WorldWideScience

Sample records for major waste policy

  1. ANCLI: white papers. Major contribution to public debate in France on nuclear waste policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sene, M.

    2006-01-01

    Local Information Commissions (CLI) were first set up in autumn 1981 following the 'Mauroy circular' sent out by then Prime Minister, Pierre Mauroy. To date (2006), 30 CLIs have been set up. The status and funding for these CLIs have lacked consistency, subject to the good will of the political authorities. However, since being set up, the value of these commissions has become more and more apparent: the French now have somewhere where they can express their opinions. It is for this reason that, for almost ten years, the CLIs have called for a legislative framework in recognition of their existence: this has now been achieved, under the provisions of the Nuclear Transparency and Safety Act passed on 13 June 2006. It is a shame, however, that this Act does not explicitly recognize the existence of the National Association of Local Information Commissions (ANCLI), set up in 2000 and grouping together 20 CLIs (2006). When two public debates were announced, one on waste management and the other on the European Pressurized Reactor (EPR), ANCLI set up a working group to investigate the subject of 'Local Governance of nuclear sites' and which published its findings in May 2005. Thanks to the extremely positive reaction this Paper received, both on the part of the CLIs and within political circles, ANCLI initiated a study focused more directly on nuclear waste management. This working group's research has resulted in the publication of the 'Livre Blanc de l'ANCLI - Matieres et dechets radioactifs/territoires' - ANCLI's White Paper on radioactive materials and waste and local communities (June 2006).This Paper was published after the Act of 28 June 2006 relative to 'National policy on sustainable management of radioactive materials and waste' was passed. Members of the French parliament were informed of the key ideas it contains. This 'White Book' is a contribution to public debate on nuclear waste and on EPR. In a first approach, the ANCLI is not considered as a partner

  2. How citizen advisory boards provide input into major waste policy decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, E.; Murakami, L.; Hanson, L.

    1995-01-01

    Volunteer citizen boards, such as Site Specific Advisory Boards, can be a very important key to success for the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Waste Management program. These boards can provide informed, independent recommendations reflecting the diversity of the community and its values. A successful volunteer process requires collaboration among regulators, DOE and other Boards; knowing how and when to interface with the broader public; understanding the diversity and representational issues of a citizens group; knowing the open-quotes ins and outsclose quotes of working with volunteers; education and training and most importantly, planning. Volunteers on a citizens board were created to tackle the big picture, policy decisions. The chair of the Rocky Flats Citizens Advisory Board will describe her Board's successes, including the challenges in reaching consensus agreements, as well as the need for integration with other boards and the sites' on-going public involvement programs to provide the input the department is seeking. Finally, one of the greatest challenges for the boards is interfacing with the greater public-at-large, seeing how the CAB has overcome this challenge and integrating broader public input into its decisions

  3. How citizen advisory boards provide input into major waste policy decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, E.; Murakami, L.; Hanson, L. [Rocky Flats Citizen Advisory Board, Westminster, CO (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Volunteer citizen boards, such as Site Specific Advisory Boards, can be a very important key to success for the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Waste Management program. These boards can provide informed, independent recommendations reflecting the diversity of the community and its values. A successful volunteer process requires collaboration among regulators, DOE and other Boards; knowing how and when to interface with the broader public; understanding the diversity and representational issues of a citizens group; knowing the {open_quotes}ins and outs{close_quotes} of working with volunteers; education and training and most importantly, planning. Volunteers on a citizens board were created to tackle the big picture, policy decisions. The chair of the Rocky Flats Citizens Advisory Board will describe her Board`s successes, including the challenges in reaching consensus agreements, as well as the need for integration with other boards and the sites` on-going public involvement programs to provide the input the department is seeking. Finally, one of the greatest challenges for the boards is interfacing with the greater public-at-large, seeing how the CAB has overcome this challenge and integrating broader public input into its decisions.

  4. Radioactive waste management policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, R.W.

    1983-06-01

    The speaker discusses the development of government policy regarding radioactive waste disposal in Canada, indicates overall policy objectives, and surveys the actual situation with respect to radioactive wastes in Canada. He also looks at the public perceptions of the waste management situation and how they relate to the views of governmental decision makers

  5. Major Environmental Policy in 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hong Jin [Ministry Of Environment, Kwachon (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    As a new millennium has started, there are active movements developing a basic paradigm of vision and policy over a nation-wide to prepare changes actively. For the environmental sector, it is possible to live in a pleasant environment if everyone prepare and work together like dealing with Y2K problem. With a goal of being an environmentally advanced country in the early new millennium, it is planned to improve a basic life environment such as water and air and to promote an advanced environmental management policy for showing results of its reform in 2000. Therefore, it examines environmental management circumstances and a direction of environmental policy first and it discusses more about major environmental policy related to petroleum industry. 7 tabs.

  6. Radioactive waste management policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werthamer, N.R.

    1977-01-01

    The State of New York, some 15 years ago, became a party to an attempt to commercialize the reprocessing and storage of spent nuclear fuels at the West Valley Reprocessing Facility operated by Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc. (NFS). That attempted commercialization, and the State of New York, have fallen victim to changing Federal policies in the United States, leaving an outstanding and unique radioactive waste management problem unresolved. At the beginning of construction in 1963, the AEC assured both NFS and New York State of the acceptability of long-term liquid tank storage for high level wastes, and New York State ERDA therefore agreed to become the responsible long-lived stable institution whose oversight was needed. It was understood that perpetual care and maintenance of the wastes, as liquid, in on-site underground tanks, would provide for safe and secure storage in perpetuity. All that was thought to be required was the replacement of the tanks near the end of their 40-year design life, and the transferring of the contents; for this purpose, a perpetual care trust fund was established. In March of 1972, NFS shut West Valley down for physical expansion, requiring a new construction permit from the AEC. After four years of administrative proceedings, NFS concluded that changes in Federal regulations since the original operating license had been issued would require about 600 million dollars if operations were to resume. In the fall of 1976, NFS informed the NRC, of its intention of closing the reprocessing business. The inventories of wastes left are listed. The premises upon which the original agreements were based are no longer valid. Federal responsibilities for radioactive wastes require Federal ownership of the West Valley site. The views of New York State ERDA are discussed in detail

  7. Developing radioactive waste management policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gichana, Z.

    2012-04-01

    A policy for radioactive waste management with defined goals and requirements is needed as a basis for the preparation of legislation, review or revision of related legislation and to define roles and responsibilities for ensuring the safe management of radioactive waste. A well defined policy and associated strategies are useful in promoting consistency of emphasis and direction within all of the sectors involved in radioactive waste management. The absence of policy and strategy can lead to confusion or lack of coordination and direction. A policy and/or strategy may sometimes be needed to prevent inaction on a particular waste management issue or to resolve an impasse. (author)

  8. Policies and strategies for radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    A policy for spent fuel and radioactive waste management should include a set of goals or requirements to ensure the safe and efficient management of spent fuel and radioactive waste in the country. Policy is mainly established by the national government and may become codified in the national legislative system. The spent fuel and radioactive waste management strategy sets out the means for achieving the goals and requirements set out in the national policy. It is normally established by the relevant waste owner or nuclear facility operator, or by government (institutional waste). Thus, the national policy may be elaborated in several different strategy components. To ensure the safe, technically optimal and cost effective management of radioactive waste, countries are advised to formulate appropriate policies and strategies. A typical policy should include the following elements: defined safety and security objectives, arrangements for providing resources for spent fuel and radioactive waste management, identification of the main approaches for the management of the national spent fuel and radioactive waste categories, policy on export/import of radioactive waste, and provisions for public information and participation. In addition, the policy should define national roles and responsibilities for spent fuel and radioactive waste management. In order to formulate a meaningful policy, it is necessary to have sufficient information on the national situation, for example, on the existing national legal framework, institutional structures, relevant international obligations, other relevant national policies and strategies, indicative waste and spent fuel inventories, the availability of resources, the situation in other countries and the preferences of the major interested parties. The strategy reflects and elaborates the goals and requirements set out in the policy statement. For its formulation, detailed information is needed on the current situation in the country

  9. Argentina's radioactive waste disposal policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, E.

    1986-01-01

    The Argentina policy for radioactive waste disposal from nuclear facilities is presented. The radioactive wastes are treated and disposed in confinement systems which ensure the isolation of the radionucles for an appropriate period. The safety criteria adopted by Argentina Authorities in case of the release of radioactive materials under normal conditions and in case of accidents are analysed. (M.C.K.) [pt

  10. Managing the nation's nuclear waste. Overview: Nuclear Waste Policy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    Signed into law by the President on January 7, 1983, the Nuclear Waste Policy Act established a national policy for safely storing, transporting, and disposing of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. This overview presents the following information on the Nuclear Waste Policy Act: (1) background; (2) permanent repository; (3) siting guidelines and mission plan; (4) monitored retrievable storage; and (5) nuclear waste funds. (DT)

  11. Radioactive waste management policy for nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrei, V.; Glodeanu, F.; Simionov, V.

    1998-01-01

    Nuclear power is part of energy future as a clean and environmental friendly source of energy. For the case of nuclear power, two specific aspects come more often in front of public attention: how much does it cost and what happens with radioactive waste. The competitiveness of nuclear power vs other sources of energy is already proved in many developed and developing countries. As concerns the radioactive wastes treatment and disposal, industrial technologies are available. Even final solutions for disposal of high level radioactive waste, including spent fuel, are now fully developed and ready for large scale implementation. Policies and waste management strategies are established by all countries having nuclear programs. Once, the first nuclear power reactor was commissioned in Romania, and based on the national legal provisions, our company prepared the first issue of a general strategy for radioactive waste management. The general objective of the strategy is to dispose the waste according to adequate safety standards protecting the man and the environment, without undue burden on future generations. Two target objectives were established for long term: an interim spent fuel dry storage facility and a low and intermediate level waste repository. A solution for spent fuel disposal will be implemented in the next decade, based on international experience. Principles for radioactive waste management, recommended by IAEA are closely followed in the activities of our company. The continuity of responsibilities is considered to be very important. The radioactive waste management cost will be supported by the company. A tax on unit price of electricity will be applied. The implementation of radioactive waste management strategy includes as a major component the public information. A special attention will be paid by the company to an information program addressed to different categories of public in order to have a better acceptance of our nuclear power projects

  12. United Kingdom government policy towards radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pritchard, G.

    1986-01-01

    There are three areas of radioactive waste management which exemplify, beyond any reasonable doubt, that the United Kingdom has in the past (and intends in the future), to pursue a policy of dispersal and disposal of radioactive wastes: These are: (I) dumping of low-level waste in the deep ocean and, on a parallel, seabed emplacement of highly active waste; (II) the liquid discharges from Windscale into the Irish Sea; and (III) land dumping of low- and intermediate-level waste

  13. Political considerations of nuclear waste disposal policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, R.S.

    1985-01-01

    In order to create a program for the establishment of nuclear waste repositories several conditions must prevail. Perhaps foremost is the need to alter the public perception of risk. In short, there will need to be recognition that cigarette smoking and automobile driving, acts of volition, are potentially more dangerous to one's health than radiation leaks from nuclear power plants or waste repositories. Second, the process of repository site selection will have to include wide public participation in the process in order to obtain legitimacy. Without it Congress and the state legislatures are certain to override any proposal no matter how widely accepted by scientists and engineers. Finally, states and localities selected as sites for repositories will need to be compensated adequately in exchange for accepting the onus of serving as host. Political scientists have not been notably successful forecasters of policy outcomes. However, the evidence of American history does not provide encouragement that maximization of control at the state and local level and oversight by Congress of administrative actions, as meritorious as they might appear in terms of democracy, are harbingers of success for unpleasant policy decisions. States rights and Congressional intervention to block executive action were used to maintain second-class citizenship status for Black Americans until the judicial process was resorted to as a device to alter policy. Most likely, a major policy breakthrough will occur only after a mishap or tragedy, the final product involving either a waste disposal program in the context of continued use of nuclear power or one premised on its abandonment

  14. Nuclear waste management policy in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefevre, J.F.

    1983-01-01

    The object of the nuclear waste management policy in France has always been to protect the worker and the public from unacceptable risks. The means and the structures developed to reach this objective, however, have evolved with time. One fact has come out ever more clearly over the years: Nuclear waste problems cannot be considered in a piecemeal fashion. The French nuclear waste management structure and policy aim at just this global approach. Responsibilities have been distributed between the main partners: the waste producers and conditioners, the research teams, the safety authorities, and the long-term waste manager, National Radioactive Waste Management Agency. The main technical options adopted for waste forms are embedding in hydraulic binders, bitumen, or thermosetting resins for low-level waste (LLW) and medium-level waste (MLW), and vitrification for high-level, liquid wastes. One shallow land disposal site for LLW and MLW has been in operation since 1969, the Centre of La Manche. Alpha-bearing and high-level waste will be disposed of by deep geological storage, possibly in granite formations. Further RandD aims mainly at improving present-day practices, developing more durable, long-term, alpha-bearing waste for all solid waste forms and going into all aspects of deep geological disposal characterization

  15. Nuclear fuel waste policy in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, P.A.; Letourneau, C.

    1999-01-01

    The 1996 Policy Framework for Radioactive Waste established the approach in Canada for dealing with all radioactive waste, and defined the respective roles of Government and waste producers and owners. The Policy Framework sets the stage for the development of institutional and financial arrangements to implement long-term waste management solutions in a safe, environmentally sound, comprehensive, cost-effective and integrated manner. For nuclear fuel waste, a 10-year environmental review of the concept to bury nuclear fuel waste bundles at a depth of 500 m to 1000 m in stable rock of the Canadian Shield was completed in March 1998. The Review Panel found that while the concept was technically safe, it did not have the required level of public acceptability to be adopted at this time as Canada's approach for managing its nuclear fuel waste. The Panel recommended that a Waste Management Organization be established at arm's length from the nuclear industry, entirely funded by the waste producers and owners, and that it be subject to oversight by the Government. In its December 1998 Response to the Review Panel, the Government of Canada provided policy direction for the next steps towards developing Canada's approach for the long-term management of nuclear fuel waste. The Government chose to maintain the responsibility for long-term management of nuclear fuel waste close with the producers and owners of the waste. This is consistent with its 1996 Policy Framework for Radioactive Waste. This approach is also consistent with experience in many countries. In addition, the federal government identified the need for credible federal oversight. Cabinet directed the Minister of NRCan to consult with stakeholders, including the public, and return to ministers within 12 months with recommendations on means to implement federal oversight. (author)

  16. Alternative policies for solid waste management

    OpenAIRE

    Percoco Marco

    2004-01-01

    Because of the recent dramatic increase in waste production, solid waste management and control have become one of the central issues in environmental policy. In this paper we review alternative fiscal instruments to control the production of residuals by using the benchmark given by the social optimum. Finnally, we apply the model to theoretically evaluate the TARI.

  17. National policy on radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jova, Luis; Metcalfa, Phil; Rowata, John; Louvata, Didier; Linsley, Gordon

    2008-01-01

    Every country should have some form of policy and strategy for managing its spent fuel and radioactive waste. Such policies and strategies are important; they set out the nationally agreed position and plans for managing spent fuel and radioactive waste and are visible evidence of the concern and intent of the government and the relevant national organisations to ensure that spent fuel and radioactive waste are properly taken care of in the country. There is a large diversity in the types and amounts of radioactive waste in the countries of the world and, as a result of this diversity, the strategies for implementing the policies may be different, although the main elements of policy are likely to be similar from country to country. In some countries, the national policy and strategy is well established and documented, while in others there is no explicit policy and strategy statement and, instead, it has to be inferred from the contents of the laws, regulations and guidelines. The present paper describes the work undertaken by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) related to identifying the main elements of national policies for spent fuel and radioactive waste management, recognising that policies and strategies vary considerably depending on, among other things, the nature and scale of applications of radioactive material in a country. An indication is provided of what might be contained in national policies recognizing that national policy and strategy has to be decided at the national level taking into account national priorities and circumstances. The paper is concerned with the contents of policies and strategies and does not address the development of national laws, regulations and guidelines - although these are clearly related to the contents of the national policy and strategy. (author)

  18. Radioactive waste. Policy and perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, L E.J. [UKAEA, Harwell. Atomic Energy Research Establishment

    1979-01-01

    The subject is covered in sections as follows: general introduction (volume of waste arising from 1 GW/(e) energy per year); characteristics of highly active waste (output of some important fission products from an AGR, decay of activity with time for PWR and CFR wastes, toxic potential versus time for magnox and fast reactor wastes, toxic potential of unreprocessed magnox fuel); general principles of waste disposal (incorporation of waste into solid matrices, glass containers); design of stores and repositories (heat dissipation, siting and design, packing materials, size of repositories); the geologic barrier (location of repositories, safety analysis of repositories); the option of ocean disposal; status of work and present programme (vitrification, repository siting and design); conclusions.

  19. Brazil's new national policy on solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbour, A.B.L.d.S.; Jabbour, C.J.C.; Sarkis, J.

    2014-01-01

    Brazil, one of the world's largest developing countries, has recently introduced a new solid waste management regulatory policy. This new regulatory policy will have implications for a wide variety of stakeholders and sets the stage for opportunities and lessons to be learned. These issues...

  20. Nuclear waste management and the impact of Carter Administration policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.F.

    1979-01-01

    The impact of Carter Administration's policies on the nuclear waste management program are evaluated in this article. The waste management program faces numerous inconsistencies resulting from: a lack of a clearly defined schedule and division of responsibility; the requirement to meet conflicting procedural requirements; and the lack of clear statements from the President and Congress supporting the major programs. Some of the ramifications of these points are discussed with reference to the schedule for the 3 key program elements: National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Facility scheduled for commercial operation in 1985 to handle commercial high-level wastes; the Spent Unreprocessed Fuel (SURF) Facility scheduled for operation in 1985 to handle spent fuel from commercial power plants; the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) scheduled for operation in 1983 or 1984 for the disposal of TRU defense wastes. Possible avenues for improvement are suggested

  1. Major unresolved issues preventing a timely resolution to radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    GAO surveyed a portion of the literature on radioactive waste management and identified those major issues which could impede the timely and comprehensive removal of obstacles to demonstrating a national radioactive waste disposal program. Presently, U.S. radioactive waste policy goals are unclear in that there is no clear differentiation of management, regulation (licensing), and research, development, and demonstration functions. Decisions on such important issues as regulatory responsibility over radioactive wastes, criteria for radioactive waste form and performance, method of final disposition, and repository site locations must be made, and made soon, in order to assure public health and safety and adequate management of these potentially hazardous materials

  2. Hazardous waste policies and strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This manual has been compiled as a resource document for trainers to help in the design of training workshops of hazardous waste management. Although principally oriented at groupwork, some part of this manual are also suitable for individual study, and as a resource book

  3. California's response to the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980: policy and progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasternak, A.D.

    1985-01-01

    The public and private corporations and institutions in California that use radioactive materials and generate low-level radioactive waste have played a major role in shaping and guiding California's response to the federal Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980. Working together as the California Radioactive Materials Management Forum (CAL RAD FORUM), these organizations carry out legislative and public education programs with the objective of establishing, in California, a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility and maintaining access to existing disposal facilities in other states until the California facility is licensed and operating

  4. Update on waste management policies and programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    The NEA Nuclear Waste Bulletin has been prepared by the Radiation Protection and Waste Management Division of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency to provide a means of communication amongst the various technical and policy groups within the waste management community. In particular, it is intended to provide concise information on current radioactive waste management activities, policies and programmes in Member countries and at the NEA. It is also intended that the Bulletin assists in the communication of recent developments in a variety of areas contributing to the development of acceptable technology for the management and disposal of nuclear waste (e.g., performance assessment, in-situ investigations, repository engineering, scientific data bases, regulatory developments, etc.). For practical purposes, the Bulletin does not include an exhaustive description of national programmes. The reader is therefore invited to go back to the information given in previous bulletins and, if necessary, to contact national correspondents in order to obtain a more complete picture of on-going activities. (authors)

  5. Policy of Japan of radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyama, A.

    1989-01-01

    Development and utilization of nuclear power has been steadily pursued in Japan in order to secure a stable source of energy over a long-term period. According to the author, nuclear power plants are operated carefully and safely and have been generating electricity for more than twenty years. In fact, it now accounts for approximately 30% of total electricity generated, and has become an integral part of the energy supply in Japan. The benefits of nuclear technology are now enjoyed not only in the electricity production, but also in the fields such as medicine and other industries. Under such circumstances, radioactive waste management generated in nuclear power plants and reprocessing plants as well as in industrial and medical uses of radiation, is an important part of the nuclear energy policy, and there is also a strong public interest in this field. The government is active in formulating waste management policies based on the basic policies indicated by Japan ATomic Energy Commission (JAEC). This presentation will touch upon the future perspective of radioactive waste management policy in Japan

  6. Radioactive waste communication policy in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, V.

    1993-01-01

    ENRESA (Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos, S.A.), is a State-owned company, founded in 1985 and is responsible for radioactive waste management in Spain. ENRESA's activities are developed following a General Radioactive Waste Plan approved by the Spanish Government. As in most countries, Spanish public opinion is concerned with the most activities related to radioactivity or rad-waste management due to different facts but mainly to a lack of information on the matter. This situation provides misuse of information on it by some politicians, green groups and media which increases distrust of public on responsible companies and institutions. To gain public acceptance, it would be necessary to develop long-term information policy, due to the fact that results in communication are reached in the long term. ENRESA is carrying out a Communication Plan (CP) which has been implemented in a continuous way with success around the area of the disposal site of low and intermediate level wastes as well as around an old uranium mill factory in which remedial actions are being implemented. The implantation of CP at a national level is being done stepwise. The more relevant issues related to the radioactive waste situation in Spain, as well as the communication actions are explained in this document

  7. Low level radioactive waste management and discharge policies in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oezdemir, T.; Oezdemir, C.; Uslu, I.

    2005-01-01

    The legal infrastructure in Turkey for the management of low-level radioactive waste covers the liquid, solid and gaseous wastes. Management of these radioactive wastes is briefly described in this paper. Moreover, delay and decay tank systems that are used to collect and store the low level radioactive wastes as a part of low-level radioactive effluent discharge policy are introduced. (author)

  8. Directions in low-level radioactive-waste management. Planning state policy on low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-10-01

    The majority of states face a growing problem in the management of low-level radioactive waste generated within their borders. The current uncertainty regarding the availability of disposal sites for these waste products exacerbates their increasing generation rate. The purpose of this publication is to assist state governments in planning effective policy to address these problems. Background information is presented on the current situation, the responsibilities of state government, and the assistance available to states from federal agencies and national groups. The document then focuses on state policy planning, including: (a) methodology for assessing a state's current waste management status and for projecting future needs, (b) consideration of waste management options for a state, and (c) insight into the possible effects and implications of planned policies. This information is intended primarily for state officials - executive, legislative, and agency - and does not include detailed technical information on waste characteristics or handling techniques

  9. Nuclear energy in Texas: major issues and policy recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    On December 15, 1978 the Texas Energy Advisory Council (TEAC) adopted the Texas Energy Policy, 1978 Update. The Council recognized the great complexity of technical, economic, social, and political issues which have an impact on nuclear power, and therefore decided that a special committee was needed to examine in greater detail the nuclear energy issues facing Texas. This report summarizes the work of the Advisory Committee on Nuclear energy. Topics discussed include: biological affects of low levels of radiation; transportation of radioactive material in Texas; uranium mining and milling; severance tax on uranium mining; alternate reactor designs and fuel cycles; financing nuclear plant construction; cost of disposing of nuclear wastes and decommissioning nuclear plants; low-level wastes; disposal of high-level wastes; commercial spent nuclear fuel reprocessing; and transmutation of radioactive wastes

  10. Prevention policies addressing packaging and packaging waste: Some emerging trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tencati, Antonio; Pogutz, Stefano; Moda, Beatrice; Brambilla, Matteo; Cacia, Claudia

    2016-10-01

    Packaging waste is a major issue in several countries. Representing in industrialized countries around 30-35% of municipal solid waste yearly generated, this waste stream has steadily grown over the years even if, especially in Europe, specific recycling and recovery targets have been fixed. Therefore, an increasing attention starts to be devoted to prevention measures and interventions. Filling a gap in the current literature, this explorative paper is a first attempt to map the increasingly important phenomenon of prevention policies in the packaging sector. Through a theoretical sampling, 11 countries/states (7 in and 4 outside Europe) have been selected and analyzed by gathering and studying primary and secondary data. Results show evidence of three specific trends in packaging waste prevention policies: fostering the adoption of measures directed at improving packaging design and production through an extensive use of the life cycle assessment; raising the awareness of final consumers by increasing the accountability of firms; promoting collaborative efforts along the packaging supply chains. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Radioactive waste disposal : policies and practices in New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, M.K.

    1996-01-01

    The management of radioactive waste and its ultimate dispoal have been a significant problem for the nuclear industry. A lot of resources have been devoted to developing management and dispoal systems. As well as being one of the major technical problems, it has been a very significant public relations issue. Public concern about risks associated with disposal of radioactive waste has been on a global scle. It has focused on local issues in some countries, but generl attitudes have been common worldwide. Great differences exist between countries in the scale and aspects of nuclear technoloy in use. In particular the presence or absence of a nuclear power programme, and to a lesser extent of any nuclear reactors, greatly influence the magnitude of the waste disposal problem. Nevertheless, public perceptions of the problem are to some degree independent of these differences. What radioactive wastes are there in New Zealand? Is there a hazard to the New Zealand public or the New Zealand environment from current radioactive waste disposal practices? What policies are in place to control these practices? This report seeks to provide some information on these questions. It also brings together in one document the waste disposal policies followed by the National Radiation Laboratory for different uses of radioactive mateials. Except for some small quantities which are exempt from most controls, radioactive material can be used in New Zealand only under the control of a person holding a licence under the Radiation Protection Act 1965. All requirements of the Radiation Protection Regulations 1982 must also be observed. More detailed safety advice and further mandatory requirements are contained in codes of safe practice. Compliance with one of these is a condition on most licencees. These provisions are administered by the National Radiation Laboratory (NRL) of the Ministry of Health. (author). 7 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  12. Industrial waste management within manufacturing: a comparative study of tools, policies, visions and concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Shahbazi, Sasha; Kurdve, Martin; Bjelkemyr, Marcus; Jönsson, Christina; Wiktorsson, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    Industrial waste is a key factor when assessing the sustainability of a manufacturing process or company. A multitude of visions, concepts, tools, and policies are used both academically and industrially to improve the environmental effect of manufacturing; a majority of these approaches have a direct bearing on industrial waste. The identified approaches have in this paper been categorised according to application area, goals, organisational entity, life cycle phase, and waste hierarchy stag...

  13. Major Components of the National TRU Waste System Optimization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moody, D.C.; Bennington, B.; Sharif, F.

    2002-01-01

    The National Transuranic (TRU) Program (NTP) is being optimized to allow for disposing of the legacy TRU waste at least 10 years earlier than originally planned. This acceleration will save the nation an estimated $713. The Department of Energy's (DOE'S) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) has initiated the National TRU Waste System Optimization Project to propose, and upon approvaI, implement activities that produce significant cost saving by improving efficiency, thereby accelerating the rate of TRU waste disposal without compromising safety. In its role as NTP agent of change, the National TRU Waste System Optimization Project (the Project) (1) interacts closely with all NTP activities. Three of the major components of the Project are the Central Characterization Project (CCP), the Central Confirmation Facility (CCF), and the MobiIe/Modular Deployment Program.

  14. Fifty years of federal radioactive waste management: Policies and practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, R.G.

    1997-04-01

    This report provides a chronological history of policies and practices relating to the management of radioactive waste for which the US Atomic Energy Commission and its successor agencies, the Energy Research and Development Administration and the Department of Energy, have been responsible since the enactment of the Atomic Energy Act in 1946. The defense programs and capabilities that the Commission inherited in 1947 are briefly described. The Commission undertook a dramatic expansion nationwide of its physical facilities and program capabilities over the five years beginning in 1947. While the nuclear defense activities continued to be a major portion of the Atomic Energy Commission`s program, there was added in 1955 the Atoms for Peace program that spawned a multiplicity of peaceful use applications for nuclear energy, e.g., the civilian nuclear power program and its associated nuclear fuel cycle; a variety of industrial applications; and medical research, diagnostic, and therapeutic applications. All of these nuclear programs and activities generated large volumes of radioactive waste that had to be managed in a manner that was safe for the workers, the public, and the environment. The management of these materials, which varied significantly in their physical, chemical, and radiological characteristics, involved to varying degrees the following phases of the waste management system life cycle: waste characterization, storage, treatment, and disposal, with appropriate transportation linkages. One of the benefits of reviewing the history of the waste management program policies and practices if the opportunity it provides for identifying the lessons learned over the years. Examples are summarized at the end of the report and are listed in no particular order of importance.

  15. Fifty years of federal radioactive waste management: Policies and practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, R.G.

    1997-04-01

    This report provides a chronological history of policies and practices relating to the management of radioactive waste for which the US Atomic Energy Commission and its successor agencies, the Energy Research and Development Administration and the Department of Energy, have been responsible since the enactment of the Atomic Energy Act in 1946. The defense programs and capabilities that the Commission inherited in 1947 are briefly described. The Commission undertook a dramatic expansion nationwide of its physical facilities and program capabilities over the five years beginning in 1947. While the nuclear defense activities continued to be a major portion of the Atomic Energy Commission's program, there was added in 1955 the Atoms for Peace program that spawned a multiplicity of peaceful use applications for nuclear energy, e.g., the civilian nuclear power program and its associated nuclear fuel cycle; a variety of industrial applications; and medical research, diagnostic, and therapeutic applications. All of these nuclear programs and activities generated large volumes of radioactive waste that had to be managed in a manner that was safe for the workers, the public, and the environment. The management of these materials, which varied significantly in their physical, chemical, and radiological characteristics, involved to varying degrees the following phases of the waste management system life cycle: waste characterization, storage, treatment, and disposal, with appropriate transportation linkages. One of the benefits of reviewing the history of the waste management program policies and practices if the opportunity it provides for identifying the lessons learned over the years. Examples are summarized at the end of the report and are listed in no particular order of importance

  16. Tank waste remediation system characterization project quality policies. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trimble, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    These Quality Policies (QPs) describe the Quality Management System of the Tank Waste Characterization Project (hereafter referred to as the Characterization Project), Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS), Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). The Quality Policies and quality requirements described herein are binding on all Characterization Project organizations. To achieve quality, the Characterization Project management team shall implement this Characterization Project Quality Management System

  17. Impact of advanced fuel cycle options on waste management policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordelier, Stan; Cavedon, Jean-Marc

    2006-01-01

    OECD/NEA has performed a study on the impact of advanced fuel cycle options on waste management policies with 33 experts from 12 member countries, 1 non-member country and 2 international organizations. The study extends a series of previous ones on partitioning and transmutation (P and T) issues, focusing on the performance assessments for repositories of high-level waste (HLW) arising from advanced fuel cycles. This study covers a broader spectrum than previous studies, from present industrial practice to fully closed cycles via partially closed cycles (in terms of transuranic elements); 9 fuel cycle schemes and 4 variants. Elements of fuel cycles are considered primarily as sources of waste, the internal mass flows of each scheme being kept for the sake of mass conservation. The compositions, activities and heat loads of all waste flows are also tracked. Their impact is finally assessed on the waste repository concepts. The study result confirms the findings from the previous NEA studies on P and T on maximal reduction of the waste source term and maximal use of uranium resources. In advanced fuel cycle schemes the activity of the waste is reduced by burning first plutonium and then minor actinides and also the uranium consumption is reduced, as the fraction of fast reactors in the park is increased to 100%. The result of the repository performance assessments, analysing the effect of different HLW isotopic composition on repository performance and on repository capacity, shows that the maximum dose released to biosphere at any time in normal conditions remains, for all schemes and for all the repository concepts examined, well below accepted radiation protection thresholds. The major impact is on the detailed concept of the repositories, through heat load and waste volume. Advanced fuel cycles could allow a repository to cover waste produced from 5 to 20 times more electricity generation than PWR once-through cycle. Given the flexibility of the advanced fuel

  18. Overview of nuclear export policies of major foreign supplier nations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The United States faces increased competition from foreign nuclear suppliers, including West Germany, France, the United Kingdom, Canada, and possibly, in the near future, Japan. This general overview shows the differences and similarities in foreign nuclear supplier export requirements. It is based on summaries furnished by the Department of State covering the nuclear export policies and procedures of the major foreign supplier nations

  19. Policy gridlock in waste management: Balancing federal and state concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, D.L.; Peretz, J.H.; Jendrucko, B.K.

    1993-01-01

    Current federal hazardous and low-level radioactive waste management policies fail to balance national concerns for policy consistency with state concerns for equity, discretion, and adequate resources. Failure to balance these competing values has resulted in open-quotes policy gridlockclose quotes - exemplified by conflicts over the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Acts. Both conflicts have resulted in recent U.S. Supreme Court litigation. After reviewing federal-state conflict in hazardous and low-level radioactive waste management, we propose that the solution to gridlock lies in modifying conjoint federalism. Conjoint federalism allows for joint responsibility for waste policy between federal and state governments, with state programs meeting minimum standards set by federal programs. However, conjoint federalism does not currently allow for sufficient state discretion, which is paramount for successful waste management programs. Specifically, Congress should expand conjoint federalism, to allow states to charge differential fees on imported hazardous waste as is done for low-level radioactive waste. This expansion would encourage waste minimization and better interstate planning

  20. Policy gridlock in waste management: Balancing federal and state concerns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, D.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Peretz, J.H.; Jendrucko, B.K. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Current federal hazardous and low-level radioactive waste management policies fail to balance national concerns for policy consistency with state concerns for equity, discretion, and adequate resources. Failure to balance these competing values has resulted in {open_quotes}policy gridlock{close_quotes} - exemplified by conflicts over the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Acts. Both conflicts have resulted in recent U.S. Supreme Court litigation. After reviewing federal-state conflict in hazardous and low-level radioactive waste management, we propose that the solution to gridlock lies in modifying conjoint federalism. Conjoint federalism allows for joint responsibility for waste policy between federal and state governments, with state programs meeting minimum standards set by federal programs. However, conjoint federalism does not currently allow for sufficient state discretion, which is paramount for successful waste management programs. Specifically, Congress should expand conjoint federalism, to allow states to charge differential fees on imported hazardous waste as is done for low-level radioactive waste. This expansion would encourage waste minimization and better interstate planning.

  1. Evaluation and development of a policy for waste generation control - electric and electronic waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kwang Im [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Although a policy to reduce waste amount and promote recycling for large electric appliances was introduced, it is still in the initial stage operated in a form of recommendation and the general management system of electric and electronic waste has not established yet. In this study, the generation and disposal of electric and electronic waste were examined and the effectiveness of present policy was evaluated. Based on the analysis, a policy for the more appropriate electric and electronic waste management was presented. 34 refs., 4 figs., 51 tabs.

  2. Waste incineration industry and development policies in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Zhao, Xingang; Li, Yanbin; Li, Xiaoyu

    2015-12-01

    The growing pollution from municipal solid waste due to economic growth and urbanization has brought great challenge to China. The main method of waste disposal has gradually changed from landfill to incineration, because of the enormous land occupation by landfills. The paper presents the results of a study of the development status of the upstream and downstream of the waste incineration industry chain in China, reviews the government policies for the waste incineration power industry, and provides a forecast of the development trend of the waste incineration industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Radioactive waste management in Canada: progress and challenges 15 years after the policy framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCauley, D.

    2011-01-01

    'Full text:' Introduction: Canada's Policy Framework for Radioactive Waste Management came into being in 1996, establishing the federal Government's overarching policy on radioactive waste management. Most importantly, the Policy Framework clearly establishes the role of the federal government and the role of the waste producers for radioactive waste management. Since the elaboration of the Policy Framework, there have been major developments on a variety of waste management fronts. The paper will examine those developments and identify the remaining challenges ahead in establishing a Canadian approach to radioactive waste management that is comprehensive. Canada's Policy Framework for Radioactive Waste Management established the Government's overarching policy for radioactive waste management. It was developed and established at a time when there was a fair degree of uncertainty regarding the role of the federal government, the provinces, and the waste producers in the area of radioactive waste management generally, and the management of nuclear fuel waste in particular. The Policy Framework clarified the roles and responsibilities of both the federal government and the operators and, in so doing, contributed to advancing radioactive waste management initiatives across Canada. The Government is responsible for developing policy, regulating, and overseeing that the owners of waste comply with legal requirements and meet their operational responsibilities in accordance with their waste management plans. The owners of the waste are responsible for funding and managing their own radioactive wastes. Over the course of the last 15 years, since the elaboration of the Policy Framework, there have been significant strides in developing long-term management solutions for Canada's radioactive wastes. Key developments in radioactive waste management include legislation in the area of nuclear fuel waste and the associated milestones emanating

  4. French policy concerning radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauvenet, Andre.

    1981-01-01

    After having mentioned the origin of nuclear waste, the problems brought about by the existence of radioactive products and the change in the regulations, the processing and packaging of waste is examined. In the economic calculations the total cost of waste management, including storage, must be allowed for, and the risks-profits study must be applied to the waste and the sum total of the doses for the populations and the workers minimized. The temporary or definitive storage depends on the sort of wastes: beta-gamma without alpha stored on the surface or at small depth, low or medium activity stored temporarily whilst awaiting a site and the high activity waste which is vitrified then stored in situ and cooled before deep storage. Although there is no complete solution as yet for the problem of waste, it is technically very advanced and it is from the political and psychological angle that it meets most difficulties [fr

  5. Problems and prospects for nuclear waste disposal policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzik, E.B.; Mushkatel, A.H.

    1996-01-01

    This book is a collection of articles examining legal, organizational, and public-interest issues involving the transportation, storage, treatment, and disposal of radioactive wastes. The introductions examines the unresolved issues of nuclear-waste policy-making in the USA and then presents essays covering the disposal of commercial power plant fuel, low level radioactive wastes, the by-products of nuclear weapons production, and the challenges of transporting radiological materials

  6. Effect of advanced fuel cycles on waste management policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavedon, J.M.; Haapalehto, T.

    2005-01-01

    The study aims at analysing a range of future fuel cycle options from the perspective of their impact on waste repository demand and specification. The study would focus on: Assessment of the characteristics of radioactive wastes arising from advanced nuclear fuel cycle options, repository performance analysis studies using source terms for waste arising from such advanced nuclear fuel cycles, identification of new options for waste management and disposal. Three families of fuel cycles having increasing recycling capabilities are assessed. Each cycle is composed of waste generating and management processes. Examples of waste generating processes are fuel factories (7 types) and reprocessing plants (7 types). Packaging and conditioning plants (7) and disposal facilities are examples of waste management processes. The characteristic of all these processes have been described and then total waste flows are summarised. In order to simplify the situation, three waste categories have been defined based on the IAEA definitions in order to emphasize the major effects of different types of waste. These categories are: short-life waste for surface or sub-surface disposal, long-life low heat producing waste for geological disposal, high-level waste for geological disposal. The feasibilities of the fuel cycles are compared in terms of economics, primary resource consumption and amount of waste generated. The effect of high-level waste composition for the repository performance is one of the tools in these comparisons. The results of this will be published as an NEA publication before the end of 2005. (authors)

  7. Radioactive waste disposal - policy and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, L.E.J.

    1979-01-01

    Methods are discussed that have been developed and could be used for management and disposal of highly active wastes. The characteristics of such waste are, described and the concept of toxic potential is explained. General principles of waste disposal and the various options which have been considered are discussed. Studies on the incorporation of waste into glass, and on container materials are described. Consideration is also given to the requirements of stores and repositories from the aspect of heat dissipation, design, siting, etc. The advantages and disadvantages of the various types of geological formation ie salt, argillaceous deposits, hardrocks, suitable for containment of highly active wastes are examined. Studies carried out on the safety of repositories and an ocean disposal of the waste are summarised. The review ends with a brief account of the status of the vitrification process in the UK and abroad and of future programmes involving geological and related studies. (UK)

  8. Radioactive waste disposal - policy and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, L E.J. [UKAEA, Harwell. Atomic Energy Research Establishment

    1979-04-01

    Methods are discussed that have been developed and could be used for management and disposal of highly active wastes. The characteristics of such waste are, described and the concept of toxic potential is explained. General principles of waste disposal and the various options which have been considered are discussed. Studies on the incorporation of waste into glass, and on container materials are described. Consideration is also given to the requirements of stores and repositories from the aspect of heat dissipation, design, siting, etc. The advantages and disadvantages of the various types of geological formation ie salt, argillaceous deposits, hardrocks, suitable for containment of highly active wastes are examined. Studies carried out on the safety of repositories and an ocean disposal of the waste are summarised. The review ends with a brief account of the status of the vitrification process in the UK and abroad and of future programmes involving geological and related studies.

  9. Status of DOE defense waste management policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oertel, K.G.; Scott, R.S.

    1983-01-01

    This paper very briefly traces the statutory basis for DOE management of atomic energy defense activity wastes, touches on the authority of the Federal agencies involved in the regulation of defense nuclear waste management, and addresses the applicable regulations and their status. This background sets the stage for a fairly detailed discussion of management and disposal strategies of the Defense Waste and Byproducts Management Program

  10. Update on Waste Management Policies and Programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    In addition to the regular items on national, international and NEA programme activities, this edition of the Bulletin contains two special contributions. First, a special editorial by Dr. Rudolf Rometsch, President of the Swiss National Cooperative for the Storage of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA) and current Chairman of the NEA Radioactive Waste Management Committee (RWMC), provides his personal reflections on the significance and relevance of the recent ''TRANSNUKLEAR AFFAIR'' to the waste management community. Secondly, the recently released Goguel Report from France is featured in the ''Topical Report'' section. This report provides a useful examination of site selection criteria for geological waste repositories [fr

  11. The new Japanese policy for TRU-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, M.

    1992-01-01

    In July 1991, the Advisory Committee on Radioactive Waste of the Japan Atomic Energy Commission announced its report on a new Japanese policy for TRU-waste management. The total volume of radioactive wastes which contain TRU nuclides has reached the equivalent of about 40,000,200-liter drums, and is expected to grow to about 300,000 drums by the year 2010. Further development is required to reduce the volume of the existing waste and to decrease the amount of waste being generated. Wastes with concentration levels exceeding a threshold limit of 1 Giga-Becquerel per ton will be disposed in an underground facility. Those wastes with lower activities will be sent to a shallow-land burial facility. The goal of research and development is the completion of the disposal system by the late 1990's. (author)

  12. Policies and Strategies for Radioactive Waste Management (Russian Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    To assure the safe, technically optimal and cost effective management of spent fuel and radioactive waste, appropriate policies and strategies are required. This publication clarifies the differences between a policy and a strategy, and provides principal advice to Member States on the typical composition, mutual links and the process of compilation of such documents. It also offers options for and indicates approaches to the management of spent fuel and radioactive waste, thus enabling an effective spent fuel and radioactive waste management infrastructure to be developed.

  13. Household medical waste disposal policy in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett-Itzhaki, Zohar; Berman, Tamar; Grotto, Itamar; Schwartzberg, Eyal

    2016-01-01

    Large amounts of expired and unused medications accumulate in households. This potentially exposes the public to hazards due to uncontrolled use of medications. Most of the expired or unused medications that accumulate in households (household medical waste) is thrown to the garbage or flushed down to the sewage, potentially contaminating waste-water, water resources and even drinking water. There is evidence that pharmaceutical active ingredients reach the environment, including food, however the risk to public health from low level exposure to pharmaceuticals in the environment is currently unknown. In Israel, there is no legislation regarding household medical waste collection and disposal. Furthermore, only less than 14 % of Israelis return unused medications to Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) pharmacies. In this study, we investigated world-wide approaches and programs for household medical waste collection and disposal. In many countries around the world there are programs for household medical waste collection. In many countries there is legislation to address the issue of household medical waste, and this waste is collected in hospitals, clinics, law enforcement agencies and pharmacies. Furthermore, in many countries, medication producers and pharmacies pay for the collection and destruction of household medical waste, following the "polluter pays" principle. Several approaches and methods should be considered in Israel: (a) legislation and regulation to enable a variety of institutes to collect household medical waste (b) implementing the "polluter pays" principle and enforcing medical products manufactures to pay for the collection and destruction of household medical waste. (c) Raising awareness of patients, pharmacists, and other medical health providers regarding the health and environmental risks in accumulation of drugs and throwing them to the garbage, sink or toilet. (d) Adding specific instructions regarding disposal of the drug, in the

  14. The role of bureaucratic expertise in nuclear waste policy: Agency power and policy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henkels, M.

    1989-01-01

    The role of agency expertise in the nuclear waste policy process is explored during three periods: (1) 1957-1959 when nuclear wastes entered the public agenda, (2) 1970-1972 when the Atomic Energy Commission attempted to establish a waste repository in Kansas, and (3) 1984-1986 during the Department of Energy's implementation of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. The study evaluated whether the preconditions for dependence on or deference to agency expertise have become less favorable, weakening agency control of the policy process. Five factors of expertise power are evaluated, beginning with the agency's role in the nuclear-energy and radioactive-waste information system. Perspectives on nuclear energy generally and of waste issues specifically are examined next; both indicate attitudes on the tractability of the problem and the likelihood of policy success. References to agency behavior and policies are used to evaluate views of agency competency. Finally, views of agency trustworthiness are examined through the comparison of portrayals of agency priorities and motivations. Agency expertise is evaluated in four contexts: (1) Congressional hearings, (2) nationally prominent newspapers, (3) journals of the scientific community, and (4) state and local papers of affected areas. State and tribal officials involved in the 1980s' nuclear waste policy process were surveyed also

  15. The styles of the Finnish nuclear waste policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojo, Matti

    2010-09-01

    The Finnish government determined the aims and schedule for nuclear waste management in 1983. Nearly three decades later spent nuclear fuel (SNF) management is approaching the construction licensing phase of the repository, on schedule. The parliamentary decision on the final disposal of SNF was taken almost unanimously in 2001. The location of the SNF facility was chosen at the same time. The smoothness of this raises questions about the main factors behind the progress in Finland. The aim of the paper is to analyse the Finnish nuclear waste policy from the point of view of policy style. In the paper policy style is defined as 'the interaction between (a) the government's approach to problem-solving and (b) the relationship between government and the other actors in policy process'. According to this definition by Richardson, Gustafsson and Jordan, the focus of style is both on policymaking and on implementation. The policy style approach is used to identify the standard operating procedures of Finnish nuclear waste policy. The paper aims to contribute to the discussion on the formation of national nuclear waste policy and its institutions by analysing the Finnish case

  16. Public policy issues in nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nealey, S.M.; Radford, L.M.

    1978-10-01

    This document aims to raise issues and to analyze them, not resolve them. The issues were: temporal equity, geographic and socioeconomic equity, implementation of a nuclear waste management system, and public involvement

  17. Recommendations on national radioactive waste management policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    As a nation, we have learned that sound technical solutions to the problems of waste disposal cannot be carried out without public acceptance. The key to gaining the public's confidence is a process of decision making which is open and accessible to elected officials from all levels of government. The Council believes that such a process can be put in place through a renewal of the traditional principles of our federal system of government. State, local, and tribal officials must become working partners with the federal government in making the crucial decisions about how radioactive wastes will be handled, transported, and ultimately disposed. A workable and effective partnership must include, first the full sharing of information and plans regarding waste disposal activities among all levels of government and, second, the opportunity for state, local, and tribal governments to participate effectively in waste management decisions which affect their jurisdictions. Finally, althougcome this difficulty

  18. Strategy and design of Innovation Policy Road Mapping for a waste biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rama Mohan, S

    2016-09-01

    Looming energy crisis, climate change concerns coupled with decreasing fossil fuel resources has garnered significant global attention toward development of alternative, renewable, carbon-neutral and eco-friendly fuels to fulfil burgeoning energy demands. Waste utilization and its management are being pursued with renewed interest due to the gamut of biobased products it can offer apart from providing enough energy to meet a major fraction of the world's energy demand. Biorefining is the sustainable processing of biomass into a spectrum of marketable products and energy. Integrating all components of waste treatment culminating into biobased products and energy recovery in a single integrated waste biorefinery is self sufficient, highly sustainable and is very beneficial. Designing systematic innovation policies are essential for development and commercialization of new technologies in this important futuristic research area. This communication explores Innovation Policy Road Mapping (IPRM) methodology available in the literature and applies it to design integrated waste biorefinery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The differences between emission, waste, and a good, and their significance to waste management policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm-Mueller, K.

    1994-01-01

    This paper defines the transportability of solid waste as its major difference compared to emissions. Several specific possibilities for politics dealing with the problems of solid waste are deduced from this characteristic. The difference between solid waste and good lies in the valuation of objects. As is shown the negative valuation of waste has a great influence on the effect of possible politics derived in part one of this paper. (orig.) [de

  20. 41 CFR 102-85.40 - What are the major components of the pricing policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... components of the pricing policy? 102-85.40 Section 102-85.40 Public Contracts and Property Management...-PRICING POLICY FOR OCCUPANCY IN GSA SPACE Pricing Policy-General § 102-85.40 What are the major components of the pricing policy? The major components of the pricing policy are: (a) An OA between a customer...

  1. A Nuclear Waste Management Cost Model for Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, R. W.; Hill, M. C.

    2017-12-01

    Although integrated assessments of climate change policy have frequently identified nuclear energy as a promising alternative to fossil fuels, these studies have often treated nuclear waste disposal very simply. Simple assumptions about nuclear waste are problematic because they may not be adequate to capture relevant costs and uncertainties, which could result in suboptimal policy choices. Modeling nuclear waste management costs is a cross-disciplinary, multi-scale problem that involves economic, geologic and environmental processes that operate at vastly different temporal scales. Similarly, the climate-related costs and benefits of nuclear energy are dependent on environmental sensitivity to CO2 emissions and radiation, nuclear energy's ability to offset carbon emissions, and the risk of nuclear accidents, factors which are all deeply uncertain. Alternative value systems further complicate the problem by suggesting different approaches to valuing intergenerational impacts. Effective policy assessment of nuclear energy requires an integrated approach to modeling nuclear waste management that (1) bridges disciplinary and temporal gaps, (2) supports an iterative, adaptive process that responds to evolving understandings of uncertainties, and (3) supports a broad range of value systems. This work develops the Nuclear Waste Management Cost Model (NWMCM). NWMCM provides a flexible framework for evaluating the cost of nuclear waste management across a range of technology pathways and value systems. We illustrate how NWMCM can support policy analysis by estimating how different nuclear waste disposal scenarios developed using the NWMCM framework affect the results of a recent integrated assessment study of alternative energy futures and their effects on the cost of achieving carbon abatement targets. Results suggest that the optimism reflected in previous works is fragile: Plausible nuclear waste management costs and discount rates appropriate for intergenerational cost

  2. Microgrid Policy Review of Selected Major Countries, Regions, and Organizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Min [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Marnay, Chris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zhou, Nan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-11-30

    This report collects and reviews policies and regulations related to microgrid development, and is intended as a reference. The material is divided into three parts under five dimensions: interconnection, RD&D, tariff policy, other policies, and recommendations.

  3. Development of federal government policy on radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howieson, J.

    1979-01-01

    The federal government position on radioactive waste management has been defined in one area - that of spent fuel waste - where AECL is pursuing an R and D program under the 1978 Ontario-Federal agreement. This agreement has a term of two years. In considering its renewal and in other areas of radioactive waste management, the government is working towards establishing its policy position. A review is given of the reasons for the government's interest in this area and some of the background which affects the approach to be taken. (auth)

  4. Direct and indirect effects of waste management policies on household waste behaviour: The case of Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Camilla; Stage, Jesper

    2018-03-28

    Swedish legislation makes municipalities responsible for recycling or disposing of household waste. Municipalities therefore play an important role in achieving Sweden's increased levels of ambition in the waste management area and in achieving the goal of a more circular economy. This paper studies how two municipal policy instruments - weight-based waste tariffs and special systems for the collection of food waste - affect the collected volumes of different types of waste. We find that a system of collecting food waste separately is more effective overall than imposing weight-based waste tariffs in respect not only of reducing the amounts of waste destined for incineration, but also of increasing materials recycling and biological recovery, despite the fact that the direct incentive effects of these two systems should be similar. Separate food waste collection was associated with increased recycling not only of food waste but also of other waste. Introducing separate food waste collection indirectly signals to households that recycling is important and desirable, and our results suggest that this signalling effect may be as important as direct incentive effects. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Waste management and environmental compliance aspects of a major remedial action program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devgun, J.S.; Beskid, N.J.

    1991-01-01

    The Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) is one of four major programs undertaken by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to remediate various sites where radiological contamination remained from programs conducted during the nation's early years of research and development in atomic energy. The remedial actions at the 33 sites that are currently in FUSRAP could generate an estimated total volume of about 1.6 million cubic meters of radioactive waste. Waste disposal is currently estimated to represent about one-third of the total estimated $2.1 billion cost for the entire program over its total duration. Waste management aspects within the program are diverse. The sites range in size from small areas used only for storage operations to large-scale decommissioned industrial facilities where uranium processing and other operations were carried out in the past. Currently, four sites are on the National Priorities List for remediation. Remedial actions at FUSRAP sites have to satisfy the requirements of both the National Environmental Policy Act and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, as amended. In addition, a number of federal, state, and local laws as well as Executive Orders and DOE Orders may be applicable or relevant to each site. Several key issues currently face the program, including the mixed waste issue, both from the environmental compliance (with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act) and the disposal technology perspectives. 7 refs., 1 tab

  6. Conservation biology in Asia: the major policy challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeely, Jeffrey A; Kapoor-Vijay, Promila; Zhi, Lu; Olsvig-Whittaker, Linda; Sheikh, Kashif M; Smith, Andrew T

    2009-08-01

    With about half the world's human population and booming economies, Asia faces numerous challenges to its biodiversity. The Asia Section of the Society for Conservation Biology has identified some key policy issues in which significant progress can be made. These include developing new sources of funding for forest conservation; identifying potential impacts of energy alternatives on the conservation of biodiversity; curbing the trade in endangered species of plants and animals; a special focus on the conservation of mountain biodiversity; enhancing relevant research; ensuring that conservation biology contributes to major international conventions and funding mechanisms; using conservation biology to build a better understanding of zoonotic diseases; more effectively addressing human-animal conflicts; enhancing community-based conservation; and using conservation biology to help address the pervasive water-deficit problems in much of Asia. These challenges can be met through improved regional cooperation among the relevant stakeholders.

  7. ICRP policy for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nenot, Jean-Claude

    2002-01-01

    Jean-Claude Nenot (IPSN, France) gave an overview of recommendations from ICRP during the past 25 years that are relevant to the safety of waste disposal. These recommendations were primarily concerned with public exposure, and suggested that the necessary system of protection should be controlled through the principles of constrained optimisation and prescriptive limits. The principles of justification, optimisation and dose and risk limitation were applicable to waste management. Justification should however be applied to the practice resulting in the generation of waste rather than to waste management per se. As regards optimisation, this should be interpreted in a subtler manner than the simple application of cost-benefit analysis, as an aggregation of very small doses over future world populations would be essentially meaningless. The primary criterion should therefore be the dose to an individual from a relevant critical group, and optimisation should also take account of social and economic factors. The application of dose limits had intrinsic difficulties because of multiple sources, through restrictions determined as a result of monitoring could be envisaged. The approach to dealing with potential future intrusion presented a particular difficulty (as compared to natural processes) because the probability of occurrence could not realistically be determined and therefore a risk-based approach was not recommended. Instead, prospective doses should be assessed against criteria for intervention situations, as proposed in ICRP 82, i.e. action (in terms of a preventative design change, for example) was unlikely to be justifiable at hypothetical and uncertain future dose levels below about 10 mSv/year

  8. Science, society, and America's nuclear waste: Unit 3, The Nuclear Waste Policy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This teachers guide is unit 3, the nuclear waste policy act, in a four-unit secondary curriculum. It is intended to provide information about scientific and societal issues related to the management of spent nuclear fuel from generation of electricity at nuclear powerplants and high-level radioactive waste from US national defense activities. The curriculum, supporting classroom activities, and teaching materials present a brief discussion of energy and electricity generation, including that produced at nuclear power plants; information on sources, amounts, location, and characteristics of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste; sources, types and effects of radiation; US policy for managing and disposing of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste and what other countries are doing; and the components of the nuclear waste management system

  9. Science, society, and America's nuclear waste: Unit 3, The Nuclear Waste Policy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This is the 3rd unit, (The Nuclear Waste Policy Act) a four-unit secondary curriculum. It is intended to provide information about scientific and societal issues related to the management of spent nuclear fuel from generation of electricity at nuclear powerplants and high-level radioactive waste from US national defense activities. The curriculum, supporting classroom activities, and teaching materials present a brief discussion of energy and electricity generation, including that produced at nuclear powerplants; information on sources, amounts, location, and characteristics of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste; sources, types and effects of radiation; US policy for managing and disposing of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste and what other countries are doing; and the components of the nuclear waste management system

  10. Social Technology Apply to National Policy on Solid Waste: Solid Waste Management Integrated in the Countryside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greice Kelly Lourenco Porfirio de Oliveira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to study the environmentally friendly social technologies through appropriate techniques to the treatment of solid waste disposed of improperly. After exposure of concepts, a reflection on the use of social technologies as a mechanism for realization of integrated management objectives of waste set by the National Solid Waste Policy will be made – 12.305/10 . Finally, data from the Social Technologies Bank of Brazil Foundation will be displayed showing the results of the use of technology to promote the integrated management of solid waste in rural communities Crateús/CE , through a provision aimed at PNRS, selective collection

  11. Waste management policy and its implementation in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rundquist, G.

    1984-01-01

    Long-term policy for the management of nuclear waste and for decommissioning of nuclear plants was formulated in a Bill to the Swedish Parliament in 1981. This policy is based on the principles that the nuclear utilities as producers of the waste bear the primary responsibility for the safe disposal of the waste; the State bears the ultimate responsibility that the waste is disposed of in a manner which is satisfactory to society; and the costs of the waste management shall be borne by those who benefit from the activity which produces the waste. Based on these principles and the timetable established by the decisions not to use nuclear power after the year 2010, systems for planning and financing nuclear waste disposal have been set up to ensure that the necessary actions are taken by the nuclear utilities and are subject to control by the State. The Swedish organization for carrying out these tasks is described in the paper. The planning system was put into effect in June 1982 when a Radioactive Waste Management Plan - Plan 82 - was presented including a research and development programme and a detailed description of the facilities needed to carry out a waste disposal scheme till about 2060. The total cost for the whole back end of the Swedish nuclear fuel cycle is estimated at about SEK 39x10 9 (equivalent to US $5.2x10 9 ). More than 60% of the total costs fall after 2010. The financing system has been in force since 1982. The Government has set the fee for 1983 to SEK 0.017 per kW.h (equivalent to US mill 2.3). The future Swedish strategy is to pursue an intensive research and development programme and subsequently to make the decision on how the actual disposal is to be effected. (author)

  12. A state perspective on the Nuclear Waste Policy Act program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stucker, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    The author discusses the problems he sees with the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) program. He labels the problems as: against the law, all the eggs in one basket, acceptance rate, and the MRS program. The author comments of five issues that need to be addressed to right the wrongs of the NWPA program

  13. Nuclear Waste Policy Act transportation planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, K.A.

    1984-01-01

    The importance and magnitude of effort to put in place a safe, publicly acceptable transportation system for radioactive wastes are discussed. The importance of working openly, documenting efforts in a way that is objective and can be understood by the general public, and being particularly sensitive and responsive to public concerns is recognized. Key elements of current planning have been described, but numerous details remain to be worked out. These details will be worked out, proposed in programs plans, and made publicly available. The author looks forward to ideas and comments for improving these plans and their implementation

  14. Waste Minimization Policy at the Romanian Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrei, V.; Daian, I.

    2002-01-01

    The radioactive waste management system at Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) in Romania was designed to maintain acceptable levels of safety for workers and to protect human health and the environment from exposure to unacceptable levels of radiation. In accordance with terminology of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), this system consists of the ''pretreatment'' of solid and organic liquid radioactive waste, which may include part or all of the following activities: collection, handling, volume reduction (by an in-drum compactor, if appropriate), and storage. Gaseous and aqueous liquid wastes are managed according to the ''dilute and discharge'' strategy. Taking into account the fact that treatment/conditioning and disposal technologies are still not established, waste minimization at the source is a priority environmental management objective, while waste minimization at the disposal stage is presently just a theoretical requirement for future adopted technologies . The necessary operational and maintenance procedures are in place at Cernavoda to minimize the production and contamination of waste. Administrative and technical measures are established to minimize waste volumes. Thus, an annual environmental target of a maximum 30 m3 of radioactive waste volume arising from operation and maintenance has been established. Within the first five years of operations at Cernavoda NPP, this target has been met. The successful implementation of the waste minimization policy has been accompanied by a cost reduction while the occupational doses for plant workers have been maintained at as low as reasonably practicable levels. This paper will describe key features of the waste management system along with the actual experience that has been realized with respect to minimizing the waste volumes at the Cernavoda NPP

  15. Historic low-level radioactive waste federal policies, programs and oversight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchette, M.; Kenney, J.; Zelmer, B.

    2011-01-01

    'Full text:' The management of radioactive waste is one of the most serious environmental problems facing Canadians. From the early industrial uses of radioactive material in the 1930s to the development of nuclear power reactors and the medical and experimental use of radio-isotopes today, there has been a steady accumulation of waste products. Historic waste is low-level radioactive waste for which the federal government has accepted responsibility for long-term management. This paper will outline the policy framework used to govern institutional and financial arrangements for the disposal of radioactive waste by waste producers and owners and the major radioactive projects in which the Government of Canada is currently involved. It will provide an overview of the organizations established for the management of historic radioactive waste and NRCan's oversight role. Finally, an overview of the historic waste program activities managed on behalf of the federal government through these organizations in the Port Hope area, the Greater Toronto Area, in Fort McMurray, Alberta and along the Northern Transportation Route is provided. Canada's Policy Framework for Radioactive Waste, sets out principles that govern the institutional and financial arrangements for disposal of radioactive waste by waste producers and owners. According to the Policy Framework: The federal government will ensure that radioactive waste disposal is carried out in a safe, environmentally sound, comprehensive, cost-effective and integrated manner; The federal government has the responsibility to develop policy, to regulate, and to oversee producers and owners; and, The waste producers and owners are responsible, in accordance with the principle of 'polluter pays', for the funding, organization, management and operation of disposal and other facilities required for their wastes. Arrangements may be different for nuclear fuel waste, low-level radioactive waste and

  16. Policies on radioactive waste disposal in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selling, H.A.

    1999-01-01

    An outline is given of the policy in the Netherlands on radioactive waste management, with an emphasis on the preferred disposal strategies. A description is given of the siting and licensing process for the waste treatment and storage facility of COVRA, which is in many respects expected to be comparable with that for a disposal site in due course. Immediate disposal of radioactive waste is not envisaged. Instead, the government has opted for long term interim storage in an engineered facility until sufficient confidence has been obtained on the safety performance of a geological repository over long time periods. In the previous decade research has mostly focused on the exploration of the suitability of existing salt formations in the northern part of the country as host rock for a radioactive waste repository. Although so far no in situ research was carried out, it could be demonstrated by utilising values of the relevant parameters from other rock salt formations that, in principle, deep underground disposal of radioactive waste is safe. This assessment was made by comparing both with common radiation protection criteria and with risk criteria over long periods of time. However, a decision to proceed with in situ research was postponed in view of the strong opposition from the local population against underground disposal. Instead, the scope of the research was extended to other host rock materials (clay). Additionally, from a sustainability point of view it was demanded that disposal should be conceived as an irreversible process. This means that the waste should be disposed of in such a way that it is retrievable in case better processing methods for the waste would become available. This demand of retrievability derives from the general waste policy to close the life-cycles of raw materials in order not to deprive future generations from their benefits. Consequently, much of the sequential research is now focused on the safety and financial impact of

  17. Long-lived radioactive waste, the French management policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, P.

    1994-01-01

    An overwhelming majority of both chambers of the French Parliament voted in favor of Public Law 91-1381 on December 30, 1991, which outlines the research program to be conducted for disposal of long-lived waste. The program focuses on three main research objectives: reduction of waste volumes and toxicity (advanced partitioning and transmutation); assessment of the waste isolation properties of deep geologic formations; and development of solidification processes and storage techniques for long-term interim storage in near-surface facilities. Annual reports on this research will be reviewed by a national commission and submitted to Parliament. Within 15 years, the government will prepare a comprehensive report and may enact new legislation authorizing the creation of a repository. The Waste Act also establishes the conditions for siting underground geologic research laboratories; site selection, public information and monitoring procedures; and economic incentives related to these facilities, which represent major financial investments that will benefit communities in the involved regions

  18. USA: energy policy and spent fuel and waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petroll, M.R.

    2001-01-01

    The new US administration under President Bush has shifted political weights in the country's energy policy. The policy pursued by the Clinton administration, which had been focused strongly on energy efficiency and environmental protection, will be revoked in a number of points, and the focus instead will now be on economics and continuity of supply, also against the backdrop of the current power supply crisis in California. However, it is more likely that fossil-fired generating capacity will be expanded or added than new nuclear generating capacity. As far as the policy of managing radioactive waste is concerned, no fast and fundamental changes are expected. Low-level waste arising in medicine, research, industry, and nuclear power plants will be stored in a number of shallow ground burial facilities also involving more than one federal state. The Yucca Mountain repository project will be advanced with a higher budget, and WIPP (Waste Isolation Plant) in the state of New Mexico has been in operation since 1998. Plans for the management of spent fuel elements include interim stores called ISFSIs (Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installations) both near and independent of nuclear power sites. Nineteen sites have been licensed, another eighteen are ready to be licensed. In addition, also international spent fuel and nuclear waste management approaches are being discussed in the United States which, inter alia, are meant to offer comprehensive solutions to countries running only a small number of nuclear power plants. (orig.) [de

  19. Citizen empowerment in the domestic waste policy development in Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasiukynas, Andrius; Survila, Arvydas; Smalskys, Vainius

    2017-04-01

    Lithuania offers an interesting case of lagging in terms of domestic waste recycling in the European context. Despite the adoption of all relevant EU regulation, including a pricing system, which is designed to be more conducive for recycling. One important group of policy instruments which in the application of which Lithuania needs to improve, is public participation in environmental governance. The objective of this study is to relate the means of public participation and the decision-making on waste management and recycling outcomes. The study consisted of two stages. Stage one: key decision-making public agencies responsible for policy formulation and implementation of domestic waste management were identified. Later, an analysis of public available documentation covering decision-making in these institutions was conducted with the aim to measure the level of citizen engagement. Stage two: agency managers and staff responsible for citizen engagement were interviewed with the goal of evaluating their attitudes. Attitudes of officials are a crucial for a successful citizen engagement. The results showed that officials recognized very little the value of citizen engagement. They perceived contribution as an the creation of additional challenges to be tackled with, rather than help to lower service delivery costs and improve policy effectiveness. This renders the government with a depleted number of options of improving domestic waste management to "top-down" measures and imposition of financial incentives or costs.

  20. Science, Society, and America's Nuclear Waste: The Nuclear Waste Policy Act, Unit 3. Teacher Guide. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, Washington, DC.

    This guide is Unit 3 of the four-part series, Science, Society, and America's Nuclear Waste, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. The goal of this unit is to identify the key elements of the United States' nuclear waste dilemma and introduce the Nuclear Waste Policy Act and the role of the…

  1. A utility's perspective on the Nuclear Waste Policy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, W.W.

    1985-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act is especially important to utilities because their customers pay for the disposal program, and the program is vital to nuclear operations and reconsideration of the nuclear option. DOE's accomplishments in implementing the Act are noteworthy, but we are concerned that some of them have been achieved later than specified by the schedule in the Act. We make recommendations regarding disposal fees, defense wastes, and shipping casks. Virginia Power has adopted a three-part strategy relying mainly on developing dry cask storage to solve the company's interim storage problems

  2. Factors that influence a sustainable nuclear waste management policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riley, P.

    2004-01-01

    The predicted increase in world demand for electricity requires that the gift of nuclear energy that has served developed nations must not be wasted. The development of nuclear energy is hampered by the absence of a clear and unequivocal policy regarding the storage and disposal of radioactive waste and is seen by a significant section of the public as a threat to their rights. Public opposition may cause the demise of nuclear electric power in developed nations and proscribe its use in the third world. (author)

  3. Waste Management Policy In Tourism Area of Saensuk Municipality, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongsathon Kaewmanee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Saensuk Municipality is a famous tourism city in Thailand, especially Bangsaen beach. In supporting the tourism activity, it has waste managing method by using new generation administrator and technologies. However, the waste problem happened in Saensuk Municipality is included the human resource ability, technical facility, and the amount of waste. By using the qualitative descriptive method and doing a series of interview to selected informants, the researcher studied and analyzed the problem, factors, and solutions of the issue. This study found that the nature of the beach and the visitor behavior is among the reason behind the large amount of waste daily in the site. Moreover, the regulation by the local government is sufficient to cover the issue if implemented fully. The study shows that the city had implemented the good governance idea in several instances, and giving the waste management to the private sector is one of the optionsto resolve the problem since the quality of the work could be improved. Keywords:waste management,public policy, tourism area, Thailand

  4. Polyethylene recycling: Waste policy scenario analysis for the EU-27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreoni, Valeria; Saveyn, Hans G M; Eder, Peter

    2015-08-01

    This paper quantifies the main impacts that the adoption of the best recycling practices together with a reduction in the consumption of single-use plastic bags and the adoption of a kerbside collection system could have on the 27 Member States of the EU. The main consequences in terms of employment, waste management costs, emissions and energy use have been quantified for two scenarios of polyethylene (PE) waste production and recycling. That is to say, a "business as usual scenario", where the 2012 performances of PE waste production and recycling are extrapolated to 2020, is compared to a "best practice scenario", where the best available recycling practices are modelled together with the possible adoption of the amended Packaging and Packaging Waste Directive related to the consumption of single-use plastic bags and the implementation of a kerbside collection system. The main results show that socio-economic and environmental benefits can be generated across the EU by the implementation of the best practice scenario. In particular, estimations show a possible reduction of 4.4 million tonnes of non-recycled PE waste, together with a reduction of around €90 million in waste management costs in 2020 for the best practice scenario versus the business as usual scenario. An additional 35,622 jobs are also expected to be created. In environmental terms, the quantity of CO2 equivalent emissions could be reduced by around 1.46 million tonnes and the net energy requirements are expected to increase by 16.5 million GJ as a consequence of the reduction in the energy produced from waste. The main analysis provided in this paper, together with the data and the model presented, can be useful to identify the possible costs and benefits that the implementation of PE waste policies and Directives could generate for the EU. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. INFX guide: summary of US DOE plans and policies for international cooperation in the field of radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmon, K.M.; Kelman, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide, in one source, an overview and summary of major international cooperative activities such as long-term personnel exchanges, planning of complementary R and D programs, and testing programs like the one at Stripa for use by DOE and DOE contractor personnel responsible for planning such programs. The contents are as follows: waste management-general, high-level waste immobilization; transuranic wastes; low-level radioactive waste; airborne wastes; waste isolation in geologic repositories; marine disposal; spent fuel storage; transportation; uranium mill tailings; decontamination and decommissioning; and appendices which are for bilaterial waste management agreements; INFX policies and procedures, DOE contractor personnel and international agencies

  6. Update of Nuclear Waste Policy Act transportation activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callaghan, E.F.

    1987-01-01

    As directed by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA), the Department of Energy (DOE) is developing a nationwide system for transporting spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste from commercial power plants to deep geologic repositories for disposal. Plans for the transportation system will consider the following factors: the President's 1985 decision to co-locate some defense high-level waste with commercial waste in a repository, the NWPA requirement that the private sector be used to the fullest extent possible in developing and operating the system, and the possible approval by Congress of the DOE's proposal for a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility, submitted in March 1987. (The MRS, if approved, would provide for the consolidation, packaging, and perhaps the temporary storage of spent fuel from reactors.) The ''Transportation Business Plan'', published in January 1986, reflects these considerations. The transportation system, when operational, will consist of two elements: (1) the cask system, which includes the transportation casks, the vehicular conveyances, tie-downs, and associated equipment for handling the casks; and (2) the transportation support system which is comprised of facilities, equipment, and services to support waste transportation. Development of the transportation system incorporates the following work elements: operational planning, support systems development, cash system development, systems analysis, and institutional activities. This paper focusses on the technical aspects of the system

  7. Cultivating public involvement: Going beyond the Nuclear Waste Policy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easterling, J.B.; Gleason, M.E.

    1993-01-01

    Congress, recognizing that States, Indian tribes, and local governments have a unique and vested interest in the siting of high-level radioactive waste facilities, gave these parties special rights to participate in this country's high-level radioactive waste management program through the Nuclear Waste Policy Act as amended. However, as the program progresses, it has become increasingly clear that, in addition to these affected parties, many other groups and individuals are interested in what happens to the radioactive waste generated by commercial nuclear reactors and defense-related facilities. In an effort to address the interests of these other groups and individuals, the US DOE's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is expanding its public involvement activities by inviting representatives from a wider range of organizations to join in a dialogue on issues related to high-level waste disposal. Why are we doing this? Because we believe that involving more people in the program will increase understanding of the critical importance of finding a safe and environmentally responsible way to deal with nuclear waste. Furthermore, thoughtful exchanges with the public will increase our awareness of how this program may affect others. Ultimately, our goal is to help build public trust and confidence in the Federal Government's ability to accomplish its mission and in the fairness and competence of the decisionmaking process. This paper explains the rationale and objectives for OCRWM's expanded public involvement efforts; describes the process used to identify and solicit the involvement of additional parties; highlights interactions with several groups contacted to date; and reports on the early results of these consultations

  8. The policy of household waste management in lithuania: how we could recycle more responsibly?

    OpenAIRE

    Vaištaraitė, Ieva

    2016-01-01

    The Policy of Household Waste Management in Lithuania: How We Could Recycle More Responsibly? The main purpose of these bachelor thesis is evaluate the impact of Lithuanian policy of household waste management for habitants’ behaviour. In this work the author aims to find out the behaviour changes caused by implementing policy and give the recommendations for the more effective policy of household waste management. The issue raised in this work – although there is creating sorting infrastruct...

  9. The "Discouraged-Business-Major" Hypothesis: Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangos, John

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses a relatively large dataset of the stated academic major preferences of economics majors at a relatively large, not highly selective, public university in the USA to identify the "discouraged-business-majors" (DBMs). The DBM hypothesis addresses the phenomenon where students who are screened out of the business curriculum often…

  10. Long-lived radioactive waste, the French management policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, P.

    1994-01-01

    An overwhelming majority of both chambers of the French Parliament voted in favor of Public Law 91-1381 on December 30, 1991, the Waste Act which outlines the research program to be conducted for disposal of long-lived waste. The program focuses on three main research objectives, which are briefly discussed in this presentation: reduction of waste volume and toxicity (advanced partitioning and transmutation); assessment of the waste isolation properties of deep geologic formations; and development of solidification processes and storage techniques for long-term interim storage in near surface facilities. Annual reports on this research will be reviewed by a national commission and submitted to Parliament. Within 15 years, the government will prepare a comprehensive report and may enact new legislation authorizing the creation of a repository. The Waste Act also establishes the conditions for underground geologic research laboratories; site selection, public information and monitoring procedures; and economic incentives related to these facilities, which represent major financial investments that will benefit communities in the involved regions

  11. Response to Environmental Policy Institute report on Savannah River Plant high-level waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    In a recently published report entitled ''Deadly Crop in the Tank Farm,'' the Environmental Policy Institute (EPI) presented its opinions on the hazards associated with waste management practices at SRP. The EPI's allegations were based on selected published Department of Energy and Du Pont reports and on raw data from the unpublished 200-Area Fault Tree Data Bank that it obtained in 1983. Professional staff at SRP have reviewed the report in detail and have provided responses in this document to all significant EPI statements and recommendations. The responses are grouped into five major categories: Waste Management Operations -- Past and Present, Accidents and Risks, Worker Exposure and Cancer Epidemiology, Groundwater Contamination, and Long-Term Waste Management. An overview of the responses is provided in the Summary, and the detailed responses are presented in the body of the report. 55 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  12. Waste management policy and its implementation in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migliori de Beninson, A.; Palacios, E.

    1984-01-01

    The Argentine nuclear programme is an example of an expanding nuclear power development programme which provides for the reprocessing of spent fuel and the recycling of the plutonium produced. It also covers all stages of the natural uranium fuel cycle. The present paper outlines the radioactive waste management policy behind the programme, with particular reference to high-level waste and actinides. The basic criteria are the limitation of individual risks, taking into account the probability of, and doses resulting from, events disrupting the geological insulation, and the optimization of protection engineering aspects, equal monetary weight being given to present and future collective doses. An estimate of the impact (represented by the collective dose due to the repository) per unit of electricity generated by the nuclear programme has been used to analyse the acceptability of the solution adopted. (author)

  13. Waste management policy and its implementation in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekipentti, I.

    1984-01-01

    One of the main principles of Finnish nuclear legislation is that the waste producers - i.e. power companies - shall bear the total responsibility for all waste management operations including final disposal and for all the costs of these operations. The government shall assume the responsibility after the final repository has been approved as fulfilling the safety requirements and after sufficient financial assurances covering the costs of continued surveillance have been given to the authorities. The terms of the operation licences prefer the export of high-level waste to a foreign destination, but as an alternative require preparatory activities for final disposal in domestic territory. The spent fuel from two of the four existing units is returned to the fuel supplier country, the Soviet Union, but the management of spent fuel from the two other units is open. In Finland nuclear waste management has become one of the key problems in the public debate relating to the use of nuclear energy and especially to the licensing of additional nuclear power units. The small size of the national economy may cause some additional difficulties in the efforts to solve waste management problems. Public opinion is in favour of plans for waste management arrangements and facilities being prepared in advance of the licensing of new nuclear units, although it might accept the fact that it is not reasonable to carry out the actual management operations until after rather long storage. The small size of the national economy together with the fact that there are only four nuclear power units in Finland essentially limits the ability to allocate major resources to waste management R and D work and to develop Finnish solutions independently. The political situation which prevails as regards back-end operations internationally may even hinder the extended construction of nuclear plants and use of nuclear energy

  14. Policies to promote the waste management hierarchy : with special attention to the paper cycle in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukering, van P.J.H.; Brander, L.M.

    2004-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to review policy instruments available to promote aspects of the waste management hierarchy. The motivation of this review is embedded in two questions: (1) What policy instruments are most effective in promoting the waste hierarchy? and, (2) Should EU policies

  15. 76 FR 58543 - Draft Policy Statement on Volume Reduction and Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ...-Level Radioactive Waste Management AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Reopening of comment... for public comment a draft Policy Statement on Volume Reduction and Low-Level Radioactive Waste...-based approaches to managing waste are also needed to safely manage Low-Level Radioactive Waste. The...

  16. Evaluating the effect of vehicle impoundment policy on illegal construction and demolition waste dumping: Israel as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seror, Nissim; Hareli, Shlomo; Portnov, Boris A

    2014-08-01

    Construction and demolition (C&D) waste dumped alongside roads and in open areas is a major source of soil and underground water pollution. Since 2006, Israeli ministry for environmental protection enacted a policy of vehicle impoundment (VI) according to which track drivers caught while dumping C&D waste illegally have their vehicles impounded. The present study attempted to determine whether the VI policy was effective in increasing the waste hauling to authorized landfill sites, thus limiting the number of illegal unloads of C&D waste at unauthorized landfill sites and in open areas. During the study, changes in the ratio between the monthly amount of C&D waste brought to authorized landfills sites and the estimated total amount of C&D waste generated in different administrative districts of Israel were examined, before and after the enactment of the 2006 VI policy. Short questionnaires were also distributed among local track drivers in order to determine the degree of awareness about the policy in question and estimate its deterrence effects. According to the study's results, in the district of Haifa, in which the VI policy was stringently enacted, the ratio between C&D waste, dumped in authorized landfill sites, and the total amount of generated C&D waste, increased, on the average, from 20% in January 2004 to 35% in October 2009, with the effect attributed to the number of vehicle impoundments being highly statistically significant (t=2.324; p0.1). The analysis of the questionnaires, distributed among the local truck drivers further indicated that the changes observed in the district of Haifa are not coincident and appeared to be linked to the VI policy's enactment. In particular, 62% of the truck drivers, participated in the survey, were aware of the policy and 47% of them personally knew a driver whose vehicle was impounded. Furthermore, the drivers estimated the relative risk of being caught for unloading C&D waste in unauthorized sites, on the average, as

  17. Implementation of Solid Waste Policies in Pernambuco: a study from the institutional theory and interorganizational networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luciana de Almeida

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Solid waste is a problem in the Brazilian context, not only because it is growing in larger proportions than the population and leading to soil and water contamination, but also because it is a vector for diseases and causes economic losses, since much of what is discarded can be reused. After several years of intense debate, the Brazilian law applying to national solid waste policy was sanctioned; this law contains goals to be achieved and challenges to be overcome. Since this is a major issue, the purpose of this paper is to discuss the implementation of public policies on solid waste, emphasizing the initiatives carried out in the state of Pernambuco, from the perspectives of institutional theory and inter-organizational networks. By analysing the provisions of the law, we can observe a coercive tendency to bring the states and municipalities to establish networks in order to meet demands related to solid waste, since the pertinent legislation induces the involved entities to develop this kind of partnership in order to obtain resources

  18. Symposium on the development of nuclear waste policy: Siting the high-level nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pijawka, K.D.; Mushkatel, A.H.

    1991-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA) attempted to formulate a viable national policy for managing the disposal of high-level nuclear wastes. The NWPA authorized the selection of two repository sites: the first to be constructed in the West and a second site developed in the eastern United States. A detailed process for site selection was outlined in the NWPA. In addition, the NWPA authorized open-quotes the development of a waste transportation system; required the Department of Energy (DOE) to submit a proposal to construct a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS) after conducting a study of the need for, and feasibility of such a facility; and required the President to evaluate the use of the repositories ... for the disposal of high-level waste resulting from defense activitiesclose quotes (DOE, 1988, p. 1). A series of provisions granting oversight participation to states and Indian tribes, as well as a compensation package for the ultimate host state were also included. Responsibility for implementing the NWPA was assigned to DOE

  19. The development of hazardous waste management as a state policy concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzik, E.B.

    1992-01-01

    Hazardous waste management has become a primary concern of state governments. This concern is relatively recent, with state governments assuming a leading role in hazardous waste policy development and implementation only in the past decade. This article outlines the scope of the hazardous waste problem to which state governments must respond. The scope of the problem is then linked to changing public perceptions and intergovernmental relationships to explain the expanding state government policy role in hazardous waste management. 15 refs., 1 tab

  20. Siting provisions of the U.S. Nuclear Waste Policy Act versus related experience in other countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paige, H.W.; Owens, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    This paper is based on a report prepared by International Energy Associates Limited (IEAL) under contract to the Department of Energy. The report, whose title is the same as that of this paper, was submitted to DOE a little over one year ago. In that report, the relevant provisions of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 setting forth the procedures for obtaining the local acceptance of sites for nuclear waste facilities were compared with the corresponding procedures of fifteen foreign countries also trying to locate sites for nuclear waste facilities. In this paper, the major points on which the Nuclear Waste Policy Act is or is not in keeping with lessons learned in other countries are discussed as well as some general and specific observations related to siting acceptance problems and how the Act addresses them

  1. Impacts of policy and market incentives for solid waste recycling in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matter, Anne; Ahsan, Mehedi; Marbach, Michelle; Zurbrügg, Christian

    2015-05-01

    Solid waste mismanagement in Dhaka, Bangladesh, illustrates a well-known market failure which can be summarized as: waste is a resource in the wrong place. Inorganic materials such as plastic or paper can be used to feed the demand for recycled materials in the industrial sector. Organic materials can be converted and used in the nutrient-starved agricultural sector which is currently heavily depending on chemical fertilizers. They are also a feedstock to generate renewable energy in the form of biogas for this energy-starved country relying on diminishing natural gas reserves and increasing import of coal. Reality however does not capitalize on this potential; instead the waste is a burden for municipal authorities who spend large portions of their budgets attempting to transport it out of the city for discharge into landfills. The major part of these materials still remains uncollected in the residential areas and is discarded indiscriminately in open spaces, polluting the residents' living environment including water, soil and air resources, in the city and beyond. Bangladeshi authorities have, to some extent, recognized this market failure and have developed policies to encourage the development of waste recycling activities. It is also important to note that this market failure is only partial: a large, mostly informal recycling sector has developed in Bangladesh, focusing on inorganic recyclables of market value. The fact that this sector remains largely informal means that these actors perceive significant barriers to formalization. Comparatively, the organic waste recycling sector is less driven by market mechanisms. Competition from chemical fertilizers and fossil fuels is fierce and hinders the development of market opportunities for compost and renewable energy. Nevertheless commercial production of compost and biogas from organic municipal waste is formalized and benefiting from policy incentives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Waste picker livelihoods and inclusive neoliberal municipal solid waste management policies: The case of the La Chureca garbage dump site in Managua, Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Chris

    2018-01-01

    The modernization (i.e. mechanization, formalization, and capital intensification) and enclosure of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) systems threaten waste picker livelihoods. From 2009 to 2013, a major development project, embodying traditional neoliberal policies with inclusive social policies, transformed the Managua, Nicaragua, municipal solid waste site from an open-air dump where as many as 2,000 informal waste pickers toiled to a sanitary landfill. To investigate waste pickers' social and economic condition, including labor characteristics, household income, and poverty incidence, after the project's completion, 146 semi-structured survey questionnaires were administered to four communities adjacent to the landfill and 45 semi-structured interviews were completed with key stakeholders. Findings indicate that hundreds of waste pickers were displaced by the project, employment benefits from the project were unevenly distributed by neighborhood, and informal waste picking endures due to persistent impoverishment, thereby contributing to continued social and economic marginalization and environmental degradation. The findings highlight the limitations of inclusive neoliberal development efforts to transform MSWM in a low-income country. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Impacts of policy and market incentives for solid waste recycling in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matter, Anne; Ahsan, Mehedi; Marbach, Michelle; Zurbrügg, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Bangladesh’s industry and population are growing rapidly, producing more urban waste. • Recycling reduces the solid waste management burden of Municipalities. • A wide array of informal and formal actors is involved in collection and recycling. • Demand for recycled materials and renewable energy creates market incentives. • Policy incentives exist, but they only reach the formal industry. - Abstract: Solid waste mismanagement in Dhaka, Bangladesh, illustrates a well-known market failure which can be summarized as: waste is a resource in the wrong place. Inorganic materials such as plastic or paper can be used to feed the demand for recycled materials in the industrial sector. Organic materials can be converted and used in the nutrient-starved agricultural sector which is currently heavily depending on chemical fertilizers. They are also a feedstock to generate renewable energy in the form of biogas for this energy-starved country relying on diminishing natural gas reserves and increasing import of coal. Reality however does not capitalize on this potential; instead the waste is a burden for municipal authorities who spend large portions of their budgets attempting to transport it out of the city for discharge into landfills. The major part of these materials still remains uncollected in the residential areas and is discarded indiscriminately in open spaces, polluting the residents’ living environment including water, soil and air resources, in the city and beyond. Bangladeshi authorities have, to some extent, recognized this market failure and have developed policies to encourage the development of waste recycling activities. It is also important to note that this market failure is only partial: a large, mostly informal recycling sector has developed in Bangladesh, focusing on inorganic recyclables of market value. The fact that this sector remains largely informal means that these actors perceive significant barriers to formalization

  4. Impacts of policy and market incentives for solid waste recycling in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matter, Anne [Eawag: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (Sandec), Überlandstrasse 133, P.O. Box 611, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Swisscontact: Swiss Foundation for Technical Cooperation, South Asian Regional Office, House No. 19, Road No. 11, Baridhara, Dhaka 1212 (Bangladesh); Ahsan, Mehedi [KfW: Development Bank for Germany, Bangladesh Office, House 10/C, Road 90, Gulshan 2, Dhaka 1212 (Bangladesh); Marbach, Michelle [NADEL: Center for Development and Cooperation, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, Clausiusstrasse 37, 8092 Zürich (Switzerland); Zurbrügg, Christian [Eawag: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (Sandec), Überlandstrasse 133, P.O. Box 611, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Bangladesh’s industry and population are growing rapidly, producing more urban waste. • Recycling reduces the solid waste management burden of Municipalities. • A wide array of informal and formal actors is involved in collection and recycling. • Demand for recycled materials and renewable energy creates market incentives. • Policy incentives exist, but they only reach the formal industry. - Abstract: Solid waste mismanagement in Dhaka, Bangladesh, illustrates a well-known market failure which can be summarized as: waste is a resource in the wrong place. Inorganic materials such as plastic or paper can be used to feed the demand for recycled materials in the industrial sector. Organic materials can be converted and used in the nutrient-starved agricultural sector which is currently heavily depending on chemical fertilizers. They are also a feedstock to generate renewable energy in the form of biogas for this energy-starved country relying on diminishing natural gas reserves and increasing import of coal. Reality however does not capitalize on this potential; instead the waste is a burden for municipal authorities who spend large portions of their budgets attempting to transport it out of the city for discharge into landfills. The major part of these materials still remains uncollected in the residential areas and is discarded indiscriminately in open spaces, polluting the residents’ living environment including water, soil and air resources, in the city and beyond. Bangladeshi authorities have, to some extent, recognized this market failure and have developed policies to encourage the development of waste recycling activities. It is also important to note that this market failure is only partial: a large, mostly informal recycling sector has developed in Bangladesh, focusing on inorganic recyclables of market value. The fact that this sector remains largely informal means that these actors perceive significant barriers to formalization

  5. Medical table: A major tool for antimicrobial stewardship policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger, P-M; Demonchy, E; Risso, K; Courjon, J; Leroux, S; Leroux, E; Cua, É

    2017-09-01

    Infectious diseases are unpredictable, with heterogeneous clinical presentations, diverse pathogens, and various susceptibility rates to anti-infective agents. These features lead to a wide variety of clinical practices, which in turn strongly limits their evaluation. We have been using a medical table since 2005 to monitor the medical activity in our department. The observation of heterogeneous therapeutic practices led to drafting up our own antibiotic guidelines and to implementing a continuous evaluation of their observance and impact on morbidity and mortality associated with infectious diseases, including adverse effects of antibiotics, duration of hospital stay, use of intensive care, and deaths. The 10-year analysis of medical practices using the medical table is based on more than 10,000 hospitalizations. It shows simplified antibiotic therapies and a reduction in infection-related morbidity and mortality. The medical table is a major tool for antimicrobial stewardship, leading to constant benefits for patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. The Legal and Policy Framework for Waste Disposition - Legal and policy framework for low level waste treatment and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leech, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    UK policy and strategy for the management of LLW has changed significantly in recent years, not least through development and implementation of the 'UK Strategy for the Management of Solid Low Level Radioactive Waste from the Nuclear Industry' as part of the UK Nuclear Decommissioning Authority's mission. This has influenced all aspects of LLW management in the UK, including metals recycling and VLLW disposal. The paper will outline the legal context for these changes in the UK and highlight how international conventions and legal frameworks have influenced these developments. In particular, the paper will look at the following important influences on choices for recycling and disposal of LLW and VLLW. - The Paris and Brussels Conventions on third party liabilities for nuclear damage; - on-going work to implement the 2004 Protocols to those conventions, including the impact on disposal sites and proposals to exclude VLLW disposal sites from liabilities regimes; - The Revised Waste Framework Directive and Waste Hierarchy; - Relevant European pollution prevention and control legislation and Best Available Techniques. (author)

  7. Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes. A Comparative Analysis of Policy Options to Control the International Waste Trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilz, Christoph; Ehrenfeld, John R.

    1991-01-01

    Several policy frameworks for managing hazardous waste import/export are examined with respect to economic issues, environmental sustainability, and administrative feasibility and effectiveness. Several recommendations for improving the present instrument and implementing process are offered. (Author/CW)

  8. Policy and practices in the United States of America for DOE-generated nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, F.C.

    1984-01-01

    Throughout the history of attempts to utilize atomic power in the USA, health and safety have been primary considerations in programme policy formulation. A brief historical review of the US nuclear waste management policy formulation over the years aids understanding of our current management strategy for government-generated (primarily defence-related) nuclear wastes. Scientists involved in the Manhattan project during World War II were aware of the dangers of radioactive wastes. The first reaction to this concern was the establishment of a health physics programme to monitor radioactive hazards in Manhattan District Laboratories. The Atomic Energy Act of 1946, which established the Atomic Energy Commission, called for protection of the health and safety of the public as well as atomic workers. That concept has been continued and strengthened, throughout the history of nuclear waste management in the USA. Passage of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 required consideration of radioactive wastes generated by private industry as well as those produced by the Manhattan projects. Commercial waste management policy was based on the already established policy for management of government-generated wastes and is the subject of a separate paper at this symposium. Current US policy is to maintain separate but complementary programmes for nuclear wastes generated by government activities and those from commercial sources. US policy and practices for management of government-generated radioactive waste are summarized. Key organizational structure relating to waste management responsibility is presented. (author)

  9. The Participatory Turn in UK Radioactive Waste Management Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, Peter [Univ. of East Anglia, Norwich (United Kingdom). School of Environmental Sciences; Bickerstaff, Karen [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geography

    2006-09-15

    The history of radioactive waste management policy in the UK has, in common with many other countries, been one characterised by crisis. A study of UK radioactive waste management (RWM) policy published in 1991 begins with the claim that 'What is distinctive about the British context is that crisis has not produced new commitments to resolving the problems of radwaste management'. As this paper will illustrate, current activity suggests that this assertion no longer holds true. Rather, the UK has witnessed a renewed commitment to addressing the problem accompanied by a significant shift in approach to RWM decision making. This shift was precipitated by the failure in 1997 of the technocratic strategy that hitherto had been pursued by government and by the nuclear industry but has also been influenced by a number of other contributory factors. What we now see in the UK is a proliferation of stakeholder involvement (SI) initiatives in the RWM and related fields, a situation that poses new questions and potentially new problems. In this paper we outline the historical developments that preceded this change, examine the current situation and finally review the question of whether this reconfigured landscape of SI amounts to a radical shift in policy and practice that has produced, or is likely to produce, new commitments to resolving the problems of RWM. We have identified five issues raised by stakeholders: (i) the strains created by the demands placed on limited stakeholder capacity are for some organisations and individuals becoming difficult to manage; (ii) there is an associated problem of participation fatigue or exhaustion resulting from the demands on stakeholders called to participate in multiple processes, which is seen by some NGO critics as a cynical strategy of attrition designed to co-opt and wear down potential opposition - and both of these problems increase the risk of stakeholder withdrawal; (iii) concerns about the problem of policy

  10. The Participatory Turn in UK Radioactive Waste Management Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, Peter; Bickerstaff, Karen

    2006-01-01

    The history of radioactive waste management policy in the UK has, in common with many other countries, been one characterised by crisis. A study of UK radioactive waste management (RWM) policy published in 1991 begins with the claim that 'What is distinctive about the British context is that crisis has not produced new commitments to resolving the problems of radwaste management'. As this paper will illustrate, current activity suggests that this assertion no longer holds true. Rather, the UK has witnessed a renewed commitment to addressing the problem accompanied by a significant shift in approach to RWM decision making. This shift was precipitated by the failure in 1997 of the technocratic strategy that hitherto had been pursued by government and by the nuclear industry but has also been influenced by a number of other contributory factors. What we now see in the UK is a proliferation of stakeholder involvement (SI) initiatives in the RWM and related fields, a situation that poses new questions and potentially new problems. In this paper we outline the historical developments that preceded this change, examine the current situation and finally review the question of whether this reconfigured landscape of SI amounts to a radical shift in policy and practice that has produced, or is likely to produce, new commitments to resolving the problems of RWM. We have identified five issues raised by stakeholders: (i) the strains created by the demands placed on limited stakeholder capacity are for some organisations and individuals becoming difficult to manage; (ii) there is an associated problem of participation fatigue or exhaustion resulting from the demands on stakeholders called to participate in multiple processes, which is seen by some NGO critics as a cynical strategy of attrition designed to co-opt and wear down potential opposition - and both of these problems increase the risk of stakeholder withdrawal; (iii) concerns about the problem of policy fragmentation

  11. Extent of alcohol prohibition in civil policy in Muslim majority countries: the impact of globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ansari, Basma; Thow, Anne-Marie; Day, Carolyn A; Conigrave, Katherine M

    2016-10-01

    Many policies have been introduced to reduce alcohol harm in different countries. However, Muslim majority countries (MMCs), where the major religion (Islam) prohibits alcohol consumption, have less well-developed civil alcohol policies. Overall, MMCs have low prevalence of alcohol consumption, although recently most MMCs have been undergoing transition, which has sometimes increased pressure for alcohol availability and impacted on social practices, alcohol policies and broader public health. Globalization, the influence of the global alcohol industry, recent governmental transition or political instability and the presence of immigrants from non-Muslim countries can all affect civil alcohol policy. In this context, consumption overall has increased compared with two decades ago. This paper presents an overview of current civil alcohol policy, with regard to the presence or absence of alcohol prohibition, and provides an insight into the legal availability of alcohol in MMCs and the challenges facing policymakers. English, Arabic and Persian language sources were examined, using PubMed, government websites for each country and the World Health Organization (WHO). Some of the challenges MMCs may face in developing alcohol policies are explored, including the need to interact with the global economy and the potential influence of the alcohol industry. Muslim majority countries have adopted a range of civil alcohol policies in recent decades. There is a pressing need for better data and to support Muslim majority countries in alcohol policy development. Lessons from Muslim majority countries can help to inform other parts of the world. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  12. Waste Management Policy Framework to Mitigate Terrorist Intrusion Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redus, Kenneth S.

    2003-01-01

    A policy-directed framework is developed to support US Department of Energy (DOE) counterterrorism efforts, specifically terrorist intrusion activities that affect of Environmental Management (EM) programs. The framework is called the Security Effectiveness and Resource Allocation Definition Forecasting and Control System (SERAD-FACS). Use of SERAD-FACS allows trade-offs between resources, technologies, risk, and Research and Development (R and D) efforts to mitigate such intrusion attempts. Core to SERAD-FACS is (1) the understanding the perspectives and time horizons of key decisionmakers and organizations, (2) a determination of site vulnerabilities and accessibilities, and (3) quantifying the measures that describe the risk associated with a compromise of EM assets. The innovative utility of SERAD-FACS is illustrated for three integrated waste management and security strategies. EM program risks, time delays, and security for effectiveness are examined to demonstrate the significant cost and schedule impact terrorist activities can have on cleanup efforts in the DOE complex

  13. Technical bases for OCRWM's [Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management] policy decisions on international safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprecher, W.M.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the technical factors that contributed to the formulation of the international safeguards policy enunciated in September 1988 by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), which is the federal organization responsible for the implementation of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended

  14. Transportation systems to support the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmot, E.L.; Philpott, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    Late in 1982, the United States Congress enacted legislation for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste. The policy, embodied in Public Law 97-425 and referred to as the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA), mandates that the Department of Energy (DOE) be responsible for the transport of commercial spent fuel and defense high-level waste from their points of origin to facilities constructed under provisions of the NWPA. It is the purpose of this paper to describe the preliminary transportation policies and plans developed by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), within the DOE, to respond to the NWPA mandate

  15. Nuclear-waste policies of the new administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyers, S.

    1981-01-01

    The highlights of this paper are on the following three areas: the present administration's nuclear waste policies; the Department of Energy's commitment to work with state and local officials in seeking to resolve this national problem; and the state's role. The waste management program has been redirected in two key areas. The first calls for the construction of a test and evaluation facility to demonstrate the capability to package, transport, and dispose of high-level radioactive waste. The second calls for discontinuing plans to store commercial spent fuel at federally owned away-from-reactor facilities. Some of the specifies of this program are: Site investigation activities will focus on three specific locations, which will most likely include the Nevada Test Site and the Hanford site in the state of Washington and the third location in a salt formation to be selected from among those under study. Construction of exploratory shafts at three alternate locations are planned for 1983. Continued national screening of granitic formations in the northeast and other candidates will be continued for the longer-term requirement of a system of regional repositories. The detailed design of the test and evaluation facility are planned to begin in 1985 to allow the beginning of construction of the underground facilities by 1987. Utilities and industry will be allowed to provide necessary facilities and services to manage their spent fuel. The efforts of the utilities to provide additional at-reactor storage represent a safe step in the management of spent fuels. The activities of the Department will be directed toward developing advanced storage technologies, such as dry storage and rod storage

  16. Waste management policy and its implementation in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffman, F.E.

    1984-01-01

    Following the passage of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, on 7 January 1983, the Department of Energy's Commercial Nuclear Waste Program has been restructured to facilitate compliance with that Act. The responsibility for carrying out the functions of the Secretary of the DOE under the Act have been assigned to the Project Director of the newly created Nuclear Waste Policy Act Project Office. That Office will be operational until the mandated Office of Civilian Waste Management is activated. Those commercial waste management programmes - Remedial Action Program, West Valley Demonstration Project, Commercial Low-Level Waste and Waste Treatment and the Three Mile Island Program - which do not fall within the purview of the Act are the responsibility of the author. These programmes are described in the paper, which references those laws from which the Federal policy evolves. (author)

  17. Different accounting approaches to harvested wood products in national greenhouse gas inventories: their incentives to achievement of major policy goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Seiji

    2008-01-01

    The 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories provide four accounting approaches to harvested wood products (HWP). These differ in the way they define system boundaries. Therefore, reported national carbon emissions differ according to the accounting approach used, and the implications of each accounting approach differ for different countries. This paper investigates four IPCC accounting approaches, as well as the 1996 IPCC default approach, to determine whether they provide incentives to achievement of major policy goals related to climate, forest, trade, and waste, taking into account indirect effects of wood use change (i.e., the effects on forest carbon stocks and on carbon emissions from the use of other fuels and materials). Conclusions are as follows: (1) The analyses produced many different results from those of previous studies. These differences appear to be attributable to whether or not the indirect effects of wood use change are taken into account and the reference scenarios that are assumed; (2) The best approaches for achieving each policy goal differ, and the best approaches for particular policy goals might pose problems for other policy goals; (3) Overall, the IPCC default approach is the best accounting approach from the viewpoint of greater compatibility with, or integration across, the array of policy goals, although it does not address the issue of an increasing global carbon stock in HWP

  18. Sustainable gold mining management waste policy in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudor, Elena; Filipciuc, Constantina

    2016-04-01

    -closure monitoring program implementation and financing. Apart from the Mining Law, the Government Decision, which transposes EU Directive on the management of waste from extractive industries, as well as Government Emergency Ordinance, which implements the requirements of EU Directive 2004/35/CE on environmental liability, requests financial guarantees for waste facilities maintenance and for environment restoration in the case of pollution, respectively. In practice, there are problems in the calculation of the financial guarantee and the development of financial security instruments and markets as required by Directive, due to the lack of expertise in financial, economic and liability matters. Mining companies are usually not required to set up a special guarantee for the waste facilities, but only to set up and maintain the financial guarantee regulated under the Mining Law. Romania - because of the structure of its mining sector - has serious environmental legacies, a lack of funds for their restoration and the need to strengthen the administrative capacity in this area, as well as the important tasks on harmonization and/or implementation of the EU mining waste legislation. This work is presented within the framework of SUSMIN project. Key words : sustainable development, waste management, policy

  19. Good governance in national solid waste management policy (NSWMP) implementation: A case study of Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Seow Ta; Abas, Muhamad Azahar; Mohamed, Sulzakimin; Chen, Goh Kai; Zainal, Rozlin

    2017-10-01

    The National Solid Waste Management Policy (NSWMP) was introduced in 2007 under the Act 672. The execution of NSWMP involves stakeholders from various government agencies and a collaboration with the private sectors. Despite the initiatives taken by the stakeholders, the objectives of NSWMP failed to materialise. One of the major constraints is weak governance among stakeholders with regards to the NSWMP implementation. This paper will explore the good governance practices implemented by the stakeholders. Identifying the current good governance practices implemented by the stakeholders is crucial as it will serve as a guideline to improve good governance practice in the future. An exploratory research approach is applied in this study through in-depth interviews with several government agencies and concessionaires involved in the NSWMP implementation. A total of six respondents took part in this study. The findings of this study show that there are several good governance practices implemented in policy promotion, participation of stakeholders, and capacity enhancement programme for the staff. This study also proposed some points on good governance practices in the context of policy promotion and staff development. A paradigm shift by the stakeholders is imperative so as to enhance the good governance practice in NSWMP implementation towards an efficient solid waste management in Malaysia.

  20. Disposal of mixed waste: Technical, institutional, and policy factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, R.D.; Gruebel, M.M.; Letourneau, M.J.; Case, J.T.

    1996-01-01

    In conjunction with the affected States as part of their interactions required by the Federal Facilities Compliance Act, the Department of Energy has been developing a process for a disposal configuration for its mixed low-level waste (MLLW). This effort, spanning more than two years, has reduced the potential disposal sites from 49 to 15. The remaining 15 sites have been subjected to a performance evaluation to determine their strengths and weaknesses for disposal of MLLW. The process has included institutional and policy factors as well as strictly technical analyses, and technical analyses must be supported by technical analyses, and technical analyses must be performed within a framework which includes some institutional considerations, with the institutional considerations selected for inclusion largely a matter of policy. While the disposal configuration process is yet to be completed, the experience to date offers a viable approach for solving some of these issues. Additionally, several factors remain to be addressed before an MLLW disposal configuration can be developed

  1. Staying in Tune with Music Education: Policy Awareness among Music Education Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Suzanne L.; Knaster, Jenna; Knieste, Maria

    2015-01-01

    A nationwide sample of undergraduate music education majors (N = 260; 69% completion rate) completed an electronic survey to determine awareness of music and general education policy and advocacy efforts. Students reported concern with the impact of policy on school music programs and their future careers. They were informed about music education…

  2. Nuclear Waste Fund fee adequacy: An assessment: Nuclear Waste Policy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    The estimated long-term impact of the costs and fees associated with disposal of defense high-level wastes (DHLW) in the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) repository system is assessed. It is assumed that the DHLW disposal fees paid will provide funds equivalent to the OCRWM costs for disposing of this waste, including interest on costs incurred before the payment of the fee(s) to cover these costs, and the appropriate share of the common costs of the OCRWM waste disposal system. The DHLW disposal fee payments into the Nuclear Waste Fund will be subject to Congressional appropriations. This report is based on the assumptions that the first repository will open in 2003 and the second repository in 2023. In addition, this analysis features an Improved Performance System (IPS), a major component of which is a proposed (but currently unauthorized) Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility that is assumed to open in 1998. The possibility of adverse developments in inflation and real interest rates should be considered in assessing the findings of this analysis which are based on a cash flow analysis that utilized methods very similar to those employed in previous fee adequacy studies. Revisions were made in the areas of system logistics, repository schedules, real interest rates, inflation rates, and the estimation of costs for design and evaluation work, transportation, and repositories in differing host rocks. The principal recommendation is that the ongoing disposal fee should remain at 1.0 mill per (net) kilowatt-hour (kWh) for 1987 based on the assumption that defense waste fees will be adequate to cover the defense share of the program costs

  3. Curbing dioxin emissions from municipal solid waste incineration in China: re-thinking about management policies and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hefa; Hu, Yuanan

    2010-09-01

    As one of the countries with large amounts of dioxin releases, the control of dioxins is a major challenge for China. Municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration should be considered a high priority source of dioxin emissions because it is playing an increasingly more important role in waste management. MSW incineration in China has much higher emission rates of dioxins than in the developed countries, partially resulting from the gaps in the technologies of incineration and flue gas cleaning. Moreover, the current management policies and practices also contribute significantly to the problem. We recommend lowering dioxin emission standard, strengthening fly ash management, and improving regulation enforcement to reduce dioxin releases into the environment from MSW incineration. We also propose that alternative strategies should be considered on dioxin control and call for an expansion of economic instruments in waste management to reduce waste generation and thus the need for incineration. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The precautionary principle and high-level nuclear waste policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frishman, S.

    1999-01-01

    The 'Precautionary Principle' has grown from the broadening observation that there is compelling evidence that damage to humans and the world-wide environment is of such a magnitude and seriousness that new principles for conducting human activities are necessary. One of the various statements of the Precautionary Principle is: when an activity raises threats of harm to human health or the environment, precautionary measures should be taken even if some cause and effect relationships are not fully established scientifically. The use of a precautionary principle was a significant recommendation emerging from the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and it is gaining acceptance in discussions ranging from global warming to activities that affect the marine environment, and far beyond. In the US high-level nuclear waste policy, there is a growing trend on the part of geologic repository proponents and regulators to shift the required safety evaluation from a deterministic analysis of natural and engineered barriers and their interactions to risk assessments and total system waste containment and isolation performance assessment. This is largely a result of the realisation that scientific 'proof' of safety cannot be demonstrated to the level repository proponents have led the American public to expect. Therefore, they are now developing other methods in an attempt to effectively lower the repository safety expectations of the public. Implicit in this shift in demonstration of 'proof' is that levels of uncertainty far larger than those generally taken as scientifically acceptable must be accepted in repository safety, simply because greater certainty is either too costly, in time and money, or impossible to achieve at the potential Yucca Mountain repository site. In the context of the Precautionary Principle, the repository proponent must bear the burden of providing 'Acceptable' proof, established by an open

  5. Assessment and quantification of plastics waste generation in major 60 cities of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalini, R; Srinivasulu, B; Shit, Subhas C; Nigam, Suneel Kumar; Akolkar, A B; Dwivedfi, R K

    2013-04-01

    Polymers or plastics materials registered rapid growth in 1970s, 1980s and 1990s at the rate of 2-2.5 times the GDP growth in India. The demand for plastic raw material got more than doubled from 3.3 Million Metric Ton to 6.8 Million Metric Tons in 2010 attributed mainly to rapid urbanization, spread of retail chains, plastics based packaging from grocery to food and vegetable products to cosmetics and consumer items. Plastics packages have its merits over many of conventional materials in the related sector but unless they are collected back effectively after their use to go into recycling process, they become an eyesore in the stream of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) due to high visibility. As the synthetic and conventional plastics are non-biodegradable in nature, these remain in the dump yards/ landfills for several years, if not collected properly. Due to non- biodegradability, plastics waste remains in the environment for several years, if not collected and disposing plastics wastes at landfills are unsafe since toxic chemicals leach out into the soil and as they contaminate soil and underground water quality. The municipal solid waste also increasing day-by-day due to the inefficient source collection, segregation and transmission of plastics waste for recycling and reusing. In order to find out the realistic plastics waste generation, a study on assessment and quantification of plastics waste has been carried out by CPCB in collaboration with CIPET on selected 60 major cities of India.

  6. From Waste Management to Resource Efficiency—The Need for Policy Mixes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Wilts

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Treating waste as a resource and the design of a circular economy have been identified as key approaches for resource efficiency. Despite ambitious targets, policies and instruments that would enable a transition from a conventional waste management to an integrated and comprehensive resource management are still missing. Moreover, this will require innovative policy mixes which do not only address different end-of-pipe approaches but integrate various resource efficiency aspects from product design to patterns of production and consumption. Based on the results of a project funded by the Seventh Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development named “POLFREE—Policy Options for a resource efficient economy”, this paper addresses several aspects of the conceptualization of policy mixes with regard to waste as a specific resource efficiency challenge. The guiding research interest of this paper is the combination of policies necessary to create a full circular economy. In a first step, the present waste policy frameworks, institutions and existing incentives at national level are examined in order to disclose regulatory and policy gaps. Based on this, the second part of the paper describes and analyses specific waste-related resource efficiency instruments with regard to their potential impacts under the constraints of various barriers. Based on the assessment of the country analyses and the innovative instruments, the paper draws conclusions on waste policy mixes and political needs.

  7. The effect of the waste separation policy in municipal solid waste management using the system dynamic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Jamshidi Zanjani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: In the present study, Vensim was used to simulate waste management system of Tehran, the capital of Iran, with the system dynamic approach. Materials and Methods: The environmental system dynamic modeling is one of the comprehensive simulation tools capable of simulating and analyzing complex systems. In this approach, the model is developed based on the existing realities and userâ€′comments. User participation to develop the model could increase the reliability of the results. Results: The simulation results revealed good conformity with the statistical data. Waste production prediction in the model with real data was more than 95%. Moreover, the effect of applying an encouraging policy for people to separate their waste was considered. The result indicated that applying a new policy, and the economic benefit through this policy would prevent getting a loan from the government after 20 years. Conclusions: It could be concluded that public participation in waste separation was an effective policy to help in the financial independence of the municipality in terms of urban waste management. Moreover, conformity between the simulation results and real data revealed an appropriate capability of the simulated model to predict Tehran waste generation.

  8. The enactment of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982: A multiple perspectives explanation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clary, B.B.

    1991-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) is generally analyzed from the distinct perspective of any given actor involved in the nuclear waste policymaking process. Yet, these perspectives often rest on totally different models of decisionmaking. This article applies a multiple perspective explanation as developed by Allison (1971) and Linstone (1984) to the NWPA and explains policy outcomes by reference to three models of decisionmaking: rational actor, organizational processes and governmental politics. Commonalities and points of disjointure in the three models are highlighted and prospects for future nuclear waste disposal policy development are assessed using an integrated decisionmaking framework

  9. Effect of a food waste disposer policy on solid waste and wastewater management with economic implications of environmental externalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maalouf, Amani; El-Fadel, Mutasem

    2017-11-01

    In this study, the carbon footprint of introducing a food waste disposer (FWD) policy was examined in the context of its implications on solid waste and wastewater management with economic assessment of environmental externalities emphasizing potential carbon credit and increased sludge generation. For this purpose, a model adopting a life cycle inventory approach was developed to integrate solid waste and wastewater management processes under a single framework and test scenarios for a waste with high organic food content typical of developing economies. For such a waste composition, the results show that a FWD policy can reduce emissions by nearly ∼42% depending on market penetration, fraction of food waste ground, as well as solid waste and wastewater management schemes, including potential energy recovery. In comparison to baseline, equivalent economic gains can reach ∼28% when environmental externalities including sludge management and emissions variations are considered. The sensitivity analyses on processes with a wide range in costs showed an equivalent economic impact thus emphasizing the viability of a FWD policy although the variation in the cost of sludge management exhibited a significant impact on savings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The role of research in the radioactive waste management policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacq, Francois

    2006-01-01

    The author offered an institutional perspective, by drawing on the experience of Andra the implementing agency in France. His presentation addressed the role of research. Research is an asset, for policy, but science does not necessarily impose 'truth' or consensus in society. Research considered as an essential component of RWM projects, it is not with the objective of imposing solutions, but rather to provide quality responses that provide us with flexibility. The example was provided of reversibility, as a feature considered in some repository concepts. Reflecting on the discussions of the role of R and D in building public confidence, he noted that there is a long-term involvement of science and research in implementation in radioactive waste programs. The presentation emphasized the need for sharing amongst science and society. A viable and robust system is required to connect science and social environments. The process through which science and society collaboratively review research is also important. In this regard, adoption of 'stretching' to consider issues and research questions from many perspectives is key. Scientific proof is necessary, but there is also need to question how research is conducted. The presentation continued with observations from the experience of Andra, regarding the processes followed within the institution for setting directions, organizing and executing research

  11. Waste management as the central task of nuclear energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, H.

    1977-01-01

    A survey article deals with the tasks of the different steps of waste disposal, the amounts of fuel elements and waste obtained and the role of reprocessing in waste management, the intermediate storage of fuel elements and the alternative reprocessing or direct ultimate storage of fuel elements. The present state of the art of large-scale waste management in West Germany, is briefly outlined including responsibilities. (HPH) [de

  12. Integrating natural and social sciences to inspire public confidence in radioactive waste policy case study - Committee on radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usher, Sam

    2007-01-01

    Integrating Natural and Social Sciences to Inspire Public Confidence in Radioactive Waste Policy Case Study: Committee on Radioactive Waste Management Implementing effective long-term radioactive waste management policy is challenging, and both UK and international experience is littered with policy and programme failures. Policy must not only be underpinned by sound science and technical rationale, it must also inspire the confidence of the public and other stakeholders. However, in today's modern society, communities will not simply accept the word of scientists for setting policy based purely on technical grounds. This is particularly so in areas where there are significant social and ethical issues, such as radioactive waste disposal. To develop and implement effective policy, governments, waste owners and implementing bodies must develop processes which effectively integrate both complex technical and scientific issues, with equally challenging social and ethical concerns. These integrating processes must marry often intricate technical issues with broad public and stakeholder engagement programmes, in programmes which can expect the highest levels of public scrutiny, and must invariably be delivered within challenging time and budget constraints. This paper considers a model for how such integrating processes can be delivered. The paper reviews, as a case study, how such challenges were overcome by the Committee on Radioactive Waste Management (CoRWM), which, in July 2006, made recommendations to the UK government for the establishment of a long-term radioactive waste policy. Its recommendations were underpinned by sound science, but also engendered public confidence through undertaking the largest and most significant deliberative public and stakeholder engagement programme on a complex policy issue in the UK. Effective decision-making was enabled through the integration of both proven and bespoke methodologies, including Multi-criteria Decision Analysis and

  13. Status of the Japan's regulatory policy on radioactive waste management. Cleanup and recycling issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Daiji

    1995-01-01

    Wastes from nuclear facilities are very diversified concerning that have different levels of radioactivity and include different kinds of radioactive materials. Besides some of those waste is not assumed as radioactive waste. The basic policy of the radioactive waste management is taking that diversity into full account for appropriate separate management of different types of radioactive waste and treatment and disposal of each type in a rational manner, including recycling. From the point, the disposal methods are considered or under consideration to that waste, (1) from nuclear reactor facility, (2) from nuclear fuel cycle facility--HLW, waste contaminated TRU nuclides, or contaminated uranium, (3) from RI utilization or research institute, and (4) from decommissioning of nuclear facility. Now in Japan, regulation framework for some kind of LLW from reactor facility, including waste from decommissioning of reactor is established. (J.P.N.)

  14. ANSTO`s radioactive waste management policy. Preliminary environmental review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levins, D.M.; Airey, P.; Breadner, B.; Bull, P.; Camilleri, A.; Dimitrovski, L.; Gorman, T.; Harries, J.; Innes, R.; Jarquin, E.; Jay, G.; Ridal, A.; Smith, A.

    1996-05-01

    For over forty years, radioactive wastes have been generated by ANSTO (and its predecessor, the AAEC) from the operation of nuclear facilities, the production of radioisotopes for medical and industrial use, and from various research activities. the quantities and activities of radioactive waste currently at Lucas Heights are very small compared to many other nuclear facilities overseas, especially those in countries with nuclear power program. Nevertheless, in the absence of a repository for nuclear wastes in Australia and guidelines for waste conditioning, the waste inventory has been growing steadily. This report reviews the status of radioactive waste management at ANSTO, including spent fuel management, treatment of effluents and environmental monitoring. It gives details of: relevant legislative, regulatory and related requirements; sources and types of radioactive waste generated at ANSTO; waste quantities and activities (both cumulative and annual arisings); existing practices and procedures for waste management and environmental monitoring; recommended broad strategies for dealing with radioactive waste management issues. Detailed proposals on how the recommendations should be implemented is the subject of a companion internal document, the Radioactive Waste Management Action Plan 1996-2000 which provides details of the tasks to be undertaken, milestones and resource requirements. 44 refs., 2 tabs., 18 figs.

  15. CEA's waste management policy and strategy. Lessons learned - 59201

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dall'ava, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Radioactive wastes are generated during operation as well as during the decontamination and dismantling of CEA's nuclear facility/installation. The safe and responsible management of radioactive wastes at all stages is an essential requirement of the regulatory system. The management covers the whole sequence of operations starting with the generation of waste and ending with its disposal. The disposal here means discarding of waste with no intention for retrieval. It is important to note here that the safety principles and practices that are applicable during the operational phase are also applicable during the decommissioning phase. As the radioactive waste arising is an inevitable outcome of decommissioning work, all the regulatory requirements associated with decommissioning remain in force in waste management. This presentation deals initially with the regulatory standards related to the management of wastes. As the management of radioactive wastes inevitably includes treatment and conditioning of wastes, following treatment and conditioning of wastes, storage, transportation and eventual disposal are the logical outcome of the radioactive wastes, processes are at any time improved based on the feedback experience and the lessons learned. (author)

  16. ANSTO's radioactive waste management policy. Preliminary environmental review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levins, D.M.; Airey, P.; Breadner, B.; Bull, P.; Camilleri, A.; Dimitrovski, L.; Gorman, T.; Harries, J.; Innes, R.; Jarquin, E.; Jay, G.; Ridal, A.; Smith, A.

    1996-05-01

    For over forty years, radioactive wastes have been generated by ANSTO (and its predecessor, the AAEC) from the operation of nuclear facilities, the production of radioisotopes for medical and industrial use, and from various research activities. the quantities and activities of radioactive waste currently at Lucas Heights are very small compared to many other nuclear facilities overseas, especially those in countries with nuclear power program. Nevertheless, in the absence of a repository for nuclear wastes in Australia and guidelines for waste conditioning, the waste inventory has been growing steadily. This report reviews the status of radioactive waste management at ANSTO, including spent fuel management, treatment of effluents and environmental monitoring. It gives details of: relevant legislative, regulatory and related requirements; sources and types of radioactive waste generated at ANSTO; waste quantities and activities (both cumulative and annual arisings); existing practices and procedures for waste management and environmental monitoring; recommended broad strategies for dealing with radioactive waste management issues. Detailed proposals on how the recommendations should be implemented is the subject of a companion internal document, the Radioactive Waste Management Action Plan 1996-2000 which provides details of the tasks to be undertaken, milestones and resource requirements. 44 refs., 2 tabs., 18 figs

  17. Waste policies gone soft: An analysis of European and Swedish waste prevention plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Nils; Corvellec, Hervé

    2018-04-30

    This paper presents an analysis of European and Swedish national and municipal waste prevention plans to determine their capability of preventing the generation of waste. An analysis of the stated objectives in these waste prevention plans and the measures they propose to realize them exposes six problematic features: (1) These plans ignore what drives waste generation, such as consumption, and (2) rely as much on conventional waste management goals as they do on goals with the aim of preventing the generation of waste at the source. The Swedish national and local plans (3) focus on small waste streams, such as food waste, rather than large ones, such as industrial and commercial waste. Suggested waste prevention measures at all levels are (4) soft rather than constraining, for example, these plans focus on information campaigns rather than taxes and bans, and (5) not clearly connected to incentives and consequences for the actors involved. The responsibility for waste prevention has been (6) entrusted to non-governmental actors in the market such as companies that are then free to define which proposals suit them best rather than their being guided by planners. For improved waste prevention regulation, two strategies are proposed. First, focus primarily not on household-related waste, but on consumption and production of products with high environmental impact and toxicity as waste. Second, remove waste prevention from the waste hierarchy to make clear that, by definition, waste prevention is not about the management of waste. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Life cycle assessment of a national policy proposal - The case of a Swedish waste incineration tax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoerklund, Anna E.; Finnveden, Goeran

    2007-01-01

    At the core of EU and Swedish waste policy is the so-called waste hierarchy, according to which waste should first be prevented, but should otherwise be treated in the following order of prioritisation: reuse, recycling when environmentally motivated, energy recovery, and last landfilling. Some recent policy decisions in Sweden aim to influence waste management in the direction of the waste hierarchy. In 2001 a governmental commission assessed the economic and environmental impacts of introducing a weight-based tax on waste incineration, the purpose of which would be to encourage waste reduction and increase materials recycling and biological treatment. This paper presents the results of a life cycle assessment (LCA) of the waste incineration tax proposal. It was done in the context of a larger research project concerning the development and testing of a framework for Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA). The aim of this paper is to assess the life cycle environmental impacts of the waste incineration tax proposal, and to investigate whether there are any possibilities of more optimal design of such a tax. The proposed design of the waste incineration tax results in increased recycling, but only in small environmental improvements. A more elaborate tax design is suggested, in which the tax level would partly be related to the fossil carbon content of the waste

  19. Policy, regulatory and international spects of the disposal of low - and intermediate radioactive waste and other hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivier, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper focuses on the management of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste. It recalls briefly the technical background and the main features of the regulatory systems adopted by most countries for their radioactive wastes, the respective role of technical and institutional measures contributing to safety, and the influence of international cooperation. A very preliminary attempt is made to draw a parallel with the situation existing for other hazardous wastes, underlying in particular those aspects which seem important in the discussion of management and regulatory policies

  20. The execution by COVRA of the Dutch policy with regard to radioactive waste. Chapter 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrijen, J.

    1989-01-01

    Considerations for alteration of the radioactive-waste policy in the Netherlands resulted in the foundation in 1982 of the Central Organization For Radioactive Waste (COVRA). This chapter deals with the specifications of duty and the organization of COVRA and its management with regard to the interim storage and processing of radioactive waste in Zijpe and Borssele, and the final disposal. (H.W.). 3 figs

  1. Recycling of consumer waste: A behavioural science approach to environmental protection policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    1994-01-01

    Evaluations of programs whose purpose is to increase recycling in Denmark through changing consumer waste handling practices are reviewed on the results discussed in a behavioural science framework Denmark is one of the fastest-moving European cou with regard to policies targeting consumer waste...

  2. Policy Mixes to Achieve Absolute Decoupling: A Case Study of Municipal Waste Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Montevecchi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Studying the effectiveness of environmental policies is of primary importance to address the unsustainable use of resources that threatens the entire society. Thus, the aim of this paper is to investigate on the effectiveness of environmental policy instruments to decouple waste generation and landfilling from economic growth. In order to do so, the paper analyzes the case study of the Slovakian municipality of Palarikovo, which has drastically improved its waste management system between 2000 and 2012, through the utilization of differentiated waste taxes and awareness-raising and education campaigns, as well as targeting increased recycling and municipal composting. We find evidence of absolute decoupling for landfilled waste and waste generation, the latter being more limited in time and magnitude. These policy instruments could therefore play an important role in municipalities that are still lagging behind in waste management. More specifically, this policy mix was effective in moving away from landfilling, initiating recycling systems, and to some extent decreasing waste generation. Yet, a more explicit focus on waste prevention will be needed to address the entirety of the problem effectively.

  3. Who regulates the disposal of low-level radioactive waste under the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostaghel, D.M.

    1988-01-01

    The present existence of immense quantities of low-level nuclear waste, a federal law providing for state or regional control of such waste disposal, and a number of state disposal laws challenged on a variety of constitutional grounds underscore what currently may be the most serious problem in nuclear waste disposal: who is to regulate the disposal of low-level nuclear wastes. This problem's origin may be traced to crucial omissions in the Atomic Energy Act of 1946 and its 1954 amendments (AEA) that concern radioactive waste disposal. Although the AEA states that nuclear materials and facilities are affected with the public interest and should be regulated to provide for the public health and safety, the statute fails to prescribe specific guidelines for any nuclear waste disposal. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 (LLRWPA) grants states some control over radioactive waste disposal, an area from which they were previously excluded by the doctrine of federal preemption. This Comment discusses the question of who regulates low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities by examining the following: the constitutional doctrines safeguarding federal government authority; area of state authority; grants of specific authority delegations under the LLRWPA and its amendment; and finally, potential problems that may arise depending on whether ultimate regulatory authority is deemed to rest with single states, regional compacts, or the federal government

  4. Curbing dioxin emissions from municipal solid waste incineration in China: Re-thinking about management policies and practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng Hefa, E-mail: hefac@umich.ed [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Hu Yuanan [Education Program for Gifted Youth, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94025 (United States)

    2010-09-15

    As one of the countries with large amounts of dioxin releases, the control of dioxins is a major challenge for China. Municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration should be considered a high priority source of dioxin emissions because it is playing an increasingly more important role in waste management. MSW incineration in China has much higher emission rates of dioxins than in the developed countries, partially resulting from the gaps in the technologies of incineration and flue gas cleaning. Moreover, the current management policies and practices also contribute significantly to the problem. We recommend lowering dioxin emission standard, strengthening fly ash management, and improving regulation enforcement to reduce dioxin releases into the environment from MSW incineration. We also propose that alternative strategies should be considered on dioxin control and call for an expansion of economic instruments in waste management to reduce waste generation and thus the need for incineration. - The management policies and practices need to be improved to curb the increasing dioxin releases from municipal solid waste incineration in China.

  5. Curbing dioxin emissions from municipal solid waste incineration in China: Re-thinking about management policies and practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Hefa; Hu Yuanan

    2010-01-01

    As one of the countries with large amounts of dioxin releases, the control of dioxins is a major challenge for China. Municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration should be considered a high priority source of dioxin emissions because it is playing an increasingly more important role in waste management. MSW incineration in China has much higher emission rates of dioxins than in the developed countries, partially resulting from the gaps in the technologies of incineration and flue gas cleaning. Moreover, the current management policies and practices also contribute significantly to the problem. We recommend lowering dioxin emission standard, strengthening fly ash management, and improving regulation enforcement to reduce dioxin releases into the environment from MSW incineration. We also propose that alternative strategies should be considered on dioxin control and call for an expansion of economic instruments in waste management to reduce waste generation and thus the need for incineration. - The management policies and practices need to be improved to curb the increasing dioxin releases from municipal solid waste incineration in China.

  6. Influence of non-technical policies on choices of waste solidification technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trubatch, S.L.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes and discusses non-technical policy considerations which may improperly influence decisions on the solidification of low-level radioactive wastes (''LLW''). These policy considerations are contained principally in several State and Federal statutes which regulate various aspects of LLW disposal. One policy consideration in particular, the unqualified bias in favor of volume reduction, is shown to present a substantial potential for leading to technically suboptimal decisions on the appropriate processes for solidifying LLW. To avoid the unintended skewing of technical decisions by non-technical policy considerations, certain current policies may need to be revised to ensure that the choices of waste treatment, including decisions on solidification, are based primarily on reasonable assurance of adequate protection of public health and safety. This goal may be realized in part by basing any disposal fee structure on more than just LLW volume to include consideration of the waste's activity and its difficulty of confinement

  7. Waste Management Policy in Tourism Area of Saensuk Municipality, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Wijaya, Andy Fefta; Kaewmanee, Pongsathon

    2014-01-01

    Saensuk Municipality is a famous tourism city in Thailand, especially Bangsaen beach. In supporting the tourism activity, it has waste managing method by using new generation administrator and technologies. However, the waste problem happened in Saensuk Municipality is included the human resource ability, technical facility, and the amount of waste. By using the qualitative descriptive method and doing a series of interview to selected informants, the researcher studied and analyzed the probl...

  8. Policy and practice of radioactive waste management in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunder Radzhan, N.S.

    1986-01-01

    The Indian program on radioactive waste management comprising two main variants: engineering subsurface repositories for low- and intermediate-level wastes and deep geological formations for alpha-bearing and high-level wastes (HLW) is presented. One of the problems deals with the matrices with improved properties for HLW inclusion. The other aspect concerns development of management with alpha-emitting radionuclides in HLW. Special attention is paid to the problems of safety

  9. Are developing countries ready for first world waste policy instruments?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Godfrey, Linda K

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available behavior Sardinia 2007, Eleventh International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium 2.2 Economic instruments In contrast with command-and-control approaches, which mandate specific behaviours, economic instruments (EIs) (such as taxes, subsidies..., and marketable permits) aim to change behaviour indirectly by changing the prices (and hence incentives) that individuals and businesses face. For example, taxes per unit of waste collected or disposed of, create incentives to reduce waste generation...

  10. Dutch energy policies from a European perspective. Major developments in 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Arkel, W.; Bruijn, A.; Kets, A.; De Lange, T.; Schaeffer, G.J.; Scheepers, M.; Sijm, J.; Uyterlinde, M.; Van Werven, M.

    2004-04-01

    ECN is not only active in technological research and development; it also plays a major role in policy research and development. Since national energy policy is increasingly influenced by developments at the European level and vice versa, ECN is shifting its attention from a national to a European focus. More and more, national energy and environmental policies are implemented within the framework of EU (European Union) directives, while reversibly the success of European policies is dependent on harmonised national actions in a liberalised European energy market. To demonstrate this shifting research orientation towards a European position ECN decided to highlight four major national topics that dominated policy discussions in the Netherlands during 2003 in this special publication. The first topic concerns changes in national renewable energy policy. Earlier policies had led to a dramatic increase in imports of renewable electricity with major fiscal consequences and it was decided to redress the balance towards stimulating domestic investment in renewable energy capacity. In the summer of 2003 extreme weather events led to an electricity supply crisis providing a short-term argument to look into the policy options for preventing shortages. The opportunities and limitations of demand side response to electricity supply shortages is the second topic addressed. Regarding climate change policies the most notable development undoubtedly concerns the impending implementation of a greenhouse gas emissions trading scheme. The focus in this chapter is on the interaction between the EU directive on emissions trading and the Dutch approach. As a relatively small country the Netherlands has always found it difficult to make appropriate energy research and development choices. During 2003 new directions in RD and D policies were determined. Apart from the optimal choice of nationally relevant research priorities, an additional vexing problem concerns the relative amounts of

  11. Non-fuel cycle radioactive waste policy in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirel, H.

    2003-01-01

    Radioactive wastes generated in Turkey are mostly low level radioactive waste generated from the operation of one research reactor, research centers and universities, hospitals, and from radiological application of various industries. Disused sealed sources which potentially represent medium and high radiological risks in Turkey are mainly Am-241, Ra-226, Kr-85, Co-60, Ir-192 and Cs-137. All radioactive waste produced in Turkey is collected, segregated, conditioned and stored at CWPSF. Main components of the facility are listed below: Liquid waste is treated in chemical processing unit where precipitation is applied. Compactable solids are compressed in a compaction cell. Spent sources are embedded into cement mortar with their original shielding. If the source activities are in several millicuries, sometimes dismantling is applied and segregated sources are conditioned in shielded drums. Due to increasing number of radiation and nuclear related activities, the waste facility of CNAEM is now becoming insufficient to meet the storage demand of the country. TAEA is now in a position to establish a new radioactive waste management facility and studies are now being carried out on the selection of best place for the final storage of processed radioactive wastes. Research and development studies in TAEA should continue in radioactive waste management with the aim of improving data, models, and concepts related to long-term safety of disposal of long-lived waste

  12. Curbing International Piracy of Intellectual Property. Policy Options for a Major Exporting Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Gary M.; Marcou, George T.

    This report of the International Piracy Project addresses three major topics: (1) The Costs and Complications of Piracy; (2) Rights Enforcement Today; and (3) Policy Options for Curbing Piracy. The first section discusses piracy of copyrights, patents, and other intellectual property, including economic losses and damage to the finances and…

  13. Long-term management of radioactive waste - will the Price-Anderson system work for third party liability issues arising from the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznick, S.K.

    1985-01-01

    Two pieces of legislation have been enacted in the United States to provide a framework for the management of radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel: the Low-level Radioactive Waste Policy Act (1980) and the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. Neither of these statutes provide a means for resolving third party liability issues arising out of radioactive waste management. However, the Price Anderson Act (originally enacted in 1957) provides a system of financial protection that can be applied to waste management activities and that can resolve most issues pertaining to liability for nuclear damage that may result from long-term management of radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. (NEA) [fr

  14. Development of a national health care waste management policy for South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Molefe, GS

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A Policy for Health Care Risk Waste (HCRW) Management is being developed by the Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism in collaboration with the national Department of Health. The HCRW Management Policy aims at: i) Setting of standards...

  15. Policy options to reduce consumer waste to zero: comparing product stewardship and extended producer responsibility for refrigerator waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Scott; Thompson, Shirley

    2007-06-01

    Today, over-consumption, pollution and resource depletion threaten sustainability. Waste management policies frequently fail to reduce consumption, prevent pollution, conserve resources and foster sustainable products. However, waste policies are changing to focus on lifecycle impacts of products from the cradle to the grave by extending the responsibilities of stakeholders to post-consumer management. Product stewardship and extended producer responsibility are two policies in use, with radically different results when compared for one consumer product, refrigerators. North America has enacted product stewardship policies that fail to require producers to take physical or financial responsibility for recycling or for environmentally sound disposal, so that releases of ozone depleting substances routinely occur, which contribute to the expanding the ozone hole. Conversely, Europe's Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) Directive requires extended producer responsibility, whereby producers collect and manage their own post-consumer waste products. WEEE has resulted in high recycling rates of greater than 85%, reduced emissions of ozone-depleting substances and other toxins, greener production methods, such as replacing greenhouse gas refrigerants with environmentally friendly hydrocarbons and more reuse of refrigerators in the EU in comparison with North America.

  16. Dietary intake of PBDEs of residents at two major electronic waste recycling sites in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, J.K.Y. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China); School of Biological Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong (China); Man, Y.B. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China); Wu, S.C. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China); State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Wong, M.H., E-mail: mhwong@hkbu.edu.hk [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China)

    2013-10-01

    The dietary intake of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) of local residents from 2 major electronic waste (e-waste) processing sites (Guiyu, Guangdong Province and Taizhou, Zhejiang Province) in China was investigated. Seventy-four food items were collected from these sites, divided into 9 food groups (freshwater fish, marine fish, shellfish, pork, poultry, chicken offal, egg, vegetables and cereals), and examined for residual PBDE concentrations. Out of all food items examined, the freshwater bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) contained extremely high (11,400 ± 254 ng/g wet wt.) concentrations of PBDE, the highest concentrations amongst published data concerning PBDE detected in freshwater fish. Food consumption data obtained through semi-quantitative food intake questionnaires showed that Guiyu residents had a PBDE dietary intake of 931 ± 772 ng/kg bw/day, of which BDE-47 (584 ng/kg bw/day) exceeded the US EPA's reference dose (100 ng/kg/day). Taizhou (44.7 ± 26.3 ng/kg bw/day) and Lin'an (1.94 ± 0.86 ng/kg bw/day) residents exhibited lower readings. The main dietary source of PBDEs in Guiyu and Taizhou residents was seafood (88–98%) and pork (41%) in Lin'an. The present results indicated that health risks arising from PBDE dietary exposure are of significance in terms of public health and food safety to local residents of e-waste processing sites. - Highlights: ► Food basket analysis was conducted in 2 major e-waste processing sites in China. ► Different food items were contaminated by PBDE contained in e-waste sites in China. ► Guiyu residents had an potential unsafe level of PBDE dietary exposure.

  17. Improving societal acceptance of rad waste management policy decisions: an approach based on complex intelligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Suman

    2008-01-01

    In today's context elaborate public participation exercises are conducted around the world to elicit and incorporate societal risk perceptions into nuclear policy Decision-Making. However, on many occasions, such as in the case of rad waste management, the society remains unconvinced about these decisions. This naturally leads to the questions: are techniques for incorporating societal risk perceptions into the rad waste policy decision making processes sufficiently mature? How could societal risk perceptions and legal normative principles be better integrated in order to render the decisions more equitable and convincing to society? Based on guidance from socio-psychological research this paper postulates that a critical factor for gaining/improving societal acceptance is the quality and adequacy of criteria for option evaluation that are used in the policy decision making. After surveying three rad waste public participation cases, the paper identifies key lacunae in criteria abstraction processes as currently practiced. A new policy decision support model CIRDA: Complex Intelligent Risk Discourse Abstraction model that is based on the heuristic of Risk-Risk Analysis is proposed to overcome these lacunae. CIRDA's functionality of rad waste policy decision making is modelled as a policy decision-making Abstract Intelligent Agent and the agent program/abstraction mappings are presented. CIRDA is then applied to a live (U.K.) rad waste management case and the advantages of this method as compared to the Value Tree Method as practiced in the GB case are demonstrated. (author)

  18. Non-fuel cycle radioactive waste policy in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izmir, A.I.; Uslu, I.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Introduction. Radioactive wastes generated in Turkey are mostly low level radioactive waste generated from the operation of one research reactor, research centers and universities, hospitals, and from radiological application of various industries. It involves both short-lived and long lived radionuclides. In general, this includes radioactive materials, which are no longer useful and have their origin from practice or intervention both with unsealed and sealed sources. Radioactive Waste Management in Turkey. Utilisation of radioactive materials in Turkey requires special authorisations and falls under legal rules, in particular under the Radiation Safety Regulation of 24th March 2000 (Official Gazette number: 20983) outlining a general regulation for the protection of the population and workers against the danger of ionising radiation and subsequent amendments. There is also a requirement enforced by the Regulations for Radioactive Wastes Exempt from Regulatory Authority Control (published on 15 January 2000, Official Gazette number: 23934) that identifies the limits and other conditions for the discharges of radioactive substances to the environment. Radioactive waste is generally understood as material for which no further use is foreseen, and which has been managed in a system of reporting, authorisation and control as specified in International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) recommendations or national legislation. In this paper radioactive waste is considered in two categories: as originated from unsealed sources or from sealed sources. a) Management of Unsealed Sources. Unsealed radionuclides are utilised in human medicine for in vivo diagnosis, metabolic therapy and in vitro biological analysis. The most common types of radionuclides used in Turkey are C-14, Co-57, Cr-51, Fe-59, Ga-67, H-3, I-123, I-125, I-131, In-111, Mo-99, P-32, P-33, Re-186, S-35, Sr-89, Sr-90, Tc-99, Tl-201, Xe-133, Y-90 which are import of radiopharmaceuticals to Turkey in

  19. Radioactive wastes and residues: government participation in a control policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelli, Guido

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the politic aspects of the State participation in inspection and control of the radioactive wastes residues with the supervise of Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN), by a national program

  20. Policy of radioactive waste disposal in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selling, H.A.

    2002-01-01

    Earlier this year the final report of the CORA Commission on retrievable disposal of radioactive waste was published. It confirmed the technical feasibility of retrievable repository concepts in the deep underground. Rock salt and sedimentary clay were considered as potential host rocks for such a repository. It is recommended, among other things, that subsequent research programmes should focus on stakeholder identification and involvement in a stepwise decision-making process of waste disposal. (author)

  1. Contested environmental policy infrastructure: Socio-political acceptance of renewable energy, water, and waste facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolsink, Maarten

    2010-01-01

    The construction of new infrastructure is hotly contested. This paper presents a comparative study on three environmental policy domains in the Netherlands that all deal with legitimising building and locating infrastructure facilities. Such infrastructure is usually declared essential to environmental policy and claimed to serve sustainability goals. They are considered to serve (proclaimed) public interests, while the adverse impact or risk that mainly concerns environmental values as well is concentrated at a smaller scale, for example in local communities. The social acceptance of environmental policy infrastructure is institutionally determined. The institutional capacity for learning in infrastructure decision-making processes in the following three domains is compared: 1.The implementation of wind power as a renewable energy innovation; 2.The policy on space-water adaptation, with its claim to implement a new style of management replacing the current practice of focusing on control and 'hard' infrastructure; 3.Waste policy with a focus on sound waste management and disposal, claiming a preference for waste minimization (the 'waste management hierarchy'). All three cases show a large variety of social acceptance issues, where the appraisal of the impact of siting the facilities is confronted with the desirability of the policies. In dealing with environmental conflict, the environmental capacity of the Netherlands appears to be low. The policies are frequently hotly contested within the process of infrastructure decision-making. Decision-making on infrastructure is often framed as if consensus about the objectives of environmental policies exists. These claims are not justified, and therefore stimulating the emergence of environmental conflicts that discourage social acceptance of the policies. Authorities are frequently involved in planning infrastructure that conflicts with their officially proclaimed policy objectives. In these circumstances, they are

  2. Toxicity potentials from waste cellular phones, and a waste management policy integrating consumer, corporate, and government responsibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Seong-Rin; Schoenung, Julie M.

    2010-01-01

    Cellular phones have high environmental impact potentials because of their heavy metal content and current consumer attitudes toward purchasing new phones with higher functionality and neglecting to return waste phones into proper take-back systems. This study evaluates human health and ecological toxicity potentials from waste cellular phones; highlights consumer, corporate, and government responsibilities for effective waste management; and identifies key elements needed for an effective waste management strategy. The toxicity potentials are evaluated by using heavy metal content, respective characterization factors, and a pathway and impact model for heavy metals that considers end-of-life disposal in landfills or by incineration. Cancer potentials derive primarily from Pb and As; non-cancer potentials primarily from Cu and Pb; and ecotoxicity potentials primarily from Cu and Hg. These results are not completely in agreement with previous work in which leachability thresholds were the metric used to establish priority, thereby indicating the need for multiple or revised metrics. The triple bottom line of consumer, corporate, and government responsibilities is emphasized in terms of consumer attitudes, design for environment (DfE), and establishment and implementation of waste management systems including recycling streams, respectively. The key strategic elements for effective waste management include environmental taxation and a deposit-refund system to motivate consumer responsibility, which is linked and integrated with corporate and government responsibilities. The results of this study can contribute to DfE and waste management policy for cellular phones.

  3. Toxicity potentials from waste cellular phones, and a waste management policy integrating consumer, corporate, and government responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seong-Rin; Schoenung, Julie M

    2010-01-01

    Cellular phones have high environmental impact potentials because of their heavy metal content and current consumer attitudes toward purchasing new phones with higher functionality and neglecting to return waste phones into proper take-back systems. This study evaluates human health and ecological toxicity potentials from waste cellular phones; highlights consumer, corporate, and government responsibilities for effective waste management; and identifies key elements needed for an effective waste management strategy. The toxicity potentials are evaluated by using heavy metal content, respective characterization factors, and a pathway and impact model for heavy metals that considers end-of-life disposal in landfills or by incineration. Cancer potentials derive primarily from Pb and As; non-cancer potentials primarily from Cu and Pb; and ecotoxicity potentials primarily from Cu and Hg. These results are not completely in agreement with previous work in which leachability thresholds were the metric used to establish priority, thereby indicating the need for multiple or revised metrics. The triple bottom line of consumer, corporate, and government responsibilities is emphasized in terms of consumer attitudes, design for environment (DfE), and establishment and implementation of waste management systems including recycling streams, respectively. The key strategic elements for effective waste management include environmental taxation and a deposit-refund system to motivate consumer responsibility, which is linked and integrated with corporate and government responsibilities. The results of this study can contribute to DfE and waste management policy for cellular phones. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The transport implications of siting policies for the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, I.A.

    1986-01-01

    This report has been produced to be complementary to the previously issued report ''The Transport Implications of Regional Policies for The Disposal of Intermediate Level Radioactive Wastes''. The same combinations of disposal facilities have been used so that direct comparison with intermediate waste results can be made. Low level wastes and short-lived intermediate level wastes for near-surface disposal are assumed to share a common infrastructure on the rail system and hence a methodology of separating total costs between these two waste types has been derived. Two transport modes, road and rail have been analysed. Hybrid transport, a combination of road and rail systems, has not been examined since no site is considered to produce sufficient waste to justify a dedicated rail service. Sellafield, has not been included in this examination since it is assumed to be served by its own disposal site at Drigg. (author)

  5. Toward a national policy for managing low-level radioactive waste: key issues and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duerksen, C.J.; Mantell, M.; Thompson, G.P.

    1981-06-01

    The Conservation Foundation, a not-for-profit research and public education organization, asked individuals with diverse backgrounds and viewpoints to come together under Foundation leadership as a Dialogue Group on Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management. The group, including persons who represent waste generators, concerned citizens, state regulators, and environmentalists, met over an 18-month period to discuss issues crucial to the development of a national policy on low-level wastes. The Dialogue Group agreed that three principles, if accepted broadly, would form the basis of a sound national policy for managing low-level radioactive wastes: with proper implementation, technology exists to manage low-level waste safely; generators and their customers should pay disposal costs; and greater public involvement at all stages can improve the disposal system. These principles acted as polestars for the group as it worked toward a series of policy recommendations in four main areas: (1) cleaning up closed commercial sites; (2) remodeling a system for defining and classifying low-level radioactive waste; (3) siting new low-level waste disposal facilities; and (4) decommissioning, long-term care, and liability. This report presents an extensive discussion of these recommendations covering qualifications, limitations, and alternatives

  6. Learning to listen. Institutional change and legitimation in UK radioactive waste policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackerron, G. [SPRU Science and Technology Policy Research, University of Sussex, Brighton (United Kingdom); Berkhout, F. [Institute for Environmental Studies IVM, VU University, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-04-15

    Over the course of 50 years, UK radioactive waste policy change has been coupled with institutional change, without much progress towards the ultimate goal of safe, long-term stewardship of wastes. We explain this history as a search for legitimacy against a shifting context of legitimation needs and deficits. Following Habermas, we argue that legitimation is derived from a process of justificatory discourse. In principle, there must be a reasonable exchange of arguments between diverse parties in society, based on common norms, for legitimacy to be achieved. We show that the work of legitimation in UK radioactive waste policy has moved from a focus on factual validity claims towards an increasing emphasis on deliberative processes. This reframing of legitimation needs explains institutional and policy changes in UK radioactive waste policy. The most recent phase of policy and institutional change, which placed public deliberation about long-term management and disposal options centre-stage, represents a new step towards bridging legitimation deficits. Plans to build new nuclear reactors in the UK based on a more closed 'streamlined' decision process risk reversing the legitimacy gains that have been achieved through growing openness on radioactive waste management.

  7. THE JEOPARDIZED SITUATION OF ELECTRONIC WASTE IN BANGLADESH: CAN CUSTOMIZED POLICY APPROACH SOLVE THE CHALLENGE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Md. Bahauddin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronic waste (e-waste is one of the fastest-growing pollution problems worldwide given the presence if a variety of toxic substances which can contaminate the environment and threaten human health, if disposal protocols are not meticulously managed. In Bangladesh almost 2.7 million metric tons of e-waste generated per year. Of this amountonly 20 to 30 percent is recycled and the rest of the waste is released in to landfills,  rivers, drains lakes, canals, open spaces which are very hazardous for the health and environment. Since Bangladesh is in the stream of rapid technological advancement, it is seldom to take necessary steps to avoid the future jeopardized situation because of e-waste. The current practices of e-waste management in Bangladesh suffer from a number of drawbacks like the difficulty in inventorisation, unhealthy conditions of informal recycling, inadequate legislation and policy, poor awareness and reluctance on part of the corporate to address the critical issues. The paper highlights the associated issues and strategies to address this emerging problem, analyses the policy and its gaps. Therefore, this paper also suggest that e-waste policy development may require a more customized approach where, instead of addressing e-waste in isolation, it should be addressed as part of the national development agenda that integrates green economy assessment and strategic environmental assessment as part of national policy planning. Finally this work also suggests some alternative strategies and approaches to overcome the challenges of e-waste.

  8. Management of radioactive waste from a major core damage in a BWR power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkert, J.; Christensen, H.; Torstenfelt, B.

    1990-01-01

    Large amounts of fission products would be released in case of a major core damage in a nuclear power reactor. In this theoretical study the core damage is caused by a loss of coolant accident followed by a complete loss of all electric power for about 30 minutes resulting in the release of 10% of the core inventory of noble gases. A second case has also been briefly studied, in which the corresponding core damage is supposed to be created merely by the complete loss of electric power during a limited time period. It appears from the study that the radioactive waste generated as a consequence of an accident of the extent can be managed in the reference reactor with only minor modifications required in the waste plant. The detailed results of the study are reactor specific, but many of the findings and recommendations are generally applicable. (author) 28 refs

  9. Management of radioactive waste in France-policy, issues, and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamborini, J.

    1996-01-01

    The French nuclear industry has conducted a study to define a policy and an organization to deal with the waste generated from nuclear power plants, the fuel cycle industries, and medicine, research, and other industrial nuclear applications. This has resulted in the introduction of an organization which, by appropriate and responsible management, can guarantee to protect people and the environment while ensuring industrial effectiveness. The body in charge of waste management in France is the National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA) created in 1979. The French policy is based on waste classification and the related solutions for the evacuation of these wastes. High-level and long-lived waste management is regulated by a law passed Dec 30, 1991. The law outlines the research program to be conducted. Three main research objectives are prescribed: 1. reduction of the waste volumes and toxicity (partitioning and transmutation); 2. assessment of the waste isolation properties of deep geologic formations by underground research laboratories; 3. development of solidification processes and storage techniques for long-term interim storage in near-surface facilities. This research will be implemented within a 15 yr period. At present, applications are submitted to the authorities for the construction of underground research laboratories. At the end of this period, reports will be submitted to parliament. It will have to choose among various options. The construction of a deep geologic repository, if this option is chosen, will need the passage of a new law

  10. AEC sets basic policy line on treatment and disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    The AEC's new policy line for the treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes is explained with three tables added. The first table was prepared by MITI's Nuclear Fuel Advisory Committee regarding the projections on the amounts of radioactive wastes to be discharged from nuclear power plants, fuel fabrication plants and reprocessing plants, and the other two tables were made by the AEC committee on technical development of radioactive waste management, the one proposed the developmental steps necessary for establishing waste management technologies, and the other showed the related research and development items with target time schedule. The proper treatment and disposal of radioactive waste S are the problems that have to be resolved prior to the full development and utilization of nuclear energy. The Atomic Energy Commission set up a committee on July 29, 1975, to discuss the technologies on the management of radioactive wastes. The principle essential to the radioactive waste management was set, and it is desirable that this principle is put into practice with the cooperation and understanding of the people and all parties concerned. The countermeasures proposed will be subject to review yet as the technology makes further progress and they are as follows: on the high level radioactive waste management and the low-and intermediate-level radioactive waste management, the basic idea, targets and measures are given, and the methods for promoting experimental ocean dumping of low level radioactive wastes are proposed. (Iwakiri, K.)

  11. Strategic environmental assessment policy integration model for solid waste management in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Victor, Dennis; Agamuthu, P.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We identified policy drivers of SEA in solid waste policy planning. • The SEA primary policy drivers are benefits, barriers and enablers need. • The SEA sub-drivers are environmental attitude and environmental awareness. • Optimal SEA policy integration requires public participation and capacity building. • SEA integration should be a long-term sustainable policy strategy for SWM. -- Abstract: This paper examines the strategic environmental assessment (SEA) systemic policy drivers for solid waste management (SWM) policies, plans and programmes (PPP) in Malaysia. Solid waste generation in Malaysia has been increasing drastically from 9.0 million tonnes in 2000 to an expected 15.6 million tonnes in 2020. This projected rate of solid waste generation is expected to burden the country's environmental and water quality resources. The key problem the study frames is the lack of environmental integration in the SWM process which is only conducted during the environmental impact assessments (EIA) stage of SWM facilities. The purpose of this study is to expand the SEA subject knowledge by validating a behaviour based theoretical framework and identifying key policy drivers that influence the integration of SEA in SWM policy planning. The study methodology utilized a confirmatory covariance based structural equation modelling approach to validate the proposed theoretical model based on the policy makers/implementers interview questionnaire data collection. The study findings indicate five latent SEA policy drivers which were named policy knowledge, environmental attitude, perceived benefits, perceived barriers and perceived enablers. The study has conceptualized and tested a SEA policy model which indicates that SEA integration behaviour is influenced directly by three main drivers (perception of benefits, perception of barriers and perception of enablers) and influenced indirectly by two sub-drivers environmental attitude and environmental knowledge

  12. Public and state responses to high-level nuclear waste disposal: Learning from policy failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraft, M.E.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear waste policy in the United States has faded in large part because of public and state opposition to repository siting. However, that outcome was not inevitable. This paper argues that better policy design and greater attention to the crucial tasks of policy legitimation both by the U.S. Congress and by the Department of Energy might have significantly increased the chances for successful implementation. Even though the program now has a highly uncertain future, suggestions are offered for policy learning and change that may increase the probability of success

  13. Proceedings of conference on public policy issues in nuclear waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    This conference was designed to provide a public forum in which to identify and discuss the legal, institutional, social, environmental, and other public policy issues relating to nuclear waste management. This volume is a comprehensive synthesis of the speeches, papers, and discussions during the plenary and luncheon sessions. Preliminary goals are proposed for nuclear waste management. Separate abstracts were prepared for the ten papers. (DLC)

  14. The Long-Run Effects of the Fed’s Monetary Policy on the Dynamics among Major Asset Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Jia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that government monetary policies significantly impact financial markets. There have been numerous studies examining the relationship between monetary policy and the prices of financial assets, including equities and bonds. Little, however, has been done to explore the impact of major financial assets on changes in monetary policies.

  15. Waste Management Policy Implementation in South Africa: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    implementation process, and the role of powerful actor networks in the ... Affairs and Tourism indicated his intention to rid South Africa of their 'national flower' when ... broadens policy process analysis to include both the material and social.

  16. The radioactive waste management policy and practice in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucerka, M.

    1996-01-01

    In recent period, the new Czech Atomic Law is in the final stage of preparation, and the author expects that Parliament of the Czech Republic will approve it in the first half of the year 1996. Partly the law deals with new distribution of responsibilities among bodies involved in utilization of nuclear energy and ionizing radiation, the state and local authorities. The new provisions include also radioactive waste management activities. These provisions clarify the relations between radioactive waste generators and state, and define explicitly duties of waste generators. One of the most important duties is to cover all expenses for radioactive waste management now and in the future, including radioactive waste disposal and decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The law establishes radioactive waste management and decommissioning funds and the new, on waste generators independent radioactive waste management organization, controlled by state, to ensure the safety of inhabitants and the environment, and a optimization of expenses. Parallel to the preparation of the law, the Ministry of Industry and Trade prepares drafts of a statute of the radioactive waste management organization and its control board, and of the methodology and rules of management the radioactive waste fund. First drafts of these documents are expected to be complete in January 1996. The paper will describe recent practice and policy of the radioactive waste management including uranium mining and milling tailings, amounts of waste and its activities, economical background, and safety. A special attention will be paid to description of expected changes in connection with the new Atomic Law and expected steps and time schedule of reorganization of the radioactive waste management structure in the Czech Republic

  17. Mitigating pharmaceutical waste exposures: policy and program considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amster, Eric D

    2016-01-01

    Pharmaceutical disposal and the environmental fate of medication metabolites directly impacts the public's health in two significant ways: accidental medication ingestion of pharmaceuticals that were not disposed of properly results in inadvertent toxicity; and environmental health consequences of pharmaceuticals that were inappropriately disposed and which contaminate municipal water supply. In reviewing the effectiveness of medication disposal policy globally, it is crucial to not only determine which policies are effective but also to assess why they are effective. By assessing the root causes for a specific policy's effectiveness it can be determined if those successes could be translated to another country with a different health care system, unique culture and divergent policy ecosystem. Any intervention regarding pharmaceutical disposal would require a multifaceted approach beyond raising awareness and coordinating pharmaceutical disposal on a national level. While consumer participation is important, effective primary prevention would also include research on drug development that is designed to biodegrade in the environment as opposed to medications that persist and accumulate in the natural environment even when properly disposed. Countries that lack a nationalized disposal policy should leverage the resources and infrastructure already in place in the national health care system to implement a unified policy to address medication disposal in the short-term. In tandem, efforts should be made to recruit the biotechnology sector in high-tech and academia to develop new technologies in medication design and water filtration to decrease exposures in the long-term.

  18. HSE policy on decommissioning and radioactive waste management at licensed nuclear sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacon, M.

    1997-01-01

    In the UK, radioactive waste management and decommissioning on a licensed nuclear is regulated by the Health and Safety Executive. The same legislative framework used for operating nuclear power stations is also applied to radioactive waste management and decommissioning activities. This provides a continuous but flexible safety regime until there is no danger from ionizing radiations. The regulatory policy is discussed, taking into account the implications of the 1995 White Paper reviewing radioactive waste management policy. For both radioactive waste management and decommissioning the key element of HSE policy is the need for strategic planning. This should ensure that problems are not allowed to build up and to demonstrate that, taking into account all factors, the proposed actions are the optimum in terms of safety. There is a presumption in HSE's policy towards disposal of radioactive waste as soon as possible where disposal routes exist. Where long-term storage is necessary passively safe forms are preferred over those requiring continuous monitoring or frequent intervention. (author)

  19. Assessing the effectiveness of voluntary solid waste reduction policies: Methodology and a Flemish case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, Simon de; Eyckmans, Johan

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the use of statistical techniques to evaluate the effectiveness of voluntary policy instruments for waste management. The voluntary character of these instruments implies that latent characteristics, unobserved by the analyst, might influence the subscription decision and might lead to biased estimates of the effectiveness of the policy instrument if standard techniques are used. We propose an extension of the difference-in-differences (DiD) estimator to evaluate the effectiveness of voluntary policy instruments, which is termed the dynamic difference-in-differences (or DDD) estimator. We illustrate the technique by estimating the effectiveness of voluntary cooperation agreements between the Flemish environmental administration and individual municipalities aimed at curbing residential solid waste. Using a dataset covering all 308 Flemish municipalities for the period 2000-2005, our results indicate that municipalities subscribing to the agreement accomplished less reduction of their waste levels compared to what could be expected on the basis of their own performance prior to subscription and the performance of the non-subscribers. This result might be explained by the rising marginal cost of extra residential solid waste reduction policies. In addition, there are indications that subscribing municipalities refrain from additional reduction efforts once the target waste level of the program is achieved. The more complicated DDD methodology is shown to generate additional insight over the ordinary DiD analysis

  20. Current policy and research on radioactive waste management in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsstroem, H.; Taylor, D.M.

    2000-01-01

    Each Member State of the European Union is responsible for the safe management and disposal of the radioactive waste produced on its own territory. This includes setting the policy and taking the necessary steps to ensure that the radioactive waste does not constitute a threat to the health of workers and to the general public. For the practical implementation of the policy, specific waste management organizations have been established. Extensive cooperation, not least in the area of research, is taking place between these organizations and between the regulatory authorities, both bilaterally and through the European Commission. Cooperation takes place through the European Commission by two different mechanisms, the Community Plan of Action in the field of radioactive waste and the EURATOM framework programme on research and training. In view of the future enlargement of the European Union, the Commission is also actively involved in the development of waste management practices in the Central and Eastern European countries. Waste management is also an important aspect of the Tacis and other nuclear safety support programmes to the States of the former Soviet Union. The general policies for waste management in all Member States are in harmony with the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management. The specific policies are, however, dependent on the specific conditions of that State, e.g. the existence, size and time perspective of the nuclear power programme, the geological formations available for disposal (clay, salt, crystalline rock), etc. The management of short lived waste is an established practice in many Member States and the research needs are consequently low. Most of the policy efforts and research are thus dedicated to the management, treatment, conditioning and geological disposal of long lived waste and spent fuel. Each Member State with a nuclear power programme also has an important

  1. The use of social science knowledge in implementing the Nuclear Waste Policy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradbury, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    This study investigates the use of social science knowledge by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), a division of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), in implementing the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. The use of social science is examined both generally and in relation to a body of knowledge most relevant to the program, the social science risk literature. The study is restricted to the use by headquarters staff in relation to the largest repository and Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) projects. The literature on knowledge utilization and the Sabatier framework on knowledge use and policy learning provide the theoretical framework for the study. The research adopts a multistrategy approach, collecting data from two sources: (1) program documents, policy guidance, and meeting records; and (2) interviews with OCRWM officials. The constructs knowledge and use are conceptualized in different ways, each of which forms the basis for a different analytic approach. The research findings showed a very limited use of social science, more especially by the first repository program. Two reasons are advanced. First, the agency has viewed social science knowledge through technical lens and has applied an approach suited to technical problems to its structuring of waste management policy problems. Second, the degree of societal conflict over nuclear power and nuclear waste has prevented a constructive dialogue among the parties and thus reduced the possibility of policy learning

  2. Assessment of environmental policy implementation in solid waste management in Kathmandu, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangi, Mohan B; Schoenberger, Erica; Boland, John J

    2017-06-01

    In Nepal, full-fledged environmental legislation was rare before the democratic constitution of 1990. The first law covering the environment and sustainability was the Environment Protection Act 1997. While the Solid Waste Act was introduced in 1987, the problem of solid waste management still surfaces in Kathmandu. In order to understand the bedrock of this unrelenting failure in solid waste management, the manuscript digs deeper into policy implementation by dissecting solid waste rules, environmental legislations, relevant local laws, and solid waste management practices in Kathmandu, Nepal. A very rich field study that included surveys, interviews, site visits, and literature review provided the basis for the article. The study shows that volumes of new Nepalese rules are crafted without effective enforcement of their predecessors and there is a frequent power struggle between local government bodies and central authority in implementing the codes and allocating resources in solid waste management. The study concludes that Kathmandu does not require any new instrument to address solid waste problems; instead, it needs creation of local resources, execution of local codes, and commitment from central government to allow free exercise of these policies.

  3. Productive efficiency of public and private solid waste logistics and its implications for waste management policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Ichinose

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper measures the productive efficiency of municipal solid waste (MSW logistics by applying data envelopment analysis (DEA to cross-sectional data of prefectures in Japan. Either through public operations or by outsourcing to private waste collection operators, prefectural governments possess the fundamental authority over waste processing operations in Japan. Therefore, we estimate a multi-input multi-output production efficiency at the prefectural level via DEA, employing several different model settings. Our data classify the MSW into household solid waste (HSW and business solid waste (BSW collected by both private and public operators as separate outputs, while the numbers of trucks and workers used by private and public operators are used as inputs. The results consistently show that geographical characteristics, such as the number of inhabited remote islands, are relatively more dominant factors for determining inefficiency. While the implication that a minimum efficient scale is not achieved in these small islands is in line with the literature suggesting that waste logistics has increasing returns at the municipal level, our results indicate that waste collection efficiency in Japan is well described by CRS technology at the prefectural level. The results also show that prefectures with higher private-sector participation, measured in terms of HSW collection, are more efficient, whereas a higher private–labor ratio negatively affects efficiency. We also provide evidence that prefectures with inefficient MSW logistics have a higher tendency of suffering from the illegal dumping of industrial waste.

  4. Major and trace elements regulation in natural granitic waters: Application to deep radioactive waste disposals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michard, G.; Negrel, G.; Toulhoat, P.; Beaucaire, C.; Ouzounian, G.

    1991-01-01

    In order to forecast the evolution of deep groundwaters in the environment of a radioactive waste disposal, one must be able to understand the behaviour of major and trace elements in natural systems. From granitic geothermal and groundwater systems the authors establish that major elements are controlled by mineral precipitation. Regulation levels depend both on equilibration temperature and mobile anion concentration (mainly C1). From empirical laws, the regulation levels with temperature of some trace elements (alkaline and most divalent) elements can be estimated, although a precise explanation for the regulation mechanism is not yet available. They demonstrate that some transition metals are controlled by sulphide precipitation; that uranium is controlled by uraninite solubility; that trivalent and tetravalent metals are present in association with colloidal particles. Maximum regulation levels can be estimated. Such studies can also be useful to forecast the concentration levels of many elements related to nuclear wastes, mainly fission products, uranium, thorium and by analogy artificial actinide elements, as the behaviour of corresponding natural elements can be evaluated

  5. Abortion law in Muslim-majority countries: an overview of the Islamic discourse with policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Gilla K

    2014-07-01

    Religion plays a significant role in a patient’s bioethical decision to have an abortion as well as in a country’s abortion policy. Nevertheless, a holistic understanding of the Islamic position remains under-researched. This study first conducted a detailed and systematic analysis of Islam’s position towards abortion through examining the most authoritative biblical texts (i.e. the Quran and Sunnah) as well as other informative factors (i.e. contemporary fatwas, Islamic mysticism and broader Islamic principles, interest groups, and transnational Islamic organizations). Although Islamic jurisprudence does not encourage abortion, there is no direct biblical prohibition. Positions on abortion are notably variable, and many religious scholars permit abortion in particular circumstances during specific stages of gestational development. It is generally agreed that the least blameworthy abortion is when the life of the pregnant woman is threatened and when 120 days have not lapsed; however, there is remarkable heterogeneity in regards to other circumstances (e.g. preserving physical or mental health, foetal impairment, rape, or social or economic reasons), and later gestational development of the foetus. This study secondly conducted a cross-country examination of abortion rights in Muslim-majority countries. A predominantly conservative approach was found whereby 18 of 47 countries do not allow abortion under any circumstances besides saving the life of the pregnant woman. Nevertheless, there was substantial diversity between countries, and 10 countries allowed abortion ‘on request’. Discursive elements that may enable policy development in Muslim-majority countries as well as future research that may enhance the study of abortion rights are discussed. Particularly, more lenient abortion laws may be achieved through disabusing individuals that the most authoritative texts unambiguously oppose abortion, highlighting more lenient interpretations that exist in

  6. Tank waste remediation system characterization project quality policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Board, D.C.

    1997-01-01

    This quality plan describes the system used by Characterization Project management to achieve quality. This plan is comprised of eleven quality policies which, when taken together, form a management system deployed to achieve quality. This quality management system is based on the customer's quality requirements known as the 'RULE', 10 CFR 830.120, Quality Assurance

  7. Favorable Decision Upholding Radioactive/Hazardous Mixed Waste Storage Civil Enforcement Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains a copy of the U.S. Court of Appeals (District of Columbia Circuit) decision in Edison Electric Institute, et al. v. EPA, No. 91-1586, which upheld the EPA's August 29, 1991, radioactive/hazardous 'mixed waste' storage civil enforcement policy

  8. Payments-in-lieu-of-taxes under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barth, M.C.

    1984-01-01

    The (PILOT) program that is provided for in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) of 1982 is discussed. Following a description of the Act's PILOT provisions, existing programs which may be relevant to designing a PILOT program under NWPA are reviewed. The final section of the paper presents a number of conceptual issues that may need to be addressed in considering such a program

  9. Policy and technical considerations for high-level radioactive wastes: a statement of issues and objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    There are a number of issues that EPA must consider in translating broad policy considerations into environmental protection criteria for high-level and TRU-contaminated waste. This paper reviews these issues and suggests some questions for discussion at this workshop

  10. Solid waste management and recycling : actors, partnerships and policies in Hyderabad, India and Nairobi, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, J.; Baud, I.S.A.; Furedy, C.

    2004-01-01

    Solid waste management and recycling : actors, partnerships and policies in Hyderabad, India and Nairobi, Kenya / ed. by Isa Baud, Johan Post and Christine Furedy Author: Isabelle Suzanne Antoinette Baud; Johan Post Year: cop. 2004 Publisher: Dordrecht [etc.] : Kluwer Academic Publishers Series: The

  11. Sustainable transition of electronic products through waste policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Erik Hagelskjær; Jørgensen, Ulrik

    2010-01-01

    regimes are described and analyzed together with the underlying regulatory principle of extended producer responsibility, which has guided the design of the directive. Conflicting interpretations of sustainability, in combination with a simplistic understanding and agency introduced from the top-down, has...... eliminated waste minimization as the main outcome of the directive. The concluding discussions raise the issues of the role of sustainable niche initiatives in electronics compared to multi-regime interaction. Guiding visions may need to be supplemented with other alignment devices in order to support co...

  12. Evaluation of the Waste Tire Resources Recovery Program and Environmental Health Policy in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Ching Chen

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effectiveness of Taiwanese environmental health policies, whose aim is to improve environmental quality by reducing tire waste via the Tire Resource Recovery Program. The results confirm that implemented environmental health policies improve the overall health of the population (i.e. a decrease in death caused by bronchitis and other respiratory diseases. Current policy expenditures are far below the optimal level, as it is estimated that a ten percent increase in the subsidy would decrease the number of deaths caused by bronchitis and other respiratory diseases by 0.58% per county/city per year on average.

  13. National environmental radiation monitoring program: towards formulating policy on radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukiman Sarmani

    2002-01-01

    Though Malaysia has no nuclear power station, but the management of its low level radioactive waste generated from industrial activities involves most of the same issues that must be considered in countries with nuclear power. These include public consultation at all stages, an open approach, high level scientific and engineering input and political decision by the Government. A carefully planned approach, which involves the public and gives time to build trust and confidence, is necessary for success. It is also pertinent to establish accurate and reliable data on environmental radiation to accurately assess possible risk. This is where a national monitoring program on environmental radiation is very important. While accurate data will help formulate sound policy on radioactive waste management, it should also be readily available to the public to gain support and acceptance. This paper presents arguments on the importance of a national monitoring program for environmental radiation as an input for formulating a policy on radioactive waste management in Malaysia. (Author)

  14. Characterization of decontamination and decommissioning wastes expected from the major processing facilities in the 200 Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amato, L.C.; Franklin, J.D.; Hyre, R.A.; Lowy, R.M.; Millar, J.S.; Pottmeyer, J.A.; Duncan, D.R.

    1994-08-01

    This study was intended to characterize and estimate the amounts of equipment and other materials that are candidates for removal and subsequent processing in a solid waste facility when the major processing and handling facilities in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site are decontaminated and decommissioned. The facilities in this study were selected based on processing history and on the magnitude of the estimated decommissioning cost cited in the Surplus Facilities Program Plan; Fiscal Year 1993 (Winship and Hughes 1992). The facilities chosen for this study include B Plant (221-B), T Plant (221-T), U Plant (221-U), the Uranium Trioxide (UO 3 ) Plant (224-U and 224-UA), the Reduction Oxidation (REDOX) or S Plant (202-S), the Plutonium Concentration Facility for B Plant (224-B), and the Concentration Facility for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) and REDOX (233-S). This information is required to support planning activities for current and future solid waste treatment, storage, and disposal operations and facilities

  15. Characterization of decontamination and decommissioning wastes expected from the major processing facilities in the 200 Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amato, L.C.; Franklin, J.D.; Hyre, R.A.; Lowy, R.M.; Millar, J.S.; Pottmeyer, J.A. [Los Alamos Technical Associates, Kennewick, WA (United States); Duncan, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-08-01

    This study was intended to characterize and estimate the amounts of equipment and other materials that are candidates for removal and subsequent processing in a solid waste facility when the major processing and handling facilities in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site are decontaminated and decommissioned. The facilities in this study were selected based on processing history and on the magnitude of the estimated decommissioning cost cited in the Surplus Facilities Program Plan; Fiscal Year 1993 (Winship and Hughes 1992). The facilities chosen for this study include B Plant (221-B), T Plant (221-T), U Plant (221-U), the Uranium Trioxide (UO{sub 3}) Plant (224-U and 224-UA), the Reduction Oxidation (REDOX) or S Plant (202-S), the Plutonium Concentration Facility for B Plant (224-B), and the Concentration Facility for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) and REDOX (233-S). This information is required to support planning activities for current and future solid waste treatment, storage, and disposal operations and facilities.

  16. Policy Requirements and Factors of High-Level Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kang Myoung; Jeong, J. Y.; Ha, K. M.

    2007-06-01

    Recently, the need of high-level radioactive waste policy including spent fuel management becomes serious due to the rapid increase in oil price, the nationalism of natural resources, and the environmental issues such as Tokyo protocol. Also, the policy should be established urgently to prepare the saturation of on-site storage capacity of spent fuel, the revision of 'Agreement for Cooperation-Concerning Civil Uses of Atomic Energy' between Korea and US, the anxiety for nuclear weapon proliferation, and R and D to reduce the amount of waste to be disposed. In this study, we performed case study of US, Japan, Canada and Finland, which have special laws and plans/roadmaps for high-level waste management, to draw the policy requirements to be considered in HLW management. Also, we reviewed social conflict issues experienced in our society, and summarized the factors affecting the political and social environment. These policy requirements and factors summarized in this study should be considered seriously in the process for public consensus and the policy making regarding HLW management. Finally, the following 4 action items were drawn to manage HLW successfully : - Continuous and systematic R and D activities to obtain reliable management technology - Promoting companies having specialty in HLW management - Nurturing experts and workforce - Drive the public consensus process

  17. Fate of major radionuclides in the liquid wastes released to coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, I.S.; Verma, P.C.; Iyer, R.S.; Chandramouli, S.

    1980-01-01

    131 I, 134 Cs, 137 Cs and 60 Co have been reported as the major radionuclides in the low level liquid wastes released to coastal waters from atomic power stations. Silt absorption and desorption of the radionuclides were investigated. The exchangeability of the silt absorbed radionuclides and its dependence on particle size were also studied. More than 80% instantaneous absorpt;.on of 60 Co by suspended silt and less than 5% exchangeability of absorbed 60 Co were observed. Biological uptake of the radionuclides by the marine organisms present in sea waters was studied to evaluate radiation exposure pathways. A few benthic and crustacean organisms wnich are consumed by coastal population as fresh sea food, were observed to concentrate the radionuclides to a greater extent than other organisms. (H.K.)

  18. Nuclear waste management policies in the world: deciding today while leaving manoeuvre margins for tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massou, F.; Gras, A.

    2005-01-01

    The author first gives an overview of the definition of nuclear wastes, of their different types, and of their origins. He describes the waste production process by nuclear plants, and presents the case of high-level long-lived nuclear wastes. He outlines the need for a political processing of these wastes as they have been produced by public policies, and as decisions now concern and involve scientists, local interests and the civil society. Then, he describes the various technologies (storage, separation-transmutation, disposal), discusses their potential impacts, advantages and drawbacks, and how to take a political decision on them. He discusses the lessons learned from the German and Finnish examples and experiments in geological storage. He discusses the financing issue, notably from these examples

  19. Food waste disposal units in UK households: The need for policy intervention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iacovidou, Eleni; Ohandja, Dieudonne-Guy; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2012-01-01

    The EU Landfill Directive requires Member States to reduce the amount of biodegradable waste disposed of to landfill. This has been a key driver for the establishment of new waste management options, particularly in the UK, which in the past relied heavily on landfill for the disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW). MSW in the UK is managed by Local Authorities, some of which in a less conventional way have been encouraging the installation and use of household food waste disposal units (FWDs) as an option to divert food waste from landfill. This study aimed to evaluate the additional burden to water industry operations in the UK associated with this option, compared with the benefits and related savings from the subsequent reductions in MSW collection and disposal. A simple economic analysis was undertaken for different FWD uptake scenarios, using the Anglian Region as a case study. Results demonstrated that the significant savings from waste collection arising from a large-scale uptake of FWDs would outweigh the costs associated with the impacts to the water industry. However, in the case of a low uptake, such savings would not be enough to cover the increased costs associated with the wastewater provision. As a result, this study highlights the need for policy intervention in terms of regulating the use of FWDs, either promoting them as an alternative to landfill to increase savings from waste management, or banning them as a threat to wastewater operations to reduce potential costs to the water industry. - Highlights: ► FWDs can be a less conventional way for diverting food waste from landfill. ► We compared water industry costs to savings from MSW collection and treatment. ► A large-scale uptake of FWDs would outweigh the costs to the water industry. ► At a low uptake, MSW collection savings are not enough to cover these costs. ► Findings highlight the need for policy intervention, regulating the use of FWDs.

  20. Management of radioactive waste in Belgium: ONDRAF/NIRAS and Belgoprocess as major actors of the waste acceptance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaelen, Gunter van; Verheyen, Annick

    2007-01-01

    The management of radioactive waste in Belgium is undertaken by the national agency for radioactive waste and enriched fissile materials, ONDRAF/NIRAS, and its industrial partner Belgoprocess. ONDRAF/NIRAS has set up a management system designed to guarantee that the general public and the environment are protected against the potential hazards arising from radioactive waste. Belgoprocess is a private company, founded in 1984 and located in Dessel, Belgium. It is a subsidiary of ONDRAF/NIRAS and its activities focus on the safe processing and storage of radioactive waste. The management system of ONDRAF/NIRAS includes two aspects: a) an integrated system and b) an acceptance system. The integrated system covers all aspects of management ranging from the origin of waste to its transport, processing, interim storage and long-term management. The safety of radioactive waste management not only depends on the quality of the design and construction of the processing, temporary storage or disposal infrastructure, but also on the quality of the waste accepted by ONDRAF/NIRAS. In order to be manage d safely, both in the short and the long term, the waste transferred to ONDRAF/NIRAS must meet certain specific requirements. To that end, ONDRAF/NIRAS has developed an acceptance system. (authors)

  1. New Policy Developments and Challenges For Radioactive Waste Management In South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibiya, G.S.

    2009-01-01

    of these projects. In order to further stem the tide of the country's current acute energy crisis, Eskom has awarded construction contracts for two large coal-fired stations - the R31,5 billion Kusile Power Station (formerly known as the 'Bravo Project') to be built near Emalahleni in Mpumalanga by 2017, and the Medupi Power Station in Lephalale, Limpopo Province. Medupi, the first new power station to be constructed in more than 20 years, is the second power station in the area after Matimba, and will cost about R80 billion. In 2007, Eskom also marked the official opening of two new open cycle gas turbine (OCGT) power stations in the Western Cape Province. The three Simunye plants, Grootvlei, Komati and Camden, are currently also being returned to service by the utility. The country's 2007 Nuclear Energy Policy and Strategy advocates the promotion of uranium exploration and mining, as well as the construction of new nuclear power infrastructure in the drive to expand nuclear generating capacity. The policy position also calls for the country's involvement in the complete nuclear fuel cycle. However, due to the current global financial meltdown, the nuclear expansion program has been recently halted by Eskom, citing economic reasons for the decision. South Africa is currently looking at investment in GEN III+ plant designs for the near future. This is driven by the following attractive features of these designs: modular construction, evolutionary design, passive safety features, less waste generation, and cost effectiveness. Of relevance to my topic for this morning is the fourth point: less waste generation - the new more efficient reactors will generate less waste over their design life. There is absolutely no point or merit in discussing strategies on waste management and handling if we do not first find ways and means to minimize the waste in the first place. Looking forward to the future, there are currently vibrant international efforts to research and

  2. [Methods for health impact assessment of policies for municipal solid waste management: the SESPIR Project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmagnani, Federica; Ranzi, Andrea; Ancona, Carla; Angelini, Paola; Chiusolo, Monica; Cadum, Ennio; Lauriola, Paolo; Forastiere, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    The Project Epidemiological Surveillance of Health Status of Resident Population Around the Waste Treatment Plants (SESPIR) included five Italian regions (Emilia-Romagna, Piedmont, Lazio, Campania, and Sicily) and the National Institute of Health in the period 2010-2013. SESPIR was funded by the Ministry of Health as part of the National centre for diseases prevention and control (CCM) programme of 2010 with the general objective to provide methods and operational tools for the implementation of surveillance systems for waste and health, aimed at assessing the impact of the municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment cycle on the health of the population. The specific objective was to assess health impacts resulting from the presence of disposal facilities related to different regional scenarios of waste management. Suitable tools for analysis of integrated assessment of environmental and health impact were developed and applied, using current demographic, environmental and health data. In this article, the methodology used for the quantitative estimation of the impact on the health of populations living nearby incinerators, landfills and mechanical biological treatment plants is showed, as well as the analysis of three different temporal scenarios: the first related to the existing plants in the period 2008-2009 (baseline), the second based on regional plans, the latter referring to MSW virtuous policy management based on reduction of produced waste and an intense recovery policy.

  3. Are major economies on track to achieve their pledges for 2020? An assessment of domestic climate and energy policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelfsema, M.; Elzen, den M.G.J.; Hoehne, N.E.; Hof, A.F.; Braun, N.; Fekete, H.; Böttcher, H.; Brandsma, R.; Larkin, J.

    2014-01-01

    Many of the major greenhouse gas emitting countries have planned and/or implemented domestic mitigation policies, such as carbon taxes, feed-in tariffs, or standards. This study analyses whether the most effective national climate and energy policies are sufficient to stay on track for meeting the

  4. 76 FR 50813 - Major Capital Investment Projects; Guidance on News Starts/Small Starts Policies and Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration Major Capital Investment Projects; Guidance on News Starts/Small Starts Policies and Procedures AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA... Administration (FTA) to publish policy guidance on the New and Small Starts capital project review and evaluation...

  5. Safety Aspects of Radioactive Waste Management in Different Nuclear Fuel Cycle Policies, a Comparative Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gad Allah, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    With the increasing demand of energy worldwide, and due to the depletion of conventional natural energy resources, energy policies in many countries have been devoted to nuclear energy option. On the other hand, adopting a safe and reliable nuclear fuel cycle concept guarantees future nuclear energy sustain ability is a vital request from environmental and economic point of views. The safety aspects of radioactive waste management in the nuclear fuel cycle is a topic of great importance relevant to public acceptance of nuclear energy and the development of nuclear technology. As a part of nuclear fuel cycle safety evaluation studies in the department of nuclear fuel cycle safety, National Center for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control (NCNSRC), this study evaluates the radioactive waste management policies and radiological safety aspects of three different nuclear fuel cycle policies. The once-through fuel cycle (OT- fuel cycle) or the direct spent fuel disposal concept for both pressurized light water reactor ( PWR) and pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR or CANDU) systems and the s elf-generated o r recycling fuel cycle concept in PWR have been considered in the assessment. The environmental radiological safety aspects of different nuclear fuel cycle options have been evaluated and discussed throughout the estimation of radioactive waste generated from spent fuel from these fuel cycle options. The decay heat stored in the spent fuel was estimated and a comparative safety study between the three fuel cycle policies has been implemented

  6. Political insights on implementing the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, J.B.

    1986-01-01

    The author discusses the options available for implementing the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) of 1982. The author concludes that the federal and state governments must cooperate because this is a political problem. Two sites must be selected because this gets the Western states supporting the act and provides a backup if problems develop at one site. The author says once 2-4 sites are chosen as finalists, an educational campaign must be done in those states to stress safety. Solving the waste problem will give the nuclear industry a brighter future

  7. Policy issues on the control of major accident hazards and the new Seveso II directive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, S.; Wettig, J.

    1999-01-01

    No one wants a major accident to occur! This paper describes the development of EC policies to convert this simple and obvious fact into a coherent prevention strategy which can deliver a high level of protection throughout the European Community. The Seveso II Directive is described in detail, being the relevant Community Instrument which Member States must implement in their national laws. The need to achieve the correct balance between setting general goals and being over prescriptive is discussed, commensurate with the intent to be flexible but yet consistent and effective at the same time. The main changes from Seveso I are discussed, including requirements related to the operator's management systems, the competent authority's systems for inspection, and information and consultation arrangements with the public. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  8. The Validation of a No-Drain Policy After Thoracoscopic Major Lung Resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Junichi; Ueda, Kazuhiro; Tanaka, Toshiki; Kobayashi, Taiga; Kunihiro, Yoshie; Hamano, Kimikazu

    2017-09-01

    The omission of postoperative chest tube drainage may contribute to early recovery after thoracoscopic major lung resection; however, a validation study is necessary before the dissemination of a selective drain policy. A total of 162 patients who underwent thoracoscopic anatomical lung resection for lung tumors were enrolled in this study. Alveolar air leaks were sealed with a combination of bioabsorbable mesh and fibrin glue. The chest tube was removed just after the removal of the tracheal tube in selected patients in whom complete pneumostasis was obtained. Alveolar air leaks were identified in 112 (69%) of the 162 patients in an intraoperative water-seal test performed just after anatomical lung resection. The chest tube could be removed in the operating room in 102 (63%) of the 162 patients. There were no cases of 30-day postoperative mortality or in-hospital death. None of the 102 patients who did not undergo postoperative chest tube placement required redrainage for a subsequent air leak or subcutaneous emphysema. The mean length of postoperative hospitalization was shorter in patients who had not undergone postoperative chest tube placement than in those who had. The omission of chest tube placement was associated with a reduction in the visual analog scale for pain from postoperative day 0 until postoperative day 3, in comparison with patients who underwent chest tube placement. The outcome of our validation cohort revealed that a no-drain policy is safe in selected patients undergoing thoracoscopic major lung resection and that it may contribute to an early recovery. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Managing radioactive waste safely. Proposals for developing a policy for managing solid radioactive waste in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-09-01

    More than 10,000 tonnes of radioactive waste are safely stored in the UK, but await a decision on their long-term future. This will increase to 250,000 tonnes when nuclear material currently in use is converted into solid waste. Even if no new nuclear power plants are built and reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel ends when existing plants reach the end of their working lives, about another 250,000 tonnes of waste will arise during the clean-up of those plants over the next century. Most of this waste results from the work of Government agencies or publicly owned companies since the 1940s. Some of the substances involved will be radioactive and potentially dangerous for hundreds of thousands of years. There are much larger amounts of low-level (less radioactive) waste. Currently, these are disposed of at a special surface repository in Cumbria. But again, much larger amounts will arise as existing nuclear facilities are cleaned up. We must decide how to manage this waste in the long term. Implementing that decision will take decades. So now is the time to start planning for our future. In this paper, the UK Government and the Devolved Administrations for Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland are launching a national debate which will lead up to that decision, and beyond it. The aim is to develop, and implement, a UK nuclear waste management programme which inspires public support and confidence. To do this, we propose a major programme of research and public discussion, using many techniques - some traditional, some relatively new - to stimulate informed discussion, and to involve as many people and groups as possible. We want to inspire public confidence in the decisions and the way in which they are implemented. To do that, we have to demonstrate that all options are considered; that choices between them are made in a clear and logical way; that people's values and concerns are fully reflected in this process; and that information we provide is clear, accurate

  10. Radioactive waste management policy and its implementation in the German Democratic Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitzlack, G.

    1988-01-01

    Waste management is considered an integral part of measures for the safe utilization of nuclear energy. In the German Democratic Republic, back in 1962 the government established the National Board for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection as a special body whose regulatory responsibilities include the setting up of an appropriate waste management policy for the country's nuclear power programme. After studies started in the 1960s a central system for the collection and disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants and other sources throughout the country was established, this started operation a few years ago. The waste repository is a reconstructed salt mine which is operated by the main waste producer - the nuclear power plant utility. There are no current issues with high-level waste, as the spent fuels are stored for many years and then returned to the supplier country, the Soviet Union. The paper describes the relevant regulatory framework in the German Democratic Republic. The solution established here takes future nuclear power uses into account. (author)

  11. Managing California's low-level waste: state policy and waste generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasternak, A.D.; Cramer, E.N.

    1985-01-01

    Since 1982, public and private organizations in California that use radioactive materials and generate low-level radioactive waste have worked together through the California Radioactive Materials Management Forum (CRMMF) to assure the continued safe disposal of low-level waste (LLW). The forum's corporate and institutional members include electric utilities, universities, hospitals, industries, professional societies, and firms engaged in biological research and the manufacture of radiopharmaceuticals. In addition, over 200 individuals are members. The objectives of CRMMF are: (a) establishing a disposal facility for LLW in California and (b) maintaining access to the existing disposal sites in Washington, Nevada, and South Carolina until a California site is licensed and operating. This paper describes the forum's programs in the areas of legislation, litigation, and public information that contribute to the achievement of these objectives

  12. Past and future cadmium emissions from municipal solid-waste incinerators in Japan for the assessment of cadmium control policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Kyoko

    2013-11-15

    Cadmium (Cd) is a harmful pollutant emitted from municipal solid-waste incinerators (MSWIs). Cd stack emissions from MSWIs have been estimated between 1970 and 2030 in Japan. The aims of this study are to quantify emitted Cd by category and to analyze Cd control policies to reduce emissions. Emissions were estimated using a dynamic substance flow analysis (SFA) that took into account representative waste treatment flows and historical changes in emission factors. This work revealed that the emissions peaked in 1973 (11.1t) and were ten times those in 2010 (1.2 t). Emission from MSWIs was two-thirds of that from non-ferrous smelting in 2010. The main Cd emission source was pigment use in the 1970s, but after 2000 it had shifted to nickel-cadmium (Ni-Cd) batteries. Future emissions were estimated for 2030. Compared to the business-as-usual scenario, an intensive collection of used Ni-Cd batteries and a ban on any future use of Ni-Cd batteries will reduce emissions by 0.09 and 0.3 1t, respectively, in 2030. This approach enables us to identify the major Cd emission source from MSWIs, and to prioritize the possible Cd control policies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Institutional interactions in developing a transportation system under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denny, S.H.

    1986-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) recognizes that the success of its efforts to develop and operate a system for transporting nuclear waste under the provisions of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA) depends in large measure on the effectiveness of Departmental interactions with the affected parties. To ensure the necessary network of communication, the DOE is establishing lines of contact with those who are potential participants in the task of developing the policies and procedures for the NWPA transportation system. In addition, a number of measures have been initiated to reinforce broad-based involvement in program development. The Transportation Institutional Plan provides a preliminary road map of DOE's projected interactions over the next decade and is discussed in this paper

  14. [Health impact assessment of policies for municipal solid waste management: findings of the SESPIR Project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranzi, Andrea; Ancona, Carla; Angelini, Paola; Badaloni, Chiara; Cernigliaro, Achille; Chiusolo, Monica; Parmagnani, Federica; Pizzuti, Renato; Scondotto, Salvatore; Cadum, Ennio; Forastiere, Francesco; Lauriola, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The SESPIR Project (Epidemiological Surveillance of Health Status of Resident Population Around the Waste Treatment Plants) assessed the impact on health of residents nearby incinerators, landfills and mechanical biological treatment plants in five Italian regions (Emilia-Romagna, Piedmont, Lazio, Campania, and Sicily). The assessment procedure took into account the available knowledge on health effects of waste disposal facilities. Analyses were related to three different scenarios: a Baseline scenario, referred to plants active in 2008-2009; the regional future scenario, with plants expected in the waste regional plans; a virtuous scenario (Green 2020), based on a policy management of municipal solid waste (MSW) through the reduction of production and an intense recovery policy. Facing with a total population of around 24 million for the 5 regions, the residents nearby the plants were more than 380,000 people at Baseline. Such a population is reduced to approximately 330.000 inhabitants and 170.000 inhabitants in the regional and Green 2020 scenarios, respectively. The health impact was assessed for the period 2008-2040. At Baseline, 1-2 cases per year of cancer attributable to MSW plants were estimated, as well as 26 cases per year of adverse pregnancy outcomes (including low birth weight and birth defects), 102 persons with respiratory symptoms, and about a thousand affected from annoyance caused by odours. These annual estimates are translated into 2,725 years of life with disability (DALYs) estimated for the entire period. The DALYs are reduced by approximately 20% and 80% in the two future scenarios. Even in these cases, health impact is given by the greater effects on pregnancy and the annoyance associated with the odours of plants. In spite of the limitations due to the inevitable assumptions required by the present exercise, the proposed methodology is suitable for a first approach to assess different policies that can be adopted in regional planning in

  15. E-Waste In Bangladesh: Evaluating The Situation, Legislation And Policy And Way Forward With Strategy And Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alam Mahbub

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Electronic waste (e-waste is one of the fastest-growing pollution problems worldwide given the presence if a variety of toxic substances which can contaminate the environment and threaten human health, if disposal protocols are not meticulously managed. In Bangladesh almost 2.7 million metric tons of e-waste generated per year. Of this amount only 20 to 30 percent is recycled and the rest of the waste is released in to landfills, rivers, drains lakes, canals, open spaces which are very hazardous for the health and environment. Since Bangladesh is in the stream of rapid technological advancement, it is seldom to take necessary steps to avoid the future jeopardized situation because of e-waste. The current practices of e-waste management in Bangladesh suffer from a number of drawbacks like the difficulty in inventory, unhealthy conditions of informal recycling, inadequate legislation and policy, poor awareness and reluctance on part of the corporate to address the critical issues. The paper highlights the associated issues and strategies to address this emerging problem, analyses the policy and its gaps. Therefore, this paper also suggest that e-waste policy development may require a more customized approach where, instead of addressing e-waste in isolation, it should be addressed as part of the national development agenda that integrates green economy assessment and strategic environmental assessment as part of national policy planning. Finally this work also suggests some alternative strategies and approaches to overcome the challenges of e-waste.

  16. Electronic Waste in Bangladesh: Evaluating the Situation, Legislation and Policy and Way Forward With Strategy and Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alam Mahbub

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Electronic waste (e-waste is one of the fastest-growing pollution problems worldwide given the presence if a variety of toxic substances which can contaminate the environment and threaten human health, if disposal protocols are not meticulously managed. In Bangladesh almost 2.7 million metric tons of e-waste generated per year. Of this amount only 20 to 30 percent is recycled and the rest of the waste is released in to landfills, rivers, drains lakes, canals, open spaces which are very hazardous for the health and environment. Since Bangladesh is in the stream of rapid technological advancement, it is seldom to take necessary steps to avoid the future jeopardized situation because of e-waste. The current practices of e-waste management in Bangladesh suffer from a number of drawbacks like the difficulty in inventorisation, unhealthy conditions of informal recycling, inadequate legislation and policy, poor awareness and reluctance on part of the corporate to address the critical issues. The paper highlights the associated issues and strategies to address this emerging problem, analyses the policy and its gaps. Therefore, this paper also suggest that e-waste policy development may require a more customized approach where, instead of addressing e-waste in isolation, it should be addressed as part of the national development agenda that integrates green economy assessment and strategic environmental assessment as part of national policy planning. Finally this work also suggests some alternative strategies and approaches to overcome the challenges of e-waste.

  17. Strict Liability Versus Policy and Regulation for Environmental Protection and Agricultural Waste Management in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Bakri Ishak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Basically, strict liability is part of the mechanism for expressing judgment or sentence by using direct evidence. This principle is very useful in order to obtain remedies from any damage either directly or indirectly. The principle in Rylands v Fletcher is responsible on imposing strict liability where if something brought onto land or collected there escapes liability under this rule can include not only the owner of land but also those who control or occupation on it. However, as a matter of fact, policy and regulation are also important in taking any action against any party who are responsible for environmental pollution or damage, which may include mismanagement of waste or industrial waste or agricultural waste. There are certain policies and regulations on environmental protection such as the National Environmental Policy, certain Acts and several regulations under the Environmental Quality Act 1974 (Act 127, which are very useful for agricultural waste management inter alia: Waters Act 1920 (Act 418, Environmental Quality (Prescribed Premises (Crude Palm Oil Regulations 1977, Environmental Quality (Prescribed Premises (Raw Natural Rubber Regulations 1978, Environmental Quality (Sewage and Industrial Effluents Regulations 1979, and Environmental Quality (Compounding of Offences Rules 1978. As a matter of fact, we should realize that time is of an essence for any parties which are involved in court cases and especially in avoiding the element of externality, which is commonly suffered by the government. In making this paper, therefore, some element of comparison with certain developed jurisdiction such as in the United Kingdom and Japan could not be avoided in order to obtain better outcome and to be more practical for the purpose of environmental protection and agricultural waste management.

  18. Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982; proposed general guidelines for recommendation of sites for nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    In accordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (Pub. L. 97-425), hereinafter referred to as the Act, the Department of Energy is proposing general guidelines for the recommendation of sites for repositories for disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel in geologic formations. These guidelines are based on the criteria that the Department has used in its National Waste Terminal Storage program, the criteria proposed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the environmental standards proposed by the Environmental Protection Agency. These guidelines establish the performance requirements for a geologic repository system, specify how the Department will implement its site-selection program, and define the technical qualifications that candidate sites must meet in the various steps of the site-selection process mandated by the Act. After considering comments from the public; consulting with the Council on Environmental Quality, the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, the Director of the Geological Survey, and interested Governors; and obtaining NRC concurrence, the Department will issue these guidelines in final form as a new Part 960 to Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR Part 960)

  19. Nea study on the impact of advanced fuel cycles on waste management policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavedon, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    This study was carried out by the ad hoc Expert Group on the Impact of Advanced Fuel Cycles on Waste Management Policies convened under the auspices of the NEA Committee for Technical and Economic Studies on Nuclear Energy Development and the Fuel Cycle (NDC); the Integrated Group on Safety Case from the Radioactive Waste Management Committee provided support in the field of waste repository issues; the Nuclear Science Committee Working Group on Flowsheet Studies also provided some input data. The full report on this study is published as the NEA Report number 5990 - OECD 2006 by OECD Publications - ISBN 92-64-02296-1. The following text is extracted from the Executive Summary of the report. (author)

  20. Trends of radioactive waste management policy and disposal of LLW/ILW in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyasaka, Yasuhiko

    2003-01-01

    In 1997, the UK program for the deep disposal of radioactive waste was stopped with the refusal by the Secretary of State for the Environment to allow Nuclear Industry Radioactive Waste Executive, Ltd. (Nirex) to go ahead with its plans for an underground Rock Characterization Facility (RCF) at Sellafield, seen as the precursor of an underground repository for LLW/ILW. Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) and the Developed Administrations published a white paper 'Managing Radioactive Waste Safety' Proposal for developing a policy for managing solid radioactive waste in the UK on 12 September 2001. The paper set out five-stage program of action for reaching decisions until 2007. It suggests their view can be sought via opinion polls, the Internet, workshops, citizens, juries, consensus conferences, stakeholder, local authority and community groups and research panels. With the exception of a disposal facility associated with the operation of the Dounreay site on the north coast of Scotland, essentially all LLW in the UK is disposed of at the Drigg site, near Sellafield. The site has been in operation since 1959. Until 1988, disposals were solely in trenches, cut into the glacial tills underlying the site. In 1988, an engineered concrete vault was brought into operation and is currently in use. Drigg only has a finite capacity in the currently area and may be full by about 2050, hence new arrangements will have to examine. This report describes the trends of radioactive waste management policy and disposal of LLW/ILW in the UK. These include: NDA(Nuclear Decommissioning Authority) organization plan, Feb. 2003; Encapsulation of LLW/ILW and safe store for ILW; Summary of LLW repository at the Drigg site; Nirex concept for underground storage/disposal of LLW/ILW. This information and new approach of the safe management of radioactive waste in the UK will prove helpful to the planning for future management and disposal of LLW in Japan. (author)

  1. The Effect of Major Organizational Policy on Employee Attitudes Toward Graduate Degrees

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hughes, Frank R

    2006-01-01

    Leaders initiate policies not only to improve the success of their organizations, but to influence employee performance, whereby employee attitudes toward a policy objective can influence their resulting behaviors...

  2. Institutional Control Policies and Implementation for the Area 5 and Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vefa Yucel; Greg Shott; Denise Wieland

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) has implemented varying institutional control policies in performance assessment/composite analysis (PA/CA) calculations for the Area 5 and Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) (Shott et al., 1998; 2000; Bechtel Nevada [BN] and Neptune and Company Inc. [Neptune], 2006). The facilities are within the actively maintained boundaries of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) that are enforced by NNSA/NSO. Under current policies, access required for exposure of the member of public (MOP) or the inadvertent human intruder (IHI) is prohibited. Uncertainties affecting institutional control policies are the duration and effectiveness of the controls during the post-closure period. Implementing a uniform set of institutional control policies for the RWMSs that encompasses waste management and environmental restoration programs and is consistent with the end-state vision for the environmental management programs for the NTS (DOE, 2006) is a primary goal of the maintenance program. The NNSA/NSO Performance Management Plan (DOE, 2002) complies with DOE Policy P455.1, 'Use of Risk-Based End States' (DOE, 2003a). Expected future land uses are a driver in selecting acceptable end state conditions and clean-up goals for the NTS. NNSA/NSO Environmental Management's (EM's) land management assumptions and framework for Environmental Management activities are as follows: The NTS will remain under federal control in perpetuity as an NNSA test site, and the large buffer zone surrounding the NTS (the Nevada Test and Training Range) is assumed to remain under the control of the U.S. Air Force. There are no plans for transfer of any NTS lands to other agencies or public entities. Access will continue to be restricted to the NTS and the surrounding areas. For management purposes, NNSA/NV EM activities have been established based on the source of contamination and type of waste

  3. Institutional Control Policies and Implementation for the Area 5 and Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vefa Yucel, Greg Shott, Denise Wieland, et al.

    2007-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) has implemented varying institutional control policies in performance assessment/composite analysis (PA/CA) calculations for the Area 5 and Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) (Shott et al., 1998; 2000; Bechtel Nevada [BN] and Neptune and Company Inc. [Neptune], 2006). The facilities are within the actively maintained boundaries of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) that are enforced by NNSA/NSO. Under current policies, access required for exposure of the member of public (MOP) or the inadvertent human intruder (IHI) is prohibited. Uncertainties affecting institutional control policies are the duration and effectiveness of the controls during the post-closure period. Implementing a uniform set of institutional control policies for the RWMSs that encompasses waste management and environmental restoration programs and is consistent with the end-state vision for the environmental management programs for the NTS (DOE, 2006) is a primary goal of the maintenance program. The NNSA/NSO Performance Management Plan (DOE, 2002) complies with DOE Policy P455.1, 'Use of Risk-Based End States' (DOE, 2003a). Expected future land uses are a driver in selecting acceptable end state conditions and clean-up goals for the NTS. NNSA/NSO Environmental Management's (EM's) land management assumptions and framework for Environmental Management activities are as follows: The NTS will remain under federal control in perpetuity as an NNSA test site, and the large buffer zone surrounding the NTS (the Nevada Test and Training Range) is assumed to remain under the control of the U.S. Air Force. There are no plans for transfer of any NTS lands to other agencies or public entities. Access will continue to be restricted to the NTS and the surrounding areas. For management purposes, NNSA/NV EM activities have been established based on the source of contamination and

  4. Food waste disposal units in UK households: the need for policy intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovidou, Eleni; Ohandja, Dieudonne-Guy; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2012-04-15

    The EU Landfill Directive requires Member States to reduce the amount of biodegradable waste disposed of to landfill. This has been a key driver for the establishment of new waste management options, particularly in the UK, which in the past relied heavily on landfill for the disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW). MSW in the UK is managed by Local Authorities, some of which in a less conventional way have been encouraging the installation and use of household food waste disposal units (FWDs) as an option to divert food waste from landfill. This study aimed to evaluate the additional burden to water industry operations in the UK associated with this option, compared with the benefits and related savings from the subsequent reductions in MSW collection and disposal. A simple economic analysis was undertaken for different FWD uptake scenarios, using the Anglian Region as a case study. Results demonstrated that the significant savings from waste collection arising from a large-scale uptake of FWDs would outweigh the costs associated with the impacts to the water industry. However, in the case of a low uptake, such savings would not be enough to cover the increased costs associated with the wastewater provision. As a result, this study highlights the need for policy intervention in terms of regulating the use of FWDs, either promoting them as an alternative to landfill to increase savings from waste management, or banning them as a threat to wastewater operations to reduce potential costs to the water industry. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Policy considerations of low-level and intermediate-level radioactive wastes from a public interest perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, S.

    1977-01-01

    A critical, environmentalist view is taken of the problem of low-level radioactive waste disposal. Policy questions and needs for additional data are listed. The lack of a requirement for environmental impact statements prior to site licensing is pointed out. Some of New Mexico's experiences are briefly recounted. The need for definitions for radioactive wastes is pointed out

  6. Radioactive waste: institutional determinants of management and disposal policy in three European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkhout, Frans.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of this thesis has been to write a detailed historical account of the policy and practice of radioactive waste management in Britain, Sweden and West Germany, and to draw out implications for theory and public policy. By comparing the evolution of the policy process in three countries it has been possible to develop a better understanding of the particular operational, regulatory and political factors determining policy in each case. The main conclusions are three-fold. First, the presence or absence of commitments to the reprocessing of spent fuel for a wide range of strategic, industrial and legal reasons have been critical to the success in finding an acceptable radwaste management and disposal policy (or strategy). Politically it is not possible to make a clear distinction between radwaste management and policy for the rest of the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle. Second, because of this complex but intimate relationship to reprocessing policy, the dynamism and consistency of radwaste policies are highly dependent on the industrial and political contexts of the drive to reprocessing. Traditionally a view on reprocessing has been virtually synonymous with a faith or scepticism in the future of nuclear power. Third, the policy process, and indeed its goals was rather unique to national circumstances (the legal and institutional framework, industrial and political structures). This demonstrates one of the principle arguments of the thesis which is that the innovation process for radwaste management and disposal technologies cannot be seen merely as a technical process, but has to be seen as a process of political and institutional negotiations. (author)

  7. Nuclear Waste Fund fee adequacy: an assessment. Nuclear Waste Policy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-02-01

    The principal recommendation of this year's analysis is that the ongoing disposal fee should remain at 1.0 mill per kilowatt-hour (kWh) for 1985, based on the following findings: The current 1.0 mill per kWh fee is projected to produce revenues sufficient to offset estimated total system life-cycle costs for a reasonable range of program cost, nuclear generation, and economic environment forecases, as detailed later in this report. For the near term, program indebtedness due to 1983 appropriations cannot be repaid until payment of a substantial fraction of the utilities' $2.3 billion debt from the one-time fee is received. Many of the cost and revenue forecasts analyzed, particularly those for the US Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Mid Case generation forecast, show margins of revenues over costs. Future program cost increases due to general inflation or real price increases could be recovered by indexing the fee to the inflation rate or another cost index. These findings are based on a cash flow analysis that utilized methods very similar to those employed in previous fee adequacy studies. Refinements were made in the areas of system logistics, repository acceptance schedules, repository operating profiles, real interest rates, and treatment of real cost increases. Nuclear wastes produced from defense activities are not considered quantitatively in this report. Preliminary analyses have indicated that economies of co-emplacing defense and civilian wastes could be beneficial to both, but methods of allocating common costs appropriately will not be recommended until cost impacts have been determined more accurately

  8. Developing a public involvement policy for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, S.; Summerson, J.; Gleason, M.E.; Reyes, P.C.

    1994-01-01

    The Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program is entering its second decade. Given the Department of Energy's current efforts toward openness and culture change, the role of stakeholders is likely to evolve throughout the 1990s to enable greater participation by these external parties in making program decisions. Although the program has a tradition of inviting its stakeholders to review and comment on its activities, it also is known for employing on occasion what has been derisively called a open-quotes decide-announce-defendclose quotes strategy. Program efforts to involve the public have come under considerable criticism for being inadequate, inconsistent, lacking in follow-through, and offered on a sporadic and selective basis. The program is vulnerable to these criticisms because ground rules for public involvement have never been firmly established as part of the program's routine operations. This deficiency has contributed, in part, to stakeholder doubts about the program's sincerity in engaging in a meaningful dialogue with them. The program and its stakeholders both could benefit from an official public involvement policy that would serve as a guidepost for interactions between program officials and stakeholders. Such a policy, developed in concert with stakeholders, would ensure that all parties understand how stakeholder participation is to occur. This paper reviews (1) events establishing the need for a formal public involvement policy; (2) public involvement initiatives that will inform the process of developing a new policy; (3) current efforts to develop a Department of Energy public involvement policy; and (4) key elements for inclusion in a public involvement policy developed specifically for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program

  9. Voluntarism, public engagement and the role of geoscience in radioactive waste management policy-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilham, Nic

    2014-05-01

    In the UK, as elsewhere in Europe, there has been a move away from previous 'technocratic' approaches to radioactive waste management (RWM). Policy-makers have recognised that for any RWM programme to succeed, sustained engagement with stakeholders and the public is necessary, and any geological repository must be constructed and operated with the willing support of the community which hosts it. This has opened up RWM policy-making and implementation to a wider range of (often contested) expert inputs, ranging across natural and social sciences, engineering and even ethics. Geoscientists and other technical specialists have found themselves drawn into debates about how various types of expertise should be prioritised, and how they should be integrated with diverse public and stakeholder perspectives. They also have a vital role to play in communicating to the public the need for geological disposal of radioactive waste, and the various aspects of geoscience which will inform the process of implementing this, from identifying potential volunteer host communities, to finding a suitable site, developing the safety case, construction of a repository, emplacement of waste, closure and subsequent monitoring. High-quality geoscience, effectively communicated, will be essential to building and maintaining public confidence throughout the many decades such projects will take. Failure to communicate effectively the relevant geoscience and its central role in the UK's radioactive waste management programme arguably contributed to West Cumbria's January 2013 decision to withdraw from the site selection process, and may discourage other communities from coming forward in future. Across countries needing to deal with their radioactive waste, this unique challenge gives an unprecedented urgency to finding ways to engage and communicate effectively with the public about geoscience.

  10. Correlates of domestic waste management and related health outcomes in Sunyani, Ghana: a protocol towards enhancing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addo, Henry O; Dun-Dery, Elvis J; Afoakwa, Eugenia; Elizabeth, Addai; Ellen, Amposah; Rebecca, Mwinfaug

    2017-07-03

    Domestic waste generation has contributed significantly to hampering national waste management efforts. It poses serious threat to national development and requires proper treatment and management within and outside households. The problem of improper waste management has always been a challenge in Ghana, compelling several national surveys to report on the practice of waste management. However, little is known about how much waste is generated and managed within households and there is a serious dearth of information for national policy and planning. This paper seeks to document the handling and practice of waste management, including collection, storage, transportation and disposal along with the types and amount of waste generated by Households and their related health outcome. The study was a descriptive cross-sectional study and used a multi-stage sampling technique to sample 700 households. The study was planned and implemented from January to May 2015. It involved the use of structured questionnaires in the data collection over the period. Factors such as demographic characteristics, amount of waste generated, types of waste bins used within households, waste recycling, cost of disposing waste, and distance to dumpsite were all assessed. The paper shows that each surveyed household generated 0.002 t of waste per day, of which 29% are both organic and inorganic. Though more than half of the respondents (53.6%) had positive attitude towards waste management, only 29.1% practiced waste management. The study reveals that there is no proper management of domestic waste except in few households that segregate waste. The study identified several elements as determinants of waste management practice. Female respondents were less likely to practice waste management (AOR 0.45; 95% Cl 0.29, 0.79), household size also determined respondents practice (AOR 0.26; Cl 0.09, 0.77). Practice of recycling (AOR 0.03; Cl 0.02, 0.08), distance to dumpsite (AOR 0.45; Cl 0.20, 0

  11. Major alternatives for government policies, organizational structures, and actions in civilian nuclear reactor emergency management in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to identify and assess major alternatives for governmental policies, organizational structures, and actions in civilian nuclear reactor emergency management in the United States. The National Academy of Public Administration agreed to identify and evaluate alternatives for governmental policies, organizational structures, and actions in civilian nuclear reactor emergency management. It agreed to review present policies and practices in civilian nuclear reactor emergency management, to review selected experiences and practices of governmental agencies other than the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and industries other than the nuclear power industry, and to identify alternatives to the present nuclear emergency system

  12. Are major economies on track to achieve their pledges for 2020? An assessment of domestic climate and energy policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roelfsema, Mark; Elzen, Michel den; Höhne, Niklas; Hof, Andries F.; Braun, Nadine; Fekete, Hanna; Böttcher, Hannes; Brandsma, Ruut; Larkin, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Many of the major greenhouse gas emitting countries have planned and/or implemented domestic mitigation policies, such as carbon taxes, feed-in tariffs, or standards. This study analyses whether the most effective national climate and energy policies are sufficient to stay on track for meeting the emission reduction proposals (pledges) that countries made for 2020. The analysis shows that domestic policies of India, China and Russia are projected to lead to lower emission levels than the pledged levels. Australia's and the EU's nationally legally binding policy framework is likely to deliver their unconditional pledges, but not the conditional ones. The situation is rather unclear for Japan, South Korea, Brazil and Indonesia. We project that policies of Canada and the USA will reduce 2020 emission levels, but additional policies are probably needed to deliver their pledges in full. The analysis also shows that countries are implementing policies or targets in various areas to a varying degree: all major countries have set renewable energy targets; many have recently implemented efficiency standards for cars, and new emission trading systems are emerging. - Highlights: • Many countries have pledged to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions by 2020. • There are upward revisions of greenhouse gas emission projections in many developing countries. • Higher emissions expected from pledged mitigation action plans of developing countries. • Achieving the 2 °C climate goal becomes more difficult. • The expected emission levels resulting from the pledges are surrounded with large uncertainties

  13. Wasting and stunting – similarities and differences; policy and programmatic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briend, André; Khara, Tanya; Dolan, Carmel

    2014-01-01

    Full text: The terms wasting and stunting were introduced by Waterlow to differentiate among underweight children those with a low weight-for-height (wasted) from those with a low height-for-age (stunted). Wasting is often called acute malnutrition and stunting chronic malnutrition but these terms may be misleading, and may just reflect that it takes a longer time to diagnose linear growth retardation. These two forms of malnutrition are associated with changes in body composition with a reduced muscle mass but usually a normal brain size in relation to body weight. These changes are more pronounced but more easily corrected in wasting. The reduced muscle mass present in stunting may persist into adult life and may be associated with an increased fat mass. Muscle is the main store of amino-acids and other essential nutrients needed for the body’s immune response and is a major determinant of survival in infections. The low muscle mass observed in both stunting and wasting is likely to explain the association between these two conditions and increased mortality. Hence, health and nutrition programmes aiming to reduce mortality need to prevent both wasting and stunting, especially in young children who have a low muscle ass to start with. Children having an insufficient food intake lose weight and become wasted but also stop growing in height, becoming stunted if untreated. Growth in height resumes only after wasting has been at least partially corrected. Hence detecting and treating wasting in a timely fashion also helps to prevent stunting. The recent discovery that bone and body fat are both endocrine organs interacting with each other and that bone regulates energy metabolism through osteocalcin (a hormone produced by bone) may explain these observations. Stunting can also occur in the absence of wasting. A possible explanation is that linear growth requires synthesis of cartilage and bone tissues, which contain more phosphorus, calcium, magnesium and sulphur

  14. Major factors contributing to the construction waste generation in building projects of Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaleel Tareq

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the economic growth and improvement of the construction industry witnessed by most countries, there has become a crucial need for employing modern possibilities in the construction sector to build taller, longer and deeper structures. However, one aspect that heads forward with the same intensity is the generation of 100 million tons of construction waste every year. This generation has occurred due to several factors with different levels of importance. Hence, this study reveals 15 factors influencing construction waste generation and categorizes them into 3 groups, (materials management on site, (materials handling, transportation and storage and (site management and practices. A questionnaire survey of 100 respondents was distributed among different engineers to assess the construction waste factors. Results showed that damage of materials on site, double handling of materials and incompetent contractor’s technical staff were the most significant factors of each category with Relative Importance Indexes (RII of 0.866, 0.844 and 0.83, respectively. These findings will help the practitioners to reduce construction waste quantities in sites and improve waste management performance factors to control the construction waste problems.

  15. Nuclear Waste Policy Act and socioeconomic impact mitigation provisions and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.D.

    1984-01-01

    Although enormous effort was devoted to the drafting, negotiation, and passage of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, the final product is not without deficiencies. Amont the observations presented in this paper a few are of sufficient import to justify reiteration here. First among those observations is the caveat that the availability of extensive impact mitigation mechanisms should not diminish any effort to prevent or minimize impacts in the first place. A second key point is that although the federal government is responsible for implementing the high-level waste management program, the generators and owners are obligated to pay all costs of implementing the program. And third, the structural flaw in the Act that merits the greatest attention is the probable time lag between occurrence of repository impacts and initiation of impact assistance grants. Though none of the concerns identified in this paper are likely to prove fatal to the high-level waste management effort, some of them could cause anxious moments and difficult situations. Early attention to and resolution of these problems should substantially enhance the overall quality of the high-level waste management program

  16. Reduction of Radioactive Waste Through the Reuse and Recycle Policy of the Sealed Radioactive Sources Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Marpaung

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years, the utilization of sealed source for medical, industrial and research purposes has shown an accelerating increase. This situation will lead to increases in the amount of sealed radioactive. During its use, a sealed radioactive waste will eventually become either a spent sealed source or disused sealed radioactive source (DSRS, due to certain factors. The reduction of the amount of radioactive waste can be executed through the application of reuse and recycle of sealed source. The reuse and recycle policy for spent and disused sealed sources are not already specified yet. The reuse of spent sealed sources can be applied only for the sources which had been used in the medical field for radiotherapy, namely the reuse of a teletherapy Co-60 source in a calibration facility. The recycle of a spent sealed source can be performed for radioactive sources with relatively high activities and long half-lives; however, the recycling activity may only be performed by the manufacturer. To avoid legal conflicts, in the amendment to the Government Regulation No.27 Year 2002 on Management of Radioactive Waste, there will be a recommendation for a new scheme in the management of radioactive waste to facilitate the application of the principles of reduce, reuse, and recycle

  17. Reduction of Radioactive Waste Through the Reuse and Recycle Policy of the Sealed Radioactive Sources Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marpaung, T.

    2012-01-01

    In the past few years, the utilization of sealed source for medical, industrial and research purposes has shown an accelerating increase. This situation will lead to increases in the amount of sealed radioactive. During its use, a sealed radioactive waste will eventually become either a spent sealed source or disused sealed radioactive source (DSRS), due to certain factors. The reduction of the amount of radioactive waste can be executed through the application of reuse and recycle of sealed source. The reuse and recycle policy for spent and disused sealed sources are not already specified yet. The reuse of spent sealed sources can be applied only for the sources which had been used in the medical field for radiotherapy, namely the reuse of a teletherapy Co-60 source in a calibration facility. The recycle of a spent sealed source can be performed for radioactive sources with relatively high activities and long half-lives; however, the recycling activity may only be performed by the manufacturer. To avoid legal conflicts, in the amendment to the Government Regulation No.27 Year 2002 on Management of Radioactive Waste, there will be a recommendation for a new scheme in the management of radioactive waste to facilitate the application of the principles of reduce, reuse, and recycle (author)

  18. Subsidy modes, waste cooking oil and biofuel: Policy effectiveness and sustainable supply chains in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Huiming; Li, Lianshui; Zhou, Peng; Hou, Jianmin; Qiu, Yueming

    2014-01-01

    Many countries are concerned with the waste-to-energy for economic development and societal welfare. This paper constructs a dynamic game model that, for the first time compares the incentive effects of four common subsidy modes on waste cooking oil supply for biofuel refining and sales of waste cooking oil refined products. The model considers the impact of preferential tax treatment, a raw material subsidy, a sales subsidy and an investment subsidy on the profits of biofuel enterprises and waste cooking oil recyclers. Results indicate that common approaches adopted in developed economies such as raw material price subsidies and finished products sales subsidies increase the profits of both biofuel enterprises and recyclers. On the contrary, investment subsidies, which are relatively common in some regions of China, increase the profits of recyclers, while reducing revenues achieved by biofuel enterprises. To promote the supply chain, policy should give priority to raw material price subsidies and finished products sales subsidies, and for investment subsidies, however, the government should be cautious

  19. Vocational Education and Training: A Major Shift in World Bank Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Phillip

    1992-01-01

    Comments on the World Bank's policy paper on vocational and technical education and training. Argues that past failures in establishing effective vocational and technical education were a result of not applying conventional neoclassical economic theory. Asserts that the World Bank's policy paper corrects this approach. (CFR)

  20. The energy Review: the revision of british the energy policy and the radioactive wastes: the report of Committee on Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daoudi, M.

    2006-07-01

    This report presents the british energy policy, in which the nuclear power has a real part. The report details: the reduction of the carbon emission by the energy conservation and the clean energies, the energy safety, the impacts of the Energy Review, the technology part to reach these objectives and some reactions. The second part is devoted to the radioactive wastes and a presentation of the report Committee on Radioactive Wastes. (A.L.B.)

  1. A dynamic model for organic waste management in Quebec (D-MOWIQ) as a tool to review environmental, societal and economic perspectives of a waste management policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hénault-Ethier, Louise; Martin, Jean-Philippe; Housset, Johann

    2017-08-01

    A dynamic systems model of organic waste management for the province of Quebec, Canada, was built. Six distinct modules taking into account social, economical and environmental issues and perspectives were included. Five scenarios were designed and tested to identify the potential consequences of different governmental and demographic combinations of decisions over time. Among these scenarios, one examines Quebec's organic waste management policy (2011-2015), while the other scenarios represent business as usual or emphasize ecology, economy or social benefits in the decision-making process. Model outputs suggest that the current governmental policy should yield favorable environmental benefits, energy production and waste valorization. The projections stemming from the current policy action plan approach the benefits gained by another scenario emphasizing the environmental aspects in the decision-making process. As expected, without the current policy and action plan in place, or business as usual, little improvements are expected in waste management compared to current trends, and strictly emphasizing economic imperatives does not favor sustainable organic waste management. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Conflicting Ideologies and Language Policy in Adult ESL: Complexities of Language Socialization in a Majority-L1 Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Miki

    2014-01-01

    This study looks at how language ideologies affect and are revealed in language socialization practices in a majority-L1 adult ESL classroom, particularly looking at language use and policy. It draws on recent theories and critiques of language socialization (Bayley & Langman, 2011; Bronson & Watson-Gegeo, 2008; Garrett &…

  3. How Does the Majority Public React to Multiculturalist Policies? A Comparative Analysis of European Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooghe, Marc; de Vroome, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Migration and ethnic minority integration remain heavily contested issues in numerous European countries. Over the past decade, researchers and political commentators have observed an apparent retreat from multiculturalist policies related to a belief that multiculturalism has lost support among the

  4. The history of the IEA volume II: major policies and actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, R.

    1995-01-01

    Volume II of the History of the International Energy Agency (IEA) continues the story which began with the Origins and Structure of the Agency in Volume I. After examining the industrial countries'energy policies leading up to the 1973-1974 crisis, the current Volume focuses on the new policies adopted in the IEA during its first twenty years.The first part of this book deals with a section on 'Energy Policy Origins of the 1973-1974 Oil Supply Vulnerability : The Optimistic-Passive Approach to Oil Policy'. The main events and developments leading up to the crisis are briefly outlined together with a short presentation of the policy views and critical conclusions that were made on that situation by some of the most knowledgeable oil specialists of the period. The second part surveys IEA oil security, beginning with the oil Emergency Sharing System. The IAE's long-term policies for reducing its Members'dependence on imported oil are the subject of the third part. In this part is described the development of some of the leading IEA work in the field of energy and the environment, the Agency's far-reaching reviews of Members'policies in this sector and a discussion of the 'free markets' policy and of the IEA Shared Goals of 1993. The fourth part deals with the still longer-term Energy Research and Development in the IEA and is a review of the internal organization of IEA work in the R and D field. The fifth part follows with a discussion of the Oil Market policies and practices of the Agency, where the main and durable goals are 'transparency and information dissemination'. The last part addresses the Agency's policies and actions with respect to Co-operation with Non-Member Countries. Then, it takes up Members'policies and activities in connection with the oil producer and consumer country dialogue of 1976-1977 and outlines its disappointing outcome. (O.L.). 2 figs., 13 tabs

  5. Methane emission from ruminants and solid waste: A critical analysis of baseline and mitigation projections for climate and policy studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, E.

    2012-12-01

    Current and projected estimates of methane (CH4) emission from anthropogenic sources are numerous but largely unexamined or compared. Presented here is a critical appraisal of CH4 projections used in climate-chemistry and policy studies. We compare emissions for major CH4 sources from several groups, including our own new data and RCP projections developed for climate-chemistry models for the next IPCC Assessment Report (AR5). We focus on current and projected baseline and mitigation emissions from ruminant animals and solid waste that are both predicted to rise dramatically in coming decades, driven primarily by developing countries. For waste, drivers include increasing urban populations, higher per capita waste generation due to economic growth and increasing landfilling rates. Analysis of a new global data base detailing waste composition, collection and disposal indicates that IPCC-based methodologies and default data overestimate CH4 emission for the current period which cascades into substantial overestimates in future projections. CH4 emission from solid waste is estimated to be ~10-15 Tg CH4/yr currently rather than the ~35 Tg/yr often reported in the literature. Moreover, emissions from developing countries are unlikely to rise rapidly in coming decades because new management approaches, such as sanitary landfills, that would increase emissions are maladapted to infrastructures in these countries and therefore unlikely to be implemented. The low current emission associated with solid waste (~10 Tg), together with future modest growth, implies that mitigation of waste-related CH4 emission is a poor candidate for slowing global warming. In the case of ruminant animals (~90 Tg CH4/yr currently), the dominant assumption driving future trajectories of CH4 emission is a substantial increase in meat and dairy consumption in developing countries to be satisfied by growing animal populations. Unlike solid waste, current ruminant emissions among studies exhibit a

  6. Autoclave reduction of jarosites and other metal sulfates : a new approach to major waste problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hage, J.T.L.

    1999-01-01

    Industrial jarosite is a waste product of the zinc industry. It is considered a serious environmental problem, due to the quantity produced and the mobile hazardous metals it contains. Over 50 million tons are already stored worldwide. The jarosite sludge autoclave treatment process described in

  7. National Policy for solid waste and reverse logistics of fluorescent lamps after consumption: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Cestari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescent lamps are used increasingly today. Considered energy-saving lamps, they become hazardous waste at the end of their life cycle. They are composed partly of mercury, considered harmful to human health. Fluorescent lamps, together with tires and pesticide containers, fall under federal legislation that establishes and regulates their proper disposal. In 2010, Federal Law 12.305 / 2010 was created, establishing the National Policy on Solid Waste (PNRS, making businesses and consumers responsible for the proper disposal of their waste. This article aims to analyze the reverse logistics process of fluorescent lamps post-consumption, in a public education institution. The research used case studies and interviews with managers of the materials administration and warehouse departments of the institution. It was identified that since 2010, the educational institution has not been performing reverse logistics and has been accumulating hazardous material in its warehouses. This paper contributes a suggestion to improve the reverse logistics process and worker safety, and to prevent environmental risks.

  8. Ward Valley and the Federal Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasternak, A.D.

    1996-01-01

    In his State of the Union Address delivered on 23 January 1996, President Clinton said, speaking generally, open-quotes Passing a law - even the best possible law - is only a first step. The next step is to make it work.close quotes The president is right, of course; faithful execution of any law is the key. Unfortunately, this lesson appears lost on his own administration when it comes to making the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act work. That act is one of the most important environmental laws of the 1980s. It was designed by Congress and the state governors to assure both sufficient disposal capacity for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) and regional equity in the siting of new disposal facilities. Former Congressman Morris Udall (D-Ariz.), who was chairman of the House Interior Committee and a congressional environmental leader, was author of the act. No state has done more to make the law work than California. No state has made more progress toward developing a new disposal facility for low-level radioactive waste as mandated by the act. But further progress, that is, actual construction and operation of a disposal facility, has been stymied by the federal administration, which has refused to convey federal desert lands to California for use as the site of the proposed disposal facility

  9. Politics and scientific expertise: Scientists, risk perception, and nuclear waste policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barke, R.P.; Jenkins-Smith, H.C.

    1993-01-01

    To study the homogeneity and influences on scientists' perspectives of environmental risks, the authors have examined similarities and differences in risk perceptions, particularly regarding nuclear wastes, and policy preferences among 1011 scientists and engineers. Significant differences (p<0.05) were found in the patterns of beliefs among scientists from different fields of research. In contrast to physicists, chemists, and engineers, life scientists tend to: (a) perceive the greatest risks from nuclear energy and nuclear waste management; (b) perceive higher levels of overall environmental risk; (c) strongly oppose imposing risks on unconsenting individuals; and (d) prefer stronger requirements for environmental management. On some issues related to priorities among public problems and calls for government action, there are significant variations among life scientists or physical scientists. It was also found that-independently of field of research-perceptions of risk and its correlates are significantly associated with the type of institution in which the scientist is employed. Scientists in universities or state and local governments tend to see the risks of nuclear energy and wastes as greater than scientists who work as business consultants, for federal organizations, or for private research laboratories. Significant differences also are found in priority given to environmental risks, the perceived proximity of environmental disaster, willingness to impose risks on an unconsenting population, and the necessity of accepting risks and sacrifices. 33 refs., 3 figs., 9 tabs

  10. The use of green waste from tourist attractions for renewable energy production: The potential and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Yan; Du, Yuanyuan; Yang, Guofu; Tang, Yuli; Fan, Likun; Zhang, Jun; Lu, Yijun; Ge, Ying; Chang, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Quantifying potential renewable energy sources from tourist attractions is a pivotal initial step in developing energy policies and strategies for low-carbon tourist industry development. Although solar energy and wind power have been in use for providing power for tourist attractions, the value of using waste biomass for energy production is still poorly understood. Here we advocate a promising approach that produces energy from green waste created by tourism attractions currently existing in large numbers and is still increasing dramatically. Using the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) of China as an example, we evaluated the potential of utilizing green waste to produce energy from 385 tourist attractions in 16 cities of this region. Our results showed that the total potential energy production using the green waste biomass was estimated at 6740 TJ/yr (1 TJ=10 12 J) with an average of 137 GJ/ha/yr (1 GJ=10 9 J), accounting for 6% (the average of the Yangtze River Delta, some scenic areas up to 93%) of YRD′s tourism industry′s energy consumption in 2008. The use of green waste for energy production is possible using current technology and could result in a win–win approach by reducing waste and increasing the renewable energy yields. -- Highlights: •Green waste from tourist attractions could help offset the tourist′s fossil fuel consumption. •Economic, technical, and social feasibility analysis of green waste for energy production. •Puts forward policy recommendations, from management regulations, public support etc

  11. The fundamentals of the Russian Federation National Policy in the non-nuclear fuel cycle radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latypov, E.M.; Rikunov, V.A.

    1995-01-01

    Extensive manufacture and use of sources of ionizing radiation result inevitably in the generation of a considerable amount of radioactive waste. The crucial objective within the context of the general problem of radioactive waste management involves the safe isolation of radioactive waste from the environment for the entire period of the existence of their potential hazardous impacts upon it. The complex nature of the problem requires substantial efforts to be placed for the establishment of an integrated radioactive waste management system providing a national control in medicine, industry and science. To this end, the fundamentals of the national policy for the safe management of radioactive waste from non-nuclear fuel cycle activities are being developed in the Russian Federation. The essential components of the national policy are: development of a scientifically sound concept of radioactive waste management; adoption of legislative documents such as standards and acts, relevant to this area; implementation and enforcement of state regulations and supervision of the relevant activities; development of a national programme on radioactive waste management; provision and maintaining of a national radioactive waste inventory; radiation monitoring

  12. Wildlife and the coal waste policy debate: proposed rules for coal waste disposal ignore lessons from 45 years of wildlife poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Dennis Lemly; Joseph P. Skorupa

    2012-01-01

    This analysis examines wildlife poisoning from coal combustion waste (CCW) in the context of EPA's proposed policy that would allow continued use of surface impoundments as a disposal method. Data from 21 confirmed damage sites were evaluated, ranging from locations where historic poisoning has led to corrective actions that have greatly improved environmental...

  13. The low-level waste handbook: A user's guide to the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, H.

    1986-11-01

    This report provides a detailed, section-by-section analysis of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985. Appendices include lists of relevant law and legislation, relevant Congressional committees, members of Congress mentioned in the report, and exact copies of the 1980 and 1985 Acts

  14. Marginalization and challenge: the production of knowledge and landscape in Canadian nuclear waste management policy making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanley, A.E.

    2006-01-01

    Aboriginal peoples have recently become politically significant in Canadian nuclear fuel waste (NFW) management policy making. Their newfound significance comes on the heels of an important challenge to the knowledge and authority of the nuclear industry with respect to its plans for NFW lead by a number of public groups and Aboriginal peoples from across Canada, including the Serpent River First Nation. This dissertation examines the relationships between the discourses of the Serpent River First Nation (SRFN) about their experiences of the nuclear fuel chain and the discourses of the Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) about the management of NFW. Two trends are found to characterize these relationships: marginalization and challenge. The discourses of the NWMO marginalize the SRFN, excluding their experiences of the nuclear fuel chain, radioactivity, and the effects of nuclear industries from the policy making process. The discourses of the SRFN challenge the claims of the NWMO about the effects of nuclear wastes and radioactivity, as well as about the safe and beneficial development of the nuclear fuel chain. I identify discourses of 'modern risk' and 'citizenship' found in the work of the NWMO as instrumental for maintaining the nuclear industry's control over the production of knowledge about NFW and its effects and subjugating the knowledge of the SRFN. I also identify discourses of identity, oppression, and 'situated knowledge' as important challenges to the content, method and premises of the claims of the nuclear industry about the management of NFW. While I conclude that the NWMO's discourses of risk and citizenship constitute a colonial politics of exclusion, I note that their discourses are contingent on the exclusion of the experiences of the SRFN with the fuel chain. For their accounts to be coherent, the NWMO need to maintain a strategic silence on the overwhelming implication Aboriginal peoples, as a category, in the nuclear fuel chain

  15. Policy bill of program on the radioactive materials and wastes management. Press conference. Intervention of Francois Loos, Ministry delegate to the Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This document provides the presentation of Francois Loos concerning the policy bill on the program of radioactive materials and wastes. Three axis of researches are decided: the separation and transmutation, the deep underground disposal and long dated storage and conditioning processes. The bill institutes a national radioactive materials and waste management plan and defines a programme and calendar for research and work leading to implementation of this plan, which will comprise three major points: with a view to looking to reduce the quantity of waste, spent nuclear fuels taken from the nuclear power plants will be reprocessed for recycling in the plants; waste which cannot be recycled will be packaged in a robust matrix and then temporarily stored on the surface; after interim storage, waste which cannot be finally disposed of in a surface facility, will be placed in a deep geological reversible repository. In order to monitor each step in this plan, the bill strengthens independent assessment of research and involves greater information of the public. With regard to financing, the bill clarifies the fact that economic development of the departments concerned by research into disposal options and the research itself will be financed by additional taxes on the operators of nuclear installations. (A.L.B.)

  16. Supporting the Academic Majority: Policies and Practices Related to Part-Time Faculty's Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagan, M. Kevin, Jr.; Jaeger, Audrey J.; Grantham, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    The academic workforce in higher education has shifted in the last several decades from consisting of mostly full-time, tenure-track faculty to one comprised predominantly of contingent, non-tenure-track faculty. This substantial shift toward part-time academic labor has not corresponded with institutions implementing more supportive policies and…

  17. The interaction between popular economy, social movements and public policies: A case study of the waste pickers' movement

    OpenAIRE

    van Zeeland, Angelique J.W.M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the challenges of expansion and sustainability of Social and Solidarity Economy (SSE). It focuses on the interaction between popular economy and SSE, and stresses the importance of collective action and public policies to enable the transition from the informal economy toward SSE. The main focus is on the waste pickers' movement. Experiences from Latin America, Asia and Africa show the possibilities of incorporating a significant contingent of informal waste pickers in sol...

  18. Articulating the history and major departure points evident in post-apartheid South African national water policy and law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikozho, C.; Danga, L.; Saruchera, D.

    2017-08-01

    Governance of the water sector in South Africa has reflected the political changes taking place in society. For instance, due to apartheid policies of segregation, inequality of access to water resources marks South Africa's history in a very profound way and redistribution of rights to water to redress the results of past discrimination became an explicit purpose of the post-apartheid water governance policy and legislative regime. In this paper, we articulate the history and major departure points evident in post-apartheid South African national water policy and law. This includes documenting and reflecting on most of the available information that shows how the new water policy and law were developed. Findings from the study show that the key players active in the water law review process deliberately took into account the political goals and dynamics of power asymmetry within which the law was being articulated. Therefore, the water law as it stands today and in the past must be understood within the context of the socio-economic and political landscape that has prevailed in South Africa at different historical junctures. We contend that a detailed examination and articulation of the history and major departure points evident in post-apartheid South African national water policy and law enables practitioners and scholars to better understand the main motivations behind the water sector reforms and the then prevailing thinking behind the policy and legislation eventually promulgated. The present water law must be understood in the context of these reforms and the objectives they sought to achieve.

  19. Proposal for processes map of post-consumption reverse logistics under the perspective of the national solid waste policy

    OpenAIRE

    Emmily Caroline Cabral da Fonseca; Eriton Carlos Martins Barreiros; Paulo Vitor dos Santos Gonçalves; André Cristiano Silva Melo; Denilson Ricardo de Lucena Nunes

    2017-01-01

    The National Policy on Solid Waste (NPSW) points to the Reverse Logistics (RL) as an instrument that enables actions and strategies that allow adequate management of Urban Solid Waste (USW) according to their guidelines. After more than five years of its publication, studies of RL in Brazil haven´t met the demands for defining procedures in the implementation of proper management of MSW in accordance with the NPSW. This class of waste is the result of post-consumer and it is relev...

  20. Recommendations concerning Tennessee's hazardous waste management policies by a task force representing generators, environmentalists, and other key constituencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colglazier, E.W.; English, M.R.

    1987-01-01

    Four recommendations are proposed. 1) A Governor's Roundtable on Hazardous and Solid Wastes should be established to ensure that Tennessee have sound policies and plans for waste management, adequate waste treatment and disposal capacity, and the means to meet the October, 1989 deadline for certification of hazardous waste capacity. 2) Opportunities for early public information and participation in Tennessee's RCRA permitting process should be improved. 3) A Superfund Public Involvement Task Force should be appointed by the Commissioner of Health and Environment to find ways to ensure that a community affected by a Tennessee Superfund site has early and adequate opportunities for information and involvement. 4) Communications about hazardous waste issues should be improved by the appointment of a hazardous waste information officer, the establishment of a Speakers Bureau, the funding of the UT Center for Industrial Services' Hazardous Waste Extension Program, establishment of a crisis situation network of consultants for communities, and exploration of the possibility of Amnesty Days for household hazardous waste and for small-quantity generators waste

  1. Present trends in radioactive waste management policies in OECD countries, and related international co-operative efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivier, J.P.

    1977-01-01

    In recent years, waste management has received increased attention at the national level and also internationally, to harmonize to some extent the policies and practices to be followed and to continue to achieve a high safety standard. In particular, discussions are taking place between OECD Member countries on the definition of objectives, concepts and strategies for radioactive waste management with a view to presenting coherent overall systems, covering not only the treatment and storage aspects for the short-term but also the longer-term problems of disposal in the context of a rapidly developing nuclear fuel cycle. The technical, administrative, legal and financial aspects of the waste management problems are being discussed and various approaches are envisaged for the future. In addition, a significant effort is also being initiated on research and development. The disposal problem has been given priority, particularly regarding high-level waste and alpha-bearing wastes. Close international co-operation has been initiated in this sector as well as on the conditioning of high-level radioactive waste. Increased co-operation is also taking place concerning other waste management problems such as the management of gaseous waste, alpha waste and cladding hulls and the question of dismantling and decommissioning of obsolete nuclear facilities. The paper describes the results achieved so far through this co-operation between OECD Member countries and presents current plans for future activities. (author)

  2. Centralized vs. decentralized thermal IR inspection policy: experience from a major Brazilian electric power company

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Laerte; da Costa Bortoni, Edson; Barbosa, Luiz C.; Araujo, Reyler A.

    2005-03-01

    Furnas Centrais Elétricas S.A is one of the greatest companies of the Brazilian electric power sector and a pioneer in using infrared thermography. In the early 70s, the maintenance policy used was a centralized approach, with only one inspection team to cover all the company"s facilities. In the early 90s, FURNAS decided to decentralize the thermography inspections creating several inspection teams. This new maintenance policy presented several advantages when compared to the previous one. However the credibility of the results obtained with the thermal inspection was frequently being questioned, in part due to the lack of a detailed planning to carry out the transition from the centralized inspection to the decentralized one. In some areas of the company it was suggested the inactivation of the thermography. This paper presents the experience of FURNAS with these different maintenance policies and details the procedures which have been taken that nowadays the infrared thermal inspection has become one of the most important techniques of predictive maintenance in the company.

  3. Present trends in radioactive waste management policies in OECD countries and related international co-operative efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivier, J.P.

    1977-01-01

    In recent years waste management has received increased attention not only at the national level but also internationally in order to harmonise to some extent the policies and practices to be followed and to continue to achieve a high safety standard in this field. In particular, discussions are taking place between OECD Member countries on the definition of objectives, concepts and strategies for radioactive waste management with a view to presenting coherent overall systems covering not only the treatment and storage aspects for the short term but also the longer term problems of disposal in the context of a rapidly developing nuclear fuel cycle. The technical, administrative, legal and financial aspects of the waste management problems are being discussed and various approaches are envisaged for the future. In addition to the discussion of policies and practices, a significant effort is also being initiated on research and development. The disposal problem has been given priority particularly as far as high level waste and alpha bearing wastes are concerned. Close international co-operation has been initiated in this sector as well as on the conditioning of high level radioactive waste. As a result of these efforts an international R and D programme is being established at the site of the Eurochemic reprocessing plant on the incorporation of high level waste into metal matrices. Increased co-operation is also taking place concerning other waste management problems such as the management of gaseous waste, alpha waste and cladding hulls and the question of dismantling and decommissioning of obsolete nuclear facilities. The paper describes in detail the results achieved so far through this co-operation between OECD Member countries and presents current plans for future activities [fr

  4. Radioactive Waste Management - Community Policy and Research Initiatives. The sixth international conference on the management and disposal of radioactive waste - Euradwaste '04

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsstroem, Hans [Research Directorate Energy, Nuclear Fission and Radiation Protection, European Commission, MO-75 5/37, 200 avenue de la Loi, B-1049 Brussels (Belgium); Ruiz, P Fernandez [DG Research, Energy, Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear, CSN, C/ Justo Dorado, 11, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    The sixth international conference on the management and disposal of radioactive waste organized be European Commission, held on 29-31 March 2004 in Luxembourg aimed to cover the following objectives: - To present EC policy in waste management, in particular the proposed 'Directive on the Management of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Radioactive Waste' and to discuss relating issues such as the effect on national programmes, site selection, EU added value, the case for EU safety standards, and various socio-political aspects; - To highlight the main results of the Fifth Framework Programme (FP5) of EURATOM for 'Nuclear Energy, Fission Research and Training Activities' in the field of waste in spent fuel management and disposal, and partitioning and transmutation; - To present examples of activities under FP5 and to discuss further research European integration through FP6. The program was divided into two main groups: 1. 'Community Policy and Socio-Political Aspects' which included sessions on community policy initiatives, disposal option, common safety standards and public involvement and acceptance; 2. 'Community Research Activities - FP5' which included sessions on partitioning and transmutation, geological disposal and research networking. There were 29 oral presentations and 36 poster presentations which, for the latter, allowed detailed presentations of the results of the EU-funded research projects. The conference was attended by some 240 participants from 27 countries.

  5. Radioactive Waste Management - Community Policy and Research Initiatives. The sixth international conference on the management and disposal of radioactive waste - Euradwaste '04

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsstroem, Hans [Research Directorate Energy, Nuclear Fission and Radiation Protection, European Commission, MO-75 5/37, 200 avenue de la Loi, B-1049 Brussels (Belgium); Ruiz, P. Fernandez (ed.) [DG Research, Energy, Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear, CSN, C/ Justo Dorado, 11, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    The sixth international conference on the management and disposal of radioactive waste organized be European Commission, held on 29-31 March 2004 in Luxembourg aimed to cover the following objectives: - To present EC policy in waste management, in particular the proposed 'Directive on the Management of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Radioactive Waste' and to discuss relating issues such as the effect on national programmes, site selection, EU added value, the case for EU safety standards, and various socio-political aspects; - To highlight the main results of the Fifth Framework Programme (FP5) of EURATOM for 'Nuclear Energy, Fission Research and Training Activities' in the field of waste in spent fuel management and disposal, and partitioning and transmutation; - To present examples of activities under FP5 and to discuss further research European integration through FP6. The program was divided into two main groups: 1. 'Community Policy and Socio-Political Aspects' which included sessions on community policy initiatives, disposal option, common safety standards and public involvement and acceptance; 2. 'Community Research Activities - FP5' which included sessions on partitioning and transmutation, geological disposal and research networking. There were 29 oral presentations and 36 poster presentations which, for the latter, allowed detailed presentations of the results of the EU-funded research projects. The conference was attended by some 240 participants from 27 countries.

  6. Determinants and the Moderating Effect of Perceived Policy Effectiveness on Residents' Separation Intention for Rural Household Solid Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chuanhui; Zhao, Dingtao; Zhang, Shuang; Chen, Lanfang

    2018-04-11

    Currently, villages "besieged with garbage" have become a serious problem in rural areas of China. Separation of rural residential solid waste (RRSW) is one of the main strategies for waste reduction. Although previous studies have analyzed the social and psychological motivations of residents' separation intention for municipal solid waste (MSW), little attention has been paid to the situation in rural areas. This paper investigates key factors influencing rural residents' separation intention, as well as analyzing the moderating effects of perceived policy effectiveness on the relationship between the determinants and the intention, using survey data of 538 rural residents in the province of Sichuan in China. The results show that all the proposed key factors influence the separation intention significantly. Furthermore, the policies were divided into two types and the moderating effects were tested for each type. The results show that the perceived effectiveness of both the inducement policy and the capacity building policy moderated the relationship between attitude and separation intention positively, while the perceived effectiveness of the inducement policy moderated the relationship between subjective norms and intention negatively. The findings provide insightful information for policymakers to design effective RRSW separation policies.

  7. Determinants and the Moderating Effect of Perceived Policy Effectiveness on Residents’ Separation Intention for Rural Household Solid Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dingtao; Zhang, Shuang; Chen, Lanfang

    2018-01-01

    Currently, villages “besieged with garbage” have become a serious problem in rural areas of China. Separation of rural residential solid waste (RRSW) is one of the main strategies for waste reduction. Although previous studies have analyzed the social and psychological motivations of residents’ separation intention for municipal solid waste (MSW), little attention has been paid to the situation in rural areas. This paper investigates key factors influencing rural residents’ separation intention, as well as analyzing the moderating effects of perceived policy effectiveness on the relationship between the determinants and the intention, using survey data of 538 rural residents in the province of Sichuan in China. The results show that all the proposed key factors influence the separation intention significantly. Furthermore, the policies were divided into two types and the moderating effects were tested for each type. The results show that the perceived effectiveness of both the inducement policy and the capacity building policy moderated the relationship between attitude and separation intention positively, while the perceived effectiveness of the inducement policy moderated the relationship between subjective norms and intention negatively. The findings provide insightful information for policymakers to design effective RRSW separation policies. PMID:29641502

  8. The transport implications of regional policies for the disposal of intermediate level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, I.A.

    1985-09-01

    This report aims to evaluate transport parameters and logistics associated with the disposal of intermediate-level radioactive wastes, as generated by CEGB, SSEB, UKAEA and BNFL. The assumed power scenario is DoE Scheme 3, which approximates to a moderate power generation scenario, with a 15 GWe PWR programme commissioned between 1991 and 2010, existing Magnox and AGR stations are assumed to have a 30 year lifespan. Three transport options are again assumed, namely; road, rail and a hybrid system, as is consistent with previous studies. These three options will be used in investigating regional policies of disposal, initially at the national level and then progressively disaggregating to a system of three regional depositories serving their respective catchment areas. (author)

  9. On the acceptance of governmental information policy in the case of major industrial accidents or disasters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausen, L.; Kiel Univ.; Dombrowsky, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    This research project served to provide full information as soon as possible, last but not least because of the 'Information catastrophe' unleashed by the Chernobyl accident, and under the impression of a 'loss of confidence' in the credibility of government information policies caused by it, on how such developments are brought about, how they can be corrected, which intervention possibilities exist for government information in future to achieve the intended purpose, and which parties have to be won over for government information and action to be communicated in a convincing and confidence-building manner. This leads to conclusions in the form of theses such as: The relationship of the individual with the State, its information and action, is always an anonymous and impersonal one and therefore emotionally unsatisfactory. Acceptance of the citizen by the State is achieved by the latter attending to the concerns of its citizens not only formally but in a problem-oriented way, by voting and control mechanisms. Information policy is a to-and-fro communication between State and citizen, it is not a one-way road for instructions and decrees. Communications of information is primarily the sharing of agreements and the confirmation of a joint understanding: one knows that basically there is consensus. Only if there is fundamental consensus, information about dissonant, problematic, unpleasant matters can be communicated in such a way that there are good prospects of approval or acceptance, and hence observance. (orig./HSCH) [de

  10. Innovative market-based policy instruments for waste management: A case study on shredder residues in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Maarten; Hoogmartens, Rob; Van Passel, Steven; Van Acker, Karel; Vanderreydt, Ive

    2015-10-01

    In an increasingly complex waste market, market-based policy instruments, such as disposal taxes, can give incentives for sustainable progress while leaving flexibility for innovation. However, implementation of disposal taxes is often criticised by domestic waste handlers that fear to be outcompeted by competitors in other countries. The article discusses three innovative market-based instruments that limit the impact on international competitiveness: Tradable recycling credits, refunded disposal taxes and differentiated disposal taxes. All three instruments have already been implemented for distinct environmental policies in Europe. In order to illustrate how these instruments can be used for waste policy, the literature review is complemented with a case study on shredder residues from metal-containing waste streams in Belgium. The analysis shows that a conventional disposal tax remains the most efficient, simple and transparent instrument. However, if international competition is a significant issue or if political support is weak, refunded and differentiated disposal taxes can have an added value as second-best instruments. Tradable recycling credits are not an appropriate instrument for use in small waste markets with market power. In addition, refunded taxes create similar incentives, but induce lower transactions costs. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Wastes options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maes, M.

    1992-01-01

    After a description of the EEC environmental policy, some wastes families are described: bio-contaminant wastes (municipal and industrial), hospitals wastes, toxic wastes in dispersed quantities, nuclear wastes (radioactive and thermal), plastics compounds wastes, volatiles organic compounds, hydrocarbons and used solvents. Sources, quantities and treatments are given. (A.B.). refs., figs., tabs

  12. U.S. and South Korean Cooperation in the World Nuclear Energy Market: Major Policy Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    system and other major components. • Samsung C&T Corporation. Plant construction. • Hyundai Engineering and Construction. Plant construction...market. Other countries that have been mentioned in the news media include Vietnam, Malaysia , Thailand, and Middle East neighbors of the UAE.25 A Korean

  13. Political life and half-life: the future formulation of nuclear waste public policy in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, David

    2006-11-01

    The United States continues to need forward-thinking and revised public policy to assure safe nuclear waste disposal. Both the high- and low-level disposal plans enacted by Congress in the 1980's have been frustrated by practical and political interventions. In the interim, ad hoc solutions and temporary fixes have emerged as de facto policy. Future statutory, regulatory, and administrative guidance will likely be less bold, more narrowly focused, and adopted at lower levels of government, more informally, in contrast to the top-down, statutory policies of the 1980's.

  14. High level radioactive waste management policies and reflections of citizens' opinions in selected European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagano, Koji

    2002-01-01

    This report considered on policy decision aiming at practice of landfill disposal and process at disposal site forward practice of high level radioactive wastes (HLWs) disposal by adopting Finland and Sweden, for examples among European countries showing their own efforts, to attempt to absorb some instructions for Japan planning to promote practice of unique process in future. As a result performing information collection and analysis at a center of surveys at sites, conclusion shown as follows were obtained: (1) Characteristics of nuclear policy decision making at Finland are confirmation of decision making based on decision in principle (DiP) procedure, participation of nations, especially congress, and high reliability of citizens to social systems. (2) At Oskarshamn in Sweden, positive efforts and decision making on disposal site problem are progressed as results of leading by local assembly, construction planning on decision making competence on HLWs, and planning preparation on presence of troubles and decision with responsibility to citizens. (3) As when promoting disposal site process, failure of loss on reliability relation brings large time and economical losses, for its success conditions, it was proposed that psychological refusal feelings of residents at sites on nuclear energy were small, the sites had some capacities and well-informed capable of understanding and judging on nuclear troubles, and decision not only present facility and trouble proposing construction, but also through discussion on future images for local society. (G.K.)

  15. Experience and related research and development in applying corrective measures at the major low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, R.R.; Mahathy, J.M.; Epler, J.S.; Boing, L.E.; Jacobs, D.G.

    1983-07-01

    A review was conducted of experience in responding to problems encountered in shallow land burial of low-level radioactive waste and in research and development related to these problems. The operating histories of eleven major disposal facilities were examined. Based on the review, it was apparent that the most effective corrective measures administered were those developed from an understanding of the site conditions which caused the problems. Accordingly, the information in this document has been organized around the major conditions which have caused problems at existing sites. These include: (1) unstable trench cover, (2) permeable trench cover, (3) subsidence, (4) ground water entering trenches, (5) intrusion by deep-rooted plants, (6) intrusion by burrowing animals, and (7) chemical and physical conditions in trench. Because the burial sites are located in regions that differ in climatologic, geologic, hydrologic, and biologic characteristics, there is variation in the severity of problems among the sites and in the nature of information concerning corrective efforts. Conditions associated with water-related problems have received a great deal of attention. For these, corrective measures have ranged from the creation of diversion systems for reducing the contact of surface water with the trench cover to the installation of seals designed to prevent infiltration from reaching the buried waste. On the other hand, corrective measures for conditions of subsidence or of intrusion by burrowing animals have had limited application and are currently under evaluation or are subjects of research and development activities. 50 references, 20 figures, 10 tables

  16. Laws, directives and policy instruments important for the development of the waste management system; Lagar, direktiv och styrmedel viktiga foer avfallssystemets utveckling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Karolina; Sundberg, Johan

    2010-01-15

    This report gives a survey and a description of present and future policy instruments that have been or will become important for the development of the waste management system. Policy instruments here refers to laws, directives, taxes/fees, national/local goals and other regulating measures that the society introduce to steer the development of the waste management system. This work can thus be used as a dictionary or a guideline for these measures. The investigation has two goals: 1. To give representatives of the Swedish waste management system a summary of important policy instruments for the future development of the waste management system. 2. To give Waste Refinery a summary of these policy instruments that can be used for the discussions of how the research within the centre should develop during stage 2. A large number of policy instruments have been found during the study. These instruments have been, most likely will become, or may become important for the development of the waste management system. Most of them are described in this report. The selection made is presented in Table 1. Focus for the selection has been policy instruments that are important for the research activities within Waste Refinery, meaning policy instruments that direct or indirect can change the use of thermal and/or biological treatment as well as techniques and methods supporting these treatment methods. [Table 1. Policy instruments that are presented in the report

  17. Radioactive waste management policy in the UK of best practicable environmental options for waste disposal and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P.D.; Feates, F.S.

    1986-01-01

    The organisations which produce radioactive waste carry the direct responsibility for safe and effective management of the wastes and for meeting the costs. UK Nirex Ltd., the Nuclear Industry Radioactive Waste Executive, has been set up to develop and operate new disposal facilities. Individual producers of radioactive waste undertake research related to the treatment of their own wastes, and UK Nirex Ltd. commissions research related to the disposal facilities it wishes to develop. Whatever new disposal facilities are developed and used, UK Nirex Ltd. will have to show that any proposed facilities comply with the principles for assessment of proposals for the protection of the human environment issued by the Government Authorising Departments in 1984, and which incorporate basic radiological safety requirements

  18. Major Sports events in Brazil: from the expression of brazilian sports policy to the urban neodevelopmentalist planning concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lino Castellani Filho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We will seek some considerations about the major sports events in the Brazilian  territory as  the main expression of a particular logic of urban development and less of a sports policy itself, focusing on its impact in South America. In particular, we will focus on the paradox of the official discourse centered on the recognition of the Sport as Social Right and of a practice committed to the neodevelopmentalist conception of urban planning, ratifying its apprehension as a product likely to be commercialized having high appeal in the field of business.

  19. Report: Searching for a way to sustainability: technical and policy analyses of solid waste issues in Kathmandu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangi, Mohan B; Cohen, Ronald R H; Urynowicz, Michael A; Poudyal, Khem N

    2009-05-01

    Kathmandu Metropolitan City has attempted to reorganize its solid waste management a number of times. The German Technical and Financial Aid Organization led early efforts that were followed by a number of more recent experiments that left the city with an unsustainable solid waste management system following the termination of foreign aid. To examine this failure, the research team evaluated household surveys, field observations, interviews, and other primary and secondary information within the context of technical, social, and institutional analyses. The survey results show that the solid waste collection rates are far below the 90% claimed by the metropolis and street sweeping consumes approximately 51% of its solid waste budget. As a result of the relatively low collection rates the city residents are encouraged to dump waste into public lands. Consequently, too much of the city's resources are focused on sweeping rather than collection. Kathmandu needs to recognize informal waste picking, privatize, use local techniques, build capacity, promote bottom-up and participatory styles of management, and regulate policies to maintain solid waste management.

  20. Estimating solid waste generation by hospitality industry during major festivals: A quantification model based on multiple regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulredha, Muhammad; Al Khaddar, Rafid; Jordan, David; Kot, Patryk; Abdulridha, Ali; Hashim, Khalid

    2018-04-26

    Major-religious festivals hosted in the city of Kerbala, Iraq, annually generate large quantities of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) which negatively impacts the environment and human health when poorly managed. The hospitality sector, specifically hotels, is one of the major sources of MSW generated during these festivals. Because it is essential to establish a proper waste management system for such festivals, accurate information regarding MSW generation is required. This study therefore investigated the rate of production of MSW from hotels in Kerbala during major festivals. A field questionnaire survey was conducted with 150 hotels during the Arba'een festival, one of the largest festivals in the world, attended by about 18 million participants, to identify how much MSW is produced and what features of hotels impact on this. Hotel managers responded to questions regarding features of the hotel such as size (Hs), expenditure (Hex), area (Ha) and number of staff (Hst). An on-site audit was also carried out with all participating hotels to estimate the mass of MSW generated from these hotels. The results indicate that MSW produced by hotels varies widely. In general, it was found that each hotel guest produces an estimated 0.89 kg of MSW per day. However, this figure varies according to the hotels' rating. Average rates of MSW production from one and four star hotels were 0.83 and 1.22 kg per guest per day, respectively. Statistically, it was found that the relationship between MSW production and hotel features can be modelled with an R 2 of 0.799, where the influence of hotel feature on MSW production followed the order Hs > Hex > Hst. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The dissolution kinetics of major elements in municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendz, David; Tüchsen, Peter L.; Christensen, Thomas H.

    2007-12-01

    Leaching and tracer experiments in batches at L/S 20 were performed with 3-month-old MSWI bottom ash separated into eight different particle sizes. The time-dependent leaching of major elements (Ca 2+, K +, Na +, Cl - and SO 4- 2 ) was monitored for up to 747 h. Physical properties of the particles, the specific surface (BET), pore volume and pore volume distribution over pore sizes (BJH) were determined for all particle classes by N 2 adsorption/desorption experiments. Some common features of physical pore structure for all particles were revealed. The specific surface and the particle pore volume were found to be negatively correlated with particle size, ranging from 3.2 m 2/g to 25.7 m 2/g for the surface area and from 0.0086 cm 3/g to 0.091 cm 3/g for the pore volume. Not surprisingly, the specific surface area was found to be the major material parameter that governed the leaching behavior for all elements (Ca 2+, K +, Na +, Cl - and SO 4- 2 ) and particle sizes. The diffusion resistance was determined independently by separate tracer (tritium) experiments. Diffusion gave a significant contribution to the apparent leaching kinetics for all elements during the first 10-40 h (depending on the particle size) of leaching and surface reaction was the overall rate controlling mechanism at late times for all particle sizes. For Ca 2+ and SO 4- 2 , the coupled effect of diffusion resistance and the degree of undersaturation in the intra particle pore volume was found to be a major rate limiting dissolution mechanism for both early and late times. The solubility control in the intra particulate porosity may undermine any attempt to treat bottom ash by washing out the sulfate. Even for high liquid/solid ratios, the solubility in the intra-particular porosity will limit the release rate.

  2. The effectiveness of policy on consumer choices for private road passenger transport emissions reductions in six major economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercure, J.-F.; Lam, A.

    2015-06-01

    The effectiveness of fiscal policy to influence vehicle purchases for emissions reductions in private passenger road transport depends on its ability to incentivise consumers to make choices oriented towards lower emissions vehicles. However, car purchase choices are known to be strongly socially determined, and this sector is highly diverse due to significant socio-economic differences between consumer groups. Here, we present a comprehensive dataset and analysis of the structure of the 2012 private passenger vehicle fleet-years in six major economies across the World (UK, USA, China, India, Japan and Brazil) in terms of price, engine size and emissions distributions. We argue that choices and aggregate elasticities of substitution can be predicted using this data, enabling us to evaluate the effectiveness of potential fiscal and technological change policies on fleet-year emissions reductions. We provide tools to do so based on the distributive structure of prices and emissions in segments of a diverse market, both for conventional as well as unconventional engine technologies. We find that markets differ significantly between nations, and that correlations between engine sizes, emissions and prices exist strongly in some markets and not strongly in others. We furthermore find that markets for unconventional engine technologies have patchy coverages of varying levels. These findings are interpreted in terms of policy strategy.

  3. Cigarettes Butts and the Case for an Environmental Policy on Hazardous Cigarette Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Barnes

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Discarded cigarette butts are a form of non-biodegradable litter. Carried as runoff from streets to drains, to rivers, and ultimately to the ocean and its beaches, cigarette filters are the single most collected item in international beach cleanups each year. They are an environmental blight on streets, sidewalks, and other open areas. Rather than being a protective health device, cigarette filters are primarily a marketing tool to help sell ‘safe’ cigarettes. They are perceived by much of the public (especially current smokers to reduce the health risks of smoking through technology. Filters have reduced the machine-measured yield of tar and nicotine from burning cigarettes, but there is controversy as to whether this has correspondingly reduced the disease burden of smoking to the population. Filters actually may serve to sustain smoking by making it seem less urgent for smokers to quit and easier for children to initiate smoking because of reduced irritation from early experimentation. Several options are available to reduce the environmental impact of cigarette butt waste, including developing biodegradable filters, increasing fines and penalties for littering butts, monetary deposits on filters, increasing availability of butt receptacles, and expanded public education. It may even be possible to ban the sale of filtered cigarettes altogether on the basis of their adverse environmental impact. This option may be attractive in coastal regions where beaches accumulate butt waste and where smoking indoors is increasingly prohibited. Additional research is needed on the various policy options, including behavioral research on the impact of banning the sale of filtered cigarettes altogether.

  4. Cigarettes butts and the case for an environmental policy on hazardous cigarette waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, Thomas E; Lum, Kristen; Smith, Elizabeth; Wang, Vivian; Barnes, Richard

    2009-05-01

    Discarded cigarette butts are a form of non-biodegradable litter. Carried as runoff from streets to drains, to rivers, and ultimately to the ocean and its beaches, cigarette filters are the single most collected item in international beach cleanups each year. They are an environmental blight on streets, sidewalks, and other open areas. Rather than being a protective health device, cigarette filters are primarily a marketing tool to help sell 'safe' cigarettes. They are perceived by much of the public (especially current smokers) to reduce the health risks of smoking through technology. Filters have reduced the machine-measured yield of tar and nicotine from burning cigarettes, but there is controversy as to whether this has correspondingly reduced the disease burden of smoking to the population. Filters actually may serve to sustain smoking by making it seem less urgent for smokers to quit and easier for children to initiate smoking because of reduced irritation from early experimentation. Several options are available to reduce the environmental impact of cigarette butt waste, including developing biodegradable filters, increasing fines and penalties for littering butts, monetary deposits on filters, increasing availability of butt receptacles, and expanded public education. It may even be possible to ban the sale of filtered cigarettes altogether on the basis of their adverse environmental impact. This option may be attractive in coastal regions where beaches accumulate butt waste and where smoking indoors is increasingly prohibited. Additional research is needed on the various policy options, including behavioral research on the impact of banning the sale of filtered cigarettes altogether.

  5. Major infrastructure projects and the foreign policy of the Baltic states in 2010—2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezhevich N. M.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available At the current stage of social development, particular attention is drawn to studies that assess major infrastructure — and thus political — projects aimed at a qualitative breakthrough in the socio-economic development of the countries under investigation. The scheduled multi-billion investments into energy sector are of political rather than economic nature. The projects to develop alternative power grids and high-speed railways can result in large-scale economic downturns diminishing the prospects of balanced social development. The author addresses the classical concepts of the theory of regional economy and new economic geography and their interpretation of the interconnection between political and economic factors. The article aims to demonstrate the inconsistency between political and economic objectives of the development of the Baltics. The study contributes to a broader set of research into the issues of post-Soviet economic and political development. The Baltic States follow their own political and economic ways. The study proves the hypothesis of low efficiency of large infrastructure project and their political motivation. It is concluded that the disregard of the factor of mutually beneficial economic cooperation with Russia destabilizes the development of national economic of the Baltic States. The author believes that modern infrastructure projects in the Baltic Sea region should be integrated into both western and eastern dimensions.

  6. Report: policy drivers and the planning and implementation of integrated waste management in Ireland using the regional approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudden, P J

    2007-06-01

    Waste management in Ireland has been dramatically transformed over the past 10 years from over 90% reliance on landfill towards a fully integrated approach. According to the latest EPA National Database Report in 2007 our municipal (household and commercial but excluding construction and demolition) recycling rate was 35% in 2005. This has been achieved through the implementation of 10 regional waste management plans all prepared within a new national planning framework in accordance with the Waste Management Act 1996 and Government policy document 'Changing Our Ways', published in 1998 by the Irish Department of the Environment, Heritage and Local Government. The principal drivers of the waste management plans and strategies are the EU Waste Framework Directive (recently revised), the EU Packaging Directive and the EU Landfill Directive. In addition, there were substantial political and environmental drivers due to the relatively poor standard of landfills in Ireland. Strict landfill regulation by the Environment Protection Agency commenced in 1997and led to many closures of poor facilities and new standards of siting design and operation. This has led to very high landfill charges that are only now beginning to stabilize. The key to improving public attitudes to the greatly improving waste management system has been the degree and content of stakeholder involvement programmes. These programmes are now consolidated into a national 'Race against Waste' programme (www.raceagainstwaste.ie). The purpose of the programme is to create awareness and deal with many of the misconceptions in the public mind attached to waste treatment methods especially incineration. Waste management is after all about people.

  7. National Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1981. Hearings before the Committee on Environment and Public Works, United States Senate, Ninety-Seventh Congress, First Session on S. 1662, October 31, 1981, Richland, Washington; November 9, 1981, Washington, DC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    Hearings were held on October 31, 1981 in Richland, Washington and on November 9, 1981 in Washington, DC to discuss the effort in S. 1662 to establish a national policy and an environmentally acceptable program for managing nuclear wastes from domestic commercial activities. The Richland hearing was held in recognition that Washington State will bear the major impact of the legislation. Witnesses at the Washington, DC hearing included officials from states that are potential sites for radioactive waste storage and disposal facilities. The hearing record includes the testimony of 16 witnesses in Richland and seven in Washington, DC, followed by a reprint of S. 1662 and additional material submitted for the record

  8. On policies to regulate long-term risks from hazardous waste disposal sites under both intergenerational equity and intragenerational equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Zhongbin

    In recent years, it has been recognized that there is a need for a general philosophic policy to guide the regulation of societal activities that involve long-term and very long-term risks. Theses societal activities not only include the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes and global warming, but also include the disposal of non-radioactive carcinogens that never decay, such as arsenic, nickel, etc. In the past, attention has been focused on nuclear wastes. However, there has been international recognition that large quantities of non-radioactive wastes are being disposed of with little consideration of their long-term risks. The objectives of this dissertation are to present the significant long-term risks posed by non-radioactive carcinogens through case studies; develop the conceptual decision framework for setting the long-term risk policy; and illustrate that certain factors, such as discount rate, can significantly influence the results of long-term risk analysis. Therefore, the proposed decision-making framework can be used to systematically study the important policy questions on long-term risk regulations, and then subsequently help the decision-maker to make informed decisions. Regulatory disparities between high-level radioactive wastes and non-radioactive wastes are summarized. Long-term risk is rarely a consideration in the regulation of disposal of non-radioactive hazardous chemicals; and when it is, the matter has been handled in a somewhat perfunctory manner. Case studies of long-term risks are conducted for five Superfund sites that are contaminated with one or more non-radioactive carcinogens. Under the same assumptions used for the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes, future subsistence farmers would be exposed to significant individual risks, in some cases with lifetime fatality risk equal to unity. The important policy questions on long-term risk regulation are identified, and the conceptual decision-making framework to regulate

  9. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-01-01

    Chapter six describes the basis for facility design, the completed facility conceptual design, the completed analytical work relating to the resolution of design issues, and future design-related work. The basis for design and the conceptual design information presented in this chapter meet the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, for a conceptual repository design that takes into account site-specific requirements. This information is presented to permit a critical evaluation of planned site characterization activities. Chapter seven describes waste package components, emplacement environment, design, and status of research and development that support the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI) Project. The site characterization plan (SCP) discussion of waste package components is contained entirely within this chapter. The discussion of emplacement environment in this chapter is limited to considerations of the environment that influence, or which may influence, if perturbed, the waste packages and their performance (particularly hydrogeology, geochemistry, and borehole stability). The basis for conceptual waste package design as well as a description of the design is included in this chapter. The complete design will be reported in the advanced conceptual design (ACD) report and is not duplicated in the SCP. 367 refs., 173 figs., 68 tabs.

  10. Performance evaluation of restaurant food waste and biowaste to biogas pilot projects in China and implications for national policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, Djavan; Wen, Zongguo; Fan, Fei

    2017-03-15

    The objective of this research was to conduct a performance evaluation of three food waste/biowaste-to-biogas pilot projects across 7 scenarios in China based on multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) methodology. The projects ranked included a food waste-biogas project in Beijing, a food waste-biogas project in Suzhou and a co-digestion project producing biomethane in Hainan. The projects were ranked from best to worst based on technical, economic and environmental criteria under the MCDA framework. The results demonstrated that some projects are encountering operational problems. Based on these findings, six national policy recommendations were provided: (1) shift away from capital investment subsidies to performance-based subsidies; (2) re-design feed in tariffs; (3) promote bio-methane and project clustering; (4) improve collection efficiency by incentivizing FW producers to direct waste to biogas projects; (5) incentivize biogas projects to produce multiple outputs; (6) incentivize food waste-based projects to co-digest food waste with other substrates for higher gas output. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Chapter six describes the basis for facility design, the completed facility conceptual design, the completed analytical work relating to the resolution of design issues, and future design-related work. The basis for design and the conceptual design information presented in this chapter meet the requiremenrs of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, for a conceptual repository design that takes into account site-specific requirements. This information is presented to permit a critical evaluation of planned site characterization activities. Chapter seven describes waste package components, emplacement environment, design, and status of research and development that support the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI) Project. The site characterization plan (SCP) discussion of waste package components is contained entirely within this chapter. The discussion of emplacement environment in this chapter is limited to considerations of the environment that influence, or which may influence, if perturbed, the waste packages and their performance (particularly hydrogeology, geochemistry, and borehole stability). The basis for conceptual waste package design as well as a description of the design is included in this chapter. The complete design will be reported in the advanced conceptual design (ACD) report and is not duplicated in the SCP. 367 refs., 173 figs., 68 tabs

  12. Developing a holistic strategy for integrated waste management within municipal planning: Challenges, policies, solutions and perspectives for Hellenic municipalities in the zero-waste, low-cost direction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zotos, G.; Karagiannidis, A.; Zampetoglou, S.; Malamakis, A.; Antonopoulos, I.-S.; Kontogianni, S.; Tchobanoglous, G.

    2009-01-01

    The present position paper addresses contemporary waste management options, weaknesses and opportunities faced by Hellenic local authorities. It focuses on state-of-the-art, tested as well as innovative, environmental management tools on a municipal scale and identifies a range of different collaboration schemes between local authorities and related service providers. Currently, a policy implementation gap is still experienced among Hellenic local authorities; it appears that administration at the local level is inadequate to manage and implement many of the general policies proposed; identify, collect, monitor and assess relevant data; and safeguard efficient and effective implementation of MSWM practices in the framework of integrated environmental management as well. This shortfall is partly due to the decentralisation of waste management issues to local authorities without a parallel substantial budgetary and capacity support, thus resulting in local activity remaining often disoriented and isolated from national strategies, therefore yielding significant planning and implementation problems and delays against pressing issues at hand as well as loss or poor use of available funds. This paper develops a systemic approach for MSWM at both the household and the non-household level, summarizes state-of-the-art available tools and compiles a set of guidelines for developing waste management master plans at the municipal level. It aims to provide a framework in the MSWM field for municipalities in Greece as well as other countries facing similar problems under often comparable socioeconomic settings

  13. The impact of policy interactions on the recycling of plastic packaging waste in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Gandenberger, Carsten; Orzanna, Robert; Klingenfuß, Sara; Sartorius, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Due to the environmental challenges associated with the strong growth of plastic waste worldwide, the EU Commission recently published a green paper on a European Strategy on Plastic Waste in the Environment (COM (2013), 123 final), which highlights the challenges and opportunities that arise from improving the management of plastic waste in the EU. The European Waste Directive (2008/98/EC) which was transposed into German law through the Kreislaufwirtschaftsgesetz (KrWG) established the so-c...

  14. Too hot to handle. Social and policy issues in the management of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, C.A.; Gould, L.C.; Woodhouse, E.J.

    1983-01-01

    Information about the management of radioactive wastes is provided in this book. Specifically, the book attempts to supply information to further the understanding of the history of radioactive waste management in this country and the role of nuclear energy in the future of the US; the science and technology of the processes that produce radioactive wastes and of the methods proposed for managing them; the biological effects of radiation; the public attitudes about nuclear power; the nature of risks resulting from technological developments and ways of managing them; and the political institutions and processes that govern radioactive waste management. The authors have attempted to present an objective view of nuclear waste management taking a stand neither for nor against nuclear power but placing special emphasis on radioactive waste management rather than nuclear power, because they feel that the latter aspect of the subject has received much more extensive coverage elsewhere. The contents of the book are divided into 7 chapters entitled: The Radioactive Waste Management Problem, Science and Technology of the Sources and Management of Radioactive Wastes, Nuclear Waste Management and Risks to Human Health, Public Attitudes toward Radioactive Wastes, How Safe Is Safe Enough; Determinants of Perceived and Acceptable Risk, The Politics of Nuclear Waste Management, and Value Issues in Radioactive Waste Management

  15. The constraints of good governance practice in national solid waste management policy (NSWMP) implementation: A case study of Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Seow Ta; Abas, Muhamad Azahar; Chen, Goh Kai; Mohamed, Sulzakimin

    2017-10-01

    Nowadays, international donors have emphasised on the adoption of good governance practices in solid waste management which include policy implementation. In Malaysia, the National Solid Waste Management Policy (NSWMP) was introduced as the main guideline for its solid waste management and the Malaysian government has adopted good governance practice in the NSMWP implementation. However, the good governance practices implemented by the Malaysian government encountered several challenges. This study was conducted to explore the good governance constraints experienced by stakeholders in the NSWMP implementation. An exploratory research approach is applied in this study through in-depth interviews with several government agencies and concessionaires that involved in the NSWMP implementation in Malaysia. A total of six respondents took part in this study. The findings revealed three main good governance constraints in the NSWMP implementation, namely inadequate fund, poor staff's competency, and ambiguity of policy implementation system. Moreover, this study also disclosed that the main constraint influenced the other constraints. Hence, it is crucial to identify the main constraint in order to minimise its impact on the other constraints.

  16. State shipment fees as a supplement to federal financial assistance under section 180(c) of the nuclear waste policy act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janairo, L.R.

    2009-01-01

    In Section 180(c) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA), Congress requires the Secretary of Energy to provide financial and technical assistance to states and tribes that will be affected by shipments of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) to a national repository or other NWPA-mandated facility. Although Section 180(c) assistance may be an important source of revenue for some states, two major limitations will reduce its effectiveness in preparing state and local personnel along shipping routes for their oversight and emergency response roles in connection with shipments to a national repository. First, Section 180(c) applies only to shipments to facilities mandated by the NWPA, therefore unless Congress amends the NWPA, the Secretary has no obligation to provide assistance to states and tribes that are affected by shipments to private facilities or to other federal storage locations. Second, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has interpreted Section 180(c) assistance as solely intended 'for training', not for actually carrying out activities such as inspecting or escorting shipments. No mechanism or mandate currently exists for DOE to provide states with assistance in connection with operations - related activities. This paper looks at state shipment fees as a supplement to or a substitute for the federal financial assistance that is available through Section 180(c) specifically with regard to states. Using DOE' s data on projected shipment numbers, representative routes, and affected population, and following the department's proposed formula for allocating Section 180(c) assistance, the author examined the potential revenues states could reap through a standard fee as opposed to the NWPA-mandated assistance . The analysis shows that, while more states would likely derive greater benefit from Section 180(c) grants than they would from fees, the states with the highest projected shipment numbers would appear to gain by foregoing Section

  17. Hazardous waste database: Waste management policy implications for the US Department of Energy's Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazaro, M.A.; Policastro, A.J.; Antonopoulos, A.A.; Hartmann, H.M.; Koebnick, B.; Dovel, M.; Stoll, P.W.

    1994-01-01

    The hazardous waste risk assessment modeling (HaWRAM) database is being developed to analyze the risk from treatment technology operations and potential transportation accidents associated with the hazardous waste management alternatives. These alternatives are being assessed in the Department of Energy's Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EM PEIS). To support the risk analysis, the current database contains complexwide detailed information on hazardous waste shipments from 45 Department of Energy installations during FY 1992. The database is currently being supplemented with newly acquired data. This enhancement will improve database information on operational hazardous waste generation rates, and the level and type of current on-site treatment at Department of Energy installations

  18. Media Choice in Environmental Information Dissemination for Solid Waste Management among Policy Formulators and Implementors: A Case Study of Oyo State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akintola, B. A.; Temowo, O. O.; Ajiboye, J. O.

    2009-01-01

    Environmental information has been described as central to the issues of solid waste management and disposal. This study investigated the availability and accessibility of environmental information to the solid waste policy formulators and implementors with regard to the media/channels used for disseminating environmental information to the…

  19. State implementation of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985: Progress and issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tait, T.D.

    1987-03-01

    The 1980 Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act (Public Law 96-573) assigned each state the responsibility for providing disposal capacity for the low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated within its borders, except for certain LLW generated by the activities of the federal government. The law also authorized and encouraged states to enter into interstate compacts to provide for the establishment and operation of regional LLW disposal facilities. The January 1986 enactment of Public Law 99-240, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (LLRWPAA), resolved an impasse that had delayed congressional consent to seven interstate compacts formed for the regional disposal of LLW. The Act ensures that LLW generators will have continued access to the three existing commercial LLW disposal sites through 1992 as long as their states or regions are in compliance with milestones prescribed in the Act for development of new disposal facilities. Furthermore, the LLRWPAA assigned several responsibilities to the Department of Energy. The objective of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 is to ensure the development of an effective, safe, and environmentally acceptable nationwide system for the disposal of LLW by 1993. The Department of Energy is assisting the states and regions to achieve that objective and ensure that the system that is developed provides for the safe management and disposal of LLW at reasonable costs. Furthermore, the Department is working with the states and regions to ensure that while the new system is being developed, there are not disruptions in the current LLW management and disposal practices and that the public continues to receive the benefits of the industries that rely on nuclear materials to deliver their services

  20. The Nuclear Waste Policy Act, as amended, with appropriations acts appended. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-02-01

    This act provides for the development of repositories for the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes, low-level radioactive wastes, and spent nuclear fuels. In addition, it establishes research and development programs, as well as demonstration programs regarding the disposal of these wastes. This Act consists of the Act of Jan. 7, 1983 (Public Law 97-425; 96 Stat. 2201), as amended by Public Law 100-203 and Public Law 102-486

  1. Review process for low-level radioactive waste disposal license application under Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pittiglio, C.L. Jr.

    1987-08-01

    This document estimates the level of effort and expertise that is needed to review a license application within the required time. It is intended to be used by the NRC staff as well as States and interested parties to provide a better understanding of what the NRC envisions will be involved in licensing a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  2. Experience and improved techniques in radiological environmental monitoring at major DOE low-level waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-09-01

    A summary of routine radiological environmental surveillance programs conducted at major active US Department of Energy (DOE) solid low-level waste (LLW) disposal sites is provided. The DOE disposal sites at which monitoring programs were reviewed include those located at Hanford, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Nevada Test Site (NTS), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Savannah River Plant (SRP). The review is limited to activities conducted for the purpose of monitoring disposal site performance. Areas of environmental monitoring reviewed include air monitoring for particulates and gases, monitoring of surface water runoff, surface water bodies, ground water, monitoring of surface soils and the vadose zone, and monitoring of ambient penetrating radiation. Routine environmental surveillance is conducted at major LLW disposal sites at various levels of effort for specific environmental media. In summary, all sites implement a routine monitoring program for penetrating radiation. Four sites (INEL, NTS, LANL, and SRP) monitor particulates in air specifically at LLW disposal sites. Hanford monitors particulates at LLW sites in conjunction with monitoring of other site operations. Particulates are monitored on a reservationwide network at ORNL. Gases are monitored specifically at active LLW sites operated at NTS, LANL, and SRP. Ground water is monitored specifically at LLW sites at INEL, LANL, and SRP, in conjunction with other operations at Hanford, and as part of a reservationwide program at NTS and ORNL. Surface water is monitored at INEL, LANL, and SRP LLW sites. Surface soil is sampled and analyzed on a routine basis at INEL and LANL. Routine monitoring of the vadose zone is conducted at the INEL and SRP. Techniques and equipment in use are described and other aspects of environmental monitoring programs, such as quality assurance and data base management, are reviewed

  3. Underground disposal of hazardous waste in the Federal Republic of Germany - principles and policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewitz, W.; Brasser, T.

    1991-01-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany the final disposal of radioactive waste and the permanent enclosure of defined types of toxic wastes in deep geological formations are being pursued with a view towards preventing hazardous material from reaching the biosphere. A detailed site- and waste-specific safety analysis will be required to substantiate the effiency of underground repositories. In this respect the longterm behaviour of wastes and possible interactions need to be evaluated, taking into consideration the geochemical-hydrogeological conditions such as groundwater movement and solution potentials. (au)

  4. A Dynamic Model for Construction and Demolition (C&D Waste Management in Spain: Driving Policies Based on Economic Incentives and Tax Penalties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Calvo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the recent Spanish legislation, the amount of non-hazardous construction and demolition waste (C&D waste by weight must be reduced by at least 70% by 2020. However, the current behavior of the stakeholders involved in the waste management process make this goal difficult to achieve. In order to boost changes in their strategies, we firstly describe an Environmental Management System (EMS based on regulation measures and economic incentives which incorporate universities as a key new actor in order to create a 3Rs model (Reduce, Reuse and Recycle in the C&D waste management with costs savings. The target areas are focused mainly on producer responsibility, promotion of low-waste building technologies and creation of green jobs to fulfill three main objectives: valorization of inert wastes, elimination of illegal landfills and stimulation of demand for recycled C&D wastes. To achieve this latter goal, we have also designed a simulation model—using the Systems Dynamic methodology—to assess the potential impact of two policies (incentives and tax penalties in order to evaluate how the government can influence the behavior of the firms in the recycling system of C&D waste aggregates. This paper finds a broader understanding of the socioeconomic implications of waste management over time and the positive effects of these policies in the recycled aggregates market in order to achieve the goal of 30% C&D waste aggregates in 12 years or less.

  5. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    As required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, the Department of Energy is to annually determine whether the waste disposal fee will produce sufficient revenues to offset the total estimated costs of the waste disposal program. In its June 1987 assessment, DOE recommended that the fee remain unchanged even though its analysis showed that at an inflation rate of 4 percent the current fee would result in end-of-program deficits ranging from $21 billion to $76 billion in 2085. The 1988 assessment calls for reduced total costs because of program changes. Thus, DOE may be able to begin using a realistic inflation rate in determining fee adequacy in 1988 without proposing a major fee increase

  6. Policy and technical considerations for intermediate-level and low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    This section has addressed issues, topics, and considerations related to low-level and intermediate-level wastes that are basic to developing and establishing environmental radiation protection criteria for radioactive wastes. Applicability of criteria, criteria considerations for sites, control of radiological impact to the population, and long-term considerations are discussed

  7. Optimization of Waste and Materials Disposition in France - Policy, Strategies, and Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DUTZER, Michel; Rives, Jean Francois

    2014-01-01

    The general legal and regulatory framework for waste management in France is described in the 'Code for the Environment'. A specificity of the French regulation is that it prescribes the implementation within nuclear facilities of a waste zoning to segregate areas where waste cannot be contaminated or activated and areas where waste are or may have an added radioactive content. The first category may be managed in conventional routes; the second category (nuclear waste) requires a dedicated management in licensed facilities with a reinforced traceability. The purpose of this regulation is to prevent a misdirection of waste from the very large French nuclear fleet without a need of an increased control by the regulatory body. Furthermore there is a reluctance of some stakeholders for free release of materials. As a consequence disposal for very low level waste must have an economical relevance in comparison with conventional waste disposal. The regulation includes principles that are provided by the Planning Act of June 2006, 28, related to the sustainable management of radioactive Materials and waste. In particular this act sets a schedule for research into high level waste and intermediate level long-lived waste and confirms the implementation of a national plan for the management of radioactive materials and waste (PNGMDR). This plan, which is chaired by the ministry of energy and the nuclear regulatory body (ASN) involves elected officials, waste generators, the national waste management agency and members of the civil society. It is updated every three years. The plan deals with all types of radioactive waste and materials, with already available management routes and routes under development. It identifies areas to be improved and makes recommendations. It describes the research works to be performed. The follow up is done through periodical meetings, the conclusions of which are used to update the plan. The first version of PNGMDR was published in

  8. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act: Volume 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Neavada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended and approved for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site;to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package;and to present the plans for obtaining hte geologic information necessary to demonstrate the suitability of the site for a repository, to design the repository and the waste package, to prepare and environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. This introduction begins with a brief section on the process for siting and developing a repository, followed by a discussion of the pertinent legislation and regulations. A description of site characterization is presented next;it describes the facilities to be constructed for the site characterization program and explains the principal activities to be conducted during the program. Finally, the purpose, content, organizing principles, and organization of this site characterization plan are outlined, and compliance with applicable regulations is discussed

  9. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act: Volume 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended and approved by the President for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site; to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package; and to present the plans for obtaining the geologic information necessary to demonstate the suitability of the site for a repository, to desin the repository and the waste package, to prepare an environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. This introduction begins with a brief section on the process for siting and developing a repository, followed by a discussion of the pertinent legislation and regulations. A description of site characterization is presented next; it describes the facilities to be constructed for the site characterization program and explains the principal activities to be conducted during the program. Finally, the purpose, content, organizing principles, and organization of this site characterization plan are outlined, and compliance with applicable regulations is discussed

  10. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended by the Secretary of Energy and approved by the President for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in accordance with the requirements of the Nulcear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site;to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package;and to present the plans for obtaining the geologic information necessary to demonstrate the suitability of the site for a repository, to design the repository and the waste package, to prepare an environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. This introduction begins with a brief section on the process for siting and developing a repository, followed by a discussion of the pertinent legislation and regulations. A description of site characterization is presented next;it describes the facilities to be constructed for the site characterization program and explains the principal activities to be conducted during the program. Finally, the purpose, content, organizing principles, and organization of the site characterization plan are oulined, and compliance with applicable regulations is discussed

  11. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act: Volume 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site;to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package;and to present the plans for obtaining the geologic information necessary to demonstrate the suitability of the site for repository, to design the repository and the waste package, to prepare an environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. This introduction begins with a brief section on the process for siting and developing a repository, followed by a discussion of the pertinent legislation and regulations. A description of site characterization is presented next;it describes the facilities to be constructed for the site characterization program and explains the principal activities to be conducted during the program. Finally, the purpose, content, organizing principles, and organization of this site characterization plan are outlined, and compliance with applicable regulations is discussed.

  12. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act: Volume 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Neavada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended and approved for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site;to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package;and to present the plans for obtaining hte geologic information necessary to demonstrate the suitability of the site for a repository, to design the repository and the waste package, to prepare and environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. This introduction begins with a brief section on the process for siting and developing a repository, followed by a discussion of the pertinent legislation and regulations. A description of site characterization is presented next;it describes the facilities to be constructed for the site characterization program and explains the principal activities to be conducted during the program. Finally, the purpose, content, organizing principles, and organization of this site characterization plan are outlined, and compliance with applicable regulations is discussed.

  13. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act: Volume 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended and approved by the President for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site; to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package; and to present the plans for obtaining the geologic information necessary to demonstate the suitability of the site for a repository, to desin the repository and the waste package, to prepare an environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. This introduction begins with a brief section on the process for siting and developing a repository, followed by a discussion of the pertinent legislation and regulations. A description of site characterization is presented next; it describes the facilities to be constructed for the site characterization program and explains the principal activities to be conducted during the program. Finally, the purpose, content, organizing principles, and organization of this site characterization plan are outlined, and compliance with applicable regulations is discussed.

  14. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act: Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site; to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package and to present the plans for obtaining the geologic information necessary to demonstrate the suitability of the site for a repository, to design the repository and the waste package, to prepare an environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. Chapter 3 summarizes present knowledge of the regional and site hydrologic systems. The purpose of the information presented is to (1) describe the hydrology based on available literature and preliminary site-exploration activities that have been or are being performed and (2) provide information to be used to develop the hydrologic aspects of the planned site characterization program. Chapter 4 contains geochemical information about the Yucca Mountain site. The chapter references plan for continued collection of geochemical data as a part of the site characterization program. Chapter 4 describes and evaluates data on the existing climate and site meterology, and outlines the suggested procedures to be used in developing and validating methods to predict future climatic variation. 534 refs., 100 figs., 72 tabs.

  15. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act: Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site; to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package and to present the plans for obtaining the geologic information necessary to demonstrate the suitability of the site for a repository, to design the repository and the waste package, to prepare an environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. Chapter 3 summarizes present knowledge of the regional and site hydrologic systems. The purpose of the information presented is to (1) describe the hydrology based on available literature and preliminary site-exploration activities that have been or are being performed and (2) provide information to be used to develop the hydrologic aspects of the planned site characterization program. Chapter 4 contains geochemical information about the Yucca Mountain site. The chapter references plan for continued collection of geochemical data as a part of the site characterization program. Chapter 4 describes and evaluates data on the existing climate and site meterology, and outlines the suggested procedures to be used in developing and validating methods to predict future climatic variation. 534 refs., 100 figs., 72 tabs

  16. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended by the Secretary of Energy and approved by the President for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in accordance with the requirements of the Nulcear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site;to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package;and to present the plans for obtaining the geologic information necessary to demonstrate the suitability of the site for a repository, to design the repository and the waste package, to prepare an environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. This introduction begins with a brief section on the process for siting and developing a repository, followed by a discussion of the pertinent legislation and regulations. A description of site characterization is presented next;it describes the facilities to be constructed for the site characterization program and explains the principal activities to be conducted during the program. Finally, the purpose, content, organizing principles, and organization of the site characterization plan are oulined, and compliance with applicable regulations is discussed.

  17. Proposal for processes map of post-consumption reverse logistics under the perspective of the national solid waste policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmily Caroline Cabral da Fonseca

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The National Policy on Solid Waste (NPSW points to the Reverse Logistics (RL as an instrument that enables actions and strategies that allow adequate management of Urban Solid Waste (USW according to their guidelines. After more than five years of its publication, studies of RL in Brazil haven´t met the demands for defining procedures in the implementation of proper management of MSW in accordance with the NPSW. This class of waste is the result of post-consumer and it is relevant to clarify the relationship in their reverse processes in order to help the structuring and management of reverse channels that drive the waste to proper destination, in compliance with the law. Therefore, the objective of this research was to formalize, by means of theoretical study, the necessary processes, according to the literature research and legal guidelines, for the reverse channels through the proposal for a map of RL processes. For such, literature research, detailed reading of Law number 12.305 (NPSW and interviews with professionals working in the USW reverse channels were performed. The results converged on the proposition of a map of RL macro processes in which the processes identified were: collection, processing and delivery.

  18. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared in acordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site;to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package and to present the plans for obtaining the geologic information necessary to demonstrate the suitability of the site for a repository, to design the repository and the waste package, to prepare an environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. This introduction begins with a brief section on the process for siting and eveloping a repository, followed by a discussion of the pertinent legislation and regulations. A description of site characterization is presented next;it describes the facilities to be constructed for the site characterization program and explains the principal activities to be conducted during the program. Finally, the purpose, content, organizing prinicples, and organization of this site characterization plan are outlined, and compliance with applicable regulations is discussed. 880 refs., 130 figs., 25 tabs.

  19. Solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The article drawn up within the framework of 'the assessment of the state of the environment in Lebanon' provides an overview of solid waste management, and assesses future wastes volume and waste disposal issues.In particular it addresses the following concerns: - Long term projections of solid waste arisings (i.e. domestic, industrial, such commercial wastes, vehicle types, construction waste, waste oils, hazardous toxic wastes and finally hospital and clinical wastes) are described. - Appropriate disposal routes, and strategies for reducing volumes for final disposal - Balance between municipal and industrial solid waste generation and disposal/treatment and - environmental impacts (aesthetics, human health, natural environment )of existing dumps, and the potential impact of government plans for construction of solid waste facilities). Possible policies for institutional reform within the waste management sector are proposed. Tables provides estimations of generation rates and distribution of wastes in different regions of Lebanon. Laws related to solid waste management are summarized

  20. Competition policy and environmental protection, obstacles to competition in the waste sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alanen, J.; Marttinen, K.; Steiner, N.

    2000-08-01

    This study deals with the legal rules that affect the conditions of competition in the waste sector at both the EU level and national level in Finland. This study describes further, on a more general level, the relation between the EC's internal market rules and competition rules and the actions involving environmental protection taken by public authorities (EG, Member States) and enterprises. Hazardous waste is not studied in this report. The study comprises two parts: The first part deals with the free movement of waste, EG rules on the transportation of waste between Member States, and the specific EG rules and Finnish laws and regulations on waste. The aim of this study has been, on the one hand, to discuss cases where restrictions of competition in the waste sector are a direct consequence of EG rules on waste and, on the other hand, situations where EG rules or the large margin of manoeuvre left with the Member States create problems with a view to a well functioning competition at the national level. Part two deals with the application of EG rules and Finnish competition rules to companies' agreements on actions involving environmental protection and especially waste management, and to their operations in general and, in certain cases, also to the measures taken by Member States. The EG rules on waste do not pay enough attention to competition aspects. The different requirements set by Member States result in distortion of competition while the rules governing the shipments of waste are not effective enough. From the internal market point of view, more binding and detailed rules are motivated. Competition rules are fully applicable to enterprises' measures aimed at environmental protection that restrict competition. Environmental protection aspects in connection with a case-to-case consideration of interests is, however, gaining importance. Those restrictions of competition in the waste sector that EC has dealt with have without exception concerned the

  1. Waste management and proliferation: an assessment of technologies and policies relevant to nuclear power. Final report, June 1975--March 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, M.K.; Anderson, R.N.; Selvaduray, G.; Gangwer, T.; Braun, C.; Goellner, D.; Malone, R.; Sevian, W.A.; Lester, R.

    1977-01-01

    Some of the long-term hazards from radioactive waste management and the problems in safeguarding plutonium in a world moving toward a plutonium economy are presented. To ameliorate these problems, several alternative fuel cycle options are presented: homogeneous reactor, denatured thorium, open, tandem, accelerator-regenerative, co-processing, plutonium, spiking, and partitioning. An assessment is made of a variety of separation technologies applied to these options, including a review of 32 different reprocessing methods. The effects of these options on both U.S. and transnational policies regarding waste management and proliferation are examined. This study addresses the transnational environmental policy issues created by a worldwide nuclear industry and suggests the need for two international organizations: one to manage spent fuel and the breeder fuel cycle; the second to protect the global environment. Two photochemical schemes for improving existing reprocessing technology by reducing wastes and materials unaccounted for (MUF) are presented. The applicability of this technology, along with column chromatography, Talspeak, and other separation methods, is examined relative to various waste management alternatives including the partitioning and transmutation option. A computer model to determine the effectiveness of transmutation as a function of separation efficiency has been developed and employed. To estimate health impacts from various fuel cycle options, the Brookhaven energy system network simulator has been integrated with an atmospheric dispersion and pathway analysis model. Using revised 222 Rn emission data, it is estimated from the linear hypothesis that the number of excess cancers is slightly less for the open than for the closed cycle. More importantly, the number of excess cancers induced by mill and mine tailings is from one to two times that caused by the rest of the entire fuel cycle

  2. A ratepayers' perspective on implementation of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callen, R.C.

    1986-01-01

    After more than three years of continuing DOE response to the Congressional mandate it is reasonable to assess what progress has been made and what success has been achieved. The NARUC's past conclusions and recommendations should also be put to the test for critical accuracy and relevance. This paper constitutes a current assessment of NARUC observations and conclusions in several areas; waste program management; cost control; repository licensing by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission; funding for disposal of defense wastes; the decision by DOE to discontinue second repository site selection; the credibility achieved by the DOE; and the effectiveness of the Congress in overseeing the waste program

  3. A Novel Fuel/Reactor Cycle to Implement the 300 Years Nuclear Waste Policy Approach - 12377

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carelli, M.D.; Franceschini, F.; Lahoda, E.J. [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC., Cranberry Township, PA (United States); Petrovic, B. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    A thorium-based fuel cycle system can effectively burn the currently accumulated commercial used nuclear fuel and move to a sustainable equilibrium where the actinide levels in the high level waste are low enough to yield a radiotoxicity after 300 years lower than that of the equivalent uranium ore. The second step of the Westinghouse approach to solving the waste 'problem' has been completed. The thorium fuel cycle has indeed the potential of burning the legacy TRU and achieve the waste objective proposed. Initial evaluations have been started for the third step, development and selection of appropriate reactors. Indications are that the probability of show-stoppers is rather remote. It is, therefore, believed that development of the thorium cycle and associated technologies will provide a permanent solution to the waste management. Westinghouse is open to the widest collaboration to make this a reality. (authors)

  4. Integrated performance assessment model for waste policy package behavior and radionuclide release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kossik, R.; Miller, I.; Cunnane, M.

    1992-01-01

    Golder Associates Inc. (GAI) has developed a probabilistic total system performance assessment and strategy evaluation model (RIP) which can be applied in an iterative manner to evaluate repository site suitability and guide site characterization. This paper describes one component of the RIP software, the waste package behavior and radionuclide release model. The waste package component model considers waste package failure by various modes, matrix alteration/dissolution, and radionuclide mass transfer. Model parameters can be described as functions of local environmental conditions. The waste package component model is coupled to component models for far-field radionuclide transport and disruptive events. The model has recently been applied to the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain

  5. Reduction of Radioactive Waste Through the Reuse and Recycle Policy of the Sealed Radioactive Sources Management

    OpenAIRE

    Marpaung, T

    2012-01-01

    In the past few years, the utilization of sealed source for medical, industrial and research purposes has shown an accelerating increase. This situation will lead to increases in the amount of sealed radioactive. During its use, a sealed radioactive waste will eventually become either a spent sealed source or disused sealed radioactive source (DSRS), due to certain factors. The reduction of the amount of radioactive waste can be executed through the application of reuse and recycle of sealed ...

  6. Low-level radioactive waste disposal in the USA - Use of mill tailings impoundments as a new policy option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrell, C.W.

    2006-01-01

    Disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) in the United States is facing severe and immediate capacity limitations. Seemingly intractable regulatory and jurisdictional conflicts make establishment of new LLW disposal sites effectively impossible. Uranium mill tailings impoundments constructed at conventional uranium open-cast and underground mines could offer approximately 40 to 80+ million tons of disposal capacity for low activity radioactive waste. Such impoundments would provide an enhanced, high level of environmental and health and safety protection for the direct disposal of depleted uranium, special nuclear material, technologically-enhanced, naturally-occurring radioactive material (TENORM) and mixed waste. Many waste streams, such as TENORM and decommissioning rubble, will be high-volume, low activity materials and ideally suited for disposal in such structures. Materials in a given decay chain with a total activity from all radionuclides present of ∼820 Bq/g (2.22 x 10 -08 Ci/g) with no single radionuclide present in an activity greater than ∼104 Bq/g (2,800 pCi/g) should be acceptable for disposal. Materials of this type could be accepted without any site-specific dose modelling, so long as the total activity of the tailings impoundment not exceed its design capacity (generally 82 x 10 07 Bq/metric tonne) (0.020 Ci/short ton) and the cover design requirements to limit radon releases are satisfied. This paper provides background on US LLW disposal regulations, examines LLW disposal options under active consideration by the US Environmental Protection Agency and Department of Energy, develops generic waste acceptance criteria and identifies policy needs for federal and state governments to facilitate use of uranium mill tailings impoundments for LLW disposal. (author)

  7. Agency practice and future policy in decay storage of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, N.G.

    2002-01-01

    The Environment Agency issues authorisations under the Radioactive Substances Act 1993 for the accumulation of radioactive waste at non-nuclear sites prior to disposal. Radioactive decay during the accumulation period reduces the radioactive content of waste packages and provides a waste management option that has become known as decay-in-storage or decay storage. The project brief excluded nuclear licensed sites. A database of information in authorisations and application forms has been constructed. This information has been used alongside a literature review, international contacts, input from the Small Users Liaison Group and a dose assessment to look at the practice of decay storage. The basic principles behind decay storage are presented with specific sections on general safety, waste characterisation and segregation, storage containers, waste stores, and waste treatment and conditioning. The regulatory approach in seven other countries is described. The information collected from Agency public registers is summarised with particular attention given to storage periods of greater than 60 days and the corresponding information available from application forms. Operational experiences are presented. IAEA recommendations are compared with current practice based on the conditions found in authorisations, on the information from application forms and details provided by the Small Users Liaison Group

  8. Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovard, Pierre

    The origin of the wastes (power stations, reprocessing, fission products) is determined and the control ensuring the innocuity with respect to man, public acceptance, availability, economics and cost are examined [fr

  9. Pig major acute-phase protein and haptoglobin serum concentrations correlate with PCV2 viremia and the clinical course of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grau-Roma, Llorenc; Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane

    2009-01-01

    -PMWS affected pigs. In addition, evidence of infection with other pathogens and its relation with variations in APP's concentrations was also assessed. Fourteen independent batches of 100 to 154 pigs were monitored from birth to PMWS outbreak occurrence in 11 PMWS affected farms. Pigs displaying PMWS-like signs......The aim of the present longitudinal study was to assess the evolution of two acute phase proteins (APPs), pig-major acute phase protein (pig-MAP) and haptoglobin (HPT), in serum from pigs that developed postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) in comparison to healthy and wasted non...... and age-matched healthy controls were euthanized during the clinical outbreak. PMWS was diagnosed according to internationally accepted creteria and pigs were classified as: i)PMWS cases, ii) wasted non-PMWS cases and iii) healthy pigs. At the moment of PMWS occurrence, pig-MAP and HPT concentration...

  10. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in China: policies and recommendations for sound management of plastics from electronic wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Kun; Lu, Yonglong; Wang, Tieyu; Shi, Yajuan; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Xu, Li; Li, Qiushuang; Liu, Shijie

    2013-01-30

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), used as flame retardants (BFRs), are incorporated in plastics of most electronic equipment. Among BFR mixtures, deca-BDE is the most widely used commercial additive in the polymer industry and the use of deca-BDE is currently not subject to any restrictions in China. However, debate over environmental and health risks associated with deca-BDE still remains. Regulatory agencies in developed countries have adopted and/or established environmentally sound strategies for the management of potential threat posed by PBDEs to the environment and human health. No regulations or management policies for PBDEs currently exist in China at either central or provincial government levels. Large amounts of plastics containing PBDEs are still in use and must be disposed of after their lifetimes, creating outdoor reservoirs for the future dispersal of PBDEs into the environment. Concerted action is needed not only to regulate the production and use of PBDEs but also to find ways to effectively manage waste electrical and electronic products that contain PBDEs. This article is the first to investigate the policy issues and current problems related to the use of PBDEs in China. In addition, we estimate the mass flows of PBDEs contained in Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) in China. We suggest alternatives to PBDEs and sound management of plastics used in electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) that contain PBDEs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. U.S. policy and current practices for blending low-level radioactive waste for disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessel, David S.; Kim, Chang Lak [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    In the near future, many countries, including the Republic of Korea, will face a significant increase in low level radioactive waste (LLW) from nuclear power plant decommissioning. The purpose of this paper is to look at blending as a method for enhancing disposal options for low-level radioactive waste from the decommissioning of nuclear reactors. The 2007 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission strategic assessment of the status of the U.S. LLW program identified the need to move to a risk-informed and performance-based regulatory approach for managing LLW. The strategic assessment identified blending waste of varying radionuclide concentrations as a potential means of enhancing options for LLW disposal. The NRC's position is that concentration averaging or blending can be performed in a way that does not diminish the overall safety of LLW disposal. The revised regulatory requirements for blending LLW are presented in the revised NRC Branch Technical Position for Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation (CA BTP 2015). The changes to the CA BTP that are the most significant for NPP operation, maintenance and decommissioning are reviewed in this paper and a potential application is identified for decommissioning waste in Korea. By far the largest volume of LLW from NPPs will come from decommissioning rather than operation. The large volumes in decommissioning present an opportunity for significant gains in disposal efficiency from blending and concentration averaging. The application of concentration averaging waste from a reactor bio-shield is also presented.

  12. U.S. policy and current practices for blending low-level radioactive waste for disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessel, David S.; Kim, Chang Lak

    2016-01-01

    In the near future, many countries, including the Republic of Korea, will face a significant increase in low level radioactive waste (LLW) from nuclear power plant decommissioning. The purpose of this paper is to look at blending as a method for enhancing disposal options for low-level radioactive waste from the decommissioning of nuclear reactors. The 2007 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission strategic assessment of the status of the U.S. LLW program identified the need to move to a risk-informed and performance-based regulatory approach for managing LLW. The strategic assessment identified blending waste of varying radionuclide concentrations as a potential means of enhancing options for LLW disposal. The NRC's position is that concentration averaging or blending can be performed in a way that does not diminish the overall safety of LLW disposal. The revised regulatory requirements for blending LLW are presented in the revised NRC Branch Technical Position for Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation (CA BTP 2015). The changes to the CA BTP that are the most significant for NPP operation, maintenance and decommissioning are reviewed in this paper and a potential application is identified for decommissioning waste in Korea. By far the largest volume of LLW from NPPs will come from decommissioning rather than operation. The large volumes in decommissioning present an opportunity for significant gains in disposal efficiency from blending and concentration averaging. The application of concentration averaging waste from a reactor bio-shield is also presented

  13. Judicial progress in Germany's nuclear waste disposal policy the Konrad repository decisions of 26 march 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhne, G.

    2007-01-01

    Its exists three final repository sites in Germany, an overview of the status of these sites is necessary to understand concretely the situation. Morsleben, is actually the only final repository for low and medium level radioactive waste. Gorleben is the site of a salt dome which is under exploration as an eventual repository for high level radioactive waste but the study is under a decree of exploration moratorium of at least three years, in order to allow for investigation into conceptual and safety issues. The Konrad ore mine is the site under preparation for a final repository for low and medium level radioactive waste. The present article will briefly address three aspects of the court reasoning: the legal character of the plan approval notice (act of discretion or strict execution of laws), the necessity of planning and safety aspects. (N.C.)

  14. The monitored retrievable storage proposal in the context of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotton, T.A.

    1986-01-01

    The Department of Energy plans to submit to Congress a proposal for an integral monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility located in the eastern United States to serve as the main waste receiving and packaging facility for the geologic repository. This integral role for the MRS is substantially different from the backup storage role previously discussed for Federal storage facilities. The debate over this proposal offers an opportunity for Congress to address and resolve issues that were not dealt with in passage of NWPA, in a way that will enhance the consensus about the waste program. Compared to the no-action option (the authorized system), approval of the integral MRS would probably increase the front-end political and economic costs of developing the waste management system, but could enhance prospects for success and reduce costs in the long run

  15. LOW-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE: POLICY FAILURE, REGIONAL FAILURE. (R823191)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  16. MYTH-MAKING, MORAL COMMUNITIES, AND POLICY FAILURE IN SOLVING THE RADIOACTIVE WASTE PROBLEM. (R823191)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  17. Contested environmental policy infrastructure: socio-political acceptance of renewable energy, water, and waste facilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolsink, M.

    2010-01-01

    The construction of new infrastructure is hotly contested. This paper presents a comparative study on three environmental policy domains in the Netherlands that all deal with legitimising building and locating infrastructure facilities. Such infrastructure is usually declared essential to

  18. UNDERSTANDING POLICY FAILURE IN THE EFFORT TO SITE FACILITIES FOR NUCLEAR WASTE DISPOSAL. (R823191)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  19. Inter-generational Decision Making for Radioactive Waste Disposal, Policy and Science: Regulatory Protection Forever?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regnier, E.P.; Wallo, A.

    2006-01-01

    Assumptions about this generation's duty to future generations underlie decisions on regulatory requirements for disposal of radioactive waste. Regulatory provisions related to time of compliance, dose criteria, and institutional controls, for example, continue to be topics of discussion as regulations are revised or compared. Subjective and difficult ethical issues are either explicit or implicit in these discussions. The information and criteria used must be relevant and help make good decisions that, ideally, increase the overall welfare of future generations. To what extent can or should science usefully inform such decision-making? Both the National Academies of Science and the National Academy of Public Administration (NAPA) have reported on this topic, albeit from different viewpoints. This paper explains and expands upon the rationale used for setting compliance time periods such as the Department of Energy's requirement for a 1,000 year time of compliance with dose limits for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. It evaluates radioactive waste disposal against principles of equity recommended by NAPA. Radioactive waste disposal standards require evaluation of impacts much farther into the future than has been common for other endeavors with very long term effects. While performance assessment analyses provide much useful information, their inherent uncertainties over long time periods preclude the projection of reality. Thus, the usefulness of extremely long projections in supporting good decisions that promote the welfare of future generations is limited. Such decisions are fundamentally a question of resource allocation, equity, and fairness. (authors)

  20. Basis for a Waste Management Public Communication Policy: Actual Situation Analysis and Implementation of Corrective Actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolivet, L. A.; Maset, E. R.

    2002-01-01

    Argentina will require new sites for the location of radioactive waste final disposal systems. It is currently mandatory to have social and political consensus to obtain the corresponding agreements. The experience obtained with the cancellation of the project ''Feasibility Study and Engineering Project--Repository for High Level Radioactive Waste'', reinforces even more the necessity to count with the acceptance of the public to carry out projects of this kind. The first phase of the former was developed in the 80's: geological, geophysical and hydrogeological studies were performed in a compact granitic rock located in Sierra del Medio, Chubut province. This project had to be called off in the early 90's due to strong social rejection. This decision was closely related to the poor attention given to social communication issues. The governmental decision-makers in charge underwent a lot of pressure from social groups claiming for the cancellation of the project due to the lack of information and the fear it triggered. Thus, the lesson learnt: ''social communication activities must be carefully undertaken in order to achieve the appropriate management of the radioactive waste produced in our country.'' The same as in other countries, the specific National Law demands the formulation of a Strategic Plan which will not only include the research into radioactive waste, but the design of a Social Communication Programme as well. The latter will be in charge of informing the population clearly and objectively about the latest scientific and technological advances in the issue. A tentative perception-attitude pattern of the Argentine society about the overall nuclear issue is outlined in this paper. It is meant to contribute to the understanding of the public's adverse reaction to this kind of project. A communication programme is also presented. Its objective is to install the waste management topic in the public's opinion with a positive real outlook

  1. Nuclear waste management: A review of issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angino, E.E.

    1985-01-01

    The subject of radioactive waste management and burial is a subject that raises strong emotional and political issues and generates sharp technical differences of opinion. The overall problem can be subdivided into the three major categories of (1) credibility and emotionalism, (2) technology, and (3) nuclear waste isolation and containment. An area of concern desperately in need of attention is that of proper public education on all aspects of the high-level radioactive-waste (rad-waste) burial problem. A major problem related to the rad-waste issue is the apparent lack of an official, all-encompassing U.S. policy for nuclear waste management, burial, isolation, and regulation. It is clear from all past technical reports that disposal of rad wastes in an appropriate geologic horizon is the best ultimate solution to the waste problem. After 25 y of dealing with the high-level radioactive waste problem, the difficulty is that no proposed plan has to date been tested properly. It is this indecision and reaction that has contributed in no small way to the public perception of inability to solve the problem. One major change that has occurred in the last few years was the enactment of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. This act mandates deadlines, guidelines, and state involvement. It is time that strong differences of opinions be reconciled. One must get on with the difficult job of selecting the best means of isolating and burying these wastes before the task becomes impossible

  2. Bedfordshire County Structure Plan. Proposed alterations. Results of public consultation. Policy 97: Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The document refers to Alterations to the County Structure Plan, proposed by Bedfordshire County Council and submitted to the Secretary of State for the Environment. An additional Alteration initiated at the County Council's meeting, dealing with nuclear waste, had not been the subject of prior public consultation. Consultation had since been arranged, and the present document summarises the responses that have been received, and describes the next action to be taken. (U.K.)

  3. Managing the nation's commercial high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-03-01

    This report presents the findings and conclusions of OTA's analysis of Federal policy for the management of commercial high-level radioactive waste. It is intended to contribute to the implementation of Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA). The major conclusion of that review is that NWPA provides sufficient authority for developing and operating a waste management system based on disposal in geologic repositories. Substantial new authority for other facilities will not be required unless major unexpected problems with geologic disposal are encountered. OTA also concludes that DOE's Draft Mission Plan published in 1984 falls short of its potential for enhancing the credibility and acceptability of the waste management program

  4. Basis for a Waste Management Public Communication Policy: Actual Situation Analysis and Implementation of Corrective Actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolivet, L. A.; Maset, E. R.

    2002-02-28

    Argentina will require new sites for the location of radioactive waste final disposal systems. It is currently mandatory to have social and political consensus to obtain the corresponding agreements. The experience obtained with the cancellation of the project ''Feasibility Study and Engineering Project--Repository for High Level Radioactive Waste'', reinforces even more the necessity to count with the acceptance of the public to carry out projects of this kind. The first phase of the former was developed in the 80's: geological, geophysical and hydrogeological studies were performed in a compact granitic rock located in Sierra del Medio, Chubut province. This project had to be called off in the early 90's due to strong social rejection. This decision was closely related to the poor attention given to social communication issues. The governmental decision-makers in charge underwent a lot of pressure from social groups claiming for the cancellation of the project due to the lack of information and the fear it triggered. Thus, the lesson learnt: ''social communication activities must be carefully undertaken in order to achieve the appropriate management of the radioactive waste produced in our country.'' The same as in other countries, the specific National Law demands the formulation of a Strategic Plan which will not only include the research into radioactive waste, but the design of a Social Communication Programme as well. The latter will be in charge of informing the population clearly and objectively about the latest scientific and technological advances in the issue. A tentative perception-attitude pattern of the Argentine society about the overall nuclear issue is outlined in this paper. It is meant to contribute to the understanding of the public's adverse reaction to this kind of project. A communication programme is also presented. Its objective is to install the waste management topic in the public

  5. Policy options to stimulate social innovation initiatives addressing food waste prevention and reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vittuari, Matteo; Gaiani, Silvia; Politano, Alessandro; Timmermans, A.J.M.; Bos-Brouwers, H.E.J.

    2016-01-01

    The report builds on the knowledge created by the FUSIONS position paper “Stimulating social innovation through policy measures” that uses as key inputs the range of existing social innovation initiatives catalogued by FUSIONS WP4 in the inventory and draws on the outcomes of the WP3 Social Camp

  6. Recommendations for a software quality assurance policy for the nuclear waste disposal risk assessment programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, I.E.

    1985-05-01

    This study reviewed a number of published standards for software quality assurance, and included a series of interviews with software developers aimed at exploring their attitudes to software quality assurance. Recommendations for software quality assurance policy are made based on the above investigations. This document provides a summary of the recommendations made in the full report on project, reference MR-CDS-4. (author)

  7. Fragmentation in the Public Administration for Climate Change Mitigation: A Major Institutional Constraint for Energy Policy in the Transportation Sector of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratchaphong Klinsrisuk

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on how fragmentation in public administration has become a major institutional constraint on CO2 emission mitigation policies in Thailand, particularly for energy policy in the transportation sector. Most of our data are narratives and descriptions derived from in-depth interviews with various governmental agencies and academics. It was found that in practice, the environmental policy link between separated sectors continues to be weak because of the lack of appropriate institutional structure for integration. We conclude that the institutions tend to be independent, fragmented, and working on relatively narrow mandates. The closed decision-making processes and the organizational structures strongly bias the different administrative units towards their respective interests.

  8. Results of screening activities in salt states prior to the enactment of the Nationall Waste Policy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbiener, W.A.

    1983-01-01

    The identification of potential sites for a nuclear waste repository through screening procedures in the salt states is a well-established, deliberate process. This screening process has made it possible to carry out detailed studies of many of the most promising potential sites, and general studies of all the sites, in anticipation of the siting guidelines specified in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act. The screening work completed prior to the passage of the Act allowed the Secretary of Energy to identify seven salt sites as potentially acceptable under the provisions of Section 116(a) of the Act. These sites were formally identified by letters from Secretary Hodel to the states of Texas, Utah, Mississippi, and Louisiana on February 2, 1983. The potentially acceptable salt sites were in Deaf Smith and Swisher Counties in Texas; Davis and Lavender Canyons in the Gibson Dome location in Utah; Richton and Cypress Creek Domes in Mississippi; and Vacherie Dome in Louisiana. Further screening will include comparison of each potentially acceptable site against disqualification factors and selection of a preferred site in each of the three geohydrologic settings from those remaining, in accordance with the siting guidelines. These steps will be documented in statutory Environmental Assessments prepared for each site to be nominated for detailed characterization. 9 references

  9. Student Response to Tuition Increase by Academic Majors: Empirical Grounds for a Cost-Related Tuition Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jung Cheol; Milton, Sande

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the responses of students in different academic majors to tuition increase, with a particular focus on the relationship between tuition increase, and future earnings and college expenditures. We analyzed effects of tuition increase on enrollment in six academic majors--Engineering, Physics, Biology, Mathematics, Business, and…

  10. Bedfordshire County Structure Plan. Proposed alterations -Public participation statement. Policy 97: Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The document describes steps taken, in accord with the Town and Country Planning Act 1971, by Bedfordshire County Council, submitting proposed Alterations to the County Structure Plan to the Secretary of State for the Environment. When approving the submission the Council decided to add an additional Alteration dealing with nuclear waste: as this had not been the subject of public consultation the Council decided to seek the public's views on the proposal before submitting the Alteration. The arrangements for consultation and a list of persons and organizations consulted are given, together with the arrangements for considering comments. (U.K.)

  11. Siting low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities: The public policy dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    English, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    The book's focus is on one overwhelming problems facing the compacts and states: figuring out where low-level waste disposal sites should be located. The author discusses the central issues underlying this dilemma - authority, trust, risk, justice - and the roles each plays in determining whether the siting processes are regarded as legitimate. The structure of the book provides a mix of narrative, fact and philosophy and adds to the body of well researched information saying that is is not only right but more efficient to develop and implement a just process

  12. Organohalogen pollutants in surface particulates from workshop floors of four major e-waste recycling sites in China and implications for emission lists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yan-Hong; Tang, Bin; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Zheng, Xiao-Bo; Peng, Ping-An; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2016-11-01

    To examine the environmental pollution associated with e-waste recycling activities, the concentrations of organohologenated pollutants (OHPs), i.e., short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs and MCCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and several other halogenated flame retardants (OHFRs), were investigated in surface particulates from the workshop floors of four major e-waste recycling sites (Taizhou, Guiyu, Dali and Qingyuan) in China. The mean levels of SCCPs, MCCPs, PCBs, PBDEs and OHFRs in surface particulates ranged from 30,000-61,000, 170,000-890,000, 2700-27,000, 52,000-240,000, and 62,000-140,000ng/g dry weight (dw), respectively. OHFRs, including decabromodiphenyl ethane, dechlorane plus, 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane, tetrabromobisphenol A, hexabromocyclododecanes, polybrominated biphenyls, hexabromobenzene, pentabromotoluene, and pentabromoethylbenzene, were frequently (>50% detection frequency) detected in surface particulates with mean concentration ranges of 39,000-63,000, 310-2700, 98-16,000, 21,000-56,000, 55-5700, 1700-27,000, 42-1600, 3.2-220, and 5.8-12ng/g dw, respectively. The composition of OHPs varied depend on the e-waste items processing in different regions. Guiyu and Dali were typical sites contaminated by halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) and CPs, respectively, while Qingyuan, and Taizhou were representative PCB-polluted regions. The evidence produced by this preliminary study indicated that electronic devices and plastics may account for the high content of HFRs and the metal products are likely the major source of CPs in these e-waste sites. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Waste Management

    OpenAIRE

    Anonymous

    2006-01-01

    The Productivity Commission’s inquiry report into ‘Waste Management’ was tabled by Government in December 2006. The Australian Government asked the Commission to identify policies that would enable Australia to address market failures and externalities associated with the generation and disposal of waste, and recommend how resource efficiencies can be optimised to improve economic, environmental and social outcomes. In the final report, the Commission maintains that waste management policy sh...

  14. Organohalogen pollutants in surface particulates from workshop floors of four major e-waste recycling sites in China and implications for emission lists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Yan-Hong [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Protection and Resources Utilization, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Tang, Bin [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Protection and Resources Utilization, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Luo, Xiao-Jun [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Protection and Resources Utilization, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zheng, Xiao-Bo [College of Natural Resources and Environment, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Peng, Ping-An [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Protection and Resources Utilization, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Mai, Bi-Xian, E-mail: nancymai@gig.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Protection and Resources Utilization, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2016-11-01

    To examine the environmental pollution associated with e-waste recycling activities, the concentrations of organohologenated pollutants (OHPs), i.e., short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs and MCCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and several other halogenated flame retardants (OHFRs), were investigated in surface particulates from the workshop floors of four major e-waste recycling sites (Taizhou, Guiyu, Dali and Qingyuan) in China. The mean levels of SCCPs, MCCPs, PCBs, PBDEs and OHFRs in surface particulates ranged from 30,000–61,000, 170,000–890,000, 2700–27,000, 52,000–240,000, and 62,000–140,000 ng/g dry weight (dw), respectively. OHFRs, including decabromodiphenyl ethane, dechlorane plus, 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane, tetrabromobisphenol A, hexabromocyclododecanes, polybrominated biphenyls, hexabromobenzene, pentabromotoluene, and pentabromoethylbenzene, were frequently (> 50% detection frequency) detected in surface particulates with mean concentration ranges of 39,000–63,000, 310–2700, 98–16,000, 21,000–56,000, 55–5700, 1700–27,000, 42–1600, 3.2–220, and 5.8–12 ng/g dw, respectively. The composition of OHPs varied depend on the e-waste items processing in different regions. Guiyu and Dali were typical sites contaminated by halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) and CPs, respectively, while Qingyuan, and Taizhou were representative PCB-polluted regions. The evidence produced by this preliminary study indicated that electronic devices and plastics may account for the high content of HFRs and the metal products are likely the major source of CPs in these e-waste sites. - Highlights: • Report of characterizing the types and possible sources of OHPs in e-waste sites • Guiyu was a typical site contaminated by HFRs, while Dali was dominated by CPs. • Qingyuan and Taizhou were representative PCB-polluted regions. • Electronic devices and plastics may account for the

  15. Organohalogen pollutants in surface particulates from workshop floors of four major e-waste recycling sites in China and implications for emission lists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Yan-Hong; Tang, Bin; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Zheng, Xiao-Bo; Peng, Ping-An; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2016-01-01

    To examine the environmental pollution associated with e-waste recycling activities, the concentrations of organohologenated pollutants (OHPs), i.e., short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs and MCCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and several other halogenated flame retardants (OHFRs), were investigated in surface particulates from the workshop floors of four major e-waste recycling sites (Taizhou, Guiyu, Dali and Qingyuan) in China. The mean levels of SCCPs, MCCPs, PCBs, PBDEs and OHFRs in surface particulates ranged from 30,000–61,000, 170,000–890,000, 2700–27,000, 52,000–240,000, and 62,000–140,000 ng/g dry weight (dw), respectively. OHFRs, including decabromodiphenyl ethane, dechlorane plus, 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane, tetrabromobisphenol A, hexabromocyclododecanes, polybrominated biphenyls, hexabromobenzene, pentabromotoluene, and pentabromoethylbenzene, were frequently (> 50% detection frequency) detected in surface particulates with mean concentration ranges of 39,000–63,000, 310–2700, 98–16,000, 21,000–56,000, 55–5700, 1700–27,000, 42–1600, 3.2–220, and 5.8–12 ng/g dw, respectively. The composition of OHPs varied depend on the e-waste items processing in different regions. Guiyu and Dali were typical sites contaminated by halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) and CPs, respectively, while Qingyuan, and Taizhou were representative PCB-polluted regions. The evidence produced by this preliminary study indicated that electronic devices and plastics may account for the high content of HFRs and the metal products are likely the major source of CPs in these e-waste sites. - Highlights: • Report of characterizing the types and possible sources of OHPs in e-waste sites • Guiyu was a typical site contaminated by HFRs, while Dali was dominated by CPs. • Qingyuan and Taizhou were representative PCB-polluted regions. • Electronic devices and plastics may account for the

  16. Draft environmental assessment: Vacherie Dome site, Louisiana. Nuclear Waste Policy Act (Section 112)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-12-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Vacherie dome in Louisiana as one of nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Vacherie dome site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations are reported in this draft environmental assessment (EA), which is being issued for public review and comment. The DOE findings and determinations that are based on these evaluations are preliminary and subject to public review and comment. A final EA will be prepared after considering the comments received. On the basis of the evaluations contained in this draft EA, the DOE has found that the Vacherie dome site is not disqualified under the guidelines. The site is contained in the Gulf Interior Region of the Gulf Coastal Plain, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. This setting contains two other potentially acceptable sites - the Cypress Creek dome site and the Richton dome site. Although the Vacherie dome site appears to be suitable for site characterization, the DOE has concluded that the Richton dome site is the preferred site in the Gulf Interior Region. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is proposing to nominate the Richton dome site rather than the Vacherie dome site as one of the five sites suitable for characterization

  17. Draft environmental assessment: Swisher County site, Texas. Nuclear Waste Policy Act (Section 112)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-12-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified a location in Swisher County, Texas, as one of nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The potentially acceptable site was subsequently narrowed to an area of 9 square miles. To determine their suitability, the Swisher site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations are reported in this draft environmental assessment (EA), which is being issued for public review and comment. The DOE findings and determinations that are based on these evaluations are preliminary and subject to public review and comment. A final EA will be prepared after considering the comments received. On the basis of the evaluations contained in this draft EA, the DOE has found that the Swisher site is not disqualified under the guidelines. The site is contained in the Permian Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. This setting contains one other potentially acceptable site - the Deaf Smith site. Although the Swisher site appears to be suitable for site characterization, the DOE has concluded that the Deaf Smith site is the preferred site in the Permian Basin and is proposing to nominate the Deaf Smith site rather than the Swisher site as one of the five sites suitable for characterization

  18. Draft environmental assessment: Cypress Creek Dome site, Mississippi. Nuclear Waste Policy Act (Section 112)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-12-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Cypress Creek dome site in Mississippi as one of nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Cypress Creek dome site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations are reported in this draft environmental assessment (EA), which is being issued for public review and comment. The DOE findings and determinations that are based on these evaluations are preliminary and subject to public review and comment. A final EA will be prepared after considering the comments received. On the basis of the evaluations contained in this draft EA, the DOE has found that the Cypress Creek dome site is not disqualified under the guidelines. The site is contained in the Gulf Interior Region of the Gulf Coastal Plain, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. This setting contains two other potentially acceptable sites - the Richton dome site and the Vacherie dome site. Although the Cypress Creek dome site appears to be suitable for site characterization, the DOE has concluded that the Richton dome site is the preferred site in the Gulf Interior Region and is proposing to nominate the Richton dome site rather than the Cypress Creek dome site as one of the three sites suitable for characterization

  19. Draft environmental assessment: Lavender Canyon site, Utah. Nuclear Waste Policy Act (Section 112)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-12-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Lavender Canyon site in Utah, as one of nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Lavender Canyon site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations are reported in this draft environmental assessment (EA), which is being issued for public review and comment. The DOE findings and determinations that are based on these evaluations are preliminary and subject to public review and comment. A final EA will be prepared after considering the comments received. On the basis of the evaluations contained in this draft EA, the DOE has found that the Lavender Canyon site is not disqualified under the guidelines. The site is contained in the Paradox Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. This setting contains one other potentially acceptable site - the Davis Canyon site. Although the Lavender Canyon site appears to be suitable for site characterization, the DOE has concluded that the Davis Canyon site is the preferred site in the Paradox Basin. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is proposing to nominate the Davis Canyon site rather than the Lavender Canyon site as one of the five sites suitable for characterization

  20. YUCCA MOUNTAIN PROJECT RECOMMENDATION BY THE SECRETARY OF ENERGY REGARDING THE SUITABILITY OF THE YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE FOR A REPOSITORY UNDER THE NUCLEAR WASTE POLICY ACT OF 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NA

    2002-03-26

    For more than half a century, since nuclear science helped us win World War II and ring in the Atomic Age, scientists have known that !he Nation would need a secure, permanent facility in which to dispose of radioactive wastes. Twenty years ago, when Congress adopted the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA or ''the Act''), it recognized the overwhelming consensus in the scientific community that the best option for such a facility would be a deep underground repository. Fifteen years ago, Congress directed the Secretary of Energy to investigate and recommend to the President whether such a repository could be located safely at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Since then, our country has spent billions of dollars and millions of hours of research endeavoring to answer this question. I have carefully reviewed the product of this study. In my judgment, it constitutes sound science and shows that a safe repository can be sited there. I also believe that compelling national interests counsel in favor of proceeding with this project. Accordingly, consistent with my responsibilities under the NWPA, today I am recommending that Yucca Mountain be developed as the site for an underground repository for spent fuel and other radioactive wastes. The first consideration in my decision was whether the Yucca Mountain site will safeguard the health and safety of the people, in Nevada and across the country, and will be effective in containing at minimum risk the material it is designed to hold. Substantial evidence shows that it will. Yucca Mountain is far and away the most thoroughly researched site of its kind in the world. It is a geologically stable site, in a closed groundwater basin, isolated on thousands of acres of Federal land, and farther from any metropolitan area than the great majority of less secure, temporary nuclear waste storage sites that exist in the country today. This point bears emphasis. We are not confronting a hypothetical problem. We have a

  1. YUCCA MOUNTAIN PROJECT RECOMMENDATION BY THE SECRETARY OF ENERGY REGARDING THE SUITABILITY OF THE YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE FOR A REPOSITORY UNDER THE NUCLEAR WASTE POLICY ACT OF 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    For more than half a century, since nuclear science helped us win World War II and ring in the Atomic Age, scientists have known that the Nation would need a secure, permanent facility in which to dispose of radioactive wastes. Twenty years ago, when Congress adopted the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA or ''the Act''), it recognized the overwhelming consensus in the scientific community that the best option for such a facility would be a deep underground repository. Fifteen years ago, Congress directed the Secretary of Energy to investigate and recommend to the President whether such a repository could be located safely at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Since then, our country has spent billions of dollars and millions of hours of research endeavoring to answer this question. I have carefully reviewed the product of this study. In my judgment, it constitutes sound science and shows that a safe repository can be sited there. I also believe that compelling national interests counsel in favor of proceeding with this project. Accordingly, consistent with my responsibilities under the NWPA, today I am recommending that Yucca Mountain be developed as the site for an underground repository for spent fuel and other radioactive wastes. The first consideration in my decision was whether the Yucca Mountain site will safeguard the health and safety of the people, in Nevada and across the country, and will be effective in containing at minimum risk the material it is designed to hold. Substantial evidence shows that it will. Yucca Mountain is far and away the most thoroughly researched site of its kind in the world. It is a geologically stable site, in a closed groundwater basin, isolated on thousands of acres of Federal land, and farther from any metropolitan area than the great majority of less secure, temporary nuclear waste storage sites that exist in the country today. This point bears emphasis. We are not confronting a hypothetical problem. We have a staggering amount of

  2. Groundwater contamination from waste management sites: The interaction between risk-based engineering design and regulatory policy: 1. Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massmann, Joel; Freeze, R. Allan

    1987-02-01

    This paper puts in place a risk-cost-benefit analysis for waste management facilities that explicitly recognizes the adversarial relationship that exists in a regulated market economy between the owner/operator of a waste management facility and the government regulatory agency under whose terms the facility must be licensed. The risk-cost-benefit analysis is set up from the perspective of the owner/operator. It can be used directly by the owner/operator to assess alternative design strategies. It can also be used by the regulatory agency to assess alternative regulatory policy, but only in an indirect manner, by examining the response of an owner/operator to the stimuli of various policies. The objective function is couched in terms of a discounted stream of benefits, costs, and risks over an engineering time horizon. Benefits are in the form of revenues for services provided; costs are those of construction and operation of the facility. Risk is defined as the cost associated with the probability of failure, with failure defined as the occurrence of a groundwater contamination event that violates the licensing requirements established for the facility. Failure requires a breach of the containment structure and contaminant migration through the hydrogeological environment to a compliance surface. The probability of failure can be estimated on the basis of reliability theory for the breach of containment and with a Monte-Carlo finite-element simulation for the advective contaminant transport. In the hydrogeological environment the hydraulic conductivity values are defined stochastically. The probability of failure is reduced by the presence of a monitoring network operated by the owner/operator and located between the source and the regulatory compliance surface. The level of reduction in the probability of failure depends on the probability of detection of the monitoring network, which can be calculated from the stochastic contaminant transport simulations. While

  3. The policy effects of feed-in tariff and renewable portfolio standard: A case study of China's waste incineration power industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin-Gang, Zhao; Yu-Zhuo, Zhang; Ling-Zhi, Ren; Yi, Zuo; Zhi-Gong, Wu

    2017-10-01

    Among the regulatory policies, feed-in tariffs (FIT) and renewable portfolio standards (RPS) are the most popular to promote the development of renewable energy power industry. They can significantly contribute to the expansion of domestic industrial activities in terms of sustainable energy. This paper uses system dynamics (SD) to establish models of long-term development of China's waste incineration power industry under FIT and RPS schemes, and provides a case study by using scenario analysis method. The model, on the one hand, not only clearly shows the complex logical relationship between the factors but also assesses policy effects of the two policy tools in the development of the industry. On the other hand, it provides a reference for scholars to study similar problems in different countries, thereby facilitating an understanding of waste incineration power's long-term sustainable development pattern under FIT and RPS schemes, and helping to provide references for policy-making institutions. The results show that in the perfect competitive market, the implementation of RPS can promote long-term and rapid development of China's waste incineration power industry given the constraints and actions of the mechanisms of RPS quota proportion, the TGC valid period, and fines, compared with FIT. At the end of the paper, policy implications are offered as references for the government. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 - three years later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennelly, E.J.

    1986-01-01

    The passage of the NWPA of 1982 was a beneficial legislative miracle and provided the first opportunity to resolve the issues surrounding permanent disposal of HLW in the United States. Funding, organization, and time tables are now established. Opposing litigations are increasing, but high-quality technical data will help to limit excessive delays from future litigations. The DOE has developed a Waste Acceptance Process that will help to build public confidence and support. Public awareness and general approval of HLW disposal will be aided greatly by sound practices and high-quality technical information. A continuing re-education program in the decades ahead will be needed to assure support for and the success of HLW disposal. 5 refs., 1 fig

  5. Draft environmental assessment: Richton Dome site, Mississippi. Nuclear Waste Policy Act (Section 112)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-12-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy identified the Richton dome site as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Richton dome site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations are reported in this draft (EA), which is being issued for public review and comment. The DOE findings and determinations that are based on these evaluations are preliminary and subject to public review and comment. A final EA will be prepared after considering the comments received. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this draft EA, the DOE has found that the Richton dome site is not disqualified under the guidelines. The site is in the Gulf Interior Region of the Gulf Coastal Plain. This setting contains two other potentially acceptable sites - the Cypress Creek dome site and the Vacherie dome site. Although these other two sites appear to be suitable for site characterization, the DOE has concluded that the Richton dome site is the preferred site in the Gulf Interior Region. Furthermore, the DOE finds that the site is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is proposing to nominate the Richton dome site as one of five sites suitable for characterization. Having compared the Richton dome site with the other four sites proposed for nomination, the DOE has determined that the Richton dome site is not one of the three preferred sites for recommendation to the President as candidates for characterization

  6. Draft environmental assessment: Davis Canyon site, Utah. Nuclear Waste Policy Act (Section 112)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-12-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Davis Canyon site in Utah, as one of nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Davis Canyon site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations are reported in this draft environmental assessment (EA), which is being issued for public review and comment. The DOE findings and determinations that are based on these evaluations are preliminary and subject to public review and comment. A final EA will be prepared after considering the comments received. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this draft EA, the DOE has found that the Davis Canyon site is not disqualified under the guidelines. The site is in the Paradox Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. This setting contains one other potentially acceptable site - the Lavender Canyon site. Although the Lavender Canyon site appears to be suitable for site characterization, the DOE has concluded that the Davis Canyon site is the preferred site in the Paradox Basin. Furthermore, the DOE finds that the site is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is proposing to nominate the Davis Canyon site as one of five sites suitable for characterization. Having compared the Davis Canyon site with the other four sites proposed for nomination, the DOE has determined that the Davis Canyon site is not one of the three preferred sites for recommendation to the President as candidates for characterization

  7. Draft environmental assessment: reference repository location, Hanford Site, Washington. Nuclear Waste Policy Act (Section 112)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-12-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified a reference repository location at the Hanford Site in Washington as one of nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the reference repository location at the Hanford Site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations are reported in this draft environmental assessment (EA), which is being issued for public review and comment. The DOE findings and determinations that are based on these evaluations are preliminary and subject to public review and comment. A final EA will be prepared after considering the comments received on the draft EA. The reference repository location at Hanford is located in the Columbia Plateau, one of five distinct geohydrologic settings that are being considered for the first repository. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this draft EA, the DOE has found that the reference repository location at Hanford is not disqualified under the guidelines. The DOE has also found that it is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is proposing to nominate the reference repository location at Hanford as one of five sites suitable for characterization. Furthermore, having performed a comparative evaluation of the five sites proposed for nomination, the DOE has determined that the reference repository location at Hanford is one of three sites preferred for site characterization

  8. Draft environmental assessment: Deaf Smith County site, Texas. Nuclear Waste Policy Act (Section 112)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-12-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy identified a location in Deaf Smith County, Texas, as one of nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The potentially acceptable site was subsequently narrowed to an area of 9 square miles. To determine their suitability, the Deaf Smith site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations are reported in this draft environmental assessment, which is being issued for public review and comment. The DOE findings and determinations that are based on these evaluations are preliminary and subject to public review and comment. A final EA will be prepared after considering the comments received. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this draft EA, the DOE has found that the Deaf Smith site is not disqualified under the guidelines. The site is in the Permian Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. This setting contains one other potentially acceptable site - the Swisher site. Although the Swisher site appears to be suitable for site characterization, DOE has concluded that the Deaf Smith site is the preferred site. The DOE finds that the site is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is proposing to nominate the Deaf Smith site as one of five sites suitable for characterization. Having compared the Deaf Smith site with the other four sites proposed for nomination, the DOE has determined that the Deaf Smith site is one of the three preferred sites for recommendation to the President as candidates for characterization

  9. Waste, recycling, and 'Design for Environment': Roles for markets and policy instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcott, Paul; Walls, Margaret

    2005-01-01

    Households sometimes have two recycling options. Curbside recycling collections are convenient, but do not provide payment. Alternatively, payment might be available from 'reverse vending machines' or drop-off centers, but some transaction costs would be incurred. We examine policies to encourage efficient product design and recycling in a setting with these two recycling options plus the option of putting recyclables in the trash. We find value in having two parallel recycling options. Constrained optimal outcomes can be attained by combining a 'deposit-refund' with a modest disposal fee. Furthermore, producers should not be permitted to keep deposits, that are not claimed by consumers. (author)

  10. German and international energy and environmental policies in 1992 - a wasted year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuermann, H.J.

    1992-01-01

    The settlement of important energy- and environmental-policy issues hoped for in 1992 has not been reached, and 'wait and see' has become the ruling attitude in matters of energy economy. The investments planned for eastern Germany are stagnating, and the German-German integration suffers from political uncertainties in addition to its market risks. The utilities have been left without the necessary reliable long-term data. Disillusionment also prevails in the European integration process and at the international level. (orig.) [de

  11. 75 FR 71391 - Implementation of Conflicts of Interest Policies and Procedures by Swap Dealers and Major Swap...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    ... regulations establish conflicts of interest requirements for swap dealers (SDs) and major swap participants...-AC96 and SD-MSP Conflicts of Interest, by any of the following methods: Agency Web site, via its... mandates that the required conflicts of interest systems and procedures ``address such other issues as the...

  12. Rethinking the waste hierarchy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, C; Vigsoe, D [eds.

    2005-03-01

    There is an increasing need to couple environmental and economic considerations within waste management. Consumers and companies alike generate ever more waste. The waste-policy challenges of the future lie in decoupling growth in waste generation from growth in consumption, and in setting priorities for the waste management. This report discusses the criteria for deciding priorities for waste management methods, and questions the current principles of EU waste policies. The basis for the discussion is the so-called waste hierarchy which has dominated the waste policy in the EU since the mid-1970s. The waste hierarchy ranks possible methods of waste management. According to the waste hierarchy, the very best solution is to reduce the amount of waste. After that, reuse is preferred to recycling which, in turn, is preferred to incineration. Disposal at a landfill is the least favourable solution. (BA)

  13. POLICIES FOR GREEN COMPUTING AND E-WASTE - THE ROMANIAN CASE -

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STEGAROIU CARINA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Computers today are an integral part of individuals’ lives all around the world; but unfortunately these devices are toxic to the environment given the materials used, their limited battery life and technological obsolescence. Individuals are concerned about the hazardous materials ever present in computers, even if the importance of various attributes differs, and that a more environment‐friendly attitude can be obtained through exposure to educational materials. In this paper, we aim to delineate the problem of e-waste in Romania and highlight a series of measures and the advantage they herald for our country and propose a series of action steps to develop in these areas further. It is possible for Romania to have an immediate economic stimulus and job creation while moving quickly to abide by the requirements of climate change legislation and energy efficiency directives. The costs of implementing energy efficiency and renewable energy measures are minimal as they are not cash expenditures but rather investments paid back by future, continuous energy savings.

  14. Major multinational food and beverage companies and informal sector contributions to global food consumption: implications for nutrition policy

    OpenAIRE

    Yach Derek; Alexander Eleanore; Mensah George A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background In recent years, 10 major multinational food and beverage companies have worked together within the International Food and Beverage Alliance (IFBA) to increase their commitments to public health. Current IFBA commitments include initiatives to improve the nutrition quality of products and how these products are advertised to children. The impact and magnitude of IFBA member contributions to the total market share of packaged foods and beverages consumed remain incompletely...

  15. Downcycling versus recycling of construction and demolition waste: Combining LCA and LCC to support sustainable policy making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Maria, Andrea; Eyckmans, Johan; Van Acker, Karel

    2018-05-01

    Urgent solutions are needed in Europe to deal with construction and demolition waste (CDW). EU policy has contributed to significantly reducing the amount of CDW going to landfill, but most of the effort has been put in downcycling practices. Therefore, further policies are needed to stimulate high-quality recycling of CDW. The present paper presents a combined life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle costing (LCC) methodologies to analyse the environmental and the economic drivers in four alternative CDW end-of-life scenarios in the region of Flanders, in Belgium. The four analysed alternatives are (i) landfilling, (ii) downcycling, (iii) advanced recycling and (iv) recycling after selective demolition. LCA results show that landiflling is the scenario having the highest environmental impacts in terms of person equivalent (PE), followed by downcycling and recycling (-36%) and recycling after selective demolition (-59%). The decrease in environmental impacts is mostly due to the avoided landfilling of CDW and the recovery of materials from selective demolition. LCC results indicate that landfilling is the scenario bearing the highest total economic costs. This is due to the high landfill tax in Flanders. The recycling after selective demolition bears the second highest cost. The increase of high-quality CDW recycling can significantly reduce the overall environmental impact of the system. Implementing a high landfill tax, increasing the gate fee to the recycling plant, and boosting the sales price of recycled aggregates are the most effective drivers to facilitate a transition towards a more sustainable CDW management system. The paper demonstrates that the combined LCA and LCC results can highlight the environmental and economic drivers in CDW management. The results of the combined analysis can help policymakers to promote the aspects contributing to sustainability and to limit the ones creating a barrier. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. Volume I. Part I. Overview and current program plans; Part II. Information required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-06-01

    The Misson Plan is divided into two parts. Part I describes the overall goals, objectives, and strategy for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste. It explains that, to meet the directives of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, the DOE intends to site, design, construct, and start operating a mined geologic repository by January 31, 1998. The Act specifies that the costs of these activities will be borne by the owners and generators of the waste received at the repository. Part I further describes the other components of the waste-management program - monitored retrievable storage, Federal interim storage, and transportation - as well as systems integration activities. Also discussed are institutional plans and activities as well as the program-management system being implemented by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. Part II of the Mission Plan presents the detailed information required by Section 301(a) of the Act - key issues and information needs; plans for obtaining the necessary information; potential financial, institutional, and legal issues; plans for the test and evaluation facility; the principal results obtained to date from site investigations; information on the site-characterization programs; information on the waste package; schedules; costs; and socioeconomic impacts. In accordance with Section 301(a) of the Act, Part II is concerned primarily with the repository program

  17. The flow of E-waste material in the Asian region and a reconsideration of international trade policies on E-waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinkuma, Takayoshi; Nguyen Thi Minh Huong

    2009-01-01

    End-of-life home appliances discarded in Japan are reused in Southeast Asia; end-of-life computers are reused in China. E-waste scrap generated in Asia is recycled in China, especially in Guangdong Province. The informal sector in that province has been recycling E-waste scrap and its improper recycling methods have caused serious pollution. In response to this problem, there is wide support for a total ban on E-waste trade, including secondhand items and E-waste scrap. Alternatively, we recommend the establishment of an alternative proper recycling system in Asia that needs cooperation among all Asian countries. First, China is urged to promote proper domestic recycling activities by providing a subsidy for proper recycling. Second, Japan, as a main exporter of E-waste, should establish a traceability system that ensures E-waste scrap exported from Japan will be recycled at proper recycling facilities in China

  18. The Radioactive Waste Management Advisory Committee's advice to ministers on the process for formulation of future policy for the long term management of UK solid radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-01

    This report sets out the Radioactive Waste Management Advisory Committee's (RWMAC's) view of the way in which policy for the long-term management of the United Kingdom's (UK's) solid radioactive waste should be developed. It does not cover subsequent policy implementation stages, which will need to be the subject of separate consideration. It is RWMAC's view that 'do nothing' or 'decide-announce-defend' approaches to policy formulation are inappropriate, and what is needed is a consensus-building approach involving full and open discussion of the issues. Such an approach now offers the best chance of identifying a policy that can ultimately be delivered. This process must be founded on a set of clear guiding principles. These should be: provision of adequate time for exploration and resolution of complex issues; early involvement of the public and other stakeholders; openness and transparency; a deliberative and accessible process in decision-making; and commitment to appropriate peer review of scientific and other expert input. The issue of equity, that is the extent to which both the process for deciding policy and the policy itself are generally perceived and accepted to be fair, will also need to be explored. The process should provide for all the practicable options for the long-term management of the UK's radioactive waste to be assessed against a set of common evaluation criteria. Both the list of practicable options and the criteria against which they are evaluated should be developed through a process of open discussion.

  19. The effect of major income sources on rural household food (in)security: Evidence from Swaziland and implications for policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabuza, Majola L; Ortmann, Gerald F; Wale, Edilegnaw; Mutenje, Munyaradzi J

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article was to investigate the food (in)security effect of household income generated from major economic activities in rural Swaziland. From a sample of 979 households, the results of a multinomial treatment regression model indicated that gender of household head, labor endowment, education, size of arable land, and location significantly influenced the households' choice of primary economic activity. Further results suggested that off-farm-income-dependent households were less likely to be food insecure when compared with on-farm-income-dependent households. However, on-farm-income-dependent households had a better food security status than their counterparts who depended on remittances and nonfarm economic activities.

  20. Country Waste Profile Report for Hungary. Reporting Year: 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  1. Country Waste Profile Report for Mauritius. Reporting Year: 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  2. Country Waste Profile Report for Brazil. Reporting Year: 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  3. Country Waste Profile Report for Indonesia. Reporting Year: 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  4. Country Waste Profile Report for Chile. Reporting Year: 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  5. Country Waste Profile Report for Ukraine. Reporting Year: 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  6. Country Waste Profile Report for Ukraine. Reporting Year: 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  7. Country Waste Profile Report for Ukraine. Reporting Year: 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  8. Country Waste Profile Report for Czech Republic. Reporting Year: 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  9. Country Waste Profile Report for Ukraine. Reporting Year: 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  10. Country Waste Profile Report for Ukraine. Reporting Year: 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  11. Country Waste Profile Report for Mexico. Reporting Year: 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  12. Country Waste Profile Report for Canada. Reporting Year: 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  13. Country Waste Profile Report for Canada. Reporting Year: 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  14. Country Waste Profile Report for Canada. Reporting Year: 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  15. Country Waste Profile Report for Mexico. Reporting Year: 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  16. Country Waste Profile Report for Mexico. Reporting Year: 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  17. Country Waste Profile Report for Mexico. Reporting Year: 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  18. Country Waste Profile Report for Mexico. Reporting Year: 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  19. Country Waste Profile Report for Canada. Reporting Year: 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  20. Country Waste Profile Report for Canada. Reporting Year: 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  1. Country Waste Profile Report for Lithuania. Reporting Year: 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  2. Country Waste Profile Report for Norway. Reporting Year: 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  3. Country Waste Profile Report for Norway. Reporting Year: 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  4. Country Waste Profile Report for Philippines. Reporting Year: 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  5. Country Waste Profile Report for Slovenia. Reporting Year: 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  6. Country Waste Profile Report for Philippines. Reporting Year: 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  7. Country Waste Profile Report for Sweden. Reporting Year: 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  8. Country Waste Profile Report for Slovenia. Reporting Year: 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  9. Country Waste Profile Report for Slovenia. Reporting Year: 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  10. Country Waste Profile Report for Philippines. Reporting Year: 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  11. Country Waste Profile Report for Norway. Reporting Year: 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  12. Country Waste Profile Report for Norway. Reporting Year: 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  13. Country Waste Profile Report for Lithuania. Reporting Year: 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  14. Country Waste Profile Report for Slovenia. Reporting Year: 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  15. Country Waste Profile Report for Slovenia. Reporting Year: 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  16. Country Waste Profile Report for Netherlands. Reporting Year: 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  17. Country Waste Profile Report for Lithuania. Reporting Year: 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  18. Country Waste Profile Report for Norway. Reporting Year: 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  19. Country Waste Profile Report for Sweden. Reporting Year: 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  20. Country Waste Profile Report for Lithuania. Reporting Year: 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  1. Country Waste Profile Report for Sweden. Reporting Year: 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  2. Country Waste Profile Report for Philippines. Reporting Year: 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  3. Country Waste Profile Report for Switzerland. Reporting Year: 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  4. Country Waste Profile Report for Switzerland. Reporting Year: 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  5. Country Waste Profile Report for Hungary. Reporting Year: 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  6. Country Waste Profile Report for Malaysia. Reporting Year: 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  7. Country Waste Profile Report for Belgium. Reporting Year: 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  8. Country Waste Profile Report for Belgium. Reporting Year: 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  9. Country Waste Profile Report for Belgium. Reporting Year: 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  10. Country Waste Profile Report for Japan. Reporting Year: 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  11. Country Waste Profile Report for Switzerland. Reporting Year: 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  12. Country Waste Profile Report for Argentina. Reporting Year: 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  13. Country Waste Profile Report for Argentina. Reporting Year: 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  14. Country Waste Profile Report for Bulgaria. Reporting Year: 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  15. Country Waste Profile Report for Bulgaria. Reporting Year: 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  16. Country Waste Profile Report for Bulgaria. Reporting Year: 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  17. Country Waste Profile Report for Spain. Reporting Year: 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  18. An assessment of pharmaceutical waste management in some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty four (34) of the fifty (50) selected Nigerian based pharmaceutical businesses, mainly acting as local manufacturers and major importers of medicines were interviewed using questionnaires to ascertain their waste management practices, knowledge of waste management policies and subjection to regulatory control.

  19. Country Waste Profile Report for Hungary. Reporting Year: 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  20. Country Waste Profile Report for Ecuador. Reporting Year: 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  1. Country Waste Profile Report for Ecuador. Reporting Year: 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  2. Country Waste Profile Report for Ireland. Reporting Year: 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  3. Country Waste Profile Report for Greece. Reporting Year: 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  4. Country Waste Profile Report for Kuwait. Reporting Year: 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  5. Country Waste Profile Report for Germany. Reporting Year: 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  6. Country Waste Profile Report for Tunisia. Reporting Year: 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  7. Country Waste Profile Report for Slovakia. Reporting Year: 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  8. Country Waste Profile Report for Cuba. Reporting Year: 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  9. Country Waste Profile Report for Indonesia. Reporting Year: 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  10. Country Waste Profile Report for Kuwait. Reporting Year: 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  11. Country Waste Profile Report for France. Reporting Year: 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  12. Country Waste Profile Report for Pakistan. Reporting Year: 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  13. Country Waste Profile Report for Cuba. Reporting Year: 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  14. Country Waste Profile Report for Morocco. Reporting Year: 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  15. Country Waste Profile Report for Chile. Reporting Year: 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  16. Country Waste Profile Report for Ireland. Reporting Year: 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  17. Country Waste Profile Report for Austria. Reporting Year: 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  18. Country Waste Profile Report for Ecuador. Reporting Year: 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  19. Country Waste Profile Report for Netherlands. Reporting Year: 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  20. Country Waste Profile Report for Germany. Reporting Year: 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  1. Country Waste Profile Report for Belarus. Reporting Year: 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  2. Country Waste Profile Report for Malaysia. Reporting Year: 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  3. Country Waste Profile Report for Malaysia. Reporting Year: 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  4. Country Waste Profile Report for Malaysia. Reporting Year: 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  5. Country Waste Profile Report for Netherlands. Reporting Year: 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  6. Country Waste Profile Report for Sweden. Reporting Year: 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  7. Country Waste Profile Report for Cuba. Reporting Year: 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  8. Country Waste Profile Report for Hungary. Reporting Year: 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  9. Country Waste Profile Report for Hungary. Reporting Year: 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  10. Country Waste Profile Report for Switzerland. Reporting Year: 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  11. Country Waste Profile Report for Romania. Reporting Year: 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  12. Country Waste Profile Report for Romania. Reporting Year: 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  13. Country Waste Profile Report for United Kingdom. Reporting Year: 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  14. Country Waste Profile Report for Australia. Reporting Year: 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  15. Country Waste Profile Report for Germany. Reporting Year: 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  16. Country Waste Profile Report for Japan. Reporting Year: 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  17. Country Waste Profile Report for Ireland. Reporting Year: 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  18. Country Waste Profile Report for Germany. Reporting Year: 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  19. Country Waste Profile Report for Madagascar. Reporting Year: 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  20. Country Waste Profile Report for Indonesia. Reporting Year: 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  1. Country Waste Profile Report for Belarus. Reporting Year: 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  2. Country Waste Profile Report for Cuba. Reporting Year: 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  3. Country Waste Profile Report for Cuba. Reporting Year: 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  4. Country Waste Profile Report for Cuba. Reporting Year: 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  5. Country Waste Profile Report for Cuba. Reporting Year: 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  6. Country Waste Profile Report for Austria. Reporting Year: 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  7. Country Waste Profile Report for Austria. Reporting Year: 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  8. Country Waste Profile Report for Austria. Reporting Year: 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  9. Country Waste Profile Report for Chile. Reporting Year: 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  10. Country Waste Profile Report for Chile. Reporting Year: 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  11. Country Waste Profile Report for Chile. Reporting Year: 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  12. Country Waste Profile Report for Chile. Reporting Year: 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  13. Country Waste Profile Report for Ukraine. Reporting Year: 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  14. Country Waste Profile Report for Canada. Reporting Year: 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  15. Country Waste Profile Report for Italy. Reporting Year: 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  16. Country Waste Profile Report for Canada. Reporting Year: 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  17. Country Waste Profile Report for Switzerland. Reporting Year: 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  18. Country Waste Profile Report for Italy. Reporting Year: 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  19. Country Waste Profile Report for Bulgaria. Reporting Year: 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  20. Country Waste Profile Report for Bulgaria. Reporting Year: 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)