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Sample records for major variables affecting

  1. Ultrasonic variables affecting inspection

    Lautzenheiser, C.E.; Whiting, A.R.; McElroy, J.T.

    1977-01-01

    There are many variables which affect the detection of the effects and reproducibility of results when utilizing ultrasonic techniques. The most important variable is the procedure, as this document specifies, to a great extent, the controls that are exercised over the other variables. The most important variable is personnel with regards to training, qualification, integrity, data recording, and data analysis. Although the data is very limited, these data indicate that, if the procedure is carefully controlled, reliability of defect detection and reproducibility of results are both approximately 90 percent for reliability of detection, this applies to relatively small defects as reliability increases substantially as defect size increases above the recording limit. (author)

  2. Testing a Model of the Relationship of Demographic, Affective, and Fitness Variables to Academic Achievement among Non-Science Majors at an Independent University

    Dutra, Andrew Martin

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of specific attributes of college students to their academic achievement at an independent university in central Florida. Academic achievement was measured as the numeric score on the final exam in a survey-of-science course (EDS 1032) required for non-science majors. Attribute sets included personological, affective, and fitness variables. A hypothesized diagram of the direct and indirect effects among these attributes relative to academic achievement was developed and tested using data collected Spring 2014 from 168 students in four sections of EDS 1032 at Florida Institute of Technology. Multiple regression results revealed that 19% of the variance in a students' academic achievement was due to the influence of these three sets of research factors; this was found to be statistically significant. The results of mediation analyses also indicated that three variables had significant direct effects on academic achievement, namely gender, number of academic credits, and sports motivation. In addition, gender had a significant indirect effect on academic achievement via stress, and the number of academic credits had a significant indirect effect on academic achievement via sports motivation. These findings indicated that female students scored roughly six points higher than male students on this final exam. Also, gender's influence on academic achievement was partially attributable to the student's level of stress (e.g., male students with high levels of stress had lower grades on this final exam than female students with the same level of stress). In addition, it was found that students taking more academic credits were likely to score higher on this final exam than those students taking fewer credits. Further, as students' level of sports amotivation increased, the strength of the relationship between the number of student academic credits and academic achievement decreased. These results support Self

  3. affective variables of language learning

    李文敬

    2011-01-01

    why people enjoy different degrees of success in second language learning,given similar opportunities.in the presence of overly negative emotions such as anxiety,fear,stress,anger or depression,our optimal learning potential maybe compromised.the affective domain refers to the emotional domain that has to do with the emotional behavior of human beings.it includes such factors as self-confidence,extroversion,anxiety,attitudes and motivation.three major factors are introduced here:self-confidence,anxiety and motivation.

  4. Anatomic variables affecting interdental papilla

    Swapna A. Mahale

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the anatomic variables affecting the interdental papilla. Materials and Methods: Thirty adult patients were evaluated. Papilla score (PS, tooth form/shape, gingival thickness, crest bone height and keratinized gingiva/attached gingiva were recorded for 150 inter proximal sites. Data were analyzed using SPSS software package (version 7.0 and the significance level was set at 95% confidence interval. Pearson′s correlation was applied to correlate the relationship between the factors and the appearance of the papilla. Results: Competent papillae (complete fill interdentally were associated with: (1 Crown width (CW: length ≥0.87; (2 bone crest-contact point ≤5 mm; and (3 inter proximal gingival tissue thickness ≥1.5 mm. Gingival thickness correlated negatively with PS (r = −0.37 to −0.54 and positively with tissue height (r = 0.23-0.43. Tooth form (i.e., CW to length ratio correlated negatively with PS (r = −0.37 to −0.61. Conclusion: Gingival papilla appearance was associated significantly with tooth form/shape, crestal bone height and interproximal gingival thickness.

  5. Affective Priming in Major Depressive Disorder

    Joelle eLeMoult

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Research on cognitive biases in depression has provided considerable evidence for the impact of emotion on cognition. Individuals with depression tend to preferentially process mood-congruent material and to show deficits in the processing of positive material leading to biases in attention, memory, and judgments. More research is needed, however, to fully understand which cognitive processes are affected. The current study further examines the impact of emotion on cognition using a priming design with facial expressions of emotion. Specifically, this study tested whether the presentation of facial expressions of emotion affects subsequent processing of affective material in participants with major depressive disorder (MDD and healthy controls (CTL. Facial expressions displaying happy, sad, angry, disgusted, or neutral expressions were presented as primes for 500ms, and participants’ speed to identify a subsequent target’s emotional expression was assessed. All participants displayed greater interference from emotional versus neutral primes, marked by slower response times to judge the emotion of the target face when it was preceded by an emotional prime. Importantly, the CTL group showed the strongest interference when happy emotional expressions served as primes whereas the MDD group failed to show this bias. These results add to a growing literature that shows that depression is associated with difficulties in the processing of positive material.

  6. Visual variability affects early verb learning.

    Twomey, Katherine E; Lush, Lauren; Pearce, Ruth; Horst, Jessica S

    2014-09-01

    Research demonstrates that within-category visual variability facilitates noun learning; however, the effect of visual variability on verb learning is unknown. We habituated 24-month-old children to a novel verb paired with an animated star-shaped actor. Across multiple trials, children saw either a single action from an action category (identical actions condition, for example, travelling while repeatedly changing into a circle shape) or multiple actions from that action category (variable actions condition, for example, travelling while changing into a circle shape, then a square shape, then a triangle shape). Four test trials followed habituation. One paired the habituated verb with a new action from the habituated category (e.g., 'dacking' + pentagon shape) and one with a completely novel action (e.g., 'dacking' + leg movement). The others paired a new verb with a new same-category action (e.g., 'keefing' + pentagon shape), or a completely novel category action (e.g., 'keefing' + leg movement). Although all children discriminated novel verb/action pairs, children in the identical actions condition discriminated trials that included the completely novel verb, while children in the variable actions condition discriminated the out-of-category action. These data suggest that - as in noun learning - visual variability affects verb learning and children's ability to form action categories. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  7. Heart and soul: heart rate variability and major depression.

    Kidwell, Meyrick; Ellenbroek, Bart A

    2018-04-01

    There is a bidirectional relationship between affective disorders and cardiovascular abnormalities, often described as a downward spiral, whereas major depressive disorders (MDD, and anxiety disorders) significantly increase the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases (CVD); CVD are also associated with increased risk of developing MDD (and anxiety disorders). Moreover, the prognosis and progression of CVD is significantly worsened in the presence of MDD. Heart rate variability (HRV) has often been suggested as a potential mediator in this comorbidity. In this review, we discuss HRV alterations in MDD. However, we mainly focus on the direct relationship between HRV alterations and psychiatric symptoms, rather than its relationship with CVD, as this has been reviewed elsewhere. After a general introduction to HRV and how it can be measured, we review how HRV is altered in MDD. We subsequently describe how antidepressant drugs affect HRV, showing that some classes (such as tricyclics) generally worsen HRV, whereas others (most notably selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors) have a more positive influence. We also review the effects of several other treatments, with a special focus on vagal nerve stimulation, finishing with some further considerations and recommendation for further research, both in humans and animals.

  8. Detecting Major Genetic Loci Controlling Phenotypic Variability in Experimental Crosses

    Rönnegård, Lars; Valdar, William

    2011-01-01

    Traditional methods for detecting genes that affect complex diseases in humans or animal models, milk production in livestock, or other traits of interest, have asked whether variation in genotype produces a change in that trait’s average value. But focusing on differences in the mean ignores differences in variability about that mean. The robustness, or uniformity, of an individual’s character is not only of great practical importance in medical genetics and food production but is also of scientific and evolutionary interest (e.g., blood pressure in animal models of heart disease, litter size in pigs, flowering time in plants). We describe a method for detecting major genes controlling the phenotypic variance, referring to these as vQTL. Our method uses a double generalized linear model with linear predictors based on probabilities of line origin. We evaluate our method on simulated F2 and collaborative cross data, and on a real F2 intercross, demonstrating its accuracy and robustness to the presence of ordinary mean-controlling QTL. We also illustrate the connection between vQTL and QTL involved in epistasis, explaining how these concepts overlap. Our method can be applied to a wide range of commonly used experimental crosses and may be extended to genetic association more generally. PMID:21467569

  9. Course and cognitive outcome in major affective disorder

    Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2015-01-01

    analyses conducted without survival models and without paying attention to diagnostic instability or the individual heterogeneity of the course of episodes. Totally, these drawbacks and pitfalls affect the results of previous studies in unpredictable ways and make it hazardous to draw conclusions about...... as an expression of an affective episode. On average, a progressive course with increasing risk of recurrence with every new episode was found for unipolar and bipolar affective disorders. Initially, the two types of disorders followed markedly different courses, but later in the course of the illness the risk...... a progressive course of episodes. Initially in the course of affective disorders, socio-demographic variables such as gender, age at onset, and marital status and co-morbidity with alcoholism acted as risk factors for further recurrence. Later, however, particularly variables related to the previous course...

  10. Social environment affects juvenile dispersal in great tits (Parus major)

    Nicolaus, Marion; Michler, Stephanie P. M.; Jalvingh, Kirsten M.; Ubels, Richard; van der Velde, Marco; Komdeur, Jan; Both, Christiaan; Tinbergen, Joost M.; Wilson, Ken

    1. Habitat selection can affect individual fitness, and therefore, individuals are expected to assess habitat quality of potential breeding sites before settlement. 2. We investigated the role of social environment on juvenile dispersal behaviour in the great tit (Parus major). Two main

  11. Do psychological variables affect early surgical recovery?

    Michael N Mavros

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have examined the effect of psychological variables on surgical recovery, but no definite conclusion has been reached yet. We sought to examine whether psychological factors influence early surgical recovery. METHODS: We performed a systematic search in PubMed, Scopus and PsycINFO databases to identify studies examining the association of preoperative psychological variables or interventions with objectively measured, early surgical outcomes. RESULTS: We identified 16 eligible studies, 15 of which reported a significant association between at least one psychological variable or intervention and an early postoperative outcome. However, most studies also reported psychological factors not influencing surgical recovery and there was significant heterogeneity across the studies. Overall, trait and state anxiety, state anger, active coping, subclinical depression, and intramarital hostility appeared to complicate recovery, while dispositional optimism, religiousness, anger control, low pain expectations, and external locus of control seemed to promote healing. Psychological interventions (guided relaxation, couple support visit, and psychiatric interview also appeared to favor recovery. Psychological factors unrelated to surgical outcomes included loneliness, perceived social support, anger expression, and trait anger. CONCLUSION: Although the heterogeneity of the available evidence precludes any safe conclusions, psychological variables appear to be associated with early surgical recovery; this association could bear important implications for clinical practice. Large clinical trials and further analyses are needed to precisely evaluate the contribution of psychology in surgical recovery.

  12. Daily affect variability and context-specific alcohol consumption.

    Mohr, Cynthia D; Arpin, Sarah; McCabe, Cameron T

    2015-11-01

    Research explored the effects of variability in negative and positive affect on alcohol consumption, specifying daily fluctuation in affect as a critical form of emotion dysregulation. Using daily process methodology allows for a more objective calculation of affect variability relative to traditional self-reports. The present study models within-person negative and positive affect variabilities as predictors of context-specific consumption (i.e. solitary vs. social drinking), controlling for mean levels of affect. A community sample of moderate-to-heavy drinkers (n = 47; 49% women) from a US metropolitan area reported on affect and alcohol consumption thrice daily for 30 days via a handheld electronic interviewer. Within-person affect variability was calculated using daily standard deviations in positive and negative affect. Within person, greater negative and positive variabilities are related to greater daily solitary and social consumption. Across study days, mean levels of negative and positive affect variabilities related to greater social consumption between persons; yet, aggregated negative affect variability was related to less solitary consumption. Results affirm affect variability as a unique predictor of alcohol consumption, independent of mean affect levels. Yet, it is important to differentiate social context of consumption, as well as type of affect variability, particularly at the between-person level. These distinctions help clarify inconsistencies in the self-medication literature regarding associations between average levels of affect and consumption. Importantly, consistent within-person relationships for both variabilities support arguments that both negative and positive affect variabilities are detrimental and reflect an inability to regulate emotional experience. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  13. When is affect variability bad for health? The association between affect variability and immune response to the influenza vaccination.

    Jenkins, Brooke N; Hunter, John F; Cross, Marie P; Acevedo, Amanda M; Pressman, Sarah D

    2018-01-01

    This study addresses methodological and theoretical questions about the association between affect and physical health. Specifically, we examine the role of affect variability and its interaction with mean levels of affect to predict antibody (Ab) levels in response to an influenza vaccination. Participants (N=83) received the vaccination and completed daily diary measures of affect four times a day for 13days. At one and four months post-vaccination, blood was collected from the participants to assess Ab levels. Findings indicate that affect variability and its interaction with mean levels of affect predict an individual's immune response. Those high in mean positive affect (PA) who had more PA variability were more likely to have a lower Ab response in comparison to those who had high mean PA and less PA variability. Although it did not interact with mean negative affect (NA), NA variability on its own was associated with Ab response, whereby those with less NA variability mounted a more robust immune response. Affect variability is related to immune response to an influenza vaccination and, in some cases, interacts with mean levels of affect. These oscillations in affective experiences are critical to consider in order to unpack the intricacies of how affect influences health. These findings suggest that future researchers should consider the important role of affect variability on physical health-relevant outcomes as well as examine the moderating effect of mean affect levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Quantification of variables that affect energy consumption

    Warren, C.S.

    1993-01-01

    Facility energy consumption is the summation of a number of contributory factors, caused by equipment that uses energy in response to demands placed by the user and according to its particular design. While energy efficiency improvements usually concentrate on individual parts or systems, overall energy consumption is analyzed by examining the use of specific fuels. Because independent variables effect the consumption of these fuels, accurate comparisons of a facility's energy consumption for time-measured periods must include these effects. In many cases, it is possible to determine and quantify the effects of one or more of the independent variables through a statistically valid regression analysis of the data. The regression model can be linear, or be dependent on other functions such as powers, time lead or lag, or exponential. The most common model is linear, but other dependencies are often encountered. Regression analyses are not difficult to accomplish, and are included as one of the tools in most spreadsheet software. The analyses provide the energy manager with a means to better understand the energy consumption of his/her facility

  15. The interplay between affect and theory of planned behavior variables

    Keer, M.; van den Putte, B.; Neijens, P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To assess whether affective evaluations of health behaviors moderate or mediate the influence of theory of planned behavior (TPB) variables on intention. Methods: For each of 20 health behaviors, respondents (N=300) completed questionnaire measures of affective evaluation, attitude,

  16. Cycling cadence affects heart rate variability

    Lunt, Heather C; Corbett, Jo; Barwood, Martin J; Tipton, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect different cycling cadences have on heart rate variability (HRV) when exercising at constant power outputs. Sixteen males had ECG and respiratory measurements recorded at rest and during 8, 10 min periods of cycling at four different cadences (40, 60, 80 and 100 revs min −1 ) and two power outputs (0 W (unloaded) and 100 W (loaded)). The cycling periods were performed following a Latin square design. Spectral analyses of R–R intervals by fast Fourier transforms were used to quantify absolute frequency domain HRV indices (ms 2 ) during the final 5 min of each bout, which were then log transformed using the natural logarithm (Ln). HRV indices of high frequency (HF) power were reduced when cadence was increased (during unloaded cycling (0 W) log transformed HF power decreased from a mean [SD] of 6.3 [1.4] Ln ms 2 at 40 revs min −1 to 3.9 [1.3] Ln ms 2 at 100 revs min −1 ). During loaded cycling (at 100 W), the low to high frequency (LF:HF) ratio formed a 'J' shaped curve as cadence increased from 40 revs min −1 (1.4 [0.4]) to 100 revs min −1 (1.9 [0.7]), but dipped below the 40 revs min −1 values during the 60 revs min −1 1.1 (0.3) and 80 revs min −1 1.2 (0.6) cadence conditions. Cardiac frequency (f C ) and ventilatory variables were strongly correlated with frequency domain HRV indices (r = −0.80 to −0.95). It is concluded that HRV indices are influenced by both cycling cadence and power output; this is mediated by the f C and ventilatory changes that occur as cadence or exercise intensity is increased. Consequently, if HRV is assessed during exercise, both power output/exercise intensity and cadence should be standardized

  17. Economic analysis of variables affecting the plantain ( Musa sp ...

    Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences ... The study examined variables affecting plantain (Musa sp) mono cropping system of production by ... land fragmentation, wrong application of fertilizer, high cost of fertilizers, lack of ...

  18. Variability and trends of migratory anticyclones affecting the Mediterranean

    Hatzaki, Maria; Flocas, Helena A.; Simmonds, Ian; Kouroutzoglou, John; keay, Kevin; Rudeva, Irina

    2014-05-01

    A comprehensive climatology of migratory anticyclones affecting the Mediterranean was generated with the aid of the University of Melbourne finding and tracking algorithm, applied to 34 years (1979-2012) of ERA-Interim mean sea level pressures. The algorithm is employed for the first time to study anticyclones in this region, thus, its robustness and reliability in efficiently capturing the individual characteristics of the anticyclonic tracks in the Mediterranean were checked and verified. The tracks and the statistical properties of the migratory systems revealed two major anticyclonic routes: over the northern (i.e. from the Iberian towards the Balkan Peninsula) and over the southern (i.e. the North Africa coast) Mediterranean barriers. A transition of the system density and anticyclogenesis maxima is evident throughout the year from solely continental environments in winter and autumn to also maritime in spring and summer. These variations can be attributed to the seasonal variability of the major anticyclonic systems that are involved in this region. The interannual variability of synoptic systems can be attributed to natural low frequency variability. The interannual variations of the system density and strength were linked to the Northern Hemisphere modes of atmospheric variability; e.g. more (less) antiyclonic tracks are observed around the Mediterranean basin during periods of positive (negative) NAO, with a consequent enhancement (decline) of the pressure field. Moreover, possible trends in the frequency and intensity of the anticyclonic systems were explored in an attempt to examine any impacts of recent global warming conditions. Positive trends of system density, genesis and intensity prevail during the cold period over the greater area around the Mediterranean basin. During summer, the general increase in system density is not followed by a corresponding tendency in the number of the generating systems and the intensity. Regarding the depth of the

  19. Preanalytical Variables Affecting the Integrity of Human Biospecimens in Biobanking

    Ellervik, Christina; Vaught, Jim

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Most errors in a clinical chemistry laboratory are due to preanalytical errors. Preanalytical variability of biospecimens can have significant effects on downstream analyses, and controlling such variables is therefore fundamental for the future use of biospecimens in personalized...... medicine for diagnostic or prognostic purposes. CONTENT: The focus of this review is to examine the preanalytical variables that affect human biospecimen integrity in biobanking, with a special focus on blood, saliva, and urine. Cost efficiency is discussed in relation to these issues. SUMMARY: The quality...

  20. The hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis in major affective disorder

    Christensen, M V; Kessing, L V

    2001-01-01

    disorder. The HPA axis is a complex neuroendocrine network with multiple integrated levels of control, and it is likely that the dysregulation involves abnormalities at several sites within the axis. At present, it is not clear whether the abnormalities are related to the affective episodes only......This paper reviews studies of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis activity in patients with affective disorders. It is concluded that, despite methodological drawbacks in most studies, dysregulation of the HPA axis seems to be a consistent finding in a proportion of patients with affective...... or to the disorder itself. There is a need for prospective studies of larger samples of patients to be followed during successive affective episodes with a combination of measurements of the HPA-axis activity and brain imaging....

  1. The intra-day dynamics of affect, self-esteem, tiredness, and suicidality in Major Depression.

    Crowe, Eimear; Daly, Michael; Delaney, Liam; Carroll, Susan; Malone, Kevin M

    2018-02-21

    Despite growing interest in the temporal dynamics of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), we know little about the intra-day fluctuations of key symptom constructs. In a study of momentary experience, the Experience Sampling Method captured the within-day dynamics of negative affect, positive affect, self-esteem, passive suicidality, and tiredness across clinical MDD (N= 31) and healthy control groups (N= 33). Ten symptom measures were taken per day over 6 days (N= 2231 observations). Daily dynamics were modeled via intra-day time-trends, variability, and instability in symptoms. MDD participants showed significantly increased variability and instability in negative affect, positive affect, self-esteem, and suicidality. Significantly different time-trends were found in positive affect (increased diurnal variation and an inverted U-shaped pattern in MDD, compared to a positive linear trend in controls) and tiredness (decreased diurnal variation in MDD). In the MDD group only, passive suicidality displayed a negative linear trend and self-esteem displayed a quadratic inverted U trend. MDD and control participants thus showed distinct dynamic profiles in all symptoms measured. As well as the overall severity of symptoms, intra-day dynamics appear to define the experience of MDD symptoms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Major constraints affecting aquaculture development in Akwa Ibom ...

    The study contributes to nationwide attempts to enhance the contributions of aquaculture to the fishery subsector, and consequent overall gross domestic product of Nigeria, as well as to the protein intake of her citizenry. The focus is on the determination of the magnitude of constraints affecting aquaculture development in ...

  3. Climate Variability and Yields of Major Staple Food Crops in Northern Ghana

    Amikuzuno, J.

    2012-12-01

    Climate variability, the short-term fluctuations in average weather conditions, and agriculture affect each other. Climate variability affects the agroecological and growing conditions of crops and livestock, and is recently believed to be the greatest impediment to the realisation of the first Millennium Development Goal of reducing poverty and food insecurity in arid and semi-arid regions of developing countries. Conversely, agriculture is a major contributor to climate variability and change by emitting greenhouse gases and reducing the agroecology's potential for carbon sequestration. What however, is the empirical evidence of this inter-dependence of climate variability and agriculture in Sub-Sahara Africa? In this paper, we provide some insight into the long run relationship between inter-annual variations in temperature and rainfall, and annual yields of the most important staple food crops in Northern Ghana. Applying pooled panel data of rainfall, temperature and yields of the selected crops from 1976 to 2010 to cointegration and Granger causality models, there is cogent evidence of cointegration between seasonal, total rainfall and crop yields; and causality from rainfall to crop yields in the Sudano-Guinea Savannah and Guinea Savannah zones of Northern Ghana. This suggests that inter-annual yields of the crops have been influenced by the total mounts of rainfall in the planting season. Temperature variability over the study period is however stationary, and is suspected to have minimal effect if any on crop yields. Overall, the results confirm the appropriateness of our attempt in modelling long-term relationships between the climate and crop yield variables.

  4. Brand Loyalty: Impact of Cognitive and Affective Variables

    Mourad TOUZANI; Azza TEMESSEK

    2009-01-01

    Studies on brand loyalty typically focus on the behavioural side of brand loyalty or on the attitudinal side. Rare are the studies that examine simultaneously both components of brand loyalty. The present study was performed to describe the conjoint contribution of cognitive and affective variables in the formation of brand loyalty. A questionnaire was administered to 400 shampoo users. A confirmatory analysis was performed to test the conceptual model presented. The results provide a better ...

  5. Daily weather variables and affective disorder admissions to psychiatric hospitals

    McWilliams, Stephen; Kinsella, Anthony; O'Callaghan, Eadbhard

    2014-12-01

    Numerous studies have reported that admission rates in patients with affective disorders are subject to seasonal variation. Notwithstanding, there has been limited evaluation of the degree to which changeable daily meteorological patterns influence affective disorder admission rates. A handful of small studies have alluded to a potential link between psychiatric admission rates and meteorological variables such as environmental temperature (heat waves in particular), wind direction and sunshine. We used the Kruskal-Wallis test, ARIMA and time-series regression analyses to examine whether daily meteorological variables—namely wind speed and direction, barometric pressure, rainfall, hours of sunshine, sunlight radiation and temperature—influence admission rates for mania and depression across 12 regions in Ireland over a 31-year period. Although we found some very weak but interesting trends for barometric pressure in relation to mania admissions, daily meteorological patterns did not appear to affect hospital admissions overall for mania or depression. Our results do not support the small number of papers to date that suggest a link between daily meteorological variables and affective disorder admissions. Further study is needed.

  6. Major hydrogeochemical processes in an acid mine drainage affected estuary.

    Asta, Maria P; Calleja, Maria Ll; Pérez-López, Rafael; Auqué, Luis F

    2015-02-15

    This study provides geochemical data with the aim of identifying and quantifying the main processes occurring in an Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) affected estuary. With that purpose, water samples of the Huelva estuary were collected during a tidal half-cycle and ion-ion plots and geochemical modeling were performed to obtain a general conceptual model. Modeling results indicated that the main processes responsible for the hydrochemical evolution of the waters are: (i) the mixing of acid fluvial water with alkaline ocean water; (ii) precipitation of Fe oxyhydroxysulfates (schwertmannite) and hydroxides (ferrihydrite); (iii) precipitation of Al hydroxysulfates (jurbanite) and hydroxides (amorphous Al(OH)3); (iv) dissolution of calcite; and (v) dissolution of gypsum. All these processes, thermodynamically feasible in the light of their calculated saturation states, were quantified by mass-balance calculations and validated by reaction-path calculations. In addition, sorption processes were deduced by the non-conservative behavior of some elements (e.g., Cu and Zn). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Major hydrogeochemical processes in an Acid Mine Drainage affected estuary

    Asta, Maria P.; Calleja, Maria Ll.; Pérez-López, Rafael; Auqué, Luis F.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Mixing of acid riverine water with alkaline seawater was studied in an estuary. • Combination of data and geochemical tools allowed modeling the water mixing. • The main geochemical processes were identified and for the first time quantified. • Water chemistry is the result of mixing, dissolution-precipitation and sorption. • Main reactions: gypsum and calcite dissolution and Al and Fe solids precipitation. - Abstract: This study provides geochemical data with the aim of identifying and quantifying the main processes occurring in an Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) affected estuary. With that purpose, water samples of the Huelva estuary were collected during a tidal half-cycle and ion–ion plots and geochemical modeling were performed to obtain a general conceptual model. Modeling results indicated that the main processes responsible for the hydrochemical evolution of the waters are: (i) the mixing of acid fluvial water with alkaline ocean water; (ii) precipitation of Fe oxyhydroxysulfates (schwertmannite) and hydroxides (ferrihydrite); (iii) precipitation of Al hydroxysulfates (jurbanite) and hydroxides (amorphous Al(OH) 3 ); (iv) dissolution of calcite; and (v) dissolution of gypsum. All these processes, thermodynamically feasible in the light of their calculated saturation states, were quantified by mass-balance calculations and validated by reaction-path calculations. In addition, sorption processes were deduced by the non-conservative behavior of some elements (e.g., Cu and Zn)

  8. Major new developments affecting treatment and prognosis in hypertension.

    Gubner, R S

    1990-01-01

    Joint studies of the ALIMDA and Society of Actuaries, notably those of 1935, 1959 and 1979, established that there is a progressive rise in cardiovascular mortality with successive increments in blood pressure. This has provided the basis of underwriting. The converse is not true, or at least has not been true until very recently. Drugs that effectively reduce blood pressure have been available for several decades, but reduction and maintenance of blood pressure is still accomplished in only a minority of hypertensives. Long-term trials employing a combination of drugs, i.e., diuretics, vasodilators and reserpine and subsequently beta-blockers, almost without fail have not shown that treatment with these agents significantly reduces heart disease mortality and sudden death. This has been attributed, perhaps without basis, to an unfavorable countering effect of increased lipid levels, aggravating this risk factor, and other undesirable metabolic effect of diuretics, such as hypokalemia and depletion of body magnesium, increasing the propensity to ventricular arrhythmias, hyperglycemia, worsening diabetes, and hyperuricemia. A survey of 674 persons with hypertension seen personally during the period 1985-89, who were under the care of approximately that many physicians, reveals striking changes in drug prescription and use during this brief period that portend a major change in the outlook of hypertension. Two classes of drugs have increased rapidly in popularity: these are the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) and the calcium blockers. Both classes of drugs effectively lower blood pressure and have minimal side effects with good compliance. They act not only to reduce peripheral vascular resistance, but also locally in the heart muscle to directly cause left ventricular hypertrophy to regress, an effect of great consequence. The drugs used in former trials such as the vasodilators and diuretics have no effect on left ventricular hypertrophy

  9. Analysis of the Variables that Affect Bookstore Customer Satisfaction

    Elis Ratna Wulan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Competition, which becomes more widespread, complex, and intense, drives companies to must be able to see the various opportunities that exist and to identify strategies for creating customer satisfaction. As an example of a company must be able to produce products with good quality, reasonable price, facilities, and companies are able to create a positive image in the eyes of consumers. This strategy is quite important in facing the competitive level of competition with rival firms. This research is aimed to analysis simultaneously or partially positive effect of the facilities, prices and corporate image on customer satisfaction, as well as analyzing the most dominant variable in effecting bookstore customer satisfaction. Data used in this research are primary data from Tmbookstore customer in Cianjur city, West Java Indonesia, which were collected from respondents using valid and reliable questionnaire. A total of 100 respondents were selected from Tmbookstore visitors by accidental sampling. Data were analyzed using multiple regression analysis. Results of the research indicate that product, price, location, and simultaneously affect to bookstore consumer satisfaction. Partially, only two of the three variables that affect bookstore consumer satisfaction namely price and company image. Image of the company is the most a dominant impact on bookstore customer satisfaction.

  10. Analysis of the Variables that Affect Bookstore Customer Satisfaction

    Elis Ratna Wulan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Competition, which becomes more widespread, complex, and intense, drives companies to must be able to see the various opportunities that exist and to identify strategies for creating customer satisfaction. As an example of a company must be able to produce products with good quality, reasonable price, facilities, and companies are able to create a positive image in the eyes of consumers. This strategy is quite important in facing the competitive level of competition with rival firms. This research is aimed to analysis simultaneously or partially positive effect of the facilities, prices and corporate image on customer satisfaction, as well as analyzing the most dominant variable in effecting bookstore customer satisfaction.  Data used in this research are primary data from Tmbookstore customer in Cianjur city, West Java Indonesia, which were collected from respondents using valid and reliable questionnaire. A total of 100 respondents were selected from Tmbookstore visitors by accidental sampling. Data were analyzed using multiple regression analysis. Results of the research indicate that product, price, location, and simultaneously affect to bookstore consumer satisfaction. Partially, only two of the three variables that affect bookstore consumer satisfaction namely price and company image. Image of the company is the most a dominant impact on bookstore customer satisfaction.

  11. Factors affecting fledgling output of great tits, Parus major, in the long term

    Rodriguez, S.; Alvarez, E.; Barba, E.

    2016-07-01

    Fledgling production has often been used as an estimator of avian reproductive success, and it is conditioned by factors affecting offspring development and/or survival during the nesting period. We aimed to determine which predictors influenced fledgling output among a set of basic breeding parameters and local temperature data collected over 25 years in a Mediterranean great tit, Parus major, population, using an information–theoretic approach for model selection. Of the studied variables, the number of hatchlings per nest was the single–most important predictor influencing fledgling production, with larger broods eventually yielding more fledglings, although mass prior to fledging may have been compromised. This result suggests an overall good adjustment between brood size and resource availability in the studied population. (Author)

  12. Factors affecting fledgling output of great tits, Parus major, in the long term

    Rodríguez, S

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fledgling production has often been used as an estimator of avian reproductive success, and it is conditioned by factors affecting offspring development and/or survival during the nesting period. We aimed to determine which predictors influenced fledgling output among a set of basic breeding parameters and local temperature data collected over 25 years in a Mediterranean great tit, Parus major, population, using an information–theoretic approach for model selection. Of the studied variables, the number of hatchlings per nest was the single–most important predictor influencing fledgling production, with larger broods eventually yielding more fledglings, although mass prior to fledging may have been compromised. This result suggests an overall good adjustment between brood size and resource availability in the studied population.

  13. Climate variability and yields of major staple food crops in Northern ...

    Conversely, agriculture is a major contributor to climate variability and change by emitting greenhouse gases and reducing the agroecology's potential for carbon sequestration. What however, is the empirical evidence of this inter-dependence of climate variability and agriculture in Sub-Sahara Africa? In this paper, we ...

  14. 49 CFR 520.5 - Guidelines for identifying major actions significantly affecting the environment.

    2010-10-01

    ... significantly affecting the environment. 520.5 Section 520.5 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... significantly affecting the environment. (a) General guidelines. The phrase, “major Federal actions significantly affecting the quality of the human environment,” as used in this part, shall be construed with a...

  15. Brain signal variability differentially affects cognitive flexibility and cognitive stability

    Armbruster-Genç, D.J.N.; Ültzhöffer, K.; Fiebach, C.J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research yielded the intriguing conclusion that, in healthy adults, higher levels of variability in neuronal processes are beneficial for cognitive functioning. Beneficial effects of variability in neuronal processing can also be inferred from neurocomputational theories of working memory,

  16. Playing a violent television game affects heart rate variability.

    Ivarsson, Malena; Anderson, Martin; Akerstedt, Torbjörn; Lindblad, Frank

    2009-01-01

    To investigate how playing a violent/nonviolent television game during the evening affects sympathetic and parasympathetic reactions during and after playing as well as sleep quality during the night after playing. In total, 19 boys, 12-15 years of age, played television games on two occasions in their homes and participated once without gaming. Heart rate, heart rate variability (HRV) and physical activity were measured during gaming/participating and the night to follow using a portable combined heart rate and movement sensor. A sleep diary and questionnaires about gaming experiences and session-specific experiences were filled in. Criteria for Selection of Games: Violent game involves/rewards direct physical violence (no handguns) against another person, and nonviolent game involves/rewards no violence; same game design ('third-person game'); conducted in the same manner; no differences concerning motor activity; similar sound and light effects; no sexual content, violence against women or racial overtones. During violent (vs. nonviolent) gaming, there was significantly higher activity of the very low frequency component of the HRV and total power. During the night after playing, very low frequency, low frequency and high frequency components were significantly higher during the violent (vs. nonviolent) condition, just as total power. There were no significant differences between the three conditions (violent/nonviolent/no gaming) with respect to an index reflecting subjectively perceived sleep difficulties. Nor was there any difference between violent and nonviolent condition for any single sleep item. Violent gaming induces different autonomic responses in boys compared to nonviolent gaming--during playing and during the following night--suggesting different emotional responses. Subjectively perceived sleep quality is not influenced after a single gaming experience. Future studies should address the development of the autonomic balance after gaming over longer

  17. Brain Signal Variability Differentially Affects Cognitive Flexibility and Cognitive Stability.

    Armbruster-Genç, Diana J N; Ueltzhöffer, Kai; Fiebach, Christian J

    2016-04-06

    Recent research yielded the intriguing conclusion that, in healthy adults, higher levels of variability in neuronal processes are beneficial for cognitive functioning. Beneficial effects of variability in neuronal processing can also be inferred from neurocomputational theories of working memory, albeit this holds only for tasks requiring cognitive flexibility. However, cognitive stability, i.e., the ability to maintain a task goal in the face of irrelevant distractors, should suffer under high levels of brain signal variability. To directly test this prediction, we studied both behavioral and brain signal variability during cognitive flexibility (i.e., task switching) and cognitive stability (i.e., distractor inhibition) in a sample of healthy human subjects and developed an efficient and easy-to-implement analysis approach to assess BOLD-signal variability in event-related fMRI task paradigms. Results show a general positive effect of neural variability on task performance as assessed by accuracy measures. However, higher levels of BOLD-signal variability in the left inferior frontal junction area result in reduced error rate costs during task switching and thus facilitate cognitive flexibility. In contrast, variability in the same area has a detrimental effect on cognitive stability, as shown in a negative effect of variability on response time costs during distractor inhibition. This pattern was mirrored at the behavioral level, with higher behavioral variability predicting better task switching but worse distractor inhibition performance. Our data extend previous results on brain signal variability by showing a differential effect of brain signal variability that depends on task context, in line with predictions from computational theories. Recent neuroscientific research showed that the human brain signal is intrinsically variable and suggested that this variability improves performance. Computational models of prefrontal neural networks predict differential

  18. Variables That Can Affect Student Ratings of Their Professors

    Gotlieb, Jerry

    2013-01-01

    Attribution theory was applied to help predict the results of an experiment that examined the effects of three independent variables on students' ratings of their professors. The dependent variables were students' perceptions of whether the professor caused the students' grades and student satisfaction with their professor. The results suggest…

  19. Walk on the Bright Side: Physical Activity and Affect in Major Depressive Disorder

    Mata, Jutta; Thompson, Renee J.; Jaeggi, Susanne M.; Buschkuehl, Martin; Jonides, John; Gotlib, Ian H.

    2011-01-01

    Although prescribed exercise has been found to improve affect and reduce levels of depression, we do not know how self-initiated everyday physical activity influences levels of positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) in depressed persons. Fifty-three individuals diagnosed with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and 53 never-depressed controls participated in a seven-day experience sampling study. Participants were prompted randomly eight times per day and answered questions about their phy...

  20. How a dependent's variable non-randomness affects taper equation ...

    In order to apply the least squares method in regression analysis, the values of the dependent variable Y should be random. In an example of regression analysis linear and nonlinear taper equations, which estimate the diameter of the tree dhi at any height of the tree hi, were compared. For each tree the diameter at the ...

  1. Social Process Variables Affecting Reading Performance in Delayed Readers.

    Lorton, Mary; Kukuk, Christopher

    1978-01-01

    Examines the relationship between 14 social process variables and the reading performances of 180 slow learners, ages 7-15. Finds that two of those factors (brith trauma and being held back in school) emerge as predictors of reading comprehension, word recognition, and spelling. (RL)

  2. Do high fetal catecholamine levels affect heart rate variability and ...

    Objectives. To deternrine the relationship between Umbilical arterial catecholamine levels and fetal heart rate variability and meconium passage. Study design. A prospective descriptive study was perfonned. Umbilical artery catecholamine levels were measured in 55 newborns and correlated with fetal heart rate before ...

  3. Teacher and Student Variables Affecting Special Education Evaluation and Referral

    Woodson, Lorenzo Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Past research has revealed that African American/Black boys are referred for special education evaluation at disproportionately higher rates than boys of other racial/ethnic groups. This correlational study used survey methodology to examine whether student and teacher demographic variables predicted how likely a teacher would refer boy students…

  4. Variability in wheat: factors affecting its nutritional value

    Gutierrez del Alamo Oms, A.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hartog, den L.A.; Villamide, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Wheat is a common raw material used to provide energy in broiler diets. Its apparent metabolisable energy and its influence on broiler performance varies between wheat samples. Reasons for that variability can be classified as intrinsic (variety, chemical composition) and extrinsic factors (growing

  5. Variables affecting lipid oxidation in dried microencapsulated oils

    Márquez-Ruiz, Gloria

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Dried microencapsulated oils are powdery foods or ingredients, prepared by drying natural or formulated emulsions, wherein the oil globules are dispersed in a matrix of saccharides and/or proteins. The study of lipid oxidation in microencapsulated oils is a very difficult task since, in addition to the numerous variables normally involved in lipid oxidation, mainly unsaturation degree, oxygen, light, temperature, prooxidants and antioxidants, other factors exert an important influence in these heterophasic lipid systems. In this paper, the present state of the art on lipid oxidation in dried microencapsulated oils is reviewed, focused on the variables specifically involved in oxidation of these lipid systems. Such variables include those pertaining to the preparation process (type and concentration of the matrix components and drying procedure and those related to the physicochemical properties of microencapsulated oils (particle size, oil globule size, lipid distribution, water activity, pH and interactions between matrix components.Los aceites microencapsulados son alimentos o ingredientes en polvo preparados mediante secado de emulsiones naturales o formuladas, donde los glóbulos de aceite se encuentran dispersos en una matriz de hidratos de carbono y/o proteínas. El estudio de la oxidación lipídica en aceites microencapsulados es muy difícil ya que, además de las numerosas variables implicadas normalmente en la oxidación lipídica, principalmente el grado de insaturación, oxígeno, luz, temperatura, prooxidantes y antioxidantes, en estos sistemas lipídicos heterofásicos existen otros factores que ejercen una importante influencia. En este trabajo, se revisa la situación actual del conocimiento sobre oxidación lipídica en aceites microencapsulados en relación con las variables que intervienen específicamente en la oxidación de estos sistemas lipídicos. Concretamente, dichas variables incluyen las implicadas en el proceso de

  6. Psychobiological Factors Affecting Cortisol Variability in Human-Dog Dyads.

    Iris Schöberl

    Full Text Available Stress responses within dyads are modulated by interactions such as mutual emotional support and conflict. We investigated dyadic psychobiological factors influencing intra-individual cortisol variability in response to different challenging situations by testing 132 owners and their dogs in a laboratory setting. Salivary cortisol was measured and questionnaires were used to assess owner and dog personality as well as owners' social attitudes towards the dog and towards other humans. We calculated the individual coefficient of variance of cortisol (iCV = sd/mean*100 over the different test situations as a parameter representing individual variability of cortisol concentration. We hypothesized that high cortisol variability indicates efficient and adaptive coping and a balanced individual and dyadic social performance. Female owners of male dogs had lower iCV than all other owner gender-dog sex combinations (F = 14.194, p<0.001, whereas owner Agreeableness (NEO-FFI scaled positively with owner iCV (F = 4.981, p = 0.028. Dogs of owners high in Neuroticism (NEO-FFI and of owners who were insecure-ambivalently attached to their dogs (FERT, had low iCV (F = 4.290, p = 0.041 and F = 5.948, p = 0.016, as had dogs of owners with human-directed separation anxiety (RSQ or dogs of owners with a strong desire of independence (RSQ (F = 7.661, p = 0.007 and F = 9.192, p = 0.003. We suggest that both owner and dog social characteristics influence dyadic cortisol variability, with the human partner being more influential than the dog. Our results support systemic approaches (i.e. considering the social context in science and in counselling.

  7. Variability, Predictability, and Race Factors Affecting Performance in Elite Biathlon.

    Skattebo, Øyvind; Losnegard, Thomas

    2018-03-01

    To investigate variability, predictability, and smallest worthwhile performance enhancement in elite biathlon sprint events. In addition, the effects of race factors on performance were assessed. Data from 2005 to 2015 including >10,000 and >1000 observations for each sex for all athletes and annual top-10 athletes, respectively, were included. Generalized linear mixed models were constructed based on total race time, skiing time, shooting time, and proportions of targets hit. Within-athlete race-to-race variability was expressed as coefficient of variation of performance times and standard deviation (SD) in proportion units (%) of targets hit. The models were adjusted for random and fixed effects of subject identity, season, event identity, and race factors. The within-athlete variability was independent of sex and performance standard of athletes: 2.5-3.2% for total race time, 1.5-1.8% for skiing time, and 11-15% for shooting times. The SD of the proportion of hits was ∼10% in both shootings combined (meaning ±1 hit in 10 shots). The predictability in total race time was very high to extremely high for all athletes (ICC .78-.84) but trivial for top-10 athletes (ICC .05). Race times during World Championships and Olympics were ∼2-3% faster than in World Cups. Moreover, race time increased by ∼2% per 1000 m of altitude, by ∼5% per 1% of gradient, by 1-2% per 1 m/s of wind speed, and by ∼2-4% on soft vs hard tracks. Researchers and practitioners should focus on strategies that improve biathletes' performance by at least 0.8-0.9%, corresponding to the smallest worthwhile enhancement (0.3 × within-athlete variability).

  8. Testing of variables which affect stablity of cement solidified low-level waste

    Boris, G.F.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the test program undertaken to investigate variables which could affect the stability of cement solidified low-level waste and to evaluate the effect of these variables on certain tests prescribed in the Technical Position on Waste Form. The majority of the testing was performed on solidified undepleted bead resin, however, six additional waste types, suggested by the NRC, were tested. The tested variables included waste loading, immersion duration, depletion level, ambient cure duration, curing environment, immersion medium and waste type. Of these, lower waste loadings, longer ambient cures prior to testing and immersion in demineralized water versus simulated sea water and potable water resulted in higher compressive strengths for bead resin samples. Immersion times longer than 90 days did not affect the resin samples. Compressive strengths for other waste types varied depending upon the waste. The strengths of all waste types exceeded the minimum criterion by at least a factor of four, up to a factor of forty. The higher waste loadings exhibit strengths less than the lower waste loadings

  9. Psychosocial functioning in prepubertal major depressive disorders. II. Interpersonal relationships after sustained recovery from affective episode.

    Puig-Antich, J; Lukens, E; Davies, M; Goetz, D; Brennan-Quattrock, J; Todak, G

    1985-05-01

    Psychosocial relationships with parents, peers, and siblings, as well as school functioning, were measured at two points in time by parental interview in 21 prepubertal children: during an episode of major depression and after they had sustained an affective recovery from the index episode for at least four months. School functioning was completely normalized, but deficits in the child's intrafamilial and extra-familial relationships had improved only partially. The pattern of improvement was merely quantitative. Moderate deficits during the depressive episode reached, after affective recovery, the level of the normal control group. In contrast, severe deficits only improved to a moderate level of severity. It is suggested that treating the affective disorder is not sufficient in many children with major depression and that efficacy studies of psychotherapeutic interventions in affectively recovered children are needed.

  10. Analysis of variables affecting drug compliance in schizophrenia

    Shakeel Ansari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: As compliance of the patient during management of schizophrenia is crucial, the current study was conducted to find out the factors that affected compliance. Aims: The aim of the study was to analyze the prevalence of noncompliance and to find out different factors affecting compliance in schizophrenic patients. Materials and Methods: Observational cross-sectional study was conducted on 100 adult schizophrenic patients. Noncompliance was assessed using the rating of medication influence (ROMI scale. Severity of illness was measured using positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS. Results: Prevalence of noncompliance was 37%. Using ROMI scale; positive relationship with psychiatrist, family pressure for taking medications, stigma, and substance abuse were found to be significant factors. Severity of illness was also found as determining factor. Conclusion: To improve the compliance in schizophrenia patients, roles of both psychiatrists and family members are crucial.

  11. Macroeconomic Variables Affecting Bist30 Index Value in Turkey

    Özge KORKMAZ; Eşref Savas BASCI; Süleyman Serdar KARACA

    2016-01-01

    In finance literature, main financial stock indices are important to determine country’s financial development and it’s behavior against the effect of macro-economic conditions. These conditions can listed as interest rate, inflation rate, money supply, exchange rate, industrial production index, and etc.  In changing world economy, macro economic conditions can affect to the financial stability and capital markets. Some economies have a financial vulnerability, and it is important to measure...

  12. FACTORS AFFECTING VARIABILITY OF UDDER MORPHOLOGY TRAITS OF SHEEP

    Prpić, Zoran; Mioč, Boro; Vnučec, Ivan; Pavić, Vesna; Konjačić, Miljenko

    2013-01-01

    Until recently, selection of dairy sheep breeds was focused almost exclusively on increasing the amount of milk produced and so today they produce several times more milk than breeds selected for meat and wool. However, due to the permanent striving for increasing sheep milk production udder weight becomes too great, and suspensory system can not withstand this overweight so it ruptures more often. That significantly shortens the duration of animal’s production life and adversely affects udde...

  13. High variability impairs motor learning regardless of whether it affects task performance.

    Cardis, Marco; Casadio, Maura; Ranganathan, Rajiv

    2018-01-01

    Motor variability plays an important role in motor learning, although the exact mechanisms of how variability affects learning are not well understood. Recent evidence suggests that motor variability may have different effects on learning in redundant tasks, depending on whether it is present in the task space (where it affects task performance) or in the null space (where it has no effect on task performance). We examined the effect of directly introducing null and task space variability using a manipulandum during the learning of a motor task. Participants learned a bimanual shuffleboard task for 2 days, where their goal was to slide a virtual puck as close as possible toward a target. Critically, the distance traveled by the puck was determined by the sum of the left- and right-hand velocities, which meant that there was redundancy in the task. Participants were divided into five groups, based on both the dimension in which the variability was introduced and the amount of variability that was introduced during training. Results showed that although all groups were able to reduce error with practice, learning was affected more by the amount of variability introduced rather than the dimension in which variability was introduced. Specifically, groups with higher movement variability during practice showed larger errors at the end of practice compared with groups that had low variability during learning. These results suggest that although introducing variability can increase exploration of new solutions, this may adversely affect the ability to retain the learned solution. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We examined the role of introducing variability during motor learning in a redundant task. The presence of redundancy allows variability to be introduced in different dimensions: the task space (where it affects task performance) or the null space (where it does not affect task performance). We found that introducing variability affected learning adversely, but the amount of

  14. Brand Loyalty: Impact of Cognitive and Affective Variables

    Mourad TOUZANI

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on brand loyalty typically focus on the behavioural side ofbrand loyalty or on the attitudinal side. Rare are the studies that examinesimultaneously both components of brand loyalty. The present study wasperformed to describe the conjoint contribution of cognitive and affectivevariables in the formation of brand loyalty. A questionnaire was administered to400 shampoo users. A confirmatory analysis was performed to test theconceptual model presented. The results provide a better knowledge about therole played by each factor in brand loyalty formation and emphasises the majorrole played by affective factors.

  15. Do the Microshear Test Variables Affect the Bond Strength Values?

    Andrea M. Andrade

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the effect of specimen preparation and testing protocols on the micro-shear bond strength (μSBS results. To evaluate whether variations in polyethylene rod use affect (μSBS. Human dentin disks were randomly distributed into six groups (: polyethylene tube (3 levels and adhesive system (2 levels. In Group 1, polyethylene tubes filled with polymerized composite were placed on adhesive covered surfaces. Tubes were removed 24 h after water storage, leaving the rods only. In Group 2, the same procedure was performed; however, tubes were kept in place during testing. In Group 3, composite rods without tubes were placed on adhesive covered dentin. In all groups, adhesives were photoactivated after positioning filled tubes/rods on adhesive covered surfaces. Specimens were tested under shear mode and the data subjected to a two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s tests. Groups 1 and 2 resulted in statistically similar mean μSBS (; however, a greater number of pretest failures were observed for Group 1. Higher μSBS values were detected for Group 3, irrespective of adhesive system used (. Removing the polyethylene tube before composite rod is placed on dentin affects μSBS values.

  16. Intrinsic and extrinsic variables affecting sensitivity to radiation carcinogenesis

    Yuhas, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    Mathematical models relating observed yield of cancers vs administered radiation dose have become popular in recent years, especially as means of predicting hazards associated with exposure conditions which are beyond the realm of practical experimentation. While the validity of these predictions remains a controversy, these models, especially the αD + βD 2 model, have more recently been used to infer the mechanism(s) underlying the carcinogenic process. Through the analysis of simple experimental systems, we demonstrate in this report that aD + bD 2 kinetics can result from injury to the cells which eventually develop into the cancer (target cells) or from injury to those cells which affect target cell survival. Further, these kinetics can fail to predict the consequences of dose protraction, largely due to the fact that transformation increases with dose, while survival decreases. The role of these models in helping to develop an understanding of mechanisms should be restricted, therefore, to the formulation of basic hypotheses which are subject to direct testing in the laboratory

  17. Variabilities of mesospheric tides and equatorial electrojet strength during major stratospheric warming events

    S. Sridharan

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study demonstrates the relationship between the high latitude northern hemispheric major sudden stratospheric warming (SSW events and the reversal in the afternoon equatorial electrojet (EEJ, often called the counter-electrojet (CEJ, during the winter months of 1998–1999, 2001–2002, 2003–2004 and 2005–2006. As the EEJ current system is driven by tidal winds, an investigation of tidal variabilities in the MF radar observed zonal winds during the winters of 1998–1999 and 2005–2006 at 88 km over Tirunelveli, a site close to the magnetic equator, shows that there is an enhancement of semi-diurnal tidal amplitude during the days of a major SSW event and a suppression of the same immediately after the event. The significance of the present results lies in demonstrating the latitudinal coupling between the high latitude SSW phenomenon and the equatorial ionospheric current system with clear evidence for major SSW events influencing the day-to-day variability of the CEJ.

  18. Serodiagnosis of Borrelia miyamotoi disease by measuring antibodies against GlpQ and variable major proteins

    Koetsveld, J.; Kolyasnikova, N. M.; Wagemakers, A.

    2018-01-01

    previously shown the differential expression of antigenic variable major proteins (Vmps) in B. miyamotoi, our aim was to study antibody responses against GlpQ and Vmps in PCR-proven BMD patients and controls. Methods: We assessed seroreactivity against GlpQ and four Vmps in a well-described, longitudinal......, and IgG between 21 and 50 days, after disease onset. Various combinations of GlpQ and Vmps increased sensitivity and/or specificity compared to single antigens. Notably, the GlpQ or variable large protein (Vlp)-15/16 combination yielded a sensitivity of 94.7% (95% CI: 75.4–99.7) 11–20 days after disease......Objectives: Borrelia miyamotoi disease (BMD) is an emerging tick-borne disease in the Northern hemisphere. Serodiagnosis by measuring antibodies against glycerophosphodiester-phosphodiesterase (GlpQ) has been performed experimentally but has not been extensively clinically validated. Because we had...

  19. Hypnosis in the Treatment of Major Depression: An Analysis of Heart Rate Variability.

    Chen, Xiuwen; Yang, Rongqian; Ge, Lulu; Luo, Jie; Lv, Ruixue

    2017-01-01

    Hypnosis is an adjuvant treatment of major depression (MD). Heart rate variability (HRV) can assess the autonomic nervous system, which is associated with MD, and HRV is decreased in MD patients. There is a lack of research on HRV changes before, during, and after the use of hypnosis in MD patients. A total of 21 MD patients participated in this study, and 5-minute electrocardiograms were recorded before, during, and after hypnosis. Compared with the prehypnotic condition, HRV parameters significantly (p hypnosis treatment should bring some functional improvement to the autonomic nervous system. HRV is potentially a useful tool that quantifies the physiological impact of hypnosis treatment in MD patients.

  20. Heritability of Intraindividual Mean and Variability of Positive and Negative Affect.

    Zheng, Yao; Plomin, Robert; von Stumm, Sophie

    2016-12-01

    Positive affect (e.g., attentiveness) and negative affect (e.g., upset) fluctuate over time. We examined genetic influences on interindividual differences in the day-to-day variability of affect (i.e., ups and downs) and in average affect over the duration of a month. Once a day, 17-year-old twins in the United Kingdom ( N = 447) rated their positive and negative affect online. The mean and standard deviation of each individual's daily ratings across the month were used as the measures of that individual's average affect and variability of affect. Analyses revealed that the average of negative affect was significantly heritable (.53), but the average of positive affect was not; instead, the latter showed significant shared environmental influences (.42). Fluctuations across the month were significantly heritable for both negative affect (.54) and positive affect (.34). The findings support the two-factor theory of affect, which posits that positive affect is more situational and negative affect is more dispositional.

  1. Walk on the bright side: physical activity and affect in major depressive disorder.

    Mata, Jutta; Thompson, Renee J; Jaeggi, Susanne M; Buschkuehl, Martin; Jonides, John; Gotlib, Ian H

    2012-05-01

    Although prescribed exercise has been found to improve affect and reduce levels of depression, we do not know how self-initiated everyday physical activity influences levels of positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) in depressed persons. Fifty-three individuals diagnosed with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and 53 never-depressed controls participated in a seven-day experience sampling study. Participants were prompted randomly eight times per day and answered questions about their physical activity and affective state. Over the week, the two groups of participants did not differ in average level of physical activity. As expected, participants with MDD reported lower average PA and higher average NA than did never-depressed controls. Both participants with MDD and controls reported higher levels of PA at prompts after physical activity than at prompts after inactive periods; moreover, for both groups of participants, PA increased from a prompt after an inactive period to a subsequent prompt at which activity was reported. Depressed participants in particular showed a dose-response effect of physical activity on affect: longer duration and/or higher intensity of physical activity increased their PA significantly more than did short duration and/or lower intensity physical activity. Physical activity did not influence NA in either group. In contrast to previous treatment studies that examined the effects of prescribed structured exercise, this investigation showed that self-initiated physical activity influences PA. These findings also underscore the importance of distinguishing between PA and NA to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the effects of physical activity on affect in MDD.

  2. Long-term outcome of major depressive disorder in psychiatric patients is variable.

    Holma, K Mikael; Holma, Irina A K; Melartin, Tarja K; Rytsälä, Heikki J; Isometsä, Erkki T

    2008-02-01

    The prevailing view of outcome of major depressive disorder (MDD), based on mostly inpatient cohorts sampled from tertiary centers, emphasizes chronicity and frequent recurrences. We investigated the long-term outcome of a regionally representative psychiatric MDD cohort comprising mainly outpatients. The Vantaa Depression Study included 163 patients with DSM-IV MDD (71.5% of those eligible) diagnosed using structured and semistructured interviews and followed up at 6 months, 18 months, and 5 years with a life chart between February 1, 1997, and April 30, 2004. The effects of comorbid disorders and other predictors on outcome were comprehensively investigated. Over the 5-year follow-up, 98.8% of patients achieved a symptom state below major depressive episode (MDE) criteria, and 88.4% reached full remission, with the median time to full remission being 11.0 months. Nearly one third (29.3%) had no recurrences, whereas 30.0% experienced 1, 12.9% experienced 2, and 27.9% experienced 3 or more recurrences. Preceding dysthymic disorder (p = .028), cluster C personality disorder (p = .041), and longer MDE duration prior to entry (p = .011) were the most significant predictors of longer time in achieving full remission. Severity of MDD and comorbidity, especially social phobia, predicted probability of, shorter time to, and number of recurrences. Previous literature on mostly inpatient MDD may have, by generalizing from patients with the most severe psychopathology, overemphasized chronicity of MDD. The long-term outcome of MDD in psychiatric care is variable, with about one tenth of patients having poor, one third having intermediate, and one half having favorable outcomes. In addition to known predictors, cluster C personality disorders and social phobia warrant further attention as predictors of MDD outcome among outpatients.

  3. DNA methylation in a Scottish family multiply affected by bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder.

    Walker, Rosie May; Christoforou, Andrea Nikie; McCartney, Daniel L; Morris, Stewart W; Kennedy, Nicholas A; Morten, Peter; Anderson, Susan Maguire; Torrance, Helen Scott; Macdonald, Alix; Sussmann, Jessika Elizabeth; Whalley, Heather Clare; Blackwood, Douglas H R; McIntosh, Andrew Mark; Porteous, David John; Evans, Kathryn Louise

    2016-01-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe, familial psychiatric condition. Progress in understanding the aetiology of BD has been hampered by substantial phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity. We sought to mitigate these confounders by studying a multi-generational family multiply affected by BD and major depressive disorder (MDD), who carry an illness-linked haplotype on chromosome 4p. Within a family, aetiological heterogeneity is likely to be reduced, thus conferring greater power to detect illness-related changes. As accumulating evidence suggests that altered DNA methylation confers risk for BD and MDD, we compared genome-wide methylation between (i) affected carriers of the linked haplotype (ALH) and married-in controls (MIs), (ii) well unaffected haplotype carriers (ULH) and MI, (iii) ALH and ULH and (iv) all haplotype carriers (LH) and MI. Nominally significant differences in DNA methylation were observed in all comparisons, with differences withstanding correction for multiple testing when the ALH or LH group was compared to the MIs. In both comparisons, we observed increased methylation at a locus in FANCI, which was accompanied by increased FANCI expression in the ALH group. FANCI is part of the Fanconi anaemia complementation (FANC) gene family, which are mutated in Fanconi anaemia and participate in DNA repair. Interestingly, several FANC genes have been implicated in psychiatric disorders. Regional analyses of methylation differences identified loci implicated in psychiatric illness by genome-wide association studies, including CACNB2 and the major histocompatibility complex. Gene ontology analysis revealed enrichment for methylation differences in neurologically relevant genes. Our results highlight altered DNA methylation as a potential mechanism by which the linked haplotype might confer risk for mood disorders. Differences in the phenotypic outcome of haplotype carriers might, in part, arise from additional changes in DNA methylation that converge on

  4. Experimental Analyses of the Major Parameters Affecting the Intensity of Outbursts of Coal and Gas

    Nie, W.; Peng, S. J.; Xu, J.; Liu, L. R.; Wang, G.; Geng, J. B.

    2014-01-01

    With an increase in mining depth and production, the intensity and frequency of outburst of coal and gas have a tendency to increase. Estimating the intensity of outbursts of coal and gas plays an important role because of its relation with the risk value. In this paper, we described the semiquantitative relations between major parameters and intensity of outburst based on physical experiments. The results showed increment of geostress simulated by horizontal load (from 1.4, 2.4, 3.2, to 3.4 MPa) or vertical load (from 2, 3, 3.6, to 4 MPa) improved the relative intensity rate (3.763–7.403% and 1.273–7.99%); the increment of porosity (from 1.57, 2.51, 3, to 3.6%) improved the relative intensity rate from 3.8 to 13.8%; the increment of gas pressure (from 0, 0.5, 0.65, 0.72, 1, to 1.5 Mpa) induced the relative intensity rate to decrease from 38.22 to 0%; the increment of water content (from 0, 2, 4, to 8%) caused the relative intensity rate to drop from 5.425 to 0.5%. Furthermore, sensitivity and range analysis evaluates coupled factors affecting the relative intensity. In addition, the distinction with initiation of outburst of coal and gas affected by these parameters is discussed by the relative threshold of gas content rate. PMID:25162042

  5. Fish allergens at a glance: variable allergenicity of parvalbumins, the major fish allergens.

    Kuehn, Annette; Swoboda, Ines; Arumugam, Karthik; Hilger, Christiane; Hentges, François

    2014-01-01

    Fish is a common trigger of severe, food-allergic reactions. Only a limited number of proteins induce specific IgE-mediated immune reactions. The major fish allergens are the parvalbumins. They are members of the calcium-binding EF-hand protein family characterized by a conserved protein structure. They represent highly cross-reactive allergens for patients with specific IgE to conserved epitopes. These patients might experience clinical reactions with various fish species. On the other hand, some individuals have IgE antibodies directed against unique, species-specific parvalbumin epitopes, and these patients show clinical symptoms only with certain fish species. Furthermore, different parvalbumin isoforms and isoallergens are present in the same fish and might display variable allergenicity. This was shown for salmon homologs, where only a single parvalbumin (beta-1) isoform was identified as allergen in specific patients. In addition to the parvalbumins, several other fish proteins, enolases, aldolases, and fish gelatin, seem to be important allergens. New clinical and molecular insights advanced the knowledge and understanding of fish allergy in the last years. These findings were useful for the advancement of the IgE-based diagnosis and also for the management of fish allergies consisting of advice and treatment of fish-allergic patients.

  6. Fish allergens at a glance: Variable allergenicity of parvalbumins, the major fish allergens

    Annette eKuehn

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fish is a common trigger of severe, food-allergic reactions. Only a limited number of proteins induce specific IgE-mediated immune reactions. The major fish allergens are the parvalbumins. They are members of the calcium-binding EF-hand protein family characterized by a conserved protein structure. They represent highly cross-reactive allergens for patients with specific IgE to conserved epitopes. These patients might experience clinical reactions with various fish species. On the other hand, some individuals have IgE antibodies directed against unique, species-specific parvalbumin epitopes, and these patients show clinical symptoms only with certain fish species. Furthermore, different parvalbumin isoforms and isoallergens are present in the same fish and might display variable allergenicity. This was shown for salmon homologs, where only a single parvalbumin (beta-1 isoform was identified as allergen in specific patients. In addition to the parvalbumins, several other fish proteins, enolases, aldolases and fish gelatin, seem to be important allergens.New clinical and molecular insights advanced the knowledge and understanding of fish allergy in the last years. These findings will be useful for the advancement of the IgE-based diagnosis but also for the management of fish allergies consisting of advice and treatment of fish-allergic patients.

  7. Relationships of Cerebrospinal Fluid Monoamine Metabolite Levels With Clinical Variables in Major Depressive Disorder.

    Yoon, Hyung Shin; Hattori, Kotaro; Ogawa, Shintaro; Sasayama, Daimei; Ota, Miho; Teraishi, Toshiya; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    Many studies have investigated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) monoamine metabolite levels in depressive disorders. However, their clinical significance is still unclear. We tried to determine whether CSF monoamine metabolite levels could be a state-dependent marker for major depressive disorder (MDD) based on analyses stratified by clinical variables in a relatively large sample. Subjects were 75 patients with MDD according to DSM-IV criteria and 87 healthy controls, matched for age, sex, and ethnicity (Japanese). They were recruited between May 2010 and November 2013. We measured homovanillic acid (HVA), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyleneglycol (MHPG) in CSF samples by high-performance liquid chromatography. We analyzed the relationships of the metabolite levels with age, sex, diagnosis, psychotropic medication use, and depression severity. There was a weak positive correlation between age and 5-HIAA levels in controls (ρ = 0.26, P 12) were significantly lower than those in controls (P .1), were related to depression severity. CSF 5-HIAA and HVA levels could be state-dependent markers in MDD patients. Since 5-HIAA levels greatly decrease with the use of antidepressants, HVA levels might be more useful in the clinical setting. © Copyright 2017 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  8. Study of variables affecting critical value notification in a laboratory catering to tertiary care hospital.

    Agarwal, Rachna; Chhillar, Neelam; Tripathi, Chandra B

    2015-01-01

    During post-analytical phase, critical value notification to responsible caregiver in a timely manner has potential to improve patient safety which requires cooperative efforts between laboratory personnel and caregivers. It is widely accepted by hospital accreditors that ineffective notification can lead to diagnostic errors that potentially harm patients and are preventable. The objective of the study was to assess the variables affecting critical value notification, their role in affecting it's quality and approaches to improve it. In the present study 1,187 critical values were analysed in the Clinical Chemistry Laboratory catering to tertiary care hospital for neuropsychiatric diseases. During 25 months of study period, we evaluated critical value notification with respect to clinical care area, caregiver to whom it was notified and timeliness of notification. During the study period (25 months), the laboratory obtained 1,279 critical values in clinical chemistry. The analytes most commonly notified were sodium and potassium (20.97 & 20.8 % of total critical results). Analysis of critical value notification versus area of care showed that critical value notification was high in ICU and emergency area followed by inpatients and 64.61 % critical values were notified between 30 and 120 min after receiving the samples. It was found that failure to notify the responsible caregiver in timely manner represent an important patient safety issue and may lead to diagnostic errors. The major area of concern are notification of critical value for outpatient samples, incompleteness of test requisition forms regarding illegible writing, lack of information of treating physician and location of test ordering and difficulty in contacting the responsible caregiver.

  9. Bacterial diversity and composition in major fresh produce growing soils affected by physiochemical properties and geographic locations

    Ma, Jincai [Key Laboratory of Groundwater Resources and Environment, Ministry of Education, Jilin University, Changchun 130021 (China); USDA-ARS U. S. Salinity Laboratory, Riverside, CA 92507 (United States); Ibekwe, A. Mark, E-mail: Mark.Ibekwe@ars.usda.gov [USDA-ARS U. S. Salinity Laboratory, Riverside, CA 92507 (United States); Yang, Ching-Hong [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States); Crowley, David E. [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Microbial diversity of agricultural soils has been well documented, but information on leafy green producing soils is limited. In this study, we investigated microbial diversity and community structures in 32 (16 organic, 16 conventionally managed soils) from California (CA) and Arizona (AZ) using pyrosequencing, and identified factors affecting bacterial composition. Results of detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) and dissimilarity analysis showed that bacterial community structures of conventionally managed soils were similar to that of organically managed soils; while the bacterial community structures in soils from Salinas, California were different (P < 0.05) from those in soils from Yuma, Arizona and Imperial Valley, California. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) and artificial neural network (ANN) analysis of bacterial community structures and soil variables showed that electrical conductivity (EC), clay content, water-holding capacity (WHC), pH, total nitrogen (TN), and organic carbon (OC) significantly (P < 0.05) correlated with microbial communities. CCA based variation partitioning analysis (VPA) showed that soil physical properties (clay, EC, and WHC), soil chemical variables (pH, TN, and OC) and sampling location explained 16.3%, 12.5%, and 50.9%, respectively, of total variations in bacterial community structure, leaving 13% of the total variation unexplained. Our current study showed that bacterial community composition and diversity in major fresh produce growing soils from California and Arizona is a function of soil physiochemical characteristics and geographic distances of sampling sites. - Highlights: • Geographic distance was the most significant factor affecting microbial composition. • Physical and chemical properties significantly impacted microbial communities. • Higher numbers of OTUs were observed in organic soils than in convention soils.

  10. Bacterial diversity and composition in major fresh produce growing soils affected by physiochemical properties and geographic locations

    Ma, Jincai; Ibekwe, A. Mark; Yang, Ching-Hong; Crowley, David E.

    2016-01-01

    Microbial diversity of agricultural soils has been well documented, but information on leafy green producing soils is limited. In this study, we investigated microbial diversity and community structures in 32 (16 organic, 16 conventionally managed soils) from California (CA) and Arizona (AZ) using pyrosequencing, and identified factors affecting bacterial composition. Results of detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) and dissimilarity analysis showed that bacterial community structures of conventionally managed soils were similar to that of organically managed soils; while the bacterial community structures in soils from Salinas, California were different (P < 0.05) from those in soils from Yuma, Arizona and Imperial Valley, California. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) and artificial neural network (ANN) analysis of bacterial community structures and soil variables showed that electrical conductivity (EC), clay content, water-holding capacity (WHC), pH, total nitrogen (TN), and organic carbon (OC) significantly (P < 0.05) correlated with microbial communities. CCA based variation partitioning analysis (VPA) showed that soil physical properties (clay, EC, and WHC), soil chemical variables (pH, TN, and OC) and sampling location explained 16.3%, 12.5%, and 50.9%, respectively, of total variations in bacterial community structure, leaving 13% of the total variation unexplained. Our current study showed that bacterial community composition and diversity in major fresh produce growing soils from California and Arizona is a function of soil physiochemical characteristics and geographic distances of sampling sites. - Highlights: • Geographic distance was the most significant factor affecting microbial composition. • Physical and chemical properties significantly impacted microbial communities. • Higher numbers of OTUs were observed in organic soils than in convention soils

  11. VARIABLE STARS IN THE ULTRA-FAINT DWARF SPHEROIDAL GALAXY URSA MAJOR I

    Garofalo, Alessia; Moretti, Maria Ida [Dipartimento di Astronomia, Universita di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Cusano, Felice; Clementini, Gisella [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Ripepi, Vincenzo; Dall' Ora, Massimo; Coppola, Giuseppina; Musella, Ilaria; Marconi, Marcella, E-mail: alessia.garofalo@studio.unibo.it, E-mail: fcusano@na.astro.it, E-mail: gisella.clementini@oabo.inaf.it, E-mail: ripepi@na.astro.it, E-mail: dallora@na.astro.it, E-mail: imoretti@na.astro.it, E-mail: coppola@na.astro.it, E-mail: ilaria@na.astro.it, E-mail: marcella@na.astro.it [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Salita Moiariello 16, I-80131 Napoli (Italy)

    2013-04-10

    We have performed the first study of the variable star population of Ursa Major I (UMa I), an ultra-faint dwarf satellite recently discovered around the Milky Way (MW) by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Combining time series observations in the B and V bands from four different telescopes, we have identified seven RR Lyrae stars in UMa I, of which five are fundamental-mode (RRab) and two are first-overtone pulsators (RRc). Our V, B - V color-magnitude diagram of UMa I reaches V {approx} 23 mag (at a signal-to-noise ratio of {approx}6) and shows features typical of a single old stellar population. The mean pulsation period of the RRab stars (P{sub ab}) = 0.628, {sigma} = 0.071 days (or (P{sub ab}) = 0.599, {sigma} = 0.032 days, if V4, the longest period and brightest variable, is discarded) and the position on the period-amplitude diagram suggest an Oosterhoff-intermediate classification for the galaxy. The RR Lyrae stars trace the galaxy horizontal branch (HB) at an average apparent magnitude of (V(RR)) = 20.43 {+-} 0.02 mag (average on six stars and discarding V4), giving in turn a distance modulus for UMa I of (m - M){sub 0} = 19.94 {+-} 0.13 mag, distance d = 97.3{sup +6.0}{sub -5.7} kpc, in the scale where the distance modulus of the Large Magellanic Cloud is 18.5 {+-} 0.1 mag. Isodensity contours of UMa I red giants and HB stars (including the RR Lyrae stars identified in this study) show that the galaxy has an S-shaped structure, which is likely caused by the tidal interaction with the MW. Photometric metallicities were derived for six of the UMa I RR Lyrae stars from the parameters of the Fourier decomposition of the V-band light curves, leading to an average metal abundance of [Fe/H] = -2.29 dex ({sigma} = 0.06 dex, average on six stars) on the Carretta et al. metallicity scale.

  12. PISA 2012 Analysis of School Variables Affecting Problem-Solving Competency: Turkey-Serbia Comparison

    Emine YAVUZ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the OECD's PISA 2012 Turkey problem-solving report, Turkey and Serbia are at the same mathematical literacy level. However, Serbia's average of problem-solving competency is said to be higher than Turkey's. In this study, school variables that affect problem-solving competency of the two countries were examined and compared. The method of the study was causal comparison method, and HLM analysis was performed on data of 4494 students from 147 schools in Turkey sample and 4059 students from 132 schools in Serbia sample separately. As a result of HLM analysis, "obstacle and family donation" variable for Serbia and "abandon, teacher morale and mathematics competition" variable for Turkey were statistically significant. Although it was found that for each countries different variables influence the problem-solving competency, it was quite remarkable that these variables are in common in that they are components of the school climate concept.

  13. Analysis on Variables Affecting the Creation of Tourist Destination Image: Case Study on Domestic Tourists Visiting

    Khairani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the variables that affect the image creation of tourism destinations. This research is a case study on domestic tourists visiting Yogyakarta from 2007 to 2009. This research uses an exploratory and descriptive design, conducted once in one period (cross-sectional. A number of 105 domestic tourists were selected as samples by means of non-probability sampling method and snowball sampling technique. The data were analyzed using reliability and validity tests, frequency distributions, and regression analyses. Results showed that overall image was significantly constructed and affected by cognitive and affective evaluations. Cognitive evaluation was significantly affected by the types of information source from books and movies, while affective evaluation was affected significantly by social-psychological motivations. The research also proves that Yogyakarta has fulfilled the requirements to become a tourist destination; respondents showed positive feelings towards the town and also perceived the town positively.

  14. Understanding the Compositional Variability of the Major Components of Hydrothermal Plumes in the Okinawa Trough

    Zhigang Zeng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the major components of hydrothermal plumes in seafloor hydrothermal fields are critical for an improved understanding of biogeochemical cycles and the large-scale distribution of elements in the submarine environment. The composition of major components in hydrothermal plume water column samples from 25 stations has been investigated in the middle and southern Okinawa Trough. The physical and chemical properties of hydrothermal plume water in the Okinawa Trough have been affected by input of the Kuroshio current, and its influence on hydrothermal plume water from the southern Okinawa Trough to the middle Okinawa Trough is reduced. The anomalous layers of seawater in the hydrothermal plume water columns have higher K+, Ca2+, Mn2+, B3+, Ca2+/SO42-, and Mn2+/Mg2+ ratios and higher optical anomalies than other layers. The Mg2+, SO42-, Mg2+/Ca2+, and SO42-/Mn2+ ratios of the anomalous layers are lower than other layers in the hydrothermal plume water columns and are consistent with concentrations in hydrothermal vent fluids in the Okinawa Trough. This suggests that the chemical variations of hydrothermal plumes in the Tangyin hydrothermal field, like other hydrothermal fields, result in the discharge of high K+, Ca2+, and B3+ and low Mg2+ and SO42- fluid. Furthermore, element ratios (e.g., Sr2+/Ca2+, Ca2+/Cl− in hydrothermal plume water columns were found to be similar to those in average seawater, indicating that Sr2+/Ca2+ and Ca2+/Cl− ratios of hydrothermal plumes might be useful proxies for chemical properties of seawater. The hydrothermal K+, Ca2+, Mn2+, and B3+ flux to seawater in the Okinawa Trough is about 2.62–873, 1.04–326, 1.30–76.4, and 0.293–34.7 × 106 kg per year, respectively. The heat flux is about 0.159–1,973 × 105 W, which means that roughly 0.0006% of ocean heat is supplied by seafloor hydrothermal plumes in the Okinawa Trough.

  15. How Major Depressive Disorder affects the ability to decode multimodal dynamic emotional stimuli

    FILOMENA SCIBELLI

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Most studies investigating the processing of emotions in depressed patients reported impairments in the decoding of negative emotions. However, these studies adopted static stimuli (mostly stereotypical facial expressions corresponding to basic emotions which do not reflect the way people experience emotions in everyday life. For this reason, this work proposes to investigate the decoding of emotional expressions in patients affected by Recurrent Major Depressive Disorder (RMDDs using dynamic audio/video stimuli. RMDDs’ performance is compared with the performance of patients with Adjustment Disorder with Depressed Mood (ADs and healthy (HCs subjects. The experiments involve 27 RMDDs (16 with acute depression - RMDD-A, and 11 in a compensation phase - RMDD-C, 16 ADs and 16 HCs. The ability to decode emotional expressions is assessed through an emotion recognition task based on short audio (without video, video (without audio and audio/video clips. The results show that AD patients are significantly less accurate than HCs in decoding fear, anger, happiness, surprise and sadness. RMDD-As with acute depression are significantly less accurate than HCs in decoding happiness, sadness and surprise. Finally, no significant differences were found between HCs and RMDD-Cs in a compensation phase. The different communication channels and the types of emotion play a significant role in limiting the decoding accuracy.

  16. PSYCHOLOGICAL EVALUATION IN PREGNANT WOMEN AFFECTED BY THALASSEMIA MAJOR: TRAITS AND PERSONALITY

    Giuseppina Messina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The reproductive and sexual health issues concerning persons affected by thalassemia major are complex. The study was planned to investigate the psychological attitudes and expectations in a group of thalassemic pregnant women attending hospital for regular blood transfusion. Methods. The study included 20 consecutive thalassemic patients and a control group of 42 healthy pregnant volunteers. We evaluated the personality structure by Rorschach's test and the presence of psychic symptoms by SCL-90-R and STAI. Results. Narcissism and sexual traumas are significantly higher in thalassemic women with respects to the control group. Also the percent of anxiety and depression observed with the SCL-90-R was significantly higher than in control group. The score observed with the STAI shows that the state of anxiety changed significantly between thalassemic pregnant women and the control group, even though the scores values aren’t pathologic in neither group. Conclusions. This study addresses the need for developing, implementing and evaluating proper psychological support for thalassemic pregnant patients. The limit of this study is to analyze just thalassemic women because it doesn’t consider other pathologies; so the results can’t be extended to other pathologies different from thalassemic. Moreover, psychological screening and support prior to, during and following pregnancy would be indicated. Since not there are psychological studies in literature on the pregnancy in the thalassemic patients, the evaluation of the effects of pregnancy on the thalassemic disease will be the aim of future psychological investigations.

  17. Effects of salience-network-node neurofeedback training on affective biases in major depressive disorder.

    Hamilton, J Paul; Glover, Gary H; Bagarinao, Epifanio; Chang, Catie; Mackey, Sean; Sacchet, Matthew D; Gotlib, Ian H

    2016-03-30

    Neural models of major depressive disorder (MDD) posit that over-response of components of the brain's salience network (SN) to negative stimuli plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of MDD. In the present proof-of-concept study, we tested this formulation directly by examining the affective consequences of training depressed persons to down-regulate response of SN nodes to negative material. Ten participants in the real neurofeedback group saw, and attempted to learn to down-regulate, activity from an empirically identified node of the SN. Ten other participants engaged in an equivalent procedure with the exception that they saw SN-node neurofeedback indices from participants in the real neurofeedback group. Before and after scanning, all participants completed tasks assessing emotional responses to negative scenes and to negative and positive self-descriptive adjectives. Compared to participants in the sham-neurofeedback group, from pre- to post-training, participants in the real-neurofeedback group showed a greater decrease in SN-node response to negative stimuli, a greater decrease in self-reported emotional response to negative scenes, and a greater decrease in self-reported emotional response to negative self-descriptive adjectives. Our findings provide support for a neural formulation in which the SN plays a primary role in contributing to negative cognitive biases in MDD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Elementary Students' Affective Variables in a Networked Learning Environment Supported by a Blog: A Case Study

    Allaire, Stéphane; Thériault, Pascale; Gagnon, Vincent; Lalancette, Evelyne

    2013-01-01

    This study documents to what extent writing on a blog in a networked learning environment could influence the affective variables of elementary-school students' writing. The framework is grounded more specifically in theory of self-determination (Deci & Ryan, 1985), relationship to writing (Chartrand & Prince, 2009) and the transactional…

  19. Seasonal variability in irradiance affects herbicide toxicity to the marine flagellate Dunaliella tertiolecta

    Sjollema, S.B.; Vavourakis, C.D.; van der Geest, H.G.; Vethaak, A.D.; Admiraal, W.

    2014-01-01

    Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) and Ultraviolet Radiation (UVR) of the solar spectrum affect microalgae directly and modify the toxicity of phytotoxic compounds present in water. As a consequence seasonal variable PAR and UVR levels are likely to modulate the toxic pressure of contaminants

  20. Effects of Situational Variables on Affective Self-Disclosure with Acquaintances.

    Highlen, Pamela S.; Johnston, Barbara

    1979-01-01

    Studied 72 college students to determine effects of subject sex and situational factors on affective self-disclosure with acquaintances. Feeling, role, and sex of subject were contextual variables influencing expression of feelings. Responding with positive feelings is the optimal situational context for expression of feelings to acquaintances.…

  1. Attitudinal Variables Affecting Education Reforms and Quality of Primary Education in Uganda

    Nyenje, Aida; Nkata, James

    2016-01-01

    This paper establishes the extent to which attitudinal variables affect the education reforms and subsequently the quality of primary education in Uganda. The paper is based on the views of a wide spectrum of different education stakeholders including: policy analysts, Members of Parliament (MPs), education officers, Headteachers, teaching staff,…

  2. Literacy in the Southern Sudan: A Case Study of Variables Affecting Literacy Programs.

    Cowan, J. Ronayne

    1983-01-01

    Describes the Local Languages Literacy Project in the Southern Sudan; delineates the most important educational, socioeconomic, and linguistic variables affecting the success of large-scale literacy programs in Africa; and questions the widely held assumption that indigenous language literacy is essential to subsequent literacy in the prestige…

  3. Physiological characteristics of Plantago major under SO2 exposure as affected by foliar iron spray.

    Mohasseli, Vahid; Khoshgoftarmanesh, Amir Hossein; Shariatmadari, Hossein

    2017-08-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) is considered as a main air pollutant in industrialized areas that can damage vegetation. In the present study, we investigated how exposure to SO 2 and foliar application of iron (Fe) would affect certain physiological characteristics of Plantago major. The plant seedlings exposed or unexposed to SO 2 (3900 μg m -3 ) were non-supplemented or supplemented with Fe (3 g L -1 ) as foliar spray. Plants were exposed to SO 2 for 6 weeks in 100 × 70 × 70 cm chambers. Fumigation of plants with SO 2 was performed for 3 h daily for 3 days per week (alternate day). Lower leaf Fe concentration in the plants exposed to SO 2 at no added Fe treatment was accompanied with incidence of chlorosis symptoms and reduced chlorophyll concentration. No visible chlorotic symptoms were observed on the SO 2 -exposed plants supplied with Fe that accumulated higher Fe in their leaves. Both at with and without added Fe treatments, catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) activity was higher in the plants fumigated with SO 2 in comparison with those non-fumigated with SO 2 . Foliar application of Fe was also effective in increasing activity of antioxidant enzymes CAT and POD. Exposure to SO 2 led to reduced cellulose but enhanced lignin content of plant leaf cell wall. The results obtained showed that foliar application of Fe was effective in reducing the effects of exposure to SO 2 on cell wall composition. In contrast to SO 2 , application of Fe increased cellulose while decreased lignin content of the leaf cell wall. This might be due to reduced oxidative stress induced by SO 2 in plants supplied with Fe compared with those unsupplied with Fe.

  4. A Quantitative Approach to Variables Affecting Production of Short Films in Turkey

    Vedat Akman

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore the influence of various variables affecting the production of migration themed short films in Turkey. We proceeded to our analysis using descriptive statistics to describe the main futures of the sample data quantitatively. Due to non-uniformity of the data available, we were unable to use inductive statistics. Our basic sample statistical results indicated that short film producers prefered to produce short films on domestic migration theme rather than international. Gender and university seemed on surface as significant determinants to the production of migration themed short films in Turkey. We also looked at the demografic variables to provide more insights into our quantitative approach.

  5. Daily variability in working memory is coupled with negative affect: the role of attention and motivation.

    Brose, Annette; Schmiedek, Florian; Lövdén, Martin; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2012-06-01

    Across days, individuals experience varying levels of negative affect, control of attention, and motivation. We investigated whether this intraindividual variability was coupled with daily fluctuations in working memory (WM) performance. In 100 days, 101 younger individuals worked on a spatial N-back task and rated negative affect, control of attention, and motivation. Results showed that individuals differed in how reliably WM performance fluctuated across days, and that subjective experiences were primarily linked to performance accuracy. WM performance was lower on days with higher levels of negative affect, reduced control of attention, and reduced task-related motivation. Thus, variables that were found to predict WM in between-subjects designs showed important relationships to WM at the within-person level. In addition, there was shared predictive variance among predictors of WM. Days with increased negative affect and reduced performance were also days with reduced control of attention and reduced motivation to work on tasks. These findings are in line with proposed mechanisms linking negative affect and cognitive performance.

  6. Brand Loyalty Factors Affecting the Hotel Elections of Tourists investigation with Respect to the Demographic Variables

    Ahmet Tayfun

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to investigate the factors affecting hotel guests’s brand loyalty and these factors is to determine whether there is a difference or not according to the demographic variables. Within this purpose, a survey research was conducted on the guests staying in the five star hotels of Ankara, Turkey. The research was carried out in two stages, namely the pilot study and the main study. As a result of study, while the factors affecting brand loyalty differs based on the gender and the age of the participants (p0,05

  7. Factors affecting temporal variability of arsenic in groundwater used for drinking water supply in the United States.

    Ayotte, Joseph D; Belaval, Marcel; Olson, Scott A; Burow, Karen R; Flanagan, Sarah M; Hinkle, Stephen R; Lindsey, Bruce D

    2015-02-01

    The occurrence of arsenic in groundwater is a recognized environmental hazard with worldwide importance and much effort has been focused on surveying and predicting where arsenic occurs. Temporal variability is one aspect of this environmental hazard that has until recently received less attention than other aspects. For this study, we analyzed 1245 wells with two samples per well. We suggest that temporal variability, often reported as affecting very few wells, is perhaps a larger issue than it appears and has been overshadowed by datasets with large numbers of non-detect data. Although there was only a slight difference in arsenic concentration variability among samples from public and private wells (p=0.0452), the range of variability was larger for public than for private wells. Further, we relate the variability we see to geochemical factors-primarily variability in redox-but also variability in major-ion chemistry. We also show that in New England there is a weak but statistically significant indication that seasonality may have an effect on concentrations, whereby concentrations in the first two quarters of the year (January-June) are significantly lower than in the second two quarters (July-December) (pgroundwater levels. It is possible that this difference in arsenic concentrations is related to groundwater level changes, pumping stresses, evapotranspiration effects, or perhaps mixing of more oxidizing, lower pH recharge water in wetter months. Focusing on the understanding the geochemical conditions in aquifers where arsenic concentrations are concerns and causes of geochemical changes in the groundwater environment may lead to a better understanding of where and by how much arsenic will vary over time. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Weather variability affects the Peregrine Falcon (F. p. tundrius) breeding success in South Greenland

    Carlzon, Linnéa; Karlsson, Amanda; Falk, Knud

    Global warming is affecting the Arctic at a much higher rate than the rest of the globe, causing a rapidly changing environment for Arctic biota. Climate change is already causing increased variability and extremes in precipitation. Although the peregrine falcon is a well-studied top predator...... in the Arctic only a few studies have identified how the changing weather patterns affect the breeding populations. Therefore, in order to understand the effects of climate change on the peregrine’s future prospects, we investigated the relationship between weather variability (“extreme weather”) and breeding......’ and total days with ‘extreme weather’ during the pre-laying and incubation period also had significant negative correlation with breeding success. Contrary to expectations (and other studies), we found no significant effect of precipitation during the nesting period. Results also indicate that other factors...

  9. Endogenous Pain Modulation: Association with Resting Heart Rate Variability and Negative Affectivity.

    Van Den Houte, Maaike; Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Bogaerts, Katleen; Van Diest, Ilse; Van den Bergh, Omer

    2017-07-21

    Several chronic pain syndromes are characterized by deficient endogenous pain modulation as well as elevated negative affectivity and reduced resting heart rate variability. In order to elucidate the relationships between these characteristics, we investigated whether negative affectivity and heart rate variability are associated with endogenous pain modulation in a healthy population. An offset analgesia paradigm with noxious thermal stimulation calibrated to the individual's pain threshold was used to measure endogenous pain modulation magnitude in 63 healthy individuals. Pain ratings during constant noxious heat stimulation to the arm (15 seconds) were compared with ratings during noxious stimulation comprising a 1 °C rise and return of temperature to the initial level (offset trials, 15 seconds). Offset analgesia was defined as the reduction in pain following the 1 °C decrease relative to pain at the same time point during continuous heat stimulation. Evidence for an offset analgesia effect could only be found when noxious stimulation intensity (and, hence, the individual's pain threshold) was intermediate (46 °C or 47 °C). Offset analgesia magnitude was also moderated by resting heart rate variability: a small but significant offset effect was found in participants with high but not low heart rate variability. Negative affectivity was not related to offset analgesia magnitude. These results indicate that resting heart rate variability (HRV) is related to endogenous pain modulation (EPM) in a healthy population. Future research should focus on clarifying the causal relationship between HRV and EPM and chronic pain by using longitudinal study designs. © 2017 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  10. Do Affective Variables Make a Difference in Consumers Behavior Toward Mobile Advertising?

    Mart?nez-Ruiz, Mar?a Pilar; Izquierdo-Yusta, Alicia; Olarte-Pascual, Cristina; Reinares-Lara, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Research into permission-based mobile marketing is increasingly common due to the widespread adoption of mobile technology and its use as a communication channel. Yet few studies have attempted to analyze the factors that determine attitudes toward mobile advertising while simultaneously considering: the links among them and consumers' intentions, behavior, and/or cognitive and affective variables simultaneously. The present research therefore sought to deepen understanding of the antecedents...

  11. Representing major soil variability at regional scale by constrained Latin Hypercube Sampling of remote sensing data

    Mulder, V.L.; Bruin, de S.; Schaepman, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a sparse, remote sensing-based sampling approach making use of conditioned Latin Hypercube Sampling (cLHS) to assess variability in soil properties at regional scale. The method optimizes the sampling scheme for a defined spatial population based on selected covariates, which are

  12. On the increased risk of developing late-onset epilepsy for patients with major affective disorder

    Nilsson, Flemming Mørkeberg; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Bolwig, Tom Gert

    2003-01-01

    for the control groups. However, the increased risk seemed to be due to the effect of comorbid alcohol or drug abuse and not to the effect of the affective illness itself. LIMITATIONS: The results only apply to hospitalised patients. Diagnoses are not validated for research purposes. CONCLUSION: Patients...... with a diagnosis of affective disorder have an increased risk of developing epilepsy in later life. In patients with affective disorder, comorbid alcoholism/drug abuse seriously increased the risk of a subsequent diagnosis of epilepsy....

  13. An investigation of factors affecting elementary female student teachers' choice of science as a major at college level in Zimbabwe

    Mlenga, Francis Howard

    The purpose of the study was to determine factors affecting elementary female student teachers' choice of science as a major at college level in Zimbabwe. The study was conducted at one of the Primary School Teachers' Colleges in Zimbabwe. A sample of two hundred and thirty-eight female student teachers was used in the study. Of these one hundred and forty-two were non-science majors who had been randomly selected, forty-one were science majors and forty-five were math majors. Both science and math majors were a convenient sample because the total enrollment of the two groups was small. All the subjects completed a survey questionnaire that had sixty-eight items. Ten students from the non-science majors were selected for individual interviews and the same was done for the science majors. A further eighteen were selected from the non-science majors and divided into three groups of six each for focus group interviews. The same was done for the science majors. The interviews were audio taped and transcribed. Data from the survey questionnaires were analyzed using Binary Logistic Regression which predicted factors that affected students' choice of science as a major. The transcribed interview data were analyzed used using domain, taxonomic and componential analyses. Results of the study indicated that elementary female students' choice of science as a major at college level is affected by students' attitudes toward science, teacher behavior, out-of-school experiences, role models, gender stereotyping, parental influence, peer influence, in-school experiences, and societal expectations, namely cultural and social expectations.

  14. Depressed mood, positive affect, and heart rate variability in patients with suspected coronary artery disease.

    Bhattacharyya, Mimi R; Whitehead, Daisy L; Rakhit, Roby; Steptoe, Andrew

    2008-11-01

    To test associations between heart rate variability (HRV), depressed mood, and positive affect in patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). Depression is associated with impaired HRV post acute cardiac events, but evidence in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) is inconsistent. Seventy-six patients (52 men, 24 women; mean age = 61.1 years) being investigated for suspected CAD on the basis of symptomatology and positive noninvasive tests, completed 24-hour electrocardiograms. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was administered, and positive and depressed affect was measured over the study period with the Day Reconstruction Method (DRM). A total of 46 (60.5%) patients were later found to have definite CAD. HRV was analyzed, using spectral analysis. Typical diurnal profiles of HRV were observed, with greater normalized high frequency (HF) and lower normalized low frequency (LF) power in the night compared with the day. BDI depression scores were not consistently associated with HRV. But positive affect was associated with greater normalized HF power (p = .039) and reduced normalized LF power (p = .007) independently of age, gender, medication with beta blockers, CAD status, body mass index, smoking, and habitual physical activity level. In patients with definite CAD, depressed affect assessed using the DRM was associated with reduced normalized HF power and heightened normalized LF power (p = .007) independently of covariates. Relationships between depression and HRV in patients with CAD may depend on affective experience over the monitoring period. Enhanced parasympathetic cardiac control may be a process through which positive affect protects against cardiovascular disease.

  15. Genome-Wide Association Study in Dachshund: Identification of a Major Locus Affecting Intervertebral Disc Calcification

    Mogensen, Mette Sloth; Karlskov-Mortensen, Peter; Proschowsky, Helle Friis

    2011-01-01

    Intervertebral disc calcification and herniation commonly affects Dachshund where the predisposition is caused by an early onset degenerative process resulting in disc calcification. A continuous spectrum of disc degeneration is seen within and among clog breeds, suggesting a multifactorial etiol...

  16. Seasonal and spatial variability of major organic contaminants in solution and suspension of the Pomeranian Bight

    Graeve, Martin; Wodarg, Dirk

    2003-01-01

    Studies of hexachlorocyclohexane-isomers (HCHs) and selected triazine herbicides in solution and suspension were carried out in the Pomeranian Bight in 1995. The concentrations of HCHs and triazines were determined by gas-liquid chromatography (GC) or by GC in connection with quadrupole mass spectrometry(GC/MS). Particulate and dissolved material were separated by means of an in-situ filtration/extraction system. The seasonal variability and regional distribution of the various component...

  17. Climatically driven yield variability of major crops in Khakassia (South Siberia)

    Babushkina, Elena A.; Belokopytova, Liliana V.; Zhirnova, Dina F.; Shah, Santosh K.; Kostyakova, Tatiana V.

    2017-12-01

    We investigated the variability of yield of the three main crop cultures in the Khakassia Republic: spring wheat, spring barley, and oats. In terms of yield values, variability characteristics, and climatic response, the agricultural territory of Khakassia can be divided into three zones: (1) the Northern Zone, where crops yield has a high positive response to the amount of precipitation, May-July, and a moderately negative one to the temperatures of the same period; (2) the Central Zone, where crops yield depends mainly on temperatures; and (3) the Southern Zone, where climate has the least expressed impact on yield. The dominant pattern in the crops yield is caused by water stress during periods of high temperatures and low moisture supply with heat stress as additional reason. Differences between zones are due to combinations of temperature latitudinal gradient, precipitation altitudinal gradient, and the presence of a well-developed hydrological network and the irrigational system as moisture sources in the Central Zone. More detailed analysis shows differences in the climatic sensitivity of crops during phases of their vegetative growth and grain development and, to a lesser extent, during harvesting period. Multifactor linear regression models were constructed to estimate climate- and autocorrelation-induced variability of the crops yield. These models allowed prediction of the possibility of yield decreasing by at least 2-11% in the next decade due to increasing of the regional summer temperatures.

  18. Pathogen burden, co-infection and major histocompatibility complex variability in the European badger (Meles meles)

    Sin, Yung Wa; Annavi, Geetha; Dugdale, Hannah L.; Newman, Chris; Burke, Terry; MacDonald, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Pathogen-mediated selection is thought to maintain the extreme diversity in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes, operating through the heterozygote advantage, rare-allele advantage and fluctuating selection mechanisms. Heterozygote advantage (i.e. recognizing and binding a wider range

  19. Major histocompatibility complex class III genes and susceptibility to immunoglobulin A deficiency and common variable immunodeficiency.

    Volanakis, J E; Zhu, Z B; Schaffer, F M; Macon, K J; Palermos, J; Barger, B O; Go, R; Campbell, R D; Schroeder, H W; Cooper, M D

    1992-01-01

    We have proposed that significant subsets of individuals with IgA deficiency (IgA-D) and common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) may represent polar ends of a clinical spectrum reflecting a single underlying genetic defect. This proposal was supported by our finding that individuals with these immunodeficiencies have in common a high incidence of C4A gene deletions and C2 rare gene alleles. Here we present our analysis of the MHC haplotypes of 12 IgA-D and 19 CVID individuals from 21 families...

  20. Fish allergens at a glance: Variable allergenicity of parvalbumins, the major fish allergens

    Annette eKuehn; Ines eSwoboda; Karthik eArumugam; Christiane eHilger; François eHentges; François eHentges

    2014-01-01

    Fish is a common trigger of severe, food-allergic reactions. Only a limited number of proteins induce specific IgE-mediated immune reactions. The major fish allergens are the parvalbumins. They are members of the calcium-binding EF-hand protein family characterized by a conserved protein structure. They represent highly cross-reactive allergens for patients with specific IgE to conserved epitopes. These patients might experience clinical reactions with various fish species. On the other hand,...

  1. Fish Allergens at a Glance: Variable Allergenicity of Parvalbumins, the Major Fish Allergens

    Kuehn, Annette; Swoboda, Ines; Arumugam, Karthik; Hilger, Christiane; Hentges, François

    2014-01-01

    Fish is a common trigger of severe, food-allergic reactions. Only a limited number of proteins induce specific IgE-mediated immune reactions. The major fish allergens are the parvalbumins. They are members of the calcium-binding EF-hand protein family characterized by a conserved protein structure. They represent highly cross-reactive allergens for patients with specific IgE to conserved epitopes. These patients might experience clinical reactions with various fish species. On the other hand,...

  2. Economic impact of clinical variability in preoperative testing for major outpatient surgery.

    Gil-Borrelli, Christian Carlo; Agustí, Salomé; Pla, Rosa; Díaz-Redondo, Alicia; Zaballos, Matilde

    2016-05-01

    With the purpose of decreasing the existing variability in the criteria of preoperative evaluation and facilitating the clinical decision-making process, our hospital has a protocol of preoperative tests to use with ASA I and ASA II patients. The aim of the study was to calculate the economic impact caused by clinicians' non-adherence to the protocol for the anaesthesiological evaluation of ASA 1 and ASA II patients. A retrospective study of costs with a random sample of 353 patients that were seen in the consultation for Anesthesiology over a period of one year. Aspects related to the costs, patient's profiles and specialties were analysed, according to the degree of fulfillment of the protocol. The lack of adherence to the the protocol was 70%. 130 chest X-rays and 218 ECG were performed without indication. This generated an excess costs of 34 € per patient. Taking into account the expenses of both tests and the attended population undergoing ambulatory surgery during the one-year period, an excess spending for the hospital of between 69.164 € and 83.312 € was estimated. Clinical variability should be reduced and the creation of synergies between the different departments should be enhanced in order to adjust the request for unnecessary complementary tests to decrease health care and to improve the quality of patient care. Copyright © 2016 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Spring phenology does not affect timing of reproduction in the great tit (Parus major)

    Schaper, S.V.; Rueda, C.; Sharp, P.J.; Dawson, A.; Visser, M.E.

    2011-01-01

    Many seasonal breeders adjust the timing of reproduction in response to year-to-year variations in supplementary environmental cues, amongst which ambient temperature is thought to be most influential. However, it is possible that for species such as the great tit (Parus major L.), phenological cues

  4. The major genetic determinants of HIV-1 control affect HLA class I peptide presentation

    Pereyra, Florencia; Jia, Xiaoming; McLaren, Paul J.; Telenti, Amalio; de Bakker, Paul I. W.; Walker, Bruce D.; Ripke, Stephan; Brumme, Chanson J.; Pulit, Sara L.; Carrington, Mary; Kadie, Carl M.; Carlson, Jonathan M.; Heckerman, David; Graham, Robert R.; Plenge, Robert M.; Deeks, Steven G.; Gianniny, Lauren; Crawford, Gabriel; Sullivan, Jordan; Gonzalez, Elena; Davies, Leela; Camargo, Amy; Moore, Jamie M.; Beattie, Nicole; Gupta, Supriya; Crenshaw, Andrew; Burtt, Noël P.; Guiducci, Candace; Gupta, Namrata; Gao, Xiaojiang; Qi, Ying; Yuki, Yuko; Piechocka-Trocha, Alicja; Cutrell, Emily; Rosenberg, Rachel; Moss, Kristin L.; Lemay, Paul; O'Leary, Jessica; Schaefer, Todd; Verma, Pranshu; Toth, Ildiko; Block, Brian; Baker, Brett; Rothchild, Alissa; Lian, Jeffrey; Proudfoot, Jacqueline; Alvino, Donna Marie L.; Vine, Seanna; Addo, Marylyn M.; Allen, Todd M.; Altfeld, Marcus; Henn, Matthew R.; Le Gall, Sylvie; Streeck, Hendrik; Haas, David W.; Kuritzkes, Daniel R.; Robbins, Gregory K.; Shafer, Robert W.; Gulick, Roy M.; Shikuma, Cecilia M.; Haubrich, Richard; Riddler, Sharon; Sax, Paul E.; Daar, Eric S.; Ribaudo, Heather J.; Agan, Brian; Agarwal, Shanu; Ahern, Richard L.; Allen, Brady L.; Altidor, Sherly; Altschuler, Eric L.; Ambardar, Sujata; Anastos, Kathryn; Anderson, Ben; Anderson, Val; Andrady, Ushan; Antoniskis, Diana; Bangsberg, David; Barbaro, Daniel; Barrie, William; Bartczak, J.; Barton, Simon; Basden, Patricia; Basgoz, Nesli; Bazner, Suzane; Bellos, Nicholaos C.; Benson, Anne M.; Berger, Judith; Bernard, Nicole F.; Bernard, Annette M.; Birch, Christopher; Bodner, Stanley J.; Bolan, Robert K.; Boudreaux, Emilie T.; Bradley, Meg; Braun, James F.; Brndjar, Jon E.; Brown, Stephen J.; Brown, Katherine; Brown, Sheldon T.; Burack, Jedidiah; Bush, Larry M.; Cafaro, Virginia; Campbell, Omobolaji; Campbell, John; Carlson, Robert H.; Carmichael, J. Kevin; Casey, Kathleen K.; Cavacuiti, Chris; Celestin, Gregory; Chambers, Steven T.; Chez, Nancy; Chirch, Lisa M.; Cimoch, Paul J.; Cohen, Daniel; Cohn, Lillian E.; Conway, Brian; Cooper, David A.; Cornelson, Brian; Cox, David T.; Cristofano, Michael V.; Cuchural, George; Czartoski, Julie L.; Dahman, Joseph M.; Daly, Jennifer S.; Davis, Benjamin T.; Davis, Kristine; Davod, Sheila M.; DeJesus, Edwin; Dietz, Craig A.; Dunham, Eleanor; Dunn, Michael E.; Ellerin, Todd B.; Eron, Joseph J.; Fangman, John J. W.; Farel, Claire E.; Ferlazzo, Helen; Fidler, Sarah; Fleenor-Ford, Anita; Frankel, Renee; Freedberg, Kenneth A.; French, Neel K.; Fuchs, Jonathan D.; Fuller, Jon D.; Gaberman, Jonna; Gallant, Joel E.; Gandhi, Rajesh T.; Garcia, Efrain; Garmon, Donald; Gathe, Joseph C.; Gaultier, Cyril R.; Gebre, Wondwoosen; Gilman, Frank D.; Gilson, Ian; Goepfert, Paul A.; Gottlieb, Michael S.; Goulston, Claudia; Groger, Richard K.; Gurley, T. Douglas; Haber, Stuart; Hardwicke, Robin; Hardy, W. David; Harrigan, P. Richard; Hawkins, Trevor N.; Heath, Sonya; Hecht, Frederick M.; Henry, W. Keith; Hladek, Melissa; Hoffman, Robert P.; Horton, James M.; Hsu, Ricky K.; Huhn, Gregory D.; Hunt, Peter; Hupert, Mark J.; Illeman, Mark L.; Jaeger, Hans; Jellinger, Robert M.; John, Mina; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Johnson, Kristin L.; Johnson, Heather; Johnson, Kay; Joly, Jennifer; Jordan, Wilbert C.; Kauffman, Carol A.; Khanlou, Homayoon; Killian, Robert K.; Kim, Arthur Y.; Kim, David D.; Kinder, Clifford A.; Kirchner, Jeffrey T.; Kogelman, Laura; Kojic, Erna Milunka; Korthuis, P. Todd; Kurisu, Wayne; Kwon, Douglas S.; LaMar, Melissa; Lampiris, Harry; Lanzafame, Massimiliano; Lederman, Michael M.; Lee, David M.; Lee, Jean M. L.; Lee, Marah J.; Lee, Edward T. Y.; Lemoine, Janice; Levy, Jay A.; Llibre, Josep M.; Liguori, Michael A.; Little, Susan J.; Liu, Anne Y.; Lopez, Alvaro J.; Loutfy, Mono R.; Loy, Dawn; Mohammed, Debbie Y.; Man, Alan; Mansour, Michael K.; Marconi, Vincent C.; Markowitz, Martin; Marques, Rui; Martin, Jeffrey N.; Martin, Harold L.; Mayer, Kenneth Hugh; McElrath, M. Juliana; McGhee, Theresa A.; McGovern, Barbara H.; McGowan, Katherine; McIntyre, Dawn; Mcleod, Gavin X.; Menezes, Prema; Mesa, Greg; Metroka, Craig E.; Meyer-Olson, Dirk; Miller, Andy O.; Montgomery, Kate; Mounzer, Karam C.; Nagami, Ellen H.; Nagin, Iris; Nahass, Ronald G.; Nelson, Margret O.; Nielsen, Craig; Norene, David L.; O'Connor, David H.; Ojikutu, Bisola O.; Okulicz, Jason; Oladehin, Olakunle O.; Oldfield, Edward C.; Olender, Susan A.; Ostrowski, Mario; Owen, William F.; Pae, Eunice; Parsonnet, Jeffrey; Pavlatos, Andrew M.; Perlmutter, Aaron M.; Pierce, Michael N.; Pincus, Jonathan M.; Pisani, Leandro; Price, Lawrence Jay; Proia, Laurie; Prokesch, Richard C.; Pujet, Heather Calderon; Ramgopal, Moti; Rathod, Almas; Rausch, Michael; Ravishankar, J.; Rhame, Frank S.; Richards, Constance Shamuyarira; Richman, Douglas D.; Rodes, Berta; Rodriguez, Milagros; Rose, Richard C.; Rosenberg, Eric S.; Rosenthal, Daniel; Ross, Polly E.; Rubin, David S.; Rumbaugh, Elease; Saenz, Luis; Salvaggio, Michelle R.; Sanchez, William C.; Sanjana, Veeraf M.; Santiago, Steven; Schmidt, Wolfgang; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Sestak, Philip M.; Shalit, Peter; Shay, William; Shirvani, Vivian N.; Silebi, Vanessa I.; Sizemore, James M.; Skolnik, Paul R.; Sokol-Anderson, Marcia; Sosman, James M.; Stabile, Paul; Stapleton, Jack T.; Starrett, Sheree; Stein, Francine; Stellbrink, Hans-Jurgen; Sterman, F. Lisa; Stone, Valerie E.; Stone, David R.; Tambussi, Giuseppe; Taplitz, Randy A.; Tedaldi, Ellen M.; Theisen, William; Torres, Richard; Tosiello, Lorraine; Tremblay, Cecile; Tribble, Marc A.; Trinh, Phuong D.; Tsao, Alice; Ueda, Peggy; Vaccaro, Anthony; Valadas, Emilia; Vanig, Thanes J.; Vecino, Isabel; Vega, Vilma M.; Veikley, Wenoah; Wade, Barbara H.; Walworth, Charles; Wanidworanun, Chingchai; Ward, Douglas J.; Warner, Daniel A.; Weber, Robert D.; Webster, Duncan; Weis, Steve; Wheeler, David A.; White, David J.; Wilkins, Ed; Winston, Alan; Wlodaver, Clifford G.; van't Wout, Angelique; Wright, David P.; Yang, Otto O.; Yurdin, David L.; Zabukovic, Brandon W.; Zachary, Kimon C.; Zeeman, Beth; Zhao, Meng

    2010-01-01

    Infectious and inflammatory diseases have repeatedly shown strong genetic associations within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC); however, the basis for these associations remains elusive. To define host genetic effects on the outcome of a chronic viral infection, we performed genome-wide

  5. An indication of major genes affecting hip and elbow dysplasia in four Finnish dog populations

    Maki, K.; Janss, L.L.G.; Groen, A.F.; Liinamo, A.E.; Ojala, M.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the possible existence of major genes influencing hip and elbow dysplasia in four dog populations. A Bayesian segregation analysis was performed separately on each population. In total, 34 140 dogs were included in the data set. Data were analysed with both a

  6. Prodromal Symptoms and Atypical Affectivity as Predictors of Major Depression in Juveniles: Implications for Prevention

    Kovacs, Maria; Lopez-Duran, Nestor

    2010-01-01

    Background: Given the long-term morbidity of juvenile-onset major depressive disorder (MDD), it is timely to consider whether more effort should be dedicated to its primary and secondary prevention. Methods: We reviewed studies of prodromal symptoms that may herald a first episode pediatric MDD and considered whether that literature has made an…

  7. Sensitivity analysis on uncertainty variables affecting the NPP's LUEC with probabilistic approach

    Nuryanti; Akhmad Hidayatno; Erlinda Muslim

    2013-01-01

    One thing that is quite crucial to be reviewed prior to any investment decision on the nuclear power plant (NPP) project is the calculation of project economic, including calculation of Levelized Unit Electricity Cost (LUEC). Infrastructure projects such as NPP’s project are vulnerable to a number of uncertainty variables. Information on the uncertainty variables which makes LUEC’s value quite sensitive due to the changes of them is necessary in order the cost overrun can be avoided. Therefore this study aimed to do the sensitivity analysis on variables that affect LUEC with probabilistic approaches. This analysis was done by using Monte Carlo technique that simulate the relationship between the uncertainty variables and visible impact on LUEC. The sensitivity analysis result shows the significant changes on LUEC value of AP1000 and OPR due to the sensitivity of investment cost and capacity factors. While LUEC changes due to sensitivity of U 3 O 8 ’s price looks not quite significant. (author)

  8. Comparison of environmental forcings affecting suspended sediments variability in two macrotidal, highly-turbid estuaries

    Jalón-Rojas, Isabel; Schmidt, Sabine; Sottolichio, Aldo

    2017-11-01

    The relative contribution of environmental forcing frequencies on turbidity variability is, for the first time, quantified at seasonal and multiannual time scales in tidal estuarine systems. With a decade of high-frequency, multi-site turbidity monitoring, the two nearby, macrotidal and highly-turbid Gironde and Loire estuaries (west France) are excellent natural laboratories for this purpose. Singular Spectrum Analyses, combined with Lomb-Scargle periodograms and Wavelet Transforms, were applied to the continuous multiannual turbidity time series. Frequencies of the main environmental factors affecting turbidity were identified: hydrological regime (high versus low river discharges), river flow variability, tidal range, tidal cycles, and turbulence. Their relative influences show similar patterns in both estuaries and depend on the estuarine region (lower or upper estuary) and the time scale (multiannual or seasonal). On the multiannual time scale, the relative contribution of tidal frequencies (tidal cycles and range) to turbidity variability decreases up-estuary from 68% to 47%, while the influence of river flow frequencies increases from 3% to 42%. On the seasonal time scale, the relative influence of forcings frequencies remains almost constant in the lower estuary, dominated by tidal frequencies (60% and 30% for tidal cycles and tidal range, respectively); in the upper reaches, it is variable depending on hydrological regime, even if tidal frequencies are responsible for up 50% of turbidity variance. These quantifications show the potential of combined spectral analyses to compare the behavior of suspended sediment in tidal estuaries throughout the world and to evaluate long-term changes in environmental forcings, especially in a context of global change. The relevance of this approach to compare nearby and overseas systems and to support management strategies is discussed (e.g., selection of effective operation frequencies/regions, prediction of the most

  9. Achieving salt-cooled reactor goals: economics, variable electricity, no major fuel failures - 15118

    Forsberg, C.

    2015-01-01

    The Fluoride-salt-cooled High-temperature Reactor (FHR) with a Nuclear air-Brayton Combined Cycle (NACC) and Firebrick Resistance-Heated Energy Storage (FIRES) is a new reactor concept. The FHR uses High-Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) coated-particle fuel and liquid-salt coolants originally developed for molten salt reactors (MSRs) where the fuel was dissolved in the coolant. The FIRES system consists of high-temperature firebrick heated to high temperatures with electricity at times of low electric prices. For a modular FHR operating with a base-load 100 MWe output, the station output can vary from -242 MWe to +242 MWe. The FHR can be built in different sizes. The reactor concept was developed using a top-down approach: markets, requirements, reactor design. The goals are: (1) increase plant revenue by 50 to 100% relative to base-load nuclear plants with capital costs similar to light-water reactors, (2) enable a zero-carbon nuclear renewable electricity grid, and (3) no potential for major fuel failure and thus no potential for major radionuclide offsite releases in a beyond-design-basis accident (BDBA). The basis for the goals and how they may be achieved is described

  10. Transforming p21 ras protein: flexibility in the major variable region linking the catalytic and membrane-anchoring domains

    Willumsen, B M; Papageorge, A G; Hubbert, N

    1985-01-01

    or increasing it to 50 amino acids has relatively little effect on the capacity of the gene to induce morphological transformation of NIH 3T3 cells. Assays of GTP binding, GTPase and autophosphorylating activities of such mutant v-rasH-encoded proteins synthesized in bacteria indicated that the sequences...... that is required for post-translational processing, membrane localization and transforming activity of the proteins. We have now used the viral oncogene (v-rasH) of Harvey sarcoma virus to study the major variable region by deleting or duplicating parts of the gene. Reducing this region to five amino acids...... that encode these biochemical activities are located upstream from the major variable region. In the context of transformation, we propose that the region of sequence heterogeneity serves principally to connect the N-terminal catalytic domain with amino acids at the C terminus that are required to anchor...

  11. Variables affecting resolution of lung phospholipids in one-dimensional thin-layer chromatography.

    Krahn, J

    1987-01-01

    Resolution of the confusion in the literature about the separation of lung phospholipids in thin-layer chromatographic systems has awaited a systematic study of the variables that potentially affect this separation. In this study I show that: incorporation of ammonium sulfate into silica gel "GHL" has a dramatic effect on separation of lung phospholipids; this effect is equally dramatic but different in activated and nonactivated gels; when it picks up moisture, ammonium sulfate-activated gel very rapidly loses its ability to resolve lecithin from phosphatidylinositol; in gel containing ammonium sulfate, small amounts of phosphatidylethanolamine are hydrolyzed to lyso-phosphatidylethanolamine.

  12. The major genetic determinants of HIV-1 control affect HLA class I peptide presentation.

    Pereyra, Florencia; Jia, Xiaoming; McLaren, Paul J; Telenti, Amalio; de Bakker, Paul I W; Walker, Bruce D; Ripke, Stephan; Brumme, Chanson J; Pulit, Sara L; Carrington, Mary; Kadie, Carl M; Carlson, Jonathan M; Heckerman, David; Graham, Robert R; Plenge, Robert M; Deeks, Steven G; Gianniny, Lauren; Crawford, Gabriel; Sullivan, Jordan; Gonzalez, Elena; Davies, Leela; Camargo, Amy; Moore, Jamie M; Beattie, Nicole; Gupta, Supriya; Crenshaw, Andrew; Burtt, Noël P; Guiducci, Candace; Gupta, Namrata; Gao, Xiaojiang; Qi, Ying; Yuki, Yuko; Piechocka-Trocha, Alicja; Cutrell, Emily; Rosenberg, Rachel; Moss, Kristin L; Lemay, Paul; O'Leary, Jessica; Schaefer, Todd; Verma, Pranshu; Toth, Ildiko; Block, Brian; Baker, Brett; Rothchild, Alissa; Lian, Jeffrey; Proudfoot, Jacqueline; Alvino, Donna Marie L; Vine, Seanna; Addo, Marylyn M; Allen, Todd M; Altfeld, Marcus; Henn, Matthew R; Le Gall, Sylvie; Streeck, Hendrik; Haas, David W; Kuritzkes, Daniel R; Robbins, Gregory K; Shafer, Robert W; Gulick, Roy M; Shikuma, Cecilia M; Haubrich, Richard; Riddler, Sharon; Sax, Paul E; Daar, Eric S; Ribaudo, Heather J; Agan, Brian; Agarwal, Shanu; Ahern, Richard L; Allen, Brady L; Altidor, Sherly; Altschuler, Eric L; Ambardar, Sujata; Anastos, Kathryn; Anderson, Ben; Anderson, Val; Andrady, Ushan; Antoniskis, Diana; Bangsberg, David; Barbaro, Daniel; Barrie, William; Bartczak, J; Barton, Simon; Basden, Patricia; Basgoz, Nesli; Bazner, Suzane; Bellos, Nicholaos C; Benson, Anne M; Berger, Judith; Bernard, Nicole F; Bernard, Annette M; Birch, Christopher; Bodner, Stanley J; Bolan, Robert K; Boudreaux, Emilie T; Bradley, Meg; Braun, James F; Brndjar, Jon E; Brown, Stephen J; Brown, Katherine; Brown, Sheldon T; Burack, Jedidiah; Bush, Larry M; Cafaro, Virginia; Campbell, Omobolaji; Campbell, John; Carlson, Robert H; Carmichael, J Kevin; Casey, Kathleen K; Cavacuiti, Chris; Celestin, Gregory; Chambers, Steven T; Chez, Nancy; Chirch, Lisa M; Cimoch, Paul J; Cohen, Daniel; Cohn, Lillian E; Conway, Brian; Cooper, David A; Cornelson, Brian; Cox, David T; Cristofano, Michael V; Cuchural, George; Czartoski, Julie L; Dahman, Joseph M; Daly, Jennifer S; Davis, Benjamin T; Davis, Kristine; Davod, Sheila M; DeJesus, Edwin; Dietz, Craig A; Dunham, Eleanor; Dunn, Michael E; Ellerin, Todd B; Eron, Joseph J; Fangman, John J W; Farel, Claire E; Ferlazzo, Helen; Fidler, Sarah; Fleenor-Ford, Anita; Frankel, Renee; Freedberg, Kenneth A; French, Neel K; Fuchs, Jonathan D; Fuller, Jon D; Gaberman, Jonna; Gallant, Joel E; Gandhi, Rajesh T; Garcia, Efrain; Garmon, Donald; Gathe, Joseph C; Gaultier, Cyril R; Gebre, Wondwoosen; Gilman, Frank D; Gilson, Ian; Goepfert, Paul A; Gottlieb, Michael S; Goulston, Claudia; Groger, Richard K; Gurley, T Douglas; Haber, Stuart; Hardwicke, Robin; Hardy, W David; Harrigan, P Richard; Hawkins, Trevor N; Heath, Sonya; Hecht, Frederick M; Henry, W Keith; Hladek, Melissa; Hoffman, Robert P; Horton, James M; Hsu, Ricky K; Huhn, Gregory D; Hunt, Peter; Hupert, Mark J; Illeman, Mark L; Jaeger, Hans; Jellinger, Robert M; John, Mina; Johnson, Jennifer A; Johnson, Kristin L; Johnson, Heather; Johnson, Kay; Joly, Jennifer; Jordan, Wilbert C; Kauffman, Carol A; Khanlou, Homayoon; Killian, Robert K; Kim, Arthur Y; Kim, David D; Kinder, Clifford A; Kirchner, Jeffrey T; Kogelman, Laura; Kojic, Erna Milunka; Korthuis, P Todd; Kurisu, Wayne; Kwon, Douglas S; LaMar, Melissa; Lampiris, Harry; Lanzafame, Massimiliano; Lederman, Michael M; Lee, David M; Lee, Jean M L; Lee, Marah J; Lee, Edward T Y; Lemoine, Janice; Levy, Jay A; Llibre, Josep M; Liguori, Michael A; Little, Susan J; Liu, Anne Y; Lopez, Alvaro J; Loutfy, Mono R; Loy, Dawn; Mohammed, Debbie Y; Man, Alan; Mansour, Michael K; Marconi, Vincent C; Markowitz, Martin; Marques, Rui; Martin, Jeffrey N; Martin, Harold L; Mayer, Kenneth Hugh; McElrath, M Juliana; McGhee, Theresa A; McGovern, Barbara H; McGowan, Katherine; McIntyre, Dawn; Mcleod, Gavin X; Menezes, Prema; Mesa, Greg; Metroka, Craig E; Meyer-Olson, Dirk; Miller, Andy O; Montgomery, Kate; Mounzer, Karam C; Nagami, Ellen H; Nagin, Iris; Nahass, Ronald G; Nelson, Margret O; Nielsen, Craig; Norene, David L; O'Connor, David H; Ojikutu, Bisola O; Okulicz, Jason; Oladehin, Olakunle O; Oldfield, Edward C; Olender, Susan A; Ostrowski, Mario; Owen, William F; Pae, Eunice; Parsonnet, Jeffrey; Pavlatos, Andrew M; Perlmutter, Aaron M; Pierce, Michael N; Pincus, Jonathan M; Pisani, Leandro; Price, Lawrence Jay; Proia, Laurie; Prokesch, Richard C; Pujet, Heather Calderon; Ramgopal, Moti; Rathod, Almas; Rausch, Michael; Ravishankar, J; Rhame, Frank S; Richards, Constance Shamuyarira; Richman, Douglas D; Rodes, Berta; Rodriguez, Milagros; Rose, Richard C; Rosenberg, Eric S; Rosenthal, Daniel; Ross, Polly E; Rubin, David S; Rumbaugh, Elease; Saenz, Luis; Salvaggio, Michelle R; Sanchez, William C; Sanjana, Veeraf M; Santiago, Steven; Schmidt, Wolfgang; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Sestak, Philip M; Shalit, Peter; Shay, William; Shirvani, Vivian N; Silebi, Vanessa I; Sizemore, James M; Skolnik, Paul R; Sokol-Anderson, Marcia; Sosman, James M; Stabile, Paul; Stapleton, Jack T; Starrett, Sheree; Stein, Francine; Stellbrink, Hans-Jurgen; Sterman, F Lisa; Stone, Valerie E; Stone, David R; Tambussi, Giuseppe; Taplitz, Randy A; Tedaldi, Ellen M; Telenti, Amalio; Theisen, William; Torres, Richard; Tosiello, Lorraine; Tremblay, Cecile; Tribble, Marc A; Trinh, Phuong D; Tsao, Alice; Ueda, Peggy; Vaccaro, Anthony; Valadas, Emilia; Vanig, Thanes J; Vecino, Isabel; Vega, Vilma M; Veikley, Wenoah; Wade, Barbara H; Walworth, Charles; Wanidworanun, Chingchai; Ward, Douglas J; Warner, Daniel A; Weber, Robert D; Webster, Duncan; Weis, Steve; Wheeler, David A; White, David J; Wilkins, Ed; Winston, Alan; Wlodaver, Clifford G; van't Wout, Angelique; Wright, David P; Yang, Otto O; Yurdin, David L; Zabukovic, Brandon W; Zachary, Kimon C; Zeeman, Beth; Zhao, Meng

    2010-12-10

    Infectious and inflammatory diseases have repeatedly shown strong genetic associations within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC); however, the basis for these associations remains elusive. To define host genetic effects on the outcome of a chronic viral infection, we performed genome-wide association analysis in a multiethnic cohort of HIV-1 controllers and progressors, and we analyzed the effects of individual amino acids within the classical human leukocyte antigen (HLA) proteins. We identified >300 genome-wide significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the MHC and none elsewhere. Specific amino acids in the HLA-B peptide binding groove, as well as an independent HLA-C effect, explain the SNP associations and reconcile both protective and risk HLA alleles. These results implicate the nature of the HLA-viral peptide interaction as the major factor modulating durable control of HIV infection.

  13. The Major Genetic Determinants of HIV-1 Control Affect HLA Class I Peptide Presentation

    Pereyra, Florencia; Jia, Xiaoming; McLaren, Paul J.; Telenti, Amalio; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; Walker, Bruce D.; Jia, Xiaoming; McLaren, Paul J.; Ripke, Stephan; Brumme, Chanson J.; Pulit, Sara L.; Telenti, Amalio; Carrington, Mary; Kadie, Carl M.; Carlson, Jonathan M.; Heckerman, David; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; Pereyra, Florencia; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; Graham, Robert R.; Plenge, Robert M.; Deeks, Steven G.; Walker, Bruce D.; Gianniny, Lauren; Crawford, Gabriel; Sullivan, Jordan; Gonzalez, Elena; Davies, Leela; Camargo, Amy; Moore, Jamie M.; Beattie, Nicole; Gupta, Supriya; Crenshaw, Andrew; Burtt, Noël P.; Guiducci, Candace; Gupta, Namrata; Carrington, Mary; Gao, Xiaojiang; Qi, Ying; Yuki, Yuko; Pereyra, Florencia; Piechocka-Trocha, Alicja; Cutrell, Emily; Rosenberg, Rachel; Moss, Kristin L.; Lemay, Paul; O’Leary, Jessica; Schaefer, Todd; Verma, Pranshu; Toth, Ildiko; Block, Brian; Baker, Brett; Rothchild, Alissa; Lian, Jeffrey; Proudfoot, Jacqueline; Alvino, Donna Marie L.; Vine, Seanna; Addo, Marylyn M.; Allen, Todd M.; Altfeld, Marcus; Henn, Matthew R.; Le Gall, Sylvie; Streeck, Hendrik; Walker, Bruce D.; Haas, David W.; Kuritzkes, Daniel R.; Robbins, Gregory K.; Shafer, Robert W.; Gulick, Roy M.; Shikuma, Cecilia M.; Haubrich, Richard; Riddler, Sharon; Sax, Paul E.; Daar, Eric S.; Ribaudo, Heather J.; Agan, Brian; Agarwal, Shanu; Ahern, Richard L.; Allen, Brady L.; Altidor, Sherly; Altschuler, Eric L.; Ambardar, Sujata; Anastos, Kathryn; Anderson, Ben; Anderson, Val; Andrady, Ushan; Antoniskis, Diana; Bangsberg, David; Barbaro, Daniel; Barrie, William; Bartczak, J.; Barton, Simon; Basden, Patricia; Basgoz, Nesli; Bazner, Suzane; Bellos, Nicholaos C.; Benson, Anne M.; Berger, Judith; Bernard, Nicole F.; Bernard, Annette M.; Birch, Christopher; Bodner, Stanley J.; Bolan, Robert K.; Boudreaux, Emilie T.; Bradley, Meg; Braun, James F.; Brndjar, Jon E.; Brown, Stephen J.; Brown, Katherine; Brown, Sheldon T.; Burack, Jedidiah; Bush, Larry M.; Cafaro, Virginia; Campbell, Omobolaji; Campbell, John; Carlson, Robert H.; Carmichael, J. Kevin; Casey, Kathleen K.; Cavacuiti, Chris; Celestin, Gregory; Chambers, Steven T.; Chez, Nancy; Chirch, Lisa M.; Cimoch, Paul J.; Cohen, Daniel; Cohn, Lillian E.; Conway, Brian; Cooper, David A.; Cornelson, Brian; Cox, David T.; Cristofano, Michael V.; Cuchural, George; Czartoski, Julie L.; Dahman, Joseph M.; Daly, Jennifer S.; Davis, Benjamin T.; Davis, Kristine; Davod, Sheila M.; Deeks, Steven G.; DeJesus, Edwin; Dietz, Craig A.; Dunham, Eleanor; Dunn, Michael E.; Ellerin, Todd B.; Eron, Joseph J.; Fangman, John J.W.; Farel, Claire E.; Ferlazzo, Helen; Fidler, Sarah; Fleenor-Ford, Anita; Frankel, Renee; Freedberg, Kenneth A.; French, Neel K.; Fuchs, Jonathan D.; Fuller, Jon D.; Gaberman, Jonna; Gallant, Joel E.; Gandhi, Rajesh T.; Garcia, Efrain; Garmon, Donald; Gathe, Joseph C.; Gaultier, Cyril R.; Gebre, Wondwoosen; Gilman, Frank D.; Gilson, Ian; Goepfert, Paul A.; Gottlieb, Michael S.; Goulston, Claudia; Groger, Richard K.; Gurley, T. Douglas; Haber, Stuart; Hardwicke, Robin; Hardy, W. David; Harrigan, P. Richard; Hawkins, Trevor N.; Heath, Sonya; Hecht, Frederick M.; Henry, W. Keith; Hladek, Melissa; Hoffman, Robert P.; Horton, James M.; Hsu, Ricky K.; Huhn, Gregory D.; Hunt, Peter; Hupert, Mark J.; Illeman, Mark L.; Jaeger, Hans; Jellinger, Robert M.; John, Mina; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Johnson, Kristin L.; Johnson, Heather; Johnson, Kay; Joly, Jennifer; Jordan, Wilbert C.; Kauffman, Carol A.; Khanlou, Homayoon; Killian, Robert K.; Kim, Arthur Y.; Kim, David D.; Kinder, Clifford A.; Kirchner, Jeffrey T.; Kogelman, Laura; Kojic, Erna Milunka; Korthuis, P. Todd; Kurisu, Wayne; Kwon, Douglas S.; LaMar, Melissa; Lampiris, Harry; Lanzafame, Massimiliano; Lederman, Michael M.; Lee, David M.; Lee, Jean M.L.; Lee, Marah J.; Lee, Edward T.Y.; Lemoine, Janice; Levy, Jay A.; Llibre, Josep M.; Liguori, Michael A.; Little, Susan J.; Liu, Anne Y.; Lopez, Alvaro J.; Loutfy, Mono R.; Loy, Dawn; Mohammed, Debbie Y.; Man, Alan; Mansour, Michael K.; Marconi, Vincent C.; Markowitz, Martin; Marques, Rui; Martin, Jeffrey N.; Martin, Harold L.; Mayer, Kenneth Hugh; McElrath, M. Juliana; McGhee, Theresa A.; McGovern, Barbara H.; McGowan, Katherine; McIntyre, Dawn; Mcleod, Gavin X.; Menezes, Prema; Mesa, Greg; Metroka, Craig E.; Meyer-Olson, Dirk; Miller, Andy O.; Montgomery, Kate; Mounzer, Karam C.; Nagami, Ellen H.; Nagin, Iris; Nahass, Ronald G.; Nelson, Margret O.; Nielsen, Craig; Norene, David L.; O’Connor, David H.; Ojikutu, Bisola O.; Okulicz, Jason; Oladehin, Olakunle O.; Oldfield, Edward C.; Olender, Susan A.; Ostrowski, Mario; Owen, William F.; Pae, Eunice; Parsonnet, Jeffrey; Pavlatos, Andrew M.; Perlmutter, Aaron M.; Pierce, Michael N.; Pincus, Jonathan M.; Pisani, Leandro; Price, Lawrence Jay; Proia, Laurie; Prokesch, Richard C.; Pujet, Heather Calderon; Ramgopal, Moti; Rathod, Almas; Rausch, Michael; Ravishankar, J.; Rhame, Frank S.; Richards, Constance Shamuyarira; Richman, Douglas D.; Robbins, Gregory K.; Rodes, Berta; Rodriguez, Milagros; Rose, Richard C.; Rosenberg, Eric S.; Rosenthal, Daniel; Ross, Polly E.; Rubin, David S.; Rumbaugh, Elease; Saenz, Luis; Salvaggio, Michelle R.; Sanchez, William C.; Sanjana, Veeraf M.; Santiago, Steven; Schmidt, Wolfgang; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Sestak, Philip M.; Shalit, Peter; Shay, William; Shirvani, Vivian N.; Silebi, Vanessa I.; Sizemore, James M.; Skolnik, Paul R.; Sokol-Anderson, Marcia; Sosman, James M.; Stabile, Paul; Stapleton, Jack T.; Starrett, Sheree; Stein, Francine; Stellbrink, Hans-Jurgen; Sterman, F. Lisa; Stone, Valerie E.; Stone, David R.; Tambussi, Giuseppe; Taplitz, Randy A.; Tedaldi, Ellen M.; Telenti, Amalio; Theisen, William; Torres, Richard; Tosiello, Lorraine; Tremblay, Cecile; Tribble, Marc A.; Trinh, Phuong D.; Tsao, Alice; Ueda, Peggy; Vaccaro, Anthony; Valadas, Emilia; Vanig, Thanes J.; Vecino, Isabel; Vega, Vilma M.; Veikley, Wenoah; Wade, Barbara H.; Walworth, Charles; Wanidworanun, Chingchai; Ward, Douglas J.; Warner, Daniel A.; Weber, Robert D.; Webster, Duncan; Weis, Steve; Wheeler, David A.; White, David J.; Wilkins, Ed; Winston, Alan; Wlodaver, Clifford G.; Wout, Angelique van’t; Wright, David P.; Yang, Otto O.; Yurdin, David L.; Zabukovic, Brandon W.; Zachary, Kimon C.; Zeeman, Beth; Zhao, Meng

    2011-01-01

    Infectious and inflammatory diseases have repeatedly shown strong genetic associations within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC); however, the basis for these associations remains elusive. To define host genetic effects on the outcome of a chronic viral infection, we performed genome-wide association analysis in a multiethnic cohort of HIV-1 controllers and progressors, and we analyzed the effects of individual amino acids within the classical human leukocyte antigen (HLA) proteins. We identified >300 genome-wide significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the MHC and none elsewhere. Specific amino acids in the HLA-B peptide binding groove, as well as an independent HLA-C effect, explain the SNP associations and reconcile both protective and risk HLA alleles. These results implicate the nature of the HLA–viral peptide interaction as the major factor modulating durable control of HIV infection. PMID:21051598

  14. The Major Genetic Determinants of HIV-1 Control Affect HLA Class I Peptide Presentation

    Pereyra, Florencia; Jia, Xiaoming; McLaren, Paul J.; Telenti, Amalio; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; Walker, Bruce D.; Jia, Xiaoming; McLaren, Paul J.; Ripke, Stephan; Brumme, Chanson J.; Pulit, Sara L.; Telenti, Amalio; Carrington, Mary; Kadie, Carl M.; Carlson, Jonathan M.

    2010-01-01

    Infectious and inflammatory diseases have repeatedly shown strong genetic associations within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC); however, the basis for these associations remains elusive. To define host genetic effects on the outcome of a chronic viral infection, we performed genome-wide association analysis in a multiethnic cohort of HIV-1 controllers and progressors, and we analyzed the effects of individual amino acids within the classical human leukocyte antigen (HLA) proteins. W...

  15. Are College Costs Worth It? How Individual Ability, Major Choice, and Debt Affect Optimal Schooling Decisions

    Webber, Douglas A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the financial value over the course of a lifetime of pursuing a college degree under a variety of different settings (e.g. major, student loan debt, individual ability). Using a lifecycle simulation approach, I account for ability/selection bias and the substantial probability that entering college freshmen will not eventually graduate, two critically important factors when evaluating the value of pursuing a college degree. I find that financial proposition of attending co...

  16. No association between serum cholesterol and death by suicide in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar affective disorder, or major depressive disorder.

    Park, Subin; Yi, Ki Kyoung; Na, Riji; Lim, Ahyoung; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2013-12-05

    Previous research on serum total cholesterol and suicidality has yielded conflicting results. Several studies have reported a link between low serum total cholesterol and suicidality, whereas others have failed to replicate these findings, particularly in patients with major affective disorders. These discordant findings may reflect the fact that studies often do not distinguish between patients with bipolar and unipolar depression; moreover, definitions and classification schemes for suicide attempts in the literature vary widely. Subjects were patients with one of the three major psychiatric disorders commonly associated with suicide: schizophrenia, bipolar affective disorder, and major depressive disorder (MDD). We compared serum lipid levels in patients who died by suicide (82 schizophrenia, 23 bipolar affective disorder, and 67 MDD) and non-suicide controls (200 schizophrenia, 49 bipolar affective disorder, and 175 MDD). Serum lipid profiles did not differ between patients who died by suicide and control patients in any diagnostic group. Our results do not support the use of biological indicators such as serum total cholesterol to predict suicide risk among patients with a major psychiatric disorder.

  17. Landscape controls and vertical variability of soil organic carbon storage in permafrost-affected soils of the Lena River Delta

    Siewert, Matthias Benjamin; Hugelius, Gustaf; Heim, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    To project the future development of the soil organic carbon (SOC) storage in permafrost environments, the spatial and vertical distribution of key soil properties and their landscape controls needs to be understood. This article reports findings from the Arctic Lena River Delta where we sampled 50...... in the permafrost. The major geomorphological units of a subregion of the Lena River Delta were mapped with a land form classification using a data-fusion approach of optical satellite imagery and digital elevation data to upscale SOC storage. Landscape mean SOC storage is estimated to 19.2 ± 2.0 kg C m− 2. Our...... results show that the geomorphological setting explains more soil variability than soil taxonomy classes or vegetation cover. The soils from the oldest, Pleistocene aged, unit of the delta store the highest amount of SOC per m2 followed by the Holocene river terrace. The Pleistocene terrace affected...

  18. Testing predictive models of positive and negative affect with psychosocial, acculturation, and coping variables in a multiethnic undergraduate sample

    Kuo, Ben CH; Kwantes, Catherine T

    2014-01-01

    Despite the prevalence and popularity of research on positive and negative affect within the field of psychology, there is currently little research on affect involving the examination of cultural variables and with participants of diverse cultural and ethnic backgrounds. To the authors’ knowledge, currently no empirical studies have comprehensively examined predictive models of positive and negative affect based specifically on multiple psychosocial, acculturation, and coping variables as pr...

  19. Aquatic pathway variables affecting the estimation of dose commitment from uranium mill tailings

    Lush, D.L.; Snodgrass, W.J.; McKee, P.

    1982-01-01

    As one of a series of studies being carried out for the Atomic Energy Control Board of Canada, the environmental variables affecting population dose commitment and critical group dose rates from aquatic pathways were investigated. A model was developed to follow uranium and natural thorium decay series radionuclides through aquatic pathways leading both to long-term sediment sinks and to man. Pathways leading to man result in both a population dose commitment and a critical group dose rate. The key variables affecting population dose commitment are suspended particulate concentrations in the receiving aquatic systems, the settling velocities of these particulates and the solid-aqueous phase distribution coefficient associated with each radionuclide. Of secondary importance to population dose commitment are the rate at which radionuclides enter the receiving waters and the value of the water to food transfer coefficients that are used in the model. For the critical group dose rate, the rate at which the radionuclides leave the tailings, the water to food transfer coefficients, the rate of water and fish consumption and the dose conversion factors for 210 Pb and 210 Po are of secondary importance (author)

  20. Charting the internal landscape: Affect associated with thoughts about major life domains explains life satisfaction

    Talya Miron-Shatz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies of happiness have examined the impact of demographics, personality and emotions accompanying daily activities on life satisfaction. We suggest that how people feel while contemplating aspects of their lives, including their weight, children and future prospects, is a promising yet uncharted territory within the internal landscape of life satisfaction. In a sample of 811 American women, we assessed women's feelings when thinking about major life domains and frequency of thoughts about each domain. Regression and dominance analyses showed that emotional valence of thoughts about major life domains was an important predictor of current and prior life satisfaction, surpassing, in descending order, demographics, participants' feelings during recent activities, and their neuroticism and extraversion scores. Domains thought about more frequently were often associated with greater emotional valence. These results suggest that life satisfaction may be improved by modifying emotional valence and frequency of thoughts about life domains. Moreover, these thoughts appear to be an important and relatively stable component of well-being worthy of further study.

  1. Determination of social variables affected the health belief model in adopting preventive behaviors of osteoporosis

    MH BaghianiMoghadam

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Osteoporosis is one of the most common musculoskeletal problem and a metabolic bone disorder that normally is without sign and is shown with fragile bone in the absence of prevention and treatment. This study was aimed to determine social variables affected the health belief model in adopting preventive behaviors of osteoporosis. Methods: This descriptive study was carried out on 278 women referring to 6 health Centers of Yazd city with random sampling. Data collection was using a self-reported questionnaire. Data were analyzed by SPSS 16 software including Kruskall Wallis, Dunn Tests, Mann Whitney, Spearman correlation coefficient and regression. Results: Among the osteoporosis preventive behaviors, the most frequency was related to non smoking actions or exposure to cigarette and the lowest frequency was related to regular physical activity during every weeks. According to spearman's correlation coefficient, it was occurred a direct significant correlation between knowledge, perceived benefits, practical guide, self efficacy and preventive behaviors of women. In addition, a reverse significant correlation was occurred between perceived barrier and women's behavior (P<0.001. Overall, variables of the model predicted 0.36 of preventive behavior's variables and finally self-efficacy was the strongest prediction of behavior (P=0.000. Conclusion: according to the results, the presentation of suitable educational program with emphasize on promotion of knowledge and upgrade of HBM's level in addition increasing barriers in the context of diseases such as osteoporosis by staff of health centers is suggested.

  2. High-intensity pulsed electric field variables affecting Staphylococcus aureus inoculated in milk.

    Sobrino-López, A; Raybaudi-Massilia, R; Martín-Belloso, O

    2006-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important milk-related pathogen that is inactivated by high-intensity pulsed electric fields (HIPEF). In this study, inactivation of Staph. aureus suspended in milk by HIPEF was studied using a response surface methodology, in which electric field intensity, pulse number, pulse width, pulse polarity, and the fat content of milk were the controlled variables. It was found that the fat content of milk did not significantly affect the microbial inactivation of Staph. aureus. A maximum value of 4.5 log reductions was obtained by applying 150 bipolar pulses of 8 mus each at 35 kV/cm. Bipolar pulses were more effective than those applied in the monopolar mode. An increase in electric field intensity, pulse number, or pulse width resulted in a drop in the survival fraction of Staph. aureus. Pulse widths close to 6.7 micros lead to greater microbial death with a minimum number of applied pulses. At a constant treatment time, a greater number of shorter pulses achieved better inactivation than those treatments performed at a lower number of longer pulses. The combined action of pulse number and electric field intensity followed a similar pattern, indicating that the same fraction of microbial death can be reached with different combinations of the variables. The behavior and relationship among the electrical variables suggest that the energy input of HIPEF processing might be optimized without decreasing the microbial death.

  3. Affective variables, parental involvement and competence among South Korean high school learners of English

    Annie Morris

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the relationships between various affective variables and two measures of competence in English, for 190 South Korean high school students. A 55-item questionnaire was used to measure attitudes (Attitudes toward English Speakers and their Communities and Attitudes toward the English-speaking Culture, motivation (Motivational Intensity, Desire to Learn and Attitudes toward the Learning of English, amotivation, parental involvement (Active Parental Encouragement, Passive Parental Encouragement and Parental Pressure, parental disinterest and students’ competence in L2 (English- EXAM and English-SELF. Pearson product-moment coefficients indicate that active and passive forms of parental encouragement correlate with motivationto learn, as conceptualized by Gardner (1985, 2010, as well as with parental pressure, which suggests that South Korean students report undergoing forms of pressure when their parents actively or passively encourage them. Furthermore, the obtained correlations of the active and passive forms of encouragement with different variables suggest that the two forms represent two distinct concepts. While parental disinterest correlated negatively with motivational variables, parental pressure correlated only with motivational intensity, and only weakly. Therefore, parental pressure seems not to interact significantly with participants’ attitudes, motivation and competence. Multiple linear regression analyses confirm the importance of motivation to learn for students' L2 competence.

  4. Does prehospital time affect survival of major trauma patients where there is no prehospital care?

    S B Dharap

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Survival after major trauma is considered to be time dependent. Efficient prehospital care with rapid transport is the norm in developed countries, which is not available in many lower middle and low-income countries. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of prehospital time and primary treatment given on survival of major trauma patients in a setting without prehospital care. Materials and Methods: This prospective observational study was carried out in a university hospital in Mumbai, from January to December 2014. The hospital has a trauma service but no organized prehospital care or defined interhospital transfer protocols. All patients with life- and/or limb-threatening injuries were included in the study. Injury time and arrival time were noted and the interval was defined as “prehospital time” for the directly arriving patients and as “time to tertiary care” for those transferred. Primary outcome measure was in-hospital death (or discharge. Results: Of 1181 patients, 352 were admitted directly from the trauma scene and 829 were transferred from other hospitals. In-hospital mortality was associated with age, mechanism and mode of injury, shock, Glasgow Coma Score <9, Injury Severity Score ≥16, need for intubation, and ventilatory support on arrival; but neither with prehospital time nor with time to tertiary care. Transferred patients had a significantly higher mortality (odds ratio = 1.869, 95% confidence interval = 1.233–2.561, P = 0.005 despite fewer patients with severe injury. Two hundred and ninety-four (35% of these needed airway intervention while 108 (13% needed chest tube insertion on arrival to the trauma unit suggesting inadequate care at primary facility. Conclusion: Mortality is not associated with prehospital time but with transfers from primary care; probably due to deficient care. To improve survival after major trauma, enhancement of resources for resuscitation and capacity building of on

  5. Major parameters affecting the calculation of equilibrium factor using SSNTD-measured track densities

    Abo-Elmagd, M.; Mansy, M.; Eissa, H.M.; El-Fiki, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    The equilibrium factor F between radon and its daughters as a function of the track density ratio D/D 0 between bare and in can track detectors is solved graphically and gave more accurate solution than that solved mathematically elsewhere. The advantages of the graphical solution come from its simplicity and does not need any tedious mathematical formula or a computer program. The simplicity of this solution makes us study many parameters that affect the equilibrium factor determination such as the detector type, the diffusion chamber dimensions, the membrane specifications and the behavior of α-emitters around the detector. The results show that the equilibrium factor as a function of D/D 0 takes different form according to the facility used. The range of this study covers two widely used detectors (CR-39 and LR-115) equipped in two widely used diffusion chambers (small and medium chambers)

  6. Increased risk of developing stroke for patients with major affective disorder--a registry study

    Nilsson, Flemming M; Kessing, Lars V

    2004-01-01

    and cerebrovascular diseases in hospitalised patients. The main finding of this study was that patients with depression severe enough to be hospitalised, seem to be at an increased risk of developing cerebrovascular disease. The hazard ratio of getting a diagnosis of stroke after initially having been discharged......Only a few studies have evaluated depressive disorder as a risk factor for cerebrovascular disease. In a hospital discharge register with nation-wide coverage of all hospitals in Denmark we used linkage between the somatic and psychiatric registries to study comorbidity between affective disorders...... with a diagnosis of depression was found to be 1.22 (95% Confidence Interval: 1.06-1.41). In the group of patients with manic/bipolar disorder no association was found concerning development of stroke. In elderly with first time depression admitted to hospital, neurological disorders should be carefully evaluated...

  7. Factors affecting the income from major crops in rice-wheat ecological zone

    Ashfaq, M.; Naseer, M.Z.; Hassan, S.

    2008-01-01

    Agriculture is an important sector of our economy. About twenty-two percent of national income and 44.8 percent of total employment is generated by this sector. About 66 percent of country's population is living in rural areas and is directly or indirectly linked with agriculture for their livelihood. It also supplies raw materials to industry. The rice-wheat zone of Punjab covers 1.1 million hectare, 72% of wheat is grown in rotation with rice. The main purpose of this paper was to determine the effect of different factors on the productivity and ultimately on income from of major crops (wheat, rice and sugar-cane) in rice-wheat ecological zone. The results show that for wheat crop, land preparation, use of fertilizer and chemicals, for Sugarcane crop, area under cultivation, fertilizer and chemical costs and for rice crop, applications of chemicals, irrigation and land holding were the main determinants of productivity and crop income. (author)

  8. Mortality in major affective disorder: relationship to subtype of depression. The Danish University Antidepressant Group

    Buchholtz-Hansen, P E; Wang, A G; Kragh-Sørensen, P

    1993-01-01

    A total of 219 inpatients with a DSM-III diagnosis of major depression, 150 women and 69 men, were followed prospectively for 3-10 years and mortality was recorded. The patients were previous participants in psychopharmacological multicenter trials, which were carried out for the purpose...... of comparing the antidepressant effect of newer 5-HT reuptake inhibitors with that of the tricyclic antidepressant drug, clomipramine. The study comprised patients with a total Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression score of > or = 18 and/or a Hamilton subscale score of > or = 9. Diagnostic classification...... according to the Newcastle I Scale in endogenous and nonendogenous depression was performed. The observed mortality was significantly greater than that expected. The increased mortality was essentially due to suicides and mainly found among women. Patients scored as nonendogenously depressed had...

  9. Exploration of Factors Affecting Success of Undergraduate Engineering Majors at a Historically Black University

    Igbinoba, Egheosa P.

    Blacks are underrepresented amongst persons who earn college degrees in the United States and Black males attend and complete college at a lower rate than Black females (Toldson, Fry Brown, & Sutton, 2009). According to Toldson et al. (2009), this quandary may be attributed to Black males' apathy toward education in general, waning support and ideological challenges toward Pell Grants and affirmative action, cultural incompetency on the part of the 90% White, ethnic makeup of the U.S. teaching force, and the relatively high numbers of Black males who are held back in school. In spite of the dismal statistics regarding Black male academic achievement and matriculation, there are those Black males who do participate in postsecondary education. While many studies have highlighted reasons that Black males do not achieve success in attending and persisting through college, few have adopted the anti-deficit research framework suggested by Harper (2010), identifying reasons Black males do persist in higher education. Although science, technology, engineering, and mathematics careers are identified as those most imperative to the economic competitiveness of the United States, few studies have concentrated solely on engineering majors and fewer, if any, solely on Black male engineering majors at an historically Black college and university. The aim of this study was to address an apparent gap in the literature and invoke theories for recruitment, retention, and success of Black males in engineering degree programs by employing an anti-deficit achievement framework for research of students of color in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Data garnered from the study included insight into participants' definitions of success, precollege experiences, factors contributing to the persistence during undergraduate study, and perceptions of attending a historically Black college and university versus a primarily White institution.

  10. Variability in the contents of pork meat nutrients and how it may affect food composition databases.

    Reig, Milagro; Aristoy, M-Concepción; Toldrá, Fidel

    2013-10-01

    Pork meat is generally recognised as a food with relevant nutritional properties because of its content in high biological value proteins, group B vitamins, minerals especially heme iron, trace elements and other bioactive compounds. But pork meat also contributes to the intake of fat, saturated fatty acids, cholesterol, and other substances that, in inappropriate amounts, may result in negative physiologically effects. However, there are relevant factors affecting the content of many of these substances and somehow such variability should be taken into consideration. So, genetics, age and even type of muscle have a relevant influence on the amount of fat and the contents in heme iron. Also the composition in fatty acids of triacylglycerols is very sensitive to the contents of cereals in the feed; for instance, polyunsaturated fatty acids may range from 10% to 22% in pork meat. The content of other nutrients, like vitamins E and A, are also depending on the type of feed. Some bioactive substances like coenzyme Q10, taurine, glutamine, creatine, creatinine, carnosine and anserine show a large dependence on the type of muscle. This manuscript describes the main factors affecting the composition of pork meat nutrients and how these changes may affect the general food composition databases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Select injury-related variables are affected by stride length and foot strike style during running.

    Boyer, Elizabeth R; Derrick, Timothy R

    2015-09-01

    Some frontal plane and transverse plane variables have been associated with running injury, but it is not known if they differ with foot strike style or as stride length is shortened. To identify if step width, iliotibial band strain and strain rate, positive and negative free moment, pelvic drop, hip adduction, knee internal rotation, and rearfoot eversion differ between habitual rearfoot and habitual mid-/forefoot strikers when running with both a rearfoot strike (RFS) and a mid-/forefoot strike (FFS) at 3 stride lengths. Controlled laboratory study. A total of 42 healthy runners (21 habitual rearfoot, 21 habitual mid-/forefoot) ran overground at 3.35 m/s with both a RFS and a FFS at their preferred stride lengths and 5% and 10% shorter. Variables did not differ between habitual groups. Step width was 1.5 cm narrower for FFS, widening to 0.8 cm as stride length shortened. Iliotibial band strain and strain rate did not differ between foot strikes but decreased as stride length shortened (0.3% and 1.8%/s, respectively). Pelvic drop was reduced 0.7° for FFS compared with RFS, and both pelvic drop and hip adduction decreased as stride length shortened (0.8° and 1.5°, respectively). Peak knee internal rotation was not affected by foot strike or stride length. Peak rearfoot eversion was not different between foot strikes but decreased 0.6° as stride length shortened. Peak positive free moment (normalized to body weight [BW] and height [h]) was not affected by foot strike or stride length. Peak negative free moment was -0.0038 BW·m/h greater for FFS and decreased -0.0004 BW·m/h as stride length shortened. The small decreases in most variables as stride length shortened were likely associated with the concomitant wider step width. RFS had slightly greater pelvic drop, while FFS had slightly narrower step width and greater negative free moment. Shortening one's stride length may decrease or at least not increase propensity for running injuries based on the variables

  12. Investigation of patient, tumour and treatment variables affecting residual motion for respiratory-gated radiotherapy

    George, R; Ramakrishnan, V; Siebers, J V; Chung, T D; Keall, P J

    2006-01-01

    Respiratory gating can reduce the apparent respiratory motion during imaging and treatment; however, residual motion within the gating window remains. Respiratory training can improve respiratory reproducibility and, therefore, the efficacy of respiratory-gated radiotherapy. This study was conducted to determine whether residual motion during respiratory gating is affected by patient, tumour or treatment characteristics. The specific aims of this study were to: (1) identify significant characteristics affecting residual motion, (2) investigate time trends of residual motion over a period of days (inter-session) and (3) investigate time trends of residual motion within the same day (intra-session). Twenty-four lung cancer patients were enrolled in an Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved protocol. For approximately five sessions, 331 four-minute, respiratory motion traces were acquired with free breathing, audio instructions and audio-visual biofeedback for each patient. The residual motion was quantified by the standard deviation of the displacement within the gating window. The generalized linear model was used to obtain coefficients for each variable within the model and to evaluate the clinical and statistical significance. The statistical significance was determined by a p-value <0.05, while effect sizes of ≥0.1 cm (one standard deviation) were considered clinically significant. This data analysis was applied to patient, tumour and treatment variables. Inter- and intra-session variations were also investigated. The only variable that was significant for both inhale- and exhale-based gating was disease type. In addition, visual-training displacement, breathing type and Karnofsky performance status (KPS) values were significant for inhale-based gating, and dose-per-fraction was significant for exhale-based gating. Temporal respiratory variations within and between sessions were observed for individual patients. However inter- and intra-session analyses did

  13. Investigation of patient, tumour and treatment variables affecting residual motion for respiratory-gated radiotherapy

    George, R [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Ramakrishnan, V [Department of Biostatistics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Siebers, J V [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Chung, T D [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Keall, P J [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States)

    2006-10-21

    Respiratory gating can reduce the apparent respiratory motion during imaging and treatment; however, residual motion within the gating window remains. Respiratory training can improve respiratory reproducibility and, therefore, the efficacy of respiratory-gated radiotherapy. This study was conducted to determine whether residual motion during respiratory gating is affected by patient, tumour or treatment characteristics. The specific aims of this study were to: (1) identify significant characteristics affecting residual motion, (2) investigate time trends of residual motion over a period of days (inter-session) and (3) investigate time trends of residual motion within the same day (intra-session). Twenty-four lung cancer patients were enrolled in an Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved protocol. For approximately five sessions, 331 four-minute, respiratory motion traces were acquired with free breathing, audio instructions and audio-visual biofeedback for each patient. The residual motion was quantified by the standard deviation of the displacement within the gating window. The generalized linear model was used to obtain coefficients for each variable within the model and to evaluate the clinical and statistical significance. The statistical significance was determined by a p-value <0.05, while effect sizes of {>=}0.1 cm (one standard deviation) were considered clinically significant. This data analysis was applied to patient, tumour and treatment variables. Inter- and intra-session variations were also investigated. The only variable that was significant for both inhale- and exhale-based gating was disease type. In addition, visual-training displacement, breathing type and Karnofsky performance status (KPS) values were significant for inhale-based gating, and dose-per-fraction was significant for exhale-based gating. Temporal respiratory variations within and between sessions were observed for individual patients. However inter- and intra-session analyses did

  14. Variables Affecting a Level of Practice and Quality of Educational Quality Assurance in Basic Education Schools

    Jakkapong Prongprommarat

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this research were to study the Level of Practice and Quality of Educational Quality Assurance in Basic Education Schools of the Office of the Basic Education Commission. The sample consisted of 60 secondnary schools in Office of the basic Education Commission in the provinces of Chaiyaphum, Nakhon Ratchasima, Burirum, Surin and Khon Kaen were drawn by using proportionally with the number of teachers in each school. The data were collected by using (1 the questionnaire on the acting of educational quality assurance in basic education schools. (2 the record form the external assessment of the office for National Education Standards and Quality Assessment, (3 the questionnaire on the director leadership, (2 test of the directors and teachers attitudes towards educational quality assurance, (5 test of the directors and teachers inquirying motive, (6 test of the directors and teachers working responsibility, and (7 the questionnaire on the directors and teachers cooperative. The statistical methods used to analysis the data were mean, standard deviation, coefficient of variation and path analysis. The findings revealed that: 1. The level of acting of educational quality assurance in basic education schools was at a high level. There was just a fairly difference in acting of educational quality assurance in basic education schools. 2. The level of external quality assessment in basic education schools was at a good level. There was just a little difference in external quality assessment in basic education schools. 3. The variables affecting level of acting of educational quality assurance in basic education schools were the level of the school directors attitudes towards educational quality assurance (β = 0.10, the level of the school directors working responsibility (β = 0.13, the level of the teacher attitudes towards educational quality assurance (β = 0.23 and the level of the teachers inquirying motive (β = 0.49 These four

  15. The impact of major depression on heart rate variability and endothelial dysfunction in patients with stable coronary artery disease.

    Aydin Sunbul, Esra; Sunbul, Murat; Gulec, Huseyin

    Depression is an independent risk factor in cardiovascular diseases. Changes in the cardiac autonomic functions and pro-inflammatory processes are potential biological factors. Endothelial dysfunction plays an important role in the etiopathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of major depression on heart rate variability and endothelial dysfunction in patients with stable CAD. The study group included 65 CAD patients with a diagnosis of major depression and 54 CAD patients without major depression. All study population underwent transthoracic echocardiography, measurement of flow mediated dilatation (FMD) and 24-h holter recording for heart rate variability (HRV). Blood samples were drawn to determine the inflammatory parameters. Severity of depressive episode was assessed by Montgomery-Asberg Depression Scale (MADRS). The distribution of age and sex was similar in the patient and control groups (P=0.715, 0.354, respectively). There was no significant difference in medications used between the groups. Echocardiographic parameters were similar between the groups. Inflammatory parameters were also similar between the groups. HRV parameters were significantly lower in the patient group than controls. The absolute FMD value and percentage FMD were significantly lower in the patient group than controls (Pgender (Pgender. Clinician should pay more attention for evaluation of depressive patients with CAD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Summer Drivers of Atmospheric Variability Affecting Ice Shelf Thinning in the Amundsen Sea Embayment, West Antarctica

    Deb, Pranab; Orr, Andrew; Bromwich, David H.; Nicolas, Julien P.; Turner, John; Hosking, J. Scott

    2018-05-01

    Satellite data and a 35-year hindcast of the Amundsen Sea Embayment summer climate using the Weather Research and Forecasting model are used to understand how regional and large-scale atmospheric variability affects thinning of ice shelves in this sector of West Antarctica by melting from above and below (linked to intrusions of warm water caused by anomalous westerlies over the continental shelf edge). El Niño episodes are associated with an increase in surface melt but do not have a statistically significant impact on westerly winds over the continental shelf edge. The location of the Amundsen Sea Low and the polarity of the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) have negligible impact on surface melting, although a positive SAM and eastward shift of the Amundsen Sea Low cause anomalous westerlies over the continental shelf edge. The projected future increase in El Niño episodes and positive SAM could therefore increase the risk of disintegration of West Antarctic ice shelves.

  17. Monitoring variables affecting positron emission tomography measurements of cerebral blood flow in anaesthetized pigs

    Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Zois, Nora Elisabeth; Simonsen, Mette

    2018-01-01

    Background Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of anaesthetized pig brains is a useful tool in neuroscience. Stable cerebral blood flow (CBF) is essential for PET, since variations can affect the distribution of several radiotracers. However, the effect of physiological factors regulating...... and the monitoring parameters. Results No significant statistical correlations were found between CBF and the nine monitoring variables. However, we found that arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) and body temperature were important predictors of CBF that should be observed and kept constant. In addition, we...... found that long-duration anaesthesia was significantly correlated with high heart rate, low arterial oxygen tension, and high body temperature, but not with CBF. Conclusions The findings indicate that PaCO2 and body temperature are crucial for maintaining stable levels of CBF and thus optimizing PET...

  18. Variables affecting the propensity to buy branded beef among groups of Australian beef buyers.

    Morales, L Emilio; Griffith, Garry; Wright, Victor; Fleming, Euan; Umberger, Wendy; Hoang, Nam

    2013-06-01

    Australian beef consumers have different preferences given their characteristics and the effect on expected quality of cues related to health, production process and eating experience. Beef brands using Meat Standards Australia (MSA) grades can help to signal quality and reduce consumers' uncertainty when shopping. The objective of this study is to identify the characteristics of beef buyers and their perceptions about product attributes that affect the propensity to buy branded beef. Binary logistic models were applied identifying differences between all respondents and the potential target market, including buyers in medium to high income segments, and between buyers in the target market who would buy branded beef for taste and health reasons. Variables increasing the propensity to buy branded beef include previous experience, appreciation for branded cuts and concern about quality more than size. Finally, variations in preferences for marbling and cut were found between buyers who would buy branded beef for taste and health reasons. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Host outdoor exposure variability affects the transmission and spread of Zika virus: Insights for epidemic control.

    Marco Ajelli

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus transmission dynamics in urban environments follow a complex spatiotemporal pattern that appears unpredictable and barely related to high mosquito density areas. In this context, human activity patterns likely have a major role in Zika transmission dynamics. This paper examines the effect of host variability in the amount of time spent outdoors on Zika epidemiology in an urban environment.First, we performed a survey on time spent outdoors by residents of Miami-Dade County, Florida. Second, we analyzed both the survey and previously published national data on outdoors time in the U.S. to provide estimates of the distribution of the time spent outdoors. Third, we performed a computational modeling evaluation of Zika transmission dynamics, based on the time spent outdoors by each person. Our analysis reveals a strong heterogeneity of the host population in terms of time spent outdoors-data are well captured by skewed gamma distributions. Our model-based evaluation shows that in a heterogeneous population, Zika would cause a lower number of infections than in a more homogenous host population (up to 4-fold differences, but, at the same time, the epidemic would spread much faster. We estimated that in highly heterogeneous host populations the timing of the implementation of vector control measures is the major factor for limiting the number of Zika infections.Our findings highlight the need of considering host variability in exposure time for managing mosquito-borne infections and call for the revision of the triggers for vector control strategies, which should integrate mosquito density data and human outdoor activity patterns in specific areas.

  20. Amino acid composition of soybean seeds as affected by climatic variables

    Constanza Soledad Carrera

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to perform a quantitative analysis of the amino acid composition of soybean seeds as affected by climatic variables during seed filling. Amino acids were determined from seed samples taken at harvest in 31 multi-environment field trials carried out in Argentina. Total amino acids ranged from 31.69 to 49.14%, and total essential and nonessential amino acids varied from 12.83 to 19.02% and from 18.86 to 31.15%, respectively. Variance components expressed as the percentage of total variation showed that the environment was the most important source of variation for all traits, followed by the genotype x environment interaction. Significant explanatory linear regressions were detected for amino acid content regarding: average daily mean air temperature and cumulative solar radiation, during seed filling; precipitation minus potential evapotranspiration, during the whole reproductive period; and the combinations of these climatic variables. Each amino acid behaves differently according to environmental conditions, indicating compensatory effects among them.

  1. Lesch-Nyhan variant syndrome: variable presentation in 3 affected family members.

    Sarafoglou, Kyriakie; Grosse-Redlinger, Krista; Boys, Christopher J; Charnas, Laurence; Otten, Noelle; Broock, Robyn; Nyhan, William L

    2010-06-01

    Lesch-Nyhan disease is an inborn error of purine metabolism that results from deficiency of the activity of hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT). The heterogeneity of clinical phenotypes seen in HPRT deficiency corresponds to an inverse relationship between HPRT enzyme activity and clinical severity. With rare exception, each mutation produces a stereotypical pattern of clinical disease; onset of neurologic symptoms occurs during infancy and is thought to be nonprogressive. To document a family in which a single HPRT gene mutation has led to 3 different clinical and enzymatic phenotypes. Case report. Settings A university-based outpatient metabolic clinic and a biochemical genetics laboratory. Patients Three males (2 infants and their grandfather) from the same family with Lesch-Nyhan variant, including one of the oldest patients with Lesch-Nyhan variant at diagnosis (65 years). Clinical and biochemical observations. Sequencing of 5 family members revealed a novel mutation c.550G>T in exon 7 of the HPRT gene. The considerably variable clinical phenotype corresponded with the variable enzymatic activity in the 3 males, with the grandfather being the most severely affected. The different phenotypes encountered in the enzymatic analysis of cultured fibroblasts from a single mutation in the same family is unprecedented. The significant decrease in the grandfather's HPRT enzymatic activity compared with that of his grandchildren could be a function of the Hayflick Limit Theory of cell senescence.

  2. Do Affective Variables Make a Difference in Consumers Behavior Toward Mobile Advertising?

    Martínez-Ruiz, María Pilar; Izquierdo-Yusta, Alicia; Olarte-Pascual, Cristina; Reinares-Lara, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Research into permission-based mobile marketing is increasingly common due to the widespread adoption of mobile technology and its use as a communication channel. Yet few studies have attempted to analyze the factors that determine attitudes toward mobile advertising while simultaneously considering: the links among them and consumers' intentions, behavior, and/or cognitive and affective variables simultaneously. The present research therefore sought to deepen understanding of the antecedents and consequences of attitudes toward permission-based mobile advertising. More specifically, it sought to identify the antecedents of attitudes toward mobile advertising and the bridges between these attitudes and consumers' intentions upon receiving advertising on their mobile devices. To this end, a causal model was proposed and tested with a sample of 612 mobile phone users that was collected from a panel of Spanish adults who receive advertising on their mobile phones in the form of SMS text messages. The structural model used was validated using the partial least squares (PLS) regression technique. The results show that the greatest influence was that exerted by positive emotions on feelings, suggesting that positive emotions have an indirect effect on attitude toward mobile advertising. This influence was even greater than their direct effect. Another important, though less powerful, effect was the influence of attitude on behavioral intentions to receive mobile advertising. In contrast, the influence of cognitive variables on attitude was less relevant.

  3. Comprehensive assessment of variables affecting metabolic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Jordan.

    Qteishat, Rola Reyad; Ghananim, Abdel Rahman Al

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to identify variables affecting metabolic control among diabetic patients treated at diabetes and endocrine clinic in Jordan. A total of 200 patients were studied by using a cross sectional study design. Data were collected from patients' medical records, glycemic control tests and prestructured questionnaires about variables that were potentially important based on previous researches and clinical judgment: Adherence evaluation, Patients' knowledge about drug therapy and non-pharmacological therapy, Anxiety and depression, Beliefs about diabetes treatment (benefits and barriers of treatment), Knowledge about treatment goals, Knowledge about diabetes, Self efficacy, and Social support. The mean (±SD) age was 53.5 (±10.38) years and mean HbA1c was 8.4 (±1.95). In the multivariate analysis, education level, and self efficacy found to have significantly independent association with metabolic control (Pknowledge and high self efficacy was significant in patients with good metabolic control. Emphasizing the importance of continuous educational programs and improving the self efficacy as well, could warrant achieving good metabolic control. Copyright © 2015 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Statistical evaluation of variables affecting occurrence of hydrocarbons in aquifers used for public supply, California

    Landon, Matthew K.; Burton, Carmen A.; Davis, Tracy A.; Belitz, Kenneth; Johnson, Tyler D.

    2014-01-01

    The variables affecting the occurrence of hydrocarbons in aquifers used for public supply in California were assessed based on statistical evaluation of three large statewide datasets; gasoline oxygenates also were analyzed for comparison with hydrocarbons. Benzene is the most frequently detected (1.7%) compound among 17 hydrocarbons analyzed at generally low concentrations (median detected concentration 0.024 μg/l) in groundwater used for public supply in California; methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is the most frequently detected (5.8%) compound among seven oxygenates analyzed (median detected concentration 0.1 μg/l). At aquifer depths used for public supply, hydrocarbons and MTBE rarely co-occur and are generally related to different variables; in shallower groundwater, co-occurrence is more frequent and there are similar relations to the density or proximity of potential sources. Benzene concentrations are most strongly correlated with reducing conditions, regardless of groundwater age and depth. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that benzene and other hydrocarbons detected in old, deep, and/or brackish groundwater result from geogenic sources of oil and gas. However, in recently recharged (since ~1950), generally shallower groundwater, higher concentrations and detection frequencies of benzene and hydrocarbons were associated with a greater proportion of commercial land use surrounding the well, likely reflecting effects of anthropogenic sources, particularly in combination with reducing conditions.

  5. Seasonal variability in irradiance affects herbicide toxicity to the marine flagellate Dunaliella tertiolecta

    Sascha eSjollema

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR and Ultraviolet Radiation (UVR of the solar spectrum affect microalgae directly and modify the toxicity of phytotoxic compounds present in water. As a consequence seasonal variable PAR and UVR levels are likely to modulate the toxic pressure of contaminants in the field. Therefore the present study aimed to determine the toxicity of two model contaminants, the herbicides diuron and Irgarol®1051, under simulated irradiance conditions mimicking different seasons. Irradiance conditions of spring and autumn were simulated with a set of Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs. Toxicity of both herbicides was measured individually and in a mixture by determining the inhibition of photosystem II efficiency (ΦPSII of the marine flagellate Dunaliella teriolecta using Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM fluorometry. Toxicity of the single herbicides was higher under simulated spring irradiance than under autumn irradiance and this effect was also observed for mixtures of the herbicides. This irradiance dependent toxicity indicates that herbicide toxicity in the field is seasonally variable. Consequently toxicity tests under standard light conditions may overestimate or underestimate the toxic effect of phytotoxic compounds.

  6. Do Affective Variables Make a Difference in Consumers Behavior Toward Mobile Advertising?

    Martínez-Ruiz, María Pilar; Izquierdo-Yusta, Alicia; Olarte-Pascual, Cristina; Reinares-Lara, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Research into permission-based mobile marketing is increasingly common due to the widespread adoption of mobile technology and its use as a communication channel. Yet few studies have attempted to analyze the factors that determine attitudes toward mobile advertising while simultaneously considering: the links among them and consumers' intentions, behavior, and/or cognitive and affective variables simultaneously. The present research therefore sought to deepen understanding of the antecedents and consequences of attitudes toward permission-based mobile advertising. More specifically, it sought to identify the antecedents of attitudes toward mobile advertising and the bridges between these attitudes and consumers' intentions upon receiving advertising on their mobile devices. To this end, a causal model was proposed and tested with a sample of 612 mobile phone users that was collected from a panel of Spanish adults who receive advertising on their mobile phones in the form of SMS text messages. The structural model used was validated using the partial least squares (PLS) regression technique. The results show that the greatest influence was that exerted by positive emotions on feelings, suggesting that positive emotions have an indirect effect on attitude toward mobile advertising. This influence was even greater than their direct effect. Another important, though less powerful, effect was the influence of attitude on behavioral intentions to receive mobile advertising. In contrast, the influence of cognitive variables on attitude was less relevant. PMID:28096797

  7. Adult Chinese as a Second Language Learners' Willingness to Communicate in Chinese: Effects of Cultural, Affective, and Linguistic Variables.

    Liu, Meihua

    2017-06-01

    The present research explored the effects of cultural, affective, and linguistic variables on adult Chinese as a second language learners' willingness to communicate in Chinese. One hundred and sixty-two Chinese as a second language learners from a Chinese university answered the Willingness to Communicate in Chinese Scale, the Intercultural Sensitivity Scale, Chinese Speaking Anxiety Scale, Chinese Learning Motivation Scale, Use of Chinese Profile, as well as the Background Questionnaire. The major findings were as follows: (1) the Willingness to Communicate in Chinese Scales were significantly negatively correlated with Chinese Speaking Anxiety Scale but positively correlated with length of stay in China and (2) Chinese Speaking Anxiety Scale was a powerful negative predictor for the overall willingness to communicate in Chinese and the Willingness to Communicate in Chinese Scales, followed by length of stay in China, Chinese Learning Motivation Scale, interaction attentiveness, and Chinese proficiency level. Apparently, students' willingness to communicate in Chinese is largely determined by their Chinese Speaking Anxiety Scale level and length of stay in China, mediated by other variables such as Chinese proficiency level and intercultural communication sensitivity level.

  8. Influence diagram of physiological and environmental factors affecting heart rate variability: an extended literature overview

    Julien Fatisson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Heart rate variability (HRV corresponds to the adaptation of the heart to any stimulus. In fact, among the pathologies affecting HRV the most, there are the cardiovascular diseases and depressive disorders, which are associated with high medical cost in Western societies. Consequently, HRV is now widely used as an index of health.In order to better understand how this adaptation takes place, it is necessary to examine which factors directly influence HRV, whether they have a physiological or environmental origin. The primary objective of this research is therefore to conduct a literature review in order to get a comprehensive overview of the subject.The system of these factors affecting HRV can be divided into the following five categories: physiological and pathological factors, environmental factors, lifestyle factors, non-modifiable factors and effects. The direct interrelationships between these factors and HRV can be regrouped into an influence diagram. This diagram can therefore serve as a basis to improve daily clinical practice as well as help design even more precise research protocols.

  9. Measuring myokines with cardiovascular functions: pre-analytical variables affecting the analytical output.

    Lombardi, Giovanni; Sansoni, Veronica; Banfi, Giuseppe

    2017-08-01

    In the last few years, a growing number of molecules have been associated to an endocrine function of the skeletal muscle. Circulating myokine levels, in turn, have been associated with several pathophysiological conditions including the cardiovascular ones. However, data from different studies are often not completely comparable or even discordant. This would be due, at least in part, to the whole set of situations related to the preparation of the patient prior to blood sampling, blood sampling procedure, processing and/or store. This entire process constitutes the pre-analytical phase. The importance of the pre-analytical phase is often not considered. However, in routine diagnostics, the 70% of the errors are in this phase. Moreover, errors during the pre-analytical phase are carried over in the analytical phase and affects the final output. In research, for example, when samples are collected over a long time and by different laboratories, a standardized procedure for sample collecting and the correct procedure for sample storage are acknowledged. In this review, we discuss the pre-analytical variables potentially affecting the measurement of myokines with cardiovascular functions.

  10. Excess Vitamin Intake before Starvation does not Affect Body Mass, Organ Mass, or Blood Variables but Affects Urinary Excretion of Riboflavin in Starving Rats.

    Moriya, Aya; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Shibata, Katsumi

    2013-01-01

    B-vitamins are important for producing energy from amino acids, fatty acids, and glucose. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of excess vitamin intake before starvation on body mass, organ mass, blood, and biological variables as well as on urinary excretion of riboflavin in rats. Adult rats were fed two types of diets, one with a low vitamin content (minimum vitamin diet for optimum growth) and one with a sufficient amount of vitamins (excess vitamin diet). Body mass, organ mass, and blood variables were not affected by excess vitamin intake before starvation. Interestingly, urinary riboflavin excretion showed a different pattern. Urine riboflavin in the excess vitamin intake group declined gradually during starvation, whereas it increased in the low vitamin intake group. Excess vitamin intake before starvation does not affect body mass, organ mass, or blood variables but does affect the urinary excretion of riboflavin in starving rats.

  11. Excess Vitamin Intake before Starvation does not Affect Body Mass, Organ Mass, or Blood Variables but Affects Urinary Excretion of Riboflavin in Starving Rats

    Aya Moriya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available B-vitamins are important for producing energy from amino acids, fatty acids, and glucose. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of excess vitamin intake before starvation on body mass, organ mass, blood, and biological variables as well as on urinary excretion of riboflavin in rats. Adult rats were fed two types of diets, one with a low vitamin content (minimum vitamin diet for optimum growth and one with a sufficient amount of vitamins (excess vitamin diet. Body mass, organ mass, and blood variables were not affected by excess vitamin intake before starvation. Interestingly, urinary riboflavin excretion showed a different pattern. Urine riboflavin in the excess vitamin intake group declined gradually during starvation, whereas it increased in the low vitamin intake group. Excess vitamin intake before starvation does not affect body mass, organ mass, or blood variables but does affect the urinary excretion of riboflavin in starving rats.

  12. Variability in coronary artery anatomy affects consistency of cardiac damage after myocardial infarction in mice.

    Chen, Jiqiu; Ceholski, Delaine K; Liang, Lifan; Fish, Kenneth; Hajjar, Roger J

    2017-08-01

    Low reliability and reproducibility in heart failure models are well established. The purpose of the present study is to explore factors that affect model consistency of myocardial infarction (MI) in mice. MI was induced by left coronary artery (LCA) ligation. The coronary artery was casted with resin and visualized with fluorescent imaging ex vivo. LCA characteristics and MI size were analyzed individually in each animal, and MI size was correlated with left ventricular (LV) function by echocardiography. Coronary anatomy varies widely in mice, posing challenges for surgical ligation and resulting in inconsistent MI size postligation. The length of coronary arterial trunk, level of bifurcation, number of branches, and territory supplied by these branches are unique in each animal. When the main LCA trunk is ligated, this results in a large MI, but when a single branch is ligated, MI size is variable due to differing levels of LCA ligation and area supplied by the branches. During the ligation procedure, nearly 40% of LCAs are not grossly visible to the surgeon. In these situations, the surgeon blindly sutures a wider and deeper area of tissue in an attempt to catch the LCA. Paradoxically, these situations have greater odds of resulting in smaller MIs. In conclusion, variation in MI size and LV function after LCA ligation in mice is difficult to avoid. Anatomic diversity of the LCA in mice leads to inconsistency in MI size and functional parameters, and this is independent of potential technical modifications made by the operator. NEW & NOTEWORTHY In the present study, we demonstrate that left coronary artery diversity in mice is one of the primary causes of variable myocardial infarction size and cardiac functional parameters in the left coronary artery ligation model. Recognition of anatomic diversity is essential to improve reliability and reproducibility in heart failure research. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  13. How do task characteristics affect learning and performance? The roles of variably mapped and dynamic tasks.

    Macnamara, Brooke N; Frank, David J

    2018-05-01

    For well over a century, scientists have investigated individual differences in performance. The majority of studies have focused on either differences in practice, or differences in cognitive resources. However, the predictive ability of either practice or cognitive resources varies considerably across tasks. We are the first to examine task characteristics' impact on learning and performance in a complex task while controlling for other task characteristics. In 2 experiments we test key theoretical task characteristic thought to moderate the relationship between practice, cognitive resources, and performance. We devised a task where each of several key task characteristics can be manipulated independently. Participants played 5 rounds of a game similar to the popular tower defense videogame Plants vs. Zombies where both cognitive load and game characteristics were manipulated. In Experiment 1, participants either played a consistently mapped version-the stimuli and the associated meaning of their properties were constant across the 5 rounds-or played a variably mapped version-the stimuli and the associated meaning of their properties changed every few minutes. In Experiment 2, participants either played a static version-that is, turn taking with no time pressure-or played a dynamic version-that is, the stimuli moved regardless of participants' response rates. In Experiment 1, participants' accuracy and efficiency were substantially hindered in the variably mapped conditions. In Experiment 2, learning and performance accuracy were hindered in the dynamic conditions, especially when under cognitive load. Our results suggest that task characteristics impact the relative importance of cognitive resources and practice on predicting learning and performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Brief psycho-education affects circadian variability in nicotine craving during cessation.

    Nosen, Elizabeth; Woody, Sheila R

    2013-09-01

    Nicotine cravings are a key target of smoking cessation interventions. Cravings demonstrate circadian variation during abstinence, often peaking during the morning and evening hours. Although some research has also shown diurnal variation in the efficacy of nicotine replacement medications, little research has examined how brief psychosocial interventions affect temporal patterns of craving during abstinence. The present study examined the impact of two brief psycho-education interventions on circadian variations in cravings during a 24-h period. 176 adult smokers interested in quitting participated in two lab sessions. During the first session, participants received (a) mindfulness psycho-education that encouraged acceptance of cravings as a normal, tolerable part of quitting that people should not expect to perfectly control, (b) standard cessation psycho-education, or (c) no psycho-education. Half the sample initiated a cessation attempt the following day. Dependent variables were assessed using ecological momentary assessment (24-h of monitoring, immediately after first lab session) and questionnaires four days later. Partially consistent with hypotheses, both forms of psycho-education were associated with differential diurnal variation in cravings during cessation. Relative to those receiving no psycho-education, standard smoking cessation psycho-education decreased morning cravings. Psycho-education encouraging acceptance of cravings was associated with lower craving in both the morning and evening, albeit only among successfully abstinent smokers. Results demonstrate that brief non-pharmacological interventions can affect circadian craving patterns during smoking cessation. Further investigation of mechanisms of change and of the impact of psycho-education on cessation outcomes is warranted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Detection of differentially expressed genes in broiler pectoralis major muscle affected by White Striping - Wooden Breast myopathies.

    Zambonelli, Paolo; Zappaterra, Martina; Soglia, Francesca; Petracci, Massimiliano; Sirri, Federico; Cavani, Claudio; Davoli, Roberta

    2016-12-01

    White Striping and Wooden Breast (WS/WB) are abnormalities increasingly occurring in the fillets of high breast yield and growth rate chicken hybrids. These defects lead to consistent economic losses for poultry meat industry, as affected broiler fillets present an impaired visual appearance that negatively affects consumers' acceptability. Previous studies have highlighted in affected fillets a severely damaged muscle, showing profound inflammation, fibrosis, and lipidosis. The present study investigated the differentially expressed genes and pathways linked to the compositional changes observed in WS/WB breast muscles, in order to outline a more complete framework of the gene networks related to the occurrence of this complex pathological picture. The biochemical composition was performed on 20 pectoralis major samples obtained from high breast yield and growth rate broilers (10 affected vs. 10 normal) and 12 out of the 20 samples were used for the microarray gene expression profiling (6 affected vs. 6 normal). The obtained results indicate strong changes in muscle mineral composition, coupled to an increased deposition of fat. In addition, 204 differentially expressed genes (DEG) were found: 102 up-regulated and 102 down-regulated in affected breasts. The gene expression pathways found more altered in WS/WB muscles are those related to muscle development, polysaccharide metabolic processes, proteoglycans synthesis, inflammation, and calcium signaling pathway. On the whole, the findings suggest that a multifactorial and complex etiology is associated with the occurrence of WS/WB muscle abnormalities, contributing to further defining the transcription patterns associated with these myopathies. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  16. Affective and cognitive theory of mind abilities in youth with borderline personality disorder or major depressive disorder.

    Tay, Sarah-Ann; Hulbert, Carol A; Jackson, Henry J; Chanen, Andrew M

    2017-09-01

    Theory of mind (ToM) is an important social cognitive ability that has been investigated in BPD, with inconsistent findings indicating impaired, comparable, and enhanced ToM in BPD. This study aimed to clarify and extend previous findings by investigating affective and cognitive ToM abilities in youth early in the course of BPD, by including a clinical comparison group of youth with major depressive disorder (MDD). Female participants aged 15-24 years diagnosed with BPD (n = 41) or MDD (n = 37) completed the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET) and Happé's Cartoon Task, measures of affective and cognitive dimensions of ToM, respectively. The BPD group performed significantly worse than the MDD group on the affective ToM task, even after controlling for age, intelligence and depressive symptoms. Results for cognitive ToM were not significantly different. Finding of poorer performance on a measure of affective ToM, in BPD youth, relative to youth with MDD early in the course of BPD suggest a developmental failure of sociocognitive abilities needed for mentalising and which are theorised as giving rise to core features of BPD. Future research should employ more naturalistic paradigms to study social cognition and should assess individuals even earlier in the course of BPD. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Over-expression of XIST, the Master Gene for X Chromosome Inactivation, in Females With Major Affective Disorders

    Baohu Ji

    2015-08-01

    Research in context: Due to lack of biological markers, diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric disorders are subjective. There is utmost urgency to identify biomarkers for clinics, research, and drug development. We found that XIST and KDM5C gene expression may be used as a biological marker for diagnosis of major affective disorders in a significantly large subset of female patients from the general population. Our studies show that over-expression of XIST and some X-linked escapee genes may be a common mechanism for development of psychiatric disorders between the patients with rare genetic diseases (XXY or XXX and the general population of female psychiatric patients.

  18. Teacher self-efficacy and its relationship with students’ affective and motivational variables in higher education

    Susana Rodríguez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available During the past few decades, researchers have proposed that teacher self-efficacy influences student achievement and motivation. The main aim of this work is to identify possible teacher self-efficacy profiles and to determine possible differences in some affective-motivational variables of students. 95 teachers and 1924 students from five Spanish public Universities took part in this study. Using cluster analysis, three distinctive profiles of teachers were generated: high self-efficacy, medium self-efficacy, and low self-efficacy. ANOVA results suggest that teachers with intermediate self-efficacy perception have more learning-oriented students than teachers with high self-efficacy. Students of teachers who are overconfident of their teaching capacity seem to engage less in studying to learn, they are more indifferent to the subjects, and they value the contents of the subject less. These students could also be less confident about the results of their efforts, showing a low perception of self-efficacy, greater academic work avoidance, and more anxiety than students of teachers with a moderate perception of self-efficacy. The results are discussed in light of the hypothesis of overconfidence.

  19. A conceptual investigation of variables affecting the success and acceptance of SMS Marketing in Iran.

    Adhami, A; Rabiee, A; Adhami, M

    2015-01-01

    This paper's aim was to develop a conceptual overview of SMS marketing and delineate factors of new communications technologies on business practice. This study, which was a descriptive survey, was built on primary and secondary data source including a literature review of SMS marketing and a Questionnaire were used as the primary means of collecting secondary data. The sample size of 300 patients was determined according to the Cochran formula. Moreover, data analysis was done in SPSS by using linear regression, chi-square, t-test and Binomial test. According to the research, sex, age, education, relevance, timeliness, reliability to sender, sense of control were variables affecting the SMS marketing acceptance. This paper was qualitative and provided a solid conceptual foundation for the future empirical research on e- marketing. The potential limitation was related to the broad user of computer and mobile. In this research, we considered SMS marketing, Mobile marketing, SMS advertising as the same subject. This research will be a useful resource with important insight into the factors that may encourage or determine consumer acceptance of this new form of direct marketing. This paper addressed an important timely issue, and added to the body of literature and knowledge focusing on e-marketing.

  20. Activity Pattern Profiles: Relationship With Affect, Daily Functioning, Impairment, and Variables Related to Life Goals.

    Esteve, Rosa; López-Martínez, Alicia E; Peters, Madelon L; Serrano-Ibáñez, Elena R; Ruíz-Párraga, Gema T; González-Gómez, Henar; Ramírez-Maestre, Carmen

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify subgroups of patients on the basis of their activity patterns and to investigate their relationship with life goals, optimism, affect, and functioning. The sample was comprised of 276 patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed on the activity pattern variables and the resulting clusters were compared using 1-way analysis of variance. The 4-cluster was the optimal solution. The 4 clusters comprised: 1) avoiders: patients with high levels of avoidance and low levels of persistence, who use pacing to reduce pain, 2) doers: patients with high levels of persistence and low levels of pacing and avoidance, 3) extreme cyclers: patients with high levels of avoidance and persistence and low levels of pacing, and 4) medium cyclers: patients with moderately high levels of avoidance and persistence and high levels of pacing. Comparison of the clusters showed that doers had the most adaptive profile, whereas avoiders, followed by extreme cyclers, had unhealthy profiles. Doers showed a high level of optimism and a good balance between goal value, expectancy, and conflict. It is useful to distinguish profiles on the basis of various activity patterns. In contrast to profiles characterized by avoidance, profiles characterized by high persistence and low avoidance were associated with adaptive results. Patients with this profile also showed a high level of optimism and a good balance between goal value, expectancy, and conflict. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Heart rate variability analysis in sheep affected by transmissible spongiform encephalopathies

    Konold Timm

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The function of the autonomic nervous system can be assessed by determining heart rate variability (HRV, which is impaired in some brainstem diseases in humans. Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs in sheep are diseases characterised by accumulation of disease-associated prion protein in the brainstem, including nuclei of the parasympathetic nervous system. This study was undertaken to assess whether analysis of HRV can be used as an aid in the diagnosis of TSEs in clinically affected, naturally or experimentally infected sheep. Findings When HRV indices were compared between 41 clinical TSE cases (18 sheep infected with scrapie and 23 sheep infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy, 11 control sheep and six sheep reported as scrapie suspects or dosed with BSE brain homogenate, which were not confirmed as TSE cases by postmortem tests, no significant differences were found between the groups. Median heart rate was significantly different but only when sheep were grouped by gender: it was higher in female TSE cases than in control sheep and higher in female than castrated male ovine classical BSE cases. Conclusions HRV analysis was not useful as a diagnostic aid for TSEs of sheep.

  2. Feeling old today? Daily health, stressors, and affect explain day-to-day variability in subjective age.

    Kotter-Grühn, Dana; Neupert, Shevaun D; Stephan, Yannick

    2015-01-01

    Subjective age is an important correlate of health, well-being, and longevity. So far, little is known about short-term variability in subjective age and the circumstances under which individuals feel younger/older in daily life. This study examined whether (a) older adults' felt age fluctuates on a day-to-day basis, (b) daily changes in health, stressors, and affect explain fluctuations in felt age, and (c) the daily associations between felt age and health, stressors, or affect are time-ordered. Using an eight-day daily diary approach, N = 43 adults (60-96 years, M = 74.65, SD = 8.19) filled out daily questionnaires assessing subjective age, health, daily stressors, and affect. Data were analysed using multilevel modelling. Subjective age, health, daily stressors, affect. Intra-individual variability in felt age was not explained by time but by short-term variability in other variables. Specifically, on days when participants experienced more than average health problems, stress, or negative affect they felt older than on days with average health, stress, or negative affect. No time-ordered effects were found. Bad health, many stressors, and negative affective experiences constitute circumstances under which older adults feel older than they typically do. Thus, daily measures of subjective age could be markers of health and well-being.

  3. Long-term relationships of major macro-variables in a resource-related economic model of Australia

    Harvie, Charles; Hoa, T. van

    1993-01-01

    The paper reports the results of a simple cointegration analysis applied to bivariate causality models using data on resource output, oil prices, terms of trade, current account and output growth to investigate the long-term relationships among these major macroeconomic aggregates in a resource-related economic model of Australia. For the period 1960-1990, the empirical evidence indicates that these five macro-variables, as formulated in our model, are not random walks. In addition, resource production and oil prices are significantly cointegrated, and they are also significantly cointegrated with the current account, terms of trade and economic growth. These findings provide support to the long-term adjustments foundation of our resource-related model. (author)

  4. Identification of a Major Locus Contributing to Erythrocyte 2,3-Diphosphoglycerate Variability in Hooded (Long-Evans) Rats

    Noble, N. A.; Brewer, G. J.

    1977-01-01

    The erythrocyte glycolytic intermediate 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) play an important role in oxygen transport and delivery by binding to hemoglobin (Hb) and reducing its affinity for oxygen. Considerable quantitative variability in the levels of DPG and ATP exists in human populations and in a population of hooded (Long-Evans) rats we have studied. This paper presents the results of studies on the genetic component of DPG-level variation in an outbred population of hooded rats. Beginning with about 100 rats, a two-way selection experiment was initiated. Pairs of rats with the highest DPG levels were mated to produce a High-DPG rat strain and animals with the lowest DPG levels were mated to produce a Low-DPG strain. Mean DPG levels responded rapidly to selection and, from generation 3 on, the differences between strain means were highly significant. Ten High-DPG strain rats were intercrossed with 10 Low-DPG strain rats of generation 10 to produce an F1 generation in which the DPG levels were almost as high as those of High-DPG animals. This indicates partial dominance of High-DPG alleles. The F2 DPG-level distribution showed two distinct subpopulations. The high DPG subpopulation contained three times as many animals as the low DPG subpopulation. From these results and the statistical analyses performed, it was concluded that the DPG differences between strains were due to an allelic difference at one major locus, the allele carried by the High-DPG strain showing partial dominance over the allele carried by the Low-DPG strain. It appears that this locus may also effect ATP levels to a large extent and is polymorphic in hooded rat populations. Identification of this locus gives us a useful tool for studies of the physiological effects of DPG variability, as well as providing an example of a major gene effect in a quantitatively varying trait. PMID:863239

  5. Do bells affect behaviour and heart rate variability in grazing dairy cows?

    Julia Johns

    Full Text Available In alpine regions cows are often equipped with bells. The present study investigated the impact of wearing a bell on behaviour and heart rate variability in dairy cows. Nineteen non-lactating Brown-Swiss cows with bell experience were assigned to three different treatments. For 3 days each, cows were equipped with no bell (control, with a bell with inactivated clapper (silent bell or with a functional bell (functional bell. The bells weighed 5.5 kg and had frequencies between 532 Hz and 2.8 kHz and amplitudes between 90 and 113 dB at a distance of 20 cm. Data were collected on either the first and third or on all 3 days of each treatment. Whereas duration of rumination was reduced with a functional bell and a silent bell compared with no bell, feeding duration was reduced with a silent bell and was intermediate with a functional bell. Head movements were reduced when wearing a silent bell compared with no bell and tended to be reduced when wearing a functional compared to no bell. With a functional bell, lying duration was reduced by almost 4 hours on the third day of treatment compared with the first day with a functional bell and compared with no bell or a silent bell. All additional behavioural measures are consistent with the hypothesis of a restriction in the behaviour of the cows wearing bells, although this pattern did not reach significance. There was no treatment effect on heart rate variability, suggesting that the bells did not affect vago-sympathetic balance. An effect of experimental day was found for only 1 out of 10 behavioural parameters, as shown by a decrease in lying with a functional bell on day 3. The results indicate behavioural changes in the cows wearing a bell over 3 days, without indication of habituation to the bell. Altogether, the behavioural changes suggest that the behaviour of the cows was disturbed by wearing a bell. If long-lasting, these effects may have implications for animal welfare.

  6. Do Bells Affect Behaviour and Heart Rate Variability in Grazing Dairy Cows?

    Johns, Julia; Patt, Antonia; Hillmann, Edna

    2015-01-01

    In alpine regions cows are often equipped with bells. The present study investigated the impact of wearing a bell on behaviour and heart rate variability in dairy cows. Nineteen non-lactating Brown-Swiss cows with bell experience were assigned to three different treatments. For 3 days each, cows were equipped with no bell (control), with a bell with inactivated clapper (silent bell) or with a functional bell (functional bell). The bells weighed 5.5 kg and had frequencies between 532 Hz and 2.8 kHz and amplitudes between 90 and 113 dB at a distance of 20 cm. Data were collected on either the first and third or on all 3 days of each treatment. Whereas duration of rumination was reduced with a functional bell and a silent bell compared with no bell, feeding duration was reduced with a silent bell and was intermediate with a functional bell. Head movements were reduced when wearing a silent bell compared with no bell and tended to be reduced when wearing a functional compared to no bell. With a functional bell, lying duration was reduced by almost 4 hours on the third day of treatment compared with the first day with a functional bell and compared with no bell or a silent bell. All additional behavioural measures are consistent with the hypothesis of a restriction in the behaviour of the cows wearing bells, although this pattern did not reach significance. There was no treatment effect on heart rate variability, suggesting that the bells did not affect vago-sympathetic balance. An effect of experimental day was found for only 1 out of 10 behavioural parameters, as shown by a decrease in lying with a functional bell on day 3. The results indicate behavioural changes in the cows wearing a bell over 3 days, without indication of habituation to the bell. Altogether, the behavioural changes suggest that the behaviour of the cows was disturbed by wearing a bell. If long-lasting, these effects may have implications for animal welfare. PMID:26110277

  7. The temperament and character traits in patients with major depressive disorder and bipolar affective disorder with and without suicide attempt.

    Erić, Anamarija Petek; Erić, Ivan; Ćurković, Mario; Dodig-Ćurković, Katarina; Kralik, Kristina; Kovač, Vlatka; Filaković, Pavo

    2017-06-01

    Suicide and mood disorders (especially major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar affective disorder (BD)) represent a significant global health burden. Major depressive disorder and bipolar affective disorder have been associated with increased risk for suicide. Some specific suicide risk factors might be found in underlying individual personality traits. Specific personality features may predispose an individual to mood disorders (MDD or BD) hence increased suicide risk. The specificity of this research is in the assessment of personality features during the acute phase of illness immediately after suicide attempt which resulted in psychiatric inpatient treatment. The study included 119 unrelated Caucasian participants with MDD-severe depressive episode without psychotic symptoms (MDD) and BD-severe depressive episode without psychotic symptoms (BD-sDE). Both groups of patients with MDD and BD-sDE were divided into the suicide attempters and non-suicidal group. The diagnoses of the severe depressive episode without psychotic symptoms in major depressive disorder (MDD; F32.2) and bipolar disorder (BD-sDE; F31.4) were made according to ICD-10 (WHO 1992) diagnostic criteria. Methods of suicide attempts were also assessed according to ICD-10 and a self-report questionnaire, the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) was applied. The participants who exhibited suicide attempt had significantly higher scores on harm-avoidance (HA) (psuicidal attempt had significantly lower scores on self-directedness (SD) (psuicide attempt may have some significantly different personality traits than non-suicidal patients with mood disorders. The combination of high harm-avoidance (HA) and low self-directedness (SD) may be specific for depressive episode while the combination of high HA, novelty-seeking (NS), and self-transcendence (ST) with low SD may be related to suicide attempts during the depressive episode in bipolar disorder. The novelty-seeking (NS), self-transcendence (ST

  8. Reduced heart rate variability in pet dogs affected by anxiety-related behaviour problems.

    Wormald, Dennis; Lawrence, Andrew J; Carter, Gabrielle; Fisher, Andrew D

    2017-01-01

    We present here the first evidence of correlation between canine anxiety-related behavioural problems and heart rate variability (HRV). HRV is known to be related to a range of mental disorders in humans; however this has not been explored in dogs. Behavioural problems in dogs can result in suffering, property destruction and human injury. Dog behaviour problems were assessed by owner questionnaire and the extreme high and low scoring dogs were recruited into either affected (n=10) or unaffected (n=20) groups. HRV was assessed in dogs at their homes, while being held in lateral recumbency for 5min using manual restraint. Salivary cortisol samples were taken before and after HRV testing. Dogs were assessed as either being reactive to the procedure (barking, growling, struggling or shaking) or unreactive. There was no effect of reactivity or behaviour problems on salivary cortisol levels at baseline or in response to the treatment. There was a significant effect of reactivity on HR (F 1,26 =5.54; P=0.026), and no effect of behaviour problems (F 1,26 =1.07; P=0.311). There was no effect of reactivity on any of the HRV measures. The presence of behaviour problems had a significant effect on a range of measures of HRV, with unaffected dogs having higher standard deviation of RR intervals (F 1,26 =6.39; P=0.018), higher high frequency spectrum (F 1,26 =5.23; P=0.031) and higher low frequency spectrum (F 1,26 =9.25; P=0.005) power. There was no effect of behaviour problems on very low frequency spectrum power (F 1,26 =1.40; P=0.248). Together these results provide evidence for a fundamental physiological difference between dogs affected or unaffected with behaviour problems. This study provides evidence for further investigation into the role of HRV in the pathophysiology of canine anxiety-related behaviour problems. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. How musical training affects cognitive development: rhythm, reward and other modulating variables.

    Miendlarzewska, Ewa A; Trost, Wiebke J

    2013-01-01

    Musical training has recently gained additional interest in education as increasing neuroscientific research demonstrates its positive effects on brain development. Neuroimaging revealed plastic changes in the brains of adult musicians but it is still unclear to what extent they are the product of intensive music training rather than of other factors, such as preexisting biological markers of musicality. In this review, we synthesize a large body of studies demonstrating that benefits of musical training extend beyond the skills it directly aims to train and last well into adulthood. For example, children who undergo musical training have better verbal memory, second language pronunciation accuracy, reading ability and executive functions. Learning to play an instrument as a child may even predict academic performance and IQ in young adulthood. The degree of observed structural and functional adaptation in the brain correlates with intensity and duration of practice. Importantly, the effects on cognitive development depend on the timing of musical initiation due to sensitive periods during development, as well as on several other modulating variables. Notably, we point to motivation, reward and social context of musical education, which are important yet neglected factors affecting the long-term benefits of musical training. Further, we introduce the notion of rhythmic entrainment and suggest that it may represent a mechanism supporting learning and development of executive functions. It also hones temporal processing and orienting of attention in time that may underlie enhancements observed in reading and verbal memory. We conclude that musical training uniquely engenders near and far transfer effects, preparing a foundation for a range of skills, and thus fostering cognitive development.

  10. Heart rate variability affected by radiofrequency electromagnetic field in adolescent students.

    Misek, Jakub; Belyaev, Igor; Jakusova, Viera; Tonhajzerova, Ingrid; Barabas, Jan; Jakus, Jan

    2018-05-01

    This study examines the possible effect of radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMF) on the autonomic nervous system (ANS). The effect of RF EMF on ANS activity was studied by measuring heart rate variability (HRV) during ortho-clinostatic test (i.e., transition from lying to standing and back) in 46 healthy grammar school students. A 1788 MHz pulsed wave with intensity of 54 ± 1.6 V/m was applied intermittently for 18 min in each trial. Maximum specific absorption rate (SAR 10 ) value was determined to 0.405 W/kg. We also measured the respiration rate and estimated a subjective perception of EMF exposure. RF exposure decreased heart rate of subjects in a lying position, while no such change was seen in standing students. After exposure while lying, a rise in high frequency band of HRV and root Mean Square of the Successive Differences was observed, which indicated an increase in parasympathetic nerve activity. Tympanic temperature and skin temperature were measured showing no heating under RF exposure. No RF effect on respiration rate was observed. None of the tested subjects were able to distinguish real exposure from sham exposure when queried at the end of the trial. In conclusion, short-term RF EMF exposure of students in a lying position during the ortho-clinostatic test affected ANS with significant increase in parasympathetic nerve activity compared to sham exposed group. Bioelectromagnetics. 39:277-288, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. How musical training affects cognitive development: rhythm, reward and other modulating variables.

    Ewa Aurelia Miendlarzewska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Musical training has recently gained additional interest in education as increasing neuroscientific research demonstrates its positive effects on brain development. Neuroimaging revealed plastic changes in the brains of adult musicians but it is still unclear to what extent they are the product of intensive music training rather than of other factors, such as preexisting biological markers of musicality. In this review, we synthesize a large body of studies demonstrating that benefits of musical training extend beyond the skills it directly aims to train and last well into adulthood. For example, children who undergo musical training have better verbal memory, second language pronunciation accuracy, reading ability and executive functions. Learning to play an instrument as a child may even predict academic performance and IQ in young adulthood. The degree of observed structural and functional adaptation in the brain correlates with intensity and duration of practice. Importantly, the effects on cognitive development depend on the timing of musical initiation due to sensitive periods during development, as well as on several other modulating variables. Notably, we point to motivation, reward and social context of musical education, which are important yet neglected factors affecting the long-term benefits of musical training. Further, we introduce the notion of rhythmic entrainment and suggest that it may represent a mechanism supporting learning and development of executive functions. It also hones temporal processing and orienting of attention in time that may underlie enhancements observed in reading and verbal memory. We conclude that musical training uniquely engenders near and far transfer effects, preparing a foundation for a range of skills, and thus fostering cognitive development.

  12. The economics of wind and solar variability. How the variability of wind and solar power affects their marginal value, optimal deployment, and integration costs

    Hirth, Lion

    2014-11-14

    Variable renewable energy sources (VRE) for electricity generation, such as wind and solar power, are subject to inherent output fluctuations. This variability has significant impacts on power system and electricity markets if VRE are deployed at large scale. While on global average, wind and solar power currently supply only a minor share of electricity, they are expected to play a much larger role in the future - such that variability will become a major issue (which it already is in some regions). This thesis contributes to the literature that assesses these impacts the ''system and market integration'' literature. This thesis aims at answering the question: What is the impact of wind and solar power variability on the economics of these technologies? It will be laid out that the impact can be expressed in (at least) three ways: as reduction of value, as increase of cost, or as decrease of optimal deployment. Translating between these perspectives is not trivial, as evidenced by the confusion around the concept of ''integration costs''. Hence, more specifically: How does variability impact the marginal economic value of these power sources, their optimal deployment, and their integration costs? This is the question that this thesis addresses. This study comprises six papers, of which two develop a valuation framework that accounts for the specific characteristics of the good electricity, and the specific properties of wind and solar power versus ''dispatchable'' power plants. Three articles then assess quantitative questions and estimate marginal value, optimal deployment, and integration costs. These estimates stem from a newly developed numerical power market model, EMMA, market data, and quantitative literature reviews. The final paper addresses market design. In short, the principal findings of this thesis are as follows. Electricity is a peculiar economic good, being at the same time perfectly

  13. The economics of wind and solar variability. How the variability of wind and solar power affects their marginal value, optimal deployment, and integration costs

    Hirth, Lion

    2014-01-01

    Variable renewable energy sources (VRE) for electricity generation, such as wind and solar power, are subject to inherent output fluctuations. This variability has significant impacts on power system and electricity markets if VRE are deployed at large scale. While on global average, wind and solar power currently supply only a minor share of electricity, they are expected to play a much larger role in the future - such that variability will become a major issue (which it already is in some regions). This thesis contributes to the literature that assesses these impacts the ''system and market integration'' literature. This thesis aims at answering the question: What is the impact of wind and solar power variability on the economics of these technologies? It will be laid out that the impact can be expressed in (at least) three ways: as reduction of value, as increase of cost, or as decrease of optimal deployment. Translating between these perspectives is not trivial, as evidenced by the confusion around the concept of ''integration costs''. Hence, more specifically: How does variability impact the marginal economic value of these power sources, their optimal deployment, and their integration costs? This is the question that this thesis addresses. This study comprises six papers, of which two develop a valuation framework that accounts for the specific characteristics of the good electricity, and the specific properties of wind and solar power versus ''dispatchable'' power plants. Three articles then assess quantitative questions and estimate marginal value, optimal deployment, and integration costs. These estimates stem from a newly developed numerical power market model, EMMA, market data, and quantitative literature reviews. The final paper addresses market design. In short, the principal findings of this thesis are as follows. Electricity is a peculiar economic good, being at the same time perfectly

  14. Evidence of major genes affecting stress response in rainbow trout using Bayesian methods of complex segregation analysis

    Vallejo, R L; Rexroad III, C E; Silverstein, J T

    2009-01-01

    As a first step toward the genetic mapping of QTL affecting stress response variation in rainbow trout, we performed complex segregation analyses (CSA) fitting mixed inheritance models of plasma cortisol by using Bayesian methods in large full-sib families of rainbow trout. To date, no studies have...... been conducted to determine the mode of inheritance of stress response as measured by plasma cortisol response when using a crowding stress paradigm and CSA in rainbow trout. The main objective of this study was to determine the mode of inheritance of plasma cortisol after a crowding stress....... The results from fitting mixed inheritance models with Bayesian CSA suggest that 1 or more major genes with dominant cortisol-decreasing alleles and small additive genetic effects of a large number of independent genes likely underlie the genetic variation of plasma cortisol in the rainbow trout families...

  15. Activity patterns during food provisioning are affected by artificial light in free living great tits (Parus major.

    Mieke Titulaer

    Full Text Available Artificial light may have severe ecological consequences but there is limited experimental work to assess these consequences. We carried out an experimental study on a wild population of great tits (Parus major to assess the impact of light pollution on daily activity patterns during the chick provisioning period. Pairs that were provided with a small light outside their nest box did not alter the onset, cessation or duration of their working day. There was however a clear effect of artificial light on the feeding rate in the second half of the nestling period: when provided with artificial light females increased their feeding rate when the nestlings were between 9 and 16 days old. Artificial light is hypothesised to have affected the perceived photoperiod of either the parents or the offspring which in turn led to increased parental care. This may have negative fitness consequences for the parents, and light pollution may thus create an ecological trap for breeding birds.

  16. Testing predictive models of positive and negative affect with psychosocial, acculturation, and coping variables in a multiethnic undergraduate sample.

    Kuo, Ben Ch; Kwantes, Catherine T

    2014-01-01

    Despite the prevalence and popularity of research on positive and negative affect within the field of psychology, there is currently little research on affect involving the examination of cultural variables and with participants of diverse cultural and ethnic backgrounds. To the authors' knowledge, currently no empirical studies have comprehensively examined predictive models of positive and negative affect based specifically on multiple psychosocial, acculturation, and coping variables as predictors with any sample populations. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to test the predictive power of perceived stress, social support, bidirectional acculturation (i.e., Canadian acculturation and heritage acculturation), religious coping and cultural coping (i.e., collective, avoidance, and engagement coping) in explaining positive and negative affect in a multiethnic sample of 301 undergraduate students in Canada. Two hierarchal multiple regressions were conducted, one for each affect as the dependent variable, with the above described predictors. The results supported the hypotheses and showed the two overall models to be significant in predicting affect of both kinds. Specifically, a higher level of positive affect was predicted by a lower level of perceived stress, less use of religious coping, and more use of engagement coping in dealing with stress by the participants. Higher level of negative affect, however, was predicted by a higher level of perceived stress and more use of avoidance coping in responding to stress. The current findings highlight the value and relevance of empirically examining the stress-coping-adaptation experiences of diverse populations from an affective conceptual framework, particularly with the inclusion of positive affect. Implications and recommendations for advancing future research and theoretical works in this area are considered and presented.

  17. Sensory profiles as potential mediators of the association between hypomania and hopelessness in 488 major affective outpatients.

    Engel-Yeger, Batya; Gonda, Xenia; Canepa, Giovanna; Pompili, Maurizio; Rihmer, Zoltan; Amore, Mario; Serafini, Gianluca

    2018-01-01

    Extreme sensory processing patterns may contribute to the pathophysiology of major affective disorders. We aimed to examine whether significant correlations exist between sensory profiles, hypomania, self-reported depression, and hopelessness and whether sensory profiles may be potential mediators of the association between hypomania and depression/hopelessness. The sample consisted of 488 euthymic affective disorder patients of which 283 diagnosed with unipolar and 162 with bipolar disorder with an age ranging from 18 to 65 years (mean = 47.82 ± 11.67). Lower registration of sensory input and sensory sensitivity significantly correlated with elevated self-reported depression, hopelessness, and irritable/risk-taking hypomania while sensation seeking and avoiding significantly correlated with elevated depression and hopelessness but not with irritable/risk-taking hypomania. Moreover, individuals with lower ability to register sensory input and higher hypomania showed higher self-reported depression than those with good registration of sensory information. According to SEM analyses, there was both a direct/indirect effect of irritable/risk-taking on depression-hopelessness with the mediation model explaining 48% of the variance in depression-hopelessness. The relatively small sample size and the cross-sectional nature of the study design do not allow the generalization of the main findings. Low registration was associated with enhanced depressed mood and hopelessness while sensory seeking may be considered a resilient factor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Relationship between affective temperaments and aggression in euthymic patients with bipolar mood disorder and major depressive disorder.

    Dolenc, B; Dernovšek, M Z; Sprah, L; Tavcar, R; Perugi, G; Akiskal, H S

    2015-03-15

    So far there is a scarce of studies dealing with the relationship between different aspects of aggressive behaviour and affective temperaments among various mood disorders. The aim of the present study was to explore in a group of patients with affective mood disorders the relationship between affective temperaments and aggression. 100 consecutive outpatients in euthymic phase of mood disorders (46 with bipolar disorder-type I, 18 with bipolar disorder-type II and 36 with major depressive disorder) were self-assessed with the Aggression Questionnaire and the short version of Slovenian Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego - Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A). The factorial analysis of the TEMPS-A subscales revealed 2 main factors: Factor 1 (prominent cyclothymic profile) consisted of cyclothymic, depressive, irritable, and anxious temperaments and Factor 2 (prominent hyperthymic profile) which was represented by the hyperthymic temperament, and by depressive and anxious temperaments as negative components. Patients with prominent cyclothymic profile got their diagnosis later in their life and had significantly higher mean scores on anger and hostility (non-motor aggressive behaviour) compared with patients with prominent hyperthymic profile. We included patients with different mood disorders, therefore the sample selection may influence temperamental and aggression profiles. We used self-report questionnaires which can elicit sociable desirable answers. Anger and hostility could represent stable personality characteristics of prominent cyclothymic profile that endure even in remission. It seems that distinct temperamental profile could serve as a good diagnostic and prognostic value for non-motor aspects of aggressive behaviour. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Capturing the Initiation and Spatial Variability of Runoff on Soils Affected by Wildfire

    Martin, D. A.; Wickert, A. D.; Moody, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    Rainfall after wildfire often leads to intense runoff and erosion, since fire removes ground cover that impedes overland flow and water is unable to efficiently infiltrate into the fire-affected soils. In order to understand the relation between rainfall, infiltration, and runoff, we modified a camera to be triggered by a rain gage to take time-lapse photographs of the ground surface every 10 seconds until the rain stops. This camera allows us to observe directly the patterns of ground surface ponding, the initiation of overland flow, and erosion/deposition during single rainfall events. The camera was deployed on a hillslope (average slope = 23 degrees) that was severely burned by the 2010 Fourmile Canyon Fire near Boulder, Colorado. The camera's field of view is approximately 3 m2. We integrate the photographs with rainfall and overland flow measurements to determine thresholds for the initiation of overland flow and erosion. We have recorded the spatial variability of wetted patches of ground and the connection of these patches together to initiate overland flow. To date we have recorded images for rain storms with 30-minute maximum intensities ranging from 5 mm/h (our threshold to trigger continuous photographs) to 32 mm/h. In the near future we will update the camera's control system to 1) include a clock to enable time-lapse photographs at a lower frequency in addition to the event-triggered images, and 2) to add a radio to allow the camera to be triggered remotely. Radio communication will provide a means of starting the camera in response to non-local events, allowing us to capture images or video of flash flood surge fronts and debris flows, and to synchronize the operations of multiple cameras in the field. Schematics and instructions to build this camera station, which can be used to take either photos or video, are open-source licensed and are available online at http://instaar.colorado.edu/~wickert/atvis. It is our hope that this tool can be used by

  20. Understanding the role of P2X7 in affective disorders – are glial cells the major players?

    Leanne eStokes

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The pathophysiology of several psychiatric disorders has been linked to biomarkers of inflammation generating a theory of major depressive disorder as an inflammatory disease and infection and autoimmunity as major risk factors for schizophrenia. The idea of pro-inflammatory cytokines altering behavior is now well accepted however many questions remain. Microglia can produce a plethora of inflammatory cytokines and these cells appear to be critical in the link between inflammatory changes and depressive disorders. Microglia play a known role in sickness behavior which has many components of depressive-like behavior such as social withdrawal, sleep alterations, and anorexia. Numerous candidate genes have been identified for psychiatric disorders in the last decade. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the human P2X7 gene have been linked to bipolar disorder, depression, and to the severity of depressive symptoms. P2X7 is a ligand-gated cation channel expressed on microglia with lower levels found on astrocytes and on some neuronal populations. In microglia P2X7 is a major regulator of pro-inflammatory cytokines of the interleukin-1 family. Genetic deletion of P2X7 in mice is protective for depressive behavior in addition to inflammatory responses. P2X7-/- mice have been shown to demonstrate anti-depressive-like behavior in forced swim and tail suspension behavioral tests and stressor-induced behavioral responses were blunted. Both neurochemical (norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine and inflammatory changes have been observed in the brains of P2X7-/- mice. This review will discuss the recent evidence for involvement of P2X7 in the pathophysiology of depressive disorders and propose mechanisms by which altered signaling through this ion channel may affect the inflammatory state of the brain.

  1. Major histocompatibility complex harbors widespread genotypic variability of non-additive risk of rheumatoid arthritis including epistasis.

    Wei, Wen-Hua; Bowes, John; Plant, Darren; Viatte, Sebastien; Yarwood, Annie; Massey, Jonathan; Worthington, Jane; Eyre, Stephen

    2016-04-25

    Genotypic variability based genome-wide association studies (vGWASs) can identify potentially interacting loci without prior knowledge of the interacting factors. We report a two-stage approach to make vGWAS applicable to diseases: firstly using a mixed model approach to partition dichotomous phenotypes into additive risk and non-additive environmental residuals on the liability scale and secondly using the Levene's (Brown-Forsythe) test to assess equality of the residual variances across genotype groups per marker. We found widespread significant (P 5e-05) vGWAS signals within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) across all three study cohorts of rheumatoid arthritis. We further identified 10 epistatic interactions between the vGWAS signals independent of the MHC additive effects, each with a weak effect but jointly explained 1.9% of phenotypic variance. PTPN22 was also identified in the discovery cohort but replicated in only one independent cohort. Combining the three cohorts boosted power of vGWAS and additionally identified TYK2 and ANKRD55. Both PTPN22 and TYK2 had evidence of interactions reported elsewhere. We conclude that vGWAS can help discover interacting loci for complex diseases but require large samples to find additional signals.

  2. Factors that affect the variability in heart rate during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

    Christensen, Merete; Reinert, Rebekka; Rasmussen, Verner

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To find out if drugs, position, and endoscopic manipulation during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) influence the changes in the variability of heart rate. DESIGN: Single-blind randomised trial. SUBJECTS: 10 volunteers given butyscopolamine, glucagon, or saline...

  3. Quantitative Analysis of Major Factors Affecting Black Carbon Transport and Concentrations in the Unique Atmospheric Structures of Urban Environment

    Liang, Marissa Shuang

    Black carbon (BC) from vehicular emission in transportation is a principal component of particulate matters ≤ 2.5 mum (PM2.5). PM2.5 and other diesel emission pollutants (e.g., NOx) are regulated by the Clean Air Act (CAA) according to the National Ambient Air Quality standards (NAAQS). This doctoral dissertation details a study on transport behaviors of black carbon and PM2.5 from transportation routes, their relations with the atmospheric structure of an urban formation, and their relations with the use of biodiesel fuels. The results have implications to near-road risk assessment and to the development of sustainable transportation solutions in urban centers. The first part of study quantified near-roadside black carbon transport as a function of particulate matter (PM) size and composition, as well as microclimatic variables (temperature and wind fields) at the interstate highway I-75 in northern Cincinnati, Ohio. Among variables examined, wind speed and direction significantly affect the roadside transport of black carbon and hence its effective emission factor. Observed non-Gaussian dispersion occurred during low wind and for wind directions at acute angles or upwind to the receptors, mostly occurring in the morning hours. Meandering of air pollutant mass under thermal inversion is likely the driving force. In contrary, Gaussian distribution predominated in daytime of strong downwinds. The roles of urban atmospheric structure, wind fields, and the urban heat island (UHI) effects were further examined on pollutant dispersion and transport. Spatiotemporal variations of traffic flow, atmospheric structure, ambient temperature and PM2.5 concentration data from 14 EPA-certified NAAQS monitoring stations, were analyzed in relation to land-use in the Cincinnati metropolitan area. The results show a decade-long UHI effects with higher interior temperature than that in exurban, and a prominent nocturnal thermal inversion frequent in urban boundary layer. The

  4. Identification and dissection of four major QTL affecting milk fat content in the German Holstein-Friesian population.

    Xiaolong Wang

    Full Text Available Milk composition traits exhibit a complex genetic architecture with a small number of major quantitative trait loci (QTL explaining a large fraction of the genetic variation and numerous QTL with minor effects. In order to identify QTL for milk fat percentage (FP in the German Holstein-Friesian (HF population, a genome-wide association study (GWAS was performed. The study population consisted of 2327 progeny-tested bulls. Genotypes were available for 44,280 SNPs. Phenotypes in the form of estimated breeding values (EBVs for FP were used as highly heritable traits. A variance components-based approach was used to account for population stratification. The GWAS identified four major QTL regions explaining 46.18% of the FP EBV variance. Besides two previously known FP QTL on BTA14 (P = 8.91×10-(198 and BTA20 (P = 7.03×10(-12 within DGAT1 and GHR, respectively, we uncovered two additional QTL regions on BTA5 (P = 2.00×10(-13 and BTA27 (P = 9.83×10(-5 encompassing EPS8 and GPAT4, respectively. EPS8 and GPAT4 are involved in lipid metabolism in mammals. Re-sequencing of EPS8 and GPAT4 revealed 50 polymorphisms. Genotypes for five of them were inferred for the entire study population. Two polymorphisms affecting potential transcription factor binding sites of EPS8 (P = 1.40×10(-12 and GPAT4 (P = 5.18×10(-5, respectively, were highly significantly associated with the FP EBV. Our results provide evidence that alteration of regulatory sites is an important aspect of genetic variation of complex traits in cattle.

  5. Variables Affecting Secondary School Students' Willingness to Eat Genetically Modified Food Crops

    Maes, Jasmien; Bourgonjon, Jeroen; Gheysen, Godelieve; Valcke, Martin

    2017-04-01

    A large-scale cross-sectional study (N = 4002) was set up to determine Flemish secondary school students' willingness to eat genetically modified food (WTE) and to link students' WTE to previously identified key variables from research on the acceptance of genetic modification (GM). These variables include subjective and objective knowledge about genetics and biotechnology, perceived risks and benefits of GM food crops, trust in information from different sources about GM, and food neophobia. Differences between WTE-related variables based on students' grade level, educational track, and gender were analyzed. The students displayed a rather indecisive position toward GM food and scored weakly on a genetics and biotechnology knowledge test. WTE correlated most strongly with perceived benefits and subjective and objective knowledge. The results have clear implications for education, as they reiterate the need to strengthen students' scientific knowledge base and to introduce a GM-related debate at a much earlier stage in their school career.

  6. Stability of Intercellular Exchange of Biochemical Substances Affected by Variability of Environmental Parameters

    Mihailović, Dragutin T.; Budinčević, Mirko; Balaž, Igor; Mihailović, Anja

    Communication between cells is realized by exchange of biochemical substances. Due to internal organization of living systems and variability of external parameters, the exchange is heavily influenced by perturbations of various parameters at almost all stages of the process. Since communication is one of essential processes for functioning of living systems it is of interest to investigate conditions for its stability. Using previously developed simplified model of bacterial communication in a form of coupled difference logistic equations we investigate stability of exchange of signaling molecules under variability of internal and external parameters.

  7. Adolescent Major Depressive Disorder: Neuroimaging Evidence of Sex Difference during an Affective Go/No-Go Task.

    Chuang, Jie-Yu; Hagan, Cindy C; Murray, Graham K; Graham, Julia M E; Ooi, Cinly; Tait, Roger; Holt, Rosemary J; Elliott, Rebecca; van Nieuwenhuizen, Adrienne O; Bullmore, Edward T; Lennox, Belinda R; Sahakian, Barbara J; Goodyer, Ian M; Suckling, John

    2017-01-01

    Compared to female major depressive disorder (MDD), male MDD often receives less attention. However, research is warranted since there are significant sex differences in the clinical presentation of MDD and a higher rate of suicide in depressed men. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study with a large sample addressing putative sex differences in MDD during adolescence, a period when one of the most robust findings in psychiatric epidemiology emerges; that females are twice as likely to suffer from MDD than males. Twenty-four depressed and 10 healthy male adolescents, together with 82 depressed and 24 healthy female adolescents, aged 11-18 years, undertook an affective go/no-go task during fMRI acquisition. In response to sad relative to neutral distractors, significant sex differences (in the supramarginal gyrus) and group-by-sex interactions (in the supramarginal gyrus and the posterior cingulate cortex) were found. Furthermore, in contrast to the healthy male adolescents, depressed male adolescents showed decreased activation in the cerebellum with a significant group-by-age interaction in connectivity. Future research may consider altered developmental trajectories and the possible implications of sex-specific treatment and prevention strategies for MDD.

  8. Adolescent Major Depressive Disorder: Neuroimaging Evidence of Sex Difference during an Affective Go/No-Go Task

    Jie-Yu Chuang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Compared to female major depressive disorder (MDD, male MDD often receives less attention. However, research is warranted since there are significant sex differences in the clinical presentation of MDD and a higher rate of suicide in depressed men. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study with a large sample addressing putative sex differences in MDD during adolescence, a period when one of the most robust findings in psychiatric epidemiology emerges; that females are twice as likely to suffer from MDD than males. Twenty-four depressed and 10 healthy male adolescents, together with 82 depressed and 24 healthy female adolescents, aged 11–18 years, undertook an affective go/no-go task during fMRI acquisition. In response to sad relative to neutral distractors, significant sex differences (in the supramarginal gyrus and group-by-sex interactions (in the supramarginal gyrus and the posterior cingulate cortex were found. Furthermore, in contrast to the healthy male adolescents, depressed male adolescents showed decreased activation in the cerebellum with a significant group-by-age interaction in connectivity. Future research may consider altered developmental trajectories and the possible implications of sex-specific treatment and prevention strategies for MDD.

  9. 'I am not a depressed person': how identity conflict affects help-seeking rates for major depressive disorder.

    Farmer, Caroline; Farrand, Paul; O'Mahen, Heather

    2012-10-02

    There is a significant treatment gap for patients with depression. A third of sufferers never seek help, and the vast majority of those who do only do so after considerable delay. Little is understood regarding poor help-seeking rates amongst people with depression, with existing research mainly focussed on the impact of barriers to treatment. The current study explored psychological factors affecting help-seeking behaviour in clinically depressed individuals. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 current or previously clinically depressed participants who either had or had not sought professional help. Thematic analysis was used to analyse results. The onset of depressive symptoms created conflict with participants' identity and personal goals. Delays in seeking help were primarily attributed to the desire to protect identity and goals from the threat of depressive symptoms. Participants used avoidance strategies to reduce the perceived threat of depressive symptoms on identity. These strategies interfered with help-seeking. Help-seeking was only undertaken once participants reached a point of acceptance and began to make concessions in their identity and goals, at which time they reduced their use of avoidance. Difficulties resolving conflict between identity and depressive symptoms may account for significant delays in seeking help for depression. The results have implications for predicting health behaviour and improving treatment uptake for depression, and may inform existing help-seeking models.

  10. Effects of musical tempo on physiological, affective, and perceptual variables and performance of self-selected walking pace.

    Almeida, Flávia Angélica Martins; Nunes, Renan Felipe Hartmann; Ferreira, Sandro Dos Santos; Krinski, Kleverton; Elsangedy, Hassan Mohamed; Buzzachera, Cosme Franklin; Alves, Ragami Chaves; Gregorio da Silva, Sergio

    2015-06-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of musical tempo on physiological, affective, and perceptual responses as well as the performance of self-selected walking pace. [Subjects] The study included 28 adult women between 29 and 51 years old. [Methods] The subjects were divided into three groups: no musical stimulation group (control), and 90 and 140 beats per minute musical tempo groups. Each subject underwent three experimental sessions: involved familiarization with the equipment, an incremental test to exhaustion, and a 30-min walk on a treadmill at a self-selected pace, respectively. During the self-selected walking session, physiological, perceptual, and affective variables were evaluated, and walking performance was evaluated at the end. [Results] There were no significant differences in physiological variables or affective response among groups. However, there were significant differences in perceptual response and walking performance among groups. [Conclusion] Fast music (140 beats per minute) promotes a higher rating of perceived exertion and greater performance in self-selected walking pace without significantly altering physiological variables or affective response.

  11. Affect

    Cetinic, M.; Diamanti, J.; Szeman, I.; Blacker, S.; Sully, J.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter historicizes four divergent but historically contemporaneous genres of affect theory – romantic, realist, speculative, and materialist. While critics credited with the turn to affect in the 1990s wrote largely in the wake of poststructuralism from the perspective of gender and queer

  12. Transcriptome association analysis identifies miR-375 as a major determinant of variable acetaminophen glucuronidation by human liver.

    Papageorgiou, Ioannis; Freytsis, Marina; Court, Michael H

    2016-10-01

    Acetaminophen is the leading cause of acute liver failure (ALF) in many countries including the United States. Hepatic glucuronidation by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A subfamily enzymes is the major route of acetaminophen elimination. Reduced glucuronidation may predispose some individuals to acetaminophen-induced ALF, but mechanisms underlying reduced glucuronidation are poorly understood. We hypothesized that specific microRNAs (miRNAs) may reduce UGT1A activity by direct effects on the UGT1A 3'-UTR shared by all UGT1A enzyme transcripts, or by indirect effects on transcription factors regulating UGT1A expression. We performed an unbiased miRNA whole transcriptome association analysis using a bank of human livers with known acetaminophen glucuronidation activities. Of 754 miRNAs evaluated, 9 miRNAs were identified that were significantly overexpressed (p2-fold) in livers with low acetaminophen glucuronidation activities compared with those with high activities. miR-375 showed the highest difference (>10-fold), and was chosen for further mechanistic validation. We demonstrated using in silico analysis and luciferase reporter assays that miR-375 has a unique functional binding site in the 3'-UTR of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) gene. Furthermore overexpression of miR-375 in LS180 cells demonstrated significant repression of endogenous AhR protein (by 40%) and mRNA (by 10%), as well as enzyme activity and/or mRNA of AhR regulated enzymes including UGT1A1, UGT1A6, and CYP1A2, without affecting UGT2B7, which is not regulated by AhR. Thus miR-375 is identified as a novel repressor of UGT1A-mediated hepatic acetaminophen glucuronidation through reduced AhR expression, which could predispose some individuals to increased risk for acetaminophen-induced ALF. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Tensile properties of cotton yarn as affected by different yarn singeing machine variables

    Tausief, M.Q.; Mahmood, N.; Iqbal, W.

    2014-01-01

    The present study endeavours to optimise the yam quality in respect of its tensile properties by choosing the best combination of the yam singeing machine variables for excellent manufacture results. This research study revealed that different values of winding speed, gas pressure and air pressure of yam singeing machine put significant effect upon the tensile properties of cotton yam after singeing. (author)

  14. Does ownership affect the variability of the production process? Evidence from international courier services

    Hsieh, C.; Lazzarini, S.G.; Nickerson, J.A.; Laurini, M.

    2010-01-01

    A firm often must ensure that products or services it produces match customer expectations. We define variability as any deviation in a production process yielding products or services whose attributes differ from the firm's stated target specifications. Firms pursuing products marked by low

  15. Socioeconomic, demographic, and geographic variables affecting the diverse degrees of consanguineous marriages in Spain.

    Fuster, V; Colantonio, S E

    2004-02-01

    In a population the inbreeding coefficient alpha is determined by the relative incidence of the various degrees of consanguineous marriages--uncle-niece or aunt-nephew (C12), first cousin (C22), first cousin once removed (C23), second cousin (C33)--which may be related to temporal, geographic, demographic, and economic factors. Using published information from Spain corresponding to urban and rural areas, in this article we seek to establish how each specific relationship behaves with respect to geographic, demographic, and socioeconomic factors, to determine differential urban-rural patterns, and to study whether the diverse types of consanguineous matings relate homogeneously to these factors. For this purpose we performed multiple regressions in which the dependent variables were the different degrees of consanguinity previously selected and the independent variables were geographic, demographic, and economic factors. Our results indicate that the various types of consanguineous marriages in Spain are more conditioned by geographic, demographic, and economic variables than by the inbreeding level alpha (the coefficient of determination was between 0.22 and 0.72; the maximum for alpha was 0.35). A regional pattern exists in Spain and corresponds to close and to remote kinship, which may be mainly related to economic and family factors. Close relationships appear to be more associated with economic variables, whereas second-cousin marriages correspond largely to rural areas of the Spanish Central Plateau.

  16. How Do Self-Efficacy, Contextual Variables and Stressors Affect Teacher Burnout in an EFL Context?

    Khani, Reza; Mirzaee, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    This study was an attempt to investigate the relationships among stressors, contextual variables, self-efficacy and teacher burnout in Iran as an EFL (English as a Foreign Language) context. A battery of questionnaires was administered to 216 English language teachers of private language institutes. Using Amos version 20, structural equation…

  17. Association Between Major Depressive Disorder and Heart Rate Variability in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)

    Licht, Carmilla M. M.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Zitman, Frans G.; Hoogendijk, Witte J. G.; van Dyck, Richard; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2008-01-01

    Context: It has been hypothesized that depression is associated with lower heart rate variability and decreased cardiac vagal control. This may play an important role in the risk of cardiovascular disease among depressed individuals. Objective: To determine whether heart rate variability was lower

  18. Variables affecting viral plaque formation in microculture plaque assays using homologous antibody in a liquid overlay.

    Randhawa, A S; Stanton, G J; Green, J A; Baron, S

    1977-05-01

    A liquid antibody microculture plaque assay and the variables that govern its effectiveness are described. The assay is based on the principle that low concentrations of homologous antibody can inhibit secondary plaque formation without inhibiting formation of primary plaques. Thus, clear plaques that followed a linear dose response were produced. The assay was found to be more rapid, less cumbersome, and less expensive than assays using agar overlays and larger tissue culture plates. It was reproducible, quantitative, and had about the same sensitivity as the agar overlay technique in measuring infectious coxsackievirus type B-3. It was more sensitive in assaying adenovirus type 3 and Western equine encephalomyelitis, vesicular stomatitis, Semliki forest, Sendai, Sindbis, and Newcastle disease viruses than were liquid, carboxymethylcellulose, and methylcellulose microculture plaque assays. The variables influencing sensitivity and accuracy, as determined by using coxsackievirus type B-3, were: (i) the inoculum volume of virus; (ii) the incubation period of virus; and (iii) the incubation temperature.

  19. Changes in canopy structure and ant assemblages affect soil ecosystem variables as a foundation species declines

    Kendrick, Joseph A.; Ribbons, Relena Rose; Classen, Aimee Taylor

    2015-01-01

    in ant species composition would interact to alter soil ecosystem variables. In the Harvard Forest Hemlock Removal Experiment (HF-HeRE), established in 2003, T. canadensis in large plots were killed in place or logged and removed to mimic adelgid infestation or salvage harvesting, respectively. In 2006...... (richness and abundance) of ants increases rapidly as T. canadensis is lost from the stands. Because ants live and forage at the litter-soil interface, we hypothesized that environmental changes caused by hemlock loss (e.g., increased light and warmth at the forest floor, increased soil pH) and shifts......, we built ant exclosure subplots within all of the canopy manipulation plots to examine direct and interactive effects of canopy change and ant assemblage composition on soil and litter variables. Throughout HF-HeRE, T. canadensis was colonized by the adelgid in 2009, and the infested trees are now...

  20. Evaluation of socio-demographic variables affecting the periodontal health of pregnant women in Chandigarh, India

    Jagjit Singh Dhaliwal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The literature is replete with reports that pregnant women have an increased level of periodontal disease as compared with non-pregnant women of the same age. There are many studies correlating the effect of periodontal disease on the adverse pregnancy outcomes. The development of periodontal diseases during pregnancy can be influenced by factors such as preexisting oral conditions, general health, and socio-cultural background. There is very little data studying the effect of socio-demographic factors on the periodontal health of pregnant women. This study evaluated the periodontal status of a sample of pregnant women of Chandigarh and adjoining areas. The study also investigated the relationship between these variables and a series of demographic and clinical variables. Materials and Methods: The participants were 190 pregnant women attending Gynecology and Obstetrics outpatient department of Government Medical College and Hospital, Chandigarh. The participants were examined for their periodontal health and various socio-demographic variables were recorded on performas designed for the purpose of study. Statistical analysis was done. Results: The results revealed that the mean bleeding index scores and probing depth increased with statistical significance when the socio-economic status was lower ( P0.1. The plaque index was not significantly associated with the socio-economic status, profession, place of residence, and trimester of pregnancy ( P>0.1. Conclusion: In the population of pregnant women investigated under this study, the clinical and socio-demographic characteristics showed non-significant correlation except socio-economic status which showed statistically significant correlation with bleeding on probing and pocket depth. Further studies may be required in Indian population to determine the association of periodontal diseases in pregnant women with socio-demographic variables.

  1. Evaluation of variables which affect the hardness of nickel plate deposited from watts-type baths

    Petit, G.S.; Wright, R.R.; Neff, W.A.

    1976-01-01

    In the course of the Cascade Improvement Program, many component equipment parts will be electroplated with nickel for corrosion protection. The maximum hardness which will be acceptable in the electroplated deposit is specified in Union Carbide's Job Specification JS-1396, Revision 3, entitled Electroplated Nickel Coatings on Steel Parts. The hardness specification is intended primarily as a control over both organic and inorganic impurities in the deposit. This report covers a study evaluating several of the numerous controllable variables which influence the hardness of the nickel plate deposited from a Watts-type bath. The variables tested were: 1) bath composition, 2) pH, 3) current density, 4) anode-cathode area ratio, and 5) bath temperature. Within the tested ranges of the variables studied, the pH and current density had the most influence on the plate hardness. The softest deposit was obtained with a bath pH of 1.5, a current density of 30 to 40 amperes/square foot, and with the anode-cathode area ratio in the range of 3:1 to 1:1

  2. Monitoring variables affecting positron emission tomography measurements of cerebral blood flow in anaesthetized pigs

    Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Zois, Nora Elisabeth; Simonsen, Mette

    Background: Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of anaesthetised pig brains is a useful tool in neuroscience. Stable cerebral blood flow (CBF) is essential for PET, since variations can affect the kinetics of several radiotracers. However, the impact of physiological factors regulating CBF...

  3. Meta-analysis of variables affecting mouse protection efficacy of whole organism Brucella vaccines and vaccine candidates

    2013-01-01

    Background Vaccine protection investigation includes three processes: vaccination, pathogen challenge, and vaccine protection efficacy assessment. Many variables can affect the results of vaccine protection. Brucella, a genus of facultative intracellular bacteria, is the etiologic agent of brucellosis in humans and multiple animal species. Extensive research has been conducted in developing effective live attenuated Brucella vaccines. We hypothesized that some variables play a more important role than others in determining vaccine protective efficacy. Using Brucella vaccines and vaccine candidates as study models, this hypothesis was tested by meta-analysis of Brucella vaccine studies reported in the literature. Results Nineteen variables related to vaccine-induced protection of mice against infection with virulent brucellae were selected based on modeling investigation of the vaccine protection processes. The variable "vaccine protection efficacy" was set as a dependent variable while the other eighteen were set as independent variables. Discrete or continuous values were collected from papers for each variable of each data set. In total, 401 experimental groups were manually annotated from 74 peer-reviewed publications containing mouse protection data for live attenuated Brucella vaccines or vaccine candidates. Our ANOVA analysis indicated that nine variables contributed significantly (P-value Brucella vaccine protection efficacy: vaccine strain, vaccination host (mouse) strain, vaccination dose, vaccination route, challenge pathogen strain, challenge route, challenge-killing interval, colony forming units (CFUs) in mouse spleen, and CFU reduction compared to control group. The other 10 variables (e.g., mouse age, vaccination-challenge interval, and challenge dose) were not found to be statistically significant (P-value > 0.05). The protection level of RB51 was sacrificed when the values of several variables (e.g., vaccination route, vaccine viability, and

  4. The Spatial and Temporal Variability of the North Atlantic Oscillation Recorded in Ice Core Major Ion Time Series

    Wawrzeniak, T. L.; Wake, C. P.; Fischer, H.; Fisher, D. A.; Schwikowski, M.

    2006-05-01

    The North Atlantic Oscillation represents a significant mode of atmospheric variability for the Arctic and sub- Artic climate system. Developing a longer-term record of the spatial and temporal variability of the NAO could improve our understanding of natural climate variability in the region. Previous work has shown a significant relationship between Greenland ice core records and the NAO. Here, we have compared sea-salt and dust records from nine ice cores around the Arctic region to sea level pressure and NAO indices to evaluate the extent to which these ice cores can be used to reconstruct the NAO.

  5. How urban environment affects travel behavior? Integrated Choice and Latent Variable Model for Travel Schedules

    La Paix, Lissy; Bierlaire, Michel; Cherchi, Elisabetta

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between urban environment and travel behaviour is not a new problem. Neighbourhood characteristics may affect mobility of dwellers in different ways, such as frequency of trips, mode used, structure of the tours, and so on. At the same time, qualitative issues related...... to the individual attitude towards specific behaviour have recently become important in transport modelling contributing to a better understanding of travel demand. Following this research line, in this paper we study the effect of neighbourhood characteristics in the choice of the type of tours performed, but we...... assume that neighbourhood characteristics can also affect the individual propensity to travel and hence the choice of the tours throughout the propensity to travel. Since the propensity to travel is not observed, we employ hybrid choice models to estimate jointly the discrete choice of tours...

  6. A Study on Variables that Affect Class Scores of Primary Education Students in Placement Test

    Yavuz, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to determine the variables that predict class scores which are obtained by adding 70 % of the Placement Test (PT) scores of the primary education sixth and seventh grade students who took it for the first time in the 2007-2008 academic year within the framework of the system of passing to secondary education reorganized by the MNE, 25 % of their end-of-the-year passing grades. The study is of general survey model. The study group consists of students who took the PT in the 200...

  7. Fabrication variables affecting the structure and properties of supported carbon molecular sieve membranes for hydrogen separation

    Briceñ o, Kelly; Montané , Daniel; Garcia-Valls, Ricard; Iulianelli, Adolfo; Basile, Angelo

    2012-01-01

    A high molecular weight polyimide (Matrimid) was used as a precursor for fabricating supported carbon molecular sieve membranes without crack formation at 550-700°C pyrolysis temperature. A one-step polymer (polyimide) coating method as precursor of carbon layer was used without needing a prior modification of a TiO 2 macroporous support. The following fabrication variables were optimized and studied to determine their effect on the carbon structure: polymeric solution concentration, solvent extraction, heating rate and pyrolysis temperature. Two techniques (Thermogravimetric analysis and Raman spectroscopy) were used to determine these effects on final carbon structure. Likewise, the effect of the support was also reported as an additional and important variable in the design of supported carbon membranes. Atomic force microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry quantified the degree of influence. Pure gas permeation tests were performed using CH 4, CO, CO 2 and H 2. The presence of a molecular sieving mechanism was confirmed after defects were plugged with PDMS solution at 12wt%. Gas selectivities higher than Knudsen theoretical values were reached with membranes obtained over 650°C, showing as best values 4.46, 4.70 and 10.62 for H 2/N 2, H 2/CO and H 2/CH 4 ratio, respectively. Permeance values were over 9.82×10 -9mol/(m 2Pas)during pure hydrogen permeation tests. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  8. Fabrication variables affecting the structure and properties of supported carbon molecular sieve membranes for hydrogen separation

    Briceño, Kelly

    2012-10-01

    A high molecular weight polyimide (Matrimid) was used as a precursor for fabricating supported carbon molecular sieve membranes without crack formation at 550-700°C pyrolysis temperature. A one-step polymer (polyimide) coating method as precursor of carbon layer was used without needing a prior modification of a TiO 2 macroporous support. The following fabrication variables were optimized and studied to determine their effect on the carbon structure: polymeric solution concentration, solvent extraction, heating rate and pyrolysis temperature. Two techniques (Thermogravimetric analysis and Raman spectroscopy) were used to determine these effects on final carbon structure. Likewise, the effect of the support was also reported as an additional and important variable in the design of supported carbon membranes. Atomic force microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry quantified the degree of influence. Pure gas permeation tests were performed using CH 4, CO, CO 2 and H 2. The presence of a molecular sieving mechanism was confirmed after defects were plugged with PDMS solution at 12wt%. Gas selectivities higher than Knudsen theoretical values were reached with membranes obtained over 650°C, showing as best values 4.46, 4.70 and 10.62 for H 2/N 2, H 2/CO and H 2/CH 4 ratio, respectively. Permeance values were over 9.82×10 -9mol/(m 2Pas)during pure hydrogen permeation tests. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  9. INDIVIDUAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL VARIABLES AFFECTING THE USE OF PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT

    TUNÇ DEMİRBİLEK

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Management’s safety approach and commitment are related to occupational health and safety applications in workplaces. However, personal characteristics and attitudes on their health of employees are very influential factors on occupational health and safety applications. For examine of interaction between behaviors and the health and safety applications it is required that determine of employee’s perceptions. For this reason this paper’s purpose is to establish of safety needs, attitudes and behaviors of employees and their perceptions regarding management’s safety approach and applications. The study’s focal point is use of personal protective equipment as an indicator “safety behavior”. In empirical study, assumption variables regarding the use of personal protective equipment are safety effectively, safety need, management attitudes and protective equipment conditions. The fundamental hypothesis of this paper is use of personal protective equipment is related to individual and organizational variables. Implications of research findings are to indicate impelling the workers to safety behaviour or using the personal protective equipment by their feeling of the safety behaviour and availability of personal protective equipment.

  10. Demographic and psychological variables affecting test subject evaluations of ride quality

    Duncan, N. C.; Conley, H. W.

    1975-01-01

    Ride-quality experiments similar in objectives, design, and procedure were conducted, one using the U.S. Air Force Total In-Flight Simulator and the other using the Langley Passenger Ride Quality Apparatus to provide the motion environments. Large samples (80 or more per experiment) of test subjects were recruited from the Tidewater Virginia area and asked to rate the comfort (on a 7-point scale) of random aircraft motion typical of that encountered during STOL flights. Test subject characteristics of age, sex, and previous flying history (number of previous airplane flights) were studied in a two by three by three factorial design. Correlations were computed between one dependent measure, the subject's mean comfort rating, and various demographic characteristics, attitudinal variables, and the scores on Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. An effect of sex was found in one of the studies. Males made higher (more uncomfortable) ratings of the ride than females. Age and number of previous flights were not significantly related to comfort ratings. No significant interactions between the variables of age, sex, or previous number of flights were observed.

  11. How the variance of some extraction variables may affect the quality of espresso coffees served in coffee shops.

    Severini, Carla; Derossi, Antonio; Fiore, Anna G; De Pilli, Teresa; Alessandrino, Ofelia; Del Mastro, Arcangela

    2016-07-01

    To improve the quality of espresso coffee, the variables under the control of the barista, such as grinding grade, coffee quantity and pressure applied to the coffee cake, as well as their variance, are of great importance. A nonlinear mixed effect modeling was used to obtain information on the changes in chemical attributes of espresso coffee (EC) as a function of the variability of extraction conditions. During extraction, the changes in volume were well described by a logistic model, whereas the chemical attributes were better fit by a first-order kinetic. The major source of information was contained in the grinding grade, which accounted for 87-96% of the variance of the experimental data. The variability of the grinding produced changes in caffeine content in the range of 80.03 mg and 130.36 mg when using a constant grinding grade of 6.5. The variability in volume and chemical attributes of EC is large. Grinding had the most important effect as the variability in particle size distribution observed for each grinding level had a profound effect on the quality of EC. Standardization of grinding would be of crucial importance for obtaining all espresso coffees with a high quality. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Variables affecting the risk of pneumothorax and intrapulmonal hemorrhage in CT-guided transthoracic biopsy

    Khan, M.F.; Straub, R.; Moghaddam, S.R.; Maataoui, A.; Gurung, J.; Thalhammer, A.; Vogl, T.J.; Jacobi, V.; Wagner, T.O.F.; Ackermann, H.

    2008-01-01

    The influence of various variables on the rate of pneumothorax and intrapulmonal hemorrhage associated with computed tomography (CT)-guided transthoracic needle biopsy of the lung were evaluated retrospectivly. One hundred and thirty-three patients underwent CT guided biopsy of a pulmonary lesion. Two patients were biopsied twice. Variables analyzed were lesion size, lesion location, number of pleural needle passes, lesion margin, length of intrapulmonal biopsy path and puncture time. Eighteen-gauge (18G) cutting needles (Trucut, Somatex, Teltow, Germany) were used for biopsy. Pneumothorax occured in 23 of 135 biopsies (17%). Chest tube placement was required in three out of 23 cases of pneumothorax (2% of all biopsies). Pneumothorax rate was significantly higher when the lesions were located in the lung parenchyma compared with locations at the pleura or chest wall (P < 0.05), but all pneumothorax cases which required chest tube treatment occured in lesions located less than 2 cm from the pleura. Longer puncture time led to an increase in pneumothorax rate (P < 0.05). Thirty-seven (27%) out of 135 biopsies showed perifocal hemorrhage. Intrapulmonal biopsy paths longer than 4 cm showed significantly higher numbers of perifocal hemorrhage and pneumothorax (P < 0.05). Significantly more hemorrhage occured when the pleura was penetrated twice during the puncture (P < 0.05). Lesion size <4 cm is strongly correlated with higher occurence of perifocal hemorrhage (P < 0.05). Lesion margination showed no significant effect on complication rate. CT-guided biopsy of smaller lesions correlates with a higher bleeding rate. Puncture time should be minimized to reduce pneumothorax rate. Passing the pleura twice significantly increases the risk of hemorrhage. Intrapulmonal biopsy paths longer than 4 cm showed significantly higher numbers of perifocal hemorrhage as well as pneumothorax. (orig.)

  13. Radiation dose exposure in patients affected by lymphoma undergoing repeat CT examinations: how to manage the radiation dose variability.

    Paolicchi, Fabio; Bastiani, Luca; Guido, Davide; Dore, Antonio; Aringhieri, Giacomo; Caramella, Davide

    2018-03-01

    To assess the variability of radiation dose exposure in patients affected by lymphoma undergoing repeat CT (computed tomography) examinations and to evaluate the influence of different scan parameters on the overall radiation dose. A series of 34 patients (12 men and 22 women with a median age of 34.4 years) with lymphoma, after the initial staging CT underwent repeat follow-up CT examinations. For each patient and each repeat examination, age, sex, use of AEC system (Automated Exposure Control, i.e. current modulation), scan length, kV value, number of acquired scans (i.e. number of phases), abdominal size diameter and dose length product (DLP) were recorded. The radiation dose of just one venous phase was singled out from the DLP of the entire examination. All scan data were retrieved by our PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication System) by means of a dose monitoring software. Among the variables we considered, no significant difference of radiation dose was observed among patients of different ages nor concerning tube voltage. On the contrary the dose delivered to the patients varied depending on sex, scan length and usage of AEC. No significant difference was observed depending on the behaviour of technologists, while radiologists' choices had indirectly an impact on the radiation dose due to the different number of scans requested by each of them. Our results demonstrate that patients affected by lymphoma who undergo repeat whole body CT scanning may receive unnecessary overexposure. We quantified and analyzed the most relevant variables in order to provide a useful tool to manage properly CT dose variability, estimating the amount of additional radiation dose for every single significant variable. Additional scans, incorrect scan length and incorrect usage of AEC system are the most relevant cause of patient radiation exposure.

  14. 76 FR 38552 - Amendments to Regulations Regarding Major Life-Changing Events Affecting Income-Related Monthly...

    2011-07-01

    ... provides that major life-changing events include marriage, divorce, death of spouse, or other events..., we require evidence documenting the settlement and the reason(s) for the settlement. These changes... major life-changing events if the reasons for such loss are due to the ordinary risk of investment...

  15. Clinical variables affecting survival in patients with decompensated diastolic versus systolic heart failure.

    Gorelik, Oleg; Almoznino-Sarafian, Dorit; Shteinshnaider, Miriam; Alon, Irena; Tzur, Irma; Sokolsky, Ilya; Efrati, Shai; Babakin, Zoanna; Modai, David; Cohen, Natan

    2009-04-01

    The impact of various clinical variables on long-term survival of patients with acutely decompensated diastolic heart failure (DHF) compared to systolic heart failure (SHF) has not been sufficiently investigated. Clinical, laboratory, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic data were collected and analyzed for all-cause mortality in 473 furosemide-treated patients aged >or=60 years, hospitalized for acutely decompensated HF. Diastolic heart failure patients (n = 183) were more likely to be older, female, hypertensive, obese, with shorter preexisting HF duration, atrial fibrillation, lower New York Heart Association (NYHA) class, lower maintenance furosemide dosages, and to receive calcium antagonists. The SHF group (290 patients) demonstrated prevailing coronary artery disease, nitrate or digoxin treatment, and electrocardiographic conduction disturbances (P variables. This observation might carry practical implications.

  16. Factors affecting the inter-annual to centennial timescale variability of Indian summer monsoon rainfall

    Malik, Abdul; Brönnimann, Stefan

    2018-06-01

    The Modes of Ocean Variability (MOV) namely Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) can have significant impacts on Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall (ISMR) on different timescales. The timescales at which these MOV interacts with ISMR and the factors which may perturb their relationship with ISMR need to be investigated. We employ De-trended Cross-Correlation Analysis (DCCA), and De-trended Partial-Cross-Correlation Analysis (DPCCA) to study the timescales of interaction of ISMR with AMO, PDO, and ENSO using observational dataset (AD 1854-1999), and atmosphere-ocean-chemistry climate model simulations with SOCOL-MPIOM (AD 1600-1999). Further, this study uses De-trended Semi-Partial Cross-Correlation Analysis (DSPCCA) to address the relation between solar variability and the ISMR. We find statistically significant evidence of intrinsic correlations of ISMR with AMO, PDO, and ENSO on different timescales, consistent between model simulations and observations. However, the model fails to capture modulation in intrinsic relationship between ISRM and MOV due to external signals. Our analysis indicates that AMO is a potential source of non-stationary relationship between ISMR and ENSO. Furthermore, the pattern of correlation between ISMR and Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) is inconsistent between observations and model simulations. The observational dataset indicates statistically insignificant negative intrinsic correlation between ISMR and TSI on decadal-to-centennial timescales. This statistically insignificant negative intrinsic correlation is transformed to statistically significant positive extrinsic by AMO on 61-86-year timescale. We propose a new mechanism for Sun-monsoon connection which operates through AMO by changes in summer (June-September; JJAS) meridional gradient of tropospheric temperatures (ΔTTJJAS). There is a negative (positive) intrinsic correlation between ΔTTJJAS (AMO) and

  17. Cortisol Stress Response Variability in Early Adolescence Attachment, Affect and Sex

    Cameron, Catherine Ann; McKay, Stacey; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine; Wright, Joan M.; Weinberg, Joanne

    2017-01-01

    Attachment, affect, and sex shape responsivity to psychosocial stress. Concurrent social contexts influence cortisol secretion, a stress hormone and biological marker of hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis activity. Patterns of attachment, emotion status, and sex were hypothesized to relate to bifurcated, that is, accentuated and attenuated, cortisol reactivity. The theoretical framework for this study posits that multiple individual differences mediate a cortisol stress response. The effects of two psychosocial stress interventions, a modified Trier Social Stress Test for Teens and the Frustration Social Stressor for Adolescents were developed and investigated with early adolescents. Both of these protocols induced a significant stress reaction and evoked predicted bifurcation in cortisol responses; an increase or decrease from baseline to reactivity. In Study I, 120 predominantly middle-class, Euro-Canadian early adolescents with a mean age of 13.43 years were studied. The girls' attenuated cortisol reactivity to the public performance stressor related significantly to their self-reported lower maternal-attachment and higher trait-anger. In Study II, a community sample of 146 predominantly Euro-Canadian middle-class youth, with an average age of 14.5 years participated. Their self-reports of higher trait-anger and trait-anxiety, and lower parental attachment by both sexes related differentially to accentuated and attenuated cortisol reactivity to the frustration stressor. Thus, attachment, affect, sex, and the stressor contextual factors were associated with the adrenal-cortical responses of these adolescents through complex interactions. Further studies of individual differences in physiological responses to stress are called for in order to clarify the identities of concurrent protective and risk factors in the psychosocial stress and physiological stress responses of early adolescents. PMID:27468997

  18. Cortisol Stress Response Variability in Early Adolescence: Attachment, Affect and Sex.

    Cameron, Catherine Ann; McKay, Stacey; Susman, Elizabeth J; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine; Wright, Joan M; Weinberg, Joanne

    2017-01-01

    Attachment, affect, and sex shape responsivity to psychosocial stress. Concurrent social contexts influence cortisol secretion, a stress hormone and biological marker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. Patterns of attachment, emotion status, and sex were hypothesized to relate to bifurcated, that is, accentuated and attenuated, cortisol reactivity. The theoretical framework for this study posits that multiple individual differences mediate a cortisol stress response. The effects of two psychosocial stress interventions, a modified Trier Social Stress Test for Teens and the Frustration Social Stressor for Adolescents were developed and investigated with early adolescents. Both of these protocols induced a significant stress reaction and evoked predicted bifurcation in cortisol responses; an increase or decrease from baseline to reactivity. In Study I, 120 predominantly middle-class, Euro-Canadian early adolescents with a mean age of 13.43 years were studied. The girls' attenuated cortisol reactivity to the public performance stressor related significantly to their self-reported lower maternal-attachment and higher trait-anger. In Study II, a community sample of 146 predominantly Euro-Canadian middle-class youth, with an average age of 14.5 years participated. Their self-reports of higher trait-anger and trait-anxiety, and lower parental attachment by both sexes related differentially to accentuated and attenuated cortisol reactivity to the frustration stressor. Thus, attachment, affect, sex, and the stressor contextual factors were associated with the adrenal-cortical responses of these adolescents through complex interactions. Further studies of individual differences in physiological responses to stress are called for in order to clarify the identities of concurrent protective and risk factors in the psychosocial stress and physiological stress responses of early adolescents.

  19. Study of variables that affect hydrogen solubility in α + β Zr-alloys

    Parodi, Santiago A. [Instituto Sabato, UNSAM–CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, San Martín B1650KNA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Ponzoni, Lucio M.E.; De Las Heras, M. Evangelina [División Hidrógeno en Materiales, Gerencia Materiales, GAEN, Centro Atómico Constituyentes, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, San Martín, B1650KNA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Mieza, J. Ignacio [Instituto Sabato, UNSAM–CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, San Martín B1650KNA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); División Hidrógeno en Materiales, Gerencia Materiales, GAEN, Centro Atómico Constituyentes, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, San Martín, B1650KNA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Domizzi, Gladys, E-mail: domizzi@cnea.gov.ar [Instituto Sabato, UNSAM–CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, San Martín B1650KNA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); División Hidrógeno en Materiales, Gerencia Materiales, GAEN, Centro Atómico Constituyentes, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, San Martín, B1650KNA, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2016-08-15

    Zr–2.5Nb and Excel pressure tubes, both containing α and β phases were submitted to different heat treatments. Then, hydrogen Terminal Solid Solubility for Dissolution (TSSD) and Precipitation (TSSP) curves were measured by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The solvus of Excel heat treated at 380 °C–24 h or 750 °C–0.5 h exceeds the solvus of Zr–2.5Nb in standard conditions of CANDU pressure tubes. Aging at 500 °C–168 h decreases the limit of solubility. The lowest solubility was obtained in Excel aged at 500°C–168 h. In DSC measurements the effect of maximum temperature and hold time at such temperature on solubility curves were studied. The TSSD decreases when thermal cycle causes decomposition of the β phase, and is recuperated when α → α + β transformation temperature is exceeded. The TSSP is affected not only by βZr phase decomposition but also by the relief of defects produced during hydride precipitation. - Highlights: • We heat treated Zr-2.5Nb and Excel to change α and β-phase fraction and composition. • We measured Hydrogen solvus after each heat treatment with different thermal cycles. • We found that dissolution and precipitation solvus depend on the β phase state. • Precipitation is also affected by the relief of memory effect during the thermal cycle. • Excel treated at 750 °C 0.5 h or 380 °C 24 h showed highest solubility.

  20. Variable gene dispersal conditions and spatial deforestation patterns can interact to affect tropical tree conservation outcomes.

    Yamini Kashimshetty

    Full Text Available Tropical lowland rain forest (TLRF biodiversity is under threat from anthropogenic factors including deforestation which creates forest fragments of different sizes that can further undergo various internal patterns of logging. Such interventions can modify previous equilibrium abundance and spatial distribution patterns of offspring recruitment and/or pollen dispersal. Little is known about how these aspects of deforestation and fragmentation might synergistically affect TLRF tree recovery demographics and population genetics in newly formed forest fragments. To investigate these TLRF anthropogenic disturbance processes we used the computer program NEWGARDEN (NG, which models spatially-explicit, individual-based plant populations, to simulate 10% deforestation in six different spatial logging patterns for the plant functional type of a long-lived TLRF canopy tree species. Further, each logging pattern was analyzed under nine varying patterns of offspring versus pollen dispersal distances that could have arisen post-fragmentation. Results indicated that gene dispersal condition (especially via offspring had a greater effect on population growth and genetic diversity retention (explaining 98.5% and 88.8% of the variance respectively than spatial logging pattern (0.2% and 4.7% respectively, with 'Near' distance dispersal maximizing population growth and genetic diversity relative to distant dispersal. Within logged regions of the fragment, deforestation patterns closer to fragment borders more often exhibited lower population recovery rates and founding genetic diversity retention relative to more centrally located logging. These results suggest newly isolated fragments have populations that are more sensitive to the way in which their offspring and pollen dispersers are affected than the spatial pattern in which subsequent logging occurs, and that large variation in the recovery rates of different TLRF tree species attributable to altered gene

  1. Variable gene dispersal conditions and spatial deforestation patterns can interact to affect tropical tree conservation outcomes.

    Kashimshetty, Yamini; Pelikan, Stephan; Rogstad, Steven H

    2015-01-01

    Tropical lowland rain forest (TLRF) biodiversity is under threat from anthropogenic factors including deforestation which creates forest fragments of different sizes that can further undergo various internal patterns of logging. Such interventions can modify previous equilibrium abundance and spatial distribution patterns of offspring recruitment and/or pollen dispersal. Little is known about how these aspects of deforestation and fragmentation might synergistically affect TLRF tree recovery demographics and population genetics in newly formed forest fragments. To investigate these TLRF anthropogenic disturbance processes we used the computer program NEWGARDEN (NG), which models spatially-explicit, individual-based plant populations, to simulate 10% deforestation in six different spatial logging patterns for the plant functional type of a long-lived TLRF canopy tree species. Further, each logging pattern was analyzed under nine varying patterns of offspring versus pollen dispersal distances that could have arisen post-fragmentation. Results indicated that gene dispersal condition (especially via offspring) had a greater effect on population growth and genetic diversity retention (explaining 98.5% and 88.8% of the variance respectively) than spatial logging pattern (0.2% and 4.7% respectively), with 'Near' distance dispersal maximizing population growth and genetic diversity relative to distant dispersal. Within logged regions of the fragment, deforestation patterns closer to fragment borders more often exhibited lower population recovery rates and founding genetic diversity retention relative to more centrally located logging. These results suggest newly isolated fragments have populations that are more sensitive to the way in which their offspring and pollen dispersers are affected than the spatial pattern in which subsequent logging occurs, and that large variation in the recovery rates of different TLRF tree species attributable to altered gene dispersal

  2. Silencing of omega-5 gliadins in transgenic wheat eliminates a major source of environmental variability and improves dough mixing properties of flour

    Background The end-use quality of wheat flour varies as a result of the growth conditions of the plant. Among the wheat gluten proteins, the omega-5 gliadins have been identified as a major source of environmental variability, increasing in proportion in grain from plants that receive fertilizer or ...

  3. Reprocessing WFC3/IR Exposures Affected by Time-Variable Backgrounds

    Brammer, G.

    2016-11-01

    The background seen in WFC3/IR observations frequently shows strong time-dependent behavior above the constant flux expected for zodiacal continuum light. This is often caused by an emission line of helium at 1.083 μm excited in the sun-illuminated upper atmosphere, when seen in the filters (F105W, F110W) and grisms (G102, G141) sensitive to the feature. The default behavior of the calwf3 pipeline assumes constant source-plus-background fluxes when it performs up-the-ramp fitting to identify cosmic rays and determine the average count rate within a MULTIACCUM IR exposure. calwf3 provides undesirable results in the presence of strongly variable backgrounds, primarily in the form of elevated and non-Gaussian noise in the FLT products. Here we describe methods to improve the noise properties of the reduced products. In the first, we simply turn off the calwf3 crcorr step, treating the IR detector as if it were a CCD, i.e., accumulating flux and reading it out at the end of the exposure. Next, we artificially flatten the ramps in the IMA products and then allow calwf3 to proceed as normal fitting the ramp and identifying CRs. Either of these procedures enable recovery of datasets otherwise corrupted beyond repair and have no discernible effects on photometry of sources in deep combined images.

  4. Material and operating variables affecting the physical quality of biomass briquettes

    Song, Y.; Xin, M. [Shenyang Agricultural Univ., Shenyang (China). College of Engineering; Tumuluru, J.S.; Iroba, K.L.; Tabil, L.G.; Meda, V. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Agricultural and Bioresource Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Although biomass is an environmentally sound substitute for fossil fuels, its low bulk density makes it very difficult and costly to transport and handle. This challenge can be addressed by densifying the biomass to a high density product like briquettes. Briquetting is influenced by several material properties such as moisture content, particle size distribution, and some operating variables such as temperature and densification pressure. This paper reported on a study in which briquettes were produced with barley straw, canola straw, oat straw, and wheat straw. The chopped samples were densified using a laboratory hydraulic press briquetting machine at pressure levels of 7.5, 10, and 12.5 MPa and at temperatures of 90, 110 and 130 degrees C. Three moisture content levels and 3 levels of particle size were used. Ten briquettes were manufactured for each treatment combination. The dimensions of all the samples were measured after compression. The samples were then stored in sealed plastic bags in a controlled environment. Durability, dimensional stability, and moisture content tests were conducted after 2 weeks of storage. The study showed that moisture content plays a key role in briquetting.

  5. Locomotor Sensory Organization Test: How Sensory Conflict Affects the Temporal Structure of Sway Variability During Gait.

    Chien, Jung Hung; Mukherjee, Mukul; Siu, Ka-Chun; Stergiou, Nicholas

    2016-05-01

    When maintaining postural stability temporally under increased sensory conflict, a more rigid response is used where the available degrees of freedom are essentially frozen. The current study investigated if such a strategy is also utilized during more dynamic situations of postural control as is the case with walking. This study attempted to answer this question by using the Locomotor Sensory Organization Test (LSOT). This apparatus incorporates SOT inspired perturbations of the visual and the somatosensory system. Ten healthy young adults performed the six conditions of the traditional SOT and the corresponding six conditions on the LSOT. The temporal structure of sway variability was evaluated from all conditions. The results showed that in the anterior posterior direction somatosensory input is crucial for postural control for both walking and standing; visual input also had an effect but was not as prominent as the somatosensory input. In the medial lateral direction and with respect to walking, visual input has a much larger effect than somatosensory input. This is possibly due to the added contributions by peripheral vision during walking; in standing such contributions may not be as significant for postural control. In sum, as sensory conflict increases more rigid and regular sway patterns are found during standing confirming the previous results presented in the literature, however the opposite was the case with walking where more exploratory and adaptive movement patterns are present.

  6. Quality of extra virgin olive oil affected by several packaging variables

    Guil-Guerrero, J. L.; Urda-Romacho, J.

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the evolution of the quality index of three extra-virgin olive oil varieties (EVOO), stored according to different packaging variables for one year. The selected quality parameters were: acidity index, peroxide value (PV), K270 coefficient, fatty acid (FA) profile, carotenoids and chlorophylls. This study was carried out by monthly analyzing several bottled EVOO varieties - Picual, Hojiblanca and Arbequina- obtained during the present harvesting season. In addition, other Picual EVOO stored in a mill deposit, as well as bottled Picual EVOO from the previous harvesting season were analyzed monthly. The oils were packaged in dark and transparent glass bottles. The results showed that the acidity and K270 parameters increased slightly in all cases, while PV value changes were significant in EVOOs stored in transparent glass bottles. FA profiles were slightly modified throughout the storage period, although oleic acid slightly increased at the end of the analytical period, especially in the EVOO stored in deposits. Regarding pigment, chlorophylls losses were more noticeable than those related to carotenoid. According to the present results, the best packaging conditions for EVOO were deposits, followed by dark glass bottles. In addition, this study demonstrated that EVOO collected from the previous harvesting season and stored under nitrogen atmosphere could be packaged in glass bottles without appreciable quality changes, as compared with EVOO packaged in the same bottles and obtained during the current harvesting season. (Author) 28 refs.

  7. The variable charge of andisols as affected by nanoparticles of rock phosphate and phosphate solubilizing bacteria

    Arifin, M.; Nurlaeny, N.; Devnita, R.; Fitriatin, B. N.; Sandrawati, A.; Supriatna, Y.

    2018-02-01

    Andisols has a great potential as agriculture land, however, it has a high phosphorus retention, variable charge characteristics and high value of zero net charge or pH0. The research is aimed to study the effects of nanoparticles of rock phosphate (NPRP) and biofertilizer (phosphate solubilizing bacteria/PSB) on soil pH, pHo (zero point of charge, ZPC) and organic-C in one subgroup of Andisols, namely Acrudoxic Durudands, Ciater Region West Java. The research was conducted from October 2016 to February 2017 in Soil Physics Laboratory and Laboratory of Soil Chemistry and Fertility, Soil Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Padjadjaran. This experiment used a completely randomized factorial design, consisting of two factors and three replications. The first factor was nanoparticles of rock phosphate consist of 4 doses 0; 25; 50 and 75 g/1 kg soil and the second factor was biofertilizer dose consist of g/1 kg soil and without biofertilizer. Total treatment combinations were 8 with 3 replications, so there were 24 experimental plots. The results showed that in general NPRR and biofertilizer will decrease the value of soil pH throughout the incubation periods. There is an interaction between nanoparticles of rock phosphate and biofertilizer in decreasing pHo in the first month of incubation, but after 4-month incubation period, NPRP increased. Interaction between 75 g nanoparticles of rock phosphate with 1 g biofertilizer/1 kg soil in fourth months of incubation decreased soil organic-C to 3.35%.

  8. Persistent fatigue in young athletes: measuring the clinical course and identifying variables affecting clinical recovery.

    Locke, S; Osborne, M; O'Rourke, P

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this paper is to measure the clinical course (months) in young athletes with persistent fatigue and to identify any covariates affecting the duration of recovery. This was a prospective longitudinal study of 68 athletes; 87% were elite (42 males, 26 females), aged 20.5±3.74 years (SD), who presented with the symptom of persistent fatigue. The collective duration to full clinical recovery was estimated using Kaplan-Meier product-limit curves, and covariates associated with prolonging recovery were identified from Cox proportional hazard models. The median recovery was 5 months (range 1-60 months). The range of presenting symptom duration was 0.5-36 months. The covariates identified were an increased duration of presenting symptoms [hazard ratio (HR), 1.06; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.02-1.12; P=0.005] and the response of serum cortisol concentration to a standard exercise challenge (HR, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.09-3.38; P=0.03). Delay in recovery was not associated with categories of fatigue that included medical, training-related diagnoses, or other causes. In conclusion, the fatigued athlete represents a significant clinical problem with a median recovery of 5 months, whose collective clinical course to recovery can be estimated by Kaplan-Meier curves and appears to be a continuum. © 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Variables affecting energy efficiency and CO2 emissions in the steel industry

    Siitonen, Sari; Tuomaala, Mari; Ahtila, Pekka

    2010-01-01

    Specific energy consumption (SEC) is an energy efficiency indicator widely used in industry for measuring the energy efficiency of different processes. In this paper, the development of energy efficiency and CO 2 emissions of steelmaking is studied by analysing the energy data from a case mill. First, the specific energy consumption figures were calculated using different system boundaries, such as the process level, mill level and mill site level. Then, an energy efficiency index was developed to evaluate the development of the energy efficiency at the mill site. The effects of different production conditions on specific energy consumption and specific CO 2 emissions were studied by PLS analysis. As theory expects, the production rate of crude steel and the utilisation of recycled steel were shown to affect the development of energy efficiency at the mill site. This study shows that clearly defined system boundaries help to clarify the role of on-site energy conversion and make a difference between the final energy consumption and primary energy consumption of an industrial plant with its own energy production.

  10. [Development and validation of a questionnaire about the main variables affecting the individual investor's behavior in the Stock Exchange].

    Pascual-Ezama, David; San Martín Castellanos, Rafael; Gil-Gómez de Liaño, Beatriz; Scandroglio, Bárbara

    2010-11-01

    Development and validation of a questionnaire about the main variables affecting the individual investor's behavior in the Stock Exchange. There is a considerable lack of information about the methodology usually used in most of the studies about individual investor's behavior. The studies reviewed do not show the method used in the selection of the items or the psychometric properties of the questionnaires. Because of the importance of investment in the Stock Exchange nowadays, it seems relevant to obtain a reliable instrument to understand individual investor's behavior in the Stock Exchange. Therefore, the goal of the present work is to validate a questionnaire about the main variables involved in individual investors' behavior in the Stock Exchange. Based on previous studies, we elaborated a questionnaire using the Delphi methodology with a group of experts. The internal consistency (Cronbach alpha=.934) and validity evidence of the questionnaire show that it may be an effective instrument and can be applied with some assurance.

  11. Red mud as a carbon sink: variability, affecting factors and environmental significance.

    Si, Chunhua; Ma, Yingqun; Lin, Chuxia

    2013-01-15

    The capacity of red mud to sequester CO(2) varied markedly due to differences in bauxite type, processing and disposal methods. Calcium carbonates were the dominant mineral phases responsible for the carbon sequestration in the investigated red mud types. The carbon sequestration capacity of red mud was not fully exploited due to shortages of soluble divalent cations for formation of stable carbonate minerals. Titanate and silicate ions were the two major oxyanions that appeared to strongly compete with carbonate ions for the available soluble Ca. Supply of additional soluble Ca and Mg could be a viable pathway for maximizing carbon sequestration in red mud and simultaneously reducing the causticity of red mud. It is roughly estimated that over 100 million tonnes of CO(2) have been unintentionally sequestered in red mud around the world to date through the natural weathering of historically produced red mud. Based on the current production rate of red mud, it is likely that some 6 million tonnes of CO(2) will be sequestered annually through atmospheric carbonation. If appropriate technologies are in place for incorporating binding cations into red mud, approximately 6 million tonnes of additional CO(2) can be captured and stored in the red mud while the hazardousness of red mud is simultaneously reduced. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A major QTL affects temperature sensitive adult lethality and inbreeding depression in life span in Drosophila melanogaster

    Vermeulen, Cornelius J.; Bijlsma, R.; Loeschcke, Volker

    2008-01-01

    Background: The study of inbreeding depression has major relevance for many disciplines, including conservation genetics and evolutionary biology. Still, the molecular genetic basis of this phenomenon remains poorly characterised, as knowledge on the mechanistic causes of inbreeding depression and

  13. Heart rate variability in major depressive disorder and after antidepressant treatment with agomelatine and paroxetine: Findings from the Taiwan Study of Depression and Anxiety (TAISDA).

    Yeh, Ta-Chuan; Kao, Lien-Cheng; Tzeng, Nian-Sheng; Kuo, Terry B J; Huang, San-Yuan; Chang, Chuan-Chia; Chang, Hsin-An

    2016-01-04

    Evidence from previous studies suggests that heart rate variability (HRV) is reduced in major depressive disorder (MDD). However, whether this reduction is attributable to the disorder per se or to medication, since antidepressants may also affect HRV, is still debated. There is a dearth of information regarding the effects of agomelatine, a novel antidepressant, on HRV. Here, we investigated whether HRV is reduced in MDD and compared the effects of agomelatine and paroxetine on HRV. We recruited 618 physically healthy unmedicated patients with MDD and 506 healthy volunteers aged 20-65 years. Frequency-domain measures of resting HRV were obtained at the time of enrollment for all participants. For patients with MDD, these measures were obtained again after 6 weeks of either agomelatine or paroxetine monotherapy. Compared with healthy subjects, unmedicated patients with MDD exhibited significantly lower variance (total HRV), low frequency (LF), and high frequency (HF) HRV, and a higher LF/HF ratio. Depression severity independently contributed to decreased HRV and vagal tone. Fifty-six patients completed the open-label trial (n=29 for agomelatine, n=27 for paroxetine). Between-group analyses showed a significant group-by-time interaction for LF-HRV and HF-HRV, driven by increases in LF-HRV and HF-HRV only after agomelatine treatment. Within the paroxetine-treated group, there were no significant changes in mean R-R intervals or any HRV indices. We therefore concluded that MDD is associated with reduced HRV, which is inversely related to depression severity. Compared with paroxetine, agomelatine has a more vagotonic effect, suggesting greater cardiovascular safety. Clinicians should consider HRV effects while selecting antidepressants especially for depressed patients who already have decreased cardiac vagal tone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. High Altitude Affects Nocturnal Non-linear Heart Rate Variability: PATCH-HA Study

    Christopher J. Boos

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: High altitude (HA exposure can lead to changes in resting heart rate variability (HRV, which may be linked to acute mountain sickness (AMS development. Compared with traditional HRV measures, non-linear HRV appears to offer incremental and prognostic data, yet its utility and relationship to AMS have been barely examined at HA. This study sought to examine this relationship at terrestrial HA.Methods: Sixteen healthy British military servicemen were studied at baseline (800 m, first night and over eight consecutive nights, at a sleeping altitude of up to 3600 m. A disposable cardiac patch monitor was used, to record the nocturnal cardiac inter-beat interval data, over 1 h (0200–0300 h, for offline HRV assessment. Non-linear HRV measures included Sample entropy (SampEn, the short (α1, 4–12 beats and long-term (α2, 13–64 beats detrend fluctuation analysis slope and the correlation dimension (D2. The maximal rating of perceived exertion (RPE, during daily exercise, was assessed using the Borg 6–20 RPE scale.Results: All subjects completed the HA exposure. The average age of included subjects was 31.4 ± 8.1 years. HA led to a significant fall in SpO2 and increase in heart rate, LLS and RPE. There were no significant changes in the ECG-derived respiratory rate or in any of the time domain measures of HRV during sleep. The only notable changes in frequency domain measures of HRV were an increase in LF and fall in HFnu power at the highest altitude. Conversely, SampEn, SD1/SD2 and D2 all fell, whereas α1 and α2 increased (p < 0.05. RPE inversely correlated with SD1/SD2 (r = -0.31; p = 0.002, SampEn (r = -0.22; p = 0.03, HFnu (r = -0.27; p = 0.007 and positively correlated with LF (r = 0.24; p = 0.02, LF/HF (r = 0.24; p = 0.02, α1 (r = 0.32; p = 0.002 and α2 (r = 0.21; p = 0.04. AMS occurred in 7/16 subjects (43.8% and was very mild in 85.7% of cases. HRV failed to predict AMS.Conclusion: Non-linear HRV is more sensitive to the

  15. Variable abattoir conditions affect Salmonella enterica prevalence and meat quality in swine and pork.

    Hurd, H S; Gailey, J K; McKean, J D; Griffith, R W

    2005-01-01

    Research suggests that abattoir holding pens pose significant Salmonella enterica risk to swine immediately preharvest. The goal of this study was to evaluate those factors related to holding that increased the prevalence of S. enterica in swine at slaughter. To accomplish this goal, we focused on holding time and flooring. Our objectives were to (1) compare Salmonella enterica prevalence among pigs held for short (15-45 min) versus long (up to 4 h) periods before slaughter; and (2) determine the impact of flooring (slatted vs. concrete) as it relates to the prevalence of S. enterica. The study consisted of seven repetitions at a large volume (11,000 head/day) Midwest abattoir. Each repetition consisted of one truck load of pigs (n = 170) sorted into one of three groups: (1) animals held for a short time (15-45 min) on solid floors (short-hold); (2) animals held for 4 +/- 0.5 h on slatted floors; and (3) animals held for 4 +/- 0.5 h on solid concrete floors. At slaughter, samples were collected from 30 pigs in each group. Cecal contents (20 mL), feces (20 g), and the ileocecal lymph node were cultured for S. enterica. Additionally, the effect of holding time on meat quality parameters (loin pH at 35 min and 6 h, color, drip loss) was evaluated for the first four replicates. The proportion of S. enterica-positive samples was highest (p Meat quality, as measured by multiple parameters, was adversely affected by lack of a rest period. The mean 24-h pH was significantly lower for the short-hold group compared to the other two groups. The mean Minolta L and the drip loss were significantly higher in the short-hold group. From this and other studies, it appears that elimination of the holding process is not feasible S. enterica control option, given current U.S. harvesting systems.

  16. The Climate Variability & Predictability (CVP) Program at NOAA - Observing and Understanding Processes Affecting the Propagation of Intraseasonal Oscillations in the Maritime Continent Region

    Lucas, S. E.

    2017-12-01

    The Climate Variability & Predictability (CVP) Program supports research aimed at providing process-level understanding of the climate system through observation, modeling, analysis, and field studies. This vital knowledge is needed to improve climate models and predictions so that scientists can better anticipate the impacts of future climate variability and change. To achieve its mission, the CVP Program supports research carried out at NOAA and other federal laboratories, NOAA Cooperative Institutes, and academic institutions. The Program also coordinates its sponsored projects with major national and international scientific bodies including the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP), the International and U.S. Climate Variability and Predictability (CLIVAR/US CLIVAR) Program, and the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP). The CVP program sits within NOAA's Climate Program Office (http://cpo.noaa.gov/CVP). In 2017, the CVP Program had a call for proposals focused on observing and understanding processes affecting the propagation of intraseasonal oscillations in the Maritime Continent region. This poster will present the recently funded CVP projects, the expected scientific outcomes, the geographic areas of their work in the Maritime Continent region, and the collaborations with the Office of Naval Research, Indonesian Agency for Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics (BMKG), Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) and other partners.

  17. Quality of extra virgin olive oil affected by several packaging variables

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the evolution of the quality index of three extra-virgin olive oil varieties (EVOO, stored according to different packaging variables for one year. The selected quality parameters were: acidity index, peroxide value (PV, K270 coefficient, fatty acid (FA profile, carotenoids and chlorophylls. This study was carried out by monthly analyzing several bottled EVOO varieties -Picual, Hojiblanca and Arbequina- obtained during the present harvesting season. In addition, other Picual EVOO stored in a mill deposit, as well as bottled Picual EVOO from the previous harvesting season were analyzed monthly. The oils were packaged in dark and transparent glass bottles. The results showed that the acidity and K270 parameters increased slightly in all cases, while PV value changes were significant in EVOOs stored in transparent glass bottles. FA profiles were slightly modified throughout the storage period, although oleic acid slightly increased at the end of the analytical period, especially in the EVOO stored in deposits. Regarding pigment, chlorophylls losses were more noticeable than those related to carotenoid. According to the present results, the best packaging conditions for EVOO were deposits, followed by dark glass bottles. In addition, this study demonstrated that EVOO collected from the previous harvesting season and stored under nitrogen atmosphere could be packaged in glass bottles without appreciable quality changes, as compared with EVOO packaged in the same bottles and obtained during the current harvesting season.

    El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la evolución de los índices de calidad de tres variedades de aceite de oliva virgen extra (EVOO, almacenado según diferentes condiciones durante un año. Los parámetros de calidad seleccionados fueron: índice de acidez, valor de peróxidos (PV, coeficiente K270, perfil de ácidos grasos (FAs, carotenoides y clorofila. El estudio fue realizado

  18. Increased risk of developing dementia in patients with major affective disorders compared to patients with other medical illnesses

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Nilsson, Flemming Mørkeberg

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The association between affective disorder and subsequent dementia is unclear. Our aim was to investigate whether patients with unipolar or bipolar affective disorder have an increased risk of developing dementia compared to patients with other chronic illnesses. METHOD: By linkage...... of the psychiatric and somatic nation-wide registers of all hospitalised patients in Denmark, 2007 patients with mania, 11741 patients with depression, 81380 patients with osteoarthritis and 69149 patients with diabetes were identified according to diagnosis at first-ever discharge from a psychiatric or somatic...... hospital between 1 January 1977 and 31 December 1993. The risk of receiving a diagnosis of dementia on subsequent re-admission was estimated with the use of survival analyses. RESULTS: Patients with unipolar or bipolar affective disorder had a greater risk of receiving a diagnosis of dementia than patients...

  19. Characterization of the major formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase homolog in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and its linkage to variable tandem repeats.

    Olsen, Ingrid; Balasingham, Seetha V; Davidsen, Tonje; Debebe, Ephrem; Rødland, Einar A; van Soolingen, Dick; Kremer, Kristin; Alseth, Ingrun; Tønjum, Tone

    2009-07-01

    The ability to repair DNA damage is likely to play an important role in the survival of facultative intracellular parasites because they are exposed to high levels of reactive oxygen species and nitrogen intermediates inside phagocytes. Correcting oxidative damage in purines and pyrimidines is the primary function of the enzymes formamidopyrimidine (faPy)-DNA glycosylase (Fpg) and endonuclease VIII (Nei) of the base excision repair pathway, respectively. Four gene homologs, belonging to the fpg/nei family, have been identified in Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. The recombinant protein encoded by M. tuberculosis Rv2924c, termed Mtb-Fpg1, was overexpressed, purified and biochemically characterized. The enzyme removed faPy and 5-hydroxycytosine lesions, as well as 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8oxoG) opposite to C, T and G. Mtb-Fpg1 thus exhibited substrate specificities typical for Fpg enzymes. Although Mtb-fpg1 showed nearly complete nucleotide sequence conservation in 32 M. tuberculosis isolates, the region upstream of Mtb-fpg1 in these strains contained tandem repeat motifs of variable length. A relationship between repeat length and Mtb-fpg1 expression level was demonstrated in M. tuberculosis strains, indicating that an increased length of the tandem repeats positively influenced the expression levels of Mtb-fpg1. This is the first example of such a tandem repeat region of variable length being linked to the expression level of a bacterial gene.

  20. NMDA and mGluR1 receptor subtypes as major players affecting depotentiation in the hippocampal CA1-region

    Amira Latif-Hernandez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Neurons have the ability to modify their structure and function which ultimately serves for learning (Abraham and Bear, 1996. Dendritic events provide a major contribution to such modifications. For example, natural and artificial patterns of afferent activation have been shown to induce persistent forms of synaptic plasticity, such as long-term potentiation (LTP and long-term depression (LTD at distinct dendritic synapses. LTP and LTD are both assumed to occur during the physiological processes of learning and memory formation and to sustain the latter (Abraham, 2008. In recent years, there has been a burgeoning interest in the understanding of metaplasticity, which refers to the plasticity of synaptic plasticity (Abraham and Bear, 1996. In particular, depotentiation (DP is the mechanism by which synapses that have recently undergone LTP can reverse their synaptic strengthening in response to low frequency stimulation (LFS; Abraham, 2008. Typically, DP is thought to prevent the saturation of synaptic potentiation by resetting synapses into a more efficient state to store new information. The detailed mechanisms that underlie DP still remain unclear. Bortolotto et al. (1994 first identified metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs as being involved in DP. Experimental evidence indicates that both subtypes of group I mGluRs (mGluR1 and mGluR5 have distinct functions in synaptic plasticity in the hippocampal CA1 region (Gladding et al., 2008. However, their role in DP was not addressed yet in detail and appear to be distinct from those involved in NMDAR-dependent DP (Zho et al., 2002. Therefore, we investigated the precise mechanisms responsible for NMDAR and mGluR-dependent DP by combining electrophysiological recordings in vitro and pharmacological approach. Transverse hippocampal slices (400 µm thick were prepared from the right hippocampus with a tissue chopper and placed into a submerged-type chamber, where they were continuously perfused

  1. Does patient-provider gender concordance affect mental health care received by primary care patients with major depression?

    Chan, Kitty S; Bird, Chloe E; Weiss, Robert; Duan, Naihua; Meredith, Lisa S; Sherbourne, Cathy D

    2006-01-01

    We sought to determine whether patient-provider gender concordance influences the detection and care of depression and comorbid anxiety and substance use in patients with major depression Cross-sectional analyses of baseline patient survey data linked with provider data were performed. Data based on routine primary care visits in clinics from a variety of health systems serving diverse patient populations across the United States. Participants all had major depression. Depression care was examined in the Quality Improvement for Depression (QID) Collaboration sample (n patients = 1,428, n providers = 389). In a subanalysis of data solely from 714 patients and 157 providers from Partners-In-Care, one of the projects participating in QID, we also examined detection of anxiety disorder and alcohol or drug problems. Rates of detection and care of mental health problems in primary care were low even among patients with major depression. Except for anxiety counseling in female patients, patient-provider gender concordance did not improve care as hypothesized. However, female providers were more likely to counsel on anxiety and less likely to counsel on alcohol or drug use than male providers. Female patients were less likely to be counseled on alcohol or drug use compared with male patients. Detection and care of mental health and substance use problems for patients with major depression is not influenced by patient-provider gender concordance. However, depressed female patients may have greater unmet needs for alcohol and drug use counseling than their male counterparts.

  2. Activity Patterns during Food Provisioning Are Affected by Artificial Light in Free Living Great Tits (Parus major)

    Titulaer, M.; Spoelstra, K.; Lange, C.Y.M.J.G.; Visser, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Artificial light may have severe ecological consequences but there is limited experimental work to assess these consequences. We carried out an experimental study on a wild population of great tits (Parus major) to assess the impact of light pollution on daily activity patterns during the chick

  3. Analysis of variables affecting unemployment rate and detecting for cluster in West Java, Central Java, and East Java in 2012

    Samuel, Putra A.; Widyaningsih, Yekti; Lestari, Dian

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study is modeling the Unemployment Rate (UR) in West Java, Central Java, and East Java, with rate of disease, infant mortality rate, educational level, population size, proportion of married people, and GDRP as the explanatory variables. Spatial factors are also considered in the modeling since the closer the distance, the higher the correlation. This study uses the secondary data from BPS (Badan Pusat Statistik). The data will be analyzed using Moran I test, to obtain the information about spatial dependence, and using Spatial Autoregressive modeling to obtain the information, which variables are significant affecting UR and how great the influence of the spatial factors. The result is, variables proportion of married people, rate of disease, and population size are related significantly to UR. In all three regions, the Hotspot of unemployed will also be detected districts/cities using Spatial Scan Statistics Method. The results are 22 districts/cities as a regional group with the highest unemployed (Most likely cluster) in the study area; 2 districts/cities as a regional group with the highest unemployed in West Java; 1 district/city as a regional groups with the highest unemployed in Central Java; 15 districts/cities as a regional group with the highest unemployed in East Java.

  4. Nutritional status is the major factor affecting grip strength of African HIV patients before and during antiretroviral treatment.

    Filteau, S; PrayGod, G; Woodd, S L; Friis, H; Heimburger, D C; Koethe, J R; Kelly, P; Kasonka, L; Rehman, A M

    2017-10-01

    Low grip strength is a marker of frailty and a risk factor for mortality among HIV patients and other populations. We investigated factors associated with grip strength in malnourished HIV patients at referral to ART, and at 12 weeks and 2-3 years after starting ART. The study involved HIV-infected Zambian and Tanzanian participants recruited to the NUSTART trial when malnourished (body mass index <18.5 kg/m 2 ) and requiring ART. The relationship of grip strength to nutritional, infectious and demographic factors was assessed by multivariable linear regression at referral for ART (n = 1742) and after 12 weeks (n = 778) and 2-3 years of ART (n = 273). In analyses controlled only for sex, age and height, most nutrition and infection-related variables were associated with grip strength. However, in multivariable analyses, consistent associations were seen for fat-free mass index, mid-upper arm circumference, haemoglobin and systolic blood pressure, and a variable association with fat mass index in men. C-reactive protein and CD4 count had limited independent effects on grip strength, while receiving tuberculosis treatment was associated with weaker grip strength. In this population of originally malnourished HIV patients, poor grip strength was more strongly and independently associated with nutritional than with infection and inflammation variables. Programmes to improve health and survival of HIV patients should incorporate nutritional assessment and management and could use grip strength as a functional indicator of improving nutrition. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Nutritional status is the major factor affecting grip strength of African HIV patients before and during antiretroviral treatment

    Filteau, Suzanne; PrayGod, G; Woodd, Susannah L

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Low grip strength is a marker of frailty and a risk factor for mortality among HIV patients and other populations. We investigated factors associated with grip strength in malnourished HIV patients at referral to ART, and at 12 weeks and 2-3 years after starting ART. METHODS: The study...... involved HIV-infected Zambian and Tanzanian participants recruited to the NUSTART trial when malnourished (body mass index .... CONCLUSIONS: In this population of originally malnourished HIV patients, poor grip strength was more strongly and independently associated with nutritional than with infection and inflammation variables. Programmes to improve health and survival of HIV patients should incorporate nutritional assessment...

  6. Corrigendum: on the precipice of a "majority-minority" america: perceived status threat from the racial demographic shift affects white Americans' political ideology.

    2015-06-01

    Craig, M. A., & Richeson, J. A. (2014). On the precipice of a "majority-minority" America: Perceived status threat from the racial demographic shift affects White Americans' political ideology. Psychological Science, 25, 1189-1197. (Original DOI: 10.1177/0956797614527113). © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. The role of clinical variables, neuropsychological performance and SLC6A4 and COMT gene polymorphisms on the prediction of early response to fluoxetine in major depressive disorder.

    Gudayol-Ferré, Esteve; Herrera-Guzmán, Ixchel; Camarena, Beatriz; Cortés-Penagos, Carlos; Herrera-Abarca, Jorge E; Martínez-Medina, Patricia; Cruz, David; Hernández, Sandra; Genis, Alma; Carrillo-Guerrero, Mariana Y; Avilés Reyes, Rubén; Guàrdia-Olmos, Joan

    2010-12-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is treated with antidepressants, but only between 50% and 70% of the patients respond to the initial treatment. Several authors suggested different factors that could predict antidepressant response, including clinical, psychophysiological, neuropsychological, neuroimaging, and genetic variables. However, these different predictors present poor prognostic sensitivity and specificity by themselves. The aim of our work is to study the possible role of clinical variables, neuropsychological performance, and the 5HTTLPR, rs25531, and val108/58Met COMT polymorphisms in the prediction of the response to fluoxetine after 4weeks of treatment in a sample of patient with MDD. 64 patients with MDD were genotyped according to the above-mentioned polymorphisms, and were clinically and neuropsychologically assessed before a 4-week fluoxetine treatment. Fluoxetine response was assessed by using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. We carried out a binary logistic regression model for the potential predictive variables. Out of the clinical variables studied, only the number of anxiety disorders comorbid with MDD have predicted a poor response to the treatment. A combination of a good performance in variables of attention and low performance in planning could predict a good response to fluoxetine in patients with MDD. None of the genetic variables studied had predictive value in our model. The possible placebo effect has not been controlled. Our study is focused on response prediction but not in remission prediction. Our work suggests that the combination of the number of comorbid anxiety disorders, an attentional variable, and two planning variables makes it possible to correctly classify 82% of the depressed patients who responded to the treatment with fluoxetine, and 74% of the patients who did not respond to that treatment. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Impact of strong selection for the PrP major gene on genetic variability of four French sheep breeds (Open Access publication

    Pantano Thais

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Effective selection on the PrP gene has been implemented since October 2001 in all French sheep breeds. After four years, the ARR "resistant" allele frequency increased by about 35% in young males. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of this strong selection on genetic variability. It is focussed on four French sheep breeds and based on the comparison of two groups of 94 animals within each breed: the first group of animals was born before the selection began, and the second, 3–4 years later. Genetic variability was assessed using genealogical and molecular data (29 microsatellite markers. The expected loss of genetic variability on the PrP gene was confirmed. Moreover, among the five markers located in the PrP region, only the three closest ones were affected. The evolution of the number of alleles, heterozygote deficiency within population, expected heterozygosity and the Reynolds distances agreed with the criteria from pedigree and pointed out that neutral genetic variability was not much affected. This trend depended on breed, i.e. on their initial states (population size, PrP frequencies and on the selection strategies for improving scrapie resistance while carrying out selection for production traits.

  9. Wide Variability in Caloric Density of Expressed Human Milk Can Lead to Major Underestimation or Overestimation of Nutrient Content.

    Sauer, Charles W; Boutin, Mallory A; Kim, Jae H

    2017-05-01

    Very-low-birth-weight infants continue to face significant difficulties with postnatal growth. Human milk is the optimal form of nutrition for infants but may exhibit variation in nutrient content. This study aimed to perform macronutrient analysis on expressed human milk from mothers whose babies are hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit. Up to five human milk samples per participant were analyzed for protein, carbohydrate, and fat content using reference chemical analyses (Kjeldahl for protein, high pressure liquid chromatography for carbohydrates, and Mojonnier for fat). Calorie content was calculated. A total of 64 samples from 24 participants was analyzed. Wide variability was found in calorie, protein, carbohydrate, and fat composition. The authors found an average of 17.9 kcal/ounce, with only 34% of samples falling within 10% of the expected caloric density. The assumption that human milk contains 20 kcal/ounce is no longer supported based on this study. This supports promoting an individualized nutrition strategy as a crucial aspect to optimal nutrition.

  10. [Affective and cognitive decision making in major depression: influence of the prefrontal cortex, serotonin transporter genotype and personality traits].

    Must, Anita; Horváth, Szatmár; Janka, Zoltán

    2008-05-30

    Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) show neuropsychological impairments, including deficient executive functions and suboptimal decision-making strategies, which are mediated by several brain regions. In the development of these symptoms the pathology of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), including the dorsolateral, ventromedial and orbitofrontal regions, may also play an important role. Neuropsychological assessment is a useful tool in detecting and measuring these deficiencies, showing that patients with MDD exhibit altered sensitivity to reward and punishment. However, impairment of emotional decision-making strategies in MDD is influenced by genetic variations (5-HTTLPR polymorphism) and personality traits, which seem to have a higher predictive value on decision making performance than the clinical symptoms.

  11. Analysis of major risk factors affecting those working in the agrarian sector (based on a sociological survey).

    Krekoten, Olena M; Dereziuk, Anatolii V; Ihnaschuk, Olena V; Holovchanska, Svitlana E

    Issues related to labour potential, its state and problems have consistently been a focus of attention for the International Labour Organisation (ILO). Its respective analysis shows that labour potential problems remain unresolved in many countries of the world. According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), adverse working conditions are among major factors of occupational disease development in Europe and the reason for disabilities of economically active population during 2.5% of their lifetime. The aim of the present study is to identify and analyse major risk factors, which have a bearing on people working in agriculture in the course of exercising their occupation, with account of forms of ownership of agricultural enterprises. Carried out was a cross-sectional study involving a sociological survey of 412 respondents - those working in agriculture - who made up the primary group and the control group. The study revealed 21 risk factors, 9 of which were work-related. A modified elementary cybernetic model of studying impact efficiency was developed with the view of carrying out a structural analysis of the sample group and choosing relevant methodological approaches. It has been established that harmful factors related to working environment and one's lifestyle are decisive in the agrarian sector, particularly for workers of privately owned businesses. For one out of three respondents harmful working conditions manifested themselves as industrial noise (31.7±3.4), vibration (29.0±2.1) trunk bending and constrained working posture (36.6±3.4). The vast majority of agricultural workers (91.6±2.5) admitted they could not afford proper rest during their annual leave; male respondents abused alcohol (70.6±3.0) and smoking (41.4±2.0 per 100 workers). The research established the structure of risk factors, which is sequentially represented by the following groups: behavioral (smoking, drinking of alcohol, rest during annual leave, physical culture), working

  12. A major QTL affects temperature sensitive adult lethality and inbreeding depression in life span in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Vermeulen, Corneel J.; Bijlsma, R.; Loeschcke, Volker

    2008-01-01

    of inbreeding effects in specific traits, such as age-specific mortality and life span, provide a good starting point, as a limited set of genes is expected to be involved. Results Here we report on a QTL mapping study on inbreeding related and temperature sensitive lethality in male Drosophila melanogaster...... and the molecular properties of genes that give rise to or modulate its deleterious effects is lacking. These questions warrant the detailed study of genetic loci giving rise to inbreeding depression. However, the complex and polygenic nature of general inbreeding depression makes this a daunting task. Study...... simple, being due mainly to a single recessive QTL on the left arm of chromosome 2. This locus colocalised with a QTL that conditioned variation in female life span, acting as an overdominant locus for this trait. Male life span was additionally affected by variation at the X-chromosome. Conclusion...

  13. Assessment of short- and long-term memory in trends of major climatic variables over Iran: 1966-2015

    Mianabadi, Ameneh; Shirazi, Pooya; Ghahraman, Bijan; Coenders-Gerrits, A. M. J.; Alizadeh, Amin; Davary, Kamran

    2018-02-01

    requirement and a significant reduction in the crop production and water use efficiency. Furthermore, the modified Mann-Kendall tests indicated that unlike temperature series, precipitation, ϕ IDM , and ϕ B series are not affected by short- and long-term memory. Our results can help decision makers and water resource managers to adopt appropriate policy strategies for sustainable development in the field of irrigated agriculture and water resources management.

  14. Temporal variability in Cu speciation, phytotoxicity, and soil microbial activity of Cu-polluted soils as affected by elevated temperature.

    Fu, Qing-Long; Weng, Nanyan; Fujii, Manabu; Zhou, Dong-Mei

    2018-03-01

    Global warming has obtained increasing attentions due to its multiple impacts on agro-ecosystem. However, limited efforts had been devoted to reveal the temporal variability of metal speciation and phytotoxicity of heavy metal-polluted soils affected by elevated temperature under the global warming scenario. In this study, effects of elevated temperature (15 °C, 25 °C, and 35 °C) on the physicochemical properties, microbial metabolic activities, and phytotoxicity of three Cu-polluted soils were investigated by a laboratory incubation study. Soil physicochemical properties were observed to be significantly altered by elevated temperature with the degree of temperature effect varying in soil types and incubation time. The Biolog and enzymatic tests demonstrated that soil microbial activities were mainly controlled and decreased with increasing incubation temperature. Moreover, plant assays confirmed that the phytotoxicity and Cu uptake by wheat roots were highly dependent on soil types but less affected by incubation temperature. Overall, the findings in this study have highlighted the importance of soil types to better understand the temperature-dependent alternation of soil properties, Cu speciation and bioavailability, as well as phytotoxicity of Cu-polluted soils under global warming scenario. The present study also suggests the necessary of investigating effects of soil types on the transport and accumulation of toxic elements in soil-crop systems under global warming scenario. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Social variables affecting mate preferences, copulation and reproductive outcome in a pack of free-ranging dogs.

    Simona Cafazzo

    Full Text Available Mating and reproductive outcome is often determined by the simultaneous operation of different mechanisms like intra-sexual competition, mating preferences and sexual coercion. The present study investigated how social variables affected mating outcome in a pack of free-ranging dogs, a species supposed to have lost most features of the social system of wolves during domestication. We found that, although the pack comprised multiple breeding individuals, both male copulation success and female reproductive success were positively influenced by a linear combination of dominance rank, age and leadership. Our results also suggest that mate preferences affect mating outcome by reinforcing the success of most dominant individuals. In particular, during their oestrous period bitches clearly searched for the proximity of high-ranking males who displayed affiliative behaviour towards them, while they were more likely to reject the males who intimidated them. At the same time, male courting effort and male-male competition for receptive females appeared to be stronger in the presence of higher-ranking females, suggesting a male preference for dominant females. To our knowledge, these results provide the first clear evidence of social regulation of reproductive activities in domestic dogs, and suggest that some common organizing mechanisms may contribute to shape the social organization of both dogs and wolves.

  16. Within-group Ethnic Differences of Black Male STEM Majors and Factors Affecting Their Persistence in College

    Shane Y. Williamson

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined how familial and institutional factors interact with the academic experiences of a diverse group of Black males enrolled as science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM majors at one university. Ogbu’s (1998 Cultural-Ecological Theory of Minority School Performance, a theoretical framework, posits that the manner by which a group achieves minority status, coupled with community and family educational values, impacts academic achievement. Immigrants, voluntary minorities, perform better academically than involuntary minorities (nonimmigrants because they are more accepting of and more likely to adapt to the White middle-class norms upon which schools in the United States are based (Ogbu, 1994, 2004. While the data overall are positive for the sample, when viewed by ethnic group, it was evident the African and Caribbean students are more academically integrated to campus than African American students. The African students, more so than any other ethnic group, are connecting, interacting, and forming relationships with faculty outside of the classroom; conversely, African American students in this study reported having the least amount of effective connections with faculty. This research study found that for the Black male STEM students in this project (a their families are a pivotal force, (b academic experiences vary across ethnicities, (c faculty mediate student success, and (d there is a lack of interactions between ethnic groups (Black Distance on campus.

  17. XO-2b: A HOT JUPITER WITH A VARIABLE HOST STAR THAT POTENTIALLY AFFECTS ITS MEASURED TRANSIT DEPTH

    Zellem, Robert T.; Griffith, Caitlin A. [Department of Planetary Sciences, Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1629 East University Boulevard, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Pearson, Kyle A.; Fitzpatrick, M. Ryleigh; Teske, Johanna K.; Biddle, Lauren I. [Department of Astronomy, Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Turner, Jake D. [Department of Planetary Sciences, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Henry, Gregory W.; Williamson, Michael H., E-mail: rzellem@lpl.arizona.edu, E-mail: griffith@lpl.arizona.edu [Center of Excellence in Information Systems, Tennessee State University, 3500 John A. Merritt Blvd., P.O. Box 9501, Nashville, TN 37209 (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The transiting hot Jupiter XO-2b is an ideal target for multi-object photometry and spectroscopy as it has a relatively bright (V-mag = 11.25) K0V host star (XO-2N) and a large planet-to-star contrast ratio (R{sub p}/R{sub s} ≈ 0.015). It also has a nearby (31.″21) binary stellar companion (XO-2S) of nearly the same brightness (V-mag = 11.20) and spectral type (G9V), allowing for the characterization and removal of shared systematic errors (e.g., airmass brightness variations). We have therefore conducted a multiyear (2012–2015) study of XO-2b with the University of Arizona’s 61″ (1.55 m) Kuiper Telescope and Mont4k CCD in the Bessel U and Harris B photometric passbands to measure its Rayleigh scattering slope to place upper limits on the pressure-dependent radius at, e.g., 10 bar. Such measurements are needed to constrain its derived molecular abundances from primary transit observations. We have also been monitoring XO-2N since the 2013–2014 winter season with Tennessee State University’s Celestron-14 (0.36 m) automated imaging telescope to investigate stellar variability, which could affect XO-2b’s transit depth. Our observations indicate that XO-2N is variable, potentially due to cool star spots, with a peak-to-peak amplitude of 0.0049 ± 0.0007 R-mag and a period of 29.89 ± 0.16 days for the 2013–2014 observing season and a peak-to-peak amplitude of 0.0035 ± 0.0007 R-mag and 27.34 ± 0.21 day period for the 2014–2015 observing season. Because of the likely influence of XO-2N’s variability on the derivation of XO-2b’s transit depth, we cannot bin multiple nights of data to decrease our uncertainties, preventing us from constraining its gas abundances. This study demonstrates that long-term monitoring programs of exoplanet host stars are crucial for understanding host star variability.

  18. XO-2b: A HOT JUPITER WITH A VARIABLE HOST STAR THAT POTENTIALLY AFFECTS ITS MEASURED TRANSIT DEPTH

    Zellem, Robert T.; Griffith, Caitlin A.; Pearson, Kyle A.; Fitzpatrick, M. Ryleigh; Teske, Johanna K.; Biddle, Lauren I.; Turner, Jake D.; Henry, Gregory W.; Williamson, Michael H.

    2015-01-01

    The transiting hot Jupiter XO-2b is an ideal target for multi-object photometry and spectroscopy as it has a relatively bright (V-mag = 11.25) K0V host star (XO-2N) and a large planet-to-star contrast ratio (R p /R s ≈ 0.015). It also has a nearby (31.″21) binary stellar companion (XO-2S) of nearly the same brightness (V-mag = 11.20) and spectral type (G9V), allowing for the characterization and removal of shared systematic errors (e.g., airmass brightness variations). We have therefore conducted a multiyear (2012–2015) study of XO-2b with the University of Arizona’s 61″ (1.55 m) Kuiper Telescope and Mont4k CCD in the Bessel U and Harris B photometric passbands to measure its Rayleigh scattering slope to place upper limits on the pressure-dependent radius at, e.g., 10 bar. Such measurements are needed to constrain its derived molecular abundances from primary transit observations. We have also been monitoring XO-2N since the 2013–2014 winter season with Tennessee State University’s Celestron-14 (0.36 m) automated imaging telescope to investigate stellar variability, which could affect XO-2b’s transit depth. Our observations indicate that XO-2N is variable, potentially due to cool star spots, with a peak-to-peak amplitude of 0.0049 ± 0.0007 R-mag and a period of 29.89 ± 0.16 days for the 2013–2014 observing season and a peak-to-peak amplitude of 0.0035 ± 0.0007 R-mag and 27.34 ± 0.21 day period for the 2014–2015 observing season. Because of the likely influence of XO-2N’s variability on the derivation of XO-2b’s transit depth, we cannot bin multiple nights of data to decrease our uncertainties, preventing us from constraining its gas abundances. This study demonstrates that long-term monitoring programs of exoplanet host stars are crucial for understanding host star variability

  19. A joint modelling exercise designed to assess the respective impact of emission changes and meteorological variability on the observed air quality trends in major urban hotspots.

    Colette, Augustin; Bessagnet, Bertrand; Dangiola, Ariela; D'Isidoro, Massimo; Gauss, Michael; Granier, Claire; Hodnebrog, Øivind; Jakobs, Hermann; Kanakidou, Maria; Khokhar, Fahim; Law, Kathy; Maurizi, Alberto; Meleux, Frederik; Memmesheimer, Michael; Nyiri, Agnes; Rouil, Laurence; Stordal, Frode; Tampieri, Francesco

    2010-05-01

    With the growth of urban agglomerations, assessing the drivers of variability of air quality in and around the main anthropogenic emission hotspots has become a major societal concern as well as a scientific challenge. These drivers include emission changes and meteorological variability; both of them can be investigated by means of numerical modelling of trends over the past few years. A collaborative effort has been developed in the framework of the CityZen European project to address this question. Several chemistry and transport models (CTMs) are deployed in this activity: four regional models (BOLCHEM, CHIMERE, EMEP and EURAD) and three global models (CTM2, MOZART, and TM4). The period from 1998 to 2007 has been selected for the historic reconstruction. The focus for the present preliminary presentation is Europe. A consistent set of emissions is used by all partners (EMEP for the European domain and IPCC-AR5 beyond) while a variety of meteorological forcing is used to gain robustness in the ensemble spread amongst models. The results of this experiment will be investigated to address the following questions: - Is the envelope of models able to reproduce the observed trends of the key chemical constituents? - How the variability amongst models changes in time and space and what does it tell us about the processes driving the observed trends? - Did chemical regimes and aerosol formation processes changed in selected hotspots? Answering the above questions will contribute to fulfil the ultimate goal of the present study: distinguishing the respective contribution of meteorological variability and emissions changes on air quality trends in major anthropogenic emissions hotspots.

  20. On the precipice of a "majority-minority" America: perceived status threat from the racial demographic shift affects White Americans' political ideology.

    Craig, Maureen A; Richeson, Jennifer A

    2014-06-01

    The U.S. Census Bureau projects that racial minority groups will make up a majority of the U.S. national population in 2042, effectively creating a so-called majority-minority nation. In four experiments, we explored how salience of such racial demographic shifts affects White Americans' political-party leanings and expressed political ideology. Study 1 revealed that making California's majority-minority shift salient led politically unaffiliated White Americans to lean more toward the Republican Party and express greater political conservatism. Studies 2, 3a, and 3b revealed that making the changing national racial demographics salient led White Americans (regardless of political affiliation) to endorse conservative policy positions more strongly. Moreover, the results implicate group-status threat as the mechanism underlying these effects. Taken together, this work suggests that the increasing diversity of the nation may engender a widening partisan divide. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Hierarchy of treatment variables affecting outcome of 131I therapy in thyroid cancer patients with lung metastases.

    Kozak, Oksana V; Sukach, Georgiy G; Korchinskaya, Oksana I; Trembach, Alexander M; Turicina, Viktoria L; Voit, Natalia U

    2005-06-01

    To assess the correlations between the first 131I activity value, time interval between the courses of radioiodine treatment and the overall number of courses required for total destruction of lung metastases in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer with metastatic lesions in lungs. 27 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer with metastases in lungs have been treated with radioiodine after surgical intervention. Activities administered amounted from 1600 to 7980 MBq. The number of radioiodine courses before total ablation of all metastatic lesions amounted from 1 to 10. Time interval between the 1st and the 2nd courses amounted from 3.5 to 11.5 months (6 months in average). The regression analysis of the data has been made. The exponential model fits the actual number of courses as a function of the first-second activity value and time interval between the courses. The first activity has a decisive influence on the number of courses required for total metastases ablation. The greater was the first activity value, the lesser was the overall number of courses. Increasing time interval between 1st and 2nd courses to 10 months seems to result in reducing the number of courses. Nevertheless even in the case of high activities the probability to undergone less then 3 courses is low. According to the proposed model in thyroid cancer patients with metastases in lungs the first activity should be not lesser than 6000 MBq, time interval between treatments--approximately 10 months. The results of our study suggest that individual factors such as histology, the number and the size of metastases in lymph nodes could not contribute more to the final outcome than the treatment variables, namely the first-second activity and time interval, nor could they affect the hierarchy of the effects revealed for the treatment variables.

  2. Development of an integrated model of personality, personality disorders and severe axis I disorders, with special reference to major affective disorders.

    von Zerssen, Detlev

    2002-04-01

    A unidimensional model of the relationships between normal temperament, psychopathic variants of it and the two main forms of so-called endogenous psychoses (major affective disorders and schizophrenia) was derived from Kretschmer's constitutional typology. It was, however, not confirmed by means of a biometric approach nor was Kretschmer's broad concept of cyclothymia as a correlate of physical stoutness on the one hand and major affective disorders on the other supported by empirical data. Yet the concept of the 'melancholic type' of personality of patients with severe unipolar major depression (melancholia) which resembles descriptions by psychoanalysts could be corroborated. This was also true for the 'manic type' of personality as a (premorbid) correlate of predominantly manic forms of a bipolar I disorder. As predicted from a spectrum concept of major affective disorders, the ratio of traits of either type co-varied with the ratio of the depressive and the manic components in the long-term course of such a disorder. The two types of premorbid personality and a rare variant of the 'manic type', named 'relaxed, easy-going type', were conceived as 'affective types' dominating in major affective disorders. They are opposed to three 'neurotoid types' prevailing in so-called neurotic disorders as well as in schizophrenic psychoses. The similarity among the types can be visualized as spatial relationships in a circular, i.e. a two-dimensional, model (circumplex). Personality disorders as maladapted extreme variants of personality are, by definition, located outside the circle, mainly along its 'neurotoid' side. However, due to their transitional nature, axis I disorders cannot be represented adequately within the plane which represents (adapted as well as maladapted) forms of habitual behaviour (personality types and disorders, respectively). To integrate them into the spatial model of similarity interrelations, a dimension of actual psychopathology has to be added

  3. Lower galactosylation levels of the Lipophosphoglycan from Leishmania (Leishmania major-like strains affect interaction with Phlebotomus papatasi and Lutzomyia longipalpis

    Agna Cristina Guimarães

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Leishmania major is an Old World species causing cutaneous leishmaniasis and is transmitted by Phlebotomus papatasi and Phlebotomus duboscqi. In Brazil, two isolates from patients who never left the country were characterised as L. major-like (BH49 and BH121. Using molecular techniques, these isolates were indistinguishable from the L. major reference strain (FV1. OBJECTIVES We evaluated the lipophosphoglycans (LPGs of the strains and their behaviour in Old and New World sand fly vectors. METHODS LPGs were purified, and repeat units were qualitatively evaluated by immunoblotting. Experimental in vivo infection with L. major-like strains was performed in Lutzomyia longipalpis (New World, permissive vector and Ph. papatasi (Old World, restrictive or specific vector. FINDINGS The LPGs of both strains were devoid of arabinosylated side chains, whereas the LPG of strain BH49 was more galactosylated than that of strain BH121. All strains with different levels of galactosylation in their LPGs were able to infect both vectors, exhibiting colonisation of the stomodeal valve and metacyclogenesis. The BH121 strain (less galactosylated exhibited lower infection intensity compared to BH49 and FV1 in both vectors. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Intraspecific variation in the LPG of L. major-like strains occur, and the different galactosylation levels affected interactions with the invertebrate host.

  4. Lower galactosylation levels of the Lipophosphoglycan from Leishmania (Leishmania) major-like strains affect interaction with Phlebotomus papatasi and Lutzomyia longipalpis.

    Guimarães, Agna Cristina; Nogueira, Paula Monalisa; Silva, Soraia de Oliveira; Sadlova, Jovana; Pruzinova, Katerina; Hlavacova, Jana; Melo, Maria Norma; Soares, Rodrigo Pedro

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND Leishmania major is an Old World species causing cutaneous leishmaniasis and is transmitted by Phlebotomus papatasi and Phlebotomus duboscqi. In Brazil, two isolates from patients who never left the country were characterised as L. major-like (BH49 and BH121). Using molecular techniques, these isolates were indistinguishable from the L. major reference strain (FV1). OBJECTIVES We evaluated the lipophosphoglycans (LPGs) of the strains and their behaviour in Old and New World sand fly vectors. METHODS LPGs were purified, and repeat units were qualitatively evaluated by immunoblotting. Experimental in vivo infection with L. major-like strains was performed in Lutzomyia longipalpis (New World, permissive vector) and Ph. papatasi (Old World, restrictive or specific vector). FINDINGS The LPGs of both strains were devoid of arabinosylated side chains, whereas the LPG of strain BH49 was more galactosylated than that of strain BH121. All strains with different levels of galactosylation in their LPGs were able to infect both vectors, exhibiting colonisation of the stomodeal valve and metacyclogenesis. The BH121 strain (less galactosylated) exhibited lower infection intensity compared to BH49 and FV1 in both vectors. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Intraspecific variation in the LPG of L. major-like strains occur, and the different galactosylation levels affected interactions with the invertebrate host.

  5. Antioxidants and Quality of Aging: Further Evidences for a Major Role of TXNRD1 Gene Variability on Physical Performance at Old Age

    Serena Dato

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is a major determinant of human aging and common hallmark of age-related diseases. A protective role against free radicals accumulation was shown for thioredoxin reductase TrxR1, a key antioxidant selenoprotein. The variability of encoding gene (TXNRD1 was previously found associated with physical status at old age and extreme survival in a Danish cohort. To further investigate the influence of the gene variability on age-related physiological decline, we analyzed 9 tagging SNPs in relation to markers of physical (Activity of Daily Living, Hand Grip, Chair stand, and Walking and cognitive (Mini Mental State Examination status, in a Southern-Italian cohort of 64–107 aged individuals. We replicated the association of TXNRD1 variability with physical performance, with three variants (rs4445711, rs1128446, and rs11111979 associated with physical functioning after 85 years of age (p<0.022. In addition, we found two SNPs borderline influencing longevity (rs4964728 and rs7310505 in our cohort, the last associated with health status and survival in Northern Europeans too. Overall, the evidences of association in a different population here reported extend the proposed role of TXNRD1 gene in modulating physical decline at extreme ages, further supporting the investigation of thioredoxin pathway in relation to the quality of human aging.

  6. Antioxidants and Quality of Aging: Further Evidences for a Major Role of TXNRD1 Gene Variability on Physical Performance at Old Age.

    Dato, Serena; De Rango, Francesco; Crocco, Paolina; Passarino, Giuseppe; Rose, Giuseppina

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a major determinant of human aging and common hallmark of age-related diseases. A protective role against free radicals accumulation was shown for thioredoxin reductase TrxR1, a key antioxidant selenoprotein. The variability of encoding gene (TXNRD1) was previously found associated with physical status at old age and extreme survival in a Danish cohort. To further investigate the influence of the gene variability on age-related physiological decline, we analyzed 9 tagging SNPs in relation to markers of physical (Activity of Daily Living, Hand Grip, Chair stand, and Walking) and cognitive (Mini Mental State Examination) status, in a Southern-Italian cohort of 64-107 aged individuals. We replicated the association of TXNRD1 variability with physical performance, with three variants (rs4445711, rs1128446, and rs11111979) associated with physical functioning after 85 years of age (p longevity (rs4964728 and rs7310505) in our cohort, the last associated with health status and survival in Northern Europeans too. Overall, the evidences of association in a different population here reported extend the proposed role of TXNRD1 gene in modulating physical decline at extreme ages, further supporting the investigation of thioredoxin pathway in relation to the quality of human aging.

  7. Reexamining age, race, site, and thermometer type as variables affecting temperature measurement in adults – A comparison study

    Smith Linda S

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a result of the recent international vigilance regarding disease assessment, accurate measurement of body temperature has become increasingly important. Yet, trusted low-tech, portable mercury glass thermometers are no longer available. Thus, comparing accuracy of mercury-free thermometers with mercury devices is essential. Study purposes were 1 to examine age, race, site as variables affecting temperature measurement in adults, and 2 to compare clinical accuracy of low-tech Galinstan-in-glass device to mercury-in-glass at oral, axillary, groin, and rectal sites in adults. Methods Setting 176 bed accredited healthcare facility, rural northwest US Participants Convenience sample (N = 120 of hospitalized persons ≥ 18 years old. Instruments Temperatures (°F measured at oral, skin (simultaneous, immediately followed by rectal sites with four each mercury-glass (BD and Galinstan-glass (Geratherm thermometers; 10 minute dwell times. Results Participants averaged 61.6 years (SD 17.9, 188 pounds (SD 55.3; 61% female; race: 85% White, 8.3% Native Am., 4.2% Hispanic, 1.7 % Asian, 0.8% Black. For both mercury and Galinstan-glass thermometers, within-subject temperature readings were highest rectally; followed by oral, then skin sites. Galinstan assessments demonstrated rectal sites 0.91°F > oral and ≅ 1.3°F > skin sites. Devices strongly correlated between and across sites. Site difference scores between devices showed greatest variability at skin sites; least at rectal site. 95% confidence intervals of difference scores by site (°F: oral (0.142 – 0.265, axilla (0.167 – 0.339, groin (0.037 – 0.321, and rectal (-0.111 – 0.111. Race correlated with age, temperature readings each site and device. Conclusion Temperature readings varied by age, race. Mercury readings correlated with Galinstan thermometer readings at all sites. Site mean differences between devices were considered clinically insignificant. Still considered

  8. Kidney adysplasia and variable hydronephrosis, a new mutation affecting the odd-skipped related 1 gene in the mouse, causes variable defects in kidney development and hydronephrosis.

    Davisson, Muriel T; Cook, Susan A; Akeson, Ellen C; Liu, Don; Heffner, Caleb; Gudis, Polyxeni; Fairfield, Heather; Murray, Stephen A

    2015-06-15

    Many genes, including odd-skipped related 1 (Osr1), are involved in regulation of mammalian kidney development. We describe here a new recessive mutation (kidney adysplasia and variable hydronephrosis, kavh) in the mouse that leads to downregulation of Osr1 transcript, causing several kidney defects: agenesis, hypoplasia, and hydronephrosis with variable age of onset. The mutation is closely associated with a reciprocal translocation, T(12;17)4Rk, whose Chromosome 12 breakpoint is upstream from Osr1. The kavh/kavh mutant provides a model to study kidney development and test therapies for hydronephrosis. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Evaluation of factors that affect analytic variability of urine protein-to-creatinine ratio determination in dogs.

    Rossi, Gabriele; Giori, Luca; Campagnola, Simona; Zatelli, Andrea; Zini, Eric; Paltrinieri, Saverio

    2012-06-01

    To determine whether preanalytic and analytic factors affect evaluation of the urinary protein-to-creatinine (UPC) ratio in dogs. 50 canine urine samples. The UPC ratio was measured to assess the intra-assay imprecision (20 measurements within a single session), the influence of predilution (1:10, 1:20, and 1:100) for urine creatinine concentration measurement, and the effect of storage at room temperature (approx 20°C), 4°C, and -20°C. The coefficient of variation at room temperature determined with the 1:20 predilution was samples with a low protein concentration or low urine specific gravity. This variability could result in misclassification of samples with UPC ratios close to the thresholds defined by the International Renal Interest Society to classify dogs as nonproteinuric (0.2), borderline proteinuric (0.21 to 0.50), or proteinuric (> 0.51). A proportional bias was found in samples prediluted 1:10, compared with samples prediluted 1:20 or 1:100. At room temperature, the UPC ratio did not significantly increase after 2 and 4 hours. After 12 hours at room temperature and at 4°C, the UPC ratio significantly increased. The UPC ratio did not significantly change during 3 months of storage at -20°C. The intra-assay precision of the UPC ratio was sufficiently low to avoid misclassification of samples, except for values close to 0.2 or 0.5. The optimal predilution ratio for urine creatinine concentration measurement was 1:20. A 1:100 predilution is recommended in samples with a urine specific gravity > 1.030. The UPC ratio must be measured as soon as samples are collected. Alternatively, samples should be immediately frozen to increase their stability and minimize the risk of misclassification of proteinuria.

  10. Joint analysis of quantitative trait loci and major-effect causative mutations affecting meat quality and carcass composition traits in pigs.

    Cherel, Pierre; Pires, José; Glénisson, Jérôme; Milan, Denis; Iannuccelli, Nathalie; Hérault, Frédéric; Damon, Marie; Le Roy, Pascale

    2011-08-29

    Detection of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting meat quality traits in pigs is crucial for the design of efficient marker-assisted selection programs and to initiate efforts toward the identification of underlying polymorphisms. The RYR1 and PRKAG3 causative mutations, originally identified from major effects on meat characteristics, can be used both as controls for an overall QTL detection strategy for diversely affected traits and as a scale for detected QTL effects. We report on a microsatellite-based QTL detection scan including all autosomes for pig meat quality and carcass composition traits in an F2 population of 1,000 females and barrows resulting from an intercross between a Pietrain and a Large White-Hampshire-Duroc synthetic sire line. Our QTL detection design allowed side-by-side comparison of the RYR1 and PRKAG3 mutation effects seen as QTLs when segregating at low frequencies (0.03-0.08), with independent QTL effects detected from most of the same population, excluding any carrier of these mutations. Large QTL effects were detected in the absence of the RYR1 and PRKGA3 mutations, accounting for 12.7% of phenotypic variation in loin colour redness CIE-a* on SSC6 and 15% of phenotypic variation in glycolytic potential on SSC1. We detected 8 significant QTLs with effects on meat quality traits and 20 significant QTLs for carcass composition and growth traits under these conditions. In control analyses including mutation carriers, RYR1 and PRKAG3 mutations were detected as QTLs, from highly significant to suggestive, and explained 53% to 5% of the phenotypic variance according to the trait. Our results suggest that part of muscle development and backfat thickness effects commonly attributed to the RYR1 mutation may be a consequence of linkage with independent QTLs affecting those traits. The proportion of variation explained by the most significant QTLs detected in this work is close to the influence of major-effect mutations on the least affected

  11. Joint analysis of quantitative trait loci and major-effect causative mutations affecting meat quality and carcass composition traits in pigs

    Iannuccelli Nathalie

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Detection of quantitative trait loci (QTLs affecting meat quality traits in pigs is crucial for the design of efficient marker-assisted selection programs and to initiate efforts toward the identification of underlying polymorphisms. The RYR1 and PRKAG3 causative mutations, originally identified from major effects on meat characteristics, can be used both as controls for an overall QTL detection strategy for diversely affected traits and as a scale for detected QTL effects. We report on a microsatellite-based QTL detection scan including all autosomes for pig meat quality and carcass composition traits in an F2 population of 1,000 females and barrows resulting from an intercross between a Pietrain and a Large White-Hampshire-Duroc synthetic sire line. Our QTL detection design allowed side-by-side comparison of the RYR1 and PRKAG3 mutation effects seen as QTLs when segregating at low frequencies (0.03-0.08, with independent QTL effects detected from most of the same population, excluding any carrier of these mutations. Results Large QTL effects were detected in the absence of the RYR1 and PRKGA3 mutations, accounting for 12.7% of phenotypic variation in loin colour redness CIE-a* on SSC6 and 15% of phenotypic variation in glycolytic potential on SSC1. We detected 8 significant QTLs with effects on meat quality traits and 20 significant QTLs for carcass composition and growth traits under these conditions. In control analyses including mutation carriers, RYR1 and PRKAG3 mutations were detected as QTLs, from highly significant to suggestive, and explained 53% to 5% of the phenotypic variance according to the trait. Conclusions Our results suggest that part of muscle development and backfat thickness effects commonly attributed to the RYR1 mutation may be a consequence of linkage with independent QTLs affecting those traits. The proportion of variation explained by the most significant QTLs detected in this work is close to the

  12. Evaluation of the influence of ayurvedic formulation (Ayushman-15) on psychopathology, heart rate variability and stress hormonal level in major depression (Vishada).

    Kishore, Ramakrishna K; Abhishekh, Hulegar A; Udupa, Kaviraja; Thirthalli, Jagadisha; Lavekar, Gandhidas S; Gangadhar, Bangalore N; Raju, Trichur R; Sathyaprabha, Talakad N

    2014-12-01

    Ayurveda (Indian-complimentary and alternative medicine) is still most sought after in India and has promising potential in management of Vishada [major depressive disorder (MDD)]. But, systematic research is lacking. In this study we evaluated of influence of ayurvedic treatment (Panchakarma and Ayushman-15) on psychopathology, heart rate variability (HRV) and endocrinal parameters in patients with major depression. 81 drug naive patients diagnosed as Vishada by ayurvedic physician and MDD according to DSM IV-TR were given ayurvedic Virechana module (therapeutic purgation) and were randomized into two groups. Patients in group A (n=41) received Ayushman-15A while group B (n=40) received Ayushman-15B for two months and Shirodhara (forehead-oil pouring therapy). Patients were assessed with Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), Heart Rate Variability (HRV). Cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) were estimated at baseline and after ayurvedic therapy. HRV and endocrinal parameters were compared with age and gender matched healthy volunteers. HRV parameters showed significant sympathetic dominance in patients compared to healthy volunteers. Two months of ayurvedic treatment significantly decreased psychopathology, showed increase in vagal tone, decrease in sympathetic tone and reduced cortisol levels. However, there was no significant difference between groups receiving Ayushman A and B. This study provides evidence for antidepressant, cardiac (HRV) and beneficial neuroendocrine modulatory influence of Ayurveda therapy in patients of Vishada (MDD). Further studies are needed to confirm these findings. Greater insight into the neurobiology behind this therapy might provide valuable information about newer drug target. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Differential performance on tasks of affective processing and decision-making in patients with Panic Disorder and Panic Disorder with comorbid Major Depressive Disorder.

    Kaplan, Johanna S; Erickson, Kristine; Luckenbaugh, David A; Weiland-Fiedler, Petra; Geraci, Marilla; Sahakian, Barbara J; Charney, Dennis; Drevets, Wayne C; Neumeister, Alexander

    2006-10-01

    Neuropsychological studies have provided evidence for deficits in psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and mood disorders. However, neuropsychological function in Panic Disorder (PD) or PD with a comorbid diagnosis of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) has not been comprehensively studied. The present study investigated neuropsychological functioning in patients with PD and PD + MDD by focusing on tasks that assess attention, psychomotor speed, executive function, decision-making, and affective processing. Twenty-two unmedicated patients with PD, eleven of whom had a secondary diagnosis of MDD, were compared to twenty-two healthy controls, matched for gender, age, and intelligence on tasks of attention, memory, psychomotor speed, executive function, decision-making, and affective processing from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB), Cambridge Gamble Task, and Affective Go/No-go Task. Relative to matched healthy controls, patients with PD + MDD displayed an attentional bias toward negatively-valenced verbal stimuli (Affective Go/No-go Task) and longer decision-making latencies (Cambridge Gamble Task). Furthermore, the PD + MDD group committed more errors on a task of memory and visual discrimination compared to their controls. In contrast, no group differences were found for PD patients relative to matched control subjects. The sample size was limited, however, all patients were drug-free at the time of testing. The PD + MDD patients demonstrated deficits on a task involving visual discrimination and working memory, and an attentional bias towards negatively-valenced stimuli. In addition, patients with comorbid depression provided qualitatively different responses in the areas of affective and decision-making processes.

  14. 'I'm Black and I'm Proud': A Majority Ecological Context Protects Affective Aspects of Black Identity Under Stereotype Threat.

    Oliver, Andre'; Andemeskel, Ghilamichael; King, Carlise R; Wallace, Lyndsey; McDougal, Serie; Monteiro, Kenneth P; Ben-Zeev, Avi

    2017-12-01

    We provide evidence that stereotype threat, a phenomenon that causes stigmatized individuals to experience group-based evaluative concerns (Steele in Am Psychol 52:613-629, 1997; Whistling Vivaldi and other clues to how stereotypes affect us, W.W. Norton, New York, 2010), impacts affective aspects of Black identity as a function of majority versus minority ecological contexts. Black/African-American students, enrolled in either Africana Studies (Black ecological majority) or Psychology (Black ecological minority), completed private and public regard subscales from the Multidimensional Inventory of Black Identity (Sellers et al. in Pers Soc Psychol Rev 2:18-39, 1998) at baseline (Time 1) and after being randomly assigned to a stereotype threat or no-threat/control condition (Time 2). In threat, participants were introduced to a 'puzzle' task as diagnostic of intellectual abilities, whereas in no-threat the same task was introduced as culture fair, such that people from different racial/ethnic groups had performed similarly on this task in the past. In Psychology, students under threat exhibited a simultaneous decrease and increase in private and public regard, respectively, a pattern shown in the literature to be associated with discrimination-based distress and lesser well-being in Black ecological minority environments. In contrast, Africana Studies students' racial identity under threat remained intact. We discuss the protective effects of Africana Studies on racial identity and implications for educational reform.

  15. Phase variable O antigen biosynthetic genes control expression of the major protective antigen and bacteriophage receptor in Vibrio cholerae O1.

    Kimberley D Seed

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Vibrio cholerae lipopolysaccharide O1 antigen is a major target of bacteriophages and the human immune system and is of critical importance for vaccine design. We used an O1-specific lytic bacteriophage as a tool to probe the capacity of V. cholerae to alter its O1 antigen and identified a novel mechanism by which this organism can modulate O antigen expression and exhibit intra-strain heterogeneity. We identified two phase variable genes required for O1 antigen biosynthesis, manA and wbeL. manA resides outside of the previously recognized O1 antigen biosynthetic locus, and encodes for a phosphomannose isomerase critical for the initial step in O1 antigen biosynthesis. We determined that manA and wbeL phase variants are attenuated for virulence, providing functional evidence to further support the critical role of the O1 antigen for infectivity. We provide the first report of phase variation modulating O1 antigen expression in V. cholerae, and show that the maintenance of these phase variable loci is an important means by which this facultative pathogen can generate the diverse subpopulations of cells needed for infecting the host intestinal tract and for escaping predation by an O1-specific phage.

  16. Major Changes in Growth Rate and Growth Variability of Beech (Fagus sylvatica L. Related to Soil Alteration and Climate Change in Belgium

    Nicolas Latte

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Global change—particularly climate change, forest management, and atmospheric deposition—has significantly altered forest growing conditions in Europe. The influences of these changes on beech growth (Fagus sylvatica L. were investigated for the past 80 years in Belgium, using non-linear mixed effects models on ring-width chronologies of 149 mature and dominant beech trees (87–186 years old. The effects of the developmental stage (i.e., increasing tree size were filtered out in order to focus on time-dependent growth changes. Beech radial growth was divided into a low-frequency signal (=growth rate, mainly influenced by forest management and atmospheric deposition, and into a high-frequency variability (≈mean sensitivity, mainly influenced by climate change. Between 1930 and 2008, major long-term and time-dependent changes were highlighted. The beech growth rate has decreased by about 38% since the 1950–1960s, and growth variability has increased by about 45% since the 1970–1980s. Our results indicate that (1 before the 1980s, beech growth rate was not predominantly impacted by climate change but rather by soil alteration (i.e., soil compaction and/or nitrogen deposition; and (2 since the 1980s, climate change induced more frequent and intense yearly growth reductions that amplified the growth rate decrease. The highlighted changes were similar in the two ecoregions of Belgium, although more pronounced in the lowlands than in the uplands.

  17. Perceived Teacher Affective Support in Relation to Emotional and Motivational Variables in Elementary School Science Classrooms in Turkey

    Sakiz, Gonul

    2017-01-01

    Background: In recent research, affective learning environments and affective support have been receiving increasing attention for their roles in stimulating students' learning outcomes. Despite its raising importance, little is known about affective support in educational contexts in developing countries. Moreover, international student…

  18. Negative Affectivity, Depression, and Resting Heart Rate Variability (HRV as Possible Moderators of Endogenous Pain Modulation in Functional Somatic Syndromes

    Maaike Van Den Houte

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several studies have shown that patients with functional somatic syndromes (FSS have, on average, deficient endogenous pain modulation (EPM, as well as elevated levels of negative affectivity (NA and high comorbidity with depression and reduced resting heart rate variability (HRV compared to healthy controls (HC. The goals of this study were (1 to replicate these findings and (2 to investigate the moderating role of NA, depression, and resting HRV in EPM efficiency within a patient group with fibromyalgia and/or chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS. Resting HRV was quantified as the root mean square of successive differences between inter-beat intervals (RMSSD in rest, a vagally mediated time domain measure of HRV.Methods: Seventy-eight patients with fibromyalgia and/or CFS and 33 HC completed a counter-irritation paradigm as a measure of EPM efficiency. Participants rated the painfulness of electrocutaneous stimuli (of individually calibrated intensity on the ankle before (baseline phase, during (counter-irritation phase and after (recovery phase the application of a cold pain stimulus on the forearm. A larger reduction in pain in the counter-irritation phase compared to the baseline phase reflects a more efficient EPM.Results: In contrast to our expectations, there was no difference between pain ratings in the baseline compared to counter-irritation phase for both patients and HC. Therefore, reliable conclusions on the moderating effect of NA, depression, and RMSSD could not be made. Surprisingly, patients reported more pain in the recovery compared to the counter-irritation and baseline phase, while HC did not. This latter effect was more pronounced in patients with comorbid depression, patients who rated the painfulness of the counter-irritation stimulus as high and patients who rated the painfulness of the electrocutaneous stimuli as low. We did not manage to successfully replicate the counter-irritation effect in HC or FSS patients

  19. Excess Vitamin Intake before Starvation does not Affect Body Mass, Organ Mass, or Blood Variables but Affects Urinary Excretion of Riboflavin in Starving Rats

    Moriya, Aya; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Shibata, Katsumi

    2013-01-01

    B-vitamins are important for producing energy from amino acids, fatty acids, and glucose. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of excess vitamin intake before starvation on body mass, organ mass, blood, and biological variables as well as on urinary excretion of riboflavin in rats. Adult rats were fed two types of diets, one with a low vitamin content (minimum vitamin diet for optimum growth) and one with a sufficient amount of vitamins (excess vitamin diet). Body mass, organ ma...

  20. The Virome and Its Major Component, Anellovirus, a Convoluted System Molding Human Immune Defenses and Possibly Affecting the Development of Asthma and Respiratory Diseases in Childhood

    Giulia Freer

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The microbiome, a thriving and complex microbial community colonizing the human body, has a broad impact on human health. Colonization is a continuous process that starts very early in life and occurs thanks to shrewd strategies microbes have evolved to tackle a convoluted array of anatomical, physiological, and functional barriers of the human body. Cumulative evidence shows that viruses are part of the microbiome. This part, called virome, has a dynamic composition that reflects what we eat, how and where we live, what we do, our genetic background, and other unpredictable variables. Thus, the virome plays a chief role in shaping innate and adaptive host immune defenses. Imbalance of normal microbial flora is thought to trigger or exacerbate many acute and chronic disorders. A compelling example can be found in the respiratory apparatus, where early-life viral infections are major determinants for the development of allergic diseases, like asthma, and other non-transmissible diseases. In this review, we focus on the virome and, particularly, on Anelloviridae, a recently discovered virus family. Anelloviruses are major components of the virome, present in most, if not all, human beings, where they are acquired early in life and replicate persistently without causing apparent disease. We will discuss how modulation of innate and adaptive immune systems by Anelloviruses can influence the development of respiratory diseases in childhood and provide evidence for the use of Anelloviruses as useful and practical molecular markers to monitor inflammatory processes and immune system competence.

  1. Perceived teacher affective support in relation to emotional and motivational variables in elementary school science classrooms in Turkey

    Sakiz, Gonul

    2017-01-01

    Background: In recent research, affective learning environments and affective support have been receiving increasing attention for their roles in stimulating students' learning outcomes. Despite its raising importance, little is known about affective support in educational contexts in developing countries. Moreover, international student assessment programmes (e.g. PISA and TIMSS) reveal poor science proficiency of students in most of those countries, which provokes the question of how to make positive changes in students' perspectives and attitudes in science.

  2. Major depressive disorder with melancholia displays robust alterations in resting state heart rate and its variability: Implications for future morbidity and mortality

    Andrew eKemp

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Major depressive disorder (MDD is associated with increased heart rate and reductions in its variability (HRV – markers of future morbidity and mortality – yet prior studies have reported contradictory effects. We hypothesised that increases in heart rate and reductions in HRV would be more robust in melancholia relative to controls, than in patients with non-melancholia. Methods: A total of 72 patients with a primary diagnosis of MDD (age M: 36.26, SE: 1.34; 42 females and 94 controls (age M: 35.69, SE: 1.16; 52 females were included in this study. Heart rate and measures of its variability (HRV were calculated from two 2-minute electrocardiogram recordings during resting state. Propensity score matching controlled imbalance on potential confounds between patients with melancholia (n=40 and non-melancholia (n=32 including age, gender, disorder severity and comorbid anxiety disorders. Results: MDD patients with melancholia displayed significantly increased heart rate and lower resting-state HRV (including the square root of the mean squared differences between successive N–N intervals, the absolute power of high frequency and standard deviation of the Poincaré plot perpendicular to the line of identity measures of HRV relative to controls, findings associated with a moderate effect size (Cohens d’s = 0.56-0.58. Patients with melancholia also displayed an increased heart rate relative to those with non-melancholia (Cohen’s d = 0.20.Conclusion: MDD patients with melancholia – but not non-melancholia – display robust increases in heart rate and decreases in HRV. These findings may underpin a variety of behavioural impairments in patients with melancholia including somatic symptoms, cognitive impairment, reduced responsiveness to the environment, and over the longer-term, morbidity and mortality.

  3. Synoptic meteorological modes of variability for fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air quality in major metropolitan regions of China

    Leung, Danny M.; Tai, Amos P. K.; Mickley, Loretta J.; Moch, Jonathan M.; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Shen, Lu; Martin, Randall V.

    2018-05-01

    In his study, we use a combination of multivariate statistical methods to understand the relationships of PM2.5 with local meteorology and synoptic weather patterns in different regions of China across various timescales. Using June 2014 to May 2017 daily total PM2.5 observations from ˜ 1500 monitors, all deseasonalized and detrended to focus on synoptic-scale variations, we find strong correlations of daily PM2.5 with all selected meteorological variables (e.g., positive correlation with temperature but negative correlation with sea-level pressure throughout China; positive and negative correlation with relative humidity in northern and southern China, respectively). The spatial patterns suggest that the apparent correlations with individual meteorological variables may arise from common association with synoptic systems. Based on a principal component analysis of 1998-2017 meteorological data to diagnose distinct meteorological modes that dominate synoptic weather in four major regions of China, we find strong correlations of PM2.5 with several synoptic modes that explain 10 to 40 % of daily PM2.5 variability. These modes include monsoonal flows and cold frontal passages in northern and central China associated with the Siberian High, onshore flows in eastern China, and frontal rainstorms in southern China. Using the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region as a case study, we further find strong interannual correlations of regionally averaged satellite-derived annual mean PM2.5 with annual mean relative humidity (RH; positive) and springtime fluctuation frequency of the Siberian High (negative). We apply the resulting PM2.5-to-climate sensitivities to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) climate projections to predict future PM2.5 by the 2050s due to climate change, and find a modest decrease of ˜ 0.5 µg m-3 in annual mean PM2.5 in the BTH region due to more frequent cold frontal ventilation

  4. Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Variable Region and Major Histocompatibility Region Genes Are Linked to Induced Graves' Disease in Females From Two Very Large Families of Recombinant Inbred Mice

    Aliesky, Holly; Banuelos, Bianca; Magana, Jessica; Williams, Robert W.; Rapoport, Basil

    2014-01-01

    Graves' hyperthyroidism is caused by antibodies to the TSH receptor (TSHR) that mimic thyroid stimulation by TSH. Stimulating TSHR antibodies and hyperthyroidism can be induced by immunizing mice with adenovirus expressing the human TSHR A-subunit. Prior analysis of induced Graves' disease in small families of recombinant inbred (RI) female mice demonstrated strong genetic control but did not resolve trait loci for TSHR antibodies or elevated serum T4. We investigated the genetic basis for induced Graves' disease in female mice of two large RI families and combined data with earlier findings to provide phenotypes for 178 genotypes. TSHR antibodies measured by inhibition of TSH binding to its receptor were highly significantly linked in the BXD set to the major histocompatibility region (chromosome 17), consistent with observations in 3 other RI families. In the LXS family, we detected linkage between T4 levels after TSHR-adenovirus immunization and the Ig heavy chain variable region (Igvh, chromosome 12). This observation is a key finding because components of the antigen binding region of Igs determine antibody specificity and have been previously linked to induced thyroid-stimulating antibodies. Data from the LXS family provide the first evidence in mice of a direct link between induced hyperthyroidism and Igvh genes. A role for major histocompatibility genes has now been established for genetic susceptibility to Graves' disease in both humans and mice. Future studies using arrays incorporating variation in the complex human Ig gene locus will be necessary to determine whether Igvh genes are also linked to Graves' disease in humans. PMID:25051451

  5. Vitamin D Supplementation Affects the Beck Depression Inventory, Insulin Resistance, and Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder: A Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Sepehrmanesh, Zahra; Kolahdooz, Fariba; Abedi, Fatemeh; Mazroii, Navid; Assarian, Amin; Asemi, Zatollah; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2016-02-01

    Vitamin D may decrease depression symptoms through its beneficial effects on neurotransmitters, metabolic profiles, biomarkers of inflammation, and oxidative stress. This study was designed to assess whether vitamin D supplementation can reduce symptoms of depression, metabolic profiles, serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and biomarkers of oxidative stress in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed in 40 patients between 18 and 65 y of age with a diagnosis of MDD based on criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either a single capsule of 50 kIU vitamin D/wk (n = 20) or placebo (n = 20) for 8 wk. Fasting blood samples were taken at baseline and postintervention to quantify relevant variables. The primary [Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), which examines depressive symptoms] and secondary (glucose homeostasis variables, lipid profiles, hs-CRP, and biomarkers of oxidative stress) outcomes were assessed. Baseline concentrations of mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D were significantly different between the 2 groups (9.2 ± 6.0 and 13.6 ± 7.9 μg/L in the placebo and control groups, respectively, P = 0.02). After 8 wk of intervention, changes in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations were significantly greater in the vitamin D group (+20.4 μg/L) than in the placebo group (-0.9 μg/L, P stress. This trial was registered at www.irct.ir as IRCT201412065623N29. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. Fermentation of melon seeds for “Ogiri egusi” as affected by fermentation variables using Bacillus subtilis

    Ogueke, C. C.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Manipulation of fermentation variables during ‘Ogiri egusi’ production using Bacillus subtilis was studied with the view to improving the fermentation process and quality of product. The variables studied were relative humidity (RH, temperature and pore size of wrapping material. Methodology and results: Effect of variables on amino nitrogen, pH and peroxide value was determined on 24 h basis for 96 h. Attempt on optimization of process using response surface method was made. Amino nitrogen increased with fermentation time, the highest value (6.25 mg N/g being obtained from sample fermented at 75% RH, temperature 35 °C and 90 µm pore size of wrapping material. Fermentation attained its peak at 48 h fermentation time. pH increased into the alkaline range within the period, the highest value (7.81 being from sample that gave the highest amount of amino nitrogen. Peroxide values obtained in all samples were far below the recommended value of 30 Meq/kg. However, the highest value (4.16 Keq/kg was obtained in sample fermented at 85% RH, temperature 30 °C and 70 µm pore size of wrapper. Statistical analysis and response surface plots associated with analysis showed that the quadratic effect of variables was significant (p = 0.05. Effects of relative humidity and pore size of wrapping material were also significant and accounted for 99.56% of the amino nitrogen variation. Conclusion, significance and impact study: Manipulation of the fermentation variables significantly improved the process. Thus use of response surface method optimized the fermentation process especially the effects of relative humidity and pore size of wrapping materials. The suggested combination of variables for optimum fermentation is 75% RH, temperature 35 °C and 70 µm pore size of wrapper. This ultimately will improve product quality and reduce fermentation time.

  7. Physiologic variability at the verge of systemic inflammation: multiscale entropy of heart rate variability is affected by very low doses of endotoxin.

    Herlitz, Georg N; Arlow, Renee L; Cheung, Nora H; Coyle, Susette M; Griffel, Benjamin; Macor, Marie A; Lowry, Stephen F; Calvano, Steve E; Gale, Stephen C

    2015-02-01

    Human injury or infection induces systemic inflammation with characteristic neuroendocrine responses. Fluctuations in autonomic function during inflammation are reflected by beat-to-beat variation in heart rate, termed heart rate variability (HRV). In the present study, we determine threshold doses of endotoxin needed to induce observable changes in markers of systemic inflammation, investigate whether metrics of HRV exhibit a differing threshold dose from other inflammatory markers, and investigate the size of data sets required for meaningful use of multiscale entropy (MSE) analysis of HRV. Healthy human volunteers (n = 25) were randomized to receive placebo (normal saline) or endotoxin/lipopolysaccharide (LPS): 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 ng/kg administered intravenously. Vital signs were recorded every 30 min for 6 h and then at 9, 12, and 24 h after LPS. Blood samples were drawn at specific time points for cytokine measurements. Heart rate variability analysis was performed using electrocardiogram epochs of 5 min. Multiscale entropy for HRV was calculated for all dose groups to scale factor 40. The lowest significant threshold dose was noted in core temperature at 0.25 ng/kg. Endogenous tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 6 were significantly responsive at the next dosage level (0.5 ng/kg) along with elevations in circulating leukocytes and heart rate. Responses were exaggerated at higher doses (1 and 2 ng/kg). Time domain and frequency domain HRV metrics similarly suggested a threshold dose, differing from placebo at 1.0 and 2.0 ng/kg, below which no clear pattern in response was evident. By applying repeated-measures analysis of variance across scale factors, a significant decrease in MSE was seen at 1.0 and 2.0 ng/kg by 2 h after exposure to LPS. Although not statistically significant below 1.0 ng/kg, MSE unexpectedly decreased across all groups in an orderly dose-response pattern not seen in the other outcomes. By using repeated-measures analysis of

  8. Factors Affecting Temporal Variability of Arsenic in Groundwater Used for Drinking Water Supply in the United States

    The occurrence of arsenic in groundwater is a recognized environmental hazard with worldwide importance and much effort has been focused on surveying and predicting where arsenic occurs. Temporal variability is one aspect of this environmental hazard that has until recently recei...

  9. Physiologic variability at the verge of systemic inflammation: multi-scale entropy of heart rate variability is affected by very low doses of endotoxin

    Herlitz, Georg N.; Sanders, Renee L.; Cheung, Nora H.; Coyle, Susette M.; Griffel, Benjamin; Macor, Marie A.; Lowry, Stephen F.; Calvano, Steve E.; Gale, Stephen C.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Human injury or infection induces systemic inflammation with characteristic neuro-endocrine responses. Fluctuations in autonomic function during inflammation are reflected by beat-to-beat variation in heart rate, termed heart rate variability (HRV). In the present study, we determine threshold doses of endotoxin needed to induce observable changes in markers of systemic inflammation, we investigate whether metrics of HRV exhibit a differing threshold dose from other inflammatory markers, and we investigate the size of data sets required for meaningful use of multi-scale entropy (MSE) analysis of HRV. Methods Healthy human volunteers (n=25) were randomized to receive placebo (normal saline) or endotoxin/lipopolysaccharide (LPS): 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 ng/kg administered intravenously. Vital signs were recorded every 30 minutes for 6 hours and then at 9, 12, and 24 hours after LPS. Blood samples were drawn at specific time points for cytokine measurements. HRV analysis was performed using EKG epochs of 5 minutes. MSE for HRV was calculated for all dose groups to scale factor 40. Results The lowest significant threshold dose was noted in core temperature at 0.25ng/kg. Endogenous TNF-α and IL-6 were significantly responsive at the next dosage level (0.5ng/kg) along with elevations in circulating leukocytes and heart rate. Responses were exaggerated at higher doses (1 and 2 ng/kg). Time domain and frequency domain HRV metrics similarly suggested a threshold dose, differing from placebo at 1.0 and 2.0 ng/kg, below which no clear pattern in response was evident. By applying repeated-measures ANOVA across scale factors, a significant decrease in MSE was seen at 1.0 and 2.0 ng/kg by 2 hours post exposure to LPS. While not statistically significant below 1.0 ng/kg, MSE unexpectedly decreased across all groups in an orderly dose-response pattern not seen in the other outcomes. Conclusions By usingrANOVA across scale factors, MSE can detect autonomic change

  10. Pathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis in patients affected by β-thalassemia major and sickle cell anaemia post allogenic bone marrow transplant.

    Martino, F; Di Mauro, R; Paciaroni, K; Gaziev, J; Alfieri, C; Greco, L; Floris, R; Di Girolamo, S; Di Girolamo, M

    2018-03-01

    Sickle cell anemia (SCA) and β -thalassemia major are well-recognized beta-globin gene disorders of red blood cells associated to mortality and morbidity included bone morbidities due to ineffective erythropoiesis and bone marrow expansion, which affect every part of the skeleton. While there are an abundance of described disease manifestations of the head and neck, the manner of paranasal sinuses involvement and its relations to β-thalassemia and SCA process was not studied yet. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate a possible increased risk of rhinosinusitis and the real pathogenetic mechanism of it, comparing these two hematological diseases using msCT, gold standard for paranasal sinuses evaluation. A retrospective analysis of 90 patients affected by β-thalassemia major or SCA (respectively 59 and 31) underwent allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT), and 44 control subjects was performed. Both patient categories and control group have been subjected to hematological and radiological evaluation using 64-multidetector-row CT scanner without contrast injection. Statistical analysis reveals that patients of the two study groups exhibit a significantly increased risk of sinusitis in comparison with the normal controls (RR: 3.55 for β-thalassemic pediatric subjects; RR: 3.35 for SCA pediatric subjects). A significant difference (p < 0,5) was found between the β -thalassemic patients on the one side, and SCA and control group on the other side, with regard to the evaluation of the typical anatomic alteration of maxillary sinus: β-thalassemic children had significant increase in the bone thickness of anterior and lateral sinus walls and significant reduction in volume and density compared to SCA patients and control group, with normal conditions of these parameters. In these hematological patients, there is an increased incidence of sinonasal infections due their therapy-induced immunosuppression post transplantation. In

  11. Variability Bugs:

    Melo, Jean

    . Although many researchers suggest that preprocessor-based variability amplifies maintenance problems, there is little to no hard evidence on how actually variability affects programs and programmers. Specifically, how does variability affect programmers during maintenance tasks (bug finding in particular......)? How much harder is it to debug a program as variability increases? How do developers debug programs with variability? In what ways does variability affect bugs? In this Ph.D. thesis, I set off to address such issues through different perspectives using empirical research (based on controlled...... experiments) in order to understand quantitatively and qualitatively the impact of variability on programmers at bug finding and on buggy programs. From the program (and bug) perspective, the results show that variability is ubiquitous. There appears to be no specific nature of variability bugs that could...

  12. Silencing of omega-5 gliadins in transgenic wheat eliminates a major source of environmental variability and improves dough mixing properties of flour.

    Altenbach, Susan B; Tanaka, Charlene K; Seabourn, Bradford W

    2014-12-24

    The end-use quality of wheat flour varies as a result of the growth conditions of the plant. Among the wheat gluten proteins, the omega-5 gliadins have been identified as a major source of environmental variability, increasing in proportion in grain from plants that receive fertilizer or are subjected to high temperatures during grain development. The omega-5 gliadins also have been associated with the food allergy wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA). Recently, transgenic lines with reduced levels of omega-5 gliadins were developed using RNA interference (RNAi). These lines make it possible to determine whether changes in the levels of omega-5 gliadins in response to environmental conditions and agronomic inputs may be responsible for changes in flour end-use quality. Two transgenic wheat lines and a non-transgenic control were grown under a controlled temperature regimen with or without post-anthesis fertilizer and the protein composition of the resulting flour was analyzed by quantitative two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). In one transgenic line, all 2-DE spots identified as omega-5 gliadins were substantially reduced without effects on other proteins. In the other transgenic line, the omega-5 gliadins were absent and there was a partial reduction in the levels of the omega-1,2 gliadins and the omega-1,2 chain-terminating gliadins as well as small changes in several other proteins. With the exception of the omega gliadins, the non-transgenic control and the transgenic plants showed similar responses to the fertilizer treatment. Protein contents of flour were determined by the fertilizer regimen and were similar in control and transgenic samples produced under each regimen while both mixing time and mixing tolerance were improved in flour from transgenic lines when plants received post-anthesis fertilizer. The data indicate that omega-5 gliadins have a negative effect on flour quality and suggest that changes in quality with the growth

  13. Variables affecting the acceptability of radappertized ground beef products. Effects of food grade phosphates, NaCl, fat level, and grinding methods

    Cohen, J.S.; Shults, G.W.; Mason, V.C.; Wierbicki, E.

    1977-01-01

    A series of experiments was conducted to determine the effect of different variables on the quality of an irradiated ground beef product. Factors studied included: different food-grade phosphates; NaCl content; fat content; and size of grind. The influence of these variables on the cooking loss (moisture retention), shear press values and sensory scores was studied. The addition of phosphates and NaCl was desirable in controlling cooking losses. The most effective phosphate was tetrasodium pyrophosphate. The addition of NaCl decreased the shear press force required to penetrate the beef patty, i.e., it tenderized the product. Phosphate addition did not affect the shear press force. Increased fat content increased the cooking losses, but did not affect the shear press force. Irradiation with sterilizing doses had a marked effect on decreasing the shear press force

  14. Intraindividual variability in cognitive performance in three groups of older adults: cross-domain links to physical status and self-perceived affect and beliefs.

    Strauss, Esther; MacDonald, Stuart W S; Hunter, Michael; Moll, Alex; Hultsch, David F

    2002-11-01

    Intraindividual variability of physical status and affect/beliefs as well as their relations with cognition were examined in 3 groups of older adults: healthy elderly, individuals with a nonneurological health-related disturbance (arthritis) and people with neurological compromise (dementia). The findings showed that greater inconsistency in physical performance was observed in groups characterized by central nervous system dysfunction. By contrast, fluctuations in affect appeared to reflect other more transient sources, such as pain. In general, increased inconsistency in non-cognitive domains was associated with poorer cognitive function. There were cross-domain links between inconsistency in physical functioning and fluctuations in cognitive performance, although the nature of the links depended largely upon the neurological status of the individuals. Considered together, the result indicated that measures of cognitive as well as physical variability are important behavioral markers of neurological integrity.

  15. Cerebrospinal fluid neural cell adhesion molecule levels and their correlation with clinical variables in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder.

    Hidese, Shinsuke; Hattori, Kotaro; Sasayama, Daimei; Miyakawa, Tomoko; Matsumura, Ryo; Yokota, Yuuki; Ishida, Ikki; Matsuo, Junko; Noda, Takamasa; Yoshida, Sumiko; Teraishi, Toshiya; Hori, Hiroaki; Ota, Miho; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2017-06-02

    Neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) plays an important role in neural plasticity, and its altered function has been implicated in psychiatric disorders. However, previous studies have yielded inconsistent results on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) NCAM levels in psychiatric disorders. The aim of our study was to examine CSF NCAM levels in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder (BD), and major depressive disorder (MDD), and their possible relationship with clinical variables. The participants comprised 85 patients with schizophrenia, 57 patients with BD, 83 patients with MDD and 111 healthy controls, all matched for age, sex, and Japanese ethnicity. The CSF samples were drawn using a lumbar puncture and NCAM levels were quantified by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Analysis of covariance controlling for age and sex revealed that CSF NCAM levels were lower in all patients (p=0.033), and in those with BD (p=0.039), than in the controls. NCAM levels positively correlated with age in patients with BD (pdepressive symptom scores in patients with BD (p=0.040). In patients with schizophrenia, NCAM levels correlated negatively with negative symptom scores (p=0.029), and correlated positively with scores for cognitive functions such as category fluency (p=0.011) and letter fluency (p=0.023) scores. We showed that CSF NCAM levels were lower in psychiatric patients, particularly bipolar patients than in the controls. Furthermore, we found correlations of NCAM levels with clinical symptoms in patients with BD and in those with schizophrenia, suggesting the involvement of central NCAM in the symptom formation of severe psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. An Objective Screening Method for Major Depressive Disorder Using Logistic Regression Analysis of Heart Rate Variability Data Obtained in a Mental Task Paradigm

    Guanghao Sun

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Heart rate variability (HRV has been intensively studied as a promising biological marker of major depressive disorder (MDD. Our previous study confirmed that autonomic activity and reactivity in depression revealed by HRV during rest and mental task (MT conditions can be used as diagnostic measures and in clinical evaluation. In this study, logistic regression analysis (LRA was utilized for the classification and prediction of MDD based on HRV data obtained in an MT paradigm.Methods: Power spectral analysis of HRV on R-R intervals before, during, and after an MT (random number generation was performed in 44 drug-naïve patients with MDD and 47 healthy control subjects at Department of Psychiatry in Shizuoka Saiseikai General Hospital. Logit scores of LRA determined by HRV indices and heart rates discriminated patients with MDD from healthy subjects. The high frequency (HF component of HRV and the ratio of the low frequency (LF component to the HF component (LF/HF correspond to parasympathetic and sympathovagal balance, respectively.Results: The LRA achieved a sensitivity and specificity of 80.0% and 79.0%, respectively, at an optimum cutoff logit score (0.28. Misclassifications occurred only when the logit score was close to the cutoff score. Logit scores also correlated significantly with subjective self-rating depression scale scores (p < 0.05.Conclusion: HRV indices recorded during a mental task may be an objective tool for screening patients with MDD in psychiatric practice. The proposed method appears promising for not only objective and rapid MDD screening, but also evaluation of its severity.

  17. The TAS-20 more likely measures negative affects rather than alexithymia itself in patients with major depression, panic disorder, eating disorders and substance use disorders.

    Marchesi, Carlo; Ossola, Paolo; Tonna, Matteo; De Panfilis, Chiara

    2014-05-01

    This study evaluates whether the difference in Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 item (TAS-20) between patients with major depression (MD), panic disorder (PD), eating disorders (ED), and substance use disorders (SUD) and healthy controls persisted after controlling for the severity of anxiety and depression. Thirty-eight patients with MD, 58 with PD, 52 with ED, and 30 with SUD and 78 healthy controls (C) completed the TAS-20, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (Ham-A), the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (Ham-D). The differences in TAS-20 scores observed between patient groups, regardless of the type of their disorders, and controls disappeared after controlling for the effect of anxiety and depression severity. In contrast, the differences in severity of anxiety and depression between patients and controls were still present, after excluding the effect of alexithymic levels. Our data suggest that alexithymic levels, as measured by the TAS-20, are modulated by the severity of symptoms, supporting the view that alexithymia can represent a state phenomenon in patients with MD, PD, ED and SUD, because the TAS-20 seems overly sensitive to a general distress syndrome, and it is more likely to measure negative affects rather than alexithymia itself. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Do climate variables and human density affect Achatina fulica (Bowditch) (Gastropoda: Pulmonata) shell length, total weight and condition factor?

    Albuquerque, F S; Peso-Aguiar, M C; Assunção-Albuquerque, M J T; Gálvez, L

    2009-08-01

    The length-weight relationship and condition factor have been broadly investigated in snails to obtain the index of physical condition of populations and evaluate habitat quality. Herein, our goal was to describe the best predictors that explain Achatina fulica biometrical parameters and well being in a recently introduced population. From November 2001 to November 2002, monthly snail samples were collected in Lauro de Freitas City, Bahia, Brazil. Shell length and total weight were measured in the laboratory and the potential curve and condition factor were calculated. Five environmental variables were considered: temperature range, mean temperature, humidity, precipitation and human density. Multiple regressions were used to generate models including multiple predictors, via model selection approach, and then ranked with AIC criteria. Partial regressions were used to obtain the separated coefficients of determination of climate and human density models. A total of 1.460 individuals were collected, presenting a shell length range between 4.8 to 102.5 mm (mean: 42.18 mm). The relationship between total length and total weight revealed that Achatina fulica presented a negative allometric growth. Simple regression indicated that humidity has a significant influence on A. fulica total length and weight. Temperature range was the main variable that influenced the condition factor. Multiple regressions showed that climatic and human variables explain a small proportion of the variance in shell length and total weight, but may explain up to 55.7% of the condition factor variance. Consequently, we believe that the well being and biometric parameters of A. fulica can be influenced by climatic and human density factors.

  19. Do climate variables and human density affect Achatina fulica (Bowditch (Gastropoda: Pulmonata shell length, total weight and condition factor?

    FS. Albuquerque

    Full Text Available The length-weight relationship and condition factor have been broadly investigated in snails to obtain the index of physical condition of populations and evaluate habitat quality. Herein, our goal was to describe the best predictors that explain Achatina fulica biometrical parameters and well being in a recently introduced population. From November 2001 to November 2002, monthly snail samples were collected in Lauro de Freitas City, Bahia, Brazil. Shell length and total weight were measured in the laboratory and the potential curve and condition factor were calculated. Five environmental variables were considered: temperature range, mean temperature, humidity, precipitation and human density. Multiple regressions were used to generate models including multiple predictors, via model selection approach, and then ranked with AIC criteria. Partial regressions were used to obtain the separated coefficients of determination of climate and human density models. A total of 1.460 individuals were collected, presenting a shell length range between 4.8 to 102.5 mm (mean: 42.18 mm. The relationship between total length and total weight revealed that Achatina fulica presented a negative allometric growth. Simple regression indicated that humidity has a significant influence on A. fulica total length and weight. Temperature range was the main variable that influenced the condition factor. Multiple regressions showed that climatic and human variables explain a small proportion of the variance in shell length and total weight, but may explain up to 55.7% of the condition factor variance. Consequently, we believe that the well being and biometric parameters of A. fulica can be influenced by climatic and human density factors.

  20. Do concomitant pain symptoms in patients with major depression affect quality of life even when taking into account baseline depression severity?

    Novick D

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Diego Novick,1 William Montgomery,2 Zbigniew Kadziola,3 Victoria Moneta,4 Xiaomei Peng,5 Roberto Brugnoli,6 Josep Maria Haro41Eli Lilly and Company, Windlesham, Surrey, UK; 2Eli Lilly Australia Pty Ltd, West Ryde, NSW, Australia; 3Eli Lilly Austria GmbH, Vienna, Austria; 4Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, Fundació Sant Joan de Déu, CIBERSAM, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; 5Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 6Università di Roma, “Sapienza,” Rome, ItalyBackground: Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD may suffer from concomitant pain symptoms. The aim of this study is to determine whether the presence of painful physical symptoms (PPS influences quality of life when taking into account baseline depression severity.Methods: Patients with a new or first episode of MDD (n = 909 were enrolled in a 3-month prospective observational study in East Asia. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Clinical Global Impression-Severity score, Somatic Symptom Inventory, and EuroQoL questionnaire-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D and EQ-Visual Analogue Scale (EQ-VAS were assessed at baseline and 3 months’ follow-up. The presence of PPS was defined as a mean score of ≥2 on the Somatic Symptom Inventory pain-related items. Regression analyses determined predictors of quality of life at 3 months, adjusting for age, sex, depressive symptoms, overall severity, and quality of life at baseline.Results: PPS were present (PPS+ at baseline in 52% of patients. During the 3-month follow-up, EQ-VAS scores improved from 47.7 (standard deviation [SD] 20.6 to 72.5 (SD 20.4, and EQ-5D improved from 0.48 (SD 0.34 to 0.80 (SD 0.26. At 3 months, mean EQ-VAS was 66.4 (SD 21.2 for baseline PPS+ patients versus 78.5 (SD 17.6 for baseline PPS- patients, and mean EQ-5D was 0.71 (SD 0.29 versus 0.89 (SD 0.18. PPS+ at baseline was a significant predictor of quality of life at 3 months after adjusting for sociodemographic and baseline clinical variables

  1. Variables affecting the manifestation of and intensity of pacing behavior: A preliminary case study in zoo-housed polar bears.

    Cless, Isabelle T; Lukas, Kristen E

    2017-09-01

    High-speed video analysis was used to quantify two aspects of gait in 10 zoo-housed polar bears. These two variables were then examined as to how they differed in the conditions of pacing versus locomoting for each bear. Percent difference calculations measured the difference between pacing and locomoting data for each bear. We inferred that the higher the percent difference between pacing and locomoting in a given subject, the more intense the pacing may be. The percent difference values were analyzed alongside caregiver survey data defining the locations, frequency, and anticipatory nature of pacing in each bear, as well as each bear's age and sex, to determine whether any variables were correlated. The frequency and intensity of pacing behavior were not correlated. However, location of pacing was significantly correlated both with the subjects' age and whether or not the subject was classified as an anticipatory pacer. Bears appeared to select specific spots within their exhibits to pace, and the location therefore seemed tied to underlying motivation for the behavior. Additionally, bears that were classified in the survey as pacing anticipatorily displayed significantly more intense pacing behavior as quantified by gait analysis. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Theoretical-experimental assessment of the variables affecting fretting of Atucha I nuclear power plant utility steam generators tubes

    Kulichevsky, Raul M.

    1995-01-01

    Fretting wear of Steam Generator tubes caused by flow induced vibrations generates uncertainty on their integrity. The knowledge of the controlling variables of the wear process may give a criterion to evaluate the tubes residual life. Information on vibratory response and dynamic interaction between tubes and their supports are prerequisites for understanding the relationship between fretting wear and tube vibration. Experimental results of the vibratory response of an Atucha-I nuclear power plant type U-tube, the influence of tube/support clearance on this response and a study of tube/support dynamic interaction, which allow the verification of a finite element model of this type of tubes, are presented in this work. Also wear results for the Incoloy 800/DIN 1.4550 austenitic stainless steel pair of materials and a first evaluation of the wear constant of this pair are presented. (author)

  3. Radiation-induced mouse chimeras: a cellular analysis of the major lymphoid compartments, factors affecting lethal graft versus host disease and host-tumor interactions

    Almaraz, R.

    1981-01-01

    The major lymphoid compartments of allogeneic bone marrow chimeras were evaluated for the extent of cell chimerism and distribution of Thy 1 and la bearing cells. These chimeras contained lymphoid cell primarily of donor origin. The bone marrow compartment was a mixture of host and donor origin cells. The distribution of Thy 1 and la bearing cells was similar as in normal mice. The effect of adult thymectomy alone or followed by whole-body irradiation and bone marrow reconstitution on the distribution of the Thy 1 positive cells was also investigated. Thymectomy with or without WBI and bone marrow reconstitution significantly lowered the number of Thy 1 bearing cells in the blood and spleen. The number of la bearing cells did not appear to be affected by thymectomy. The role of circulating lymphoid cells in the incidence of lethal graft versus host disease (GVHD) in radiation induced fully allogeneic mouse chimeras was studied. Mice reconstituted with allogeneic bone marrow from bled donors had a statistically lower incidence of GVHD than those reconstituted with bone marrow from unbled donors. Addition of mature peripheral lymphocytes from blood to the reconstituting bone marrow cells from bled donors reduplicated the high incidence of lethal GVHD. It was demonstrated that the bone marrow of mice not exsanguinated prior to harvesting of bone marrow contained significant numbers of peripheral contaminating cells in the harvested bone marrow. The role of suppressor cell elimination in resisting tumor growth was investigated using radiation induced mouse chimeras. Local effects of irradiation alone at the site of tumor inoculation could account for this lack of growth

  4. Factors affecting spatial and temporal variability in material exchange between the Southern Everglades wetlands and Florida Bay (USA)

    Sutula, Martha A.; Perez, Brian C.; Reyes, Enrique; Childers, Daniel L.; Davis, Steve; Day, John W.; Rudnick, David; Sklar, Fred

    2003-08-01

    Physical and biological processes controlling spatial and temporal variations in material concentration and exchange between the Southern Everglades wetlands and Florida Bay were studied for 2.5 years in three of the five major creek systems draining the watershed. Daily total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) fluxes were measured for 2 years in Taylor River, and ten 10-day intensive studies were conducted in this creek to estimate the seasonal flux of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), total organic carbon (TOC), and suspended matter. Four 10-day studies were conducted simultaneously in Taylor, McCormick, and Trout Creeks to study the spatial variation in concentration and flux. The annual fluxes of TOC, TN, and TP from the Southern Everglades were estimated from regression equations. The Southern Everglades watershed, a 460-km 2 area that includes Taylor Slough and the area south of the C-111 canal, exported 7.1 g C m -2, 0.46 g N m -2, and 0.007 g P m -2, annually. Everglades P flux is three to four orders of magnitude lower than published flux estimates from wetlands influenced by terrigenous sedimentary inputs. These low P flux values reflect both the inherently low P content of Everglades surface water and the efficiency of Everglades carbonate sediments and biota in conserving and recycling this limiting nutrient. The seasonal variation of freshwater input to the watershed was responsible for major temporal variations in N, P, and C export to Florida Bay; approximately 99% of the export occurred during the rainy season. Wind-driven forcing was most important during the later stages of the dry season when low freshwater head coincided with southerly winds, resulting in a net import of water and materials into the wetlands. We also observed an east to west decrease in TN:TP ratio from 212:1 to 127:1. Major spatial gradients in N:P ratios and nutrient concentration and flux among the creek were consistent with the westward decrease in

  5. Pre-analytical and Analytical Variables Affecting the Measurement of Plasma-Derived Microparticle Tissue Factor Activity

    Lee, RD; Barcel, DA; Williams, JC; Wang, JG; Boles, JC; Manly, DA; Key, NS; Mackman, N

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Elevated levels of tissue factor positive (TF+) microparticles (MPs) are observed in plasma from a variety of patients with an increased risk of thrombosis. We and others have described the measurement of TF activity in MPs isolated from plasma. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pre-analytical and analytical variables on TF activity of MPs isolated from blood of healthy volunteers treated ex vivo with or without bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Materials and Methods We evaluated the following parameters: use of different centrifugation speeds to isolate the MPs; comparison of TF activity of MPs isolated from platelet poor plasma versus platelet free plasma; effect of freeze/thaw on MP TF activity; and comparison of the MP TF activity assay with the measurement of TF protein by ELISA or flow cytometry. Results MPs prepared from platelet poor plasma by centrifugation at 20,000 × g or 100,000 × g for 15 minutes had similar levels of TF activity. However, significantly less TF activity was found in MPs isolated from platelet free plasma compared with platelet poor plasma. Interestingly, freeze/thawing of the plasma showed donor to donor variation in MP TF activity, with a moderate increase in some individuals. Conclusion TF+ MPs can be quantitatively isolated from platelet poor or platelet free plasma by centrifugation at 20,000 × g for 15 minutes. Measurement of MP TF activity in plasma can be used to detect a prothrombotic state in patients with various diseases. PMID:21737126

  6. Assessment of intrafamilial clinical variability of poikiloderma with neutropenia by a 10-year follow-up of three affected siblings.

    Concolino, Daniela; Sestito, Simona; Falvo, Francesca; Romano, Giusy; Ceravolo, Miriam; Anastasio, Elisa; Pensabene, Licia; Colombo, Elisa A; Larizza, Lidia

    2018-05-23

    Clericuzio-type poikiloderma with neutropenia is a well-defined nosological entity, but despite a remarkable number of clinical reports, no long term follow-up data has been presented to date regarding patients with this rare condition. Here we describe the results of clinical follow-up of three siblings, one male (Patient 1) and two females (Patients 2 and 3), subsequent to their first clinical and then molecular diagnosis of Clericuzio-type poikiloderma with neutropenia syndrome due to mutation of USB1gene. Patient 1 always expressed the most severe phenotype, while patients 2 and 3 showed an intermediate and mild phenotype, respectively, as observed since their first clinical evaluation. None of the patients developed skin cancer and/or myelodysplastic disorders considering the peripheral haematological findings. Lens opacity, never reported before, was found in two of the three patients. The long term follow-up observations confirm the stability over time of the pronounced intra-familial heterogeneity of clinical manifestations observed prior to and upon molecular diagnosis. We conclude that prolonged follow-up is an adjunct tool to monitor intra-familial variability of PN clinical spectrum which may favour surveillance of more serious complications of the disease among siblings, when a patient-specific clinical expressivity is present. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  7. Optimum performance analysis of an irreversible Diesel heat engine affected by variable heat capacities of working fluid

    Zhao, Yingru; Chen, Jincan

    2007-01-01

    An irreversible cycle model of the Diesel heat engine is established in which the temperature dependent heat capacities of the working fluid, the irreversibilities resulting from non-isentropic compression and expansion processes and heat leak losses through the cylinder wall are taken into account. The adiabatic equation of ideal gases with temperature dependent heat capacity is strictly deduced without using the additional approximation condition in the relevant literature and is used to analyze the performance of the Diesel heat engine. Expressions for the work output and efficiency of the cycle are derived by introducing the pressure ratio and the compression and expansion efficiencies. The performance characteristic curves of the Diesel heat engine are presented for a set of given parameters. The optimum criteria of some important parameters such as the work output, efficiency, pressure ratio and temperatures of the working fluid are obtained. Moreover, the influence of the compression and expansion efficiencies, variable heat capacities, heat leak and other parameters on the performance of the cycle is discussed in detail. The results obtained may provide a theoretical basis for both optimal design and operation of real Diesel heat engines

  8. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and phonological working memory: Methodological variability affects clinical and experimental performance metrics.

    Tarle, Stephanie J; Alderson, R Matt; Patros, Connor H G; Lea, Sarah E; Hudec, Kristen L; Arrington, Elaine F

    2017-05-01

    Despite promising findings in extant research that suggest impaired working memory (WM) serves as a central neurocognitive deficit or candidate endophenotype of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), findings from translational research have been relatively underwhelming. This study aimed to explicate previous equivocal findings by systematically examining the effect of methodological variability on WM performance estimates across experimental and clinical WM measures. Age-matched boys (ages 8-12 years) with (n = 20) and without (n = 20) ADHD completed 1 experimental (phonological) and 2 clinical (digit span, letter-number sequencing) WM measures. The use of partial scoring procedures, administration of greater trial numbers, and high central executive demands yielded moderate-to-large between-groups effect sizes. Moreover, the combination of these best-case procedures, compared to worst-case procedures (i.e., absolute scoring, administration of few trials, use of discontinue rules, and low central executive demands), resulted in a 12.5% increase in correct group classification. Collectively, these findings explain inconsistent ADHD-related WM deficits in previous reports, and highlight the need for revised clinical measures that utilize best-case procedures. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. The Criteria and Variables Affecting the Selection of Quality Book Ideally Suited for Translation: The Perspectives of King Saud University Staff

    Abdulaziz Abdulrahman Abanomey

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the ideal definition of QB, that is Quality Book- one that is ideally suited for translation- and the variables affecting its selection criteria among 136 members of King Saud University (KSU academic staff. A workshop was held to elicit the ideal definition of QB to answer the first question, and a 19-item electronic questionnaire with four domains was designed to help collect the data necessary to answer the other two questions of the study. The results revealed that all four domains came low; “Authorship and Publication” came the highest with a mean score of 2.28 and “Titling and Contents” came the lowest with a mean score of 1.76. 5-way ANOVA (without interaction was applied in accordance with the variables of the study at α≤ 0.05 among the mean scores. The analysis revealed significance of the variables of gender, those who translated a book or more before, and those who participated in a conference devoted for translation whereas the variables of qualification and revising a translated book did not reveal any statistical significance. Key words: Quality Book, KSU, Authorship, Translation, Titling

  10. Biological variables and health status affecting inorganic element concentrations in harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) from Portugal (western Iberian Peninsula)

    Ferreira, Marisa; Monteiro, Silvia S.; Torres, Jordi; Oliveira, Isabel; Sequeira, Marina; López, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    The coastal preferences of harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) intensify their exposure to human activities. The harbour porpoise Iberian population is presently very small and information about the threats it endures is vital for the conservation efforts that are being implemented to avoid local extinction. The present study explored the possible relation between the accumulation of trace elements by porpoises and their sex, body length, nutritional state, presence of parasites and gross pathologies. The concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn) and selenium (Se) were evaluated in 42 porpoises stranded in Portugal between 2005 and 2013. Considering European waters, porpoises stranded in Portugal present the highest Hg concentrations and the lowest Cd concentrations, which may reflect dietary preferences and the geographic availability of these pollutants. While no effect of sex on trace element concentrations was detected, there was a positive relationship between porpoise body length and the concentration of Cd, Hg and Pb. Animals in worse nutritional condition showed higher levels of Zn. Harbour porpoises with high parasite burdens showed lower levels of Zn and As in all analysed tissues and also lower levels of renal Ni, while those showing gross pathologies presented higher Zn and Hg levels. This is the first data on the relationship between trace elements and health-related variables in porpoises from southern European Atlantic waters, providing valuable baseline information about the contamination status of this vulnerable population. - Highlights: • High levels of mercury in harbour porpoises from Portugal. • Evidence of bioaccumulation of non-essential trace elements. • Presence of parasites influenced some essential trace elements. • Evidence of nutritional state effect on Zn levels. • Presence of gross pathologies influenced Zn and Hg levels. - The small harbour

  11. Consumption of Oxidized Soybean Oil Increased Intestinal Oxidative Stress and Affected Intestinal Immune Variables in Yellow-feathered Broilers

    Fangfang Liang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of oxidized soybean oil in the diet of young chickens on growth performance and intestinal oxidative stress, and indices of intestinal immune function. Corn-soybean-based diets containing 2% mixtures of fresh and oxidized soybean oil provided 6 levels (0.15, 1.01, 3.14, 4.95, 7.05, and 8.97 meqO2/kg of peroxide value (POV in the diets. Each dietary treatment, fed for 22 d, had 6 replicates, each containing 30 birds (n = 1,080. Increasing POV levels reduced average daily feed intake (ADFI of the broilers during d 1 to 10, body weight and average daily gain at d 22 but did not affect overall ADFI. Concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA increased in plasma and jejunum as POV increased but total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC declined in plasma and jejunum. Catalase (CAT activity declined in plasma and jejunum as did plasma glutathione S-transferase (GST. Effects were apparent at POV exceeding 3.14 meqO2/kg for early ADFI and MDA in jejunum, and POV exceeding 1.01 meqO2/kg for CAT in plasma and jejunum, GST in plasma and T-AOC in jejunum. Relative jejunal abundance of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB P50 and NF-κB P65 increased as dietary POV increased. Increasing POV levels reduced the jejunal concentrations of secretory immunoglobulin A and cluster of differentiation (CD 4 and CD8 molecules with differences from controls apparent at dietary POV of 3.14 to 4.95 meqO2/kg. These findings indicated that growth performance, feed intake, and the local immune system of the small intestine were compromised by oxidative stress when young broilers were fed moderately oxidized soybean oil.

  12. The Relationship Between Self-Concept and Certain Academic, Vocational, Biographical, and Personality Variables of Entering Male Freshmen at a Major Land Grant University.

    Badgett, John L., Jr.

    The relationship between the self-concepts and certain academic, vocational, biographical, and personality variables of freshmen students was examined to provide the basis for a more scientific approach to academic-vocational counseling. The subjects completed the Self-Rating Scale, the Fascism Scale, and the Military Ideology Scale, and a student…

  13. Non-linear Heart Rate Variability as a Discriminator of Internalizing Psychopathology and Negative Affect in Children With Internalizing Problems and Healthy Controls

    Charlotte Fiskum

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Internalizing psychopathology and dysregulated negative affect are characterized by dysregulation in the autonomic nervous system and reduced heart rate variability (HRV due to increases in sympathetic activity alongside reduced vagal tone. The neurovisceral system is however, a complex nonlinear system, and nonlinear indices related to psychopathology are so far less studied in children. Essential nonlinear properties of a system can be found in two main domains: the informational domain and the invariant domain. sample entropy (SampEn is a much-used method from the informational domain, while detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA represents a widely-used method from the invariant domain. To see if nonlinear HRV can provide information beyond linear indices of autonomic activation, this study investigated SampEn and DFA as discriminators of internalizing psychopathology and negative affect alongside measures of vagally-mediated HRV and sympathetic activation.Material and Methods: Thirty-Two children with internalizing difficulties and 25 healthy controls (aged 9–13 were assessed with the Child Behavior Checklist and the Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire, Revised, giving an estimate of internalizing psychopathology, negative affect and effortful control, a protective factor against psychopathology. Five minute electrocardiogram and impedance cardiography recordings were collected during a resting baseline, giving estimates of SampEn, DFA short-term scaling exponent α1, root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD, and pre-ejection period (PEP. Between-group differences and correlations were assessed with parametric and non-parametric tests, and the relationships between cardiac variables, psychopathology and negative affect were assessed using generalized linear modeling.Results: SampEn and DFA were not significantly different between the groups. SampEn was weakly negatively related to heart rate (HR in the controls

  14. Meteorological variables affect fertility rate after intrauterine artificial insemination in sheep in a seasonal-dependent manner: a 7-year study

    Palacios, C.; Abecia, J. A.

    2015-05-01

    A total number of 48,088 artificial inseminations (AIs) have been controlled during seven consecutive years in 79 dairy sheep Spanish farms (41° N). Mean, maximum and minimum ambient temperatures ( Ts), temperature amplitude (TA), mean relative humidity (RH), mean solar radiation (SR) and total rainfall of each insemination day and 15 days later were recorded. Temperature-humidity index (THI) and effective temperature (ET) have been calculated. A binary logistic regression model to estimate the risk of not getting pregnant compared to getting pregnant, through the odds ratio (OR), was performed. Successful winter inseminations were carried out under higher SR ( P 1 (maximum T, ET and rainfall on AI day, and ET and rainfall on day 15), and two variables presented OR AI day and maximum T on day 15). However, the effect of meteorological factors affected fertility in opposite ways, so T becomes a protective or risk factor on fertility depending on season. In conclusion, the percentage of pregnancy after AI in sheep is significantly affected by meteorological variables in a seasonal-dependent manner, so the parameters such as temperature reverse their effects in the hot or cold seasons. A forecast of the meteorological conditions could be a useful tool when AI dates are being scheduled.

  15. Recent habitat fragmentation caused by major roads leads to reduction of gene flow and loss of genetic variability in ground beetles.

    Keller, Irene; Largiadèr, Carlo R

    2003-02-22

    Although habitat fragmentation is suspected to jeopardize the long-term survival of many species, few data are available on its impact on the genetic variability of invertebrates. We assess the genetic population structure of the flightless ground beetle Carabus violaceus L., 1758 in a Swiss forest, which is divided into several fragments by a highway and two main roads. Eight samples were collected from different forest fragments and analysed at six microsatellite loci. The largest genetic differentiation was observed between samples separated by roads and in particular by the highway. The number of roads between sites explained 44% of the variance in pairwise F(ST) estimates, whereas the age of the road and the geographical distance between locations were not significant factors. Furthermore, a comparison of allelic richness showed that the genetic variability in a small forest fragment isolated by the highway was significantly lower than in the rest of the study area. These findings strongly support the hypothesis that large roads are absolute barriers to gene flow in C. violaceus, which may lead to a loss of genetic variability in fragmented populations.

  16. Assessing the Ecological Integrity of a Major Transboundary Mediterranean River Based on Environmental Habitat Variables and Benthic Macroinvertebrates (Aoos-Vjose River, Greece-Albania)

    Chatzinikolaou, Y.; Dakos, V.; Lazaridou-Dimitriadou, M.

    2008-01-01

    Ecological integrity has become a primary objective in monitoring programs of surface waters according to the European Water Framework Directive. For this reason we propose a scheme for assessing the ecological integrity of a major transboundary river, the Aoos-Vjose (Greece-Albania), by analysing

  17. Increased mortality among patients admitted with major psychiatric disorders: a register-based study comparing mortality in unipolar depressive disorder, bipolar affective disorder, schizoaffective disorder, and schizophrenia

    Laursen, Thomas Munk; Munk-Olsen, Trine; Nordentoft, Merete

    2007-01-01

    disorder has never been examined in a population-based study. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to examine and compare mortality rates after admission with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, unipolar depressive disorder, or bipolar affective disorder and to examine the impact of family history......: Unipolar depressive disorder, bipolar affective disorder, and schizoaffective disorder were associated with the same pattern of excess mortality. Schizophrenia had a lower mortality from unnatural causes of death and a higher mortality from natural causes compared to the 3 other disorders. Family history...

  18. Water quality, sediment, and soil characteristics near Fargo-Moorhead urban areas as affected by major flooding of the Red River of the north

    A.C. Guy; T.M. DeSutter; F.X.M. Casey; R. Kolka; H. Hakk

    2012-01-01

    Spring flooding of the Red River of the North (RR) is common, but little information exits on how these flood events affect water and overbank sediment quality within an urban area. With the threat of the spring 2009 flood in the RR predicted to be the largest in recorded history and the concerns about the flooding of farmsteads, outbuildings, garages, and basements,...

  19. Modeling the effects of the variability of temperature-related dynamic viscosity on the thermal-affected zone of groundwater heat-pump systems

    Lo Russo, Stefano; Taddia, Glenda; Cerino Abdin, Elena

    2018-01-01

    Thermal perturbation in the subsurface produced in an open-loop groundwater heat pump (GWHP) plant is a complex transport phenomenon affected by several factors, including the exploited aquifer's hydrogeological and thermal characteristics, well construction features, and the temporal dynamics of the plant's groundwater abstraction and reinjection system. Hydraulic conductivity has a major influence on heat transport because plume propagation, which occurs primarily through advection, tends to degrade following conductive heat transport and convection within moving water. Hydraulic conductivity is, in turn, influenced by water reinjection because the dynamic viscosity of groundwater varies with temperature. This paper reports on a computational analysis conducted using FEFLOW software to quantify how the thermal-affected zone (TAZ) is influenced by the variation in dynamic viscosity due to reinjected groundwater in a well-doublet scheme. The modeling results demonstrate non-negligible groundwater dynamic-viscosity variation that affects thermal plume propagation in the aquifer. This influence on TAZ calculation was enhanced for aquifers with high intrinsic permeability and/or substantial temperature differences between abstracted and post-heat-pump-reinjected groundwater.

  20. Characteristics of attention-related body sensations. Temporal stability and associations with measures of body focus, affect, sustained attention, and heart rate variability.

    Tihanyi, Benedek T; Ferentzi, Eszter; Köteles, Ferenc

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated the temporal stability and correlates of attention-related body sensations that emerge without external stimulation during rest and due to focused attention on a body part. To assess attention-related body sensations, participants were asked to focus on a freely chosen body area with closed eyes, and had to report whether the sensation of that area had changed. Self-report questionnaires were used to assess various aspects of body focus (body awareness, body responsiveness, somatosensory amplification, subjective somatic symptoms), and positive and negative affectivity. Previous experiences in body-mind therapies were also measured. PEBL Continuous Performance Test was used to assess sustained attention. Heart rate variability scores were based on a 3-minute long resting heart rate measurement. Fifty-eight university students (22.3 ± 3.95 years; 34 females) participated in the study. The stability of attention-related body sensations was measured 8 weeks later on a randomly chosen sub-group (n = 28). Attention-related body sensations showed a mediocre temporal stability (r ρ  = 0.47, p = 0.012). People reporting attention-related body sensations showed significantly higher body awareness, somatosensory amplification, and resting heart rate; and marginally higher somatic symptoms. No relation was found with body-mind practice, body responsiveness, positive and negative affect, the vagal component of heart rate variability, and performance in the sustained attention task. Attention-related sensations are relatively stable over time. They are connected to some, but not to all of the aspects of body focus. Further studies are needed to elaborate the influencing stable and situational factors.

  1. Mathematical learning instruction and teacher motivation factors affecting science technology engineering and math (STEM) major choices in 4-year colleges and universities: Multilevel structural equation modeling

    Lee, Ahlam

    2011-12-01

    Using the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002/06, this study examined the effects of the selected mathematical learning and teacher motivation factors on graduates' science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) related major choices in 4-year colleges and universities, as mediated by math performance and math self-efficacy. Using multilevel structural equation modeling, I analyzed: (1) the association between mathematical learning instruction factors (i.e., computer, individual, and lecture-based learning activities in mathematics) and students' STEM major choices in 4-year colleges and universities as mediated by math performance and math self-efficacy and (2) the association between school factor, teacher motivation and students' STEM major choices in 4-year colleges and universities via mediators of math performance and math self-efficacy. The results revealed that among the selected learning experience factors, computer-based learning activities in math classrooms yielded the most positive effects on math self-efficacy, which significantly predicted the increase in the proportion of students' STEM major choice as mediated by math self-efficacy. Further, when controlling for base-year math Item Response Theory (IRT) scores, a positive relationship between individual-based learning activities in math classrooms and the first follow-up math IRT scores emerged, which related to the high proportion of students' STEM major choices. The results also indicated that individual and lecture-based learning activities in math yielded positive effects on math self-efficacy, which related to STEM major choice. Concerning between-school levels, teacher motivation yielded positive effects on the first follow up math IRT score, when controlling for base year IRT score. The results from this study inform educators, parents, and policy makers on how mathematics instruction can improve student math performance and encourage more students to prepare for STEM careers. Students

  2. A register based epidemiological description of risk factors and outcomes for major psychiatric disorders, focusing on a comparison between bipolar affective disorder and schizophrenia

    Laursen, Thomas Munk

    2006-01-01

    of schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder. The studies were based on four Danish registers: the Psychiatric Central Register, the Danish Civil Registration System, the Cause of Death Register, and the Danish Medical Birth Register. From the registers, large population based cohorts were identified...... and followed over several decades. Survival analysis techniques were applied to identify risk factors and mortality rates. The results demonstrated an overlap in risk factors for schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder. Excess mortality (compared to persons never admitted with a psychiatric disorder......), and environmental factors act (or interact) with this predisposition. However, large differences in gender distribution and age at onset are present, and differences and similarities between the disorders should be further examined before the Kraepelinian dichotomization can be disregarded....

  3. Major Factors Affecting Incidence of Childhood Thyroid Cancer in Belarus after the Chernobyl Accident: Do Nitrates in Drinking Water Play a Role?

    Drozd, Valentina M.; Saenko, Vladimir A.; Brenner, Alina V.; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Pashkevich, Vasilii I.; Kudelsky, Anatoliy V.; Demidchik, Yuri E.; Branovan, Igor; Shiglik, Nikolay; Rogounovitch, Tatiana I.; Yamashita, Shunichi; Biko, Johannes; Reiners, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    One of the major health consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident in 1986 was a dramatic increase in incidence of thyroid cancer among those who were aged less than 18 years at the time of the accident. This increase has been directly linked in several analytic epidemiological studies to iodine-131 (131I) thyroid doses received from the accident. However, there remains limited understanding of factors that modify the 131I-related risk. Focusing on post-Chernobyl pediatric thy...

  4. Pulsating variables

    1989-01-01

    The study of stellar pulsations is a major route to the understanding of stellar structure and evolution. At the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) the following stellar pulsation studies were undertaken: rapidly oscillating Ap stars; solar-like oscillations in stars; 8-Scuti type variability in a classical Am star; Beta Cephei variables; a pulsating white dwarf and its companion; RR Lyrae variables and galactic Cepheids. 4 figs

  5. The SRCR/SID region of DMBT1 defines a complex multi-allele system representing the major basis for its variability in cancer

    Mollenhauer, Jan; Müller, Hanna; Kollender, Gaby

    2002-01-01

    Deleted in malignant brain tumors 1 (DMBT1) at 10q25.3-q26.1 has been proposed as a candidate tumor-suppressor gene for brain and epithelial cancer. DMBT1 encodes a multifunctional mucin-like protein presumably involved in epithelial differentiation and protection. The gene consists of highly...... homologous and repeating exon and intron sequences. This specifically applies to the region coding for the repetitive scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) domains and SRCR-interspersed domains (SIDs) that constitutes the major part of the gene. This particular structure may previously have interfered...... with the delineation of DMBT1 alterations in cancer. Uncovering these, however, is of mechanistic importance. By a combined approach, we conducted a detailed mutational analysis, starting from a panel of 51 tumors, including 46 tumor cell lines and five primary tumors. Alterations in the repetitive region were present...

  6. Antibodies against major histocompatibility complex class II antigens directly inhibit the growth of T cells infected with Theileria parva without affecting their state of activation

    Eichhorn, M; Prospero, T D; Heussler, Volker; Dobbelaere, D A

    1993-01-01

    We have analyzed the effect of antibodies (Abs) directed against major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II Abs on the proliferation of Theileria parva-infected (Tpi) T cells. Anti-MHC class II Abs exert a direct effect on Tpi T cells causing an acute block in their proliferation. The inhibition does not involve apoptosis and is also entirely reversible. The rapid arrest of DNA synthesis caused by anti- MHC class II Abs is not due to interference with the state of activation of the T cel...

  7. Left dorso-lateral repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation affects cortical excitability and functional connectivity, but does not impair cognition in major depression.

    Shajahan, Polash M; Glabus, Mike F; Steele, J Douglas; Doris, Alan B; Anderson, Kay; Jenkins, Jenny A; Gooding, Patricia A; Ebmeier, Klaus P

    2002-06-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been used for over a decade to investigate cortical function. More recently, it has been employed to treat conditions such as major depression. This study was designed to explore the effects of differential treatment parameters, such as stimulation frequency. In addition, the data were examined to determine whether a change in connectivity occurred following TMS. Fifteen patients with major depression were entered into a combined imaging and treatment experiment with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over left dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Brain perfusion during a verbal fluency task was compared between pre- and poststimulation conditions. Patients were then treated with 80% of motor threshold for a total of 10 days, using 5000 stimuli at 5, 10 or 20 Hz. Tests of cortical excitability and neuropsychological tests were done throughout the trial. Patients generally improved with treatment. There was no perceptible difference between stimulation frequencies, which may have reflected low study power. An increase in rostral anterior cingulate activation after the treatment day was associated with increased functional connectivity in the dorso-lateral frontal loop on the left and the limbic loop on both sides. No noticeable deterioration in neuropsychological function was observed. TMS at the stimulation frequencies used seems to be safe over a course of 5000 stimuli. It appears to have an activating effect in anterior limbic structures and increase functional connectivity in the neuroanatomical networks under the stimulation coil within an hour of stimulation.

  8. Impact of glycemic variability on the occurrence of periprocedural myocardial infarction and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) after coronary intervention in patients with stable angina pectoris at 6months follow-up.

    Xia, Jinggang; Xu, Ji; Hu, Shaodong; Hao, Hengjian; Yin, Chunlin; Xu, Dong

    2017-08-01

    We explored the impact of glycemic variability on the occurrence of periprocedural myocardial infarction and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) after coronary intervention in patients with stable angina pectoris (SAP) at 6months follow-up. From May 2015 to April 2016, a total of 746 patients with SAP were divided to high glycemic variability group (H group) (n=261) and low glycemic variability group (L group) (n=485). The primary end point was incidence of periprocedural myocardial infarction and MACE at 6months follow-up. The occurrence of periprocedural myocardial infarction occurred in 18.8% of patients in H group and in 12.4% in L group (P=0.03). The incidence of MACE at 6months follow-up was 9.6% in H group and 4.5% in L group (P=0.01). Multivariable analysis suggested that high glycemic variability conferred a 53% risk increment of 6months follow-up MACE (odds ratio 2.13, 95% confidence interval 1.85-5.38; P=0.01). The trial shows that higher blood glucose variability was correlated with higher incidence of periprocedural myocardial infarction and MACE at 6months follow-up. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Initial Stage Affects Survival Even After Complete Pathologic Remission is Achieved in Locally Advanced Esophageal Cancer: Analysis of 70 Patients With Pathologic Major Response After Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy

    Kim, Min Kyoung; Cho, Kyung-Ja; Park, Seung-Il; Kim, Yong Hee; Kim, Jong Hoon; Song, Ho-Young; Shin, Ji Hoon; Jung, Hwoon Yong; Lee, Gin Hyug; Choi, Kee Don; Song, Ho June; Ryu, Jin-Sook; Kim, Sung-Bae

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze outcomes and factors predictive for recurrence and survival in patients with operable esophageal carcinoma who achieved pathologic complete response (PCR) or microscopic residual disease (MRD) after preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Materials and Methods: Outcomes were assessed in 70 patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer who achieved pathologic major response (53 with PCR and 17 with MRD) after preoperative CRT. Results: At a median follow-up of 38.6 months for surviving patients, 17 of 70 patients (24.3%) experienced disease recurrence and 31 (44.3%) died. Clinical stage (II vs III; p = 0.013) and pathologic response (PCR vs. MRD; p = 0.014) were independent predictors of disease recurrence. Median overall survival (OS) was 99.6 months (95% CI, 44.1-155.1 months) and the 5-year OS rate was 57%. Median recurrence-free survival (RFS) was 71.5 months (95% CI, 39.5-103.6 months) and the 5-year RFS rate was 51.3%. Median OS of patients with Stage II and Stage III disease was 108.8 months and 39.9 months, respectively, and the 5-year OS rates were 68.2% and 27.0%, respectively (p = 0.0003). In a subgroup of patients with PCR, median OS and RFS were also significantly different according to clinical stage. Multivariate analysis showed that clinical stage was an independent predictor of RFS (p = 0.01) and OS (p = 0.008). Conclusions: Even though patients achieved major response after preoperative CRT, pretreatment clinical stage is an important prognostic marker for recurrence and survival. Patients with MRD have an increased recurrence risk but similar survival compared with patients achieved PCR.

  10. Major depression

    Depression - major; Depression - clinical; Clinical depression; Unipolar depression; Major depressive disorder ... providers do not know the exact causes of depression. It is believed that chemical changes in the ...

  11. Demographic variables, design characteristics, and effect sizes of randomized, placebo-controlled, monotherapy trials of major depressive disorder and bipolar depression.

    Papakostas, George I; Martinson, Max A; Fava, Maurizio; Iovieno, Nadia

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this work is to compare the efficacy of pharmacologic agents for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar depression. MEDLINE/PubMed databases were searched for studies published in English between January 1980 and September 2014 by cross-referencing the search term placebo with each of the antidepressant agents identified and with bipolar. The search was supplemented by manual bibliography review. We selected double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials of antidepressant monotherapies for the treatment of MDD and of oral drug monotherapies for the treatment of bipolar depression. 196 trials in MDD and 19 trials in bipolar depression were found eligible for inclusion in our analysis. Data were extracted by one of the authors and checked for accuracy by a second one. Data extracted included year of publication, number of patients randomized, probability of receiving placebo, duration of the trial, baseline symptom severity, dosing schedule, study completion rates, and clinical response rates. Response rates for drug versus placebo in trials of MDD and bipolar depression were 52.7% versus 37.5% and 54.7% versus 40.5%, respectively. The random-effects meta-analysis indicated that drug therapy was more effective than placebo in both MDD (risk ratio for response = 1.373; P depression (risk ratio = 1.257; P depression trials in favor of MDD (P = .008). Although a statistically significantly greater treatment effect size was noted in MDD relative to bipolar depression studies, the absolute magnitude of the difference was numerically small. Therefore, the present study suggests no clinically significant differences in the overall short-term efficacy of pharmacologic monotherapies for MDD and bipolar depression. © Copyright 2016 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  12. Polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations, accumulation rates in soil from atmospheric deposition and analysis of their affecting landscape variables along an urban-rural gradient in Shanghai, China.

    Fang, Shubo; Cui, Qu; Matherne, Brian; Hou, Aixin

    2017-11-01

    This study initiated an in-situ soil experimental system to quantify the annual dynamics of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener's concentrations and accumulation rates in soil from atmosphere deposition in a rural-urban fringe, and correlated them by landscape physical and demographic variables in the area. The results showed that the concentrations of all PCB congeners significantly increased with the sampling time (p urban center. The moderate average concentrations along the gradient for PCB 8, 18, and 28 were 31.003, 18.825, and 19.505 ng g-1, respectively. Tetra-CBs including PCB 44, 52, 66, and 77 were 10.243, 31.214, 8.330 and 9.530 ng g-1, respectively. Penta-CBs including PCB 101, 105, 118, and 126 were 9.465, 7.896, 17.703, and 6.363 ng g-1, respectively. Hexa-CBs including PCB 128, 138, 153, 170, 180, and 187 were 6.798, 11.522, 4.969, 6.722, 6.317, and 8.243 ng g-1 respectively. PCB 195, 206, and 209 were 8.259, 9.506, and 14.169 ng g-1, respectively. Most of the PCB congeners had a higher accumulation rate approximately 28 km from the urban center. The computed variables were found to affect the soil PCB concentrations with a threshold effect (p urban sprawling (i.e. built-up areas expanding) were the sources of PCBs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Factors affecting variability in the urinary biomarker 1,6-hexamethylene diamine in workers exposed to 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate.

    Gaines, Linda G T; Fent, Kenneth W; Flack, Sheila L; Thomasen, Jennifer M; Whittaker, Stephen G; Nylander-French, Leena A

    2011-01-01

    Although urinary 1,6-hexamethylene diamine (HDA) is a useful biomarker of exposure to 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI), a large degree of unexplained intra- and inter-individual variability exists between estimated HDI exposure and urine HDA levels. We investigated the effect of individual and workplace factors on urine HDA levels using quantitative dermal and inhalation exposure data derived from a survey of automotive spray painters exposed to HDI. Painters' dermal and breathing-zone HDI-exposures were monitored over an entire workday for up to three separate workdays, spaced approximately one month apart. One urine sample was collected before the start of work with HDI-containing paints, and multiple samples were collected throughout the workday. Using mixed effects multiple linear regression modeling, coverall use resulted in significantly lower HDA levels (p = 0.12), and weekday contributed to significant variability in HDA levels (p = 0.056). We also investigated differences in urine HDA levels stratified by dichotomous and classification covariates using analysis of variance. Use of coveralls (p = 0.05), respirator type worn (p = 0.06), smoker status (p = 0.12), paint-booth type (p = 0.02), and more than one painter at the shop (p = 0.10) were all found to significantly affect urine HDA levels adjusted for creatinine concentration. Coverall use remained significant (p = 0.10), even after adjusting for respirator type. These results indicate that the variation in urine HDA level is mainly due to workplace factors and that appropriate dermal and inhalation protection is required to prevent HDI exposure.

  14. Viruses affecting lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. in Greece; incidence and genetic variability of Bean leafroll virus and Pea enation mosaic virus

    Elisavet K. CHATZIVASSILIOU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In Greece, lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. crops are mainly established with non-certified seeds of local landraces, implying high risks for seed transmitted diseases. During April and May of the 2007–2012 growing seasons, surveys were conducted in eight regions of Greece (Attiki, Evros, Fthiotida, Korinthos, Kozani, Larissa, Lefkada and Viotia to monitor virus incidence in lentil fields. A total of 1216 lentil samples, from plants exhibiting symptoms suggestive of virus infection, were analyzed from 2007 to 2009, using tissue-blot immunoassays (TBIA. Pea seed-borne mosaic virus (PSbMV overall incidence was 4.9%, followed by Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV (2.4% and Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV (1.0%. When 274 of the samples were tested for the presence of luteoviruses, 38.8% were infected with Bean leafroll virus (BLRV. Since BLRV was not identified in the majority of the samples collected from 2007 to 2009, representative symptomatic plants (360 samples were collected in further surveys performed from 2010 to 2012 and tested by ELISA. Two viruses prevailed in those samples: BLRV (36.1% was associated with stunting, yellowing, and reddening symptoms and Pea enation mosaic virus-1 (PEMV-1 (35.0% was associated with mosaic and mottling symptoms. PSbMV (2.2%, AMV (2.2%, BYMV (3.9% and CMV (2.8% were also detected. When the molecular variability was analyzed for representative isolates, collected from the main Greek lentil production areas, five BLRV isolates showed 95% identity for the coat protein (CP gene and 99% for the 3’ end region. Three Greek PEMV isolates co-clustered with an isolate from Germany when their CP sequence was compared with isolates with no mutation in the aphid transmission gene. Overall, limited genetic variability was detected among Greek isolates of BLRV and PEMV.

  15. Major Factors Affecting Incidence of Childhood Thyroid Cancer in Belarus after the Chernobyl Accident: Do Nitrates in Drinking Water Play a Role?

    Valentina M Drozd

    Full Text Available One of the major health consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident in 1986 was a dramatic increase in incidence of thyroid cancer among those who were aged less than 18 years at the time of the accident. This increase has been directly linked in several analytic epidemiological studies to iodine-131 (131I thyroid doses received from the accident. However, there remains limited understanding of factors that modify the 131I-related risk. Focusing on post-Chernobyl pediatric thyroid cancer in Belarus, we reviewed evidence of the effects of radiation, thyroid screening, and iodine deficiency on regional differences in incidence rates of thyroid cancer. We also reviewed current evidence on content of nitrate in groundwater and thyroid cancer risk drawing attention to high levels of nitrates in open well water in several contaminated regions of Belarus, i.e. Gomel and Brest, related to the usage of nitrogen fertilizers. In this hypothesis generating study, based on ecological data and biological plausibility, we suggest that nitrate pollution may modify the radiation-related risk of thyroid cancer contributing to regional differences in rates of pediatric thyroid cancer in Belarus. Analytic epidemiological studies designed to evaluate joint effect of nitrate content in groundwater and radiation present a promising avenue of research and may provide useful insights into etiology of thyroid cancer.

  16. The Major Outer Membrane Protein MopB Is Required for Twitching Movement and Affects Biofilm Formation and Virulence in Two Xylella fastidiosa strains.

    Chen, Hongyu; Kandel, Prem P; Cruz, Luisa F; Cobine, Paul A; De La Fuente, Leonardo

    2017-11-01

    MopB is a major outer membrane protein (OMP) in Xylella fastidiosa, a bacterial plant pathogen that causes losses on many economically important crops. Based on in silico analysis, the uncharacterized MopB protein of X. fastidiosa contains a β-barrel structure with an OmpA-like domain and a predicted calcium-binding motif. Here, MopB function was studied by mutational analysis taking advantage of the natural competence of X. fastidiosa. Mutants of mopB were constructed in two different X. fastidiosa strains, the type strain Temecula and the more virulent WM1-1. Deletion of the mopB gene impaired cell-to-cell aggregation, surface attachment, and biofilm formation in both strains. Interestingly, mopB deletion completely abolished twitching motility. Electron microscopy of the bacterial cell surface revealed that mopB deletion eliminated type IV and type I pili formation, potentially caused by destabilization of the outer membrane. Both mopB mutants showed reduced virulence using tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) as a host under greenhouse conditions. These results suggest that MopB has pleiotropic functions in biofilm formation and twitching motility and is important for virulence of X. fastidiosa.

  17. Major Factors Affecting Incidence of Childhood Thyroid Cancer in Belarus after the Chernobyl Accident: Do Nitrates in Drinking Water Play a Role?

    Drozd, Valentina M; Saenko, Vladimir A; Brenner, Alina V; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Pashkevich, Vasilii I; Kudelsky, Anatoliy V; Demidchik, Yuri E; Branovan, Igor; Shiglik, Nikolay; Rogounovitch, Tatiana I; Yamashita, Shunichi; Biko, Johannes; Reiners, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    One of the major health consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident in 1986 was a dramatic increase in incidence of thyroid cancer among those who were aged less than 18 years at the time of the accident. This increase has been directly linked in several analytic epidemiological studies to iodine-131 (131I) thyroid doses received from the accident. However, there remains limited understanding of factors that modify the 131I-related risk. Focusing on post-Chernobyl pediatric thyroid cancer in Belarus, we reviewed evidence of the effects of radiation, thyroid screening, and iodine deficiency on regional differences in incidence rates of thyroid cancer. We also reviewed current evidence on content of nitrate in groundwater and thyroid cancer risk drawing attention to high levels of nitrates in open well water in several contaminated regions of Belarus, i.e. Gomel and Brest, related to the usage of nitrogen fertilizers. In this hypothesis generating study, based on ecological data and biological plausibility, we suggest that nitrate pollution may modify the radiation-related risk of thyroid cancer contributing to regional differences in rates of pediatric thyroid cancer in Belarus. Analytic epidemiological studies designed to evaluate joint effect of nitrate content in groundwater and radiation present a promising avenue of research and may provide useful insights into etiology of thyroid cancer.

  18. Psychosocial care for persons affected by emergencies and major incidents: a Delphi study to determine the needs of professional first responders for education, training and support.

    Drury, John; Kemp, Verity; Newman, Jonathan; Novelli, David; Doyle, Christopher; Walter, Darren; Williams, Richard

    2013-10-01

    The role of ambulance clinicians in providing psychosocial care in major incidents and emergencies is recognised in recent Department of Health guidance. The study described in this paper identified NHS professional first responders' needs for education about survivors' psychosocial responses, training in psychosocial skills, and continuing support. Ambulance staff participated in an online Delphi questionnaire, comprising 74 items (Round 1) on 7-point Likert scales. Second-round and third-round participants each received feedback based on the previous round, and responded to modified versions of the original items and to new items for clarification. One hundred and two participants took part in Round 1; 47 statements (64%) achieved consensus. In Round 2, 72 people from Round 1 participated; 15 out of 39 statements (38%) achieved consensus. In Round 3, 49 people from Round 2 participated; 15 out of 27 statements (59%) achieved consensus. Overall, there was consensus in the following areas: 'psychosocial needs of patients' (consensus in 34/37 items); 'possible sources of stress in your work' (8/9); 'impacts of distress in your work' (7/10); 'meeting your own emotional needs' (4/5); 'support within your organisation' (2/5); 'needs for training in psychosocial skills for patients' (15/15); 'my needs for psychosocial training and support' (5/6). Ambulance clinicians recognise their own education needs and the importance of their being offered psychosocial training and support. The authors recommend that, in order to meet patients' psychosocial needs effectively, ambulance clinicians are provided with education and training in a number of skills and their own psychosocial support should be enhanced.

  19. Laboratory incubation experiments assessing the factor interactions affecting urine-derived nitrous oxide emissions from spatially and temporally variable upland pastures

    Charteris, Alice; Loick, Nadine; Marsden, Karina; Chadwick, Dave; Whelan, Mick; Rao Ravella, Sreenivas; Mead, Andrew; Cardenas, Laura

    2017-04-01

    Urine patches deposited to soils by grazing animals represent hot-spots of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions (Hargreaves et al., 2015), a powerful greenhouse gas (GHG) and precursor of ozone depletion in the stratosphere. Urine N2O emissions are produced via nitrification of ureolysis-derived ammonium (NH4+) and/or subsequent nitrite (NO2-) and nitrate (NO3-) denitrification (Kool et al., 2006). The dominant process and the N2O fluxes generated depend on interactions between urine characteristics (e.g. nitrogen [N] concentration and volume), soil characteristics (e.g. carbon [C] availability and pH) and preceding and prevailing environmental conditions (e.g. soil moisture and temperature; Bergstermann et al., 2011; Butterbach-Bahl et al., 2013; Dijkstra et al., 2013). The spatial and temporal variability of these interactions in grazing systems is potentially large and greatly increases the uncertainty associated with N2O emission estimates from such systems. In particular, the contribution of extensively managed upland agroecosystems, which occupy ca. 5.5 million hectares in the UK and provide the bulk of land for sheep farming (Pollott & Stone, 2004), to UK GHG emissions is poorly defined. Improving understanding of the interactions between the wide range of factors affecting urine-derived N2O production and emission from pasture soils and considering this in the context of the spatial and temporal variability of the grazing environment could therefore be extremely valuable in improving the accuracy of N2O emission estimates from such systems. The factorial laboratory incubation experiments presented have been designed to assess the interactive effects of factors such as urine N concentration, volume and soil moisture affecting soil N2O (and nitric oxide [NO], nitrogen gas [N2] and carbon dioxide [CO2]) production and emissions (García-Marco et al., 2014) using the state-of-the-art Denitrification Incubation System (DENIS). This work forms part of a wider project

  20. Elementary students’ affective variables in a networked learning environment supported by a blog: a case study / Variables affectives des élèves du primaire dans un contexte d'apprentissage en réseau soutenu par un blogue: une étude de cas

    Stéphane Allaire

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study documents to what extent writing on a blog in a blended learning environment could influence the affective variables of elementary-school students’ writing. We grounded our framework more specifically in Deci and Ryan’s theory of self-determination. Our research team used both pre and post-tests and we conducted the analysis on the basis of inferential and correlational statistics using SPSS 17®. Results indicate an increase in motivation to write in pupils who used the blog, whereas the number of comments made per post did not seem to have any definitive impact on this subject. Cette étude documente dans quelle mesure l'écriture de blogues dans un contexte d'apprentissage en réseau peut influencer les variables affectives de l'écriture chez les élèves du primaire. Le cadre d’analyse est fondé plus spécifiquement sur la théorie de l'autodétermination (Deci & Ryan, 1985, sur le rapport à l'écriture (Chartrand et Prince, 2009 et sur la théorie transactionnelle de Rosenblatt (1991. L’équipe de recherche a conduit des tests avant et après l’exercice d’écriture afin de mesurer les variables affectives. L’analyse est basée sur des statistiques déductives et corrélationnelles, traitées avec SPSS 17®. L’analyse qualitative est également utilisée pour identifier les intentions d’écriture et les thèmes des messages affichés sur le blogue. Les résultats indiquent une augmentation de la motivation d'écrire chez les élèves ayant utilisé le blogue, tandis que le nombre de commentaires formulés par message ne semble pas avoir eu d’effet décisif.

  1. Developmental Associations between Short-Term Variability and Long-Term Changes: Intraindividual Correlation of Positive and Negative Affect in Daily Life and Cognitive Aging

    Hülür, Gizem; Hoppmann, Christiane A.; Ram, Nilam; Gerstorf, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Conceptual notions and empirical evidence suggest that the intraindividual correlation (iCorr) of positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) is a meaningful characteristic of affective functioning. PA and NA are typically negatively correlated within-person. Previous research has found that the iCorr of PA and NA is relatively stable over time…

  2. The role of Personal Self-Regulation and Regulatory Teaching to predict motivational-affective variables, achievement and satisfaction: A structural model

    Jesus ede la Fuente

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation examines how personal self-regulation (presage variable and regulatory teaching (process variable of teaching relate to learning approaches, strategies for coping with stress, and self-regulated learning (process variables of learning and, finally, how they relate to performance and satisfaction with the learning process (product variables. The objective was to clarify the associative and predictive relations between these variables, as contextualized in two different models that use the presage-process-product paradigm (the Biggs and DEDEPRO models. A total of 1101 university students participated in the study. The design was cross-sectional and retrospective with attributional (or selection variables, using correlations and structural analysis. The results provide consistent and significant empirical evidence for the relationships hypothesized, incorporating variables that are part of and influence the teaching-learning process in Higher Education. Findings confirm the importance of interactive relationships within the teaching-learning process, where personal self-regulation is assumed to take place in connection with regulatory teaching. Variables that are involved in the relationships validated here reinforce the idea that both personal factors and teaching and learning factors should be taken into consideration when dealing with a formal teaching-learning context at university.

  3. The role of personal self-regulation and regulatory teaching to predict motivational-affective variables, achievement, and satisfaction: a structural model

    De la Fuente, Jesus; Zapata, Lucía; Martínez-Vicente, Jose M.; Sander, Paul; Cardelle-Elawar, María

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation examines how personal self-regulation (presage variable) and regulatory teaching (process variable of teaching) relate to learning approaches, strategies for coping with stress, and self-regulated learning (process variables of learning) and, finally, how they relate to performance and satisfaction with the learning process (product variables). The objective was to clarify the associative and predictive relations between these variables, as contextualized in two different models that use the presage-process-product paradigm (the Biggs and DEDEPRO models). A total of 1101 university students participated in the study. The design was cross-sectional and retrospective with attributional (or selection) variables, using correlations and structural analysis. The results provide consistent and significant empirical evidence for the relationships hypothesized, incorporating variables that are part of and influence the teaching–learning process in Higher Education. Findings confirm the importance of interactive relationships within the teaching–learning process, where personal self-regulation is assumed to take place in connection with regulatory teaching. Variables that are involved in the relationships validated here reinforce the idea that both personal factors and teaching and learning factors should be taken into consideration when dealing with a formal teaching–learning context at university. PMID:25964764

  4. Variable stars

    Feast, M.W.; Wenzel, W.; Fernie, J.D.; Percy, J.R.; Smak, J.; Gascoigne, S.C.B.; Grindley, J.E.; Lovell, B.; Sawyer Hogg, H.B.; Baker, N.; Fitch, W.S.; Rosino, L.; Gursky, H.

    1976-01-01

    A critical review of variable stars is presented. A fairly complete summary of major developments and discoveries during the period 1973-1975 is given. The broad developments and new trends are outlined. Essential problems for future research are identified. (B.R.H. )

  5. WE-D-18A-04: How Iterative Reconstruction Algorithms Affect the MTFs of Variable-Contrast Targets in CT Images

    Dodge, C.T.; Rong, J. [MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Dodge, C.W. [Methodist Hospital, Houston, TX (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To determine how filtered back-projection (FBP), adaptive statistical (ASiR), and model based (MBIR) iterative reconstruction algorithms affect the measured modulation transfer functions (MTFs) of variable-contrast targets over a wide range of clinically applicable dose levels. Methods: The Catphan 600 CTP401 module, surrounded by an oval, fat-equivalent ring to mimic patient size/shape, was scanned on a GE HD750 CT scanner at 1, 2, 3, 6, 12 and 24 mGy CTDIvol levels with typical patient scan parameters: 120kVp, 0.8s, 40mm beam width, large SFOV, 2.5mm thickness, 0.984 pitch. The images were reconstructed using GE's Standard kernel with FBP; 20%, 40% and 70% ASiR; and MBIR. A task-based MTF (MTFtask) was computed for six cylindrical targets: 2 low-contrast (Polystyrene, LDPE), 2 medium-contrast (Delrin, PMP), and 2 high-contrast (Teflon, air). MTFtask was used to compare the performance of reconstruction algorithms with decreasing CTDIvol from 24mGy, which is currently used in the clinic. Results: For the air target and 75% dose savings (6 mGy), MBIR MTFtask at 5 lp/cm measured 0.24, compared to 0.20 for 70% ASiR and 0.11 for FBP. Overall, for both high-contrast targets, MBIR MTFtask improved with increasing CTDIvol and consistently outperformed ASiR and FBP near the system's Nyquist frequency. Conversely, for Polystyrene at 6 mGy, MBIR (0.10) and 70% ASiR (0.07) MTFtask was lower than for FBP (0.18). For medium and low-contrast targets, FBP remains the best overall algorithm for improved resolution at low CTDIvol (1–6 mGy) levels, whereas MBIR is comparable at higher dose levels (12–24 mGy). Conclusion: MBIR improved the MTF of small, high-contrast targets compared to FBP and ASiR at doses of 50%–12.5% of those currently used in the clinic. However, for imaging low- and mediumcontrast targets, FBP performed the best across all dose levels. For assessing MTF from different reconstruction algorithms, task-based MTF measurements are necessary.

  6. WE-D-18A-04: How Iterative Reconstruction Algorithms Affect the MTFs of Variable-Contrast Targets in CT Images

    Dodge, C.T.; Rong, J.; Dodge, C.W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To determine how filtered back-projection (FBP), adaptive statistical (ASiR), and model based (MBIR) iterative reconstruction algorithms affect the measured modulation transfer functions (MTFs) of variable-contrast targets over a wide range of clinically applicable dose levels. Methods: The Catphan 600 CTP401 module, surrounded by an oval, fat-equivalent ring to mimic patient size/shape, was scanned on a GE HD750 CT scanner at 1, 2, 3, 6, 12 and 24 mGy CTDIvol levels with typical patient scan parameters: 120kVp, 0.8s, 40mm beam width, large SFOV, 2.5mm thickness, 0.984 pitch. The images were reconstructed using GE's Standard kernel with FBP; 20%, 40% and 70% ASiR; and MBIR. A task-based MTF (MTFtask) was computed for six cylindrical targets: 2 low-contrast (Polystyrene, LDPE), 2 medium-contrast (Delrin, PMP), and 2 high-contrast (Teflon, air). MTFtask was used to compare the performance of reconstruction algorithms with decreasing CTDIvol from 24mGy, which is currently used in the clinic. Results: For the air target and 75% dose savings (6 mGy), MBIR MTFtask at 5 lp/cm measured 0.24, compared to 0.20 for 70% ASiR and 0.11 for FBP. Overall, for both high-contrast targets, MBIR MTFtask improved with increasing CTDIvol and consistently outperformed ASiR and FBP near the system's Nyquist frequency. Conversely, for Polystyrene at 6 mGy, MBIR (0.10) and 70% ASiR (0.07) MTFtask was lower than for FBP (0.18). For medium and low-contrast targets, FBP remains the best overall algorithm for improved resolution at low CTDIvol (1–6 mGy) levels, whereas MBIR is comparable at higher dose levels (12–24 mGy). Conclusion: MBIR improved the MTF of small, high-contrast targets compared to FBP and ASiR at doses of 50%–12.5% of those currently used in the clinic. However, for imaging low- and mediumcontrast targets, FBP performed the best across all dose levels. For assessing MTF from different reconstruction algorithms, task-based MTF measurements are necessary

  7. Major Links.

    Henderson, Tona

    1995-01-01

    Provides electronic mail addresses for resources and discussion groups related to the following academic majors: art, biology, business, chemistry, computer science, economics, health sciences, history, literature, math, music, philosophy, political science, psychology, sociology, and theater. (AEF)

  8. Major Roads

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for major roads (interstates and trunk highways) found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. These roadways are current...

  9. Remote sensing and avian influenza: A review of image processing methods for extracting key variables affecting avian influenza virus survival in water from Earth Observation satellites

    Tran, Annelise; Goutard, Flavie; Chamaillé, Lise; Baghdadi, Nicolas; Lo Seen, Danny

    2010-02-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the potential role of water in the transmission of avian influenza (AI) viruses and the existence of often interacting variables that determine the survival rate of these viruses in water; the two main variables are temperature and salinity. Remote sensing has been used to map and monitor water bodies for several decades. In this paper, we review satellite image analysis methods used for water detection and characterization, focusing on the main variables that influence AI virus survival in water. Optical and radar imagery are useful for detecting water bodies at different spatial and temporal scales. Methods to monitor the temperature of large water surfaces are also available. Current methods for estimating other relevant water variables such as salinity, pH, turbidity and water depth are not presently considered to be effective.

  10. How spatial and temporal rainfall variability affect runoff across basin scales: insights from field observations in the (semi-)urbanised Charlotte watershed

    Ten Veldhuis, M. C.; Smith, J. A.; Zhou, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Impacts of rainfall variability on runoff response are highly scale-dependent. Sensitivity analyses based on hydrological model simulations have shown that impacts are likely to depend on combinations of storm type, basin versus storm scale, temporal versus spatial rainfall variability. So far, few of these conclusions have been confirmed on observational grounds, since high quality datasets of spatially variable rainfall and runoff over prolonged periods are rare. Here we investigate relationships between rainfall variability and runoff response based on 30 years of radar-rainfall datasets and flow measurements for 16 hydrological basins ranging from 7 to 111 km2. Basins vary not only in scale, but also in their degree of urbanisation. We investigated temporal and spatial variability characteristics of rainfall fields across a range of spatial and temporal scales to identify main drivers for variability in runoff response. We identified 3 ranges of basin size with different temporal versus spatial rainfall variability characteristics. Total rainfall volume proved to be the dominant agent determining runoff response at all basin scales, independent of their degree of urbanisation. Peak rainfall intensity and storm core volume are of secondary importance. This applies to all runoff parameters, including runoff volume, runoff peak, volume-to-peak and lag time. Position and movement of the storm with respect to the basin have a negligible influence on runoff response, with the exception of lag times in some of the larger basins. This highlights the importance of accuracy in rainfall estimation: getting the position right but the volume wrong will inevitably lead to large errors in runoff prediction. Our study helps to identify conditions where rainfall variability matters for correct estimation of the rainfall volume as well as the associated runoff response.

  11. Temporal and spatial variability of rainfall distribution and ...

    Rainfall and evapotranspiration are the two major climatic factors affecting agricultural production. This study examined the extent and nature of rainfall variability from measured data while estimation of evapotranspiration was made from recorded weather data. Analysis of rainfall variability is made by the rainfall anomaly ...

  12. Heart rate variability in bipolar disorder

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Munkholm, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Background Heart rate variability (HRV) has been suggested reduced in bipolar disorder (BD) compared with healthy individuals (HC). This meta-analysis investigated: HRV differences in BD compared with HC, major depressive disorder or schizophrenia; HRV differences between affective states; HRV...

  13. Acute Mental Discomfort Associated with Suicide Behavior in a Clinical Sample of Patients with Affective Disorders: Ascertaining Critical Variables Using Artificial Intelligence Tools.

    Morales, Susana; Barros, Jorge; Echávarri, Orietta; García, Fabián; Osses, Alex; Moya, Claudia; Maino, María Paz; Fischman, Ronit; Núñez, Catalina; Szmulewicz, Tita; Tomicic, Alemka

    2017-01-01

    In efforts to develop reliable methods to detect the likelihood of impending suicidal behaviors, we have proposed the following. To gain a deeper understanding of the state of suicide risk by determining the combination of variables that distinguishes between groups with and without suicide risk. A study involving 707 patients consulting for mental health issues in three health centers in Greater Santiago, Chile. Using 345 variables, an analysis was carried out with artificial intelligence tools, Cross Industry Standard Process for Data Mining processes, and decision tree techniques. The basic algorithm was top-down, and the most suitable division produced by the tree was selected by using the lowest Gini index as a criterion and by looping it until the condition of belonging to the group with suicidal behavior was fulfilled. Four trees distinguishing the groups were obtained, of which the elements of one were analyzed in greater detail, since this tree included both clinical and personality variables. This specific tree consists of six nodes without suicide risk and eight nodes with suicide risk (tree decision 01, accuracy 0.674, precision 0.652, recall 0.678, specificity 0.670, F measure 0.665, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) area under the curve (AUC) 73.35%; tree decision 02, accuracy 0.669, precision 0.642, recall 0.694, specificity 0.647, F measure 0.667, ROC AUC 68.91%; tree decision 03, accuracy 0.681, precision 0.675, recall 0.638, specificity 0.721, F measure, 0.656, ROC AUC 65.86%; tree decision 04, accuracy 0.714, precision 0.734, recall 0.628, specificity 0.792, F measure 0.677, ROC AUC 58.85%). This study defines the interactions among a group of variables associated with suicidal ideation and behavior. By using these variables, it may be possible to create a quick and easy-to-use tool. As such, psychotherapeutic interventions could be designed to mitigate the impact of these variables on the emotional state of individuals, thereby reducing

  14. Intraspecies Variability Affects Heterotypic Biofilms of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia: Evidences of Strain-Dependence Biofilm Modulation by Physical Contact and by Released Soluble Factors.

    Graziela Murta Barbosa

    Full Text Available It is well known that strain and virulence diversity exist within the population structure of Porphyromonas gingivalis. In the present study we investigate intra- and inter-species variability in biofilm formation of Porphyromonas gingivalis and partners Prevotella intermedia and Prevotella nigrescens. All strains tested showed similar hydrophobicity, except for P. gingivalis W83 which has roughly half of the hydrophobicity of P. gingivalis ATCC33277. An intraspecies variability in coaggregation of P. gingivalis with P. intermedia was also found. The association P. gingivalis W83/P. intermedia 17 produced the thickest biofilm and strain 17 was prevalent. In a two-compartment system P. gingivalis W83 stimulates an increase in biomass of strain 17 and the latter did not stimulate the growth of P. gingivalis W83. In addition, P. gingivalis W83 also stimulates the growth of P. intermedia ATCC25611 although strain W83 was prevalent in the association with P. intermedia ATCC25611. P. gingivalis ATCC33277 was prevalent in both associations with P. intermedia and both strains of P. intermedia stimulate the growth of P. gingivalis ATCC33277. FISH images also showed variability in biofilm structure. Thus, the outcome of the association P. gingivalis/P. intermedia seems to be strain-dependent, and both soluble factors and physical contact are relevant. The association P. gingivalis-P. nigrescens ATCC33563 produced larger biomass than each monotypic biofilm, and P. gingivalis was favored in consortia, while no differences were found in the two-compartment system. Therefore, in consortia P. gingivalis-P. nigrescens physical contact seems to favor P. gingivalis growth. The intraspecies variability found in our study suggests strain-dependence in ability of microorganisms to recognize molecules in other bacteria which may further elucidate the dysbiosis event during periodontitis development giving additional explanation for periodontal bacteria, such as P

  15. Intraspecies Variability Affects Heterotypic Biofilms of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia: Evidences of Strain-Dependence Biofilm Modulation by Physical Contact and by Released Soluble Factors.

    Barbosa, Graziela Murta; Colombo, Andrea Vieira; Rodrigues, Paulo Henrique; Simionato, Maria Regina Lorenzetti

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that strain and virulence diversity exist within the population structure of Porphyromonas gingivalis. In the present study we investigate intra- and inter-species variability in biofilm formation of Porphyromonas gingivalis and partners Prevotella intermedia and Prevotella nigrescens. All strains tested showed similar hydrophobicity, except for P. gingivalis W83 which has roughly half of the hydrophobicity of P. gingivalis ATCC33277. An intraspecies variability in coaggregation of P. gingivalis with P. intermedia was also found. The association P. gingivalis W83/P. intermedia 17 produced the thickest biofilm and strain 17 was prevalent. In a two-compartment system P. gingivalis W83 stimulates an increase in biomass of strain 17 and the latter did not stimulate the growth of P. gingivalis W83. In addition, P. gingivalis W83 also stimulates the growth of P. intermedia ATCC25611 although strain W83 was prevalent in the association with P. intermedia ATCC25611. P. gingivalis ATCC33277 was prevalent in both associations with P. intermedia and both strains of P. intermedia stimulate the growth of P. gingivalis ATCC33277. FISH images also showed variability in biofilm structure. Thus, the outcome of the association P. gingivalis/P. intermedia seems to be strain-dependent, and both soluble factors and physical contact are relevant. The association P. gingivalis-P. nigrescens ATCC33563 produced larger biomass than each monotypic biofilm, and P. gingivalis was favored in consortia, while no differences were found in the two-compartment system. Therefore, in consortia P. gingivalis-P. nigrescens physical contact seems to favor P. gingivalis growth. The intraspecies variability found in our study suggests strain-dependence in ability of microorganisms to recognize molecules in other bacteria which may further elucidate the dysbiosis event during periodontitis development giving additional explanation for periodontal bacteria, such as P. gingivalis and P

  16. Factors Affecting the Financing of Profitability Using Non Performing Financing as Moderating Variable in Sharia Business Unit of Bank Sumut (Bank of North Sumatera in North Sumatera

    Rahmad Hidayat

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Shariah financing has also various kinds of agreement. Its fund has be distributed to low risky sector in order to produce the optimal income in the preparation of Bank Sumut UUS for spin off in 2018. The objective of the research was to analyze the influence of Third Party Fund and CAR on Financing and the influence of Third Party Fund, CAR and ROA as well as to test the significance of Non Performing Financing as the moderating varable on ROA. The sample of the research included 5 (five Branch Offices on Bank Sumut UUS by taking the annual final statements from 2010 until 2015. The instruments used were regression method of panel data, regression method of moderating and path analysis using EViews software. The Third Party Fund did not have any significant influence on ROA with financing as the intervening variable, and neither did CAR on ROA with financing as the moderating variable, had insignificant influence on ROA statistically. Moreover, the Third Party Fund, CAR and Financing had insignificant influence statistically at significant level 5% on ROA with Non Performing Financing as the moderating variable. The implication of this research was that Bank Sumut UUS had to pay attention to the financing risk to make optimal profit s well as micro an macro economic factors for financing provided for productivity an consumer.

  17. Subjective Positive and Negative Sleep Variables Differentially Affect Cellular Immune Activity in a Breast Cancer Survivor: A Time-series Analysis Approach

    Magdalena Singer

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study on a breast cancer survivor suffering from cancer-related fatigue (CaRF and depression investigated the bidirectional relationship between cellular immune activity and subjective sleep. The 49-year-old patient (breast cancer diagnosis 5 years before the study, currently in remission collected her full urine output for 28 days in 12-h intervals (8:00 p.m. to 8:00 a.m. and 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m.. These urine samples were used to determine urinary neopterin (cellular immune activation marker and creatinine concentrations via high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC. Each morning, the patient answered questions on five sleep variables: sleep quality (SQ, sleep recreational value (SRV, total sleep time (TST, total wake time (TWT, and awakenings during sleep period (ADS. For the purpose of this study, the time series of the nighttime urinary neopterin levels and the five sleep variables were determined. Using centered moving average (CMA smoothing and cross-correlational analysis, this study showed that increases in the positive sleep variables SQ and SRV were followed by urinary neopterin concentration decreases after 96–120 h (SQ, lag 4: r = −0.411; p = 0.044; SRV: lag 4: r = −0.472; p = 0.021 and 120–144 h (SRV, lag 5: r = −0.464; p = 0.026. Increases in the negative sleep variable TWT, by contrast, were followed by increases in urinary neopterin concentrations 72–96 h later (lag 3: r = 0.522; p = 0.009. No systematic effects in the other direction, i.e., from urinary neopterin levels to sleep, were observed in this study. Although preliminary, the findings of this study highlight the benefit of carefully investigating temporal delays and directions of effects when studying the dynamic relationship between sleep and immune variables in the natural context of everyday life.

  18. Major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder show different autonomic dysregulations revealed by heart-rate variability analysis in first-onset drug-naïve patients without comorbidity.

    Shinba, Toshikazu

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether depression and anxiety disorder manifest different autonomic dysregulations using heart-rate variability (HRV) and heart rate (HR) measurements. HRV and HR were recorded both at rest and during task execution (random-number generation) in first-onset drug-naïve patients with major depressive disorder (MDD, n = 14) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD, n = 11) as well as in healthy controls (n = 41). The patients showed no comorbidity of depression and anxiety disorder. GAD patients did not exhibit panic or phobic symptoms at the time of measurement. Following power spectrum analysis of HR trend, the high- (HF) and low-frequency (LF) components, the sum (LF + HF), and the LF/HF ratio were compared among the groups. In the MDD patients, as previously reported, HF was low and the LF/HF ratio was high during the initial-rest condition, and HF was less reactive to the task. In contrast, GAD patients showed significantly high HF, although autonomic reactivity was not impaired. The results indicate that baseline autonomic activity and its reactivity to behavioral changes are different between MDD and GAD in the early stage of illness. High parasympathetic tone in GAD may reflect responses of the parasympathetic system to anxiety. MDD is accompanied by an autonomic shift toward sympathetic activation and a reduced reactivity to task. © 2016 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2016 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  19. Homogeneous grouping of residential users of electric power in accordance with the variables that affect the consumption; Agrupamientos homogeneos de usuarios residenciales de energia electrica en funcion de las variables que impactan el consumo

    Campero Littlewood, E.; Romero Cortes, J. [Departamento de Energia, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana - Unidad Azcapotzalco, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents the results of the correlation analysis of the monthly consumption of electric power and the capacities in watts of the electric household appliances and domestic lighting performed in a sample of users of the residential tariff. To carry out this task, the information obtained in the answers to the inquiry applied to a group of dwellings, was used (the results of the inquiry are presented in another paper of this Seminar). The correlation variables were obtained from the nominal capacities or through the actual measurements of the energy consumption of the electric household appliances similar to the ones found in the visited homes. At the end of this paper the result of the application of the cluster analysis technic to obtain homogeneous groups of users, is presented, so as to be in position of estimating the shape of the hourly demand curve by means of the recording of the demand (watts) of a small sample of users. [Espanol] En este articulo se presenta el resultado de correlacion del consumo mensual de energia electrica y las capacidades en watts de los electrodomesticos e iluminacion realizado a una muestra de usuarios de tarifa residencial. Para este trabajo se utilizo la informacion obtenida en las respuestas de una encuesta aplicada en un conjunto habitacional (los resultados de la encuesta se presentan en otro articulo en este Seminario). Las variables de la correlacion se obtuvieron a partir de las especificaciones de capacidades o a traves de mediciones en electrodomesticos similares a los encontrados en los hogares. Al final se presenta el resultado de la aplicacion de la tecnica de formacion de agrupamientos `Cluster Analysis` para obtener grupos homogeneos de usuarios, de forma que se pueda estimar el perfil de demanda electrica mediante el registro de la demanda (watts) de una pequena muestra de usuarios.

  20. Homogeneous grouping of residential users of electric power in accordance with the variables that affect the consumption; Agrupamientos homogeneos de usuarios residenciales de energia electrica en funcion de las variables que impactan el consumo

    Campero Littlewood, E; Romero Cortes, J [Departamento de Energia, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana - Unidad Azcapotzalco, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents the results of the correlation analysis of the monthly consumption of electric power and the capacities in watts of the electric household appliances and domestic lighting performed in a sample of users of the residential tariff. To carry out this task, the information obtained in the answers to the inquiry applied to a group of dwellings, was used (the results of the inquiry are presented in another paper of this Seminar). The correlation variables were obtained from the nominal capacities or through the actual measurements of the energy consumption of the electric household appliances similar to the ones found in the visited homes. At the end of this paper the result of the application of the cluster analysis technic to obtain homogeneous groups of users, is presented, so as to be in position of estimating the shape of the hourly demand curve by means of the recording of the demand (watts) of a small sample of users. [Espanol] En este articulo se presenta el resultado de correlacion del consumo mensual de energia electrica y las capacidades en watts de los electrodomesticos e iluminacion realizado a una muestra de usuarios de tarifa residencial. Para este trabajo se utilizo la informacion obtenida en las respuestas de una encuesta aplicada en un conjunto habitacional (los resultados de la encuesta se presentan en otro articulo en este Seminario). Las variables de la correlacion se obtuvieron a partir de las especificaciones de capacidades o a traves de mediciones en electrodomesticos similares a los encontrados en los hogares. Al final se presenta el resultado de la aplicacion de la tecnica de formacion de agrupamientos `Cluster Analysis` para obtener grupos homogeneos de usuarios, de forma que se pueda estimar el perfil de demanda electrica mediante el registro de la demanda (watts) de una pequena muestra de usuarios.

  1. Affect and person specificity in mood regulation

    Corby, Emma Kate

    2007-01-01

    489 university students in three countries completed questionnaires in a study investigating affect and person specificity in the use of mood regulation strategies. The major aims of the study were to (1) describe the relationship between specific affective states and the strategies utilised, (2) explore the role that individual differences variables played in the tendency to use particular strategies, and (3) measure the impact that the use of different strategies had upon subjective well-b...

  2. Phenotypic Variability in a Family with Acrodysostosis Type 2 Caused by a Novel PDE4D Mutation Affecting the Serine Target of Protein Kinase-A Phosphorylation

    Hoppmann, Julia; Gesing, Julia; Silve, Caroline; Leroy, Chrystel; Bertsche, Astrid; Hirsch, Franz Wolfgang; Kiess, Wieland; Pfäffle, Roland; Schuster, Volker

    2017-01-01

    Acrodysostosis is a very rare congenital multisystem condition characterized by skeletal dysplasia with severe brachydactyly, midfacial hypoplasia, and short stature, varying degrees of intellectual disability, and possible resistance to multiple G protein-coupled receptor signalling hormones. Two distinct subtypes are differentiated: acrodysostosis type 1 resulting from defects in protein kinase type 1-α regulatory subunit and acrodysostosis type 2 caused by mutations in phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4D). Most cases are sporadic. We report on a rare multigenerational familial case of acrodysostosis type 2 due to a novel autosomal dominantly inherited PDE4D mutation. A 3.5-year-old boy presented with short stature, midfacial hypoplasia, severe brachydactyly, developmental delay, and behavioural problems. Laboratory investigations revealed mild thyrotropin resistance. His mother shared some characteristic features, such as midfacial hypoplasia and severe brachydactyly, but did not show short stature, intellectual disability or hormonal resistance. Genetic analysis identified the identical, novel heterozygous missense mutation of the PDE4D gene c.569C>T (p.Ser190Phe) in both patients. This case illustrates the significant phenotypic variability of acrodysostosis even within one family with identical mutations. Hence, a specific clinical diagnosis of acrodysostosis remains challenging because of great interindividual variability and a substantial overlap of the two subtypes as well as with other related Gsα-cAMP-signalling-linked disorders. PMID:28515031

  3. Exposure to chronic variable social stress during adolescence alters affect-related behaviors and adrenocortical activity in adult male and female inbred mice.

    Caruso, Michael J; Kamens, Helen M; Cavigelli, Sonia A

    2017-09-01

    Rodent models provide valuable insight into mechanisms that underlie vulnerability to adverse effects of early-life challenges. Few studies have evaluated sex differences in anxiogenic or depressogenic effects of adolescent social stress in a rodent model. Furthermore, adolescent stress studies often use genetically heterogeneous outbred rodents which can lead to variable results. The current study evaluated the effects of adolescent social stress in male and female inbred (BALB/cJ) mice. Adolescent mice were exposed to repeat cycles of alternating social isolation and social novelty for 4 weeks. Adolescent social stress increased anxiety-related behaviors in both sexes and depression-related behavior in females. Locomotion/exploratory behavior was also decreased in both sexes by stress. Previously stressed adult mice produced less basal fecal corticosteroids than controls. Overall, the novel protocol induced sex-specific changes in anxiety- and depression-related behaviors and corticoid production in inbred mice. The chronic variable social stress protocol used here may be beneficial to systematically investigate sex-specific neurobiological mechanisms underlying adolescent stress vulnerability where genetic background can be controlled. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Rye-Based Evening Meals Favorably Affected Glucose Regulation and Appetite Variables at the Following Breakfast; A Randomized Controlled Study in Healthy Subjects.

    Sandberg, Jonna C; Björck, Inger M E; Nilsson, Anne C

    2016-01-01

    Whole grain has shown potential to prevent obesity, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Possible mechanism could be related to colonic fermentation of specific indigestible carbohydrates, i.e. dietary fiber (DF). The aim of this study was to investigate effects on cardiometabolic risk factors and appetite regulation the next day when ingesting rye kernel bread rich in DF as an evening meal. Whole grain rye kernel test bread (RKB) or a white wheat flour based bread (reference product, WWB) was provided as late evening meals to healthy young adults in a randomized cross-over design. The test products RKB and WWB were provided in two priming settings: as a single evening meal or as three consecutive evening meals prior to the experimental days. Test variables were measured in the morning, 10.5-13.5 hours after ingestion of RKB or WWB. The postprandial phase was analyzed for measures of glucose metabolism, inflammatory markers, appetite regulating hormones and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) in blood, hydrogen excretion in breath and subjective appetite ratings. With the exception of serum CRP, no significant differences in test variables were observed depending on length of priming (P>0.05). The RKB evening meal increased plasma concentrations of PYY (0-120 min, Pappetite ratings during the whole experimental period (Pappetite sensation could be beneficial in preventing obesity. These effects could possibly be mediated through colonic fermentation. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02093481.

  5. Genetic polymorphisms of antioxidant enzymes CAT and SOD affect the outcome of clinical, biochemical, and anthropometric variables in people with obesity under a dietary intervention.

    Hernández-Guerrero, César; Parra-Carriedo, Alicia; Ruiz-de-Santiago, Diana; Galicia-Castillo, Oscar; Buenrostro-Jáuregui, Mario; Díaz-Gutiérrez, Carmen

    2018-01-01

    Genetic polymorphisms of antioxidant enzymes CAT, GPX, and SOD are involved in the etiology of obesity and its principal comorbidities. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of aforementioned SNPs over the output of several variables in people with obesity after a nutritional intervention. The study included 92 Mexican women, which received a dietary intervention by 3 months. Participants were genotyped and stratified into two groups: (1) carriers; mutated homozygous plus heterozygous (CR) and (2) homozygous wild type (WT). A comparison between CR and WT was done in clinical (CV), biochemical (BV), and anthropometric variables (AV), at the beginning and at the end of the intervention. Participants ( n  = 92) showed statistically significant differences ( p  T GPX1 (rs1050450), - 251A>G SOD1 (rs2070424), and - 262C>T CAT (rs1001179). (B) Only CR showed statistically changes ( p  T CAT (rs7943316) and 47C>T SOD2 (rs4880). The dietary intervention effect was statistically significantly between the polymorphisms of 47C>T SOD2 and BMI, SBP, TBARS, total cholesterol, and C-LCL ( p  T CAT (rs7943316) and SBP, DBP, total cholesterol, and atherogenic index ( p  CAT enzymes.

  6. Does long term sport rock climbing training affect on echocardiography and heart rate variability in sedentary adults? A randomized, and controlled study.

    Aras Dicle

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Regular physical activity can cause some long term effects on human body. The purpose of this research was to examine the effect of sport rock climbing (SRC training at 70 % HRmax level on echocardiography (ECHO and heart rate variability (HRV for one hour a day and three days a week in an eight-week period. A total of 19 adults participated in this study voluntarily. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups as experimental (EG and control (CG. While the EG went and did climbing training by using the top-rope method for 60 minutes a day, three days a week for 8 weeks and didn’t join any other physical activity programs, CG didn’t train and take part in any physical activity during the course of the study. Same measurements were repeated at the end of eight weeks. According to the findings, no significant change was observed in any of the ECHO and HRV parameters. However, an improvement was seen in some HRV parameters [average heart rate (HRave, standard deviation of all NN intervals (SDNN, standard deviation of the averages of NN intervals in all five-minute segments of the entire recording (SDANN, percent of difference between adjacent NN intervals that are greater than 50 ms (PNN50, square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of differences between adjacent NN interval (RMSSD] in EG. An exercise program based on SRC should be made more than eight weeks in order to have statistically significant changes with the purpose of observing an improvement in heart structure and functions. Keywords: Echocardiography, heart rate variability, sport rock climbing

  7. Meteorological and environmental variables affect flight behaviour and decision-making of an obligate soaring bird, the California Condor Gymnogyps californianus

    Poessel, Sharon; Brandt, Joseph; Miller, Tricia A.; Katzner, Todd

    2018-01-01

    The movements of animals are limited by evolutionary constraints and ecological processes and are strongly influenced by the medium through which they travel. For flying animals, variation in atmospheric conditions is critically influential in movement. Obligate soaring birds depend on external sources of updraft more than do other flying species, as without that updraft they are unable to sustain flight for extended periods. These species are therefore good models for understanding how the environment can influence decisions about movement. We used meteorological and topographic variables to understand the environmental influences on the decision to engage in flight by obligate soaring and critically endangered California Condors Gymnogyps californianus. Condors were more likely to fly, soared at higher altitudes and flew over smoother terrain when weather conditions promoted either thermal or orographic updrafts, for example when turbulence and solar radiation were higher and when winds from the east and north were stronger. However, increased atmospheric stability, which is inconsistent with thermal development but may be associated with orographic updrafts, was correlated with a somewhat higher probability of being in flight at lower altitudes and over rougher terrain. The close and previously undescribed linkages between Condor flight and conditions that support development of thermal and orographic updrafts provide important insight into the behaviour of obligate soaring birds and into the environmental parameters that may define the currently expanding distribution of Condors within and outside the state of California.

  8. A break-even analysis of major ear surgery.

    Wasson, J D; Phillips, J S

    2015-10-01

    To determine variables which affect cost and profit for major ear surgery and perform a break-even analysis. Retrospective financial analysis. UK teaching hospital. Patients who underwent major ear surgery under general anaesthesia performed by the senior author in main theatre over a 2-year period between dates of 07 September 2010 and 07 September 2012. Income, cost and profit for each major ear patient spell. Variables that affect major ear surgery profitability. Seventy-six patients met inclusion criteria. Wide variation in earnings, with a median net loss of £-1345.50 was observed. Income was relatively uniform across all patient spells; however, theatre time of major ear surgery at a cost of £953.24 per hour varied between patients and was the main determinant of cost and profit for the patient spell. Bivariate linear regression of earnings on theatre time identified 94% of variation in earnings was due to variation in theatre time (r = -0.969; P break-even time for major ear surgery of 110.6 min. Theatre time was dependent on complexity of procedure and number of OPCS4 procedures performed, with a significant increase in theatre time when three or more procedures were performed during major ear surgery (P = 0.015). For major ear surgery to either break-even or return a profit, total theatre time should not exceed 110 min and 36 s. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Factors affecting the variability in the observed levels of cadmium in blood and urine among former and current smokers aged 20-64 and ≥ 65years.

    Jain, Ram B

    2017-03-01

    Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 1999-2012 were used to evaluate factors that affect observed levels of blood cadmium (BCd) and urine cadmium (UCd) among former and current smokers aged 20-64 and ≥65 years. Adjusted levels (AGM) for BCd and UCd were higher among females as compared to males. The order of AGM for BCd by race/ethnicity for 20-64 years old was non-Hispanic white (NHW) non-Hispanic black (NHB) and NHW > NHB for ≥65 years old. The order of AGMs for UCd for 20-64-year-old current smokers was NHW > NHB and NHW > NHB for former smokers. For 20-64-year-old current smokers, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke at home was associated with higher levels of BCd. Levels of both UCd and BCd increased with age, but the rate of increase was as much as seven times higher among ≥65 years old than 20-64 years old. For current smokers, the number of cigarettes smoked inside home was positively associated with the levels of BCd. For current smokers aged 20-64 years, the number of cigarettes smoked inside home was positively associated with the levels of UCd (p smoked every day on the days they were smoked was also positively associated with the levels of UCd (p smokers, levels of both UCd and BCd were positively associated (p smoked per day at the time of quitting smoking and negatively associated with the time since smoking was quitted (p < 0.01).

  10. Uptake, transport, and storage of calcium and magnesium in spruce (Picea abies [L]Karst.) and pine (Pinus silvestris L.) as affected by variable nutrition and pollutant stress

    Tuerk, S.; Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH; Guelpen, M.; Fink, S.

    1993-01-01

    Statements about the dynamic processes of uptake, transport, and deposition of Ca and Mg in norway spruce and Scots pine are made in this paper. Concerning the storage of these elements it is shown that there are great differences in their functional importance in cell metabolism. There is evidence that the role of Mg in enzyme and protein metabolism is of far greater significance for the understanding of Mg-deficiency symptoms than its function as the central atom of the chlorophyll complexes. In regard to the transport and especially to the incorporation of Ca into the needles differences between species were evident, expressing the special status of pine among the gymnosperms. With increasing needle age an accumulation of Ca-oxalate crystals, which are physiologically inert, could be proved for the studied conifers. This was interpreted as a 'detoxication' from surplus Ca to hold constant the level of the physiologically active fraction. Accordingly, the low Ca-contents of yellowed needles are not expressing a deficiency level. It is therefore questionable, that the increase of total Ca-contents caused by liming is reflecting a physiologically improved nutritional status of conifers. The study of spruce needles exposed to ozone showed that instead of the until now considered increased Ca-efflux from the cells caused by higher membran permeability an increased Ca-influx should be assumed. The experimental exposition of spruces to simulated acid rain reveals increased leaching of Ca from the epidermal cell walls instead of the precipitation as Ca-oxalate crystals, having no major negative impact on foliage physiology. (orig./UWA) [de

  11. Preferrential rearrangement in normal rabbits of the 3' VHa allotype gene that is deleted in Alicia mutants; somatic hypermutation/conversion may play a major role in generating the heterogeneity of rabbit heavy chain variable region sequences.

    Allegrucci, M; Young-Cooper, G O; Alexander, C B; Newman, B A; Mage, R G

    1991-02-01

    The rabbit is unique in having well-defined allotypes in the variable region of the heavy chain. Products of the VHa locus, (with alleles a1, a2, and a3), account for the majority of the serum immunoglobulins. A small percentage of the serum immunoglobulins are a-negative. In 1986, Kelus and Weiss described a mutation that depressed the expression of the Ig VH a2 genes in an a1/a2 rabbit. From this animal the Alicia rabbit strain was developed and the mutation was termed ali. We previously showed, using Southern analysis and the transverse alternating field electrophoresis technique, that the difference between the ali rabbit and normal is a relatively small deletion including some of the most 3' VH genes. The most JH proximal 3' VH1 genes in DNA from normal rabbits of a1, a2 and a3 haplotypes encode a1, a2 and a3 molecules respectively, and it has been suggested that these genes are responsible for allelic inheritance of VHa allotypes. The present study suggests that the 3' end of the VH locus probably plays a key role in regulation of VH gene expression in rabbits because VH gene(s) in this region are the target(s) of preferential VDJ rearrangements. This raises the possibility that mechanisms such as somatic gene conversion and hypermutation are at work to generate the antibody repertoire in this species. Our data support the view that the 3' VH1 gene may be the preferred target for rearrangement in normal rabbits, and for the normal chromosome in heterozygous ali animals. However, homozygous ali rabbits with a deletion that removed the a2-encoding VH1 on both chromosomes do survive, rearrange other VH genes and produce normal levels of immunoglobulins as well as a significant percentage of B cells which bear the a2 allotype. This challenges the view that one VH gene, VH1, is solely responsible for the inheritance pattern of VHa allotypes.

  12. Affects and Affect Consciousness

    MONSEN, JON T.; EILERTSEN, DAG ERIK; MELGÅRD, TROND; ØDEGÅRD, PÅL

    1996-01-01

    Affect consciousness (AC) was operationalized as degrees of awareness, tolerance, nonverbal expression, and conceptual expression of nine specific affects. A semistructured interview (ACI) and separate scales were developed to assess these aspects of affect integration. Their psychometric properties were preliminarily explored by having 20 former psychiatric outpatients complete the interview. Concurrent validity was assessed by using DSM-III-R Axis I and II diagnoses, the Health-Sickness Rating Scale, SCL-90-R, and several indexes from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. Satisfactory interrater reliability and high levels of internal consistency supported the construct validity of the measure. Results suggest the most meaningful use of this instrument is in measuring specific affect and overall AC. Clinically, the ACI has provided highly specific and relevant qualitative data for use in planning psychotherapeutic interventions. PMID:22700292

  13. Variables affecting simulated Be sputtering yields

    Björkas, C., E-mail: carolina.bjorkas@helsinki.fi; Nordlund, K.

    2013-08-15

    Since beryllium is a strong candidate for the main plasma-facing material in future fusion reactors, its sputtering behaviour plays an important role in predicting the reactor’s life-time. Consensus about the actual sputtering yields has not yet been achieved, as observations are influenced by experimental method and/or studied sample. In this work, the beryllium sputtering due to deuterium and beryllium self-bombardment is analyzed using molecular dynamics simulations. The main methodological aspects that influence the outcome, such as flux and fluence of the bombardment, are highlighted, and it is shown that the simulated yields also depend on the sample structure and deuterium content.

  14. Factors Affecting Willingness to Communicate in a Spanish University Context

    Lahuerta, Ana Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The present study examines the relationships among the variables believed to affect Spanish undergraduates' willingness to communicate in English. The participants were 195 students majoring in several degrees at the University of Oviedo. A questionnaire and a standardized English Test were administered to the students in February-March 2013.…

  15. Field Dependence/Independence in College Nonmusic Majors and Their Ability to Discern Form in Music.

    Ellis, Mark C.; McCoy, Clair W.

    1990-01-01

    Measures the effects of cognitive-style field dependence/field independence on students' ability to discern form in music. Applies tests to 119 nonmusic majors enrolled in an introductory music course. Finds field-independent subjects scored significantly higher than field-dependent subjects. Identifies variables affecting learning for both…

  16. Decreased carbon limitation of litter respiration in a mortality-affected pinon-juniper woodland

    Erin Berryman; John D. Marshall; Thom Rahn; Marcie Litvak; John Butnor

    2013-01-01

    Microbial respiration depends on microclimatic variables and carbon (C) substrate availability, all of which are altered when ecosystems experience major disturbance. Widespread tree mortality, currently affecting pinon-juniper ecosystems in southwestern North America, may affect C substrate availability in several ways, for example, via litterfall pulses and loss of...

  17. 钙钛矿太阳电池的工作机理及性能的主要影响因素%Perovskite Solar Cells:Work Mechanism and Major Factors Affecting Their Performances

    钱柳; 丁黎明

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites were first introduced to photovoltaic community in 2009 . In subsequent years, the power conversion efficiency has increased from 3. 8% to ~20%, leaving dye-sensitized solar cells and bulk-heterojunction solar cells far behind. “Perovskite” is a crystal possessing the same crystal structure as calcium titanate, namely, ABX3 . Perovskites have unique properties, like broad absorption spec-tra, high absorption coefficient, ambipolar charge transport, long exciton lifetime and very low binding energy of exciton. Currently, the architecture of perovskite solar cells has been simplified from meso-structured solar cells to planar-heterojunction solar cells, getting closer to the low-cost, high-efficiency target for practical application. Many innovative researches are pushing the application of this new photovoltaic material to the cli-max . This review summarizes the working mechanism of perovskite solar cells and expounds several key factors affecting device performance, i. e. components, crystallization and morphology, transport layers, electrode materials and planted bulk-heterojunction. However, we should note that perovskites have some drawbacks im-peding its commercialization. Perovskites are sensitive to oxygen and water vapor, making the solar cells un-stable in the ambient;it is challenging to prepare large films because the morphology of perovskite film is diffi-cult to control;the use of the toxic metal, lead, will also undermine the credit earned by their outstanding photovoltaic performance. It is very important for us to understand those mechanism and factors affecting de-vice performance, and to find approaches to deal with instability, toxicity, and bad morphology.%本文综合评述了钙钛矿太阳电池的重要研究成果,解释了其工作机理并总结了影响电池性能的关键因素:钙钛矿化学组成、结晶与形貌、传输层、电极和体异质结等。对钙钛矿太阳电池的未来发展进行了展望。

  18. Why have the majority of recent polio cases occurred in countries affected by Islamist militancy? A historical comparative analysis of the political determinants of polio in Nigeria, Somalia, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Syria.

    Kennedy, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to understand why the last few areas where polio remains are affected by armed conflicts involving militant organizations that use Islam to legitimize their activities. The first section critically analyses the argument that Muslims' animosity towards polio vaccination programmes is a consequence of their irrational, backward, anti-Western theology. This argument is depoliticizing, ahistorical and orientalist. Moreover, it does not explain why Islamist militant groups' attitudes to polio vaccination campaigns vary between countries. The second section analyses official documents, newspaper articles, interviews and historical and ethnographic accounts to understand the relationship between Islamist militant groups and polio in five countries - Nigeria, Somalia, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Syria - that account for 95% of the world's polio cases since 2012. I demonstrate that specific political grievances related to the postcolonial state and/or foreign military intervention help to explain variations in militant groups' attitudes to polio vaccination programmes. The paper concludes by considering the policy implications of the analysis. Improved access for polio vaccinators is not predicated on military victory against the militants but securing support of de facto political leaders. This can be achieved by developing a better understanding of the specific sociopolitical contexts in which immunization programmes operate.

  19. Candidacy of a chitin-inducible gibberellin-responsive gene for a major locus affecting plant height in rice that is closely linked to Green Revolution gene sd1.

    Kovi, Mallikarjuna Rao; Zhang, Yushan; Yu, Sibin; Yang, Gaiyu; Yan, Wenhao; Xing, Yongzhong

    2011-09-01

    Appropriate plant height is crucial for lodging resistance to improve the rice crop yield. The application of semi-dwarf 1 led to the green revolution in the 1960s, by predominantly increasing the rice yield. However, the frequent use of single sd1 gene sources may cause genetic vulnerability to pests and diseases. Identifying useful novel semi-dwarf genes is important for the genetic manipulation of plant architecture in practical rice breeding. In this study, introgression lines derived from two parents contrasting in plant height, Zhenshan 97 and Pokkali were employed to locate a gene with a large effect on plant height by the bulk segregant analysis method. A major gene, ph1, was mapped to a region closely linked to sd1 on chromosome 1; the additive effects of ph1 were more than 50 cm on the plant height and 2 days on the heading date in a BC(4)F(2) population and its progeny. ph1 was then fine mapped to BAC AP003227. Gene annotation indicated that LOC_OS01g65990 encoding a chitin-inducible gibberellin-responsive protein (CIGR), which belongs to the GRAS family, might be the right candidate gene of ph1. Co-segregation analysis of the candidate gene-derived marker finally confirmed its identity as the candidate gene. A higher expression level of the CIGR was detected in all the tested tissues in tall plants compared to those of short plants, especially in the young leaf sheath containing elongating tissues, which indicated its importance role in regulating plant height. ph1 showed a tremendous genetic effect on plant height, which is distinct from sd1 and could be a new resource for breeding semi-dwarf varieties.

  20. Cognitive Variability

    Siegler, Robert S.

    2007-01-01

    Children's thinking is highly variable at every level of analysis, from neural and associative levels to the level of strategies, theories, and other aspects of high-level cognition. This variability exists within people as well as between them; individual children often rely on different strategies or representations on closely related problems…

  1. Prevalence and Patterns of Gender Violence: Major Variables in the ...

    Polygyny (78%) and cultural belief, traditional values and superstitions (75%) were responsible for the exposure of women to HIV/AIDS in Nigeria. The first hypothesis which states that there will be a significant difference in the perception of gender violence based on type of occupation was accepted and the second which ...

  2. Personality, academic majors and performance

    Vedel, Anna; Thomsen, Dorthe Kirkegaard; Larsen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Personality–performance research typically uses samples of psychology students without questioning their representativeness. The present article reports two studies challenging this practice. Study 1: group differences in the Big Five personality traits were explored between students (N = 1067......) in different academic majors (medicine, psychology, law, economics, political science, science, and arts/humanities), who were tested immediately after university enrolment. Study 2: six and a half years later the students’ academic records were obtained, and predictive validity of the Big Five personality...... traits and their subordinate facets was examined in the various academic majors in relation to Grade Point Average (GPA). Significant group differences in all Big Five personality traits were found between students in different academic majors. Also, variability in predictive validity of the Big Five...

  3. Major viral diseases affecting fish aquaculture in Spain.

    Pérez, S I; Rodríguez, S

    1997-06-01

    The number of viruses isolated from fish has grown in the last few years as a reflection of the increasing interest in fish diseases, particularly those occurring in aquaculture facilities. Of all the described viruses, only a few are considered to be of serious concern and economic importance; they are described in this review, drawing special attention to the four families of viruses (Birnaviridae, Rhabdoviridae, Iridoviridae and Reoviridae) that have been reported in Spanish aquaculture. Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus, a member of the first family, is the most spread virus with a prevalence of 39%. Viral diseases are untreatable and because effective and safe vaccines for fish are not yet commercially available, a great care needs to be exercised when moving fish or eggs from one site or country to another. Some fish health control regulations have been legislated in Europe and USA.

  4. Root biomass as a major means of affecting methane emissions

    Human activities are contributing to greenhouse gas emissions. Methane, the second most abundant greenhouse gas, is ~25 times more potent in global warming potential than carbon dioxide, and 7-17% of atmospheric methane comes from paddy rice fields. The purpose of the study was to investigate gene...

  5. Major Sport Venues

    Department of Homeland Security — The Major Public Venues dataset is composed of facilities that host events for the National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing, Indy Racing League, Major League...

  6. Major Depression Among Adults

    ... Depressive Episode Among Adolescents Data Sources Share Major Depression Definitions Major depression is one of the most ... Bethesda, MD 20892-9663 Follow Us Facebook Twitter YouTube Google Plus NIMH Newsletter NIMH RSS Feed NIMH ...

  7. Complex variables

    Fisher, Stephen D

    1999-01-01

    The most important topics in the theory and application of complex variables receive a thorough, coherent treatment in this introductory text. Intended for undergraduates or graduate students in science, mathematics, and engineering, this volume features hundreds of solved examples, exercises, and applications designed to foster a complete understanding of complex variables as well as an appreciation of their mathematical beauty and elegance. Prerequisites are minimal; a three-semester course in calculus will suffice to prepare students for discussions of these topics: the complex plane, basic

  8. Researchers Realize Major Breakthrough in Understanding Endometriosis

    ... 16, 2014 Researchers Realize Major Breakthrough in Understanding Endometriosis For a disease that affects an estimated 6 ... 10% of women, surprisingly little is known about endometriosis — a disorder that causes uterine tissue to grow ...

  9. Prospects after Major Trauma

    Holtslag, H.R.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction. After patients survived major trauma, their prospects, in terms of the consequences for functioning, are uncertain, which may impact severely on patient, family and society. The studies in this thesis describes the long-term outcomes of severe injured patients after major trauma. In

  10. Complex variables

    Flanigan, Francis J

    2010-01-01

    A caution to mathematics professors: Complex Variables does not follow conventional outlines of course material. One reviewer noting its originality wrote: ""A standard text is often preferred [to a superior text like this] because the professor knows the order of topics and the problems, and doesn't really have to pay attention to the text. He can go to class without preparation."" Not so here-Dr. Flanigan treats this most important field of contemporary mathematics in a most unusual way. While all the material for an advanced undergraduate or first-year graduate course is covered, discussion

  11. It's the situation that matters : Affective involvement in context-oriented learning tasks

    Fechner, Sabine; van Vorst, H.; Kölbach, E.; Sumfleth, E.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the evaluation of affective variables in contextbased learning (cbl) environments. Although the majority of studies in the field have shown positive effects on attitude, the need to investigate specific elements of cbl tasks has become evident. On the basis of prior research

  12. Affective Urbanism

    Samson, Kristine

    Urban design and architecture are increasingly used as material and affective strategies for setting the scene, for manipulation and the production of urban life: The orchestration of atmospheres, the framing and staging of urban actions, the programming for contemplation, involvement, play......, experience and consumption are all strategic design tools applied by planners and architects. Whereas urban design in former modernist planning served merely functional or political means, urban design has increasingly become an aesthetical mediator of ideologies embedded in the urban field of life forces....... Under these circumstances affective aesthetics operate strategically within the urban field of interests, capital flows and desires of the social. This ‘affective urbanism’ (Anderson & Holden 2008) is linked to a society influenced by new kinds of information flows, where culture is mediated and enacted...

  13. Societal risk and major disasters

    Clement, C.F.

    1989-01-01

    A disaster can be defined as an event, or a series of events, in which a large number of people is adversely affected by a single cause. This definition includes man-made accidents, like that at Chernobyl, as well as the natural disasters that insurance companies are sometimes pleased to describe as Acts of God. In 1986 alone, 12,000 people died and 2.2 million were made homeless by 215 major accidents or disasters. The nature of risk is examined in this paper. (author)

  14. Confounding of three binary-variables counterfactual model

    Liu, Jingwei; Hu, Shuang

    2011-01-01

    Confounding of three binary-variables counterfactual model is discussed in this paper. According to the effect between the control variable and the covariate variable, we investigate three counterfactual models: the control variable is independent of the covariate variable, the control variable has the effect on the covariate variable and the covariate variable affects the control variable. Using the ancillary information based on conditional independence hypotheses, the sufficient conditions...

  15. Major operations and activities

    Black, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the major operations and activities on the site. These operations and activities include site management, waste management, environmental restoration and corrective actions, and research and technology development.

  16. A major safety overhaul

    2003-01-01

    A redefined policy, a revamped safety course, an environmental project... the TIS (Technical Inspection and Safety) Division has begun a major safety overhaul. Its new head, Wolfgang Weingarten, explains to the Bulletin why and how this is happening.

  17. Allegheny County Major Rivers

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains locations of major rivers that flow through Allegheny County. These shapes have been taken from the Hydrology dataset. The Ohio River,...

  18. Major operations and activities

    Black, D.G.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the major operations and activities on the site. These operations and activities include site management, waste management, environmental restoration and corrective actions, and research and technology development

  19. Affect Regulation

    Pedersen, Signe Holm; Poulsen, Stig Bernt; Lunn, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Gergely and colleagues’ state that their Social Biofeedback Theory of Parental Affect Mirroring” can be seen as a kind of operationalization of the classical psychoanalytic concepts of holding, containing and mirroring. This article examines to what extent the social biofeedback theory of parenta...

  20. Pituitary gland in Bipolar Disorder and Major Depression: Evidence from structural MRI studies: Special Section on "Translational and Neuroscience Studies in Affective Disorders". Section Editor, Maria Nobile MD, PhD. This Section of JAD focuses on the relevance of translational and neuroscience studies in providing a better understanding of the neural basis of affective disorders. The main aim is to briefly summarise relevant research findings in clinical neuroscience with particular regards to specific innovative topics in mood and anxiety disorders.

    Delvecchio, G; Altamura, A C; Soares, J C; Brambilla, P

    2017-08-15

    The function of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) has been widely investigated in mood disorders based on its role in regulating stress response. Particularly, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) reports have explored pituitary gland (PG) in both bipolar disorder (BD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). In this context, the present review summarizes the results from MRI studies with the final aim of commenting on the presence of common or distinct PG structural alterations between these two disabling illnesses. A bibliographic search on PUBMED of all MRI studies exploring PG volumes in BD and MDD as well as first-degree relatives (RELs) from 2000 up to October 2016 was performed. Following the screening process of the available literature it can be said that a) PG enlargement has been found in both BD and MDD, therefore potentially representing a common neurobiological marker characterizing mood disorders, and b) PG volumes are moderated by age and sex in both illnesses, although the direction and the extent of this moderation are still not fully clear. Few MRI studies with heterogeneous results. These hypotheses must be taken with caution especially because the heterogeneity of the results of the studies reviewed does not allow for a definite answer about the role of PG in affective disorders. Therefore, larger longitudinal studies investigating PG volumes in BD and MDD patients at the early phases of the illness, by considering females and males separately, are needed to further corroborate these findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Recurrence in affective disorder

    Kessing, L V; Olsen, E W; Andersen, P K

    1999-01-01

    The risk of recurrence in affective disorder is influenced by the number of prior episodes and by a person's tendency toward recurrence. Newly developed frailty models were used to estimate the effect of the number of episodes on the rate of recurrence, taking into account individual frailty toward...... recurrence. The study base was the Danish psychiatric case register of all hospital admissions for primary affective disorder in Denmark during 1971-1993. A total of 20,350 first-admission patients were discharged with a diagnosis of major affective disorder. For women with unipolar disorder and for all...... kinds of patients with bipolar disorder, the rate of recurrence was affected by the number of prior episodes even when the effect was adjusted for individual frailty toward recurrence. No effect of episodes but a large effect of the frailty parameter was found for unipolar men. The authors concluded...

  2. Major international sport profiles.

    Patel, Dilip R; Stier, Bernhard; Luckstead, Eugene F

    2002-08-01

    Sports are part of the sociocultural fabric of all countries. Although different sports have their origins in different countries, many sports are now played worldwide. International sporting events bring athletes of many cultures together and provide the opportunity not only for athletic competition but also for sociocultural exchange and understanding among people. This article reviews five major sports with international appeal and participation: cricket, martial arts, field hockey, soccer, and tennis. For each sport, the major aspects of physiological and biomechanical demands, injuries, and prevention strategies are reviewed.

  3. Benchmarking Variable Selection in QSAR.

    Eklund, Martin; Norinder, Ulf; Boyer, Scott; Carlsson, Lars

    2012-02-01

    Variable selection is important in QSAR modeling since it can improve model performance and transparency, as well as reduce the computational cost of model fitting and predictions. Which variable selection methods that perform well in QSAR settings is largely unknown. To address this question we, in a total of 1728 benchmarking experiments, rigorously investigated how eight variable selection methods affect the predictive performance and transparency of random forest models fitted to seven QSAR datasets covering different endpoints, descriptors sets, types of response variables, and number of chemical compounds. The results show that univariate variable selection methods are suboptimal and that the number of variables in the benchmarked datasets can be reduced with about 60 % without significant loss in model performance when using multivariate adaptive regression splines MARS and forward selection. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1989

    1991-01-23

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1989 is the thirteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments, with particular reference to the 23 major energy companies (the FRS companies'') required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major lines of business including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, and other energy operations. Domestic and international operations are examined separately in this report. It also traces key developments affecting the financial performance of major energy companies in 1989, as well as review of important trends.

  5. Performance profiles of major energy producers, 1991

    1992-01-01

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1991 is the fifteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments, with particular reference to the 23 major energy companies (the FRS companies) required to report annually on Form EIA-28. It also traces key developments affecting the financial performance of major energy companies in 1991, as well as reviews important trends. Financial information is reported by major lines of business including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, and other energy operations. Domestic and international operations are examined separately in this report

  6. Variable collimator

    Richey, J.B.; McBride, T.R.; Covic, J.

    1979-01-01

    This invention describes an automatic variable collimator which controls the width and thickness of X-ray beams in X-ray diagnostic medical equipment, and which is particularly adapted for use with computerized axial tomographic scanners. A two-part collimator is provided which shapes an X-ray beam both prior to its entering an object subject to radiographic analysis and after the attenuated beam has passed through the object. Interposed between a source of radiation and the object subject to radiographic analysis is a first or source collimator. The source collimator causes the X-ray beam emitted by the source of radiation to be split into a plurality of generally rectangular shaped beams. Disposed within the source collimator is a movable aperture plate which may be used to selectively vary the thickness of the plurality of generally rectangular shaped beams transmitted through the source collimator. A second or receiver collimator is interposed between the object subject to radiographic analysis and a series of radiation detectors. The receiver collimator is disposed to receive the attenuated X-ray beams passing through the object subject to radiographic analysis. Located within the receiver collimator are a plurality of movable aperture plates adapted to be displaced relative to a plurality of fixed aperture plates for the purpose of varying the width and thickness of the attenuated X-ray beams transmitted through the object subject to radiographic analysis. The movable aperture plates of the source and receiver collimators are automatically controlled by circuitry which is provided to allow remote operation of the movable aperture plates

  7. Major New Initiatives

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Major New Initiatives. Multi-party multi-rate video conferencing OOPS. Live Lecture OOPS. Rural ATM Machine Vortex. Finger print detection HP-IITM. Medical Diagnostic kit NeuroSynaptic. LCD projection system TeNeT. Web Terminal MeTeL Midas. Entertainment ...

  8. Major planning enquiries

    Shore, P

    1978-11-01

    This is a speech delivered by the U.K. Secretary of State for the Environment in Manchester (UK) on September 13th 1978. It outlines the Minister's views on the role and significance of major planning inquiries - such as that proposed to be held on the Commercial Demonstration Fast Reactor. (CDFR) (author).

  9. Major Biomass Conference

    Top Scientists, Industry and Government Leaders to Gather for Major Biomass Conference America, South America and Europe will focus on building a sustainable, profitable biomass business at the Third Biomass Conference of the Americas in Montreal. Scheduled presentations will cover all biomass

  10. Unity in Major Themes

    Booss-Bavnbek, Bernhelm; Davis, Philip J.

    We describe and explain the desire, common among mathematicians, both for unity and independence in its major themes. In the dialogue that follows, we express our spontaneous and considered judgment and reservations; by contrasting the development of mathematics as a goal-driven process as opposed...

  11. Neuroticism in remitted major depression

    Gade, Anders; Kristoffersen, Marius; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2015-01-01

    not been consistent. METHOD: We examined neuroticism, extraversion and perceived stress in 88 fully remitted depressed patients with a mean age of 60 years and with a history of hospitalization for major depressive disorder. Patients were divided into those with onset after and those with onset before 50......BACKGROUND: The personality trait of neuroticism is strongly related to depression, but depression is etiologically heterogeneous. Late-onset depression (LOD) may be more closely related to vascular factors, and previous studies of neuroticism in LOD versus early-onset depression (EOD) have...... age of onset and neuroticism was confirmed in analyses based on age of depression onset as a continuous variable. CONCLUSION: Neuroticism may be an etiological factor in EOD but not or less so in LOD. This finding contributes to the growing evidence for etiological differences between early- and late...

  12. Filling Open Screw Holes in the Area of Metaphyseal Comminution Does Not Affect Fatigue Life of the Synthes Variable Angle Distal Femoral Locking Plate in the AO/OTA 33-A3 Fracture Model.

    Grau, Luis; Collon, Kevin; Alhandi, Ali; Kaimrajh, David; Varon, Maria; Latta, Loren; Vilella, Fernando

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the biomechanical effect of filling locking variable angle (VA) screw holes at the area of metaphyseal fracture comminution in a Sawbones® (Sawbones USA, Vashon, Washington) model (AO/OTA 33A-3 fracture) using a Synthes VA locking compression plate (LCP) (Depuy Synthes, Warsaw, Indiana). Seven Sawbones® femur models had a Synthes VA-LCP placed as indicated by the manufacturers technique. A 4cm osteotomy was then created to simulate an AO/OTA 33-A3 femoral fracture pattern with metaphyseal comminution. The control group consisted of four constructs in which the open screw holes at the area of comminution were left unfilled; the experimental group consisted of three constructs in which the VA screw holes were filled with locking screws. One of the control constructs was statically loaded to failure at a rate of 5mm/min. A value equal to 75% of the ultimate load to failure was used as the loading force for fatigue testing of 250,000 cycles at 3Hz. Cycles to failure was recorded for each construct and averages were compared between groups. The average number of cycles to failure in the control and experimental groups were 37524±8187 and 43304±23835, respectively (p=0.72). No significant difference was observed with respect to cycles to failure or mechanism of failure between groups. In all constructs in both the control and experimental groups, plate failure reproducibly occurred with cracks through the variable angle holes in the area of bridged comminution. The Synthes VA-LCP in a simulated AO/OTA 33-A3 comminuted metaphyseal femoral fracture fails in a reproducible manner at the area of comminution through the "honeycomb" VA screw holes. Filling open VA screw holes at the site of comminution with locking screws does not increase fatigue life of the Synthes VA-LCP in a simulated AO/OTA 33-A3 distal femoral fracture. Further studies are necessary to determine whether use of this particular plate is contraindicated when bridging

  13. Affective Maps

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    . In particular, mapping environmental damage, endangered species, and human made disasters has become one of the focal point of affective knowledge production. These ‘more-than-humangeographies’ practices include notions of species, space and territory, and movement towards a new political ecology. This type...... of digital cartographies has been highlighted as the ‘processual turn’ in critical cartography, whereas in related computational journalism it can be seen as an interactive and iterative process of mapping complex and fragile ecological developments. This paper looks at computer-assisted cartography as part...

  14. Predicting Undergraduate Music Education Majors' Collegiate Achievement

    Rohwer, Debbie

    2012-01-01

    In order for teachers to guide students in their preparation to be music majors, it would be useful to know those musical components that best predict overall collegiate success. The purpose of this study was to measure the relationship of predictor variables (Lessons, Music History, Music Theory, and Piano) to collegiate grade point average (GPA)…

  15. transformation of independent variables in polynomial regression ...

    Ada

    preferable when possible to work with a simple functional form in transformed variables rather than with a more complicated form in the original variables. In this paper, it is shown that linear transformations applied to independent variables in polynomial regression models affect the t ratio and hence the statistical ...

  16. [Affective dependency].

    Scantamburlo, G; Pitchot, W; Ansseau, M

    2013-01-01

    Affective dependency is characterized by emotional distress (insecure attachment) and dependency to another person with a low self-esteem and reassurance need. The paper proposes a reflection on the definition of emotional dependency and the confusion caused by various denominations. Overprotective and authoritarian parenting, cultural and socio-environmental factors may contribute to the development of dependent personality. Psychological epigenetic factors, such as early socio-emotional trauma could on neuronal circuits in prefronto-limbic regions that are essential for emotional behaviour.We also focus on the interrelations between dependent personality, domestic violence and addictions. The objective for the clinician is to propose a restoration of self-esteem and therapeutic strategies focused on autonomy.

  17. 77 FR 69647 - New Jersey; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    2012-11-20

    ... designated as adversely affected by this major disaster: Atlantic, Cape May, Essex, Hudson, Middlesex, Monmouth, Ocean, and Union Counties for Individual Assistance. Atlantic, Cape May, Essex, Hudson, Middlesex...

  18. The Ursa Major supercluster

    Schuch, N.J.

    1983-01-01

    An optical and a radio survey have been carried out. The optical observations consist of a spectroscopic survey in which redshift data for cluster galaxies and optical identifications of radio sources were obtained with the 98-inch Isaac Newton telescope at the Royal Greenwich Observatory, and the 200-inch Hale telescope; the photographic survey in B, V and R colors was made with the 48-inch Schmidt telescope at Palomar. Some results on the galaxy distribution in the Ursa Major supercluster are briefly discussed. (Auth.)

  19. Thalassaemia major and the heart

    J. Malcolm Walker

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Disorders of haemoglobin synthesis are the commonest monogenetic disorders worldwide. When first described, thalassaemia was universally fatal in childhood, but after the adoption of regular blood transfusion survival until early teenage and adulthood was to be expected. At that stage in the life of these affected individuals organ failure followed, due to accumulated iron, for which the human has no excretory capacity. Principal amongst the tissues affected by iron overload is the heart and even to the present day, heart disease accounts for the overwhelming majority of premature deaths in this population. Managing transfusion derived iron overload was the next hurdle for clinicians and the families of the patients. For nearly four decades the only available treatment was the demanding regime of parenteral chelation therapy, required on a daily basis, to achieve growth, development and survival with limited or no organ damage. Despite the adoption of these treatment strategies the outlook for thalassaemia patients remained poor, with a 30% to 40% mortality occurring between late teenage and 30 years of age, even in well organised health care systems, such as in the UK, where regular transfusion and desferioxamine treatment were readily available. This dreadful early mortality, largely as a consequence of myocardial iron overload, (1,2 is now improving so that in the UK and other developed nations, heart failure in thalassaemic patients has become uncommon and premature death a much rarer tragedy. This editorial reviews, from a personal viewpoint of a cardiologist involved in the care of these patients for the last 20 years, the progress in the management of the cardiovascular complications of thalassaemia major (TM, which has followed better techniques of identifying those thalassaemic individuals at greatest risk, improved chelation strategies making best use of the three chelating agents that are now available and improved co

  20. Securing Major Events

    Loeoef, Susanna

    2013-01-01

    When asked why the IAEA should provide nuclear security support to countries that organize large public events, Nuclear Security Officer Sophia Miaw answers quickly and without hesitation. ''Imagine any major public event such as the Olympics, a football championship, or an Expo. If a dirty bomb were to be exploded at a site where tens of thousands of people congregate, the radioactive contamination would worsen the effects of the bomb, increase the number of casualties, impede a rapid emergency response, and cause long term disruption in the vicinity,'' she said. Avoiding such nightmarish scenarios is the driving purpose behind the assistance the IAEA offers States that host major sporting or other public events. The support can range from a single training course to a comprehensive programme that includes threat assessment, training, loaned equipment and exercises. The type and scope of assistance depends on the host country's needs. ''We incorporate nuclear security measures into their security plan. We don't create anything new,'' Miaw said

  1. Continuous Analysis of Affect from Voice and Face

    Gunes, Hatice; Nicolaou, Mihalis A.; Pantic, Maja; Salah, Albert Ali; Gevers, Theo

    2011-01-01

    Human affective behavior is multimodal, continuous and complex. Despite major advances within the affective computing research field, modeling, analyzing, interpreting and responding to human affective behavior still remains a challenge for automated systems as affect and emotions are complex

  2. Early Adolescent Affect Predicts Later Life Outcomes.

    Kansky, Jessica; Allen, Joseph P; Diener, Ed

    2016-07-01

    Subjective well-being as a predictor for later behavior and health has highlighted its relationship to health, work performance, and social relationships. However, the majority of such studies neglect the developmental nature of well-being in contributing to important changes across the transition to adulthood. To examine the potential role of subjective well-being as a long-term predictor of critical life outcomes, we examined indicators of positive and negative affect at age 14 as predictors of relationship, adjustment, self-worth, and career outcomes a decade later at ages 23 to 25, controlling for family income and gender. We utilised multi-informant methods including reports from the target participant, close friends, and romantic partners in a demographically diverse community sample of 184 participants. Early adolescent positive affect predicted fewer relationship problems (less self-reported and partner-reported conflict, and greater friendship attachment as rated by close peers) and healthy adjustment to adulthood (lower levels of depression, anxiety, and loneliness). It also predicted positive work functioning (higher levels of career satisfaction and job competence) and increased self-worth. Negative affect did not significantly predict any of these important life outcomes. In addition to predicting desirable mean levels of later outcomes, early positive affect predicted beneficial changes across time in many outcomes. The findings extend early research on the beneficial outcomes of subjective well-being by having an earlier assessment of well-being, including informant reports in measuring a large variety of outcome variables, and by extending the findings to a lower socioeconomic group of a diverse and younger sample. The results highlight the importance of considering positive affect as an important component of subjective well-being distinct from negative affect. © 2016 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  3. Major Depressive Disorder

    G Grobler

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The treatment guideline draws on several international guidelines: (iPractice Guidelines of the American Psychiatric Association (APAfor the Treatment of Patients with Major Depressive Disorder, SecondEdition;[1](ii Clinical Guidelines for the Treatment of DepressiveDisorders by the Canadian Psychiatric Association and the CanadianNetwork for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT;[2](iiiNational Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE guidelines;[3](iv RoyalAustralian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists Clinical PracticeGuidelines Team for Depression (RANZCAP;[4](v Texas MedicationAlgorithm Project (TMAP Guidelines;[5](vi World Federation ofSocieties of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP Treatment Guideline forUnipolar Depressive Disorder;[6]and (vii British Association forPsychopharmacology Guidelines.[7

  4. Impact of Energy Consumption on Economic Growth in Major OECD Economies (1977-2014): A Panel Data Approach

    Aali-Bujari, Alí; Venegas-Martínez, Francisco; Palafox-Roca, Alfredo Omar

    2017-01-01

    This paper is aimed at assessing the impact of energy use growth on economic growth in the major economies of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) during the period 1977-2014. To do this, a Granger causality analysis among relevant variables is carried out and, subsequently, a panel data model is estimated with the Generalized Method of Moments (GMM). The main empirical finding is that real GDP per capita growth is positively affected by the growth rate of energy u...

  5. Psychosocial implications of Thalassemia Major.

    Aydinok, Yesim; Erermis, Serpil; Bukusoglu, Nagihan; Yilmaz, Deniz; Solak, Ufuk

    2005-02-01

    Many causes including the chronicity of disease, burden of treatment modalities, morbidities, and the expectation of early death resulting from the disease complications, may lead to psychosocial burden in Thalassemia Major (TM) patients. A total of 38 patients with TM and their mothers were recruited to evaluate the psychosocial burden as well as to disclose whether the psychological status of the patients contribute to the compliance with the therapy or to the contrary. Demographic and disease variables were obtained. Child Behavior Check-list (CBCL) was completed by the mothers of the patients. A detailed psychiatric interview based on the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual diagnostic criteria was performed for each patient. Symptom Distress Checklist 90 (SCL-90) scale was given to all mothers for evaluating their psychopathology. Although CBCL scores remained between the normal ranges, desferrioxamine mesylate (DFO)-compliant patients and the patients with lower ferritin values had significantly higher scores. A total of 24% of the patients had a psychiatric diagnosis including major depression, anxiety disorder, tic disorder, and enuresis nocturnal. The psychiatric diagnosis was significantly higher in the patients who were compliant with desferrioxamine compared with the non-compliant group (P = 0.007). The SCL-90 scores indicated that the mothers who had a child with good adherence to DFO had higher scale scores than the mothers with a poor adherent child. The increase risk of psychosocial and behavioral problems in thalassemics and their parents indicated the importance of a lifelong psychosocial support for the prevention of mental health issues. The patients and their parents, who were more conscious of the illness, were more worried but more compliant with the therapy and need stronger psychiatric support.

  6. Factors Affecting the Pharmacology of Antibody–Drug Conjugates

    Andrew T. Lucas

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Major advances in therapeutic proteins, including antibody–drug conjugates (ADCs, have created revolutionary drug delivery systems in cancer over the past decade. While these immunoconjugate agents provide several advantages compared to their small-molecule counterparts, their clinical use is still in its infancy. The considerations in their development and clinical use are complex, and consist of multiple components and variables that can affect the pharmacologic characteristics. It is critical to understand the mechanisms employed by ADCs in navigating biological barriers and how these factors affect their biodistribution, delivery to tumors, efficacy, and toxicity. Thus, future studies are warranted to better understand the complex pharmacology and interaction between ADC carriers and biological systems, such as the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS and tumor microenvironment. This review provides an overview of factors that affect the pharmacologic profiles of ADC therapies that are currently in clinical use and development.

  7. Solar Variability and Planetary Climates

    Calisesi, Y; Gray, L; Langen, J; Lockwood, M

    2007-01-01

    Variations in solar activity, as revealed by variations in the number of sunspots, have been observed since ancient times. To what extent changes in the solar output may affect planetary climates, though, remains today more than ever a subject of controversy. In 2000, the SSSI volume on Solar Variability and Climate reviewed the to-date understanding of the physics of solar variability and of the associated climate response. The present volume on Solar Variability and Planetary Climates provides an overview of recent advances in this field, with particular focus at the Earth's middle and lower atmosphere. The book structure mirrors that of the ISSI workshop held in Bern in June 2005, the collection of invited workshop contributions and of complementary introductory papers synthesizing the current understanding in key research areas such as middle atmospheric processes, stratosphere-troposphere dynamical coupling, tropospheric aerosols chemistry, solar storm influences, solar variability physics, and terrestri...

  8. Factors Affecting Pavement Surface and Evaluation Rating Accuracy and Variability

    Montgomery, Sharlan R; Haddock, John E

    2018-01-01

    The collection of sufficient, accurate, and consistent pavement condition data is essential to an effective pavement management system. Condition data drive a variety of pavement management tasks such as: • Predicting future pavement performance• Identifying current and future maintenance and rehabilitation needs • Estimating budget needs and requirements • Reporting to decision makers • Selecting appropriate pavement management tools Pavement condition data are represented at either th...

  9. Formulation variables affecting deposition with the Kchaler device, a ...

    As a result of current focus on tightening regulatory requirements, it is imperative that reproducibility of the metered dose of drugs be ensured during the formulation, packaging and use. We developed a dry powder inhalation package in our laboratories consisting of formulation mixes, design and a device, KCHALER, ...

  10. Cannabis and other variables affecting age at onset in a ...

    Adele

    genetic database of Afrikaners with schizophrenia. Method. A collaborative study on the genetics of schizophrenia in an. Afrikaner founder population has been conducted since 1997. Subjects are recruited by the Department of Psychiatry at the. University of Pretoria, South Africa and genetic analyses are undertaken by the ...

  11. Affective Variables and Success in Mathematics: The Counselor's Role.

    Higbee, Jeanne L.

    1989-01-01

    Contends that most students have potential to be successful in college level mathematics course if they develop requisite skills, self-motivation, and confidence to overcome academic deficiencies and memories of past negative learning experiences. Sees counselor as potentially useful in providing assessment and intervention strategies to deal with…

  12. Cannabis and other variables affecting age at onset in a ...

    Objective: An ongoing collaborative study between the Human Neurogenetic Laboratory of Rockefeller University, New York and the Department of Psychiatry at the University of Pretoria, has been taking place since 1997, to map genes for schizophrenia. Aspects of cannabis use/abuse will be reported. Method: The ...

  13. Variables Affecting Teachers' Attitudes towards Inclusive Education in Bangladesh

    Ahmmed, Masud; Sharma, Umesh; Deppeler, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    Inclusive education is a worldwide reform strategy intended to include students with different abilities in mainstream regular schools. Evidence from previous research shows that success in implementing effective inclusive teaching practices in the school is contingent on teachers' positive attitudes towards inclusive education. This study was…

  14. Variables affecting orthodontic tooth movement with clear aligners.

    Chisari, Justin R; McGorray, Susan P; Nair, Madhu; Wheeler, Timothy T

    2014-04-01

    In this study, we examined the impacts of age, sex, root length, bone levels, and bone quality on orthodontic tooth movement. Clear aligners were programmed to move 1 central incisor 1 mm over the course of 8 weeks. Thirty subjects, ages 19 to 64, were enrolled, and measurements were made on digital models (percentage of tooth movement goal achieved). Morphometric features and bone quality were assessed with cone-beam computed tomography. Data from this study were combined with data from 2 similar studies to increase the power for some analyses. The mean percentage of tooth movement goal achieved was 57% overall. Linear regression modeling indicated a cubic relationship between age and tooth movement, with a decreasing rate of movement from ages 18 to 35 years, a slightly increasing rate from ages 35 to 50, and a decreasing rate from ages 50 to 70. The final decreasing trend was not apparent for women. As would be expected, the correlation was significant between the percentage of the goal achieved and the cone-beam computed tomography superimposed linear measures of tooth movement. A significant negative correlation was found between tooth movement and the measurement apex to the center of rotation, but bone quality, as measured by fractal dimension, was not correlated with movement. The relationship between age and tooth movement is complex and might differ for male and female patients. Limited correlations with cone-beam computed tomography morphology and rate of tooth movement were detected. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Majority and minority influence: A dual role interpretation

    de Vries, N.K.; de Dreu, C.; Gordijn, E.; Schuurman, M.

    1996-01-01

    This chapter offers an analysis of majority vs. minority influence using the Heuristic-Systematic Model of persuasion (HSM). We evaluate evidence for and against leading perspectives such as Conversion Theory. Next, research and theory is reviewed suggesting that majority vs. minority influence differentially affect the processing of persuasive arguments. A dual-role interpretation of majority and minority influence is presented. First, numerical support for discrepant messages affects the de...

  16. Understanding Solar Cycle Variability

    Cameron, R. H.; Schüssler, M., E-mail: cameron@mps.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany)

    2017-07-10

    The level of solar magnetic activity, as exemplified by the number of sunspots and by energetic events in the corona, varies on a wide range of timescales. Most prominent is the 11-year solar cycle, which is significantly modulated on longer timescales. Drawing from dynamo theory, together with the empirical results of past solar activity and similar phenomena for solar-like stars, we show that the variability of the solar cycle can be essentially understood in terms of a weakly nonlinear limit cycle affected by random noise. In contrast to ad hoc “toy models” for the solar cycle, this leads to a generic normal-form model, whose parameters are all constrained by observations. The model reproduces the characteristics of the variable solar activity on timescales between decades and millennia, including the occurrence and statistics of extended periods of very low activity (grand minima). Comparison with results obtained with a Babcock–Leighton-type dynamo model confirm the validity of the normal-mode approach.

  17. Flow, affect and visual creativity.

    Cseh, Genevieve M; Phillips, Louise H; Pearson, David G

    2015-01-01

    Flow (being in the zone) is purported to have positive consequences in terms of affect and performance; however, there is no empirical evidence about these links in visual creativity. Positive affect often--but inconsistently--facilitates creativity, and both may be linked to experiencing flow. This study aimed to determine relationships between these variables within visual creativity. Participants performed the creative mental synthesis task to simulate the creative process. Affect change (pre- vs. post-task) and flow were measured via questionnaires. The creativity of synthesis drawings was rated objectively and subjectively by judges. Findings empirically demonstrate that flow is related to affect improvement during visual creativity. Affect change was linked to productivity and self-rated creativity, but no other objective or subjective performance measures. Flow was unrelated to all external performance measures but was highly correlated with self-rated creativity; flow may therefore motivate perseverance towards eventual excellence rather than provide direct cognitive enhancement.

  18. Analyzing the Effect of Economic Variables on Total Tax Revenues in Iran

    Mehdi Basirat; Fatemeh Aboodi; Abdulmajid Ahangari

    2014-01-01

    As the government’s source of revenue, taxes play a major role in the construction and economic development of a country. Accurate knowledge of factors affecting tax revenues provides the policymakers with a clear horizon for economic planning. This study mainly aimed to examine the effect of economic variables on total tax revenues between 1974 and 2011. Accordingly, the Auto regression Distributed Lag (ARDL) Model was used. Results indicated that exchange rate with 0.71398, import with 0.53...

  19. Affective strategies, attitudes, and a model of speaking performance development for engineering students

    Wijirahayu, S.; Dorand, P.

    2018-01-01

    Learning English as a Foreign language (EFL) as one of the challenges especially for students majoring in Telecommunication Engineering to develop their communication skill as a professional could be one of the chances for them to face a more global era. Yet, there are important factors that may influence the progress of the speaking performance and attitude is one of them. Therefore, a survey involving two main psychological variables in language learning namely attitude and affective strategies and the third variable is speaking performance was conducted and a model of affective strategies in language learning developing through the application of Content Language Integrated Learning and multimedia instruction was introduced. This study involved 71 sophomore students and two classes of university students majoring in Telecommunication Engineering and Electrical Engineering. The researchers used both survey and action research method with quantitative as well as qualitative in approach.

  20. Neighborhood racial discrimination and the development of major depression.

    Russell, Daniel W; Clavél, Frederick D; Cutrona, Carolyn E; Abraham, W Todd; Burzette, Rebecca G

    2018-02-01

    This study examined the impact of neighborhood racial discrimination on the development of major depressive disorder (MDD) in a sample of African American women. Participants were 499 women from Georgia and Iowa with no history of MDD who were followed for 9 to 11 years. Several neighborhood characteristics (community social disorder, community cohesion, and community racism) and individual characteristics (negative life events, financial strain, personal outlook, religious involvement, relationship quality, negative affectivity, and individual experiences of racism) were employed as predictors of whether or not the women met criteria for MDD during this period of time. In a multilevel logistic regression analysis, neighborhood-level discrimination as well as individual-level variables including the number of negative life events, financial strain, and negative affectivity were found to be significant predictors of developing MDD. Analyses of cross-level interactions indicated that the effects of neighborhood-level discrimination were moderated by the quality of individuals' relationships, such that better relationships with others served to lessen the effect of neighborhood discrimination on depression. Implications of these findings for understanding the negative effects of racial discrimination are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Relations between altered stramflow variability and fish assemblages in Eastern USA streams

    Meador, Michael R.; Carlisle, Daren M.

    2012-01-01

    Although altered streamflow has been implicated as a major factor affecting fish assemblages, understanding the extent of streamflow alteration has required quantifying attributes of the natural flow regime. We used predictive models to quantify deviation from expected natural streamflow variability for streams in the eastern USA. Sites with >25% change in mean daily streamflow variability compared with what would be expected in a minimally disturbed environment were defined as having altered streamflow variability, based on the 10th and 90th percentiles of the distribution of streamflow variability at 1279 hydrological reference sites. We also used predictive models to assess fish assemblage condition and native species loss based on the proportion of expected native fish species that were observed. Of the 97 sites, 49 (50.5%) were classified as altered with reduced streamflow variability, whereas no sites had increased streamflow variability. Reduced streamflow variability was related to a 35% loss in native fish species, on average, and a >50% loss of species with a preference for riffle habitats. Conditional probability analysis indicated that the probability of fish assemblage impairment increased as the severity of altered streamflow variability increased. Reservoir storage capacity and wastewater discharges were important predictors of reduced streamflow variability as revealed by random forest analysis. Management and conservation of streams will require careful consideration of natural streamflow variation and potential factors contributing to altered streamflow within the entire watershed to limit the loss of critical stream habitats and fish species uniquely adapted to live in those habitats.

  2. Bipolar disorder: Evidence for a major locus

    Spence, M.A.; Flodman, P.L. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Sadovnick, A.D.; Ameli, H. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)] [and others

    1995-10-09

    Complex segregation analyses were conducted on families of bipolar I and bipolar II probands to delineate the mode of inheritance. The probands were ascertained from consecutive referrals to the Mood Disorder Service, University Hospital, University of British Columbia and diagnosed by DSM-III-R and Research Diagnostic Criteria. Data were available on over 1,500 first-degree relatives of the 186 Caucasian probands. The purpose of the analyses was to determine if, after correcting for age and birth cohort, there was evidence for a single major locus. Five models were fit to the data using the statistical package SAGE: (1) dominant, (2) recessive, (3) arbitrary mendelian inheritance, (4) environmental, and (5) no major effects. A single dominant, mendelian major locus was the best fitting of these models for the sample of bipolar I and II probands when only bipolar relatives were defined as affected (polygenic inheritance could not be tested). Adding recurrent major depression to the diagnosis {open_quotes}affected{close_quotes} for relatives reduced the evidence for a major locus effect. Our findings support the undertaking of linkage studies and are consistent with the analyses of the National Institutes of Mental Health (NIMH) Collaborative Study data by Rice et al. and Blangero and Elston. 39 refs., 4 tabs.

  3. [Homicide and major mental disorder: what are the social, clinical, and forensic differences between murderers with a major mental disorder and murderers without any mental disorder?].

    Richard-Devantoy, S; Chocard, A-S; Bourdel, M-C; Gohier, B; Duflot, J-P; Lhuillier, J-P; Garré, J-B

    2009-09-01

    To establish the social, clinical, and forensic differences between murderers suffering from a major mental disorder and murderers without any psychiatric disorder and, in particular, to compare their respective records of psychiatric symptoms and their respective relationship with their victims. We studied 210 forensic examinations of murderers, the offences related to the murders, and the social and clinical information collected from psychiatric court reports on persons convicted of homicide. Firstly, we identified the socio-demographic, clinical and criminological profiles of 210 murderers from which were distinguished murderers with major mental disorder. Then, we compared the profiles of murderers suffering from a major mental disorder with those of murderers without any mental disease. In other words, we compared 37 persons affected with major mental disorder (schizophrenia, paranoiac delusional disorder, and affective disorder) with 73 persons without any mental disorder. We deliberately excluded subjects with personality disorder or abuse of/dependency on drugs, mental retardation or dementia. With the exception of certain variables, murderers with major mental disorder have the same characteristics as others murderers: young man, living alone, with psychiatric and offence records and substance abuse. Murderers with major mental disorder are older (37.8 versus 31.7 years old) than perpretators without any mental disorder, and the former have a psychiatric record more often than the latter (81 versus 32.9%). In addition, contrary to the latter, the former show clinical symptoms of a psychopathological process. Depression, delusional and suicidal ideas are frequent among murderers with a major mental disorder, whereas the persons without mental disorder quarrel or have a row with their victim just before their crime. The victim was known to the perpetrator significantly more often in the major mental disorder group than in the no mental disorder group (94

  4. An Evaluation of the Critical Factors Affecting the Efficiency of Some Sorting Techniques

    Olabiyisi S.O.; Adetunji A.B.; Oyeyinka F.I.

    2013-01-01

    Sorting allows information or data to be put into a meaningful order. As efficiency is a major concern of computing, data are sorted in order to gain the efficiency in retrieving or searching tasks. The factors affecting the efficiency of shell, Heap, Bubble, Quick and Merge sorting techniques in terms of running time, memory usage and the number of exchanges were investigated. Experiment was conducted for the decision variables generated from algorithms implemented in Java programming and fa...

  5. Latent variables and route choice behavior

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Bekhor, Shlomo; Pronello, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade, a broad array of disciplines has shown a general interest in enhancing discrete choice models by considering the incorporation of psychological factors affecting decision making. This paper provides insight into the comprehension of the determinants of route choice behavior...... and bound algorithm. A hybrid model consists of measurement equations, which relate latent variables to measurement indicators and utilities to choice indicators, and structural equations, which link travelers’ observable characteristics to latent variables and explanatory variables to utilities. Estimation...

  6. Bet-hedging response to environmental variability, an intraspecific comparison.

    Nevoux, Marie; Forcada, Jaume; Barbraud, Christophe; Croxall, John; Weimerskirchi, Henri

    2010-08-01

    A major challenge in ecology is to understand the impact of increased environmental variability on populations and ecosystems. To maximize their fitness in a variable environment, life history theory states that individuals should favor a bet-hedging strategy, involving a reduction of annual breeding performance and an increase in adult survival so that reproduction can be attempted over more years. As a result, evolution toward longer life span is expected to reduce the deleterious effects of extra variability on population growth, and consequently on the trait contributing the most to it (e.g., adult survival in long-lived species). To investigate this, we compared the life histories of two Black-browed Albatross (Thalassarche melanophrys) populations breeding at South Georgia (Atlantic Ocean) and Kerguelen (Indian Ocean), the former in an environment nearly three times more variable climatically (e.g., in sea surface temperature) than the latter. As predicted, individuals from South Georgia (in the more variable environment) showed significantly higher annual adult survival (0.959, SE = 0.003) but lower annual reproductive success (0.285 chick per pair, SE = 0.039) than birds from Kerguelen (survival = 0.925, SE = 0.004; breeding success = 0.694, SE = 0.027). In both populations, climatic conditions affected the breeding success and the survival of inexperienced breeders, whereas the survival of experienced breeders was unaffected. The strength of the climatic impact on survival of inexperienced breeders was very similar between the two populations, but the effect on breeding success was positively related to environmental variability. These results provide rare and compelling evidence to support bet-hedging underlying changes in life history traits as an adaptive response to environmental variability.

  7. Gait unsteadiness and fall risk in two affective disorders: a preliminary study

    Peng Chung-Kang

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In older adults, depression has been associated with increased fall risk, but the reasons for this link are not fully clear. Given parallels between major depression and Parkinson's disease, we hypothesized that major depression and related affective disorders would be associated with impairment in the ability to regulate the stride-to-stride fluctuations in gait cycle timing. Methods We measured stride-to-stride fluctuations of patients with two forms of mood disorders, unipolar major depressive disorder (MDD and bipolar disorder, and compared their gait to that of a healthy control group. The primary outcomes were two measures of gait unsteadiness that have been associated with fall risk: stride time variability and swing time variability. Results Compared to the control group, the two patient groups tended to walk more slowly and with decreased swing time and increased stride time. However, none of these differences was statistically significant. Compared to the control group, swing time variability was significantly larger in the subjects with bipolar disorder (p Conclusions Patients with MDD and patients with bipolar disorder display gait unsteadiness. This perturbation in gait may provide a mechanistic link connecting depression and falls. The present findings also suggest the possibility that measurement of variability of gait may provide a readily quantifiable objective approach to monitoring depression and related affective disorders.

  8. Worthy of their name: how floods drive outbreaks of two major floodwater mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Berec, Ludĕk; Gelbic, Ivan; Sebesta, Oldrich

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of how climate variables drive seasonal dynamics of mosquito populations is critical to mitigating negative impacts of potential outbreaks, including both nuisance effects and risk of mosquito-borne infectious disease. Here, we identify climate variables most affecting seasonal dynamics of two major floodwater mosquitoes, Aedes vexans (Meigen, 1830) and Aedes sticticus (Meigen, 1838) (Diptera: Culicidae), along the lower courses of the Dyje River, at the border between the Czech Republic and Austria. Monthly trap counts of both floodwater mosquitoes varied both across sites and years. Despite this variability, both models used to fit the observed data at all sites (and especially that for Ae. sticticus) and site-specific models fitted the observed data quite well. The most important climate variables we identified-temperature and especially flooding-were driving seasonal dynamics of both Aedes species. We suggest that flooding determines seasonal peaks in the monthly mosquito trap counts while temperature modulates seasonality in these counts. Hence, floodwater mosquitoes indeed appear worthy of their name. Moreover, the climate variables we considered for modeling were able reasonably to predict mosquito trap counts in the month ahead. Our study can help in planning flood management; timely notification of people, given that these mosquitoes are a real nuisance in this region; public health policy management to mitigate risk from such mosquito-borne diseases as that caused in humans by the Tahyna virus; and anticipating negative consequences of climate change, which are expected only to worsen unless floods, or the mosquitoes themselves, are satisfactorily managed.

  9. Weaving History through the Major

    Mayfield, Betty

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of including the study of the history of mathematics in the education of mathematics majors have been discussed at length elsewhere. Many colleges and universities now offer a History of Mathematics course for mathematics majors, for mathematics education majors, or for general credit. At Hood College, we emphasize our commitment to…

  10. Variable geometry Darrieus wind machine

    Pytlinski, J. T.; Serrano, D.

    1983-08-01

    A variable geometry Darrieus wind machine is proposed. The lower attachment of the blades to the rotor can move freely up and down the axle allowing the blades of change shape during rotation. Experimental data for a 17 m. diameter Darrieus rotor and a theoretical model for multiple streamtube performance prediction were used to develop a computer simulation program for studying parameters that affect the machine's performance. This new variable geometry concept is described and interrelated with multiple streamtube theory through aerodynamic parameters. The computer simulation study shows that governor behavior of a Darrieus turbine can not be attained by a standard turbine operating within normally occurring rotational velocity limits. A second generation variable geometry Darrieus wind turbine which uses a telescopic blade is proposed as a potential improvement on the studied concept.

  11. Factors Associated with Asian American Students' Choice of STEM Major

    Lowinger, Robert; Song, Hyun-a

    2017-01-01

    This study explored Asian American students' likelihood of selecting STEM over liberal arts or business college majors using the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002. Student-level variables were the strongest predictors of college major, followed by parent-level variables, and background variables. Academic achievement and interest were the…

  12. Variable importance in latent variable regression models

    Kvalheim, O.M.; Arneberg, R.; Bleie, O.; Rajalahti, T.; Smilde, A.K.; Westerhuis, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    The quality and practical usefulness of a regression model are a function of both interpretability and prediction performance. This work presents some new graphical tools for improved interpretation of latent variable regression models that can also assist in improved algorithms for variable

  13. Decomposing global crop yield variability

    Ben-Ari, Tamara; Makowski, David

    2014-11-01

    Recent food crises have highlighted the need to better understand the between-year variability of agricultural production. Although increasing future production seems necessary, the globalization of commodity markets suggests that the food system would also benefit from enhanced supplies stability through a reduction in the year-to-year variability. Here, we develop an analytical expression decomposing global crop yield interannual variability into three informative components that quantify how evenly are croplands distributed in the world, the proportion of cultivated areas allocated to regions of above or below average variability and the covariation between yields in distinct world regions. This decomposition is used to identify drivers of interannual yield variations for four major crops (i.e., maize, rice, soybean and wheat) over the period 1961-2012. We show that maize production is fairly spread but marked by one prominent region with high levels of crop yield interannual variability (which encompasses the North American corn belt in the USA, and Canada). In contrast, global rice yields have a small variability because, although spatially concentrated, much of the production is located in regions of below-average variability (i.e., South, Eastern and South Eastern Asia). Because of these contrasted land use allocations, an even cultivated land distribution across regions would reduce global maize yield variance, but increase the variance of global yield rice. Intermediate results are obtained for soybean and wheat for which croplands are mainly located in regions with close-to-average variability. At the scale of large world regions, we find that covariances of regional yields have a negligible contribution to global yield variance. The proposed decomposition could be applied at any spatial and time scales, including the yearly time step. By addressing global crop production stability (or lack thereof) our results contribute to the understanding of a key

  14. Do Biology Majors Really Differ from Non–STEM Majors?

    Cotner, Sehoya; Thompson, Seth; Wright, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Recent calls to action urge sweeping reform in science education, advocating for improved learning for all students—including those majoring in fields beyond the sciences. However, little work has been done to characterize the differences—if any exist—between students planning a career in science and those studying other disciplines. We describe an attempt to clarify, in broad terms, how non–STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) majors differ from life sciences majors, and how they are similar. Using survey responses and institutional data, we find that non–STEM majors are not unilaterally science averse; non–STEM majors are more likely than biology majors to hold misconceptions about the nature of science, yet they are not completely ignorant of how science works; non–STEM majors are less likely than biology majors to see science as personally relevant; and non–STEM majors populations are likely to be more diverse—with respect to incoming knowledge, perceptions, backgrounds, and skills—than a biology majors population. We encourage science educators to consider these characteristics when designing curricula for future scientists or simply for a well-informed citizenry. PMID:28798210

  15. Tropical Indian Ocean Variability Driving Southeast Australian Droughts

    Ummenhofer, C. C.; England, M. H.; McIntosh, P. C.; Meyers, G. A.; Pook, M. J.; Risbey, J. S.; Sen Gupta, A.; Taschetto, A. S.

    2009-04-01

    Variability in the tropical Indian Ocean has widespread effects on rainfall in surrounding countries, including East Africa, India and Indonesia. The leading mode of tropical Indian Ocean variability, the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), is a coupled ocean-atmosphere mode characterized by sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies of opposite sign in the east and west of the basin with an associated large-scale atmospheric re-organisation. Earlier work has often focused on the positive phase of the IOD. However, we show here that the negative IOD phase is an important driver of regional rainfall variability and multi-year droughts. For southeastern Australia, we show that it is actually a lack of the negative IOD phase, rather than the positive IOD phase or Pacific variability, that provides the most robust explanation for recent drought conditions. Since 1995, a large region of Australia has been gripped by the most severe drought in living memory, the so-called "Big Dry". The ramifications for affected regions are dire, with acute water shortages for rural and metropolitan areas, record agricultural losses, the drying-out of two of Australia's major river systems and far-reaching ecosystem damage. Yet the drought's origins have remained elusive. For Southeast Australia, we show that the "Big Dry" and other iconic 20th Century droughts, including the Federation Drought (1895-1902) and World War II drought (1937-1945), are driven by tropical Indian Ocean variability, not Pacific Ocean conditions as traditionally assumed. Specifically, a conspicuous absence of characteristic Indian Ocean temperature conditions that are conducive to enhanced tropical moisture transport has deprived southeastern Australia of its normal rainfall quota. In the case of the "Big Dry", its unprecedented intensity is also related to recent above-average temperatures. Implications of recent non-uniform warming trends in the Indian Ocean and how that might affect ocean characteristics and climate in

  16. Exercise for patients with major depression

    Krogh, Jesper; Speyer, Helene; Gluud, Christian

    2015-01-01

    is to investigate the beneficial and harmful effects of exercise, in terms of severity of depression, lack of remission, suicide, and so on, compared with treatment as usual with or without co-interventions in randomized clinical trials involving adults with a clinical diagnosis of major depression. A meta......BACKGROUND: The lifetime prevalence of major depression is estimated to affect 17% of the population and is considered the second largest health-care problem globally in terms of the number of years lived with disability. The effects of most antidepressant treatments are poor; therefore, exercise...... has been assessed in a number of randomized clinical trials. A number of reviews have previously analyzed these trials; however, none of these reviews have addresses the effect of exercise for adults diagnosed with major depression. METHODS/DESIGN: The objective of this systematic review...

  17. Reporting Helicopter Emergency Medical Services in Major Incidents

    Fattah, Sabina; Johnsen, Anne Siri; Sollid, Stephen J M

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Research on helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) in major incidents is predominately based on case descriptions reported in a heterogeneous fashion. Uniform data reported with a consensus-based template could facilitate the collection, analysis, and exchange of experiences...... variables were determined by consensus. These variables were formatted in a template with 4 main categories: HEMS background information, the major incident characteristics relevant to HEMS, the HEMS response to the major incident, and the key lessons learned. CONCLUSION: Based on opinions from European...

  18. Affective processes in human-automation interactions.

    Merritt, Stephanie M

    2011-08-01

    This study contributes to the literature on automation reliance by illuminating the influences of user moods and emotions on reliance on automated systems. Past work has focused predominantly on cognitive and attitudinal variables, such as perceived machine reliability and trust. However, recent work on human decision making suggests that affective variables (i.e., moods and emotions) are also important. Drawing from the affect infusion model, significant effects of affect are hypothesized. Furthermore, a new affectively laden attitude termed liking is introduced. Participants watched video clips selected to induce positive or negative moods, then interacted with a fictitious automated system on an X-ray screening task At five time points, important variables were assessed including trust, liking, perceived machine accuracy, user self-perceived accuracy, and reliance.These variables, along with propensity to trust machines and state affect, were integrated in a structural equation model. Happiness significantly increased trust and liking for the system throughout the task. Liking was the only variable that significantly predicted reliance early in the task. Trust predicted reliance later in the task, whereas perceived machine accuracy and user self-perceived accuracy had no significant direct effects on reliance at any time. Affective influences on automation reliance are demonstrated, suggesting that this decision-making process may be less rational and more emotional than previously acknowledged. Liking for a new system may be key to appropriate reliance, particularly early in the task. Positive affect can be easily induced and may be a lever for increasing liking.

  19. Experimental variability and data pre-processing as factors affecting the discrimination power of some chemometric approaches (PCA, CA and a new algorithm based on linear regression) applied to (+/-)ESI/MS and RPLC/UV data: Application on green tea extracts.

    Iorgulescu, E; Voicu, V A; Sârbu, C; Tache, F; Albu, F; Medvedovici, A

    2016-08-01

    The influence of the experimental variability (instrumental repeatability, instrumental intermediate precision and sample preparation variability) and data pre-processing (normalization, peak alignment, background subtraction) on the discrimination power of multivariate data analysis methods (Principal Component Analysis -PCA- and Cluster Analysis -CA-) as well as a new algorithm based on linear regression was studied. Data used in the study were obtained through positive or negative ion monitoring electrospray mass spectrometry (+/-ESI/MS) and reversed phase liquid chromatography/UV spectrometric detection (RPLC/UV) applied to green tea extracts. Extractions in ethanol and heated water infusion were used as sample preparation procedures. The multivariate methods were directly applied to mass spectra and chromatograms, involving strictly a holistic comparison of shapes, without assignment of any structural identity to compounds. An alternative data interpretation based on linear regression analysis mutually applied to data series is also discussed. Slopes, intercepts and correlation coefficients produced by the linear regression analysis applied on pairs of very large experimental data series successfully retain information resulting from high frequency instrumental acquisition rates, obviously better defining the profiles being compared. Consequently, each type of sample or comparison between samples produces in the Cartesian space an ellipsoidal volume defined by the normal variation intervals of the slope, intercept and correlation coefficient. Distances between volumes graphically illustrates (dis)similarities between compared data. The instrumental intermediate precision had the major effect on the discrimination power of the multivariate data analysis methods. Mass spectra produced through ionization from liquid state in atmospheric pressure conditions of bulk complex mixtures resulting from extracted materials of natural origins provided an excellent data

  20. 76 FR 61731 - Iowa; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    2011-10-05

    ..., under Executive Order 12148, as amended, Michael R. Scott, of FEMA is appointed to act as the Federal... adversely affected by this major disaster: Dubuque and Jackson Counties for Public Assistance. All counties...

  1. 77 FR 68800 - Connecticut; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    2012-11-16

    ... Connecticut have been designated as adversely affected by this major disaster: Fairfield, Middlesex, New Haven... within New London County for Individual Assistance. Fairfield, Middlesex, New Haven, and New London...

  2. Assessing team effectiveness and affective learning in a datathon.

    Piza, Felipe Maia de Toledo; Celi, Leo Anthony; Deliberato, Rodrigo Octavio; Bulgarelli, Lucas; de Carvalho, Fabricio Rodrigues Torres; Filho, Roberto Rabello; de La Hoz, Miguel Angel Armengol; Kesselheim, Jennifer Cohn

    2018-04-01

    Datathons are increasingly organized in the healthcare field. The goal is to assemble people with different backgrounds to work together as a team and engage in clinically relevant research or develop algorithms using health-related datasets. Criteria to assess the return of investment on such events have traditionally included publications produced, patents for prediction, classification, image recognition and other types of software, and start-up companies around the application of machine learning in healthcare. Previous studies have not evaluated whether a datathon can promote affective learning and effective teamwork. Fifty participants of a health datathon event in São Paulo, Brazil at Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein (HIAE) were divided into 8 groups. A survey with 25 questions, using the Affective Learning Scale and Team-Review Questionnaire, was administered to assess team effectiveness and affective learning during the event. Multivariate regression models and Pearson's correlation tests were performed to evaluate the effect of affective learning on teamwork. Majority of the participants were male 76% (37/49); 32% (16/49) were physicians. The mean score for learning (scale from 1 to 10) was 8.38, while that for relevance of the perceived teamwork was 1.20 (scale from 1 to 5; "1" means most relevant). Pearson's correlation between the learning score and perception of teamwork showed moderate association (r = 0.36, p = 0.009). Five learning and 10 teamwork variables were on average positively graded in the event. The final regression model includes all learning and teamwork variables. Effective leadership was strongly correlated with affective learning (β = -0.27, p Effective leadership, team accomplishment, criticism, individual development and creativity were the variables significantly associated with higher levels of affective learning. It is feasible to enhance affective knowledge and the skill to work in a team during a datathon. We

  3. Interdisciplinary Project Experiences: Collaboration between Majors and Non-Majors

    Smarkusky, Debra L.; Toman, Sharon A.

    2014-01-01

    Students in computer science and information technology should be engaged in solving real-world problems received from government and industry as well as those that expose them to various areas of application. In this paper, we discuss interdisciplinary project experiences between majors and non-majors that offered a creative and innovative…

  4. A Framework for Categorizing Important Project Variables

    Parsons, Vickie S.

    2003-01-01

    While substantial research has led to theories concerning the variables that affect project success, no universal set of such variables has been acknowledged as the standard. The identification of a specific set of controllable variables is needed to minimize project failure. Much has been hypothesized about the need to match project controls and management processes to individual projects in order to increase the chance for success. However, an accepted taxonomy for facilitating this matching process does not exist. This paper surveyed existing literature on classification of project variables. After an analysis of those proposals, a simplified categorization is offered to encourage further research.

  5. Decreased long- and short-range functional connectivity at rest in drug-naive major depressive disorder.

    Guo, Wenbin; Liu, Feng; Chen, Jindong; Wu, Renrong; Zhang, Zhikun; Yu, Miaoyu; Xue, Zhimin; Zhao, Jingping

    2016-08-01

    Abnormal functional connectivity has been observed in major depressive disorder. Anatomical distance may affect functional connectivity in patients with major depressive disorder. However, whether and how anatomical distance affects functional connectivity at rest remains unclear in drug-naive patients with major depressive disorder. Forty-four patients with major depressive disorder, as well as 44 age-, sex- and education-matched healthy controls, underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning. Regional functional connectivity strength was calculated for each voxel in the whole brain, which was further divided into short- and long-range functional connectivity strength. The patients showed decreased long-range positive functional connectivity strength in the right inferior parietal lobule, as well as decreased short-range positive functional connectivity strength in the right insula and right superior temporal gyrus relative to those of the controls. No significant correlations existed between abnormal functional connectivity strength and the clinical variables of the patients. The findings revealed that anatomical distance decreases long- and short-range functional connectivity strength in patients with major depressive disorder, which may underlie the neurobiology of major depressive disorder. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  6. Do Biology Majors Really Differ from Non-STEM Majors?

    Cotner, Sehoya; Thompson, Seth; Wright, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Recent calls to action urge sweeping reform in science education, advocating for improved learning for all students-including those majoring in fields beyond the sciences. However, little work has been done to characterize the differences-if any exist-between students planning a career in science and those studying other disciplines. We describe an attempt to clarify, in broad terms, how non-STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) majors differ from life sciences majors, and how they are similar. Using survey responses and institutional data, we find that non-STEM majors are not unilaterally science averse; non-STEM majors are more likely than biology majors to hold misconceptions about the nature of science, yet they are not completely ignorant of how science works; non-STEM majors are less likely than biology majors to see science as personally relevant; and non-STEM majors populations are likely to be more diverse-with respect to incoming knowledge, perceptions, backgrounds, and skills-than a biology majors population. We encourage science educators to consider these characteristics when designing curricula for future scientists or simply for a well-informed citizenry. © 2017 S. Cotner et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2017 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  7. How does real affect affect affect recognition in speech?

    Truong, Khiet Phuong

    2009-01-01

    The automatic analysis of affect is a relatively new and challenging multidisciplinary research area that has gained a lot of interest over the past few years. The research and development of affect recognition systems has opened many opportunities for improving the interaction between man and

  8. Does temperament affect learning in calves?

    Webb, Laura E.; van Reenen, Cornelis G.; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2015-01-01

    challenge tests, may affect learning an operant conditioning task in calves. Understanding how temperament affects learning in calves can help with the training of calves on novel automated feeding apparatuses or on novel feed components, and can thus help improve calf health and welfare.......The aim of the study was to investigate how temperament affects learning ability in calves. Nine two-month-old Holstein-Friesian bull calves were subjected to four challenge tests: novel object (NOT), novel environment (NET), social isolation (SIT), and social isolation with a novel environmental...... cue (SI/E). During these tests, hypothesised temperament variables were recorded. Hypothesised learning variables were recorded during training on an operant task. Principal component analysis (PCA) was conducted on temperament variables and learning variables separately. Principal components (PCs...

  9. Unconventional Internships for English Majors.

    Otto, Don H.

    After five years of research, the English department at St. Cloud (Minnesota) State University created an internship program for English majors. The philosophy behind the program is that the typical experience of the English major in college is excellent preparation for what the college graduate will be doing in most careers in business,…

  10. Do You Have Major Depression?

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Depression Do You Have Major Depression? Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents Simple ... member may have major depression. —NIMH Types of Depression Just like other illnesses, such as heart disease, ...

  11. Amplification factor variable amplifier

    Akitsugu, Oshita; Nauta, Bram

    2007-01-01

    PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide an amplification factor variable amplifier capable of achieving temperature compensation of an amplification factor over a wide variable amplification factor range. ; SOLUTION: A Gilbert type amplification factor variable amplifier 11 amplifies an input signal and

  12. Amplification factor variable amplifier

    Akitsugu, Oshita; Nauta, Bram

    2010-01-01

    PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide an amplification factor variable amplifier capable of achieving temperature compensation of an amplification factor over a wide variable amplification factor range. ;SOLUTION: A Gilbert type amplification factor variable amplifier 11 amplifies an input signal and can

  13. The Opinions of Economics Majors before and after Learning Economics

    Hammock, Michael R.; Routon, P. Wesley; Walker, Jay K.

    2016-01-01

    Using longitudinal data on undergraduates from 463 American colleges and universities from 1994-99, the authors examine how majoring in economics affects student opinions on 13 social, political, and economic issues. Economics majors were found to begin and end their college tenure with differing opinions on several issues when compared to other…

  14. Examining Person--Environment Fit and Academic Major Satisfaction

    Milsom, Amy; Coughlin, Julie

    2017-01-01

    Decisions regarding college majors have the potential to affect a person's overall academic performance and long-term career success. With Holland's (1997) trait-and-factor theory serving as a foundation, the authors examined relationships between person-environment fit, college major satisfaction, and grade point average of undergraduate students…

  15. Análisis de las variables de marketing que afectan al valor del cliente. La permanencia como variable controlable

    Pedreño Santos, Ana

    2015-01-01

    To know how marketing variables affect customer value is essential for a company in order to be market and customer oriented, and to improve investment efficiency in both attracting and retaining customers. Thus, the assessment of the influence of marketing variables in customer value is of prime importance. This is recognized in many empirical studies of these variables, which address the impact of a single variable (or sets of a few variables) on customer value. A comprehensive, integrated ...

  16. Effects of Climate Change on the Yield and Cropping Area of Major Food Crops: A Case of Bangladesh

    Md. Ruhul Amin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The crops that we grow for food need specific climatic conditions to show better performance in view of economic yield. A changing climate could have both beneficial and harmful effects on crops. Keeping the above view in mind, this study is undertaken to investigate the impacts of climate change (viz. changes in maximum temperature, minimum temperature, rainfall, humidity and sunshine on the yield and cropping area of four major food crops (viz. Aus rice, Aman rice, Boro rice and wheat in Bangladesh. Heteroskedasticity and autocorrelation consistent standard error (HAC and feasible generalized least square (FGLS methods were used to determine the climate-crop interrelations using national level time series data for the period of 1972–2010. Findings revealed that the effects of all the climate variables have had significant contributions to the yield and cropping area of major food crops with distinct variation among them. Maximum temperature statistically significantly affected all the food crops’ yield except Aus rice. Maximum temperature also insignificantly affected cropping area of all the crops. Minimum temperature insignificantly affected Aman rice but benefited other three crops’ yield and cropping area. Rainfall significantly benefitted cropping area of Aus rice, but significantly affected both yield and cropping area of Aman rice. Humidity statistically positively contributed to the yield of Aus and Aman rice but, statistically, negatively influenced the cropping area of Aus rice. Sunshine statistically significantly benefitted only Boro rice yield. Overall, maximum temperature adversely affected yield and cropping area of all the major food crops and rainfall severely affected Aman rice only. Concerning the issue of climate change and ensuring food security, the respective authorities thus should give considerable attention to the generation, development and extension of drought (all major food crops and flood (particularly Aman

  17. Pterins and affective disorders

    R. Hoekstra (Rocco)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThe pathophysiology of affective disorders is largely unknown. In patients with various affective disorders the activity of pterins and related amino acids were investigated before and after clinical treatment. In particular the bipolar affective disorder could be

  18. Myodegeneration with fibrosis and regeneration in the pectoralis major muscle of broilers.

    Sihvo, H-K; Immonen, K; Puolanne, E

    2014-05-01

    A myopathy affecting the pectoralis major muscle of the commercial broiler has emerged creating remarkable economic losses as well as a potential welfare problem of the birds. We here describe the macroscopic and histologic lesions of this myopathy within 10 pectoralis major muscles of 5- to 6-week-old broilers in Finland. Following macroscopic evaluation and palpation of the muscles, a tissue sample of each was fixed in formalin, processed for histology, and histologically evaluated. The muscles that were macroscopically hard, outbulging, pale, and often accompanied with white striping histologically exhibited moderate to severe polyphasic myodegeneration with regeneration as well as a variable amount of interstitial connective tissue accumulation or fibrosis. All affected cases also exhibited perivenular lymphocyte accumulation. The etiology of this myodegenerative lesion remains yet open. Polyphasic myodegeneration is associated with several previously known etiologies, but palpatory hardness focusing on the pectoralis major, together with perivenular lymphocytes, has not been described in relation to them. The results of this study provide the pathological basis for further studies concerning the etiology of the currently described myopathy.

  19. Variable mechanical ventilation.

    Fontela, Paula Caitano; Prestes, Renata Bernardy; Forgiarini, Luiz Alberto; Friedman, Gilberto

    2017-01-01

    To review the literature on the use of variable mechanical ventilation and the main outcomes of this technique. Search, selection, and analysis of all original articles on variable ventilation, without restriction on the period of publication and language, available in the electronic databases LILACS, MEDLINE®, and PubMed, by searching the terms "variable ventilation" OR "noisy ventilation" OR "biologically variable ventilation". A total of 36 studies were selected. Of these, 24 were original studies, including 21 experimental studies and three clinical studies. Several experimental studies reported the beneficial effects of distinct variable ventilation strategies on lung function using different models of lung injury and healthy lungs. Variable ventilation seems to be a viable strategy for improving gas exchange and respiratory mechanics and preventing lung injury associated with mechanical ventilation. However, further clinical studies are necessary to assess the potential of variable ventilation strategies for the clinical improvement of patients undergoing mechanical ventilation.

  20. Uric acid in major depressive and anxiety disorders.

    Black, Catherine N; Bot, Mariska; Scheffer, Peter G; Snieder, Harold; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2018-01-01

    Uric acid has neuroprotective effects, owing to its antioxidant properties. Lowered antioxidant capacity, causing increased oxidative stress, may be involved in affective disorders and might be altered by antidepressants. This study investigated the association of plasma uric acid, the greatest contributor to blood antioxidant capacity, with major depressive disorder (MDD) and anxiety disorders. Data were from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety including patients with current (N = 1648), remitted (N = 609) MDD and/or anxiety disorders (of which N = 710 antidepressant users) and 618 controls. Diagnoses were established with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Symptom severity was assessed with the Inventory of Depressive Symptoms-Self Report, Beck Anxiety Inventory and Fear Questionnaire. Uric acid was measured in plasma. Analyses were adjusted for sociodemographic, health and lifestyle variables. Plasma uric acid adjusted mean levels were lower in current MDD and/or anxiety disorder(s) (289μmol/l) compared to remitted disorders (298μmol/l, p uric acid. Limitations include the lack of data on dietary intake which could be a potential confounding factor. From these cross-sectional findings, the association between uric acid and psychopathology cannot be inferred to be causal. This large scale study finds plasma uric acid levels are lower in current, but not remitted, MDD and/or anxiety disorders, according to a dose-response gradient. This suggests the involvement of decreased antioxidant status in affective disorders, and points to their potential as an avenue for treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. [Oromaxillofacial changes in thalassemia major].

    De Mattia, D; Pettini, P L; Sabato, V; Rubini, G; Laforgia, A; Schettini, F

    1996-01-01

    Sixty patients (31 male and 29 female) with thalassemia major, aged between 6 and 26 years, 18 of which were splenectomized, were observed in this study evaluating the oro-maxillo-facial alterations and correlating them to transfusion indexes, serum ferritin levels, splenectomy and age. For each patient a haematologic and odontostomatologic card was filed with a view to report the medical and clinical history regarding: the haematologic picture, the prevention of caries and parodontal disease, the facies characteristics, the odonto-stomatologic examination, the orthodontic diagnosis, the skull X-rays and the orthopantomography. Poor oral hygiene as well as misknowledge of prevention were generally observed. All the patients showed carious lesions but most of them had never seen a dentist for therapy. The disharmonious growth of splanchnocranium, with the enlargement of the jaw and of its alveolar process, induced by the bone marrow hyperplasia, produced various and serious malocclusion stages (Angle's II class, deep bite, open bite), gnathologic alterations, hypodiaphanous paranasal sinuses and orbital hypertelorism, with a typical oriental-like facies. Malocclusion and the poor oral hygienic conditions determined the occurrence of marginal gingivitis, mainly localized at the level of the lower frontal teeth. In only 3 patients the oral mucous membrane was pale and atrophic. During this investigation agenesia and dental retention were reported in 30% and in 26% of the examined cases respectively, while no patients had supernumerary teeth. Tooth volume, position and shape abnormalities rarely occurred. Only in two patients was enamel hypoplasia described. The caries frequency greatly varied in number and in degree. Only five patients did not show any carious lesions. The caries index (DMF) for the permanent teeth calculated in all the 60 subjects was 5, 12 +/- 4.76. By utilizing Spearman's rank test the number of teeth with caries in the permanent dentition (DFM

  2. Stenting of major airway constriction

    Wu Xiaomei

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the correlated issues in the stenting treatment of major airway constriction. Methods: Nineteen cases of major airway stenting procedure were studied retrospectively. The clinical choice of stents of different advantages or deficiencies were discussed. The importance of intravenous anesthesia supporting, life-parameters monitoring during the procedures and the prevention of complications were analysed. Results: Under intravenous and local anesthesia, 19 Wallstents had been successively placed and relieved 19 cases of major airway constrictions due to malignant or benign diseases (15 of tumors, 3 of tuberculosis, 1 of tracheomalacia). Intravenous anesthesia and life-parameters monitoring had made the procedures more safe and precise. Conclusions: Major airway stenting is an reliable method for relieving tracheobronchial stenosis; and intravenous anesthesia supporting and life-parameters monitoring guarantee the satisfactions of procedures

  3. Major hazards onshore and offshore

    1992-01-01

    This symposium continues the tradition of bringing together papers on a topic of current interest and importance in terms of process safety - in this case, Major Hazards Onshore and Offshore. Lord Cullen in his report on the Piper Alpha disaster has, in effect, suggested that the experience gained in the control of major hazards onshore during the 1980s should be applied to improve safety offshore during the 1990s. This major three-day symposium reviews what has been learned so far with regard to major hazards and considers its present and future applications both onshore and offshore. The topics covered in the programme are wide ranging and deal with all aspects of legislation, the application of regulations, techniques for evaluating hazards and prescribing safety measures in design, construction and operation, the importance of the human factors, and recent technical developments in protective measures, relief venting and predicting the consequences of fires and explosions. (author)

  4. Liquid in the major incision

    Herrera Jaramillo, Diego Alberto; Ortega Jaramillo, Hector

    2003-01-01

    We present the case of a patient with spill pleural extending in the left major incision. In the chest thorax PA, we could observe one of the complex radiographic appearances that take the reconfiguration of fluid in this localization, being this appearance dependent of the patient's position. Some points are also discussed on the anatomy of the major incisions and some of their radiographic characteristics

  5. Understanding Hydrological Processes in Variable Source Areas in the Glaciated Northeastern US Watersheds under Variable Climate Conditions

    Steenhuis, T. S.; Azzaino, Z.; Hoang, L.; Pacenka, S.; Worqlul, A. W.; Mukundan, R.; Stoof, C.; Owens, E. M.; Richards, B. K.

    2017-12-01

    The New York City source watersheds in the Catskill Mountains' humid, temperate climate has long-term hydrological and water quality monitoring data It is one of the few catchments where implementation of source and landscape management practices has led to decreased phosphorus concentration in the receiving surface waters. One of the reasons is that landscape measures correctly targeted the saturated variable source runoff areas (VSA) in the valley bottoms as the location where most of the runoff and other nonpoint pollutants originated. Measures targeting these areas were instrumental in lowering phosphorus concentration. Further improvements in water quality can be made based on a better understanding of the flow processes and water table fluctuations in the VSA. For that reason, we instrumented a self-contained upland variable source watershed with a landscape characteristic of a soil underlain by glacial till at shallow depth similar to the Catskill watersheds. In this presentation, we will discuss our experimental findings and present a mathematical model. Variable source areas have a small slope making gravity the driving force for the flow, greatly simplifying the simulation of the flow processes. The experimental data and the model simulations agreed for both outflow and water table fluctuations. We found that while the flows to the outlet were similar throughout the year, the discharge of the VSA varies greatly. This was due to transpiration by the plants which became active when soil temperatures were above 10oC. We found that shortly after the temperature increased above 10oC the baseflow stopped and only surface runoff occurred when rainstorms exceeded the storage capacity of the soil in at least a portion of the variable source area. Since plant growth in the variable source area was a major variable determining the base flow behavior, changes in temperature in the future - affecting the duration of the growing season - will affect baseflow and

  6. Cataclysmic Variable Stars

    Hellier, Coel

    2001-01-01

    Cataclysmic variable stars are the most variable stars in the night sky, fluctuating in brightness continually on timescales from seconds to hours to weeks to years. The changes can be recorded using amateur telescopes, yet are also the subject of intensive study by professional astronomers. That study has led to an understanding of cataclysmic variables as binary stars, orbiting so closely that material transfers from one star to the other. The resulting process of accretion is one of the most important in astrophysics. This book presents the first account of cataclysmic variables at an introductory level. Assuming no previous knowledge of the field, it explains the basic principles underlying the variability, while providing an extensive compilation of cataclysmic variable light curves. Aimed at amateur astronomers, undergraduates, and researchers, the main text is accessible to those with no mathematical background, while supplementary boxes present technical details and equations.

  7. Understanding Brown Dwarf Variability

    Marley, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Surveys of brown dwarf variability continue to find that roughly half of all brown dwarfs are variable. While variability is observed amongst all types of brown dwarfs, amplitudes are typically greatest for L-T transition objects. In my talk I will discuss the possible physical mechanisms that are responsible for the observed variability. I will particularly focus on comparing and contrasting the effects of changes in atmospheric thermal profile and cloud opacity. The two different mechanisms will produce different variability signatures and I will discuss the extent to which the current datasets constrain both mechanisms. By combining constraints from studies of variability with existing spectral and photometric datasets we can begin to construct and test self-consistent models of brown dwarf atmospheres. These models not only aid in the interpretation of existing objects but also inform studies of directly imaged giant planets.

  8. Variables influencing the frictional behaviour of in vivo human skin

    Veijgen, N.K.; Masen, Marc Arthur; van der Heide, Emile

    2013-01-01

    In the past decades, skin friction research has focused on determining which variables are important to affect the frictional behaviour of in vivo human skin. Until now, there is still limited knowledge on these variables. This study has used a large dataset to identify the effect of variables on

  9. Variables influencing the frictional behaviour of in vivo human skin

    Veijgen, N.K.; Masen, M.A.; Heide, E. van der

    2013-01-01

    In the past decades, skin friction research has focused on determining which variables are important to affect the frictional behaviour of in vivo human skin. Until now, there is still limited knowledge on these variables.This study has used a large dataset to identify the effect of variables on the

  10. Major Decisions: Motivations for Selecting a Major, Satisfaction, and Belonging

    Soria, Krista M.; Stebleton, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we analyzed the relationship between students' motivations for choosing academic majors and their satisfaction and sense of belonging on campus. Based on a multi-institutional survey of students who attended large, public, research universities in 2009, the results suggest that external extrinsic motivations for selecting a major…

  11. The nebular variables

    Glasby, John S

    1974-01-01

    The Nebular Variables focuses on the nebular variables and their characteristics. Discussions are organized by type of nebular variable, namely, RW Aurigae stars, T Orionis stars, T Tauri stars, and peculiar nebular objects. Topics range from light variations of the stars to their spectroscopic and physical characteristics, spatial distribution, interaction with nebulosity, and evolutionary features. This volume is divided into four sections and consists of 25 chapters, the first of which provides general information on nebular variables, including their stellar associations and their classifi

  12. Factors Affecting the Underperformance of Employees

    Nadeeka Amarasinghe

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available BASL Intimate Apparel Mirigama is the largest factory of Brandix Group of Companies catering to VS Pink. It has a labour force of 1250 employees including a direct labour force of 659. Production capabilities have been extended to in-house printing and embroidery sections in addition to cutting and shipping facilities. Like other apparel manufacturers in the industry, BASL Intimate Apparel Mirigama also faces much competition and problems in its day to day business operations. One of the major issues so faced is On-Time-Delivery due to underperformance of the employees. Therefore, with the objectives of studying factors affecting the underperformance of the employees of the production department, analysing and identifying such factors, and providing recommendations, a few variables i.e. machines and methods, skill level, financial incentives, leadership practices and working conditions were identified as having a potential impact over the performance of the production employees. Stratified random sampling method was used to select 64 team members from the 32 production modules, and research work continued to collate primary data through administrating a structured questionnaire among selected associates. Null and alternative hypotheses were tested using correlations, and the data is presented as graphical pictures, tables, and in narrative form. However, there were a few limitations such as management influence, sample basis selection, service period, level of understating, time availability and commitment, time availability for the study etc. which may have had an impact over the research findings.

  13. Factors Affecting Sugarcane Production in Pakistan

    Adnan Nazir

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to identify the factors affecting sugarcane production in Pakistan. Data were collected from 387 sugarcane growers from Sindh, Punjab and NWFP province. Data were collected during the period 2007-08. The study reveals that the costs of inputs of sugarcane i.e. urea, DAP, FYM, land preparation, seed and its application, weeding and cost of irrigation were the important factors which influenced on the returns of sugarcane growers. The effectiveness was examined by using the Cobb-Douglas production function; MVP and allocative efficiency were calculated. The coefficient of multiple determinations R2 was 0.9249, which indicated that 92% variation in the cost of inputs was explained by all explanatory variables and the adjusted R2 was 92%. The F-value was 666.94 and was highly significant at 5% level of significance, indicating that the regression model was well fitted. The high prices of inputs, low price of output, delay in payments and lack of scientific knowledge were the major problems in sugarcane production. In order to enhance the productivity of sugarcane in the country, government should solve the identified problems to increase the income of sugarcane growers.

  14. Wind Stress Variability Observed Over Coastal Waters

    Ortiz-Suslow, D. G.; Haus, B. K.; Laxague, N.; Williams, N. J.; Graber, H. C.

    2016-02-01

    The wind stress on the ocean surface generates waves, drives currents, and enhances gas exchange; and a significant amount of work has been done to characterize the air-sea momentum flux in terms of bulk oceanographic and atmospheric parameters. However, the majority of this work to develop operational algorithms has been focused on the deep ocean and the suitability of these methods in the coastal regime has not been evaluated. The findings from a two-part field campaign will be presented which highlight the divergence of nearshore wind stress observations from conventional, deep water results. The first set of data comes from a coastal region near a relatively small, natural tidal inlet. A high degree of spatial variability was observed in both the wind stress magnitude and direction, suggestive of coastal processes (e.g., depth-limited wave affects and horizontal current shear) modulating the momentum flux from the atmosphere to the ocean surface. These shallow-water processes are typically not accounted for in conventional parameterizations. Across the experimental domain and for a given wind speed, the stress magnitude was found to be nearly 2.5 times that predicted by conventional methods; also, a high propensity for stress steering off the mean azimuthal wind direction (up to ±70 degrees) was observed and linked to horizontal current gradients produced by the tidal inlet. The preliminary findings from a second data set taken in the vicinity of the macrotidal Columbia River Mouth will also be presented. Compared to the first data set, a similar degree of variability is observed here, but the processes responsible for this are present at a much larger scale. Specifically, the Columbia River Mouth observations were made in the presence of significant swell wave energy and during periods of very high estuarine discharge. The relative angle between the wind and swell direction is expected to be significant with regards to the observed momentum flux. Also, these

  15. Major disruption process in tokamak

    Kurita, Gen-ichi; Azumi, Masafumi; Tuda, Takashi; Takizuka, Tomonori; Tsunematsu, Toshihide; Tokuda, Shinji; Itoh, Kimitaka; Takeda, Tatsuoki

    1981-11-01

    The major disruption in a cylindrical tokamak is investigated by using the multi-helicity code, and the destabilization of the 3/2 mode by the mode coupling with the 2/1 mode is confirmed. The evolution of the magnetic field topology caused by the major disruption is studied in detail. The effect of the internal disruption on the 2/1 magnetic island width is also studied. The 2/1 magnetic island is not enhanced by the flattening of the q-profile due to the internal disruption. (author)

  16. 42 Variability Bugs in the Linux Kernel

    Abal, Iago; Brabrand, Claus; Wasowski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Feature-sensitive verification pursues effective analysis of the exponentially many variants of a program family. However, researchers lack examples of concrete bugs induced by variability, occurring in real large-scale systems. Such a collection of bugs is a requirement for goal-oriented research...... provide self-contained simplified C99 versions of the bugs, facilitating understanding and tool evaluation. Our study provides insights into the nature and occurrence of variability bugs in a large C software system, and shows in what ways variability affects and increases the complexity of software bugs....

  17. Epigenetic differences in monozygotic twins discordant for major depressive disorder.

    Malki, K; Koritskaya, E; Harris, F; Bryson, K; Herbster, M; Tosto, M G

    2016-06-14

    Although monozygotic (MZ) twins share the majority of their genetic makeup, they can be phenotypically discordant on several traits and diseases. DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism that can be influenced by genetic, environmental and stochastic events and may have an important impact on individual variability. In this study we explored epigenetic differences in peripheral blood samples in three MZ twin studies on major depressive disorder (MDD). Epigenetic data for twin pairs were collected as part of a previous study using 8.1-K-CpG microarrays tagging DNA modification in white blood cells from MZ twins discordant for MDD. Data originated from three geographical regions: UK, Australia and the Netherlands. Ninety-seven MZ pairs (194 individuals) discordant for MDD were included. Different methods to address non independently-and-identically distributed (non-i.i.d.) data were evaluated. Machine-learning methods with feature selection centered on support vector machine and random forest were used to build a classifier to predict cases and controls based on epivariations. The most informative variants were mapped to genes and carried forward for network analysis. A mixture approach using principal component analysis (PCA) and Bayes methods allowed to combine the three studies and to leverage the increased predictive power provided by the larger sample. A machine-learning algorithm with feature reduction classified affected from non-affected twins above chance levels in an independent training-testing design. Network analysis revealed gene networks centered on the PPAR-γ (NR1C3) and C-MYC gene hubs interacting through the AP-1 (c-Jun) transcription factor. PPAR-γ (NR1C3) is a drug target for pioglitazone, which has been shown to reduce depression symptoms in patients with MDD. Using a data-driven approach we were able to overcome challenges of non-i.i.d. data when combining epigenetic studies from MZ twins discordant for MDD. Individually, the studies yielded

  18. Affect, Reason, and Persuasion: Advertising Strategies That Predict Affective and Analytic-Cognitive Responses.

    Chaudhuri, Arjun; Buck, Ross

    1995-01-01

    Develops and tests hypotheses concerning the relationship of specific advertising strategies to affective and analytic cognitive responses of the audience. Analyses undergraduate students' responses to 240 advertisements. Demonstrates that advertising strategy variables accounted substantially for the variance in affective and analytic cognition.…

  19. Parental History of Diabetes, Positive Affect, and Diabetes Risk in Adults: Findings from MIDUS.

    Tsenkova, Vera K; Karlamangla, Arun S; Ryff, Carol D

    2016-12-01

    Family history of diabetes is one of the major risk factors for diabetes, but significant variability in this association remains unexplained, suggesting the presence of important effect modifiers. To our knowledge, no previous work has examined whether psychological factors moderate the degree to which family history of diabetes increases diabetes risk. We investigated the relationships among parental history of diabetes, affective states (positive affect, negative affect, and depressed affect), and diabetes in 978 adults from the MIDUS 2 national sample. As expected, parental history of diabetes was associated with an almost threefold increase in diabetes risk. We found a significant interaction between positive affect and parental history of diabetes on diabetes (p = .009): higher positive affect was associated with a statistically significant lower relative risk for diabetes in participants who reported having a parental history of diabetes (RR = .66 per unit increase in positive affect; 95 % CI = .47; .93), but it did not influence diabetes risk for participants who reported no parental history of diabetes (p = .34). This pattern persisted after adjusting for an extensive set of health and sociodemographic covariates and was independent of negative and depressed affect. These results suggest that psychological well-being may protect individuals at increased risk from developing diabetes. Understanding such interactions between non-modifiable risk factors and modifiable psychological resources is important for delineating biopsychosocial pathways to diabetes and informing theory-based, patient-centered interventions to prevent the development of diabetes.

  20. Major gene mutations in fruit tree domestication

    Spiegel-Roy, P.

    1989-01-01

    Though fruit gathering from the wild began long before domestication, fruit tree domestication started only after the establishment of grain agriculture. Banana, fig, date, grape and olive were among the first fruit trees domesticated. Most fruit trees are outbreeders, highly heterozygous and vegetatively propagated. Knowledge of genetics and economic traits controlled by major genes is limited. Ease of vegetative propagation has played a prominent part in domestication; advances in propagation technology will play a role in domestication of new crops. Changes toward domestication affected by major genes include self-fertility in peach, apricot and sour cherry, while the emergence of self-fertile almond populations is more recent and due probably to introgression from Amygdalus webbii. Self-compatibility in the sweet cherry has been attained only by pollen irradiation. A single gene controls sex in Vitis. Wild grapes are dioecious, with most domesticated cultivars hermaphrodite, and only a few females. In the papaya changes from dioecism to hermaphroditism have also occurred. Self-compatible systems have also been selected during domestication in Rubus. Changes towards parthenocarpy and seedlessness during domestication occurred in the banana, citrus, grape, fig and pineapple. In the banana, parthenocarpy is due to three complementary dominant genes; stenospermocarpy in the grape depends on two complementary recessive genes; parthenocarpy and sterility in citrus seems more complicated; however, it can be induced in genetic material of suitable background with ease by irradiation. Presence of persistent syconia in the fig is controlled by a mutant allele P dominant to wild +. Thornlessness in blackberry is recessive, while in the pineapple spineless forms are dominant. Changes affecting fruit composition owing to major genes include the disappearance of amygdalin present in bitter almonds (bitter kernel recessive to sweet), shell hardness in almond, and a recessive