response, were measured by enzyme immunoassay. Using 454-pyrosequencing, 2027 bacterial operational taxonomic units were identified in manatee faeces following amplicon pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene V3/V4 region. Classified sequences were assigned to eight previously described bacterial phyla; only 0.36% of sequences could not be classified to phylum level. Five core phyla were identified in all samples. The majority (96.8%) of sequences were classified as Firmicutes (77.3 ± 11.1% of total sequences) or Bacteroidetes (19.5 ± 10.6%). Alpha-diversity measures trended towards higher diversity of hindgut microbiota in manatees in mid-winter compared to early and late winter. Beta-diversity measures, analysed through permanova, also indicated significant differences in bacterial communities based on the season.

  3. Population-based resequencing revealed an ancestral winter group of cultivated flax: implication for flax domestication processes

    Fu, Yong-Bi

    2012-01-01

    Cultivated flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is the earliest oil and fiber crop and its early domestication history may involve multiple events of domestication for oil, fiber, capsular indehiscence, and winter hardiness. Genetic studies have demonstrated that winter cultivated flax is closely related to oil and fiber cultivated flax and shows little relatedness to its progenitor, pale flax (L. bienne Mill.), but winter hardiness is one major characteristic of pale flax. Here, we assessed the genetic relationships of 48 Linum samples representing pale flax and four trait-specific groups of cultivated flax (dehiscent, fiber, oil, and winter) through population-based resequencing at 24 genomic regions, and revealed a winter group of cultivated flax that displayed close relatedness to the pale flax samples. Overall, the cultivated flax showed a 27% reduction of nucleotide diversity when compared with the pale flax. Recombination frequently occurred at these sampled genomic regions, but the signal of selection and bottleneck was relatively weak. These findings provide some insight into the impact and processes of flax domestication and are significant for expanding our knowledge about early flax domestication, particularly for winter hardiness. PMID:22822439

  4. Exceptional influenza morbidity in summer season of 2017 in Israel may predict the vaccine efficiency in the coming winter.

    Pando, Rakefet; Sharabi, Sivan; Mandelboim, Michal

    2018-03-07

    Influenza infections are the leading cause of respiratory viral infections worldwide, and are mostly common in the winter season. The seasonal influenza vaccine is currently the most effective preventive modality against influenza infection. Immediately following each winter season the World Health Organization (WHO) announces the vaccine composition for the following winter. Unexpectedly, during the summer of 2017, in Israel, we observed in hospitalized patients, an exceptionally high numbers of Influenza positive cases. The majority of the influenza B infections were caused by influenza B/Yamagata lineage, which did not circulate in Israel in the previous winter, and most of the influenza A infections were caused by influenza A/H3N2, a strain similar to the strain that circulated in Israel in the previous winter. We therefore predict that these two viruses will circulate in the coming winter of 2017/18 and that the trivalent vaccine, which includes antigenically different viruses will be inefficient. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Wintering bald eagle trends in northern Arizona, 1975-2000

    Teryl G. Grubb

    2003-01-01

    Between 1975 and 2000, 4,525 sightings of wintering bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) were recorded at Mormon Lake in northern Arizona. Numbers of wintering eagles fluctuated little in the 20 years from 1975 through 1994 (5.5 ± 3.0 mean sightings per day). However, during the winters of 1995 through 1997 local record highs of 59 to 118 eagles...

  6. RTEMS CENTRE- Support and Maintenance CENTRE to RTEMS Operating System

    Silva, H.; Constantino, A.; Coutunho, M.; Freitas, D.; Faustino, S.; Mota, M.; Colaço, P.; Zulianello, M.

    2008-08-01

    RTEMS stands for Real-Time Operating System for Multiprocessor Systems. It is a full featured Real Time Operating System that supports a variety of open APIs and interface standards. It provides a high performance environment for embedded applications, including a fixed-priority preemptive/non-preemptive scheduler, a comprehensive set of multitasking operations and a large range of supported architectures. Support and maintenance CENTRE to RTEMS operating system (RTEMS CENTRE) is a joint initiative of ESA-Portugal Task force, aiming to build a strong technical competence in the space flight (on- board) software, to offer support, maintenance and improvements to RTEMS. This paper provides a high level description of the current and future activities of the RTEMS CENTRE. It presents a brief description of the RTEMS operating system, a description of the tools developed and distributed to the community [1] and the improvements to be made to the operating system, including facilitation for the qualification of RTEMS (4.8.0) [2] for the space missions.

  7. The oral food desensitization in the Italian allergy centres.

    Meglio, P; Caminiti, L; Pajno, G B; Dello Iacono, I; Tripodi, S; Verga, M C; Martelli, A

    2015-05-01

    Attempts aimed at inducing food tolerance through oral food desensitization (OFD) for the treatment of IgE-mediated food allergies are increasing. In Italy, a number of allergy centres offer this procedure. To collect information on how these centres are organized, how patients are selected, the methods used to administer OFD and how adverse reactions are managed. A questionnaire was e-mailed to all the Italian allergy centres offering OFD. The survey shows a high degree of variability between centres. A correct diagnosis of food allergy is crucial for selecting patients for OFD. In the Italian allergy centres, oral food challenges are mostly open label (84%), but in 16% of cases they are single-blind (8%) or double-blind (8%). A high proportion of allergy centres (83%) offer OFD to children presenting forms of anaphylaxis triggered by traces--or very low doses--of food allergen. The majority of allergy centres (76%) enroll patients over 3 years of age, with 44% enrolling patients above the age of 5. Not-controlled asthma, unreliability of parents in the management of OFD and/or risk of adverse events, are the main reasons for exclusion from the procedure. Although OFD may sometimes be successful and may be considered a valid alternative to an elimination diet, further randomized controlled trials are needed, in order to clarify some controversial points, such as the characteristics of the child undergoing OFD, and the methods of food preparation and administration. Moreover, further studies should further investigate OFD safety, efficacy and costs.

  8. Can GRACE detect winter snows in Japan?

    Heki, Kosuke

    2010-05-01

    Current spatial resolution of the GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellites is 300-400 km, and so its hydrological applications have been limited to continents and large islands. The Japanese Islands have width slightly smaller than this spatial resolution, but are known to show large amplitude seasonal changes in surface masses due mainly to winter snow. Such loads are responsible for seasonal crustal deformation observed with GEONET, a dense array of GPS (Global Positioning System) receivers in Japan (Heki, 2001). There is also a dense network of surface meteorological sensors for, e.g. snow depths, atmospheric pressures, etc. Heki (2004) showed that combined effects of surface loads, i.e. snow (predominant), atmosphere, soil moisture, dam impoundment, can explain seasonal crustal deformation observed by GPS to a large extent. The total weight of the winter snow in the Japanese Islands in its peak season may reach ~50 Gt. This is comparable to the annual loss of mountain glaciers in the Asian high mountains (Matsuo & Heki, 2010), and is above the detection level of GRACE. In this study, I use GRACE Level-2 Release-4 data from CSR, Univ. Texas, up to 2009 November, and evaluated seasonal changes in surface loads in and around the Japanese Islands. After applying a 350 km Gaussian filter and a de-striping filter, the peak-to-peak change of the water depth becomes ~4 cm in northern Japan. The maximum value is achieved in February-March. The region of large winter load spans from Hokkaido, Japan, to northeastern Honshu, which roughly coincides with the region of deep snow in Japan. Next I compiled snow depth data from surface meteorological observations, and converted them to loads using time-dependent snow density due to compaction. By applying the same spatial filter as the GRACE data, its spatial pattern becomes similar to the GRACE results. The present study suggests that GRACE is capable of detecting seasonal mass changes in an island arc not

  9. The History of Winter: teachers as scientists

    Koenig, L.; Courville, Z.; Wasilewski, P. J.; Gow, T.; Bender, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    The History of Winter (HOW) is a NASA Goddard Space Flight Center-funded teacher enrichment program that was started by Dr. Peter Wasilewski (NASA), Dr. Robert Gabrys (NASA) and Dr. Tony Gow (Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, or CRREL) in 2001 and continues with support and involvement of scientists from both the NASA Cryospheric Sciences Laboratory and CREEL. The program brings educators mostly from middle and high schools but also from state parks, community colleges and other institutions from across the US to the Northwood School (a small, private boarding school) in Lake Placid, NY for one week to learn about several facets of winter, polar, and snow research, including the science and history of polar ice core research, lake ice formation and structure, snow pack science, winter ecology, and remote sensing including current and future NASA cryospheric missions. The program receives support from the Northwood School staff to facilitate the program. The goal of the program is to create 'teachers as scientists' which is achieved through several hands-on field experiences in which the teachers have the opportunity to work with polar researchers from NASA, CRREL and partner Universities to dig and sample snow pits, make ice thin sections from lake ice, make snow shelters, and observe under-ice lake ecology. The hands-on work allows the teachers to use the same tools and techniques used in polar research while simultaneously introducing science concepts and activities to support their classroom work. The ultimate goal of the program is to provide the classroom teachers with the opportunity to learn about current and timely cryospheric research as well as to engage in real fieldwork experiences. The enthusiasm generated during the week-long program is translated into classroom activities with guidance from scientists, teachers and educational professionals. The opportunity to engage with polar researchers, both young investigators and renowned

  10. Patients’ Experience of Winter Depression and Light Room Treatment

    Cecilia Rastad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There is a need for more knowledge on the effects of light room treatment in patients with seasonal affective disorder and to explore patients’ subjective experience of the disease and the treatment. Methods. This was a descriptive and explorative study applying qualitative content analysis. A purposeful sample of 18 psychiatric outpatients with a major depressive disorder with a seasonal pattern and a pretreatment score ≥12 on the 9-item Montgomery-Åsberg Depression self-rating scale was included (10 women and 8 men, aged 24–65 years. All patients had completed light room treatment (≥7/10 consecutive weekdays. Data was collected two weeks after treatment using a semistructured interview guide. Results. Patients described a clear seasonal pattern and a profound struggle to adapt to seasonal changes during the winter, including deterioration in sleep, daily rhythms, energy level, mood, activity, and cognitive functioning. Everyday life was affected with reduced work capacity, social withdrawal, and disturbed relations with family and friends. The light room treatment resulted in a radical and rapid improvement in all the major symptoms with only mild and transient side effects. Discussion. The results indicate that light room treatment is essential for some patients’ ability to cope with seasonal affective disorder.

  11. Basic data of emergency response centre

    Jenieek, O.

    1995-01-01

    Emergency Response Centre (ERC) of Czech Republic is a highly specialized institution belonging to Nuclear Safety State Administration (SONS), which assures its activities both organizationally and technically. Main function of the ERC in the case of nuclear emergency is to fulfil the needs of SONS, Governmental Committee for Nuclear Emergencies in ER (GCNE ER) and the regional organs of State Authorities concerning the emergency planning and preparedness, evaluation of nuclear emergency consequences, including the emergency management and response. In the case of major failure or accident on NPP, the ERC carries out the performance analysis and review of a given NPP. It also monitors the dosimetric situation and transfers the recommendation to GCNE ER, Regional Emergency Management Committees and to NPP

  12. Henslow's sparrow winter-survival estimates and response to prescribed burning

    Thatcher, B.S.; Krementz, D.G.; Woodrey, M.S.

    2006-01-01

    Wintering Henslow's sparrow (Ammodramus henslowii) populations rely on lands managed with prescribed burning, but the effects of various burn regimes on their overwinter survival are unknown. We studied wintering Henslow's sparrows in coastal pine savannas at the Mississippi Sandhill Crane National Wildlife Refuge, Jackson County, Mississippi, USA, during January and February 2001 and 2002. We used the known-fate modeling procedure in program MARK to evaluate the effects of burn age (1 or 2 growing seasons elapsed), burn season (growing, dormant), and calendar year on the survival rates of 83 radiomarked Henslow's sparrows. We found strong evidence that Henslow's sparrow survival rates differed by burn age (with higher survival in recently burned sites) and by year (with lower survival rates in 2001 likely because of drought conditions). We found some evidence that survival rates also differed by bum season (with higher survival in growing-season sites), although the effects of burn season were only apparent in recently burned sites. Avian predation was the suspected major cause of mortality (causing 6 of 14 deaths) with 1 confirmed loggerhead shrike (Lanius ludovicianus) depredation. Our results indicated that recently burned savannas provide high-quality wintering habitats and suggested that managers can improve conditions for wintering Henslow's sparrows by burning a large percentage of savannas each year.

  13. ALOS PALSAR Winter Coherence and Summer Intensities for Large Scale Forest Monitoring in Siberia

    Thiel, Christian; Thiel, Carolin; Santoro, Maurizio; Schmullius, Christiane

    2008-11-01

    In this paper summer intensity and winter coherence images are used for large scale forest monitoring. The intensities (FBD HH/HV) have been acquired during summer 2007 and feature the K&C intensity stripes [1]. The processing consisted of radiometric calibration, orthorectification, and topographic normalisation. The coherence has been estimated from interferometric pairs with 46-days repeat-pass intervals. The pairs have been acquired during the winters 2006/2007 and 2007/2008. During both winters suited weather conditions have been reported. Interferometric processing consisted of SLC co-registration at sub-pixel level, common-band filtering in range and azimuth and generation of a differential interferogram, which was used in the coherence estimation procedure based on adaptive estimation. All images were geocoded using SRTM data. The pixel size of the final SAR products is 50 m x 50 m. It could already be demonstrated, that by using PALSAR intensities and winter coherence forest and non-forest can be clearly separated [2]. By combining both data types hardly any overlap of the class signatures was detected, even though the analysis was conducted on pixel level and no speckle filter has been applied. Thus, the delineation of a forest cover mask could be executed operationally. The major hitch is the definition of a biomass threshold for regrowing forest to be distinguished as forest.

  14. Home advantage in the Winter Paralympic Games 1976-2014.

    Wilson, Darryl; Ramchandani, Girish

    2017-01-01

    There is a limited amount of home advantage research concerned with winter sports. There is also a distinct lack of studies that investigate home advantage in the context of para sport events. This paper addresses this gap in the knowledge by examining home advantage in the Winter Paralympic Games. Using a standardised measure of success, we compared the performances of host nations at home with their own performances away from home between 1976 and 2014. Both country level and individual sport level analysis is conducted for this time period. Comparisons are also drawn with the Winter Olympic Games since 1992, the point from which both the Winter Olympic Games and the Winter Paralympic Games have been hosted by the same nations and in the same years. Clear evidence of a home advantage effect in the Winter Paralympic Games was found at country level. When examining individual sports, only alpine skiing and cross country skiing returned a significant home advantage effect. When comparing home advantage in the Winter Paralympic Games with the Winter Olympic Games for the last seven host nations (1992-2014), we found that home advantage was generally more pronounced (although not a statistically significant difference) in the case of the former. The causes of home advantage in the Winter Paralympic Games are unclear and should be investigated further.

  15. Habitat preferences and conservation threats to Black-necked Cranes wintering in Bhutan.

    Namgay, Rinchen; Wangchuk, Sangay

    2016-01-01

    Black-necked Crane (Grus nigricollis) is a vulnerable Red list species whose populations are declining. However, little is known about Black-necked Cranes' habitat requirements or the causes of their population decline. We identified Black-necked Cranes' winter roost and foraging preferences of Black-necked Cranes in Bhutan during the winter of 2013-2014. Black-necked Cranes' roosts were recorded using Garmin GPSmap 60CSx, while foraging preferences and threats to the birds were identified based on a survey of household heads (n = 107) residing within a 3 km radius of roost sites. We grouped the threats identified by the communities into four major categories, viz. biological, social, political and natural threats based on the relevance. Of the four major threats, communities residing within the roosting and foraging habitat of the Black-necked Crane reported biological threat as major. Biological threats as reported by communities include loss of habitat, food shortage and competition from other animals. We recommend the present roosting areas be designated as part of the conservation areas for Black-necked Crane wintering in Bumthang district. In addition to preserving these areas, government should also encourage farming in foraging habitats of Black-necked Crane, because they mainly feed on barley, wheat, paddy, potatoes and buckwheat, besides roots, tubers and insects in the wetlands.

  16. Do flow principles of operations management apply to computing centres?

    Abaunza, Felipe; Hameri, Ari-Pekka; Niemi, Tapio

    2014-01-01

    By analysing large data-sets on jobs processed in major computing centres, we study how operations management principles apply to these modern day processing plants. We show that Little’s Law on long-term performance averages holds to computing centres, i.e. work-in-progress equals throughput rate multiplied by process lead time. Contrary to traditional manufacturing principles, the law of variation does not hold to computing centres, as the more variation in job lead times the better the throughput and utilisation of the system. We also show that as the utilisation of the system increases lead times and work-in-progress increase, which complies with traditional manufacturing. In comparison with current computing centre operations these results imply that better allocation of jobs could increase throughput and utilisation, while less computing resources are needed, thus increasing the overall efficiency of the centre. From a theoretical point of view, in a system with close to zero set-up times, as in the c...

  17. F-centre luminescence in nanocrystalline CeO2

    Aškrabić, S; Dohčević-Mitrović, Z D; Araújo, V D; Ionita, G; De Lima, M M Jr; Cantarero, A

    2013-01-01

    Nanocrystalline CeO 2 powders were synthesized by two cost-effective methods: the self-propagating room temperature (SPRT) method and the precipitation method. Differently prepared samples exhibited different temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) in the ultraviolet and visible regions. The PL signals originated from different kinds of oxygen-deficient defect centres with or without trapped electrons (F 0 , F + or F ++ centres). The temperature-dependent PL spectra were measured using different excitation lines, below (457, 488 and 514 nm) or comparable (325 nm) to the ceria optical band gap energy, in order to investigate the positions of intragap localized defect states. Evidence for the presence of F + centres was supported by the signals observed in electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements. Based on PL and EPR measurements it was shown that F + centres dominate in the CeO 2 sample synthesized by the SPRT method, whereas F 0 centres are the major defects in the CeO 2 sample synthesized by the precipitation method. The luminescence from F ++ states, as shallow trap states, was registered in both samples. Energy level positions of these defect states in the ceria band gap were proposed. (paper)

  18. F-centre luminescence in nanocrystalline CeO2

    Aškrabić, S.; Dohčević-Mitrović, Z. D.; Araújo, V. D.; Ionita, G.; de Lima, M. M., Jr.; Cantarero, A.

    2013-12-01

    Nanocrystalline CeO2 powders were synthesized by two cost-effective methods: the self-propagating room temperature (SPRT) method and the precipitation method. Differently prepared samples exhibited different temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) in the ultraviolet and visible regions. The PL signals originated from different kinds of oxygen-deficient defect centres with or without trapped electrons (F0, F+ or F++ centres). The temperature-dependent PL spectra were measured using different excitation lines, below (457, 488 and 514 nm) or comparable (325 nm) to the ceria optical band gap energy, in order to investigate the positions of intragap localized defect states. Evidence for the presence of F+ centres was supported by the signals observed in electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements. Based on PL and EPR measurements it was shown that F+ centres dominate in the CeO2 sample synthesized by the SPRT method, whereas F0 centres are the major defects in the CeO2 sample synthesized by the precipitation method. The luminescence from F++ states, as shallow trap states, was registered in both samples. Energy level positions of these defect states in the ceria band gap were proposed.

  19. Assessment of ART centres in India: client perspectives.

    Sogarwal, Ruchi; Bachani, Damodar

    2009-05-01

    Drug adherence and quality of antiretroviral therapy (ART) services are the keys for the successful ART programme. Hence, an attempt has been made to assess ART centres in India from client perspectives that are receiving services from the centres. Data were gathered through exit interviews with 1366 clients from 27 ART centres that were selected on the basis of drug adherence and client load. Analyses revealed that more than 80 per cent of the clients reported overall satisfaction with the services availed from the centre and 60 per cent reported that the quality of life has improved to a great extent after getting ART. Most of the clients strongly demanded to open ART centre in each district for better access as that will increase drug adherence and eventually control the HIV progression. It has been found that as many as 14% of respondents, ever been on ART, reported non-adherence and 70% of them cited distance and economic factors as the reasons for non-adherence. Study concludes that while majority of the clients were satisfied with ART services, shortage of staff, high level of non-drug adherence, long distances and poor referring system are the weak areas requiring attention.

  20. Chemical profile of Taxodium distichum winter cones

    Đapić Nina M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is concerned with the chemical profile of Taxodium distichum winter cones. The extract obtained after maceration in absolute ethanol was subjected to qualitative analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and quantification was done by gas chromatography/ flame ionization detector. The chromatogram revealed the presence of 53 compounds, of which 33 compounds were identified. The extract contained oxygenated monoterpenes (12.42%, sesquiterpenes (5.18%, oxygenated sesquiterpenes (17.41%, diterpenes (1.15%, and oxygenated diterpenes (30.87%, while the amount of retinoic acid was 0.32%. Monoacylglycerols were detected in the amount of 4.32%. The most abundant compounds were: caryophyllene oxide (14.27%, 6,7-dehydro-ferruginol (12.49%, bornyl acetate (10.96%, 6- deoxy-taxodione (9.50% and trans-caryophyllene (4.20%.

  1. Neighbourhood Centres – Organisation, Management and Finance

    Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    to identify different financial models and analyse economic sustainability. As regards organisational and management models data were collected through documentary sources and by means of personal interviews and field visits to ten centres. Even within the analysed limited population of centres economic...... public subsidy. Some of the centres have high number of users on a daily basis, whereas others are only rarely used. It is explored how organisation, management and financial set-up differs among the centres. Quantitative data on financial issues and annual accounts of fifteen centres were analysed...... and institutional sustainability varies significantly. In organisational terms centres range from fully-integrated in the municipal administration to independent voluntary managed centres. In terms of financial, or economic, models variation is less pronounced as all centres to some degree are dependent on current...

  2. Institutional Support : Centre for Research and Technology ...

    year-old science and technology research centre at Maseno University in western Kenya. The Centre focuses on science and technology research to influence both national policies and development practices at the community level. Currently ...

  3. Japanese maintenance centres strive for greater realism

    Nedderman, J.

    1987-01-01

    Japanese utilities have devoted considerable efforts to ensuring that realistic plant conditions are simulated at their maintenance centres. In some centres, eg that of Kansai Electric Power Co, realism extends to difficult access, limited lighting and restricted ventilation. (author)

  4. Report: Cultural Research Centre (CRC)

    Cross-Cultural Foundation of Uganda

    2010-01-01

    This report arises from research carried out in Iganga and Namutumba districts in late 2006/early 2007 by the Cultural Research Centre (CRC), based in Jinja. Our research focus was to gauge the impact of using Lusoga as a medium of instruction (since 2005 in "pilot" lower primary classes) within and outside the classroom. This initiative was in response to a new set of circumstances in the education sector in Uganda, especially the introduction by Government of teaching in local languages in ...

  5. Radwaste Treatment Centre Jaslovske Bohunice

    2000-01-01

    In this leaflet the Bohunice Radwaste Treatment Centre (BSC RAO) is presented. BSC RAO is designed to process and treat liquid and solid radwaste, arising from the NPP A-1 decommissioning, from NPPs V-1, V-2, and Mochovce operations, as well as institutional radwaste of diverse institutional (hospitals, research institutes) in the Slovak Republic. Transport, sorting, incineration, compacting, concentration and cementation of radwaste as well as monitoring of emission are described

  6. Family-centred care delivery

    Mayo-Bruinsma, Liesha; Hogg, William; Taljaard, Monica; Dahrouge, Simone

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine whether models of primary care service delivery differ in their provision of family-centred care (FCC) and to identify practice characteristics associated with FCC. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Primary care practices in Ontario (ie, 35 salaried community health centres, 35 fee-for-service practices, 32 capitation-based health service organizations, and 35 blended remuneration family health networks) that belong to 4 models of primary care service delivery. Participants A total of 137 practices, 363 providers, and 5144 patients. Main outcome measures Measures of FCC in patient and provider surveys were based on the Primary Care Assessment Tool. Statistical analyses were conducted using linear mixed regression models and generalized estimating equations. Results Patient-reported FCC scores were high and did not vary significantly by primary care model. Larger panel size in a practice was associated with lower odds of patients reporting FCC. Provider-reported FCC scores were significantly higher in community health centres than in family health networks (P = .035). A larger number of nurse practitioners and clinical services on-site were both associated with higher FCC scores, while scores decreased as the number of family physicians in a practice increased and if practices were more rural. Conclusion Based on provider and patient reports, primary care reform strategies that encourage larger practices and more patients per family physician might compromise the provision of FCC, while strategies that encourage multidisciplinary practices and a range of services might increase FCC. PMID:24235195

  7. On the relation between ionospheric winter anomalies and solar wind

    Rumi, G.C.

    2001-01-01

    There are two different winter anomalies. A small one that appears in connection with ionization at relatively low latitudes in the bottom of the D-region of the ionosphere. There, the electron densities in the winter happen to be less than should be expected. On the other hand, the classic winter anomaly is present when in the winter the upper D-region, again at relatively low latitudes, has more ionization than should be expected. Both these effects are due to the slant compression of the geomagnetic field produced by the solar wind in the wind in the winter season (which is, of course, the summer season when reference is made to events in the other hemisphere). It is shown that the small winter anomaly is a consequence of a hemispheric imbalance in the flux of galactic cosmic rays determined by the obliquely distorted geomagnetic field. It is shown that the standard winter anomaly can be ascribed to the influx of a super solar wind, which penetrates into the Earth's polar atmosphere down to E-region, heights and, duly concentrated through a funneling action at the winter pole of the distorted geomagnetic field, slows down the winter polar vortex. An equatorward motion of the polar air with its content of nitric oxide brings about the excess of ionization in the upper D-region at lower latitudes. The experimentally observed rhythmic recurrence of the upper winter anomaly is correlated to a possible rhythmic recurrence of the super solar wind. The actual detection of the upper winter anomaly could yield some information on the velocity of the basic solar wind. A by-product of the present analysis, the determination of Γ, the coefficient of collisional detachment of the electrons from the O 2 - ions, is presented in the Appendix

  8. On the relation between ionospheric winter anomalies and solar wind

    Rumi, G.C. [Lecco, (Italy)

    2001-06-01

    There are two different winter anomalies. A small one that appears in connection with ionization at relatively low latitudes in the bottom of the D-region of the ionosphere. There, the electron densities in the winter happen to be less than should be expected. On the other hand, the classic winter anomaly is present when in the winter the upper D-region, again at relatively low latitudes, has more ionization than should be expected. Both these effects are due to the slant compression of the geomagnetic field produced by the solar wind in the wind in the winter season (which is, of course, the summer season when reference is made to events in the other hemisphere). It is shown that the small winter anomaly is a consequence of a hemispheric imbalance in the flux of galactic cosmic rays determined by the obliquely distorted geomagnetic field. It is shown that the standard winter anomaly can be ascribed to the influx of a super solar wind, which penetrates into the Earth's polar atmosphere down to E-region, heights and, duly concentrated through a funneling action at the winter pole of the distorted geomagnetic field, slows down the winter polar vortex. An equatorward motion of the polar air with its content of nitric oxide brings about the excess of ionization in the upper D-region at lower latitudes. The experimentally observed rhythmic recurrence of the upper winter anomaly is correlated to a possible rhythmic recurrence of the super solar wind. The actual detection of the upper winter anomaly could yield some information on the velocity of the basic solar wind. A by-product of the present analysis, the determination of {gamma}, the coefficient of collisional detachment of the electrons from the O{sub 2} {sup -} ions, is presented in the Appendix.

  9. Winter climate limits subantarctic low forest growth and establishment.

    Melanie A Harsch

    Full Text Available Campbell Island, an isolated island 600 km south of New Zealand mainland (52 °S, 169 °E is oceanic (Conrad Index of Continentality  =  -5 with small differences between mean summer and winter temperatures. Previous work established the unexpected result that a mean annual climate warming of c. 0.6 °C since the 1940's has not led to upward movement of the forest limit. Here we explore the relative importance of summer and winter climatic conditions on growth and age-class structure of the treeline forming species, Dracophyllum longifolium and Dracophyllum scoparium over the second half of the 20th century. The relationship between climate and growth and establishment were evaluated using standard dendroecological methods and local climate data from a meteorological station on the island. Growth and establishment were correlated against climate variables and further evaluated within hierarchical regression models to take into account the effect of plot level variables. Winter climatic conditions exerted a greater effect on growth and establishment than summer climatic conditions. Establishment is maximized under warm (mean winter temperatures >7 °C, dry winters (total winter precipitation <400 mm. Growth, on the other hand, is adversely affected by wide winter temperature ranges and increased rainfall. The contrasting effect of winter warmth on growth and establishment suggests that winter temperature affects growth and establishment through differing mechanisms. We propose that milder winters enhance survival of seedlings and, therefore, recruitment, but increases metabolic stress on established plants, resulting in lower growth rates. Future winter warming may therefore have complex effects on plant growth and establishment globally.

  10. Winter Climate Limits Subantarctic Low Forest Growth and Establishment

    Harsch, Melanie A.; McGlone, Matt S.; Wilmshurst, Janet M.

    2014-01-01

    Campbell Island, an isolated island 600 km south of New Zealand mainland (52°S, 169°E) is oceanic (Conrad Index of Continentality  = −5) with small differences between mean summer and winter temperatures. Previous work established the unexpected result that a mean annual climate warming of c. 0.6°C since the 1940's has not led to upward movement of the forest limit. Here we explore the relative importance of summer and winter climatic conditions on growth and age-class structure of the treeline forming species, Dracophyllum longifolium and Dracophyllum scoparium over the second half of the 20th century. The relationship between climate and growth and establishment were evaluated using standard dendroecological methods and local climate data from a meteorological station on the island. Growth and establishment were correlated against climate variables and further evaluated within hierarchical regression models to take into account the effect of plot level variables. Winter climatic conditions exerted a greater effect on growth and establishment than summer climatic conditions. Establishment is maximized under warm (mean winter temperatures >7 °C), dry winters (total winter precipitation <400 mm). Growth, on the other hand, is adversely affected by wide winter temperature ranges and increased rainfall. The contrasting effect of winter warmth on growth and establishment suggests that winter temperature affects growth and establishment through differing mechanisms. We propose that milder winters enhance survival of seedlings and, therefore, recruitment, but increases metabolic stress on established plants, resulting in lower growth rates. Future winter warming may therefore have complex effects on plant growth and establishment globally. PMID:24691026

  11. Winter climate limits subantarctic low forest growth and establishment.

    Harsch, Melanie A; McGlone, Matt S; Wilmshurst, Janet M

    2014-01-01

    Campbell Island, an isolated island 600 km south of New Zealand mainland (52 °S, 169 °E) is oceanic (Conrad Index of Continentality  =  -5) with small differences between mean summer and winter temperatures. Previous work established the unexpected result that a mean annual climate warming of c. 0.6 °C since the 1940's has not led to upward movement of the forest limit. Here we explore the relative importance of summer and winter climatic conditions on growth and age-class structure of the treeline forming species, Dracophyllum longifolium and Dracophyllum scoparium over the second half of the 20th century. The relationship between climate and growth and establishment were evaluated using standard dendroecological methods and local climate data from a meteorological station on the island. Growth and establishment were correlated against climate variables and further evaluated within hierarchical regression models to take into account the effect of plot level variables. Winter climatic conditions exerted a greater effect on growth and establishment than summer climatic conditions. Establishment is maximized under warm (mean winter temperatures >7 °C), dry winters (total winter precipitation <400 mm). Growth, on the other hand, is adversely affected by wide winter temperature ranges and increased rainfall. The contrasting effect of winter warmth on growth and establishment suggests that winter temperature affects growth and establishment through differing mechanisms. We propose that milder winters enhance survival of seedlings and, therefore, recruitment, but increases metabolic stress on established plants, resulting in lower growth rates. Future winter warming may therefore have complex effects on plant growth and establishment globally.

  12. The Aube storage centre: Annual report 2010

    2011-01-01

    After a presentation of the Aube storage centre, a storage centre for low and intermediate activity nuclear wastes, this report gives an overview of measures related to nuclear security, to radioprotection and to nuclear safety. It indicates the incidents and accidents which occurred in 2010, describes how the centre's wastes are managed, and indicates the actions performed in terms of public information

  13. Proceedings of the Canadian Institute's winter 2004/2005 conference on energy marketing strategies : proactively defend your energy portfolios from winter price spikes

    2004-01-01

    This conference addressed the challenges facing energy markets with particular emphasis on the outlook of winter fuels and prices. It was attended by more than 50 energy marketing professionals representing petroleum producers, pipelines, wholesale marketers, storage companies, end users, banks and government. In order to plan portfolios and reduce risks to their bottom lines, buyers and sellers of energy must always be prepared for unexpected ice storms, major pipeline outages or geopolitical events. Merchants in the fuel supply chain depend on basic analysis, correlations and forecasts of supply/demand, transportation and inventory levels. The conference presented strategies and analysis on how commodity prices will move during the winter; North American supply/demand dynamics for natural gas, electricity, heating oils and natural gas liquids; the interplay of fuel storage and price; fuel switching and its impact on the market; portfolio planning; managing the link between weather and fuel prices; seasonal volatility; and, how liquefied natural gas (LNG) is affecting winter supply. The conference featured 16 presentations, of which 6 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs

  14. Winter warming delays dormancy release, advances budburst, alters carbohydrate metabolism and reduces yield in a temperate shrub

    Pagter, Majken; Andersen, Uffe Brandt; Andersen, Lillie

    2015-01-01

    Global climate models predict an increase in the mean surface air temperature, with a disproportionate increase during winter. Since temperature is a major driver of phenological events in temperate woody perennials, warming is likely to induce changes in a range of these events. We investigated ...

  15. The influence of winter convection on primary production: A parameterisation using a hydrostatic three-dimensional biogeochemical model

    Grosse, Fabian; Lindemann, Christian; Pätch, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    organic carbon. The carbon export during late winter/early spring significantly exceeded the export of the reference run. Furthermore, a non-hydrostatic convection model was used to evaluate the major assumption of the presented parameterisation which implies the matching of the mixed layer depth...

  16. Controls on winter ecosystem respiration in temperate and boreal ecosystems

    T. Wang; P. Ciais; S.L. Piao; C. Ottle; P. Brender; F. Maignan; A. Arain; A. Cescatti; D. Gianelle; C. Gough; L Gu; P. Lafleur; T. Laurila; B. Marcolla; H. Margolis; L. Montagnani; E. Moors; N. Saigusa; T. Vesala; G. Wohlfahrt; C. Koven; A. Black; E. Dellwik; A. Don; D. Hollinger; A. Knohl; R. Monson; J. Munger; A. Suyker; A. Varlagin; S. Verma

    2011-01-01

    Winter CO2 fluxes represent an important component of the annual carbon budget in northern ecosystems. Understanding winter respiration processes and their responses to climate change is also central to our ability to assess terrestrial carbon cycle and climate feedbacks in the future. However, the factors influencing the spatial and temporal...

  17. Downtown People Mover (DPM) Winterization Test Demonstration : Otis Elevator

    1982-01-01

    The Otis Elevator Company Transportation Technology Division (OTIS-TTD) Downtown People Mover (DPM) Winterization Test Demonstration Final Report covers the 1978-79 and 1979-80 winter periods. Tests were performed at the Otis test track in Denver, Co...

  18. Seasonal foreign bodies: the dangers of winter holiday ornamentation.

    Trout, Andrew T; Towbin, Alexander J

    2014-12-01

    Foreign bodies, whether ingested, aspirated or retained in the soft tissues, are a particular hazard to pediatric patients. Ornamentation associated with the winter holidays is an uncommon source of foreign bodies in children, and many of these foreign bodies have a distinct appearance on imaging. Knowledge of these appearances and the unusual features of winter holiday foreign bodies might facilitate their identification.

  19. 我的寒假%My Winter Holidays

    2008-01-01

    @@ Winter holidays have about twenty days.During winter holidays, I do all kinds of interesting thing.I like climbing the hill,because it can make me heMthy.I like fishing,it can give me a lot of fun.I like visiting some places of interest, it can enlarge my knowledge.

  20. CAN WINTER DEPRESSION BE PREVENTED BY LIGHT TREATMENT

    MEESTERS, Y; LAMBERS, PA; JANSEN, JHC; BOUHUYS, AL; BEERSMA, DGM; VANDENHOOFDAKKER, RH

    1991-01-01

    The administration of light at the development of the first signs of a winter depression appears to prevent it from developing into a full-blown depression. No patient from a group of 10 treated in this way developed any signs of depression during the rest of the winter season, while five of seven

  1. A winter severity index for the state of Maine.

    2009-01-01

    Winter maintenance in the Sate of Maine consumes around twenty percent of the Bureau of : Maintenance and Operations budget each year. Costs are directly related to the length and severity : of a winter season. In addition, the cost of materials and ...

  2. Changes occurring in plain, straining and winter yoghurt during the ...

    In this study, winter yoghurt, straining yoghurt and yoghurt samples produced from homogenized and non-homogenized sheep and a mixture of sheep and cows milks were evaluated during the storage periods. Winter yoghurt, straining yoghurt and yoghurt samples were stored in sterile jars in the refrigerator (4°C).

  3. Can winter depression be prevented by light treatment?

    Meesters, Ybe; Lambers, Petrus A.; Jansen, Jacob; Bouhuys, Antoinette L.; Beersma, Domien G.M.; Hoofdakker, Rutger H. van den

    1991-01-01

    The administration of light at the development of the first signs of a winter depression appears to prevent it from developing into a full-blown depression. No patient from a group of 10 treated in this way developed any signs of depression during the rest of the winter season, while five of seven

  4. The decline in winter excess mortality in The Netherlands

    Kunst, A. E.; Looman, C. W.; Mackenbach, J. P.

    1991-01-01

    In most countries, numbers of deaths rise considerably during the winter season. This winter excess in mortality has, however, been declining during recent decades. The causes of this decline are hardly known. This paper attempts to derive a number of hypotheses on the basis of a detailed

  5. The elusive gene for keratolytic winter erythema | Hull | South ...

    Keratolytic winter erythema (KWE), also known as Oudtshoorn skin disease, is characterised by a cyclical disruption of normal epidermal keratinisation affecting primarily the palmoplantar skin with peeling of the palms and soles, which is worse in the winter. It is a rare monogenic, autosomal dominant condition of unknown ...

  6. Zimbabwean fourth social workers conference and winter school ...

    Such steps include running the Annual Social Workers Conference & Winter School. This annual observance creates a platform to showcase the goals and accomplishments of diverse social work professionals in the country, give a report on progress and convening a social work winter school for exchanging professional ...

  7. Effects of prescribed burns on wintering cavity-nesting birds

    Heather L. Bateman; Margaret A. O' Connell

    2006-01-01

    Primary cavity-nesting birds play a critical role in forest ecosystems by excavating cavities later used by other birds and mammals as nesting or roosting sites. Several species of cavity-nesting birds are non-migratory residents and consequently subject to winter conditions. We conducted winter bird counts from 1998 to 2000 to examine the abundance and habitat...

  8. Overhead irrigation increased winter chilling and floral bud ...

    Eucalyptus nitens requires a sufficiently cold winter to produce flower buds. In areas in South Africa where E. nitens commercial plantations as well as breeding and production seed orchards are located, winter chilling is often insufficient for floral bud initiation. Hence, under such conditions, E. nitens floral bud and seed ...

  9. Winter cover crop effect on corn seedling pathogens

    Cover crops are an excellent management tool to improve the sustainability of agriculture. Winter rye cover crops have been used successfully in Iowa corn-soybean rotations. Unfortunately, winter rye cover crops occasionally reduce yields of the following corn crop. We hypothesize that one potential...

  10. 46 CFR 42.30-10 - Southern Winter Seasonal Zone.

    2010-10-01

    ... Island; thence the rhumb line to Black Rock Point on Stewart Island; thence the rhumb line to the point... BY SEA Zones, Areas, and Seasonal Periods § 42.30-10 Southern Winter Seasonal Zone. (a) The northern boundary of the Southern Winter Seasonal Zone is the rhumb line from the east coast of the American...

  11. The impact of major trauma network triage systems on patients with major burns.

    Nizamoglu, Metin; O'Connor, Edmund Fitzgerald; Bache, Sarah; Theodorakopoulou, Evgenia; Sen, Sankhya; Sherren, Peter; Barnes, David; Dziewulski, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Trauma is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Patients presenting with severe trauma and burns benefit from specifically trained multidisciplinary teams. Regional trauma systems have shown improved outcomes for trauma patients. The aim of this study is to determine whether the development of major trauma systems have improved the management of patients with major burns. A retrospective study was performed over a four-year period reviewing all major burns in adults and children received at a regional burns centre in the UK before and after the implementation of the regional trauma systems and major trauma centres (MTC). Comparisons were drawn between three areas: (1) Patients presenting before the introduction of MTC and after the introduction of MTC. (2) Patients referred from MTC and non-MTC within the region, following the introduction of MTC. (3) Patients referred using the urban trauma protocol and the rural trauma protocol. Following the introduction of regional trauma systems and major trauma centres (MTC), isolated burn patients seen at our regional burns centre did not show any significant improvement in transfer times, admission resuscitation parameters, organ dysfunction or survival when referred from a MTC compared to a non-MTC emergency department. There was also no significant difference in survival when comparing referrals from all hospitals pre and post establishment of the major trauma network. No significant outcome benefit was demonstrated for burns patients referred via MTCs compared to non-MTCs. We suggest further research is needed to ascertain whether burns patients benefit from prolonged transfer times to a MTC compared to those seen at their local hospitals prior to transfer to a regional burns unit for further specialist care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  12. Not all infantile respiratory distress in winter is bronchiolitis: congenital lobar emphysema.

    Taqvi, Laura; Griksaitis, Michael; Eastham, Katherine

    2011-10-20

    The authors report the case of a 4-week-old male infant presented during the winter period with respiratory distress. He had a 3 day history of cough and coryza, and a 2 day history of breathlessness and reduced feeding. He had evidence of tachypnoea, subcostal recession and hypoxia on examination. An initial diagnosis of bronchiolitis was made. The authors explore how the correct diagnosis of congenital lobar emphysema (CLE) was reached, highlighting key clinical signs and investigations. He had evidence of a hyperinflated right middle lobe, with collapse of right upper and lower lobes and left upper lobe with associated mediastinal shift on chest x-ray (CXR) and CT scan. He was referred to the regional Paediatric Cardiothoracic Centre where right middle lobectomy was performed with complete resolution of his respiratory distress and re-expansion of the compressed lobes on CXR. Current literature concerning CLE is reviewed.

  13. Delivery of eye and vision services in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander primary health care centres

    Anthea M Burnett

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Routine eye and vision assessments are vital for the detection and subsequent management of vision loss, which is particularly important for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, who face higher rates of vision loss than other Australians. In order to guide improvements, this paper will describe patterns, variations and gaps in these eye and vision assessments for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. Methods: Clinical audits from 124 primary health care centres (sample size 15,175 from five Australian States and Territories were conducted during 2005-2012. Main outcome measure was adherence to current guidelines for delivery of eye and vision assessments to adults with diabetes, those without a diagnosed major chronic disease and children attending primary health care centres. Results: Overall delivery of recommended eye and vision assessments varied widely between health centres. Of the adults with diabetes, 45% had a visual acuity assessment recorded within the previous 12 months (health centre range 0-88%, and 33% had a retinal examination recorded (health centre range 0-73%. Of the adults with no diagnosed major chronic disease, 31% had a visual acuity assessment recorded within the previous two years (health centre range 0-30%, and 13% had received an examination for trichiasis (health centre range 0-40%. In children, 49% had a record of a vision assessment (health centre range 0-97%, and 25% had a record of an examination for trachoma within the previous 12 months (health centre range 0-63%. Conclusions: There was considerable range, and variation in the recorded delivery of scheduled eye and vision assessments across health centres. Sharing the successful strategies of the better-performing health centres to support focused improvements in key areas of need may increase overall rates of eye examinations – important for the timely detection, referral and treatment of eye conditions affecting Aboriginal and

  14. East Asian winter monsoon forecasting schemes based on the NCEP's climate forecast system

    Tian, Baoqiang; Fan, Ke; Yang, Hongqing

    2017-12-01

    The East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) is the major climate system in the Northern Hemisphere during boreal winter. In this study, we developed two schemes to improve the forecasting skill of the interannual variability of the EAWM index (EAWMI) using the interannual increment prediction method, also known as the DY method. First, we found that version 2 of the NCEP's Climate Forecast System (CFSv2) showed higher skill in predicting the EAWMI in DY form than not. So, based on the advantage of the DY method, Scheme-I was obtained by adding the EAWMI DY predicted by CFSv2 to the observed EAWMI in the previous year. This scheme showed higher forecasting skill than CFSv2. Specifically, during 1983-2016, the temporal correlation coefficient between the Scheme-I-predicted and observed EAWMI was 0.47, exceeding the 99% significance level, with the root-mean-square error (RMSE) decreased by 12%. The autumn Arctic sea ice and North Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) are two important external forcing factors for the interannual variability of the EAWM. Therefore, a second (hybrid) prediction scheme, Scheme-II, was also developed. This scheme not only involved the EAWMI DY of CFSv2, but also the sea-ice concentration (SIC) observed the previous autumn in the Laptev and East Siberian seas and the temporal coefficients of the third mode of the North Pacific SST in DY form. We found that a negative SIC anomaly in the preceding autumn over the Laptev and the East Siberian seas could lead to a significant enhancement of the Aleutian low and East Asian westerly jet in the following winter. However, the intensity of the winter Siberian high was mainly affected by the third mode of the North Pacific autumn SST. Scheme-I and Scheme-II also showed higher predictive ability for the EAWMI in negative anomaly years compared to CFSv2. More importantly, the improvement in the prediction skill of the EAWMI by the new schemes, especially for Scheme-II, could enhance the forecasting skill of

  15. Examining the nutritional quality of food and beverage consumed at Melbourne aquatic and recreation centres.

    Boelsen-Robinson, Tara; Chung, Alexandra; Khalil, Marianne; Wong, Evelyn; Kurzeme, Ariana; Peeters, Anna

    2017-04-01

    Examine the nutritional quality of food and beverages consumed across a sample of community aquatic and recreation centres in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. Interviewer-administered surveys of randomly selected patrons attending four aquatic and recreation centres were conducted to ascertain food and beverage items consumed over two data collection periods (May-June 2014, January-February 2015). We selected centres in and around metropolitan Melbourne with a sit-down cafeteria and children's swimming classes. We classified items by government nutrient profiling guidelines; 'green' (best choice), 'amber' (choose carefully) or 'red' (limit). A total of 2,326 surveys were conducted (response rate 63%). Thirty-five per cent of surveyed patrons consumed food or beverages while at the centre; 54% of patrons purchased from the café and 61% brought items to the centre. More than half the food consumed from the café was 'red', increasing to 92% for children. One in five children visiting the centre consumed a 'red' item bought from the centre café. The nutritional quality of food and beverages consumed at recreation centres was generally poor, with the on-site cafés providing the majority of discretionary items consumed. Implications for public health: Community aquatic and recreation centres provide an opportunity to promote healthy eating by increasing the provision of healthy options and limiting discretionary food and drink items. © 2017 The Authors.

  16. Winter habitat predictions of a key Southern Ocean predator, the Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella)

    Arthur, Benjamin; Hindell, Mark; Bester, Marthan; De Bruyn, P. J. Nico; Trathan, Phil; Goebel, Michael; Lea, Mary-Anne

    2017-06-01

    Quantification of the physical and biological environmental factors that influence the spatial distribution of higher trophic species is central to inform management and develop ecosystem models, particularly in light of ocean changes. We used tracking data from 184 female Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) to develop habitat models for three breeding colonies for the poorly studied Southern Ocean winter period. Models were used to identify and predict the broadly important winter foraging habitat and to elucidate the environmental factors influencing these areas. Model predictions closely matched observations and several core areas of foraging habitat were identified for each colony, with notable areas of inter-colony overlap suggesting shared productive foraging grounds. Seals displayed clear choice of foraging habitat, travelling through areas of presumably poorer quality to access habitats that likely offer an energetic advantage in terms of prey intake. The relationships between environmental predictors and foraging habitat varied between colonies, with the principal predictors being wind speed, sea surface temperature, chlorophyll a concentration, bathymetry and distance to the colony. The availability of core foraging areas was not consistent throughout the winter period. The habitat models developed in this study not only reveal the core foraging habitats of Antarctic fur seals from multiple colonies, but can facilitate the hindcasting of historical foraging habitats as well as novel predictions of important habitat for other major colonies currently lacking information of the at-sea distribution of this major Southern Ocean consumer.

  17. Future changes in atmospheric rivers and their implications for winter flooding in Britain

    Lavers, David A; Allan, Richard P; Brayshaw, David J; Villarini, Gabriele; Lloyd-Hughes, Benjamin; Wade, Andrew J

    2013-01-01

    Within the warm conveyor belt of extra-tropical cyclones, atmospheric rivers (ARs) are the key synoptic features which deliver the majority of poleward water vapour transport, and are associated with episodes of heavy and prolonged rainfall. ARs are responsible for many of the largest winter floods in the mid-latitudes resulting in major socioeconomic losses; for example, the loss from United Kingdom (UK) flooding in summer/winter 2012 is estimated to be about $1.6 billion in damages. Given the well-established link between ARs and peak river flows for the present day, assessing how ARs could respond under future climate projections is of importance in gauging future impacts from flooding. We show that North Atlantic ARs are projected to become stronger and more numerous in the future scenarios of multiple simulations from five state-of-the-art global climate models (GCMs) in the fifth Climate Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). The increased water vapour transport in projected ARs implies a greater risk of higher rainfall totals and therefore larger winter floods in Britain, with increased AR frequency leading to more flood episodes. In the high emissions scenario (RCP8.5) for 2074–2099 there is an approximate doubling of AR frequency in the five GCMs. Our results suggest that the projected change in ARs is predominantly a thermodynamic response to warming resulting from anthropogenic radiative forcing. (letter)

  18. Chemical composition of douglas-fir foliage on mule deer winter range. Research report No. RR 91003-CA

    Waterhouse, M J; Armleder, H M; Dawson, R J

    1991-01-01

    In the interior of British Columbia, Douglas-fir litterfall is a major source of mule deer winter food. An earlier study found that preference for Douglas-fir foliage was correlated with tree diameter. This study identified the underlying factors of selection so that wildlife managers might have a wider range of forage enhancement options on mule deer winter range. Samples of Douglas-fir foliage were collected from trees at Knife Creek and Big Lake, and analyzed for minerals, tannins, and in vitro digestible dry matter.

  19. Real-time weed detection, decision making and patch spraying in maize, sugarbeet, winter wheat and winter barley

    Gerhards, R; Christensen, Svend

    2003-01-01

    with weed infestation levels higher than the economic weed threshold; a review of such work is provided. This paper presents a system for site-specific weed control in sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.), maize (Zea mays L.), winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), including...

  20. The emergence of urban centres

    Lazaro, Evelyn; Agergaard, Jytte; Larsen, Marianne Nylandsted

    by Tanzanian market liberalizations and its long term effects on private enterprise. The paper is based on a study of four EUCs in Tanzania (Ilula, Igowole, Madizini and Kibaigwa) and seeks to answer three research questions: 1) What economic and spatial trends, including national policies, have formed...... the pathway for rural transformation and early densification towards the emergence of urban centres in Tanzania? 2) What characterize the relationship between value chain dynamics and rural densification? 3) How do migration and investments contribute to the consolidation of EUCs as places of attraction...

  1. Impact of sea ice cover changes on the Northern Hemisphere atmospheric winter circulation

    D. Handorf

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The response of the Arctic atmosphere to low and high sea ice concentration phases based on European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF Re-Analysis Interim (ERA-Interim atmospheric data and Hadley Centre's sea ice dataset (HadISST1 from 1989 until 2010 has been studied. Time slices of winter atmospheric circulation with high (1990–2000 and low (2001–2010 sea ice concentration in the preceding August/September have been analysed with respect to tropospheric interactions between planetary and baroclinic waves. It is shown that a changed sea ice concentration over the Arctic Ocean impacts differently the development of synoptic and planetary atmospheric circulation systems. During the low ice phase, stronger heat release to the atmosphere over the Arctic Ocean reduces the atmospheric vertical static stability. This leads to an earlier onset of baroclinic instability that further modulates the non-linear interactions between baroclinic wave energy fluxes on time scales of 2.5–6 d and planetary scales of 10–90 d. Our analysis suggests that Arctic sea ice concentration changes exert a remote impact on the large-scale atmospheric circulation during winter, exhibiting a barotropic structure with similar patterns of pressure anomalies at the surface and in the mid-troposphere. These are connected to pronounced planetary wave train changes notably over the North Pacific.

  2. 100-year history of the development of bread winter wheat breeding programs

    М. А. Литвиненко

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Review of the main achievements of the Wheat Breeding and Seed ProductionDepartment in the Plant Breeding and Genetic Institute – National Centre of Seed and Cultivar Investigation in the developing theoretical principles of breeding and creation of winter wheat varieties of different types during 100-year (1916–2016 period of breeding programs realization. Results. The main theoretical, methodical developments and breeding achievements of Wheat Breeding and Seed Production Department during 100-year (1916–2016 history have been considered. In the course of the Department activity, the research and metho­dology grounds of bread winter wheat breeding and seed production have been laid, 9 stages of breeding programs development have been accomplished. As a result, more than 130 varieties of different types have been created, 87 of them have been released in some periods or registered in the State registers of plants varieties of Ukraine and other countries and grown in the total sowing area about 220 million hectares.

  3. Winter fine particulate air quality in Cranbrook, British Columbia, 1973 to 1999

    McDonald, L.E.

    2001-06-01

    Fine particulate levels in Cranbrook, BC, are analyzed and reported based on monitoring records which began in 1973. Prior to 1988 the sampler collected all particle sizes, but was subsequently replaced with a selective size inlet to capture only PM 1 0 particles or smaller. A mathematical relationship was produced and used to convert historical total suspended particulates measurements to PM 1 0. It was determined that only monitoring records obtained during the winter months could be reliably converted in this fashion; however, that was not a problem since the winter months happen to correspond to the highest levels of fine particulates. Results of the analysis showed increased levels of PM 1 0 from the early 1970s to the early 1980s; during this time average and maximum annual PM 1 0 levels in Cranbrook were higher than those in Los Angeles in 1999. Winter PM 1 0 levels began to fall through the late 1980s and early 1990s. The lowest average and maximum (18 microgram/cubic metre and 47 microgram/cubic metre, respectively) was recorded in the winter of 1996/1997. Worst conditions were recorded in 1980/1981 when 15 of 21 samples exceeded the current provincial PM 1 0 air quality objective of 50 microgram/cubic metre. In the five winters between 1994/1995 and 1998/1999 only three of 109 samples exceeded the provincial objective. There appears to be no correlation between known changes in industrial and mobile sources of pollutants and historical patterns of fine particulate air pollution in Cranbrook, BC. Observation and experience over three decades suggest that the major source of PM 1 0 in Cranbrook was combustion of wood for home heating. The most probable major cause of the improvements in winter air quality was identified as the gradual conversion from wood to natural gas fired appliances through the 1980s and the 1990s. The 115 per cent increase in the cost of natural gas in the last two years unfortunately, will again make wood an attractive alternative

  4. State planning for winter energy emergencies: workshop materials

    1978-04-01

    Workshops were conducted in 5 cities to improve communications between the states and the Federal government so that both might be better prepared to avoid or mitigate the impacts of energy emergencies during the winter; to provide a forum for the exchange of technical information regarding selected energy demand restraint measures which could be implemented by individual states or regions in an energy emergency; and to promote the concept of pre-crisis contingency planning and strategy development, with particuliar emphasis on the need for interstate coordination of emergency plans. The major topics addressed by the discussion guide involved net energy use impact, implementation procedures and problems, and social and economic effects. The Task Force performed extensive research into the technical considerations and prior experience in implementing each of the demand restraint measures selected for discussion. Results and conclusions are summarized for reduction of thermostat setting for space conditioning and water heating; reduction in hours of operation and lighting in commercial establishments; reduction in hours of operation in school, and industrial fuel substitution. (MCW)

  5. Hellsgate Winter Range: Wildlife Mitigation Project. Final Environmental Assessment

    1995-03-01

    BPA proposes to fund the Hellsgate Winter Range: Wildlife Mitigation Project (Project) in a cooperative effort with the Colville Confederated Tribes and the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). The Project is intended to mitigate for wildlife and wildlife habitat adversely affected by the construction of Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams and their reservoirs. The Project would allow the sponsors to secure land and conduct wildlife habitat improvement and long-term management activities within the boundaries of the Colville Indian Reservation. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-0940) evaluating the potential environmental effects of the proposed Project (Alternative B) and No Action (Alternative A). Protection and re-establishment of riparian and upland habitat on the Colville Indian Reservation, under Alternative B, would not have a significant adverse environmental impact because: (1) there would be only limited, mostly short-term adverse impacts on soils, water quality, air quality, vegetation, and wildlife (including no effect on endangered species); and (2) there would be no adverse effect on water quantity, cultural resources, or land use. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI

  6. Nuclear medicine solutions in winter sports problems

    Hoeflin, F.G.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The diagnostic workup of acute Winter Sports injuries is done by Conventional X Ray, CT and MRI. Chronic injuries as stress reactions are best investigated by Nuclear Medicine procedures: Snow Boarding: In Snow-Boarding chronic injuries are mostly seen as local increased uptake laterally in the lower third of the Fibula of the front leg together with Tibial increase medially in the other leg. Skiing: Chronic Skiing injuries are less asymmetrical and mostly seen on the apex of the patella. Chronic Feet Problems: A different chronic problem is the reduced blood perfusion in the feet if hard, tightened boots are used for longer time by professional ski instructors and racers. Flow difference between the foot in the boot and the other without boot are dramatic as measured by Nuclear Medicine Procedures and MRI. Pulmonary Embolism: Acute pulmonary embolism caused by thrombi originating at the site of constant pressure on the back rim of ski boots is not uncommon in older skiers (seek and you will find), but never seen in the younger group of Snow-Boarders. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  7. 30th Winter Workshop on Nuclear Dynamics

    2014-01-01

    The 30th edition of the Winter Workshop will be held April 6-12th, 2014 in Hotel Galvez & Spa, Galveston, Texas, USA. As with previous years, the workshop will bring together scientists from all fields of nuclear physics for engaging and friendly exchanges of ideas.Much emphasis will be on the recent LHC and RHIC heavy ion results, but advances in the ongoing and future programs at FAIR, FRIB, NICA and JLab will also be featured. The meeting will start with a welcome reception on the evening of Sunday, April 6th. The workshop program will commence on Monday morning and run until Saturday evening. We recommend to arrive on Sunday and leave on Sunday. Talks will be as usual 25+5 minutes, there will be no parallel sessions. If you are interested in presenting your work, please fill out the registration form prior to the registration deadline. After the program committee has met we will confirm your talk via individual invitations. We will also work with the talks committees of all relevant experimenta...

  8. Comparison of East Asian winter monsoon indices

    Gao Hui

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Four East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM indices are compared in this paper. In the research periods, all the indices show similar interannual and decadal-interdecadal variations, with predominant periods centering in 3–4 years, 6.5 years and 9–15 years, respectively. Besides, all the indices show remarkable weakening trends since the 1980s. The correlation coefficient of each two indices is positive with a significance level of 99%. Both the correlation analyses and the composites indicate that in stronger EAWM years, the Siberian high and the higher-level subtropical westerly jet are stronger, and the Aleutian low and the East Asia trough are deeper. This circulation pattern is favorable for much stronger northwesterly wind and lower air temperature in the subtropical regions of East Asia, while it is on the opposite in weaker EAWM years. Besides, EAWM can also exert a remarkable leading effect on the summer monsoon. After stronger (weaker EAWM, less (more summer precipitation is seen over the regions from the Yangtze River valley of China to southern Japan, while more (less from South China Sea to the tropical western Pacific.

  9. 32th Winter Workshop on Nuclear Dynamics

    2016-01-01

    The 32nd edition of the Winter Workshop will be held 28 February - 5 March 2016, Hotel Resort Fort Royal Guadeloupe in Guadeloupe a French overseas territory, is an island group in the southern Caribbean Sea. As with previous years, the workshop will bring together scientists from all fields of nuclear physics for engaging and friendly exchanges of ideas. Much emphasis will be on the recent LHC, RHIC and SPS heavy ion results, but advances in the ongoing and future programs at FAIR, FRIB, EIC, JLab and NICA and will also be featured. The meeting will start with a welcome reception on the evening of Sunday, February 28. The workshop program will commence on Monday morning and run until Saturday. We recommend to arrive on Sunday and leave on Sunday. Talks will be as usual 25+5 minutes, there will be no parallel sessions. If you are interested in presenting your work, please fill out the registration form prior to the registration deadline. After the program committee has met we will confirm your talk via indivi...

  10. Report 3 energy market barometer - Winter 2014

    Schleich, Joachim; Cateura, Olivier; Faure, Corinne; Jacob, Jojo; Javaudin, Laurent; Molecke, Greg; Olsthoorn, Mark; Pinkse, Jonatan; Shomali, Azadeh; Vernay, Anne-Lorene

    2015-01-01

    This Winter 2014 edition of the Grenoble Ecole de Management (GEM) Energy Market Barometer documents the French energy experts' estimates of the future electricity mix in France and in the European Union, their assessment of the regulatory conditions in France for investments in energy technologies, and their expectations about the development of energy and CO_2-certificate prices. Key findings: - Fewer than one in four experts believes that the target to decrease nuclear power's share of the French power mix to 50% by 2025 will be met; - The share of renewable energy sources (other than hydropower) in the French power mix is expected to almost quadruple by 2030; - Renewable energy sources (other than hydropower) are believed to become the dominating source of electricity in the EU in 2030; - About two thirds of the experts think that current regulatory conditions in France are particularly accommodating for investments in energy efficiency and renewable energies; - Experts are divided over how supportive current and future regulatory conditions are for encouraging investments in nuclear power in France; - Electricity prices are expected to remain stable over the next six months but to increase over the next 5 years; - Oil prices are expected to continue to decrease over the next six month, but increase over the next 5 years; - CO_2 certificate prices are expected to rise only in the medium to longer term but levels remain rather low

  11. Desert heat island study in winter by mobile transect and remote sensing techniques

    Sun, Chen-Yi; Brazel, Anthony J.; Chow, Winston T. L.; Hedquist, Brent C.; Prashad, Lela

    2009-10-01

    A familiar problem in urban environments is the urban heat island (UHI), which potentially increases air conditioning demands, raise pollution levels, and could modify precipitation patterns. The magnitude and pattern of UHI effects have been major concerns of a lot of urban environment studies. Typically, research on UHI magnitudes in arid regions (such as Phoenix, AZ, USA) focuses on summer. UHI magnitudes in Phoenix (more than three million population) attain values in excess of 5°C. This study investigated the early winter period—a time when summer potential evapotranspiration >250 mm has diminished to 8.0°C, comparable to summertime UHI conditions. Through analysis of the Oke (1998) weather factor ΦW, it was determined thermally induced nighttime cool drainage winds could account for inflating the UHI magnitude in winter.

  12. Centre for nuclear engineering University of Toronto annual report 1984

    1984-12-01

    The annual report of the Centre for Nuclear Engineering, University of Toronto covers the following subjects: message from the Dean; Chairman's message; origins of the centre; formation of the centre; new nuclear appointments; and activities of the centre, 1984

  13. The new AMS control centre

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2011-01-01

    Construction work for the future AMS control room began in November 2010 and should be finished this June. The new building, which will have been completed in record time thanks to the professionalism of the project team, will soon be ready to receive the initial data from the AMS experiment.     Luigi Scibile and Michael Poehler, from the GS department, at the AMS control centre construction site.   The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is due to wing its way towards the International Space Station (ISS) on board the shuttle Discovery in April. Mainly intended for research on antimatter and dark matter, the data collected by AMS will be sent to Houston in the United States and then directly to CERN’s new Building 946. Construction work for the AMS control centre building on the Route Gentner at CERN’s Prévessin site started in November 2010 and must be completed in time to receive the first data from the spectrometer in June. “It normall...

  14. Autumn Weather and Winter Increase in Cerebrovascular Disease Mortality

    McDonagh, R

    2016-11-01

    Mortality from cerebrovascular disease increases in winter but the cause is unclear. Ireland’s oceanic climate means that it infrequently experiences extremes of weather. We examined how weather patterns relate to stroke mortality in Ireland. Seasonal data for Sunshine (% of average), Rainfall (% of average) and Temperature (degrees Celsius above average) were collected for autumn (September-November) and winter (December-February) using official Irish Meteorological Office data. National cerebrovascular mortality data was obtained from Quarterly Vital Statistics. Excess winter deaths were calculated by subtracting (nadir) 3rd quarter mortality data from subsequent 1st quarter data. Data for 12 years were analysed, 2002-2014. Mean winter mortality excess was 24.7%. Winter mortality correlated with temperature (r=.60, p=0.04). Rise in winter mortality correlated strongly with the weather in the preceding autumn (Rainfall: r=-0.19 p=0.53, Temperature: r=-0.60, p=0.03, Sunshine, r=0.58, p=0.04). Winter cerebrovascular disease mortality appears higher following cool, sunny autum

  15. Winter Season Mortality: Will Climate Warming Bring Benefits?

    Kinney, Patrick L; Schwartz, Joel; Pascal, Mathilde; Petkova, Elisaveta; Tertre, Alain Le; Medina, Sylvia; Vautard, Robert

    2015-06-01

    Extreme heat events are associated with spikes in mortality, yet death rates are on average highest during the coldest months of the year. Under the assumption that most winter excess mortality is due to cold temperature, many previous studies have concluded that winter mortality will substantially decline in a warming climate. We analyzed whether and to what extent cold temperatures are associated with excess winter mortality across multiple cities and over multiple years within individual cities, using daily temperature and mortality data from 36 US cities (1985-2006) and 3 French cities (1971-2007). Comparing across cities, we found that excess winter mortality did not depend on seasonal temperature range, and was no lower in warmer vs. colder cities, suggesting that temperature is not a key driver of winter excess mortality. Using regression models within monthly strata, we found that variability in daily mortality within cities was not strongly influenced by winter temperature. Finally we found that inadequate control for seasonality in analyses of the effects of cold temperatures led to spuriously large assumed cold effects, and erroneous attribution of winter mortality to cold temperatures. Our findings suggest that reductions in cold-related mortality under warming climate may be much smaller than some have assumed. This should be of interest to researchers and policy makers concerned with projecting future health effects of climate change and developing relevant adaptation strategies.

  16. Sage-grouse habitat selection during winter in Alberta

    Carpenter, Jennifer L.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Boyce, Mark S.

    2010-01-01

    Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) are dependent on sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) for food and shelter during winter, yet few studies have assessed winter habitat selection, particularly at scales applicable to conservation planning. Small changes to availability of winter habitats have caused drastic reductions in some sage-grouse populations. We modeled winter habitat selection by sage-grouse in Alberta, Canada, by using a resource selection function. Our purpose was to 1) generate a robust winter habitat-selection model for Alberta sage-grouse; 2) spatially depict habitat suitability in a Geographic Information System to identify areas with a high probability of selection and thus, conservation importance; and 3) assess the relative influence of human development, including oil and gas wells, in landscape models of winter habitat selection. Terrain and vegetation characteristics, sagebrush cover, anthropogenic landscape features, and energy development were important in top Akaike's Information Criterionselected models. During winter, sage-grouse selected dense sagebrush cover and homogenous less rugged areas, and avoided energy development and 2-track truck trails. Sage-grouse avoidance of energy development highlights the need for comprehensive management strategies that maintain suitable habitats across all seasons. ?? 2010 The Wildlife Society.

  17. Relationship of deer and moose populations to previous winters' snow

    Mech, L.D.; McRoberts, R.E.; Peterson, R.O.; Page, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    (1) Linear regression was used to relate snow accumulation during single and consecutive winters with white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawn:doe ratios, mosse (Alces alces) twinning rates and calf:cow ratios, and annual changes in deer and moose populations. Significant relationships were found between snow accumulation during individual winters and these dependent variables during the following year. However, the strongest relationships were between the dependent variables and the sums of the snow accumulations over the previous three winters. The percentage of the variability explained was 36 to 51. (2) Significant relationships were also found between winter vulnerability of moose calves and the sum of the snow accumulations in the current, and up to seven previous, winters, with about 49% of the variability explained. (3) No relationship was found between wolf numbers and the above dependent variables. (4) These relationships imply that winter influences on maternal nutrition can accumulate for several years and that this cumulative effect strongly determines fecundity and/or calf and fawn survivability. Although wolf (Canis lupus L.) predation is the main direct mortality agent on fawns and calves, wolf density itself appears to be secondary to winter weather in influencing the deer and moose populations.

  18. Proceedings - BORDEAUX VIVA WINTER SCHOOL - XXXIII LIAC MEETING

    Thierry Couffinhal

    2017-12-01

    Connexin40 expression or function reduces angiogenesis in the developing mouse retina - F. ALONSO, Bordeaux • Imatinib inhibits hypoxia-induced MMP-9 overexpression and activation through impairment of LRP1 and Pyk2 phosphorylation in human coronary vascular smooth muscle cells - A. BENITEZ, Barcelona - Spain • NRP1 supresses TGFβ-dependent ERK1/2 activation in endothelial cells - A. LAMPROPOULOU, London - UK • The elastin receptor complex interacts with CD36 through NEU1 and regulates oxidized LDL uptake in macrophages: potential implication in the proatherogenic effects of elastin-derived peptides - P. MAURICE, Reims • Ubiad1 promotes tumor angiogenesis by inhibiting dephosphorylation of vegfr2 in a redox dependent manner - R. SEWDUTH, Belgium Cell senescence and telomere - E. GILSON, Nice Estrogens as vascular anti-ageing hormones? Experimental and clinical evidences and uncertainties - J.F. ARNAL, Toulouse Arteriolar and microcirculation aging - D. HENRION, Angers Oxydation and inflammation in Atherosclerosis - A. LEPEDDA, Italy Winter School Meeting (organizers: A. Bikfalvi & J. Badaut Highlights and major topics identified by the students, group proposals (3 per group for fictive/future projects and presentation OPEN SESSION (Chairwomen: M.A. Renault & J. Lods • Endothelial cell dysfunction is a new potential therapeutic target for the treatment of critical limb ischemia - C. CARADU, Pessac • Podosomes Mediate Basement Membrane Collagen-IV Proteolysis During Sprouting Angiogenesis - E. GENOT, Bordeaux •How plant food bioactives may have benefits for vascular health? The case of curcumin, L.E. MONFOULET, Lille Closing meeting: Thierry Couffinhal & Michel Spina Table des matières CLINICAL AND EPIDEMIOLOGIC ASPECT OF VASCULAR AGING Early vascular aging Neurovascular epidemiology of aging Cardiovascular epidemiology of aging Forecasted trends in disability and life expectancy Neurovascular genetic epidemiology Vascular and thrombosis genetic epidemiology

  19. Contribution of allelopathy and competition to weed suppression by winter wheat, triticale and winter rye

    Reiss, Antje; Fomsgaard, Inge S.; Mathiassen, Solvejg Kopp

    Above-ground competition and allelopathy are two of the most dominant mechanisms of plants to subdue their competitors in their closest surroundings. In an agricultural perspective, the suppression of weeds by the crop is of particular interest, as weeds represent the largest yield loss potential...... of competitive traits, such as early vigour, crop height and leaf area index and presence of phytotoxic compounds of the group of benzoxazinoids to weed suppression. Four cultivars of each of the winter cereals wheat, triticale and rye were grown in field experiments at two locations. Soil samples were taken...

  20. A fifty year record of winter glacier melt events in southern Chile, 38°–42°S

    Brock, Ben W; Burger, Flavia; Montecinos, Aldo; Rivera, Andrés

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the frequency and potential mass balance impact of winter glacier melt events. In this study, daily atmospheric temperature soundings from the Puerto Montt radiosonde (41.43°S) are used to reconstruct winter melting events at the glacier equilibrium line altitude in the 38°–42°S region of southern Chile, between 1960 and 2010. The representativeness of the radiosonde temperatures to near-surface glacier temperatures is demonstrated using meteorological records from close to the equilibrium line on two glaciers in the region over five winters. Using a degree-day model we estimate an average of 0.28 m of melt and 21 melt days in the 15 June–15 September period each year, with high inter-annual variability. The majority of melt events are associated with midlatitude migratory high pressure systems crossing Chile and northwesterly flows, that force adiabatic compression and warm advection, respectively. There are no trends in the frequency or magnitude of melt events over the period of record, but the annual frequency of winter melt days shows a significant, although rather weak and probably non-linear, relationship to late winter and early spring values of a multivariate El Niño Southern Oscillation Index (MEI). (letter)

  1. Major Sport Venues

    Department of Homeland Security — The Major Public Venues dataset is composed of facilities that host events for the National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing, Indy Racing League, Major League...

  2. Major Depression Among Adults

    ... Depressive Episode Among Adolescents Data Sources Share Major Depression Definitions Major depression is one of the most ... Bethesda, MD 20892-9663 Follow Us Facebook Twitter YouTube Google Plus NIMH Newsletter NIMH RSS Feed NIMH ...

  3. Notes on winter feeding behavior and molt in Wilson's phalaropes

    Burger, J.; Howe, M.

    1975-01-01

    Wilson's Phalaropes, Steganopus tricolor, migrate in late summer from the prairie regions of North America to their wintering grounds in the highlands of Peru and the inland and coastal waters of Chile, Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay, and Argentina (Holmes 1939, Meyer de Schauensee 1970). Reports on these birds from their wintering habitat are few. This paper describes numbers, feeding behavior, and molt of Wilson's Phalaropes wintering in a freshwater marsh in central Argentina. Fieldwork in Argentina was conducted by the senior author. The junior author analyzed molt patterns of birds collected there and added data he collected in North Dakota in 1968 and 1969.

  4. Winter precipitation and fire in the Sonoran Desert

    Rogers, G.F.; Vint, M.K.

    1987-01-01

    Historical fire and climate records from the Arizona Upland portion of the Tonto National forest were used to test the hypothesis that fires burn larger areas in the Sonoran Desert after two wet winters than after one. We found that many more hectares burn in years following two winters that are wetter than normal, than during any other years. We agree with other ecologists, that desert fire occurrence is probably related to increased production of winter annual plants, and we suggest ways that the relationship may be clarified.

  5. Energy market barometer report - Winter 2015

    Schleich, Joachim; Cartel, Melodie; Javaudin, Laurent; Molecke, Greg; Olsthoorn, Mark; Vernay, Anne-Lorene

    2016-01-01

    This Winter 2015 edition of the Grenoble Ecole de Management (GEM) Energy Market Barometer gauged the expectations of French energy experts regarding the low oil price and its consequences on alternative energy technologies. The experts were also asked about the investment climate for energy technologies in France. Key findings: - The energy experts consider the current low oil price a temporary phenomenon. The price of a barrel of crude oil (Brent) to reach US$ 55 at the end of the year (2016). About three quarters of respondents expect the price of oil to increase in 5 years and to exceed US$ 100 per barrel within 10 years. - The current weak price of crude oil is thought to have an adverse impact on the amount of investment in renewables for heat generation, in biofuels, and in energy efficiency technologies. - The experts view the current regulatory environment in France for investments in renewables, e-mobility, smart grids and energy efficiency favorably. They expect it to continue to improve over the next 5 years. However, nuclear energy and natural gas will not see their investment climate improved. - The recent developments on the global and national political stage have not moved most energy and CO_2 price expectations. The experts chart a progressive yet under-whelming raise in the price of CO_2 certificates in the medium to long term, from currently 8.5 euro/ton to euro 10-15 euro/ton in 5 years and 20-25 euro/ton in 10 years. - Prices of electricity, oil and natural gas are expected to rise in the medium term but remain stable over the next six months temporary phenomenon. Coal is the only energy carrier for which experts expect a decrease in price over the next five years

  6. Heredity of flake- and stripe-variegated traits and their introduction into Japanese day-neutral winter-flowering sweet pea (Lathyrus odoratus L.) cultivars.

    Yagishita, Yoshimi; Hara, Yasuhide; Nakayama, Masayoshi

    2018-01-01

    Sweet pea ( Lathyrus odoratus L.) is a major cut flower in Japan, generally grown in greenhouses in winter to spring. The wild-type sweet pea is a long-day summer-flowering plant. The day-neutral winter-flowering ability, which allows cut-flower production in Japan, is a recessive phenotype that emerged by spontaneous mutation. Although Japanese winter-flowering cultivars and additionally spring-flowering cultivars, which have semi-long-day flowering ability generated by crossing the winter- and summer-flowering cultivars, have superior phenotypes for cut flowers, they have limited variation in color and fragrance. In particular, variegated phenotypes do not appear in modern winter- and spring-flowering cultivars, only in summer-flowering cultivars. We try to expand the phenotypic diversity of Japanese cut flower cultivars. In the processes, we introduced the variegated phenotypes by crossing with summer-flowering cultivars, and succeeded in breeding some excellent cultivars. During breeding, we analyzed the segregation ratios and revealed the heredity of the phenotypes. Here we review the heredity of these variegated phenotypes and winter-flowering phenotypes and their related genes. We also describe how we introduced the trait into winter-flowering cultivars, tracing their pedigrees to show both phenotypes and genotypes of the progeny at each generation. This knowledge is useful for the efficient breeding of new variegated cultivars.

  7. Nuclear Winter Revisited: can it Make a Difference This Time?

    Schneider, S.

    2006-12-01

    Some 23 years ago, in the middle of a Cold War and the threat of a strategic nuclear weapons exchange between NATO and the Warsaw Pact nations, atmospheric scientists pointed out that the well-anticipated side effects of a large-scale nuclear war ozone depletion, radioactive contamination and some climatic effects had massively underestimated the more likely implications: massive fires, severe dimming and cooling beneath circulating smoke clouds, disruption to agriculture in non-combatant nations, severe loss of imports of food to already-food-deficient regions and major alterations to atmospheric circulation. While the specific consequences were dependent on both scenarios of weapons use and injections and removals of smoke and dust and other chemicals into the atmosphere, it was clear that this would be despite passionately argued uncertainties a large major additional effect. As further investigations of smoke removal, patchy transport, etc., were pursued, the basic concerns remained, but the magnitude calculated with one-dimensional models diminished creating an unfortunate media debate over nuclear winter vs. nuclear autumn. Of course, one can't grow summer crops in any autumn natural or nuclear but that concern often got lost in the contentious political debate. Of course, it was pointed out that anyone who required knowing the additional environmental consequences of a major nuclear exchange to be finally deterred was already so far from the reality of the direct effects of the blasts that they might never see the concerns. But for non-combatants, it was a major awakening of their inability to escape severe consequences of the troubles of others, even if they were bystanders in the east-west conflicts. Two decades later, things have radically changed: the prospect of a massive strategic nuclear exchange is greatly diminished good news but the possibility of limited regional exchanges or terrorist incidents is widely believed to have greatly increased bad

  8. Smart work centres in rural areas

    Lorentzen, Anne Birte

    This paper discusses the establishment of telework centres as an element in local development strategies in rural areas, with a particular view to two new telework centres in region North Denmark. The paper argues that telework centres do not represent an easy solution to problems of local...... development and environmental sustainability, and further, that technology may not even be the most important feature needed to make them function as such....

  9. Elm Farm Organic Research Centre December 2006

    Sanders, Richard; Whiltley, Andrew; Haigh, Zoe; Clarke, Sarah; Hitchings, Roger; O'Brien, Josie

    2006-01-01

    The Organic Research Centre. Elm Farm Research Centre Bulletin with Technical Updates from The Organic Advisory Service is a regular publication from The Organic Research Centre. The current issue covers: Report from 2006 Cirencester Conference; Quest for more home produced organic food; in a world where bread matters; Improving wheat with plenty of parents; Unlocking the secrets of the ancient (cereal varieties); Brain food- a good read; Not to late to protect the future: The organic...

  10. Powering the Future Data Centre

    Zhang, Zhe

    2010-01-01

    of the characteristics of these two power sources: long warm-up stage and low dynamics for fuel cell, and variable terminal voltage for supercapacitors. The motivation for this project was to find ways which can overcome those limitations to integrate fuel cells and supercapcitors to the system with high efficiency......The extended run Uninterruptible Power Supply system (UPSs) which powered by fuel cells and supercapcitors, is a promising solution for future data centre to obtain environmentfriendly energy efficient and cost effective. There are many challenges in power electronic interface circuits, because......: • Optimized design method for dual active bridge (DAB) converter and its derived circuits; • A novel hybrid dc-dc converter and its corresponding optimal design method are proposed; • An improved dual input current-fed DC-DC converter with bidirectional power conversion ability is investigated; • Extend...

  11. CAN A SMALL WINTER RESORT BE MANAGED AND MARKETED LIKE A LARGE ONE: A CASE OF BULGARIAN SKI RESORT BANSKO

    Filip Shabanski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the world today there are about 80 countries which practice various winter sports. Regardless of the wide geographical range demand in terms of existing infrastructure is highly concentrated in a few regions of the world. To be competitive ski resorts have to deliver good experiences and excellent value to tourists. Current community officials and destination managers of the Bulgarian ski resort of Bansko believe that the main weakness of this ski centre is the extensive waiting at the bottom gondola station and advocates expansion of the ski runs and lift capacity. The aim of the article is to research the strengths and weaknesses of the resort in regional and world context and to prove that further expansion will not forge a strong emotional connection with visitors and thus will not bring success in destination markets. The methodology used in this article follows three steps: 1 Literature review on the nature of the ski market in the world, as well as factors contributing to effective destination management; 2 International, national and regional data analysis of existing secondary data on winter sports market and 3 Qualitative study carried out with a purposive sample of key informants. The SWOT analysis based on the results of the qualitative study show that touristic shareholders in Bansko should apply an appropriate strategy for small winter resorts by offering a unique product that speaks to the world instead of trying to promote universal broad product for the mass market.

  12. Preparation of emergency care centre exercises

    Schnadt, H.; Miska, H.

    2011-01-01

    Setup and operation of emergency care centres (sometimes also addressed as emergency reception centres) are part of emergency response in the environs of nuclear power plants. The preparation of an exercise scenario for such a centre is very demanding on the responsible agency. Therefore, a computer code has been developed which helps to translate the exercise objectives into instructions for figurants which simulate the affected population. These instructions are intended to steer a determined flow of people through the emergency care centre by providing fictitious radiological readings and by injecting the demand for additional actions of response personnel by statements and questions. (orig.)

  13. Prediction of thermal behavior of pervious concrete pavements in winter.

    2017-05-15

    Because application of pervious concrete pavement (PCPs) has extended to cold-climate regions of the United States, the safety and : mobility of PCP installations during the winter season need to be maintained. Timely application of salt, anti-icing,...

  14. Seasonal overturning circulation in the Red Sea: 2. Winter circulation

    Yao, Fengchao; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Pratt, Lawrence J.; Bower, Amy S.; Kö hl, Armin; Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh; Rivas, David

    2014-01-01

    The shallow winter overturning circulation in the Red Sea is studied using a 50 year high-resolution MITgcm (MIT general circulation model) simulation with realistic atmospheric forcing. The overturning circulation for a typical year, represented

  15. Exploring the Constraint Profile of Winter Sports Resort Tourist Segments.

    Priporas, Constantinos-Vasilios; Vassiliadis, Chris A; Bellou, Victoria; Andronikidis, Andreas

    2015-09-01

    Many studies have confirmed the importance of market segmentation both theoretically and empirically. Surprisingly though, no study has so far addressed the issue from the perspective of leisure constraints. Since different consumers face different barriers, we look at participation in leisure activities as an outcome of the negotiation process that winter sports resort tourists go through, to balance between related motives and constraints. This empirical study reports the findings on the applicability of constraining factors in segmenting the tourists who visit winter sports resorts. Utilizing data from 1,391 tourists of winter sports resorts in Greece, five segments were formed based on their constraint, demographic, and behavioral profile. Our findings indicate that such segmentation sheds light on factors that could potentially limit the full utilization of the market. To maximize utilization, we suggest customizing marketing to the profile of each distinct winter sports resort tourist segment that emerged.

  16. Stay Warm in Winter (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    When frigid winter temperatures hit the U.S., the risk for unhealthy exposure to cold increases substantially. In this podcast, Dr. Jonathan Meiman discusses the dangers of exposure to extremely cold temperatures.

  17. NEFSC 2000 Winter Bottom Trawl Survey (AL0001, EK500)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objectives of the cruise are to: (1) determine the winter distribution and relative abundance of fish and selected invertebrate species; (2) collect biological...

  18. STIMULATION OF RESISTANCE OF BEE FAMILIES DURING WINTERING

    nicolae eremia

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Honey bees use as food nectar, honey, pollen and bee bread. They collect nectar and pollen on flowers, that process in food - honey and bee bread. Food provides the bees body with energy due to carbohydrates, proteins, enzymes, lipids, vitamins, minerals. The goal of the studies was to stimulate the bees’ resistance during wintering against nesemosa disease in bee families’ survival after winter time and productivity increasing. There was established that the optimal dose of feed additive Pramix Bionorm P (symbiotic complex, in reserves supplementing of food of bee families during autumn is 150 mg of sugar syrup. There was revealed that using of the feed additive Pramix Bionorm P (symbiotic complex, in bees feeding for reserves supplementing of bees food ensures a stimulating of resistance at wintering of bees, decreases the quantity of used honey during wintering at one space between honey combs populated with bees, as well increases the productivity.

  19. Evaluation of 14 winter bread wheat genotypes in normal irrigation ...

    Evaluation of 14 winter bread wheat genotypes in normal irrigation and stress conditions after anthesis stage. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... Using biplot graphic method, comparison of indices amounts and mean rating of indices for ...

  20. Comparison of winter temperature profiles in asphalt and concrete pavements.

    2014-06-01

    The objectives of this research were to 1) determine which pavement type, asphalt or concrete, has : higher surface temperatures in winter and 2) compare the subsurface temperatures under asphalt and : concrete pavements to determine the pavement typ...

  1. JTEL Winter School for Advanced Technologically Enhanced Learning

    Glahn, Christian; Gruber, Marion

    2010-01-01

    Glahn, C., & Gruber, M. (2010). JTEL Winter School for Advanced Technologically Enhanced Learning. In ~mail. Das Magazin des Tiroler Bildungsinstituts, 01/10, März (p. 3-4). Innsbruck: Grillhof, Medienzentrum.

  2. zimbabwean fourth social workers conference and winter school

    cswserver

    commercial 4.0 International License. ZIMBABWEAN FOURTH SOCIAL WORKERS CONFERENCE AND WINTER. SCHOOL. Noah Mudenda. The Council of Social Workers (CSW or Council) was established under the Social Workers Act 27:21 ...

  3. Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus and climate change: Importance of winter forage

    Thrine Moen Heggberget

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available As a consequence of increasing greenhouse gas concentrations, climate change is predicted to be particularly pronounced, although regionally variable, in the vast arctic, sub-arctic and alpine tundra areas of the northern hemisphere. Here, we review winter foraging conditions for reindeer and caribou (Rangifer tarandus living in these areas, and consider diet, forage quality and distribution, accessibility due to snow variation, and effects of snow condition on reindeer and caribou populations. Finally, we hypothesise how global warming may affect wild mountain reindeer herds in South Norway. Energy-rich lichens often dominate reindeer and caribou diets. The animals also prefer lichens, and their productivity has been shown to be higher on lichen-rich than on lichen-poor ranges. Nevertheless, this energy source appears to be neither sufficient as winter diet for reindeer or caribou (at least for pregnant females nor necessary. Some reindeer and caribou populations seem to be better adapted to a non-lichen winter diet, e.g. by a larger alimentary tract. Shrubs appear to be the most common alternative winter forage, while some grasses appear to represent a good, nutritionally-balanced winter diet. Reindeer/caribou make good use of a wide variety of plants in winter, including dead and dry parts that are digested more than expected based on their fibre content. The diversity of winter forage is probably important for the mineral content of the diet. A lichen-dominated winter diet may be deficient in essential dietary elements, e.g. minerals. Sodium in particular may be marginal in inland winter ranges. Our review indicates that most Rangifer populations with lichen-dominated winter diets are either periodically or continuously heavily harvested by humans or predators. However, when population size is mainly limited by food, accessible lichen resources are often depleted. Plant studies simulating climatic change indicate that a warmer, wetter

  4. Nitrogen uptake in the northeastern Arabian Sea during winter cooling

    Kumar, S.; Ramesh, R.; Dwivedi, R.M.; Raman, M.; Sheshshayee, M.S.; DeSouza, W.

    /plain; charset=UTF-8 Hindawi Publishing Corporation International Journal of Oceanography Volume 2010, Article ID 819029, 11 pages doi:10.1155/2010/819029 Research Article Nitrogen Uptake in the Northeastern Arabian Sea during Winter Cooling S. Kumar, 1...

  5. Exploring the Constraint Profile of Winter Sports Resort Tourist Segments

    Priporas, Constantinos-Vasilios; Vassiliadis, Chris A.; Bellou, Victoria; Andronikidis, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have confirmed the importance of market segmentation both theoretically and empirically. Surprisingly though, no study has so far addressed the issue from the perspective of leisure constraints. Since different consumers face different barriers, we look at participation in leisure activities as an outcome of the negotiation process that winter sports resort tourists go through, to balance between related motives and constraints. This empirical study reports the findings on the applicability of constraining factors in segmenting the tourists who visit winter sports resorts. Utilizing data from 1,391 tourists of winter sports resorts in Greece, five segments were formed based on their constraint, demographic, and behavioral profile. Our findings indicate that such segmentation sheds light on factors that could potentially limit the full utilization of the market. To maximize utilization, we suggest customizing marketing to the profile of each distinct winter sports resort tourist segment that emerged. PMID:29708114

  6. AUTOMATIC CONTROL SYSTEM OF WINTER AUTOMOBILE-ROAD MAINTENANCE

    I. I. Leonovich

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to ensure a rational usage of financial and material resources directed on winter automobile-road maintenance in theRepublicofBelarusan automatic control system of winter maintenance is under its development and introduction.  The main purpose of the system is to obtain and use meteorological information on the state of a road network that allows to take necessary organizational and technological solutions ensuring safety and continuity of traffic during winter. This system also presupposes to ensure constant control over the state of roadway covering, expenditure of anti-glazed frost materials at all levels of management.The paper considers main aspects pertaining to introduction of the automatic control system of winter maintenance

  7. NEFSC 1999 Winter Bottom Trawl Survey (AL9902, EK500)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objectives of the cruise are to: (1) determine the winter distribution and relative abundance of fish and selected invertebrate species; (2) collect biological...

  8. NEFSC 2001 Winter Bottom Trawl Survey (AL0102, EK500)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objectives of the cruise are to: (1) determine the winter distribution and relative abundance of fish and selected invertebrate species; (2) collect biological...

  9. Winter Steelhead Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for WINTER STEELHEAD contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear...

  10. Winter banding of passerines on the Alaska Peninsula

    Department of the Interior — Between February 1969 and May 1973, bait traps were operated during winter at Cold Bay (55° 12' N, 162° 43' W), Alaska, headquarters of the Izembek National Wildlife...

  11. Kleptoparasitism by bald eagles wintering in south-central Nebraska

    Jorde, Dennis G.; Lingle, G.R.

    1988-01-01

    Kleptoparasitism on other raptors was one means by which Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) secured food along the North Platte and Platte rivers during the winters of 1978-1980. Species kelptoparasitized were Ferruginous Hawk (Buteo regalis), Red-tailed Hawk (B. jamaicensis), Rough-legged Hawk (B. lagopus), Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), and Bald Eagle. Stealing of prey occurred more often during the severe winter of 1978-1979 when ice cover restricted eagles from feeding on fish than during the milder winter of 1979-1980. Kleptoparasitism occurred principally in agricultural habitats where large numbers of Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were foraging. Subadults watched adults steal food and participated in food-stealing with adults, which indicated interspecific kleptoparasitism may be a learned behavior. We suggest factors that may favor interspecific kleptoparasitism as a foraging strategy of Bald Eagles in obtaining waterfowl during severe winters.

  12. Winter Pea: Promising New Crop for Washington's Dryland Wheat-Fallow Region

    William F. Schillinger

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A 2-year tillage-based winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.-summer fallow (WW-SF rotation has been practiced by the vast majority of farmers in the low-precipitation (<300 mm annual rainfed cropping region of east-central Washington and north-central Oregon for 140 years. Until recently, alternative crops (i.e., those other than WW so far tested have not been as economically viable or stable as WW-SF. A 6-year field study was conducted near Ritzville, WA (292 mm avg. annual precipitation to determine the yield and rotation benefits of winter pea (Pisum sativum L. (WP. Two 3-year rotations were evaluated: WP-spring wheat (SW-SF vs. WW-SW-SF. Winter pea yields averaged 2,443 vs. 4,878 kg/ha for WW. No fertilizer was applied to WP whereas 56 kg N and 11 kg S/ha were applied to WW. Winter pea used significantly less soil water than WW. Over the winter months, a lesser percentage of precipitation was stored in the soil following WP compared to WW because: (i very little WP residue remained on the soil surface after harvest compared to WW, and (ii the drier the soil, the more precipitation is stored in the soil over winter. However, soil water content in the spring was still greater following WP vs. WW. Soil residual N in the spring (7 months after the harvest of WP and WW was greater in WP plots despite not applying fertilizer to produce WP. Spring wheat grown after both WP and WW received the identical quantity of N, P, and S fertilizer each year. Average yield of SW was 2,298 and 2,011 kg/ha following WP and WW, respectively (P < 0.01. Adjusted gross economic returns for these two rotation systems were similar. Based partially on the results of this study, numerous farmers in the dry WW-SF region have shown keen interest in WP and acreage planted WP in east-central Washington has grown exponentially since 2013. This paper provides the first report of the potential for WP in the typical WW-SF region of the inland Pacific Northwest (PNW.

  13. School of Culinary Arts & Food Technology - Winter Newsletter 2017

    Murphy, James Peter

    2017-01-01

    The School of Culinary Arts and Food Technology, Winter Newsletter captured the many events, research, awards, significant contributions and special civic and community activities which the students and staff members of the school have successfully completed leading up to the Winter period of 2017. The successful completion of these activities would not be possible without the active and on-going support of the 'INSPIRED' Friends of Culinary Arts (sponsors).

  14. Excess mortality in winter in Finnish intensive care.

    Reinikainen, M; Uusaro, A; Ruokonen, E; Niskanen, M

    2006-07-01

    In the general population, mortality from acute myocardial infarctions, strokes and respiratory causes is increased in winter. The winter climate in Finland is harsh. The aim of this study was to find out whether there are seasonal variations in mortality rates in Finnish intensive care units (ICUs). We analysed data on 31,040 patients treated in 18 Finnish ICUs. We measured severity of illness with acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II) scores and intensity of care with therapeutic intervention scoring system (TISS) scores. We assessed mortality rates in different months and seasons and used logistic regression analysis to test the independent effect of various seasons on hospital mortality. We defined 'winter' as the period from December to February, inclusive. The crude hospital mortality rate was 17.9% in winter and 16.4% in non-winter, P = 0.003. Even after adjustment for case mix, winter season was an independent risk factor for increased hospital mortality (adjusted odds ratio 1.13, 95% confidence interval 1.04-1.22, P = 0.005). In particular, the risk of respiratory failure was increased in winter. Crude hospital mortality was increased during the main holiday season in July. However, the severity of illness-adjusted risk of death was not higher in July than in other months. An increase in the mean daily TISS score was an independent predictor of increased hospital mortality. Severity of illness-adjusted hospital mortality for Finnish ICU patients is higher in winter than in other seasons.

  15. Winter climate controls soil carbon dynamics during summer in boreal forests

    Haei, Mahsa; Öquist, Mats G; Ilstedt, Ulrik; Laudon, Hjalmar; Kreyling, Juergen

    2013-01-01

    Boreal forests, characterized by distinct winter seasons, store a large proportion of the global terrestrial carbon (C) pool. We studied summer soil C-dynamics in a boreal forest in northern Sweden using a seven-year experimental manipulation of soil frost. We found that winter soil climate conditions play a major role in controlling the dissolution/mineralization of soil organic-C in the following summer season. Intensified soil frost led to significantly higher concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Intensified soil frost also led to higher rates of basal heterotrophic CO 2 production in surface soil samples. However, frost-induced decline in the in situ soil CO 2 concentrations in summer suggests a substantial decline in root and/or plant associated rhizosphere CO 2 production, which overrides the effects of increased heterotrophic CO 2 production. Thus, colder winter soils, as a result of reduced snow cover, can substantially alter C-dynamics in boreal forests by reducing summer soil CO 2 efflux, and increasing DOC losses. (letter)

  16. Winter precipitation over the Iberian peninsula and its relationship to circulation indices

    C. Rodríguez-Puebla

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Winter precipitation variability over the Iberian peninsula was investigated by obtaining the spatial and temporal patterns. Empirical Orthogonal Functions were used to describe the variance distribution and to compress the precipitation data into a few modes. The corresponding spatial patterns divide the peninsula into climatic regions according to precipitation variations. The associated time series were related to large scale circulation indices and tropical sea surface temperature anomalies by using lag cross-correlation and cross-spectrum. The major findings are: the most influential indices for winter precipitation were the North Atlantic Oscillation and the East Atlantic/West Russian pattern; coherent oscillations were detected at about eight years between precipitation and the North Atlantic Oscillation and some dynamic consequences of the circulation on precipitation over the Iberian peninsula were examined during drought and wet spells. In the end statistical methods have been proposed to downscale seasonal precipitation prediction. Keywords: Winter precipitation, circulation indices, Iberian peninsula climate, climate variations, precipitation trend

  17. Are cold winters in Europe associated with low solar activity?

    Lockwood, M; Harrison, R G; Woollings, T; Solanki, S K

    2010-01-01

    Solar activity during the current sunspot minimum has fallen to levels unknown since the start of the 20th century. The Maunder minimum (about 1650-1700) was a prolonged episode of low solar activity which coincided with more severe winters in the United Kingdom and continental Europe. Motivated by recent relatively cold winters in the UK, we investigate the possible connection with solar activity. We identify regionally anomalous cold winters by detrending the Central England temperature (CET) record using reconstructions of the northern hemisphere mean temperature. We show that cold winter excursions from the hemispheric trend occur more commonly in the UK during low solar activity, consistent with the solar influence on the occurrence of persistent blocking events in the eastern Atlantic. We stress that this is a regional and seasonal effect relating to European winters and not a global effect. Average solar activity has declined rapidly since 1985 and cosmogenic isotopes suggest an 8% chance of a return to Maunder minimum conditions within the next 50 years (Lockwood 2010 Proc. R. Soc. A 466 303-29): the results presented here indicate that, despite hemispheric warming, the UK and Europe could experience more cold winters than during recent decades.

  18. Polar vortex evolution during Northern Hemispheric winter 2004/05

    T. Chshyolkova

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available As a part of the project "Atmospheric Wave Influences upon the Winter Polar Vortices (0–100 km" of the CAWSES program, data from meteor and Medium Frequency radars at 12 locations and MetO (UK Meteorological Office global assimilated fields have been analyzed for the first campaign during the Northern Hemispheric winter of 2004/05. The stratospheric state has been described using the conventional zonal mean parameters as well as Q-diagnostic, which allows consideration of the longitudinal variability. The stratosphere was cold during winter of 2004/05, and the polar vortex was relatively strong during most of the winter with relatively weak disturbances occurring at the end of December and the end of January. For this winter the strongest deformation with the splitting of the polar vortex in the lower stratosphere was observed at the end of February. Here the results show strong latitudinal and longitudinal differences that are evident in the stratospheric and mesospheric data sets at different stations. Eastward winds are weaker and oscillations with planetary wave periods have smaller amplitudes at more poleward stations. Accordingly, the occurrence, time and magnitude of the observed reversal of the zonal mesospheric winds associated with stratospheric disturbances depend on the local stratospheric conditions. In general, compared to previous years, the winter of 2004/05 could be characterized by weak planetary wave activity at stratospheric and mesospheric heights.

  19. Winter excess in hospital admissions, in-patient mortality and length of acute hospital stay in stroke: a hospital database study over six seasonal years in Norfolk, UK.

    Myint, Phyo K; Vowler, Sarah L; Woodhouse, Peter R; Redmayne, Oliver; Fulcher, Robert A

    2007-01-01

    Several studies have examined the incidence and mortality of stroke in relation to season. However, the evidence is conflicting partly due to variation in the populations (community vs. hospital-based), and in climatic conditions between studies. Moreover, they may not have been able to take into account the age, sex and stroke type of the study population. We hypothesized that the age, sex and type of stroke are major determinants of the presence or absence of winter excess in morbidity and mortality associated with stroke. We analyzed a hospital-based stroke register from Norfolk, UK to examine our prior hypothesis. Using Curwen's method, we performed stratified sex-specific analyses by (1) seasonal year and (2) quartiles of patients' age and stroke subtype and calculated the winter excess for the number of admissions, in-patient deaths and length of acute hospital stay. There were 5,481 patients (men=45%). Their ages ranged from 17 to 105 years (median=78 years). There appeared to be winter excess in hospital admissions, deaths and length of acute hospital stay overall accounting for 3/100,000 extra admissions (winter excess index of 3.4% in men and 7.6% in women) and 1/100,000 deaths (winter excess index of 4.7 and 8.6% in women) due to stroke in winter compared to non-winter periods. Older patients with non-haemorrhagic stroke mainly contribute to this excess. If our findings are replicated throughout England and Wales, it is estimated that there are 1,700 excess admissions, 600 excess in-patient deaths and 24,500 extra acute hospital bed days each winter, related to stroke within the current population of approximately 60 million. Further research should be focused on the determinants of winter excess in morbidity and mortality associated with stroke. This may subsequently reduce the morbidity and mortality by providing effective preventive strategies in future. (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Large-scale fuel cycle centres

    Smiley, S.H.; Black, K.M.

    1977-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has considered the nuclear energy centre concept for fuel cycle plants in the Nuclear Energy Centre Site Survey 1975 (NECSS-75) Rep. No. NUREG-0001, an important study mandated by the US Congress in the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 which created the NRC. For this study, the NRC defined fuel cycle centres as consisting of fuel reprocessing and mixed-oxide fuel fabrication plants, and optional high-level waste and transuranic waste management facilities. A range of fuel cycle centre sizes corresponded to the fuel throughput of power plants with a total capacity of 50,000-300,000MW(e). The types of fuel cycle facilities located at the fuel cycle centre permit the assessment of the role of fuel cycle centres in enhancing the safeguard of strategic special nuclear materials - plutonium and mixed oxides. Siting fuel cycle centres presents a smaller problem than siting reactors. A single reprocessing plant of the scale projected for use in the USA (1500-2000t/a) can reprocess fuel from reactors producing 50,000-65,000MW(e). Only two or three fuel cycle centres of the upper limit size considered in the NECSS-75 would be required in the USA by the year 2000. The NECSS-75 fuel cycle centre evaluation showed that large-scale fuel cycle centres present no real technical siting difficulties from a radiological effluent and safety standpoint. Some construction economies may be achievable with fuel cycle centres, which offer opportunities to improve waste-management systems. Combined centres consisting of reactors and fuel reprocessing and mixed-oxide fuel fabrication plants were also studied in the NECSS. Such centres can eliminate shipment not only of Pu but also mixed-oxide fuel. Increased fuel cycle costs result from implementation of combined centres unless the fuel reprocessing plants are commercial-sized. Development of Pu-burning reactors could reduce any economic penalties of combined centres. The need for effective fissile

  1. Congregations of wintering Egyptian Vultures Neophron ...

    Nearly half of the birds were adults and the majority roosted on bird-safe types of electric pylons. Most of the Egyptian Vultures were found below 500 m above sea level, in bare areas, open savannas or grasslands, and their abundance was negatively related to the amount of cover of bush vegetation. The distribution of ...

  2. Environmental Studies at the Guiana Space Centre

    Richard, Sandrine

    2013-09-01

    The Environmental Commitment of the French Space Agency at the Guiana Space Centre (CNES / CSG) specifies that the environmental protection is a major stake. Consequently, CNES participates in numerous space programs that contribute significantly to a better knowledge, management and protection of our environment at a global scale.The studies and researches that are done at CNES / CSG meet several objectives:* Assessment of safety and environmental effects and risk related to the effects overflowing due to a pollution caused by ground and flight activities* Improvement of the studies related to the knowledge of the environment (flora and fauna monitoring).* Risk assessment and management which may affect the safety of people , property, and protection of public health and environment * Verification of the compliance of the results of impact studies of launch vehicle in flight phase provided by the launch operator (Technical Regulation) with the French Safety Operational Acts.In this note, study and research programs are presented. They allow a better knowledge of the surrounding environment and of impacts caused by the industrial activities done in Guiana Space Center.

  3. Skookum Jim Friendship Centre retrofit training

    1984-08-01

    The retrofit/renovation of the Skookum Jim Friendship Centre in Whitehorse, Yukon, provided an ideal opportunity to train ten carpenters as specialists in energy conserving construction at the community level throughout the Yukon. Through this project, the trainees have gained special skills through hands-on experience with many energy conserving materials and techniques. As well, the training sessions provided extensive information on applicable thermodynamic principles and building science technology. The crew of two instructors, ten trainees, and the foreman covered all aspects of residential/light commercial construction which apply to retrofit work. Training sessions included information on site-safety, and interpreting the National Building Code, as well as special attention to the air tightness and insulation levels in the building. In observing the operation of the new building during the first heating season, it was noted that the heat provided by the lighting in the building supplied the majority of space heating requirements. Back-up electrical heating was required only at temperatures approaching design temperature for the building. 6 Figs.

  4. Optimizing revenue at a cosmetic surgery centre.

    Funk, Joanna M; Verheyden, Charles N; Mahabir, Raman C

    2011-01-01

    The demand for cosmetic surgery and services has diminished with recent fluctuations in the economy. To stay ahead, surgeons must appreciate and attend to the fiscal challenges of private practice. A key component of practice economics is knowledge of the common methods of payment. To review methods of payment in a five-surgeon group practice in central Texas, USA. A retrospective chart review of the financial records of a cosmetic surgery centre in Texas was conducted. Data were collected for the five-year period from 2003 to 2008, and included the method of payment, the item purchased (product, service or surgery) and the dollar amount. More than 11,000 transactions were reviewed. The most common method of payment used for products and services was credit card, followed by check and cash. For procedures, the most common form of payment was personal check, followed by credit card and financing. Of the credit card purchases for both products and procedures, an overwhelming majority of patients (more than 75%) used either Visa (Visa Inc, USA) or MasterCard (MasterCard Worldwide, USA). If the amount of the individual transaction surpassed US$1,000, the most common method of payment transitioned from credit card to personal check. In an effort to maximize revenue, surgeons should consider limiting the credit cards accepted by the practice and encourage payment through personal check.

  5. Stable-isotope analysis of canvasback winter diet in upper Chesapeake Bay

    Haramis, G.M.; Jorde, Dennis G.; Macko, S.A.; Walker, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    A major decline in submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in Chesapeake Bay has altered the diet of wintering Canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) from historically plant to a combination of benthic animal foods, especially the ubiquitous Baltic clam (Macoma balthica), supplemented with anthropogenic corn (Zea mays). Because the isotopic signature of corn is readily discriminated from bay benthos, but not SAV, we used stable-isotope methodology to investigate the corn–SAV component of the winter diet of Canvasbacks. Feeding trials with penned Canvasbacks were conducted to establish turnover rates and fractionation end-point loci of δ13C and δ15N signatures of whole blood for individual ducks fed ad libitum diets of (1) Baltic clams, (2) Baltic clams and corn, and (3) tubers of wild celery (Vallisneria americana). Turnover time constants averaged 4.5 weeks, indicating that signatures of wild ducks would be representative of bay diets by late February. Isotopic signatures of wild Canvasbacks sampled in February fell on a continuum between end-point loci for the Baltic clam and the combination Baltic clam and corn diet. Although that finding verifies a clear dependence on corn–SAV for wintering Canvasbacks, it also reveals that not enough corn–SAV is available to establish ad libitum consumption for the 15,000+ Canvasbacks wintering in the upper bay. On the basis of mean δ13C signature of bay Canvasbacks (n = 59) and ingestion rates from feeding trials, we estimated that 258 kg corn per day would account for the observed δ13C enrichment and supply 18% of daily energetic needs for 15,000 Canvasbacks. That level of corn availability is so realistic that we conclude that SAV is likely of little dietary importance to Canvasbacks in that portion of the bay.

  6. Postglacial recolonization shaped the genetic diversity of the winter moth (Operophtera brumata) in Europe.

    Andersen, Jeremy C; Havill, Nathan P; Caccone, Adalgisa; Elkinton, Joseph S

    2017-05-01

    Changes in climate conditions, particularly during the Quaternary climatic oscillations, have long been recognized to be important for shaping patterns of species diversity. For species residing in the western Palearctic, two commonly observed genetic patterns resulting from these cycles are as follows: (1) that the numbers and distributions of genetic lineages correspond with the use of geographically distinct glacial refugia and (2) that southern populations are generally more diverse than northern populations (the "southern richness, northern purity" paradigm). To determine whether these patterns hold true for the widespread pest species the winter moth ( Operophtera brumata ), we genotyped 699 individual winter moths collected from 15 Eurasian countries with 24 polymorphic microsatellite loci. We find strong evidence for the presence of two major genetic clusters that diverged ~18 to ~22 ka, with evidence that secondary contact (i.e., hybridization) resumed ~ 5 ka along a well-established hybrid zone in Central Europe. This pattern supports the hypothesis that contemporary populations descend from populations that resided in distinct glacial refugia. However, unlike many previous studies of postglacial recolonization, we found no evidence for the "southern richness, northern purity" paradigm. We also find evidence for ongoing gene flow between populations in adjacent Eurasian countries, suggesting that long-distance dispersal plays an important part in shaping winter moth genetic diversity. In addition, we find that this gene flow is predominantly in a west-to-east direction, suggesting that recently debated reports of cyclical outbreaks of winter moth spreading from east to west across Europe are not the result of dispersal.

  7. Dynamics of sea-ice biogeochemistry in the coastal Antarctica during transition from summer to winter

    Suhas Shetye

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The seasonality of carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2, air-sea CO2 fluxes and associated environmental parameters were investigated in the Antarctic coastal waters. The in-situ survey was carried out from the austral summer till the onset of winter (January 2012, February 2010 and March 2009 in the Enderby Basin. Rapid decrease in pCO2 was evident under the sea-ice cover in January, when both water column and sea-ice algal activity resulted in the removal of nutrients and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC and increase in pH. The major highlight of this study is the shift in the dominant biogeochemical factors from summer to early winter. Nutrient limitation (low Si/N, sea-ice cover, low photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, deep mixed layer and high upwelling velocity contributed towards higher pCO2 during March (early winter. CO2 fluxes suggest that the Enderby Basin acts as a strong CO2 sink during January (−81 mmol m−2 d−1, however it acts as a weak sink of CO2 with −2.4 and −1.7 mmol m−2 d−1 during February and March, respectively. The present work, concludes that sea ice plays a dual role towards climate change, by decreasing sea surface pCO2 in summer and enhancing in early winter. Our observations emphasize the need to address seasonal sea-ice driven CO2 flux dynamics in assessing Antarctic contributions to the global oceanic CO2 budget.

  8. Caracterização sociodemográfica e resultados perinatais das gestações com diagnóstico ultrassonográfico de malformação fetal Socio demographic characteriation and perinatal outcome of pregnancies with ultrasonographic diagnosis of major fetal malformation in a referral centre

    Juliana Limeira de Araújo Moura Ramos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Caracterizar, do ponto de vista sociodemográfico, e obter a evolução pós-natal, das gestantes com diagnóstico ultrassonográfico pré-natal de malformação fetal maior, atendidas no Setor de Medicina Fetal do Hospital das Clínicas (HC da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, entre 15/12/2005 e 15/12/2006. METHODS: Estudo descritivo com 335 gestantes entrevistadas após a obtenção do termo de consentimento pós-informado. Os dados pós-natais foram obtidos mediante contato até um mês após a data provável do parto. Foram excluídas aquelas que não aderiram e que não tiveram confirmação da malformação fetal. RESULTADOS: A idade materna média das gestantes foi de 27,1 anos; a cor da pele predominante parda (48,1%. Em relação à escolaridade, 57,8% das gestantes apresentavam grau de escolaridade igual ou inferior ao ensino médio completo. A renda salarial média foi de 3,1 salários mínimos. Quanto aos antecedentes de malformação fetal, 10,4% das gestantes o referiram. Dentre os casos de malformação atual, as do sistema nervoso central foram as mais prevalentes (28%, seguidas das malformações renais (9,2% e cardíacas (8,9%. Das gestantes submetidas à pesquisa do cariótipo fetal, 23,6% obtiveram resultados anormais. Em 311 casos (92,8%, o resultado da gestação foi obtido. Destes, 76,8% nasceram vivos; 25,7% evoluíram com óbito neonatal; 16,4% foram natimortos e em 6,3% houve interrupção da gestação. CONCLUSÃO: O presente estudo permitiu conhecer as características sociodemográficas e os resultados gestacionais de mulheres com diagnóstico de malformação fetal, o que poderá ser útil para o planejamento periconcepcional deste grupo de pacientes.OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to describe the socio demographic profile and perinatal outcome of pregnant women with prenatal ultrasound diagnosis of major fetal malformation at the Hospital das Clínicas, Medical School, S

  9. SERSO: Summer sun against winter ice; SERSO: Mit Sommer-Sonne gegen Winter-Glatteis

    Eugster, W J [Polydynamics Engineering, Zuerich (Switzerland); Hess, K [Polydynamics Engineering, Bremgarten-Bern (Switzerland); Hopkirk, R J [Polydynamics Engineering, Maennedorf (Switzerland)

    1997-12-01

    Road surfaces absorb energy from the incoming solar radiation in the summer months. The SERSO project was conceived to collect this energy, store it and reuse it during the following winter period to eliminate ice formation on those same road surfaces. The acronym SERSO (Sonnenenergierueckgewinnung aus Strassenoberflaechen) means `solar energy recuperation from road surfaces`. This pilot unit having been conceived, researched an applied to a bridge on the Swiss national expressway A8 near Daerligen on the south side of the lake of Thun was officially opened on 22nd August 1994. Heat exchanger tubes carrying a water/glycol heat transfer fluid were built into the roadbed on the bridge, covering a total area of some 1`300 m{sup 2}. In summer these collect heat from the exposed carriageways, which is then transported in a closed hydraulic circuit to the neighbouring cylindrical underground rock heat storage volume. Within a diameter of 31.5 m and a depth of 65 m heat is exchanged between the heat transfer fluid and the rock via an array of 91 borehole heat exchangers. The operation of the pilot plant has been accompanied by detailed measurement campaign, whereby a total of 132 sensors are interrogated by remote datalogger. The data consist of temperature measurements at several depths and positions both in the roadbed and in the rock storage volume, of energy fluxes in the hydraulic system and of relevant meteorological data. The experiences gianed during the first two years of operation have shown that sufficient heat can indeed be collected in summer to maintain the bridge free of ice during the following winter. Moreover the energy balances derived from the measurements in the low temperature rock heat store have confirmed the predicted storage efficiency. (orig./AKF) [Deutsch] cVerkehrsflaechen heizen sich im Sommer durch Sonneneinstrahlung stark auf. Diese Sommerwaerme zu sammeln, zwischenzuspeichern und im Winter zur Verhinderung von Glatteisbildung wieder zu

  10. EVALUATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION CENTRES- A ...

    centres in South Africa revealed that some field .... psychomotor goals suitable for each age group? * Did the officer have a proper ..... education centres, spending two to four weeks at a ... you must be willing to suspend judgement, to hold in ...

  11. Australian International Food Security Research Centre | IDRC ...

    Australian International Food Security Research Centre. Australian International Food Security Research Centre. http://aciar.gov.au/AIFSC. Cultivate Africa's Future. The Cultivate Africa's Future research partnership is designed to support applied research to combat hunger in sub-Saharan Africa by harnessing the potential ...

  12. Addiction research centres and the nurturing of creativity: National Drug Dependence Treatment Centre, India--a profile.

    Ray, Rajat; Dhawan, Anju; Chopra, Anita

    2013-10-01

    The National Drug Dependence Treatment Centre (NDDTC) is a part of the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, a premier autonomous medical university in India. This article provides an account of its origin and its contribution to the field of substance use disorder at the national and international levels. Since its establishment, the NDDTC has played a major role in the development of various replicable models of care, the training of post-graduate students of psychiatry, research, policy development and planning. An assessment of the magnitude of drug abuse in India began in the early 1990s and this was followed by a National Survey on Extent, Patterns and Trends of Drug Abuse in 2004. Several models of clinical care have been developed for population subgroups in diverse settings. The centre played an important role in producing data and resource material which helped to scale up opioid substitution treatment in India. A nationwide database on the profile of patients seeking treatment (Drug Abuse Monitoring System) at government drug treatment centres has also been created. The centre has provided valuable inputs for the Government of India's programme planning. Besides clinical studies, research has also focused on pre-clinical studies. Capacity-building is an important priority, with training curricula and resource material being developed for doctors and paramedical staff. Many of these training programmes are conducted in collaboration with other institutions in the country. The NDDTC has received funding from several national and international organizations for research and scientific meetings, and, most recently (2012), it has been designated as a World Health Organization Collaborating Centre on Substance Abuse. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  13. Prospects after Major Trauma

    Holtslag, H.R.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction. After patients survived major trauma, their prospects, in terms of the consequences for functioning, are uncertain, which may impact severely on patient, family and society. The studies in this thesis describes the long-term outcomes of severe injured patients after major trauma. In

  14. 2004 winter meeting: nuclear power and the continuity of supply in the enlarged European Union

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    This year's Winter Meeting organized by the Deutsches Atomforum e.V. focused on Nuclear Energy and Safety of Supply in the Enlarged European Union. Numerous participants from Germany and abroad discussed contributions from politics, industry, and science in Berlin, February 4 to 5, 2004. The general understanding was that a secure, economically viable and non-polluting supply of energy for Europe and the European Union was indispensable, and that the power industry faced major projects as a result of the foreseeable need to build new power plants, or replace decommissioned old plants, of 40,000 MW generating capacity in Germany and 200,000 MW in Europe. (orig.)

  15. Centre for urban ecotechnology in ``Oeksnehallen``

    1992-03-01

    The Lord Mayor`s Department of the municipality of Copenhagen, Denmark, has with support from this project made a proposal for the establishment of the Centre for Urban Ecotechnology in ``Oeksnehallen``, located in the Vesterbro area of the city. The centre should contribute to the dissemination of knowledge on ecological techniques (regarding passive solar energy etc.) to the inhabitants of Vesterbro and other citizens of Copenhagen, and also serve as a centre in an European context. The ecological demonstration centre will cover an area of two thousand square meters and will also include a cafe, a room for showing coloured slides, facilities for exhibitions created by the center and interested firms etc. The centre should play an important role as part of the ecological concept of urban renewal in Vesterbro. (author).

  16. The role of the sexual assault centre.

    Eogan, Maeve

    2013-02-01

    Sexual Assault Centres provide multidisciplinary care for men and women who have experienced sexual crime. These centres enable provision of medical, forensic, psychological support and follow-up care, even if patients chose not to report the incident to the police service. Sexual Support Centres need to provide a ring-fenced, forensically clean environment. They need to be appropriately staffed and available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week to allow prompt provision of medical and supportive care and collection of forensic evidence. Sexual Assault Centres work best within the context of a core agreed model of care, which includes defined multi-agency guidelines and care pathways, close links with forensic science and police services, and designated and sustainable funding arrangements. Additionally, Sexual Assault Centres also participate in patient, staff and community education and risk reduction. Furthermore, they contribute to the development, evaluation and implementation of national strategies on domestic, sexual and gender-based violence.

  17. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy: Single centre experience.

    O'Farrell, N J

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is an attractive alternative to the traditional open approach in the surgical excision of an adrenal gland. It has replaced open adrenalectomy in our institution and we review our experience to date. METHODS: All cases of laparoscopic adrenalectomies in our hospital over eight years (from 2001 to May 2009) were retrospectively reviewed. Patient demographics, diagnosis, length of hospital stay, histology and all operative and post-operative details were evaluated. RESULTS: Fifty-five laparoscopic adrenalectomies (LA) were performed on 51 patients over eight years. The mean age was 48 years (Range 16-86 years) with the male: female ratio 1:2. Twenty-three cases had a right adrenalectomy, 24 had a left adrenalectomy and the remaining four patients had bilateral adrenalectomies. 91% were successfully completed laparoscopically with five converted to an open approach. Adenomas (functional and non functional) were the leading indication for LA, followed by phaeochromocytomas. Other indications for LA included Cushing\\'s disease, adrenal malignancies and rarer pathologies. There was one mortality from necrotising pancreatitis following a left adrenalectomy for severe Cushing\\'s disease, with subsequent death 10 days later. CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is effective for the treatment of adrenal tumours, fulfilling the criteria for the ideal minimally invasive procedure. It has replaced the traditional open approach in our centre and is a safe and effective alternative. However, in the case of severe Cushing\\'s disease, laparoscopic adrenalectomy has the potential for significant adverse outcomes and mortality.

  18. Winter survival of Scots pine seedlings under different snow conditions.

    Domisch, Timo; Martz, Françoise; Repo, Tapani; Rautio, Pasi

    2018-04-01

    Future climate scenarios predict increased air temperatures and precipitation, particularly at high latitudes, and especially so during winter. Soil temperatures, however, are more difficult to predict, since they depend strongly on the fate of the insulating snow cover. 'Rain-on-snow' events and warm spells during winter can lead to thaw-freeze cycles, compacted snow and ice encasement, as well as local flooding. These adverse conditions could counteract the otherwise positive effects of climatic changes on forest seedling growth. In order to study the effects of different winter and snow conditions on young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings, we conducted a laboratory experiment in which 80 1-year-old Scots pine seedlings were distributed between four winter treatments in dasotrons: ambient snow cover (SNOW), compressed snow and ice encasement (ICE), flooded and frozen soil (FLOOD) and no snow (NO SNOW). During the winter treatment period and a 1.5-month simulated spring/early summer phase, we monitored the needle, stem and root biomass of the seedlings, and determined their starch and soluble sugar concentrations. In addition, we assessed the stress experienced by the seedlings by measuring chlorophyll fluorescence, electric impedance and photosynthesis of the previous-year needles. Compared with the SNOW treatment, carbohydrate concentrations were lower in the FLOOD and NO SNOW treatments where the seedlings had almost died before the end of the experiment, presumably due to frost desiccation of aboveground parts during the winter treatments. The seedlings of the ICE treatment showed dead needles and stems only above the snow and ice cover. The results emphasize the importance of an insulating and protecting snow cover for small forest tree seedlings, and that future winters with changed snow patterns might affect the survival of tree seedlings and thus forest productivity.

  19. Birth centre confinement at the Queen Victoria Medical Centre. I. Obstetric and neonatal outcome.

    Campbell, J; Hudson, H; Lumley, J; Morris, N; Rao, J; Spensley, J

    1981-10-03

    A review of hte first 175 confinements at the Queen Victoria Medical Centre Birth Centre is presented. The design, structure and function of hte Birth Centre is described and the safety of the programme demonstrated. Seventy-four pregnancies (42%) accepted for Birth Centre confinement required transfer because of antepartum or intrapartum complications. There were satisfactory obstetric and neonatal outcomes in all pregnancies. The first year's experience has allowed a reassessment of the risk factors, which will permit greater use of the Birth Centre without any increases risk to mothers or babies.

  20. Mapping of QTLs for leaf area and the association with winter ...

    Variations in plant architecture are often associated with the ability of plants to survive cold stress during winter. In studies of winter hardiness in lentil, it appeared that small leaf area was associated with improved winter survival. Based on this observation, the inheritance of leaf area and the relationship with winter ...

  1. Addressing challenges for youths with mobility devices in winter conditions.

    Morales, Ernesto; Lindsay, Sally; Edwards, Geoffrey; Howell, Lori; Vincent, Claude; Yantzi, Nicole; Gauthier, Véronique

    2018-01-01

    Winter-related research about the experience of navigating in the urban context has mostly focused on the elderly population with physical disabilities. The aim of this project was to explore potential design solutions to enhance young people's mobility devices and the built environment to improve accessibility and participation in winter. A multi-method qualitative design process included the following steps: (1) in-depth interviews; (2) photo elicitation; (3) individual co-design sessions; and (4) group co-design sessions (i.e., focus group). The participants were 13 youths (nine males and four females), aged 12-21, who used a wheelchair (12 power chair users and one manual wheelchair), for some with their parents, others without their parents, according to the parents' willingness to participate or not in the study (n = 13). The first two authors conducted group co-design sessions with mechanical engineers and therapists/clinicians in two Canadian cities to discuss the feasibility of the designs. Results (findings): The youths and their parents reported different winter-related challenges and proposed specific design solutions to enhance their participation and inclusion in winter activities. Seven of these designs were presented at two group co-design sessions of therapists/clinicians and engineers. Two designs were found to be feasible: (1) a traction device for wheelchairs in snow and (2) a mat made of rollers to clean snow and dirt from tires. The results of this research highlight the frustrations and challenges youths who use wheelchairs encounter in winter and a need for new solutions to ensure greater accessibility in winter. Therapists/clinicians and designers should address winter-related accessibility problems in areas with abundant snow. Implications for Rehabilitation Several studies show that current urban contexts do not necessarily respond accurately to the needs of individuals with limited mobility. Winter-related research about the

  2. THE EVOLUTION OF THE WINTER PARALYMPIC GAMES AND SPORTS

    Vasilios Giovanis

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this research was to record and the evolution of the winter paralympic games and sports since 1976 until 2010. The history of the Winter Paralympic Games is relatively recent compared to that one of the Olympic Games. The first Games were held in 1976 in Ornskoldsvik, Sweden and the most recent, 38 years later in 2014, in Sochi, Russia. This article will examine the Winter Paralympic Games up until the ones in 2010 in Vancouver, Canada. During these years, there have been many changes in relation to the Games itself, the governing body of the Paralympic Movement, the sports’ facilities, the sports involved and sports’ categories. The motivation for writing this paper was the need to record and gather all of these items in one paper. Gathering information for the Winter Paralympic Games will be an important theoretical background. This information will create a database for the structure of the governing body of the Paralympic Games, for the organization of the Games [Local Organizing Committee (LOC, venues and equipment], for the evolution of the Winter Paralympic Sports and the categories of the athletes, as well as the evolution of the athletes’ and sports’ participation. Material : The research material that was used was mainly from the bibliography and records of the International Paralympic Committee (IPC, from the Official Post Games Reports and the Internet, while the research method that was used was descriptive. Moreover, the use of diagrams will depict the distribution of the participation of athletes and countries in each Games. Results : The participation of countries grew continuously and steadily from 16 to 44, during the years of 1976 to 2010 respectively. Regarding the athletes’ participation, starting in the first Games with 198 athletes, they reached the number of 502 in the 2010 Vancouver Winter Paralympic Games. The participation percentages of the athletes coming from Europe constituted the bulk

  3. Major operations and activities

    Black, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the major operations and activities on the site. These operations and activities include site management, waste management, environmental restoration and corrective actions, and research and technology development.

  4. A major safety overhaul

    2003-01-01

    A redefined policy, a revamped safety course, an environmental project... the TIS (Technical Inspection and Safety) Division has begun a major safety overhaul. Its new head, Wolfgang Weingarten, explains to the Bulletin why and how this is happening.

  5. Allegheny County Major Rivers

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains locations of major rivers that flow through Allegheny County. These shapes have been taken from the Hydrology dataset. The Ohio River,...

  6. Major operations and activities

    Black, D.G.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the major operations and activities on the site. These operations and activities include site management, waste management, environmental restoration and corrective actions, and research and technology development

  7. Marine assemblages respond rapidly to winter climate variability.

    Morley, James W; Batt, Ryan D; Pinsky, Malin L

    2017-07-01

    Even species within the same assemblage have varied responses to climate change, and there is a poor understanding for why some taxa are more sensitive to climate than others. In addition, multiple mechanisms can drive species' responses, and responses may be specific to certain life stages or times of year. To test how marine species respond to climate variability, we analyzed 73 diverse taxa off the southeast US coast in 26 years of scientific trawl survey data and determined how changes in distribution and biomass relate to temperature. We found that winter temperatures were particularly useful for explaining interannual variation in species' distribution and biomass, although the direction and magnitude of the response varied among species from strongly negative, to little response, to strongly positive. Across species, the response to winter temperature varied greatly, with much of this variation being explained by thermal preference. A separate analysis of annual commercial fishery landings revealed that winter temperatures may also impact several important fisheries in the southeast United States. Based on the life stages of the species surveyed, winter temperature appears to act through overwinter mortality of juveniles or as a cue for migration timing. We predict that this assemblage will be responsive to projected increases in temperature and that winter temperature may be broadly important for species relationships with climate on a global scale. © The Authors Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Small Winter Thunderstorm with Sprites and Strong Positive Discharge

    Suzuki, Tomoyuki; Hayakawa, Masashi; Michimoto, Koichiro

    A sprite campaign was conducted in the Hokuriku area of Japan during a winter of 2004/2005. On the basis of a combined analysis of the data from various instruments (CCD cameras, radar, VHF/LF∼MF lightning mapping system, field mill network, and ELF detector), we studied meteorological and electrical structures for winter thunderstorms and sprite-producing positive discharge. Typical winter sprite parent thunderstorms had a meso-scale cloud area with embedded small convective cells. Some small winter thunderstorms accompanied by the most frequent sprite events were found to cause 2∼3 sprite events during a short interval of about 3∼5 min. When the sprites were observed, the extent of the convective cells at 20 dBZ counter was atmost ∼20 × 20 km. The VHF sources associated with sprites were located near south of the convective cell and were mapped within very small areas of at most ∼10 × 10 km. This fact shows that some small winter thunderstorms can generate large positive charge associated with sprites. We will present the analysis of such a small thunderstorms with sprites and positive lightning discharges.

  9. Migration and winter distribution of the Chestnutcollared Longspur

    Ellison Kevin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Chestnut-collared Longspur (Calcarius ornatus is one of five grassland songbirds, endemic within North America, with populations that have declined >65% since the 1960s. These species breed and winter in the northern and southern Great Plains, respectively. Identifying migration routes, wintering sites, and the timing of their habitat use is key for understanding the relative magnitude of threats across the annual cycle and effectively targeting habitats for conservation. We tracked migratory movements of seven Chestnut-collared Longspurs with light-level geolocators deployed in Canada. Individuals wintered up to 112-1,200km apart. All followed the Central Flyway, circumvented high-elevation terrain, and traveled east of the breeding location. Unlike most songbirds, the durations of spring and fall migrations were similar; on average 42 ± 7d and 41 ± 5d during fall and spring migrations, respectively, for an approximately 2,000km migration; this highlights the need to better understand habitat requirements during migration for grassland songbirds. Using geospatial habitat data, we assessed winter distribution overlap with four other endemic grassland songbirds; wintering range overlapped 63-99%. Future studies should use more precise devices (e.g., archival GPS units, programmed for data collection dates from this study, to identify specific migratory sites for better conserving this and associated grassland species.

  10. Research on spatial distribution of photosynthetic characteristics of Winter Wheat

    Yan, Q. Q.; Zhou, Q. Y.; Zhang, B. Z.; Han, X.; Han, N. N.; Li, S. M.

    2018-03-01

    In order to explore the spatial distribution of photosynthetic characteristics of winter wheat leaf, the photosynthetic rate on different parts of leaf (leaf base-leaf middle-leaf apex) and that on each canopy (top layer-middle layer-bottom layer) leaf during the whole growth period of winter wheat were measured. The variation of photosynthetic rate with PAR and the spatial distribution of winter wheat leaf during the whole growth periods were analysed. The results showed that the photosynthetic rate of different parts of winter wheat increased with the increase of PAR, which was showed as leaf base>leaf middle>leaf apex. In the same growth period, photosynthetic rate in different parts of the tablet was showed as leaf middle>leaf base>leaf apex. For the different canopy layer of winter wheat, the photosynthetic rate of the top layer leaf was significantly greater than that of the middle layer and lower layer leaf. The photosynthetic rate of the top layer leaf was the largest in the leaf base position. The photosynthetic rate of leaf of the same canopy layer at different growth stages were showed as tasseling stage >grain filling stage > maturation stage.

  11. Weather Support for the 2002 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    Horel, J.; Potter, T.; Dunn, L.; Steenburgh, W. J.; Eubank, M.; Splitt, M.; Onton, D. J.

    2002-02-01

    The 2002 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games will be hosted by Salt Lake City, Utah, during February-March 2002. Adverse weather during this period may delay sporting events, while snow and ice-covered streets and highways may impede access by the athletes and spectators to the venues. While winter snowstorms and other large-scale weather systems typically have widespread impacts throughout northern Utah, hazardous winter weather is often related to local terrain features (the Wasatch Mountains and Great Salt Lake are the most prominent ones). Examples of such hazardous weather include lake-effect snowstorms, ice fog, gap winds, downslope windstorms, and low visibility over mountain passes.A weather support system has been developed to provide weather information to the athletes, games officials, spectators, and the interested public around the world. This system is managed by the Salt Lake Olympic Committee and relies upon meteorologists from the public, private, and academic sectors of the atmospheric science community. Weather forecasting duties will be led by National Weather Service forecasters and a team of private, weather forecasters organized by KSL, the Salt Lake City NBC television affiliate. Other government agencies, commercial firms, and the University of Utah are providing specialized forecasts and support services for the Olympics. The weather support system developed for the 2002 Winter Olympics is expected to provide long-term benefits to the public through improved understanding,monitoring, and prediction of winter weather in the Intermountain West.

  12. FUNCTIONS OF A NEUROMUSCULAR CENTRE

    Janez Zidar

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Main functions of a neuromuscular (NM centre are making diagnosis, treatment and counselling. Some other functions, e. g. forming a register and epidemiological endeavours, could be added. All these activities are expected to be achieved by multidisciplinary approach with the idea that members use the same guidelines and share the same knowledge.NM diseases affect lower levels of the nervous system that is motor units (motor cells in the brainstem and spinal cord, nerve roots, cranial and peripheral nerves, neuromuscular junction, and muscles. There are many such diseases; a few are more common others are rare.Rational approach in making a diagnosis can be divided into several steps. The process begins with a person with clinical symptoms and signs which raise the suspicion of NM disease. The first step is the description of the predominant pattern of muscular wasting and weakness (e. g. limb-girdle, distal, ocular, facio-scapulo-humeral. Each of these syndromes require a differential diagnosis within the motor unit territory what is achieved by means of EMG and muscle biopsy. The latter is even more important to define the nature of the abnormality. Disease nature can also be determined biochemically and, as NM disorders are commonly genetically determined, at the molecular genetic level. Treatment modalities include drugs (causative and symptomatic and other measures such as promoting and maintaining good general health, preventing skeletal deformities, physiotherapy, orthoses, surgery, and prevention of respiratory and cardiac functions. Counselling is mainly by social workers that focus on the practical aspects of coping with illness and disability and by genetic counsellors who gave advise on family planning.

  13. Big Surveys, Big Data Centres

    Schade, D.

    2016-06-01

    Well-designed astronomical surveys are powerful and have consistently been keystones of scientific progress. The Byurakan Surveys using a Schmidt telescope with an objective prism produced a list of about 3000 UV-excess Markarian galaxies but these objects have stimulated an enormous amount of further study and appear in over 16,000 publications. The CFHT Legacy Surveys used a wide-field imager to cover thousands of square degrees and those surveys are mentioned in over 1100 publications since 2002. Both ground and space-based astronomy have been increasing their investments in survey work. Survey instrumentation strives toward fair samples and large sky coverage and therefore strives to produce massive datasets. Thus we are faced with the "big data" problem in astronomy. Survey datasets require specialized approaches to data management. Big data places additional challenging requirements for data management. If the term "big data" is defined as data collections that are too large to move then there are profound implications for the infrastructure that supports big data science. The current model of data centres is obsolete. In the era of big data the central problem is how to create architectures that effectively manage the relationship between data collections, networks, processing capabilities, and software, given the science requirements of the projects that need to be executed. A stand alone data silo cannot support big data science. I'll describe the current efforts of the Canadian community to deal with this situation and our successes and failures. I'll talk about how we are planning in the next decade to try to create a workable and adaptable solution to support big data science.

  14. IDRANAP - European Centre of Excellence

    Buzatu, Florin D.

    2003-01-01

    Selected by the European Commission (EC) experts out of 185 proposals from 11 countries, IDRANAP (Inter-Disciplinary Research and Applications based on Nuclear and Atomic Physics) is the only EC Centre of Excellence in nuclear physics. The project, initiated and developed by a remarkable team from our institute, researchers with a recognized international scientific level, has as main objectives: - promotion in Romania and in the region of modern applications derived from basic and applied research in nuclear and atomic physics; - disciplinary research in ecology, health, biology, science of materials; - specific nuclear and atomic physics research aimed to open new possibilities for applications; - to ensure stimulative conditions for PhD students from Romania and other EC candidate countries to improve their knowledge and experience by joining scientific activities in the region, a fact that might counteract their tendency to migrate to Western countries. The high scientific level of researchers, their access to national and international facilities as well as the link with prestigious laboratories abroad and the socio-economic demand motivated the development of the project. Among expected results, we mention: improving and spreading the scientific knowledge by publications; producing new facilities, devices and instruments; application of nuclear methods in industry, health-care and environment protection, and training of young researchers. The project consists of 18 workpackages structured in 5 distinct areas: - Determining environmental pollution; - Nuclear methods in biology and medicine; - Radionuclide metrology; - Analysis and characterization of materials; - Nuclei far from stability, decay modes, cosmic rays, and facilities.We make an up-to-date presentation of obtained results and activities performed within IDRANAP project, as well as a short overview of our institute. (author)

  15. The Canadian Astronomy Data Centre

    Ball, Nicholas M.; Schade, D.; Astronomy Data Centre, Canadian

    2011-01-01

    The Canadian Astronomy Data Centre (CADC) is the world's largest astronomical data center, holding over 0.5 Petabytes of information, and serving nearly 3000 astronomers worldwide. Its current data collections include BLAST, CFHT, CGPS, FUSE, Gemini, HST, JCMT, MACHO, MOST, and numerous other archives and services. It provides extensive data archiving, curation, and processing expertise, via projects such as MegaPipe, and enables substantial day-to-day collaboration between resident astronomers and computer specialists. It is a stable, powerful, persistent, and properly supported environment for the storage and processing of large volumes of data, a condition that is now absolutely vital for their science potential to be exploited by the community. Through initiatives such as the Common Archive Observation Model (CAOM), the Canadian Virtual Observatory (CVO), and the Canadian Advanced Network for Astronomical Research (CANFAR), the CADC is at the global forefront of advancing astronomical research through improved data services. The CAOM aims to provide homogeneous data access, and hence viable interoperability between a potentially unlimited number of different data collections, at many wavelengths. It is active in the definition of numerous emerging standards within the International Virtual Observatory, and several datasets are already available. The CANFAR project is an initiative to make cloud computing for storage and data-intensive processing available to the community. It does this via a Virtual Machine environment that is equivalent to managing a local desktop. Several groups are already processing science data. CADC is also at the forefront of advanced astronomical data analysis, driven by the science requirements of astronomers both locally and further afield. The emergence of 'Astroinformatics' promises to provide not only utility items like object classifications, but to directly enable new science by accessing previously undiscovered or intractable

  16. The politics of patient-centred care.

    Kreindler, Sara A

    2015-10-01

    Despite widespread belief in the importance of patient-centred care, it remains difficult to create a system in which all groups work together for the good of the patient. Part of the problem may be that the issue of patient-centred care itself can be used to prosecute intergroup conflict. This qualitative study of texts examined the presence and nature of intergroup language within the discourse on patient-centred care. A systematic SCOPUS and Google search identified 85 peer-reviewed and grey literature reports that engaged with the concept of patient-centred care. Discourse analysis, informed by the social identity approach, examined how writers defined and portrayed various groups. Managers, physicians and nurses all used the discourse of patient-centred care to imply that their own group was patient centred while other group(s) were not. Patient organizations tended to downplay or even deny the role of managers and providers in promoting patient centredness, and some used the concept to advocate for controversial health policies. Intergroup themes were even more obvious in the rhetoric of political groups across the ideological spectrum. In contrast to accounts that juxtaposed in-groups and out-groups, those from reportedly patient-centred organizations defined a 'mosaic' in-group that encompassed managers, providers and patients. The seemingly benign concept of patient-centred care can easily become a weapon on an intergroup battlefield. Understanding this dimension may help organizations resolve the intergroup tensions that prevent collective achievement of a patient-centred system. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The location as an energy efficiency and renewable energy supply measure for data centres in Europe

    Depoorter, Victor; Oró, Eduard; Salom, Jaume

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A data centre energy model was developed using TRNSYS. • The potential of direct air free cooling integration was evaluated around Europe. • A set of energy indicators describing the operation of data centres were defined. • The location of a data centre could significantly affect its operation and impact. • Smart management of the IT load can reduce energy consumption and CO 2 emission. - Abstract: The massive data centre energy consumption has motivated significant efforts to use energy efficiency strategies and the implementation of renewable energy sources that reduce their operational costs and environmental impact. Considering that the potential of many of these measures is often closely linked to the climate conditions, the location of data centres can have a major impact on their energy demand. Moreover, from a holistic approach, differences among regions become even more important when accounting for the electricity attributes from the grid. To assess these differences this work compares by the use of energy indicators the behaviour of a data centre located at different representative emplacements in Europe. To do so, a dynamic energy model which incorporates free cooling strategy and photovoltaic energy is developed. The paper concludes by suggesting that future data centre developments could consider site selection as a new strategy to limit the environmental impact attributable to this sector

  18. Haze in the Grand Canyon: An evaluation of the Winter Haze Intensive Tracer Experiment

    1990-10-01

    The Grand Canyon is one of the most spectacular natural sights on earth. Approximately 4 million visitors travel to Grand Canyon National Park (GCNP) each year to enjoy its majestic geological formations and intensely colored views. However, visibility in GCNP can be impaired by small increases in concentrations of fine suspended particles that scatter and absorb light; the resulting visibility degradation is perceived as haze. Sulfate particles are a major factor in visibility impairment at Grand Canyon in summer and winter. Many wintertime hazes at GCNP are believed to result from the accumulation of emissions from local sources during conditions of air stagnation, which occur more frequently in winter than in summer. In January and February 1987, the National Park Service (NPS) carried out a large-scale experiment known as the Winter Haze Intensive Tracer Experiment (WHITEX) to investigate the causes of wintertime haze in the region of GCNP and Canyonlands National Park. The overall objective of WHITEX was to assess the feasibility of attributing visibility impairment in specific geographic regions to emissions from a single point source. The experiment called for the injection of a tracer, deuterated methane (CD{sub 4}), into one of the stacks of the Navajo Generating Station (NGS), a major coal-fired power plant located 25 km from the GCNP boundary and 110 km northeast of Grand Canyon Village. A network of field stations was established in the vicinity -- mostly to the northeast of GCNP and NGS -- to measure CD{sub 4} concentrations, atmospheric aerosol and optical properties, and other chemical and physical attributes. 19 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Biogeochemical studies of wintering waterfowl in the Imperial and Sacramento Valleys

    Koranda, J.J.; Stuart, M.; Thompson, S.; Conrado, C.

    1979-10-01

    Trace and major elemental composition were determined in the organs of wintering waterfowl in the Imperial and Sacramento Valleys of California, and in soils, sediments, and agricultural fertilizer that constitute the various sources of elements in the waterfowl. These data provide a biogeochemical baseline for waterfowl populations wintering in an area being developed for geothermal power. This baseline in the Imperial Valley is affected by soil and sediment composition, agricultural effluents in irrigation and stream water, and spent shot deposited by hunters in waterfowl habitats. The waterfowl acquire a set of trace elements from these sources and concentrations increase in their organs over the wintering period. Nickel, arsenic, selenium, bromine, and lead are the primary elements acquired from soil sources, agricultural effluents, and spent shot in the Imperial Valley. The assessment of effects from geothermal effluents on waterfowl populations in complex because there are large influxes of materials into the Imperial Valley ecosystem that contain trace elements, i.e., irrigation water, phosphatic fertilizers, pesticides, and lead shot. Multiple sources exist for many elements prominent in the expected geothermal effluents. The relationships between the two California valleys, the Imperial and Sacramento, are apparent in the trace element concentrations in the organs of waterfowl obtained in those two valleys. Arsenic is absent in the waterfowl organs obtained in the Sacramento Valley and relatively common in the Imperial Valley waterfowl. The effect of any release of geothermal effluent in the Imperial Valley waterfowl habitats will be difficult to describe because of the complexity of the biogeochemical baseline and the multiple sources of trace and major elements in the ecosystem.

  20. PM 2.5 and NO 2 assessment in 21 European study centres of ECRHS II: annual means and seasonal differences

    Hazenkamp-von Arx, Marianne E.; Götschi, Thomas; Ackermann-Liebrich, Ursula; Bono, Roberto; Burney, Peter; Cyrys, Josef; Jarvis, Deborah; Lillienberg, Linnea; Luczynska, Christina; Maldonado, Jose A.; Jaén, Angeles; de Marco, Roberto; Mi, Yahong; Modig, Lars; Bayer-Oglesby, Lucy; Payo, Felix; Soon, Argo; Sunyer, Jordi; Villani, Simona; Weyler, Joost; Künzli, Nino

    The follow-up of cohorts of adults from more than 20 European centres of the former ECRHS I (1989-1992) investigates long-term effects of exposure to ambient air pollution on respiratory health, in particular asthma and change of pulmonary function. Since PM 2.5 is not routinely monitored in Europe, we measured PM 2.5 concentrations in 21 participating centres to estimate 'background' exposure in these cities. Winter (November-February), summer (May-August) and annual mean (all months) values of PM 2.5 were determined from measuring periods between June 2000 and November 2001. Sampling was conducted for 7 days per month for a year. Annual and winter mean concentrations of PM 2.5 vary substantially being lowest in Iceland and highest in centres in Northern Italy. Annual mean concentrations ranged from 3.7 to 44.9 μg m -3, winter mean concentrations from 4.8 to 69.2 μg m -3, and summer mean concentrations from 3.3 to 23.1 μg m -3. Seasonal variability occurred but did not follow the same pattern across all centres. Therefore, ranking of centres varied from summer to winter. Simultaneously, NO 2 concentrations were measured using passive sampling tubes. Annual mean NO 2 concentrations range from 4.9 to 72.1 μg m -3 with similar seasonal variations across centres and constant ranking of centres between seasons. The correlation between annual NO 2 and PM 2.5 concentrations is fair (Spearman correlation coefficient rs=0.75), but when considered as monthly means the correlation is far less consistent and varies substantially between centres. The range of PM 2.5 mass concentrations obtained in ECRHS II is larger than in other current cohort studies on long-term effects of air pollution. This substantial variation in PM 2.5 exposure will improve statistical power in future multi-level health analyses and to some degree may compensate for the lack of information on within-city variability. Seasonal means may be used to indicate potential differences in the toxicity

  1. Review of CERN Data Centre Infrastructure

    Andrade, P; Bell, T; Van Eldik, J; McCance, G; Panzer-Steindel, B; Coelho dos Santos, M; Traylen and, S; Schwickerath, U

    2012-01-01

    The CERN Data Centre is reviewing strategies for optimizing the use of the existing infrastructure and expanding to a new data centre by studying how other large sites are being operated. Over the past six months, CERN has been investigating modern and widely-used tools and procedures used for virtualisation, clouds and fabric management in order to reduce operational effort, increase agility and support unattended remote data centres. This paper gives the details on the project's motivations, current status and areas for future investigation.

  2. Attitude of Farmers towards Kisan Call Centres

    Shely Mary Koshy

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to measure the attitude of farmers in Kerala, India towards Kisan Call Centre (KCC. Kisan Call Centre provides free agricultural advisory services to every citizen involved in agriculture through a toll free number. One hundred and fifty farmers who have utilized the Kisan Call Centre service were selected from the database of KCC. The results showed that the respondents had moderately favourable attitude towards KCC followed by highly favourable attitude. The variables digital divide, temporal awareness on KCC, satisfaction towards KCC and utilization of KCC were found to have a positive correlation with the attitude of respondents towards KCC.

  3. Nuclear Power Plant Temelin Technical Support Centre

    Krizek, K.

    2000-01-01

    The erection of the Technical Support Centre for the Nuclear Power Plant Temelin has been a relatively sophisticated and costly issue. It was by proper use of the existing systems, as e.g. I and C, ISE and other systems, that a robust system has been created that is able to meet any requirements laid on the performance of the Technical Support Centre. The decision of the utility CEZ, a.s. that made it possible to establish the Technical Support Centre at the Nuclear Power Plant Temelin has been a right step which shows the level of safety culture within the utility. (author)

  4. International Network of Nuclear Reaction Data Centres

    Otsuka, Naohiko; Dunaeva, Svetlana

    2010-11-01

    The activities of fourteen nuclear data centres are summarized, and their cooperation under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency is described. Each of the centres provides coverage for different geographical zones and/or specific types of nuclear data, thus together providing a complete service for users worldwide. The International Network of Nuclear Reaction Data Centres (NRDC) was established with the objective of providing nuclear physics databases that are required for nuclear technology (encompassing energy and non-energy applications) by coordinating the collection, compilation and dissemination of nuclear data on an international scale. (author)

  5. The Manche Storage Centre: 2009 annual report

    2010-01-01

    After a brief presentation of the ANDRA (the French national agency for the management of radioactive wastes), this report presents the CSM installations (CSM stands for Centre de Stockage de la Manche, the Manche storage centre), recalls results and actions in the field of nuclear safety and in the field of radioprotection. It indicates incidents and accidents which occurred in the installations, presents data about the Centre's releases. It presents the waste management and evokes other pollution. It indicates the various actions undertaken for information transparency

  6. Review of CERN Data Centre Infrastructure

    Andrade, P; van Eldik, J; McCance, G; Panzer-Steindel, B; Coelho dos Santos, M; Traylen, S; Schwickerath, U

    2012-01-01

    The CERN Data Centre is reviewing strategies for optimizing the use of the existing infrastructure and expanding to a new data centre by studying how other large sites are being operated. Over the past six months, CERN has been investigating modern and widely-used tools and procedures used for virtualisation, clouds and fabric management in order to reduce operational effort, increase agility and support unattended remote data centres. This paper gives the details on the project’s motivations, current status and areas for future investigation.

  7. Conceptual design and equipment of visitor centres

    Huettinger, K.

    1993-01-01

    Discussing the needs to be met by a visitor centre, the author develops the strategies to be adopted and defines the items to be included in the information program. The procedure in preparing the layout and design are explained and the media available to provide various levels of information are listed. Principles of selecting and mixing the media are discussed and the functions of the various sections of the centre described. Also included are examples of the costs and time requirements for the establishment of a typical centre. The importance of regular maintenance and updating is emphasized. (author)

  8. Visitor centres at nuclear facility sites

    1993-01-01

    Communications strategies in the nuclear field are often based on the creation of visitor centres at nuclear facility sites. Today, the design, as well as the realization and management of such centres has become a specialized function, and its role is very complementary to the nuclear operator's. It also uses the latest technology in the field of audio-visual, experiment and interactivity. This publication contains the proceedings of an international seminar organized by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency on the role of visitor centres at nuclear facility sites. It includes the main papers presented at this Seminar

  9. Experimental High-Resolution Land Surface Prediction System for the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympic Games

    Belair, S.; Bernier, N.; Tong, L.; Mailhot, J.

    2008-05-01

    The 2010 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games will take place in Vancouver, Canada, from 12 to 28 February 2010 and from 12 to 21 March 2010, respectively. In order to provide the best possible guidance achievable with current state-of-the-art science and technology, Environment Canada is currently setting up an experimental numerical prediction system for these special events. This system consists of a 1-km limited-area atmospheric model that will be integrated for 16h, twice a day, with improved microphysics compared with the system currently operational at the Canadian Meteorological Centre. In addition, several new and original tools will be used to adapt and refine predictions near and at the surface. Very high-resolution two-dimensional surface systems, with 100-m and 20-m grid size, will cover the Vancouver Olympic area. Using adaptation methods to improve the forcing from the lower-resolution atmospheric models, these 2D surface models better represent surface processes, and thus lead to better predictions of snow conditions and near-surface air temperature. Based on a similar strategy, a single-point model will be implemented to better predict surface characteristics at each station of an observing network especially installed for the 2010 events. The main advantage of this single-point system is that surface observations are used as forcing for the land surface models, and can even be assimilated (although this is not expected in the first version of this new tool) to improve initial conditions of surface variables such as snow depth and surface temperatures. Another adaptation tool, based on 2D stationnary solutions of a simple dynamical system, will be used to produce near-surface winds on the 100-m grid, coherent with the high- resolution orography. The configuration of the experimental numerical prediction system will be presented at the conference, together with preliminary results for winter 2007-2008.

  10. Precipitation in Madeira island and atmospheric rivers in the winter seasons

    Couto, Flavio T.; Salgado, Rui; João Costa, Maria; Prior, Victor

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to analyse the distribution of the daily accumulated precipitation in the Madeira's highlands over a 10-year period, as well as the main characteristics associated with atmospheric rivers (ARs) affecting the island during 10 winter seasons, and their impact in the rainfall amounts recorded near the mountain crest in the south-eastern part of the island. The period between September 2002 and November 2012 is considered for the analysis. The ARs have been identified from the total precipitable water vapour field extracted from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). The AIRS observations were downloaded for a domain covering large part of the North Atlantic Ocean. The precipitable water vapour field from the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) analysis was also used aiming to support the AIRS data when there was no satellite information over the island. The daily accumulated precipitation at surface showed generally drier summers, while the highest accumulated precipitation are recorded mainly during the winter, although some significant events may occur also in autumn and spring seasons. The patterns of the precipitable water vapour field when ARs reach the island were investigated, and even if great part of the atmospheric rivers reaches the island in a dissipation stage, some rivers are heavy enough to reach the Madeira Island. In this situation, the water vapour transport could be observed in two main configurations and transporting significant water vapour amounts toward the Madeira from the tropical region. This study lead to conclude that the atmospheric rivers, when associated to high values of precipitable water vapour over the island can provide favourable conditions to the development of precipitation, sometimes associated with high amounts. However, it was also found that many cases of high to extreme accumulated precipitation at the surface were not associated to this kind of moisture transport.

  11. Probabilistic evaluation of decadal prediction skill regarding Northern Hemisphere winter storms

    Tim Kruschke

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Winter wind storms related to intense extra-tropical cyclones are meteorological extreme events, often with major impacts on economy and human life, especially for Europe and the mid-latitudes. Hence, skillful decadal predictions regarding the frequency of their occurrence would be of great socio-economic value. The present paper extends the study of Kruschke et al. (2014 in several aspects. First, this study is situated in a more impact oriented context by analyzing the frequency of potentially damaging wind storm events instead of targeting at cyclones as general meteorological features which was done by Kruschke et al. (2014. Second, this study incorporates more data sets by analyzing five decadal hindcast experiments – 41 annual (1961–2001 initializations integrated for ten years each – set up with different initialization strategies. However, all experiments are based on the Max-Planck-Institute Earth System Model in a low-resolution configuration (MPI-ESM-LR. Differing combinations of these five experiments allow for more robust estimates of predictive skill (due to considerably larger ensemble size and systematic comparisons of the underlying initialization strategies. Third, the hindcast experiments are corrected for model bias and potential drifts over lead time by means of a novel parametric approach, accounting for non-stationary model drifts. We analyze whether skillful probabilistic three-category forecasts (enhanced, normal or decreased can be provided regarding winter (ONDJFM wind storm frequencies over the Northern Hemisphere (NH. Skill is assessed by using climatological probabilities and uninitialized transient simulations as reference forecasts. It is shown that forecasts of average winter wind storm frequencies for winters 2–5 and winters 2–9 are skillful over large parts of the NH. However, most of this skill is associated with external forcing from transient greenhouse gas and aerosol concentrations

  12. Testing of Rice Stocks for Their Survival of Winter Cold

    Hiroshi Ikehashi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Rice cultivation is considered to be initiated by vegetative propagation of sprout from wild perennial stocks. To test whether any presently cultivated rice cultivar can survive the winter cold or not, rice stocks of several cultivars including indica and japonica types were placed in a shallow pool from October to April in 2015–2016 and 2016–2017. During the coldest period of the winter, the bases of the stocks were placed 5–6 cm below the surface of water, where temperatures ranged from 3 °C to 5 °C, while the surface was frozen for two or three times and covered with snow for a day. Only one cultivar, Nipponbare, a japonica type, survived the winter cold and regenerated sprouts in the end of April or early May. A possibility to develop perennial cultivation of rice or perennial hybrid rice is discussed.

  13. Controls on winter ecosystem respiration in temperate and boreal ecosystems

    T. Wang

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Winter CO2 fluxes represent an important component of the annual carbon budget in northern ecosystems. Understanding winter respiration processes and their responses to climate change is also central to our ability to assess terrestrial carbon cycle and climate feedbacks in the future. However, the factors influencing the spatial and temporal patterns of winter ecosystem respiration (Reco of northern ecosystems are poorly understood. For this reason, we analyzed eddy covariance flux data from 57 ecosystem sites ranging from ~35° N to ~70° N. Deciduous forests were characterized by the highest winter Reco rates (0.90 ± 0.39 g C m−2 d−1, when winter is defined as the period during which daily air temperature remains below 0 °C. By contrast, arctic wetlands had the lowest winter Reco rates (0.02 ± 0.02 g C m−2 d−1. Mixed forests, evergreen needle-leaved forests, grasslands, croplands and boreal wetlands were characterized by intermediate winter Reco rates (g C m−2 d−1 of 0.70(±0.33, 0.60(±0.38, 0.62(±0.43, 0.49(±0.22 and 0.27(±0.08, respectively. Our cross site analysis showed that winter air (Tair and soil (Tsoil temperature played a dominating role in determining the spatial patterns of winter Reco in both forest and managed ecosystems (grasslands and croplands. Besides temperature, the seasonal amplitude of the leaf area index (LAI, inferred from satellite observation, or growing season gross primary productivity, which we use here as a proxy for the amount of recent carbon available for Reco in the subsequent winter, played a marginal role in winter CO2 emissions from forest ecosystems. We found that winter Reco sensitivity to temperature variation across space (

  14. The long term variation in the ionospheric winter absorption anomaly

    Beynon, W.J.G.; Williams, E.R.

    1976-01-01

    An analysis of vertical incidence absorption data for a mid-latitude station (Freiburg 48 0 N 7.5 0 E) for the 13-year period 1957 to 1969 shows that there is a solar cycle variation both in the number of winter anomaly days and in the magnitude of the absorption anomaly. The magnitude of this variation is discussed in relation to solar X-ray flux and to geomagnetic disturbance. The magnitude of winter anomaly absorption is a maximum in the frequency range 2 to 2.5 MHz. Comparison of the winter anomaly phenomenon at a range of mid-latitude stations suggests that there may be small longitude variation in the magnitude of the phenomenon. (author)

  15. Winter concrete; Kanchu kunkurito. Gijutsu no genjo to shorai tenbo

    Kamata, Eiji [Hokkaido University, Hokkaido (Japan)

    1998-11-10

    Much energy is consumed in order to carry out the winter concrete, and it becomes not always the work in the work environment of the amenity. Therefore, it wants to avoid it, if such work is possible. The winter concrete is a basis in carrying out the construction in cold region in all year. Large role is very much fulfilled for efficient operation of the construction industry in which foot of maintain is wide, activation of the regional economy of snows cold region such as the constant employment of construction worker, improvement in the social environment. Therefore, the popularization of the winter concrete technology is indispensable in the chilly snowy area, and it becomes the importance that the efficiency improvement is attempted. (NEDO)

  16. Changes in Biochemical Properties of the Blood in Winter Swimmers.

    Teleglow, Aneta; Marchewka, Jakub; Marchewka, Anna; Kulpa, Jan

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of winter swimming on biochemical indicators of the blood. The subjects - winter swimmers - belonged to the Krakow Walrus Club "Kaloryfer" - "The Heater". The study group consisted of 11 men, aged 30-50 years, 'walrusing' throughout the whole season from November to March. Statistically significant changes throughout the 'walrusing' season were observed for the following biochemical parameters: a decrease in sodium (mmol/1), chloride (mmol/1), alpha-2 globulin(g/1), gamma globulin (g/1), IgG (g/1), and an increase in albumin (g/1), indicator A/G, IgA (g/l ), Herpes simplex virus IgM. Seasonal effort of winter swimmers has a positive influence on biochemical blood parameters.

  17. Exhaust properties of centre-column-limited plasmas on MAST

    Maddison, G.P.; Akers, R.J.; Brickley, C.; Gryaznevich, M.P.; Lott, F.C.; Patel, A.; Sykes, A.; Turner, A.; Valovic, M.

    2007-01-01

    The lowest aspect ratio possible in a spherical tokamak is defined by limiting the plasma on its centre column, which might therefore maximize many physics benefits of this fusion approach. A key issue for such discharges is whether loads exhausted onto the small surface area of the column remain acceptable. A first series of centre-column-limited pulses has been examined on MAST using fast infra-red thermography to infer incident power densities as neutral-beam heating was scanned from 0 to 2.5 MW. Simple mapping shows that efflux distributions on the column armour are governed mostly by magnetic geometry, which moreover spreads them advantageously over almost the whole vertical length. Hence steady peak power densities between sawteeth remained low, -2 , comparable with the target strike-point value in a reference diverted plasma at lower power. Plasma purity and normalized thermal energy confinement through the centre-column-limited (CCL) series were also similar to properties of MAST diverted cases. A major bonus of CCL geometry is a propensity for exhaust to penetrate through its inner scrape-off layer connecting to the column into an expanding outer plume, which forms a 'natural divertor'. Effectiveness of this process may even increase with plasma heating, owing to rising Shafranov shift and/or toroidal rotation. A larger CCL device could potentially offer a simpler, more economic next-step design

  18. Nuclear winter: The state of the science

    Carrier, G.F.

    1986-01-01

    From this discussion an the studies on which it is based, the authors find unavoidable the following three-part conclusion: 1. The uncertainties that pervade the quantitative assessment of the atmospheric effects of a major nuclear exchange are so numerous and so large that no definitive description of those effects is possible at this time. Nevertheless: 2. The model calculations that can be made suggest temperature changes of a size that could have very severe consequences. This possibility cannot and must not be ignored. Therefore: 3. It is incumbent on agencies having resources that can be allocated to such matters and on appropriate members of the scientific and technological community to support and conduct investigations that can narrow many of the uncertainties. Only in this way can we approach a posture from which a more definitive assessment can be made

  19. Home-based versus centre-based cardiac rehabilitation.

    Taylor, Rod S; Dalal, Hayes; Jolly, Kate; Moxham, Tiffany; Zawada, Anna

    2010-01-20

    The burden of cardiovascular disease world-wide is one of great concern to patients and health care agencies alike. Traditionally centre-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programmes are offered to individuals after cardiac events to aid recovery and prevent further cardiac illness. Home-based cardiac rehabilitation programmes have been introduced in an attempt to widen access and participation. To determine the effectiveness of home-based cardiac rehabilitation programmes compared with supervised centre-based cardiac rehabilitation on mortality and morbidity, health-related quality of life and modifiable cardiac risk factors in patients with coronary heart disease. We updated the search of a previous review by searching the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library (2007, Issue 4), MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL from 2001 to January 2008. We checked reference lists and sought advice from experts. No language restrictions were applied. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared centre-based cardiac rehabilitation (e.g. hospital, gymnasium, sports centre) with home-based programmes, in adults with myocardial infarction, angina, heart failure or who had undergone revascularisation. Studies were selected independently by two reviewers, and data extracted by a single reviewer and checked by a second one. Authors were contacted where possible to obtain missing information. Twelve studies (1,938 participants) met the inclusion criteria. The majority of studies recruited a lower risk patient following an acute myocardial infarction (MI) and revascularisation. There was no difference in outcomes of home- versus centre-based cardiac rehabilitation in mortality risk ratio (RR) was1.31 (95% confidence interval (C) 0.65 to 2.66), cardiac events, exercise capacity standardised mean difference (SMD) -0.11 (95% CI -0.35 to 0.13), as well as in modifiable risk factors (systolic blood pressure; diastolic blood pressure; total cholesterol

  20. Effects of sowing time on pink snow mould, leaf rust and winter damage in winter rye varieties in Finland

    M. SERENIUS

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Disease infection in relation to sowing time of winter rye (Secale cereale was studied in southern Finland in order to compare overwintering capacity of modern rye varieties and to give recommendations for rye cultivation. This was done by using three sowing times and four rye varieties in field trials conducted at three locations in 1999–2001. The early sown rye (beginning of August was severely affected by diseases caused by Puccinia recondita and Microdochium nivale, whereas postponing sowing for two weeks after the recommended sowing time resulted in considerably less infection. The infection levels of diseases differed among rye varieties. Finnish rye varieties Anna and Bor 7068 were more resistant to snow mould and more winter hardy than the Polish variety Amilo, or the German hybrid varieties Picasso and Esprit. However, Amilo was the most resistant to leaf rust. In the first year snow mould appeared to be the primary cause of winter damage, but in the second year the winter damage was positively correlated with leaf rust. No significant correlation between frit fly infestation and winter damage or disease incidence of snow mould or leaf rust was established. The late sowing of rye (in the beginning of September is recommended in Finland, particularly with hybrid varieties, to minimize the need for chemical plant protection in autumn.;

  1. Sustainable winter cities: Future directions for planning, policy and design

    Pressman, Norman E. P.

    Attempts to generate a "climate-responsive" northern urban form are part of a relatively recent phenomenon and field of investigation. In conjunction with the international "winter cities" movement, the need has been established for explicit, systematic inquiry directed toward national and local action to improve the comfort and lifestyles of all northern inhabitants. It is important to recognize that winter-induced discomforts exist and that they must be acknowledged in planning theory and practice. For northern cities to function more satisfactorily, the negative impacts of winter must be reduced while its beneficial characteristics are enhanced. While not all summer activities can or should be abandoned during winter, proper micro-climatic control is essential if human life is to be retained outside. The outdoor season should be extended since so much indoor isolation occurs. The main principles to be incorporated in exemplary "winter city" design should be contact with nature, year-round usability, user participation, cultural continuity, and the creation of comfortable micro-climatic conditions throughout much of the city's open spaces. All valuable sources of inspiration must be harnessed in the attempt to mediate between organic regionalism and internationalism, on the one hand, and romanticism and pragmatic realism, on the other. Creating optimum conditions for human well-being, habitation, work and intellectual development in each of the four seasons is vital under harsh environments. Adopting a climate-sensitive approach to planning policy and urban design can render everyday life less stressful, especially during the lengthy winter periods found in many northern latitude and high altitude settings.

  2. The importance of agricultural lands for Himalayan birds in winter.

    Elsen, Paul R; Kalyanaraman, Ramnarayan; Ramesh, Krishnamurthy; Wilcove, David S

    2017-04-01

    The impacts of land-use change on biodiversity in the Himalayas are poorly known, notwithstanding widespread deforestation and agricultural intensification in this highly biodiverse region. Although intact primary forests harbor many Himalayan birds during breeding, a large number of bird species use agricultural lands during winter. We assessed how Himalayan bird species richness, abundance, and composition during winter are affected by forest loss stemming from agriculture and grazing. Bird surveys along 12 elevational transects within primary forest, low-intensity agriculture, mixed subsistence agriculture, and intensively grazed pastures in winter revealed that bird species richness and abundance were greatest in low-intensity and mixed agriculture, intermediate in grazed pastures, and lowest in primary forest at both local and landscape scales; over twice as many species and individuals were recorded in low-intensity agriculture than in primary forest. Bird communities in primary forests were distinct from those in all other land-use classes, but only 4 species were unique to primary forests. Low-, medium-, and high-intensity agriculture harbored 32 unique species. Of the species observed in primary forest, 80% had equal or greater abundance in low-intensity agricultural lands, underscoring the value of these lands in retaining diverse community assemblages at high densities in winter. Among disturbed landscapes, bird species richness and abundance declined as land-use intensity increased, especially in high-intensity pastures. Our results suggest that agricultural landscapes are important for most Himalayan bird species in winter. But agricultural intensification-especially increased grazing-will likely result in biodiversity losses. Given that forest reserves alone may inadequately conserve Himalayan birds in winter, comprehensive conservation strategies in the region must go beyond protecting intact primary forests and ensure that low-intensity agricultural

  3. Vancouver winters: Environmental influences on inpatient adult orthopaedic trauma demographics

    Noordin, S.; Masri, B. A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare the pattern of adult inpatient orthopaedic injuries admitted at three Vancouver hospitals following one of the worst winter snowstorms in the region with the preceding control winter period. Methods: The surveillance study was conducted at the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada, 2007 to 2010. Inpatient adult admissions for orthopaedic injuries at three hospitals were recorded, including age, gender, anatomic location of injury, type of fracture (open or closed), fixation method (internal versus external fixation), and length of acute care hospital stay. Comparisons between admissions during this weather pattern and admission during a previous winter with minimal snow were made. SPSS 19 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Of the 511 patients admitted under Orthopaedic trauma service during the significant winter snowstorms of December 2008 - January 2009, 100 (19.6%) (CI: 16.2%-23.2%) were due to ice and snow, whereas in the preceding mild winter only 18 of 415 (4.3%) (CI: 2.5%-6.8%) cases were related to snow (p<0.05). Ankle and wrist fractures were the most frequent injuries during the index snow storm period (p<0.05). At all the three institutions, 97 (96.5%) fractures were closed during the snowstorm as opposed to 17 (95%) during the control winter period. Internal fixation in 06 (89%) fractures as opposed to external fixation in 12 (11%) patients was the predominant mode of fixation across the board during both time periods. Conclusion: The study demonstrated a significantly higher inpatient orthopaedic trauma volume during the snowstorm more rigorous prospective studies need to be designed to gain further insight to solving these problems from a public health perspective. (author)

  4. The 2009–2010 Arctic stratospheric winter – general evolution, mountain waves and predictability of an operational weather forecast model

    A. Dörnbrack

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The relatively warm 2009–2010 Arctic winter was an exceptional one as the North Atlantic Oscillation index attained persistent extreme negative values. Here, selected aspects of the Arctic stratosphere during this winter inspired by the analysis of the international field experiment RECONCILE are presented. First of all, and as a kind of reference, the evolution of the polar vortex in its different phases is documented. Special emphasis is put on explaining the formation of the exceptionally cold vortex in mid winter after a sequence of stratospheric disturbances which were caused by upward propagating planetary waves. A major sudden stratospheric warming (SSW occurring near the end of January 2010 concluded the anomalous cold vortex period. Wave ice polar stratospheric clouds were frequently observed by spaceborne remote-sensing instruments over the Arctic during the cold period in January 2010. Here, one such case observed over Greenland is analysed in more detail and an attempt is made to correlate flow information of an operational numerical weather prediction model to the magnitude of the mountain-wave induced temperature fluctuations. Finally, it is shown that the forecasts of the ECMWF ensemble prediction system for the onset of the major SSW were very skilful and the ensemble spread was very small. However, the ensemble spread increased dramatically after the major SSW, displaying the strong non-linearity and internal variability involved in the SSW event.

  5. Origins and interrelationship of Intraseasonal rainfall variations around the Maritime Continent during boreal winter

    Cao, Xi; Wu, Renguang

    2018-04-01

    Large intraseasonal rainfall variations are identified over the southern South China Sea (SSCS), tropical southeastern Indian Ocean (SEIO), and east coast of the Philippines (EPHI) in boreal winter. The present study contrasts origins and propagations and investigates interrelations of intraseasonal rainfall variations on the 10-20- and 30-60-day time scales in these regions. Different origins are identified for intraseasonal rainfall anomalies over the SSCS, SEIO, and EPHI on both time scales. On the 10-20-day time scale, strong northerly or northeasterly wind anomalies related to the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) play a major role in intraseasonal rainfall variations over the SSCS and EPHI. On the 30-60-day time scale, both the intraseasonal signal from the tropical Indian Ocean and the EAWM-related wind anomalies contribute to intraseasonal rainfall variations over the SSCS, whereas the EAWM-related wind anomalies have a major contribution to the intraseasonal rainfall variations over the EPHI. No relation is detected between the intraseasonal rainfall variations over the SEIO and the EAWM on both the 10-20-day and 30-60-day time scales. The anomalies associated with intraseasonal rainfall variations over the SSCS and EPHI propagate northwestward and northeastward, respectively, on the 10-20- and 30-60-day time scales. The intraseasonal rainfall anomalies display northwestward and northward propagation over the Bay of Bengal, respectively, on the 10-20- and 30-60-day time scales.

  6. Medieval Irish chronicles reveal persistent volcanic forcing of severe winter cold events, 431–1649 CE

    Ludlow, Francis; Stine, Alexander R; Leahy, Paul; Kiely, Gerard; Murphy, Enda; Mayewski, Paul A; Taylor, David; Killen, James; Hennessy, Mark; Baillie, Michael G L

    2013-01-01

    Explosive volcanism resulting in stratospheric injection of sulfate aerosol is a major driver of regional to global climatic variability on interannual and longer timescales. However, much of our knowledge of the climatic impact of volcanism derives from the limited number of eruptions that have occurred in the modern period during which meteorological instrumental records are available. We present a uniquely long historical record of severe short-term cold events from Irish chronicles, 431–1649 CE, and test the association between cold event occurrence and explosive volcanism. Thirty eight (79%) of 48 volcanic events identified in the sulfate deposition record of the Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 ice-core correspond to 37 (54%) of 69 cold events in this 1219 year period. We show this association to be statistically significant at the 99.7% confidence level, revealing both the consistency of response to explosive volcanism for Ireland’s climatically sensitive Northeast Atlantic location and the large proportional contribution of volcanism to historic cold event frequencies here. Our results expose, moreover, the extent to which volcanism has impacted winter-season climate for the region, and can help to further resolve the complex spatial patterns of Northern Hemisphere winter-season cooling versus warming after major eruptions. (letter)

  7. Wintering Waterbirds and Recreationists in Natural Areas: A Sociological Approach to the Awareness of Bird Disturbance

    Le Corre, Nicolas; Peuziat, Ingrid; Brigand, Louis; Gélinaud, Guillaume; Meur-Férec, Catherine

    2013-10-01

    Disturbance to wintering birds by human recreational activities has become a major concern for managers of many natural areas. Few studies have examined how recreationists perceive their effects on birds, although this impacts their behavior on natural areas. We surveyed 312 users on two coastal ornithological sites in Brittany, France, to investigate their perception of the effects of human activities on wintering birds. The results show that the awareness of environmental issues and knowledge of bird disturbance depends on the socioeconomic characteristics of each user group, both between the two sites and within each site. Results also indicate that, whatever the site and the user group, the vast majority of the respondents (77.6 %) believed that their own presence had no adverse effects on the local bird population. Various arguments were put forward to justify the users' own harmlessness. Objective information on recreationists' awareness of environmental issues, and particularly on their own impact on birds, is important to guide managers in their choice of the most appropriate visitor educational programs. We recommend developing global but also specific educational information for each type of user to raise awareness of their own impact on birds.

  8. Bread-Making Quality of Standard Winter Wheat Cultivars

    Ćurić, Duška; Novotni, Dubravka; Bauman, Ingrid; Krička, Tajana; Jukić, Željko; Voća, Neven; Kiš, Darko

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to define an impact of the cultivar, year and cultivation area of the standard Croatian winter wheat on the bread-making quality. The bread-making quality of cultivars ‘Divana’, ‘Žitarka’ and ‘Sana’ from the crop years 1998, 2000, 2002, 2004 and 2006, and from Zagreb and Osijek location was analyzed. Wheat from the cultivar tests cultivated under the same agro technological conditions was used for this testing. The tested winter wheat bread-making quality primari...

  9. Winter distribution of Calanus finmarchicus in the Northeast Atlantic

    Heath, M.R.; Fraser, J.G.; Gislason, A.

    2000-01-01

    Data from plankton sampling and Optical Plankton Counter deployments during six cruises between December of 1994 and 1999 have been used to derive a composite three-dimensional distribution of the abundance of Calanus finmarchicus during winter (December-January) in the Norwegian Sea and Northeast...... Northeast Atlantic, the concentration of wintering animals is around 30% of that in the Norwegian Sea and the vertical distribution is more diffuse and on average deeper. Modelling studies have shown that the overwinter distribution and transport are key factors determining the spatial persistence of C...

  10. Atomic energy training centres in Latin America. Report of IAEA Mission

    NONE

    1959-01-15

    In January 1958, the Brazilian representative on the Board of Governors of the International Atomic Energy Agency - supported by the Governors from Argentina and Guatemala - proposed that a study should be made of the possibility of setting up one or more atomic energy training centres in Latin America. Countries now having facilities that could be used for co-operative training are Argentina, where rapid strides are being made in building up an integrated atomic energy centre in the Buenos Aires; Brazil, which has successfully established a physical science nuclear laboratory and a radio-biology centre; Venezuela, with a medico-biological centre from which much may be expected; and Mexico, where nuclear science courses are to be provided by the University of Mexico. The report discusses two alternatives for the establishment of training centres: 'specialized centres' or 'integrated centres' and concludes that the integrated centre is the preferable one however specialized centres stand a much higher chance of being staffed successfully. They are inherently smaller and consequently costs for facilities and equipment are much less. In addition use might be made of existing facilities. It is stated that one of the specialized atomic energy training centres to be established might well be in the field of radio-botany. Agriculture is a major source of income throughout Latin America. There are many agricultural schools and experimental stations throughout the region and also the Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Science at Turrialba, Costa Rica. The authors of the report concluded that a training centre in radio-botany should provide vitally needed knowledge and vitally needed specialists to all the agricultural installations in Latin America. The report recommends that (1) the Agency should meet the requests of Latin American universities by, for example, supplying equipment and sending experts; (2) at least one specialized training centre should be established

  11. Atomic energy training centres in Latin America. Report of IAEA Mission

    1959-01-01

    In January 1958, the Brazilian representative on the Board of Governors of the International Atomic Energy Agency - supported by the Governors from Argentina and Guatemala - proposed that a study should be made of the possibility of setting up one or more atomic energy training centres in Latin America. Countries now having facilities that could be used for co-operative training are Argentina, where rapid strides are being made in building up an integrated atomic energy centre in the Buenos Aires; Brazil, which has successfully established a physical science nuclear laboratory and a radio-biology centre; Venezuela, with a medico-biological centre from which much may be expected; and Mexico, where nuclear science courses are to be provided by the University of Mexico. The report discusses two alternatives for the establishment of training centres: 'specialized centres' or 'integrated centres' and concludes that the integrated centre is the preferable one however specialized centres stand a much higher chance of being staffed successfully. They are inherently smaller and consequently costs for facilities and equipment are much less. In addition use might be made of existing facilities. It is stated that one of the specialized atomic energy training centres to be established might well be in the field of radio-botany. Agriculture is a major source of income throughout Latin America. There are many agricultural schools and experimental stations throughout the region and also the Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Science at Turrialba, Costa Rica. The authors of the report concluded that a training centre in radio-botany should provide vitally needed knowledge and vitally needed specialists to all the agricultural installations in Latin America. The report recommends that (1) the Agency should meet the requests of Latin American universities by, for example, supplying equipment and sending experts; (2) at least one specialized training centre should be established

  12. Nganyi Community Resource Centre: Community radio station ...

    2016-05-04

    May 4, 2016 ... To mark World Meteorological Day on March 23, 2015, the Kenya Meteorological Services (KMS) launched a resource centre and radio station in western Kenya to disseminate weather and climate information.

  13. Social innovation for People-Centred Development

    Hulgård, Lars; P.K., Shajahan

    2013-01-01

    Social innovation is closely related to the people-centred development (PCD) framework of knowledge production. The discussion of PCD in this chapter particularly expands on the feature of empowerment and socio-political mobilization of people in social innovation...

  14. The nuclear research centre at Bariloche, Argentina

    Abriata, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    The nuclear research centre at Bariloche (CAB) is one of the four centres under the Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina (CNEA). The research programme of CAB addresses various issues like nuclear reactor development, nuclear fuel and fuel cycle, applications of radioisotopes and radiation, and waste management. There is also a basic nuclear science component. The human resource development in the areas of physics and nuclear engineering is done in an associated Balseiro Institute which has undergraduate and graduate programmes as well as doctoral and postdoctoral research. The Centre interacts well with the society and provides services in the nuclear area. It has a close interaction with the nuclear sector of Argentina as also with many international organisations. Regulatory control over the Centre is carried out by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of Argentina. (author)

  15. International Development Research Centre Governor Travel Policy

    André Lavoie

    business. Governors are required to travel to conduct IDRC business, attend ... of Governors, liaise with Centre management, and perform specific representational functions on ..... Travel between Points of Origin and Destination - Air Travel.

  16. Haiti | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    ... for the environment, reduced spending on food, increased self-esteem, and stronger ... The consortium acts as a knowledge centre and explores communication ... train teachers and researchers in high-quality science and technology skills ...

  17. Bulletin #112 | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    ... to support training of African mathematical scientists on climate change solutions ... significant support following UN meeting on refugees and migrants ... for Urban Equity at India's Centre for Environmental Planning and Technology, this ...

  18. President | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre Selection Criteria Education A ... or an acceptable combination of education, job-related training and/or experience. ... Knowledge of current corporate governance and human resource issues; ...

  19. Potential of Natural Ventilation in Shopping Centres

    Diederichsen, Alice; Friis, Kristina; Brohus, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    The indoor environmental quality (IEQ) is a fundamental requirement for a well performing shopping centre. This paper contains a pilot study of the potential of using hybrid ventilation (a combination of automatically controlled natural and mechanical ventilation - respectively NV and MV) in shop......The indoor environmental quality (IEQ) is a fundamental requirement for a well performing shopping centre. This paper contains a pilot study of the potential of using hybrid ventilation (a combination of automatically controlled natural and mechanical ventilation - respectively NV and MV......) in shopping centres with focus on both the achieved IEQ and energy consumptions for air movement. By thermal building simulations it is found that there exists an interesting potential for hybrid ventilation of shopping centres, which can lead to great savings in the electrical energy consumptions...

  20. Product Lifecycle Management Centre of Technology

    Barnard, Rentia

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available - Rentia Barnard.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 1 Interactive activities Contents Product Lifecycle Management Centre of Technology Rentia Barnard National Industrialisation Support Initiative (NISI) 3 Initiative (NISI...