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Sample records for major technical option

  1. Technical note An investigation of the franchising option for water ...

    Technical note An investigation of the franchising option for water services operation ... of water services, and outlines the need to formulate a franchise model that ... made available to emerging entrepreneurs as the basis of a viable business.

  2. Solar energy options: Technical economic analysis

    Visentin, R

    1982-01-01

    A general system approach on the earth suggests the conversion and distribution of solar energy as electricity, gas, solid and liquid fuels; the historical trend in energy management techniques is in favour of this hard technical proposal, because experience there exists on methods of transmission or transportation of previous kinds of energy vectors mentioned, and small changes in lifestyles toward energy conservation have to be considered in the final uses of the energy. Less hard system technologies will permit direct heat and electricity production close to the channels of energy consumptions; these systems will function as energy savers and their full exploitation implies greater impacts on energy use and lifestyles. As a general trend for government policies as well as for public decision impact on the social decision process, the proliferation of solar systems would permit to produce energy for the 'flowing energetic consumptions' (civil, transportation, agriculture, telecommunications, lighting, etc.) while the not renewable fuels could be properly invested in the production of strategic or durable materials; in this scheme the role of renewable resources is well defined to stabilize the whole civil system in which we are at present organized.

  3. Technical options for the remediation of contaminated groundwater

    1999-06-01

    This report provides a description of the nature and extent of problems related to radioactive groundwater contamination by outlining the environmental impacts, the sources of contamination and the contaminants of concern radionuclides and their associated contaminants - the main exposure pathways and transport processes and the assessment of risks associated with contaminated groundwater. The main emphasis of this report is on methodologies used in groundwater remediation and available technologies. The methodology section outlines the importance of an initial scoping analysis including the evaluation of uncertainties of the available data and the necessity for defining clear objectives for data collection. This is then followed by comprehensive site characterization, setting of goals and developing alternatives which will be analysed in detail. Available technologies are grouped generally into in situ methods aiming at a containment of the contaminants in place and engineered treatment methods involving an alteration of groundwater flow, quantity and/or quality to achieve compliance with set goals. Groundwater remediation by natural flushing allows the natural groundwater movement and geochemical processes to decrease the contaminant concentrations to acceptable levels over a specified period of time. This method is increasingly accepted in areas where the use of groundwater can be temporarily restricted or engineered cleanup methods do not offer particular advantage over the natural processes. The application of technological methods for remediating contaminated groundwaters has to be considered in conjunction with management options such as diversion and development of alternative water sources. The experience with groundwater contamination accrued in IAEA Member States is concentrated in those countries with active uranium mining and milling facilities and nuclear energy programmes. This experience is reported in the Annexes, which include case studies. It

  4. Technical options for the remediation of contaminated groundwater

    1999-06-01

    This report provides a description of the nature and extent of problems related to radioactive groundwater contamination by outlining the environmental impacts, the sources of contamination and the contaminants of concern radionuclides and their associated contaminants - the main exposure pathways and transport processes and the assessment of risks associated with contaminated groundwater. The main emphasis of this report is on methodologies used in groundwater remediation and available technologies. The methodology section outlines the importance of an initial scoping analysis including the evaluation of uncertainties of the available data and the necessity for defining clear objectives for data collection. This is then followed by comprehensive site characterization, setting of goals and developing alternatives which will be analysed in detail. Available technologies are grouped generally into in situ methods aiming at a containment of the contaminants in place and engineered treatment methods involving an alteration of groundwater flow, quantity and/or quality to achieve compliance with set goals. Groundwater remediation by natural flushing allows the natural groundwater movement and geochemical processes to decrease the contaminant concentrations to acceptable levels over a specified period of time. This method is increasingly accepted in areas where the use of groundwater can be temporarily restricted or engineered cleanup methods do not offer particular advantage over the natural processes. The application of technological methods for remediating contaminated groundwaters has to be considered in conjunction with management options such as diversion and development of alternative water sources. The experience with groundwater contamination accrued in IAEA Member States is concentrated in those countries with active uranium mining and milling facilities and nuclear energy programmes. This experience is reported in the Annexes, which include case studies. It

  5. Assessment of major technical hazards in the insurance business

    Huppmann, H.

    1981-01-01

    Major technical hazards are covered by means of demand premium rates and subjective corrections according to the degree of innovation and different environmental impacts. The insurer compensates remaining risks by compensatory payments or he moderates them at least in their effects. (DG) [de

  6. A study on the regulatory approach of major technical issues

    Chang, Keun Sun; Choi, J. T.; Kim, I. J. [Sunmoon Univ., Asan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, S. H.; Baek, W. P.; Yang, S. H. [Korea Association for Nuclear Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-06-15

    This project is to provide the regulatory direction of 4 major technical issues for the Korean Next Generation Reactors, which are parts of major technical issues resulted from the safety regulation R and D on the KNGR. The outstanding results are as follows : reliability of risk significant SSCs established during design stage must be maintained through the operating life of the plant, currently used classification method of plant conditions and safety requirement were reviewed, and a quantitative classification method is needed to be developed further, the basic regulatory directions are proposed for multiple failures such as SBO, TLOFW, multiple SGTR and ATWS, safety requirements are proposed for survivability/availability of severe accident mitigation design features by 5 items if basic requirements, selection of initial event, identification of available equipment and instruments, identification of environmental conditions and verification methods.

  7. Technical Assessments of Future European Space Transportation Options

    Sippel, Martin; van Foreest, Arnold; Dutheil, Jean-Philippe; Philip, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The paper describes some of the most recent activities in Germany in the technical assessment of future European launcher architecture. In focus is a joint effort of DLR-SART with German launcher industry in the definition of a next generation upper-medium class expendable TSTO with an initial operational capability after 2020. Involved companies are EADS astrium and MT Aerospace. This DLR-agency funded study WOTAN investigates fully cryogenic launchers as well as those with a com...

  8. The $2000 Electric Powertrain Option-1 Program. Final technical report

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    This report describes the tasks accomplished as part of Northrop Grumman's TRP $2000 Electric Powertrain Option-1 program. Northrop Grumman has strived to achieve technology advances and development considered as high priority to the success of future electric vehicles. Northrop Grumman has achieved the intent of the program by taking several steps toward reducing the cost of the electric vehicle powertrain, demonstrating technologies in the form of hardware and introducing enhancements into production that are consistent with the needs of the market.

  9. A study on the regulatory approach of major technical issues

    Chang, Keun Sun; Oh, S. H.; Kang, H. J.; Kim, G. S. [Sunmoon Univ., Asan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, S. H.; Baek, W. P.; Yang, S. H.; Jeong, Y. H. [Korea Association for Nuclear Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-15

    This project is to provide the regulatory direction of 4 major technical issues for the Korean Next Generation Reactors, which are parts of major technical issues resulted from the safety regulation R and D on the KNGR. The outstanding results are are as follows : related to the classification and acceptance criteria of plant conditions, currently used classification and safety requirement were reviewed and regulatory direction was proposed. Among multiple failures, it is identified that SBO, TLOFW, multiple SGTR and ATWS are basically to be considered for additional requirements for advanced reactors. This study reviewed risk aspects, design consideration, and trends of safety requirements, and proposed fundamental safety requirements to be applied for KNGR. Multiple steam generator tube failure is a significant safety concern because of the possibility of release of radionuclides to the environment through containment bypass. Proposed safety requirement for this event can be categorized mainly as analysis requirement, design evaluation requirement and PSA requirement; For protection of containment failure, a reasonable safety position is necessary through and integrated review of possibility of severe accident occurrence, effects of sever accident mitigation features and cost effects of these design features. With this consideration safety requirements developed are the analysis requirement, provision of protective measures and survivability/availability of protective measures.

  10. An investigation of dematerialization planning options at tourism destinations: Technical and behavioural dimensions

    Kelly, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this dissertation is to develop a conceptual framework and associated methods for evaluating alternative tourism planning strategies in terms of dematerialization and acceptability amongst tourists. Its objectives are to (1) examine the technical potential of dematerialization planning options in tourism destinations, (2) investigate tourist perspectives concerning destination planning alternatives that promote dematerialization, (3) assess the travel market responses and demateri...

  11. Low cost options for tissue culture technology in developing countries. Proceedings of a technical meeting

    2004-02-01

    Tissue culture technology is used for the production of doubled haploids, cryopreservation, propagating new plant varieties, conserving rare and endangered plants, difficult-to-propagate plants, and to produce secondary metabolites and transgenic plants. The production of high quality planting material of crop plants and fruit trees, propagated from vegetative parts, has created new opportunities in global trading, benefited growers, farmers, and nursery owners, and improved rural employment. However, there are still major opportunities to produce and distribute high quality planting material, e.g. crops like banana, date palm, cassava, pineapple, plantain, potato, sugarcane, sweet potato, yams, ornamentals, fruit and forest trees. The main advantage of tissue culture technology lies in the production of high quality and uniform planting material that can be multiplied on a year-round basis under disease-free conditions anywhere irrespective of the season and weather. However, the technology is capital, labor and energy intensive. Although, labor is cheap in many developing countries, the resources of trained personnel and equipment are often not readily available. In addition, energy, particularly electricity, and clean water are costly. The energy requirements for tissue culture technology depend on day temperature, day-length and relative humidity, and they have to be controlled during the process of propagation. Individual plant species also differ in their growth requirements. Hence, it is necessary to have low cost options for weaning, hardening of micropropagated plants and finally growing them in the field. This publication describes options for reducing costs to establish and operate tissue culture facilities and primarily focus on plant micropropagation. It includes papers on the basics of tissue culture technology, low cost options for the design of laboratories, use of culture media and containers, energy and labor saving, integration and adoption of

  12. Low cost options for tissue culture technology in developing countries. Proceedings of a technical meeting

    NONE

    2004-02-01

    Tissue culture technology is used for the production of doubled haploids, cryopreservation, propagating new plant varieties, conserving rare and endangered plants, difficult-to-propagate plants, and to produce secondary metabolites and transgenic plants. The production of high quality planting material of crop plants and fruit trees, propagated from vegetative parts, has created new opportunities in global trading, benefited growers, farmers, and nursery owners, and improved rural employment. However, there are still major opportunities to produce and distribute high quality planting material, e.g. crops like banana, date palm, cassava, pineapple, plantain, potato, sugarcane, sweet potato, yams, ornamentals, fruit and forest trees. The main advantage of tissue culture technology lies in the production of high quality and uniform planting material that can be multiplied on a year-round basis under disease-free conditions anywhere irrespective of the season and weather. However, the technology is capital, labor and energy intensive. Although, labor is cheap in many developing countries, the resources of trained personnel and equipment are often not readily available. In addition, energy, particularly electricity, and clean water are costly. The energy requirements for tissue culture technology depend on day temperature, day-length and relative humidity, and they have to be controlled during the process of propagation. Individual plant species also differ in their growth requirements. Hence, it is necessary to have low cost options for weaning, hardening of micropropagated plants and finally growing them in the field. This publication describes options for reducing costs to establish and operate tissue culture facilities and primarily focus on plant micropropagation. It includes papers on the basics of tissue culture technology, low cost options for the design of laboratories, use of culture media and containers, energy and labor saving, integration and adoption of

  13. Technical and economic evaluation of controlled disposal options for very low level radioactive wastes

    Robinson, P.J.; Vance, J.N.

    1990-08-01

    Over the past several years, there has been considerable interest by the nuclear industry in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) explicitly defined an activity level in plant waste materials at which the radiological impacts would be so low as to be considered Below Regulatory Concern (BRC). In January 1989, Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) completed an extensive industry research effort to develop the technical bases for establishing criteria for the disposal of very low activity wastes in ordinary disposal facilities. The Nuclear Management and Resources Council (NUMARC), with assistance from the Edison Electric Institute (EEI) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), drafted a petition titled: ''Petition for Rulemaking Regarding Disposal of Below Regulatory Concern Radioactive Wastes from Commercial Nuclear Power Plants.'' Subsequent to the industry making a final decision for submittal of the drafted BRC petition, EPRI was requested to evaluate the technical and economic impact of six BRC options. These options are: take no action in pursuing a BRC waste exemption, petition the NRC for authorization to disposal of any BRC waste in any ordinary disposal facility, limit disposal of BRC waste to the nuclear power plant site, limit disposal of BRC waste to the nuclear power plant site and other utility owned property, petition for a mixed waste exemption, and petition for single waste stream exemptions in sequence (i.e. soil, followed by sewage sludge, etc.). The petition and technical bases were written to support the disposal of any BRC waste type in any ordinary disposal facility. These documents do not provide all of the technical and economic information needed to completely assessment the BRC options. This report provides the technical and economic basis for a range of options concerning disposal of very low activity wastes. 3 figs., 20 tabs

  14. Curbing International Piracy of Intellectual Property. Policy Options for a Major Exporting Country.

    Hoffman, Gary M.; Marcou, George T.

    This report of the International Piracy Project addresses three major topics: (1) The Costs and Complications of Piracy; (2) Rights Enforcement Today; and (3) Policy Options for Curbing Piracy. The first section discusses piracy of copyrights, patents, and other intellectual property, including economic losses and damage to the finances and…

  15. Republic of the Marshall Islands. Energy Project Development Options and Technical Assessment (2013)

    Conrad, Misty Dawn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Olis, Dan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ness, J. Erik [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Esterly, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The advancement of renewable energy and energy efficient technologies continues to be fluid. There are many technical opportunities and strategies that can be utilized to guide communities to deploy cost-effective commercial alternative energy options; however, to achieve aggressive economic, environmental, and security goals, it requires a comprehensive, integrated approach. This document reports on the initial findings of an energy assessment that was conducted for the Republic of the Marshall Islands.

  16. The future is yours--Get ready! Career options in scientific and technical fields. Revision

    1992-10-01

    This 50 page brochure was developed by Brookhaven National Laboratory to encourage high school students to begin considering careers in the scientific and technical fields. The topics of the brochure include career selection, career options, a review of training required for each occupation, a collection of profiles of BNL employees describing how they chose and prepared for their careers, a description of BNL educational programs for high school students, and profiles of some of the students participating in these programs.

  17. Review of scientific and technical options for the Superconducting Super Collider Program

    Dombeck, T.

    1993-11-01

    This document is a review of options for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) Program. It is the result of an informal study by an ad-hoc working group consisting of Laboratory physicists and engineers who investigated the physics and technical implications of a number of possible alternative SSC programs. Previous studies have shown, and early in this study it was confirmed, that a collider of approximately 20 TeV protons on 20 TeV protons with a luminosity of 10{sup 33} cm{sup {minus}2}s{sup {minus}1} at each interaction region is needed to support a physics program that is guaranteed to answer existing particle physics questions and make new discoveries. Therefore, all options considered in this document were consistent with attainment of these original goals for the SSC. One promising option considered was a program of colliding anti-protons on protons as a possible means to reduce the cost of the SSC by eliminating one of the Collider rings. However, the luminosity requirements to obtain the SSC physics goals remains the same as for protons colliding with protons and this study confirms that even though progress has been made over the last ten years in obtaining the high intensity anti-proton beams necessary, a luminosity higher than 10{sup 32} cannot be guaranteed. Other options were examined to see what advantages could be derived by departing from the SSC baseline program, either in schedule, in parameters, by staging, or by combinations of these options. Even though we considered re-examination of the cost of the baseline program to be beyond the scope of this document, differential cost savings were estimated. Finally, a brief survey of progress over the last ten years in various technical areas that might lead to more cost effective engineering designs was included in this study, such as higher magnetic field magnets resulting from lower operating temperatures or higher current-carrying superconducting materials.

  18. Review of scientific and technical options for the Superconducting Super Collider Program

    Dombeck, T.

    1993-11-01

    This document is a review of options for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) Program. It is the result of an informal study by an ad-hoc working group consisting of Laboratory physicists and engineers who investigated the physics and technical implications of a number of possible alternative SSC programs. Previous studies have shown, and early in this study it was confirmed, that a collider of approximately 20 TeV protons on 20 TeV protons with a luminosity of 10 33 cm -2 s -1 at each interaction region is needed to support a physics program that is guaranteed to answer existing particle physics questions and make new discoveries. Therefore, all options considered in this document were consistent with attainment of these original goals for the SSC. One promising option considered was a program of colliding anti-protons on protons as a possible means to reduce the cost of the SSC by eliminating one of the Collider rings. However, the luminosity requirements to obtain the SSC physics goals remains the same as for protons colliding with protons and this study confirms that even though progress has been made over the last ten years in obtaining the high intensity anti-proton beams necessary, a luminosity higher than 10 32 cannot be guaranteed. Other options were examined to see what advantages could be derived by departing from the SSC baseline program, either in schedule, in parameters, by staging, or by combinations of these options. Even though we considered re-examination of the cost of the baseline program to be beyond the scope of this document, differential cost savings were estimated. Finally, a brief survey of progress over the last ten years in various technical areas that might lead to more cost effective engineering designs was included in this study, such as higher magnetic field magnets resulting from lower operating temperatures or higher current-carrying superconducting materials

  19. Mechanism analysis on nuclear technical relocation of the major countries

    1985-12-01

    This report is about cooperation method of nuclear energy among the USA, France and Canada. So it deals with building a cooperative system on nuclear technical relocation, researching a foreign policy on nuclear energy of the USA and cooperation method and cooperation trend of Japan, Canada, Russia, China and West Germany.

  20. Cable Television: Technical Considerations in Franchising Major Market Systems.

    Pilnick, Carl

    The 1972 Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) regulations on cable television were intended to assist the penetration of cable television into the large metropolitan regions of the United States. In these major market areas, the task for developing an appropriate franchise is complicated by the changing functional nature of the cable systems…

  1. Status of feasibility study for various technical options of FBR systems

    Kani, Yoshio

    2000-01-01

    JNC (Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute) has started a new research project of feasibility studies (F/S) for a wide variety option of fast breeder reactor (FBR) and related fuel cycle in order to develop an economically competitive FBR cycle system fro commercialization. JNC and the electric untilities in Japan have established a new organization in JNC to perform the F/S since July 1, 1999. The organization has undertaken feasibility studies (F/S) in order to determine promising FBR cycle concepts and define necessary RandD tasks. The long-term targets of commercialized FBR cycle system are set as ensuring safety, economic competitiveness relative to future LWRs, efficient utilization of resources, reduction in environmental burden, and enhancement of nuclear non-proliferation. This paper describes the progress of design studies for a wide variety of technical options of FBR plants in the framework of the F/S. We make efforts towards considering all key issues so as not to fail to notice the best concept in a commercialized stage. In the study of technical options, the identified coolant types are sodium, heavy metal (lead and lead-bismuth), gas (carbon dioxide and helium ) and water (boiling water, pressurized water and supercritical water). The classified types of fuel are mixed oxide, nitride and metal. Design studies of small size modular plant concepts are also performed. We study many reactor concepts in combination with a coolant type and a fuel type, understand characteristics of each reactor concept based on our experience and an extensive survey of literature, and make a draft design of each reactor concept for rough estimation of construction costs. We also check how far the concept accomplishes each index (safety, economy, resource utilization, etc.) of design requirements, and will select several promising reactor concepts. (author)

  2. A review of technical options for solar charging stations in Asia and Africa

    R. H. Almeida

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Charging stations are an attractive solution to provide access to electricity to low income populations with low energy consumption in remote and off-grid areas. This paper reviews the state of the art of charging stations, with special focus on the technical options. Forty-five different actors in this field were analysed, based on academic publications, reports, online search and surveys. Results show that most stations are run in Sub Saharan Africa and South Asia, are powered by solar energy and although there are many different energy services targeted, the most popular services are charging batteries, mobile phones and lamps. The first charging station was installed in 1992 but most activities happen after 2005. This recent growth has been enabled by the falling cost of photovoltaic modules, learning effect, economies of scale, financial innovation, private sector involvement and worldwide dissemination of mobile phones. While in the first system the only purpose was to charge solar photovoltaic lanterns, the first multi-purpose station appeared in 2008. As expected, the technical challenges are mostly related to the use of batteries not only because they represent the component with shortest lifetime but also because if the battery is not for individual use, social questions arise due to poor definition of rights and duties of the customers. Furthermore, the development of a sustainable business model is also a challenge since this requires technical skills and system monitoring that are not usually available locally. Finally, it is also suggested that the minimum technical quality standards for charging stations should be defined and implemented.

  3. K Basin spent fuel sludge treatment alternatives study. Volume 2, Technical options

    Beary, M.M.; Honekemp, J.R.; Winters, N.

    1995-01-01

    Approximately 2100 metric tons of irradiated N Reactor fuel are stored in the KE and KW Basins at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. Corrosion of the fuel has led to the formation of sludges, both within the storage canisters and on the basin floors. Concern about the degraded condition of the fuel and the potential for leakage from the basins in proximity to the Columbia River has resulted in DOE's commitment in the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) to Milestone M-34-00-T08 to remove the fuel and sludges by a December 2002 target date. To support the planning for this expedited removal action, the implications of sludge management under various scenarios are examined. This report, Volume 2 of two volumes, describes the technical options for managing the sludges, including schedule and cost impacts, and assesses strategies for establishing a preferred path

  4. K Basin spent fuel sludge treatment alternatives study. Volume 2, Technical options

    Beary, M.M.; Honekemp, J.R.; Winters, N. [Science Applications International Corp., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Approximately 2100 metric tons of irradiated N Reactor fuel are stored in the KE and KW Basins at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. Corrosion of the fuel has led to the formation of sludges, both within the storage canisters and on the basin floors. Concern about the degraded condition of the fuel and the potential for leakage from the basins in proximity to the Columbia River has resulted in DOE`s commitment in the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) to Milestone M-34-00-T08 to remove the fuel and sludges by a December 2002 target date. To support the planning for this expedited removal action, the implications of sludge management under various scenarios are examined. This report, Volume 2 of two volumes, describes the technical options for managing the sludges, including schedule and cost impacts, and assesses strategies for establishing a preferred path.

  5. Technical progress by major task. Semiannual technical progress report, September 29, 1997 - March 29, 1998

    1998-01-01

    The technical progress achieved during the period 29 September 1997 through 29 March 1998 on Contract DE-AC03-91SF18852 Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators and Ancillary Activities is described in this report. The report is organized by program task structure: spacecraft integration and liaison; engineering support; safety; qualified unicouple production; RTG fabrication, assembly, and test; ground support equipment; RTG shipping and launch support; designs, reviews, and mission applications; project management, quality assurance, reliability, contract changes, CAGO acquisition (operating funds), and CAGO maintenance and repair

  6. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) for treating agitation in dementia (major neurocognitive disorder) - a promising option.

    Glass, Oliver M; Forester, Brent P; Hermida, Adriana P

    2017-05-01

    Agitation in patients with dementia increases caretaker burden, increases healthcare costs, and worsens the patient's quality of life. Antipsychotic medications, commonly used for the treatment of agitation in patients with dementia have a box warning from the FDA for elevated mortality risk. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has made significant advances over the past several years, and is efficacious in treating a wide range of psychiatric conditions. We provide a systematic review of published literature regarding the efficacy of ECT for the treatment of agitation in patients with dementia (major neurocognitive disorder). We searched PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar, UptoDate, Embase, and Cochrane for literature concerning ECT for treating agitation in dementia using the title search terms "ECT agitation dementia;" "ECT aggression dementia;" "ECT Behavior and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia;" and "ECT BPSD." The term "dementia" was also interchanged with "Major Neurocognitive Disorder." No time frame restriction was placed. We attempted to include all publications that were found to ensure a comprehensive review. We found 11 papers, with a total (N) of 216 patients. Limited to case reports, case series, retrospective chart review, retrospective case-control, and an open label prospective study, ECT has demonstrated promising results in decreasing agitation in patients with dementia. Patients who relapsed were found to benefit from maintenance ECT. Available studies are often limited by concomitant psychotropic medications, inconsistent use of objective rating scales, short follow-up, lack of a control group, small sample sizes, and publication bias. A future randomized controlled trial will pose ethical and methodological challenges. A randomized controlled trial must carefully consider the definition of usual care as a comparison group. Well-documented prospective studies and/or additional case series with explicit selection criteria, a wide range of outcome

  7. Technical backgrounder to CAPP input on June 14, 2002 workshop on federal climate change policy options

    2002-06-01

    This paper presents arguments regarding the Federal Discussion Paper on Climate Change which presents four options for Canada to implement the Kyoto Protocol. This paper describes some major flaws with the package. The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) believes that policy on climate change should ensure that measures for the trade exposed industry sectors are based on achievable objectives and that all levels of government should take a coordinated approach to greenhouse gases. In addition there should be no unfair burden on any region or unfairness in any sector. Climate change policy objectives should also consider economic, environmental and social objectives. With respect to the Kyoto Protocol in particular, governments should assess the liability that ratification would create and determine whether it makes economic sense. CAPP argues that none of the four options in the federal discussion paper meets requirements for industry objectives and form of policies. In addition, if Canada does not shift industry and emissions to other countries, or buy foreign credits, energy use by consumers would have to be significantly reduced in order to meet the Kyoto target. It was also noted that if the 'polluter pay' policy proposal is to be adopted, it must be based on a thorough understanding of what it implies and be applied in such a way to reflect the reality of international markets

  8. Estimate of Technical Potential for Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in 13 Major World Economies

    Letschert, Virginie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Desroches, Louis-Benoit [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ke, Jing [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McNeil, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    As part of the ongoing effort to estimate the foreseeable impacts of aggressive minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) programs in the world’s major economies, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has developed a scenario to analyze the technical potential of MEPS in 13 major economies around the world1 . The “best available technology” (BAT) scenario seeks to determine the maximum potential savings that would result from diffusion of the most efficient available technologies in these major economies.

  9. Technical/ administrative options for managing tritium MCL exceedances in P-area groundwater and Steel Creek

    Ross, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-04-01

    This white paper was requested by the Core Team (United States Department of Energy [USDOE], United States Environmental Protection Agency [USEPA], and South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control [SCDHEC]) at the P-Area Groundwater (PAGW) Operable Unit (OU) Scoping Meeting held in January 2017 to discuss recent data and potential alternatives in support of a focused Corrective Measures Study/Feasibility Study (CMS/FS). This white paper presents an overview of the problem, and a range of technical and administrative options for addressing the tritium contamination in groundwater and Steel Creek. As tritium cannot be treated practicably, alternatives are limited to media transfer, containment and natural attenuation principally relying on radioactive decay. Using other groundwater OU decisions involving tritium as precedent, Savannah River Nuclear Solutions (SRNS) recommends that final tritium alternatives be evaluated in a CMS/FS, understanding that the likely preferred remedy will include natural attenuation with land use controls (LUCs). This is based on the inability to significantly reduce tritium impact to Steel Creek using an engineered solution as compared to natural attenuation. The timing of this evaluation could be conducted concurrently with the final remedy evaluation for volatile organic compounds (VOCs).

  10. Double row spacing and drip irrigation as technical options in energy sorghum management

    Neri Roncucci

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of two row spacing configurations and four water supply levels was investigated on sweet and fibre sorghum in Central Italy for two consecutive years. Results highlighted the influence of both irrigation and row spatial configuration on crop productivity. Indeed, several studies have pointed out the positive response of sorghum to irrigation in Mediterranean climate, as in this environment water stress represents one of the main limiting factors on crop productivity. On the other hand, few attempts have been made to explore the role of row spacing on energy sorghum productivity. Results outlined an average increase in sorghum dry biomass yield ranging from +23% to +79% at variable rates of water supply as compared to rainfed control. The positive effect of irrigation was also observed on leaf area index and radiation use efficiency. Moreover, we observed a crop yield increase, from 9% to 20%, under double row spacing compared to the standard planting pattern (i.e. single row spacing. Finally, it was confirmed the efficient use of water by sorghum and the great ability of sorghum to increase its biomass yield in response to increasing volumes of water supplied. Therefore, this work suggests how row spacing configuration and drip irrigation could be feasible technical options to increase sorghum biomass yields in Mediterranean environments. These techniques should be experienced by farmers towards a sustainable intensification of current cropping systems.

  11. Assessment of the technical viability of reactor options for plutonium disposition

    Primm, R.T. III.

    1996-01-01

    Various reactor concepts for the disposition of surplus Pu have been proposed by reactor vendors; not all have attained the same level of technical viability. Studies were performed to differentiate between reactor concepts by devising a quantitative index for technical viability. For a quantitative assessment, three issues required resolution: the definition of a technical maturity scale, the treatment of ''subjective'' factors which cannot be easily represented in a quantitative format, and the protocol for producing a single technical viability figure-of-merit for each alternative. Alternatives involving the use of foreign facilities were found to be the most technically viable

  12. Risk perception of various technical options in the field of radioactive waste management

    Cameron, F.X.

    1996-01-01

    The author's group had a wide ranging discussion of risk and, at the very end of the discussion got to the question that was posed to them, which is that of risk perception of various technical options in the field of radioactive waste management. Some of the points that were made in this discussion is a reality that the group, as decision-makers, have to deal with, and it has to be treated as a reality. Secondly, the scientist looks at risk from the classic definition of ''probability times consequences'', but the public only looks at the consequences side of the equation, and too often the probability of something happening is treated as a probability of one that it will actually happen. A third problem that was identified in this area is that often the efforts to make the disposal of waste safer may contribute, in the public mind, to the fact that the risk is even more hazardous. And the last problem is that people do not trust what a decision maker is saying when he talks about the fact that there is little probability of something happening. The group then went on to a discussion of how he should try to treat risk perception. One point that was made is that voluntary acceptance of a risk is important. A second point that was made on how to deal with risk perception problems is that the group could try to put the risk of radioactive waste disposal in the perspective of other risks to society, from the chemical industry for instance. The group also talked about the possibility of putting the benefits in perspective for people. Another point was that the group should have different communications strategies for different audiences. But, the more the public is involved in the decision making process, the more comfortable they are going to be with the risk, and the more consistent the perception of risk may be with the scientific definition thereof. In terms of new technologies, new innovations on the generation and management of waste, although these may actually

  13. The Electrical Engineering Curriculum at the Technical University of Denmark - Options in Microelectronics

    Bruun, Erik; Nielsen, Lars Drud

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the modular structure of the engineering curriculum at the Technical University of Denmark. The basic requirements for an electrical engineering curriculum are presented and different possibilities for specialization in microelectronics and integrated circuit design...

  14. Municipal waste processing: Technical/economic comparison of composting and incineration options

    Bertanza, G.

    1993-01-01

    The first part of this paper which assessed the state-of-the-art of municipal waste composting and incineration technologies indicated that the advanced level of available technologies in this field now allows the realization of reliable and safe plants. This second part of the paper deals with the economics of the composting and incineration options. Cost benefit analyses using the discounted cash flow method are made for waste processing plants featuring composting alone, incineration only and mixed composting and incineration. The economic analyses show that plants employing conventional composting techniques work well for the case of exclusively organic waste materials. Incineration schemes are shown to be economically effective when they incorporate suitable energy recovery systems. The integrated composting-incineration waste processing plant appears to be the least attractive option in terms of economics. Current R ampersand D activities in this field are being directed towards the development of systems with lower environmental impacts and capital and operating costs

  15. Reactor-based management of used nuclear fuel: assessment of major options.

    Finck, Phillip J; Wigeland, Roald A; Hill, Robert N

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the current status of the ongoing Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) program in the U.S. Department of Energy that is investigating the potential for using the processing and recycling of used nuclear fuel to improve radioactive waste management, including used fuel. A key element of the strategies is to use nuclear reactors for further irradiation of recovered chemical elements to transmute certain long-lived highly-radioactive isotopes into less hazardous isotopes. Both thermal and fast neutron spectrum reactors are being studied as part of integrated nuclear energy systems where separations, transmutation, and disposal are considered. Radiotoxicity is being used as one of the metrics for estimating the hazard of used fuel and the processing of wastes resulting from separations and recycle-fuel fabrication. Decay heat from the used fuel and/or wastes destined for disposal is used as a metric for use of a geologic repository. Results to date indicate that the most promising options appear to be those using fast reactors in a repeated recycle mode to limit buildup of higher actinides, since the transuranic elements are a key contributor to the radiotoxicity and decay heat. Using such an approach, there could be much lower environmental impact from the high-level waste as compared to direct disposal of the used fuel, but there would likely be greater generation of low-level wastes that will also require disposal. An additional potential waste management benefit is having the ability to tailor waste forms and contents to one or more targeted disposal environments (i.e., to be able to put waste in environments best-suited for the waste contents and forms). Copyright © 2010 Health Physics Society

  16. Fuel cycle options for light water reactors and heavy water reactors. Proceedings of a technical committee meeting

    1999-11-01

    In the second half of the 20th century nuclear power has evolved from the research and development environment to an industry that supplies 16% of the world's electricity. By the end of 1997, over 8500 reactor-years of operating experience had been accumulated. Global environmental change, and the continuing increase in global energy supply required to provide increasing populations with an improving standard of living, make the contribution from nuclear energy even more important for the next century. For nuclear power to achieve its full potential and make its needed contribution, it must be safe, economical, reliable and sustainable. All of these factors can be enhanced by judicious choice and development of advanced fuel cycle options. The Technical Committee Meeting (TCM) on Fuel Cycle Options for Light Water Reactors and Heavy Water Reactors was hosted by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) on behalf of the Canadian Government and was jointly conducted within the frame of activities of the IAEA International Working Group on Advanced Technologies for Light Water Reactors (IWG-LWR) and the IAEA International Working Group on Advanced Technologies for Heavy Water Reactors (IWG-HWR). The TCM provided the opportunity to have in-depth discussions on important technical topics which were highlighted in the International Symposium on Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Reactor Strategies: Adjusting to New Realities, held in Vienna, 3-6 June 1997. The main results and conclusions of the TCM were presented as input for discussion at the first meeting of the IAEA newly formed International Working Group on Fuel Cycle Options

  17. Safety and man in light of the analysis of major technical accidents

    Carnino, A.

    1990-01-01

    Up to the seventies, it was not easy to admit human failure as a cause of industrial accidents. Man was considered as reliable. With the perfection of materials, technical systems and industrial processes though, man has become the weakest link in the chain of technical events. He is and stays a remarkably reliable being, with a roughly estimated average failure quota of 1:1000 manipulations. If the hypothetical risk should be kept very low, this value can become a problem. Instead of judging a mistake as a punishable crime, as the present tendency will have it, a more differentiated, systematical approach is called for. By means of an analysis of four major accidents - Chernobyl, Three Mile Island, Challenger and Bhopal - interesting parallels between the causes of such accidents can be found. Human failure, e.g. of a surgeon, is in most cases, the direct cause of an accident. A whole series of further causes, which can be assigned to different areas of influence but are usually interdependent, also play a role. While the human factor must be viewed as more or less predetermined, far reaching improvements can be made to reduce the risk of accident. Today, thanks to modern technology and new findings, it is possible to practically neutralize human error. This creates more costs and necessitates giving up short term production maximization. It also requires the willingness to give safety absolute priority. The name 'culture de surete' (safety culture) is used to describe this concept. Surprising similarities between the causes of the four mentioned major accidents were discovered. Certain circumstances, such as the time of day, played a role. The concept of a plant, resp. technical process has an essential influence, as well as company policy (importance of safety, preparation of emergency procedures, training, maintenance, company rules) and management (evaluation and realization of foreign and the company's own operation experiences and error alarms). (author) 7

  18. Early site reviews for nuclear power facilities: procedures and possible technical review options. Draft

    1978-02-01

    The document provides guidance for utility companies, State and other governmental agencies, and others who may request or may wish to participate in an early review of site suitability issues related to a site proposed for a nuclear power or test reactor. Although the emphasis of this document is on a nuclear electric generating station, the guidance provided can be used for a test reactor or other kinds of reactors. The procedures to be followed by applicants for construction permits and by others are described and the possible significant areas of technical review are delineated

  19. Comparison of duloxetine and SSRI as a treatment option of painful physical symptoms associated with major depressive disorder

    Haider M

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Miqdad Haider,1 Muhammad Nabeel Shafqat2 1Department of Medicine, Fatima Memorial Hospital, Fatima Memorial College of Medicine and Dentistry, Lahore, Pakistan; 2Department of Medicine, University of Medical Sciences “Serafin Ruiz de Zarate” Villa Clara (UCMVC, Villa Clara, CubaWe would like to write about the recently published article “An observational study of duloxetine versus selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs monotherapy for the treatment of painful physical symptoms in Japanese patients with major depressive disorder: primary analysis” by Kuga et al, which we read with great interest.1 The study is a good step toward finding the best treatment option for painful physical symptoms (PPSs in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD.View the original paper by Kuga and colleagues. 

  20. An Approach to Tailoring Major Technical Reviews Based on Project Characteristics and Stakeholder Interests

    Richstein, Alan B.; Nolte, Jerome T.; Pfarr, Barbara B.

    2004-01-01

    There are numerous technical reviews that occur throughout the systems engineering process life cycle. Many are well known by project managers and stakeholders such as developers and end users, an example of much is the critical design review (CDR). This major milestone for a large, complex new project may last two or more days, include an extensive agenda of topics, and entail hundreds of hours of developer time to prepare presentation materials and associated documents. Additionally, the weeks of schedule spent on review preparation is at least partly at the expense of other work. This paper suggests an approach for tailoring technical reviews, based on the project characteristics and the project manager s identification of the key stakeholders and understanding of their most important issues and considerations. With this insight the project manager can communicate to, manage expectations oc and establish formal agreement with the stakeholders as to which reviews, and at what depth, are most appropriate to achieve project success. The authors, coming from diverse organizations and backgrounds, have drawn on their personal experiences and summarized the best practices of their own organizations to create a common framework to provide guidance on the adaptation of design reviews to other system engineers.

  1. Glass melter materials technical options for the French vitrification process and operations experience authors

    Bonniaud, R.; Roznad, L.; Demay, R.

    1986-09-01

    The French vitrification process for solidifying high-level radioactive waste which has been under industrial application since 1978, is mentioned briefly. This technique involves glass melting at 1,150 deg.C, using an induction heated metallic vessel. The molten glass pouring is controlled by a thermal gate, which is also heated by induction. Two types of vessel are in use. Both are remotely removable and disposable to permit replacement at regular intervals. The technical criteria (the materials used have to meet) are described. The behaviour of the materials has been investigated using the industrial experience gained in the AVM facility during 8 years of operation, as well as with operation of a prototype for the new vitrification facilities under construction at La Hague. A short description of the use of these materials is also presented

  2. Technical evaluation of major candidate blanket systems for fusion power reactor

    Tone, Tatsuzo; Seki, Masahiro; Minato, Akio

    1987-03-01

    The key functions required for tritium breeding blankets for a fusion power reactor are: (1) self-sufficient tritium breeding, (2) in-situ tritium recovery and low tritium inventory, (3) high temperature cooling giving a high efficiency of electricity generation and (4) thermo-mechanical reliability and simplified remote maintenance to obtain high plant availability. Blanket performance is substantially governed by materials selection. Major options of structure/breeder/coolant/neutron multiplier materials considered for the present design study are PCA/Li 2 O/H 2 O/Be, Mo-alloy/Li 2 O/He/Be, Mo-alloy/LiAlO 2 /He/Be, V-alloy/Li/Li/none, and Mo-alloy/Li/He/none. In addition, remote maintenance of blankets, tritium recovery system, heat transport and energy conversion have been investigated. In this report, technological problems and critical R and D issues for power reactor blanket development are identified and a comparison of major candidate blanket concepts is discussed in terms of the present materials data base, economic performance, prospects for future improvements, and engineering feasibility and difficulties based on the results obtained from individual design studies. (author)

  3. Macro economic linkages and impacts. Technical and fiscal options in GHG abatement

    Backus, G.; Barker, T.

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the main macro economic linkages and feedbacks associated with policies for GHG abatement. The linkages in a global model are described when OECD carbon taxes or alternatively OECD/OPEC joint action raises world oil prices with a smaller OECD carbon tax. The results give a world perspective on the GHG abatement problem. The paper continues with a discussion of the linkages and feedbacks associated with three options: demand-side management (DSM), mainly to improve end-use energy efficiency, reductions in subsidies of fossil fuel production and use, and investment in renewable energy supplies, specifically in energy forestry and associated infrastructure. It concludes that DSM and investment in renewables are unlikely on their own to bring about reduction in GHG emissions, and that new supplies may even lead to increased emissions by driving down the price of energy. However, reductions in emissions may be compatible with increased efficiency and development, as well as with improvements in the quality of the local environment and in rural living, with the new supplies replacing fossil fuel supplies, provided that real fossil fuel prices are increased via removal of subsidies and if required carbon taxes. (au) 15 refs

  4. Assessment of the energy requirements and selected options facing major consumers within the Egyptian industrial and agricultural sectors. Final report

    1978-05-31

    The objectives of the energy assessment study of Egypt are to develop an understanding of the current status of the principal energy users in Egypt's industrial and agricultural sectors; to estimate the energy demand and efficiency for each selected subsector within these major sectors; to identify opportunities for fuel type changes, technology switches, or production pattern changes which might increase the efficiency with which Egypt's energy is used both now and in the future: and based on options identified, to forecast energy efficiencies for selected Egyptian subsectors for the years 1985 and 2000. Study results are presented for the iron and steel, aluminium, fertilizer, chemical, petrochemical, cement, and textile industries and automotive manufacturers. Study results for drainage, irrigation, and mechanization procedures in the agricultural sector and food processing sector are also presented. (MCW)

  5. Technical risk audit method (tram): development and application to the auditing of major hazard sites

    Maddison, T.; Kirk, P.; Stansfield, R.

    1998-01-01

    The Technical Risk Audit Method (TRAM) has been developed by the UK Health and Safety Executive (UK HSE) as a risk-based auditing and inspection tool for application to Major Hazard process plant covered by the Seveso-I/Seveso-II directives. The objective of TRAM is to provide a framework in which plant inspection or audit can be undertaken and results collated. TRAM comprises a paper audit procedure and a software tool which is used to analyse the results. TRAM includes a semi-quantitative risk model, which may be used to rank risks both within and between similar facilities, using qualitative data collected during the inspection. The results of this qualitative analysis may be used to identify where inspector resources would be best deployed. To date, TRAM has been applied to a number of LPG storage and processing facilities in the UK, and the lessons learnt are being used to develop a robust version suitable for use by inspectors. The methodology will be made consistent with the risk model included in IEC 61508 'Functional safety of electrical/electronic/programmable electronic safety-related systems' to permit its application to a wide range of process plant and other hazardous facilities. (authors)

  6. The Boston Study: Analysis of a Major Metropolitan Business- and Technical-Communication Market.

    Buchholz, William J.

    1989-01-01

    Presents a year-long study of the duties, skills, and knowledge required of business- and technical-communication professionals in Boston, Massachusetts. Focuses on six categories of practice: technical communication, publishing, public relations, marketing, development, and training. Suggests that in the next decade communication practitioners…

  7. Alternative energy options

    Bennett, K.F.

    1983-01-01

    It is accepted that coal will continue to play the major role in the supply of energy to the country for the remainder of the century. In this paper, however, emphasis has been directed to those options which could supplement coal in an economic and technically sound manner. The general conclusion is that certain forms of solar energy hold the most promise and it is in this direction that research, development and implementation programmes should be directed. Tidal energy, fusion energy, geothermal energy, hydrogen energy and fuel cells are also discussed as alternative energy options

  8. Scientific Opinion on a technical file submitted by the US Authorities to support a request to list a new option among the EU import requirements for wood of Agrilus planipennis host plants

    Baker, R.; Candresse, T.; Dormannsné Simon, E.

    2011-01-01

    This document presents the scientific opinion of the Panel on Plant Health on the technical file submitted by the US Authorities to support a request to list a new option among the EU import requirements for wood of Agrilus planipennis host plants. The option under consideration is a heat treatme...

  9. Technical Evaluation Report 41: WebCT: A major shift of emphasis

    Kristine Thibeault

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation reports in this series usually feature several products at once. The current review, however, comes at a time when one of the most widely used (and expensive online learning management systems is undergoing a major change in its marketing strategy and corporate focus. WebCT is currently evolving to a new version (WebCT Vista, with much attendant discussion by distance education (DE users. The current review, as the others in this series, adds the DE student's perspective to this discussion. The review compares the existing WebCT Campus Edition with the new WebCT Vista, and examines some of the problems associated with the migration to Vista at the institutional level. A response to the report by the WebCT company is appended.

  10. Major Oil Plays in Utah and Vicinity. Quarterly Technical Progress Report

    Thomas C. Chidsey; Craig D. Morgan; Kevin McClure; Douglas A. Sprinkel; Roger L. Bon; Hellmut H. Doelling

    2003-01-01

    Utah oil fields have produced over 1.2 billion barrels (191 million m 3 ). However, the 13.7 million barrels (2.2 million m 3 ) of production in 2002 was the lowest level in over 40 years and continued the steady decline that began in the mid-1980s. The Utah Geological Survey believes this trend can be reversed by providing play portfolios for the major oil-producing provinces (Paradox Basin, Uinta Basin, and thrust belt) in Utah and adjacent areas in Colorado and Wyoming. Oil plays are geographic areas with petroleum potential caused by favorable combinations of source rock, migration paths, reservoir rock characteristics, and other factors. The play portfolios will include: descriptions and maps of the major oil plays by reservoir; production and reservoir data; case-study field evaluations; locations of major oil pipelines; identification and discussion of land-use constraints; descriptions of reservoir outcrop analogs; and summaries of the state-of-the-art drilling, completion, and secondary/tertiary techniques for each play. This report covers research activities for the sixth quarter of the project (October 1 through December 31, 2003). This work included describing outcrop analogs for the Jurassic Twin Creek Limestone and Mississippian Leadville Limestone, major oil producers in the thrust belt and Paradox Basin, respectively, and analyzing best practices used in the southern Green River Formation play of the Uinta Basin. Production-scale outcrop analogs provide an excellent view of reservoir petrophysics, facies characteristics, and boundaries contributing to the overall heterogeneity of reservoir rocks. They can be used as a ''template'' for evaluation of data from conventional core, geophysical and petrophysical logs, and seismic surveys. In the Utah/Wyoming thrust belt province, the Jurassic Twin Creek Limestone produces from subsidiary closures along major ramp anticlines where the low-porosity limestone beds are extensively fractured and sealed by

  11. Policy implications of Iran's Nuclear Deal in technical terms for the plutonium route, uranium route, covert options, inspections, monitoring and verifications

    Pinheiro, Andre Ricardo M., E-mail: andrericardopinheiro@usp.br [Universidade de São Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Naval; Guimarães, Leonam dos Santos, E-mail: leonam@eletronuclear.gov.br [Eletrobrás Termonuclear S.A. (ELETRONUCLEAR), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The present Paper addresses the policy implications of Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) known as 'Ian Nuclear Deal', implemented on 16{sup th} January of 2016 between the Iran and the P5+1 countries (the U.S., U.K. France, Germany, Russia, and China), along with the EU in technical terms to analyze the Plutonium Route, Uranium Route and the Covert options and Inspections, Monitoring and Verifications. A historical review is presented to understand how the Iranian Nuclear Program is formed. Following is shown the current nuclear facilities in Iran and its capacity to process nuclear materials. It is analyzed the impact of JCPOA in Uranium and Plutonium routes. Covert Options always will be an option, so the most sensitive impact is related to the new monitoring and verification policies that must ensure real control of illegal procedures. The main conclusion is that the deal postpones the Iran's nuclear program for more than a decade (15 years), delaying Iran's nuclear bomb time from a few months to at least one year, although there is a current latent capacity to develop a nuclear bomb in Uranium route. It also gives IAEA inspectors capability to monitor nuclear activities and prevent to possible development to a nuclear bomb. To arrive in this conclusion an extensive technical analyze of impact of JCPOA in Iran's nuclear capabilities was made to discover how effective is the deal to prevent Iran to build, or acquire a nuclear weapon. (author)

  12. Policy implications of Iran's Nuclear Deal in technical terms for the plutonium route, uranium route, covert options, inspections, monitoring and verifications

    Pinheiro, Andre Ricardo M.

    2017-01-01

    The present Paper addresses the policy implications of Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) known as 'Ian Nuclear Deal', implemented on 16 th January of 2016 between the Iran and the P5+1 countries (the U.S., U.K. France, Germany, Russia, and China), along with the EU in technical terms to analyze the Plutonium Route, Uranium Route and the Covert options and Inspections, Monitoring and Verifications. A historical review is presented to understand how the Iranian Nuclear Program is formed. Following is shown the current nuclear facilities in Iran and its capacity to process nuclear materials. It is analyzed the impact of JCPOA in Uranium and Plutonium routes. Covert Options always will be an option, so the most sensitive impact is related to the new monitoring and verification policies that must ensure real control of illegal procedures. The main conclusion is that the deal postpones the Iran's nuclear program for more than a decade (15 years), delaying Iran's nuclear bomb time from a few months to at least one year, although there is a current latent capacity to develop a nuclear bomb in Uranium route. It also gives IAEA inspectors capability to monitor nuclear activities and prevent to possible development to a nuclear bomb. To arrive in this conclusion an extensive technical analyze of impact of JCPOA in Iran's nuclear capabilities was made to discover how effective is the deal to prevent Iran to build, or acquire a nuclear weapon. (author)

  13. An analysis of the major challenges and obstacles for international technical cooperation in health, Brazil-Mozambique.

    Pereira, Eduardo Mazzaroppi Barao

    2017-07-01

    Health has become a priority issue on the agenda in relation to Brazilian international technical cooperation in the last decade. This applies to Mozambique which is a strategic partner of Brazil's when one takes into consideration the volume of projects that have been undertaken between the two countries and the available resources on offer. There has been a shift in the foreign policy paradigm which has resulted in a new Brazilian foreign policy posture that promotes bilateral agreements and international cooperation. On conducting a retrospective and current analysis it is clear that there are, however, major obstacles and challenges for bilateral agreements and technical international cooperation that require in-depth study and which need to be dealt with in the area of health. This paper seeks to identify and analyze these obstacles with a view to providing proposals for ways forward. It takes the approach of using the methodology of reviewing specialized journals on this topic as well as using qualitative research from the main actors and institutions involved in bilateral cooperation.

  14. Main technical options of the Jules Horowitz reactor project to achieve high flux performances and high safety level

    Ballagny, A.; Bergamaschi, Y.; Bouilloux, Y.; Bravo, X.; Guigon, B.; Rommens, M.; Tremodeux, P.

    2003-01-01

    Since the shutdown of the SILOE reactor in 1997, the OSIRIS reactor has ensured the needs regarding technological irradiation at CEA including those of its industrial partners and customers. The Jules Horowitz Reactor will replace it and will offer a quite larger experimental field. It has the ambition to provide the necessary nuclear data and to maintain a fission research capability in Europe after 2010. The Jules Horowitz Reactor will represent a significant step in terms of performances and experimental capabilities. This paper will present the main design option resulting from the preliminary studies. The choice of the specific power around 600 kW/I for the reference core configuration is a key decision to ensure the required flux level. Consequently many choices have to be made regarding the materials used in the core and the fuel element design. These involve many specific qualifications including codes validation. The main safety options are based on: - A safety approach based upon the defence-in-depth principle. - A strategy of generic approaches to assess experimental risks in the facility. - Internal events analysis taking into account risks linked to reactor and experiments (e.g., radioactive source-term). - Systematic consideration of external hazards (e.g., earthquake, airplane crash) and internal hazards. - Design of containment to manage and mitigate a severe reactor accident (consideration of 'BORAX' accident, according to french safety practice for MTRs, beyond design basis reactivity insertion accident, involving core melting and core destruction phenomena). (authors)

  15. Main technical options of the Jules Horowitz Reactor project to achieve high flux performances and high safety level

    Ballagny, A.; Bergamaschi, Y.; Bouilloux, Y.; Bravo, X.; Guigon, B.; Rommens, M.; Tremodeux, P.

    2003-01-01

    Since the shutdown of the SILOE reactor in 1997, the OSIRIS reactor has ensured the needs regarding technological irradiation at CEA including those of its industrial partners and customers. The Jules Horowitz Reactor will replace it and will offer a quite larger experimental field. It has the ambition to provide the necessary nuclear data and to maintain a fission research capability in Europe after 2010. The Jules Horowitz Reactor will represent a significant step in terms of performances and experimental capabilities. This paper will present the main design option resulting from the preliminary studies. The choice of the specific power around 600 KW/l for the reference core configuration is a key decision to ensure the required flux level. Consequently many choices have to be made regarding the materials used in the core and the fuel element design. These involve many specific qualifications including codes validation. The main safety options are based on: 1) A safety approach based upon the defence-in-depth principle. 2) A strategy of generic approaches to assess experimental risks in the facility. 3) Internal events analysis taking into account risks linked to reactor and experiments (eg., radioactive source-term). 4) Systematic consideration of external hazards (eg., earthquake, airplane crash) and internal hazards. 5) Design of containment to manage and mitigate a severe reactor accident (consideration of 'BORAX' accident, according to french safety practice for MTRs, beyond design basis reactivity insertion accident, involving core melting and core destruction phenomena). (author)

  16. Portal Vein Embolization as an Oncosurgical Strategy Prior to Major Hepatic Resection: Anatomic, Surgical and Technical Considerations for Successful Outcomes

    Sonia Tewani Orcutt

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Preoperative portal vein embolization (PVE is used to extend the indications for major hepatic resection, and it has become the standard of care for selected patients with hepatic malignancies treated at major hepatobiliary centers. To date, various techniques with different embolic materials have been used with similar results in the degree of liver hypertrophy. Regardless of the specific strategy used, both surgeons and interventional radiologists must be familiar with each other’s techniques to be able to create the optimal plan for each individual patient. Knowledge of the segmental anatomy of the liver is paramount to fully understand the liver segments that need to be embolized and resected. Understanding the portal vein anatomy and the branching variations, along with the techniques used to transect the portal vein during hepatic resection, is important because these variables can affect the PVE procedure and the eventual surgical resection. Comprehension of the advantages and disadvantages of approaches to the portal venous system and the various embolic materials used for PVE is essential to best tailor the procedures for each patient and to avoid complications. Before PVE, meticulous assessment of the portal vein branching anatomy is performed with cross-sectional imaging, and embolization strategies are developed based on the patient’s anatomy. The PVE procedure consists of several technical steps, and knowledge of these technical tips, potential complications and how to avoid the complications in each step is of great importance for safe and successful PVE, and ultimately successful hepatectomy. Because PVE is used as an adjunct to planned hepatic resection, priority must always be placed on safety, without compromising the integrity of the future liver remnant, and close collaboration between interventional radiologists and hepatobiliary surgeons is essential to achieve successful outcomes.

  17. Solar heating and cooling of buildings (SHACOB) commercialization report: options and strategies. Part A. Volume II. Technical report. Final report

    1977-07-15

    The national and regional perspectives for SHACOB are presented. An overview is given of the participants in SHACOB commercialization. Economic, institutional, legal, and other barriers constraining commercialization are discussed. Various analytical models are examined which project the future extent of SHACOB use or market penetration and future SHACOB to US energy supplies under alternative government policies. The results for the baseline case (no further government action, of several market penetration models are presented. Possible ways to overcome each of the barriers are presented. Qualitative analyses are given for the various incentives. Each incentive is examined to assess its impact on barriers to SHACOB commercialization and its impact on various income and interest groups. Individual incentives are compared and combined into alternative policy strategies and options. (MHR)

  18. Intra-extramedullary drainage as an effective option for treatment of intramedullary ependymal cyst of thoracic spine: technical note.

    Landi, Alessandro; Pietrantonio, Andrea; Marotta, Nicola; Mancarella, Cristina; Delfini, Roberto

    2014-03-01

    Intramedullary neuroepithelial cysts are extremely rare and only 15 cases have been reported in the literature. Clinico-radiological features are not indicative of a specific diagnosis; for this reason, diagnosis is based mainly on the histological features. In the literature, total surgical removal is considered the treatment of choice. The risk of recurrence is higher after partial removal and in cases of occlusion of intra-extramedullary shunt. For this reason, a surgical strategy that ensures the shunt patency in case of incomplete removal of the cyst becomes a very safe option for treatment of this pathology. We report the case of a 51-year-old woman who was found to have a dorsal (D9) intramedullary neuroepithelial cyst. She underwent surgical treatment with partial removal and placement of a Nelaton drainage device (8 French) inside the intra-extramedullary shunt. The patient experienced a complete regression of preoperative symptoms and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) follow-up showed no radiological evidence of recurrence 24 months after surgical treatment. Spinal ependymal cysts show a high frequency of recurrence, especially in cases of partial removal of the cyst wall. Unfortunately, the cyst walls are often closely adherent to the spinal cord, making total removal impossible. Intra-extramedullary shunting is a viable option, although there is a high frequency of recurrence in cases of obstruction of the shunt. Placing an 8 Ch Nelaton drain between the dorsal columns is a reliable technique, especially in cases of partial removal. In fact, it allows continuous drainage of cyst fluid and subsequent resolution of symptoms, and it decreases the incidence of recurrences due to obstruction of the shunt. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Comparison between major repair and replacement options for a bridge deck life cycle assessment: A case study

    Abu Dabous Saleh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Material production, manufacturing, transportation, usage, and end of lifeprocessing are usually the main contributors defining the life cycle assessment (LCA. Bridge infrastructure is important to the economy and the society. Over their life cycle, highway bridges experience several stressors that can significantly affect their structural performance and therefore require rehabilitation. This paper discusses the life cycle analysis of bridge rehabilitation decisions and demonstrates the analysis with a case study of a bridge located in Ontario, Canada. The LCA of the bridge deck is analyzed for two rehabilitation strategies: major repair and replacement. The study focuses on evaluating the different life cycle phases of the bridge deck by assessing their carbon dioxide emission, energy consumption and cost. Also, the paper presents the impact of the different elements within each phase to identify the most contributing elements. The LCA of the bridge deck is analyzed and estimated with the aid of CES EduPack 2016 software that includes a database of more than 4000 different materials and more than 200 manufacturing processes. Analysis of the case study shows that material phase causes significant life cycle impact. The study concluded that the deck replacement yields higher environmental impact and life cycle cost compared to repairing and strengthening the deck.

  20. A combined model to assess technical and economic consequences of changing conditions and management options for wastewater utilities.

    Giessler, Mathias; Tränckner, Jens

    2018-02-01

    The paper presents a simplified model that quantifies economic and technical consequences of changing conditions in wastewater systems on utility level. It has been developed based on data from stakeholders and ministries, collected by a survey that determined resulting effects and adapted measures. The model comprises all substantial cost relevant assets and activities of a typical German wastewater utility. It consists of three modules: i) Sewer for describing the state development of sewer systems, ii) WWTP for process parameter consideration of waste water treatment plants (WWTP) and iii) Cost Accounting for calculation of expenses in the cost categories and resulting charges. Validity and accuracy of this model was verified by using historical data from an exemplary wastewater utility. Calculated process as well as economic parameters shows a high accuracy compared to measured parameters and given expenses. Thus, the model is proposed to support strategic, process oriented decision making on utility level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Energy options

    Hampton, Michael

    1999-01-01

    This chapter focuses on energy options as a means of managing exposure to energy prices. An intuitive approach to energy options is presented, and traditional definitions of call and put options are given. The relationship between options and swaps, option value and option exercises, commodity options, and option pricing are described. An end-user's guide to energy option strategy is outlined, and straight options, collars, participating swaps and collars, bull and bear spreads, and swaption are examined. Panels explaining the defining of basis risk, and discussing option pricing and the Greeks, delta hedging, managing oil options using the Black-Scholes model, caps, floors and collars, and guidelines on hedging versus speculation with options are included in the paper

  2. Recidiva pós cardiomiotomia: diagnóstico, opções técnicas e resultados Recurrence after cardiomyotomy: diagnosis, technical options and results

    Hélio Ponciano Trevenzol

    2010-03-01

    -recurrence. RESULTS: Surgical options for treatment of relapsed megaesophagus are shown in forms so varied and personal with technical details and diverse. The techniques recommended were basically: remyotomy, cardioplasty, esophagectomy and mucosectomy, including variants of these operations. CONCLUSION: The choice of technique should be individualized based on the cause of relapse, which should be thoroughly investigated preoperatively. The remyotomy represents the most feasible alternative, with lower morbidity and satisfactory results and effectiveness in the improvement of dysphagia, but with mild esophagitis in 40% and lower level of satisfaction over the years after surgery, reaching 57,1% after 20 years.

  3. Options for Tsetse Eradication in the Moist Savannah Zone of West Africa: Technical and Economic Feasibility, Phase 1 - GIS-Based Study. Programme Against African Trypanosomiasis

    2001-12-01

    This desk study was initiated with two objectives: - To examine the economic costs and benefits of a range of different sized tsetse eradication projects in the Moist Savannah Zone of West Africa (MSZ), and; - To test the hypothesis that larger tsetse control projects are more economically efficient than smaller projects in that region. The limited nature of the study precluded detailed examination of the socio-cultural and environmental issues relating to controlling trypanosomosis although these are briefly considered; nor did it aim to compare vector control with other methods of combating trypanosomosis such as the therapeutic or prophylactic use of drugs. However, by computing benefits over just 10 years an indirect comparison is made with the strategy that maintains that eradicating tsetse flies is not justified as, sooner or later, rapidly increasing population pressure will autonomously eradicate tsetse flies and hence trypanosomosis. This analysis suggests that such a strategy is not justified economically. As the basis of the economic evaluation was a study of projects in defined areas it was first necessary to iteratively examine the technical and economic issues relating to project selection and design. In this respect, the re-invasion issue was considered to be the major influence as it threatens both the sustainability and economic performance of tsetse eradication. Consequently, it was considered that the river basin was the smallest size of project that would optimise economic performance. This particular observation relates uniquely to the MSZ and may not apply to more southerly areas where fly distribution is more ubiquitous or to other parts of Africa. By basing the economic analysis on an evaluation of projects, albeit hypothetical, it was possible to use real data as the baseline database and the projects could be designed in response to actual tsetse and trypanosomosis scenarios. The group of study areas were chosen to be representative of the

  4. Trends in Connectivity Technologies and Their Socioeconomic Impacts. Final Report of the Study: Policy Options for the Ubiquitous Internet Society. Technical Report

    Cave, Jonathan; van Oranje-Nassau, Constantijn; Schindler, Helen Rebecca; Shehabi, Ala'a; Brutscher, Philipp-Bastian; Robinson, Neil

    2009-01-01

    This report is intended to inform the European Commission's DG Information Society and Media in developing its policies for the period 2010-2020. It is targeted to policymakers with expert knowledge of the field. The report summarises the work conducted in the study: "Policy Options for the Ubiquitous Internet Society". It builds on…

  5. Rehabilitation Options

    ... Speech Pathology Occupational Therapy Art Therapy Recreational therapy Neuropsychology Home Care Options Advanced Care Planning Palliative Care ... Speech Pathology Occupational Therapy Art Therapy Recreational therapy Neuropsychology Home Care Options Advanced Care Planning Palliative Care ...

  6. Unconventional options for plutonium disposition. Proceedings of a technical committee meeting held in Obninsk, Russian Federation, 7-11 November 1994

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This publication summarizes discussions and presents selected papers from a Technical Committee meeting that the IAEA convened in Obninsk, near Moscow, Russia, 7-11 November 1994 at the invitation of the Ministry of the Russian Federation on Atomic Energy, and which was hosted by the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering. The meeting focused on the disposition of plutonium produced from the operation of nuclear power plants in areas related to the nuclear fuel cycle. Plutonium is formed in all existing nuclear power plants and the unconsumed part remaining in spent fuel is a generic by-product of nuclear power generation. Over the next 15 to 20 years, a significant amount of plutonium will be produced in nuclear power stations worldwide, adding to amounts already in storage. Additionally, the world`s plutonium stocks are being affected by decisions concerning the management and utilization of plutonium recovered from nuclear weapons which are being dismantled. In this context, national strategies are directed at reducing the stockpiles of separated plutonium worldwide, and in further developing technologies capable of safely and securely using and handling plutonium. The purpose of the IAEA`s Technical Committee meeting was to consider unconventional approaches for plutonium disposition, both from the points of view of the fuel cycle as a whole and the specific types of nuclear fuel being used. The aims were to obtain technical descriptions of these approaches, engineering judgements on their technological status and development, and reports on national experience in this field. The meeting`s results and conclusions are providing valuable guidance for future activities in this subject area. Refs, figs and tabs.

  7. Unconventional options for plutonium disposition. Proceedings of a technical committee meeting held in Obninsk, Russian Federation, 7-11 November 1994

    1995-11-01

    This publication summarizes discussions and presents selected papers from a Technical Committee meeting that the IAEA convened in Obninsk, near Moscow, Russia, 7-11 November 1994 at the invitation of the Ministry of the Russian Federation on Atomic Energy, and which was hosted by the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering. The meeting focused on the disposition of plutonium produced from the operation of nuclear power plants in areas related to the nuclear fuel cycle. Plutonium is formed in all existing nuclear power plants and the unconsumed part remaining in spent fuel is a generic by-product of nuclear power generation. Over the next 15 to 20 years, a significant amount of plutonium will be produced in nuclear power stations worldwide, adding to amounts already in storage. Additionally, the world's plutonium stocks are being affected by decisions concerning the management and utilization of plutonium recovered from nuclear weapons which are being dismantled. In this context, national strategies are directed at reducing the stockpiles of separated plutonium worldwide, and in further developing technologies capable of safely and securely using and handling plutonium. The purpose of the IAEA's Technical Committee meeting was to consider unconventional approaches for plutonium disposition, both from the points of view of the fuel cycle as a whole and the specific types of nuclear fuel being used. The aims were to obtain technical descriptions of these approaches, engineering judgements on their technological status and development, and reports on national experience in this field. The meeting's results and conclusions are providing valuable guidance for future activities in this subject area. Refs, figs and tabs

  8. Summary Report of the Technical Meeting on Inelastic Scattering and Capture Cross-section Data of Major Actinides in the Fast Neutron Region

    Plompen, Arjan; Kawano, Toshihiko; Capote Noy, Roberto

    2012-05-01

    Recently, tight target uncertainties on the capture and inelastic scattering data for major actinides were derived from advanced reactor sensitivity studies. A Technical Meeting on 'Inelastic Scattering and Capture Cross-section Data of Major Actinides in the Fast Neutron Region' was held at IAEA Headquarters, Vienna, Austria to review the status of nuclear data libraries for these cross sections, the status of the experimental results by which these can be tested and to evaluate what advances in nuclear modeling and measurement technique may bring to improve the knowledge of these cross sections. The participants compared recent evaluations with various modeling approaches that have not yet been adopted in data libraries. Several points of interest were found. First, different evaluations may show very similar performance for macroscopic benchmarks. Second, recent modeling improvements from different communities and using different codes tend to converge on the principles in the case of coupled channel calculations. In particular, it was shown that meaningful results require convergence with respect to the number of coupled channels and the use of the dispersive coupled channels potential based with an isospin dependent term to treat neutrons and protons in a coherent manner appears to be uncontested. Also, the issue regarding the use of transmission coefficients from coupled channels calculations in the Hauser Feshbach model was tackled. Recent and ongoing experimental efforts were presented for capture and inelastic scattering on the major actinides. Results from these are likely to become available in a period from 2 to 5 years. A discussion on the representation of the data in EXFOR revealed that care must be taken interpreting the numbers given in the case of inelastic scattering. It has been a long time since capture data were obtained for fissile nuclei and it is exciting to find new efforts are being considered at LANL, CERN and CENBG/IRMM. It was finally

  9. Budget Options

    2000-01-01

    This volume-part of the Congressional Budget Office's (CBO's) annual report to the House and Senate Committees on the Budget-is intended to help inform policymakers about options for the federal budget...

  10. 78 FR 27963 - Reliability Technical Conference; Notice of Technical Conference

    2013-05-13

    ... Technical Conference; Notice of Technical Conference Take notice that the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission will hold a Technical Conference on Tuesday, July 9, 2013 from 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. This... technical support for webcasts and offers the option of listening to the meeting via phone-bridge for a fee...

  11. Programs of Study as a State Policy Mandate: A Longitudinal Study of the South Carolina Personal Pathways to Success Initiative. Final Technical Report: Major Findings and Implications

    Hammond, Cathy; Drew, Sam F.; Withington, Cairen; Griffith, Cathy; Swiger, Caroline M.; Mobley, Catherine; Sharp, Julia L.; Stringfield, Samuel C.; Stipanovic, Natalie; Daugherty, Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    This is the final technical report from the National Research Center for Career and Technical Education's (NRCCTE's) five-year longitudinal study of South Carolina's Personal Pathway to Success initiative, which was authorized by the state's Education and Economic Development Act (EEDA) in 2005. NRCCTE-affiliated researchers at the National…

  12. Congener-specific analysis of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in the major Chinese technical PCB formulation from a stored Chinese electrical capacitor.

    Huang, Jun; Yu, Gang; Yamauchi, Makoto; Matsumura, Toru; Yamazaki, Norimasa; Weber, Roland

    2015-10-01

    Impurity of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in commercial polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) formulations has been recognized as a relevant source of PCNs in the environment. Congener-specific analysis of most main PCB formulations has been accomplished previously, excluding the Chinese product. The insulating oil in a stored Chinese electric capacitor containing the major Chinese technical formulation "PCB3" was sampled and tested by isotope dilution technology using high-resolution gas chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). The detected concentration of PCNs in the Chinese PCB oil sample was 1,307.5 μg/g and therefore significantly higher than that reported in PCB formulations from other countries, as well as that in the transformer oil (ASKAREL Nr 1740) additionally tested in the present study for comparison. Based on the measurement, the total amount of PCNs in Chinese PCB3 oil is estimated to be 7.8 t, which would mean only 0.005 % of global production of PCNs of 150,000 t. The homolog profile is similar to those of PCN in Aroclor 1262 and Clophen A40, where the contributions from hexa-CNs and hepta-CNs are predominant and accounted for similar proportions. The Toxic Equivalent Quantity (TEQ) concentration of dioxin-like PCN congeners is 0.47 μg TEQ/g, with the dominant contributors of CN-73 and CN-66/67. This TEQ content from PCN is higher than that in most other PCB formulations with the exemption of the Russian Sovol formulation. The total TEQ in the historic 6,000 t of the Chinese PCB3 formulation is estimated to be 2.8 kg TEQ.

  13. Extracorporeal photopheresis: Review of technical aspects.

    Arora, Satyam; Setia, Rasika

    2017-01-01

    Extracorporeal photochemotherapy (ECP) is considered as an immune modulating therapy majorly targeting the T cells of the Immune system. ECP induces an anti-inflammatory condition with tolerogenic responses without inducing a global immunosuppression state which is a typical feature of other therapeutic options such as steroids. Clinical indication of ECP has grown over time since its initial applications. Our review discusses the technical aspects of the concept of photopheresis with the available methods for its clinical applications.

  14. Western Option - Disarmament of Russian Weapon Plutonium

    Tveiten, B.; Petroll, M.R.

    2002-01-01

    The Western Option concept describes an approach to the conversion of weapon-grade plutonium from Russian nuclear warheads under the special aspects of meeting the criteria of irreversible utilization. Putting this concept of plutonium conversion into non-weapon-grade material into effect would make a major contribution to improving security worldwide. This study is based on an agreement between the Russian Federation and the United States of America concluded in September 2000. It provides for the conversion of 34 t of weapon-grade plutonium in each of the two states. This goal is also supported by other G8 countries. While the United States performs its part of the agreement under its sole national responsibility, the Russian program needs financial support by Western states. Expert groups have pointed out several options as a so-called basic scenario. The funds of approx. US Dollar 2 billion required to put them into effect have not so far been raised. The Western Option approach described in this contribution combines results of the basic scenario with other existing experience and with technical solutions available for plutonium conversion. One of the attractions of the Western Option lies in its financial advantages, which are estimated to amount to approx. US Dollar 1 billion. (orig.) [de

  15. Nevada Transportation Options Study

    P. GEHNER; E.M. WEAVER; L. FOSSUM

    2006-01-01

    This study performs a cost and schedule analysis of three Nevada Transportation options that support waste receipt at the repository. Based on the U.S. Department of Energy preference for rail transportation in Nevada (given in the Final Environmental Impact Statement), it has been assumed that a branch rail line would be constructed to support waste receipt at the repository. However, due to potential funding constraints, it is uncertain when rail will be available. The three Nevada Transportation options have been developed to meet a varying degree of requirements for transportation and to provide cost variations used in meeting the funding constraints given in the Technical Direction Letter guidelines for this study. The options include combinations of legal-weight truck, heavy-haul truck, and rail. Option 1 uses a branch rail line that would support initial waste receipt at the repository in 2010. Rail transportation would be the primary mode, supplemented by legal weight trucks. This option provides the highest level of confidence in cost and schedule, lowest public visibility, greatest public acceptability, lowest public dose, and is the recommended option for support of waste receipt. The completion of rail by 2010 will require spending approximately $800 million prior to 2010. Option 2 uses a phased rail approach to address a constrained funding scenario. To meet funding constraints, Option 2 uses a phased approach to delay high cost activities (final design and construction) until after initial waste receipt in 2010. By doing this, approximately 95 percent of the cost associated with completion of a branch rail line is deferred until after 2010. To support waste receipt until a branch rail line is constructed in Nevada, additional legal-weight truck shipments and heavy-haul truck shipments (on a limited basis for naval spent nuclear fuel) would be used to meet the same initial waste receipt rates as in Option 1. Use of heavy-haul shipments in the absence

  16. Options Study - Phase II

    R. Wigeland; T. Taiwo; M. Todosow; W. Halsey; J. Gehin

    2010-09-01

    The Options Study has been conducted for the purpose of evaluating the potential of alternative integrated nuclear fuel cycle options to favorably address the issues associated with a continuing or expanding use of nuclear power in the United States. The study produced information that can be used to inform decisions identifying potential directions for research and development on such fuel cycle options. An integrated nuclear fuel cycle option is defined in this study as including all aspects of the entire nuclear fuel cycle, from obtaining natural resources for fuel to the ultimate disposal of used nuclear fuel (UNF) or radioactive wastes. Issues such as nuclear waste management, especially the increasing inventory of used nuclear fuel, the current uncertainty about used fuel disposal, and the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation have contributed to the reluctance to expand the use of nuclear power, even though it is recognized that nuclear power is a safe and reliable method of producing electricity. In this Options Study, current, evolutionary, and revolutionary nuclear energy options were all considered, including the use of uranium and thorium, and both once-through and recycle approaches. Available information has been collected and reviewed in order to evaluate the ability of an option to clearly address the challenges associated with the current implementation and potential expansion of commercial nuclear power in the United States. This Options Study is a comprehensive consideration and review of fuel cycle and technology options, including those for disposal, and is not constrained by any limitations that may be imposed by economics, technical maturity, past policy, or speculated future conditions. This Phase II report is intended to be used in conjunction with the Phase I report, and much information in that report is not repeated here, although some information has been updated to reflect recent developments. The focus in this Options Study was to

  17. Retrieval options study

    1980-03-01

    This Retrieval Options Study is part of the systems analysis activities of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation to develop the scientific and technological bases for radioactive waste repositories in various geologic media. The study considers two waste forms, high level waste and spent fuel, and defines various classes of waste retrieval and recovery. A methodology and data base are developed which allow the relative evaluation of retrieval and recovery costs and the following technical criteria: safety; technical feasibility; ease of retrieval; probable intact retrieval time; safeguards; monitoring; criticality; and licensability. A total of 505 repository options are defined and the cost and technical criteria evaluated utilizing a combination of facts and engineering judgments. The repositories evaluated are selected combinations of the following parameters: Geologic Media (salt, granite, basalt, shale); Retrieval Time after Emplacement (5 and 25 years); Emplacement Design (nominal hole, large hole, carbon steel canister, corrosion resistant canister, backfill in hole, nominal sleeves, thick wall sleeves); Emplacement Configuration (single vertical, multiple vertical, single horizontal, multiple horizontal, vaults; Thermal Considerations; (normal design, reduced density, once-through ventilation, recirculated ventilation); Room Backfill; (none, run-of-mine, early, 5 year delay, 25 year delay, decommissioned); and Rate of Retrieval; (same as emplacement, variably slower depending on repository/canister condition).

  18. Retrieval options study

    1980-03-01

    This Retrieval Options Study is part of the systems analysis activities of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation to develop the scientific and technological bases for radioactive waste repositories in various geologic media. The study considers two waste forms, high level waste and spent fuel, and defines various classes of waste retrieval and recovery. A methodology and data base are developed which allow the relative evaluation of retrieval and recovery costs and the following technical criteria: safety; technical feasibility; ease of retrieval; probable intact retrieval time; safeguards; monitoring; criticality; and licensability. A total of 505 repository options are defined and the cost and technical criteria evaluated utilizing a combination of facts and engineering judgments. The repositories evaluated are selected combinations of the following parameters: Geologic Media (salt, granite, basalt, shale); Retrieval Time after Emplacement (5 and 25 years); Emplacement Design (nominal hole, large hole, carbon steel canister, corrosion resistant canister, backfill in hole, nominal sleeves, thick wall sleeves); Emplacement Configuration (single vertical, multiple vertical, single horizontal, multiple horizontal, vaults; Thermal Considerations; (normal design, reduced density, once-through ventilation, recirculated ventilation); Room Backfill; (none, run-of-mine, early, 5 year delay, 25 year delay, decommissioned); and Rate of Retrieval;

  19. Mixed waste management options

    Owens, C.B.; Kirner, N.P.

    1992-01-01

    Currently, limited storage and treatment capacity exists for commercial mixed waste streams. No commercial mixed waste disposal is available, and it has been estimated that if and when commercial mixed waste disposal becomes available, the costs will be high. If high disposal fees are imposed, generators may be willing to apply extraordinary treatment or regulatory approaches to properly dispose of their mixed waste. This paper explores the feasibility of several waste management scenarios and management options. Existing data on commercially generated mixed waste streams are used to identify the realm of mixed waste known to be generated. Each waste stream is evaluated from both a regulatory and technical perspective in order to convert the waste into a strictly low-level radioactive or a hazardous waste. Alternative regulatory approaches evaluated in this paper include a delisting petition) no migration petition) and a treatability variance. For each waste stream, potentially available treatment options are identified that could lead to these variances. Waste minimization methodology and storage for decay are also considered. Economic feasibility of each option is discussed broadly. Another option for mixed waste management that is being explored is the feasibility of Department of Energy (DOE) accepting commercial mixed waste for treatment, storage, and disposal. A study has been completed that analyzes DOE treatment capacity in comparison with commercial mixed waste streams. (author)

  20. Energy options?; Energie opties?

    Van Sark, W. (ed.)

    2006-05-15

    March 2006 the so-called Options Document was published by the Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN) and the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (MNP). The document is an overview of technical options to reduce energy consumption and emission of greenhouse gases up to 2020. Next to a brief summary of the document a few reactions and comments on the contents of the document are given. [Dutch] Maart 2006 publiceerde het Energieonderzoek Centrum Nederland (ECN) en het Milieu- en Natuurplanbureau (MNP) het zogenaamde Optiedocument energie en emissies 2010-2020. Daarin wordt een overzicht gegeven van de technische mogelijkheden voor vermindering van het energieverbruik en de uitstoot van broeikasgassen en luchtverontreinigende stoffen tot 2020. Naast een korte samenvatting van het document worden enkele reacties gegeven op de inhoud.

  1. Evaluating technology service options.

    Blumberg, D F

    1997-05-01

    Four service and support options are available to healthcare organizations for maintaining their growth arsenals of medical and information technology. These options include maintaining and servicing all equipment using a facility-based biomedical engineering and MIS service department; using a combination of facility-based service and subcontracted service; expanding facility-based biomedical and MIS service departments to provide service to other healthcare organizations to achieve economies of scale; and outsourcing all maintenance, repair, and technical support services. Independent service companies and original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) are offering healthcare organizations a wider array of service and support capabilities than ever before. However, some health systems have successfully developed their own independent service organizations to take care of their own--and other healthcare organizations'--service and support needs.

  2. Lighting Options for Homes.

    Baker, W.S.

    1991-04-01

    This report covers many aspects of various lighting options for homes. Types of light sources described include natural light, artificial light, incandescent lamps, fluorescent lamps, and high intensity discharge lamps. A light source selection guide gives the physical characteristics of these, design considerations, and common applications. Color, strategies for efficient lighting, and types of lighting are discussed. There is one section giving tips for various situations in specific rooms. Rooms and types of fixtures are shown on a matrix with watts saved by using the recommended type lighting for that room and room location. A major emphasis of this report is saving energy by utilizing the most suitable, recommended lighting option. (BN)

  3. Energy exotic options

    Kaminski, V.; Gibner, S.; Pinnamaneni, K.

    1999-01-01

    This chapter with 88 references focuses on the use of exotic options to control exposure to energy prices. Exotic options are defined, and the conversion of a standard option into an exotic option and pricing models are examined. Pricing and hedging exotic options, path-dependent options, multi-commodity options, options on the minimum-or-maximum of two commodities, compound options, digital options, hybrid and complex structures, and natural gas daily options are described. Formulas for option pricing for vanilla, barrier, compound, options on minimum or maximum of two assets, and look back options are given in an appendix

  4. Options theory

    Markland, J.T.

    1992-01-01

    Techniques used in conventional project appraisal are mathematically very simple in comparison to those used in reservoir modelling, and in the geosciences. Clearly it would be possible to value assets in mathematically more sophisticated ways if it were meaningful and worthwhile so to do. The DCf approach in common use has recognized limitations; the inability to select a meaningful discount rate being particularly significant. Financial Theory has advanced enormously over the last few years, along with computational techniques, and methods are beginning to appear which may change the way we do project evaluations in practice. The starting point for all of this was a paper by Black and Scholes, which asserts that almost all corporate liabilities can be viewed as options of varying degrees of complexity. Although the financial presentation may be unfamiliar to engineers and geoscientists, some of the concepts used will not be. This paper outlines, in plain English, the basis of option pricing theory for assessing the market value of a project. it also attempts to assess the future role of this type of approach in practical Petroleum Exploration and Engineering economics. Reference is made to relevant published Natural Resource literature

  5. Shungnak Energy Configuration Options.

    Rosewater, David Martin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Eddy, John P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Power systems in rural Alaska villages face a unique combination of challenges that can increase the cost of energy and lowers energy supply reliability. In the case of the remote village of Shungnak, diesel and heating fuel is either shipped in by barge or flown in by aircraft. This report presents a technical analysis of several energy infrastructure upgrade and modification options to reduce the amount of fuel consumed by the community of Shungnak. Reducing fuel usage saves money and makes the village more resilient to disruptions in fuel supply. The analysis considers demand side options, such as energy efficiency, alongside the installation of wind and solar power generation options. Some novel approaches are also considered including battery energy storage and the use of electrical home heating stoves powered by renewable generation that would otherwise be spilled and wasted. This report concludes with specific recommendations for Shungnak based on economic factors, and fuel price sensitivity. General conclusions are also included to support future work analyzing similar energy challenges in remote arctic regions.

  6. The safeguards options study

    Hakkila, E.A.; Mullen, M.F.; Olinger, C.T.; Stanbro, W.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Olsen, A.P.; Roche, C.T.; Rudolph, R.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Bieber, A.M.; Lemley, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Filby, E. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)] [and others

    1995-04-01

    The Safeguards Options Study was initiated to aid the International Safeguards Division (ISD) of the DOE Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation in developing its programs in enhanced international safeguards. The goal was to provide a technical basis for the ISD program in this area. The Safeguards Options Study has been a cooperative effort among ten organizations. These are Argonne National Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mound Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Sandia National Laboratories, and Special Technologies Laboratory. Much of the Motivation for the Safeguards Options Study is the recognition after the Iraq experience that there are deficiencies in the present approach to international safeguards. While under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards at their declared facilities, Iraq was able to develop a significant weapons program without being noticed. This is because negotiated safeguards only applied at declared sites. Even so, their nuclear weapons program clearly conflicted with Iraq`s obligations under the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) as a nonnuclear weapon state.

  7. The safeguards options study

    Hakkila, E.A.; Mullen, M.F.; Olinger, C.T.; Stanbro, W.D.; Olsen, A.P.; Roche, C.T.; Rudolph, R.R.; Bieber, A.M.; Lemley, J.; Filby, E.

    1995-04-01

    The Safeguards Options Study was initiated to aid the International Safeguards Division (ISD) of the DOE Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation in developing its programs in enhanced international safeguards. The goal was to provide a technical basis for the ISD program in this area. The Safeguards Options Study has been a cooperative effort among ten organizations. These are Argonne National Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mound Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Sandia National Laboratories, and Special Technologies Laboratory. Much of the Motivation for the Safeguards Options Study is the recognition after the Iraq experience that there are deficiencies in the present approach to international safeguards. While under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards at their declared facilities, Iraq was able to develop a significant weapons program without being noticed. This is because negotiated safeguards only applied at declared sites. Even so, their nuclear weapons program clearly conflicted with Iraq's obligations under the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) as a nonnuclear weapon state

  8. New Commitment Options: Compatibility with Emissions Trading

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This paper considers different options for quantitative greenhouse gas emission commitments from the standpoint of their technical compatibility with emissions trading. These are dynamic targets, binding targets with price caps, non-binding targets, sector-wide targets/mechanisms, action targets, allowances and endowments, and long-term permits. This paper considers these options from the standpoint of their compatibility with emissions trading.

  9. Buridan's Ass and a Menu of Options.

    Svetlana Boyarchenko

    2005-01-01

    The goal of the paper is to study how a menu of options affects decisions of a rational agent facing uncertainty over future payoff streams. Using the real options approach, we demonstrate that multiple options not only increase the barrier which the underlying stochastic variable has to reach in order investment became optimal, but cause the investor to be inactive even when the cost of investment is vanishing. As a technical contribution, the paper suggests a robust method of solution of a ...

  10. Automotive turbogenerator design options

    Rodgers, C. [ITC, San Diego, CA (United States); McDonald, C. [McDonald Thermal Engineering, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    1998-12-31

    For the small turbogenerator to find reception in the hybrid electric automotive market its major features must be dominated by the following considerations, low cost, high performance, low emissions, compact size and high reliability. Not meeting the first two criteria has been the nemesis of earlier attempts to introduce the small gas turbine for automotive service. With emphasis on the design for low cost and high performance, this paper presents several turbogenerator design flowpath configuration options for the major engine components. The projected evolution from today`s state-of-the-art all metallic engines, to advanced technology ceramic units for service in the early decade of the 21st century, is the major topic of this paper. (author)

  11. Technical Report Series on Global Modeling and Data Assimilation. Volume 32; Estimates of AOD Trends (2002 - 2012) Over the World's Major Cities Based on the MERRA Aerosol Reanalysis

    Provencal, Simon; Kishcha, Pavel; Elhacham, Emily; daSilva, Arlindo M.; Alpert, Pinhas; Suarez, Max J.

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Global Modeling and Assimilation Office has extended the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Application (MERRA) tool with five atmospheric aerosol species (sulfates, organic carbon, black carbon, mineral dust and sea salt). This inclusion of aerosol reanalysis data is now known as MERRAero. This study analyses a ten-year period (July 2002 - June 2012) MERRAero aerosol reanalysis applied to the study of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and its trends for the aforementioned aerosol species over the world's major cities (with a population of over 2 million inhabitants). We found that a proportion of various aerosol species in total AOD exhibited a geographical dependence. Cities in industrialized regions (North America, Europe, central and eastern Asia) are characterized by a strong proportion of sulfate aerosols. Organic carbon aerosols are dominant over cities which are located in regions where biomass burning frequently occurs (South America and southern Africa). Mineral dust dominates other aerosol species in cities located in proximity to the major deserts (northern Africa and western Asia). Sea salt aerosols are prominent in coastal cities but are dominant aerosol species in very few of them. AOD trends are declining over cities in North America, Europe and Japan, as a result of effective air quality regulation. By contrast, the economic boom in China and India has led to increasing AOD trends over most cities in these two highly-populated countries. Increasing AOD trends over cities in the Middle East are caused by increasing desert dust.

  12. A major safety overhaul

    2003-01-01

    A redefined policy, a revamped safety course, an environmental project... the TIS (Technical Inspection and Safety) Division has begun a major safety overhaul. Its new head, Wolfgang Weingarten, explains to the Bulletin why and how this is happening.

  13. Low activity resin processing and disposal options review

    Gardner, F.

    1996-01-01

    New processing options for low activity resin processing and disposal are available. This presentation reviews the economics and technical requirements associated with the following low activity resin processing options. (1) Bulk release resin. (2) Direct disposal. (3) Decontamination and bulk release of cleaned resin. New processing and disposal options have been developed during 1995. Commercial experience with each of these options will be reviewed and the economics associated with the processing method described in detail. Technical requirements for each option will be identified specifying the activity limits and operational requirements for implementation

  14. Process arrangement options for Defense waste immobilization

    1980-02-01

    Current plans are to immobilize the SRP high-level liquid wastes in a high integrity form. Borosilicate glass was selected in 1977 as the reference waste form and a mjaor effort is currently underway to develop the required technology. A large new facility, referred to as the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is being designed to carry out this mission, with project authorization targeted for 1982 and plant startup in 1989. However, a number of other process arrangements or manufacturing strategies, including staging the major elements of the project or using existing SRP facilities for some functions, have been suggested in lieu of building the reference DWPF. This study assesses these various options and compares them on a technical and cost basis with the DWPF. Eleven different manufacturing options for SRP defense waste solidification were examined in detail. These cases are: (1) vitrification of acid waste at current generation rate; (2) vitrification of current rate acid waste and caustic sludge; (3 and 4) vitrification of the sludge portion of neutralized waste; (5) decontamination of salt cake and storage of concentrated cesium and strontium for later immobilization; (6) processing waste in a facility with lower capacity than the DWPF; (7) processing waste in a combination of existing and new facilities; (8) waste immobilization in H Canyon; (9) vitrification of both sludge and salt; (10) DWPF with onsite storage; (11) deferred authorization of DWPF

  15. Treatment Options for Retinoblastoma

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other places in the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  16. Safety options for the 1300 MWe program

    Cayol, A.; Dupuis, M.C.; Fourest, B.; Oury, J.M.

    1980-04-01

    Standardization of the nuclear plants built in France implies an examination of the main technical safety options to be taken for a given type of reactor. By this procedure the subjects for which detailed studies will be needed to confirm the decisions made for the project can be defined in advance. In this context the technical safety option analysis for the 1300 MWe plants was conducted from the end of 1975 to the middle of 1978 according to usual regulation examination practice. The main conclusions are presented on the following subjects: safety methods; technical options concerning the containment vessel, primary fluid activity, fuel elements, steam generators; general organization of the lay-out [fr

  17. Options for rural electrification in Mexico

    Vera, J.G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes a study which examined 19 commercially available options for electrifying remote communities in Mexico. Characteristics of a typical community are defined and, using 7 of the technologies, power systems are designed capable of supporting this community. The performance of these systems is evaluated with respect to their ability to satisfy 11 technical design objectives, 5 socioeconomic objectives, and their impact on the environment. A photovoltaic- diesel generator hybrid system with wind generator option is recommended for the typical community

  18. The Gel Generator option

    Boyd, R.E.

    1999-01-01

    The development of a national policy for guaranteeing an ample supply of 99m Tc to nuclear medicine, involves issues which go beyond the means by which radioactivation is achieved. Indeed, in such an exercise the pragmatic dictates of business and the sensitivities of politics must also be taken into account. Furthermore where a preference towards the nuclear reactor or the potential of cyclotrons is being questioned, the debate is incomplete if the only options that are considered are the fission-based 99 Mo generator versus the direct cyclotron production of 99m Tc. There is a third option (also neutron γ-based), an alternative to the fission 99 Mo generator, which ought not be overlooked. The application of low specific activity (n,γ) 99 Mo to a new type of generator, the Gel Generator, has been the focus of much research, particularly in Australia and more recently in China. After the initial concept had been established in the laboratory, the Australian researchers then undertook a comprehensive program of tests on the Gel Generator to assess its potential, either in the clinical laboratory or the centralised radiopharmacy, for supplying 99m Tc suitable for nuclear medicine. The outcome of this program was a clear indication that the Gel Generator innovation had the capability to provide both technical and economic advantages to the nuclear medicine industry. These advantages are described. Since that time the Gel Generator has been selected for routine use in China where it now satisfies more than 30% of the 99m Tc demand. (author)

  19. Australian Asian Options

    Manuel Moreno; Javier F. Navas

    2003-01-01

    We study European options on the ratio of the stock price to its average and viceversa. Some of these options are traded in the Australian Stock Exchange since 1992, thus we call them Australian Asian options. For geometric averages, we obtain closed-form expressions for option prices. For arithmetic means, we use different approximations that produce very similar results.

  20. Options with Extreme Strikes

    Lingjiong Zhu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this short paper, we study the asymptotics for the price of call options for very large strikes and put options for very small strikes. The stock price is assumed to follow the Black–Scholes models. We analyze European, Asian, American, Parisian and perpetual options and conclude that the tail asymptotics for these option types fall into four scenarios.

  1. Methodology for technical risk assessment

    Waganer, L.M.; Zuckerman, D.S.

    1983-01-01

    A methodology has been developed for and applied to the assessment of the technical risks associated with an evolving technology. This methodology, originally developed for fusion by K. W. Billman and F. R. Scott at EPRI, has been applied to assess the technical risk of a fuel system for a fusion reactor. Technical risk is defined as the risk that a particular technology or component which is currently under development will not achieve a set of required technical specifications (i.e. probability of failure). The individual steps in the technical risk assessment are summarized. The first step in this methodology is to clearly and completely quantify the technical requirements for the particular system being examined. The next step is to identify and define subsystems and various options which appear capable of achieving the required technical performance. The subsystem options are then characterized regarding subsystem functions, interface requirements with the subsystems and systems, important components, developmental obstacles and technical limitations. Key technical subsystem performance parameters are identified which directly or indirectly relate to the system technical specifications. Past, existing and future technical performance data from subsystem experts are obtained by using a Bayesian Interrogation technique. The input data is solicited in the form of probability functions. Thus the output performance of the system is expressed as probability functions

  2. NHTSA's Office of Defects Investigation (ODI) - Technical Service Bulletins System (TSBS) - Downloadable file

    Department of Transportation — The Technical Service Bulletins data contains summaries of the Manufacturers' Technical Service Bulletins by single year, make and model. An optional item of Vehicle...

  3. Deliberating emission reduction options

    Dowd, A. M.; Rodriguez, M.; Jeanneret, T. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation CSIRO, 37 Graham Rd, Highett VIC 3190 (Australia); De Best-Waldhober, M.; Straver, K.; Mastop, J.; Paukovic, M. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Policy Studies, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-06-15

    For more than 20 years there has been a concerted international effort toward addressing climate change. International conventions, such as the United Nations Foreign Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC; ratified in 1994), have been established by committed nations seeking to address global climate change through the reduction of greenhouse gases emitted into the Earth's atmosphere (Global CCS Institute, 2011). Long recognised as the most crucial of the greenhouse gases to impact global warming, the majority of carbon dioxide's anthropogenic global emissions are directly related to fuel combustion of which both Australia and the Netherlands' energy production is significantly reliant. Both these nations will need to consider many opinions and make hard decisions if alternative energy options are to be implemented at the scale that is required to meet international emission targets. The decisions that are required not only need to consider the many options available but also their consequences. Along with politicians, policy developers and industry, the general public also need to be active participants in deciding which energy options, and their subsequent consequences, are acceptable for implementation at the national level. Access to balanced and factual information is essential in establishing informed opinions on the many policy options available. Past research has used several methods to measure public perceptions and opinions yet for complex issues, such as emission reduction, some of these methods have shown to be problematic. For example, semi structured interviews can provide data that is flexible and context rich yet is does also come with the limitations such as it seldom provides a practical assessment that can be utilised from researcher to researcher, across disciplines and public participation techniques. Surveys on the other hand usually address these limitations but surveys that do not encourage comparison of information or ask participants to

  4. Deliberating emission reduction options

    Dowd, A.M.; Rodriguez, M.; Jeanneret, T. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation CSIRO, 37 Graham Rd, Highett VIC 3190 (Australia); De Best-Waldhober, M.; Straver, K.; Mastop, J.; Paukovic, M. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Policy Studies, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-06-15

    For more than 20 years there has been a concerted international effort toward addressing climate change. International conventions, such as the United Nations Foreign Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC; ratified in 1994), have been established by committed nations seeking to address global climate change through the reduction of greenhouse gases emitted into the Earth's atmosphere (Global CCS Institute, 2011). Long recognised as the most crucial of the greenhouse gases to impact global warming, the majority of carbon dioxide's anthropogenic global emissions are directly related to fuel combustion of which both Australia and the Netherlands' energy production is significantly reliant. Both these nations will need to consider many opinions and make hard decisions if alternative energy options are to be implemented at the scale that is required to meet international emission targets. The decisions that are required not only need to consider the many options available but also their consequences. Along with politicians, policy developers and industry, the general public also need to be active participants in deciding which energy options, and their subsequent consequences, are acceptable for implementation at the national level. Access to balanced and factual information is essential in establishing informed opinions on the many policy options available. Past research has used several methods to measure public perceptions and opinions yet for complex issues, such as emission reduction, some of these methods have shown to be problematic. For example, semi structured interviews can provide data that is flexible and context rich yet is does also come with the limitations such as it seldom provides a practical assessment that can be utilised from researcher to researcher, across disciplines and public participation techniques. Surveys on the other hand usually address these limitations but surveys that do not encourage comparison of information or ask

  5. Achalasia: Treatment Options Revisited

    Willemijntje A Hoogerwerf

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of all current forms of treatment of achalasia is to enable the patient to eat without disabling symptoms such as dysphagia, regurgitation, coughing or choking. Historically, this has been accomplished by mechanical disruption of the lower esophageal sphincter fibres, either by means of pneumatic dilation (PD or by open surgical myotomy. The addition of laparoscopic myotomy and botulinum toxin (BTX injection to the therapeutic armamentarium has triggered a recent series of reviews to determine the optimal therapeutic approach. Both PD and BTX have excellent short term (less than three months efficacy in the majority of patients. New data have been published that suggest that PD and BTX (with repeat injections can potentially obtain long term efficacy. PD is still considered the first-line treatment by most physicians; its main disadvantage is risk of perforation. BTX injection is evolving as an excellent, safe option for patients who are considered high risk for more invasive procedures. Laparoscopic myotomy with combined antireflux surgery is an increasingly attractive option in younger patients with achalasia, but long term follow-up studies are required to establish its efficacy and the potential for reflux-related sequelae.

  6. ITER technical advisory committee meeting at Garching

    Fujiwara, M.

    1999-01-01

    The ITER Technical Advisory Committee meeting took place on 24-27 February at the Garching Joint Work Site. According to the discussions at the ITER meeting in Yokohama in October 1998, the Technical Advisory Committee was requested to conduct a thorough review of the document 'Options for the reduced technical objectives / reduced cost ITER'

  7. Design Evolution Study - Aging Options

    McDaniel, P.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify options and issues for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel received for disposal at the Yucca Mountain Mined Geologic Repository. Some early shipments of commercial spent nuclear fuel to the repository may be received with high-heat-output (younger) fuel assemblies that will need to be managed to meet thermal goals for emplacement. The capability to age as much as 40,000 metric tons of heavy metal of commercial spent nuclear he1 would provide more flexibility in the design to manage this younger fuel and to decouple waste receipt and waste emplacement. The following potential aging location options are evaluated: (1) Surface aging at four locations near the North Portal; (2) Subsurface aging in the permanent emplacement drifts; and (3) Subsurface aging in a new subsurface area. The following aging container options are evaluated: (1) Complete Waste Package; (2) Stainless Steel inner liner of the waste package; (3) Dual Purpose Canisters; (4) Multi-Purpose Canisters; and (5) New disposable canister for uncanistered commercial spent nuclear fuel. Each option is compared to a ''Base Case,'' which is the expected normal waste packaging process without aging. A Value Engineering approach is used to score each option against nine technical criteria and rank the options. Open issues with each of the options and suggested future actions are also presented. Costs for aging containers and aging locations are evaluated separately. Capital costs are developed for direct costs and distributable field costs. To the extent practical, unit costs are presented. Indirect costs, operating costs, and total system life cycle costs will be evaluated outside of this study. Three recommendations for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel--subsurface, surface, and combined surface and subsurface are presented for further review in the overall design re-evaluation effort. Options that were evaluated but not recommended are: subsurface aging in a new

  8. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    A. Ball and W. Zeuner

    2010-01-01

    Overview Once again, the bulk of this article reviews the intense activity of a recently completed shutdown, which, although quite unforeseeable until a few weeks before it started, proved by its success that our often advertised capability to conduct major maintenance within a two month period is real. Although safely completed, on-time to remarkable precision, the activity was not without incident, and highlighted our dependence on many experienced, specialist teams and their precise choreography. Even after the yoke was safely closed, magnet re-commissioning and beampipe pumpdown showed new and thought-provoking behaviour. The struggle to maintain adequate technical resources will be a pre-occupation over the coming months, in parallel with the start of truly sustained operation, for which various procedures are still being put in place. Planning for future shutdowns must now become a high priority, with many working groups and task forces already in existence to prepare infrastructure improvements and to...

  9. Reasons for the nuclear power option

    Rotaru, I.; Glodeanu, F.; Mauna, T.

    1994-01-01

    Technical, economical and social reasons, strongly supporting the nuclear power option are reviewed. The history of Romanian nuclear power program is outlined with a particular focus on the Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant project. Finally the prospective of nuclear power in Romania are assessed

  10. Low-level radioactive waste management options

    Schmalz, R.F.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the non-technical problems associated with the social and political obstacles to the secure disposal of low level radioactive waste. The author reviews thirty years' experience managing non-military wastes. The merits of available options are considered

  11. Perspectives for the provision of biofuels. Classification of fuel options according to technical, economic and ecological criteria; Perspektiven der Biokraftstoffbereitstellung. Einordnung der Kraftstoffoptionen nach technischen, oekonomischen und oekologischen Kriterien

    Scheftelowitz, Mattes; Mueller-Langer, Franziska [DBFZ Deutsches BiomasseForschungsZentrum gemeinnuetzige GmbH, Leipzig (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Next to the use of more efficient, innovative technologies (including hybrid vehicles, electromobility) another important contribution to reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the traffic sector will have to come from biofuels. A wide variety of conversion pathways, each with numerous process alternatives, is available along the whole length of the ''well-to-wheel'' chain (i.e. starting from biomass cropping or recovery, through its supply and conversion to biofuel, including the necessary infrastructure, and ending with its final use). The present paper presents various biofuel options and compares them on the basis of systematic, economic and ecological criteria.

  12. Traditional preventive treatment options

    Longbottom, C; Ekstrand, K; Zero, D

    2009-01-01

    Preventive treatment options can be divided into primary, secondary and tertiary prevention techniques, which can involve patient- or professionally applied methods. These include: oral hygiene (instruction), pit and fissure sealants ('temporary' or 'permanent'), fluoride applications (patient...... options....

  13. Breast Cancer: Treatment Options

    ... Breast Cancer > Breast Cancer: Treatment Options Request Permissions Breast Cancer: Treatment Options Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial ... can be addressed as quickly as possible. Recurrent breast cancer If the cancer does return after treatment for ...

  14. Technical writing versus technical writing

    Dillingham, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    Two terms, two job categories, 'technical writer' and 'technical author' are discussed in terms of industrial and business requirements and standards. A distinction between 'technical writing' and technical 'writing' is made. The term 'technical editor' is also considered. Problems inherent in the design of programs to prepare and train students for these jobs are discussed. A closer alliance between industry and academia is suggested as a means of preparing students with competent technical communication skills (especially writing and editing skills) and good technical skills.

  15. Distributed Energy Implementation Options

    Shah, Chandralata N [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-13

    This presentation covers the options for implementing distributed energy projects. It distinguishes between options available for distributed energy that is government owned versus privately owned, with a focus on the privately owned options including Energy Savings Performance Contract Energy Sales Agreements (ESPC ESAs). The presentation covers the new ESPC ESA Toolkit and other Federal Energy Management Program resources.

  16. Options For The Disposition Of UK Civil Plutonium Stocks

    Moore, R.G.; Zimmerman, C.H.; Scales, C.; Worrall, A.; Sims, H.E.; Fowler, L. [Nexia Solutions Ltd (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-01

    The UK Civil Pu Disposition project will identify and assess the viability of several technical options for dealing with the UK's civil separated Pu stockpile and the discriminators that will support technology option down-selection decisions. The overall aim will be to deliver feasible technical options and comprehensive information on political, economic, sociological, environmental and technical factors for each strategic option. This paper briefly describes the work completed to date to assess immobilisation and re-use technologies as disposition strategies and on the work that will identify discriminators to support technology down-selection. The Pu disposition project is anticipated to continue for several years while the necessary investigations are made to fully understand the various options. The work planned over this period is discussed. (authors)

  17. Options For The Disposition Of UK Civil Plutonium Stocks

    Moore, R.G.; Zimmerman, C.H.; Scales, C.; Worrall, A.; Sims, H.E.; Fowler, L.

    2008-01-01

    The UK Civil Pu Disposition project will identify and assess the viability of several technical options for dealing with the UK's civil separated Pu stockpile and the discriminators that will support technology option down-selection decisions. The overall aim will be to deliver feasible technical options and comprehensive information on political, economic, sociological, environmental and technical factors for each strategic option. This paper briefly describes the work completed to date to assess immobilisation and re-use technologies as disposition strategies and on the work that will identify discriminators to support technology down-selection. The Pu disposition project is anticipated to continue for several years while the necessary investigations are made to fully understand the various options. The work planned over this period is discussed. (authors)

  18. TANK SPACE OPTIONS REPORT

    Willis, W.L.; Ahrendt, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    Since this report was originally issued in 2001, several options proposed for increasing double-shell tank (DST) storage space were implemented or are in the process of implementation. Changes to the single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval schedule, completion of DST space saving options, and the DST space saving options in progress have delayed the projected shortfall of DST storage space from the 2007-2011 to the 2018-2025 timeframe (ORP-11242, River Protection Project System Plan). This report reevaluates options from Rev. 0 and includes evaluations of new options for alleviating projected restrictions on SST waste retrieval beginning in 2018 because of the lack of DST storage space.

  19. Electricity by anaerobic digestion of vinasse from sugar cane. Technical profile, economic and environmental impacts of an option; Eletricidade por digestao anaerobia da vinhaca de cana-de-acucar. Contornos tecnicos, economicos e ambientais de uma opcao

    Rego, Erik Eduardo; Moral Hernandez, Francisco del [Universidade de Sao Paulo (PIPGE/IEE/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Programa Interunidades de Pos-Graduacao em Energia

    2006-07-01

    In its first part this article brings up the growing importance of biomass in Brazilian and within the world energy scenario, especially due to the higher environmental consciousness related to the use of renewable energy sources. It also discusses about biomass sustainability and its myths. The Brazilian case shows that the usage of biomass is mixed to the use of sugar cane. The studies in this area are essentially directed to the production of ethanol and the burn of the solid waste production in steam generators. This article focuses on a specific liquid effluent product: the vinasse. The use of vinasse in agriculture as liquid fertilizer is not new. This article studies the technical, economical and environmental viability of the biogas production obtained from the anaerobic digestion of vinasse in order to generate electricity. The reactor under analysis is the UASB (Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket) and a case study of a experimental process linked to alcohol production is used as a base to put side by side some points of view. Finally this article discusses how environmental regulations related to the effluent disposal (and their differences between two states in Brazil) were really trade-off issues in the decision making from the economical perspective. The combinations of the analysis (technical, economical and environmental) contributes for the global dimension of the alternative. (author)

  20. Evaluating Space Weather Architecture Options to Support Human Deep Space Exploration of the Moon and Mars

    Parker, L.; Minow, J.; Pulkkinen, A.; Fry, D.; Semones, E.; Allen, J.; St Cyr, C.; Mertens, C.; Jun, I.; Onsager, T.; Hock, R.

    2018-02-01

    NASA's Engineering and Space Center (NESC) is conducting an independent technical assessment of space environment monitoring and forecasting architecture options to support human and robotic deep space exploration.

  1. Major depression

    Depression - major; Depression - clinical; Clinical depression; Unipolar depression; Major depressive disorder ... providers do not know the exact causes of depression. It is believed that chemical changes in the ...

  2. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    Austin Ball

    The 2008-9 CMS shutdown has reached its final phase. The yoke is closed again and the HFs are being prepared for lifting to beam height. Assuming no last minute problems occur, the detector will be ready for magnetic field tests by the end of June. The commitment of all the teams involved has ensured that an ambitious programme of work, including several tasks unforeseen in November 08, is nevertheless concluding on-time and successfully. All efforts are now being made to be ready for the CRAFT09 exercise. The way to proceed after CRAFT will depend on the LHC re-start schedule (to be clarified around the end of June). Options will be discussed during this CMS week. Shutdown 2008-9 Sub-Detectors As a reminder, the major shutdown activities on the detector components are listed below; details on each point can be found elsewhere in this bulletin. •    Installation and check-out of the Preshower detector on both endcaps •    Mainten...

  3. Management options for recycling radioactive scrap metals

    Dehmel, J.C.; MacKinney, J.; Bartlett, J.

    1997-02-01

    The feasibility and advantages of recycling radioactive scrap metals (RSM) have yet to be assessed, given the unique technical, regulatory, safety, and cost-benefit issues that have already been raised by a concerned recycling industry. As is known, this industry has been repeatedly involved with the accidental recycling of radioactive sources and, in some cases, with costly consequences. If recycling were deemed to be a viable option, it might have to be implemented with regulatory monitoring and controls. Its implementation may have to consider various and complex issues and address the requirements and concerns of distinctly different industries. There are three basic options for the recycling of such scraps. They are: (1) recycling through the existing network of metal-scrap dealers and brokers, (2) recycling directly and only with specific steelmills, or (3) recycling through regional processing centers. Under the first option, scrap dealers and brokers would receive material from RSM generators and determine at which steelmills such scraps would be recycled. For the second option, RSM generators would deal directly with selected steelmills under specific agreements. For the third option, generators would ship scraps only to regional centers for processing and shipment to participating steelmills. This paper addresses the potential advantages of each option, identifies the types of arrangements that would need to be secured among all parties, and attempts to assess the receptivity of the recycling industry to each option.

  4. Non-burn electric generation: How today's options stack up

    1993-01-01

    The technical preparedness to generate electricity without burning fuel is dealt with. Nuclear, hydroelectric, solar and wind energy are recommended as the clean options. The aims of energy policy, views upon regulation, technical maturity and commercial preparedness of such variants are discussed. (Z.S.). 4 figs

  5. Treatment Options for Narcolepsy.

    Barateau, Lucie; Lopez, Régis; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2016-05-01

    Narcolepsy type 1 and narcolepsy type 2 are central disorders of hypersomnolence. Narcolepsy type 1 is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy and is associated with hypocretin-1 deficiency. On the other hand, in narcolepsy type 2, cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin-1 levels are normal and cataplexy absent. Despite major advances in our understanding of narcolepsy mechanisms, its current management is only symptomatic. Treatment options may vary from a single drug that targets several symptoms, or multiple medications that each treats a specific symptom. In recent years, narcolepsy treatment has changed with the widespread use of modafinil/armodafinil for daytime sleepiness, antidepressants (selective serotonin and dual serotonin and noradrenalin reuptake inhibitors) for cataplexy, and sodium oxybate for both symptoms. Other psychostimulants can also be used, such as methylphenidate, pitolisant and rarely amphetamines, as third-line therapy. Importantly, clinically relevant subjective and objective measures of daytime sleepiness are required to monitor the treatment efficacy and to provide guidance on whether the treatment goals are met. Associated symptoms and comorbid conditions, such as hypnagogic/hypnopompic hallucinations, sleep paralysis, disturbed nighttime sleep, unpleasant dreams, REM- and non REM-related parasomnias, depressive symptoms, overweight/obesity, and obstructive sleep apnea, should also be taken into account and managed, if required. In the near future, the efficacy of new wake-promoting drugs, anticataplectic agents, hypocretin replacement therapy and immunotherapy at the early stages of the disease should also be evaluated.

  6. Systems for deep brain stimulation: review of technical features.

    Amon, A; Alesch, F

    2017-09-01

    The use of deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an important treatment option for movement disorders and other medical conditions. Today, three major manufacturers provide implantable systems for DBS. Although the underlying principle is basically the same for all available systems, the differences in the technical features vary considerably. This article outlines aspects regarding the technical features of DBS systems. The differences between voltage and current sources are addressed and their effect on stimulation is shown. To maintain clinical benefit and minimize side effects the stimulation field has to be adapted to the requirements of the patient. Shaping of the stimulation field can be achieved by the electrode design and polarity configuration. Furthermore, the electric signal consisting of stimulation rate, stimulation amplitude and pulse width affect the stimulation field. Interleaving stimulation is an additional concept, which permits improved treatment outcomes. Therefore, the electrode design, the polarity, the electric signal, and the concept of interleaving stimulation are presented. The investigated systems can be also categorized as rechargeable and non-rechargeable, which is briefly discussed. Options for interconnecting different system components from various manufacturers are presented. The present paper summarizes the technical features and their combination possibilities, which can have a major impact on the therapeutic effect.

  7. Policy options for stabilizing global climate

    Lashof, D.A.; Tirpak, D.A.

    1990-12-01

    This report to congress by the US EPA explains the greenhouse effect and its influence on global climate. It outlines the trends in the greenhouse gases - their concentration history, distribution, sources and sinks and chemical and radiative properties. Climate change processes are discussed including climate feedbacks. Human activities affecting trace gases and climate are explained, followed by a chapter on the technical options for reducing greenhouse gas emissions which looks at energy services, energy supply, industry, forestry and agriculture. The future is considered, and the final chapters are concerned with policy options and international cooperation to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. 934 refs., 102 figs., 84 tabs

  8. The origins of options.

    Smaldino, Paul E; Richerson, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    Most research on decision making has focused on how human or animal decision makers choose between two or more options, posed in advance by the researchers. The mechanisms by which options are generated for most decisions, however, are not well understood. Models of sequential search have examined the trade-off between continued exploration and choosing one's current best option, but still cannot explain the processes by which new options are generated. We argue that understanding the origins of options is a crucial but untapped area for decision making research. We explore a number of factors which influence the generation of options, which fall broadly into two categories: psycho-biological and socio-cultural. The former category includes factors such as perceptual biases and associative memory networks. The latter category relies on the incredible human capacity for culture and social learning, which doubtless shape not only our choices but the options available for choice. Our intention is to start a discussion that brings us closer toward understanding the origins of options.

  9. Americal options analyzed differently

    Nieuwenhuis, J.W.

    2003-01-01

    In this note we analyze in a discrete-time context and with a finite outcome space American options starting with the idea that every tradable should be a martingale under a certain measure. We believe that in this way American options become more understandable to people with a good working

  10. Traffic Light Options

    Jørgensen, Peter Løchte

    This paper introduces, prices, and analyzes traffic light options. The traffic light option is an innovative structured OTC derivative developed independently by several London-based investment banks to suit the needs of Danish life and pension (L&P) companies, which must comply with the traffic...... 2006, and supervisory authorities in many other European countries have implemented similar regulation. Traffic light options are therefore likely to attract the attention of a wider audience of pension fund managers in the future. Focusing on the valuation of the traffic light option we set up a Black...... light scenarios. These stress scenarios entail drops in interest rates as well as in stock prices, and traffic light options are thus designed to pay off and preserve sufficient capital when interest rates and stock prices fall simultaneously. Sweden's FSA implemented a traffic light system in January...

  11. Traffic Light Options

    Jørgensen, Peter Løchte

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces, prices, and analyzes traffic light options. The traffic light option is an innovative structured OTC derivative developed independently by several London-based investment banks to suit the needs of Danish life and pension (L&P) companies, which must comply with the traffic...... 2006, and supervisory authorities in many other European countries have implemented similar regulation. Traffic light options are therefore likely to attract the attention of a wider audience of pension fund managers in the future. Focusing on the valuation of the traffic light option we set up a Black...... light scenarios. These stress scenarios entail drops in interest rates as well as in stock prices, and traffic light options are thus designed to pay off and preserve sufficient capital when interest rates and stock prices fall simultaneously. Sweden's FSA implemented a traffic light system in January...

  12. Imagining Technicities

    Liboriussen, Bjarke; Plesner, Ursula

    2011-01-01

    to the elements of taste and skill. In the final analysis those references were synthesized as five imagined technicities: the architect, the engineer, the client, the Chinese, and the Virtual World native. Because technicities are often assumed and rarely discussed as actants who influence practice, their role......, this article focuses on innovative uses of virtual worlds in architecture. We interviewed architects, industrial designers and other practitioners. Conceptually supported by an understanding of technicity found in Cultural Studies, the interviews were then coded with a focus on interviewees’ references...... in cooperation and development of ICTs seems to pass unnoticed. However, since they are aligned into ICTs, technicities impact innovation....

  13. Moderator Configuration Options for ESS

    Zanini, L.; Batkov, K.; Klinkby, Esben Bryndt

    2016-01-01

    The current, still evolving status of the design and the optimization work for the moderator configuration for the European Spallation Source is described. The moderator design has been strongly driven by the low-dimensional moderator concept recently proposed for use in spallation neutron sources...... or reactors. Quasi-two dimensional, disc- or tube-shaped moderators,can provide strong brightness increase (factor of 3 or more) with respect to volume para-H2moderators, which constitute the reference, state-of-the-art technology for high-intensity coupled moderators. In the design process other, more...... conventional, principles were also considered,such as the importance of moderator positioning, of the premoderator, and beam extraction considerations. Different design and configuration options are evaluated and compared with the reference volume moderator configuration described in the ESS Technical Design...

  14. Polish Toxic Currency Options

    Waldemar Gontarski

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Toxic currency options are defined on the basis of the opposition to the nature (essence of an option contract, which is justified in terms of norms founded on the general law clause of characteristics (nature of a relation (which represents an independent premise for imposing restrictions on the freedom of contracts. So-understood toxic currency options are unlawful. Indeed they contravene iuris cogentis regulations. These include for instance option contracts, which are concluded with a bank, if the bank has not informed about option risk before concluding the contract; or the barrier options, which focus only on the protection of bank’s interests. Therefore, such options may appear to be invalid. Therefore, performing contracts for toxic currency options may be qualified as a criminal mismanagement. For the sake of security, the manager should then take into consideration filing a claim for stating invalidity (which can be made in a court verdict. At the same time, if the supervisory board member in a commercial company, who can also be a subject to mismanagement offences, commits an omission involving lack of reaction (for example, if he/she fails to notify of the suspected offence committed by the management board members acting to the company’s detriment when the management board makes the company conclude option contracts which are charged with absolute invalidity the supervisory board member so acting may be considered to act to the company’s detriment. In the most recent Polish jurisprudence and judicature the standard of a “good host” is treated to be the last resort for determining whether the manager’s powers resulting from criminal regulations were performed. The manager of the exporter should not, as a rule, issue any options. Issuing options always means assuming an obligation. In the case of currency put options it is an absolute obligation to purchase a given amount in euro at exchange rate set in advance. On the

  15. 2005 resource options report

    Morris, T.

    2005-01-01

    This resource options report (ROR) fulfils regulatory requirements in British Columbia's two-year resource planning process. It identifies a wide range of resources and technologies that could be used to meet BC Hydro's future electricity demand. As such, it facilitates a transparent public review of resource options which include both supply-side and demand-side options. The resource options that will be used in the 2005 integrated electricity plan (IEP) were characterized. This ROR also documents where there is a general agreement or disagreement on the resource type characterization, based on the First Nations and Stakeholder engagement. BC Hydro used current information to provide realistic ranges on volume and cost to characterize environmental and social attributes. The BC Hydro system was modelled to assess the benefit and cost of various resource options. The information resulting from this ROR and IEP will help in making decisions on how to structure competitive acquisition calls and to determine the level of transmission services needed to advance certain BC Hydro projects. The IEP forecasts the nature and quantity of domestic resources required over the next 20 years. A strategic direction on how those needs will be met has been created to guide the management of BC Hydro's energy resources. Supply-side options include near-commercial technologies such as energy storage, ocean waves, tidal, fuel cells and integrated coal gasification combined cycle technology. Supply-side options also include natural gas, coal, biomass, geothermal, wind, and hydro. 120 refs., 39 tabs., 21 figs., 6 appendices

  16. Multi-technology option strategy for long term R and D programs on plutonium technologies. Minimizing proliferation risks and preparing for the future

    Suzuki, Tatsujiro

    1997-01-01

    Plutonium programs worldwide are now facing major economic, political and technical challenges. New strategies need to address two distinctive global concerns: minimizing proliferation risks associated with plutonium use, and keeping the options alive to prepare for uncertain energy future. In order to meet those challenges, this paper proposes the introduction of 'multi-technology option strategy'. Such strategy is designed to keep so-called 'technological readiness' state of plutonium technologies worldwide without committing to a fixed technology option and exploring more innovative various technology options. This paper also suggests that such R and D programs can be coordinated and shared among nations that are interested in future plutonium use, and such cooperation can improve transparency of sensitive R and D programs. (author)

  17. Expensing options solves nothing.

    Sahlman, William A

    2002-12-01

    The use of stock options for executive compensation has become a lightning rod for public anger, and it's easy to see why. Many top executives grew hugely rich on the back of the gains they made on their options, profits they've been able to keep even as the value they were supposed to create disappeared. The supposed scam works like this: Current accounting regulations let companies ignore the cost of option grants on their income statements, so they can award valuable option packages without affecting reported earnings. Not charging the cost of the grants supposedly leads to overstated earnings, which purportedly translate into unrealistically high share prices, permitting top executives to realize big gains when they exercise their options. If an accounting anomaly is the problem, then the solution seems obvious: Write off executive share options against the current year's revenues. The trouble is, Sahlman writes, expensing option grants won't give us a more accurate view of earnings, won't add any information not already included in the financial statements, and won't even lead to equal treatment of different forms of executive pay. Far worse, expensing evades the real issue, which is whether compensation (options and other-wise) does what it's supposed to do--namely, help a company recruit, retain, and provide the right people with appropriate performance incentives. Any performance-based compensation system has the potential to encourage cheating. Only ethical management, sensible governance, adequate internal control systems, and comprehensive disclosure will save the investor from disaster. If, Sahlman warns, we pass laws that require the expensing of options, thinking that's fixed the fundamental flaws in corporate America's accounting, we will have missed a golden opportunity to focus on the much more extensive defects in the present system.

  18. Nuclear spent fuel management. Experience and options

    1986-01-01

    Spent nuclear fuel can be stored safely for long periods at relatively low cost, but some form of permanent disposal will eventually be necessary. This report examines the options for spent fuel management, explores the future prospects for each stage of the back-end of the fuel cycle and provides a thorough review of past experience and the technical status of the alternatives. Current policies and practices in twelve OECD countries are surveyed

  19. Disposal options for radioactive waste

    Olivier, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    On the basis of the radionuclide composition and the relative toxicity of radioactive wastes, a range of different options are available for their disposal. Practically all disposal options rely on confinement of radioactive materials and isolation from the biosphere. Dilution and dispersion into the environment are only used for slightly contaminated gaseous and liquid effluents produced during the routine operation of nuclear facilities, such as power plants. For the bulk of solid radioactive waste, whatever the contamination level and decay of radiotoxicity with time are, isolation from the biosphere is the objective of waste disposal policies. The paper describes disposal approaches and the various techniques used in this respect, such as shallow land burial with minimum engineered barriers, engineered facilities built at/near the surface, rock cavities at great depth and finally deep geologic repositories for long-lived waste. The concept of disposing long-lived waste into seabed sediment layers is also discussed, as well as more remote possibilities, such as disposal in outer space or transmutation. For each of these disposal methods, the measures to be adopted at institutional level to reinforce technical isolation concepts are described. To the extent possible, some comments are made with regard to the applicability of such disposal methods to other hazardous wastes. (au)

  20. Early Option Exercise

    Heje Pedersen, Lasse; Jensen, Mads Vestergaard

    A classic result by Merton (1973) is that, except just before expiration or dividend payments, one should never exercise a call option and never convert a convertible bond. We show theoretically that this result is overturned when investors face frictions. Early option exercise can be optimal when...... it reduces short-sale costs, transaction costs, or funding costs. We provide consistent empirical evidence, documenting billions of dollars of early exercise for options and convertible bonds using unique data on actual exercise decisions and frictions. Our model can explain as much as 98% of early exercises...

  1. Early Option Exercise

    Jensen, Mads Vestergaard; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    A classic result by Merton (1973) is that, except just before expiration or dividend payments, one should never exercise a call option and never convert a convertible bond. We show theoretically that this result is overturned when investors face frictions. Early option exercise can be optimal when...... it reduces short-sale costs, transaction costs, or funding costs. We provide consistent empirical evidence, documenting billions of dollars of early exercise for options and convertible bonds using unique data on actual exercise decisions and frictions. Our model can explain as much as 98% of early exercises...

  2. Psychosocial Treatment Options for Major Depressive Disorder in Older Adults.

    Renn, Brenna N; Areán, Patricia A

    2017-03-01

    Late-life depression (LLD) is a public health concern with deleterious effects on overall health, cognition, quality of life, and mortality. Although LLD is relatively common, it is not a normal part of aging and is often under-recognized in older adults. However, psychotherapy is an effective treatment for LLD that aligns with many patients' preferences and can improve health and functioning. This review synthesized the current literature on evidence-based psychotherapies for the treatment of depression in older adults. Findings suggest that active, skills-based psychotherapies (cognitive behavioral therapy [CBT] and problem-solving therapy [PST]) may be more effective for LLD than non-directive, supportive counseling. PST may be particularly relevant for offsetting skill deficit associated with LLD, such as in instances of cognitive impairment (especially executive dysfunction) and disability. Emerging treatments also consider contextual factors to improve treatment delivery, such as personalized care, access, and poverty. Tele-mental health represents one such exciting new way of improving access and uptake of treatment by older adults. Although these strategies hold promise, further investigation via randomized controlled trials and comparative effectiveness are necessary to advance our treatment of LLD. Priority should be given to recruiting and training the geriatric mental health workforce to deliver evidence-based psychosocial interventions for LLD.

  3. Security option file - Exploitation (DOS-Expl)

    2016-01-01

    This document aims at presenting functions performed by Cigeo during its exploitation phase, its main technical and security options which are envisaged with respect to different types of internal or external risks, and a first assessment of its impact on mankind and on the environment during its exploitation in normal operation as well as in incidental or accidental situations. A first volume addresses security principles, approach and management in relationship with the legal and regulatory framework. The second volume presents input data related to waste parcels and used for the installation sizing and operation, the main site characteristics, the main technical options regarding structures and equipment, and the main options regarding exploitation (parcel management, organisational and human aspects, and effluent management). The third volume describes how parcel are processed from their arrival to their setting in storage compartment, an inventory of internal and external risks, and a first assessment of consequences of scenarios on mankind and on the environment. The fourth volume presents options and operations which are envisaged regarding Cigeo closure, and inventory of associated risks

  4. Thermometers: Understand the Options

    ... the options Thermometers come in a variety of styles. Understand the different types of thermometers and how ... MA. Fever in infants and children: Pathophysiology and management. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed July 23, ...

  5. Options for human intrusion

    Bauser, M.; Williams, R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper addresses options for dealing with human intrusion in terms of performance requirements and repository siting and design requirements. Options are presented, along with the advantages and disadvantages of certain approaches. At the conclusion, a conceptual approach is offered emphasizing both the minimization of subjective judgements concerning future human activity, and specification of repository requirements to minimize the likelihood of human intrusion and any resulting, harmful effects should intrusion occur

  6. 76 FR 3684 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Options Clearing Corporation; Order Granting Approval of...

    2011-01-20

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-63711; File No. SR-ODD-2011-01] Self-Regulatory... to the Options Disclosure Document Reflecting Certain Changes to Disclosure Regarding Credit Default Options in, and Making Certain Technical Amendments to, the June 2007 Supplement to the Options Disclosure...

  7. Technical Network

    2007-01-01

    In order to optimize the management of the Technical Network (TN), to ease the understanding and purpose of devices connected to the TN, and to improve security incident handling, the Technical Network Administrators and the CNIC WG have asked IT/CS to verify the "description" and "tag" fields of devices connected to the TN. Therefore, persons responsible for systems connected to the TN will receive email notifications from IT/CS asking them to add the corresponding information in the network database. Thank you very much for your cooperation. The Technical Network Administrators & the CNIC WG

  8. Technical Network

    2007-01-01

    In order to optimise the management of the Technical Network (TN), to facilitate understanding of the purpose of devices connected to the TN and to improve security incident handling, the Technical Network Administrators and the CNIC WG have asked IT/CS to verify the "description" and "tag" fields of devices connected to the TN. Therefore, persons responsible for systems connected to the TN will receive e-mails from IT/CS asking them to add the corresponding information in the network database at "network-cern-ch". Thank you very much for your cooperation. The Technical Network Administrators & the CNIC WG

  9. How to be an Effective Technical Writer?

    M Solaiman Ali; Dheya Al-Othmany

    2012-01-01

    Abstract--This paper has focused on technical writing as a skill for engineers. It has sought to define technical writing and throw light on the content and technique of writing the various components of successful technical reports (for example, articles, papers, or research reports, such as theses and dissertations). Then, it has highlighted other special features and principles of effective technical writing. The material in this paper is divided into seven major parts. Part 1 (Technical w...

  10. Pawnee Nation Energy Option Analyses

    Matlock, M.; Kersey, K.; Riding In, C.

    2009-07-31

    In 2003, the Pawnee Nation leadership identified the need for the tribe to comprehensively address its energy issues. During a strategic energy planning workshop a general framework was laid out and the Pawnee Nation Energy Task Force was created to work toward further development of the tribe’s energy vision. The overarching goals of the “first steps” project were to identify the most appropriate focus for its strategic energy initiatives going forward, and to provide information necessary to take the next steps in pursuit of the “best fit” energy options. Based on the request of Pawnee Nation’s Energy Task Force the research team, consisting Tribal personnel and Summit Blue Consulting, focused on a review of renewable energy resource development potential, funding sources and utility organizational along with energy savings options. Elements of the energy demand forecasting and characterization and demand side options review remained in the scope of work, but were only addressed at a high level. Description of Activities Performed Renewable Energy Resource Development Potential The research team reviewed existing data pertaining to the availability of biomass (focusing on woody biomass, agricultural biomass/bio-energy crops, and methane capture), solar, wind and hydropower resources on the Pawnee-owned lands. Using these data, combined with assumptions about costs and revenue streams, the research team performed preliminary feasibility assessments for each resource category. The research team also reviewed available funding resources and made recommendations to Pawnee Nation highlighting those resources with the greatest potential for financially-viable development, both in the near-term and over a longer time horizon. Energy Efficiency Options While this was not a major focus of the project, the research team highlighted common strategies for reducing energy use in buildings. The team also discussed the benefits of adopting a building energy code and

  11. Major Links.

    Henderson, Tona

    1995-01-01

    Provides electronic mail addresses for resources and discussion groups related to the following academic majors: art, biology, business, chemistry, computer science, economics, health sciences, history, literature, math, music, philosophy, political science, psychology, sociology, and theater. (AEF)

  12. Major Roads

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for major roads (interstates and trunk highways) found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. These roadways are current...

  13. Treatment Options for Wilms Tumor

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... come back) after it has been treated. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  14. Treatment Options for Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    ... special light. Certain factors affect prognosis and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options ... age and general health of the patient. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  15. Treatment Option Overview (Prostate Cancer)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  16. Treatment Option Overview (Myelodysplastic Syndromes)

    ... special light. Certain factors affect prognosis and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options ... age and general health of the patient. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  17. Treatment Option Overview (Esophageal Cancer)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  18. Treatment Option Overview (Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  19. Treatment Option Overview (Penile Cancer)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  20. Treatment Option Overview (Vulvar Cancer)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  1. Treatment Option Overview (Pancreatic Cancer)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  2. Treatment Option Overview (Adrenocortical Carcinoma)

    ... affect the prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  3. Treatment Options for Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  4. Treatment Options for Kaposi Sarcoma

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  5. Treatment Options for Childhood Craniopharyngioma

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... the brain where it was first found. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  6. Global plutonium management: A security option

    Sylvester, K.W.B.

    1998-01-01

    The US surplus plutonium disposition program was created to reduce the proliferation risk posed by the fissile material from thousands of retired nuclear weapons. The Department of Energy has decided to process its Put into a form as secure as Pu in civilian spent fuel. While implementation issues have been considered, a major one (Russian reciprocity) remains unresolved. Russia has made disposition action conditional on extracting the fuel value of its Pu but lacks the infrastructure to do so. Assistance in the construction of the required facilities would conflict with official US policy opposing the development of a Pu fuel cycle. The resulting stagnation provides impetus for a reevaluation of US nonproliferation objectives and Pu disposition options. A strategy for satisfying Russian fuel value concerns and reducing the proliferation risk posed by surplus weapons-grade plutonium (WGPu) is proposed. The effectiveness of material alteration (e.g., isotopic, chemical, etc.hor-ellipsis) at reducing the desire, ability and opportunity for proliferation is assessed. Virtually all the security benefits attainable by material processing can be obtained by immobilizing Pu in large unit size/mass monoliths without a radiation barrier. Russia would be allowed to extract the Pu at a future date for use as fuel in a verifiable manner. Remote tracking capability, if proven feasible, would further improve safeguarding capability. As an alternate approach, the US could compensate Russia for its Pu, allowing it to be disposed of or processed elsewhere. A market based method for pricing Pu is proposed. Surplus Pu could represent access to nuclear fuel at a fixed price at a future date. This position can be replicated in the uranium market and priced using derivative theory. The proposed strategy attempts to meet nonproliferation objectives by recognizing technical limitations and satisfying political constraints

  7. Nuclear Option in Korea

    Han, K. I.

    2002-01-01

    With sixteen(16) operating nuclear units in Korea, the share of nuclear power generation reached 41% of the total electric power generation as of December 2000. A prediction is that it would further increase to 44.5% by year 2015 according to the national long term power development plan. Four units are currently under construction with 6 more units in order. With little domestic energy resource and increasing energy demand to support national economic growth, Korea has chosen nuclear power as one of the major energy sources to ensure stable power supply and to promote energy self-sufficiency. It has been recognized that nuclear power in Korea is not a selective option but rather a necessity. The Korean nuclear power development started with construction of a 600 MWe size reactor that was designed and constructed by foreign vendors. As the national grid capacity became larger, the size of nuclear units increased to 1000 MWe class. In the mean time, the need for nuclear technology self-reliance grew not only in operation and maintenance but also in construction, manufacturing and design. For this, a nuclear technology self-reliance program has been embarked with the support of the Government and utility, and the 1000 MWe class KSNP(Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plant) has been developed. The KSNPs are currently being designed, manufactured, constructed and operated by relevant Korean entities themselves. To fit into a larger capacity national grid and also to improve nuclear economic competitiveness, the 1400 MWe class KNGR(Korean Next Generation Reactor) design has been developed uprating the 1000 MWe KSNP design. Its construction project is currently under contract negotiation, and is planned to be finished by 2010. In the mean time, to be ready for future electric power market deregulation, the 600 MWe class small KSNP design is being developed downsizing the KSNP. A modular small size reactor, SMART(System Integrated Modular Advanced Reactor) is also being

  8. Technical challenges for dismantlement verification

    Olinger, C.T.; Stanbro, W.D.; Johnston, R.G.; Nakhleh, C.W.; Dreicer, J.S.

    1997-01-01

    In preparation for future nuclear arms reduction treaties, including any potential successor treaties to START I and II, the authors have been examining possible methods for bilateral warhead dismantlement verification. Warhead dismantlement verification raises significant challenges in the political, legal, and technical arenas. This discussion will focus on the technical issues raised by warhead arms controls. Technical complications arise from several sources. These will be discussed under the headings of warhead authentication, chain-of-custody, dismantlement verification, non-nuclear component tracking, component monitoring, and irreversibility. The authors will discuss possible technical options to address these challenges as applied to a generic dismantlement and disposition process, in the process identifying limitations and vulnerabilities. They expect that these considerations will play a large role in any future arms reduction effort and, therefore, should be addressed in a timely fashion

  9. Independent technical review, handbook

    1994-02-01

    Purpose Provide an independent engineering review of the major projects being funded by the Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. The independent engineering review will address questions of whether the engineering practice is sufficiently developed to a point where a major project can be executed without significant technical problems. The independent review will focus on questions related to: (1) Adequacy of development of the technical base of understanding; (2) Status of development and availability of technology among the various alternatives; (3) Status and availability of the industrial infrastructure to support project design, equipment fabrication, facility construction, and process and program/project operation; (4) Adequacy of the design effort to provide a sound foundation to support execution of project; (5) Ability of the organization to fully integrate the system, and direct, manage, and control the execution of a complex major project

  10. Independent technical review, handbook

    1994-02-01

    Purpose Provide an independent engineering review of the major projects being funded by the Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. The independent engineering review will address questions of whether the engineering practice is sufficiently developed to a point where a major project can be executed without significant technical problems. The independent review will focus on questions related to: (1) Adequacy of development of the technical base of understanding; (2) Status of development and availability of technology among the various alternatives; (3) Status and availability of the industrial infrastructure to support project design, equipment fabrication, facility construction, and process and program/project operation; (4) Adequacy of the design effort to provide a sound foundation to support execution of project; (5) Ability of the organization to fully integrate the system, and direct, manage, and control the execution of a complex major project.

  11. Assessment of Used Nuclear Fuel Inventory Relative to Disposition Options

    Wagner, John C.; Peterson, Joshua L.; Mueller, Don; Gehin, Jess C.; Worrall, Andrew; Taiwo, Temitope; Nutt, Mark; Williamson, Mark A.; Todosow, Mike; Wigeland, Roald; Halsey, William; Omberg, Ronald; Swift, Peter; Carter, Joe

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a technical assessment of the current inventory [∼70,150 metric tons of heavy metal (MTHM) as of 2011] of U.S.-discharged used nuclear fuel (UNF) to support decisions regarding fuel cycle strategies and research, development and demonstration (RD and D) needs. The assessment considered discharged UNF from commercial nuclear electricity generation and defense and research programs and determined that the current UNF inventory can be divided into the following three categories: 1. Disposal - excess material that is not needed for other purposes; 2. Research - material needed for RD and D purposes to support waste management (e.g., UNF storage, transportation, and disposal) and development of alternative fuel cycles (e.g., separations and advanced fuels/reactors); and 3. Recycle/Recovery - material with inherent and/or strategic value. A set of key assumptions and attributes relative to the disposition options was used to categorize the current UNF inventory. Based on consideration of RD and D needs, time frames and material needs for deployment of alternative fuel cycles, characteristics of the current UNF inventory, and possible uses to support national security interests, it was determined that the vast majority of the category, without the need for retrieval for reuse or research purposes. Access to the material in the Research and Recycle/Recovery categories should be retained to support RD and D needs and national security interests. This assessment does not assume any decision about future fuel cycle options or preclude any potential options, including those with potential recycling of commercial UNF, since the ∼2,000 MTHM that is generated annually could provide the feedstock needed for deployment of alternative fuel cycles.

  12. 20 CFR 416.2035 - Optional supplementation: Additional State options.

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Optional supplementation: Additional State options. 416.2035 Section 416.2035 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL... § 416.2035 Optional supplementation: Additional State options. (a) Residency requirement. A State or...

  13. Novel preventive treatment options

    Longbottom, C; Ekstrand, K; Zero, D

    2009-01-01

    A number of novel preventive treatment options which, as with traditional methods, can be differentiated into 3 categories of prevention (primary, secondary and tertiary), have been and are being currently investigated. Those reviewed are either commercially available or appear relatively close...... of these techniques show considerable promise and dentists should be aware of these developments and follow their progress, the evidence for each of these novel preventive treatment options is currently insufficient to make widespread recommendations. Changes in dental practice should be explored to see how oral...

  14. Tank Space Options Report

    BOYLES, V.C.

    2001-01-01

    A risk-based priority for the retrieval of Hanford Site waste from the 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) has been adopted as a result of changes to the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (HFFACO) (Ecology et al. 1997) negotiated in 2000. Retrieval of the first three tanks in the retrieval sequence fills available capacity in the double-shell tanks (DSTs) by 2007. As a result, the HFFACO change established a milestone (M-45-12-TO1) requiring the determination of options that could increase waste storage capacity for single-shell tank waste retrieval. The information will be considered in future negotiations. This document fulfills the milestone requirement. This study presents options that were reviewed for the purpose of increasing waste storage capacity. Eight options are identified that have the potential for increasing capacity from 5 to 10 million gallons, thus allowing uninterrupted single-shell tank retrieval until the planned Waste Treatment Plant begins processing substantial volumes of waste from the double-shell tanks in 2009. The cost of implementing these options is estimated to range from less than $1 per gallon to more than $14 per gallon. Construction of new double-shell tanks is estimated to cost about $63 per gallon. Providing 5 to 10 million gallons of available double-shell tank space could enable early retrieval of 5 to 9 high-risk single-shell tanks beyond those identified for retrieval by 2007. These tanks are A-101, AX-101, AX-103, BY-102, C-107, S-105, S-106, S-108, and S-109 (Garfield et al. 2000). This represents a potential to retrieve approximately 14 million total curies, including 3,200 curies of long-lived mobile radionuclides. The results of the study reflect qualitative analyses conducted to identify promising options. The estimated costs are rough-order-of magnitude and, therefore, subject to change. Implementing some of the options would represent a departure from the current baseline and may adversely impact the

  15. Thermal test options

    Koski, J.A.; Keltner, N.R.; Sobolik, K.B.

    1993-02-01

    Shipping containers for radioactive materials must be qualified to meet a thermal accident environment specified in regulations, such at Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71. Aimed primarily at the shipping container design, this report discusses the thermal testing options available for meeting the regulatory requirements, and states the advantages and disadvantages of each approach. The principal options considered are testing with radiant heat, furnaces, and open pool fires. The report also identifies some of the facilities available and current contacts. Finally, the report makes some recommendations on the appropriate use of these different testing methods

  16. North American natural gas outlook : does gas remain a fuel option for oil sands?

    George, R.R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a North America natural gas outlook from Purvin and Gertz, an international energy consulting firm that has 30 years experience in providing strategic, commercial and technical advice to the petroleum industry. In particular, this presentation focuses on natural gas market fundamentals and how they may impact on oil sands development. It includes charts and graphs depicting NYMEX natural gas outlooks to July, 2009 and examines how supply will react to major changes in Canada's supply portfolio. It was noted that oil sands development is a driver for natural gas demand in Alberta. The existing regional gas pipeline infrastructure was presented and the market impact on upgrader options was discussed. The author suggests that if gas prices are too high, there are other fuel options for steam and power generation. These include bitumen, asphalt, coke, coal and nuclear. However, these options have additional costs, uncertainties and environmental issues. A key factor for success would be to have a clear understanding of the benefits and risks between these fuel options. 1 tab., 9 figs

  17. Training of technical staff and technical staff managers

    Moody, G.F.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of Technical Staff and Technical Staff Managers training is to provide job skills enhancement to individuals selected to fill key technical positions within a nuclear utility. This training is unique in that unlike other training programs accredited by the National Academy for Nuclear Training, it does not lead to specific task qualification. The problems encountered when determining the student population and curriculum are a direct result of this major difference. Major problems encountered are determining who should attend the training, what amount of training is necessary and sufficient, and how to obtain the best feedback in order to effect substantive program improvements. These topics will be explored and possible solutions discussed

  18. Cost estimate and economic issues associated with the MOX option (prior to DOE's record of decision)

    Reid, R.L.; Miller, J.W.

    1997-04-01

    Before the January 1997 Record of Decision (ROD), the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (DOE-MD) evaluated three technologies for the disposition of ∼50 MT of surplus plutonium from defense-related programs-reactors, immobilization, and deep boreholes. As part of the process supporting the ROD, and comprehensive assessment of technical viability, cost, and schedule was conducted by DOE-MD and its national laboratory contractors. Oak Ridge National Laboratory managed and coordinated the life-cycle cost (LCC) assessment effort for this program. This report discusses the economic analysis methodology and the results for the reactor options considered prior to ROD. A secondary intent of the report is to discuss major technical and economic issues that impact cost and schedule. To evaluate the economics of the reactor option and other technologies on an equitable basis, a set of cost-estimating guidelines and a common cost-estimating format were utilized by all three technology teams. This report includes the major economic analysis assumptions and the comparative constant-dollar and discounted-dollar LCCs for all nine reactor scenarios

  19. Strategic growth options

    Kulatilaka, N.; Perotti, E.C.

    1998-01-01

    We provide a strategic rationale for growth options under uncertainty and imperfect corn-petition. In a market with strategic competition, investment confers a greater capability to take advantage of future growth opportunities. This strategic advantage leads to the capture of a greater share of the

  20. New Options, Old Concerns.

    O'Neil, John

    1996-01-01

    Will greater school choice result in more responsive, higher quality schools and happier parents? Or will proliferating options further sort students and families by race, social class, and special interest? Increasingly, education is viewed as a private good. If parents become autonomous, self-interested consumers, erosion of common purposes and…

  1. Heterogeneity and option pricing

    Benninga, Simon; Mayshar, Joram

    2000-01-01

    An economy with agents having constant yet heterogeneous degrees of relative risk aversion prices assets as though there were a single decreasing relative risk aversion pricing representative agent. The pricing kernel has fat tails and option prices do not conform to the Black-Scholes formula.

  2. Option Pricing and Momentum

    Rodriguez, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    If managers are reluctant to fully adjust dividends to changes in earnings, stock returns and changes in the dividend yield will tend to be negatively correlated. When this is the case, stock returns will exhibit positive autocorrelation, or mo- mentum. This paper studies the pricing of options in

  3. Idaho's Energy Options

    Robert M. Neilson

    2006-03-01

    This report, developed by the Idaho National Laboratory, is provided as an introduction to and an update of the status of technologies for the generation and use of energy. Its purpose is to provide information useful for identifying and evaluating Idaho’s energy options, and for developing and implementing Idaho’s energy direction and policies.

  4. Microwave treatment of BPH: still an option?

    de la Rosette, J. J.

    1994-01-01

    Surgery, the gold standard in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), is presently performed in the majority of patients who receive treatment. An increasing number of alternative options recently became available for treatment of BPH and especially minimal invasive treatment

  5. French programs for advanced waste management options

    Salvatores, M [CEA-DRN (France); Schapira, J P [CNRS-IN2P3 (France); Mouney, H [EDF-DE (France)

    1997-11-01

    Several organisms (CEA, CNRS, EdF, etc.) are cooperating in France on Accelerator-Driven Systems (ADS). The major motivation is the investigation of innovative options for the radioactive waste management. The paper describes the ongoing activities and future directions of this cooperative effort in the field of ADS. 11 refs, 3 figs.

  6. Technical Note

    Administratör

    In this report on four patients, we did not use any of these techniques. The existence and the site of the fistulas was clearly demonstrated using basic but important preoperative detailed assessment and two intraoperative findings. The preoperative referral note that indicated the site of technical difficulty during the previous ...

  7. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    A. Ball

    2010-01-01

    Operational Experience At the end of the first full-year running period of LHC, CMS is established as a reliable, robust and mature experiment. In particular common systems and infrastructure faults accounted for <0.6 % CMS downtime during LHC pp physics. Technical operation throughout the entire year was rather smooth, the main faults requiring UXC access being sub-detector power systems and rack-cooling turbines. All such problems were corrected during scheduled technical stops, in the shadow of tunnel access needed by the LHC, or in negotiated accesses or access extensions. Nevertheless, the number of necessary accesses to the UXC averaged more than one per week and the technical stops were inevitably packed with work packages, typically 30 being executed within a few days, placing a high load on the coordination and area management teams. It is an appropriate moment for CMS Technical Coordination to thank all those in many CERN departments and in the Collaboration, who were involved in CMS techni...

  8. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    A. Ball

    2010-01-01

    Operational Experience Since the closure of the detector in February, the technical operation of CMS has been quite smooth and reliable. Some minor interventions in UXC were required to cure failures of power supplies, fans, readout boards and rack cooling connections, but all these failures were repaired in scheduled technical stops or parasitically during access dedicated to fixing LHC technical problems. The only occasion when CMS had to request an access between fills was to search for the source of an alarm from the leak-detection cables mounted in the DT racks. After a few minutes of diagnostic search, a leaking air-purge was found. Replacement was complete within 2 hours. This incident demonstrated once more the value of these leak detection cables; the system will be further extended (during the end of year technical stop) to cover more racks in UXC and the floor beneath the detector. The magnet has also been operating reliably and reacted correctly to the 14s power cut on 29 May (see below). In or...

  9. Technical endoscopy

    Cavalar, K.O.

    1988-01-01

    A survey is provided on different versions of endoscopes, taking into account the new developments of video endoscopy. With a variety of practical examples it is shown that technical tests using endoscopy are a demanding task for nondestructive testing, whose requirements can only be met on a customized basis. (orig./HP) [de

  10. Energy options for residential buildings assessment

    Rezaie, Behnaz; Dincer, Ibrahim; Esmailzadeh, Ebrahim

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Studying various building energy options. ► Assessing these options from various points. ► Comparing these options for better environment and sustainability. ► Proposing renewable energy options as potential solutions. - Abstract: The building sector, as one of the major energy consumers, demands most of the energy research to assess different energy options from various aspects. In this paper, two similar residential buildings, with either low or high energy consumption patterns, are chosen as case studies. For these case studies, three different renewable energy technology and three different hybrid systems are designed for a specified size. Then, the environmental impact indices, renewable energy indices, and the renewable exergy indices have been estimated for every energy options. Results obtained show that the hybrid systems (without considering the economics factors) are superior and having top indices. The importance of the energy consumption patterns in buildings are proven by the indices. By cutting the energy consumption to about 40% the environment index would increase by more than twice (2.1). Utilization of the non-fossil fuels is one part of the solution to environmental problems while energy conservation being the other. It has been shown that the re-design of the energy consumption model is less complex but more achievable for buildings.

  11. Technical Training: Technical Training Seminar

    2004-01-01

    TECHNICAL TRAINING Monique Duval tel. 74924 technical.training@cern.ch Monday 9 February 2004 From 10:00 to 12:00 - IT Auditorium - bldg. 31, 3rd floor ANSOFT High-Frequency Seminar David Prestaux, Application Engineer, ANSOFT F-78535 BUC, France This Technical Training seminar will present two Ansoft application products: Ansoft HFSS and Ansoft Designer. Ansoft HFSS makes use of the Finite Element Method (FEM) to calculate field solutions from first principles. It can accurately predict all high-frequency behaviours such as dispersion, mode conversion, and losses due to materials and radiation. Ansoft Designer is a suite of design tools to fully integrate high-frequency, physics-based electromagnetic simulations into a seamless system-level simulation environment. Ansoft Designer uses a simple interface to give complete control over every design task, by a method allowing multiple solvers, Solver on Demand. • Introduction • Overview of the Ansoft Total solution • Ansoft HFSS 9...

  12. OIL AND GAS FUTURES AND OPTIONS MARKET

    Ante Nosić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy mineral resources markets are represented by complex supply and demand ratios which are depending on different factors such as technical (transport and geopolitical. The main specific of energy markets is represented by an uneven geographic distribution of hydrocarbon reserves and exploration on one hand and energy consumption on the other. World oil markets, although geographically localized, because of specific market trade, represent unique global market with decreasing price difference. Price differences are result of development of a transport possibilities of oil supply. Development of transport routes of natural gas and increasing number of liquefied natural gas terminals in the world give pressure to natural gas market and its integration into global gas market. Integration of regional gas markets into a common European gas market is main energy policy of EU concerning natural gas. On the other hand, there are still significant price differences on some markets (e.g. United States of America - South East Asia. Development of global energy markets is enabled by development of a futures and options contracts of an energy trade which have replaced bilateral contract deals between producers and consumers. Futures contracts are standardized contracts traded on exchanges. Buyer agrees to buy certain quantity of stock for an agreed upon price and with some future delivery date. Option is a contract which gives a buyer the option of the right to buy (or sell, depending on the option an asset at predetermined price and at a later date. Stocks price risk can be managed with the purchase and selling futures and options contracts. This paper deals with futures and options energy markets and their market strategies.

  13. Management options of varicoceles

    Peter Chan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Varicocele is one of the most common causes of male infertility. Treatment options for varicoceles includes open varicocelectomy performed at various anatomical levels. Laparoscopic varicocelectomy has been established to be a safe and effective treatment for varicoceles. Robotic surgery has been introduced recently as an alternative surgical option for varicocelectomy. Microsurgical varicocelectomy has gained increasing popularity among experts in male reproductive medicine as the treatment of choice for varicocele because of its superior surgical outcomes. There is a growing volume of literature in the recent years on minimal invasive varicocele treatment with percutaneous retrograde and anterograde venous embolization/sclerotherapy. In this review, we will discuss the advantages and limitations associated with each treatment modality for varicoceles. Employment of these advanced techniques of varicocelectomy can provide a safe and effective approach aiming to eliminate varicocele, preserve testicular function and, in a substantial number of men, increase semen quality and the likelihood of pregnancy.

  14. Process to identify and evaluate restoration options

    Strand, J.; Senner, S.; Weiner, A.; Rabinowitch, S.; Brodersen, M.; Rice, K.; Klinge, K.; MacMullin, S.; Yender, R.; Thompson, R.

    1993-01-01

    The restoration planning process has yielded a number of possible alternatives for restoring resources and services injured by the Exxon Valdez oil spill. They were developed by resource managers, scientists, and the public, taking into consideration the results of damage assessment and restoration studies and information from the scientific literature. The alternatives thus far identified include no action natural recovery, management of human uses, manipulation of resources, habitat protection and acquisition, acquisition of equivalent resources, and combinations of the above. Each alternative consists of a different mix of resource- or service-specific restoration options. To decide whether it was appropriate to spend restoration funds on a particular resource or service, first criteria had to be developed that evaluated available evidence for consequential injury and the adequacy and rate of natural recovery. Then, recognizing the range of effective restoration options, a second set of criteria was applied to determine which restoration options were the most beneficial. These criteria included technical feasibility, potential to improve the rate or degree of recovery, the relationship of expected costs to benefits, cost effectiveness, and the potential to restore the ecosystem as a whole. The restoration options considered to be most beneficial will be grouped together in several or more of the above alternatives and presented in a draft restoration plan. They will be further evaluated in a companion draft environmental impact statement

  15. Disposal options for disused radioactive sources

    2005-01-01

    This report presents a review of relevant information on the various technical factors and issues, as well as approaches and relevant technologies, leading to the identification of potential disposal options for disused radioactive sources. The report attempts to provide a logical 'road map' for the disposal of disused radioactive sources, taking into consideration the high degree of variability in the radiological properties of such types of radioactive waste. The use of borehole or shaft type repositories is highlighted as a potential disposal option, particularly for those countries that have limited resources and are looking for a simple, safe and cost effective solution for the disposal of their radioactive source inventories. It offers information about usage and characteristics of radioactive sources, disposal considerations, identification and screening of disposal options as well as waste packaging and acceptance criteria for disposal. The information provided in the report could be adapted or adopted to identify and develop specific disposal options suitable for the type and inventory of radioactive sources kept in storage in a given Member State

  16. Optioner eller betingede aktier?

    Bechmann, Ken L.; Thorsell, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Incitamentsaflønning – og herunder især aktieaflønning – fortsætter med at tiltrække sig stor opmærksomhed fra en lang række sider. Et spørgsmål, der ofte diskuteres, er selskabernes anvendelse af aktieaflønning, dvs. aflønning med optioner, betingede aktier o. lign. Diskussionerne har blandt andet...

  17. Regional transport sector mitigation options

    Zhou, Peter [EECG Consultants, Gaborone (Botswana)

    1998-10-01

    The rationale for conducting climate change mitigation studies in the transport sector is on the premise that: The transport sector is the second largest consumer of fossil fuels in the region; The regional transport sector is an area with high opportunity for infrastructural development under UNFCCC financial mechanism; The regional transport sector is crucial in the SADC region for trade and coupled with the Trade Protocol will play a major role in development hence the need to make it efficient in terms of energy demand and provision of services; The sector offers many mitigation options but with a challenge to evaluate their energy saving and GHG saving potential and yet there is need to quantify possible emission reduction for possible future emission trading. This is also a sector with potential to qualify for financing through Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) recently stipulated in the Kyoto Protocol. (au)

  18. Regional transport sector mitigation options

    Zhou, Peter

    1998-01-01

    The rationale for conducting climate change mitigation studies in the transport sector is on the premise that: The transport sector is the second largest consumer of fossil fuels in the region; The regional transport sector is an area with high opportunity for infrastructural development under UNFCCC financial mechanism; The regional transport sector is crucial in the SADC region for trade and coupled with the Trade Protocol will play a major role in development hence the need to make it efficient in terms of energy demand and provision of services; The sector offers many mitigation options but with a challenge to evaluate their energy saving and GHG saving potential and yet there is need to quantify possible emission reduction for possible future emission trading. This is also a sector with potential to qualify for financing through Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) recently stipulated in the Kyoto Protocol. (au)

  19. Conversion of transuranic waste to low level waste by decontamination: a technical and economic evaluation

    Allen, R.P.; Hazelton, R.F.

    1984-12-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of using in-situ decontamination techniques to convert glove boxes and other large TRU-contaminated components directly into LLW. The results of the technical evaluation indicate that in-situ decontamination of these types of components to non-TRU levels is technically feasible. Applicable decontamination techniques include electropolishing, hand scrubbing, chemical washes/sprays, strippable coatings and Freon spray-cleaning. The removal of contamination from crevices and other holdup areas remains a problem, but may be solved through further advances in decontamination technology. Also, the increase in the allowable maximum TRU level from 10 nCi/g to 100 nCi/g as defined in DOE Order 5820.2 reduces the removal requirement and facilitates measurement of the remaining quantities. The major emphasis of the study was on a cost/benefit evaluation that included a review and update of previous analyses and evaluations of TRU-waste volume reduction and conversion options. The results of the economic evaluation show, for the assumptions used, that there is a definite cost incentive to size reduce large components, and that decontamination of sectioned material has become cost competitive with the size reduction options. In-situ decontamination appears to be the lowest cost option when based on routine-type operations conducted by well-trained and properly equipped personnel. 16 references, 1 figure, 7 tables

  20. Spent fuel reprocessing options

    2008-08-01

    The objective of this publication is to provide an update on the latest developments in nuclear reprocessing technologies in the light of new developments on the global nuclear scene. The background information on spent fuel reprocessing is provided in Section One. Substantial global growth of nuclear electricity generation is expected to occur during this century, in response to environmental issues and to assure the sustainability of the electrical energy supply in both industrial and less-developed countries. This growth carries with it an increasing responsibility to ensure that nuclear fuel cycle technologies are used only for peaceful purposes. In Section Two, an overview of the options for spent fuel reprocessing and their level of development are provided. A number of options exist for the treatment of spent fuel. Some, including those that avoid separation of a pure plutonium stream, are at an advanced level of technological maturity. These could be deployed in the next generation of industrial-scale reprocessing plants, while others (such as dry methods) are at a pilot scale, laboratory scale or conceptual stage of development. In Section Three, research and development in support of advanced reprocessing options is described. Next-generation spent fuel reprocessing plants are likely to be based on aqueous extraction processes that can be designed to a country specific set of spent fuel partitioning criteria for recycling of fissile materials to advanced light water reactors or fast spectrum reactors. The physical design of these plants must incorporate effective means for materials accountancy, safeguards and physical protection. Section four deals with issues and challenges related to spent fuel reprocessing. The spent fuel reprocessing options assessment of economics, proliferation resistance, and environmental impact are discussed. The importance of public acceptance for a reprocessing strategy is discussed. A review of modelling tools to support the

  1. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    A. Ball

    Overview From a technical perspective, CMS has been in “beam operation” state since 6th November. The detector is fully closed with all components operational and the magnetic field is normally at the nominal 3.8T. The UXC cavern is normally closed with the radiation veto set. Access to UXC is now only possible during downtimes of LHC. Such accesses must be carefully planned, documented and carried out in agreement with CMS Technical Coordination, Experimental Area Management, LHC programme coordination and the CCC. Material flow in and out of UXC is now strictly controlled. Access to USC remains possible at any time, although, for safety reasons, it is necessary to register with the shift crew in the control room before going down.It is obligatory for all material leaving UXC to pass through the underground buffer zone for RP scanning, database entry and appropriate labeling for traceability. Technical coordination (notably Stephane Bally and Christoph Schaefer), the shift crew and run ...

  2. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    A. Ball and W. Zeuner

    2011-01-01

    In this report we will review the main achievements of the Technical Stop and the progress of several centrally-managed projects to support CMS operation and maintenance and prepare the way for upgrades. Overview of the extended Technical Stop  The principal objectives of the extended Technical Stop affecting the detector itself were the installation of the TOTEM T1 telescopes on both ends, the readjustment of the alignment link-disk in YE-2, the replacement of the light-guide sleeves for all PMs of both HFs, and some repairs on TOTEM T2 and CASTOR. The most significant tasks were, however, concentrated on the supporting infrastructure. A detailed line-by-line leak search was performed in the C6F14 cooling system of the Tracker, followed by the installation of variable-frequency drives on the pump motors of the SS1 and SS2 tracker cooling plants to reduce pressure transients during start-up. In the electrical system, larger harmonic filters were installed in ...

  3. Real option analysis in a replicating portfolio perspective

    van Heeswijk, W.J.A.; Joosten, Reinoud A.M.G.; Huisman, Kuno; Bos, Christian

    2013-01-01

    In the last decades, a vast body of literature has arisen on real option analysis (ROA). The use of di¤erent approaches and the often implicit adoption of major assumptions may cause confusion on what ROA precisely entails, or in which situations it may be applied. We assess the �eld of real option

  4. Entrepreneurship and Strategic Options in a Development Context

    Sørensen, Olav Jull; Dao, Li Thuy

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the chapter is to reveal the strategic options of a small-scale garment producer in a development context. The chapter uses the Critical Incedents Method to identify major event related to resource, competence and market development. It is found that entrepreneurial spirit to cope...... with constraints enable the entrepreneurs to generate severeal strategic options....

  5. Portability of Technical Skills Across Occupations

    Mukuni, Joseph Siloka

    2012-01-01

    In the literature, much has been reported about skill shortages in the labor market and many solutions have been suggested but most of them do not appear to work well for developing countries. This study investigated the place of portable technical skills as an option for addressing skill shortages, particularly in developing countries. The objective of the study was to determine whether different occupations have portable technical skills, which graduates of workforce development programs ca...

  6. Treatment Options for Actinic Keratosis

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) depends mostly on ... helped by lip balm or petroleum jelly . Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  7. Treatment Option Overview (Vaginal Cancer)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) depends on the ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  8. Treatment Option Overview (Anal Cancer)

    ... affect the prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) depends on the ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  9. Pricing American and Asian Options

    Pat Muldowney

    2015-01-01

    An analytic method for pricing American call options is provided; followed by an empirical method for pricing Asian call options. The methodology is the pricing theory presented in "A Modern Theory of Random Variation", by Patrick Muldowney, 2012.

  10. Major KEEP Findings, 1971 - 1975.

    Kamehameha Schools, Honolulu, HI. Kamehameha Early Education Project.

    This report lists the 34 major research findings from the Kamehameha Early Education Program (KEEP) for the years 1971-1975. Each finding is accompanied by a listing of KEEP technical reports and working papers which contain information relevant to that finding. Included among areas covered in the findings are: (1) student motivation, (2) teacher…

  11. The information content of options

    Navon, Yonatan

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to examine the information content of stock options in financial markets. A key question in financial economics is how information diffuses across markets and how quickly it is reflected in security prices. This thesis aims at exploring this question by investigating the informational role that options play in financial markets. This is achieved by exploring the joint cross section of option and bond prices, the informational role of options in seasoned equity ...

  12. Technical Training: Technical Training Seminar

    2004-01-01

    Tuesday 30 March TECHNICAL TRAINING SEMINAR From 9:00 to 12:00 and from 13:00 to 16:00 hrs - Council Chamber, Salle B, Salle des Pas Perdus National Instruments (NI) on Tour 2004 Claudia Jüngel, Evrem Yarkin, Joel Clerc, Hervé Baour / NATIONAL INSTRUMENTS The special event NI on Tour 2004, run in Germany, Austria and Switzerland, will be at CERN on March 30. Technical seminars and free introductory courses will be offered all day long in the Council Chamber, Salle B, and Salle des Pas Perdus (buildings 61 and 503). Technical conferences: 09:00 - 12:00 Data acquisition systems on PCs. Industrial measurement and control techniques. 13:00 - 16:00 Advanced LabVIEW software and PXI instrumentation. Measuring instruments and system components for teststand automation. Introductory courses: 09:00 - 12:00 DIAdem: Data analysis and presentation 13:00 - 16:00 Data acquisition with LabVIEW Language: English and French Free special seminar. Registration is recommended with National Instruments Switzerland (please sp...

  13. Technical Training: Technical Training Seminar

    2004-01-01

    Tuesday 30 March TECHNICAL TRAINING SEMINAR From 9:00 to 12:00 and from 13:00 to 16:00 hrs - Council Chamber, Salle B, Salle des Pas Perdus National Instruments (NI) on Tour 2004 Claudia Jüngel, Evrem Yarkin, Joel Clerc, Hervé Baour / NATIONAL INSTRUMENTS The special event NI on Tour 2004, run in Germany, Austria and Switzerland, will be at CERN on March 30. Technical seminars and free introductory courses will be offered all day long in the Council Chamber, Salle B, and Salle des Pas Perdus (buildings 61 and 503). Technical conferences: 09:00 - 12:00 Data acquisition systems on PCs. Industrial measurement and control techniques. 13:00 - 16:00 Advanced LabVIEW software and PXI instrumentation. Measuring instruments and system components for teststand automation. Introductory courses: 09:00 - 12:00 DIAdem: Data analysis and presentation 13:00 - 16:00 Data acquisition with LabVIEW Language: English and French Free special seminar. Registration is recommended with National Instruments Swi...

  14. Balancing of solar heating options

    Veltkamp, W.B.; van Koppen, C.W.J.; Ouden, den C.

    1984-01-01

    In the field of energy conservation many options are presently competing. This study aims at providing more rational criteria for selection between these options.The options considered are; insulation of the walls, regeneration of the heat in the waste air, double glazing, attached sunspace at the

  15. Stock option repricing in Europe

    Sauer, M.; Sautner, Z.

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the link between option repricing, firm performance and corporate governance in Europe. Our sample consists of 77 European firms that repriced their stock option between 1987 and 2003. We document that option repricing is mainly a phenomenon for young and fast growing firms

  16. INDOT Technical Training Plan : [Technical Summary

    2012-01-01

    A wide range of job classifications, increasing technical : performance expectations, licensing and certification requirements, : budget restrictions and frequent department : reorganization has made technical training of employees : more difficult, ...

  17. El enriquecimiento lexical en inglés desde la lectura libre y voluntaria de textos auténticos en las carreras técnicas universitarias / The enrichment of the English lexicon based on the free voluntary reading of authentic texts in university technical majorings

    Pedro Fabricio Molina García

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the enrichment of the English lexicon by students of university technical majoring. The starting point is the establishment of intertextual relationships from the free voluntary reading of authentic texts related to this area of knowledge to favor the development of vocabulary in English so as to enable the students to carry out academic, scientific and pre-professional tasks in the foreign language. From this perspective, a didactic strategy is offered to synthesize the phases and techniques to achieve this goal.

  18. Freight Advanced Traveler Information System (FRATIS) Dallas-Fort Worth : software architecture design and implementation options.

    2013-05-01

    This document describes the Software Architecture Design and Implementation Options for FRATIS : system. The demonstration component of this task will serve to test the technical feasibility of the : FRATIS prototype while also facilitating the colle...

  19. Contemplating future energy options

    Pooley, D.

    2005-01-01

    All political parties in the UK accept that we should move away from our reliance on fossil fuels towards a much greater use of alternative energy technologies. Nuclear power is one of these but finds minimal support in the political spectrum. The article reviews the European Commission's Advisory Group on Energy submission to the EC's report entitled 'Key Tasks for European Energy R and D'. The 'strength and weaknesses' of the various 'alternative energy' systems (including nuclear power) are summarised and then the key R and D tasks which, if they are carried out successfully, should make the eight selected technologies significantly more attractive. However, the message here is clear enough: there are no easy options, only a range of very imperfect possibilities, despite what enthusiastic proponents of each may say. Nuclear fission is certainly one of the most attractive options available, but the industry needs to continue to strive to eliminate the possibility of significant off-site releases, whether caused by plant failure or by human error or intention, and to prove beyond reasonable doubt the safety of high-level radioactive waste disposal. (author)

  20. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    A. Ball and W. Zeuner

    2013-01-01

    For the reporting period, the CMS common systems and infrastructure worked well, without failures that caused significant data losses. One more disconnection of the magnet cold box occurred in the shadow of interruptions in data taking, caused by a series of technical faults. The recognition during 2012 that re-connection can only safely be done at around 2 T implies a minimum magnet recovery time of 12 hours and raises serious concerns about the number of ramping cycles of the magnet these incidents cause. This has triggered studies of how to make the cryo-system of the magnet more robust against failures. The proton-proton run ended just before the end-of-year CERN closure, during which CASTOR was installed on the negative end of CMS and both ZDC calorimeters were installed in TAN absorbers the LHC tunnel, in preparation for the heavy-ion run. The installation of CASTOR was an excellent “engineering test” of procedures for working in an activated environment. Despite some technical pr...

  1. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    Austin Ball

    Summary of progress since last CMS week. Ten years of construction work have been completed. CMS is closed, in very close to the ideal low luminosity configuration, and performed well in the first tests with LHC beam. Behind this encouraging news is the story of a summer of intense commitment by many teams (from the collaboration and 3 CERN departments) working together, against the clock and despite many minor setbacks, to ensure that the experiment was ready to play a leading role in the excitement of September 10. Following beampipe bakeout and refill with pure neon, a magnificent effort by the ECAL group and the pt 5 technical crew made it possible to install and commission all 4 ECAL endcap Dees before the end of August. In the shadow of this activity, the barrel and forward pixel trackers and part of the beam monitoring were installed within the vac tank. The pt 5 technical teams then succeeded in safely removing the 20t installation tables and their support blocks from beneath the already installed ...

  2. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    A. Ball and W. Zeuner

    2011-01-01

      Operational experience 2011 CMS is approaching the end of a very successful year of operation. Proton- proton running ended in the late afternoon of 30th October with a stunning 5.73 fb–1 delivered by LHC, of which CMS recorded 5.22 fb–1. During heavy-ion operation, which continues until 7th December, both the accelerator and the CMS detector have also performed very well. Despite the encouraging overall reliability of technical operation, several infrastructure failures which occurred since the last Bulletin are worthy of mention, with one leading for the first time to significant data-loss. On 10th July, a CERN-wide power failure brought down essentially all services including the magnet, due to an MCS setting being left in “manual” after the recent technical stop, but there was no significant damage and the detector was operational before the LHC, despite a slow and tortuous recovery (one of several indications this year that there is room for improve...

  3. Propulsive options for a manned Mars transportation system

    Braun, R.D.; Blersch, D.J.

    1989-01-01

    In this investigation, five potential manned Mars transportation systems are compared. These options include: (1) a single vehicle, chemically propelled (CHEM) option, (2) a single vehicle, nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) option, (3) a single vehicle solar electric propulsion (SEP) option, (4) a single vehicle hybrid nuclear electric propulsion (NEP)/CHEM option, and (5) a dual vehicle option (NEP cargo spacecraft and CHEM manned vehicle). In addition to utilizing the initial vehicle weight in low-earth orbit as a measure of mission feasibility, this study addresses the major technological barriers each propulsive scenario must surpass. It is shown that instead of a single clearly superior propulsion system, each means of propulsion may be favored depending upon the specified program policy and the extent of the desired manned flight time. Furthermore, the effect which aerobraking and multiple transfer cycles have upon mission feasibility is considered. 18 refs

  4. Energy options. Preparing for an uncertain future

    Andrews, H.R.; Harvey, M.

    1988-02-01

    We must begin now to plan to replace fossil fuels as a major energy source. Few energy sources are capable of supplying the vast amount of energy required. The only options that can play a major role are coal, hydro-electricity, and nuclear. The soft energy options are not reliable: we cannot control the blowing of the wind or the shining of the sun; biomass is susceptible to disease. If we were to become too dependent on these we would be surrendering our energy system to the vagaries of nature. A strong electrical system is a cornerstone of energy security. Surplus capacity is often criticized, but a shortfall in supply will cause industrial chaos. Nuclear power is based on a sustainable resource supply, uses a proven technology, is economically competitive, and causes minimal harm to human populations and the environment

  5. Optional Defaultable Markets

    Mohamed N. Abdelghani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with defaultable markets, one of the main research areas of mathematical finance. It proposes a new approach to the theory of such markets using techniques from the calculus of optional stochastic processes on unusual probability spaces, which was not presented before. The paper is a foundation paper and contains a number of fundamental results on modeling of defaultable markets, pricing and hedging of defaultable claims and results on the probability of default under such conditions. Moreover, several important examples are presented: a new pricing formula for a defaultable bond and a new pricing formula for credit default swap. Furthermore, some results on the absence of arbitrage for markets on unusual probability spaces and markets with default are also provided.

  6. Technical presentation

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    10 March 2010 DYNEOS 10:00 – 12:00 - Main Building, Room B, 61-1-009 Dyneos AG is active in the fields of photonics, laser and high-precision positioning. Our highly qualified engineer team has more than 30 years of experience in electro-optical solutions sales. The engineers are supported by a technical and administrative team. We are focused on the Swiss market and represent six suppliers (Coherent, PI Physik Instrumente, SIOS, Nanonics Imaging, APE, Ekspla) in order to give a qualified sales and service support to our customers. Our products are dedicated to the research field as well as to industry. In addition to standard catalog products, we offer custom designs to fulfill the specific needs of OEM customers or specific applications.

  7. Technical presentation

    FP Department

    2009-01-01

    07 April 2009 Technical presentation by Leuze Electronics: 14.00 – 15.00, Main Building, Room 61-1-017 (Room A) Photoelectric sensors, data identification and transmission systems, image processing systems. We at Leuze Electronics are "the sensor people": we have been specialising in optoelectronic sensors and safety technology for accident prevention for over 40 years. Our dedicated staff are all highly customer oriented. Customers of Leuze Electronics can always rely on one thing – on us! •\tFounded in 1963 •\t740 employees •\t115 MEUR turnover •\t20 subsidiaries •\t3 production facilities in southern Germany Product groups: •\tPhotoelectric sensors •\tIdentification and measurements •\tSafety devices

  8. Technical presentation

    FI Department

    2008-01-01

    RADIOSPARES, the leading catalogue distributor of components (electronic, electrical, automation, etc.) and industrial supplies will be at CERN on Friday 3 October 2008 (Main Building, Room B, from 9.00 a.m. to 3.00 p.m.) to introduce its new 2008/2009 catalogue. This will be the opportunity for us to present our complete range of products in more detail: 400 000 part numbers available on our web site (Radiospares France, RS International, extended range of components from other manufacturers); our new services: quotations, search for products not included in the catalogue, SBP products (Small Batch Production: packaging in quantities adapted to customers’ requirements); partnership with our focus manufacturers; demonstration of the on-line purchasing tool implemented on our web site in conjunction with CERN. RADIOSPARES will be accompanied by representatives of FLUKE and TYCO ELECTRONICS, who will make presentations, demonstrate materials and answer any technical questio...

  9. Technical Training: Technical Training Seminar

    2004-01-01

    TECHNICAL TRAINING Monique Duval tel. 74924 technical.training@cern.ch Tuesday 3 February 2004 From 09:00 to 13:30 - Training Centre Auditorium - bldg. 593, room 11 USB (Universal Serial Bus) CYPRESS Seminar Claudia Colombini, Field Application Engineer CYPRESS ActiveComp Electronic GmbH D-85077 MANCHING, Germany As a pioneer in USB, CYPRESS sets the standard for cost-effective solutions without sacrificing functionality, performance or reliability. Having shipped over 200 million USB devices, Cypress is the undisputed market leader and demonstrates unmatched USB expertise. With the industry's broadest selection of USB solutions, Cypress has the right silicon, software and support for every USB application, from Low-speed to High-Speed and USB On-The-Go (OTG). 9:00 - 10:30 Overview of USB systems. USB CYPRESS product overview. Peripherals: Low Speed, Full Speed, High Speed (1.1 and 2.0). Hub Solutions, Embedded Host Solutions, On-The-Go (OTG) and wireless USB. USB Development Tools (first part) 10:30 -...

  10. Transportation Options | Climate Neutral Research Campuses | NREL

    Transportation Options Transportation Options Transportation to, from, and within a research campus from business travel often enlarge the footprint more than expected. To understand options for climate

  11. INEL Operable Unit 7-13 containment and stabilization configuration option

    Raivo, B.D.; Richardson, J.G.; Nickelson, D.F.

    1993-05-01

    A containment and stabilization configuration option has been developed for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory's Subsurface Disposal Area Operable Unit 7-13, the transuranic (TRU)-contaminated waste pits and trenches. The configuration option is presented as an end-to-end system block diagram. Functional subelements are separately discussed, and technical background information, assumptions, input, high-level subelement requirements, and output are presented for each option

  12. Greenhouse gas abatement in Senegal. A case study of least-cost options

    Amous, S.; Revet, D.; Sokona, Y.

    1994-01-01

    The first stage of the study was to make a preliminary inventory of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for the base year 1988. Following this seven no regret technical options for emission reduction were investigated and the costs calculated, allowing the identification of three least-cost options. The three least-cost options must be implemented first because of their negative costs. The economic benefits of both abatement scenarios are characterized by a negative global cost whatever the discount rate is. (author)

  13. [Review of draft Crystalline Repository Project reports]: Technical progress report, CY 1985-1986

    1986-01-01

    During the period (CY 1985-86) of this report, the Wisconsin Radioactive Waste Review Board provided technical services under the contract with DOE. These included Participation in the development of variables and screening techniques that would be used in identifying those rock bodies in the Area Recommendation Report (ARR); reviewing and commenting on the report and developing a procedure in which local residents could have input into the process; sought resumption of negotiations with DOE on a full Consultation and Cooperation (CandC) agreement; and Participating in workshops and provided comments on two major DOE transportation documents, ''Transportation Business Plan: Strategy Options Document,'' and ''Transportation Institutional Plan.''

  14. Fast Spectrum Molten Salt Reactor Options

    Gehin, Jess C [ORNL; Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Flanagan, George F [ORNL; Patton, Bruce W [ORNL; Howard, Rob L [ORNL; Harrison, Thomas J [ORNL

    2011-07-01

    During 2010, fast-spectrum molten-salt reactors (FS-MSRs) were selected as a transformational reactor concept for light-water reactor (LWR)-derived heavy actinide disposition by the Department of Energy-Nuclear Energy Advanced Reactor Concepts (ARC) program and were the subject of a preliminary scoping investigation. Much of the reactor description information presented in this report derives from the preliminary studies performed for the ARC project. This report, however, has a somewhat broader scope-providing a conceptual overview of the characteristics and design options for FS-MSRs. It does not present in-depth evaluation of any FS-MSR particular characteristic, but instead provides an overview of all of the major reactor system technologies and characteristics, including the technology developments since the end of major molten salt reactor (MSR) development efforts in the 1970s. This report first presents a historical overview of the FS-MSR technology and describes the innovative characteristics of an FS-MSR. Next, it provides an overview of possible reactor configurations. The following design features/options and performance considerations are described including: (1) reactor salt options-both chloride and fluoride salts; (2) the impact of changing the carrier salt and actinide concentration on conversion ratio; (3) the conversion ratio; (4) an overview of the fuel salt chemical processing; (5) potential power cycles and hydrogen production options; and (6) overview of the performance characteristics of FS-MSRs, including general comparative metrics with LWRs. The conceptual-level evaluation includes resource sustainability, proliferation resistance, economics, and safety. The report concludes with a description of the work necessary to begin more detailed evaluation of FS-MSRs as a realistic reactor and fuel cycle option.

  15. General characteristics and assessment of the scientific/technical feasibility of the next major device in the tokamak fusion program. Summary of the US contributions to the INTOR workshop

    Stacey, W.M. Jr.; Gilleland, J.R.; Kulcinski, G.L.; Rutherford, P.H.

    1979-09-01

    A substantial physics and technology data base for INTOR exists today, and this data base will be expanded over the next few years by currently planned programs. However, certain crucial information will not be developed by currently planned programs. Much of this missing information could be developed on the INTOR time scale by the expansion and/or acceleration of existing R and D programs and by the establishment of new R and D programs. On this basis, it is concluded that it is scientifically and technologically feasible to undertake the construction of an INTOR-like device to operate in the early 1990s, provided that the supporting R and D effort is expanded immediately to provide an adequate data base within the next few years in a few critical areas. Furthermore, it is concluded that the construction of an INTOR-like device to operate in the early 1990s is the appropriate next major step in the development of fusion power

  16. Savannah River Plant Low-Level Waste Heat Utilization Project preliminary analysis. Volume II. Options for capturing the waste heat

    1978-11-01

    Options for utilizing the heated SRP effluent are investigated. The temperature and availability characteristics of the heated effluent are analyzed. Technical options for energy recovery are discussed. A number of thermodynamic cycles that could generate electrical power using the energy in the heated SRP effluent are described. Conceptual designs for SRP application of two attractive options are presented. Other direct uses for the heated effluent, as heat sources for agriculture and aquaculture options are discussed

  17. Option-implied term structures

    Vogt, Erik

    2014-01-01

    The illiquidity of long-maturity options has made it difficult to study the term structures of option spanning portfolios. This paper proposes a new estimation and inference framework for these option-implied term structures that addresses long-maturity illiquidity. By building a sieve estimator around the risk-neutral valuation equation, the framework theoretically justifies (fat-tailed) extrapolations beyond truncated strikes and between observed maturities while remaining nonparametric. Ne...

  18. Portfolio insurance using traded options

    Machado-Santos, Carlos

    2001-01-01

    Literature concerning the institutional use of options indicates that the main purpose of option trading is to provide investors with the opportunity to create return distributions previously unavailable, considering that options provide the means to manipulate portfolio returns. In such a context, this study intends to analyse the returns of insured portfolios generated by hedging strategies on underlying stock portfolios. Because dynamic hedging is too expensive, we have hedged the stock po...

  19. Synroc processing options

    Rozsa, R.B.; Hoenig, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    Synroc is a titanate-based ceramic material currently being developed for immobilizing high-level nuclear reactor wastes in solid form. Synroc D is a unique variation of Synroc. It can contain the high-level defense wastes, particularly those in storage at the Savannah River Plant. In this report, we review the early development of the initial Synroc process, discuss modification and other options that simplify it overall, and recommend the future direction of research and development in the processing area. A reference Synroc process is described briefly and contrasted with the Savannah River Laboratory glass-based reference case. Preliminary engineering layouts show Synroc to be a more complex processing operation and, thus, more expensive than the glass-based process. However, we believe that simplifications, which will significantly reduce the cost difference, are possible. Further research and development will continue in the areas of slurry processing, fluidized bed calcination, and mineralization. This last will use sintering, hot uniaxial pressing, or hot isostatic pressing

  20. Nuclear technology options

    Salvatores, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Different strategies and motivations in different countries have led to diverse options. In Europe the SNETP (Sustainable Nuclear Energy Technology Platform) has the objective of developing R&D supporting GEN-II (present) and GEN-III nuclear systems under development; allowing sustainability and minimisation of waste burden, promoting advanced Gen-IV Fast Reactors; and accounting for a Nuclear Cogeneration Industrial Initiative. A remarkable initiative in the USA has been the promotion of small modular reactors (SMRs) – at less than 300 MWe in capacity, much smaller than typical reactors – which can be an ideal choice for (remote) areas which cannot support a larger reactor. Compact scalable design offers a host of potential safety, construction and economic benefits. More “upbeat” strategies are expected in other areas of the world where significant increase in nuclear energy demand is predicted in the next decades. If this growth materialises, future fuel cycles characteristics, feasibility and acceptability will be crucial. This paper will discuss different scenarios for future fuel cycles, resources optimisation and/or waste minimization, the range from full fast reactor deployment to phase-out, management of spent nuclear fuel and the significant potential benefits of advanced cycles. The next 45 years will be dominated by deployment of standard large or medium size plants operating for 60 years. Available resources do allow it. However, fuel cycle will be a growing and most challenging issue and early assessments will be needed for public acceptance and policy decisions.

  1. Optional carbon capture

    Alderson, T.; Scott, S.; Griffiths, J. [Jacobs Engineering, London (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-01

    In the case of IGCC power plants, carbon capture can be carried out before combustion. The carbon monoxide in the syngas is catalytically shifted to carbon dioxide and then captured in a standard gas absorption system. However, the insertion of a shift converter into an existing IGCC plant with no shift would mean a near total rebuild of the gasification waste heat recovery, gas treatment system and HRSG, with only the gasifier and gas turbine retaining most of their original features. To reduce the extent, cost and time taken for the revamping, the original plant could incorporate the shift, and the plant would then be operated without capture to advantage, and converted to capture mode of operation when commercially appropriate. This paper examines this concept of placing a shift converter into an IGCC plant before capture is required, and operating the same plant first without and then later with CO{sub 2} capture in a European context. The advantages and disadvantages of this 'capture ready' option are discussed. 6 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Perpetual Cancellable American Call Option

    Emmerling, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the valuation of a generalized American-style option known as a Game-style call option in an infinite time horizon setting. The specifications of this contract allow the writer to terminate the call option at any point in time for a fixed penalty amount paid directly to the holder. Valuation of a perpetual Game-style put option was addressed by Kyprianou (2004) in a Black-Scholes setting on a non-dividend paying asset. Here, we undertake a similar analysis for the perpetua...

  3. Option price and market instability

    Baaquie, Belal E.; Yu, Miao

    2017-04-01

    An option pricing formula, for which the price of an option depends on both the value of the underlying security as well as the velocity of the security, has been proposed in Baaquie and Yang (2014). The FX (foreign exchange) options price was empirically studied in Baaquie et al., (2014), and it was found that the model in general provides an excellent fit for all strike prices with a fixed model parameters-unlike the Black-Scholes option price Hull and White (1987) that requires the empirically determined implied volatility surface to fit the option data. The option price proposed in Baaquie and Cao Yang (2014) did not fit the data during the crisis of 2007-2008. We make a hypothesis that the failure of the option price to fit data is an indication of the market's large deviation from its near equilibrium behavior due to the market's instability. Furthermore, our indicator of market's instability is shown to be more accurate than the option's observed volatility. The market prices of the FX option for various currencies are studied in the light of our hypothesis.

  4. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    Austin Ball

    2013-01-01

      Since the last report, much visible progress has been made, as the LS1 programme approaches the halfway point. From early October, technical and safety shift-crew have been present around the clock, allowing detectors to stay switched on overnight, ensuring that safety systems are operational and instructions for non-expert shift-crew are clear. LS1 progress Throughout the summer, whilst the solenoid vacuum tank and YB0 surfaces were accessible, an extensive installation programme took place to prepare for Tracker colder operation and the PLT installation, in 2014, the Phase 1 Pixel Tracker installation, in 2016–’17, and the HCAL Phase 1 upgrade completion, ending in LS2. This included pipework for N2 or dry air to flush the Tracker bulkhead region, many sensors to monitor temperature and dew point in the Tracker and its service channels, heating wires outside the Tracker cooling bundles, supports for the new vacuum-jacketed, concentric, CO2 Pixel cooling lines, the PLT cool...

  5. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    A. Ball and W. Zeuner

    2012-01-01

      UXC + detectors As explained in detail in the November 2011 bulletin, the bellows unit at −18.5 m from the CMS interaction point was identified as a prime candidate for the regularly occurring pressure spikes which occasionally led to sustained severe background conditions in 2011, affecting dead time and data quality. Similar regions in LHC with vacuum instabilities were observed to be close to bellows, which radiography showed to have distorted RF-fingers — on removal, they proved to have been severely overheated. The plans for the Year-End Technical Stop were adapted to prioritise radiography of the bellows at 16 m to 18 m either end of CMS. Excellent work by the beam pipe, survey and heavy mechanical teams allowed the X-rays to be taken as planned on 20th December, showing that the bellow at −18.5m had an obvious non-conformity. The RF-fingers were found inside the end of the opposing flared pipe instead of outside. In addition, the overlap between fingers and...

  6. Treatment Option Overview (Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ...

  7. Probabilistic methods in exotic option pricing

    Anderluh, J.H.M.

    2007-01-01

    The thesis presents three ways of calculating the Parisian option price as an illustration of probabilistic methods in exotic option pricing. Moreover options on commidities are considered and double-sided barrier options in a compound Poisson framework.

  8. AVLIS: a technical and economic forecast

    Davis, J.I.; Spaeth, M.L.

    1986-01-01

    The AVLIS process has intrinsically large isotopic selectivity and hence high separative capacity per module. The critical components essential to achieving the high production rates represent a small fraction (approx.10%) of the total capital cost of a production facility, and the reference production designs are based on frequent replacement of these components. The specifications for replacement frequencies in a plant are conservative with respect to our expectations; it is reasonable to expect that, as the plant is operated, the specifications will be exceeded and production costs will continue to fall. Major improvements in separator production rates and laser system efficiencies (approx.power) are expected to occur as a natural evolution in component improvements. With respect to the reference design, such improvements have only marginal economic value, but given the exigencies of moving from engineering demonstration to production operations, we continue to pursue these improvements in order to offset any unforeseen cost increases. Thus, our technical and economic forecasts for the AVLIS process remain very positive. The near-term challenge is to obtain stable funding and a commitment to bring the process to full production conditions within the next five years. If the funding and commitment are not maintained, the team will disperse and the know-how will be lost before it can be translated into production operations. The motivation to preserve the option for low-cost AVLIS SWU production is integrally tied to the motivation to maintain a competitive nuclear option. The US industry can certainly survive without AVLIS, but our tradition as technology leader in the industry will certainly be lost

  9. ATR Technical Specification Upgrade Program

    McCracken, R.T.; Durney, J.L.; Freund, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is a 250 MW, uranium-aluminum fueled test reactor which began full power operation in 1969. The initial operation was controlled by an Operating Limits document based on the original Safety Analysis Report. Additional safety bases were later developed to support Technical Specifications which were approved and implemented in 1977. The Technical Specifications which were initially developed with content and format specified in ANSI/ANS--15.1, ''The Development of Technical Specifications for Research Reactors.'' The safety basis documentation and the Technical Specifications have been updated as required to maintain them current with the ATR facility configuration. All revisions have been made with a content, format and style consistent with the original. A major, two-phase program to upgrade the content, format and style is in progress. This paper describes the first phase of this program

  10. Technical issues for WIPP

    Hunter, T.O.

    1979-01-01

    Emplacement of wastes in the WIPP will include experiments on various waste types which will provide essential data on waste-rock interaction and repository response. These experiments will include evolution of the synergistic effects of both heat production, radiation, and actual waste forms. While these studies will provide essential data on the validity of waste isolation in bedded salt, they will be preceded by a broad-based experimental program which will resolve many of the current technical issues providing not only an assessment of the safety of performing such experiments but also the technical basis for assurance that the appropriate experiments are performed. Data and predictive modeling techniques, which are currently available, can bound the consequences associated with these technical issues. Predictions of the impact on public safety based on these analyses indicate that safe waste disposal in WIPP salt beds is achievable; however, a major use of WIPP will be to conduct realistic experiments with HLW forms to address some of the unresolved details of these waste/salt interactions

  11. Technical innovation and management

    Yoon, Yang Cheol

    1982-08-15

    This book gives explanations of the conception of technical innovation, development plan in Korea, connection between technology and a growth factor in national income, problem of technical innovation in developing country, analysis on cooperation between a developed country and a developing country, evaluation and strategy of technical development in Korea, technical innovation of industry, management of technical industry, analysis of special condition in Korea.

  12. Technical innovation and management

    Yoon, Yang Cheol

    1982-08-01

    This book gives explanations of the conception of technical innovation, development plan in Korea, connection between technology and a growth factor in national income, problem of technical innovation in developing country, analysis on cooperation between a developed country and a developing country, evaluation and strategy of technical development in Korea, technical innovation of industry, management of technical industry, analysis of special condition in Korea.

  13. Analysis of Options Contract, Option Pricing in Agricultural Products

    H. Tamidy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Risk is an essential component in the production and sale of agricultural products. Due to the nature of agricultural products, the people who act in this area including farmers and businesspersons encounter unpredictable fluctuations of prices. On the other hand, the firms that process agricultural products also face fluctuation of price of agricultural inputs. Given that the Canola is considered as one of the inputs of product processing factories, control of unpredictable fluctuations of the price of this product would increase the possibility of correct decision making for farmers and managers of food processing industries. The best available tool for control and management of the price risk is the use of future markets and options. It is evident that the pricing is the main pillar in every trade. Therefore, offering a fair price for the options will be very important. In fact, options trading in the options market create cost insurance stopped. In this way, which can reduce the risks of deflation created in the future, if the person entitled to the benefits of the price increase occurs in the future. Unlike the futures, market where the seller had to deliver the product on time, in the options market, there is no such compulsion. In addition, this is one of the strengths of this option contract, because if there is not enough product for delivery to the futures market as result of chilling, in due course, the farmers suffer, but in the options market there will be a loss. In this study, the setup options of rape, as a product, as well as inputs has been paid for industry. Materials and Methods: In this section. The selection criteria of the disposal of asset base for valuation of European put options and call option is been introduced. That for obtain this purpose, some characteristics of the goods must considered: 1-Unpredictable fluctuations price of underlying asset 2 -large underlying asset cash market 3- The possibility

  14. Bounds for Asian basket options

    Deelstra, Griselda; Diallo, Ibrahima; Vanmaele, Michèle

    2008-09-01

    In this paper we propose pricing bounds for European-style discrete arithmetic Asian basket options in a Black and Scholes framework. We start from methods used for basket options and Asian options. First, we use the general approach for deriving upper and lower bounds for stop-loss premia of sums of non-independent random variables as in Kaas et al. [Upper and lower bounds for sums of random variables, Insurance Math. Econom. 27 (2000) 151-168] or Dhaene et al. [The concept of comonotonicity in actuarial science and finance: theory, Insurance Math. Econom. 31(1) (2002) 3-33]. We generalize the methods in Deelstra et al. [Pricing of arithmetic basket options by conditioning, Insurance Math. Econom. 34 (2004) 55-57] and Vanmaele et al. [Bounds for the price of discrete sampled arithmetic Asian options, J. Comput. Appl. Math. 185(1) (2006) 51-90]. Afterwards we show how to derive an analytical closed-form expression for a lower bound in the non-comonotonic case. Finally, we derive upper bounds for Asian basket options by applying techniques as in Thompson [Fast narrow bounds on the value of Asian options, Working Paper, University of Cambridge, 1999] and Lord [Partially exact and bounded approximations for arithmetic Asian options, J. Comput. Finance 10 (2) (2006) 1-52]. Numerical results are included and on the basis of our numerical tests, we explain which method we recommend depending on moneyness and time-to-maturity.

  15. Aluminum industry options paper

    1999-10-01

    In 1990, Canada's producers of aluminum (third largest in the world) emitted 10 million tonnes of carbon dioxide and equivalent, corresponding to 6.4 tonnes of greenhouse gas intensity per tonne of aluminum. In 2000, the projection is that on a business-as-usual (BAU) basis Canadian producers now producing 60 per cent more aluminum than in 1990, will emit 10.7 million tonnes of carbon dioxide and equivalent, corresponding to a GHG intensity of 4.2 tonnes per tonne of aluminum. This improvement is due to production being based largely on hydro-electricity, and partly because in general, Canadian plants are modern, with technology that is relatively GHG-friendly. The Aluminum Association of Canada estimates that based on anticipated production, and under a BAU scenario, GHG emissions from aluminum production will rise by 18 per cent by 2010 and by 30 per cent by 2020. GHG emissions could be reduced below the BAU forecast first, by new control and monitoring systems at some operations at a cost of $4.5 to 7.5 million per smelter. These systems could reduce carbon dioxide equivalent emissions by 0.8 million tonnes per year. A second alternative would require installation of breaker feeders which would further reduce perfluorocarbon (PFC) emissions by 0.9 million tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent. Cost of the breakers feeders would be in the order of $200 million per smelter. The third option calls for the the shutting down of some of the smelters with older technology by 2015. In this scenario GHG emissions would be reduced by 2010 by 0.8 million tonnes per year of carbon dioxide equivalent. However, the cost in this case would be about $1.36 billion. The industry would support measures that would encourage the first two sets of actions, which would produce GHG emissions from aluminum production in Canada of about 10.2 million tonnes per year of carbon dioxide equivalent, or about two per cent above 1990 levels with double the aluminum production of 1990. Credit for

  16. Technology status in support of refined technical baseline for the Spent Nuclear Fuel project. Revision 1

    Puigh, R.J.; Toffer, H.; Heard, F.J.; Irvin, J.J.; Cooper, T.D.

    1995-10-20

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNFP) has undertaken technology acquisition activities focused on supporting the technical basis for the removal of the N Reactor fuel from the K Basins to an interim storage facility. The purpose of these technology acquisition activities has been to identify technology issues impacting design or safety approval, to establish the strategy for obtaining the necessary information through either existing project activities, or the assignment of new work. A set of specific path options has been identified for each major action proposed for placing the N Reactor fuel into a ``stabilized`` form for interim storage as part of this refined technical basis. This report summarizes the status of technology information acquisition as it relates to key decisions impacting the selection of specific path options. The following specific categories were chosen to characterize and partition the technology information status: hydride issues and ignition, corrosion, hydrogen generation, drying and conditioning, thermal performance, criticality and materials accountability, canister/fuel particulate behavior, and MCO integrity. This report represents a preliminary assessment of the technology information supporting the SNFP. As our understanding of the N Reactor fuel performance develops the technology information supporting the SNFP will be updated and documented in later revisions to this report. Revision 1 represents the incorporation of peer review comments into the original document. The substantive evolution in our understanding of the technical status for the SNFP (except section 3) since July 1995 have not been incorporated into this revision.

  17. Technology status in support of refined technical baseline for the Spent Nuclear Fuel project. Revision 1

    Puigh, R.J.; Toffer, H.; Heard, F.J.; Irvin, J.J.; Cooper, T.D.

    1995-01-01

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNFP) has undertaken technology acquisition activities focused on supporting the technical basis for the removal of the N Reactor fuel from the K Basins to an interim storage facility. The purpose of these technology acquisition activities has been to identify technology issues impacting design or safety approval, to establish the strategy for obtaining the necessary information through either existing project activities, or the assignment of new work. A set of specific path options has been identified for each major action proposed for placing the N Reactor fuel into a ''stabilized'' form for interim storage as part of this refined technical basis. This report summarizes the status of technology information acquisition as it relates to key decisions impacting the selection of specific path options. The following specific categories were chosen to characterize and partition the technology information status: hydride issues and ignition, corrosion, hydrogen generation, drying and conditioning, thermal performance, criticality and materials accountability, canister/fuel particulate behavior, and MCO integrity. This report represents a preliminary assessment of the technology information supporting the SNFP. As our understanding of the N Reactor fuel performance develops the technology information supporting the SNFP will be updated and documented in later revisions to this report. Revision 1 represents the incorporation of peer review comments into the original document. The substantive evolution in our understanding of the technical status for the SNFP (except section 3) since July 1995 have not been incorporated into this revision

  18. Photovoltaic power - An important new energy option

    Ferber, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    A review of photovoltaic (PV) power technology is presented with an emphasis of PV as an economical and technically feasible alternative source of energy. The successful completion of the development and transfer of emerging low-cost technologies into a fully commercialized status are identified as the means to the realization of this option's full potential. The DOE National Photovoltaics Program, a significant sponsor of PV R&D, expects both flat-plate and concentrator collectors to meet established cost targets. Citing the DOE large flat-plate grid-connected system project of the Sacramento Municipal Utility District, current technology modules priced at near $5/Wp (1983 dollars) are steadily reducing costs. A recent DOE study suggests that PV-generated electricity produced at a 30-year levelized cost of 15 cents per kWh would represent a viable energy supply alternative for the nation.

  19. Excess plutonium disposition: The deep borehole option

    Ferguson, K.L.

    1994-01-01

    This report reviews the current status of technologies required for the disposition of plutonium in Very Deep Holes (VDH). It is in response to a recent National Academy of Sciences (NAS) report which addressed the management of excess weapons plutonium and recommended three approaches to the ultimate disposition of excess plutonium: (1) fabrication and use as a fuel in existing or modified reactors in a once-through cycle, (2) vitrification with high-level radioactive waste for repository disposition, (3) burial in deep boreholes. As indicated in the NAS report, substantial effort would be required to address the broad range of issues related to deep bore-hole emplacement. Subjects reviewed in this report include geology and hydrology, design and engineering, safety and licensing, policy decisions that can impact the viability of the concept, and applicable international programs. Key technical areas that would require attention should decisions be made to further develop the borehole emplacement option are identified

  20. (ICT) to Technical Services in Libraries

    The term technical services is used in this paper to refer to the major operations that are common to all Technical Services Divisions in libraries – namely, cataloguing, classification, indexing and abstracting. These activities have many repetitive components which used to be done manually. But today the new technology ...

  1. Middlesex Community College Software Technical Writing Program.

    Middlesex Community Coll., Bedford, MA.

    This document describes the Software Technical Writing Program at Middlesex Community College (Massachusetts). The program is a "hands-on" course designed to develop job-related skills in three major areas: technical writing, software, and professional skills. The program was originally designed in cooperation with the Massachusetts High…

  2. Major hazards onshore and offshore

    1992-01-01

    This symposium continues the tradition of bringing together papers on a topic of current interest and importance in terms of process safety - in this case, Major Hazards Onshore and Offshore. Lord Cullen in his report on the Piper Alpha disaster has, in effect, suggested that the experience gained in the control of major hazards onshore during the 1980s should be applied to improve safety offshore during the 1990s. This major three-day symposium reviews what has been learned so far with regard to major hazards and considers its present and future applications both onshore and offshore. The topics covered in the programme are wide ranging and deal with all aspects of legislation, the application of regulations, techniques for evaluating hazards and prescribing safety measures in design, construction and operation, the importance of the human factors, and recent technical developments in protective measures, relief venting and predicting the consequences of fires and explosions. (author)

  3. Technical and governance considerations for advanced metering infrastructure/smart meters: Technology, security, uncertainty, costs, benefits, and risks

    McHenry, Mark P.

    2013-01-01

    The fundamental role of policymakers when considering Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI), or ‘smart meters for energy and water infrastructure is to investigate a broad range of complex interrelated issues. These include alternative technical and non-technical options and deployment needs, the cost and benefits of the infrastructure (risks and mitigation measures), and the impact of a number of stakeholders: consumers, distributors, retailers, competitive market operators, competing technology companies, etc. The scale and number of potential variables in the AMI space is an almost unprecedented challenge to policymakers, with the anticipation of new ancillary products and services, associated market contestability, related regulatory and policy amendments, and the adequacy of consumer protection, education, and safety considerations requiring utmost due-diligence. Embarking on AMI investment entails significant technical, implementation, and strategic risk for governments and administering bodies, and an active effort is required to ensure AMI governance and planning maximises the potential benefits, and minimise uncertainties, costs, and risks to stakeholders. This work seeks to clarify AMI fundamentals and discusses the technical and related governance considerations from a dispassionate perspective, yet acknowledges many stakeholders tend to dichotomise debate, and obfuscate both advantages and benefits, and the converse. - Highlights: • AMI presents an almost unprecedented technical and governance policy challenge. • AMI enables vertical integration of electricity, gas, water, IT, and telco entities • AMI investments involve major technical, implementation, and strategic decisions. • Adequacy of consumer education, safety, privacy, and protection is paramount. • Policy must maximise AMI benefits and minimise uncertainties, costs, and risks

  4. The Amnesiac Lookback Option: Selectively Monitored Lookback Options and Cryptocurrencies

    Ho-Chun Herbert Chang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a strategy to make the lookback option cheaper and more practical, and suggests the use of its properties to reduce risk exposure in cryptocurrency markets through blockchain enforced smart contracts and correct for informational inefficiencies surrounding prices and volatility. This paper generalizes partial, discretely-monitored lookback options that dilute premiums by selecting a subset of specified periods to determine payoff, which we call amnesiac lookback options. Prior literature on discretely-monitored lookback options considers the number of periods and assumes equidistant lookback periods in pricing partial lookback options. This study by contrast considers random sampling of lookback periods and compares resulting payoff of the call, put and spread options under floating and fixed strikes. Amnesiac lookbacks are priced with Monte Carlo simulations of Gaussian random walks under equidistant and random periods. Results are compared to analytic and binomial pricing models for the same derivatives. Simulations show diminishing marginal increases to the fair price as the number of selected periods is increased. The returns correspond to a Hill curve whose parameters are set by interest rate and volatility. We demonstrate over-pricing under equidistant monitoring assumptions with error increasing as the lookback periods decrease. An example of a direct implication for event trading is when shock is forecasted but its timing uncertain, equidistant sampling produces a lower error on the true maximum than random choice. We conclude that the instrument provides an ideal space for investors to balance their risk, and as a prime candidate to hedge extreme volatility. We discuss the application of the amnesiac lookback option and path-dependent options to cryptocurrencies and blockchain commodities in the context of smart contracts.

  5. The Real Options Attached to an Investment Project

    Mihai-Cristian DINICĂ

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The real options capture the importance of the managerial team’s role in creating value through investment projects. The investments in real assets have a set of options that managers can exercise during the period of the project to increase the value of the assets or to limit the eventual losses. This options have their own value.The traditional methods for investment project evaluatioan, based on discounted cash flows, have some major disadvantages: they assume the irreversibility of a decision, do not take into account the interactions between decisions in several periods and treat the investment as pasive. The evaluation using real options undertake this disadvantage. The paper shows the main types of real options, together with their elements and captures the impact of these options on the value of the investment. The main two models used to evaluate real options, the binomial model and Black-Scholes model, are explained and used to compute the value of real options attached to an investment project.

  6. Preliminary Analysis of Helicopter Options to Support Tunisian Counterterrorism Operations

    2016-04-27

    helicopters from Sikorsky to fulfill a number of roles in counterterrorism operations. Rising costs and delays in delivery raised the question of...whether other cost-effective options exist to meet Tunisia’s helicopter requirement. Approach Our team conducted a preliminary assessment of...alternative helicopters for counterterrorism air assault missions. Any decision to acquire an aircraft must consider many factors, including technical

  7. Utilizing waste heat. Energy recovery options for trade and industry

    Krieg, W

    1988-08-01

    The article shows options for efficient and low-cost thermal energy recovery. Heat recovery involves a number of problems, e.g. the type of waste heat, the uses of the energy recovered, and the best way of utilizing it. There is no generally applicable way of solving these problems. Some practical examples are presented. Economically efficient solutions require detailed technical knowledge as well as a good portion of creativity and imagination. (BR).

  8. Future European Expendable Launcher Options and Technology Preparation

    Sippel, Martin; van Foreest, Arnold; Klevanski, Josef; Gerstmann, Jens; Dutheil, Jean-Philippe; Jäger, Markus; Philip, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The paper describes latest results of the most recent activities in Germany in the technical assessment of future European launcher architecture. In a joint effort of DLR-SART with German launcher industry a next generation upper-medium class expendable TSTO and options for new liquid fuel upper stages for the small VEGA-launcher are addressed. The WOTAN study has investigated fully cryogenic launchers as well as those with a combination of solid and cryogenic stages, fulfilling a requirement...

  9. Gender Differences in Major Federal External Grant Programs. Technical Report

    Hosek, Susan D.; Cox, Amy G.; Ghosh-Dastidar, Bonnie; Kofner, Aaron; Ramphal, Nishal; Scott, Jon; Berry, Sandra H.

    2005-01-01

    The Wyden amendment to the National Science Foundation (NSF) Authorization Act of 2002 sought to determine whether federally funded educational programs other than sports comply with Title IX, which prohibits gender discrimination. At the request of NSF, this report analyzes administrative data from fiscal years 2001 through 2003 describing the…

  10. Exotic Options: a Chooser Option and its Pricing

    Raimonda Martinkutė-Kaulienė

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Financial instruments traded in the markets and investors’ situation in such markets are getting more and more complex. This leads to more complex derivative structures used for hedging that are harder to analyze and which risk is harder managed. Because of the complexity of these instruments, the basic characteristics of many exotic options may sometimes be not clearly understood. Most scientific studies have been focused on developing models for pricing various types of exotic options, but it is important to study their unique characteristics and to understand them correctly in order to use them in proper market situations. The paper examines main aspects of options, emphasizing the variety of exotic options and their place in financial markets and risk management process. As the exact valuation of exotic options is quite difficult, the article deals with the theoretical and practical aspects of pricing of chooser options that suggest a broad range of usage and application in different market conditions. The calculations made in the article showed that the price of the chooser is closely correlated with the choice time and low correlated with its strike price. So the first mentioned factor should be taken into consideration when making appropriate hedging and investing decisions.

  11. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    A. Ball

    2011-01-01

    1 Operational experience 2011 1.1 Overview Starting on a positive note, it is encouraging that, for the period of this report, the operation of CMS and its entire infrastructure at Point 5 was remarkably stable and efficient. No luminosity was lost due to failures of common systems or infrastructure. The major faults were two failures of rack ventilation turbines, a leak in a water pump in the endcap circuit and the first fast dump of the magnet since underground commissioning. As the rack ventilation units have two turbines, these single turbine failures were tolerated until the next possible access. The water pump survived until the end of the fill after which the circuit was switched to a reserve pump (which in principle is also possible “on the fly”). A faulty position controller of a cryo-valve serving the cryo-power leads caused a spontaneous closure of the valve leading to the fast dump of the magnet. In this case, CMS was lucky once again, since the incident happened on the first ...

  12. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    A. Ball and W. Zeuner

    2012-01-01

      In the reporting period, CMS has collected about 10 fb–1 of pp collision data. Considering the prolonged duration of the current running period, with no opportunity for thorough maintenance since 2009, the reliability of the infrastructure and common systems was satisfactory. . Once again, CMS was fortunate that some failures coincided with LHC downtime, avoiding major data losses. After repeated difficulties over the summer with reconnection of the cold box following an unexpected stop, the procedure was revised. For reliability, and to reduce the risk of a fast discharge, the reconnection is now done at a reduced field of 2 T, resulting in a mechanical on-off-on cycle. It is also time consuming, with two times two hours for the ramp-down/up and several hours for refilling the He dewar before restoring the field to 3.8 T. In response to this, a mode of operation has been successfully tested that allows doubling the refill rate of the dewar. Reconnection at a somewhat higher field is ...

  13. Food irradiation. Technical and legal aspects

    Vas, K.

    1978-01-01

    This document presents a brief technical discussion on a new major technique for food preservation and points out the necessary harmonization of national regulations to give them a broader application field [fr

  14. 48 CFR 552.217-71 - Notice Regarding Option(s).

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notice Regarding Option(s... Notice Regarding Option(s). As prescribed in 517.208(b), insert the following provision: Notice Regarding Option(s) (NOV 1992) The General Services Administration (GSA) has included an option to [Insert...

  15. Evaluating options for balancing the water–electricity nexus in California: Part 2—Greenhouse gas and renewable energy utilization impacts

    Tarroja, Brian; AghaKouchak, Amir; Sobhani, Reza; Feldman, David; Jiang, Sunny; Samuelsen, Scott, E-mail: gss@uci.edu

    2014-11-01

    A study was conducted to compare the technical potential and effectiveness of different water supply options for securing water availability in a large-scale, interconnected water supply system under historical and climate-change augmented inflow and demand conditions. Part 2 of the study focused on determining the greenhouse gas and renewable energy utilization impacts of different pathways to stabilize major surface reservoir levels. Using a detailed electric grid model and taking into account impacts on the operation of the water supply infrastructure, the greenhouse gas emissions and effect on overall grid renewable penetration level was calculated for each water supply option portfolio that successfully secured water availability from Part 1. The effects on the energy signature of water supply infrastructure were found to be just as important as that of the fundamental processes for each option. Under historical (baseline) conditions, many option portfolios were capable of securing surface reservoir levels with a net neutral or negative effect on emissions and a benefit for renewable energy utilization. Under climate change augmented conditions, however, careful selection of the water supply option portfolio was required to prevent imposing major emissions increases for the system. Overall, this analysis provided quantitative insight into the tradeoffs associated with choosing different pathways for securing California's water supply. - Highlights: • Part I presents a spatially and temporally resolved model of California’s surface reservoirs. • Part II presents GHG emissions and grid renewable penetration for water availability options. • In particular, the energy signature of water supply infrastructure is delineated. • Different pathways for securing California’s water supply are developed quantitatively. • Under baseline conditions, portfolios capable of securing surface reservoir levels emerge. • Under climate change conditions, the

  16. Evaluating options for balancing the water–electricity nexus in California: Part 2—Greenhouse gas and renewable energy utilization impacts

    Tarroja, Brian; AghaKouchak, Amir; Sobhani, Reza; Feldman, David; Jiang, Sunny; Samuelsen, Scott

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to compare the technical potential and effectiveness of different water supply options for securing water availability in a large-scale, interconnected water supply system under historical and climate-change augmented inflow and demand conditions. Part 2 of the study focused on determining the greenhouse gas and renewable energy utilization impacts of different pathways to stabilize major surface reservoir levels. Using a detailed electric grid model and taking into account impacts on the operation of the water supply infrastructure, the greenhouse gas emissions and effect on overall grid renewable penetration level was calculated for each water supply option portfolio that successfully secured water availability from Part 1. The effects on the energy signature of water supply infrastructure were found to be just as important as that of the fundamental processes for each option. Under historical (baseline) conditions, many option portfolios were capable of securing surface reservoir levels with a net neutral or negative effect on emissions and a benefit for renewable energy utilization. Under climate change augmented conditions, however, careful selection of the water supply option portfolio was required to prevent imposing major emissions increases for the system. Overall, this analysis provided quantitative insight into the tradeoffs associated with choosing different pathways for securing California's water supply. - Highlights: • Part I presents a spatially and temporally resolved model of California’s surface reservoirs. • Part II presents GHG emissions and grid renewable penetration for water availability options. • In particular, the energy signature of water supply infrastructure is delineated. • Different pathways for securing California’s water supply are developed quantitatively. • Under baseline conditions, portfolios capable of securing surface reservoir levels emerge. • Under climate change conditions, the

  17. Development of an Interdisciplinary Undergraduate Major in The Earth System, Environment and Society

    Wuebbles, D. J.

    2003-12-01

    Humanity faces great challenges in the 21st Century to understand and limit our impact on the Earth System. To address these challenges, it is essential to understand the nature and implications of environmental change, and the complexity of the Earth system. We need to educate citizens that have the background to make new developments in understanding technical aspects of the Earth System, and to develop an understanding the interactions between society and the Earth System sufficient to make informed policy choices. Traditional disciplinary departments and majors don't fully address this; teaching and research talent in the study of the Earth System is spread over many disciplinary-oriented departments. At the University of Illinois, we are currently developing a new cross-disciplinary undergraduate major being called The Earth system, environment and Society. This development is co-sponsored by a number of departments centered in the College of Liberal Arts & Sciences (but including other departments throughout the university). Our intention is that this major will be a catalyst for bringing together the many disciplines involved in Earth System Science education. The curriculum and course for study will focus on the science and human dimensions of the Earth system, with special emphasis on the processes and issues related to the environment across a range of spatial scales from local and regional to global. Along with meeting the requirements expected of all students in a liberal arts and sciences major, students in The Earth System, Environment and Society major will be required to complete a core set of courses designed to introduce students to all of the different components of the Earth System (students will choose from course options in both the sciences and the social sciences). After completing the core courses, students will then focus their studies on one of the two options within the major, Science of the Earth System (this option will emphasize the

  18. Outlook for the IAEA's technical co-operation programme

    Samiei, Massoud

    1998-01-01

    This is a slide presentation dealing with the following subjects: - the IAEA's programmes; - the technical co-operation programme; - past trends in the TC programme; - new initiatives in TC; - TC programme profile; - perspectives for the future. The major programmes conducted by IAEA are concerning: - nuclear power and fuel cycle; - nuclear applications; - nuclear, radiation and waste safety, nuclear verification and security material; - management of technical co-operation; - policy making, coordination and support. In relation with the IAEA role in development process the author presents the legal framework for TC, the programme structure, and programme areas, resources, budgets, cycle, approval and implementation. Two plots regarding the recipients with and without NPP's are displayed for the period 1980-1994. Also, according to the status of the member states (without and with nuclear power programme) the programme priorities are presented. For the first case these are: radiation and waste safety, food and agriculture, water resources management human health and nutrition, human resources development, environmental protection and industrial applications. For the second case there are mentioned: radiation and nuclear safety, nuclear power operation and maintenance management, radioactive waste management, environment protection and sustainable energy options. Concerning the regional distribution the following figures are given for 1997: West Asia, 9%; Europe, 18%; Inter-regional, 11%; Africa, 24%; Latin America, 21%; East Asia and Pacific, 17%. In conclusion, the hope is expressed that the value of Technical Co-operation Programme would be seen not only in the successful transfer of technology but also, in the way that the nuclear technologies may satisfy demands for sustainable development by having a lasting impact on the life of the majority in a cost effective and environmentally sound manner

  19. Integrated risk - healthy technical conscience

    Freeman, P. [Institute of Nuclear Power Operations, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The personal obligation leaders and individuals internalize and exercise to ensure plant operation, maintenance, and engineering activities are conducted in a manner consistent with plant design, emergency response strategies, technical requirements and that preserve operating, design and safety margins. Technical errors are increasing, both in number and significance. Causes are common at many utilities. The majority of these engineering human performance weaknesses have not had immediate impact on station reliability and safety (not self-revealing). In some recent projects, the same weaknesses affected a station's viability.

  20. Technical Report

    Jonathan D. Istok

    2008-06-01

    ‘Bioimmobilization’ of redox-sensitive metals and radionuclides is being investigated as a way to remediate contaminated groundwater and sediments. In this approach, growth-limiting substrates are added to stimulate the activity of targeted groups of indigenous microorganisms and create conditions favorable for the microbially-mediated precipitation (‘bioimmobilization’) of targeted contaminants. This project investigated a fundamentally new approach for modeling this process that couples thermodynamic descriptions for microbial growth with associated geochemical reactions. In this approach, a synthetic microbial community is defined as a collection of defined microbial groups; each with a growth equation derived from bioenergetic principles. The growth equations and standard-state free energy yields are appended to a thermodynamic database for geochemical reactions and the combined equations are solved simultaneously to predict the effect of added substrates on microbial biomass, community composition, and system geochemistry. This approach, with a single set of thermodynamic parameters (one for each growth equation), was used to predict the results of laboratory and field bioimmobilization experiments at two geochemically diverse research sites. Predicted effects of ethanol or acetate addition on uranium and technetium solubility, major ion geochemistry, mineralogy, microbial biomass and community composition were in general agreement with experimental observations although the available experimental data precluded rigorous model testing. Model simulations provide insight into the long-standing difficulty in transferring experimental results from the laboratory to the field and from one field site to the next, especially if the form, concentration, or delivery of growth substrate is varied from one experiment to the next. Although originally developed for use in better understanding bioimmobilization of uranium and technetium via reductive precipitation

  1. Option Pricing using Realized Volatility

    Stentoft, Lars Peter

    dynamics to be used for option pricing purposes in this framework, and we show that our model explains some of the mispricings found when using traditional option pricing models based on interdaily data. We then show explicitly that a Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedastic model with Normal...... Inverse Gaussian distributed innovations is the corresponding benchmark model when only daily data is used. Finally, we perform an empirical analysis using stock options for three large American companies, and we show that in all cases our model performs significantly better than the corresponding...... benchmark model estimated on return data alone. Hence the paper provides evidence on the value of using high frequency data for option pricing purposes....

  2. Treatment Option Overview (Ewing Sarcoma)

    ... Ewing Sarcoma Treatment Osteosarcoma Treatment Research Ewing Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Ewing Sarcoma ... started or in another part of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types ...

  3. Treatment Option Overview (Kaposi Sarcoma)

    ... Treatment Childhood Vascular Tumors Treatment Research Kaposi Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Kaposi Sarcoma ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment ...

  4. 77 FR 25319 - Commodity Options

    2012-04-27

    ..., merchants, SDs, commodity funds, futures industry organizations, academics and think tanks, a U.S... particular (i.e., optionality in a contract settling by physical delivery that is used to meet varying demand...

  5. Antihistamines: Understanding Your OTC Options

    ... CorrectlyPain Relievers: Understanding Your OTC OptionsAntacids and Acid Reducers: OTC Relief for Heartburn and Acid RefluxOTC Cough ... Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics ...

  6. FS65 Disposition Option Report

    Wenz, Tracy R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-09-25

    This report outlines the options for dispositioning the MOX fuel stored in FS65 containers at LANL. Additional discussion regarding the support equipment for loading and unloading the FS65 transport containers is included at the end of the report.

  7. Essential Tremor (ET): Surgical Options

    ... option for severe depression, epilepsy, Tourette’s syndrome, stroke, addiction, and dementia. Top Focused Ultrasound Thalamotomy The FDA ... ultrasound but in a very different way. This technology uses multiple beams of sound focused in on ...

  8. Designing flexible engineering systems utilizing embedded architecture options

    Pierce, Jeff G.

    This dissertation develops and applies an integrated framework for embedding flexibility in an engineered system architecture. Systems are constantly faced with unpredictability in the operational environment, threats from competing systems, obsolescence of technology, and general uncertainty in future system demands. Current systems engineering and risk management practices have focused almost exclusively on mitigating or preventing the negative consequences of uncertainty. This research recognizes that high uncertainty also presents an opportunity to design systems that can flexibly respond to changing requirements and capture additional value throughout the design life. There does not exist however a formalized approach to designing appropriately flexible systems. This research develops a three stage integrated flexibility framework based on the concept of architecture options embedded in the system design. Stage One defines an eight step systems engineering process to identify candidate architecture options. This process encapsulates the operational uncertainty though scenario development, traces new functional requirements to the affected design variables, and clusters the variables most sensitive to change. The resulting clusters can generate insight into the most promising regions in the architecture to embed flexibility in the form of architecture options. Stage Two develops a quantitative option valuation technique, grounded in real options theory, which is able to value embedded architecture options that exhibit variable expiration behavior. Stage Three proposes a portfolio optimization algorithm, for both discrete and continuous options, to select the optimal subset of architecture options, subject to budget and risk constraints. Finally, the feasibility, extensibility and limitations of the framework are assessed by its application to a reconnaissance satellite system development problem. Detailed technical data, performance models, and cost estimates

  9. Perpetual American options within CTRWs

    Montero, Miquel

    2008-06-01

    Continuous-time random walks are a well suited tool for the description of market behaviour at the smallest scale: the tick-to-tick evolution. We will apply this kind of market model to the valuation of perpetual American options: derivatives with no maturity that can be exercised at any time. Our approach leads to option prices that fulfill financial formulas when canonical assumptions on the dynamics governing the process are made, but it is still suitable for more exotic market conditions.

  10. Perpetual American options within CTRW's

    Montero, Miquel

    2007-01-01

    Continuous-time random walks are a well suited tool for the description of market behaviour at the smallest scale: the tick-to-tick evolution. We will apply this kind of market model to the valuation of perpetual American options: derivatives with no maturity that can be exercised at any time. Our approach leads to option prices that fulfil financial formulas when canonical assumptions on the dynamics governing the process are made, but it is still suitable for more exotic market conditions.

  11. Stock and option portfolio using fuzzy logic approach

    Sumarti, Novriana; Wahyudi, Nanang

    2014-03-01

    Fuzzy Logic in decision-making process has been widely implemented in various problems in industries. It is the theory of imprecision and uncertainty that was not based on probability theory. Fuzzy Logic adds values of degree between absolute true and absolute false. It starts with and builds on a set of human language rules supplied by the user. The fuzzy systems convert these rules to their mathematical equivalents. This could simplify the job of the system designer and the computer, and results in much more accurate representations of the way systems behave in the real world. In this paper we examine the decision making process of stock and option trading by the usage of MACD (Moving Average Convergence Divergence) technical analysis and Option Pricing with Fuzzy Logic approach. MACD technical analysis is for the prediction of the trends of underlying stock prices, such as bearish (going downward), bullish (going upward), and sideways. By using Fuzzy C-Means technique and Mamdani Fuzzy Inference System, we define the decision output where the value of MACD is high then decision is "Strong Sell", and the value of MACD is Low then the decision is "Strong Buy". We also implement the fuzzification of the Black-Scholes option-pricing formula. The stock and options methods are implemented on a portfolio of one stock and its options. Even though the values of input data, such as interest rates, stock price and its volatility, cannot be obtain accurately, these fuzzy methods can give a belief degree of the calculated the Black-Scholes formula so we can make the decision on option trading. The results show the good capability of the methods in the prediction of stock price trends. The performance of the simulated portfolio for a particular period of time also shows good return.

  12. Removing a broken guidewire in the hip joint: treatment options and recommendations for preventing an avoidable surgical catastrophe. A case report

    Abhijeet Ashok Salunke

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT: Hardware breakage during hip surgery can pose challenging and difficult problems for orthopedic surgeons. Apart from technical difficulties relating to retrieval of the broken hardware, complications such as adjacent joint arthritis and damage to neurovascular structures and major viscera can occur. Complications occurring during the perioperative period must be informed to the patient and proper documentation is essential. The treatment options must be discussed with the patient and relatives and the implant company must be informed about this untoward incident. CASE REPORT: We report a case of complete removal of the implant and then removal of the broken guidewire using a combination of techniques, including a cannulated drill bit, pituitary forceps and Kerrison rongeur. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest some treatment options and recommendations for preventing an avoidable surgical catastrophe.

  13. 48 CFR 570.401 - Renewal options.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Renewal options. 570.401... Requirements 570.401 Renewal options. (a) Exercise of options. Before exercising an option to renew, follow the... survey. Before exercising an option to renew a lease, review current market information to ensure the...

  14. Option Derivatives in Electricity Hedging

    P. Pavlátka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the high volatility of electricity prices, there is still little demand for electricity power options, and the liquidity on the power exchanges of these power derivatives is quite low. One of the reasons is the uncertainty about how to evaluate these electricity options and about finding the right fair value of this product. Hedging of electricity is associated mainly with products such as futures and forwards. However, due to new trends in electricity trading and hedging, it is also useful to think more about options and the principles for working with them in hedging various portfolio positions and counterparties. We can quite often encounter a situation when we need to have a perfect hedge for our customer’s (end user consuming electricity portfolio, or we have to evaluate the volumetric risk (inability of a customer to predict consumption, which is very similar to selling options. Now comes the moment to compare the effects of using options or futures to hedge these open positions. From a practical viewpoint, the Black-Scholes prices appear to be the best available and the simplest method for evaluating option premiums, but there are some limitations that we have to consider.

  15. Cryoablation in fibro-adipose vascular anomaly (FAVA): a minimally invasive treatment option

    Shaikh, Raja; Alomari, Ahmad I.; Kerr, Cindy L.; Miller, Patricia; Spencer, Samantha A.

    2016-01-01

    Fibro-adipose vascular anomaly (FAVA) is a complex vascular malformation that typically presents with persistent pain, discomfort, contracture and other disabling symptoms. There are no minimally invasive treatment options to effectively control these symptoms. Image-guided percutaneous cryoablation, which has been used to control pain in people with cancer, could be used for similar indications in FAVA. To assess the role of image-guided percutaneous cryoablation for control of symptoms in FAVA lesions. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 20 children and young adults with FAVA who underwent percutaneous cryoablation at 26 sites, from September 2013 to August 2015. The outcome was based on the brief pain inventory scoring (BPI), concurrent symptoms, clinical response and patient satisfaction. After cryoablation there was significant improvement in pain, which dropped by 3 points (pain now) to 3.7 points (pain in the last 24 h). Most patients indicated that pain interfered less in their everyday social life. Concurrent symptoms like swelling, physical limitations and skin hyperesthesia also improved. Clinical response was greatest at 2-5 months follow-up after cryoablation, with acceptable patient satisfaction thereafter. Technical response was 100%. There were no major complications. Image-guided percutaneous cryoablation is a safe and effective option for treatment of symptomatic FAVA lesions. (orig.)

  16. Strategy of technical innovation

    Lee, Ga Jong

    1990-12-01

    This book deals with policy of scientific technique and technical innovation such as research for development and types of technical innovation, historical development and process of technical innovation, economic growth, technology change and investment for research and development, structure and form of technical transfer with the meaning process, from, structure and theory, economic growth and investment of research and development with experiential analysis and case study on strategy of technical innovation in electron and fine chemical industry.

  17. Socio-Technical Structure

    Rose, Jeremy; Lindgren, Rikard; Henfridsson, Ole

    2004-01-01

    a reference discipline in its own right (in other words a theory exporter), this paper offers an example of integrative theory development. Instead of adapting a theory from another discipline or building a theory from empirical data, we examine the structure concept in some of its various theoretical......When it comes to investigating the relationship between the social and the technical, IS has been a net importer of theories. These theories often carry differing interpretations of central concepts, which then become both confusing and difficult to integrate. In response to calls for IS to become...... adaptations in IS and try to integrate them to produce theory that focuses on IS concerns whilst resolving some of the major areas of contention. Both social and technological versions of structure are investigated through three theoretical IS perspectives drawn from different reference disciplines. The first...

  18. Treatment Options by Stage (Pancreatic Cancer)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  19. Treatment Options by Stage (Esophageal Cancer)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  20. Treatment Options by Stage (Vulvar Cancer)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  1. Treatment Options by Stage (Penile Cancer)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  2. Treatment Options for Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... lymphoma may come back as indolent lymphoma. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  3. Treatment Options for Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    ... reacts to the light. Certain factors affect treatment options and prognosis (chance of recovery). The treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  4. Treatment Options by Stage (Merkel Cell Carcinoma)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... common for Merkel cell carcinoma to recur. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  5. Treatment Options by Stage (Prostate Cancer)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  6. Treatment Options by Stage (Adrenocortical Carcinoma)

    ... affect the prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  7. Treatment Options for Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... the lungs , liver , bones, or bone marrow . Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  8. Treatment Options by Stage (Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia)

    ... examination under a microscope. Certain factors affect treatment options and prognosis (chance of recovery). Treatment options depend ... that does not get better with treatment. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  9. Treatment Options for Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  10. Treatment Options for Hodgkin Lymphoma during Pregnancy

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  11. Treatment Option Overview (Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia)

    ... examination under a microscope. Certain factors affect treatment options and prognosis (chance of recovery). Treatment options depend ... that does not get better with treatment. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  12. Treatment Option Overview (Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma)

    ... reacts to the light. Certain factors affect treatment options and prognosis (chance of recovery). The treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  13. Hairy Cell Leukemia Treatment Option Overview

    ... or a swollen spleen. Certain factors affect treatment options and prognosis (chance of recovery). The treatment options ... cell leukemia has not responded to treatment. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  14. Treatment Option Overview (Small Intestine Cancer)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  15. Treatment Option Overview (Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  16. Treatment Option Overview (Merkel Cell Carcinoma)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... common for Merkel cell carcinoma to recur. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  17. Treatment Option Overview (Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... the lungs , liver , bones, or bone marrow . Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  18. Treatment Option Overview (Small Cell Lung Cancer)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  19. Treatment Option Overview (Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... marrow , or other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  20. Treatment Options for AIDS-Related Lymphoma

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... nervous system is not primary CNS lymphoma. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  1. Treatment Options for Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... marrow , or other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  2. Treatment Options for Renal Cell Cancer

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  3. Treatment Options for Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... body. Has not gotten better with treatment. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  4. Treatment Options by Stage (Gastric Cancer)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... such as the liver or lymph nodes . Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  5. Treatment Options by Stage (Thyroid Cancer)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  6. Treatment Options for Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... of blast cells increases after a remission . Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  7. Treatment Options for Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... back in the blood or bone marrow . Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  8. Balancing human and technical reliability in the design of advanced nuclear reactors

    Papin, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Human factors exigencies are often overseen during the early design phases of NPP. ► Optimization of reactors safety is only based on technical reliability considerations. ► The search for more technical reliability often leads to more system complexity. ► System complexity is a major contributor to the operator's poor performance. ► Our method enables to assess plant complexity and it's impact on human performance. - Abstract: The strong influence of human factors (HF) on the safety of nuclear facilities is nowadays recognised and the designers are now enforced to consider HF requirements in the design of new facilities. Yet, this consideration of human factors requirements is still more or less restricted to the latest phases of the projects, essentially for the design of human-system interfaces (HSI's) and control rooms, although the design options influencing at most the human performance in operation are indeed fixed during the very early phases of the new reactors projects. The main reason of this late consideration of HF is that there exist few methods and models for anticipating the influence of fundamental design options on the future performance of operation teams. This paper describes a set of new tools permitting (i) determination of the impact of the fundamental process design options on the future activity of the operation teams and (ii) assessment of the influence of these operational constraints on teams performance. These tools are intended to guide the design of future 4th generation (GEN4) reactors, within the frame of a global risk-informed design approach, considering technical and human reliability exigencies in a balanced way.

  9. Denali, Tulip, and Option Inferior Vena Cava Filter Retrieval: A Single Center Experience.

    Ramaswamy, Raja S; Jun, Emily; van Beek, Darren; Mani, Naganathan; Salter, Amber; Kim, Seung K; Akinwande, Olaguoke

    2018-04-01

    To compare the technical success of filter retrieval in Denali, Tulip, and Option inferior vena cava filters. A retrospective analysis of Denali, Gunther Tulip, and Option IVC filters was conducted. Retrieval failure rates, fluoroscopy time, sedation time, use of advanced retrieval techniques, and filter-related complications that led to retrieval failure were recorded. There were 107 Denali, 43 Option, and 39 Tulip filters deployed and removed with average dwell times of 93.5, 86.0, and 131 days, respectively. Retrieval failure rates were 0.9% for Denali, 11.6% for Option, and 5.1% for Tulip filters (Denali vs. Option p = 0.018; Denali vs. Tulip p = 0.159; Tulip vs. Option p = 0.045). Median fluoroscopy time for filter retrieval was 3.2 min for the Denali filter, 6.75 min for the Option filter, and 4.95 min for the Tulip filter (Denali vs. OptionOption p = 0.67). Advanced retrieval techniques were used in 0.9% of Denali filters, 21.1% in Option filters, and 10.8% in Tulip filters (Denali vs. OptionOptionOption filter when compared to both the Denali and Tulip filters. Retrieval of the Denali filter required significantly less amount of fluoroscopy time and use of advanced retrieval techniques when compared to both the Option and Tulip filters. The findings of this study indicate easier retrieval of the Denali and Tulip IVC filters when compared to the Option filter.

  10. Efficient option valuation of single and double barrier options

    Kabaivanov, Stanimir; Milev, Mariyan; Koleva-Petkova, Dessislava; Vladev, Veselin

    2017-12-01

    In this paper we present an implementation of pricing algorithm for single and double barrier options using Mellin transformation with Maximum Entropy Inversion and its suitability for real-world applications. A detailed analysis of the applied algorithm is accompanied by implementation in C++ that is then compared to existing solutions in terms of efficiency and computational power. We then compare the applied method with existing closed-form solutions and well known methods of pricing barrier options that are based on finite differences.

  11. Influence of an Intermediate Option on the Description-Experience Gap and Information Search.

    Sharma, Neha; Debnath, Shoubhik; Dutt, Varun

    2018-01-01

    Research shows that people tend to overweight small probabilities in description and underweight them in experience, thereby leading to a different pattern of choices between description and experience; a phenomenon known as the Description-Experience (DE) gap. However, little is known on how the addition of an intermediate option and contextual framing influences the DE gap and people's search strategies. This paper tests the effects of an intermediate option and contextual framing on the DE gap and people's search strategies, where problems require search for information before a consequential choice. In the first experiment, 120 participants made choice decisions across investment problems that differed in the absence or presence of an intermediate option. Results showed that adding an intermediate option did not reduce the DE gap on the maximizing option across a majority of problems. There were a large majority of choices for the intermediate option. Furthermore, there was an increase in switching between options due to the presence of the intermediate option. In the second experiment, 160 participants made choice decisions in problems like those presented in experiment 1; however, problems lacked the investment framing. Results replicated findings from the first experiment and showed a similar DE gap on the maximizing option in a majority of problems in both the absence and presence of the intermediate option. Again, there were a large majority of choices for the intermediate option. Also, there was an increase in switching between options due to the presence of the intermediate option. Meta-analyses revealed that the absence or presence of the intermediate option created certain differences in the strength of frequency and recency processes. Also, a single natural-mean heuristic model was able to account for the experimental results across both experiments. We discuss implications of our findings to consequential decisions made after information search.

  12. Influence of an Intermediate Option on the Description-Experience Gap and Information Search

    Neha Sharma

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Research shows that people tend to overweight small probabilities in description and underweight them in experience, thereby leading to a different pattern of choices between description and experience; a phenomenon known as the Description-Experience (DE gap. However, little is known on how the addition of an intermediate option and contextual framing influences the DE gap and people’s search strategies. This paper tests the effects of an intermediate option and contextual framing on the DE gap and people’s search strategies, where problems require search for information before a consequential choice. In the first experiment, 120 participants made choice decisions across investment problems that differed in the absence or presence of an intermediate option. Results showed that adding an intermediate option did not reduce the DE gap on the maximizing option across a majority of problems. There were a large majority of choices for the intermediate option. Furthermore, there was an increase in switching between options due to the presence of the intermediate option. In the second experiment, 160 participants made choice decisions in problems like those presented in experiment 1; however, problems lacked the investment framing. Results replicated findings from the first experiment and showed a similar DE gap on the maximizing option in a majority of problems in both the absence and presence of the intermediate option. Again, there were a large majority of choices for the intermediate option. Also, there was an increase in switching between options due to the presence of the intermediate option. Meta-analyses revealed that the absence or presence of the intermediate option created certain differences in the strength of frequency and recency processes. Also, a single natural-mean heuristic model was able to account for the experimental results across both experiments. We discuss implications of our findings to consequential decisions made after

  13. How to be an Effective Technical Writer?

    M Solaiman Ali

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract--This paper has focused on technical writing as a skill for engineers. It has sought to define technical writing and throw light on the content and technique of writing the various components of successful technical reports (for example, articles, papers, or research reports, such as theses and dissertations. Then, it has highlighted other special features and principles of effective technical writing. The material in this paper is divided into seven major parts. Part 1 (Technical writing for engineers stresses that a successful engineering career requires strong writing skills. Part 2 (How to write the major sections or elements of a report describes the techniques of writing the abstract, introduction, literature review, procedure/methods & materials, results, discussion, conclusion, and recommendations. Part 3 (Special features of technical writing brings into focus some of the special features of technical writing such as tables & graphs in the text, graphics in instructions, team writing, ethics (plagiarism, document sources, three citation styles and IEEE reference style. Part 4 (Technical usage deals with writing abbreviations, initialisms and acronyms, numbers, units of measurement, and equations.Part 5 (Technical style highlights the imperative writing style and other features of technical writing such as the use of active and passive voices, plain vs. complex syntax, avoiding redundant or superfluous expressions, and vague generalities, using words or expressions with visual impact, the past tense to describe experimental work, the present tense to describe hypotheses, principles, theories and truths, and breaking up the text of the report into short sections. Part 6 (Document specifications emphasizes the technical writer’s need to conform to such document specifications as word count, format, font, number of words per line of text imposed. Part 7 (Reader-friendly technical writing suggests choosing the varied writing modes

  14. The future of the nuclear option

    Frost, B.R.T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on the future of the nuclear option. No nuclear power reactors have been ordered in the U.S.A. since 1975, but the number of operating reactors has increased to the 115 operating today. The demand for electric power continues to grow. At this time, concern over the environmental effects of fossil fuels has grown; global warming and acid rain effects are major determinants of energy policy. In these circumstances nuclear power may be the only viable option to meet the growing demand for electricity. In the past decade the nuclear power industry has addressed its major critics by standardizing designs, improving operator training, and developing safe methods of disposing of waste products. Fast breeder reactors have taken a new lease on life through the American Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) design which is inherently safe, proliferation resistant, and helps the waste-disposal problem. It will probably not be commercially available until well into the next century. The extension of reactor life raises questions of long-term thermal and radiation effects

  15. Lunar Cube Transfer Trajectory Options

    Folta, David; Dichmann, Donald James; Clark, Pamela E.; Haapala, Amanda; Howell, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Numerous Earth-Moon trajectory and lunar orbit options are available for Cubesat missions. Given the limited Cubesat injection infrastructure, transfer trajectories are contingent upon the modification of an initial condition of the injected or deployed orbit. Additionally, these transfers can be restricted by the selection or designs of Cubesat subsystems such as propulsion or communication. Nonetheless, many trajectory options can b e considered which have a wide range of transfer duration, fuel requirements, and final destinations. Our investigation of potential trajectories highlights several options including deployment from low Earth orbit (LEO) geostationary transfer orbits (GTO) and higher energy direct lunar transfer and the use of longer duration Earth-Moon dynamical systems. For missions with an intended lunar orbit, much of the design process is spent optimizing a ballistic capture while other science locations such as Sun-Earth libration or heliocentric orbits may simply require a reduced Delta-V imparted at a convenient location along the trajectory.

  16. Option valuation for energy issues

    Ostertag, K.; Llerena, P.; Richard, A.

    2004-01-01

    In many industrial and economic situations, decision processes, both individual and collective, have to simultaneously face uncertainty and irreversibility of some kind. This is particularly valid for energy choices if they are linked to technological alternatives. The purpose of this book is to highlight specific aspects of these situations. This is done from the particular perspective of option valuation. The contributions to this book grew out of an international workshop on ''Option valuation in energy and environmental issues'' held at the Fraunhofer ISI in February 2003. This workshop brought together reseachers from energy economics, but also researchers working on option valuation in other empirical fields or with a more theoretical perspective. This is reflected in the organisation of the book, which starts with some theory-oriented contributions and subsequently presents more applied contributions in the field of energy economics with an extension to water infrastructure in the annex. (orig.)

  17. Accounting treatment of currency options

    Prošić Danica

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currency options are often used to mitigate currency risk resulting from corporate activities. Their implementation can be complex, and there could be problems if the essential elements and principles are not fully understood. Although they are not the simplest financial products, currency options are interesting and useful to those who are trying to make a step forward in the area of currency risk management. This paper aims to present the general principles and specifics of accounting records and valuation of currency options used for hedging against risk. It is a complex process which, in addition to numerous conditions, also involves the implementation of accounting rules that deviate from the generally accepted accounting principles.

  18. Efficient Trajectory Options Allocation for the Collaborative Trajectory Options Program

    Rodionova, Olga; Arneson, Heather; Sridhar, Banavar; Evans, Antony

    2017-01-01

    The Collaborative Trajectory Options Program (CTOP) is a Traffic Management Initiative (TMI) intended to control the air traffic flow rates at multiple specified Flow Constrained Areas (FCAs), where demand exceeds capacity. CTOP allows flight operators to submit the desired Trajectory Options Set (TOS) for each affected flight with associated Relative Trajectory Cost (RTC) for each option. CTOP then creates a feasible schedule that complies with capacity constraints by assigning affected flights with routes and departure delays in such a way as to minimize the total cost while maintaining equity across flight operators. The current version of CTOP implements a Ration-by-Schedule (RBS) scheme, which assigns the best available options to flights based on a First-Scheduled-First-Served heuristic. In the present study, an alternative flight scheduling approach is developed based on linear optimization. Results suggest that such an approach can significantly reduce flight delays, in the deterministic case, while maintaining equity as defined using a Max-Min fairness scheme.

  19. 14 CFR 21.289 - Major repairs, rebuilding and alteration.

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Delegation Option Authorization Procedures § 21.289 Major repairs, rebuilding and alteration. For types covered by a delegation option... any employee to execute and sign FAA Form 337 and make required log book entries if that employee— (1...

  20. Vanpooling: the three major approaches

    Sears, P.M.

    1979-08-01

    The manual provides technical assistance to existing or prospective vanpool sponsors. It is designed to help them promote vanpooling in its three major approaches: employer sponsored, third party sponsored, and driver owned and operated. The first chapter is an overview of vanpooling and a second chapter, on vanpool marketing, is addressed to ridesharing coordinators and others whose responsibilities include the promotion of vanpooling. Some fact sheets on the three approaches provide convenient summaries of the needs and opportunities of each approach and suggest solutions to practical problems likely to be encountered in starting new vanpool programs.

  1. Disposition Options for Uranium-233

    Beahm, E.C.; Dole, L.R.; Forsberg, C.W.; Icenhour, A.S.; Storch, S.N.

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fissile Materials Disposition Program (MD), in support of the U.S. arms-control and nonproliferation policies, has initiated a program to disposition surplus weapons-usable fissile material by making it inaccessible and unattractive for use in nuclear weapons. Weapons-usable fissile materials include plutonium, high-enriched uranium (HEU), and uranium-233 (sup 233)U. In support of this program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory led DOE's contractor efforts to identify and characterize options for the long-term storage and disposal of excess (sup 233)U. Five storage and 17 disposal options were identified and are described herein

  2. TMI abnormal wastes disposal options

    Ayers, A.L. Jr.

    1984-03-01

    A substantial quantity of high beta-gamma/high-TRU contaminated wastes are expected from cleanup activities of Unit 2 of the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station. Those wastes are not disposable because of present regulatory constraints. Therefore, they must be stored temporarily. This paper discusses three options for storage of those wastes at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: (1) storage in temporary storage casks; (2) underground storage in vaults; and (3) storage in silos at a hot shop. Each option is analyzed and evaluated. Also included is a discussion of future disposal strategies, which might be pursued when a suitable federal or commercial repository is built

  3. Technetium removal: preliminary flowsheet options

    Eager, K.M.

    1995-01-01

    This document presents the results of a preliminary investigation into options for preliminary flowsheets for 99Tc removal from Hanford Site tank waste. A model is created to show the path of 99Tc through pretreatment to disposal. The Tank Waste Remediation (TWRS) flowsheet (Orme 1995) is used as a baseline. Ranges of important inputs to the model are developed, such as 99Tc inventory in the tanks and important splits through the TWRS flowsheet. Several technetium removal options are discussed along with sensitivities of the removal schemes to important model parameters

  4. Citation analysis of Computer Standards & Interfaces: Technical or also non-technical focus?

    G. van de Kaa (Geerten); H.J. de Vries (Henk); B. Baskaran (Balakumaran)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThis paper analyzes to which extent research published in Computer Standards & Interfaces (CSI) has a technical focus. We find that CSI has been following its scope very closely in the last three years and that the majority of its publications have a technical focus. Articles published

  5. Comparison between three option, four option and five option multiple choice question tests for quality parameters: A randomized study.

    Vegada, Bhavisha; Shukla, Apexa; Khilnani, Ajeetkumar; Charan, Jaykaran; Desai, Chetna

    2016-01-01

    Most of the academic teachers use four or five options per item of multiple choice question (MCQ) test as formative and summative assessment. Optimal number of options in MCQ item is a matter of considerable debate among academic teachers of various educational fields. There is a scarcity of the published literature regarding the optimum number of option in each item of MCQ in the field of medical education. To compare three options, four options, and five options MCQs test for the quality parameters - reliability, validity, item analysis, distracter analysis, and time analysis. Participants were 3 rd semester M.B.B.S. students. Students were divided randomly into three groups. Each group was given one set of MCQ test out of three options, four options, and five option randomly. Following the marking of the multiple choice tests, the participants' option selections were analyzed and comparisons were conducted of the mean marks, mean time, validity, reliability and facility value, discrimination index, point biserial value, distracter analysis of three different option formats. Students score more ( P = 0.000) and took less time ( P = 0.009) for the completion of three options as compared to four options and five options groups. Facility value was more ( P = 0.004) in three options group as compared to four and five options groups. There was no significant difference between three groups for the validity, reliability, and item discrimination. Nonfunctioning distracters were more in the four and five options group as compared to three option group. Assessment based on three option MCQs is can be preferred over four option and five option MCQs.

  6. The cleanup of Three Mile Island Unit 2: A technical history, 1979--1990

    Holton, W.C.; Negin, C.A.; Owrutsky, S.L.

    1990-09-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute has sponsored a technical history project to ensure that the logic and consequences of decisions made during the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) cleanup are available for recovery from an accident involving damaged fuel and fission product release. The objectives of the history project are to identify the major questions and challenges facing management; describe the influencing factors and the options available; and present the final decisions and their consequences. This history of decision-making is intended to assist a project manager who must respond to a fuel damage accident, even if the scale is much smaller than TMI-2. The history has focused on decisions related to seven major aspects of the cleanup: cleanup management, postaccident stabilization, personnel protection, data acquisition, radioactive waste management, decontamination, and defueling. A detailed chronology and extensive bibliography accompany the text

  7. Systems engineering study: tank 241-C-103 organic skimming,storage, treatment and disposal options

    Klem, M.J.

    1996-10-23

    This report evaluates alternatives for pumping, storing, treating and disposing of the separable phase organic layer in Hanford Site Tank 241-C-103. The report provides safety and technology based preferences and recommendations. Two major options and several varations of these options were identified. The major options were: 1) transfer both the organic and pumpable aqueous layers to a double-shell tank as part of interim stabilization using existing salt well pumping equipment or 2) skim the organic to an above ground before interim stabilization of Tank 241-C-103. Other options to remove the organic were considered but rejected following preliminary evaluation.

  8. Technical Assistance Plan (TAP)

    A Technical Assistance Plan (TAP) enables community groups to retain the services of an independent technical advisor and to provide resources for a community group to help inform other community members about site decisions.

  9. Technical report writing

    Vidoli, Carol A.

    1992-01-01

    This manual covers the fundamentals of organizing, writing, and reviewing NASA technical reports. It was written to improve the writing skills of LeRC technical authors and the overall quality of their reports.

  10. Technical Report Writing Today

    Riordan, Daniel G.

    2014-01-01

    Section 1: Technical Communication Basics (8 chapters on tech com, audiences, tech com process, tech com style, researching, designing pages, using visual aids, describing). Section 2: Technical Communication Applications (7 chapters on sets of instructions, informal reports and email, developing...

  11. Technical training: places available

    2013-01-01

    If you would like more information on a course, or for any other inquiry/suggestions, please contact Technical.Training@cern.ch. Eva Stern and Elise Romero, Technical Training Administration (Tel: 74924)

  12. Technical training - places available

    2013-01-01

    If you would like more information on a course, or have any other inquiry/suggestions, please contact Technical.Training@cern.ch. Eva Stern and Elise Romero, Technical Training Administration (Tel: 74924)

  13. Technical training: places available

    2013-01-01

    If you would like more information on a course, or for any other inquiry/suggestions, please contact Technical.Training@cern.ch. Eva Stern and Elise Romero, Technical Training Administration (Tél : 74924)  

  14. VANDAL technical overview

    Unsworth, M.D.

    1989-07-01

    This document is concerned with the technicalities of the VANDAL code and covers the technical details of each of the systems modules in turn. Covered are SAMPLING, FLOW, VAULT, GEOSPHERE, BIOSPHERE and TIMESTEPPING. (author)

  15. Technical training: places available

    2014-01-01

    If you would like more information on a course, or have any other inquiry/suggestions, please contact Technical.Training@cern.ch. Eva Stern and Elise Romero, Technical Training Administration (Tel: 74924)

  16. Technical training: places available

    2014-01-01

    If you would like more information on a course, or have any other inquiry/suggestions, please contact Technical.Training@cern.ch. Eva Stern and Marie Lahchimi, Technical Training Administration (Tel: 74924)

  17. Document Delivery: Evaluating the Options.

    Ward, Suzanne M.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses options available to libraries for document delivery. Topics include users' needs; cost; copyright compliance; traditional interlibrary loan; types of suppliers; selection criteria, including customer service; new developments in interlibrary loan, including outsourcing arrangements; and the need to evaluate suppliers. (LRW)

  18. Exploring Higher Education Financing Options

    Nkrumah-Young, Kofi K.; Powell, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Higher education can be financed privately, financed by governments, or shared. Given that the benefits of education accrue to the individual and the state, many governments opt for shared financing. This article examines the underpinnings of different options for financing higher education and develops a model to compare conditions to choices and…

  19. New options for purchasing electricity

    2003-10-01

    This guide is intended for small to medium commercial customers in Alberta and explains new options for purchasing electricity. Small to medium customers include corner stores, community centres, schools, small office buildings, and light industrial businesses. In the 1990s, private power producers in Alberta built 3,000 megawatts of new generation, adding 30 per cent more supply to the power grid in the province. Prices in the deregulated electricity market have fluctuated with natural gas prices, changing weather and changing power demands. The competitive electricity market was opened on January 1, 2001 in Alberta, offering consumers purchasing choices such as green power, multi-year contracts, or electricity rates under the Regulated Rate Option (RRO). The RRO was a transition mechanism that will end by December 31, 2003 at which time, small to medium commercial customers will have the option to shop around for competitive electricity contracts that provide a fixed price of power over time, or they can opt to stay with their current supplier and receive a regulated flow-through of market prices. Under the flow-through option, risk of future deferral charges is reduced, but electricity prices will probably change between billing periods. 1 fig

  20. LHC challenges and upgrade options

    Bruning, O [CERN AB/ABP, Y03600, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)], E-mail: Oliver.Bruning@cern.ch

    2008-05-15

    The presentation summarizes the key parameters of the LHC collider. Following a discussion of the main challenges for reaching the nominal machine performance the presentation identifies options for increasing the operation tolerances and the potential performance reach of the LHC by means of future hardware upgrades of the LHC and its injector complex.

  1. LHC challenges and upgrade options

    Bruning, O

    2008-01-01

    The presentation summarizes the key parameters of the LHC collider. Following a discussion of the main challenges for reaching the nominal machine performance the presentation identifies options for increasing the operation tolerances and the potential performance reach of the LHC by means of future hardware upgrades of the LHC and its injector complex

  2. American options under stochastic volatility

    Chockalingam, A.; Muthuraman, K.

    2011-01-01

    The problem of pricing an American option written on an underlying asset with constant price volatility has been studied extensively in literature. Real-world data, however, demonstrate that volatility is not constant, and stochastic volatility models are used to account for dynamic volatility

  3. Handbook of Technical Communication

    Mehler , Alexander; Romary , Laurent; Gibbon , Dafydd

    2012-01-01

    International audience; The handbook "Technical Communication" brings together a variety of topics which range from the role of technical media in human communication to the linguistic, multimodal enhancement of present-day technologies. It covers the area of computer-mediated text, voice and multimedia communication as well as of technical documentation. In doing so, the handbook takes professional and private communication into account. Special emphasis is put on technical communication bas...

  4. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Equipment Options

    Equipment Options to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Equipment Options on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Equipment Options on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Equipment Options on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels

  5. 26 CFR 1.544-4 - Options.

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Options. 1.544-4 Section 1.544-4 Internal Revenue... (CONTINUED) Personal Holding Companies § 1.544-4 Options. The shares of stock which may be acquired by reason of an option shall be considered to be constructively owned by the individual having the option to...

  6. 24 CFR 206.19 - Payment options.

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payment options. 206.19 Section 206... CONVERSION MORTGAGE INSURANCE Eligibility; Endorsement Eligible Mortgages § 206.19 Payment options. (a) Term payment option. Under the term payment option, equal monthly payments are made by the mortgagee to the...

  7. 48 CFR 2917.207 - Exercising options.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exercising options. 2917... AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 2917.207 Exercising options. The contracting officer must use a standardized determination and finding before exercising an option in accordance with...

  8. Stata 8 Graphics: Options, sub-options and sub-sub-options

    Tim Collier

    2005-01-01

    Stata 8 graphics have changed out of all recognition from that available in earlier versions. It was not just that a whole new array of options and sub-options were introduced, but the graph syntax itself completely changed. Just trying to produce a simple plot of x against y using Stata 7 syntax (graph x y) produced bewildering error messages e.g. xgraph_g.new y: class member function not found r(4023) and the like. If you did succeed in working out the new syntax (graph twoway scatter x y) ...

  9. Cumulative Prospect Theory, Option Returns, and the Variance Premium

    Baele, Lieven; Driessen, Joost; Ebert, Sebastian; Londono Yarce, J.M.; Spalt, Oliver

    The variance premium and the pricing of out-of-the-money (OTM) equity index options are major challenges to standard asset pricing models. We develop a tractable equilibrium model with Cumulative Prospect Theory (CPT) preferences that can overcome both challenges. The key insight is that the

  10. Options for the Navy’s Future Fleet

    2006-05-01

    Aircraft Procurement Under Option 2 This alternative would make the same reductions in the 9. See Dave Ahearn, "Winter Says Piracy a Major Challege for...was would need improvements to use the AGSs effec- reserved to accommodate a bank of 16 VLS cells in tively. Moreover, some internal rearrangement the

  11. Equity Portfolio Management Using Option Price Information

    Christoffersen, Peter; Pan, Xuhui (Nick)

    We survey the recent academic literature that uses option-implied information to construct equity portfolios. Studies show that equity managers can earn a positive alpha by using information in individual equity options, by using stocks' exposure to information in market index options, and by using...... stocks' exposure to crude oil option information. Option-implied information can also help construct better mean-variance portfolios and better estimates of market beta....

  12. The Pricing of Foreign Currency Futures Options

    Chang Mo Ahn

    1996-01-01

    We derive semi-closed form solutions for the forward and futures exchange rates, European foreign currency options, currency forward options, and currency futures options when the domestic and foreign interest rate movements follow mean reverting diffusion processes. These solutions are consistent with the Black-Scholes option formula so that they can be easily applied. The impact of interest rate uncertainty on theoretical prices of currency futures options is too significant to be neglected.

  13. Teaching Technical Writing - Towards Technical Writing

    Kastberg, Peter

    2000-01-01

    In this paper I will present key aspects of the curriculum for the university degree in technical translation that I have designed for and subsequently implemented at the German Department of the Aarhus School of Business, Denmark. My starting point will be a critical discussion of the norm that ...... of technical writing.......In this paper I will present key aspects of the curriculum for the university degree in technical translation that I have designed for and subsequently implemented at the German Department of the Aarhus School of Business, Denmark. My starting point will be a critical discussion of the norm...... that used to govern what the quality of an LSP text should be as opposed to the standpoint, which I advocate. By way of summing up, I will show how a university curriculum is designed so that - upon graduation - the technical translator could also be methodological quite well suited to take on the challenge...

  14. Technical rules in law

    Debelius, J

    1978-08-01

    An important source of knowledge for technical experts is the state of the art reflected by catalogues of technical rules. Technical rules may also achieve importance in law due to a legal transformation standard. Here, rigid and flexible reference are controversial with regard to their admissibility from the point of view of constitutional law. In case of a divergence from the generally accepted technical rules, it is assumed - refutably - that the necessary care had not been taken. Technical rules are one out of several sources of information; they have no normative effect. This may result in a duty of anyone applying them to review the state of technology himself.

  15. Technical rules in law

    Debelius, J.

    1978-01-01

    An important source of knowledge for technical experts is the state of the art reflected by catalogues of technical rules. Technical rules may also achieve importance in law due to a legal transformation standard. Here, rigid and flexible reference are controversial with regard to their admissibility from the point of view of constitutional law. In case of a divergence from the generally accepted technical rules, it is assumed - refutably - that the necessary care had not been taken. Technical rules are one out of several sources of information; they have no normative effect. This may result in a duty of anyone applying them to review the state of technology himself. (orig.) [de

  16. Comparative evaluation of radioactive waste management options. Final report

    Appel, D.; Kreusch, J.; Neumann, W.

    2001-05-01

    A comprehensive presentation of the various radioactive waste options under debate has not been made so far, let alone a comparative evaluation of the options with respect to their substantiated or assumed advantages or drawbacks. However, any appropriate discussion about the pros and cons of the specific options for final decision making has to be based on a comprehensive knowledge base drawn from profound comparative evaluation of essential options. Therefore, the study reported in this publication was to serve three major purposes: Presentation of the conditions and waste management policies and approaches in selected countries, in order to compile information about the various policy goals and the full scope of argumentation, as well as the range of individual arguments used for or against specific options. - Derivation of a methodology for evaluation, including development of criteria for a comparative and qualitative evaluation of options. - Identification of possible implications for a waste management strategy for Germany, derived from the results of the comparative evaluation and the examination of the reasonings and argumentation used in the various countries. (orig./CB) [de

  17. Impact of ITER liquid metal design options on safety level and licensing - Sweden

    Harfors, C.; Devell, L.; Johansson, Kjell; Lundell, B.; Rolandsson, S.

    1993-01-01

    The safety level and licensability of five design options for ITER coolant, breeding material and structural material are assessed, with emphasis on some specified accident scenarios. The safety level is assessed in terms of barrier requirements and the feasibility to construct and qualify such a barrier. The licensability in Sweden of each design option is assessed based on the indicated safety level and on a judgement of the technical feasibility to construct and qualify the ITER tokamak itself, based on the selected design option. 20 refs

  18. Technical assistance contractor Management Plan

    1993-09-01

    The Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project comprises Jacobs Engineering Group Inc. (JEG) and its major teaming partners [Roy F. Weston, Inc. (RFW), Sergent, Hauskins ampersand Beckwith Agra, Inc. (SHB Agra), and Geraghty ampersand Miller, Inc. (G ampersand M)]. The first three companies have worked together effectively on the UMTRA Project for more than 10 years. With the initiation of the UMTRA Groundwater Project in April 1991, a need arose to increase the TAC's groundwater technical breadth and depth, so G ampersand M was brought in to augment the team's capabilities. The TAC contract's scope is to provide technical, analytical, environmental, engineering, design, inspection, and management support services to the US Department of Energy (DOE) for both surface and groundwater projects. The TAC team continues to support the DOE in completing surface remedial actions and initiating groundwater remediation work for start-up, characterization, design, construction oversight, and remedial operations. A key feature of the TAC's management approach is the extensive set of communication systems implemented for the UMTRA Project. These systems assist all functional disciplines in performing UMTRA Project tasks associated with management, technical support, administrative support, and financial/project controls

  19. Erectile dysfunction management options in Nigeria.

    Afolayan, Anthony Jide; Yakubu, Musa Toyin

    2009-04-01

    In Nigeria, the prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) among patients attending primary care clinics, age-standardized to the U.S. population in 2000 is 57.4%. This is considered high enough to warrant the attention of scientist for critical studies and analysis. The high ED prevalence is associated with etiologies such as psychosexual factors, chronic medical conditions, and some lifestyles. ED constitutes a major public health problem, influencing the patient's well-being and quality of life. It also leads to broken homes and marriages, psychological, social, and physical morbidity. To give an account of various ED management options in Nigeria. Review of peer-reviewed literature, questionnaire, and ethnobotanical survey to some indigenous herb sellers and herbalists. Cross cultural perspectives of ED management in Nigeria. The review suggests that traditional (phytotherapy, zootherapy, and occultism) and nontraditional, orthodox practice (drug therapy, psychological, and behavioral counseling) are applicable to ED management in Nigeria. This review should help in creating awareness into various options available for managing ED in the country, but does not recommend self medication of any form, be it the use of orthodox or herbal remedy.

  20. Exploring Pair Programming Benefits for MIS Majors

    Dongo, Tendai; Reed, April H.; O'Hara, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Pair programming is a collaborative programming practice that places participants in dyads, working in tandem at one computer to complete programming assignments. Pair programming studies with Computer Science (CS) and Software Engineering (SE) majors have identified benefits such as technical productivity, program/design quality, academic…

  1. Technical guide to criticality alarm system design

    Greenfield, B.

    2009-01-01

    An instructional manual was created to guide criticality safety engineers through the technical aspects of designing a criticality alarm system (CAS) for Dept. of Energy (DOE) hazard class 1 and 2 facilities. The manual was structured such that it can be used by engineers designing completely new systems and by those who are working with existing facilities. Major design tasks are thoroughly analyzed to provide concise direction for how to complete the analysis. Regulatory and technical performance requirements were both addressed. (authors)

  2. Minutes of the IFMIF technical meeting

    Nakamura, H.; Takeda, M.; Ida, M.; Maebara, S.; Yutani, T.; Sugimoto, M.

    2004-03-01

    The IFMIF Technical Meeting was held on December 4-5, 2003 at Shiran-kaikan, Kyoto University. The main objectives are 1) to finalize the Comprehensive Design Report (CDR), 2) to discuss IFMIF cost and organization, 3) to review technical status of major systems, transition phase activities and EVEDA plan. This report presents a brief summary of the results of the meeting. Agenda, participants list and presentation materials are attached as Appendix. (author)

  3. International Linear Collider Technical Review Committee Report, 1995

    1995-12-01

    This 1995 report of the International Linear Collider Technical Review Committee is the first attempt to gather in one document the current status of all major e + e - linear collider projects in the world. The report is the result of a collaborative effort of scientists from many laboratories working together over a period of about one year. A short description of the organization, origins and history of the report is given below. To get an idea of the organization, the reader should first refer to the Table of Contents. Chapter 1 is an introduction and general overview of the respective 500 GeV c.m. energy machines. In contrast, Chapter 2, cutting across individual machine boundaries, gives a comparative description and discussion of all the major machine sub-systems as well as particle physics experimentation, showing where these subjects stand today and what additional work needs to be done in the next few years to reach the point where complete design reports can be prepared. Chapter 3 describes the various paths to energy upgrades, and other experimental options (γγ, e - e - , etc.). Chapter 4 gives a short status report of the machine experiments and test facilities being built in the world. Chapter 5 outlines current and other possible areas of collaboration and finally., Chapter 6 summarizes our principal conclusions

  4. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation and Real Options

    L. Havlíček

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The first part of this paper describes the nuclear fuel cycle. It is divided into three parts. The first part, called Front-End, covers all activities connected with fuel procurement and fabrication. The middle part of the cycle includes fuel reload design activities and the operation of the fuel in the reactor. Back-End comprises all activities ensuring safe separation of spent fuel and radioactive waste from the environment. The individual stages of the fuel cycle are strongly interrelated. Overall economic optimization is very difficult. Generally, NPV is used for an economic evaluation in the nuclear fuel cycle. However the high volatility of uranium prices in the Front-End, and the large uncertainty of both economic and technical parameters in the Back-End, make the use of NPV difficult. The real option method is able to evaluate the value added by flexibility of decision making by a company under conditions of uncertainty. The possibility of applying this method to the nuclear fuel cycle evaluation is studied. 

  5. A case for reviving the nuclear option

    Smith, S.H. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The US simply cannot afford to ignore an energy source that provides the economic, environmental, and strategic benefits that nuclear power has provided over the past three decades. Compared to the mix of coal, oil, and gas that would have been used to generate electricity in its absence, nuclear power has saved American consumers almost $5 billion in electricity charges since 1973; has cut annual SO 2 emissions by 5 million tons, NO x emissions by 2 million tons, and CO 2 emissions by 128 million tons; and has reduced annual oil imports by 270 million barrels. Indications are that the new advanced design reactors presently under development will be able to provide consumers with competitively priced electricity for decades to come. However, political issues, not technical ones, stand in the way. The industry is doing its part to make nuclear energy a viable option. But the industry cannot do it alone. Universities, environmental groups, political organizations, and others also have important roles to play

  6. Energy options for the United Kingdom

    Warner, P.C.

    1979-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to put together a picture of the energy policy options of the United Kingdom, drawn mainly from official documents but supplemented by comments and conclusions from the author. For some people the current energy debate is simplified down to nuclear power for and against. Much of this thinking seems to arise from misunderstanding, and the more the technical and social facts behind policy can be sorted out by discussions, the more sensible eventual policy will be. One extreme view, for instance, is that opinion is divided between those who are 'pro-industry, pro-production, and pro-nuclear' and those who are 'interested in ecology and therefore anti-nuclear.' Associations like those are high on the list of myths that need to be dispelled. It is therefore a further purpose of this paper to contribute to the general background of facts for those who are interested in this country's energy policies and who may not have time or the opportunity to work through original sources. Although the theme throughout is energy in the United Kingdom, it will be realised that extension to the world scale simply enhances shortages and problems. The paper is in sections, entitled: overall UK energy consumption; coal; oil; gas; the energy gap; alternative energy sources; the balance of primary resource need; electricity; the nuclear power programme; timing of power plant orders; conclusions. (U.K.)

  7. Valuation of exploration and production assets. An overview of real options models

    Dias, Marco Antonio Guimaraes

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a set of selected real options models to evaluate investments in petroleum exploration and production (E and P) under market and technical uncertainties. First are presented some simple examples to develop the intuition about concepts like option value and optimal option exercise, comparing them with the concepts from the traditional net present value (NPV) criteria. Next, the classical model of Paddock, Siegel and Smith is presented, including a discussion on the practical values for the input parameters. The modeling of oil price uncertainty is presented by comparing some alternative stochastic processes. Other E and P applications discussed here are the selection of mutually exclusive alternatives under uncertainty, the wildcat drilling decision, the appraisal investment decisions, and the analysis of option to expand the production through optional wells

  8. Depleted uranium disposal options evaluation

    Hertzler, T.J.; Nishimoto, D.D.; Otis, M.D.

    1994-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, has chartered a study to evaluate alternative management strategies for depleted uranium (DU) currently stored throughout the DOE complex. Historically, DU has been maintained as a strategic resource because of uses for DU metal and potential uses for further enrichment or for uranium oxide as breeder reactor blanket fuel. This study has focused on evaluating the disposal options for DU if it were considered a waste. This report is in no way declaring these DU reserves a ''waste,'' but is intended to provide baseline data for comparison with other management options for use of DU. To PICS considered in this report include: Retrievable disposal; permanent disposal; health hazards; radiation toxicity and chemical toxicity

  9. Emerging Options for Emergency Contraception

    Atsuko Koyama

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Emergency post-coital contraception (EC is an effective method of preventing pregnancy when used appropriately. EC has been available since the 1970s, and its availability and use have become widespread. Options for EC are broad and include the copper intrauterine device (IUD and emergency contraceptive pills such as levonorgestrel, ulipristal acetate, combined oral contraceptive pills (Yuzpe method, and less commonly, mifepristone. Some options are available over-the-counter, while others require provider prescription or placement. There are no absolute contraindications to the use of emergency contraceptive pills, with the exception of ulipristal acetate and mifepristone. This article reviews the mechanisms of action, efficacy, safety, side effects, clinical considerations, and patient preferences with respect to EC usage. The decision of which regimen to use is influenced by local availability, cost, and patient preference.

  10. Emerging Options for Emergency Contraception

    Koyama, Atsuko; Hagopian, Laura; Linden, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Emergency post-coital contraception (EC) is an effective method of preventing pregnancy when used appropriately. EC has been available since the 1970s, and its availability and use have become widespread. Options for EC are broad and include the copper intrauterine device (IUD) and emergency contraceptive pills such as levonorgestrel, ulipristal acetate, combined oral contraceptive pills (Yuzpe method), and less commonly, mifepristone. Some options are available over-the-counter, while others require provider prescription or placement. There are no absolute contraindications to the use of emergency contraceptive pills, with the exception of ulipristal acetate and mifepristone. This article reviews the mechanisms of action, efficacy, safety, side effects, clinical considerations, and patient preferences with respect to EC usage. The decision of which regimen to use is influenced by local availability, cost, and patient preference. PMID:24453516

  11. Technical approach to groundwater restoration

    1993-01-01

    The Technical Approach to Groundwater Restoration (TAGR) provides general technical guidance to implement the groundwater restoration phase of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The TAGR includes a brief overview of the surface remediation and groundwater restoration phases of the UMTRA Project and describes the regulatory requirements, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process, and regulatory compliance. A section on program strategy discusses program optimization, the role of risk assessment, the observational approach, strategies for meeting groundwater cleanup standards, and remedial action decision-making. A section on data requirements for groundwater restoration evaluates the data quality objectives (DQO) and minimum data required to implement the options and comply with the standards. A section on sits implementation explores the development of a conceptual site model, approaches to site characterization, development of remedial action alternatives, selection of the groundwater restoration method, and remedial design and implementation in the context of site-specific documentation in the site observational work plan (SOWP) and the remedial action plan (RAP). Finally, the TAGR elaborates on groundwater monitoring necessary to evaluate compliance with the groundwater cleanup standards and protection of human health and the environment, and outlines licensing procedures

  12. Radiological impacts of spent nuclear fuel management options

    Riotte, H.; Lazo, T.; Mundigl, S.

    2000-01-01

    An important technical study on radiological impacts of spent nuclear fuel management options, recently completed by the NEA, is intended to facilitate informed international discussions on the nuclear fuel cycle. The study compares the radiological impacts on the public and on nuclear workers resulting from two approaches to handling spent fuel from nuclear power plants: - the reprocessing option, that includes the recycling of spent uranium fuel, the reuse of the separated plutonium in MOX fuel, and the direct disposal of spent MOX fuel; and the once-through option, with no reprocessing of spent fuel, and its direct disposal. Based on the detailed research of a group of 18 internationally recognised experts, under NEA sponsorship, the report concludes that: The radiological impacts of both the reprocessing and the non-reprocessing fuel cycles studied are small, well below any regulatory dose limits for the public and for workers, and insignificantly low as compared with exposures caused by natural radiation. The difference in the radiological impacts of the two fuel cycles studied does not provide a compelling argument in favour of one option or the other. The study also points out that other factors, such as resource utilisation efficiency, energy security, and social and economic considerations would tend to carry more weight than radiological impacts in decision-making processes. (authors)

  13. 5 CFR 870.705 - Amount and election of Option B and Option C.

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amount and election of Option B and Option C. 870.705 Section 870.705 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED... Compensationers § 870.705 Amount and election of Option B and Option C. (a) The number of multiples of Option B...

  14. Stochastic Skew in Currency Options

    Peter Carr; Liuren Wu

    2004-01-01

    We document the behavior of over-the-counter currency option prices across moneyness, maturity, and calendar time on two of the most actively traded currency pairs over the past eight years. We find that the risk-neutral distribution of currency returns is relatively symmetric on average. However, on any given date, the conditional currency return distribution can show strong asymmetry. This asymmetry varies greatly over time and often switch directions. We design and estimate a class of mode...

  15. Getting real with real options

    M. R Grasselli

    2006-01-01

    We apply a utility-based method to obtain the value of a finite-time investment opportunity when the underlying real asset is not perfectly correlated to a traded financial asset. Using a discrete-time algorithm to calculate the indifference price for this type of real option, we present numerical examples for the corresponding investment thresholds, in particular highlighting their dependence with respect to correlation and risk aversion.

  16. Methodology for ranking restoration options

    Jensen, Per Hedemann

    1999-01-01

    techniques as a function of contamination and site characteristics. The project includes analyses of existing remediation methodologies and contaminated sites, and is structured in the following steps:-characterisation of relevant contaminated sites -identication and characterisation of relevant restoration...... techniques -assessment of the radiological impact -development and application of a selection methodology for restoration options -formulation ofgeneric conclusions and development of a manual The project is intended to apply to situations in which sites with nuclear installations have been contaminated...

  17. Multi-criteria evaluation for CHP system options

    Pilavachi, P.A.; Roumpeas, C.P.; Minett, S.; Afgan, N.H.

    2006-01-01

    Several Combined Heat and Power (CHP) system options have been considered for evaluation with respect to the end-user requirements. These included Internal Combustion Engines (Otto and Diesel), Gas Turbines, Steam Turbines and Combined Cycles covering a wide range of electrical output. Data have been obtained from literature and the CHP systems have been evaluated using different criteria such as overall efficiency, investment cost, fuel cost, electricity cost, heat cost, CO 2 production and footprint. A multi-criteria method is used with an agglomeration function based on the statistical evaluation of weight factors. The technical, economic and social aspects of each system have been evaluated in an integrated manner and the results have been compared by means of the Sustainability Index. Based on the above criteria and depending on the user requirements, the best CHP system options have been established

  18. Options for Steam Generator Decommissioning

    Krause, Gregor; Amcoff, Bjoern; Robinson, Joe

    2016-01-01

    Selecting the best option for decommissioning steam generators is a key consideration in preparing for decommissioning PWR nuclear power plants. Steam Generators represent a discrete waste stream of large, complex items that can lend themselves to a variety of options for handling, treatment, recycling and disposal. Studsvik has significant experience in processing full size Steam Generators at its metal recycling facility in Sweden, and this paper will introduce the Studsvik steam generator treatment concept and the results achieved to date across a number of projects. The paper will outline the important parameters needed at an early stage to assess options and to help consider the balance between off-site and on-site treatment solutions, and the role of prior decontamination techniques. The paper also outlines the use of feasibility studies and demonstration projects that have been used to help customers prepare for decommissioning. The paper discusses physical, radiological and operational history data, Pro and Contra factors for on- and off-site treatment, the role of chemical decontamination prior to treatment, planning for off-site shipments as well as Studsvik experience This paper has an original focus upon the coming challenges of steam generator decommissioning and potential external treatment capacity constraints in the medium term. It also focuses on the potential during operations or initial shut-down to develop robust plans for steam generator management. (authors)

  19. Hazardous landfill management, control options

    Corbin, M.H.; Lederman, P.B.

    1982-01-01

    The land disposal of hazardous wastes has been a common practice over the last half century. The industrial and environmental communities, as well as the public, have an immediate challenge to control the contaminants that may be released from waste land disposal facilities. At the same time, land disposal continues to be, in many cases, the only available disposal technique that can be utilized in the next five years. Thus, it is extremely important that environmentally sound landfill management and control techniques be utilized, both for inactive and active sites. There are a number of key steps in developing a sound management and control plan. These include problem definition, personnel safety, characterization, evaluation of control options, cost-effectiveness analysis and development of an integrated control plan. A number of control options, including diversion, regrading, sealing, and leachate treatment are available and more cost effective in most cases than waste removal. These and other options, as well as the methodology to develop an integrated control plan, are discussed, together with examples. (Auth.)

  20. Illiquidity Premia in the Equity Options Market

    Christoffersen, Peter; Goyenko, Ruslan; Jacobs, Kris

    Illiquidity is well-known to be a significant determinant of stock and bond returns. We report on illiquidity premia in the equity options market. An increase in option illiquidity decreases the current option price and implies higher expected option returns. This effect is statistically and econ......Illiquidity is well-known to be a significant determinant of stock and bond returns. We report on illiquidity premia in the equity options market. An increase in option illiquidity decreases the current option price and implies higher expected option returns. This effect is statistically...... and economically signifi…cant. It is robust across different empirical approaches and when including various control variables. The illiquidity of the underlying stock affects the option return negatively, consistent with a hedging argument: When stock market illiquidity increases, the cost of replicating...

  1. Emerging Options and Opportunities in Civilian Aeronautics

    Bushnell, Dennis M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the major problems/issues with civilian aeronautics going forward, the contextual ongoing technology revolutions, the several emerging civilian aeronautical "Big Ideas" and associated enabling technological approaches. The ongoing IT Revolution is increasingly providing, as 5 senses virtual presence/reality becomes available, along with Nano/Molecular Manufacturing, virtual alternatives to Physical transportation for both people and goods. Paper examines the potential options available to aeronautics to maintain and perhaps grow "market share" in the context of this evolving competition. Many of these concepts are not new, but the emerging technology landscape is enhancing their viability and marketability. The concepts vary from the "interesting" to the truly revolutionary and all require considerable research. Paper considers the speed range from personal/general aviation to supersonic transports and technologies from energetics to fabrication.

  2. Novel treatment options for portal hypertension

    Laleman, Wim

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Portal hypertension is most frequently associated with cirrhosis and is a major driver for associated complications, such as variceal bleeding, ascites or hepatic encephalopathy. As such, clinically significant portal hypertension forms the prelude to decompensation and impacts significantly on the prognosis of patients with liver cirrhosis. At present, non-selective β-blockers, vasopressin analogues and somatostatin analogues are the mainstay of treatment but these strategies are far from satisfactory and only target splanchnic hyperemia. In contrast, safe and reliable strategies to reduce the increased intrahepatic resistance in cirrhotic patients still represent a pending issue. In recent years, several preclinical and clinical trials have focused on this latter component and other therapeutic avenues. In this review, we highlight novel data in this context and address potentially interesting therapeutic options for the future. PMID:28533907

  3. Options for Next Generation Digital Acquisition Systems

    Boccardi, A

    2011-01-01

    Digital acquisition system designers have an always increasing number of options in terms of bus standards and digital signal processing hardware among which to choose. This allows for high flexibility but also opens the door to a proliferation of different architectures, potentially limiting the reusability and the design synergies among the various instrumentation groups. This contribution illustrates the design trends in some of the major institutes around the world with design examples including VME, PCI and TCA based modular systems using AMC and/or FMC mezzanines. Some examples of FPGA design practices aimed at increasing reusability of code will be mentioned together with some of the tools already available to designers to improve the information exchange and collaboration, like the Open Hardware Repository project.

  4. Weapons-grade plutonium dispositioning. Volume 2: Comparison of plutonium disposition options

    Brownson, D.A.; Hanson, D.J.; Blackman, H.S. [and others

    1993-06-01

    The Secretary of Energy requested the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Committee on International Security and Arms Control to evaluate disposition options for weapons-grade plutonium. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) offered to assist the NAS in this evaluation by investigating the technical aspects of the disposition options and their capability for achieving plutonium annihilation levels greater than 90%. This report was prepared for the NAS to document the gathered information and results from the requested option evaluations. Evaluations were performed for 12 plutonium disposition options involving five reactor and one accelerator-based systems. Each option was evaluated in four technical areas: (1) fuel status, (2) reactor or accelerator-based system status, (3) waste-processing status, and (4) waste disposal status. Based on these evaluations, each concept was rated on its operational capability and time to deployment. A third rating category of option costs could not be performed because of the unavailability of adequate information from the concept sponsors. The four options achieving the highest rating, in alphabetical order, are the Advanced Light Water Reactor with plutonium-based ternary fuel, the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor with plutonium-based fuel, the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor with uranium-plutonium-based fuel, and the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor with plutonium-based fuel. Of these four options, the Advanced Light Water Reactor and the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor do not propose reprocessing of their irradiated fuel. Time constraints and lack of detailed information did not allow for any further ratings among these four options. The INEL recommends these four options be investigated further to determine the optimum reactor design for plutonium disposition.

  5. Weapons-grade plutonium dispositioning. Volume 2: Comparison of plutonium disposition options

    Brownson, D.A.; Hanson, D.J.; Blackman, H.S.

    1993-06-01

    The Secretary of Energy requested the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Committee on International Security and Arms Control to evaluate disposition options for weapons-grade plutonium. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) offered to assist the NAS in this evaluation by investigating the technical aspects of the disposition options and their capability for achieving plutonium annihilation levels greater than 90%. This report was prepared for the NAS to document the gathered information and results from the requested option evaluations. Evaluations were performed for 12 plutonium disposition options involving five reactor and one accelerator-based systems. Each option was evaluated in four technical areas: (1) fuel status, (2) reactor or accelerator-based system status, (3) waste-processing status, and (4) waste disposal status. Based on these evaluations, each concept was rated on its operational capability and time to deployment. A third rating category of option costs could not be performed because of the unavailability of adequate information from the concept sponsors. The four options achieving the highest rating, in alphabetical order, are the Advanced Light Water Reactor with plutonium-based ternary fuel, the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor with plutonium-based fuel, the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor with uranium-plutonium-based fuel, and the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor with plutonium-based fuel. Of these four options, the Advanced Light Water Reactor and the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor do not propose reprocessing of their irradiated fuel. Time constraints and lack of detailed information did not allow for any further ratings among these four options. The INEL recommends these four options be investigated further to determine the optimum reactor design for plutonium disposition

  6. Nuclear Energy Center Site Survey, 1975. Part III. Technical considerations

    1976-01-01

    Studies of the technical feasibility of nuclear energy centers (NECs) and the comparison between NEC technical feasibility and that of nuclear facilities on dispersed sites are reviewed. The conclusions related to technical feasibility of NEC are summarized. Technical feasibility was found to rest mainly on five major issues: heat dissipation, transmission, facility construction, radiological impact, and environmental impact. Although general conclusions can be reached in these five areas, it is recognized that they are interdependent, and detailed site-by-site analysis will be necessary. Some general conclusions on technical feasibility of NECs are presented, then detailed conclusions derived from the technical evaluation of NECs compared to dispersed site facilities are presented. The findings of this study on each of the five major feasibility issues are then discussed in sequence. The study concludes that nuclear energy centers, as defined herein, are technically feasible

  7. Final Technical Report

    Aristos Aristidou Natureworks); Robert Kean (NatureWorks); Tom Schechinger (IronHorse Farms, Mat); Stuart Birrell (Iowa State); Jill Euken (Wallace Foundation & Iowa State)

    2007-10-01

    /storage/transportation equipment and the processor would build and operate the plant. Pilot fermentation studies demonstrated dramatic improvements in yields and rates with optimization of batch fermentor parameters. Demonstrated yields and rates are approaching those necessary for profitable commercial operation for production of ethanol or lactic acid. The ability of the biocatalyst to adapt to biomass hydrolysate (both biomass sugars and toxins in the hydrolysate) was demonstrated and points towards ultimate successful commercialization of the technology. However, some of this work will need to be repeated and possibly extended to adapt the final selected biocatalyst for the specific commercial hydrolysate composition. The path from corn stover in the farm field to final products, involves a number of steps. Each of these steps has options, problems, and uncertainties; thus creating a very complex multidimensional obstacle to successful commercial development. Through the tasks of this project, the technical and commercial uncertainties of many of these steps have been addressed; thus providing for a clearer understanding of paths forward and commercial viability of a corn stover-based biorefinery.

  8. Comparing Item Performance on Three- Versus Four-Option Multiple Choice Questions in a Veterinary Toxicology Course.

    Royal, Kenneth; Dorman, David

    2018-06-09

    The number of answer options is an important element of multiple-choice questions (MCQs). Many MCQs contain four or more options despite the limited literature suggesting that there is little to no benefit beyond three options. The purpose of this study was to evaluate item performance on 3-option versus 4-option MCQs used in a core curriculum course in veterinary toxicology at a large veterinary medical school in the United States. A quasi-experimental, crossover design was used in which students in each class were randomly assigned to take one of two versions (A or B) of two major exams. Both the 3-option and 4-option MCQs resulted in similar psychometric properties. The findings of our study support earlier research in other medical disciplines and settings that likewise concluded there was no significant change in the psychometric properties of three option MCQs when compared to the traditional MCQs with four or more options.

  9. [Alaskan commodities irradiation project: An options analysis study

    Zarling, J.P.; Swanson, R.B.; Logan, R.R.

    1989-09-01

    The ninety-ninth US Congress commissioned a six-state food irradiation research and development program to evaluate the commercial potential of this technology. Hawaii, Washington, Iowa, Oklahoma and Florida as well as Alaska have participated in the national program; various food products including fishery products, red meats, tropical and citrus fruits and vegetables have been studied. The purpose of the Alaskan study was to review and evaluate those factors related to the technical and economic feasibility of an irradiator in Alaska. This options analysis study will serve as a basis for determining the state's further involvement in the development of food irradiation technology

  10. Brent Spar abandonment - Best Practicable Environmental Option (BPEO) assessment

    1994-12-01

    Possible methods of abandoning or re-using the Brent Spar storage and tanker offloading facility following its decommissioning in 1991 are discussed. The report assesses six of the thirteen possible methods, including horizontal dismantling and onshore disposal, vertical dismantling and onshore disposal, in-field disposal, deep water disposal, refurbishment and re-use, and continued maintenance, in order to determine the Best Practicable Environmental Option (BPEO). The BPEO covers technical feasibility risks to health and safety of the work force, environmental impacts, public acceptability and costs. (UK)

  11. The Factor Structure in Equity Options

    Christoffersen, Peter; Fournier, Mathieu; Jacobs, Kris

    Principal component analysis of equity options on Dow-Jones firms reveals a strong factor structure. The first principal component explains 77% of the variation in the equity volatility level, 77% of the variation in the equity option skew, and 60% of the implied volatility term structure across...... equities. Furthermore, the first principal component has a 92% correlation with S&P500 index option volatility, a 64% correlation with the index option skew, and a 80% correlation with the index option term structure. We develop an equity option valuation model that captures this factor structure...

  12. Technical note on drainage systems

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby

    This technical note will present simple but widely used methods for the design of drainage systems. The note will primarily deal with surface water (rainwater) which on a satisfactorily way should be transport into the drainage system. Traditional two types of sewer systems exist: A combined system......, where rainwater and sewage is transported in the same pipe, and a separate system where the two types of water are transported in individual pipe. This note will only focus on the separate rain/stormwater system, however, if domestic sewage should be included in the dimensioning procedure, it......’s not major different than described below - just remember to include this contribution for combined systems where the surface water (rain) and sewage are carried in the same pipes in the system and change some of the parameters for failure allowance (this will be elaborated further later on). The technical...

  13. GEM Technical Design Report

    1993-01-01

    The GEM collaboration was formed in June 1991 to develop a major detector for the SSC. The primary physics objectives of GEM are those central to the motivation for the SSC, to study high p T physics - exemplified by the search for Higgs bosons - and to search for new physics beyond the standard model. The authors present in this Technical Design Report (TDR) a detector with broad capabilities for the discovery and subsequent study of electroweak symmetry breaking, the origin of mass and flavor, and other physics requiring precise measurements of gammas, electrons, and muons - hence the name, GEM. In addition, as a design goal, they have taken care to provide the robustness needed to do the physics that requires high luminosity. Finally, good coverage and hermeticity allow the detection of missing transverse energy, E T . The GEM design emphasizes clean identification and high resolution measurement of the primary physics signatures for high p T physics. The approach is to make precise energy measurements that maximize the sensitivity to rare narrow resonances, to detect the elementary interaction products (quarks, leptons, and photons), and to build in the features required to reduce backgrounds

  14. GEM Technical Design Report

    1993-07-31

    The GEM collaboration was formed in June 1991 to develop a major detector for the SSC. The primary physics objectives of GEM are those central to the motivation for the SSC, to study high p{sub T} physics - exemplified by the search for Higgs bosons - and to search for new physics beyond the standard model. The authors present in this Technical Design Report (TDR) a detector with broad capabilities for the discovery and subsequent study of electroweak symmetry breaking, the origin of mass and flavor, and other physics requiring precise measurements of gammas, electrons, and muons - hence the name, GEM. In addition, as a design goal, they have taken care to provide the robustness needed to do the physics that requires high luminosity. Finally, good coverage and hermeticity allow the detection of missing transverse energy, E{sub T}. The GEM design emphasizes clean identification and high resolution measurement of the primary physics signatures for high p{sub T} physics. The approach is to make precise energy measurements that maximize the sensitivity to rare narrow resonances, to detect the elementary interaction products (quarks, leptons, and photons), and to build in the features required to reduce backgrounds.

  15. VLLEEM-2 technical workshop

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    In order to overcome the limits of the energy-environment models, and to benefit at the same time of their past experiences, the VLEEM project proposes a genuine approach and innovative modelling tools to assess the energy-environment systems over the very long term, which are based on the strengths of existing long term energy models, but focussed on two major objectives: to describe normative futures which fit with a set of overall constraints, like the stabilisation of the concentration of green-house gases in the atmosphere, or the stabilisation of the overall inventory of plutonium and minor actinides, etc...; to describe and formalize the association of causalities necessary to bring the system from the present situation to the targeted future, through a '' back-casting '' approach. This first technical workshop presents the state of the art of the different Work Programmes. WP1:Enhancement of the Conceptual framework. WP2: Data base on conventional demand/supply technologies. WP3: Complement and up-date technology monographs. WP4: Formalization and computing of final VLEEM submodels. WP5: Case study 2030, 2050, 2100. (A.L.B.)

  16. Technical approach document

    1988-04-01

    This document describes the general technical approaches and design criteria adopted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in order to implement Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) and final designs that comply with EPS standards. This document is a revision to the original document. Major revisions were made to the sections in riprap selection and sizing, and ground-water; only minor revisions were made to the remainder of the document. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has prepared a Standard Review Plan (NRC-SRP) which describes factors to be considered by the NRC in approving the RAP. Sections 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, and 7.0 of this document are arranged under the same headings as those used in the NRC-SRP. This approach is adopted in order to facilitate joint use of the documents. Section 2.0 (not included in the NRC-SRP) discusses design considerations; Section 3.0 describes surface-water hydrology and erosion control; Section 4.0 describes geotechnical aspects of pile design; Section 5.0 discusses the Alternate Site Selection Process; Section 6.0 deals with radiological issues (in particular, the design of the radon barrier); Section 7.0 discusses protection of groundwater resources; and Section 8.0 discusses site design criteria for the RAC

  17. Endovascular therapy options in femoro-popliteal PAD; Endovaskulaere Therapieoptionen bei femoropoplitealer pAVK

    Brechtel, Klaus [Universitaetsklinikum Tuebingen (Germany). Abt. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie

    2010-09-15

    The endovascular treatment of femoro-popliteal PAD is still challenging. The number of endovascular procedures in this vessel segment has increased over the past years. Despite new technologies, the outcome of endovascular therapy in terms of durability is still weak. In the meantime, the latest developments are progressing, such as the combination of mechanical angioplasty and drug delivery. Additionally, there are former techniques, such as debulking by atherectomy, which have been technically improved and now contribute to modern concepts of endovascular treatment. This article provides an overview on treatment indications and technical options including the latest technical developments. (orig.)

  18. Interim Policy Options for Commercialization of Solar Heating and Cooling Systems.

    Bezdek, Roger

    This interim report reviews the major incentive policy options available to accelerate market penetration of solar heating and cooling (SHAC) systems. Feasible policy options designed to overcome existing barriers to commercial acceptance and market penetration are identified and evaluated. The report is divided into seven sections, each dealing…

  19. Technical aspects of 3MV particle accelerator at GGV Bilaspur

    Mallik, C.

    2013-01-01

    The accelerator at GGV, Bilaspur is a 3 MV pelletron operating is Tandem mode. The talk will describe the technical aspects of the accelerator. It will also discuss the beam aspects of the pelletron and the feasibility options with the accelerator. (author)

  20. Technical opportunities to reduce global anthropogenic emissions of nitrous oxide

    Winiwarter, Wilfried; Höglund-Isaksson, Lena; Klimont, Zbigniew; Schöpp, Wolfgang; Amann, Markus

    2018-01-01

    We describe a consistent framework developed to quantify current and future anthropogenic emissions of nitrous oxide and the available technical abatement options by source sector for 172 regions globally. About 65% of the current emissions derive from agricultural soils, 8% from waste, and 4% from the chemical industry. Low-cost abatement options are available in industry, wastewater, and agriculture, where they are limited to large industrial farms. We estimate that by 2030, emissions can be reduced by about 6% ±2% applying abatement options at a cost lower than 10 €/t CO2-eq. The largest abatement potential at higher marginal costs is available from agricultural soils, employing precision fertilizer application technology as well as chemical treatment of fertilizers to suppress conversion processes in soil (nitrification inhibitors). At marginal costs of up to 100 €/t CO2-eq, about 18% ±6% of baseline emissions can be removed and when considering all available options, the global abatement potential increases to about 26% ±9%. Due to expected future increase in activities driving nitrous oxide emissions, the limited technical abatement potential available means that even at full implementation of reduction measures by 2030, global emissions can be at most stabilized at the pre-2010 level. In order to achieve deeper reductions in emissions, considerable technological development will be required as well as non-technical options like adjusting human diets towards moderate animal protein consumption.

  1. Writing a technical note.

    Ng, K H; Peh, W C G

    2010-02-01

    A technical note is a short article giving a brief description of a specific development, technique or procedure, or it may describe a modification of an existing technique, procedure or device applicable to medicine. The technique, procedure or device described should have practical value and should contribute to clinical diagnosis or management. It could also present a software tool, or an experimental or computational method. Technical notes are variously referred to as technical innovations or technical developments. The main criteria for publication will be the novelty of concepts involved, the validity of the technique and its potential for clinical applications.

  2. Technical Elements (CCT1)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne

    2017-01-01

    Many of the aspects dealt with in the CA EPBD are closely interlinked with each other and may refer to both new and existing buildings, as well as to inspection and certification. This is also true for technical aspects, such as the calculation methodologies, and how to include technical systems......’ efficiency or how to integrate renewable energy within them. The central team for Technical Elements deals with issues of a technical nature, which are common to new and existing buildings, and/or with minimum demands, certification and inspection. This report focuses on the implementation of Articles 3, 4...

  3. 77 FR 58194 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Options Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing of Proposed...

    2012-09-19

    ....S. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles. Canadian clearing members that use Form 1 report the... Organizations; The Options Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Relating to Financial... technical ``housekeeping'' changes to OCC's By-Laws and Rules relating to financial reporting by Canadian...

  4. Pawnee Nation Energy Option Analyses

    Matlock, M.; Kersey, K.; Riding In, C.

    2009-07-21

    Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma Energy Option Analyses In 2003, the Pawnee Nation leadership identified the need for the tribe to comprehensively address its energy issues. During a strategic energy planning workshop a general framework was laid out and the Pawnee Nation Energy Task Force was created to work toward further development of the tribe’s energy vision. The overarching goals of the “first steps” project were to identify the most appropriate focus for its strategic energy initiatives going forward, and to provide information necessary to take the next steps in pursuit of the “best fit” energy options. Description of Activities Performed The research team reviewed existing data pertaining to the availability of biomass (focusing on woody biomass, agricultural biomass/bio-energy crops, and methane capture), solar, wind and hydropower resources on the Pawnee-owned lands. Using these data, combined with assumptions about costs and revenue streams, the research team performed preliminary feasibility assessments for each resource category. The research team also reviewed available funding resources and made recommendations to Pawnee Nation highlighting those resources with the greatest potential for financially-viable development, both in the near-term and over a longer time horizon. Findings and Recommendations Due to a lack of financial incentives for renewable energy, particularly at the state level, combined mediocre renewable energy resources, renewable energy development opportunities are limited for Pawnee Nation. However, near-term potential exists for development of solar hot water at the gym, and an exterior wood-fired boiler system at the tribe’s main administrative building. Pawnee Nation should also explore options for developing LFGTE resources in collaboration with the City of Pawnee. Significant potential may also exist for development of bio-energy resources within the next decade. Pawnee Nation representatives should closely monitor

  5. Treatment Options by Stage (Vaginal Cancer)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) depends on the ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  6. Treatment Options for Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options for primary myelofibrosis. Prognosis (chance of recovery ) depends ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options for essential thrombocythemia. Prognosis (chance of recovery ) and ...

  7. Treatment Options for Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) depends mostly on ... helped by lip balm or petroleum jelly . Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  8. Treatment Option Overview (Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors)

    ... Germ Cell Tumors Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version Treatment Option Overview Go to Health Professional Version Key Points ... and restore) the body’s blood cells. New treatment options Combination chemotherapy (the use of more than one ...

  9. Treatment Option Overview (Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) depends on: How ... cancer that does not respond to treatment. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  10. Treatment Option Overview (Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options for primary myelofibrosis. Prognosis (chance of recovery ) depends ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options for essential thrombocythemia. Prognosis (chance of recovery ) and ...

  11. [Treatment options for patellar tendinopathy].

    Duthon, V B; Borloz, S; Ziltener, J-L

    2012-07-25

    Patellar tendinopathy is also called jumper's knee because of its high incidence in athletes with jumping or cutting activities as soccer, basketball, volleyball. Many different treatment methods have been described. However, no consensus exists regarding the optimal treatment for this condition. According to the literature, eccentric exercise-based physical therapy should be proposed first because of its strong scientific evidence. Shockwave therapy and injections may be useful but their real efficacy still has to be proven by randomized controlled study. For patients recalcitrant to more conservative options, operative management may be indicated.

  12. Model Calibration in Option Pricing

    Andre Loerx

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We consider calibration problems for models of pricing derivatives which occur in mathematical finance. We discuss various approaches such as using stochastic differential equations or partial differential equations for the modeling process. We discuss the development in the past literature and give an outlook into modern approaches of modelling. Furthermore, we address important numerical issues in the valuation of options and likewise the calibration of these models. This leads to interesting problems in optimization, where, e.g., the use of adjoint equations or the choice of the parametrization for the model parameters play an important role.

  13. Cyanobacterial Treatment Options: Permanganate and ...

    This presentation will begin with a brief overview of drinking water treatment options for cyanobacteria and their toxins. The treatment discussion will focus on the impacts of permanganate addition to suspensions of toxin-producing Microcystis aeruginosa, followed by powdered activated carbon (PAC) addition. Results will be presented that show changes in toxin concentrations, chlorophyll-a concentrations and cell membrane integrity. The EPA Small Systems Webinar Presentations allow the dissemination of the latest Agency guidance and research to a large geographically dispersed audience while minimizing taxpayer expense

  14. Fuel options for oil sands

    Wise, T.

    2005-01-01

    This presentation examined fuel options in relation to oil sands production. Options include steam and hydrogen (H 2 ) for upgrading; natural gas by pipeline; bitumen; petroleum coke; and coal. Various cost drivers were also considered for each of the fuel options. It was noted that natural gas has high energy value but the capital cost is low, and that coke's energy value is very low but the capital cost is high. A chart forecasting energy prices was presented. The disposition of Western Canada's northern gas situation was presented. Issues concerning rail transportation for coal were considered. Environmental concerns were also examined. A chart of typical gas requirements for 75,000 B/D oil sands projects was presented. Issues concerning steam generation with gas and mining cogeneration with gas fuel and steam turbines were discussed, as well as cogeneration and H 2 with gas fuels and steam turbines. Various technology and fuel utility options were examined, along with details of equipment and processes. Boiler technologies were reviewed by type as well as fuel and steam quality and pressure. Charts of cogeneration with gas turbine and circulation fluid bed boilers were presented. Gasification processes were reviewed and a supply cost basis was examined. Cost drivers were ranked according to energy, operating considerations and capital investment. Results indicated that fuel costs were significant for gas and coal. Capital costs and capital recovery charge was most significant with coal and gasification technology. Without capital recovery, cash costs favour the use of bitumen and coke. Gasification would need lower capital and lower capital recovery to compete with direct burning. It was concluded that direct burning of bitumen can compete with natural gas. With price volatility anticipated, dual fuel capability for bitumen and gas has merit. Petroleum coke can be produced or retrieved from stockpiles. Utility supply costs of direct burning of coke is

  15. RELAP4 stagnation properties option

    DeYoung, T.L.

    1979-01-01

    The stagnation properties option in RELAP4/MOD6 was completely reviewed, from theoretical foundation to code application. The result of this investigation was the identification of a fundamental mismatch between the essentially homogeneous, equilibrium-based, RELAP4 code and the nonhomogeneous and/or nonequilibrium critical flow models imposed on the code. By continuously monitoring fluid Mach numbers and adjusting flow areas such that sonic velocity was never exceeded, the mismatch could be accommodated. This approach was implemented, found to work correctly, and will be incorporated into the MOD7 version of the code

  16. 32 CFR 48.201 - Options.

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Options. 48.201 Section 48.201 National Defense...'S FAMILY PROTECTION PLAN Election of Options § 48.201 Options. As provided in § 48.203, a member may... amount equal to such 121/2 per centum. (a) Option 1 is an annuity payable to or on behalf of his widow...

  17. Analytic American Option Pricing and Applications

    Sbuelz, A.

    2003-01-01

    I use a convenient value breakdown in order to obtain analytic solutions for finitematurity American option prices.Such a barrier-option-based breakdown yields an analytic lower bound for the American option price, which is as price-tight as the Barone-Adesi and Whaley (1987) analytic value proxy for short and medium maturities and exhibits good convergence to the Merton (1973) perpetual option price for large maturities.

  18. Options contracts in the nuclear fuel industry

    Fuller, D.M.

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses options trading in the nuclear fuels industry. Although there now exists no formal options market in the nuclear industry, flexibilities, or embedded options, are actually quite common in the long-term supply contracts. The value of these flexibilities can be estimated by applying the methods used to evaluate options. The method used is the Black-Scholes Model, and it is applied to a number of examples

  19. Technical data summary supporting the spent nuclear fuel environment impact statement, March 1994

    Geddes, R.L.; Claxton, R.E.; Lengel, J.D.

    1994-03-01

    This report has been compiled by the WSRC Nuclear Materials Processing Division's Planning Section at the request of the Office of Spent Fuel Management and Special Projects (EM-37) to support issuance of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Environmental Impact Statement. Savannah River Site input data evaluates five programmatic options (including open-quotes No Actionclose quotes) ranging up to transfer of all DOE responsibility spent fuel to the SRS. For each option, a range of management/disposition scenarios has been examined. Each case summary provides information relative to the technical proposal, technical issues, environmental impacts, and projected costs for a forty year period (FY-35) when it is assumed that the material will be dispositioned from the SRS. The original issue of the report which was prepared under severe time constraints contained many simplifications and assumptions. Although the revisions have corrected some of the shortcomings of the original report, it is still highly recommended that significant additional study be performed before basing key decisions upon the data contained in this report. The data represents the best effort by a significant group of technical personnel familiar with nuclear materials processing, handling, and storage; but it is likely that careful scrutiny will reveal numerous discrepancies, inconsistencies and omissions. Nor does this report attempt to analyze every potential disposal pathway, but probably establishes the bounds for the most of the viable pathways. The bulk of the effort went into defining the engineering approaches necessary to execute the various mission scenarios which were changed since the last revision. The decision to limit reprocessing to only SRS aluminum clad required a major alteration of the TDS. Collection and/or calculation of much of the various waste, emission, and utility consumption data, so important to an EIS, has been updated since the last revision, but not thoroughly completed

  20. CANDU fuel cycle options in Korea

    Boczar, P.G.; Fehrenbach, P.J.; Meneley, D.A.

    1996-04-01

    The easiest first step in CANDU fuel-cycle evolution may be the use of slightly enriched uranium (SEU), including recovered uranium from reprocessed LWR spent fuel. Relatively low enrichment (up to 1.2%) will result in a twoto three-fold reduction in the quantity of spent fuel per unit energy production, reductions in fuel-cycle costs, and greater flexibility in the design of new reactors. The CANFLEX (CANDU FLEXible) fuel bundle would be the optimal fuel carrier. A country that has both CANDU and PWR reactors can exploit the natural synergism between these two reactor types to minimize overall waste production, and maximize energy derived from the fuel. This synergism can be exploited through several different fuel cycles. A high burnup CANDU MOX fuel design could be used to utilize plutonium from conventional reprocessing or more advanced reprocessing options (such as co-processing). DUPIC (Direct Use of Spent PWR Fuel In CANDU) represents a recycle option that has a higher degree of proliferation resistance than does conventional reprocessing, since it uses only dry processes for converting spent PWR fuel into CANDU fuel, without separating the plutonium. Good progress is being made in the current KAERI, AECL, and U.S. Department of State program in demonstrating the technical feasibility of DUPIC. In the longer term, CANDU reactors offer even more dramatic synergistic fuel cycles with PWR or FBR reactors. If the objective of a national fuel-cycle program is the minimization of actinide waste or destruction of long-lived fission products, then studies have shown the superiority of CANDU reactors in meeting this objective. Long-term energy security can be assured either through the thorium cycle or through a CANDU 1 FBR system, in which the FBR would be operated as a 'fuel factory,' providing the fissile material to power a number of lower-cost, high efficiency CANDU reactors. In summary, the CANDU reactor's simple fuel design, high neutron economy, and on

  1. CANDU fuel cycle options in Korea

    Boczar, P. G.; Fehrenbach, P. J.; Meneley, D. A.

    1996-01-01

    There are many reasons for countries embarking on a CANDU R program to start with the natural uranium fuel cycle. Simplicity of fuel design, ease of fabrication, and ready availability of natural uranium all help to localize the technology and to reduce reliance on foreign technology. Nonetheless, at some point, the incentives for using natural uranium fuel may be outweighed by the advantages of alternate fuel cycles. The excellent neutron economy, on-line refuelling, and simple fuel-bundle design provide an unsurpassed degree of fuel-cycle flexibility in CANDU reactors. The easiest first step in CANDU fuel-cycle evolution may be the use of slightly enriched uranium (SEU), including recovered uranium from reprocessed LWR spent fuel. Relatively low enrichment (up to 1.2%) will result in a two- to three-fold reduction in the quantity of spent fuel per unit energy production, reductions in fuel-cycle costs, and greater flexibility in the design of new reactors. The CANFLEX (CANDU FLEXible) fuel bundle would be the optimal fuel carrier. A country that has both CANDU and PWR reactors can exploit the natural synergism between these two reactor types to minimize overall waste production, and maximize energy derived from the fuel. This synergism can be exploited through several different fuel cycles. A high burnup CANDU MOX fuel design could be used to utilize plutonium from conventional reprocessing or more advanced reprocessing options (such as co-processing). DUPIC (Direct Use of Spent PWR Fuel In CANDU) represents a recycle option that has a higher degree of proliferation resistance than dose conventional reprocessing, since it uses only dry processes for converting spent PWR fuel into CANDU fuel, without separating the plutonium. Good progress is being made in the current KAERI, AECL, and U. S. Department of State program in demonstrating the technical feasibility of DUPIC. In the longer term, CANDU reactors offer even more dramatic synergistic fuel cycles with PWR or

  2. 42 CFR 457.70 - Program options.

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Program options. 457.70 Section 457.70 Public... Plans for Child Health Insurance Programs and Outreach Strategies § 457.70 Program options. (a) Health benefits coverage options. A State may elect to obtain health benefits coverage under its plan through— (1...

  3. 48 CFR 17.107 - Options.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Options. 17.107 Section 17... CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Multiyear Contracting 17.107 Options. Benefits may accrue by including options in a multiyear contract. In that event, contracting officers must follow the requirements...

  4. 24 CFR 35.120 - Options.

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Options. 35.120 Section 35.120... and Definitions for All Programs. § 35.120 Options. (a) Standard treatments. Where interim controls are required by this part, the designated party has the option to presume that lead-based paint or...

  5. Help Options in CALL: A Systematic Review

    Cardenas-Claros, Monica S.; Gruba, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is a systematic review of research investigating help options in the different language skills in computer-assisted language learning (CALL). In this review, emerging themes along with is-sues affecting help option research are identified and discussed. We argue that help options in CALL are application resources that do not only seem…

  6. 78 FR 7997 - Noncompensatory Partnership Options

    2013-02-05

    ... Noncompensatory Partnership Options AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Department of the Treasury. ACTION... noncompensatory options and convertible instruments issued by a partnership. The final regulations generally provide that the exercise of a noncompensatory option does not cause the recognition of immediate income...

  7. 48 CFR 317.107 - Options.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Options. 317.107 Section... CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Multi-year Contracting 317.107 Options. When used as part of a multi-year contract, options shall not be used to extend the performance of the original requirement for...

  8. 38 CFR 6.10 - Options.

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Options. 6.10 Section 6.10 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT LIFE INSURANCE Optional Settlement § 6.10 Options. Insurance will be payable in one sum only when...

  9. 38 CFR 8.25 - Options.

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Options. 8.25 Section 8.25 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Optional Settlements § 8.25 Options. Insurance will be paid in a lump sum only when selected by...

  10. 24 CFR 221.255 - Assignment option.

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assignment option. 221.255 Section... Assignment option. (a) A mortgagee holding a mortgage insured pursuant to a conditional or firm commitment issued on or before November 30, 1983 has the option to assign, transfer and deliver to the Commissioner...

  11. 24 CFR 221.775 - Option period.

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Option period. 221.775 Section 221.775 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... § 221.775 Option period. The mortgagee may exercise its option to assign within one year following the...

  12. Analytic American Option Pricing and Applications

    Sbuelz, A.

    2003-01-01

    I use a convenient value breakdown in order to obtain analytic solutions for finitematurity American option prices.Such a barrier-option-based breakdown yields an analytic lower bound for the American option price, which is as price-tight as the Barone-Adesi and Whaley (1987) analytic value proxy

  13. 24 CFR 221.770 - Assignment option.

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assignment option. 221.770 Section... § 221.770 Assignment option. A mortgagee holding a conditional or firm commitment issued on or before... mortgagee's approved underwriter on or before November 30, 1983) has the option to assign, transfer and...

  14. Option trading and individual investor performance

    Bauer, R.; Cosemans, M.; Eichholtz, P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of option trading on individual investor performance. The results show that most investors incur substantial losses on their option investments, which are much larger than the losses from equity trading. We attribute the detrimental impact of option trading on investor

  15. Equity Portfolio Management Using Option Price Information

    Christoffersen, Peter; Pan, Xuhui (Nick)

    We survey the recent academic literature that uses option-implied information to construct equity portfolios. Studies show that equity managers can earn a positive alpha by using information in individual equity options, by using stocks' exposure to information in market index options, and by usi...

  16. Option Strike Price and Managerial Investment Decisions

    刘鸿雁; 张维

    2003-01-01

    The manager′s investment decisions is modeled when the manager is risk-averse and has stock options as compensation. It is found that the strike price of options is crucial to the investment incentives of managers, and that the correct value, or interval of values, of managerial stock option strike price can bring stockholder and manager interests in agreement.

  17. Fourier and wavelet option pricing methods

    S.C. Maree (Stef); L. Ortiz Gracia (Luis); C.W. Oosterlee (Cornelis); M.A.H. Dempster; J. Kanniainen (Juho); J. Keane (John); E. Vynckier (Erik)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractIn this overview chapter, we will discuss the use of exponentially converging option pricing techniques for option valuation. We will focus on the pricing of European options, and they are the basic instruments within a calibration procedure when fitting the parameters in asset dynamics.

  18. Option Fixation: A Cognitive Contributor to Overconfidence

    Sieck, Winston R.; Merkle, Edgar C.; Van Zandt, Trisha

    2007-01-01

    The ASC model of choice and confidence in general knowledge proposes that respondents first Assess the familiarity of presented options, and then use the high-familiarity option as a retrieval cue to Search memory for the purposes of Constructing an explanation about why that high-familiarity option is true. The ASC process implies that…

  19. Major Sport Venues

    Department of Homeland Security — The Major Public Venues dataset is composed of facilities that host events for the National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing, Indy Racing League, Major League...

  20. Major Depression Among Adults

    ... Depressive Episode Among Adolescents Data Sources Share Major Depression Definitions Major depression is one of the most ... Bethesda, MD 20892-9663 Follow Us Facebook Twitter YouTube Google Plus NIMH Newsletter NIMH RSS Feed NIMH ...

  1. Treatment options for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Sandhu, Dalbir S; Tharayil, Vivek S; Lai, Jin-Ping; Roberts, Lewis R

    2008-02-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is frequently diagnosed at advanced stages and has a high mortality rate. With improved survival of patients with cirrhotic liver disease and increased prevalence of chronic hepatitis C viral infections, a rise in the number of HCC cases is being reported worldwide. Early diagnosis and treatment can significantly improve the prognosis of patients with HCC. Although surgical resection is an important potentially curative therapy for liver tumors, in appropriately selected patients, liver transplantation has been shown to achieve excellent survival rates for a solid tumor. Locally ablative and locoregional therapies in the form of percutaneous ethanol injection, radiofrequency ablation, transcatheter arterial chemoembolization and transcatheter arterial radioembolization (TheraSphere) are viable options in patients with unresectable HCC. Unfortunately, the role of systemic therapy has been very limited in the treatment of these patients. Novel treatment options based on an improved understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of HCC are being explored. These targeted molecular therapies are aimed at growth factors and their receptors, intracellular signal transduction and cell cycle control. A substantial improvement in outcomes of intermediate and advanced stage HCC is expected with the advent of these targeted therapies, used in combination with surgical or locoregional therapies. Recent positive results from a large Phase III study of the receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, sorafenib, hold great promise in the treatment of HCC.

  2. MAJOR REPOSITORY DESIGN ISSUES

    JACK N. BAILEY, DWAYNE CHESTNUT, JAMES COMPTON AND RICHARD D. SNELL

    1997-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain Project is focused on producing a four-part viability assessment in late FY98. Its four components (design, performance assessment, cost estimate, and licensing development plan) must be consistent. As a tool to compare design and performance assessment options, a series of repository pictures were developed for the sequential time phases of a repository. The boundaries of the time phases correspond to evolution in the engineered barrier system (EBS)

  3. Technical Training for Managers.

    Haverland, Edgar M.

    The question has arisen as to what kind of information a manager without extensive technical training needs to learn to supervise effectively. For example, the Nike Hercules fire control platoon leader, usually an officer in his first active duty assignment, seldom has had extensive technical training. Yet he is responsibile for the…

  4. Technical Manual. The ACT®

    ACT, Inc., 2014

    2014-01-01

    This manual contains technical information about the ACT® college readiness assessment. The principal purpose of this manual is to document the technical characteristics of the ACT in light of its intended purposes. ACT regularly conducts research as part of the ongoing formative evaluation of its programs. The research is intended to ensure that…

  5. Developing Technical Skill Assessments

    Hyslop, Alisha

    2009-01-01

    One of the biggest challenges facing the career and technical education (CTE) community as it works to implement the 2006 Perkins Act is responding to more rigorous requirements for reporting on CTE students' technical skill attainment. The U.S. Department of Education suggested in non-regulatory guidance that states and locals use the number of…

  6. Transformation of technical infrastructure

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev

    1998-01-01

    article about the need of new planning forums in order to initiate transformations with in management of large technical systems for energy, waste and water supply.......article about the need of new planning forums in order to initiate transformations with in management of large technical systems for energy, waste and water supply....

  7. TRANSLATING SERVICE TECHNICAL PROSE

    language. The Application of Technical Service. Prose. To form a good idea of the appl ication .... cost lives. In this particular domain, translators must have a sound technical ... These semantic ... another language and often, in doing so, changing its meaning. The words ..... He will hand out tasks to each translator and after.

  8. Technical Writing Tips

    Kennedy, Patrick M.

    2004-01-01

    The main reason engineers, technicians, and programmers write poor technical documents is because they have had little training or experience in that area. This article addresses some of the basics that students can use to master technical writing tasks. The article covers the most common problems writers make and offers suggestions for improving…

  9. Research in Technical Colleges

    MacLennan, A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to list and demonstrate areas in which research needs to be carried out, or questions answered, in order to raise the quality of technical education. Design/methodology/approach: The area of technical education expanded very rapidly in the late 1950s, and there was little comprehensive knowledge regarding the…

  10. Final Technical Report

    Glasser, Alan H. [Fusion Theory and Computation Inc., Kingston, WA (United States)

    2018-02-02

    Final technical report on DE-SC0016106. This is the final technical report for a portion of the multi-institutional CEMM project. This report is centered around 3 publications and a seminar presentation, which have been submitted to E-Link.

  11. Management options for food production systems affected by a nuclear accident. Task 2 options for minimising the production of contaminated milk

    Smith, J G; Mercer, J A; Nisbet, A F; Wilkins, B T

    2002-01-01

    This report describes an evaluation of three possible means by which the production of waste milk could be reduced following a nuclear accident. The three options studied are the reduction of contaminated pasture in the diet, the drying off of lactating dairy cattle and the slaughter of dairy cattle. The practicability of each of these is considered using criteria such as technical feasibility, capacity, cost, impact and acceptability, where appropriate. In theory reductions in waste milk arisings can be achieved with each option, however, there are a number of limitations associated with their practical application.

  12. Management options for food production systems affected by a nuclear accident. Task 2: options for minimising the production of contaminated milk

    Smith, J.G.; Nisbet, A.F.; Mercer, J.A.; Brown, J.; Wilkins, B.T.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes an evaluation of three possible means by which the production of waste milk could be reduced following a nuclear accident. The three options studied are the reduction of contaminated pasture in the diet, the drying off of lactating dairy cattle and the slaughter of dairy cattle. The practicability of each of these is considered using criteria such as technical feasibility, capacity, cost, impact and acceptability, where appropriate. In theory reductions in waste milk arisings can be achieved with each option, however, there are a number of limitations associated with their practical application. (author)

  13. Technical Agency in Practice

    Krummheuer, Antonia Lina

    2015-01-01

    ) description of hybrid networks in which human and non-human actants are granted agency without differentiating different kinds of agency, EMCA focuses on the member's perspectives and the situated construction of technical agency that is made relevant within an ongoing interaction. Based on an EMCA analysis......The paper combines the discussion of technical agency and hybrid networks of Actor-Network Theory (ANT) with an ethnomethodological/conversation analytical (EMCA) perspective on situated practices in which participants ascribe agency to technical artefacts. While ANT works with (ethnographic...... of three video recordings of situations in which technical agency is made relevant by the human participants, the paper demonstrates different ways in which agency is granted to technical artefacts. Human participants can treat a technology as communication partner, as an active part (and actant...

  14. Organisation of nuclear medicine services. Health physics. Technical and administrative arrangement

    Chanteur, J.; Pellerin, P.

    1975-01-01

    Apart from safety and quality requirements the organisation of nuclear medicine services, or more generally of installations where non-sealed radioactive sources are used, is governed by profitability and efficiency criteria. In view of the high price of products and apparatus the equipment must be based on a rationalisation of options guiding the organisation arrangements as a whole. The following items are dealt with in succession: various categories of installations; general planning of equipment; equipment regulations based on a major requirement, the confinement of contamination sources; working rules examined with respect to the systematics adopted by the International Health Physics Commission and referred in turn to the protection of the patient and that of the surroundings practical observations concerning administrative and technical questions [fr

  15. Monte Carlo Simulation of an American Option

    Gikiri Thuo

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available We implement gradient estimation techniques for sensitivity analysis of option pricing which can be efficiently employed in Monte Carlo simulation. Using these techniques we can simultaneously obtain an estimate of the option value together with the estimates of sensitivities of the option value to various parameters of the model. After deriving the gradient estimates we incorporate them in an iterative stochastic approximation algorithm for pricing an option with early exercise features. We illustrate the procedure using an example of an American call option with a single dividend that is analytically tractable. In particular we incorporate estimates for the gradient with respect to the early exercise threshold level.

  16. Study of Agricultural Product Options Pricing

    HONG, Qiu

    2017-09-01

    China is a large agricultural country, and the healthy development of agriculture is related to the stability of the whole society. The agricultural production and management of agricultural products are confronted with many risks, especially the market risks. Option contract is the object of option market transaction, so it is very important to study the option contract of agricultural products. Option trading separates the risk and profit, so that the trader can avoid the risk while retaining the opportunity to obtain income. The option has the characteristics of low transaction cost, simple and efficient, so it is suitable for small and medium investors.

  17. Valuing real options: frequently made errors

    Fernández, Pablo

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we analyze frequently made errors when valuing real options. The best way of doing it is through examples. We start by analyzing Damodaran's proposal to value the option to expand the business of Home Depot. Some of the errors and problems of this and other approaches are: - Assuming that the option is replicable and using Black and Scholes' formula. - The estimation of the option's volatility is arbitrary and has a decisive effect on the option's value. - As there is no riskles...

  18. Option-implied measures of equity risk

    Chang, Bo-Young; Christoffersen, Peter; Vainberg, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    Equity risk measured by beta is of great interest to both academics and practitioners. Existing estimates of beta use historical returns. Many studies have found option-implied volatility to be a strong predictor of future realized volatility. We find that option-implied volatility and skewness...... are also good predictors of future realized beta. Motivated by this finding, we establish a set of assumptions needed to construct a beta estimate from option-implied return moments using equity and index options. This beta can be computed using only option data on a single day. It is therefore potentially...

  19. Pricing and Applications of Digital Installment Options

    Pierangelo Ciurlia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For its theoretical interest and strong impact on financial markets, option valuation is considered one of the cornerstones of contemporary mathematical finance. This paper specifically studies the valuation of exotic options with digital payoff and flexible payment plan. By means of the Incomplete Fourier Transform, the pricing problem is solved in order to find integral representations of the upfront price for European call and put options. Several applications in the areas of corporate finance, insurance, and real options are discussed. Finally, a new type of digital derivative named supercash option is introduced and some payment schemes are also presented.

  20. Observing Optional Number in DDC Edition 23

    Rotmianto Mohamad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Dewey Decimal Classification is a most popular classification system in the world because of its completeness and most up-to-date. There are many optional number in this classification system, although it rarely to be discussed even it is important to known well about that optional number, especially for a librarian as classifier. This paper is a literature study about Dewey Decimal Classification Edition 23, to describe about optional numbers, particularly the number in relationship with Indonesia’s subject and discipline. This paper is to avoid misunderstanding in interpreted about optional number among librarians, especially for who that does not understand well about optional numbers.

  1. Typology of Options for Metal Recycling: Australia’s Perspective

    Artem Golev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available While Australia has traditionally relied on obtaining metals from primary sources (namely mined natural resources, there is significant potential to recover metals from end-of-life-products and industrial waste. Although any metals recycling value chain requires a feasible technology at its core, many other non-technical factors are key links in the chain, which can compromise the overall viability to recycle a commodity and/or product. The “Wealth from Waste” Cluster project funded by the Commonwealth Scientific Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO Flagship Collaboration Fund and partner universities is focusing on identifying viable options to “mine” metals contained in discarded urban infrastructure, manufactured products and consumer goods. A key aspect of this research is to understand the critical non-technical barriers and system opportunities to enhance rates of metals recycling in Australia. Work to date has estimated the mass and current worth of metals in above ground resources. Using these outcomes as a basis, a typology for different options for (metal reuse and recycling has been developed to classify the common features, which is presented in this article. In addition, the authors investigate the barriers and enablers in the recycling value chain, and propose a set of requirements for a feasible pathway to close the material loop for metals in Australia.

  2. Parliamentarian sovereignty and technical development

    Dreier, H.; Hofmann, J.

    1986-01-01

    The title indicates the points of main emphasis of the contributions, and points to the programme embodied in the volume. The question is - given the tremendous and ever increasing amount of secondary problems associated with a heated technology development - whether the 'sovereign' state is at all capable of controlling, piloting and fostering technic-scientific processes. The first part ('sovereignty and parliamentarian legislator state') concentrates on the history of notions and ideas in the concept of the sovereign, modern state, and on the constitutional law in force (Dreier, Frohn); the current efficiency of parliament as an organ of control in the process of legislation is investigated (Schulze-Fielitz). The central concern of part 2 ('environmental law and technical development') are topical questions of environmental law (Hofmann, Luebbe-Wolff). Besides the analysis of dogmatic problems of a special administrative law, the major issue is whether and in how far - given modern large-scale technologies - law can adequately govern technique (Schmidt). By analyzing the relationship between technical development and possibilities for guidance by a parliamentarian constitutional state, the articles deal with a central point of intersection between state and administrative law. (orig./HP) [de

  3. Contract Design: Financial Options and Risk.

    Mühlbacher, Axel C; Amelung, Volker E; Juhnke, Christin

    2018-01-12

    Integrated care systems as well as accountable care organisations (ACOs) in the US and similar concepts in other countries are advocated as an effective method of improving the performance of healthcare systems. These systems outline a payment and care delivery model that intends to tie provider reimbursements to predefined quality metrics. By this the total costs of care shall be reduced. When designing healthcare options contractors are faced with a variety of financial options. The costs of market utilisation are highly relevant for the conception of healthcare contracts; furthermore contract-specific investments are an obstacle to the efficient operation of ACOs. A comprehensive literature review on methods of designing contracts in Integrated Care was conducted. This article is the second in a row of three that are all published in this issue and contribute to a specific issue in designing healthcare contracts. The first dealt with the organisation of contracts and information asymmetries, while part 3 concludes with the question of risk management and evaluation. The specific research question of this second article focusses on the financial options and reimbursement schemes that are available to define healthcare contracts. A healthcare contract is a relational contract, which determines the level of reimbursement, the scope of services and the quality between service providers and payers, taking account of the risks relating to population and performance. A relational contract is an agreement based upon assumption of a longer timeframe. A major obstacle to the practical implementation of healthcare contracts is the prognosis of the inflows and outflows due to the actuarial risks of the insured population. Financing conditions and reimbursement arrangements that are based on a prospectively determined fixed price, have a significant drawback: it is very difficult to take the differences in health status and the utilisation of distinct insured clientele

  4. Evaluation of Landfill Cover Design Options for Waste Disposal Sites in the Coastal Regions of Ghana

    Kodwo Beedu Keelson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled leachate generation from operational and closed waste disposal sites is a major environmental concern in the coastal regions of Ghana which have abundant surface water and groundwater resources. The Ghana Landfill Guidelines requires the provision of a final cover or capping system as part of a final closure plan for waste disposal sites in the country as a means of minimizing the harmful environmental effects of these emissions. However, this technical manual does not provide explicit guidance on the material types or configuration for landfill covers that would be suitable for the different climatic conditions in the country. Four landfill cover options which are based on the USEPA RCRA-type and evapotranspirative landfill cover design specifications were evaluated with the aid of the HELP computer program to determine their suitability for waste disposal sites located in the Western, Central and Greater Accra regions. The RCRA Subtitle C cover which yielded flux rates of less than 0.001 mm/yr was found to be suitable for the specific climatic conditions. The RCRA Subtitle D cover was determined to be unsuitable due to the production of very large flux rates in excess of 200 mm/yr. The results for the anisotropic barrier and capillary barrier covers were inconclusive. Recommendations for further study include a longer simulation period as well the study of the combined effects of different topsoil vegetative conditions and evaporative zone depths on the landfill water balance. The use of other water balance models such as EPIC, HYDRUS-2D and UNSAT-H for the evaluation of the evapotranspirative landfill cover design options should also be considered.

  5. Opção técnica na tetralogia de Fallot com artéria coronária anômala: relato de casos Technical option on tetralogy of Fallot with abnormal coronary artery: cases report

    Claudio Roberto Assumpção

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Relatamos dois casos um menino de 11 anos e uma menina de um ano e seis meses, portadores de tetralogia de Fallot com artéria coronária de origem anômala, cruzando a via de saída de ventrículo direito. O diagnóstico foi feito com ecocardiografia e cateterismo cardíaco. Utilizamos, na correção, um enxerto externo composto de pericárdio bovino e parede posterior da artéria pulmonar, entre o ventrículo direito e o tronco da artéria pulmonar. As crianças tiveram boa evolução pós-operatória, obtendo alta hospitalarassintomáticas. É mais uma opção técnica na correção da tetralogia de Fallot com artéria coronária anômala.Report on two children, one 11 year-male and another one year-six-month-female with tetralogy of Fallot associated with anomalous origin of coronary artery crossing the right ventricle outlet tract. Diagnosis was done by echocardiography and cardiac catheterization. On surgical correction we used an external composite tubular pericardium bovine graft and posterior wall of the pulmonary artery between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery trunk. Patients had an uneventful post-operative period and were discharged asymptomatic. It is more an option on correction of tetralogy of Fallot with anomalous coronary artery.

  6. Wind energy options in the Netherlands

    Arkesteijn, L.A.G.; Havinga, R.J.

    1992-07-01

    Next to a study of the title subject attention is paid to the quantification of the wind energy potential and the conditions under which such potentials can be realized. The options are influenced by technical-economical, planning and socio-political factors, which are summarized in appendix 1 and discussed in chapter three. Results of interviews with experts in the field of wind energy can be found in appendix 2. Based on the impacts on the wind energy potential four wind energy development scenarios are compared in chapter four. The reference scenario is based on the present wind energy policy in the Netherlands. The other three scenarios are the Price-scenario (higher societal appreciation of electricity generated by wind power), the Site-scenario (matters of site selection and planning), and a Combined-scenario (combination of the Price- and the Site-scenario). For each scenario potential estimations were made for the years 2000, 2010, 2015, and restricted estimations for the year 2025. It is concluded that within 25 years 2,500 MW wind power can be realized on land and 6,000 MW on water. The main problems for the location on land and inland waterways are the planning restrictions, and for sea locations the limiting factor is the high cost price. Recommendations to the Dutch government to realize the potentials concern the facts that social advantages of wind energy should be part of the price of the energy, more sites should be made available for the application of wind energy, more research has to be carried out on the possibility of locating wind power generating systems at sea, and the social basis for wind energy should be maintained and even increased. 18 figs., 5 app., 47 refs

  7. Patient inertia and the status quo bias: when an inferior option is preferred.

    Suri, Gaurav; Sheppes, Gal; Schwartz, Carey; Gross, James J

    2013-09-01

    Medical noncompliance is a major public-health problem. One potential source of this noncompliance is patient inertia. It has been hypothesized that one cause of patient inertia might be the status quo bias-which is the tendency to select the default choice among a set of options. To test this hypothesis, we created a laboratory analogue of the decision context that frequently occurs in situations involving patient inertia, and we examined whether participants would stay with a default option even when it was clearly inferior to other available options. Specifically, in Studies 1 and 2, participants were given the option to reduce their anxiety while waiting for an electric shock. When doing nothing was the status quo option, participants frequently did not select the option that would reduce their anxiety. In Study 3, we demonstrated a simple way to overcome status quo bias in a context relevant to patient inertia.

  8. ATR Spent Fuel Options Study

    Connolly, Michael James; Bean, Thomas E.; Brower, Jeffrey O.; Luke, Dale E.; Patterson, M. W.; Robb, Alan K.; Sindelar, Robert; Smith, Rebecca E.; Tonc, Vincent F.; Tripp, Julia L.; Winston, Philip L.

    2017-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is a materials and fuels test nuclear reactor that performs irradiation services for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE), Naval Reactors, the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), and other research programs. ATR achieved initial criticality in 1967 and is expected to operate in support of needed missions until the year 2050 or beyond. It is anticipated that ATR will generate approximately 105 spent nuclear fuel (SNF) elements per year through the year 2050. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) currently stores 2,008 ATR SNF elements in dry storage, 976 in wet storage, and expects to have 1,000 elements in wet storage before January 2017. A capability gap exists at INL for long-term (greater than the year 2050) management, in compliance with the Idaho Settlement Agreement (ISA), of ATR SNF until a monitored retrievable geological repository is open. INL has significant wet and dry storage capabilities that are owned by the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM) and operated and managed by Fluor Idaho, which include the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center's (INTEC's) CPP-666, CPP-749, and CPP-603. In addition, INL has other capabilities owned by DOE-NE and operated and managed by Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC (BEA), which are located at the Materials and Fuel Complex (MFC). Additional storage capabilities are located on the INL Site at the Naval Reactors Facility (NRF). Current INL SNF management planning, as defined in the Fluor Idaho contract, shows INTEC dry fuel storage, which is currently used for ATR SNF, will be nearly full after transfer of an additional 1,000 ATR SNF from wet storage. DOE-NE tasked BEA with identifying and analyzing options that have the potential to fulfill this capability gap. BEA assembled a team comprised of SNF management experts from Fluor Idaho, Savannah River Site (SRS), INL/BEA, and the MITRE Corp with an objective of developing and analyzing

  9. ATR Spent Fuel Options Study

    Connolly, Michael James [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bean, Thomas E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Brower, Jeffrey O. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Luke, Dale E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Patterson, M. W. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Robb, Alan K. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sindelar, Robert [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smith, Rebecca E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Tonc, Vincent F. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Tripp, Julia L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Winston, Philip L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is a materials and fuels test nuclear reactor that performs irradiation services for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE), Naval Reactors, the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), and other research programs. ATR achieved initial criticality in 1967 and is expected to operate in support of needed missions until the year 2050 or beyond. It is anticipated that ATR will generate approximately 105 spent nuclear fuel (SNF) elements per year through the year 2050. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) currently stores 2,008 ATR SNF elements in dry storage, 976 in wet storage, and expects to have 1,000 elements in wet storage before January 2017. A capability gap exists at INL for long-term (greater than the year 2050) management, in compliance with the Idaho Settlement Agreement (ISA), of ATR SNF until a monitored retrievable geological repository is open. INL has significant wet and dry storage capabilities that are owned by the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM) and operated and managed by Fluor Idaho, which include the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center’s (INTEC’s) CPP-666, CPP-749, and CPP-603. In addition, INL has other capabilities owned by DOE-NE and operated and managed by Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC (BEA), which are located at the Materials and Fuel Complex (MFC). Additional storage capabilities are located on the INL Site at the Naval Reactors Facility (NRF). Current INL SNF management planning, as defined in the Fluor Idaho contract, shows INTEC dry fuel storage, which is currently used for ATR SNF, will be nearly full after transfer of an additional 1,000 ATR SNF from wet storage. DOE-NE tasked BEA with identifying and analyzing options that have the potential to fulfill this capability gap. BEA assembled a team comprised of SNF management experts from Fluor Idaho, Savannah River Site (SRS), INL/BEA, and the MITRE Corp with an objective of developing and analyzing

  10. Affordances and Alignments: Continuing Challenges in Advising Undergraduate Psychology Majors

    Landrum, R. Eric

    2018-01-01

    Challenges abound in providing accurate and useful information to prospective and declared psychology majors about their career options and how to make decisions that will lead to satisfying and rewarding postgraduate lives. One component of this challenge is that by majoring in psychology, career affordances (i.e., the opportunities and…

  11. Heterogeneous Beliefs, Public Information, and Option Markets

    Qin, Zhenjiang

    In an incomplete market setting with heterogeneous prior beliefs, I show that public information and strike price of option have substantial infl‡uence on asset pricing in option markets, by investigating an absolute option pricing model with negative exponential utility investors and normally...... distributed dividend. I demonstrate that heterogeneous prior variances give rise to the economic value of option markets. Investors speculate in option market and public information improves allocational efficiency of markets only when there is heterogeneity in prior variance. Heterogeneity in mean is neither...... a necessary nor sufficient condition for generating speculations in option markets. With heterogeneous beliefs, options are non-redundant assets which can facilitate side-betting and enable investors to take advantage of the disagreements and the differences in con…dence. This fact leads to a higher growth...

  12. Forecasting with Option-Implied Information

    Christoffersen, Peter; Jacobs, Kris; Chang, Bo Young

    2013-01-01

    This chapter surveys the methods available for extracting information from option prices that can be used in forecasting. We consider option-implied volatilities, skewness, kurtosis, and densities. More generally, we discuss how any forecasting object that is a twice differentiable function...... of the future realization of the underlying risky asset price can utilize option-implied information in a well-defined manner. Going beyond the univariate option-implied density, we also consider results on option-implied covariance, correlation and beta forecasting, as well as the use of option......-implied information in cross-sectional forecasting of equity returns. We discuss how option-implied information can be adjusted for risk premia to remove biases in forecasting regressions....

  13. 30 CFR 90.3 - Part 90 option; notice of eligibility; exercise of option.

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Part 90 option; notice of eligibility; exercise of option. 90.3 Section 90.3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... DEVELOPMENT OF PNEUMOCONIOSIS General § 90.3 Part 90 option; notice of eligibility; exercise of option. (a...

  14. Regulatory and technical reports compilation for 1980

    Oliu, W.E.; McKenzi, L.

    1981-04-01

    This compilation lists formal regulatory and technical reports and conference proceedings issued in 1980 by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The compilation is divided into four major sections. The first major section consists of a sequential listing of all NRC reports in report-number order. The second major section of this compilation consists of a key-word index to report titles. The third major section contains an alphabetically arranged listing of contractor report numbers cross-referenced to their corresponding NRC report numbers. Finally, the fourth section is an errata supplement

  15. Technical and ethical challenges of fertility preservation in young cancer patients.

    Deepinder, Fnu; Agarwal, Ashok

    2008-06-01

    As cancer treatment improves, more young men and women survive, but they suffer from infertility as a major sequel of cancer treatment. Gamete and embryo cryopreservation are the only options available to these patients for preserving their fertility. Although cryopreservation of spermatozoa and embryos are already established, oocyte banking is still experimental. The advent of testicular tissue cryopreservation and spermatogonial stem cell transplantation in men, and ovarian tissue cryopreservation and in-vitro follicular maturation in women, has started a frenzy of experiments worldwide trying to demonstrate their potential use in fertility preservation. Although major improvements have been made in tissue cryobanking in the past decade, there are still many unresolved technical issues related to these procedures. Furthermore, the intersection of cancer and fertility preservation in young patients raises ethical, legal and policy issues for oncologists and cancer survivors. Informed consent of minor patients, legal parentage and medical negligence claims are some of the potential legal challenges faced by society and healthcare providers. This review summarizes the technical and ethical challenges of gamete cryopreservation in young cancer patients.

  16. Dopamine Modulates Option Generation for Behavior.

    Ang, Yuen-Siang; Manohar, Sanjay; Plant, Olivia; Kienast, Annika; Le Heron, Campbell; Muhammed, Kinan; Hu, Michele; Husain, Masud

    2018-05-21

    Animals make innumerable decisions every day, each of which involves evaluating potential options for action. But how are options generated? Although much is now known about decision making when a fixed set of potential options is provided, surprisingly little progress has been made on self-generated options. Some researchers have proposed that such abilities might be modulated by dopamine. Here, we used a new measure of option generation that is quantitative, objective, and culture fair to investigate how humans generate different behavioral options. Participants were asked to draw as many different paths (options) as they could between two points within a fixed time. Healthy individuals (n = 96) exhibited a trade-off between uniqueness (how individually different their options were) and fluency (number of options), generating either many similar or few unique options. To assess influence of dopamine, we first examined patients with Parkinson's disease (n = 35) ON and OFF their dopaminergic medication and compared them to elderly healthy controls (n = 34). Then we conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study of the D2 agonist cabergoline in healthy older people (n = 29). Across both studies, dopamine increased fluency but diminished overall uniqueness of options generated, due to the effect of fluency trading off with uniqueness. Crucially, however, when this trade-off was corrected for, dopamine was found to increase uniqueness for any given fluency. Three carefully designed control studies showed that performance on our option-generation task was not related to executing movements, planning actions, or selecting between generated options. These findings show that dopamine plays an important role in modulating option generation. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Are biofuels a feasible option?

    Goldemberg, Jose; Guardabassi, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Recently a number of objections have been raised against the use of ethanol produced from agricultural products such as maize, sugarcane, wheat or sugar beets as a replacement for gasoline, despite some of their advantages such as being cleaner and to some extent renewable. We address these objections in this paper. Topics discussed include the 'corn connection' (which was theorized to be a cause of deforestation in the Amazonia), the rise of food prices due to ethanol production and the real possibilities of ethanol in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. It has been shown that such concerns are grossly exaggerated and that ethanol from sugarcane, as produced in Brazil, is the preferred option for the production of fuel not only in terms of cost but also as a favourable energy balance. Finally, the possibility of expanding ethanol production to other sugar-producing countries is also discussed

  18. Fusion as an energy option

    Steiner, D.

    1976-01-01

    The environmental issues, alternative fusion fuels, the economic potential, and the time scale of fusion power are assessed. It is common for the advocate of a long-term energy source to claim his source (fission, fusion, solar, etc.) as the ultimate solution to man's energy needs. The author does not believe that such a stance will lead to a rational energy policy. Dr. Steiner encourages a long-term energy policy that has as its goal the development of fission breeders, fusion, and solar energy--not be totally reliant on a single source. He does advocate vigorous funding for fusion, not because it is a guarantee for ''clean, limitless, and cheap power,'' but because it may provide an important energy option for the next century

  19. Therapeutic options for lip augmentation.

    Segall, Lorne; Ellis, David A F

    2007-11-01

    Aesthetic ideals vary with emerging fashion trends and within different cultures. However, over the past few decades, fuller lips have been considered a desirable trait. Many younger patients are presenting for lip augmentation to achieve the sought-after look commonly seen in many fashion magazines. In addition, as individuals age, they lose lip volume, with a thinning of the red lip, some effacement of the vermillion border, and elongation and flattening of the white portion of the lip. Rejuvenation of the lips plays a key role in restoring a more youthful appearance. As a result, lip augmentation appeals to a wide spectrum of patients who present with various different aesthetic goals and expectations. Numerous therapeutic options exist for aesthetic lip augmentation, ranging from temporary and permanent injectable fillers to implants and other surgical techniques.

  20. Radiation caries: a therapeutical option

    Biazolla, E.R.; Miziara, T.C.

    1988-01-01

    It is showed a clinical report about radiation caries. As the tooth destruction was, mainly, of the majority of the teeth, was made a therapy where, besides avoiding the osteoradiomielite, also is possible to reability the patient. (author)