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Sample records for major technical barrier

  1. Simulating barrier penetration during combat. Technical report

    De Laquil, P. III.

    1980-04-01

    A computer program, BARS, simulates combat between an adversary group attempting to hijack special nuclear material and escort personnel attempting to protect it. BARS is designed to investigate how various combat strategies and levels of performance affect the time required to penetrate barriers (armor, deterrent systems, etc.) against forcible entry. A Monte Carlo code, BARS uses a game theoretic approach to allocate the attacking and defending forces. Combat suppression is simulated using a stochastic state-transition model for the behavior of individuals under combat stress. The BARS program was developed as part of the overall combat modelling effort of the transportation safeguards program

  2. Identifying the Barriers upon Development of Virtual Education in Engineering Majors (Case Study: The University of Isfahan)

    Nikoonezhad, Sepideh; Nili, Mohammadreza; Esfahani, Ahmadreza Nasr

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims at investigating barriers upon development of virtual education in engineering majors at the University of Isfahan. The study has applied a mixed method (qualitative and quantitative) and its population consists all of the department members of the technical and engineering majors at the University of Isfahan including 125…

  3. Assessment of major technical hazards in the insurance business

    Huppmann, H.

    1981-01-01

    Major technical hazards are covered by means of demand premium rates and subjective corrections according to the degree of innovation and different environmental impacts. The insurer compensates remaining risks by compensatory payments or he moderates them at least in their effects. (DG) [de

  4. A study on the regulatory approach of major technical issues

    Chang, Keun Sun; Choi, J. T.; Kim, I. J. [Sunmoon Univ., Asan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, S. H.; Baek, W. P.; Yang, S. H. [Korea Association for Nuclear Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-06-15

    This project is to provide the regulatory direction of 4 major technical issues for the Korean Next Generation Reactors, which are parts of major technical issues resulted from the safety regulation R and D on the KNGR. The outstanding results are as follows : reliability of risk significant SSCs established during design stage must be maintained through the operating life of the plant, currently used classification method of plant conditions and safety requirement were reviewed, and a quantitative classification method is needed to be developed further, the basic regulatory directions are proposed for multiple failures such as SBO, TLOFW, multiple SGTR and ATWS, safety requirements are proposed for survivability/availability of severe accident mitigation design features by 5 items if basic requirements, selection of initial event, identification of available equipment and instruments, identification of environmental conditions and verification methods.

  5. Technical barriers, import licenses and tariffs as means of limiting market access

    Jørgensen, Jan G.; Schröder, Philipp

    2003-01-01

    Technical barriers (standards), import licenses and tariffs may be deployed as means of limiting the market entry of foreign firms. The present paper examines these measures in a setting of monopolistic competition. It is established that -- contrary to what one would expect -- a technical barrier...

  6. A study on the regulatory approach of major technical issues

    Chang, Keun Sun; Oh, S. H.; Kang, H. J.; Kim, G. S. [Sunmoon Univ., Asan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, S. H.; Baek, W. P.; Yang, S. H.; Jeong, Y. H. [Korea Association for Nuclear Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-15

    This project is to provide the regulatory direction of 4 major technical issues for the Korean Next Generation Reactors, which are parts of major technical issues resulted from the safety regulation R and D on the KNGR. The outstanding results are are as follows : related to the classification and acceptance criteria of plant conditions, currently used classification and safety requirement were reviewed and regulatory direction was proposed. Among multiple failures, it is identified that SBO, TLOFW, multiple SGTR and ATWS are basically to be considered for additional requirements for advanced reactors. This study reviewed risk aspects, design consideration, and trends of safety requirements, and proposed fundamental safety requirements to be applied for KNGR. Multiple steam generator tube failure is a significant safety concern because of the possibility of release of radionuclides to the environment through containment bypass. Proposed safety requirement for this event can be categorized mainly as analysis requirement, design evaluation requirement and PSA requirement; For protection of containment failure, a reasonable safety position is necessary through and integrated review of possibility of severe accident occurrence, effects of sever accident mitigation features and cost effects of these design features. With this consideration safety requirements developed are the analysis requirement, provision of protective measures and survivability/availability of protective measures.

  7. Technical Barriers, Gaps,and Opportunities Related to Home Energy Upgrade Market Delivery

    Bianchi, Marcus V.A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2011-11-01

    This report outlines the technical barriers, gaps, and opportunities that arise in executing home energy upgrade market delivery approaches, as identified through research conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy's Building America program.

  8. Economic evaluation of technical, environmental and institutional barriers on biomass residue collection cost in California

    Sethi, P.; Tiangco, V.; Dee, V.; Simons, G.; Lee, Y.; Yomogida, D.

    1999-01-01

    This paper deals with the economic impacts of the technical, environmental, and institutional barriers in the production, harvesting, and processing of various biomass fuels in California. For each biomass fuel, a base case scenario was developed to characterize the procedures of harvesting, processing and transporting. An economic model was utilized to project the biomass production costs supplied to direct-combustion power plants for each technical, environmental, and institutional barrier. These results will enable the California Energy Commission to identify the most significant barriers to economical biomass energy production (production, harvesting, and processing). (author)

  9. Technical Barriers, Licenses and Tariffs as Means of Limiting Market Access

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Jørgensen, Jan Guldager

    2006-01-01

    Technical barriers (standards), import licenses and tariffs may be deployed as means of limiting the market access of foreign firms. The present paper examines these measures in a setting of monopolistic competition. We find that, if protection focuses predominantly on the number of foreign firms...... accessing the domestic market, a technical barrier (an import license) may dominate a tariff (tariff and a tech- nical barrier) in terms of consumer welfare, even when tariff revenues are fully redistributed. However, if protection pays su±cient focus on limiting the total import volume, then tariffs...

  10. Demand and Financial Constraints in Eliminating Architectural and Technical Barriers for People with Disabilities in Poland

    Maria Hełdak

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to analyse the availability of financial resources for people with disabilities and to assess the needs satisfaction level of the disabled in order to eliminate architectural and technical barriers in Poland. The research conducted among the disabled affected by physical disability indicates that mobility barriers and obstacles remain among the most important problems encountered by people with disabilities. The research has shown that the problem of barriers increases with age. The elimination of architectural barriers requires, each time, higher financial expenditure, whereas the elimination of technical barriers improves the life quality of people with disabilities at low financial outlays. The average funding in Poland amounted to PLN 827.53 in 2016, including the funding of EUR 1453.60 for the elimination of architectural barriers and approx. EUR 582 for the removal of technical barriers. The financial resources allocated for this purpose do not cover the actual needs of the people with disabilities. The analysis revealed that the demand for investment in the elimination of barriers is increasing with age, whereas the expenditure of the Polish state is decreasing.

  11. Mechanism analysis on nuclear technical relocation of the major countries

    1985-12-01

    This report is about cooperation method of nuclear energy among the USA, France and Canada. So it deals with building a cooperative system on nuclear technical relocation, researching a foreign policy on nuclear energy of the USA and cooperation method and cooperation trend of Japan, Canada, Russia, China and West Germany.

  12. Socio-technical inertia: Understanding the barriers to electric vehicles

    Steinhilber, Simone; Wells, Peter; Thankappan, Samarthia

    2013-01-01

    It is widely accepted that electrification of the transport sector is one of several technological trajectories that could redress some of the environmental issues associated with the growth in travel demand including climate change and oil demand at a global scale, and air quality and noise pollution at the urban scale. Electric vehicles have been considered a promising technology at repeated intervals over the last century, but this promise has not been realised. This paper is a contribution to understanding the key tools and strategies that might enable the successful introduction of new technologies and innovations by exploring the key barriers to electric vehicles encountered in two countries (UK and Germany) where the automobile industry has been historically significant. The study evaluates stakeholders' opinions on relevant regulation, infrastructure investment, R and D incentives, and consumer incentives. The key findings of the research are that the introduction and penetration of EVs is confronted by several barriers that inhibit a larger market penetration under current conditions, which in turn casts doubt on the assumptions of strategic niche management and transitions theory. - Highlights: • Immature developing technology reason behind non-commercialisation of EVs. • EVs currently do not present a significant benefit to the electricity sector. • EVs rely on a mix of regulatory and government measures for their development. • EVs face lock-in problem of unsustainable technologies and related barriers. • Positive milieu for innovation in vehicle technology and business models are required

  13. Cable Television: Technical Considerations in Franchising Major Market Systems.

    Pilnick, Carl

    The 1972 Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) regulations on cable television were intended to assist the penetration of cable television into the large metropolitan regions of the United States. In these major market areas, the task for developing an appropriate franchise is complicated by the changing functional nature of the cable systems…

  14. 78 FR 63271 - Request for Public Comments to Compile the Report on Technical Barriers to Trade

    2013-10-23

    ... 2014 a Report on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT Report) identifying and analyzing significant...: Questions regarding the TBT Report or substantive questions or comments concerning standards-related..., USTR (202-395-4498). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The TBT Report sets out an inventory of standards...

  15. Review on technical issues influencing the performance of chemical barriers of TRU waste repository

    Fujita, Tomonari; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Tsukamoto, Masaki; Yokoyama, Hayaichi

    1997-01-01

    Studies of technical issues influencing the performance assessment of TRU waste disposal which is occurred from the nuclear fuel reprocessing were reviewed in related to the development of safety analysis method. Especially, the chemical containment was investigated as a key barrier to radionuclide migration. TRU waste including long-lived radionuclides need long-term performance assessment which could be assumed only by the chemical barrier. The description of technical issues concerned with the performance of TRU waste repository has been divided into the following categories: long-term degradation of cementitious materials as engineered barrier for radionuclide migration, effect of colloids, organic macromolecules and organic degradation products on chemical behavior of radionuclides, gas generation by corrosion of metallic wastes, and effects of microbial activity. Preliminary performance assessment indicated that important factors affecting performance of chemical barriers in near-field were the distribution coefficient and the solubility of radionuclides in near-field groundwater. Therefore, it was identified that key issues associated with performance of chemical barrier were evaluation of (a) the long-term change of distribution coefficient of cementitious material through the degradation under repository condition and (b) chemical speciation change of radionuclides such as increase of solubility by the presence of colloidal-size materials. (author)

  16. Barriers and facilitators of adherence to antidepressants among outpatients with major depressive disorder: A qualitative study.

    Ho, Siew Ching; Jacob, Sabrina Anne; Tangiisuran, Balamurugan

    2017-01-01

    One of the major challenges in treating major depressive disorder (MDD) is patients' non-adherence to medication. This study aimed to explore the barriers and facilitators of patients' adherence to antidepressants among outpatients with MDD. Semi-structured and individual in-depth interviews were conducted among patients with MDD who were taking antidepressants, in the psychiatric clinic of a government-run hospital in Malaysia. Participants were purposively sampled from different genders and ethnicities. Interviews were conducted using a validated topic guide, and responses were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, checked, and analyzed using the grounded theory approach. A total of 30 patients were interviewed. Forty different themes and sub-themes were identified which were conceptually divided into two distinct categories related to barriers and facilitators to adherence. The barriers were: patient-specific, medication-specific, healthcare provision and system, social-cultural, and logistics. The facilitators were: having insight, perceived health benefits, regular activities, patient-provider relationship, reminders, and social support networks. Patient-specific barriers and medication side effects were the major challenges for adhering to treatment. Perceived health benefits and having insight on the need for treatment were the most frequently cited facilitators. Targeted interventions should be developed to address the key barriers, and promote measures to facilitate adherence in this group of patients.

  17. Benefits of and Barriers to Pharmacogenomics-Guided Treatment for Major Depressive Disorder.

    Ahmed, Ahmed T; Weinshilboum, Richard; Frye, Mark A

    2018-05-01

    Antidepressants have reduced the symptom burden for many Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) patients, but drug-related side effects and treatment resistance continue to present major challenges. Pharmacogenomics represents one approach to enhance antidepressant efficacy and avoid adverse reactions, but concerns remain with regard to the overall "value equation," and several barriers must be overcome to achieve the full potential of MDD pharmacogenomics. © 2018 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  18. Technical progress by major task. Semiannual technical progress report, September 29, 1997 - March 29, 1998

    1998-01-01

    The technical progress achieved during the period 29 September 1997 through 29 March 1998 on Contract DE-AC03-91SF18852 Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators and Ancillary Activities is described in this report. The report is organized by program task structure: spacecraft integration and liaison; engineering support; safety; qualified unicouple production; RTG fabrication, assembly, and test; ground support equipment; RTG shipping and launch support; designs, reviews, and mission applications; project management, quality assurance, reliability, contract changes, CAGO acquisition (operating funds), and CAGO maintenance and repair

  19. Technical Barriers, Gaps, and Opportunities Related to Home Energy Upgrade Market Delivery

    Bianchi, M. V. A.

    2011-11-01

    This report outlines the technical barriers, gaps, and opportunities that arise in executing home energy upgrade market delivery approaches, as identified through research conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy's Building America program. The objective of this report is to outline the technical1 barriers, gaps, and opportunities that arise in executing home energy upgrade market delivery approaches, as identified through research conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program. This information will be used to provide guidance for new research necessary to enable the success of the approaches. Investigation for this report was conducted via publications related to home energy upgrade market delivery approaches, and a series of interviews with subject matter experts (contractors, consultants, program managers, manufacturers, trade organization representatives, and real estate agents). These experts specified technical barriers and gaps, and offered suggestions for how the technical community might address them. The potential benefits of home energy upgrades are many and varied: reduced energy use and costs; improved comfort, durability, and safety; increased property value; and job creation. Nevertheless, home energy upgrades do not comprise a large part of the overall home improvement market. Residential energy efficiency is the most complex climate intervention option to deliver because the market failures are many and transaction costs are high (Climate Change Capital 2009). The key reasons that energy efficiency investment is not being delivered are: (1) The opportunity is highly fragmented; and (2) The energy efficiency assets are nonstatus, low-visibility investments that are not properly valued. There are significant barriers to mobilizing the investment in home energy upgrades, including the 'hassle factor' (the time and effort required to identify and secure improvement works), access to financing, and the

  20. Estimate of Technical Potential for Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in 13 Major World Economies

    Letschert, Virginie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Desroches, Louis-Benoit [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ke, Jing [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McNeil, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    As part of the ongoing effort to estimate the foreseeable impacts of aggressive minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) programs in the world’s major economies, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has developed a scenario to analyze the technical potential of MEPS in 13 major economies around the world1 . The “best available technology” (BAT) scenario seeks to determine the maximum potential savings that would result from diffusion of the most efficient available technologies in these major economies.

  1. The non-English major lecturers speak English: The barriers encountered by adult learners

    Ahmad Madkur

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at investigating the difficulties and problems faced by non-English major lecturers when they were taking a part in English discussion. This study was a qualitative descriptive research involving 10 non-English major lecturers who took a part in a twice-a-week discussion so-called English Corner. To collect the data, in-depth interview and observation were used. The collected data were analyzed by using Miles and Huberman’s interactive data analysis data model consisting of data reduction, data display and data verifying. The result of the study showed that those barriers could be classified into three problems namely socio-cultural, linguistic and interpersonal problems. The found barriers were expected to be a consideration to find out the solution to make the betterment of English learning among lecturers with the non-English background of study.

  2. New Insight in Loss of Gut Barrier during Major Non-Abdominal Surgery.

    Joep P M Derikx

    Full Text Available Gut barrier loss has been implicated as a critical event in the occurrence of postoperative complications. We aimed to study the development of gut barrier loss in patients undergoing major non-abdominal surgery.Twenty consecutive children undergoing spinal fusion surgery were included. This kind of surgery is characterized by long operation time, significant blood loss, prolonged systemic hypotension, without directly leading to compromise of the intestines by intestinal manipulation or use of extracorporeal circulation. Blood was collected preoperatively, every two hours during surgery and 2, 4, 15 and 24 hours postoperatively. Gut mucosal barrier was assessed by plasma markers for enterocyte damage (I-FABP, I-BABP and urinary presence of tight junction protein claudin-3. Intestinal mucosal perfusion was measured by gastric tonometry (P(rCO2, P(r-aCO2-gap. Plasma concentration of I-FABP, I-BABP and urinary expression of claudin-3 increased rapidly and significantly after the onset of surgery in most children. Postoperatively, all markers decreased promptly towards baseline values together with normalisation of MAP. Plasma levels of I-FABP, I-BABP were significantly negatively correlated with MAP at (1/2 hour before blood sampling (-0.726 (p<0.001, -0.483 (P<0.001, respectively. Furthermore, circulating I-FABP correlated with gastric mucosal P(rCO2, P(r-aCO2-gap measured at the same time points (0.553 (p = 0.040, 0.585 (p = 0.028, respectively.This study shows the development of gut barrier loss in children undergoing major non-abdominal surgery, which is related to preceding hypotension and mesenterial hypoperfusion. These data shed new light on the potential role of peroperative circulatory perturbation and intestinal barrier loss.

  3. New Insight in Loss of Gut Barrier during Major Non-Abdominal Surgery

    Derikx, Joep P. M.; van Waardenburg, Dick A.; Thuijls, Geertje; Willigers, Henriëtte M.; Koenraads, Marianne; van Bijnen, Annemarie A.; Heineman, Erik; Poeze, Martijn; Ambergen, Ton; van Ooij, André; van Rhijn, Lodewijk W.; Buurman, Wim A.

    2008-01-01

    Background Gut barrier loss has been implicated as a critical event in the occurrence of postoperative complications. We aimed to study the development of gut barrier loss in patients undergoing major non-abdominal surgery. Methodology/Principal Findings Twenty consecutive children undergoing spinal fusion surgery were included. This kind of surgery is characterized by long operation time, significant blood loss, prolonged systemic hypotension, without directly leading to compromise of the intestines by intestinal manipulation or use of extracorporeal circulation. Blood was collected preoperatively, every two hours during surgery and 2, 4, 15 and 24 hours postoperatively. Gut mucosal barrier was assessed by plasma markers for enterocyte damage (I-FABP, I-BABP) and urinary presence of tight junction protein claudin-3. Intestinal mucosal perfusion was measured by gastric tonometry (PrCO2, Pr-aCO2-gap). Plasma concentration of I-FABP, I-BABP and urinary expression of claudin-3 increased rapidly and significantly after the onset of surgery in most children. Postoperatively, all markers decreased promptly towards baseline values together with normalisation of MAP. Plasma levels of I-FABP, I-BABP were significantly negatively correlated with MAP at ½ hour before blood sampling (−0.726 (p<0.001), −0.483 (P<0.001), respectively). Furthermore, circulating I-FABP correlated with gastric mucosal PrCO2, Pr-aCO2-gap measured at the same time points (0.553 (p = 0.040), 0.585 (p = 0.028), respectively). Conclusions/Significance This study shows the development of gut barrier loss in children undergoing major non-abdominal surgery, which is related to preceding hypotension and mesenterial hypoperfusion. These data shed new light on the potential role of peroperative circulatory perturbation and intestinal barrier loss. PMID:19088854

  4. Identifying non-technical skills and barriers for improvement of teamwork in cardiac arrest teams

    Andersen, P.O.; Jensen, Michael Kammer; Lippert, A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The application of non-technical skills (NTSs) in health care has previously been described in other health-care educational programmes. NTSs are behavioural principles such as leadership, task distribution and communication. The aim of this study was to identify NTSs suitable...... for improving team performance in multi-professional cardiac arrest teams, and to describe barriers to the use and implementation of such NTSs by using a qualitative method. Methods: Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 Danish Advanced Life Support instructors during the period April...... 2006 to November 2006. Interviews were focussed on barriers and recommendations for teamwork in the cardiac arrest team, optimal policy for improvement of resuscitation training and clinical practice, use of cognitive aids and adoption of European Resuscitation Council (ERC) Guidelines 2005. Interviews...

  5. Biomass Gasification - A synthesis of technical barriers and current research issues for deployment at large scale

    Heyne, Stefan [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden); Liliedahl, Truls [KTH, Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Marklund, Magnus [Energy Technology Centre, Piteaa (Sweden)

    2013-09-01

    Thermal gasification at large scale for cogeneration of power and heat and/or production of fuels and materials is a main pathway for a sustainable deployment of biomass resources. However, so far no such full scale production exists and biomass gasification projects remain at the pilot or demonstration scale. This report focuses on the key critical technology challenges for the large-scale deployment of the following biomass-based gasification concepts: Direct Fluidized Bed Gasification (FBG), Entrained Flow Gasification (EFG) and indirect Dual Fluidized Bed Gasification (DFBG). The main content in this report is based on responses from a number of experts in biomass gasification obtained from a questionnaire. The survey was composed of a number of more or less specific questions on technical barriers as to the three gasification concepts considered. For formalising the questionnaire, the concept of Technology Readiness Level (TRL 1-9) was used for grading the level of technical maturity of the different sub-processes within the three generic biomass gasification technologies. For direct fluidized bed gasification (FBG) it is mentioned that the technology is already available at commercial scale as air-blown technology and thus that air-blown FBG gasification may be reckoned a mature technology. The remaining technical challenge is the conversion to operation on oxygen with the final goal of producing chemicals or transport fuels. Tar reduction, in particular, and gas cleaning and upgrading in general are by far the most frequently named technical issues considered problematic. Other important aspects are problems that may occur when operating on low-grade fuels - i.e. low-cost fuels. These problems include bed agglomeration/ash sintering as well as alkali fouling. Even the preparation and feeding of these low-grade fuels tend to be problematic and require further development to be used on a commercial scale. Furthermore, efficient char conversion is mentioned by

  6. Penerapan Technical Barrier to Trade melalui Pelabelan (Hang Tag Identitas Budaya pada Produk Batik

    Siti Zulaekah

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Artikel ini bertujuan menawarkan ide/gagasan baru tentang formulasi perlindungan melalui penerapan hambatan teknis perdagangan (technical barrier to trade/TBT berupa pelabelan identitas budaya (hang tag dalam mekanisme perdagangan internasional pada produk batik.Sebagaimana diketahui, perlindungan dalam bentuk hambatan non tariff (non tariff barrier khususnya TBT yang menyangkut pelabelan produk yangberlaku selama ini sepanjang pengetahuan peneliti baru sebatas alasan keamanan pangan, kesehatan, dan lingkungan. Negara-negara yang menerap- kan hambatan dalam pelabelan di luar kategori tersebut pun masih sangat terbatas.Untuk menjawab permasalahan tersebut, penelitian ini dirancang dengan menggunakan pendekatan Hukum Normatif dengan desain penelitian kualita- tif. Penelitian menggunakan teknik participatory observation dan focus group discussion sebagai metode pengumpulan data primer. Pengumpulan data sekunder dilakukan melalui telaah kepustakaan dan inventarisasi peraturan perundang-undangan untuk data yang berupa bahan hukum. Agar data (teru- tama data primer yang diperoleh teruji keabsahannya, penelitian ini meman- faatkan metode trianggulasi yang menyatu dan tidak terpisahkan dari kegia- tan pengumpulan data primer tersebut. Analisis data menggunakan model Miles dan Huberman yang pada prinsipnya meliputi 3 (tiga tahapan yakni reduksi data, display data, dan verifikasi atau penarikan kesimpulan.Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Pemerintah Indonesia sebenarnya telah menerapkan hambatan non tarif dalam bentuk TBT pada produk batik melalui Peraturan Menteri Perindustrian tentang batikmark “batik INDONE- SIA”. Meski demikian, pelabelan tersebut masih membutuhkan rincian lagi dalam bentuk pelabelan identitas budaya sehingga maksud pelestarian batik sebagaimana diamanatkan Unesco pada Pemerintah Indonesia diharapkan menjadi terwujud.Keywords : Non Tariff Barrier, Technical Barrier to Trade,   Hang Tag, Pelabelan Identitas  Budaya

  7. What hinder the further development of wind power in China?—A socio-technical barrier study

    Zhao, Zhen-Yu; Chang, Rui-Dong; Chen, Yu-Long

    2016-01-01

    Promoting wind power is a long-term strategy of China to respond to both energy shortage and environmental pollution. Stimulated by various incentive policies, wind power generation in China has achieved tremendous growth, with the cumulative installed capacity being the largest worldwide for five consecutive years since 2010. However, obstructed by various barriers, wind power provides only 2.6% of national electricity generation in China, despite the strong support from the government. From a socio-technical transition perspective, this paper aims to systematically analyze the barriers hindering the further development of China's wind power. A wind power niche model is established to illustrate the complex interactions among actors in the wind power industry and electricity supply regime. Then, qualitative content analysis is adopted to process the related evidence and data, and four categories of socio-technical barriers are identified, including technology, governance, infrastructure and culture barriers. The study shows that various interrelated barriers form a blocking mechanism which prohibits the further development of wind power in China. Policy suggestions are proposed to eliminate the barriers and further empower the wind power niche. The lesson learned from China can offer useful references for other economies to promote wind power industries of their own. - Highlights: • Use wind power niche model to illustrate the interactions among actors in the industry. • Analyze technological, governance, infrastructural and cultural barriers. • Multidimensionality and interconnectedness of the barriers are illustrated. • Policy suggestions are proposed to deal with the wind power development barriers.

  8. Overcoming technical and market barriers for distributed wind applications : reaching the mainstream

    Rhoads-Weaver, H.; Forsyth, T.

    2006-01-01

    Technical and market barriers for distributed wind applications were reviewed. A renewable energy survey has recently suggested that while less than 10 per cent of survey respondents had installed wind turbines, 40 per cent indicated that they plan to use wind energy on-site in the future. It is estimated that global annual sales of wind systems have the potential to reach $110 million by 2010 under ideal conditions. Distributed wind market growth areas include residential grid-connected sites, schools, public facilities and farms, business and industry. Grid-connected wind projects are expected to grow from less than 5 per cent of the total small wind market to over 20 per cent by 2020. However, without a federal investment tax credit, more modest growth is anticipated. Drivers of the distributed wind market were identified as financial incentives and programs; favorable policies and regulations; and increasing retail electricity rates and loads. Challenges and barriers to distributed wind market growth included economics; lack of performance standards and ratings; difficult interconnection processes; prohibitive zoning rules; low manufacturing volumes; and low consumer awareness. While there has been a 5-fold increase in photovoltaics (PV) sales in the United States since 2000, small wind turbines sales have only grown by approximately 70 per cent over the same period. Market increases in distributed wind systems are anticipated with the introduction of hybrid wind/PV systems. Improved designs for small and mid-sized turbines, rotors and towers may help to overcome barriers to wind energy growth. Technology developments in remote-monitored controllers and improved computer tools for analyzing project economics may also help to overcome market barriers. However, significant cost reductions are needed to stimulate widespread market acceptance of distributed wind. It was concluded that distributed wind is well-positioned to play an important role in supplying clean

  9. Investigation and technical reviews of the long term stability and corrosion resistance of engineering barriers

    Tachikawa, Hirokazu

    2004-03-01

    The Japan Nuclear Fuel Cycle Development Institute submitted 'Second Progress Report on Research and Development for the Geological Disposal of HLW in Japan' to the Japanese government. This report contains investigations of the long term behavior of alteration of bentonite, and of the corrosion life time of overpack on the basis of experimental data and past research, assuming the ranging geological environment of Japan. However some subjects, such as the behavior of the bentonite and overpack under high pH conditions and the behavior of the engineering barrier with change of near-field environmental condition with time for promoting reliability have still been left. To take into account these conditions, expert committees composed of clay science and metal corrosion science experts were established in the Nuclear Safety Research Association and past research outcomes and the theory of safety assessment were investigated and technically reviewed from the view points of long term stability and corrosion resistance of engineering buffer materials. (author)

  10. Technical Barriers and Development of Cu Wirebonding in Nanoelectronics Device Packaging

    C. L. Gan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bondpad cratering, Cu ball bond interface corrosion, IMD (intermetal dielectric cracking, and uncontrolled post-wirebond staging are the key technical barriers in Cu wire development. This paper discusses the UHAST (unbiased HAST reliability performance of Cu wire used in fine-pitch BGA package. In-depth failure analysis has been carried out to identify the failure mechanism under various assembly conditions. Obviously green mold compound, low-halogen substrate, optimized Cu bonding parameters, assembly staging time after wirebonding, and anneal baking after wirebonding are key success factors for Cu wire development in nanoelectronic packaging. Failure mechanisms of Cu ball bonds after UHAST test and CuAl IMC failure characteristics have been proposed and discussed in this paper.

  11. The intermittency of wind, solar, and renewable electricity generators. Technical barrier or rhetorical excuse?

    Sovacool, Benjamin K. [Centre on Asia and Globalisation, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)

    2009-09-15

    A consensus has long existed within the electric utility sector of the United States that renewable electricity generators such as wind and solar are unreliable and intermittent to a degree that they will never be able to contribute significantly to electric utility supply or provide baseload power. This paper asks three interconnected questions: (1) What do energy experts really think about renewables in the United States?; (2) To what degree are conventional baseload units reliable?; (3) Is intermittency a justifiable reason to reject renewable electricity resources? To provide at least a few answers, the author conducted 62 formal, semi-structured interviews at 45 different institutions including electric utilities, regulatory agencies, interest groups, energy systems manufacturers, nonprofit organizations, energy consulting firms, universities, national laboratories, and state institutions in the United States. In addition, an extensive literature review of government reports, technical briefs, and journal articles was conducted to understand how other countries have dealt with (or failed to deal with) the intermittent nature of renewable resources around the world. It was concluded that the intermittency of renewables can be predicted, managed, and mitigated, and that the current technical barriers are mainly due to the social, political, and practical inertia of the traditional electricity generation system. (author)

  12. Technical Work Plan for: Near Field Environment: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report

    J.D. Schreiber

    2006-01-01

    This technical work plan (TWP) describes work activities to be performed by the Near-Field Environment Team. The objective of the work scope covered by this TWP is to generate Revision 03 of EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction, referred to herein as the radionuclide transport abstraction (RTA) report. The RTA report is being revised primarily to address condition reports (CRs), to address issues identified by the Independent Validation Review Team (IVRT), to address the potential impact of transport, aging, and disposal (TAD) canister design on transport models, and to ensure integration with other models that are closely associated with the RTA report and being developed or revised in other analysis/model reports in response to IVRT comments. The RTA report will be developed in accordance with the most current version of LP-SIII.10Q-BSC and will reflect current administrative procedures (LP-3.15Q-BSC, ''Managing Technical Product Inputs''; LP-SIII.2Q-BSC, ''Qualification of Unqualified Data''; etc.), and will develop related Document Input Reference System (DIRS) reports and data qualifications as applicable in accordance with prevailing procedures. The RTA report consists of three models: the engineered barrier system (EBS) flow model, the EBS transport model, and the EBS-unsaturated zone (UZ) interface model. The flux-splitting submodel in the EBS flow model will change, so the EBS flow model will be validated again. The EBS transport model and validation of the model will be substantially revised in Revision 03 of the RTA report, which is the main subject of this TWP. The EBS-UZ interface model may be changed in Revision 03 of the RTA report due to changes in the conceptualization of the UZ transport abstraction model (a particle tracker transport model based on the discrete fracture transfer function will be used instead of the dual-continuum transport model previously used). Validation of the EBS-UZ interface model will be revised to be consistent with

  13. Safety and man in light of the analysis of major technical accidents

    Carnino, A.

    1990-01-01

    Up to the seventies, it was not easy to admit human failure as a cause of industrial accidents. Man was considered as reliable. With the perfection of materials, technical systems and industrial processes though, man has become the weakest link in the chain of technical events. He is and stays a remarkably reliable being, with a roughly estimated average failure quota of 1:1000 manipulations. If the hypothetical risk should be kept very low, this value can become a problem. Instead of judging a mistake as a punishable crime, as the present tendency will have it, a more differentiated, systematical approach is called for. By means of an analysis of four major accidents - Chernobyl, Three Mile Island, Challenger and Bhopal - interesting parallels between the causes of such accidents can be found. Human failure, e.g. of a surgeon, is in most cases, the direct cause of an accident. A whole series of further causes, which can be assigned to different areas of influence but are usually interdependent, also play a role. While the human factor must be viewed as more or less predetermined, far reaching improvements can be made to reduce the risk of accident. Today, thanks to modern technology and new findings, it is possible to practically neutralize human error. This creates more costs and necessitates giving up short term production maximization. It also requires the willingness to give safety absolute priority. The name 'culture de surete' (safety culture) is used to describe this concept. Surprising similarities between the causes of the four mentioned major accidents were discovered. Certain circumstances, such as the time of day, played a role. The concept of a plant, resp. technical process has an essential influence, as well as company policy (importance of safety, preparation of emergency procedures, training, maintenance, company rules) and management (evaluation and realization of foreign and the company's own operation experiences and error alarms). (author) 7

  14. Spawning segregation and philopatry are major prezygotic barriers in sympatric cryptic Mugil cephalus species.

    Shen, Kang-Ning; Chang, Chih-Wei; Durand, Jean-Dominique

    2015-12-01

    The flathead mullet, Mugil cephalus, is a commercially vital fish in fisheries and aquaculture worldwide. Genetic analyses have recently revealed three cryptic species of M. cephalus in the Northwest Pacific. These species are sympatric in Taiwanese waters and specific reproductive behaviors have been suggested to be a major prezygotic barrier. Species composition was evaluated in samples of M. cephalus at different growth stages collected from various habitats (offshore spawning ground, estuarine nursery and feeding areas) over several months or years. The gonadosomatic index of adults and the body length of juveniles were recorded to determine the reproductive season and recruitment periods in estuaries. The results revealed partially temporal spawning isolation between species pairs, spatial segregation on specific spawning grounds and strong philopatry preclude hybridization. Thus, the results imply that traditional fisheries of mature fish in the Taiwan Strait target only one species, whereas aquaculture in Taiwan contain juveniles of all three species collected in estuaries. The ecological niche and demography of these species must be investigated further to estimate the impact of juvenile sources on aquaculture. Copyright © 2015 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Tissue plasminogen activator; identifying major barriers related to intravenous injection in ischemic acute cerebral infraction

    Fariborz Khorvash

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: According to previous publications, in patients with acute ischemic cerebral infarction, thrombolytic therapy using intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV-tPA necessitates precise documentation of symptoms' onset. The aim of this study was to identify major barriers related to the IV-tPA injection in such patients. Materials and Methods: Between the year 2014-2015, patients with definitive diagnosis of acute cerebral infarction (n = 180 who attended the neurology ward located at the Isfahan Alzahra Hospital were studied. To investigate barriers related to door to IV-tPA needle time, personal reasons, and criteria for inclusion or exclusion of patients, three questionnaire forms were designed based on the Food and Drug Administration-approved indications or contraindications. Results: The mean age of males versus females was 60 versus 77.5 years (ranged 23–93 vs. 29–70 years, respectively. Out of total population, only 10.7% transferred to hospital in <4.5 h after the onset of symptoms. Regarding to eligibility for IV-tPA, 68.9% of total population have had criteria for such treatment. Concerning to both items such as transferring to hospital in <4.5 h after the onset of symptoms and eligibility for IV-tPA, only 6.6% of total population met the criteria for such management. There was ignorance or inattention to symptoms in 75% of population studied. There was a mean of 195.92 ± 6.65 min (182.8–209.04 min for door to IV-tPA needle time. Conclusion: Despite the international guidelines for IV-tPA injection within 3–4.5 h of ischemic stroke symptoms' onset, the results of this study revealed that falling time due to ignorance of symptoms, literacy, and living alone might need further attention. As a result, to decrease death and disability, educational programs related to the symptoms' onset by consultant neurologist in Isfahan/Iran seem to be advantageous.

  16. Nagra technical report 14-02, Geological basics - Dossier VI - Barrier properties of proposed host rock sediments and neighbouring rock

    Gautschi, A.; Deplazes, G.; Traber, D.; Marschall, P.; Mazurek, M.; Gimmi, T.; Maeder, U.

    2014-01-01

    This dossier is the sixth of a series of eight reports concerning the safety and technical aspects of locations for the disposal of radioactive wastes in Switzerland. It discusses the barrier properties of the proposed host rock sediments and neighbouring rock layers. The mineralogical composition of the host rocks are discussed as are their pore densities and hydrological properties. Diffusion aspects are discussed. The aquifer systems in the proposed depository areas and their classification are looked at. The barrier properties of the host rocks and those of neighbouring sediments are discussed. Finally, modelling concepts and parameters for the transport of radionuclides in the rocks are discussed

  17. An Approach to Tailoring Major Technical Reviews Based on Project Characteristics and Stakeholder Interests

    Richstein, Alan B.; Nolte, Jerome T.; Pfarr, Barbara B.

    2004-01-01

    There are numerous technical reviews that occur throughout the systems engineering process life cycle. Many are well known by project managers and stakeholders such as developers and end users, an example of much is the critical design review (CDR). This major milestone for a large, complex new project may last two or more days, include an extensive agenda of topics, and entail hundreds of hours of developer time to prepare presentation materials and associated documents. Additionally, the weeks of schedule spent on review preparation is at least partly at the expense of other work. This paper suggests an approach for tailoring technical reviews, based on the project characteristics and the project manager s identification of the key stakeholders and understanding of their most important issues and considerations. With this insight the project manager can communicate to, manage expectations oc and establish formal agreement with the stakeholders as to which reviews, and at what depth, are most appropriate to achieve project success. The authors, coming from diverse organizations and backgrounds, have drawn on their personal experiences and summarized the best practices of their own organizations to create a common framework to provide guidance on the adaptation of design reviews to other system engineers.

  18. The GEOFAR Project - Geothermal Finance and Awareness in Europeans Regions - Development of new schemes to overcome non-technical barriers, focusing particularly on financial barriers

    Poux, Adeline; Wendel, Marco; Jaudin, Florence; Hiegl, Mathias

    2010-05-01

    Numerous advantages of geothermal energy like its widespread distribution, a base-load power and availability higher than 90%, a small footprint and low carbon emissions, and the growing concerns about climate changes strongly promote the development of geothermal projects. Geothermal energy as a local energy source implies needs on surface to be located close to the geothermal resource. Many European regions dispose of a good geothermal potential but it is mostly not sufficiently developed due to non-technical barriers occurring at the very early stages of the project. The GEOFAR Project carried out within the framework of EU's "Intelligent Energy Europe" (IEE) program, gathers a consortium of European partners from Germany, France, Greece, Spain and Portugal. Launched in September 2008, the aim of this research project is to analyze the mentioned non-technical barriers, focusing most particularly on economic and financial aspects. Based on this analysis GEOFAR aims at developing new financial and administrative schemes to overcome the main financial barriers for deep geothermal projects (for electricity and direct use, without heat pumps). The analysis of the current situation and the future development of geothermal energy in GEOFAR target countries (Germany, France, Greece, Spain, Portugal, Slovakia, Bulgaria and Hungary) was necessary to understand and expose the diverging status of the geothermal sector and the more and less complicated situation for geothermal projects in different Europeans Regions. A deeper analysis of 40 cases studies (operating, planned and failed projects) of deep geothermal projects also contributed to this detailed view. An exhaustive analysis and description of financial mechanisms already existing in different European countries and at European level to support investors completed the research on non-technical barriers. Based on this profound analysis, the GEOFAR project has made an overview of the difficulties met by project

  19. The socio-technical barriers to Solar Home Systems (SHS) in Papua New Guinea: 'Choosing pigs, prostitutes, and poker chips over panels'

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.; D'Agostino, Anthony L.; Jain Bambawale, Malavika

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the socio-technical barriers to Solar Home Systems (SHS) in Papua New Guinea. The authors collected primary data through semi-structured research interviews conducted over the course of February 2010-April 2010. Respondents included government officials, financiers, planners, commercial distributors and companies, teachers and rural villagers in addition to members of civil society, academics, consultants, and trainers. These interviews were supplemented with site visits to Port Moresby, Goroka, and Madang, and field research in the villages of Akameku, Asaroka, Lufa, Kundiawa, Okifa, Simbu, and Talidig. The study draws from these interviews and visits to discuss four types of barriers. Technical barriers relate to substandard equipment and logistical problems. Economic barriers include high rates of poverty, misconceptions about the role of currency, and lack of financing. Political barriers include poor institutional capacity and a government commitment to fossil-fueled grid electrification. Social barriers encompass unrealistic expectations about what SHS can provide along with jealousy, theft, vandalism, and unfamiliarity with solar technology. - Research highlights: → Solar Home Systems (SHS) are impeded by a collection of different barriers in Papua New Guinea. → Technical barriers relate to substandard equipment and logistical problems. → Economic barriers include high rates of poverty, misconceptions about the role of currency, and lack of financing.→ Political barriers include poor institutional capacity and a government commitment to fossil-fueled grid electrification. → Social barriers encompass unrealistic expectations about what SHS can provide along with jealousy, theft, vandalism, and unfamiliarity with solar technology.

  20. The socio-technical barriers to Solar Home Systems (SHS) in Papua New Guinea: 'Choosing pigs, prostitutes, and poker chips over panels'

    Sovacool, Benjamin K., E-mail: bsovacool@nus.edu.s [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore); D' Agostino, Anthony L.; Jain Bambawale, Malavika [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)

    2011-03-15

    This study explores the socio-technical barriers to Solar Home Systems (SHS) in Papua New Guinea. The authors collected primary data through semi-structured research interviews conducted over the course of February 2010-April 2010. Respondents included government officials, financiers, planners, commercial distributors and companies, teachers and rural villagers in addition to members of civil society, academics, consultants, and trainers. These interviews were supplemented with site visits to Port Moresby, Goroka, and Madang, and field research in the villages of Akameku, Asaroka, Lufa, Kundiawa, Okifa, Simbu, and Talidig. The study draws from these interviews and visits to discuss four types of barriers. Technical barriers relate to substandard equipment and logistical problems. Economic barriers include high rates of poverty, misconceptions about the role of currency, and lack of financing. Political barriers include poor institutional capacity and a government commitment to fossil-fueled grid electrification. Social barriers encompass unrealistic expectations about what SHS can provide along with jealousy, theft, vandalism, and unfamiliarity with solar technology. - Research highlights: {yields} Solar Home Systems (SHS) are impeded by a collection of different barriers in Papua New Guinea. {yields} Technical barriers relate to substandard equipment and logistical problems. {yields} Economic barriers include high rates of poverty, misconceptions about the role of currency, and lack of financing.{yields} Political barriers include poor institutional capacity and a government commitment to fossil-fueled grid electrification. {yields} Social barriers encompass unrealistic expectations about what SHS can provide along with jealousy, theft, vandalism, and unfamiliarity with solar technology.

  1. IEA HPP Annex 29 - ground-source heat pumps overcoming technical and market barriers. Status report Norway

    Stene, Joern

    2004-12-01

    Norway is a member of Annex 29, 'Ground-Source Heat Pump Systems Overcoming Technical and Market Barriers' (2004-2006), organized under the umbrella of the International Energy Agency (IEA) and the IEA Heat Pump Programme (HPP). The 7 participating countries are Austria (Operating Agent), Canada, Japan, Norway, Spain, Sweden and the USA. The Norwegian participation is financed by ENOVA SF, and SINTEF Energy Research is responsible for planning and carrying out the Norwegian activities. This report provides a status for ground-source heat pump (GSHP) systems in Norway with regard to state-of-the-art technology, installation examples, geological data, costs and market opportunities. A Norwegian Internet home page for ground-source heat pump systems (www.energy.sintef.no/prosjekt/Annex29) is also presented. GSHP systems in Norway are classified as direct systems (groundwater and soil/ground) and indirect closed-loop systems (vertical-rock and horizontal-soil/ground). The vast majority of the installations are indirect closed-loop systems utilizing vertical boreholes in rock as a heat source, heat sink and thermal energy storage. GSHP systems are relatively capital intensive installations, but they achieve high energy efficiency due to the relatively high and stable heat source temperature and the fact that a considerable share of the cooling demand in non-residential buildings can be covered by means of free cooling. In order to obtain energy efficient and reliable GSHP installations, it is important to implement a total quality concept where focus is on quality and system integration during all stages of the project. A life cycle analysis (LCA) will be an important tool in such a concept, since both the investment costs as well as the lifetime operational and maintenance costs are included (author) (ml) Litt usikker pae tag 620- ikke en vanlig sintef rapportkode

  2. PREFACE: 11th IAEA Technical Meeting on H-mode Physics and Transport Barriers

    Takizuka, Tomonori

    2008-07-01

    This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains papers based on invited talks and contributed posters presented at the 11th IAEA Technical Meeting on H-mode Physics and Transport Barriers. This meeting was held at the Tsukuba International Congress Center in Tsukuba, Japan, on 26-28 September 2007, and was organized jointly by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency and the University of Tsukuba. The previous ten meetings in this series were held in San Diego (USA) 1987, Gut Ising (Germany) 1989, Abingdon (UK) 1991, Naka (Japan) 1993, Princeton (USA) 1995, Kloster Seeon (Germany) 1997, Oxford (UK) 1999, Toki (Japan) 2001, San Diego (USA) 2003, and St Petersburg (Russia) 2005. The purpose of the eleventh meeting was to present and discuss new results on H-mode (edge transport barrier, ETB) and internal transport barrier, ITB, experiments, theory and modeling in magnetic fusion research. It was expected that contributions give new and improved insights into the physics mechanisms behind high confinement modes of H-mode and ITBs. Ultimately, this research should lead to improved projections for ITER. As has been the tradition at the recent meetings of this series, the program was subdivided into six topics. The topics selected for the eleventh meeting were: H-mode transition and the pedestal-width Dynamics in ETB: ELM threshold, non-linear evolution and suppression, etc Transport relations of various quantities including turbulence in plasmas with ITB: rotation physics is especially highlighted Transport barriers in non-axisymmetric magnetic fields Theory and simulation on transport barriers Projections of transport barrier physics to ITER For each topic there was an invited talk presenting an overview of the topic, based on contributions to the meeting and on recently published external results. The six invited talks were: A Leonard (GA, USA): Progress in characterization of the H-mode pedestal and L-H transition N Oyama (JAEA, Japan): Progress and issues in

  3. Socio-technical barriers to the use of energy-efficient timber drying technology in New Zealand

    Bell, Martha; Carrington, Gerry; Lawson, Rob; Stephenson, Janet

    2014-01-01

    This study of industrial energy behaviours identifies barriers to the use of energy-efficient drying technology in the New Zealand timber industry, and explores these barriers through the “energy cultures” lens. Vented kiln dryers were preferred by larger firms and heat pump kiln dryers were used by smaller firms. Although few firms could specify all their costs, we found no significant differences in the average operating costs, drying costs or commercial success of the larger and smaller firms. We found that socio-technical barriers create “energy cultures” at the level of both the firm and the sector, supporting the dominance of vented kiln dryers. The prevailing technologies, practices and norms at the sector level strongly support vented kilns, the status quo being embedded in the socio-technical context, hindering technological learning, improved energy efficiency and innovation. Influential stakeholders in the industry were thus part of, and locked into, the industry-wide energy culture, and were not in a position to effect change. We conclude that actors external to the prevailing industry energy culture need to leverage change in the industry norms, practices and/or technologies in order to reap the advantages of energy-efficient drying technology, assist its continued evolution and avoid the risks of path-dependency. - Highlights: • Firms processing timber in New Zealand use two main drying technologies. • Relatively inefficient vented dryers dominate over energy-efficient heat pumps. • Operating costs are similar but the socio-technical regime supports vented dryers. • Stasis is created by fixed energy cultures both within firms and across the sector. • Stasis hampers technical development in heat pump drying and business innovation

  4. Technical risk audit method (tram): development and application to the auditing of major hazard sites

    Maddison, T.; Kirk, P.; Stansfield, R.

    1998-01-01

    The Technical Risk Audit Method (TRAM) has been developed by the UK Health and Safety Executive (UK HSE) as a risk-based auditing and inspection tool for application to Major Hazard process plant covered by the Seveso-I/Seveso-II directives. The objective of TRAM is to provide a framework in which plant inspection or audit can be undertaken and results collated. TRAM comprises a paper audit procedure and a software tool which is used to analyse the results. TRAM includes a semi-quantitative risk model, which may be used to rank risks both within and between similar facilities, using qualitative data collected during the inspection. The results of this qualitative analysis may be used to identify where inspector resources would be best deployed. To date, TRAM has been applied to a number of LPG storage and processing facilities in the UK, and the lessons learnt are being used to develop a robust version suitable for use by inspectors. The methodology will be made consistent with the risk model included in IEC 61508 'Functional safety of electrical/electronic/programmable electronic safety-related systems' to permit its application to a wide range of process plant and other hazardous facilities. (authors)

  5. The Boston Study: Analysis of a Major Metropolitan Business- and Technical-Communication Market.

    Buchholz, William J.

    1989-01-01

    Presents a year-long study of the duties, skills, and knowledge required of business- and technical-communication professionals in Boston, Massachusetts. Focuses on six categories of practice: technical communication, publishing, public relations, marketing, development, and training. Suggests that in the next decade communication practitioners…

  6. Micro Mechanics and Microstructures of Major Subsurface Hydraulic Barriers: Shale Caprock vs Wellbore Cement

    Radonjic, M.; Du, H.

    2015-12-01

    Shale caprocks and wellbore cements are two of the most common subsurface impermeable barriers in the oil and gas industry. More than 60% of effective seals for geologic hydrocarbon bearing formations as natural hydraulic barriers constitute of shale rocks. Wellbore cements provide zonal isolation as an engineered hydraulic barrier to ensure controlled fluid flow from the reservoir to the production facilities. Shale caprocks were deposited and formed by squeezing excess formation water and mineralogical transformations at different temperatures and pressures. In a similar process, wellbore cements are subjected to compression during expandable tubular operations, which lead to a rapid pore water propagation and secondary mineral precipitation within the cement. The focus of this research was to investigate the effect of wellbore cement compression on its microstructure and mechanical properties, as well as a preliminary comparison of shale caprocks and hydrated cement. The purpose of comparative evaluation of engineered vs natural hydraulic barrier materials is to further improve wellbore cement durability when in contact with geofluids. The micro-indentation was utilized to evaluate the change in cement mechanical properties caused by compression. Indentation experiments showed an overall increase in hardness and Young's modulus of compressed cement. Furthermore, SEM imaging and Electron Probe Microanalysis showed mineralogical alterations and decrease in porosity. These can be correlated with the cement rehydration caused by microstructure changes as a result of compression. The mechanical properties were also quantitatively compared to shale caprock samples in order to investigate the similarities of hydraulic barrier features that could help to improve the subsurface application of cement in zonal isolation. The comparison results showed that the poro-mechanical characteristics of wellbore cement appear to be improved when inherent pore sizes are shifted to

  7. Technical considerations for the implementation of subsurface microbial barriers for restoration of groundwater at UMTRA sites

    Tucker, M.D.

    1996-01-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remediation Action (UMTRA) Program is responsible for the assessment and remedial action at the 24 former uranium mill tailings sites located in the United States. The surface remediation phase, which has primarily focused on containment and stabilization of the abandoned uranium mill tailings piles, is nearing completion. Attention has now turned to the groundwater restoration phase. One alternative under consideration for groundwater restoration at UMTRA sites is the use of in-situ permeable reactive subsurface barriers. In this type of a system, contaminated groundwater will be allowed to flow naturally through a barrier filled with material which will remove hazardous constituents from the water by physical, chemical or microbial processes while allowing passage of the pore water. The subject of this report is a reactive barrier which would remove uranium and other contaminants of concern from groundwater by microbial action (i.e., a microbial barrier). The purpose of this report is to assess the current state of this technology and to determine issues that must be addressed in order to use this technology at UMTRA sites. The report focuses on six contaminants of concern at UMTRA sites including uranium, arsenic, selenium, molybdenum, cadmium and chromium. In the first section of this report, the fundamental chemical and biological processes that must occur in a microbial barrier to control the migration of contaminants are described. The second section contains a literature review of research which has been conducted on the use of microorganisms to immobilize heavy metals. The third section addresses areas which need further development before a microbial barrier can be implemented at an UMTRA site

  8. Technical considerations for the implementation of subsurface microbial barriers for restoration of groundwater at UMTRA sites

    Tucker, M.D.

    1996-01-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remediation Action (UMTRA) Program is responsible for the assessment and remedial action at the 24 former uranium mill tailings sites located in the United States. The surface remediation phase, which has primarily focused on containment and stabilization of the abandoned uranium mill tailings piles, is nearing completion. Attention has now turned to the groundwater restoration phase. One alternative under consideration for groundwater restoration at UMTRA sites is the use of in-situ permeable reactive subsurface barriers. In this type of a system, contaminated groundwater will be allowed to flow naturally through a barrier filled with material which will remove hazardous constituents from the water by physical, chemical or microbial processes while allowing passage of the pore water. The subject of this report is a reactive barrier which would remove uranium and other contaminants of concern from groundwater by microbial action (i.e., a microbial barrier). The purpose of this report is to assess the current state of this technology and to determine issues that must be addressed in order to use this technology at UMTRA sites. The report focuses on six contaminants of concern at UMTRA sites including uranium, arsenic, selenium, molybdenum, cadmium and chromium. In the first section of this report, the fundamental chemical and biological processes that must occur in a microbial barrier to control the migration of contaminants are described. The second section contains a literature review of research which has been conducted on the use of microorganisms to immobilize heavy metals. The third section addresses areas which need further development before a microbial barrier can be implemented at an UMTRA site.

  9. A new approach to performance assessment of barriers in a repository. Executive summary, draft, technical appendices. Final report

    Mueller-Hoeppe, N.; Krone, J.; Niehues, N.; Poehler, M.; Raitz von Frentz, R.; Gauglitz, R.

    1999-06-01

    Multi-barrier systems are accepted as the basic approach for long term environmental safe isolation of radioactive waste in geological repositories. Assessing the performance of natural and engineered barriers is one of the major difficulties in producing evidence of environmental safety for any radioactive waste disposal facility, due to the enormous complexity of scenarios and uncertainties to be considered. This report outlines a new methodological approach originally developed basically for a repository in salt, but that can be transferred with minor modifications to any other host rock formation. The approach is based on the integration of following elements: (1) Implementation of a simple method and efficient criteria to assess and prove the tightness of geological and engineered barriers; (2) Using the method of Partial Safety Factors in order to assess barrier performance at certain reasonable level of confidence; (3) Integration of a diverse geochemical barrier in the near field of waste emplacement limiting systematically the radiological consequences from any radionuclide release in safety investigations and (4) Risk based approach for the assessment of radionuclide releases. Indicative calculations performed with extremely conservative assumptions allow to exclude any radiological health consequences from a HLW repository in salt to a reference person with a safety level of 99,9999% per year. (orig.)

  10. TECHNICAL BASIS FOR EVALUATING SURFACE BARRIERS TO PROTECT GROUNDWATER FROM DEEP VADOSE ZONE CONTAMINATION

    Fayer, J.M.; Freedman, V.L.; Ward, A.L.; Chronister, G.B.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. DOE and its predecessors released nearly 2 trillion liters (450 billion gallons) of contaminated liquid into the vadose zone at the Hanford Site. Some of the contaminants currently reside in the deeper parts of the vadose zone where they are much less accessible to characterization, monitoring, and typical remediation activities. The DOE Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) prepared a treatability test plan in 2008 to examine remediation options for addressing contaminants in the deep vadose zone; one of the technologies identified was surface barriers (also known as engineered barriers, covers, and caps). In the typical configuration, the contaminants are located relatively close to the surface, generally within 15 m, and thus they are close to the base of the surface barrier. The proximity of the surface barrier under these conditions yielded few concerns about the effectiveness of the barrier at depth, particularly for cases in which the contaminants were in a lined facility. At Hanford, however, some unlined sites have contaminants located well below depths of 15 m. The issue raised about these sites is the degree of effectiveness of a surface barrier in isolating contaminants in the deep vadose zone. Previous studies by Hanford Site and PNNL researchers suggest that surface barriers have the potential to provide a significant degree of isolation of deep vadose zone contaminants. The studies show that the actual degree of isolation is site-specific and depends on many factors, including recharge rates, barrier size, depth of contaminants, geohydrologic properties ofthe sediments, and the geochemical interactions between the contaminants and the sediments. After the DOE-RL treatability test plan was published, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was contracted to review the information available to support surface barrier evaluation for the deep vadose zone, identify gaps in the information and outcomes necessary to fill the data gaps, and outline

  11. Structural Analysis of Major Species Barriers between Humans and Palm Civets for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infections

    Li, Fang (UMM)

    2008-09-23

    It is believed that a novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), was passed from palm civets to humans and caused the epidemic of SARS in 2002 to 2003. The major species barriers between humans and civets for SARS-CoV infections are the specific interactions between a defined receptor-binding domain (RBD) on a viral spike protein and its host receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). In this study a chimeric ACE2 bearing the critical N-terminal helix from civet and the remaining peptidase domain from human was constructed, and it was shown that this construct has the same receptor activity as civet ACE2. In addition, crystal structures of the chimeric ACE2 complexed with RBDs from various human and civet SARS-CoV strains were determined. These structures, combined with a previously determined structure of human ACE2 complexed with the RBD from a human SARS-CoV strain, have revealed a structural basis for understanding the major species barriers between humans and civets for SARS-CoV infections. They show that the major species barriers are determined by interactions between four ACE2 residues (residues 31, 35, 38, and 353) and two RBD residues (residues 479 and 487), that early civet SARS-CoV isolates were prevented from infecting human cells due to imbalanced salt bridges at the hydrophobic virus/receptor interface, and that SARS-CoV has evolved to gain sustained infectivity for human cells by eliminating unfavorable free charges at the interface through stepwise mutations at positions 479 and 487. These results enhance our understanding of host adaptations and cross-species infections of SARS-CoV and other emerging animal viruses.

  12. Barrier Properties of Polymeric Packaging Materials to Major Aroma Volatiles in Herbs

    Leelaphiwat Pattarin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the main transport coefficients (diffusion, solubility and permeability of key aroma compounds present in tropical herbs (eucalyptol and estragol through low‒density polyethylene (LDPE, polypropylene (PP, nylon (Nylon, polyethylene terephthalate (PET, metalized‒polyethylene terephthalate (MPET and poly(lactic acid (PLA films at 15 and 25 °C. The concentration of aroma compounds permeating through the films were evaluated at various time intervals using a gas chromatograph flame ionization detector (GC–FID. Results showed that the diffusion coefficients of aroma compounds were highest in LDPE whereas the solubility coefficients were highest in PLA at both temperatures. PLA had the highest permeability coefficients for estragol at both temperatures. PP and LDPE had the highest permeability coefficients for eucalyptol at 15 and 25 °C, respectively. MPET had the lowest permeability for both aroma compounds studied. Aroma barrier properties can be used when selecting polymeric packaging materials to prevent aroma loss in various food and consumer products.

  13. Potential Strategies to Address the Major Clinical Barriers Facing Stem Cell Regenerative Therapy for Cardiovascular Disease: A Review.

    Nguyen, Patricia K; Neofytou, Evgenios; Rhee, June-Wha; Wu, Joseph C

    2016-11-01

    Although progress continues to be made in the field of stem cell regenerative medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular disease, significant barriers to clinical implementation still exist. To summarize the current barriers to the clinical implementation of stem cell therapy in patients with cardiovascular disease and to discuss potential strategies to overcome them. Information for this review was obtained through a search of PubMed and the Cochrane database for English-language studies published between January 1, 2000, and July 25, 2016. Ten randomized clinical trials and 8 systematic reviews were included. One of the major clinical barriers facing the routine implementation of stem cell therapy in patients with cardiovascular disease is the limited and inconsistent benefit observed thus far. Reasons for this finding are unclear but may be owing to poor cell retention and survival, as suggested by numerous preclinical studies and a small number of human studies incorporating imaging to determine cell fate. Additional studies in humans using imaging to determine cell fate are needed to understand how these factors contribute to the limited efficacy of stem cell therapy. Treatment strategies to address poor cell retention and survival are under investigation and include the following: coadministration of immunosuppressive and prosurvival agents, delivery of cardioprotective factors packaged in exosomes rather than the cells themselves, and use of tissue-engineering strategies to provide structural support for cells. If larger grafts are achieved using these strategies, it will be imperative to carefully monitor for the potential risks of tumorigenicity, immunogenicity, and arrhythmogenicity. Despite important achievements to date, stem cell therapy is not yet ready for routine clinical implementation. Significant research is still needed to address the clinical barriers outlined herein before the next wave of large clinical trials is under way.

  14. Overview of technical barriers and implementation of cellulosic ethanol in the U.S

    Kim, Tae Hoon; Kim, Tae Hyun

    2014-01-01

    There is mounting concern about the buildup of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and other so-called greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. In general, bioethanol production requires minimal fossil fuel input in the conversion step, and ethanol is considered a promising alternative fuel to petroleum-derived products. It is anticipated that ethanol production with second-generation biomass, i.e. lignocellulosic materials, will be possible on a large scale in the near future. Latest efforts have been focused on overcoming technical challenges in bioconversion, particularly pretreatment, and finding the solutions required to implement biorefinery on a large scale. This paper introduces and reviews the current status of research, and of the ethanol industry in the U.S. In addition, other important concepts in biofuels, cellulosic ethanol, and biorefinery in general are reviewed, and the key technical issues in bioconversion of cellulosic ethanol, such as pretreatment and factors affecting bioconversion of biomass are also discussed. - Highlights: • The current status of research, and of the ethanol industry in the U.S. • Important concepts in biofuels, cellulosic ethanol, and biorefinery. • The key technical issues in bioconversion of cellulosic ethanol. • Pretreatment and factors affecting bioconversion of biomass

  15. Nagra technical report 14-03, characteristic dosage intervals and documentation for the assessment of barrier systems

    2014-12-01

    This comprehensive technical report published by the Swiss National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Wastes Nagra discusses the procedure for selecting sites for deep geological repositories for all categories of radioactive waste produced in Switzerland, as defined in the conceptual part of the Sectoral Plan for Deep Geological Repositories (BFE 2008). Analyses are presented and discussed that determine the priority host rocks for the disposal of low, intermediate and high level radioactive wastes. The evaluation of the effectiveness of the barrier systems is discussed. Also, analyses are presented and discussed in connection with the regions where sites for the repositories may be located. Important site-specific geological information is examined which is to be used in the assessment of possible repository sites from the safety analysis point of view

  16. Technical basis and programmatic requirements for Engineered Barrier System Field Tests

    Lin, Wunan.

    1992-11-01

    The purpose of this study plant is to describe tests known as Engineered Barrier System Field Tests (EBSFT), which are to be conducted in the Exploratory Study Facility (ESF) at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The EBSFT is designed to provide information on the interaction between waste packages (simulated by heated containers), the surrounding rock mass, and its vadose water. The Yucca Mountain site is being characterized to determine its suitability as a potential deep geological repository for high-level nuclear waste. Water is the main medium by which radioactive nuclides travel to the accessible environment. Therefore, the movement of water over the approximate 10,000--year lifetime required for radioactive nuclide decay must be understood. Development of a repository and emplacement of nuclear wastes impose stress loadings on the repository rock mass. The stress loadings include (1) thermal energy and irradiation from the waste packages, and (2) mechanical stress due to the mining of openings, and the transporting of waste canisters. The influence f the thermal stress may extend to all lithological units, including the saturated zone under the ground water table, in Yucca Mountain. In general, the purpose of this study is to investigate the movement of water in the rock mass under the influence of the thermal loading of the waste packages. Specifically, the study will investigate heat flow mechanism, relationship between boiling and dry-out, and the rewetting of the dry-out region when the repository is cooled down

  17. Biomass market introduction. How to overcome the non-technical barriers for a wider use of biomass gasification in Europe. Proceedings of a workshop. Utrecht, November 28. 1997

    Kaltschmitt, M.; Kwant, K.W.

    1998-03-01

    Bioenergy projects can fail due to technical problems but also due to non-technical barriers. The authors mention the risk of failure, the biomass supply assurance, financing, uncertainty about emission regulations, and acceptance by the public. On the above mentioned background a workshop was organised at 28 November 1997, as a joint activity of Novem and the EU / FAIR Concerted Action Analysis and Co-ordination of the Activities concerning a Gasification of Biomass'. At this workshop important non-technical barriers are identified, ways how to overcome them are analyzed, defined and actions are discussed to be taken on the EU and National level to improve the implementation of biomass gasification projects. Copies of overhead sheets and texts of 14 papers are presented

  18. Technical evaluation of major candidate blanket systems for fusion power reactor

    Tone, Tatsuzo; Seki, Masahiro; Minato, Akio

    1987-03-01

    The key functions required for tritium breeding blankets for a fusion power reactor are: (1) self-sufficient tritium breeding, (2) in-situ tritium recovery and low tritium inventory, (3) high temperature cooling giving a high efficiency of electricity generation and (4) thermo-mechanical reliability and simplified remote maintenance to obtain high plant availability. Blanket performance is substantially governed by materials selection. Major options of structure/breeder/coolant/neutron multiplier materials considered for the present design study are PCA/Li 2 O/H 2 O/Be, Mo-alloy/Li 2 O/He/Be, Mo-alloy/LiAlO 2 /He/Be, V-alloy/Li/Li/none, and Mo-alloy/Li/He/none. In addition, remote maintenance of blankets, tritium recovery system, heat transport and energy conversion have been investigated. In this report, technological problems and critical R and D issues for power reactor blanket development are identified and a comparison of major candidate blanket concepts is discussed in terms of the present materials data base, economic performance, prospects for future improvements, and engineering feasibility and difficulties based on the results obtained from individual design studies. (author)

  19. Technical Evaluation Report 41: WebCT: A major shift of emphasis

    Kristine Thibeault

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation reports in this series usually feature several products at once. The current review, however, comes at a time when one of the most widely used (and expensive online learning management systems is undergoing a major change in its marketing strategy and corporate focus. WebCT is currently evolving to a new version (WebCT Vista, with much attendant discussion by distance education (DE users. The current review, as the others in this series, adds the DE student's perspective to this discussion. The review compares the existing WebCT Campus Edition with the new WebCT Vista, and examines some of the problems associated with the migration to Vista at the institutional level. A response to the report by the WebCT company is appended.

  20. Major Oil Plays in Utah and Vicinity. Quarterly Technical Progress Report

    Thomas C. Chidsey; Craig D. Morgan; Kevin McClure; Douglas A. Sprinkel; Roger L. Bon; Hellmut H. Doelling

    2003-01-01

    Utah oil fields have produced over 1.2 billion barrels (191 million m 3 ). However, the 13.7 million barrels (2.2 million m 3 ) of production in 2002 was the lowest level in over 40 years and continued the steady decline that began in the mid-1980s. The Utah Geological Survey believes this trend can be reversed by providing play portfolios for the major oil-producing provinces (Paradox Basin, Uinta Basin, and thrust belt) in Utah and adjacent areas in Colorado and Wyoming. Oil plays are geographic areas with petroleum potential caused by favorable combinations of source rock, migration paths, reservoir rock characteristics, and other factors. The play portfolios will include: descriptions and maps of the major oil plays by reservoir; production and reservoir data; case-study field evaluations; locations of major oil pipelines; identification and discussion of land-use constraints; descriptions of reservoir outcrop analogs; and summaries of the state-of-the-art drilling, completion, and secondary/tertiary techniques for each play. This report covers research activities for the sixth quarter of the project (October 1 through December 31, 2003). This work included describing outcrop analogs for the Jurassic Twin Creek Limestone and Mississippian Leadville Limestone, major oil producers in the thrust belt and Paradox Basin, respectively, and analyzing best practices used in the southern Green River Formation play of the Uinta Basin. Production-scale outcrop analogs provide an excellent view of reservoir petrophysics, facies characteristics, and boundaries contributing to the overall heterogeneity of reservoir rocks. They can be used as a ''template'' for evaluation of data from conventional core, geophysical and petrophysical logs, and seismic surveys. In the Utah/Wyoming thrust belt province, the Jurassic Twin Creek Limestone produces from subsidiary closures along major ramp anticlines where the low-porosity limestone beds are extensively fractured and sealed by

  1. Signal one and two blockade are both critical for non-myeloablative murine HSCT across a major histocompatibility complex barrier.

    Kia J Langford-Smith

    Full Text Available Non-myeloablative allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT is rarely achievable clinically, except where donor cells have selective advantages. Murine non-myeloablative conditioning regimens have limited clinical success, partly through use of clinically unachievable cell doses or strain combinations permitting allograft acceptance using immunosuppression alone. We found that reducing busulfan conditioning in murine syngeneic HSCT, increases bone marrow (BM:blood SDF-1 ratio and total donor cells homing to BM, but reduces the proportion of donor cells engrafting. Despite this, syngeneic engraftment is achievable with non-myeloablative busulfan (25 mg/kg and higher cell doses induce increased chimerism. Therefore we investigated regimens promoting initial donor cell engraftment in the major histocompatibility complex barrier mismatched CBA to C57BL/6 allo-transplant model. This requires full myeloablation and immunosuppression with non-depleting anti-CD4/CD8 blocking antibodies to achieve engraftment of low cell doses, and rejects with reduced intensity conditioning (≤75 mg/kg busulfan. We compared increased antibody treatment, G-CSF, niche disruption and high cell dose, using reduced intensity busulfan and CD4/8 blockade in this model. Most treatments increased initial donor engraftment, but only addition of co-stimulatory blockade permitted long-term engraftment with reduced intensity or non-myeloablative conditioning, suggesting that signal 1 and 2 T-cell blockade is more important than early BM niche engraftment for transplant success.

  2. Signal one and two blockade are both critical for non-myeloablative murine HSCT across a major histocompatibility complex barrier.

    Langford-Smith, Kia J; Sandiford, Zara; Langford-Smith, Alex; Wilkinson, Fiona L; Jones, Simon A; Wraith, J Ed; Wynn, Robert F; Bigger, Brian W

    2013-01-01

    Non-myeloablative allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is rarely achievable clinically, except where donor cells have selective advantages. Murine non-myeloablative conditioning regimens have limited clinical success, partly through use of clinically unachievable cell doses or strain combinations permitting allograft acceptance using immunosuppression alone. We found that reducing busulfan conditioning in murine syngeneic HSCT, increases bone marrow (BM):blood SDF-1 ratio and total donor cells homing to BM, but reduces the proportion of donor cells engrafting. Despite this, syngeneic engraftment is achievable with non-myeloablative busulfan (25 mg/kg) and higher cell doses induce increased chimerism. Therefore we investigated regimens promoting initial donor cell engraftment in the major histocompatibility complex barrier mismatched CBA to C57BL/6 allo-transplant model. This requires full myeloablation and immunosuppression with non-depleting anti-CD4/CD8 blocking antibodies to achieve engraftment of low cell doses, and rejects with reduced intensity conditioning (≤75 mg/kg busulfan). We compared increased antibody treatment, G-CSF, niche disruption and high cell dose, using reduced intensity busulfan and CD4/8 blockade in this model. Most treatments increased initial donor engraftment, but only addition of co-stimulatory blockade permitted long-term engraftment with reduced intensity or non-myeloablative conditioning, suggesting that signal 1 and 2 T-cell blockade is more important than early BM niche engraftment for transplant success.

  3. Transplantation of islet cells across major histocompatibility barriers after total lymphoid irradiation and infusion of allogeneic bone marrow cells

    Britt, L.D.; Scharp, D.W.; Lacy, P.E.; Slavin, S.

    1982-01-01

    Diabetic Lewis rats (AgB1/L) were evaluated as recipients of allogeneic Wistar-Furth (AgB2/2) isolated adult islets without the use of standard recipient immunosuppression. One group was treated with fractionated total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) and Wistar-Furth bone marrow cell reconstitution to proven chimerism prior to islet transplantation. This group returned to a prediabetic state following Wistar-Furth islet transplantation without any evidence of rejection for 100 days posttransplant. A second group of Lewis rats received only TLI without bone marrow treatment. They gave a varying result following islet transplantation with one recipient showing evidence of prolonged islet survival. A third chimeric control group did not receive isolated islets and did not alter their diabetic state. A fourth group was not given TLI nor donor bone marrow cells and uniformly rejected their allogeneic islets by 7 days. Thus, allogeneic adult islets will survive across major rat histocompatibility barriers using TLI and donor bone marrow chimerism as the only form of immunosuppression

  4. An analysis of the major challenges and obstacles for international technical cooperation in health, Brazil-Mozambique.

    Pereira, Eduardo Mazzaroppi Barao

    2017-07-01

    Health has become a priority issue on the agenda in relation to Brazilian international technical cooperation in the last decade. This applies to Mozambique which is a strategic partner of Brazil's when one takes into consideration the volume of projects that have been undertaken between the two countries and the available resources on offer. There has been a shift in the foreign policy paradigm which has resulted in a new Brazilian foreign policy posture that promotes bilateral agreements and international cooperation. On conducting a retrospective and current analysis it is clear that there are, however, major obstacles and challenges for bilateral agreements and technical international cooperation that require in-depth study and which need to be dealt with in the area of health. This paper seeks to identify and analyze these obstacles with a view to providing proposals for ways forward. It takes the approach of using the methodology of reviewing specialized journals on this topic as well as using qualitative research from the main actors and institutions involved in bilateral cooperation.

  5. Portal Vein Embolization as an Oncosurgical Strategy Prior to Major Hepatic Resection: Anatomic, Surgical and Technical Considerations for Successful Outcomes

    Sonia Tewani Orcutt

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Preoperative portal vein embolization (PVE is used to extend the indications for major hepatic resection, and it has become the standard of care for selected patients with hepatic malignancies treated at major hepatobiliary centers. To date, various techniques with different embolic materials have been used with similar results in the degree of liver hypertrophy. Regardless of the specific strategy used, both surgeons and interventional radiologists must be familiar with each other’s techniques to be able to create the optimal plan for each individual patient. Knowledge of the segmental anatomy of the liver is paramount to fully understand the liver segments that need to be embolized and resected. Understanding the portal vein anatomy and the branching variations, along with the techniques used to transect the portal vein during hepatic resection, is important because these variables can affect the PVE procedure and the eventual surgical resection. Comprehension of the advantages and disadvantages of approaches to the portal venous system and the various embolic materials used for PVE is essential to best tailor the procedures for each patient and to avoid complications. Before PVE, meticulous assessment of the portal vein branching anatomy is performed with cross-sectional imaging, and embolization strategies are developed based on the patient’s anatomy. The PVE procedure consists of several technical steps, and knowledge of these technical tips, potential complications and how to avoid the complications in each step is of great importance for safe and successful PVE, and ultimately successful hepatectomy. Because PVE is used as an adjunct to planned hepatic resection, priority must always be placed on safety, without compromising the integrity of the future liver remnant, and close collaboration between interventional radiologists and hepatobiliary surgeons is essential to achieve successful outcomes.

  6. "Population and poverty: major barriers to food accessibility" -- a panel discussion on civil society and people's participation.

    1996-01-01

    This paper summarizes conference statements on poverty and food policies that were made by parliamentary members from Malaysia, the Philippines, and India. These presentations were made after the main panel discussion on barriers to food accessibility. In Malaysia the government adopted a National Agricultural Policy in 1984. This policy encouraged increased productivity, effective use of resources, agricultural credit and incentives, and integrated pest management. Strong support was given to the food processing industry. Poverty was the main reason for food inaccessibility. Through government efforts, poverty was reduced from 16.5% in 1990 to 8.9% in 1995. The Filipino member reported that government efforts had focused on national campaigns to combat hunger and to encourage community participation. The government was forced to implement a national Plan of Action for Food Security due to increased population, environmental degradation, closing land frontiers, and the global economy. The Plan encouraged increases in productivity, price and supply stabilization, maintenance of stocks, and rice subsidies for the poor. Gender concerns were being incorporated into development programs. The Indian member linked food insecurity to world resource problems. He stated that food problems included imbalances between supply and demand, but more importantly inequalities in access to food and differences in nutritional content of food. Populations in developing countries spent a larger proportion of income on food of lesser quality and variety that contributed to nutritional deficiencies, particularly among women and children. Food insecurity was part of the cycle of poverty, hunger, low productivity, and high mortality. Poverty was the primary cause and a major consequence of hunger and chronic food insecurity. Although India increased food productivity, food insecurity remained. Multidisciplinary approaches are needed.

  7. Balloon dilation of the eustachian tube in a cadaver model: technical considerations, learning curve, and potential barriers.

    McCoul, Edward D; Singh, Ameet; Anand, Vijay K; Tabaee, Abtin

    2012-04-01

    The surgical management options for eustachian tube dysfunction have historically been limited. The goal of the current study was to evaluate the technical considerations, learning curve, and potential barriers for balloon dilation of the eustachian tube (BDET) as an alternative treatment modality. Prospective preclinical trial of BDET in a cadaver model. A novel balloon catheter device was used for eustachian tube dilation. Twenty-four BDET procedures were performed by three independent rhinologists with no prior experience with the procedure (eight procedures per surgeon). The duration and number of attempts of the individual steps and overall procedure were recorded. Endoscopic examination of the eustachian tube was performed after each procedure, and the surgeon was asked to rate the subjective difficulty on a five-point scale. Successful completion of the procedure occurred in each case. The overall mean duration of the procedure was 284 seconds, and a mean number of 1.15 attempts were necessary to perform the individual steps. The mean subjective procedure difficulty was noted as somewhat easy. Statistically shorter duration and subjectively easier procedure were noted in the second compared to the first half of the series, indicating a favorable learning curve. Linear fissuring within the eustachian tube lumen without submucosal disruption (nine procedures, 37%) and with submucosal disruption (five procedures, 21%) were noted. The significance of these physical findings is unclear. Preclinical testing of BDET is associated with favorable duration, learning curve, and overall ease of completion. Clinical trials are necessary to evaluate safety and efficacy. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  8. Understanding critical barriers to implementing a clinical information system in a nursing home through the lens of a socio-technical perspective.

    Or, Calvin; Dohan, Michael; Tan, Joseph

    2014-09-01

    This paper addresses key barriers to implementing a clinical information system (CIS) in a Hong Kong nursing home setting, from a healthcare specific socio-technical perspective. Data was collected through field observations (n = 12) and semi-structured individual interviews (n = 18) of CIS stakeholders in a Hong Kong nursing home, and analyzed using the immersion/crystallization approach. Complex interactions relevant to our case were contextualized and interpreted within the perspective of the Sittig-Singh Healthcare Socio-Technical Framework (HSTF). Three broad clusters of implementation barriers from the eight HSTF dimensions were identified: (a) Infrastructure-based barriers, which relate to conflict between government regulations and system functional needs of users; lack of financial support; inconsistency between workflow, work policy, and procedures; and inadequacy of hardware-software infrastructural and technical support; (b) Process-based barriers, which relate to mismatch between the technology, existing work practice and workflow, and communication; low system speed, accessibility, and stability; deficient computer literacy; more experience in health care profession; clinical content inadequacy and unavailability; as well as poor system usefulness and user interface design; and (c) Outcome-based barriers, which relate to the lack of measurement and monitoring of system effectiveness. Two additional dimensions underlining the importance of the ability of a CIS to change are proposed to extend the Sittig-Singh HSTF. First, advocacy would promote the articulation and influence of changes in the system and subsequent outcomes by CIS stakeholders, and second, adaptability would ensure the ability of the system to adjust to emerging needs. The broad set of discovered implementation shortcomings expands prior research on why CIS can fail in nursing home settings. Moreover, our investigation offers a knowledge base and recommendations that can serve

  9. Comparing barriers to mental health treatment and substance use disorder treatment among individuals with comorbid major depression and substance use disorders.

    Mojtabai, Ramin; Chen, Lian-Yu; Kaufmann, Christopher N; Crum, Rosa M

    2014-02-01

    Barriers to both mental health and substance use disorder treatments have rarely been examined among individuals with comorbid mental health and substance use disorders. In a sample of 393 adults with 12-month major depressive episodes and substance use disorders, we compared perceived barriers to these two types of treatments. Data were drawn from the 2005-2011 U.S. National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. Overall, the same individuals experienced different barriers to mental health treatment versus substance use disorder treatment. Concerns about negative views of the community, effects on job, and inconvenience of services were more commonly reported as reasons for not receiving substance use disorder treatment. Not affording the cost of care was the most common barrier to both types of treatments, but more commonly reported as a barrier to mental health treatment. Improved financial access through the Affordable Care Act and parity legislation and integration of mental health and substance use disorder services may help to reduce treatment barriers among individuals with comorbid mental health and substance disorders. © 2013.

  10. Common loss-of-function variants of the epidermal barrier protein filaggrin are a major predisposing factor for atopic dermatitis

    Palmer, Colin N A; Irvine, Alan D; Terron-Kwiatkowski, Ana

    2006-01-01

    most genetic studies have focused on immunological mechanisms, a primary epithelial barrier defect has been anticipated. Filaggrin is a key protein that facilitates terminal differentiation of the epidermis and formation of the skin barrier. Here we show that two independent loss-of-function genetic...... variants (R510X and 2282del4) in the gene encoding filaggrin (FLG) are very strong predisposing factors for atopic dermatitis. These variants are carried by approximately 9% of people of European origin. These variants also show highly significant association with asthma occurring in the context of atopic...

  11. Occupational segregation, gender essentialism and male primacy as major barriers to equity in HIV/AIDS caregiving: Findings from Lesotho

    Makoae Lucia

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gender segregation of occupations, which typically assigns caring/nurturing jobs to women and technical/managerial jobs to men, has been recognized as a major source of inequality worldwide with implications for the development of robust health workforces. In sub-Saharan Africa, gender inequalities are particularly acute in HIV/AIDS caregiving (90% of which is provided in the home, where women and girls make up the informal (and mostly unpaid workforce. Men's and boy's entry into HIV/AIDS caregiving in greater numbers would both increase the equity and sustainability of national and community-level HIV/AIDS caregiving and mitigate health workforce shortages, but notions of gender essentialism and male primacy make this far from inevitable. In 2008 the Capacity Project partnered with the Lesotho Ministry of Health and Social Welfare in a study of the gender dynamics of HIV/AIDS caregiving in three districts of Lesotho to account for men's absence in HIV/AIDS caregiving and investigate ways in which they might be recruited into the community and home-based care (CHBC workforce. Methods The study used qualitative methods, including 25 key informant interviews with village chiefs, nurse clinicians, and hospital administrators and 31 focus group discussions with community health workers, community members, ex-miners, and HIV-positive men and women. Results Study participants uniformly perceived a need to increase the number of CHBC providers to deal with the heavy workload from increasing numbers of patients and insufficient new entries. HIV/AIDS caregiving is a gender-segregated job, at the core of which lie stereotypes and beliefs about the appropriate work of men and women. This results in an inequitable, unsustainable burden on women and girls. Strategies are analyzed for their potential effectiveness in increasing equity in caregiving. Conclusions HIV/AIDS and human resources stakeholders must address occupational segregation

  12. Occupational segregation, gender essentialism and male primacy as major barriers to equity in HIV/AIDS caregiving: Findings from Lesotho.

    Newman, Constance J; Fogarty, Linda; Makoae, Lucia Nthabiseng; Reavely, Erik

    2011-06-08

    Gender segregation of occupations, which typically assigns caring/nurturing jobs to women and technical/managerial jobs to men, has been recognized as a major source of inequality worldwide with implications for the development of robust health workforces. In sub-Saharan Africa, gender inequalities are particularly acute in HIV/AIDS caregiving (90% of which is provided in the home), where women and girls make up the informal (and mostly unpaid) workforce. Men's and boy's entry into HIV/AIDS caregiving in greater numbers would both increase the equity and sustainability of national and community-level HIV/AIDS caregiving and mitigate health workforce shortages, but notions of gender essentialism and male primacy make this far from inevitable.In 2008 the Capacity Project partnered with the Lesotho Ministry of Health and Social Welfare in a study of the gender dynamics of HIV/AIDS caregiving in three districts of Lesotho to account for men's absence in HIV/AIDS caregiving and investigate ways in which they might be recruited into the community and home-based care (CHBC) workforce. The study used qualitative methods, including 25 key informant interviews with village chiefs, nurse clinicians, and hospital administrators and 31 focus group discussions with community health workers, community members, ex-miners, and HIV-positive men and women. Study participants uniformly perceived a need to increase the number of CHBC providers to deal with the heavy workload from increasing numbers of patients and insufficient new entries. HIV/AIDS caregiving is a gender-segregated job, at the core of which lie stereotypes and beliefs about the appropriate work of men and women. This results in an inequitable, unsustainable burden on women and girls. Strategies are analyzed for their potential effectiveness in increasing equity in caregiving. HIV/AIDS and human resources stakeholders must address occupational segregation and the underlying gender essentialism and male primacy if there

  13. Barriers to Point-of-Care Testing in India: Results from Qualitative Research across Different Settings, Users and Major Diseases

    Engel, Nora; Ganesh, Gayatri; Patil, Mamata; Yellappa, Vijayashree; Pant Pai, Nitika; Vadnais, Caroline; Pai, Madhukar

    2015-01-01

    Background Successful point-of-care testing, namely ensuring the completion of the test and treat cycle in the same encounter, has immense potential to reduce diagnostic and treatment delays, and impact patient outcomes. However, having rapid tests is not enough, as many barriers may prevent their successful implementation in point-of-care testing programs. Qualitative research on diagnostic practices may help identify such barriers across different points of care in health systems. Methods In this exploratory qualitative study, we conducted 78 semi-structured interviews and 13 focus group discussions in an urban and rural area of Karnataka, India, with healthcare providers (doctors, nurses, specialists, traditional healers, and informal providers), patients, community health workers, test manufacturers, laboratory technicians, program managers and policy-makers. Participants were purposively sampled to represent settings of hospitals, peripheral labs, clinics, communities and homes, in both the public and private sectors. Results In the Indian context, the onus is on the patient to ensure successful point-of-care testing across homes, clinics, labs and hospitals, amidst uncoordinated providers with divergent and often competing practices, in settings lacking material, money and human resources. We identified three overarching themes affecting point-of-care testing: the main theme is ‘relationships’ among providers and between providers and patients, influenced by the cross-cutting theme of ‘infrastructure’. Challenges with both result in ‘modified practices’ often favouring empirical (symptomatic) treatment over treatment guided by testing. Conclusions Even if tests can be conducted on the spot and infrastructure challenges have been resolved, relationships among providers and between patients and providers are crucial for successful point-of-care testing. Furthermore, these barriers do not act in isolation, but are interlinked and need to be examined

  14. Barriers to Point-of-Care Testing in India: Results from Qualitative Research across Different Settings, Users and Major Diseases.

    Nora Engel

    Full Text Available Successful point-of-care testing, namely ensuring the completion of the test and treat cycle in the same encounter, has immense potential to reduce diagnostic and treatment delays, and impact patient outcomes. However, having rapid tests is not enough, as many barriers may prevent their successful implementation in point-of-care testing programs. Qualitative research on diagnostic practices may help identify such barriers across different points of care in health systems.In this exploratory qualitative study, we conducted 78 semi-structured interviews and 13 focus group discussions in an urban and rural area of Karnataka, India, with healthcare providers (doctors, nurses, specialists, traditional healers, and informal providers, patients, community health workers, test manufacturers, laboratory technicians, program managers and policy-makers. Participants were purposively sampled to represent settings of hospitals, peripheral labs, clinics, communities and homes, in both the public and private sectors.In the Indian context, the onus is on the patient to ensure successful point-of-care testing across homes, clinics, labs and hospitals, amidst uncoordinated providers with divergent and often competing practices, in settings lacking material, money and human resources. We identified three overarching themes affecting point-of-care testing: the main theme is 'relationships' among providers and between providers and patients, influenced by the cross-cutting theme of 'infrastructure'. Challenges with both result in 'modified practices' often favouring empirical (symptomatic treatment over treatment guided by testing.Even if tests can be conducted on the spot and infrastructure challenges have been resolved, relationships among providers and between patients and providers are crucial for successful point-of-care testing. Furthermore, these barriers do not act in isolation, but are interlinked and need to be examined as such. Also, a test alone has only

  15. Independent technical support for the frozen soil barrier installation and operation at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (F1 Site)

    Looney, Brian B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jackson, Dennis G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Truex, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Christian D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-02-23

    TEPCO is implementing a number of water countermeasures to limit the releases and impacts of contaminated water to the surrounding environment. The diverse countermeasures work together in an integrated manner to provide different types, and several levels, of protection. In general, the strategy represents a comprehensive example of a “defense in depth” concept that is used for nuclear facilities around the world. One of the key countermeasures is a frozen soil barrier encircling the damaged reactor facilities. The frozen barrier is intended to limit the flow of water into the area and provide TEPCO the ability to reduce the amount of contaminated water that requires treatment and storage. The National Laboratory team supports the selection of artificial ground freezing and the incorporation of the frozen soil barrier in the contaminated water countermeasures -- the technical characteristics of a frozen barrier are relatively well suited to the Fukushima-specific conditions and the need for inflow reduction. Further, our independent review generally supports the TEPCO/Kajima design, installation strategy and operation plan.

  16. Gender differences in substance abuse treatment and barriers to care among persons with substance use disorders with and without comorbid major depression.

    Chen, Lian-Yu; Strain, Eric C; Crum, Rosa M; Mojtabai, Ramin

    2013-01-01

    To compare substance use disorders (SUD) treatment patterns and barriers to such treatment among men and women with SUD with and without comorbid major depressive episodes (MDE) in a community sample. Using data from adult participants in the National Survey on Drug Use and Health 2005-2010, we investigated differences by sex in the association of MDE comorbidity with SUD on patterns of, perceived unmet need for, and the perceived barriers to SUD treatments. Compared with participants with SUD without MDE, both men and women with comorbid SUD and MDE were more likely to use SUD services or to report an unmet need for such treatment. Sex modified the association of comorbidity and treatment patterns: males with MDE comorbidity had a greater likelihood of emergency room visits and use of inpatient services than females. Barriers to substance treatment were remarkably similar for males and females in both the SUD without MDE group and with MDE group, with attitudinal factors being the most common barriers. Comorbidity with MDE seems to be an important predictor of service utilization and perceived need for SUD treatment in both men and women. The association of comorbidity with the use of some types of services, however, seems to vary according to sex. The findings have implications for the design of sex-specific SUD treatment programs.

  17. Organic biomarkers to describe the major carbon inputs and cycling of organic matter in the central Great Barrier Reef region

    Burns, Kathryn; Brinkman, Diane

    2011-06-01

    Controversy surrounds the sources and transport of land derived pollutants in the Great Barrier Reef ecosystem because there is insufficient knowledge of the mechanism of movement of organic contaminants and the cycling of organic matter in this dynamic system. Thus a sediment and sediment trap study was used to describe the composition of resuspended and surface sediments in the south central Great Barrier Reef and its lagoon. This region is characterised by strong tides (6-8 m at Mackay) and trade winds regularly about 15-20 knots. A series of organic biomarkers detailed the cyclical processes of sediment resuspension, recolonising with marine algae and bacteria, packaging into zooplankton faecal pellets and resettlement to sediments where the organics undergo further diagenesis. With each cycle the inshore sediments are diluted with CaCO 3 reef sediments and moved further offshore with the strong ebb tide currents. This results in transport of land derived materials offshore and little storage of organic materials in the lagoon or reef sediments. These processes were detailed by inorganic measurements such as %CaCO 3 and Al/Ca ratios, and by the compositions of hydrocarbon, sterol, alcohol, and fatty acid lipid fractions. Persistent contaminants such as coal dust from a coastal loading facility can be detected in high concentration inshore and decreasing out to the shelf break at 180 m approximately 40 nautical miles offshore. The normal processes would likely be amplified during cyclonic and other storms. The lipids show the sources of carbon to include diatoms and other phytoplankton, creanaerchaeota, sulfate reducing and other bacteria, land plants including mangrove leaves, plus coal dust and other petroleum contaminants.

  18. The demise of a major Acropora palmata bank-barrier reef off the southeast coast of Barbados, West Indies

    MacIntyre, I. G.; Glynn, P. W.; Toscano, M. A.

    2007-12-01

    Formerly attributed to human activity, the demise of a bank-barrier reef off southeastern Barbados known as Cobbler’s Reef is now thought to be largely the result of late Holocene, millennial-scale storm damage. Eleven surface samples of the reef crest coral Acropora palmata from nine sites along its 15-km length plot above the western Atlantic sea-level curve from 3,000 to 4,500 cal years ago (calibrated, calendar 14C years). These elevated clusters suggest that the reef complex suffered extensive storm damage during this period. The constant heavy wave action typical of this area and consequent low herbivory maintain conditions favoring algal growth, thereby limiting the reestablishment of post-storm reef framework. Site descriptions and detailed line surveys show a surface now composed mainly of reworked fragments of A. palmata covered with algal turf, macroalgae and crustose coralline algae. The reef contains no live A. palmata and only a few scattered coral colonies consisting primarily of Diploria spp . and Porites astreoides, along with the hydrocoral Millepora complanata. A few in situ framework dates plot at expected depths for normal coral growth below the sea-level curve during and after the period of intense storm activity. The most recent of these in situ samples are 320 and 400 cal years old. Corals of this late period likely succumbed to high turbidity associated with land clearance for sugarcane agriculture in the mid-1600s.

  19. Molecular Characterization of Barrier Properties in Follicle-Associated Epithelium of Porcine Peyer's Patches Reveals Major Sealing Function of Claudin-4

    Judith Radloff

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The pig represents a preferred model for the analysis of intestinal immunology. However, the barrier of the follicle-associated epithelium (FAE covering porcine Peyer's patches (PP has not yet been characterized in detail. This study aimed to perform this characterization in order to pave the way toward an understanding of the functional contribution of epithelial barrier properties in gut immunology. Porcine tissue specimens were taken from the distal small intestine in order to obtain electrophysiological data of PP FAE and neighboring villous epithelium (VE, employing the Ussing chamber technique. Transepithelial resistance (TER and paracellular fluorescein flux were measured, and tissues were morphometrically compared. In selfsame tissues, expression and localization of major tight junction (TJ proteins (claudin-1, -2, -3, -4, -5, and -8 were analyzed. PP FAE specimens showed a higher TER and a lower apparent permeability for sodium fluorescein than VE. Immunoblotting revealed an expression of all claudins within both epithelia, with markedly stronger expression of the sealing TJ protein claudin-4 in PP FAE compared with the neighboring VE. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the expression and localization of all claudins in both PP FAE and VE, with stronger claudin-4 abundance in PP FAE. The results are in accordance with the physiological function of the FAE, which strongly regulates and limits antigen uptake determining a mandatory transcellular route for antigen presentation, highlighting the importance of this structure for the first steps of the intestinal immune response. Thus, this study provides detailed insights into the specific barrier properties of the porcine FAE covering intestinal PP, at the interface of intestinal immunology and barriology.

  20. Technical note. SR-Site Independent Modelling of Engineered Barrier Evolution and Coupled THMC. Contribution to the Initial Review Phase

    Benbow, Steven; Metcalfe, Richard; Watson, Claire; Bond, Alex [Quintessa Ltd, Henley on Thames (United Kingdom)

    2012-11-01

    This review has focussed mainly on the modelling of the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) evolution, which includes coupled thermal, hydraulic, mechanical and chemical (THMC) processes. Additionally, the role of the EBS in the wider safety case was reviewed, including its treatment in scenarios and its representation in conceptual models since this provided the motivation for the modelling work that was undertaken by SKB. The scope of the work described here was to: 1. Review relevant documents concerning SKB's modelling; and 2. Check one particular modelling area that was judged to be important, based on this review, with a limited set of independent modelling/calculations. The review covers the early resaturation and swelling / homogenisation of the buffer; the longer-term chemical evolution of the buffer and backfill, corrosion of the copper canister and the chemical and hydrogeological boundary conditions provided by the surrounding host rock. The reviewers consider that SKB's modelling of engineered barrier performance generally supports their conclusion that the barriers will perform as required. However, there remain issues that are not addressed and uncertainties that are not explored adequately by SKB's modelling. The thermo-hydro-mechanical modelling of buffer resaturation that is performed by SKB is based on demonstrating a fit to measurements from the in-situ Canister Retrieval Test (CRT) experiment. The modelling reproduces some of the experimental observations very well, but some key experimental measurements are not considered. In particular, investigation of the fit to the measured rates of water inflow, which are a critical factor controlling the rate at which the buffer will resaturate, is not given, Furthermore, the water supply boundary conditions imposed on the CRT are not considered to be representative of those that might be expected in repository conditions. From the information that it is presented it is therefore not possible

  1. Opportunities and barriers for international bioenergy trade

    Junginger, Martin; Dam, Jinke van; Zarrilli, Simonetta; Ali Mohamed, Fatin; Marchal, Didier; Faaij, Andre

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the international trade of various bioenergy commodities has grown rapidly, yet this growth is also hampered by some barriers. The aim of this paper is to obtain an overview of what market actors currently perceive as major opportunities and barriers for the development of international bioenergy trade. The work focuses on three bioenergy commodities: bioethanol, biodiesel and wood pellets. Data were collected through an internet-based questionnaire. The majority of the 141 respondents had an industrial background. Geographically, two-thirds were from (mainly Western) Europe, with other minor contributions from all other continents. Results show that import tariffs and the implementation of sustainability certification systems are perceived as (potentially) major barriers for the trade of bioethanol and biodiesel, while logistics are seen mainly as an obstacle for wood pellets. Development of technical standards was deemed more as an opportunity than a barrier for all commodities. Most important drivers were high fossil fuel prices and climate change mitigation policies. Concluding, to overcome some of the barriers, specific actions will be required by market parties and policy makers. Import tariffs for biofuels could be reduced or abolished, linked to multinational trade agreements and harmonization (including provisions on technical standards and sustainability requirements). - Research highlights: → We analyze main barriers for global trade of wood pellets, ethanol and biodiesel. → Import tariffs can be a major barrier for liquid biofuels trade. → Implementation of sustainability certification systems may hamper biofuels trade. → Logistics are seen mainly as an obstacle for the trade of wood pellets. → Development of technical standards are deemed an opportunity for bioenergy trade.

  2. Major knowledge gaps and system barriers to guideline implementation among European physicians treating patients with atrial fibrillation: a European Society of Cardiology international educational needs assessment.

    Heidbuchel, Hein; Dagres, Nikolaos; Antz, Matthias; Kuck, Karl-Heinz; Lazure, Patrice; Murray, Suzanne; Carrera, Céline; Hindricks, Gerhard; Vahanian, Alec

    2018-03-12

    Guideline-adherent treatment is associated with improved prognosis in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients but is insufficiently implemented in clinical practice. The European Society of Cardiology (ESC) performed a multinational educational needs assessment study among cardiologists, general practitioners/family physicians (GPs/FPs), and neurologists in order to evaluate knowledge and skills of physicians and system factors related to AF care delivery. A total of 561 physicians (294 cardiologists, 131 neurologists, and 136 GPs/FPs) from six European countries participated. This mixed-methods study included exploratory semi-structured qualitative interviews (n = 30) and a quantitative survey that included two clinical cases (n = 531). We identified eight key knowledge gaps and system barriers across all domains of AF care. A majority across all specialties reported skills needing improvement to classify AF pathophysiologically, rather than based on duration of episodes, and reported lack of availability of long-term electrocardiogram recording. Skills interpreting the CHA2DS2-VASc and the HAS-BLED scores were reported as needing improvement by the majority of neurologists (52% and 60%, respectively) and GPs/FPs (65% and 74%). Cardiologists calculated the CHA2DS2-VASc and HAS-BLED scores in 94%/70% in a presented case patient, but only 60%/49% of neurologists and 58%/42% of GPs/FPs did. There was much uncertainty on how to deal with anticoagulant therapy in complex patients. There was also a high disparity in using rate or rhythm control strategies, and indications for ablation. Information delivery to patients and communication between different specialties was often considered suboptimal, while national regulations and restrictions often hamper international guideline implementation. We identified major gaps in physicians' knowledge and skills across all domains of AF care, as well as system factors hampering guideline-compliant care implementation and

  3. Bone marrow transplantation across major histocompatibility barriers in mice. II. T cell requirement for engraftment in total lymphoid irradiation-conditioned recipients

    Vallera, D.A.; Soderling, C.C.; Carlson, G.J.; Kersey, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    Studies were undertaken to examine the role of T lymphocytes in engraftment of bone marrow (BM) in animals conditioned with total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) prior to transplantation across major histocompatibility barriers. Donor BM (added as a source of lymphohematopoietic stem cells) and spleen cells (added as a source of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD)-causing cells) were pretreated in vitro with monoclonal anti-Thy-1.2 plus complement (C). T cell-depleted grafts were then give to allogeneic mice conditioned with 900 rad of single dose TLI plus cyclophosphamide (CY). These mice did not engraft. Even in the absence of added spleen cells, elimination of the small T cell population from donor BM grafts prevented engraftment compared with animals that received the same conditioning regimen and untreated donor cells. These control animals demonstrated uniform evidence of engraftment about 1 month after transplantation. Similar findings were reported when recipients were conditioned with fractionated 17 x 200-rad TLI. In TLI plus CY-conditional recipients, we have also observed that increasing the donation of treated bone marrow cells still did not result in significant engraftment. Furthermore, graft failure in mice receiving normal dosages of anti-Thy-1.2 plus C-treated donor cells was not a strain-restricted phenomenon. Moreover, removal of bone marrow T cells with monoclonal anti-Lyt-1 plus complement also resulted in graft failure in TLI-conditioned recipients. In contrast to TLI conditioning, when Thy-1.2 plus C-treated donor cells were given to recipients conditioned with total body irradiation (TBI), a high percentage of engraftment was demonstrated by an H-2 microcytotoxicity assay. Plausible mechanisms for there findings are discussed

  4. Lack of knowledge of HIV status a major barrier to HIV prevention, care and treatment efforts in Kenya: results from a nationally representative study.

    Peter Cherutich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We analyzed HIV testing rates, prevalence of undiagnosed HIV, and predictors of testing in the Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey (KAIS 2007. METHODS: KAIS was a nationally representative sero-survey that included demographic and behavioral indicators and testing for HIV, HSV-2, syphilis, and CD4 cell counts in the population aged 15-64 years. We used gender-specific multivariable regression models to identify factors independently associated with HIV testing in sexually active persons. RESULTS: Of 19,840 eligible persons, 80% consented to interviews and blood specimen collection. National HIV prevalence was 7.1% (95% CI 6.5-7.7. Among ever sexually active persons, 27.4% (95% CI 25.6-29.2 of men and 44.2% (95% CI 42.5-46.0 of women reported previous HIV testing. Among HIV-infected persons, 83.6% (95% CI 76.2-91.0 were unaware of their HIV infection. Among sexually active women aged 15-49 years, 48.7% (95% CI 46.8-50.6 had their last HIV test during antenatal care (ANC. In multivariable analyses, the adjusted odds ratio (AOR for ever HIV testing in women ≥35 versus 15-19 years was 0.2 (95% CI: 0.1-0.3; p<0.0001. Other independent associations with ever HIV testing included urban residence (AOR 1.6, 95% CI: 1.2-2.0; p = 0.0005, women only, highest wealth index versus the four lower quintiles combined (AOR 1.8, 95% CI: 1.3-2.5; p = 0.0006, men only, and an increasing testing trend with higher levels of education. Missed opportunities for testing were identified during general or pregnancy-specific contacts with health facilities; 89% of adults said they would participate in home-based HIV testing. CONCLUSIONS: The vast majority of HIV-infected persons in Kenya are unaware of their HIV status, posing a major barrier to HIV prevention, care and treatment efforts. New approaches to HIV testing provision and education, including home-based testing, may increase coverage. Targeted interventions should involve sexually active men, sexually

  5. Listening to rural Hispanic immigrants in the Midwest: a community-based participatory assessment of major barriers to health care access and use.

    Cristancho, Sergio; Garces, D Marcela; Peters, Karen E; Mueller, Benjamin C

    2008-05-01

    Hispanic immigrants are increasingly residing in rural communities, including in the midwestern United States. Limitations in the ability of rural Hispanics to access and utilize health care contribute to patterns of poor health and health disparity. A conceptual model of "vulnerability" guides this community-based participatory assessment project designed to explore rural Hispanics' perceived barriers to accessing and utilizing health care. Findings from a series of 19 focus groups with 181 participants from three communities in the upper Midwest identified perceived barriers at the individual and health care system levels. The most commonly perceived barriers were the lack of and limitations in health insurance coverage, high costs of health care services, communication issues involving patients and providers, legal status/discrimination, and transportation concerns. Findings imply that these barriers could be addressed using multiple educational and health service delivery policy-related strategies that consider the vulnerable nature of this growing population.

  6. Transport of cryptotanshinone, a major active triterpenoid in Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge widely used in the treatment of stroke and Alzheimer's disease, across the blood-brain barrier.

    Yu, Xi-Yong; Lin, Shu-Guang; Chen, Xiao; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; Liang, Jun; Duan, Wei; Chowbay, Balram; Wen, Jing-Yuan; Chan, Eli; Cao, Jie; Li, Chun-Guang; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2007-05-01

    Cryptotanshinone (CTS), a major constituent from the roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen), is widely used in the treatment of coronary heart disease, stroke and less commonly Alzheimer's disease. Our recent study indicates that CTS is a substrate for P-glycoprotein (PgP/MDR1/ABCB1). This study has investigated the nature of the brain distribution of CTS across the brain-blood barrier (BBB) using several in vitro and in vivo rodent models. A polarized transport of CTS was found in rat primary microvascular endothelial cell (RBMVEC) monolayers, with facilitated efflux from the abluminal side to luminal side. Addition of a PgP (e.g. verapamil and quinidine) or multi-drug resistance protein 1/2 (MRP1/2) inhibitor (e.g. probenecid and MK-571) in both luminal and abluminal sides attenuated the polarized transport. In a bilateral in situ brain perfusion model, the uptake of CTS into the cerebrum increased from 0.52 +/- 0.1% at 1 min to 11.13 +/- 2.36 ml/100 g tissue at 30 min and was significantly greater than that of sucrose. Co-perfusion of a PgP/MDR1 (e.g. verapamil) or MRP1/2 inhibitor (e.g. probenecid) significantly increased the brain distribution of CTS by 35.1-163.6%. The brain levels of CTS were only about 21% of those in plasma, and were significantly increased when coadministered with verapamil or probenecid in rats. The brain levels of CTS in rats subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion and rats treated with quinolinic acid (a neurotoxin) were about 2- to 2.5-fold higher than the control rats. Moreover, the brain levels in mdr1a(-/-) and mrp1(-/-) mice were 10.9- and 1.5-fold higher than those in the wild-type mice, respectively. Taken collectively, these findings indicate that PgP and Mrp1 limit the brain penetration of CTS in rodents, suggesting a possible role of PgP and MRP1 in limiting the brain penetration of CTS in patients and causing drug resistance to Danshen therapy and interactions with conventional drugs that are substrates of PgP and MRP1

  7. Summary Report of the Technical Meeting on Inelastic Scattering and Capture Cross-section Data of Major Actinides in the Fast Neutron Region

    Plompen, Arjan; Kawano, Toshihiko; Capote Noy, Roberto

    2012-05-01

    Recently, tight target uncertainties on the capture and inelastic scattering data for major actinides were derived from advanced reactor sensitivity studies. A Technical Meeting on 'Inelastic Scattering and Capture Cross-section Data of Major Actinides in the Fast Neutron Region' was held at IAEA Headquarters, Vienna, Austria to review the status of nuclear data libraries for these cross sections, the status of the experimental results by which these can be tested and to evaluate what advances in nuclear modeling and measurement technique may bring to improve the knowledge of these cross sections. The participants compared recent evaluations with various modeling approaches that have not yet been adopted in data libraries. Several points of interest were found. First, different evaluations may show very similar performance for macroscopic benchmarks. Second, recent modeling improvements from different communities and using different codes tend to converge on the principles in the case of coupled channel calculations. In particular, it was shown that meaningful results require convergence with respect to the number of coupled channels and the use of the dispersive coupled channels potential based with an isospin dependent term to treat neutrons and protons in a coherent manner appears to be uncontested. Also, the issue regarding the use of transmission coefficients from coupled channels calculations in the Hauser Feshbach model was tackled. Recent and ongoing experimental efforts were presented for capture and inelastic scattering on the major actinides. Results from these are likely to become available in a period from 2 to 5 years. A discussion on the representation of the data in EXFOR revealed that care must be taken interpreting the numbers given in the case of inelastic scattering. It has been a long time since capture data were obtained for fissile nuclei and it is exciting to find new efforts are being considered at LANL, CERN and CENBG/IRMM. It was finally

  8. Programs of Study as a State Policy Mandate: A Longitudinal Study of the South Carolina Personal Pathways to Success Initiative. Final Technical Report: Major Findings and Implications

    Hammond, Cathy; Drew, Sam F.; Withington, Cairen; Griffith, Cathy; Swiger, Caroline M.; Mobley, Catherine; Sharp, Julia L.; Stringfield, Samuel C.; Stipanovic, Natalie; Daugherty, Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    This is the final technical report from the National Research Center for Career and Technical Education's (NRCCTE's) five-year longitudinal study of South Carolina's Personal Pathway to Success initiative, which was authorized by the state's Education and Economic Development Act (EEDA) in 2005. NRCCTE-affiliated researchers at the National…

  9. Congener-specific analysis of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in the major Chinese technical PCB formulation from a stored Chinese electrical capacitor.

    Huang, Jun; Yu, Gang; Yamauchi, Makoto; Matsumura, Toru; Yamazaki, Norimasa; Weber, Roland

    2015-10-01

    Impurity of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in commercial polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) formulations has been recognized as a relevant source of PCNs in the environment. Congener-specific analysis of most main PCB formulations has been accomplished previously, excluding the Chinese product. The insulating oil in a stored Chinese electric capacitor containing the major Chinese technical formulation "PCB3" was sampled and tested by isotope dilution technology using high-resolution gas chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). The detected concentration of PCNs in the Chinese PCB oil sample was 1,307.5 μg/g and therefore significantly higher than that reported in PCB formulations from other countries, as well as that in the transformer oil (ASKAREL Nr 1740) additionally tested in the present study for comparison. Based on the measurement, the total amount of PCNs in Chinese PCB3 oil is estimated to be 7.8 t, which would mean only 0.005 % of global production of PCNs of 150,000 t. The homolog profile is similar to those of PCN in Aroclor 1262 and Clophen A40, where the contributions from hexa-CNs and hepta-CNs are predominant and accounted for similar proportions. The Toxic Equivalent Quantity (TEQ) concentration of dioxin-like PCN congeners is 0.47 μg TEQ/g, with the dominant contributors of CN-73 and CN-66/67. This TEQ content from PCN is higher than that in most other PCB formulations with the exemption of the Russian Sovol formulation. The total TEQ in the historic 6,000 t of the Chinese PCB3 formulation is estimated to be 2.8 kg TEQ.

  10. Information barriers

    Fuller, J.L.; Wolford, J.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: An information barrier (IB) consists of procedures and technology that prevent the release of sensitive information during a joint inspection of a sensitive nuclear item, and provides confidence that the measurement system into which it has been integrated functions exactly as designed and constructed. Work in the U.S. on radiation detection system information barriers dates back at least to 1990, even though the terminology is more recent. In January 1999 the Joint DoD-DOE Information Barrier Working Group was formed in the United States to help coordinate technical efforts related to information barrier R and D. This paper presents an overview of the efforts of this group, by its Chairs, as well as recommendations for further information barrier R and D. Progress on the demonstration of monitoring systems containing IBs is also provided. From the U.S. perspective, the basic, top-level functional requirements for the information barrier portion of an integrated radiation signature-information barrier inspection system are twofold: The host must be assured that his classified information is protected from disclosure to the inspecting party; and The inspecting party must be confident that the integrated inspection system measures, processes, and presents the radiation-signature-based measurement conclusion in an accurate and reproducible manner. It is the position of the United States that in the absence of any agreement to share classified nuclear weapons design information in the conduct of an inspection regime, the requirement to protect host country classified warhead design information is paramount and admits no tradeoff versus the confidence provided to the inspecting party in the accuracy and reproducibility of the measurements. The U.S. has reached an internal consensus on several critical design elements that define a general standard for radiation signature information barrier design. These criteria have stood the test of time under intense

  11. The Influence of Drainage Wells Barrier on Reducing the Amount of Major Contaminants Migrating from a Very Large Mine Tailings Disposal Site

    Duda Robert

    2014-12-01

    its foreground. The efficiency of groundwater protection was determined on the basis of a new approach. In applied method the loads of characteristic and commonly recognizable compounds, i.e. salt (NaCl and gypsum (CaSO4 were calculated, instead their chemical components. The temporal and spatial variability of captured main contaminants loads as well as its causes are discussed. The paper ends with the results of efficiency analyses of the barrier and with respect to the predicted increase in contaminant concentrations in the pulp poured out to the tailings site.

  12. Possible modernization of the U-400 cyclotron facilities to perform precise RIB experiments in the vicinity of the Coulomb barrier. (The technical proposal)

    Majdikov, V.Z.; Bashevoj, V.V.; Mel'nikov, V.N.

    1998-01-01

    An analysis of the ion-optical parameters of the existing facilities for precise nuclear reactions experiments at the U-400 cyclotron swichyard shows that some improvement can be made to perform RIB experiments at the Coulomb barrier of interactions. A change in the position of a dozen of quadrupole lenses at the cyclotron switchyard permits one to obtain parameters of magnetic spectrometers adequate for the modern experiments

  13. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the commercial and industrial sectors in British Columbia: Technical/economic potential, market barriers, and strategies for success

    Boudreau, K.

    2000-05-01

    According to current forecasts, greenhouse gas emissions from energy consumption by the commercial and industrial sector will increase from 11,000 kilotonnes to 16,000 kilotons between 1990 and 2015. During the same period electricity generated in British Columbia from fossil fuel combustion will have increased from five per cent to 26 per cent. Therefore, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions it will be imperative to find ways of significantly reducing the consumption of electricity, natural gas and petroleum products in both the commercial and industrial sectors. Increased application of energy conservation practices, energy efficiency improvements, fuel switching and the increased use of renewable energy sources come to mind as the most appropriate strategies to be considered, despite formidable barriers to implementation. Despite the existence of barriers, some progress is being made as indicated by codes and standards, financial incentives, educational and public awareness campaigns, and research and development programs. This report examines the barriers, the measures that have already been implemented to combat greenhouse gas emissions and the economic and environmental benefits that will accrue from these and other measures currently under development. The beneficial impact of increased investment in greenhouse gas emission reduction technologies on employment is emphasized. 24 refs., tabs., figs

  14. Barriers to the Integration of Computers in Early Childhood Settings: Teachers' Perceptions

    Nikolopoulou, Kleopatra; Gialamas, Vasilis

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated teachers' perceptions of barriers to using - integrating computers in early childhood settings. A 26-item questionnaire was administered to 134 early childhood teachers in Greece. Lack of funding, lack of technical and administrative support, as well as inadequate training opportunities were among the major perceived…

  15. Underground openings in clay formations - Technical requirements on drifting technology and support systems for underground openings and their impact on retreat systems for the installation of engineered barriers

    Mischo, Helmut

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Several countries are currently investigating the possibility of long-term storage of nuclear waste in clay formations, with a special focus on mud-stone formations. During the last decades extensive research has been conducted on the suitability of mud-stone as repository and the related special requirements of the clay matrix - with significant success. The knowledge base on the behaviour of the host formations during the mining phase of the excavations on the other hand is relatively limited compared to that of other investigated host rock formations, e.g. salt. With the low value of mud-stone and its relatively limited industrial application range, there have not been any large scale commercial underground mining activities in recent years to provide a significant and independent database on the behaviour of the selected mud-stone formations or their geological analogue during mining activities. Most information currently used for the assessment of this type of sediment and the planning of the mining activities has been gathered either during the execution of logistics and tunneling projects or during the excavation of today's underground laboratories. There is, however, a database on a vast variety of clay deposit types and morphologies available from commercial underground clay mining activities worldwide. The data available on commercial clay mining shows significant differences for each and every technological stage of clay mining as compared to the stages of any other mining operation. This is, amongst other things, due to the high and partly extreme ductility and creeping properties of typical clay formations, especially when considering their sensitiveness to a changing water content. In general the technical and technological differences include the applicable mining technology for the excavation of underground openings, the need for an advancement of any available technology to waterless variants as

  16. Technical note 5. SR-Site Independent Modelling of Engineered Barrier Evolution and Coupled THMC. Contribution to the Initial Review Phase

    Benbow, Steven; Metcalfe, Richard; Watson, Claire; Bond, Alex

    2012-06-01

    This review has focussed mainly on the modelling of the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) evolution, which includes coupled thermal, hydraulic, mechanical and chemical (THMC) processes. Additionally, the role of the EBS in the wider safety case was reviewed, including its treatment in scenarios and its representation in conceptual models since this provided the motivation for the modelling work that was undertaken by SKB. The scope of the work described here was to: 1. Review relevant documents concerning SKB's modelling; and 2. Check one particular modelling area that was judged to be important, based on this review, with a limited set of independent modelling/calculations. The review covers the early resaturation and swelling / homogenisation of the buffer; the longer-term chemical evolution of the buffer and backfill, corrosion of the copper canister and the chemical and hydrogeological boundary conditions provided by the surrounding host rock. The reviewers consider that SKB's modelling of engineered barrier performance generally supports their conclusion that the barriers will perform as required. However, there remain issues that are not addressed and uncertainties that are not explored adequately by SKB's modelling. The thermo-hydro-mechanical modelling of buffer resaturation that is performed by SKB is based on demonstrating a fit to measurements from the in-situ Canister Retrieval Test (CRT) experiment. The modelling reproduces some of the experimental observations very well, but some key experimental measurements are not considered. In particular, investigation of the fit to the measured rates of water inflow, which are a critical factor controlling the rate at which the buffer will resaturate, is not given, Furthermore, the water supply boundary conditions imposed on the CRT are not considered to be representative of those that might be expected in repository conditions. From the information that it is presented it is therefore not possible to be confident

  17. Animal intrusion studies for protective barriers: Status report for FY 1988

    Cadwell, L.L.; Eberhardt, L.E.; Simmons, M.A.

    1989-05-01

    The objective of the Biointrusion Control Task is to provide technical support to Westinghouse Hanford Company's Protective Barrier Development Program for evaluating and predicting potential impacts of animal burrowing on long-term barrier performance. This document reviews the major accomplishments for FY 1988, which is the initial year of the work. The scope of work includes a literature review, field studies, and modeling to assess burrowing impacts as they may contribute to increased infiltration of surface water through barriers, increased quantities of soil available for erosion because of surface soil disturbance, and direct physical transport of contaminants to the surface. 68 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Technical Report Series on Global Modeling and Data Assimilation. Volume 32; Estimates of AOD Trends (2002 - 2012) Over the World's Major Cities Based on the MERRA Aerosol Reanalysis

    Provencal, Simon; Kishcha, Pavel; Elhacham, Emily; daSilva, Arlindo M.; Alpert, Pinhas; Suarez, Max J.

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Global Modeling and Assimilation Office has extended the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Application (MERRA) tool with five atmospheric aerosol species (sulfates, organic carbon, black carbon, mineral dust and sea salt). This inclusion of aerosol reanalysis data is now known as MERRAero. This study analyses a ten-year period (July 2002 - June 2012) MERRAero aerosol reanalysis applied to the study of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and its trends for the aforementioned aerosol species over the world's major cities (with a population of over 2 million inhabitants). We found that a proportion of various aerosol species in total AOD exhibited a geographical dependence. Cities in industrialized regions (North America, Europe, central and eastern Asia) are characterized by a strong proportion of sulfate aerosols. Organic carbon aerosols are dominant over cities which are located in regions where biomass burning frequently occurs (South America and southern Africa). Mineral dust dominates other aerosol species in cities located in proximity to the major deserts (northern Africa and western Asia). Sea salt aerosols are prominent in coastal cities but are dominant aerosol species in very few of them. AOD trends are declining over cities in North America, Europe and Japan, as a result of effective air quality regulation. By contrast, the economic boom in China and India has led to increasing AOD trends over most cities in these two highly-populated countries. Increasing AOD trends over cities in the Middle East are caused by increasing desert dust.

  19. A major safety overhaul

    2003-01-01

    A redefined policy, a revamped safety course, an environmental project... the TIS (Technical Inspection and Safety) Division has begun a major safety overhaul. Its new head, Wolfgang Weingarten, explains to the Bulletin why and how this is happening.

  20. Human and Organisational Safety Barriers in the Oil & Gas Industry

    Nystad, E.; Szőke, I.

    2016-01-01

    The oil & gas industry is a safety-critical industry where errors or accidents may potentially have severe consequences. Offshore oil & gas installations are complex technical systems constructed to pump hydrocarbons from below the seabed, process them and pipe them to onshore refineries. Hydrocarbon leaks may lead to major accidents or have negative environmental impacts. The industry must therefore have a strong focus on safety. Safety barriers are devices put into place to prevent or reduce the effects of unwanted incidents. Technical barriers are one type of safety barrier, e.g., blow-out preventers to prevent uncontrolled release of hydrocarbons from a well. Human operators may also have an important function in maintaining safety. These human operators are part of a larger organisation consisting of different roles and responsibilities and with different mechanisms for ensuring safety. This paper will present two research projects from the Norwegian oil & gas industry that look at the role of humans and organisations as safety barriers. The first project used questionnaire data to investigate the use of mindful safety practices (safety-promoting work practices intended to prevent or interrupt unwanted events) and what contextual factors may affect employees’ willingness to use these safety practices. Among the findings was that employees’ willingness to use mindful safety practices was affected more by factors on a group level than factors at an individual or organisational level, and that the factors may differ depending on what is the object of a practice—the employee or other persons. It was also suggested that employees’ willingness to use mindful safety practices could be an indicator used in the assessment of the safety level on oil & gas installations. The second project is related to organisational safety barriers against major accidents. This project was based on a review of recent incidents in the Norwegian oil & gas industry, as well as

  1. Nagra technical report 14-02, Geological basics - Dossier VI - Barrier properties of proposed host rock sediments and neighbouring rock; SGT Etappe 2: Vorschlag weiter zu untersuchender geologischer Standortgebiete mit zugehörigen Standortarealen für die Oberflächenanlage -- Geologische Grundlagen -- Dossier VI -- Barriereneigenschaften der Wirt- und Rahmengesteine

    Gautschi, A.; Deplazes, G.; Traber, D.; Marschall, P. [National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA), Wettingen (Switzerland); Mazurek, M.; Gimmi, T.; Maeder, U. [Institute of Geological Sciences, University of Berne, Berne (Switzerland)

    2014-12-15

    This dossier is the sixth of a series of eight reports concerning the safety and technical aspects of locations for the disposal of radioactive wastes in Switzerland. It discusses the barrier properties of the proposed host rock sediments and neighbouring rock layers. The mineralogical composition of the host rocks are discussed as are their pore densities and hydrological properties. Diffusion aspects are discussed. The aquifer systems in the proposed depository areas and their classification are looked at. The barrier properties of the host rocks and those of neighbouring sediments are discussed. Finally, modelling concepts and parameters for the transport of radionuclides in the rocks are discussed.

  2. Technical approach document

    1988-04-01

    This document describes the general technical approaches and design criteria adopted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in order to implement Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) and final designs that comply with EPS standards. This document is a revision to the original document. Major revisions were made to the sections in riprap selection and sizing, and ground-water; only minor revisions were made to the remainder of the document. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has prepared a Standard Review Plan (NRC-SRP) which describes factors to be considered by the NRC in approving the RAP. Sections 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, and 7.0 of this document are arranged under the same headings as those used in the NRC-SRP. This approach is adopted in order to facilitate joint use of the documents. Section 2.0 (not included in the NRC-SRP) discusses design considerations; Section 3.0 describes surface-water hydrology and erosion control; Section 4.0 describes geotechnical aspects of pile design; Section 5.0 discusses the Alternate Site Selection Process; Section 6.0 deals with radiological issues (in particular, the design of the radon barrier); Section 7.0 discusses protection of groundwater resources; and Section 8.0 discusses site design criteria for the RAC

  3. Performance of engineered barrier materials in near surface disposal facilities for radioactive waste. Results of a co-ordinated research project

    2001-11-01

    The primary objectives of the CRP were to: promote the sharing of experiences of the Member States in their application of engineered barrier materials for near surface disposal facilities; help enhance their use of engineered barriers by improving techniques and methods for selecting, planning and testing performance of various types of barrier materials for near surface disposal facilities. The objective of this publication is to provide and overview of technical issues related to the engineered barrier systems and a summary of the major findings of each individual research project that was carried out within the framework of the CRP. This publication deals with a general overview of engineered barriers in near surface disposal facilities, key technical information obtained within the CRP and overall conclusions and recommendations for future research and development activities. Appendices presenting individual research accomplishments are also provided. Each of the 13 appendices was indexed separately

  4. Nationwide survey on barriers for dental research in India

    Kundendu Arya Bishen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Research in the dental field is progressing at mightier speed worldwide, but an unfortunately representation of India at this platform is negligible. The present study was undertaken to unearth the barriers for dental research among dental professionals in Indian scenario. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted on 1514 participant′s (Master of Dental Surgery and Bachelor of Dental Surgery staff and postgraduates in 40 dental colleges of India selected by multistage random sampling. The response rate was 75.7%. The survey was undertaken from July 2013 to December 2013. The survey instrument was 24-item, investigator developed, self-structured, close-ended, and self-administered questionnaire grouped into four categories that are, institutional/departmental support related barriers, financial/training support related barriers, time-related barriers, and general barriers. Results: Among all respondents 47.23% informed that they are administrative and educational work rather than research work as (P < 0.001. Overall 57.53% of study participants reported lack of administrative and technical support for research work as (P < 0.001. Overall 64.9% reported meager college funding was the barrier (P < 0.001. Overall 61.5% respondents reported lack of time to do research work due to clinical and teaching responsibilities (P < 0.001 was the barrier for research. Largely 80.25% agreed that, the lack of documentation and record maintenance are an obvious barrier for research (P < 0.001. Conclusions: Present study unearths certain barriers for research in an Indian scenario, which includes administrative overburden, lack of funds, and lack of documentation of the dental data. Governing authorities of dentistry in India have to make major interventions to make research non-intensive environment to research-friendly environment.

  5. Physical Environmental Barriers to School Attendance among ...

    environment were the major barriers to school attendance. Conclusion: To ... Key words: Parents/caregivers, children with disabilities, barriers. Introduction .... It is not safe to walk ... feeling, learning, behaviour, and fits or convulsions. [19] The ...

  6. Communicating across barriers at home and abroad

    McDonald, J. W.

    This paper intends to catalyze the exchange of experience among technical communicators in meeting the challenge of communicating across a multitude of barriers: linguistic, disciplinary, cultural, political, intellectual, and emotional.

  7. Transformation of technical infrastructure

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev

    , the evolution of large technological systems and theories about organisational and technological transformationprocesses. The empirical work consist of three analysis at three different levels: socio-technical descriptions of each sector, an envestigation of one municipality and envestigations of one workshop......The scope of the project is to investigate the possibillities of - and the barriers for a transformation of technical infrastructure conserning energy, water and waste. It focus on urban ecology as a transformation strategy. The theoretical background of the project is theories about infrastructure...

  8. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    A. Ball and W. Zeuner

    2010-01-01

    Overview Once again, the bulk of this article reviews the intense activity of a recently completed shutdown, which, although quite unforeseeable until a few weeks before it started, proved by its success that our often advertised capability to conduct major maintenance within a two month period is real. Although safely completed, on-time to remarkable precision, the activity was not without incident, and highlighted our dependence on many experienced, specialist teams and their precise choreography. Even after the yoke was safely closed, magnet re-commissioning and beampipe pumpdown showed new and thought-provoking behaviour. The struggle to maintain adequate technical resources will be a pre-occupation over the coming months, in parallel with the start of truly sustained operation, for which various procedures are still being put in place. Planning for future shutdowns must now become a high priority, with many working groups and task forces already in existence to prepare infrastructure improvements and to...

  9. Cryogenic Barrier Demonstration Project. Final report

    Johnson, L.A.; Yarmak, E.; Long, E.L.

    2000-03-01

    A long-term frozen soil barrier was implemented at the HRE (Homogeneous Reactor Experiment) Pond facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1997. This was performed to verify the technical feasibility and costs of deploying a frozen barrier at a radiologically contaminated site. Work began in September 1996 and progressed through to December 1999. The frozen barrier has been operational since November 1997. Verification of the barrier integrity was performed independently by the EPA's SITE Program. This project showed frozen barriers offer a proven technology to retain below grade hazardous substances at relatively low costs with minimal effect on the environment.

  10. Technical writing versus technical writing

    Dillingham, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    Two terms, two job categories, 'technical writer' and 'technical author' are discussed in terms of industrial and business requirements and standards. A distinction between 'technical writing' and technical 'writing' is made. The term 'technical editor' is also considered. Problems inherent in the design of programs to prepare and train students for these jobs are discussed. A closer alliance between industry and academia is suggested as a means of preparing students with competent technical communication skills (especially writing and editing skills) and good technical skills.

  11. Thermal barrier coatings application in diesel engines

    Fairbanks, J. W.

    1995-01-01

    Commercial use of thermal barrier coatings in diesel engines began in the mid 70's by Dr. Ingard Kvernes at the Central Institute for Industrial Research in Oslo, Norway. Dr. Kvernes attributed attack on diesel engine valves and piston crowns encountered in marine diesel engines in Norwegian ships as hot-corrosion attributed to a reduced quality of residual fuel. His solution was to coat these components to reduce metal temperature below the threshold of aggressive hot-corrosion and also provide protection. Roy Kamo introduced thermal barrier coatings in his 'Adiabatic Diesel Engine' in the late 70's. Kamo's concept was to eliminate the engine block water cooling system and reduce heat losses. Roy reported significant performance improvements in his thermally insulated engine at the SAE Congress in 1982. Kamo's work stimulates major programs with insulated engines, particularly in Europe. Most of the major diesel engine manufacturers conducted some level of test with insulated combustion chamber components. They initially ran into increased fuel consumption. The German engine consortium had Prof. Woschni of the Technical Institute in Munich. Woschni conducted testing with pistons with air gaps to provide the insulation effects. Woschni indicated the hot walls of the insulated engine created a major increase in heat transfer he refers to as 'convection vive.' Woschni's work was a major factor in the abrupt curtailment of insulated diesel engine work in continental Europe. Ricardo in the UK suggested that combustion should be reoptimized for the hot-wall effects of the insulated combustion chamber and showed under a narrow range of conditions fuel economy could be improved. The Department of Energy has supported thermal barrier coating development for diesel engine applications. In the Clean Diesel - 50 Percent Efficient (CD-50) engine for the year 2000, thermal barrier coatings will be used on piston crowns and possibly other components. The primary purpose of the

  12. Major depression

    Depression - major; Depression - clinical; Clinical depression; Unipolar depression; Major depressive disorder ... providers do not know the exact causes of depression. It is believed that chemical changes in the ...

  13. Engineered barrier system and waste package design concepts for a potential geologic repository at Yucca Mountain

    Short, D.W.; Ruffner, D.J.; Jardine, L.J.

    1991-10-01

    We are using an iterative process to develop preliminary concept descriptions for the Engineered Barrier System and waste-package components for the potential geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. The process allows multiple design concepts to be developed subject to major constraints, requirements, and assumptions. Involved in the highly interactive and interdependent steps of the process are technical specialists in engineering, metallic and nonmetallic materials, chemistry, geomechanics, hydrology, and geochemistry. We have developed preliminary design concepts that satisfy both technical and nontechnical (e.g., programmatic or policy) requirements

  14. Barrier Systems

    Heteren, S. van

    2015-01-01

    Barrier-system dynamics are a function of antecedent topography and substrate lithology, Relative sea-level (RSL) changes, sediment availability and type, climate, vegetation type and cover, and various aero- and hydrodynamic processes during fair-weather conditions and extreme events. Global change

  15. Overcoming barriers to public understanding of nuclear waste management

    Wilder, M.; Hall, S.

    1987-01-01

    Communication with the public to promote public understanding of, and participation in, nuclear waste issues is crucial. However, such communication with the public is falling short. One of the major reasons for this failure is that the public feels it cannot trust the motivations or actions of USDOE. The biggest barrier to public involvement in nuclear waste issues is the lack of trust in those who invite us to be involved. Many methods could be employed to increase communication and public involvement in complex and technical nuclear matters. This paper discusses the authors' observations of how USDOE's loss of credibility has affected the high-level nuclear waste repository siting process and suggests methods to overcome this primary barrier

  16. Floating barrier

    1968-05-06

    This floating barrier consists of relatively long elements which can be connected to form a practically continuous assembly. Each element consists of an inflatable tube with an apron of certain height, made of impregnated fabric which is resistant to ocean water and also to hydrocarbons. Means for connecting one element to the following one, and means for attaching ballast to the apron are also provided.

  17. Imagining Technicities

    Liboriussen, Bjarke; Plesner, Ursula

    2011-01-01

    to the elements of taste and skill. In the final analysis those references were synthesized as five imagined technicities: the architect, the engineer, the client, the Chinese, and the Virtual World native. Because technicities are often assumed and rarely discussed as actants who influence practice, their role......, this article focuses on innovative uses of virtual worlds in architecture. We interviewed architects, industrial designers and other practitioners. Conceptually supported by an understanding of technicity found in Cultural Studies, the interviews were then coded with a focus on interviewees’ references...... in cooperation and development of ICTs seems to pass unnoticed. However, since they are aligned into ICTs, technicities impact innovation....

  18. 36 CFR Appendix D to Part 1191 - Technical

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Technical D Appendix D to Part 1191 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE...; ARCHITECTURAL BARRIERS ACT (ABA) ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES Pt. 1191, App. D Appendix D to Part 1191—Technical...

  19. Momentum in Transformation of Technical Infrastructure

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Elle, Morten

    1999-01-01

    Current infrastructure holds a considerable momentum and this momentum is a barrier of transformation towards more sustainable technologies and more sustainable styles of network management. Using the sewage sector in Denmark as an example of a technical infrastructure system this paper argues...... that there are technical, economical and social aspects of the current infrastructures momentum....

  20. Smart parking barrier

    Alharbi, Abdulrazaq M.

    2016-01-01

    positioning of the movable parking barrier, and a parking controller configured to initiate movement of the parking barrier, via the barrier drive. The movable parking barrier can be positioned between a first position that restricts access to the parking

  1. Technical Network

    2007-01-01

    In order to optimize the management of the Technical Network (TN), to ease the understanding and purpose of devices connected to the TN, and to improve security incident handling, the Technical Network Administrators and the CNIC WG have asked IT/CS to verify the "description" and "tag" fields of devices connected to the TN. Therefore, persons responsible for systems connected to the TN will receive email notifications from IT/CS asking them to add the corresponding information in the network database. Thank you very much for your cooperation. The Technical Network Administrators & the CNIC WG

  2. Technical Network

    2007-01-01

    In order to optimise the management of the Technical Network (TN), to facilitate understanding of the purpose of devices connected to the TN and to improve security incident handling, the Technical Network Administrators and the CNIC WG have asked IT/CS to verify the "description" and "tag" fields of devices connected to the TN. Therefore, persons responsible for systems connected to the TN will receive e-mails from IT/CS asking them to add the corresponding information in the network database at "network-cern-ch". Thank you very much for your cooperation. The Technical Network Administrators & the CNIC WG

  3. How to be an Effective Technical Writer?

    M Solaiman Ali; Dheya Al-Othmany

    2012-01-01

    Abstract--This paper has focused on technical writing as a skill for engineers. It has sought to define technical writing and throw light on the content and technique of writing the various components of successful technical reports (for example, articles, papers, or research reports, such as theses and dissertations). Then, it has highlighted other special features and principles of effective technical writing. The material in this paper is divided into seven major parts. Part 1 (Technical w...

  4. Major Links.

    Henderson, Tona

    1995-01-01

    Provides electronic mail addresses for resources and discussion groups related to the following academic majors: art, biology, business, chemistry, computer science, economics, health sciences, history, literature, math, music, philosophy, political science, psychology, sociology, and theater. (AEF)

  5. Major Roads

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for major roads (interstates and trunk highways) found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. These roadways are current...

  6. Implementation of renewable energy technologies - Opportunities and barriers. Ghana country study

    Edjekumhene, I.; Atakora, S.B.; Atta-Konadu, R.; Brew-Hammond, A. [Kumasi Inst. og Technology and Environment (Ghana)

    2001-07-01

    This report presents the experience of Ghana in the development, utilisation and promotion of Renewable Energy Technologies (RETs). The report gives a general overview of the state of RETs, describes past/existing institutional, regulatory and policy framework, identifies key barriers to and opportunities for RETs, and recommends directional changes needed to remove barriers and promote wide-scale adoption of RETs in Ghana. A total of eight RETs - biomass-fired dryers, sawdust stoves, sawdust briquette, biogas, solar crop dryer, solar water heater, solar water pump and small hydro power - are covered in the report. Analyses of barriers to the eight RETs are carried out using a framework approach that categorises barriers into socio-technical, economic and crosscutting barriers. Financial analyses, as opposed to economic analyses, have been carried out for all the selected RETs. The report also incorporates stake holders' perspectives and views on barriers and how they can be removed. Ghana is endowed with several renewable energy resources like solar radiation, small hydro, biomass, and wind. Exploitation of Ghana's renewable energy resources has been carried out under two main policy regimes - PND Law 62 (1983) and the Energy Sector Development Programme (ESDP). Several measures and instruments have been employed in the implementation of renewable energy policies. The main measures used are research and development, information and eduction, and some normative measures (like the passing of PNDC Law 62 and the Energy Commission Law). Some economic instruments, such as subsidies, taxes, pricing, financing and duty waiver/reduction, have been used as well but only to a limited extent. The effective development, implementation and dissemination of all the RETs studied are hampered by several barriers, which can be grouped into three main categories - Socio-technical barriers, economic barriers and crosscutting barriers. Socio-technical barriers refer to

  7. Implementation of renewable energy technologies - Opportunities and barriers. Ghana country study

    Edjekumhene, I; Atakora, S B; Atta-Konadu, R; Brew-Hammond, A [Kumasi Inst. og Technology and Environment (Ghana)

    2001-07-01

    This report presents the experience of Ghana in the development, utilisation and promotion of Renewable Energy Technologies (RETs). The report gives a general overview of the state of RETs, describes past/existing institutional, regulatory and policy framework, identifies key barriers to and opportunities for RETs, and recommends directional changes needed to remove barriers and promote wide-scale adoption of RETs in Ghana. A total of eight RETs - biomass-fired dryers, sawdust stoves, sawdust briquette, biogas, solar crop dryer, solar water heater, solar water pump and small hydro power - are covered in the report. Analyses of barriers to the eight RETs are carried out using a framework approach that categorises barriers into socio-technical, economic and crosscutting barriers. Financial analyses, as opposed to economic analyses, have been carried out for all the selected RETs. The report also incorporates stake holders' perspectives and views on barriers and how they can be removed. Ghana is endowed with several renewable energy resources like solar radiation, small hydro, biomass, and wind. Exploitation of Ghana's renewable energy resources has been carried out under two main policy regimes - PND Law 62 (1983) and the Energy Sector Development Programme (ESDP). Several measures and instruments have been employed in the implementation of renewable energy policies. The main measures used are research and development, information and eduction, and some normative measures (like the passing of PNDC Law 62 and the Energy Commission Law). Some economic instruments, such as subsidies, taxes, pricing, financing and duty waiver/reduction, have been used as well but only to a limited extent. The effective development, implementation and dissemination of all the RETs studied are hampered by several barriers, which can be grouped into three main categories - Socio-technical barriers, economic barriers and crosscutting barriers. Socio-technical barriers refer to resource

  8. Independent technical review, handbook

    1994-02-01

    Purpose Provide an independent engineering review of the major projects being funded by the Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. The independent engineering review will address questions of whether the engineering practice is sufficiently developed to a point where a major project can be executed without significant technical problems. The independent review will focus on questions related to: (1) Adequacy of development of the technical base of understanding; (2) Status of development and availability of technology among the various alternatives; (3) Status and availability of the industrial infrastructure to support project design, equipment fabrication, facility construction, and process and program/project operation; (4) Adequacy of the design effort to provide a sound foundation to support execution of project; (5) Ability of the organization to fully integrate the system, and direct, manage, and control the execution of a complex major project

  9. Independent technical review, handbook

    1994-02-01

    Purpose Provide an independent engineering review of the major projects being funded by the Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. The independent engineering review will address questions of whether the engineering practice is sufficiently developed to a point where a major project can be executed without significant technical problems. The independent review will focus on questions related to: (1) Adequacy of development of the technical base of understanding; (2) Status of development and availability of technology among the various alternatives; (3) Status and availability of the industrial infrastructure to support project design, equipment fabrication, facility construction, and process and program/project operation; (4) Adequacy of the design effort to provide a sound foundation to support execution of project; (5) Ability of the organization to fully integrate the system, and direct, manage, and control the execution of a complex major project.

  10. Training of technical staff and technical staff managers

    Moody, G.F.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of Technical Staff and Technical Staff Managers training is to provide job skills enhancement to individuals selected to fill key technical positions within a nuclear utility. This training is unique in that unlike other training programs accredited by the National Academy for Nuclear Training, it does not lead to specific task qualification. The problems encountered when determining the student population and curriculum are a direct result of this major difference. Major problems encountered are determining who should attend the training, what amount of training is necessary and sufficient, and how to obtain the best feedback in order to effect substantive program improvements. These topics will be explored and possible solutions discussed

  11. The Development of Environmental Barrier Coatings for SiCSiC Ceramic Matrix Composites: Challenges and Opportunities

    Zhu, Dongming

    2014-01-01

    Environmental barrier coatings (EBCs) and SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) systems will play a crucial role in future turbine engines for hot-section component applications because of their ability to significantly increase engine operating temperatures, reduce engine weight and cooling requirements. The development of prime-reliant environmental barrier coatings is a key to enable the applications of the envisioned CMC components to help achieve next generation engine performance and durability goals. This paper will primarily address the performance requirements and design considerations of environmental barrier coatings for turbine engine applications. The emphasis is placed on current candidate environmental barrier coating systems for SiCSiC CMCs, their performance benefits and design limitations in long-term operation and combustion environments. Major technical barriers in developing advanced environmental barrier coating systems, the coating integrations with next generation CMC turbine components having improved environmental stability, cyclic durability and system performance will be described. The development trends for turbine environmental barrier coating systems by utilizing improved compositions, state-of-the-art processing methods, and simulated environment testing and durability modeling will be discussed.

  12. Improved Barriers to Turbine Engine Fragments: Final Annual Report

    Shockey, Donald

    2002-01-01

    This final annual technical report describes the progress rnade during year 4 of the SPI International Phase II effort to develop a computational capability for designing lightweight fragment barriers...

  13. Sprache als Barriere (Language as a Barrier)

    Mattheier, Klaus

    1974-01-01

    The concept of language barrier has its derivations in the fields of dialectology, sociology and psychology. In contemporary usage however, the concept has two meanings i.e. regional-cultural barrier and socio-cultural barrier. (Text is in German.) (DS)

  14. Communication Barriers in Distance Education

    Isman, Aytekin; Dabaj, Fahme; Altinay, Fahriye; Altinay, Zehra

    2003-01-01

    Communication is a key concept as being the major tool for people in order to satisfy their needs. It is an activity which refers as process and effective communication requires qualified communication with the elimination of communication barriers. As it is known, distance education is a new trend by following contemporary facilities and tools…

  15. Signal Propagation Delay as a Barrier to Control Applications in WAN

    Knudsen, Thomas Phillip; Patel, A.; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    With the advent in WAN of delay sensitive technical applications, such as remote control, signal propagation delay becomes a major problem. The extent of the problem is analysed by lower bounding the delay in relation to different transmission media. Requirements for reliability and bandwidth are...... are considered. The consequences of this bounding for communication network planning and provisioning are discussed in relation to mitigating the effects of signal propagation delay as a barrier to the penetration of control applications into WAN......With the advent in WAN of delay sensitive technical applications, such as remote control, signal propagation delay becomes a major problem. The extent of the problem is analysed by lower bounding the delay in relation to different transmission media. Requirements for reliability and bandwidth...

  16. Technical Note

    Administratör

    In this report on four patients, we did not use any of these techniques. The existence and the site of the fistulas was clearly demonstrated using basic but important preoperative detailed assessment and two intraoperative findings. The preoperative referral note that indicated the site of technical difficulty during the previous ...

  17. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    A. Ball

    2010-01-01

    Operational Experience At the end of the first full-year running period of LHC, CMS is established as a reliable, robust and mature experiment. In particular common systems and infrastructure faults accounted for <0.6 % CMS downtime during LHC pp physics. Technical operation throughout the entire year was rather smooth, the main faults requiring UXC access being sub-detector power systems and rack-cooling turbines. All such problems were corrected during scheduled technical stops, in the shadow of tunnel access needed by the LHC, or in negotiated accesses or access extensions. Nevertheless, the number of necessary accesses to the UXC averaged more than one per week and the technical stops were inevitably packed with work packages, typically 30 being executed within a few days, placing a high load on the coordination and area management teams. It is an appropriate moment for CMS Technical Coordination to thank all those in many CERN departments and in the Collaboration, who were involved in CMS techni...

  18. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    A. Ball

    2010-01-01

    Operational Experience Since the closure of the detector in February, the technical operation of CMS has been quite smooth and reliable. Some minor interventions in UXC were required to cure failures of power supplies, fans, readout boards and rack cooling connections, but all these failures were repaired in scheduled technical stops or parasitically during access dedicated to fixing LHC technical problems. The only occasion when CMS had to request an access between fills was to search for the source of an alarm from the leak-detection cables mounted in the DT racks. After a few minutes of diagnostic search, a leaking air-purge was found. Replacement was complete within 2 hours. This incident demonstrated once more the value of these leak detection cables; the system will be further extended (during the end of year technical stop) to cover more racks in UXC and the floor beneath the detector. The magnet has also been operating reliably and reacted correctly to the 14s power cut on 29 May (see below). In or...

  19. Technical endoscopy

    Cavalar, K.O.

    1988-01-01

    A survey is provided on different versions of endoscopes, taking into account the new developments of video endoscopy. With a variety of practical examples it is shown that technical tests using endoscopy are a demanding task for nondestructive testing, whose requirements can only be met on a customized basis. (orig./HP) [de

  20. Technical Training: Technical Training Seminar

    2004-01-01

    TECHNICAL TRAINING Monique Duval tel. 74924 technical.training@cern.ch Monday 9 February 2004 From 10:00 to 12:00 - IT Auditorium - bldg. 31, 3rd floor ANSOFT High-Frequency Seminar David Prestaux, Application Engineer, ANSOFT F-78535 BUC, France This Technical Training seminar will present two Ansoft application products: Ansoft HFSS and Ansoft Designer. Ansoft HFSS makes use of the Finite Element Method (FEM) to calculate field solutions from first principles. It can accurately predict all high-frequency behaviours such as dispersion, mode conversion, and losses due to materials and radiation. Ansoft Designer is a suite of design tools to fully integrate high-frequency, physics-based electromagnetic simulations into a seamless system-level simulation environment. Ansoft Designer uses a simple interface to give complete control over every design task, by a method allowing multiple solvers, Solver on Demand. • Introduction • Overview of the Ansoft Total solution • Ansoft HFSS 9...

  1. Hydrogen Production Technical Team Roadmap

    None

    2013-06-01

    The Hydrogen Production Technical Team Roadmap identifies research pathways leading to hydrogen production technologies that produce near-zero net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from highly efficient and diverse renewable energy sources. This roadmap focuses on initial development of the technologies, identifies their gaps and barriers, and describes activities by various U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) offices to address the key issues and challenges.

  2. Barriers and Facilitators to Implementing a Change Initiative in Long-Term Care Using the INTERACT® Quality Improvement Program.

    Tappen, Ruth M; Wolf, David G; Rahemi, Zahra; Engstrom, Gabriella; Rojido, Carolina; Shutes, Jill M; Ouslander, Joseph G

    Implementation of major organizational change initiatives presents a challenge for long-term care leadership. Implementation of the INTERACT® (Interventions to Reduce Acute Care Transfers) quality improvement program, designed to improve the management of acute changes in condition and reduce unnecessary emergency department visits and hospitalizations of nursing home residents, serves as an example to illustrate the facilitators and barriers to major change in long-term care. As part of a larger study of the impact of INTERACT® on rates of emergency department visits and hospitalizations, staff of 71 nursing homes were called monthly to follow-up on their progress and discuss successful facilitating strategies and any challenges and barriers they encountered during the yearlong implementation period. Themes related to barriers and facilitators were identified. Six major barriers to implementation were identified: the magnitude and complexity of the change (35%), instability of facility leadership (27%), competing demands (40%), stakeholder resistance (49%), scarce resources (86%), and technical problems (31%). Six facilitating strategies were also reported: organization-wide involvement (68%), leadership support (41%), use of administrative authority (14%), adequate training (66%), persistence and oversight on the part of the champion (73%), and unfolding positive results (14%). Successful introduction of a complex change such as the INTERACT® quality improvement program in a long-term care facility requires attention to the facilitators and barriers identified in this report from those at the frontline.

  3. Nurses' barriers to learning: an integrative review.

    Santos, Marion C

    2012-07-01

    This integrative review of the literature describes nurses' barriers to learning. Five major themes emerged: time constraints, financial constraints, workplace culture, access/relevance, and competency in accessing electronic evidence-based practice literature. The nurse educator must address these barriers for the staff to achieve learning and competency.

  4. Barriers to adherence in cystic fibrosis

    Bregnballe, Vibeke; Schiøtz, Peter Oluf

    2012-01-01

    Danish patients with cystic fibrosis aged 14 to 25 years and their parents. Conclusions: The present study showed that the majority of adolescents with CF and their parents experienced barriers to treatment adherence. Patients and parents agreed that the three most common barriers encountered lack...

  5. Barriers to learning from incidents and accidents

    Dechy, N.; Dien, Y.; Drupsteen, L.; Felicio, A.; Cunha, C.; Roed-Larsen, S.; Marsden, E.; Tulonen, T.; Stoop, J.; Strucic, M.; Vetere Arellano, A.L.; Vorm, J.K.J. van der; Benner, L.

    2015-01-01

    This document provides an overview of knowledge concerning barriers to learning from incidents and accidents. It focuses on learning from accident investigations, public inquiries and operational experience feedback, in industrial sectors that are exposed to major accident hazards. The document

  6. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    A. Ball

    Overview From a technical perspective, CMS has been in “beam operation” state since 6th November. The detector is fully closed with all components operational and the magnetic field is normally at the nominal 3.8T. The UXC cavern is normally closed with the radiation veto set. Access to UXC is now only possible during downtimes of LHC. Such accesses must be carefully planned, documented and carried out in agreement with CMS Technical Coordination, Experimental Area Management, LHC programme coordination and the CCC. Material flow in and out of UXC is now strictly controlled. Access to USC remains possible at any time, although, for safety reasons, it is necessary to register with the shift crew in the control room before going down.It is obligatory for all material leaving UXC to pass through the underground buffer zone for RP scanning, database entry and appropriate labeling for traceability. Technical coordination (notably Stephane Bally and Christoph Schaefer), the shift crew and run ...

  7. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    A. Ball and W. Zeuner

    2011-01-01

    In this report we will review the main achievements of the Technical Stop and the progress of several centrally-managed projects to support CMS operation and maintenance and prepare the way for upgrades. Overview of the extended Technical Stop  The principal objectives of the extended Technical Stop affecting the detector itself were the installation of the TOTEM T1 telescopes on both ends, the readjustment of the alignment link-disk in YE-2, the replacement of the light-guide sleeves for all PMs of both HFs, and some repairs on TOTEM T2 and CASTOR. The most significant tasks were, however, concentrated on the supporting infrastructure. A detailed line-by-line leak search was performed in the C6F14 cooling system of the Tracker, followed by the installation of variable-frequency drives on the pump motors of the SS1 and SS2 tracker cooling plants to reduce pressure transients during start-up. In the electrical system, larger harmonic filters were installed in ...

  8. Communication barriers in the family

    BARBARA KOC-KOZŁOWIEC

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The art of communication – listening and speaking – is a major life skill, with a thorough influence on every human life. Remaining silent while the interlocutor speaks is not all that there is to the act of listening to messages. True listening is based on an intention to get involved in understanding of the other person, enjoying his or her presence, learning something from the conversation, giving assistance, or comforting the interlocutor. In the article the author describes obstacles (barriers, which render true listening impossible. These barriers have been identified by a group of young adults.

  9. Field study plan for alternate barriers

    Freeman, H.D.; Gee, G.W.; Relyea, J.F.

    1989-05-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is providing technical assistance in selecting, designing, evaluating, and demonstrating protective barriers. As part of this technical assistance effort, asphalt, clay, and chemical grout will be evaluated for use as alternate barriers. The purpose of the subsurface layer is to reduce the likelihood that extreme events (i.e., 100-year maximum storms, etc.) will cause significant drainage through the barrier. The tests on alternate barriers will include laboratory and field analysis of the subsurface layer performance. This field test plan outlines the activities required to test and design subsurface moisture barriers. The test plan covers activities completed in FY 1988 and planned through FY 1992 and includes a field-scale test of one or more of the alternate barriers to demonstrate full-scale application techniques and to provide performance data on a larger scale. Tests on asphalt, clay, and chemical grout were initiated in FY 1988 in small (30.5 cm diameter) tube-layer lysimeters. The parameters used for testing the materials were different for each one. The tests had to take into account the differences in material characteristics and response to change in conditions, as well as information provided by previous studies. 33 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  10. Advanced Environmental Barrier Coating Development for SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites: NASA's Perspectives

    Zhu, Dongming

    2016-01-01

    This presentation reviews NASA environmental barrier coating (EBC) system development programs and the coating materials evolutions for protecting the SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites in order to meet the next generation engine performance requirements. The presentation focuses on several generations of NASA EBC systems, EBC-CMC component system technologies for SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite combustors and turbine airfoils, highlighting the temperature capability and durability improvements in simulated engine high heat flux, high pressure, high velocity, and with mechanical creep and fatigue loading conditions. The current EBC development emphasis is placed on advanced NASA 2700F candidate environmental barrier coating systems for SiC/SiC CMCs, their performance benefits and design limitations in long-term operation and combustion environments. Major technical barriers in developing environmental barrier coating systems, the coating integrations with next generation CMCs having the improved environmental stability, erosion-impact resistance, and long-term fatigue-environment system durability performance are described. The research and development opportunities for advanced turbine airfoil environmental barrier coating systems by utilizing improved compositions, state-of-the-art processing methods, and simulated environment testing and durability modeling are discussed.

  11. Building energy efficiency for public hospitals and healthcare facilities in China: Barriers and drivers

    Wang, Tao; Li, Xiaodong; Liao, Pin-Chao; Fang, Dongping

    2016-01-01

    Maximizing energy efficiency within HHFs (hospitals and healthcare facilities) is a major challenge in the field of energy conservation. This paper studies the key barriers to the implementation of energy-efficient technologies in China's public HHFs. For this purpose, a preliminary survey was conducted at the Beijing Municipal Health Bureau in order to assess the energy conservation efforts being made at 20 public HHFs. In the survey, a list of specific barriers to energy efficiency was created and HHF staffs were asked to rank these barriers in the order of importance. The results show that the economic incentives, appropriate technology, as well as enforceable laws and regulations are insufficiently supported by the government, have become the most significant obstacles to the improvement of energy efficiency. To remedy this, policymakers should take a multipronged approach which addresses the hospitals, projects, and technical and operating procedures in order to encourage the full participation and support of all stakeholders involved. Specifically, the government should offer multilevel economic incentives and reward policies; establish practical mandatory targets for building energy efficiency; provide demonstrable best practices in terms of the project, techniques, and operating procedures; and promote awareness of the importance of property risk management. - Highlights: • We developed a checklist of building energy efficiency barriers of HHFs in China. • We took a survey to prioritize the barriers by the staff from 20 public HHFs. • Policy makers should provide multiple-level solutions to all the stakeholders. • Economic incentives, mandatory target, technique supports are critical drivers.

  12. Critical analysis of key determinants and barriers to digital innovation adoption among architectural organizations

    Runddy Ramilo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The development and use of design technology for architecture in the modern world have led to the emergence of various design methodologies. Current design research has focused on a computationally mediated design process. This method is essentially concerned with finding forms and building performance simulation, i.e., structural, environmental, constructional, and cost performance, by integrating physics and algorithms. From the emergence of this process, design practices have been increasingly aided by and dependent on the technology, which has resulted in a major paradigm shift. Advancement of the new technology has the potential to improve design and productivity dramatically. However, related literature shows that substantial technical and organizational barriers exist. These barriers inhibit the effective adoption of these technologies. The effect of these obstacles on architectural practice varies depending on the size of an architectural organization. To further understand the problem, we conducted an in-depth study on several small, medium, and large architectural organizations. This study involves in-depth evaluation of technological, financial, organizational, governmental, psychological, and process barriers encountered in the adoption of digital innovation. Results reveal relevant attributes and patterns of variables, which can be used to establish a framework for digital innovation adoption. Valuable findings of this study reveal that smaller architectural organizations present more barriers to digital innovation compared with their larger counterparts. This study is important because it contributes to the research on digital innovation in architecture and addresses the barriers faced by different sizes of architectural organizations.

  13. Cementitious Barriers Partnership Accomplishments And Relevance To The DOE Complex

    Burns, H.; Langton, C.; Flach, G.; Kosson, D.

    2010-01-01

    The Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) was initiated to reduce risk and uncertainties in the performance assessments that directly impact U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) environmental cleanup and closure programs. The CBP is supported by the DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) and has been specifically addressing the following critical EM program needs: (i) the long-term performance of cementitious barriers and materials in nuclear waste disposal facilities and (ii) increased understanding of contaminant transport behavior within cementitious barrier systems to support the development and deployment of adequate closure technologies. To accomplish this, the CBP has two initiatives: (1) an experimental initiative to increase understanding of changes in cementitious materials over long times (> 1000 years) over changing conditions and (2) a modeling initiative to enhance and integrate a set of computational tools validated by laboratory and field experimental data to improve understanding and prediction of the long-term performance of cementitious barriers and waste forms used in nuclear applications. In FY10, the CBP developed the initial phase of an integrated modeling tool that would serve as a screening tool which could help in making decisions concerning disposal and tank closure. The CBP experimental programs are underway to validate this tool and provide increased understanding of how CM changes over time and under changing conditions. These initial CBP products that will eventually be enhanced are anticipated to reduce the uncertainties of current methodologies for assessing cementitious barrier performance and increase the consistency and transparency of the DOE assessment process. These tools have application to low activity waste forms, high level waste tank closure, D and D and entombment of major nuclear facilities, landfill waste acceptance criteria, and in-situ grouting and immobilization of vadose zone contamination. This paper

  14. Non-technical skills for scrub practitioners.

    McClelland, Guy

    2012-12-01

    The non-technical skills of situational awareness and the formation of effective interpersonal relationships are essential to enhance surgical outcomes. However, most scrub practitioners demonstrate only tacit awareness of these skills and develop such qualities on an informal basis. Application of non-technical skills may be assessed formally, using a structured framework, to transform normative behaviour and to strengthen barriers against the latent threats that may result from fallible humans working in inadequate organisational systems.

  15. Major KEEP Findings, 1971 - 1975.

    Kamehameha Schools, Honolulu, HI. Kamehameha Early Education Project.

    This report lists the 34 major research findings from the Kamehameha Early Education Program (KEEP) for the years 1971-1975. Each finding is accompanied by a listing of KEEP technical reports and working papers which contain information relevant to that finding. Included among areas covered in the findings are: (1) student motivation, (2) teacher…

  16. Modelling of safety barriers including human and organisational factors to improve process safety

    Markert, Frank; Duijm, Nijs Jan; Thommesen, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    It is believed that traditional safety management needs to be improved on the aspect of preparedness for coping with expected and unexpected deviations, avoiding an overly optimistic reliance on safety systems. Remembering recent major accidents, such as the Deep Water Horizon, the Texas City....... A valuable approach is the inclusion of human and organisational factors into the simulation of the reliability of the technical system using event trees and fault trees and the concept of safety barriers. This has been demonstrated e.g. in the former European research project ARAMIS (Accidental Risk...

  17. Technical Training: Technical Training Seminar

    2004-01-01

    Tuesday 30 March TECHNICAL TRAINING SEMINAR From 9:00 to 12:00 and from 13:00 to 16:00 hrs - Council Chamber, Salle B, Salle des Pas Perdus National Instruments (NI) on Tour 2004 Claudia Jüngel, Evrem Yarkin, Joel Clerc, Hervé Baour / NATIONAL INSTRUMENTS The special event NI on Tour 2004, run in Germany, Austria and Switzerland, will be at CERN on March 30. Technical seminars and free introductory courses will be offered all day long in the Council Chamber, Salle B, and Salle des Pas Perdus (buildings 61 and 503). Technical conferences: 09:00 - 12:00 Data acquisition systems on PCs. Industrial measurement and control techniques. 13:00 - 16:00 Advanced LabVIEW software and PXI instrumentation. Measuring instruments and system components for teststand automation. Introductory courses: 09:00 - 12:00 DIAdem: Data analysis and presentation 13:00 - 16:00 Data acquisition with LabVIEW Language: English and French Free special seminar. Registration is recommended with National Instruments Switzerland (please sp...

  18. Technical Training: Technical Training Seminar

    2004-01-01

    Tuesday 30 March TECHNICAL TRAINING SEMINAR From 9:00 to 12:00 and from 13:00 to 16:00 hrs - Council Chamber, Salle B, Salle des Pas Perdus National Instruments (NI) on Tour 2004 Claudia Jüngel, Evrem Yarkin, Joel Clerc, Hervé Baour / NATIONAL INSTRUMENTS The special event NI on Tour 2004, run in Germany, Austria and Switzerland, will be at CERN on March 30. Technical seminars and free introductory courses will be offered all day long in the Council Chamber, Salle B, and Salle des Pas Perdus (buildings 61 and 503). Technical conferences: 09:00 - 12:00 Data acquisition systems on PCs. Industrial measurement and control techniques. 13:00 - 16:00 Advanced LabVIEW software and PXI instrumentation. Measuring instruments and system components for teststand automation. Introductory courses: 09:00 - 12:00 DIAdem: Data analysis and presentation 13:00 - 16:00 Data acquisition with LabVIEW Language: English and French Free special seminar. Registration is recommended with National Instruments Swi...

  19. INDOT Technical Training Plan : [Technical Summary

    2012-01-01

    A wide range of job classifications, increasing technical : performance expectations, licensing and certification requirements, : budget restrictions and frequent department : reorganization has made technical training of employees : more difficult, ...

  20. Man as a protective barrier in nuclear power plants

    Fechner, J.B.

    1980-01-01

    Evaluation of nuclear power plant incidents frequently reveals man as a major element of risk. Yet, in a nuclear power plant man has the function of an important protective barrier, either by maintaining the plant, by detecting and limiting faults or incidents, or by taking proper measures in accidents. This is true despite, or perhaps because of, the high degree of plant automation. For this reason, it is indispensable that a high level of engineered plant safeguards be accompanied by a minimum of faults contributed by human action. This implies that the staff and their working conditions must meet the same stringent safety requirements as the nuclear power plant proper. Reactor manufacturers, nuclear power plant operators and the responsible authorities try to optimize this human contribution. The Federal Ministry of the Interior, through its Special Technical Guidelines and its continuation training measures, occupies an important position in this respect. Further measures and ordinances are being prepared by that Ministry. (orig.) [de

  1. El enriquecimiento lexical en inglés desde la lectura libre y voluntaria de textos auténticos en las carreras técnicas universitarias / The enrichment of the English lexicon based on the free voluntary reading of authentic texts in university technical majorings

    Pedro Fabricio Molina García

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the enrichment of the English lexicon by students of university technical majoring. The starting point is the establishment of intertextual relationships from the free voluntary reading of authentic texts related to this area of knowledge to favor the development of vocabulary in English so as to enable the students to carry out academic, scientific and pre-professional tasks in the foreign language. From this perspective, a didactic strategy is offered to synthesize the phases and techniques to achieve this goal.

  2. Barriers and Facilitators Affecting Patient Portal Implementation from an Organizational Perspective: Qualitative Study.

    Kooij, Laura; Groen, Wim G; van Harten, Wim H

    2018-05-11

    The number of patient portals is rising, and although portals can have positive effects, their implementation has major impacts on the providing health care institutions. However, little is known about the organizational factors affecting successful implementation. Knowledge of the specific barriers to and facilitators of various stakeholders is likely to be useful for future implementations. The objective of this study was to identify the barriers to and facilitators of patient portal implementation facing various stakeholders within hospital organizations in the Netherlands. Purposive sampling was used to select hospitals of various types. A total of 2 university medical centers, 3 teaching hospitals, and 2 general hospitals were included. For each, 3 stakeholders were interviewed: (1) medical professionals, (2) managers, and (3) information technology employees. In total, 21 semistructured interviews were conducted using the Grol and Wensing model, which describes barriers to and facilitators of change in health care practice at 6 levels: (1) innovation; (2) individual professional; (3) patient; (4) social context; (5) organizational context; and (6) economic and political context. Two researchers independently selected and coded quotes by applying this model using a (deductive) directed content approach. Additional factors related to technical and portal characteristics were added using the model of McGinn et al, developed for implementation of electronic health records. In total, we identified 376 quotes, 26 barriers, and 28 facilitators. Thirteen barriers and 12 facilitators were common for all stakeholder groups. The facilitators' perceived usefulness (especially less paperwork) was mentioned by all the stakeholders, followed by subjects' positive attitude. The main barriers were lack of resources (namely, lack of staff and materials), financial difficulties (especially complying with high costs, lack of reimbursements), and guaranteeing privacy and security

  3. Alternative geochemical barrier materials

    1991-07-01

    Previous investigations of the effects of neutralization and reduction on uranium mill tailings pore fluids by the Technical Support Contractor indicated that arsenic, selenium, and molybdenum continue to remain in solution in all but reducing conditions. These hazardous constituents are present in groundwaters as oxyanions and, therefore, are not expected to be removed by adsorption into clays and most other soil constituents. It was decided to investigate the attenuation capacity of two commonly available crystalline iron oxides, taconite and scoria, and a zeolite, a network aluminosilicate with a cage structure. Columns of the candidate materials were exposed to solutions of individual constituents, including arsenic, molybdenum, selenium, and, uranium, and to the spiked tailings pore fluid from the Bodo Canyon disposal cell near Durango, Colorado. In addition to the single material columns, a homogeneous blend of the three materials and layers of the materials were exposed to spiked tailings pore fluids. The results of these experiments indicate that with the exception of molybdenum, the constituents of concern are attenuated by the taconite; however, they are not sufficiently attenuated to meet the groundwater protection standards applicable to the UMTRA Project. Therefore, the candidate barrier materials did not prove to be useful to the UMTRA Project for the cleanup of groundwaters

  4. Linguistic Barriers and Bridges

    Thuesen, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    The influence of language on social capital in low-skill and ethnically diverse workplaces has thus far received very limited attention within the sociology of work. As the ethnically diverse workplace is an important social space for the construction of social relations bridging different social...... groups, the sociology of work needs to develop a better understanding of the way in which linguistic diversity influences the formation of social capital, i.e. resources such as the trust and reciprocity inherent in social relations in such workplaces. Drawing on theories about intergroup contact...... and intercultural communication, this article analyses interviews with 31 employees from two highly ethnically diverse Danish workplaces. The article shows how linguistic barriers such as different levels of majority language competence and their consequent misunderstandings breed mistrust and hostility, whilst...

  5. Countermeasures and barriers

    Petersen, Johannes [Oersted - DTU, Automation, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2005-10-01

    In 1973 Haddon proposed ten strategies for reducing and avoiding damages based on a model of potential harmful energy transfer (Haddon, 1973). The strategies apply to a large variety of unwanted phenomena. Haddon's pioneering work on countermeasures has had a major influence on later thinking about safety. Considering its impact it is remarkable that the literature offers almost no discussions related to the theoretical foundations of Haddon's countermeasure strategies. The present report addresses a number of theoretical issues related to Haddon's countermeasure strategies, which are: 1) A reformulation and formalization of Haddon's countermeasure strategies. 2) An identification and description of some of the problems associated with the term 'barrier'. 3) Suggestions for a more precise terminology based on the causal structure of countermeasures. 4) Extending the scope of countermeasures to include sign-based countermeasures. (au)

  6. Countermeasures and barriers

    Petersen, Johannes

    2005-10-01

    In 1973 Haddon proposed ten strategies for reducing and avoiding damages based on a model of potential harmful energy transfer (Haddon, 1973). The strategies apply to a large variety of unwanted phenomena. Haddon's pioneering work on countermeasures has had a major influence on later thinking about safety. Considering its impact it is remarkable that the literature offers almost no discussions related to the theoretical foundations of Haddon's countermeasure strategies. The present report addresses a number of theoretical issues related to Haddon's countermeasure strategies, which are: 1) A reformulation and formalization of Haddon's countermeasure strategies. 2) An identification and description of some of the problems associated with the term 'barrier'. 3) Suggestions for a more precise terminology based on the causal structure of countermeasures. 4) Extending the scope of countermeasures to include sign-based countermeasures. (au)

  7. Smart parking barrier

    Alharbi, Abdulrazaq M.

    2016-05-06

    Various methods and systems are provided for smart parking barriers. In one example, among others, a smart parking barrier system includes a movable parking barrier located at one end of a parking space, a barrier drive configured to control positioning of the movable parking barrier, and a parking controller configured to initiate movement of the parking barrier, via the barrier drive. The movable parking barrier can be positioned between a first position that restricts access to the parking space and a second position that allows access to the parking space. The parking controller can initiate movement of the movable parking barrier in response to a positive identification of an individual allowed to use the parking space. The parking controller can identify the individual through, e.g., a RFID tag, a mobile device (e.g., a remote control, smartphone, tablet, etc.), an access card, biometric information, or other appropriate identifier.

  8. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    A. Ball and W. Zeuner

    2013-01-01

    For the reporting period, the CMS common systems and infrastructure worked well, without failures that caused significant data losses. One more disconnection of the magnet cold box occurred in the shadow of interruptions in data taking, caused by a series of technical faults. The recognition during 2012 that re-connection can only safely be done at around 2 T implies a minimum magnet recovery time of 12 hours and raises serious concerns about the number of ramping cycles of the magnet these incidents cause. This has triggered studies of how to make the cryo-system of the magnet more robust against failures. The proton-proton run ended just before the end-of-year CERN closure, during which CASTOR was installed on the negative end of CMS and both ZDC calorimeters were installed in TAN absorbers the LHC tunnel, in preparation for the heavy-ion run. The installation of CASTOR was an excellent “engineering test” of procedures for working in an activated environment. Despite some technical pr...

  9. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    Austin Ball

    Summary of progress since last CMS week. Ten years of construction work have been completed. CMS is closed, in very close to the ideal low luminosity configuration, and performed well in the first tests with LHC beam. Behind this encouraging news is the story of a summer of intense commitment by many teams (from the collaboration and 3 CERN departments) working together, against the clock and despite many minor setbacks, to ensure that the experiment was ready to play a leading role in the excitement of September 10. Following beampipe bakeout and refill with pure neon, a magnificent effort by the ECAL group and the pt 5 technical crew made it possible to install and commission all 4 ECAL endcap Dees before the end of August. In the shadow of this activity, the barrel and forward pixel trackers and part of the beam monitoring were installed within the vac tank. The pt 5 technical teams then succeeded in safely removing the 20t installation tables and their support blocks from beneath the already installed ...

  10. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    A. Ball and W. Zeuner

    2011-01-01

      Operational experience 2011 CMS is approaching the end of a very successful year of operation. Proton- proton running ended in the late afternoon of 30th October with a stunning 5.73 fb–1 delivered by LHC, of which CMS recorded 5.22 fb–1. During heavy-ion operation, which continues until 7th December, both the accelerator and the CMS detector have also performed very well. Despite the encouraging overall reliability of technical operation, several infrastructure failures which occurred since the last Bulletin are worthy of mention, with one leading for the first time to significant data-loss. On 10th July, a CERN-wide power failure brought down essentially all services including the magnet, due to an MCS setting being left in “manual” after the recent technical stop, but there was no significant damage and the detector was operational before the LHC, despite a slow and tortuous recovery (one of several indications this year that there is room for improve...

  11. Barriers to Electronic Health Record Adoption: a Systematic Literature Review.

    Kruse, Clemens Scott; Kristof, Caitlin; Jones, Beau; Mitchell, Erica; Martinez, Angelica

    2016-12-01

    Federal efforts and local initiatives to increase adoption and use of electronic health records (EHRs) continue, particularly since the enactment of the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act. Roughly one in four hospitals not adopted even a basic EHR system. A review of the barriers may help in understanding the factors deterring certain healthcare organizations from implementation. We wanted to assemble an updated and comprehensive list of adoption barriers of EHR systems in the United States. Authors searched CINAHL, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar, and accepted only articles relevant to our primary objective. Reviewers independently assessed the works highlighted by our search and selected several for review. Through multiple consensus meetings, authors tapered articles to a final selection most germane to the topic (n = 27). Each article was thoroughly examined by multiple authors in order to achieve greater validity. Authors identified 39 barriers to EHR adoption within the literature selected for the review. These barriers appeared 125 times in the literature; the most frequently mentioned barriers were regarding cost, technical concerns, technical support, and resistance to change. Despite federal and local incentives, the initial cost of adopting an EHR is a common existing barrier. The other most commonly mentioned barriers include technical support, technical concerns, and maintenance/ongoing costs. Policy makers should consider incentives that continue to reduce implementation cost, possibly aimed more directly at organizations that are known to have lower adoption rates, such as small hospitals in rural areas.

  12. Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment

    Dixon, P.

    2004-01-01

    The conceptual and predictive models documented in this Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model report describe the evolution of the physical and chemical conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository. The modeling approaches and model output data will be used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA-LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. These models evaluate the range of potential water compositions within the emplacement drifts, resulting from the interaction of introduced materials and minerals in dust with water seeping into the drifts and with aqueous solutions forming by deliquescence of dust (as influenced by atmospheric conditions), and from thermal-hydrological-chemical (THC) processes in the drift. These models also consider the uncertainty and variability in water chemistry inside the drift and the compositions of introduced materials within the drift. This report develops and documents a set of process- and abstraction-level models that constitute the engineered barrier system: physical and chemical environment model. Where possible, these models use information directly from other process model reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for total system performance assessment. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in the technical work plan ''Technical Work Plan for: In-Drift Geochemistry Modeling'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166519]). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system analysis model reports

  13. Barriers to the implementation of green chemistry in the United States.

    Matus, Kira J M; Clark, William C; Anastas, Paul T; Zimmerman, Julie B

    2012-10-16

    This paper investigates the conditions under which firms are able to develop and implement innovations with sustainable development benefits. In particular, we examine "green chemistry" innovations in the United States. Via interviews with green chemistry leaders from industry, academia, nongovernmental institutions (NGOs), and government, we identified six major categories of challenges commonly confronted by innovators: (1) economic and financial, (2) regulatory, (3) technical, (4) organizational, (5) cultural, and (6) definition and metrics. Further analysis of these barriers shows that in the United States, two elements of these that are particular to the implementation of green chemistry innovations are the absence of clear definitions and metrics for use by researchers and decision makers, as well as the interdisciplinary demands of these innovations on researchers and management. Finally, we conclude with some of the strategies that have been successful thus far in overcoming these barriers, and the types of policies which could have positive impacts moving forward.

  14. Final disposal in deep boreholes using multiple geological barriers. Digging deeper for safety. Proceedings

    Bracke, Guido; Hurst, Stephanie; Merkel, Broder; Mueller, Birgit; Schilling, Frank

    2016-03-15

    The proceedings of the workshop on final disposal in deep boreholes using multiple geological barriers - digging deeper for safety include contributions on the following topics: international status and safety requirements; geological and physical barriers; deep drilling - shaft building; technical barriers and emplacement technology for high P/T conditions; recovery (waste retrieval); geochemistry and monitoring.

  15. Perceptions of advantages and barriers to radial-access percutaneous coronary intervention in VA cardiac catheterization laboratories.

    Helfrich, Christian D; Tsai, Thomas T; Rao, Sunil V; Lemon, Jaclyn M; Eugenio, Evercita C; Vidovich, Mladen I; Shroff, Adhir R; Speiser, Bernadette S; Bryson, Chris L

    2014-01-01

    Compared with trans-femoral percutaneous coronary intervention (TFI), trans-radial PCI (TRI) has a lower risk of bleeding, access site complications and hospital costs, and is preferred by patients. However, TRI accounts for a minority of PCIs in the US, and there is currently little research that explores why. We conducted a national survey in February 2013 to assess perceptions of TRI vs. TFI, and barriers to TRI adoption and implementation among interventional cardiologists employed by the US Veterans Health Administration (VHA), and linked these data to site-level TRI annual rates for 2013. We received 78 completed surveys (32% response rate). Respondents at sites that perform few or no TRIs identified increased radiation exposure as the greatest barrier while at sites that perform a high percentage of TRIs respondents identified the steep learning curve as the greatest barrier. Majorities of survey respondents at all sites rated TRI as superior on 5 of 7 criteria, including patient comfort and bleeding complications, but rated TFI as superior on procedure time and procedure success. Even interventional cardiologists at sites that perform few or any TRIs recognized the superiority of TRI for patient comfort and safety, but rated it inferior to TFI on procedure time and technical results. Interventional cardiologists at high-TRI labs rated TRI as equivalent on procedure time and technical results. Efforts to increase TRI adoption and implementation may be more successful if they emphasize that procedure times and technical results depend on achieving proficiency. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Technical presentation

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    10 March 2010 DYNEOS 10:00 – 12:00 - Main Building, Room B, 61-1-009 Dyneos AG is active in the fields of photonics, laser and high-precision positioning. Our highly qualified engineer team has more than 30 years of experience in electro-optical solutions sales. The engineers are supported by a technical and administrative team. We are focused on the Swiss market and represent six suppliers (Coherent, PI Physik Instrumente, SIOS, Nanonics Imaging, APE, Ekspla) in order to give a qualified sales and service support to our customers. Our products are dedicated to the research field as well as to industry. In addition to standard catalog products, we offer custom designs to fulfill the specific needs of OEM customers or specific applications.

  17. Technical presentation

    FP Department

    2009-01-01

    07 April 2009 Technical presentation by Leuze Electronics: 14.00 – 15.00, Main Building, Room 61-1-017 (Room A) Photoelectric sensors, data identification and transmission systems, image processing systems. We at Leuze Electronics are "the sensor people": we have been specialising in optoelectronic sensors and safety technology for accident prevention for over 40 years. Our dedicated staff are all highly customer oriented. Customers of Leuze Electronics can always rely on one thing – on us! •\tFounded in 1963 •\t740 employees •\t115 MEUR turnover •\t20 subsidiaries •\t3 production facilities in southern Germany Product groups: •\tPhotoelectric sensors •\tIdentification and measurements •\tSafety devices

  18. Technical presentation

    FI Department

    2008-01-01

    RADIOSPARES, the leading catalogue distributor of components (electronic, electrical, automation, etc.) and industrial supplies will be at CERN on Friday 3 October 2008 (Main Building, Room B, from 9.00 a.m. to 3.00 p.m.) to introduce its new 2008/2009 catalogue. This will be the opportunity for us to present our complete range of products in more detail: 400 000 part numbers available on our web site (Radiospares France, RS International, extended range of components from other manufacturers); our new services: quotations, search for products not included in the catalogue, SBP products (Small Batch Production: packaging in quantities adapted to customers’ requirements); partnership with our focus manufacturers; demonstration of the on-line purchasing tool implemented on our web site in conjunction with CERN. RADIOSPARES will be accompanied by representatives of FLUKE and TYCO ELECTRONICS, who will make presentations, demonstrate materials and answer any technical questio...

  19. Technical Training: Technical Training Seminar

    2004-01-01

    TECHNICAL TRAINING Monique Duval tel. 74924 technical.training@cern.ch Tuesday 3 February 2004 From 09:00 to 13:30 - Training Centre Auditorium - bldg. 593, room 11 USB (Universal Serial Bus) CYPRESS Seminar Claudia Colombini, Field Application Engineer CYPRESS ActiveComp Electronic GmbH D-85077 MANCHING, Germany As a pioneer in USB, CYPRESS sets the standard for cost-effective solutions without sacrificing functionality, performance or reliability. Having shipped over 200 million USB devices, Cypress is the undisputed market leader and demonstrates unmatched USB expertise. With the industry's broadest selection of USB solutions, Cypress has the right silicon, software and support for every USB application, from Low-speed to High-Speed and USB On-The-Go (OTG). 9:00 - 10:30 Overview of USB systems. USB CYPRESS product overview. Peripherals: Low Speed, Full Speed, High Speed (1.1 and 2.0). Hub Solutions, Embedded Host Solutions, On-The-Go (OTG) and wireless USB. USB Development Tools (first part) 10:30 -...

  20. Perceptions of advantages and barriers to radial-access percutaneous coronary intervention in VA cardiac catheterization laboratories

    Helfrich, Christian D.; Tsai, Thomas T.; Rao, Sunil V.; Lemon, Jaclyn M.; Eugenio, Evercita C.; Vidovich, Mladen I.; Shroff, Adhir R.; Speiser, Bernadette S.; Bryson, Chris L.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Purpose: Compared with trans-femoral percutaneous coronary intervention (TFI), trans-radial PCI (TRI) has a lower risk of bleeding, access site complications and hospital costs, and is preferred by patients. However, TRI accounts for a minority of PCIs in the US, and there is currently little research that explores why. Methods/Material: We conducted a national survey in February 2013 to assess perceptions of TRI vs. TFI, and barriers to TRI adoption and implementation among interventional cardiologists employed by the US Veterans Health Administration (VHA), and linked these data to site-level TRI annual rates for 2013. Results: We received 78 completed surveys (32% response rate). Respondents at sites that perform few or no TRIs identified increased radiation exposure as the greatest barrier while at sites that perform a high percentage of TRIs respondents identified the steep learning curve as the greatest barrier. Majorities of survey respondents at all sites rated TRI as superior on 5 of 7 criteria, including patient comfort and bleeding complications, but rated TFI as superior on procedure time and procedure success. Conclusions: Even interventional cardiologists at sites that perform few or any TRIs recognized the superiority of TRI for patient comfort and safety, but rated it inferior to TFI on procedure time and technical results. Interventional cardiologists at high-TRI labs rated TRI as equivalent on procedure time and technical results. Efforts to increase TRI adoption and implementation may be more successful if they emphasize that procedure times and technical results depend on achieving proficiency. - Highlights: • Sites with few TRIs identified increased radiation exposure as the greatest barrier. • Sites with many TRIs identified the steep learning curve as the greatest barrier. • TFI was rated superior on procedure time and procedure success. • TRI was rated superior on all other criteria

  1. Perceptions of advantages and barriers to radial-access percutaneous coronary intervention in VA cardiac catheterization laboratories

    Helfrich, Christian D., E-mail: Christian.Helfrich@va.gov [VA Puget Sound Health Services Research and Development Center of Innovation, US Department of Veterans Affairs, Seattle, WA (United States); Department of Health Services, University of Washington School of Public Health, Seattle, WA (United States); Tsai, Thomas T. [VA Eastern Colorado Health Care System, Denver, CO (United States); Department of Medicine and the Division of Cardiology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO (United States); Rao, Sunil V. [Cardiac Catheterization Laboratories, Durham VA Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, NC (United States); Lemon, Jaclyn M.; Eugenio, Evercita C. [VA Puget Sound Health Services Research and Development Center of Innovation, US Department of Veterans Affairs, Seattle, WA (United States); Vidovich, Mladen I.; Shroff, Adhir R. [Department of Cardiology, Jesse Brown VA Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States); Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Interventional Cardiology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Speiser, Bernadette S. [Department of Cardiology, Jesse Brown VA Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States); Bryson, Chris L. [VA Puget Sound Health Services Research and Development Center of Innovation, US Department of Veterans Affairs, Seattle, WA (United States); Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Background/Purpose: Compared with trans-femoral percutaneous coronary intervention (TFI), trans-radial PCI (TRI) has a lower risk of bleeding, access site complications and hospital costs, and is preferred by patients. However, TRI accounts for a minority of PCIs in the US, and there is currently little research that explores why. Methods/Material: We conducted a national survey in February 2013 to assess perceptions of TRI vs. TFI, and barriers to TRI adoption and implementation among interventional cardiologists employed by the US Veterans Health Administration (VHA), and linked these data to site-level TRI annual rates for 2013. Results: We received 78 completed surveys (32% response rate). Respondents at sites that perform few or no TRIs identified increased radiation exposure as the greatest barrier while at sites that perform a high percentage of TRIs respondents identified the steep learning curve as the greatest barrier. Majorities of survey respondents at all sites rated TRI as superior on 5 of 7 criteria, including patient comfort and bleeding complications, but rated TFI as superior on procedure time and procedure success. Conclusions: Even interventional cardiologists at sites that perform few or any TRIs recognized the superiority of TRI for patient comfort and safety, but rated it inferior to TFI on procedure time and technical results. Interventional cardiologists at high-TRI labs rated TRI as equivalent on procedure time and technical results. Efforts to increase TRI adoption and implementation may be more successful if they emphasize that procedure times and technical results depend on achieving proficiency. - Highlights: • Sites with few TRIs identified increased radiation exposure as the greatest barrier. • Sites with many TRIs identified the steep learning curve as the greatest barrier. • TFI was rated superior on procedure time and procedure success. • TRI was rated superior on all other criteria.

  2. The Development of 2700-3000 F Environmental Barrier Coatings for SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites: Challenges and Opportunities

    Zhu, Dongming

    2015-01-01

    Environmental barrier coatings (EBCs) and SiCSiC ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) systems will play a crucial role in future turbine engines for hot-section component applications because of their ability to significantly increase engine operating temperatures, reduce engine weight and cooling requirements. The development of prime-reliant environmental barrier coatings is a key to enable the applications of the envisioned 2700-3000F EBC - CMC systems to help achieve next generation engine performance and durability goals. This paper will primarily address the performance requirements and design considerations of environmental barrier coatings for turbine engine applications. The emphasis is placed on current NASA candidate environmental barrier coating systems for SiCSiC CMCs, their performance benefits and design limitations in long-term operation and combustion environments. The efforts have been also directed to developing prime-reliant, self-healing 2700F EBC bond coat; and high stability, lower thermal conductivity, and durable EBC top coats. Major technical barriers in developing environmental barrier coating systems, the coating integrations with next generation CMCs having the improved environmental stability, cyclic durability, erosion-impact resistance, and long-term system performance will be described. The research and development opportunities for turbine engine environmental barrier coating systems by utilizing improved compositions, state-of-the-art processing methods, and simulated environment testing and durability modeling will be discussed.

  3. General characteristics and assessment of the scientific/technical feasibility of the next major device in the tokamak fusion program. Summary of the US contributions to the INTOR workshop

    Stacey, W.M. Jr.; Gilleland, J.R.; Kulcinski, G.L.; Rutherford, P.H.

    1979-09-01

    A substantial physics and technology data base for INTOR exists today, and this data base will be expanded over the next few years by currently planned programs. However, certain crucial information will not be developed by currently planned programs. Much of this missing information could be developed on the INTOR time scale by the expansion and/or acceleration of existing R and D programs and by the establishment of new R and D programs. On this basis, it is concluded that it is scientifically and technologically feasible to undertake the construction of an INTOR-like device to operate in the early 1990s, provided that the supporting R and D effort is expanded immediately to provide an adequate data base within the next few years in a few critical areas. Furthermore, it is concluded that the construction of an INTOR-like device to operate in the early 1990s is the appropriate next major step in the development of fusion power

  4. Barrier cell sheath formation

    Kesner, J.

    1980-04-01

    The solution for electrostatic potential within a simply modeled tandem mirror thermal barrier is seen to exhibit a sheath at each edge of the cell. The formation of the sheath requires ion collisionality and the analysis assmes that the collisional trapping rate into the barrier is considerably slower than the barrier pump rate

  5. Development of engineered barrier

    Chun, Kwan Sik; Cho, Won Jin; Lee, Jae Owan; Kim, Seung Soo; Kang, Mu Ja

    1999-03-01

    Engineered barrier development was carried out into the three research fields : waste form, disposal container, and buffer. The waste form field dealt with long-term leaching tests with borosilicate waste glasses surrounded by compacted bentonite. The leach rate decreased with increasing time, and was higher for the waste specimen rich in U and Na. In the container field, preliminary concepts of disposal containers were recommended by conducting structural analysis, thermal analysis, and shielding analysis, and major properties of stainless steel, copper, and titanium as a container material were surveyed. The sensitization degrees of SUS 316 and316L were lower than those of SUS 304 and 304L, respectively. The crevice corrosion of sensitized stainless steel was sensitive to the content of salt. Researches into the buffer included establishment of its performance criteria followed by investigating major properties of buffer using potential material in Korea. Experiments were made for measuring hydraulic conductivities, swelling properties, mechanical properties, thermal conductivities, pore-water chemistry properties, and adsorption properties was also investigated. (author)

  6. Development of engineered barrier

    Chun, Kwan Sik; Cho, Won Jin; Lee, Jae Owan; Kim, Seung Soo; Kang, Mu Ja

    1999-03-01

    Engineered barrier development was carried out into the three research fields : waste form, disposal container, and buffer. The waste form field dealt with long-term leaching tests with borosilicate waste glasses surrounded by compacted bentonite. The leach rate decreased with increasing time, and was higher for the waste specimen rich in U and Na. In the container field, preliminary concepts of disposal containers were recommended by conducting structural analysis, thermal analysis, and shielding analysis, and major properties of stainless steel, copper, and titanium as a container material were surveyed. The sensitization degrees of SUS 316 and 316L were lower than those of SUS 304 and 304L, respectively. The crevice corrosion of sensitized stainless steel was sensitive to the content of salt. Researches into the buffer included establishment of its performance criteria followed by investigating major properties of buffer using potential material in Korea. Experiments were made for measuring hydraulic conductivities, swelling properties, mechanical properties, thermal conductivities, pore-water chemistry properties, and adsorption properties was also investigated. (author)

  7. Hanford Site protective isolation surface barrier: Taking research and development to engineered application

    Myers, D.R.; Wing, N.R.

    1994-01-01

    The development of the Protective Isolation Surface Barrier has been an ongoing program since 1985. This development effort has focused on several technical areas. These technical areas include water infiltration, biointrusion, human intrusion, erosion/deposition, physical stability, barrier materials, computer modeling, long-term climate effects, natural analogs, and barrier design. This paper briefly reviews the results of the research and development in the technical areas and then explains how the results of this work have influenced the design features of the prototype barrier. A good example of this is to explain how the type and depth of the soil layer used in the barrier is related to water infiltration, biointrusion, modeling, climate, analogs, and barrier materials. Another good example is to explain the relationship of the barrier sideslopes (basalt riprap and native soil) with human intrusion, biointrusion, barrier materials, and barrier design. In general, the design features of the prototype barrier will be explained in terms of the results of the testing and development program. After the basis for prototype barrier design has been established, the paper will close by reviewing the construction of the prototype barrier, sharing the lessons learned during construction, and explaining the ongoing testing and monitoring program which will determine the success or failure of this barrier concept and the need for additional design modifications

  8. Advanced Combustion and Emission Control Technical Team Roadmap

    None

    2013-06-01

    The Advanced Combustion and Emission Control (ACEC) Technical Team is focused on removing technical barriers to the commercialization of advanced, high-efficiency, emission-compliant internal combustion (IC) engines for light-duty vehicle powertrains (i.e., passenger car, minivan, SUV, and pickup trucks).

  9. Barriers to fusion

    Berriman, A.C.; Butt, R.D.; Dasgupta, M.; Hinde, D.J.; Morton, C.R.; Newton, J.O.

    1999-01-01

    The fusion barrier is formed by the combination of the repulsive Coulomb and attractive nuclear forces. Recent research at the Australian National University has shown that when heavy nuclei collide, instead of a single fusion barrier, there is a set of fusion barriers. These arise due to intrinsic properties of the interacting nuclei such deformation, rotations and vibrations. Thus the range of barrier energies depends on the properties of both nuclei. The transfer of matter between nuclei, forming a neck, can also affect the fusion process. High precision data have been used to determine fusion barrier distributions for many nuclear reactions, leading to new insights into the fusion process

  10. Extremal surface barriers

    Engelhardt, Netta; Wall, Aron C.

    2014-01-01

    We present a generic condition for Lorentzian manifolds to have a barrier that limits the reach of boundary-anchored extremal surfaces of arbitrary dimension. We show that any surface with nonpositive extrinsic curvature is a barrier, in the sense that extremal surfaces cannot be continuously deformed past it. Furthermore, the outermost barrier surface has nonnegative extrinsic curvature. Under certain conditions, we show that the existence of trapped surfaces implies a barrier, and conversely. In the context of AdS/CFT, these barriers imply that it is impossible to reconstruct the entire bulk using extremal surfaces. We comment on the implications for the firewall controversy

  11. Safety- barrier diagrams

    Duijm, Nijs Jan

    2008-01-01

    Safety-barrier diagrams and the related so-called 'bow-tie' diagrams have become popular methods in risk analysis. This paper describes the syntax and principles for constructing consistent and valid safety-barrier diagrams. The relation of safety-barrier diagrams to other methods such as fault...... trees and Bayesian networks is discussed. A simple method for quantification of safety-barrier diagrams is proposed. It is concluded that safety-barrier diagrams provide a useful framework for an electronic data structure that integrates information from risk analysis with operational safety management....

  12. Safety-barrier diagrams

    Duijm, Nijs Jan

    2007-01-01

    Safety-barrier diagrams and the related so-called "bow-tie" diagrams have become popular methods in risk analysis. This paper describes the syntax and principles for constructing consistent and valid safety-barrier diagrams. The relation with other methods such as fault trees and Bayesian networks...... are discussed. A simple method for quantification of safety-barrier diagrams is proposed, including situations where safety barriers depend on shared common elements. It is concluded that safety-barrier diagrams provide a useful framework for an electronic data structure that integrates information from risk...... analysis with operational safety management....

  13. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    Austin Ball

    2013-01-01

      Since the last report, much visible progress has been made, as the LS1 programme approaches the halfway point. From early October, technical and safety shift-crew have been present around the clock, allowing detectors to stay switched on overnight, ensuring that safety systems are operational and instructions for non-expert shift-crew are clear. LS1 progress Throughout the summer, whilst the solenoid vacuum tank and YB0 surfaces were accessible, an extensive installation programme took place to prepare for Tracker colder operation and the PLT installation, in 2014, the Phase 1 Pixel Tracker installation, in 2016–’17, and the HCAL Phase 1 upgrade completion, ending in LS2. This included pipework for N2 or dry air to flush the Tracker bulkhead region, many sensors to monitor temperature and dew point in the Tracker and its service channels, heating wires outside the Tracker cooling bundles, supports for the new vacuum-jacketed, concentric, CO2 Pixel cooling lines, the PLT cool...

  14. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    A. Ball and W. Zeuner

    2012-01-01

      UXC + detectors As explained in detail in the November 2011 bulletin, the bellows unit at −18.5 m from the CMS interaction point was identified as a prime candidate for the regularly occurring pressure spikes which occasionally led to sustained severe background conditions in 2011, affecting dead time and data quality. Similar regions in LHC with vacuum instabilities were observed to be close to bellows, which radiography showed to have distorted RF-fingers — on removal, they proved to have been severely overheated. The plans for the Year-End Technical Stop were adapted to prioritise radiography of the bellows at 16 m to 18 m either end of CMS. Excellent work by the beam pipe, survey and heavy mechanical teams allowed the X-rays to be taken as planned on 20th December, showing that the bellow at −18.5m had an obvious non-conformity. The RF-fingers were found inside the end of the opposing flared pipe instead of outside. In addition, the overlap between fingers and...

  15. ATR Technical Specification Upgrade Program

    McCracken, R.T.; Durney, J.L.; Freund, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is a 250 MW, uranium-aluminum fueled test reactor which began full power operation in 1969. The initial operation was controlled by an Operating Limits document based on the original Safety Analysis Report. Additional safety bases were later developed to support Technical Specifications which were approved and implemented in 1977. The Technical Specifications which were initially developed with content and format specified in ANSI/ANS--15.1, ''The Development of Technical Specifications for Research Reactors.'' The safety basis documentation and the Technical Specifications have been updated as required to maintain them current with the ATR facility configuration. All revisions have been made with a content, format and style consistent with the original. A major, two-phase program to upgrade the content, format and style is in progress. This paper describes the first phase of this program

  16. Technical issues for WIPP

    Hunter, T.O.

    1979-01-01

    Emplacement of wastes in the WIPP will include experiments on various waste types which will provide essential data on waste-rock interaction and repository response. These experiments will include evolution of the synergistic effects of both heat production, radiation, and actual waste forms. While these studies will provide essential data on the validity of waste isolation in bedded salt, they will be preceded by a broad-based experimental program which will resolve many of the current technical issues providing not only an assessment of the safety of performing such experiments but also the technical basis for assurance that the appropriate experiments are performed. Data and predictive modeling techniques, which are currently available, can bound the consequences associated with these technical issues. Predictions of the impact on public safety based on these analyses indicate that safe waste disposal in WIPP salt beds is achievable; however, a major use of WIPP will be to conduct realistic experiments with HLW forms to address some of the unresolved details of these waste/salt interactions

  17. Technical report from Radioactive Waste Management Funding and Research Center

    2007-10-01

    As the only one Japanese organization specialized in radioactive waste, RWMC (Radioactive Waste Management Funding and Research Center) has been conducting the two major roles; R and D and the fund administration for radioactive waste management. The focus of its studies includes land disposal of LLW (Low-level radioactive wastes) and it has gradually extended to research on management and disposal techniques for high-level (HLW) and TRU wastes and studies on securing and managing the funds required for disposal of these wastes. The present document is the yearly progress report of 2006 and the main activities and research results are included on spent fuel disposal techniques including radon diffusion and emanation problem, performance studies on underground facilities for radioactive waste disposal and its management, technical assessment for geological environment, remote control techniques, artificial barrier systems proposed and its monitoring systems, and TRU disposals. (S. Ohno)

  18. Global process industry initiatives to reduce major accident hazards

    Pitblado, Robin [DNV Energy Houston, TX (United States). SHE Risk Management; Pontes, Jose [DNV Energy Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Americas Region; Oliveira, Luiz [DNV Energy Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Since 2000, disasters at Texas City, Toulouse, Antwerp, Buncefield, P-36 and several near total loss events offshore in Norway have highlighted that major accident process safety is still a serious issue. Hopes that Process Safety Management or Safety Case regulations would solve these issues have not proven true. The Baker Panel recommended to BP several actions mainly around leadership, incentives, metrics, safety culture and more effective implementation of PSM systems. In Europe, an approach built around mechanical integrity and safety barriers, especially relating to technical safety systems, is being widely adopted. DNV has carried out a global survey of process industry initiatives, by interview and by literature review, for both upstream and downstream activities, to identify what the industry itself is planning to implement to enhance process safety in the next 5 - 10 years. This shows that an approach combining Baker Panel and EU barrier approaches and some nuclear industry real-time risk management approaches might be the best means to achieve a factor of 3-4 improvement in process safety. (author)

  19. Treatment of barrier evolution: the SKB perspective

    Hedin, A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper serves as a point of departure for the discussions to be held within the Working Group of Technical Topic entitled 'Barriers and System Performances within a safety case: Their functioning and Evolution with Time'. The paper gives the SKB perspective of the issues to be discussed within the Working Group for this Topic. The following issues to be discussed by the Working Group are: What is the role of each barrier as a function of time or in the different time frames? What is its contribution to the overall system performance or safety as a function of time? Which are the main uncertainties on the performance of barriers in the timescales? To what extent should we enhance the robustness of barriers because of the uncertainties of some component behaviour with time? What is the requested or required performance versus the expected or realistic or conservative behaviour with time? How are these safety margins used as arguments in a safety case? What is the issue associated with the geosphere stability for different geological systems? How is barriers and system performances as a function of time evaluated (and presented and communicated) in a safety case? What kind of measures are used for siting, designing and optimising robust barriers corresponding to situations that can vary with time? Are human actions considered to be relevant? (authors)

  20. Technical innovation and management

    Yoon, Yang Cheol

    1982-08-15

    This book gives explanations of the conception of technical innovation, development plan in Korea, connection between technology and a growth factor in national income, problem of technical innovation in developing country, analysis on cooperation between a developed country and a developing country, evaluation and strategy of technical development in Korea, technical innovation of industry, management of technical industry, analysis of special condition in Korea.

  1. Technical innovation and management

    Yoon, Yang Cheol

    1982-08-01

    This book gives explanations of the conception of technical innovation, development plan in Korea, connection between technology and a growth factor in national income, problem of technical innovation in developing country, analysis on cooperation between a developed country and a developing country, evaluation and strategy of technical development in Korea, technical innovation of industry, management of technical industry, analysis of special condition in Korea.

  2. Estimating the Economic Effects of Reducing Non-Tariff Barriers in the EEU

    Vinokurov, Evgeny; Demidenko, Mikhail; Pelipas, Igor; Tochitskaya, Irina; Shymanovich, Gleb; Lipin, Andrey; Movchan, Veronika

    2015-01-01

    The report provides the first comprehensive assessment of the effects of non-tariff barriers on mutual trade in the EEU and gives recommendations as to how to remove them. It is based on a poll of 530 Russian, Kazakh and Belarusian exporters. In the research non-tariff barriers are divided into two groups. The first group includes non-tariff barriers such as sanitary and phytosanitary measures, technical barriers to trade, quotas, prohibitions, and quantitative controls. The second group comp...

  3. Regulatory Barriers Blocking Standardization of Interoperability

    Zhong, Daidi; Kirwan, Michael J; Duan, Xiaolian

    2013-01-01

    Developing and implementing a set of personal health device interoperability standards is key to cultivating a healthy global industry ecosystem. The standardization organizations, including the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers 11073 Personal Health Device Workgroup (IEEE 11073-PHD WG) and Continua Health Alliance, are striving for this purpose. However, factors like the medial device regulation, health policy, and market reality have placed non-technical barriers over the ad...

  4. Engineered barrier development for a nuclear waste repository in basalt

    Smith, M.J.

    1980-05-01

    The BWIP Engineered Barrier Program has been developed to provide an integrated approach to the development of site-specific Engineered Barrier assemblages for a repository located in basalt. The goal of this program is to specify engineered and natural barriers which will ensure that nuclear and non-radioactive hazardous materials emplaced in a repository in basalt do not exceed acceptable rates of release to the biosphere. A wide range of analytical and experimental activities related to the basalt repository environment, waste package environment, waste/barrier/rock interactions, and barrier performance assessment provide the basis for selection of systems capable of meeting licensing requirements. Work has concentrated on specifying and testing natural and man-made materials which can be used to plug boreholes in basalt and which can be used as multiple barriers to surround nuclear waste forms and containers. The Engineered Barriers Program is divided into two major activities: multiple barrier studies and borehole plugging. 8 figures, 4 tables

  5. Technical paper contest for women 1992. Space challenges: Earth and beyond

    Orans, Robin (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    Two of the major concerns of the NASA Ames Research Center (NASA ARC) Advisory Committee for Women (ACW) are that recruitment of women scientists, engineers, and technicians needs to increase and that barriers to advancement need to be removed for improved representation of women in middle and upper management and scientific positions. One strategy that addressed this concern was the ACW sponsorship of a Technical Paper Contest for Women at Ames Research Center. Other sponsors of the Contest were the Ames Equal Opportunity Council and the Ames Contractor Council. The Technical Paper Contest for Women greatly increased the visibility of both the civil service women and the women who work for contractors at Ames. The women had the opportunity to hone their written and oral presentation skills. Networking among Ames women increased.

  6. Multilayer moisture barrier

    Pankow, Joel W; Jorgensen, Gary J; Terwilliger, Kent M; Glick, Stephen H; Isomaki, Nora; Harkonen, Kari; Turkulainen, Tommy

    2015-04-21

    A moisture barrier, device or product having a moisture barrier or a method of fabricating a moisture barrier having at least a polymer layer, and interfacial layer, and a barrier layer. The polymer layer may be fabricated from any suitable polymer including, but not limited to, fluoropolymers such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) or polyethylene naphthalate (PEN), or ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE). The interfacial layer may be formed by atomic layer deposition (ALD). In embodiments featuring an ALD interfacial layer, the deposited interfacial substance may be, but is not limited to, Al.sub.2O.sub.3, AlSiO.sub.x, TiO.sub.2, and an Al.sub.2O.sub.3/TiO.sub.2 laminate. The barrier layer associated with the interfacial layer may be deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). The barrier layer may be a SiO.sub.xN.sub.y film.

  7. (ICT) to Technical Services in Libraries

    The term technical services is used in this paper to refer to the major operations that are common to all Technical Services Divisions in libraries – namely, cataloguing, classification, indexing and abstracting. These activities have many repetitive components which used to be done manually. But today the new technology ...

  8. Middlesex Community College Software Technical Writing Program.

    Middlesex Community Coll., Bedford, MA.

    This document describes the Software Technical Writing Program at Middlesex Community College (Massachusetts). The program is a "hands-on" course designed to develop job-related skills in three major areas: technical writing, software, and professional skills. The program was originally designed in cooperation with the Massachusetts High…

  9. Major hazards onshore and offshore

    1992-01-01

    This symposium continues the tradition of bringing together papers on a topic of current interest and importance in terms of process safety - in this case, Major Hazards Onshore and Offshore. Lord Cullen in his report on the Piper Alpha disaster has, in effect, suggested that the experience gained in the control of major hazards onshore during the 1980s should be applied to improve safety offshore during the 1990s. This major three-day symposium reviews what has been learned so far with regard to major hazards and considers its present and future applications both onshore and offshore. The topics covered in the programme are wide ranging and deal with all aspects of legislation, the application of regulations, techniques for evaluating hazards and prescribing safety measures in design, construction and operation, the importance of the human factors, and recent technical developments in protective measures, relief venting and predicting the consequences of fires and explosions. (author)

  10. Barrier penetration database

    Fainberg, A.; Bieber, A.M. Jr.

    1978-11-01

    This document is intended to supply the NRC and nuclear power plant licensees with basic data on the times required to penetrate forcibly the types of barriers commonly found in nuclear plants. These times are necessary for design and evaluation of the physical protection system required under 10CFR73.55. Each barrier listed is described in detail. Minor variations in basic barrier construction that result in the same penetration time, are also described

  11. MENDING THE IN SITU MANIPULATION BARRIER

    PETERSEN, S.W.

    2006-02-06

    In early 2004, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Richland and Fluor Hanford requested technical assistance from the DOE Headquarters EM-23 Technical Assistance Program to provide a team of technical experts to develop recommendations for mending the In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) Barrier in the 100-D Area of the Hanford Site in Washington State. To accommodate this request, EM-23 provided support to convene a group of technical experts from industry, a national laboratory, and a DOE site to participate in a 2 1/2-day workshop with the objective of identifying and recommending options to enhance the performance of the 100-D Area reactive barrier and of a planned extension to the northeast. This report provides written documentation of the team's findings and recommendations. In 1995, a plume of dissolved hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)], which resulted from operation of the D/DR Reactors at the Hanford site, was discovered along the Columbia River shoreline and in the 100-D Area. Between 1999 and 2003, a reactive barrier using the In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) technology, was installed a distance of 680 meters along the river to reduce the Cr(VI) in the groundwater. The ISRM technology creates a treatment zone within the aquifer by injection of sodium dithionite, a strong reducing agent that scavenges dissolved oxygen (DO) from the aquifer and reduces ferric iron [Fe(III)], related metals, and oxy-ions. The reduction of Fe(III) to ferrous [Fe(II)] iron provides the primary reduction capacity to reduce Cr(VI) to the +3 state, which is less mobile and less toxic. Bench-scale and field-scale treatability tests were initially conducted to demonstrate proof-of principle and to provide data for estimation of barrier longevity. These calculations estimated barrier longevity in excess of twenty years. However, several years after initial and secondary treatment, groundwater in a number of wells has been found to contain elevated chromium (Cr) concentrations

  12. Transport barriers in plasmas

    Caldas, I L; Szezech, J D Jr; Kroetz, T; Marcus, F A; Roberto, M; Viana, R L; Lopes, S R

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the creation of transport barriers in magnetically confined plasmas with non monotonic equilibrium radial profiles. These barriers reduce the transport in the shearless region (i.e., where the twist condition does not hold). For the chaotic motion of particles in an equilibrium electric field with a nonmonotonic radial profile, perturbed by electrostatic waves, we show that a nontwist transport barrier can be created in the plasma by modifying the electric field radial profile. We also show non twist barriers in chaotic magnetic field line transport in the plasma near to the tokamak wall with resonant modes due to electric currents in external coils.

  13. Gender Differences in Major Federal External Grant Programs. Technical Report

    Hosek, Susan D.; Cox, Amy G.; Ghosh-Dastidar, Bonnie; Kofner, Aaron; Ramphal, Nishal; Scott, Jon; Berry, Sandra H.

    2005-01-01

    The Wyden amendment to the National Science Foundation (NSF) Authorization Act of 2002 sought to determine whether federally funded educational programs other than sports comply with Title IX, which prohibits gender discrimination. At the request of NSF, this report analyzes administrative data from fiscal years 2001 through 2003 describing the…

  14. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    A. Ball

    2011-01-01

    1 Operational experience 2011 1.1 Overview Starting on a positive note, it is encouraging that, for the period of this report, the operation of CMS and its entire infrastructure at Point 5 was remarkably stable and efficient. No luminosity was lost due to failures of common systems or infrastructure. The major faults were two failures of rack ventilation turbines, a leak in a water pump in the endcap circuit and the first fast dump of the magnet since underground commissioning. As the rack ventilation units have two turbines, these single turbine failures were tolerated until the next possible access. The water pump survived until the end of the fill after which the circuit was switched to a reserve pump (which in principle is also possible “on the fly”). A faulty position controller of a cryo-valve serving the cryo-power leads caused a spontaneous closure of the valve leading to the fast dump of the magnet. In this case, CMS was lucky once again, since the incident happened on the first ...

  15. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    Austin Ball

    The 2008-9 CMS shutdown has reached its final phase. The yoke is closed again and the HFs are being prepared for lifting to beam height. Assuming no last minute problems occur, the detector will be ready for magnetic field tests by the end of June. The commitment of all the teams involved has ensured that an ambitious programme of work, including several tasks unforeseen in November 08, is nevertheless concluding on-time and successfully. All efforts are now being made to be ready for the CRAFT09 exercise. The way to proceed after CRAFT will depend on the LHC re-start schedule (to be clarified around the end of June). Options will be discussed during this CMS week. Shutdown 2008-9 Sub-Detectors As a reminder, the major shutdown activities on the detector components are listed below; details on each point can be found elsewhere in this bulletin. •    Installation and check-out of the Preshower detector on both endcaps •    Mainten...

  16. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    A. Ball and W. Zeuner

    2012-01-01

      In the reporting period, CMS has collected about 10 fb–1 of pp collision data. Considering the prolonged duration of the current running period, with no opportunity for thorough maintenance since 2009, the reliability of the infrastructure and common systems was satisfactory. . Once again, CMS was fortunate that some failures coincided with LHC downtime, avoiding major data losses. After repeated difficulties over the summer with reconnection of the cold box following an unexpected stop, the procedure was revised. For reliability, and to reduce the risk of a fast discharge, the reconnection is now done at a reduced field of 2 T, resulting in a mechanical on-off-on cycle. It is also time consuming, with two times two hours for the ramp-down/up and several hours for refilling the He dewar before restoring the field to 3.8 T. In response to this, a mode of operation has been successfully tested that allows doubling the refill rate of the dewar. Reconnection at a somewhat higher field is ...

  17. Food irradiation. Technical and legal aspects

    Vas, K.

    1978-01-01

    This document presents a brief technical discussion on a new major technique for food preservation and points out the necessary harmonization of national regulations to give them a broader application field [fr

  18. Integrated risk - healthy technical conscience

    Freeman, P. [Institute of Nuclear Power Operations, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The personal obligation leaders and individuals internalize and exercise to ensure plant operation, maintenance, and engineering activities are conducted in a manner consistent with plant design, emergency response strategies, technical requirements and that preserve operating, design and safety margins. Technical errors are increasing, both in number and significance. Causes are common at many utilities. The majority of these engineering human performance weaknesses have not had immediate impact on station reliability and safety (not self-revealing). In some recent projects, the same weaknesses affected a station's viability.

  19. Technical Report

    Jonathan D. Istok

    2008-06-01

    ‘Bioimmobilization’ of redox-sensitive metals and radionuclides is being investigated as a way to remediate contaminated groundwater and sediments. In this approach, growth-limiting substrates are added to stimulate the activity of targeted groups of indigenous microorganisms and create conditions favorable for the microbially-mediated precipitation (‘bioimmobilization’) of targeted contaminants. This project investigated a fundamentally new approach for modeling this process that couples thermodynamic descriptions for microbial growth with associated geochemical reactions. In this approach, a synthetic microbial community is defined as a collection of defined microbial groups; each with a growth equation derived from bioenergetic principles. The growth equations and standard-state free energy yields are appended to a thermodynamic database for geochemical reactions and the combined equations are solved simultaneously to predict the effect of added substrates on microbial biomass, community composition, and system geochemistry. This approach, with a single set of thermodynamic parameters (one for each growth equation), was used to predict the results of laboratory and field bioimmobilization experiments at two geochemically diverse research sites. Predicted effects of ethanol or acetate addition on uranium and technetium solubility, major ion geochemistry, mineralogy, microbial biomass and community composition were in general agreement with experimental observations although the available experimental data precluded rigorous model testing. Model simulations provide insight into the long-standing difficulty in transferring experimental results from the laboratory to the field and from one field site to the next, especially if the form, concentration, or delivery of growth substrate is varied from one experiment to the next. Although originally developed for use in better understanding bioimmobilization of uranium and technetium via reductive precipitation

  20. Analysis of the Research Status and Topics on the Radionuclide Migration and Retardation in Natural Barriers

    Baik, Min Hoon; Park, Chung Kyun; Kim, Seung Soo; Lee, Seung Yeop; Lee, Jae Kwang

    2008-12-01

    In this report, recent research status for major developed countries in the high-level radioactive waste disposal including international organizations was investigated and analyzed in research topics for the radionuclide migration and retardation in natural barriers. Besides, recent research trends and future prospects were investigated for selected major 10 topics about the radionuclide migration and retardation processes. Based upon these investigations and analyses, future research goals and topics to be concentrated were presented. This report will be helpful for understanding our current research status and technical position and establishing future research direction and topics by analyzing domestic and foreign research status and trends. The results will also be utilized as basic information for establishing future policy and plans of the government for the high-level radioactive waste disposal

  1. Analysis of the Research Status and Topics on the Radionuclide Migration and Retardation in Natural Barriers

    Baik, Min Hoon; Park, Chung Kyun; Kim, Seung Soo; Lee, Seung Yeop; Lee, Jae Kwang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    In this report, recent research status for major developed countries in the high-level radioactive waste disposal including international organizations was investigated and analyzed in research topics for the radionuclide migration and retardation in natural barriers. Besides, recent research trends and future prospects were investigated for selected major 10 topics about the radionuclide migration and retardation processes. Based upon these investigations and analyses, future research goals and topics to be concentrated were presented. This report will be helpful for understanding our current research status and technical position and establishing future research direction and topics by analyzing domestic and foreign research status and trends. The results will also be utilized as basic information for establishing future policy and plans of the government for the high-level radioactive waste disposal.

  2. Environmental Barrier Coating Development for SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites: Recent Advances and Future Directions

    Zhu, Dongming

    2016-01-01

    This presentation briefly reviews the SiC/SiC major environmental and environment-fatigue degradations encountered in simulated turbine combustion environments, and thus NASA environmental barrier coating system evolution for protecting the SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites for meeting the engine performance requirements. The presentation will review several generations of NASA EBC materials systems, EBC-CMC component system technologies for SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite combustors and turbine airfoils, highlighting the temperature capability and durability improvements in simulated engine high heat flux, high pressure, high velocity, and with mechanical creep and fatigue loading conditions. This paper will also focus on the performance requirements and design considerations of environmental barrier coatings for next generation turbine engine applications. The current development emphasis is placed on advanced NASA candidate environmental barrier coating systems for SiC/SiC CMCs, their performance benefits and design limitations in long-term operation and combustion environments. The efforts have been also directed to developing prime-reliant, self-healing 2700F EBC bond coat; and high stability, lower thermal conductivity, and durable EBC top coats. Major technical barriers in developing environmental barrier coating systems, the coating integrations with next generation CMCs having the improved environmental stability, erosion-impact resistance, and long-term fatigue-environment system durability performance will be described. The research and development opportunities for turbine engine environmental barrier coating systems by utilizing improved compositions, state-of-the-art processing methods, and simulated environment testing and durability modeling will be briefly discussed.

  3. Review of potential subsurface permeable barrier emplacement and monitoring technologies

    Riggsbee, W.H.; Treat, R.L.; Stansfield, H.J.; Schwarz, R.M.; Cantrell, K.J.; Phillips, S.J.

    1994-02-01

    This report focuses on subsurface permeable barrier technologies potentially applicable to existing waste disposal sites. This report describes candidate subsurface permeable barriers, methods for emplacing these barriers, and methods used to monitor the barrier performance. Two types of subsurface barrier systems are described: those that apply to contamination.in the unsaturated zone, and those that apply to groundwater and to mobile contamination near the groundwater table. These barriers may be emplaced either horizontally or vertically depending on waste and site characteristics. Materials for creating permeable subsurface barriers are emplaced using one of three basic methods: injection, in situ mechanical mixing, or excavation-insertion. Injection is the emplacement of dissolved reagents or colloidal suspensions into the soil at elevated pressures. In situ mechanical mixing is the physical blending of the soil and the barrier material underground. Excavation-insertion is the removal of a soil volume and adding barrier materials to the space created. Major vertical barrier emplacement technologies include trenching-backfilling; slurry trenching; and vertical drilling and injection, including boring (earth augering), cable tool drilling, rotary drilling, sonic drilling, jetting methods, injection-mixing in drilled holes, and deep soil mixing. Major horizontal barrier emplacement technologies include horizontal drilling, microtunneling, compaction boring, horizontal emplacement, longwall mining, hydraulic fracturing, and jetting methods

  4. Converse Barrier Certificate Theorems

    Wisniewski, Rafael; Sloth, Christoffer

    2016-01-01

    This paper shows that a barrier certificate exists for any safe dynamical system. Specifically, we prove converse barrier certificate theorems for a class of structurally stable dynamical systems. Other authors have developed a related result by assuming that the dynamical system has neither...

  5. Skin barrier function

    2016-01-01

    Renowned experts present the latest knowledge Although a very fragile structure, the skin barrier is probably one of the most important organs of the body. Inward/out it is responsible for body integrity and outward/in for keeping microbes, chemicals, and allergens from penetrating the skin. Since...... the role of barrier integrity in atopic dermatitis and the relationship to filaggrin mutations was discovered a decade ago, research focus has been on the skin barrier, and numerous new publications have become available. This book is an interdisciplinary update offering a wide range of information...... on the subject. It covers new basic research on skin markers, including results on filaggrin and on methods for the assessment of the barrier function. Biological variation and aspects of skin barrier function restoration are discussed as well. Further sections are dedicated to clinical implications of skin...

  6. Barriers to the future

    Massey, C T

    1986-09-01

    Opportunities for the British coal industry seem vast yet there are still barriers to progress. Seven areas are identified and discussed: mining mobility (for example, longwall mining systems are rigid and inflexible compared with American stall and pillar working); mine structure (many mines are more suitable to pit ponies than to large pieces of equipment); financial barriers (Government requires the industry to break even in 1987/88); personnel barriers (less specialization, better use of skills); safety barriers (increased use of remote control, ergonomics and robotics to protect workers); microelectronic management (nationalization has cushioned management from the market place; there is a need for a more multidisciplinary approach to the industry); and legal barriers (most legislation in the past has been in response to accidents; legislation external to the industry but affecting it is more fundamental).

  7. Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment

    P. Dixon

    2004-04-26

    The conceptual and predictive models documented in this Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model report describe the evolution of the physical and chemical conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository. The modeling approaches and model output data will be used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA-LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. These models evaluate the range of potential water compositions within the emplacement drifts, resulting from the interaction of introduced materials and minerals in dust with water seeping into the drifts and with aqueous solutions forming by deliquescence of dust (as influenced by atmospheric conditions), and from thermal-hydrological-chemical (THC) processes in the drift. These models also consider the uncertainty and variability in water chemistry inside the drift and the compositions of introduced materials within the drift. This report develops and documents a set of process- and abstraction-level models that constitute the engineered barrier system: physical and chemical environment model. Where possible, these models use information directly from other process model reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for total system performance assessment. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in the technical work plan ''Technical Work Plan for: In-Drift Geochemistry Modeling'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166519]). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system analysis model reports.

  8. Schizophrenia: breaking down the barriers.

    Haghighat, R

    1997-01-01

    This paper reviews the key issues presented during the Fourth International Conference on Schizophrenia, which was held in October 1996 in Vancouver, Canada. The main emphasis was placed on the problem of stigma, loneliness and work as well as on the necessity to further elucidate the physiopathology of schizophrenia. Some of the barriers discussed are unlikely to disappear from human societies in the short term with any possible cure for schizophrenia as they are part of any major long-term illness, of which there is a long and ever increasing list.

  9. Strategy of technical innovation

    Lee, Ga Jong

    1990-12-01

    This book deals with policy of scientific technique and technical innovation such as research for development and types of technical innovation, historical development and process of technical innovation, economic growth, technology change and investment for research and development, structure and form of technical transfer with the meaning process, from, structure and theory, economic growth and investment of research and development with experiential analysis and case study on strategy of technical innovation in electron and fine chemical industry.

  10. Feasibility of permeation grouting for constructing subsurface barriers

    Dwyer, B.P.

    1994-03-01

    The technical feasibility of emplacing a barrier beneath a waste site using directionally drilled boreholes and permeation grouting was investigated. The benefits of this emplacement system are: (1) Directionally drilled boreholes provide access beneath a waste site without disturbing the waste; (2) interim containment of contaminants allows time for the development of remediation options; (3) in the interim, the volume of waste remains fixed; (4) barriers may enhance the effectiveness of in situ remediation actions; and (5) barrier systems may provide permanent waste containment

  11. Socio-Technical Structure

    Rose, Jeremy; Lindgren, Rikard; Henfridsson, Ole

    2004-01-01

    a reference discipline in its own right (in other words a theory exporter), this paper offers an example of integrative theory development. Instead of adapting a theory from another discipline or building a theory from empirical data, we examine the structure concept in some of its various theoretical......When it comes to investigating the relationship between the social and the technical, IS has been a net importer of theories. These theories often carry differing interpretations of central concepts, which then become both confusing and difficult to integrate. In response to calls for IS to become...... adaptations in IS and try to integrate them to produce theory that focuses on IS concerns whilst resolving some of the major areas of contention. Both social and technological versions of structure are investigated through three theoretical IS perspectives drawn from different reference disciplines. The first...

  12. On the evolution of a holocene barrier coast

    Fruergaard, Mikkel

    in a distinct stratal stacking pattern of each of the investigated coastal barrier systems. We conclude that the overall infilling of the barrier systems over the Holocene was mainly controlled by sea-level rise and sediment supply. However, major storms and tidal channel migration have greatly affected......This thesis investigates the sedimentary evolution of a Holocene barrier coast with special focus on how barrier system stratigraphy is affected by changes in sea-level and sediment supply. Coastal barrier systems comprise about 13% of the world’s coastlines and they are mportant components...... of the stratigraphic record of the Earth. Sea-level rise and sediment supply are the two most important factors controlling barrier system evolution. Detailed depositional reconstructions of a number of barrier systems from the Danish Wadden Sea area have been carried out in order to evaluate the sedimentary effects...

  13. Vehicle barrier systems

    Sena, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    The ground vehicle is one of the most effective tools available to an adversary force. Vehicles can be used to penetrate many types of perimeter barriers, transport equipment and personnel rapidly over long distances, and deliver large amounts of explosives directly to facilities in suicide missions. The function of a vehicle barrier system is to detain or disable a defined threat vehicle at a selected distance from a protected facility. Numerous facilities are installing, or planning to install, vehicle barrier systems and many of these facilities are requesting guidance to do so adequately. Therefore, vehicle barriers are being evaluated to determine their stopping capabilities so that systems can be designed that are both balanced and capable of providing a desired degree of protection. Equally important, many of the considerations that should be taken into account when establishing a vehicle barrier system have been identified. These considerations which pertain to site preparation, barrier selection, system integration and operation, and vehicle/barrier interaction, are discussed in this paper

  14. Psychometric Properties of the Barriers to Treatment Participation Scale-Expectancies

    Nanninga, Marieke; Jansen, Danielle E. M. C.; Kazdin, Alan E.; Knorth, Erik J.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    Expectations concerning barriers to children's psychosocial care seem to be major drivers when seeking help, but validated questionnaires measuring expectations are not available. Therefore, this study examined the psychometric properties of the parent and adolescent versions of the Barriers to

  15. PRIORITISING LEAN CONSTRUCTION BARRIERS IN UGANDA'S CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

    Henry Mwanaki Alinaitwe

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Engaging in lean construction efforts could prove to be highly rewarding for building firms in Uganda. However, lean construction is risky and can be disastrous if not properly managed. Lean production efforts in some other countries have not been successful due to the many barriers to its successful implementation. To enable sound lean construction efforts and to increase the chances of success in eliminating waste, a thorough investigation of the barriers is essential. This study presents 31 barriers and investigates their influence (strength on the success of lean construction initiatives. Structured interviews were carried out with technical managers of building firms to assess their perception of the barriers to lean production based on their experience at their firms. The strongest barrier is the provision of inputs exactly when required. Additionally, the barriers were ranked according to the ease of overcoming each. The easiest barrier to overcome is keeping the required items in the right place. Finally, a graphical aid is provided to enable decision makers to concentrate their efforts on the influential (strong, yet easy to overcome barriers. A lack of buildable designs and a participative management style for the workforce are the most important barriers to successful waste reduction in terms of strength and ease of overcoming. On the other hand, a lack of an organisational culture that supports teamwork, a lack of prefabrication and a lack of knowledgeable and skilled workers are regarded as low in strength, and at the same time difficult to overcome.

  16. Converse Barrier Certificate Theorem

    Wisniewski, Rafael; Sloth, Christoffer

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a converse barrier certificate theorem for a generic dynamical system.We show that a barrier certificate exists for any safe dynamical system defined on a compact manifold. Other authors have developed a related result, by assuming that the dynamical system has no singular...... points in the considered subset of the state space. In this paper, we redefine the standard notion of safety to comply with generic dynamical systems with multiple singularities. Afterwards, we prove the converse barrier certificate theorem and illustrate the differences between ours and previous work...

  17. Benchmarking the interactions among barriers in third-party logistics implementation

    Diabat, A.; Khreishah, A.; Govindan, Kannan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze the interaction among some of the major barriers that may hinder the implementation of third-party logistics (TPL) in manufacturing industries. Design/methodology/approach: This paper uses an interpretive structural modeling (ISM) methodology...... to analyze the interactions among the barriers. Findings: It is beneficial for the management of any firm to be aware of significant barriers and to diagnose those that could be integral to the organization's future survival. Many works have focused on identifying barriers for TPL implementation, but a model...... for such barriers is lacking. This paper attempts to develop a model for the barriers using an ISM methodology and analyzes the mutual interactions among the barriers. The model differentiates between the barriers so that driving barriers, which can intensify other barriers, and dependent barriers are identified...

  18. Scaffold translation: barriers between concept and clinic.

    Hollister, Scott J; Murphy, William L

    2011-12-01

    Translation of scaffold-based bone tissue engineering (BTE) therapies to clinical use remains, bluntly, a failure. This dearth of translated tissue engineering therapies (including scaffolds) remains despite 25 years of research, research funding totaling hundreds of millions of dollars, over 12,000 papers on BTE and over 2000 papers on BTE scaffolds alone in the past 10 years (PubMed search). Enabling scaffold translation requires first an understanding of the challenges, and second, addressing the complete range of these challenges. There are the obvious technical challenges of designing, manufacturing, and functionalizing scaffolds to fill the Form, Fixation, Function, and Formation needs of bone defect repair. However, these technical solutions should be targeted to specific clinical indications (e.g., mandibular defects, spine fusion, long bone defects, etc.). Further, technical solutions should also address business challenges, including the need to obtain regulatory approval, meet specific market needs, and obtain private investment to develop products, again for specific clinical indications. Finally, these business and technical challenges present a much different model than the typical research paradigm, presenting the field with philosophical challenges in terms of publishing and funding priorities that should be addressed as well. In this article, we review in detail the technical, business, and philosophical barriers of translating scaffolds from Concept to Clinic. We argue that envisioning and engineering scaffolds as modular systems with a sliding scale of complexity offers the best path to addressing these translational challenges. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

  19. How to be an Effective Technical Writer?

    M Solaiman Ali

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract--This paper has focused on technical writing as a skill for engineers. It has sought to define technical writing and throw light on the content and technique of writing the various components of successful technical reports (for example, articles, papers, or research reports, such as theses and dissertations. Then, it has highlighted other special features and principles of effective technical writing. The material in this paper is divided into seven major parts. Part 1 (Technical writing for engineers stresses that a successful engineering career requires strong writing skills. Part 2 (How to write the major sections or elements of a report describes the techniques of writing the abstract, introduction, literature review, procedure/methods & materials, results, discussion, conclusion, and recommendations. Part 3 (Special features of technical writing brings into focus some of the special features of technical writing such as tables & graphs in the text, graphics in instructions, team writing, ethics (plagiarism, document sources, three citation styles and IEEE reference style. Part 4 (Technical usage deals with writing abbreviations, initialisms and acronyms, numbers, units of measurement, and equations.Part 5 (Technical style highlights the imperative writing style and other features of technical writing such as the use of active and passive voices, plain vs. complex syntax, avoiding redundant or superfluous expressions, and vague generalities, using words or expressions with visual impact, the past tense to describe experimental work, the present tense to describe hypotheses, principles, theories and truths, and breaking up the text of the report into short sections. Part 6 (Document specifications emphasizes the technical writer’s need to conform to such document specifications as word count, format, font, number of words per line of text imposed. Part 7 (Reader-friendly technical writing suggests choosing the varied writing modes

  20. Regulatory barriers blocking standardization of interoperability.

    Zhong, Daidi; Kirwan, Michael J; Duan, Xiaolian

    2013-07-12

    Developing and implementing a set of personal health device interoperability standards is key to cultivating a healthy global industry ecosystem. The standardization organizations, including the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers 11073 Personal Health Device Workgroup (IEEE 11073-PHD WG) and Continua Health Alliance, are striving for this purpose. However, factors like the medial device regulation, health policy, and market reality have placed non-technical barriers over the adoption of technical standards throughout the industry. These barriers have significantly impaired the motivations of consumer device vendors who desire to enter the personal health market and the overall success of personal health industry ecosystem. In this paper, we present the affect that these barriers have placed on the health ecosystem. This requires immediate action from policy makers and other stakeholders. The current regulatory policy needs to be updated to reflect the reality and demand of consumer health industry. Our hope is that this paper will draw wide consensus amongst its readers, policy makers, and other stakeholders.

  1. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT

    R. Jarek

    2004-11-23

    The purpose of this report is to describe the evolution of the physical and chemical environmental conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository, including the drip shield and waste package surfaces. The abstraction model is used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. This report develops and documents a set of these abstraction-level models that describe the engineered barrier system physical and chemical environment. Where possible, these models use information directly from other reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for TSPA-LA. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171156], Section 1.2.2). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system reports.

  2. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT

    Jarek, R.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the evolution of the physical and chemical environmental conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository, including the drip shield and waste package surfaces. The abstraction model is used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. This report develops and documents a set of these abstraction-level models that describe the engineered barrier system physical and chemical environment. Where possible, these models use information directly from other reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for TSPA-LA. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171156], Section 1.2.2). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system reports

  3. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT

    G.H. Nieder-Westermann

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the evolution of the physical and chemical environmental conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository, including the drip shield and waste package surfaces. The abstraction model is used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. This report develops and documents a set of these abstraction-level models that describe the engineered barrier system physical and chemical environment. Where possible, these models use information directly from other reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for TSPA-LA. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171156], Section 1.2.2). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system reports

  4. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT

    G.H. Nieder-Westermann

    2005-04-07

    The purpose of this report is to describe the evolution of the physical and chemical environmental conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository, including the drip shield and waste package surfaces. The abstraction model is used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. This report develops and documents a set of these abstraction-level models that describe the engineered barrier system physical and chemical environment. Where possible, these models use information directly from other reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for TSPA-LA. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171156], Section 1.2.2). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system reports.

  5. Barriers in the Implementation of Health Information Systems: A Scoping Review

    Florin STAMATIAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Context. A well-developed health information system which is implemented according to present standards allows a healthcare quality increase. Our study aims at providing an overview of the barriers which were encountered in the process of implementing the health information systems by reviewing the literature connected to Europe and the United States of America. Methodology. We searched within five databases (Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, PubMed, ScienceDirect and Scopus for the exact phrase ‘implementation health information system’ along with the name of each European country/USA state. Relevance was then tested by scanning titles and abstracts. The third and final step involved assessing all the articles in order to set their relevance and a data extraction tool was created, containing the name of the state/country that the article reports data on, the article citation and the challenges identified. Results. The barriers identified were classified in four major categories: technical, organizational, behavioral/human and financial. Seemingly, Europe (41 articles and USA (20 articles are facing the same issues in the implementation of a health information system. No major difference between EU and non-EU countries was found after our analysis with regards to the identified barriers. Discussion. Even if recommendations and solutions are continuously being developed in order to solve these barriers, the implementation of a new health information system must be very detailed in order to face all these problems. Additionally, further research is required in order to evaluate their impact on the successful implementation of a health information system.

  6. Barriers to treatment for older adults seeking psychological therapy.

    Wuthrich, Viviana M; Frei, Jacqueline

    2015-07-01

    Older adults with mental health disorders underutilize mental health services more than other adults. While there are well known general barriers to help seeking across the population, specific barriers for older adults include difficulties with transportation, beliefs that it is normal to be anxious and depressed in old age, and beliefs by referrers that psychological therapy is less likely to be effective. This study examined barriers related to identifying the need for help, seeking help and participating in therapy in a clinical population of older adults. Sixty older adults (aged 60-79 years) with comorbid anxiety and unipolar mood disorders completed barriers to treatment questionnaires before and after psychological group treatment, as well as measures of cognitive ability, anxiety, depression, and quality of life at baseline. The greatest barriers to help seeking related to difficulties identifying the need for help, with 50% of the sample reporting their belief that their symptoms were normal as a major barrier. Other major barriers identified were related to: self-reliance, cost of treatment, and fear of medication replicating previous findings. The main barriers reported for difficulties in continuing therapy included not finding therapy helpful, cost of treatment, and thinking that the therapist did not understand their issues. The main barriers identified related to issues with identifying the need to seek help. More attention is needed to educate older adults and professionals about the need for, and effectiveness of, psychological therapies for older adults with anxiety and depression to reduce this barrier to help seeking.

  7. Potential and barrier study. Energy efficiency in Norwegian vocational buildings; Potensial- og barrierestudie. Energieffektivisering i norske yrkesbygg

    Boehn, Trond Ivar; Palm, Linn Therese; Bakken, Line; Nossum, Aase; Jordell, Hanne

    2012-07-01

    On behalf of Enova SF, Multiconsult AS and Analyse og Strategi AS conducted an analysis to identify potential and barriers related to commercial buildings energy performance. The aim of this study was to determine what is the potential for energy efficiency for Norwegian vocational buildings that distinguishes between theoretical, technical, financial and real potential. Technical potential is the percentage of the theoretical potential that is technically feasible. Economic potential is the proportion of technical potential that is economically profitable to implement. Economic potential varies with the energy price. Build a small part of the total potential in 2020. In the calculation of the real potential is taken into account induced potential in terms of that, each year, a percentage actually implementing energy conservation measures (energy efficiency ratio 2%), a percentage rehabilitating / upgrading existing buildings (rehab rate 1.5%), and that a proportion of new buildings built better than regulatory requirements (rate 10%). In real potential for energy efficiency is the proportion of the economic potential that is not natural triggered but which is limited by various barriers. In real potential also varies with energy price. Respondents in our study is particularly concerned with the economic barriers, and least concerned the technical barriers. Attitudes and knowledge barriers are also very important. Lack of knowledge the effects and benefits of energy efficiency means that negative attitudes persist and that myths about the lack of profitability continues to exist. Many believe this is due to lack the knowledge and can be the cause of other types of barriers such as economic barriers. It has been analyzed which part of the real potential bounded by the barriers, and which type of institutions in society that can reduce these barriers with various categories of instrument. Main barriers for existing buildings practical barriers, economic barriers and

  8. Information barriers and authentication

    MacArthur, D.W.; Wolford, J.K.

    2001-01-01

    Acceptance of nuclear materials into a monitoring regime is complicated if the materials are in classified shapes or have classified composition. An attribute measurement system with an information barrier can be emplo,yed to generate an unclassified display from classified measurements. This information barrier must meet two criteria: (1) classified information cannot be released to the monitoring party, and (2) the monitoring party must be convinced that the unclassified output accurately represents the classified input. Criterion 1 is critical to the host country to protect the classified information. Criterion 2 is critical to the monitoring party and is often termed the 'authentication problem.' Thus, the necessity for authentication of a measurement system with an information barrier stems directly from the description of a useful information barrier. Authentication issues must be continually addressed during the entire development lifecycle of the measurement system as opposed to being applied only after the system is built.

  9. Barrier Infrared Detector (BIRD)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A recent breakthrough in MWIR detector design, has resulted in a high operating temperature (HOT) barrier infrared detector (BIRD) that is capable of spectral...

  10. Protective barrier development: Overview

    Wing, N.R.; Gee, G.W.

    1990-01-01

    Protective barrier and warning marker systems are being developed to isolate wastes disposed of near the earth's surface at the Hanford Site. The barrier is designed to function in an arid to semiarid climate, to limit infiltration and percolation of water through the waste zone to near-zero, to be maintenance free, and to last up to 10,000 yr. Natural materials (e.g., fine soil, sand, gravel, riprap, clay, asphalt) have been selected to optimize barrier performance and longevity and to create an integrated structure with redundant features. These materials isolate wastes by limiting water drainage; reducing the likelihood of plant, animal, and human intrusion; controlling emission of noxious gases; and minimizing erosion. Westinghouse Hanford Company and Pacific Northwest Laboratory efforts to assess the performance of various barrier and marker designs will be discussed

  11. Engineered barriers: current status

    Atkinson, A.; Marsh, G.P.

    1988-01-01

    This report summarises the current state of research relevant to assessing the performance of engineered barriers made of steel and concrete in radioactive waste repositories. The objective of these barriers is to contain the radionuclides within them by providing both physical and chemical impediment to their release. The physical barriers are of most value for highly soluble isotopes with relatively short half-lives (eg 137 Cs), since they can provide containment until a large fraction of the activity has decayed. In addition they can facilitate retrievability for some period after disposal. The chemical barriers operate by beneficial conditioning of the near field groundwater and providing sites for sorption of radionuclides. Both of these reduce the aqueous concentration of radionuclides in the near field. (author)

  12. Vanpooling: the three major approaches

    Sears, P.M.

    1979-08-01

    The manual provides technical assistance to existing or prospective vanpool sponsors. It is designed to help them promote vanpooling in its three major approaches: employer sponsored, third party sponsored, and driver owned and operated. The first chapter is an overview of vanpooling and a second chapter, on vanpool marketing, is addressed to ridesharing coordinators and others whose responsibilities include the promotion of vanpooling. Some fact sheets on the three approaches provide convenient summaries of the needs and opportunities of each approach and suggest solutions to practical problems likely to be encountered in starting new vanpool programs.

  13. Citation analysis of Computer Standards & Interfaces: Technical or also non-technical focus?

    G. van de Kaa (Geerten); H.J. de Vries (Henk); B. Baskaran (Balakumaran)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThis paper analyzes to which extent research published in Computer Standards & Interfaces (CSI) has a technical focus. We find that CSI has been following its scope very closely in the last three years and that the majority of its publications have a technical focus. Articles published

  14. Skin barrier composition

    Osburn, F.G.

    1985-01-01

    A skin barrier composition comprises a mixture of a copolymer resin of ethylene and vinyl acetate (EVA), and a water-insoluble dry tack-providing elastomer such as polyisobutylene. The composition after mixing and molding, is subjected to ionizing irradiation to form cross-linked polymer networks of the EVA. The compositions have exceptional properties for use as barrier sheets, rings, or strips in ostomy, wound drainage, and incontinence devices. (author)

  15. Skin barrier composition

    Osburn, F G

    1985-06-12

    A skin barrier composition comprises a mixture of a copolymer resin of ethylene and vinyl acetate (EVA), and a water-insoluble dry tack-providing elastomer such as polyisobutylene. The composition after mixing and molding, is subjected to ionizing irradiation to form cross-linked polymer networks of the EVA. The compositions have exceptional properties for use as barrier sheets, rings, or strips in ostomy, wound drainage, and incontinence devices.

  16. Assessment of non-cost barriers to renewable energy growth in EU Member States - AEON

    NONE

    2010-05-15

    The accelerated deployment of renewable energy technologies has become a major priority for public policy makers across the globe. In the last two decades, most of the debate concerning the promotion of renewables was focused on the financial support schemes and on improving grid access conditions for renewable electricity. Of course, these are crucial issues which will continue to deserve serious attention in the future. However, during the last few years, the importance of tackling non-financial and non-technical barriers to renewable electricity, heat and transport has gained the attention of many policy analysts. In June 2009, Directive 2009/28/EC on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources, entered into force. The articles 13, 14 and 16 of the Directive contain a number of requirements for Member States to address or remove non-cost barriers to the increased deployment of renewable energy sources. This study presents among others an overview of these barriers in all EU Member States; their history, their impact on renewable energy deployment and suggestions for policy solutions, where feasible. Separate studies were carried out for 27 EU-countries and made available in a zip-file.

  17. Perception of barriers for expansion of electricity grids in the European Union

    Battaglini, Antonella; Komendantova, Nadejda; Brtnik, Patricia; Patt, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Many of the scenarios for decarbonising the European energy system involve the integration of large-scale and decentralised renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar power. However, such integration requires substantial and rapid improvements to the existing transmission grids. Using a mix of qualitative and quantitative methods, we analysed the opinions and views of stakeholders concerning the main barriers and solutions to this problem. The results suggest two conclusions. The first is that primary barriers to the currently needed level of grid expansion are not technical or financial, but the lack of appropriate regulatory frameworks and public acceptance. The second is that major changes are needed in the overall regulatory process, rather than simply minor modifications or improved implementation of existing regulations. - Highlights: ► Estimations of perceptions on barriers for expansion of electricity grids in Europe. ► Recommendations on political process and level of acceptance among European population. ► Needs for better, simplified and standardized regulations. ► Strong and transparent consultation process in all stages.

  18. Structuring unbreakable hydrophobic barriers in paper

    Nargang, Tobias M.; Kotz, Frederik; Rapp, Bastian E.

    2018-02-01

    Hydrophobic barriers are one of the key elements of microfluidic paper based analytical devices (μPADs).μPADs are simple and cost efficient and they can be carried out without the need of high standard laboratories. To carry out such a test a method is needed to create stable hydrophobic barriers. Commonly used methods like printing wax or polystyrene have the major drawback that these barriers are stiff and break if bended which means they will no longer be able to retain a liquid sample. Here we present silanes to structure hydrophobic barriers via polycondensation and show a silanization method which combines the advantages of flexible silane/siloxane layers with the short processing times of UV-light based structuring. The barriers are created by using methoxy silanes which are mixed with a photo acid generator (PAG) as photoinitiator. Also a photosensitizer was given to the mixture to increase the effectiveness of the PAG. After the PAG is activated by UV-light the silane is hydrolyzed and coupled to the cellulose via polycondensation. The created hydrophobic barriers are highly stable and do not break if being bended.

  19. Proposing policy mechanisms to reduce barriers to the ...

    This poses the question as to what developing countries such as Namibia can do to ensure energy supply, especially by focusing on readily available resources such as wind and the sun. The study firstly identifies the non-technical barriers to the implementation of renewable energy solutions by using a qualitative ...

  20. Technical Assistance Plan (TAP)

    A Technical Assistance Plan (TAP) enables community groups to retain the services of an independent technical advisor and to provide resources for a community group to help inform other community members about site decisions.

  1. Technical report writing

    Vidoli, Carol A.

    1992-01-01

    This manual covers the fundamentals of organizing, writing, and reviewing NASA technical reports. It was written to improve the writing skills of LeRC technical authors and the overall quality of their reports.

  2. Technical Report Writing Today

    Riordan, Daniel G.

    2014-01-01

    Section 1: Technical Communication Basics (8 chapters on tech com, audiences, tech com process, tech com style, researching, designing pages, using visual aids, describing). Section 2: Technical Communication Applications (7 chapters on sets of instructions, informal reports and email, developing...

  3. Technical training: places available

    2013-01-01

    If you would like more information on a course, or for any other inquiry/suggestions, please contact Technical.Training@cern.ch. Eva Stern and Elise Romero, Technical Training Administration (Tel: 74924)

  4. Technical training - places available

    2013-01-01

    If you would like more information on a course, or have any other inquiry/suggestions, please contact Technical.Training@cern.ch. Eva Stern and Elise Romero, Technical Training Administration (Tel: 74924)

  5. Technical training: places available

    2013-01-01

    If you would like more information on a course, or for any other inquiry/suggestions, please contact Technical.Training@cern.ch. Eva Stern and Elise Romero, Technical Training Administration (Tél : 74924)  

  6. VANDAL technical overview

    Unsworth, M.D.

    1989-07-01

    This document is concerned with the technicalities of the VANDAL code and covers the technical details of each of the systems modules in turn. Covered are SAMPLING, FLOW, VAULT, GEOSPHERE, BIOSPHERE and TIMESTEPPING. (author)

  7. Technical training: places available

    2014-01-01

    If you would like more information on a course, or have any other inquiry/suggestions, please contact Technical.Training@cern.ch. Eva Stern and Elise Romero, Technical Training Administration (Tel: 74924)

  8. Technical training: places available

    2014-01-01

    If you would like more information on a course, or have any other inquiry/suggestions, please contact Technical.Training@cern.ch. Eva Stern and Marie Lahchimi, Technical Training Administration (Tel: 74924)

  9. Handbook of Technical Communication

    Mehler , Alexander; Romary , Laurent; Gibbon , Dafydd

    2012-01-01

    International audience; The handbook "Technical Communication" brings together a variety of topics which range from the role of technical media in human communication to the linguistic, multimodal enhancement of present-day technologies. It covers the area of computer-mediated text, voice and multimedia communication as well as of technical documentation. In doing so, the handbook takes professional and private communication into account. Special emphasis is put on technical communication bas...

  10. NATURAL BARRIERS TARGETED THRUST FY 2004 PROJECTS

    NA

    2005-01-01

    This booklet contains project descriptions of work performed by the Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), Office of Science and Technology and International's (OSTandI) Natural Barriers Targeted Thrust during Fiscal Year (FY) 2004. The Natural Barriers Targeted Thrust is part of OSTandI's Science and Technology Program which supports the OCRWM mission to manage and dispose of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel in a manner that protects health, safety, and the environment; enhances national and energy security; and merits public confidence. In general, the projects described will continue beyond FY 2004 assuming that the technical work remains relevant to the proposed Yucca Mountain Repository and sufficient funding is made available to the Science and Technology Program

  11. NATURAL BARRIERS TARGETED THRUST FY 2004 PROJECTS

    NA

    2005-07-27

    This booklet contains project descriptions of work performed by the Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), Office of Science and Technology and International's (OST&I) Natural Barriers Targeted Thrust during Fiscal Year (FY) 2004. The Natural Barriers Targeted Thrust is part of OST&I's Science and Technology Program which supports the OCRWM mission to manage and dispose of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel in a manner that protects health, safety, and the environment; enhances national and energy security; and merits public confidence. In general, the projects described will continue beyond FY 2004 assuming that the technical work remains relevant to the proposed Yucca Mountain Repository and sufficient funding is made available to the Science and Technology Program.

  12. GPs' use of problem solving therapy for depression: a qualitative study of barriers to and enablers of evidence based care

    Gunn Jane

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression is a major health concern, predominantly treated by general practitioners (GPs. Problem solving therapy (PST is recognised as an effective treatment for depression that is not widely used by GPs. This research aims to explore barriers and enablers that may influence GPs use of this treatment. Method Qualitative methodology was used including individual and focus group interviews of GPs, PST experts and consumers. Analysis was undertaken using the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB as a framework. Results A spectrum of potential influences, on GPs' use of PST emerged. Both barriers and enablers were identified. PST was perceived as being close to current practice approaches and potentially beneficial to both doctor and patient. In addition to a broadly positive attitude to PST, expressed by those with previous experience of its use, potential solutions to perceived barriers emerged. By contrast some GPs expressed fear that the use of PST would result in loss of doctor control of consultations and associated potential adverse patient outcomes. Patient expectations, which emerged as not always coinciding with GPs' perception of those expectations, were identified as a potential influence on GPs' decision concerning adoption of PST. In addition specific factors, including GP skill and confidence, consultation time constraints and technical issues related to PST were noted as potential concerns. Conclusion This research contributes to our knowledge of the factors that may influence GPs' decisions regarding use of PST as a treatment for depression. It recognises both barriers and enablers. It suggests that for many GPs, PST is viewed in a positive light, providing encouragement to those seeking to increase the provision of PST by GPs. In identifying a number of potential barriers, along with associated options to address many of these barriers, it provides insights which may assist in the planning of GP training in PST.

  13. Non-statutory barriers and incentives to stakeholder participation in ...

    Non-statutory barriers and incentives to stakeholder participation in reducing water pollution: A South African case study. ... were found to be the major impediments preventing staff at government agencies and parastatals from motivating other ...

  14. Teaching Technical Writing - Towards Technical Writing

    Kastberg, Peter

    2000-01-01

    In this paper I will present key aspects of the curriculum for the university degree in technical translation that I have designed for and subsequently implemented at the German Department of the Aarhus School of Business, Denmark. My starting point will be a critical discussion of the norm that ...... of technical writing.......In this paper I will present key aspects of the curriculum for the university degree in technical translation that I have designed for and subsequently implemented at the German Department of the Aarhus School of Business, Denmark. My starting point will be a critical discussion of the norm...... that used to govern what the quality of an LSP text should be as opposed to the standpoint, which I advocate. By way of summing up, I will show how a university curriculum is designed so that - upon graduation - the technical translator could also be methodological quite well suited to take on the challenge...

  15. Technical rules in law

    Debelius, J

    1978-08-01

    An important source of knowledge for technical experts is the state of the art reflected by catalogues of technical rules. Technical rules may also achieve importance in law due to a legal transformation standard. Here, rigid and flexible reference are controversial with regard to their admissibility from the point of view of constitutional law. In case of a divergence from the generally accepted technical rules, it is assumed - refutably - that the necessary care had not been taken. Technical rules are one out of several sources of information; they have no normative effect. This may result in a duty of anyone applying them to review the state of technology himself.

  16. Technical rules in law

    Debelius, J.

    1978-01-01

    An important source of knowledge for technical experts is the state of the art reflected by catalogues of technical rules. Technical rules may also achieve importance in law due to a legal transformation standard. Here, rigid and flexible reference are controversial with regard to their admissibility from the point of view of constitutional law. In case of a divergence from the generally accepted technical rules, it is assumed - refutably - that the necessary care had not been taken. Technical rules are one out of several sources of information; they have no normative effect. This may result in a duty of anyone applying them to review the state of technology himself. (orig.) [de

  17. Physician variation in perceived barriers to personal health

    Rubenfire M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adam RB Kosteva1, Brian M Salata1, Sangeetha Mahadevan Krishnan2, Michael Howe3, Alissa Weber3, Melvyn Rubenfire2,3, Elizabeth A Jackson2,31Michigan Cardiovascular Research and Reporting Program, 2Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, 3Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI, USAObjective: Physicians’ personal health habits are associated with their counseling habits regarding physical activity. We sought to examine physicians’ own barriers to a healthy lifestyle by level of training and gender.Methods: Physicians at a major teaching hospital were surveyed regarding their lifestyle habits and barriers to healthy habits. The frequency of reported barriers was examined by years in practice (trainees vs staff physicians and gender.Results: 183 total responses were received. Over 20% of respondents were overweight. Work schedule was cited as the greatest barrier to regular exercise in 70.5% of respondents. Trainees were more likely to cite time constraints or cost as a barrier to a healthy diet compared to staff physicians. Staff physicians were more likely to report the time to prepare healthy foods as a barrier. For both trainees and staff physicians, time was a barrier to regular exercise. For trainees work schedule was a barrier, while both work schedule and family commitments were top barriers cited by staff physicians. Women were more likely to report family commitments as a barrier than men. Respondents suggested healthier options in vending machines and the hospital cafeteria, healthy recipes, and time and/or facilities for exercise at work as options to help overcome these barriers.Conclusion: Work schedules and family commitments are frequently reported by providers as barriers to healthy lifestyle. Efforts to reduce such barriers may lead to improved health habits among providers.Keywords: diet, exercise, counseling, prevention, gender, barriers, health

  18. Safety barriers on oil and gas platforms. Means to prevent hydrocarbon releases

    Sklet, Snorre

    2005-12-15

    The main objective of the PhD project has been to develop concepts and methods that can be used to define, illustrate, analyse, and improve safety barriers in the operational phase of offshore oil and gas production platforms. The main contributions of this thesis are; Clarification of the term safety barrier with respect to definitions, classification, and relevant attributes for analysis of barrier performance Development and discussion of a representative set of hydrocarbon release scenarios Development and testing of a new method, BORA-Release, for qualitative and quantitative risk analysis of hydrocarbon releases Safety barriers are defined as physical and/or non-physical means planned to prevent, control, or mitigate undesired events or accidents. The means may range from a single technical unit or human actions, to a complex socio-technical system. It is useful to distinguish between barrier functions and barrier systems. Barrier functions describe the purpose of safety barriers or what the safety barriers shall do in order to prevent, control, or mitigate undesired events or accidents. Barrier systems describe how a barrier function is realized or executed. If the barrier system is functioning, the barrier function is performed. If a barrier function is performed successfully, it should have a direct and significant effect on the occurrence and/or consequences of an undesired event or accident. It is recommended to address the following attributes to characterize the performance of safety barriers; a) functionality/effectiveness, b) reliability/ availability, c) response time, d) robustness, and e) triggering event or condition. For some types of barriers, not all the attributes are relevant or necessary in order to describe the barrier performance. The presented hydrocarbon release scenarios include initiating events, barrier functions introduced to prevent hydrocarbon releases, and barrier systems realizing the barrier functions. Both technical and human

  19. Regulatory Monitoring of Fortified Foods: Identifying Barriers and Good Practices

    Rowe, Laura A; Vossenaar, Marieke; Garrett, Greg S

    2015-01-01

    While fortification of staple foods and condiments has gained enormous global traction, poor performance persists throughout many aspects of implementation, most notably around the critical element of regulatory monitoring, which is essential for ensuring foods meet national fortification standards. Where coverage of fortified foods is high, limited nutritional impact of fortification programs largely exists due to regulatory monitoring that insufficiently identifies and holds producers accountable for underfortified products. Based on quality assurance data from 20 national fortification programs in 12 countries, we estimate that less than half of the samples are adequately fortified against relevant national standards. In this paper, we outline key findings from a literature review, key informant interviews with 11 fortification experts, and semi-quantitative surveys with 39 individuals from regulatory agencies and the food fortification industry in 17 countries on the perceived effectiveness of regulatory monitoring systems and barriers to compliance against national fortification standards. Findings highlight that regulatory agencies and industry disagree on the value that enforcement mechanisms have in ensuring compliance against standards. Perceived political risk of enforcement and poorly resourced inspectorate capacity appear to adversely reinforce each other within an environment of unclear legislation to create a major hurdle for improving overall compliance of fortification programs against national standards. Budget constraints affect the ability of regulatory agencies to create a well-trained inspector cadre and improve the detection and enforcement of non-compliant and underfortified products. Recommendations to improve fortification compliance include improving technical capacity; ensuring sustained leadership, accountability, and funding in both the private and the public sectors; and removing political barriers to ensure consistent detection of

  20. Technical assistance contractor Management Plan

    1993-09-01

    The Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project comprises Jacobs Engineering Group Inc. (JEG) and its major teaming partners [Roy F. Weston, Inc. (RFW), Sergent, Hauskins ampersand Beckwith Agra, Inc. (SHB Agra), and Geraghty ampersand Miller, Inc. (G ampersand M)]. The first three companies have worked together effectively on the UMTRA Project for more than 10 years. With the initiation of the UMTRA Groundwater Project in April 1991, a need arose to increase the TAC's groundwater technical breadth and depth, so G ampersand M was brought in to augment the team's capabilities. The TAC contract's scope is to provide technical, analytical, environmental, engineering, design, inspection, and management support services to the US Department of Energy (DOE) for both surface and groundwater projects. The TAC team continues to support the DOE in completing surface remedial actions and initiating groundwater remediation work for start-up, characterization, design, construction oversight, and remedial operations. A key feature of the TAC's management approach is the extensive set of communication systems implemented for the UMTRA Project. These systems assist all functional disciplines in performing UMTRA Project tasks associated with management, technical support, administrative support, and financial/project controls

  1. Fuzzy barrier distributions

    Piasecki, E.

    2009-01-01

    Heavy-ion collisions often produce a fusion barrier distribution with structures displaying a fingerprint of couplings to highly collective excitations [1]. Basically the same distribution can be obtained from large-angle quasi-elastic scattering, though here the role of the many weak direct-reaction channels is unclear. For 2 0N e + 9 0Z r we have observed the barrier structures expected for the highly deformed neon projectile, but for 2 0N e + 9 2Z r we find completely smooth distribution (see Fig.1). We find that transfer channels in these systems are of similar strength but single particle excitations are significantly stronger in the latter case. They apparently reduce the 'resolving power' of the quasi-elastic channel, what leads to smeared out, or 'fuzzy' barrier distribution. This is the first case when such a phenomenon has been observed.(author)

  2. Health Barriers to Learning

    Delaney Gracy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes the results from a 2013 online survey with 408 principals and assistant principals in New York City public elementary and middle schools. The survey assessed three primary areas: health issues in the school, health issues perceived as barriers to learning for affected students, and resources needed to address these barriers. Eighteen of the 22 health conditions listed in the survey were considered a moderate or serious issue within their schools by at least 10% of respondents. All 22 of the health issues were perceived as a barrier to learning by between 12% and 87% of the respondents. Representatives from schools that serve a higher percentage of low-income students reported significantly higher levels of concern about the extent of health issues and their impact on learning. Respondents most often said they need linkages with organizations that can provide additional services and resources at the school, especially for mental health.

  3. Barriers to Energy Efficiency in Swedish Non-Energy-Intensive Micro- and Small-Sized Enterprises—A Case Study of a Local Energy Program

    Fredrik Backman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Improved energy efficiency has become a strategic issue and represents a priority for European competitiveness. Countries adopt various energy policies on local and national levels where energy audit programs are the most common energy end-use efficiency policy for industrial small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs. However, studies indicate that cost-efficient energy conservation measures are not always implemented, which can be explained by the existence of barriers to energy efficiency. This paper investigates how Swedish municipalities can support local micro- and small-sized enterprises with improved energy efficiency and the existence of different barriers to the implementation of energy efficiency. Relating this empirical case study to the theoretical barriers outlined in the text, this study found that the major explanatory factors related to non-implementation of cost-effective energy efficiency measures among micro- and small-sized industrial enterprises were bounded rationality (lack of time and/or other priorities, split incentives (having other priorities for capital investments, and imperfect information (slim organization and lack of technical skill. This study also found that information in the form of a report was the main thing that companies gained from working on the project “Energy-Driven Business”. Notably, the study involved companies that had participated in a local energy program and, still, companies face major barriers inhibiting implementation, indicating a need to further study other alternative policy models and how knowledge transfer can be improved.

  4. Exploring Pair Programming Benefits for MIS Majors

    Dongo, Tendai; Reed, April H.; O'Hara, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Pair programming is a collaborative programming practice that places participants in dyads, working in tandem at one computer to complete programming assignments. Pair programming studies with Computer Science (CS) and Software Engineering (SE) majors have identified benefits such as technical productivity, program/design quality, academic…

  5. Technical guide to criticality alarm system design

    Greenfield, B.

    2009-01-01

    An instructional manual was created to guide criticality safety engineers through the technical aspects of designing a criticality alarm system (CAS) for Dept. of Energy (DOE) hazard class 1 and 2 facilities. The manual was structured such that it can be used by engineers designing completely new systems and by those who are working with existing facilities. Major design tasks are thoroughly analyzed to provide concise direction for how to complete the analysis. Regulatory and technical performance requirements were both addressed. (authors)

  6. Minutes of the IFMIF technical meeting

    Nakamura, H.; Takeda, M.; Ida, M.; Maebara, S.; Yutani, T.; Sugimoto, M.

    2004-03-01

    The IFMIF Technical Meeting was held on December 4-5, 2003 at Shiran-kaikan, Kyoto University. The main objectives are 1) to finalize the Comprehensive Design Report (CDR), 2) to discuss IFMIF cost and organization, 3) to review technical status of major systems, transition phase activities and EVEDA plan. This report presents a brief summary of the results of the meeting. Agenda, participants list and presentation materials are attached as Appendix. (author)

  7. Barriers to green supply chain management in the automotive industry

    Flávia Cristina da Silva

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study identified the barriers to and analyzed their degree of influence on Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM from the perspective of a first tier supplier in the Brazilian automotive industry. There are 43 barriers in the literature of which 13 were validated: support and involvement (five, operational performance (three, economic performance (two, environmental performance (two, and knowledge and information (one. The validation occurred through the perception of technical and academic specialists familiar with environmental management and supply chains in several sectors. The hierarchy of barriers priorities was obtained through the application of the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP, with decision makers representing an industry in the automotive sector. The research showed that the cost implications represent the most influential barrier to GCSV, from the perspective of a first tier supplier in the sector.

  8. Nuclear Energy Center Site Survey, 1975. Part III. Technical considerations

    1976-01-01

    Studies of the technical feasibility of nuclear energy centers (NECs) and the comparison between NEC technical feasibility and that of nuclear facilities on dispersed sites are reviewed. The conclusions related to technical feasibility of NEC are summarized. Technical feasibility was found to rest mainly on five major issues: heat dissipation, transmission, facility construction, radiological impact, and environmental impact. Although general conclusions can be reached in these five areas, it is recognized that they are interdependent, and detailed site-by-site analysis will be necessary. Some general conclusions on technical feasibility of NECs are presented, then detailed conclusions derived from the technical evaluation of NECs compared to dispersed site facilities are presented. The findings of this study on each of the five major feasibility issues are then discussed in sequence. The study concludes that nuclear energy centers, as defined herein, are technically feasible

  9. Technical note on drainage systems

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby

    This technical note will present simple but widely used methods for the design of drainage systems. The note will primarily deal with surface water (rainwater) which on a satisfactorily way should be transport into the drainage system. Traditional two types of sewer systems exist: A combined system......, where rainwater and sewage is transported in the same pipe, and a separate system where the two types of water are transported in individual pipe. This note will only focus on the separate rain/stormwater system, however, if domestic sewage should be included in the dimensioning procedure, it......’s not major different than described below - just remember to include this contribution for combined systems where the surface water (rain) and sewage are carried in the same pipes in the system and change some of the parameters for failure allowance (this will be elaborated further later on). The technical...

  10. GEM Technical Design Report

    1993-01-01

    The GEM collaboration was formed in June 1991 to develop a major detector for the SSC. The primary physics objectives of GEM are those central to the motivation for the SSC, to study high p T physics - exemplified by the search for Higgs bosons - and to search for new physics beyond the standard model. The authors present in this Technical Design Report (TDR) a detector with broad capabilities for the discovery and subsequent study of electroweak symmetry breaking, the origin of mass and flavor, and other physics requiring precise measurements of gammas, electrons, and muons - hence the name, GEM. In addition, as a design goal, they have taken care to provide the robustness needed to do the physics that requires high luminosity. Finally, good coverage and hermeticity allow the detection of missing transverse energy, E T . The GEM design emphasizes clean identification and high resolution measurement of the primary physics signatures for high p T physics. The approach is to make precise energy measurements that maximize the sensitivity to rare narrow resonances, to detect the elementary interaction products (quarks, leptons, and photons), and to build in the features required to reduce backgrounds

  11. GEM Technical Design Report

    1993-07-31

    The GEM collaboration was formed in June 1991 to develop a major detector for the SSC. The primary physics objectives of GEM are those central to the motivation for the SSC, to study high p{sub T} physics - exemplified by the search for Higgs bosons - and to search for new physics beyond the standard model. The authors present in this Technical Design Report (TDR) a detector with broad capabilities for the discovery and subsequent study of electroweak symmetry breaking, the origin of mass and flavor, and other physics requiring precise measurements of gammas, electrons, and muons - hence the name, GEM. In addition, as a design goal, they have taken care to provide the robustness needed to do the physics that requires high luminosity. Finally, good coverage and hermeticity allow the detection of missing transverse energy, E{sub T}. The GEM design emphasizes clean identification and high resolution measurement of the primary physics signatures for high p{sub T} physics. The approach is to make precise energy measurements that maximize the sensitivity to rare narrow resonances, to detect the elementary interaction products (quarks, leptons, and photons), and to build in the features required to reduce backgrounds.

  12. VLLEEM-2 technical workshop

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    In order to overcome the limits of the energy-environment models, and to benefit at the same time of their past experiences, the VLEEM project proposes a genuine approach and innovative modelling tools to assess the energy-environment systems over the very long term, which are based on the strengths of existing long term energy models, but focussed on two major objectives: to describe normative futures which fit with a set of overall constraints, like the stabilisation of the concentration of green-house gases in the atmosphere, or the stabilisation of the overall inventory of plutonium and minor actinides, etc...; to describe and formalize the association of causalities necessary to bring the system from the present situation to the targeted future, through a '' back-casting '' approach. This first technical workshop presents the state of the art of the different Work Programmes. WP1:Enhancement of the Conceptual framework. WP2: Data base on conventional demand/supply technologies. WP3: Complement and up-date technology monographs. WP4: Formalization and computing of final VLEEM submodels. WP5: Case study 2030, 2050, 2100. (A.L.B.)

  13. The "Third"-Order Barrier for Technology-Integration Instruction: Implications for Teacher Education

    Tsai, Chin-Chung; Chai, Ching Sing

    2012-01-01

    Technology integration is a major trend in contemporary education practice. When undertaking technology integration in classrooms, a first-order barrier and a second-order barrier, as proposed by Ertmer (1999), can hinder its implementation. The first-order barrier is external, such as lack of adequate access, time, training and institutional…

  14. Empirical investigation of energy efficiency barriers in Italian manufacturing SMEs

    Trianni, Andrea; Cagno, Enrico; Worrell, Ernst; Pugliese, Giacomo

    2013-01-01

    The paper identifies and evaluates barriers to industrial energy efficiency through the investigation of 48 manufacturing Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) in Northern Italy. The research provides interesting suggestions both for enterprises and energy policy-makers. Firstly, economic and information barriers are perceived as the major obstacles to the adoption of energy-efficient technologies, whilst behavioural barriers do not seem to affect enterprises very much. Nonetheless, despite what declared, the most relevant barriers are the lack of interest in energy efficiency and the existence of other priorities, thus showing that decision-makers tend to downgrade energy efficiency to a marginal issue. Furthermore, perceived barriers do not take place exclusively in implementing energy-efficient technologies, but, with comparable importance, also in generating the interest and knowledge of the opportunities. Moreover, the study highlights that relevant differences can be appreciated for both perceived and real barriers even among SMEs, that thus should not be bundled together. In addition to that, other factors affect barriers, stimulating future research: indeed, lower real barriers can be observed with higher complexity of the production, high variability of the demand and strong competitors. -- Highlights: ► Evidence of existing misalignments between perceived and real barriers to the adoption of energy-efficient technologies. ► Relevance of barriers to the generation of interest towards energy efficiency. ► Evidence of firm's size (within SMEs) and energy expenditures on barriers to energy efficiency. ► Importance, for energy efficiency barriers, of avoid bundling SMEs as a whole. ► Preliminary evidence of factors related to supply chain complexity affecting barriers to energy efficiency.

  15. Barrier Data Base user's guide

    Worrell, R.B.; Gould, D.J.; Wall, D.W.

    1977-06-01

    A special purpose data base for physical security barriers has been developed. In addition to barriers, the entities accommodated by the Barrier Data Base (BDB) include threats and references. A threat is established as a configuration of people and equipment which has been employed to penetrate (or attempt to penetrate) a barrier. References are used to cite publications pertinent to the barriers and threats in the data base. Utilization and maintenance of the Barrier Data Base is achieved with LIST, QUERY, ENTER, DELETE, and CHANGE commands which are used to manipulate the data base entities

  16. Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model

    Jolley, D. M.; Jarek, R.; Mariner, P.

    2004-01-01

    The conceptual and predictive models documented in this Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model report describe the evolution of the physical and chemical conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository. The modeling approaches and model output data will be used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA-LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. These models evaluate the range of potential water compositions within the emplacement drifts, resulting from the interaction of introduced materials and minerals in dust with water seeping into the drifts and with aqueous solutions forming by deliquescence of dust (as influenced by atmospheric conditions), and from thermal-hydrological-chemical (THC) processes in the drift. These models also consider the uncertainty and variability in water chemistry inside the drift and the compositions of introduced materials within the drift. This report develops and documents a set of process- and abstraction-level models that constitute the engineered barrier system: physical and chemical environment model. Where possible, these models use information directly from other process model reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for total system performance assessment. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in the technical work plan ''Technical Work Plan for: In-Drift Geochemistry Modeling'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166519]). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system analysis model reports

  17. Approaches to formalization of the informal waste sector into municipal solid waste management systems in low- and middle-income countries: Review of barriers and success factors.

    Aparcana, Sandra

    2017-03-01

    The Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) sector represents a major challenge for low-and middle-income countries due to significant environmental and socioeconomic issues involving rapid urbanization, their MSWM systems, and the existence of the informal waste sector. Recognizing its role, several countries have implemented various formalization measures, aiming to address the social problems linked to this sector. However, regardless of these initiatives, not all attempts at formalization have proved successful due to the existence of barriers preventing their implementation in the long term. Along with this, there is a frequent lack of knowledge or understanding regarding these barriers and the kind of measures that may enable formalization, thereby attaining a win-win situation for all the stakeholders involved. In this context, policy- and decision-makers in the public and private sectors are frequently confronted with the dilemma of finding workable approaches to formalization, adjusted to their particular MSWM contexts. Building on the review of frequently implemented approaches to formalization, including an analysis of the barriers to and enabling measures for formalization, this paper aims to address this gap by explaining to policy- and decision-makers, and to waste managers in the private sector, certain dynamics that can be observed and that should be taken into account when designing formalization strategies that are adapted to their particular socioeconomic and political-institutional context. This includes possible links between formalization approaches and barriers, the kinds of barriers that need to be removed, and enabling measures leading to successful formalization in the long term. This paper involved a literature review of common approaches to formalization, which were classified into three categories: (1) informal waste workers organized in associations or cooperatives; (2) organized in CBOs or MSEs; and (3) contracted as individual

  18. Electronic health records: what are the most important barriers?

    Ayatollahi, Haleh; Mirani, Nader; Haghani, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    The process of design and adoption of electronic health records may face a number of barriers. This study aimed to compare the importance of the main barriers from the experts' point of views in Iran. This survey study was completed in 2011. The potential participants (62 experts) included faculty members who worked in departments of health information technology and individuals who worked in the Ministry of Health in Iran and were in charge of the development and adoption of electronic health records. No sampling method was used in this study. Data were collected using a Likert-scale questionnaire ranging from 1 to 5. The validity of the questionnaire was established using content and face validity methods, and the reliability was calculated using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The response rate was 51.6 percent. The participants' perspectives showed that the most important barriers in the process of design and adoption of electronic health records were technical barriers (mean = 3.84). Financial and ethical-legal barriers, with the mean value of 3.80 were other important barriers, and individual and organizational barriers, with the mean values of 3.59 and 3.50 were found to be less important than other barriers from the experts' perspectives. Strategic planning for the creation and adoption of electronic health records in the country, creating a team of experts to assess the potential barriers and develop strategies to eliminate them, and allocating financial resources can help to overcome most important barriers to the adoption of electronic health records.

  19. Strategies for Internationalisation at Technical Universities in the Nordic Countries

    Kristensen, Katrine Hahn; Karlsen, Jan Erik

    2018-01-01

    This article investigates strategies for internationalisation at technical universities in the Nordic countries. The study explores the institutional rationales for internationalisation, the stories told in the strategy documents, the importance of leaders, faculty, administration and students for implementation of the strategy, and barriers and…

  20. Gap study on technical standards and quality assurance between ITER and Korean regulation

    Kang, Myoung-suk; Lee, Sangil; Lee, Hyoen Gon; Heo, Gyunyoung

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper is to secure knowledge and expand domestic specialists for license and regulation of future fusion facilities including K-DEMO. - Abstract: Currently, Korea Domestic Agency (KODA) for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project or the ITER Korea has been conducting follow-up surveys and development researches for the core technologies of its non-procurement items. This eventually aims to secure implicit as well as explicit knowledge and expand domestic specialists for future fusion facilities including K-DEMO. As a part of the project, the comparative analysis and gap study of technical standards and Quality Assurance (QA) system between ITER and Korean nuclear facilities are being performed. The goal of this study is to present a roadmap re-systematizing current safety-related standards for the fission-based facilities into fusion-based facilities in Republic of Korea. The research is considering two different tracks. First one is to secure the state-of-the-art of the fusion technical standards continually updated. For its investigation, we organized the Korean fusion safety advisory group that consists of experts from institutes, industries, and universities. The latest information of technical standards have been gathered and updated from each area of expert in periodic manner. The information is classified into Product Breakdown Structure (PBS) including safety classification, major safety issues, analysis computer codes, etc. This task will be re-organized this year such that the technical standards for procurement as well as non-procurement items can be accumulated in systematic and sustainable manner. Second one, called “Gap Study,” is to compare the requirements for domestic nuclear facilities and the results from the first track on the basis of experts’ opinion from the national and private sectors and to recommend the approaches to overcome technical and administrative barriers. The result is

  1. Gap study on technical standards and quality assurance between ITER and Korean regulation

    Kang, Myoung-suk [Kyung Hee University, Yongin-si 446-701, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sangil; Lee, Hyoen Gon [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon-si 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Heo, Gyunyoung, E-mail: gheo@khu.ac.kr [Kyung Hee University, Yongin-si 446-701, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • This paper is to secure knowledge and expand domestic specialists for license and regulation of future fusion facilities including K-DEMO. - Abstract: Currently, Korea Domestic Agency (KODA) for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project or the ITER Korea has been conducting follow-up surveys and development researches for the core technologies of its non-procurement items. This eventually aims to secure implicit as well as explicit knowledge and expand domestic specialists for future fusion facilities including K-DEMO. As a part of the project, the comparative analysis and gap study of technical standards and Quality Assurance (QA) system between ITER and Korean nuclear facilities are being performed. The goal of this study is to present a roadmap re-systematizing current safety-related standards for the fission-based facilities into fusion-based facilities in Republic of Korea. The research is considering two different tracks. First one is to secure the state-of-the-art of the fusion technical standards continually updated. For its investigation, we organized the Korean fusion safety advisory group that consists of experts from institutes, industries, and universities. The latest information of technical standards have been gathered and updated from each area of expert in periodic manner. The information is classified into Product Breakdown Structure (PBS) including safety classification, major safety issues, analysis computer codes, etc. This task will be re-organized this year such that the technical standards for procurement as well as non-procurement items can be accumulated in systematic and sustainable manner. Second one, called “Gap Study,” is to compare the requirements for domestic nuclear facilities and the results from the first track on the basis of experts’ opinion from the national and private sectors and to recommend the approaches to overcome technical and administrative barriers. The result is

  2. Writing a technical note.

    Ng, K H; Peh, W C G

    2010-02-01

    A technical note is a short article giving a brief description of a specific development, technique or procedure, or it may describe a modification of an existing technique, procedure or device applicable to medicine. The technique, procedure or device described should have practical value and should contribute to clinical diagnosis or management. It could also present a software tool, or an experimental or computational method. Technical notes are variously referred to as technical innovations or technical developments. The main criteria for publication will be the novelty of concepts involved, the validity of the technique and its potential for clinical applications.

  3. Technical Elements (CCT1)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne

    2017-01-01

    Many of the aspects dealt with in the CA EPBD are closely interlinked with each other and may refer to both new and existing buildings, as well as to inspection and certification. This is also true for technical aspects, such as the calculation methodologies, and how to include technical systems......’ efficiency or how to integrate renewable energy within them. The central team for Technical Elements deals with issues of a technical nature, which are common to new and existing buildings, and/or with minimum demands, certification and inspection. This report focuses on the implementation of Articles 3, 4...

  4. Geophysical characterization of subsurface barriers

    Borns, D.J.

    1995-08-01

    An option for controlling contaminant migration from plumes and buried waste sites is to construct a subsurface barrier of a low-permeability material. The successful application of subsurface barriers requires processes to verify the emplacement and effectiveness of barrier and to monitor the performance of a barrier after emplacement. Non destructive and remote sensing techniques, such as geophysical methods, are possible technologies to address these needs. The changes in mechanical, hydrologic and chemical properties associated with the emplacement of an engineered barrier will affect geophysical properties such a seismic velocity, electrical conductivity, and dielectric constant. Also, the barrier, once emplaced and interacting with the in situ geologic system, may affect the paths along which electrical current flows in the subsurface. These changes in properties and processes facilitate the detection and monitoring of the barrier. The approaches to characterizing and monitoring engineered barriers can be divided between (1) methods that directly image the barrier using the contrasts in physical properties between the barrier and the host soil or rock and (2) methods that reflect flow processes around or through the barrier. For example, seismic methods that delineate the changes in density and stiffness associated with the barrier represents a direct imaging method. Electrical self potential methods and flow probes based on heat flow methods represent techniques that can delineate the flow path or flow processes around and through a barrier

  5. Barriers, drivers and decision-making process for industrial energy efficiency: A broad study among manufacturing small and medium-sized enterprises

    Trianni, Andrea; Cagno, Enrico; Farné, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Barriers and drivers vary along the decision-making process of EEM adoption. • Economic barriers, awareness and behavioural are most critical. • Beside economic drivers, major relevance of regulatory and vocational training. • Importance of stakeholders providing technical support. • Barriers and drivers are different according to several firm characteristics. - Abstract: Energy efficiency has been recognized as a primary means to increase the competitiveness of the industrial sector, and in particular for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), in which energy efficiency measures (EEMs) are scarcely implemented. For this reason, future policies should carefully address such issue. Hence, it is really crucial to have a precise and punctual knowledge of the barriers to be tackled in the decision-making process of adopting an EEM and the drivers to be promoted. This study discussed the findings from a broad investigation within 222 manufacturing SMEs located in a Northern Italy region. Beside economic issues particularly affecting SMEs, awareness and behavioural issues emerge as critical, affecting the very first steps of the decision-making process, related to the punctual identification and evaluation of plausible EEMs. The support from manufacturers, technology suppliers, installers and ESCOs supporting SMEs through vocational training drivers (e.g. technical support) is really important to tackle such issues. More generally, beside financial institutions, the supply chain of technologies is recognized as particularly useful for supporting enterprises in the adoption of EEMs. Additionally, having previously conducted energy audit and implemented EEMs are critical factors able to highlight non-economic barriers and drivers. Therefore, the promotion of EEMs will necessarily imply a further effort in pointing out the so-called non-energy benefits (NEBs) from the implementation of EEMs. Finally, our study reveals that smaller and non

  6. Chaotic correlations in barrier billiards with arbitrary barriers

    Osbaldestin, A H; Adamson, L N C

    2013-01-01

    We study autocorrelation functions in symmetric barrier billiards for golden mean trajectories with arbitrary barriers. Renormalization analysis reveals the presence of a chaotic invariant set and thus that, for a typical barrier, there are chaotic correlations. The chaotic renormalization set is the analogue of the so-called orchid that arises in a generalized Harper equation. (paper)

  7. Renewable energy costs, potentials, barriers: Conceptual issues

    Verbruggen, Aviel; Fischedick, Manfred; Moomaw, William; Weir, Tony; Nadai, Alain; Nilsson, Lars J.; Nyboer, John; Sathaye, Jayant

    2010-01-01

    Renewable energy can become the major energy supply option in low-carbon energy economies. Disruptive transformations in all energy systems are necessary for tapping widely available renewable energy resources. Organizing the energy transition from non-sustainable to renewable energy is often described as the major challenge of the first half of the 21st century. Technological innovation, the economy (costs and prices) and policies have to be aligned to achieve full renewable energy potentials, and barriers impeding that growth need to be removed. These issues are also covered by IPCC's special report on renewable energy and climate change to be completed in 2010. This article focuses on the interrelations among the drivers. It clarifies definitions of costs and prices, and of barriers. After reviewing how the third and fourth assessment reports of IPCC cover mitigation potentials and commenting on definitions of renewable energy potentials in the literature, we propose a consistent set of potentials of renewable energy supplies.

  8. Aging and Phase Stability of Waste Package Outer Barrier

    Tammy S. Edgecumble Summers

    2001-08-23

    This Analysis Model Report (AMR) was prepared in accordance with the Work Direction and Planning Document, ''Aging and Phase Stability of Waste Package Outer Barrier'' (CRWMS M&O 1999a). ICN 01 of this AMR was developed following guidelines provided in TWP-MGR-MD-000004 REV 01, ''Technical Work Plan for: Integrated Management of Technical Product Input Department'' (BSC 2001, Addendum B). It takes into consideration the Enhanced Design Alternative II (EDA II), which has been selected as the preferred design for the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) by the License Application Design Selection (LADS) program team (CRWMS M&O 1999b). The salient features of the EDA II design for this model are a waste package (WP) consisting of an outer barrier of Alloy 22 and an inner barrier of Type 316L stainless steel. This report provides information on the phase stability of Alloy 22l, the current waste-package-outer-barrier (WPOB) material. These phase stability studies are currently divided into three general areas: (1) Long-range order reactions; (2) Intermetallic and carbide precipitation in the base metal; and (3) Intermetallic and carbide precipitation in welded samples.

  9. Design of engineered sorbent barriers

    Jones, E.O.; Freeman, H.D.

    1988-08-01

    A sorbent barrier uses sorbent material such as activated carbon or natural zeolites to prevent the migration of radionuclides from a low-level waste site to the aquifer. The sorbent barrier retards the movement of radioactive contaminants, thereby providing time for the radionuclides to decay. Sorbent barriers can be a simple, effective, and inexpensive method for reducing the migration of radionuclides to the environment. Designing a sorbent barrier consists of using soil and sorbent material properties and site conditions as input to a model which will determine the necessary sorbent barrier thickness to meet contaminant limits. The paper will cover the following areas: techniques for measuring sorption properties of barrier materials and underlying soils, use of a radionuclide transport model to determine the required barrier thickness and performance under a variety of site conditions, and cost estimates for applying the barrier. 8 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  10. Design of engineered sorbent barriers

    Jones, E.O.; Freeman, H.D.

    1988-01-01

    A sorbent barrier uses sorbent material such as activated carbon or natural zeolites to prevent the migration of radionuclides from a low-level waste site to the aquifer. The sorbent barrier retards the movement of radioactive contaminants, thereby providing time for the radionuclides to decay. Sorbent barriers can be a simple, effective, and inexpensive method for reducing the migration of radionuclides to the environment. Designing a sorbent barrier consists of using soil and sorbent material properties and site conditions as input to a model which will determine the necessary sorbent barrier thickness to meet contaminant limits. The paper covers the following areas: techniques for measuring sorption properties of barrier materials and underlying soils, use of a radionuclide transport model to determine the required barrier thickness and performance under a variety of site conditions, and cost estimates for applying the barrier

  11. Major Sport Venues

    Department of Homeland Security — The Major Public Venues dataset is composed of facilities that host events for the National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing, Indy Racing League, Major League...

  12. Major Depression Among Adults

    ... Depressive Episode Among Adolescents Data Sources Share Major Depression Definitions Major depression is one of the most ... Bethesda, MD 20892-9663 Follow Us Facebook Twitter YouTube Google Plus NIMH Newsletter NIMH RSS Feed NIMH ...

  13. Improving Service Quality in Technical Education: Use of Interpretive Structural Modeling

    Debnath, Roma Mitra; Shankar, Ravi

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify the relevant enablers and barriers related to technical education. It seeks to critically analyze the relationship amongst them so that policy makers can focus on relevant parameters to improve the service quality of technical education. Design/methodology/approach: The present study employs the…

  14. Interprofessional non-technical skills for surgeons in disaster response: a qualitative study of the Australian perspective.

    Willems, Anneliese; Waxman, Buce; Bacon, Andrew K; Smith, Julian; Peller, Jennifer; Kitto, Simon

    2013-03-01

    Interprofessional non-technical skills for surgeons in disaster response have not yet been developed. The aims of this study were to identify the non-technical skills required of surgeons in disaster response and training for disaster response and to explore the barriers and facilitators to interprofessional practice in surgical teams responding to disasters. Twenty health professionals, with prior experience in natural disaster response or education, participated in semi-structured in-depth interviews. A qualitative matrix analysis design was used to thematically analyze the data. Non-technical skills for surgeons in disaster response identified in this study included skills for austere environments, cognitive strategies and interprofessional skills. Skills for austere environments were physical self-care including survival skills, psychological self-care, flexibility, adaptability, innovation and improvisation. Cognitive strategies identified in this study were "big picture" thinking, situational awareness, critical thinking, problem solving and creativity. Interprofessional attributes include communication, team-player, sense of humor, cultural competency and conflict resolution skills. "Interprofessionalism" in disaster teams also emerged as a key factor in this study and incorporated elements of effective teamwork, clear leadership, role adjustment and conflict resolution. The majority of participants held the belief that surgeons needed training in non-technical skills in order to achieve best practice in disaster response. Surgeons considerring becoming involved in disaster management should be trained in these skills, and these skills should be incorporated into disaster preparation courses with an interprofessional focus.

  15. MAJOR REPOSITORY DESIGN ISSUES

    JACK N. BAILEY, DWAYNE CHESTNUT, JAMES COMPTON AND RICHARD D. SNELL

    1997-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain Project is focused on producing a four-part viability assessment in late FY98. Its four components (design, performance assessment, cost estimate, and licensing development plan) must be consistent. As a tool to compare design and performance assessment options, a series of repository pictures were developed for the sequential time phases of a repository. The boundaries of the time phases correspond to evolution in the engineered barrier system (EBS)

  16. Shottky-barrier formation

    Guines, F.; Sanchez-Dehesa, J.; Flores, F.

    1983-01-01

    In this paper a realistic selfconsistent calculation of an abrupt metal-semiconductor junction is presented by means of a tight-binding approach. A specific Si-Ag junction has been considered, and the charge neutrality level as well as the barrier height have been determined in good agreement with experiments. For a generaljunction it is shown that the interface properties depend essentially on the characteristics of the first metal layer and its interaction with the semiconductor. (Author) [pt

  17. Energy barrier to decoherence

    Mizel, Ari; Mitchell, M. W.; Cohen, Marvin L.

    2001-01-01

    We propose a ground-state approach to realizing quantum computers. This scheme is time-independent and inherently defends against decoherence by possessing an energy barrier to excitation. We prove that our time-independent qubits can perform the same algorithms as their time-dependent counterparts. Advantages and disadvantages of the time-independent approach are described. A model involving quantum dots is provided for illustration

  18. Technical Training for Managers.

    Haverland, Edgar M.

    The question has arisen as to what kind of information a manager without extensive technical training needs to learn to supervise effectively. For example, the Nike Hercules fire control platoon leader, usually an officer in his first active duty assignment, seldom has had extensive technical training. Yet he is responsibile for the…

  19. Technical Manual. The ACT®

    ACT, Inc., 2014

    2014-01-01

    This manual contains technical information about the ACT® college readiness assessment. The principal purpose of this manual is to document the technical characteristics of the ACT in light of its intended purposes. ACT regularly conducts research as part of the ongoing formative evaluation of its programs. The research is intended to ensure that…

  20. Developing Technical Skill Assessments

    Hyslop, Alisha

    2009-01-01

    One of the biggest challenges facing the career and technical education (CTE) community as it works to implement the 2006 Perkins Act is responding to more rigorous requirements for reporting on CTE students' technical skill attainment. The U.S. Department of Education suggested in non-regulatory guidance that states and locals use the number of…

  1. Transformation of technical infrastructure

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev

    1998-01-01

    article about the need of new planning forums in order to initiate transformations with in management of large technical systems for energy, waste and water supply.......article about the need of new planning forums in order to initiate transformations with in management of large technical systems for energy, waste and water supply....

  2. TRANSLATING SERVICE TECHNICAL PROSE

    language. The Application of Technical Service. Prose. To form a good idea of the appl ication .... cost lives. In this particular domain, translators must have a sound technical ... These semantic ... another language and often, in doing so, changing its meaning. The words ..... He will hand out tasks to each translator and after.

  3. Technical Writing Tips

    Kennedy, Patrick M.

    2004-01-01

    The main reason engineers, technicians, and programmers write poor technical documents is because they have had little training or experience in that area. This article addresses some of the basics that students can use to master technical writing tasks. The article covers the most common problems writers make and offers suggestions for improving…

  4. Research in Technical Colleges

    MacLennan, A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to list and demonstrate areas in which research needs to be carried out, or questions answered, in order to raise the quality of technical education. Design/methodology/approach: The area of technical education expanded very rapidly in the late 1950s, and there was little comprehensive knowledge regarding the…

  5. Final Technical Report

    Glasser, Alan H. [Fusion Theory and Computation Inc., Kingston, WA (United States)

    2018-02-02

    Final technical report on DE-SC0016106. This is the final technical report for a portion of the multi-institutional CEMM project. This report is centered around 3 publications and a seminar presentation, which have been submitted to E-Link.

  6. Evidence-based practice in radiology: Knowledge, attitude and perceived barriers to practice among residents in radiology

    Anuradha, Chandramohan, E-mail: anuradhachandramohan@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu 632 004 (India); Jacob, K.S., E-mail: ksjacob@cmcvellore.ac.in [Department of Psychiatry, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu 632 004 (India); Specialist Mental Health Service for Older People, Suite 106, 64–68 Derby Street, Kingswood, Penrith 2750 (Australia); Shyamkumar, N.K., E-mail: aparnashyam@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu 632 004 (India); Sridhar, Gibikote, E-mail: gibikote@cmcvellore.ac.in [Department of Radiology, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu 632 004 (India)

    2013-05-15

    Aim: We examinted the attitude, knowledge and perceived barriers to evidence-based practice of radiology (EBPR) among residents in radiology. Study design and setting: We used the McColl questionnaire (1) and the BARRIERS scale (2) to assess the issues among radiology trainees attending an annual refresher course. Ninety six residents from 32 medical colleges from Southern India attended the course. Results: Eighty (83.3%) residents, 55 male and 25 female of age range 24–34 years, consented and returned the questionnaire. The majority of the participants had a positive attitude towards EBPR. However, 45% were unaware of sources for evidence based literature although many had access to Medline (45%) and the internet (80%). The majority (70%) were aware of the common technical terms (e.g. odds ratio, absolute and relative risk) but other complex details (e.g. meta-analysis, clinical effectiveness, confidence interval, publication bias and number needed to treat) were poorly understood. Though majority of residents (59%) were currently following guidelines and protocols laid by colleagues within their departments, 70% of residents were interested in learning the skills of EBPR and were willing to appraise primary literature or systematic reviews by themselves. Insufficient time on the job to implement new ideas (70.1%); relevant literature is not being complied in one place (68.9%); not being able to understand statistical methods (68.5%) were considered to be the major barriers to EBPR. Training in critical appraisal significantly influence usage of bibliographic databases (p < 0.0001). Attitude of collegues (p = 0.006) influenced attitude of the trainees towards EBPR. Those with higher knowledge scores (p = 0.02) and a greater awareness of sources for seeking evidence based literature (p = 0.05) held stronger beliefs that EBPR significantly improved patient care. Conclusions: The large knowledge gap related to EBPR suggests the need to incorporate structured

  7. Evidence-based practice in radiology: Knowledge, attitude and perceived barriers to practice among residents in radiology

    Anuradha, Chandramohan; Jacob, K.S.; Shyamkumar, N.K.; Sridhar, Gibikote

    2013-01-01

    Aim: We examinted the attitude, knowledge and perceived barriers to evidence-based practice of radiology (EBPR) among residents in radiology. Study design and setting: We used the McColl questionnaire (1) and the BARRIERS scale (2) to assess the issues among radiology trainees attending an annual refresher course. Ninety six residents from 32 medical colleges from Southern India attended the course. Results: Eighty (83.3%) residents, 55 male and 25 female of age range 24–34 years, consented and returned the questionnaire. The majority of the participants had a positive attitude towards EBPR. However, 45% were unaware of sources for evidence based literature although many had access to Medline (45%) and the internet (80%). The majority (70%) were aware of the common technical terms (e.g. odds ratio, absolute and relative risk) but other complex details (e.g. meta-analysis, clinical effectiveness, confidence interval, publication bias and number needed to treat) were poorly understood. Though majority of residents (59%) were currently following guidelines and protocols laid by colleagues within their departments, 70% of residents were interested in learning the skills of EBPR and were willing to appraise primary literature or systematic reviews by themselves. Insufficient time on the job to implement new ideas (70.1%); relevant literature is not being complied in one place (68.9%); not being able to understand statistical methods (68.5%) were considered to be the major barriers to EBPR. Training in critical appraisal significantly influence usage of bibliographic databases (p < 0.0001). Attitude of collegues (p = 0.006) influenced attitude of the trainees towards EBPR. Those with higher knowledge scores (p = 0.02) and a greater awareness of sources for seeking evidence based literature (p = 0.05) held stronger beliefs that EBPR significantly improved patient care. Conclusions: The large knowledge gap related to EBPR suggests the need to incorporate structured

  8. Performance of engineered barriers

    Rajaram, V.; Dean, P.V.; McLellan, S.A.

    1997-01-01

    Engineered barriers, both vertical and horizontal, have been used to isolate hazardous wastes from contact, precipitation, surface water and groundwater. The primary objective of this study was to determine the performance of subsurface barriers installed throughout the U.S. over the past 20 years to contain hazardous wastes. Evaluation of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Subtitle C or equivalent caps was a secondary objective. A nationwide search was launched to select hazardous waste sites at which vertical barrier walls and/or caps had been used as the containment method. None of the sites selected had an engineered floor. From an initial list of 130 sites, 34 sites were selected on the basis of availability of monitoring data for detailed analysis of actual field performance. This paper will briefly discuss preliminary findings regarding the design, construction quality assurance/construction quality control (CQA/CQC), and monitoring at the 34 sites. In addition, the short-term performance of these sites (less than 5 years) is presented since very little long-term performance data was available

  9. Fluctuations in Schottky barrier heights

    Mahan, G.D.

    1984-01-01

    A double Schottky barrier is often formed at the grain boundary in polycrystalline semiconductors. The barrier height is shown to fluctuate in value due to the random nature of the impurity positions. The magnitude of the fluctuations is 0.1 eV, and the fluctuations cause the barrier height measured by capacitance to differ from the one measured by electrical conductivity

  10. Technical Agency in Practice

    Krummheuer, Antonia Lina

    2015-01-01

    ) description of hybrid networks in which human and non-human actants are granted agency without differentiating different kinds of agency, EMCA focuses on the member's perspectives and the situated construction of technical agency that is made relevant within an ongoing interaction. Based on an EMCA analysis......The paper combines the discussion of technical agency and hybrid networks of Actor-Network Theory (ANT) with an ethnomethodological/conversation analytical (EMCA) perspective on situated practices in which participants ascribe agency to technical artefacts. While ANT works with (ethnographic...... of three video recordings of situations in which technical agency is made relevant by the human participants, the paper demonstrates different ways in which agency is granted to technical artefacts. Human participants can treat a technology as communication partner, as an active part (and actant...

  11. Parliamentarian sovereignty and technical development

    Dreier, H.; Hofmann, J.

    1986-01-01

    The title indicates the points of main emphasis of the contributions, and points to the programme embodied in the volume. The question is - given the tremendous and ever increasing amount of secondary problems associated with a heated technology development - whether the 'sovereign' state is at all capable of controlling, piloting and fostering technic-scientific processes. The first part ('sovereignty and parliamentarian legislator state') concentrates on the history of notions and ideas in the concept of the sovereign, modern state, and on the constitutional law in force (Dreier, Frohn); the current efficiency of parliament as an organ of control in the process of legislation is investigated (Schulze-Fielitz). The central concern of part 2 ('environmental law and technical development') are topical questions of environmental law (Hofmann, Luebbe-Wolff). Besides the analysis of dogmatic problems of a special administrative law, the major issue is whether and in how far - given modern large-scale technologies - law can adequately govern technique (Schmidt). By analyzing the relationship between technical development and possibilities for guidance by a parliamentarian constitutional state, the articles deal with a central point of intersection between state and administrative law. (orig./HP) [de

  12. Independent technical review of the Sandia National Laboratories Environmental Restoration Project

    1994-11-01

    An Independent Technical Review was conducted of the Environmental Restoration Project. The objective of the review was recommendations, from a commercial perspective, on a systems level path forward to safe, minimum cost and schedule project completion. The work presented represents the consensus analysis and recommendations of thirteen individuals with varied backgrounds, expertise, and experience. The ITR team recommends that the barriers to the opportunity described in the diagnosis be eliminated using an integrated DOE-Sandia system approach. Piecemeal changes will not result in the desired commercial efficiency. DOE needs to operate as the contracting agency for a Major System Acquisition. If it does not, commercial performance will not be achieved regardless of the contractor. Likewise, Sandia needs to establish and implement the necessary project structure and management systems to operate with commercial contractor like efficiency

  13. Regulatory and technical reports compilation for 1980

    Oliu, W.E.; McKenzi, L.

    1981-04-01

    This compilation lists formal regulatory and technical reports and conference proceedings issued in 1980 by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The compilation is divided into four major sections. The first major section consists of a sequential listing of all NRC reports in report-number order. The second major section of this compilation consists of a key-word index to report titles. The third major section contains an alphabetically arranged listing of contractor report numbers cross-referenced to their corresponding NRC report numbers. Finally, the fourth section is an errata supplement

  14. Barriers for the introduction of bioenergy in the Netherlands

    Gerlagh, T.; Groenendaal, B.; Van Ree, R.; Dinkelbach, L.; Van Doorn, J.; Hemmes, K.

    2000-01-01

    The use of biomass for energy in the Netherlands is still limited despite the political incentives to make bio-energy a major source of renewable energy. The hesitation of many stake-holders is due to the limited insight into the potential of biomass in the Netherlands and the presence of numerous other barriers. Availability of biomass, emission regulation and waste treatment regulations are considered important barriers. Analyses of their current state show that these barriers are broadly recognised and possibilities to decrease their impact are present. Some barriers with a minor influence so far will be of increasing importance and could be a threat to the development of bio-energy in future. These are the fast liberalising of the energy market and sustainable energy market, the competition with other renewables and the unclear status of the current technology available. Future research should focus on the possibilities to overcome these new barriers. 5 refs

  15. Reconsolidated Salt as a Geotechnical Barrier

    Hansen, Francis D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gadbury, Casey [USDOE Carlsbad Field Office, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Salt as a geologic medium has several attributes favorable to long-term isolation of waste placed in mined openings. Salt formations are largely impermeable and induced fractures heal as stress returns to equilibrium. Permanent isolation also depends upon the ability to construct geotechnical barriers that achieve nearly the same high-performance characteristics attributed to the native salt formation. Salt repository seal concepts often include elements of reconstituted granular salt. As a specific case in point, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant recently received regulatory approval to change the disposal panel closure design from an engineered barrier constructed of a salt-based concrete to one that employs simple run-of-mine salt and temporary bulkheads for isolation from ventilation. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant is a radioactive waste disposal repository for defense-related transuranic elements mined from the Permian evaporite salt beds in southeast New Mexico. Its approved shaft seal design incorporates barrier components comprising salt-based concrete, bentonite, and substantial depths of crushed salt compacted to enhance reconsolidation. This paper will focus on crushed salt behavior when applied as drift closures to isolate disposal rooms during operations. Scientific aspects of salt reconsolidation have been studied extensively. The technical basis for geotechnical barrier performance has been strengthened by recent experimental findings and analogue comparisons. The panel closure change was accompanied by recognition that granular salt will return to a physical state similar to the halite surrounding it. Use of run-of-mine salt ensures physical and chemical compatibility with the repository environment and simplifies ongoing disposal operations. Our current knowledge and expected outcome of research can be assimilated with lessons learned to put forward designs and operational concepts for the next generation of salt repositories. Mined salt

  16. Reconsolidated Salt as a Geotechnical Barrier

    Hansen, Francis D.; Gadbury, Casey

    2015-01-01

    Salt as a geologic medium has several attributes favorable to long-term isolation of waste placed in mined openings. Salt formations are largely impermeable and induced fractures heal as stress returns to equilibrium. Permanent isolation also depends upon the ability to construct geotechnical barriers that achieve nearly the same high-performance characteristics attributed to the native salt formation. Salt repository seal concepts often include elements of reconstituted granular salt. As a specific case in point, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant recently received regulatory approval to change the disposal panel closure design from an engineered barrier constructed of a salt-based concrete to one that employs simple run-of-mine salt and temporary bulkheads for isolation from ventilation. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant is a radioactive waste disposal repository for defense-related transuranic elements mined from the Permian evaporite salt beds in southeast New Mexico. Its approved shaft seal design incorporates barrier components comprising salt-based concrete, bentonite, and substantial depths of crushed salt compacted to enhance reconsolidation. This paper will focus on crushed salt behavior when applied as drift closures to isolate disposal rooms during operations. Scientific aspects of salt reconsolidation have been studied extensively. The technical basis for geotechnical barrier performance has been strengthened by recent experimental findings and analogue comparisons. The panel closure change was accompanied by recognition that granular salt will return to a physical state similar to the halite surrounding it. Use of run-of-mine salt ensures physical and chemical compatibility with the repository environment and simplifies ongoing disposal operations. Our current knowledge and expected outcome of research can be assimilated with lessons learned to put forward designs and operational concepts for the next generation of salt repositories. Mined salt

  17. A Systematic Investigation on Barriers and Critical Success Factors for Clinical Information Systems in Integrated Care Settings.

    Hoerbst, A; Schweitzer, M

    2015-08-13

    Clinical Information Systems (CIS) have ever since the introduction of information technology in healthcare played an important role to support healthcare professionals and the process of treatment. With the rise of the concept of integrated care organizational borders, the sole focus on data aggregation or healthcare professionals as users disappear more and more. The manuscript discusses the concept of CISs and investigates critical success factors for CISs in the context of integrated care and in the course of time. In order to identify critical success factors and barriers for CISs a systematic literature review was conducted based on the results from PubMed and Cochrane, using MaxQDA. Search results were thereby limited to reviews or meta-analysis. We have found 1919 references of which 40 met the inclusion criteria. The analysis of the manuscripts resulted in a comprehensive list of success factors and barriers related to CISs in integrated care settings. Most barriers were user-related whereas for the success factors an even distribution of organizational, technical and user-related factors was observed. The vast majority of publications was focused on healthcare professionals. It is important to incorporate experiences made/ collected over time, as the problems encountered seem to remain almost unvaried. In order to support further systematic investigations on the topic it is necessary to rethink existing concepts and definitions to realign them with the ideas of integrated care.

  18. Barrier mechanisms in the Drosophila blood-brain barrier

    Samantha Jane Hindle

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The invertebrate blood-brain barrier field is growing at a rapid pace and, in recent years, studies have shown a physiologic and molecular complexity that has begun to rival its vertebrate counterpart. Novel mechanisms of paracellular barrier maintenance through GPCR signaling were the first demonstrations of the complex adaptive mechanisms of barrier physiology. Building upon this work, the integrity of the invertebrate blood-brain barrier has recently been shown to require coordinated function of all layers of the compound barrier structure, analogous to signaling between the layers of the vertebrate neurovascular unit. These findings strengthen the notion that many blood-brain barrier mechanisms are conserved between vertebrates and invertebrates, and suggest that novel findings in invertebrate model organisms will have a significant impact on the understanding of vertebrate BBB functions. In this vein, important roles in coordinating localized and systemic signaling to dictate organism development and growth are beginning to show how the blood-brain barrier can govern whole animal physiologies. This includes novel functions of blood-brain barrier gap junctions in orchestrating synchronized neuroblast proliferation, and of blood-brain barrier secreted antagonists of insulin receptor signaling. These advancements and others are pushing the field forward in exciting new directions. In this review, we provide a synopsis of invertebrate blood-brain barrier anatomy and physiology, with a focus on insights from the past 5 years, and highlight important areas for future study.

  19. Capacity Building Imperatives for Developing Science, Technical ...

    ... of white-collar jobs, and lack of productive skills for self-employment among graduates. The educational system at that time could not solve the mounting national problem. This was the major purpose why the National Policy on Education was launched in 1977 with great emphasis on Vocational and Technical education ...

  20. Towards common technical standards

    Rahmat, H.; Suardi, A.R.

    1993-01-01

    In 1989, PETRONAS launched its Total Quality Management (TQM) program. In the same year the decision was taken by the PETRONAS Management to introduce common technical standards group wide. These standards apply to the design, construction, operation and maintenance of all PETRONAS installations in the upstream, downstream and petrochemical sectors. The introduction of common company standards is seen as part of an overall technical management system, which is an integral part of Total Quality Management. The Engineering and Safety Unit in the PETRONAS Central Office in Kuala Lumpur has been charged with the task of putting in place a set of technical standards throughout PETRONAS and its operating units

  1. Endoscopic and keyhole endoscope-assisted neurosurgical approaches: a qualitative survey on technical challenges and technological solutions.

    Marcus, Hani J; Cundy, Thomas P; Hughes-Hallett, Archie; Yang, Guang-Zhong; Darzi, Ara; Nandi, Dipankar

    2014-10-01

    The literature reflects a resurgence of interest in endoscopic and keyhole endoscope-assisted neurosurgical approaches as alternatives to conventional microsurgical approaches in carefully selected cases. The aim of this study was to assess the technical challenges of neuroendoscopy, and the scope for technological innovations to overcome these barriers. All full members of the Society of British Neurosurgeons (SBNS) were electronically invited to participate in an online survey. The open-ended structured survey asked three questions; firstly, whether the surgeon presently utilises or has experience with endoscopic or endoscope-assisted approaches; secondly, what they consider to be the major technical barriers to adopting such approaches; and thirdly, what technological advances they foresee improving safety and efficacy in the field. Responses were subjected to a qualitative research method of multi-rater emergent theme analysis. Three clear themes emerged: 1) surgical approach and better integration with image-guidance systems (20%), 2) intra-operative visualisation and improvements in neuroendoscopy (49%), and 3) surgical manipulation and improvements in instruments (74%). The analysis of responses to our open-ended survey revealed that although opinion was varied three major themes could be identified. Emerging technological advances such as augmented reality, high-definition stereo-endoscopy, and robotic joint-wristed instruments may help overcome the technical difficulties associated with neuroendoscopic approaches. Results of this qualitative survey provide consensus amongst the technology end-user community such that unambiguous goals and priorities may be defined. Systems integrating these advances could improve the safety and efficacy of endoscopic and endoscope-assisted neurosurgical approaches.

  2. Barriers to accessing urethroplasty.

    Consolo, Michael J; Syed, Kirin K; Robison, Christopher; McFadden, Jacob; Shalowitz, David I; Brown, Gordon A; Sussman, David O; Figler, Bradley D

    2016-01-01

    Urethroplasty is an effective treatment for men with anterior urethral strictures, but is utilized less frequently than ineffective treatments such as internal urethrotomy. We sought to identify provider-level barriers to urethroplasty. An anonymous online survey was emailed to all Mid-Atlantic American Urological Association members. Six scenarios in which urethroplasty was the most appropriate treatment were presented. Primary outcome was recommendation for urethroplasty in ≥ three clinical scenarios. Other factors measured include practice zip code, urethroplasty training, and proximity to a urethroplasty surgeon. Multivariate logistic regression identified factors associated with increased likelihood of urethroplasty recommendation. Of 670 members emailed, 109 (16%) completed the survey. Final analysis included 88 respondents. Mean years in practice was 17.2. Most respondents received formal training in urethroplasty: 43 (49%) in residency, 5 (6%) in fellowship, and 10 (11%) in both; 48 respondents (55%) had a urethroplasty surgeon in their practice, whereas 18 (20%) had a urethroplasty surgeon within 45 minutes of his or her primary practice location. The only covariate that was associated with an increased likelihood of recommending urethroplasty in ≥ three scenarios was formal urethroplasty training. Most members (68%) reported no barriers to referring patients for urethroplasty; the most common barriers cited were long distance to urethroplasty surgeon (n 5 13, 15%) and concern about complications (n 5 8, 9%). Urethroplasty continues to be underutilized in men with anterior urethral strictures, potentially due to lack of knowledge dissemination and access to a urethroplasty surgeon. Appropriate urethroplasty utilization may increase with greater exposure to urethroplasty in training.

  3. Innovation Barriers and Enablers that Affect Productivity in Uganda Building Industry

    Henry Mwanaki Alinaitwe, , and

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The construction industry has of recent been blamed for lack of innovation. Lack of innovation in the industry is believed to be responsible for the decreasing or stagnant levels of productivity in comparison with other industries. This paper reviews the major barriers and enablers to innovation in general. Propositions were made about the factors that affect innovation in the construction industry which were then formulated into a questionnaire. A survey was made on building contractors in Uganda, a developing country, targeting those with financial strength, large in size, and with high capacity to carry out big projects. The identified factors were then ranked and correlated. The level of training in science, engineering and technical education, and the level of research and development at the industry level are looked at as the greatest innovation enablers in building that will drive forward labour productivity. The size of the domestic market and the level of security are the worst innovation barriers that lead to low productivity in the building industry in Uganda. Contractors, policy makers and the government should address the identified factors in order to improve productivity.

  4. Barriers to Effective Municipal Solid Waste Management in a Rapidly Urbanizing Area in Thailand

    Yukalang, Nachalida; Clarke, Beverley

    2017-01-01

    This study focused on determining the barriers to effective municipal solid waste management (MSWM) in a rapidly urbanizing area in Thailand. The Tha Khon Yang Subdistrict Municipality is a representative example of many local governments in Thailand that have been facing MSWM issues. In-depth interviews with individuals and focus groups were conducted with key informants including the municipality staff, residents, and external organizations. The major influences affecting waste management were categorized into six areas: social-cultural, technical, financial, organizational, and legal-political barriers and population growth. SWOT analysis shows both internal and external factors are playing a role in MSWM: There is good policy and a reasonably sufficient budget. However, there is insufficient infrastructure, weak strategic planning, registration, staff capacity, information systems, engagement with programs; and unorganized waste management and fee collection systems. The location of flood prone areas has impacted on location and operation of landfill sites. There is also poor communication between the municipality and residents and a lack of participation in waste separation programs. However, external support from government and the nearby university could provide opportunities to improve the situation. These findings will help inform municipal decision makers, leading to better municipal solid waste management in newly urbanized areas. PMID:28869572

  5. Barriers to Effective Municipal Solid Waste Management in a Rapidly Urbanizing Area in Thailand

    Nachalida Yukalang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on determining the barriers to effective municipal solid waste management (MSWM in a rapidly urbanizing area in Thailand. The Tha Khon Yang Subdistrict Municipality is a representative example of many local governments in Thailand that have been facing MSWM issues. In-depth interviews with individuals and focus groups were conducted with key informants including the municipality staff, residents, and external organizations. The major influences affecting waste management were categorized into six areas: social-cultural, technical, financial, organizational, and legal-political barriers and population growth. SWOT analysis shows both internal and external factors are playing a role in MSWM: There is good policy and a reasonably sufficient budget. However, there is insufficient infrastructure, weak strategic planning, registration, staff capacity, information systems, engagement with programs; and unorganized waste management and fee collection systems. The location of flood prone areas has impacted on location and operation of landfill sites. There is also poor communication between the municipality and residents and a lack of participation in waste separation programs. However, external support from government and the nearby university could provide opportunities to improve the situation. These findings will help inform municipal decision makers, leading to better municipal solid waste management in newly urbanized areas.

  6. Barriers to Effective Municipal Solid Waste Management in a Rapidly Urbanizing Area in Thailand.

    Yukalang, Nachalida; Clarke, Beverley; Ross, Kirstin

    2017-09-04

    This study focused on determining the barriers to effective municipal solid waste management (MSWM) in a rapidly urbanizing area in Thailand. The Tha Khon Yang Subdistrict Municipality is a representative example of many local governments in Thailand that have been facing MSWM issues. In-depth interviews with individuals and focus groups were conducted with key informants including the municipality staff, residents, and external organizations. The major influences affecting waste management were categorized into six areas: social-cultural, technical, financial, organizational, and legal-political barriers and population growth. SWOT analysis shows both internal and external factors are playing a role in MSWM: There is good policy and a reasonably sufficient budget. However, there is insufficient infrastructure, weak strategic planning, registration, staff capacity, information systems, engagement with programs; and unorganized waste management and fee collection systems. The location of flood prone areas has impacted on location and operation of landfill sites. There is also poor communication between the municipality and residents and a lack of participation in waste separation programs. However, external support from government and the nearby university could provide opportunities to improve the situation. These findings will help inform municipal decision makers, leading to better municipal solid waste management in newly urbanized areas.

  7. Barriers to widespread adoption of electric vehicles: An analysis of consumer attitudes and perceptions

    Egbue, Ona; Long, Suzanna

    2012-01-01

    Electric Vehicles (EVs) are promoted as a viable near-term vehicle technology to reduce dependence on fossil fuels and resulting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with conventional vehicles (CVs). In spite of the benefits of EVs, several obstacles need to be overcome before EVs will be widely adopted. A major barrier is that consumers tend to resist new technologies that are considered alien or unproved, thus, policy decisions that consider their critical concerns will have a higher level of success. This research identifies potential socio-technical barriers to consumer adoption of EVs and determines if sustainability issues influence consumer decision to purchase an EV. This study provides valuable insights into preferences and perceptions of technology enthusiasts; individuals highly connected to technology development and better equipped to sort out the many differences between EVs and CVs. This group of individuals will likely be early adopters of EVs only if they perceive them to be superior in performance compared to CVs. These results can guide policymakers in crafting energy and transportation policy. It can also provide guidance to EV engineers' decision in incorporating consumer preference into EV engineering design. - Highlights: ► We sample technology enthusiasts to determine attitudes toward electric vehicles. ► Knowledge and perceptions differ across gender, age, and education groups. ► High degree of uncertainty is associated with electric vehicles. ► Battery range is the biggest concern followed by cost. ► Sustainability has less weight compared to electric vehicle cost and performance.

  8. Racial Trade Barriers?

    Bjerre, Jacob Halvas

    . This paper analyzes the racial policies pursued in the foreign trade and argues that we need to recognize Aryanization as a world-wide policy in order to fully understand its character and possible consequences. I focus on the pre-war period and analyze the case of Denmark from three different perspectives......: perpetrators, victims and bystanders. The analysis will show that race, economy and foreign trade were combined in an attempt to raise racial trade barriers. This forced the question of German racial policies on the Danish government, Danish-Jewish businesses, and German companies involved in foreign trade...

  9. Support or Barrier?

    Sanden, Guro Refsum; Lønsmann, Dorte

    This study offers a critical look at how corporate-level language management influences front-line language practices among employees in three multinational corporations (MNCs) headquartered in Scandinavia. Based on interview and document data, we examine, firstly, what front-line practices...... employees use to cross language boundaries in their everyday work, and, secondly, how these practices relate to top-down language management in the case companies. Our findings show that employees are often dependent on ad hoc and informal solutions in cross- language situations, which leads us...... to a discussion of how a company’s language policy may be seen as both support and a barrier....

  10. Accident Analysis and Barrier Function (AEB) Method. Manual for Incident Analysis

    Svenson, Ola [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Psychology

    2000-02-01

    The Accident Analysis and Barrier Function (AEB) Method models an accident or incident as a series of interactions between human and technical systems. In the sequence of human and technical errors leading to an accident there is, in principle, a possibility to arrest the development between each two successive errors. This can be done by a barrier function which, for example, can stop an operator from making an error. A barrier function can be performed by one or several barrier function systems. To illustrate, a mechanical system, a computer system or another operator can all perform a given barrier function to stop an operator from making an error. The barrier function analysis consists of analysis of suggested improvements, the effectiveness of the improvements, the costs of implementation, probability of implementation, the cost of maintaining the barrier function, the probability that maintenance will be kept up to standards and the generalizability of the suggested improvement. The AEB method is similar to the US method called HPES, but differs from that method in different ways. To exemplify, the AEB method has more emphasis on technical errors than HPES. In contrast to HPES that describes a series of events, the AEB method models only errors. This gives a more focused analysis making it well suited for checking other HPES-type accident analyses. However, the AEB method is a generic and stand-alone method that has been applied in other fields than nuclear power, such as, in traffic accident analyses.

  11. Accident Analysis and Barrier Function (AEB) Method. Manual for Incident Analysis

    Svenson, Ola

    2000-02-01

    The Accident Analysis and Barrier Function (AEB) Method models an accident or incident as a series of interactions between human and technical systems. In the sequence of human and technical errors leading to an accident there is, in principle, a possibility to arrest the development between each two successive errors. This can be done by a barrier function which, for example, can stop an operator from making an error. A barrier function can be performed by one or several barrier function systems. To illustrate, a mechanical system, a computer system or another operator can all perform a given barrier function to stop an operator from making an error. The barrier function analysis consists of analysis of suggested improvements, the effectiveness of the improvements, the costs of implementation, probability of implementation, the cost of maintaining the barrier function, the probability that maintenance will be kept up to standards and the generalizability of the suggested improvement. The AEB method is similar to the US method called HPES, but differs from that method in different ways. To exemplify, the AEB method has more emphasis on technical errors than HPES. In contrast to HPES that describes a series of events, the AEB method models only errors. This gives a more focused analysis making it well suited for checking other HPES-type accident analyses. However, the AEB method is a generic and stand-alone method that has been applied in other fields than nuclear power, such as, in traffic accident analyses

  12. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT

    R. Jarek

    2005-08-29

    The purpose of this model report is to describe the evolution of the physical and chemical environmental conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository, including the drip shield and waste package surfaces. The resulting seepage evaporation and gas abstraction models are used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. This report develops and documents a set of abstraction-level models that describe the engineered barrier system physical and chemical environment. Where possible, these models use information directly from other reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for TSPA-LA. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782], Section 1.2.2). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system reports. To be consistent with other project documents that address features, events, and processes (FEPs), Table 6.14.1 of the current report includes updates to FEP numbers and FEP subjects for two FEPs identified in the technical work plan (TWP) governing this report (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782]). FEP 2.1.09.06.0A (Reduction-oxidation potential in EBS), as listed in Table 2 of the TWP (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782]), has been updated in the current report to FEP 2.1.09.06.0B (Reduction-oxidation potential in Drifts; see Table 6.14-1). FEP 2.1.09.07.0A (Reaction kinetics in EBS), as listed in Table 2 of the TWP (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782]), has been updated in the current report to FEP 2.1.09.07.0B (Reaction kinetics in Drifts; see Table 6.14-1). These deviations from the TWP are justified because they improve integration with FEPs

  13. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT

    R. Jarek

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this model report is to describe the evolution of the physical and chemical environmental conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository, including the drip shield and waste package surfaces. The resulting seepage evaporation and gas abstraction models are used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. This report develops and documents a set of abstraction-level models that describe the engineered barrier system physical and chemical environment. Where possible, these models use information directly from other reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for TSPA-LA. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782], Section 1.2.2). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system reports. To be consistent with other project documents that address features, events, and processes (FEPs), Table 6.14.1 of the current report includes updates to FEP numbers and FEP subjects for two FEPs identified in the technical work plan (TWP) governing this report (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782]). FEP 2.1.09.06.0A (Reduction-oxidation potential in EBS), as listed in Table 2 of the TWP (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782]), has been updated in the current report to FEP 2.1.09.06.0B (Reduction-oxidation potential in Drifts; see Table 6.14-1). FEP 2.1.09.07.0A (Reaction kinetics in EBS), as listed in Table 2 of the TWP (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782]), has been updated in the current report to FEP 2.1.09.07.0B (Reaction kinetics in Drifts; see Table 6.14-1). These deviations from the TWP are justified because they improve integration with FEPs documents. The updates

  14. Technical standards in nuclear area

    Grimberg, M.

    1978-01-01

    The technical standardization in nuclear area is discussed. Also, the competence of CNEN in standardization pursuit is analysed. Moreover, the process of working up of technical standards is explained; in addition, some kinds of technical standards are discussed. (author) [pt

  15. SAM Technical Contacts

    These technical contacts are available to help with questions regarding method deviations, modifications, sample problems or interferences, quality control requirements, the use of alternative methods, or the need to address analytes or sample types.

  16. INDOT Technical Training Plan

    2012-04-01

    The study provides the background documents necessary for the development of a Technical Training Plan and makes recommendations : for the content and structure of such a plan for the District Operations, Operations, Capital Program Management, and E...

  17. social & technical innovations

    CHANGE: GAPS BRIDGED BY SMART SOLUTIONS. CHALLENGE: INABILITY TO REACH THOSE IN NEED. SOLAR PANELS. OVERCOME POWER. SUPPLY CHALLENGES. IN BURKINA FASO. SOCIAL & TECHNICAL. INNOVATIONS. BANGLADESH BURKINA FASO ETHIOPIA KENYA LEBANON PERU VIETNAM.

  18. Superfund Technical Assistance Grants

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset includes data related to the Superfund Technical Assistance Grant program, including grant number, award amounts, award dates, period of performance,...

  19. OSH technical reference manual

    1993-11-01

    In an evaluation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Occupational Safety and Health programs for government-owned contractor-operated (GOCO) activities, the Department of Labor`s Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) recommended a technical information exchange program. The intent was to share written safety and health programs, plans, training manuals, and materials within the entire DOE community. The OSH Technical Reference (OTR) helps support the secretary`s response to the OSHA finding by providing a one-stop resource and referral for technical information that relates to safe operations and practice. It also serves as a technical information exchange tool to reference DOE-wide materials pertinent to specific safety topics and, with some modification, as a training aid. The OTR bridges the gap between general safety documents and very specific requirements documents. It is tailored to the DOE community and incorporates DOE field experience.

  20. NCDC Technical Reports

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCDC Technical Reports is a set of retrospective analyses produced by the Research Customer Service Group and the National Climatic Data Center from 1995 to 2008....

  1. Socio-technical Betwixtness

    Bossen, Claus

    2017-01-01

    the intrinsically social and technical interwovenness of design, and the necessity of including affected people and stakeholders in the design process. This betwixtness of socio-technical design is demonstrated by the analysis of two IT systems for healthcare: a foundational model for electronic healthcare records......This chapter focusses on two challenges for socio-technical design: Having to choose between different rationales for design, and the adequate understanding and depiction of the work to be redesigned. These two challenges betwixt the otherwise strong tenets of socio-technical design of pointing out......, and an IT system organizing hospital porters’ work. The conceptual background for the analysis of the cases is provided by a short introduction to different rationales for organizational design, and by pointing to the differences between a linear, rationalistic versus an interactional depiction of work....

  2. Technical report writing today

    Riordan, Daniel G

    2014-01-01

    "Technical Report Writing Today" provides thorough coverage of technical writing basics, techniques, and applications. Through a practical focus with varied examples and exercises, students internalize the skills necessary to produce clear and effective documents and reports. Project worksheets help students organize their thoughts and prepare for assignments, and focus boxes highlight key information and recent developments in technical communication. Extensive individual and collaborative exercises expose students to different kinds of technical writing problems and solutions. Annotated student examples - more than 100 in all - illustrate different writing styles and approaches to problems. Numerous short and long examples throughout the text demonstrate solutions for handling writing assignments in current career situations. The four-color artwork in the chapter on creating visuals keeps pace with contemporary workplace capabilities. The Tenth Edition offers the latest information on using electronic resum...

  3. The technical supervision interface

    Sollander, P

    1998-01-01

    The Technical Control Room (TCR) is currently using 30 different applications for the remote supervision of the technical infrastructure at CERN. These applications have all been developed with the CERN made Uniform Man Machine Interface (UMMI) tools built in 1990. However, the visualization technology has evolved phenomenally since 1990, the Technical Data Server (TDS) has radically changed our control system architecture, and the standardization and the maintenance of the UMMI applications have become important issues as their number increases. The Technical Supervision Interface is intended to replace the UMMI and solve the above problems. Using a standard WWW-browser for the display, it will be inherently multi-platform and hence available for control room operators, equipment specialists and on-call personnel.

  4. Barriers and facilitators to Electronic Medical Record (EMR) use in an urban slum.

    Jawhari, Badeia; Keenan, Louanne; Zakus, David; Ludwick, Dave; Isaac, Abraam; Saleh, Abdullah; Hayward, Robert

    2016-10-01

    Rapid urbanization has led to the growth of urban slums and increased healthcare burdens for vulnerable populations. Electronic Medical Records (EMRs) have the potential to improve continuity of care for slum residents, but their implementation is complicated by technical and non-technical limitations. This study sought practical insights about facilitators and barriers to EMR implementation in urban slum environments. Descriptive qualitative method was used to explore staff perceptions about a recent open-source EMR deployment in two primary care clinics in Kibera, Nairobi. Participants were interviewed using open-ended, semi-structured questions. Content analysis was used when exploring transcribed data. Three major themes - systems, software, and social considerations - emerged from content analysis, with sustainability concerns prevailing. Although participants reported many systems (e.g., power, network, Internet, hardware, interoperability) and software (e.g., data integrity, confidentiality, function) challenges, social factors (e.g., identity management, training, use incentives) appeared the most important impediments to sustainability. These findings are consistent with what others have reported, especially the importance of practical barriers to EMR deployments in resource-constrained settings. Other findings contribute unique insights about social determinants of EMR impact in slum settings, including the challenge of multiple-identity management and development of meaningful incentives to staff compliance. This study exposes front-line experiences with opportunities and shortcomings of EMR implementations in urban slum primary care clinics. Although the promise is great, there are a number of unique system, software and social challenges that EMR advocates should address before expecting sustainable EMR use in resource-constrained settings. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Design of dry barriers for containment of contaminants in unsaturated soils

    Morris, C.E.; Thomson, B.M.; Stormont, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    A dry barrier is a region of very dry conditions in unsaturated soil that prevents vertical migration of water created by circulating dry air through the formation. Dry soil creates a barrier to vertical water movement by decreasing the soil's hydraulic conductivity, a concept also used in capillary barriers. A dry barrier may be a viable method for providing containment of a contaminant plume in a setting with a thick unsaturated zone and dry climate. The principal factors which determine the feasibility of a dry barrier include: (1) an and environment, (2) thick vadose zone, and (3) the ability to circulate air through the vadose zone. This study investigated the technical and economic considerations associated with creating a dry barrier to provide containment of a hypothetical 1 ha aqueous contaminant plume. The concept appears to be competitive with other interim containment methods such as ground freezing

  6. Sustainability and energy self-sufficiency; overcoming the barriers

    Rania Abdel Galil

    2015-12-01

    the struggle on the micro level in Europe and on the macro level in MENA.On a political level, renewable energy policies in Europe are criticized as being uncoordinated, unstrategised and based on multiple interests, generally favouring macro level and inadequate to stimulate widespread adoption at the micro level. Similarly, in the MENA region, there is a lack of coordination between sustainable energy policies with other policy fields, namely economic, financial, environmental and social policy, with a lack of expertise in renewable energy policies and supportive policies for private investment. On an economic level, in Europe, sourcing and accessing finance is a major barrier for communities, with a lack appropriate organizational structures, the volatility of grant regimes and uncertain infrastructural costs perhaps associated with the near monopolistic position of some grid companies. Whereas in the MENA region, there are no incentives for economical use of energy, there is a lack of funding in public utilities in most countries, the investment climate is less attractive and a monopoly position of most electricity producers exists.Technically, on a national level in Europe, a problem of the incompatibility of the new technologies with the current infrastructure (grid connection and capacity are often identified as barriers, whilst on a community level, the lack of data on the efficiency of techniques, lack of technical skills and experience  to implement renewable energy solutions act as barriers. In MENA, technologies involving the use of renewables have barely become established on the market and there is a significant lack of knowledge in the areas of technology transfer, marketing and the development of services within the energy sector. Finally, on a social level, the picture in the MENA region is bleaker. In Europe, governments and communities are well aware of the challenges laying ahead in terms of energy and some are well underway in achieving targets

  7. Prospects after Major Trauma

    Holtslag, H.R.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction. After patients survived major trauma, their prospects, in terms of the consequences for functioning, are uncertain, which may impact severely on patient, family and society. The studies in this thesis describes the long-term outcomes of severe injured patients after major trauma. In

  8. Healthcare barriers of refugees post-resettlement.

    Morris, Meghan D; Popper, Steve T; Rodwell, Timothy C; Brodine, Stephanie K; Brouwer, Kimberly C

    2009-12-01

    The majority of refugees spend the greater part of their lives in refugee camps before repatriation or resettlement to a host country. Limited resources and stress during residence in refugee camps can lead to a variety of acute and chronic diseases which often persist upon resettlement. However, for most resettled refugees little is known about their health needs beyond a health assessment completed upon entry. We conducted a qualitative pilot-study in San Diego County, the third largest area in California, USA for resettling refugees, to explore health care access issues of refugees after governmental assistance has ended. A total of 40 guided in-depth interviews were conducted with a targeted sample of informants (health care practitioners, employees of refugee serving organizations, and recent refugee arrivals) familiar with the health needs of refugees. Interviews revealed that the majority of refugees do not regularly access health services. Beyond individual issues, emerging themes indicated that language and communication affect all stages of health care access--from making an appointment to filling out a prescription. Acculturation presented increased stress, isolation, and new responsibilities. Additionally, cultural beliefs about health care directly affected refugees' expectation of care. These barriers contribute to delayed care and may directly influence refugee short- and long-term health. Our findings suggest the need for additional research into contextual factors surrounding health care access barriers, and the best avenues to reduce such barriers and facilitate access to existing services.

  9. Scope and Challenges of Technical Education: A Kerala Perspective

    Rahman, M. Abdul; Unnikrishnan, Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    Technical education contributes a major share to the overall education system and plays a vital role in the social and economic development of our nation. Since independence, the technical education system in our country has grown into a fairly large-sized system, offering opportunities for education and training in a wide variety of trades and…

  10. Technical Writing 1987: Galloping Off in at Least Two Directions.

    Stohrer, Freda F.

    Technical writing instructors generally agree about the absolute need for communication skills throughout the technological work place, but a survey of technical writing journal articles shows a lack of focus on ways to address business's needs for on-the-job literacy. One major advance within the profession in recent years has been the…

  11. Stability of barrier buckets with zero RF-barrier separations

    Ng, K.Y.; /Fermilab

    2005-03-01

    A barrier bucket with very small separation between the rf barriers (relative to the barrier widths) or even zero separation has its synchrotron tune decreasing rather slowly from a large value towards the boundary of the bucket. As a result, large area at the bucket edges can become unstable under the modulation of rf voltage and/or rf phase. In addition, chaotic regions may form near the bucket center and extend outward under increasing modulation. Application is made to those barrier buckets used in the process of momentum mining at the Fermilab Recycler Ring.

  12. Review of durability of cementitious engineered barriers in repository environments

    Parrott, L.J.; Lawrence, C.D.

    1992-01-01

    This report is concerned with the durability of cementitious engineered barriers in a repository for low and intermediate level nuclear waste. Following the introduction the second section of the review identifies the environmental conditions associated with a deep, hard rock repository for ILW and LLW that are relevant to the durability of cementitious barriers. Section three examines the microstructure and macrostructure of cementitious materials and considers the physical and chemical processes of radionuclide immobilization. Potential repository applications and compositions of cementitious materials are reviewed in Section four. The main analysis of durability is dealt with in Section five. The different types of cementitious barrier are considered separately and their most probable modes of degradation are analysed. Concluding remarks that highlight critical technical matters are given in Section six. (author)

  13. [Acoustic conditions in open plan office - Application of technical measures in a typical room].

    Mikulski, Witold

    2018-03-09

    Noise in open plan offices should not exceed acceptable levels for the hearing protection. Its major negative effects on employees are nuisance and impediment in execution of work. Specific technical solutions should be introduced to provide proper acoustic conditions for work performance. Acoustic evaluation of a typical open plan office was presented in the article published in "Medycyna Pracy" 5/2016. None of the rooms meets all the criteria, therefore, in this article one of the rooms was chosen to apply different technical solutions to check the possibility of reaching proper acoustic conditions. Acoustic effectiveness of those solutions was verified by means of digital simulation. The model was checked by comparing the results of measurements and calculations before using simulation. The analyzis revealed that open plan offices supplemented with signals for masking speech signals can meet all the required criteria. It is relatively easy to reach proper reverberation time (i.e., sound absorption). It is more difficult to reach proper values of evaluation parameters determined from A-weighted sound pressure level (SPLA) of speech. The most difficult is to provide proper values of evaluation parameters determined from speech transmission index (STI). Finally, it is necessary (besides acoustic treatment) to use devices for speech masking. The study proved that it is technically possible to reach proper acoustic condition. Main causes of employees complaints in open plan office are inadequate acoustic work conditions. Therefore, it is necessary to apply specific technical solutions - not only sound absorbing suspended ceiling and high acoustic barriers, but also devices for speech masking. Med Pr 2018;69(2):153-165. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  14. Training for Technical Assistants: Technical Assistance Program

    1986-09-01

    shortage of technical ptfesson until such time as English , "speking instructors might be trained, There. would be An aumcation of committed on-calI...12 hours in classroom Instruction, students in English as a Second nel Research and Development Computer.taught students Language. The program Is...hbeels "p.-ogram. A Iot ’ atar boiler arn tank heats týe food enroute to its destination. 1.0. A new tor of dust ptectleon to protect machine .perators

  15. Performing a local barrier operation

    Archer, Charles J; Blocksome, Michael A; Ratterman, Joseph D; Smith, Brian E

    2014-03-04

    Performing a local barrier operation with parallel tasks executing on a compute node including, for each task: retrieving a present value of a counter; calculating, in dependence upon the present value of the counter and a total number of tasks performing the local barrier operation, a base value, the base value representing the counter's value prior to any task joining the local barrier; calculating, in dependence upon the base value and the total number of tasks performing the local barrier operation, a target value of the counter, the target value representing the counter's value when all tasks have joined the local barrier; joining the local barrier, including atomically incrementing the value of the counter; and repetitively, until the present value of the counter is no less than the target value of the counter: retrieving the present value of the counter and determining whether the present value equals the target value.

  16. Exercising at work: barriers to women's participation.

    Verhoef, M J; Hamm, R D; Love, E J

    1993-06-01

    Only a minority of women in an urban random sample have the opportunity to exercise at work, and even fewer women use these opportunities. Lack of time and inconvenient times are the major reasons for not participating in exercise programs at work. Exercise programs at work are used by women who are already physically active, suggesting that workplace exercise programs do not serve the needs of women who may need exercise programs most. Multivariate analysis shows that age, having children, lack of energy, and lack of support are significant barriers to women's exercise participation at work. The results of this study suggest a leadership opportunity for on site occupational health nurses in addressing these barriers to workplace exercise.

  17. Direct access tariffs and barriers to choice

    Levson, D.

    1999-01-01

    The current situation of the power market in Alberta was reviewed. Based on this review is was concluded that the province is a long way from being a competitive, liquid power market. Further, it was predicted that unless large power purchasers get actively involved in managing their options, identify realistic and competitive supply options and actively campaign for the removal of barriers to choice, they will experience significant cost increases in the year 2001 and beyond, due in large measure to the market power exercised by the four major utilities (TAU, EPCOR, APL and Powerex). Barriers to new supply such as the high cost of standby, uncertainties about transmission and natural gas prices, the delays to cogeneration caused by low oil prices, and the design of direct access tariffs by utilities, were also explored. The cumulative contribution of these factors to uncertainties in pool price, fixed price and transmission and distribution costs were outlined

  18. Osteoarthritis guidelines: Barriers to implementation and solutions.

    Ferreira de Meneses, Sarah; Rannou, Francois; Hunter, David J

    2016-06-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a leading cause of disability worldwide. Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) have been developed to facilitate improved OA management. Scientific communities worldwide have proposed CPGs for OA treatment. Despite the number of highly prominent guidelines available and their remarkable consistency, their uptake has been suboptimal. Possibly because of the multitude of barriers related to the implementation of CPGs. For example, different guidelines show contradictions, some lack evidence, and they lack a hierarchy or tools to facilitate their translation and application. Also, the guidelines do not acknowledge the effect of comorbidities on choosing the treatments. Finally, poor integration of multidisciplinary services within and across healthcare settings is a major barrier to the effective implementation of management guidelines. Here we describe the main problems related to the OA guidelines and some solutions so as to offer some guidance on the elaboration of future CPGs and their implementation in primary care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Decreasing barriers for nurse practitioner social entrepreneurship.

    Sharp, Dayle B; Monsivais, Diane

    2014-10-01

    To describe difficulties associated with the business-related aspects of practice in role transition of rural nurse practitioners (NPs), and to give practice implications. This focused ethnographic study derived data from semi-structured interviews. Participants provided information about rural NP practice ownership and barriers. The sample consisted of 24 rural NPs living throughout the United States. The majority were 51-60 years of age (45%) and females (93%) who had been in rural practice for 1 to over 20 years. NP social entrepreneurs experience difficulties related to scope of practice, business skills, and role conflict. To decrease barriers for NP clinic ownership and management, NPs need to receive education related to financing a rural practice, legal/regulatory practices, strategic planning, leadership, and clinic management. ©2014 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  20. Technical note - Considerations for MR imaging of small animals

    Baker, Martin A.

    2011-01-01

    Routine clinical veterinary use of MR scanning is becoming more common. This article addresses the major technical considerations for radiographers performing MR examinations on small animals and provides practical advice for scanning techniques.

  1. Technical and economic aspects of brown coal gasification and liquefaction

    Speich, P.

    1980-01-01

    A number of gasification and liquefaction processes for Rhenish brown coal are investigated along with the technical and economic aspects of coal beneficiation. The status of coal beneficiation and the major R + D activities are reviewed. (orig.) [de

  2. Dynamics of Major Cereals Productivity in Nepal

    Samaya Gairhe

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Cereal crops have played major roles in addressing food security issues in Nepal. In recent years there have been fluctuations in crop production and demands situations due to various reasons. Thus, the present study aims to analyze the dynamics of major cereals productivity in Nepal from 1995 to 2014. Focus group discussions were done in mid-hills and tarai of Nepal in 2015. Percentage change, compound growth rate, annual rate of change, coefficient of variation, instability index were calculated to analyze results. The result shows that the area, production and productivity of major cereals had an increasing trend over the study period. The major factors contributing on productivity increase in cereal crops were irrigation facilities, use of improved and hybrid seeds, chemical fertilizer and better technical knowhow among the farmers. For effective adoption of research outputs to improve the productivity emphasis should also be given on promotion of public private partnership (PPP in research and development.

  3. Enablers & Barriers for Realizing Modularity Benefits

    Storbjerg, Simon Haahr; Brunø, Thomas Ditlev; Thyssen, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    far less attention compared to the theories and methods concerning modularization of technical systems. Harvesting the full potential of modularization, particularly in relation to product development agility, depends on more than an optimal architecture. Key enablers in this context......Although modularization is becoming both a well-described domain in academia and a broadly applied concept in business, many of today’s firm still struggle to realize the promised benefits of this approach. Managing modularization is a complex matter, and in spite of this, a topic that has received...... are the organizational and systems related aspects. Recognizing the need for guidance to realize the benefits of modularity, the purpose of this study is through a literature study and a case study to improve the insight into the organizational and systems related enablers and barriers with regard to obtaining the full...

  4. 78 FR 27963 - Reliability Technical Conference; Notice of Technical Conference

    2013-05-13

    ... Technical Conference; Notice of Technical Conference Take notice that the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission will hold a Technical Conference on Tuesday, July 9, 2013 from 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. This... technical support for webcasts and offers the option of listening to the meeting via phone-bridge for a fee...

  5. 76 FR 64083 - Reliability Technical Conference; Notice of Technical Conference

    2011-10-17

    ... Technical Conference; Notice of Technical Conference Take notice that the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission will hold a Technical Conference on Tuesday, November 29, 2011, from 1 p.m. to 5 p.m. and... reliability that were identified in earlier Commission technical conferences. The conference also will discuss...

  6. Barrier rf systems in synchrotrons

    Bhat, Chandra M.

    2004-01-01

    Recently, many interesting applications of the barrier RF system in hadron synchrotrons have been realized. A remarkable example of this is the development of longitudinal momentum mining and implementation at the Fermilab Recycler for extraction of low emittance pbars for the Tevatron shots. At Fermilab, we have barrier RF systems in four different rings. In the case of Recycler Ring, all of the rf manipulations are carried out using a barrier RF system. Here, the author reviews various uses of barrier rf systems in particle accelerators including some new schemes for producing intense proton beam and possible new applications

  7. Tunnel superpenetrability of potential barriers

    Zakhariev, B N.

    1982-01-01

    The transmission of two particles through the same barrier is considered. The limiting cases are compared when the particles are joined together in a single particle with double mass-energy and potential and when they pass the barrier independently. As an intermediate case a pair of particles bound in a quasideuteron of a finite size is considered. It is shown that long-range collective correlations of particles (of the superfluidity type and others) simplify very much for them passing through high potential barriers. This happens due to the transfer of the additional energy from the particles outside the barriers to those inside it

  8. Barriers for recess physical activity

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Schipperijn, Jasper

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many children, in particular girls, do not reach the recommended amount of daily physical activity. School recess provides an opportunity for both boys and girls to be physically active, but barriers to recess physical activity are not well understood. This study explores gender...... differences in children's perceptions of barriers to recess physical activity. Based on the socio-ecological model four types of environmental barriers were distinguished: natural, social, physical and organizational environment. METHODS: Data were collected through 17 focus groups (at 17 different schools...... this study, we recommend promoting recess physical activity through a combination of actions, addressing barriers within the natural, social, physical and organizational environment....

  9. Major operations and activities

    Black, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the major operations and activities on the site. These operations and activities include site management, waste management, environmental restoration and corrective actions, and research and technology development.

  10. Allegheny County Major Rivers

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains locations of major rivers that flow through Allegheny County. These shapes have been taken from the Hydrology dataset. The Ohio River,...

  11. Major operations and activities

    Black, D.G.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the major operations and activities on the site. These operations and activities include site management, waste management, environmental restoration and corrective actions, and research and technology development

  12. Engineered barriers for radioactive waste confinement

    Fernández, R.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear power plants generate long-lived radioactive waste of high toxicity. The security assessment of repositories destined to definitive confinement of radioactive waste has been studied for several decades. Deep geological repositories are technically feasible and begin to be built by some pioneer countries. The scientific evaluation of interactions between the different engineered barriers is studied by laboratory experiments, natural analogues and modeling studies. The three methods are able to represent and validate the main geochemical processes that take place in the near field. This paper reviews the scientific and technical basis of the concept of geological disposal, with particular focus on the methods of study applied to the evaluation of geochemical stability of the bentonite barrier.

    Las centrales nucleares generan residuos radiactivos de elevada peligrosidad y permanencia en el tiempo. La evaluación de la seguridad de repositorios destinados al alojamiento definitivo de estos residuos lleva estudiándose desde hace varias décadas. El almacenamiento geológico es técnicamente factible y empieza ya a desarrollarse en países pioneros. La evaluación científica de las interacciones entre las distintas barreras de ingeniería se estudia mediante ensayos de laboratorio, análisis de análogos naturales y modelos teóricos. Las tres vías de estudio son capaces de representar y validar los principales procesos geoquímicos que tienen lugar en el campo cercano al repositorio. Este artículo revisa los fundamentos científicos y técnicos del concepto de almacenamiento geológico detallando, en particular, los métodos de estudio aplicados a la evaluación de la estabilidad geoquímica de la barrera de bentonita.

  13. Thames barrier (flood protection barriers on the Thames)

    Ilkovic, J.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the flood protection barriers on the Thames are presented. The flood protection system on the Thames in 1984 was commissioned. During two decades this barrier was used 54 times against to the high water and 34 times against storm-sewage. There is installed buttress type hydroelectric power plant

  14. Man as a protective barrier in nuclear power technology: the requirements, viewed by the Federal Minister for Home Affairs

    Fechner, J.B.

    1981-06-01

    Evaluation of nuclear power plant incidents frequently reveals man as a major element of risk. Yet, in a nuclear power plant man has the function of an important protective barrier, either by maintaining the plant, by detecting and limiting faults or incidents, or by taking proper measures in accidents. This is true despite, or perhaps because of, the high degree of plant automation. For this reason, it is indispensable that a high level of engineered plant safeguards be accompanied by a minimum of faults contributed by human action. This implies that the staff and their working conditions must meet the same stringent safety requirements as the nuclear power plant proper. Reactor manufacturers, nuclear power plant operators and the responsible authorities try to optimize this human contribution. The Federal Ministry of the Interior, through its Special Technical Guidelines and its continuation training measures, occupies an important position in this respect. Further measures and ordinances are being prepared by that Ministry

  15. Barriers to blood glucose monitoring in a multiethnic community.

    Zgibor, Janice C; Simmons, David

    2002-10-01

    We studied a multiethnic community to determine factors associated with blood glucose monitoring (BGM) and to determine the independent association between barriers to diabetes care and BGM. A total of 323 participants (35.6% European, 32.2% Maori, and 32.2% Pacific Islander) from the South Auckland Diabetes Project (free of major complications by self-report) completed a qualitative survey to determine barriers to diabetes care. Five barriers to diabetes care categories were generated including internal psychological (self efficacy/health beliefs), external psychological (psychosocial environment), internal physical (comorbidities/side effects of treatment), external physical (finance/access to care), and educational (knowledge of diabetes/services) barriers. Characteristics associated with BGM greater than or equal to twice weekly were female sex, HbA(1c) >8%, higher diabetes knowledge scores, and insulin use. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that those reporting external physical barriers (OR 0.47, 95% CI 0.26-0.84), external psychological barriers (0.55, 0.30-1.0), and internal psychological barriers (0.56, 0.32-1.0) were less likely to perform BGM independent of ethnicity, insulin use, age, sex, diabetes knowledge, and glycemic control. Further multivariate analyses demonstrated that those reporting external physical barriers, particularly related to personal finance, were less likely to perform BGM. These data demonstrate that patient-reported barriers to diabetes care are associated with BGM, particularly in relation to financial, psychosocial, and self-efficacy issues. Understanding these barriers and overcoming them within the context of the patient's ethnic environment may lead to increased participation in self-care.

  16. BENCHMARKING THE INTERACTIONS AMONG BARRIERS IN DAIRY SUPPLY CHAIN: AN ISM APPROACH

    Rahul S Mor

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore the key barriers in dairy supply chain and to analyze their interactions in the context of Indian dairy industry. A total of eight barriers have been identified through literature review and the opinions of an expert team consisting of managerial and technical experts from dairy industry and academics. A questionnaire has been developed for identified barriers and responses were collected from select dairy industries located at northern India. Interpretive structure modeling (ISM is used to analyze the interactions among barriers and to propose a structural model. Further, the importance of barriers is determined based on their driving and dependence power using MICMAC analysis. The ISM-based model allocates to 'traceability, unbalanced production line, over-processing' as key barriers, 'wastages and high production downtime' comes next. MICMAC analysis depicts one autonomous barrier, one dependent barrier and six linkage barriers. The ISM-based model and MICMAC analysis will support the decision makers in dairy industry for planning their supply chain activities in an efficient way by managing the identified barriers.

  17. Perceived Barriers to Success for Minority Nursing Students: An Integrative Review

    Loftin, Collette; Newman, Susan D.; Dumas, Bonnie P.; Gilden, Gail; Bond, Mary Lou

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to identify barriers to successful program completion faced by underrepresented minority nursing students. This paper reveals that minority nursing student’s face multiple barriers to success including lack of financial support, inadequate emotional and moral support, as well as insufficient academic advising, program mentoring, technical support, and professional socialization. An additional theme—a resolve to succeed in spite of the identified barriers—was id...

  18. Technical training: places available

    2013-01-01

    If you would like more information on a course, or for any other inquiry/suggestions, please contact Technical.Training@cern.ch Valeria Perez Reale, Learning Specialist, Technical Programme Coordinator (Tel.: 62424) Eva Stern and Elise Romero, Technical Training Administration (Tel.: 74924)   Electronics design Next Session Duration Language Introduction to VHDL 21-Feb-13 to 22-Feb-13 2 days English Mechanical design Next Session Duration Language ANSYS - Introduction à ANSYS Mechanical APDL 04-Feb-13 to 07-Feb-13 4 days English Applications de la cotation fonctionnelle et du langage ISO 06-Feb-13 to 08-Feb-13 2 days 4 hours French CATIA V5 – Surfacique 14-Jan-13 to 15-Jan-13 2 days French Office software Next Session Duration Language ACCESS 2010 - niveau 2 : ECDL 06-Feb-13 to 07-Feb-13 2 days French Dreamweaver CS3 - Niveau 1 14-Jan-13 to 15-Jan-13 2 d...

  19. Technical training - Places available

    2012-01-01

    If you would like more information on a course, or for any other inquiry/suggestions, please contact Technical.Training@cern.ch Valeria Perez Reale, Learning Specialist, Technical Programme Coordinator (Tel.: 62424) Eva Stern and Elise Romero, Technical Training Administration (Tel.: 74924)   Electronics design Next Session Duration Language Availability Certified LabVIEW Associate Developer (CLAD) 06-Dec-12 to 06-Dec-12 1 hour English One more place available Compatibilité électromagnetique (CEM): Applications 23-Nov-12 to 23-Nov-12 3.5 hours English 3 places available Compatibilité électromagnétique (CEM): Introduction 23-Nov-12 to 23-Nov-12 3 hours English 43 places available Effets des Radiations sur les composants et systèmes électroniques 11-Dec-12 to 12-Dec-12 1 day 4 hours French 9 places available LabVIEW for beginners ...

  20. Technical training - places available

    2012-01-01

    If you would like more information on a course, or for any other inquiry/suggestions, please contact Technical.Training@cern.ch Valeria Perez Reale, Learning Specialist, Technical Programme Coordinator (Tel.: 62424) Eva Stern and Elise Romero, Technical Training Administration (Tel.: 74924) HR Department »Electronics design Next Session Duration Language Availability Comprehensive VHDL for FPGA Design 08-Oct-12 to 12-Oct-12 5 days English 3 places available Foundations of Electromagnetism and Magnet Design (EMAG) 14-Nov-12 to 27-Nov-12 6 days English 20 places available Impacts de la suppression du plomb (RoHS) en électronique 26-Oct-12 to 26-Oct-12 8 hours French 15 places available Introduction to VHDL 10-Oct-12 to 11-Oct-12 2 days English 7 places available LabVIEW Real Time and FPGA 13-Nov-12 to 16-Nov-12 5 days French 5 places available »Mechanical design Next Se...

  1. Problems of technical cooperation

    Noramli, M.

    1987-01-01

    The main principles of the IAEA technical co-operation program, which intends to answer the requirements of the member states as regards technical assistance, are presented. IAEA offers its assistance in the supervision and financial support of the projects, which promise direct and quick profit to the member states. Projects related to the satisfaction of the main demands of humanity, industrial use, energy generation, radiation protection and other fields, which can promote the contribution of nuclear power generation to the course of peace, protection of health and thriving of states, are among them. 35 million dollars (USA) was allocated for the IAEA technical assistance and realization of the co-operation program in 1987

  2. Fuel Element Technical Manual

    Burley, H.H. [ed.

    1956-08-01

    It is the purpose of the Fuel Element Technical Manual to Provide a single document describing the fabrication processes used in the manufacture of the fuel element as well as the technical bases for these processes. The manual will be instrumental in the indoctrination of personnel new to the field and will provide a single data reference for all personnel involved in the design or manufacture of the fuel element. The material contained in this manual was assembled by members of the Engineering Department and the Manufacturing Department at the Hanford Atomic Products Operation between the dates October, 1955 and June, 1956. Arrangement of the manual. The manual is divided into six parts: Part I--introduction; Part II--technical bases; Part III--process; Part IV--plant and equipment; Part V--process control and improvement; and VI--safety.

  3. A peer review of the Hanford Site Permanent Isolation Surface Barrier Development Program

    Wing, N.R.

    1992-09-01

    A panel of technical experts was organized to peer review the Hanford Site Permanent Isolation Surface Barrier Development Program (BDP) and to provide a specific review of a preconceptual prototype barrier design initiated during fiscal year (FY) 1990. The technical peer review of the BDP and the prototype is being conducted in three phases, two of which have been completed. This document presents the peer review panel's findings on the first two phases of the peer review process. Biointrusion and water intrusion control are discussed, along with design life, vegetation, and climate impact

  4. Barriers to the adoption of energy-conserving technologies in the textile industry

    Evans, A.R.; Zussman, S.K.

    1979-09-01

    An overview of the textile industry and a discussion of energy-conserving technologies currently available at the pilot-demonstration stage are presented. Existing and potential barriers to the adoption of these technologies in the textile industry identified are: economic; technical acceptance; conflict between commitments of capital for compliance with environmental and health regulations and for investment in energy conservation measures; and a lack of information and technical expertise. Possible measures to eliminate barriers to the implementation of energy-conserving technologies are discussed. (MCW)

  5. Barriers to public participation

    Patten, E.

    1986-01-01

    When one talks of public involvement, one immediately thinks of a public hearing. Six problems with the public hearing system are listed and discussed. The constraints involved in the public hearing process are: 1) asking for technical information from general folks; 2) overwhelming the public with complex information; 3) having a format that intimidates the speaker and allows no opportunity for useful dialogue; 4) obtaining a skewed picture of an issue because one hasn't had truly representative comments; 5) citizens having overblown expectations of what public involvement means, and becoming frustrated and cynical when their advice isn't heeded; and 6) convincing the powers that be that a comprehensive program is a wise investment. The second half of this paper lists 21 other forms of public participation, giving a description of each form, its purpose, and brief comments on its advantages

  6. Barriers to return to work after burn injuries.

    Esselman, Peter C; Askay, Shelley Wiechman; Carrougher, Gretchen J; Lezotte, Dennis C; Holavanahalli, Radha K; Magyar-Russell, Gina; Fauerbach, James A; Engrav, Loren H

    2007-12-01

    To identify barriers to return to work after burn injury as identified by the patient. A cohort study with telephone interview up to 1 year. Hospital-based burn centers at 3 national sites. Hospitalized patients (N=154) meeting the American Burn Association criteria for major burn injury, employed at least 20 hours a week at the time of injury, and with access to a telephone after discharge. Patients were contacted via telephone every 2 weeks up to 4 months, then monthly up to 1 year after discharge. A return to work survey was used to identify barriers that prevented patients from returning to work. A graphic rating scale determined the impact of each barrier. By 1 year, 79.7% of patients returned to work. Physical and wound issues were barriers early after discharge. Although physical abilities continued to be a significant barrier up to 1 year, working conditions (temperature, humidity, safety) and psychosocial factors (nightmares, flashbacks, appearance concerns) became important issues in those with long-term disability. The majority of patients return to work after a burn injury. Although physical and work conditions are important barriers, psychosocial issues need to be evaluated and treated to optimize return to work.

  7. Collective phenomena in volume and surface barrier discharges

    Kogelschatz, U.

    2010-11-01

    Barrier discharges are increasingly used as a cost-effective configuration to produce non-equilibrium plasmas at atmospheric pressure. This way, copious amounts of electrons, ions, free radicals and excited species can be generated without significant heating of the background gas. In most applications the barrier is made of dielectric material. Major applications utilizing mainly dielectric barriers include ozone generation, surface cleaning and modification, polymer and textile treatment, sterilization, pollution control, CO2 lasers, excimer lamps, plasma display panels (flat TV screens). More recent research efforts are devoted to biomedical applications and to plasma actuators for flow control. Sinusoidal feeding voltages at various frequencies as well as pulsed excitation schemes are used. Volume as well as surface barrier discharges can exist in the form of filamentary, regularly patterned or diffuse, laterally homogeneous discharges. The physical effects leading to collective phenomena in volume and surface barrier discharges are discussed in detail. Special attention is paid to self-organization of current filaments and pattern formation. Major similarities of the two types of barrier discharges are elaborated.

  8. CERN Technical Training : Vista !

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Are you running Vista on your new PC – or are you planning to install it? The Technical Training service is organizing a half-day training course on the new features of the VISTA operating system. This course introduces the new interfaces and presents the new functionalities for people who are experienced in the use of Windows XP. The next bilingual session of this course will take place on 30 January 2009. Register using our catalogue: http://cta.cern.ch/cta2/f?p=110:9 or contact us with your questions/comments at mailto:Technical.Training@cern.ch

  9. KSC Technical Capabilities Website

    Nufer, Brian; Bursian, Henry; Brown, Laurette L.

    2010-01-01

    This document is the website pages that review the technical capabilities that the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has for partnership opportunities. The purpose of this information is to make prospective customers aware of the capabilities and provide an opportunity to form relationships with the experts at KSC. The technical capabilities fall into these areas: (1) Ground Operations and Processing Services, (2) Design and Analysis Solutions, (3) Command and Control Systems / Services, (4) Materials and Processes, (5) Research and Technology Development and (6) Laboratories, Shops and Test Facilities.

  10. CERN Technical Training : Vista !

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    Are you running Vista on your new PC – or are planning to install it? The Technical Training service is organizing a half-day training course on the new features of the VISTA operating system. This course introduces the new interfaces and presents the new functionalities for people who are experienced in the use of Windows XP. The next bilingual sessions of this course will take place on 12 December 2008 and 30 January 2009. Register using our catalogue: http://cta.cern.ch/cta2/f?p=110:9 or contact us with your questions/comments at Technical.Training@cern.ch

  11. CERN Technical Training : Vista !

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    You are running Vista on your new PC – or are planning to install it? The Technical Training service is organizing a half-day training course on the new features of the VISTA operating system. This course introduces the new interfaces and presents the new functionalities for people who are experienced in the use of Windows XP. The next bilingual sessions of this course will take place on 12 December 2008 and 30 January 2009. Register using our catalogue: http://cta.cern.ch/cta2/f?p=110:9 or contact us with your questions/comments at mailto:Technical.Training@cern.ch

  12. CERN Technical Training : Vista !

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    Are you running Vista on your new PC – or are you planning to install it? The Technical Training service is organizing a half-day training course on the new features of the VISTA operating system. This course introduces the new interfaces and presents the new functionalities for people who are experienced in the use of Windows XP. The next bilingual sessions of this course will take place on 12 December 2008 and 30 January 2009. Register using our catalogue: http://cta.cern.ch/cta2/f?p=110:9 or contact us with your questions/comments at mailto:Technical.Training@cern.ch

  13. CERN Technical Training : Vista !

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    You are running Vista on your new PC – or are planning to install it? The Technical Training service is organizing a half-day training on the new features of the VISTA operating system. This course introduces the new interfaces and presents the new functionalities for people who are experienced using Windows XP. The next bilingual sessions of this course will take place on December 12, 2008 and January 30, 2009. Register using our catalogue : http://cta.cern.ch/cta2/f?p=110:9 or contact us with your questions/comments at Technical.Training@cern.ch

  14. Technical memory 2007

    2009-01-01

    The technical memory 2007 of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) of the Argentine Republic, compiles the papers published in the subject on radiation protection and nuclear safety, and presented in journals, technical reports, congress or meetings of these specialities by personnel of the mentioned institution during 2007. In this edition the documents are presented on: environmental protection; transport of radioactive materials; regulations; research reactors and nuclear power plants; biological radiation effects; therapeutic uses of ionizing radiation and radioprotection of patients; internal dosimetry; physical dosimetry; knowledge management; radioactive waste management [es

  15. Gaps, barriers and conceptual chasms: theories of technology transfer and energy in buildings

    Shove, E. [University of Lancaster (United Kingdom). Centre for the Study of Environmental Change

    1998-12-01

    Having shown how much energy might be saved through the use of economically worthwhile measures and technologies, researchers and policy makers then find themselves trying to close the gap between current practice and recognised technical potential. The ensuing process of technology transfer is often seen as a process of overcoming 'non technical barriers' which inhibit the realisation of proven technical potential. This familiar approach depends upon a strong conceptual distinction between the social, on the one hand, and the technical, on the other. But does it make sense to talk of technical potential in the abstract? Do people really have technologies 'transferred' upon them? Drawing upon ideas from the sociology of science and technology and on recent research funded by Britain's Economic and Social Research Council, this paper unpacks conventional beliefs about the diffusion of energy efficient technologies and suggests an alternative approach which acknowledges the social structuring of technical innovation. (author)

  16. Exploring Pair Programming Benefits for MIS Majors

    April H. Reed

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pair programming is a collaborative programming practice that places participants in dyads, working in tandem at one computer to complete programming assignments. Pair programming studies with Computer Science (CS and Software Engineering (SE majors have identified benefits such as technical productivity, program/design quality, academic performance, and increased satisfaction for their participants. In this paper, pair programming is studied with Management Information Systems (MIS majors, who (unlike CS and SE majors taking several programming courses typically take only one programming course and often struggle to develop advanced programming skills within that single course. The researchers conducted two pair programming experiments in an introductory software development course for MIS majors over three semesters to determine if pair programming could enhance learning for MIS students. The program results, researchers’ direct observations, and participants’ responses to a survey questionnaire were analyzed after each experiment. The results indicate that pair programming appears to be beneficial to MIS students’ technical productivity and program design quality, specifically the ability to create programs using high-level concepts. Additionally, results confirmed increased student satisfaction and reduced frustration, as the pairs worked collaboratively to produce a program while actively communicating and enjoying the process.

  17. Energy barriers in patterned media

    de Vries, Jeroen

    2013-01-01

    Due to the fact that thermal activation aids in overcoming the energy barrier, the required field for reversal varies from instance to instance for the same island. This thermally induced switching field distribution can be used to determine the difference in energy barrier of magneticallyweak and

  18. Simulating complex noise barrier reflections

    Eerden, F.J.M. van der; Lutgendorf, D.; Roo, F. de

    2011-01-01

    Within the EU FP7 QUIESST project, QUIeting the Environment for a Sustainable Surface Transport, a test method is being developed for the reflectivity of noise barriers. The method needs to account for a complex shape of barriers and the use of various types of absorbing materials. The performance

  19. BARRIERS OF STRATEGIC ALLIANCES ORGANIZATION

    Vladislav M. Sannikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available General barriers of organization of different types of strategic alliances have beenconsidered in the article. There are several recommendations for overcoming themin cases of international alliances, and in case of work in one state. The article also identified goals and tasks of single coordination center of alliance to overcome organization barriers.

  20. INMM Physical Protection Technical Working Group Workshops

    Williams, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    The Institute of Nuclear Materials Management (INMM) established the Physical Protection Technical Working Group to be a focal point for INMM activities related to the physical protection of nuclear materials and facilities. The Technical Working Group has sponsored workshops with major emphasis on intrusion detection systems, entry control systems, and security personnel training. The format for these workshops has consisted of a series of small informal group discussions on specific subject matter which allows direct participation by the attendees and the exchange of ideas, experiences, and insights. This paper will introduce the reader to the activities of the Physical Protection Technical Working Group, to identify the workshops which have been held, and to serve as an introduction to the following three papers of this session

  1. Noninvasive evaluation of the barrier properties of the skin

    Utz S.R.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Skin as an organ of protection covers the body and accomplishes multiple defensive functions. The intact skin represents a barrier to the uncontrolled loss of water, proteins, and plasma components from the organism. Due to its complex structure, the epidermal barrier with its major component, stratum corneum, is the rate-limiting unit for the penetration of exogenous substances through the skin. The epidermal barrier is not a static structure. The permeability barrier status can be modified by different external and internal factors such as climate, physical stressors, and a number of skin and systemic diseases. Today, different non-invasive approaches are used to monitor the skin barrier physical properties in vivo. The quantification of parameters such as transepidermal water loss, stratum corneum hydration, and skin surface acidity is essential for the integral evaluation of the epidermal barrier status. This paper will allow the readership to get acquainted with the non-invasive, in vivo methods for the investigation of the skin barrier.

  2. A new alternative in vertical barrier wall construction

    Rawl, G.F.

    1997-01-01

    A new proprietary vertical barrier wall system has been developed to revolutionize the construction process by eliminating many of the concerns of conventional installation method's with respect to performance, installation constraints and costs. Vertical barrier walls have been used in the environmental and construction industries for a variety of purposes, usually for cut-off or containment. The typical scenario involves a groundwater contamination problem, in which a vertical barrier wall is utilized to contain or confine the spread of contaminants below the ground surface. Conventional construction techniques have been adequate in many applications, but often fall short of their intended purposes due to physical constraints. In many instances, the economics of these conventional methods have limited the utilization of physical barrier walls. Polywall, the trade name for this new barrier wall technology, was subsequently developed to meet these needs and offer a number of distinct advantages in a variety of scenarios by maximizing confinement and minimizing installation costs. Polywall is constructed from chemically resistant high density polyethylene (HDPE) plastic. It has proven in a half-dozen projects to date to be the most cost-effective and technically sound approach to many containment situations. This paper will cover the development of the technology and will provide a brief synopsis of several installations

  3. Major international sport profiles.

    Patel, Dilip R; Stier, Bernhard; Luckstead, Eugene F

    2002-08-01

    Sports are part of the sociocultural fabric of all countries. Although different sports have their origins in different countries, many sports are now played worldwide. International sporting events bring athletes of many cultures together and provide the opportunity not only for athletic competition but also for sociocultural exchange and understanding among people. This article reviews five major sports with international appeal and participation: cricket, martial arts, field hockey, soccer, and tennis. For each sport, the major aspects of physiological and biomechanical demands, injuries, and prevention strategies are reviewed.

  4. Investigation of the prominent barriers to lean manufacturing implementation in Malaysian food and beverages industry using Rasch Model

    Khusaini, N. S.; Ismail, A.; Rashid, A. A.

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents a preliminary study on the prominent barriers to lean manufacturing implementation in Malaysian Food and Beverages Industry. A survey was carried out to determine the most prominent barriers of lean manufacturing implementation that are currently being faced in this industry. The amount of barriers identified for this study is twenty seven. Out of 1309 available organizations, a total of 300 organizations have been randomly selected as respondents, and 53 organizations responded. From the variable map, the analysis shows that, the negative perception towards lean manufacturing top the list as the most agreeable barrier, while the technical barriers came after it. It can also be seen from the variable map that averagely, lack of vision and direction is the barrier that is being faced. Finally, this is perhaps the first attempt in investigating the prominent barriers to Lean Manufacturing implementation in Malaysian food and beverages industry using Rasch Model.

  5. [Ageing and work: technical standards].

    De Vito, G; Riva, M A; Meroni, R; Cesana, G C

    2010-01-01

    Over the last few years, studies on the relationship between ageing and work have attracted growing interest due to the increased probability among workers of developing major health problems as a consequence of ageing of the working population. Negative outcomes for health are possible when an age-related imbalance appears between physical workload and physical work capacity. Interventions based on workload reductions should help to keep workers on the job for as long as allowed by law. Reference masses by age and sex are suggested by the technical standards of the ISO 11228 series, which are also quoted by Italian law D.Lgs. 81/2008, and EN 1005 series, which recommend limits valid also for manual material handling, and pushing and pulling. Decreasing low back pain prevalence or recurrence, in an ageing population with high prevalence of back disorders, could be more effective than many other approaches to enhance workers' quality of life and consequently maintain and improve workers' performance.

  6. Air Leakage Rates in Typical Air Barrier Assemblies

    Hun, Diana E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Atchley, Jerald Allen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Childs, Phillip W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Estimates for 2010 indicate that infiltration in residential buildings was responsible for 2.85 quads of energy (DOE 2014), which is about 3% of the total energy consumed in the US. One of the mechanisms being implemented to reduce this energy penalty is the use of air barriers as part of the building envelope. These technologies decrease airflow through major leakage sites such as oriented strand board (OSB) joints, and gaps around penetrations (e.g., windows, doors, pipes, electrical outlets) as indicated by Hun et al. (2014). However, most air barrier materials do not properly address leakage spots such as wall-to-roof joints and wall-to-foundation joints because these are difficult to seal, and because air barrier manufacturers usually do not provide adequate instructions for these locations. The present study focuses on characterizing typical air leakage sites in wall assemblies with air barrier materials.

  7. Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model

    D. M. Jolley; R. Jarek; P. Mariner

    2004-02-09

    The conceptual and predictive models documented in this Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model report describe the evolution of the physical and chemical conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository. The modeling approaches and model output data will be used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA-LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. These models evaluate the range of potential water compositions within the emplacement drifts, resulting from the interaction of introduced materials and minerals in dust with water seeping into the drifts and with aqueous solutions forming by deliquescence of dust (as influenced by atmospheric conditions), and from thermal-hydrological-chemical (THC) processes in the drift. These models also consider the uncertainty and variability in water chemistry inside the drift and the compositions of introduced materials within the drift. This report develops and documents a set of process- and abstraction-level models that constitute the engineered barrier system: physical and chemical environment model. Where possible, these models use information directly from other process model reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for total system performance assessment. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in the technical work plan ''Technical Work Plan for: In-Drift Geochemistry Modeling'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166519]). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system analysis model reports.

  8. Implementation of renewable energy technologies - Opportunities and barriers. Egypt country study

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The project used case studies of renewable energy implementation projects to analyse the reasons for success or failure of specific projects or technologies. In particular the study aimed to identify possibilities for 'removing' the main barriers and thus 'promoting' increased implementation of (RETs), and to 'generalise' the experiences from the case studies and produce results that can be disseminated and utilized further in a planned second phase. The specific objectives for Egypt Country Study were: 1) To determine, on the basis of analysis of the past experience, the barriers against implementation of RETs in Egypt, and to identify the favourable conditions and actions required for such implementation. 2) To apply the knowledge gained and results of the analysis of past projects for a detailed analysis of barriers to a chosen set of potential RETs implementation projects with view to success. 3) To identify specific RET projects for implementation including necessary actions to overcome identified barriers. The case study revealed that; for Domestic Solar Water Heating (DSWH) the main barriers are; the economic barriers followed by the awareness / information barriers, then the Technical and Institution barriers. For the PV rural electrification, the most important barriers are; the economic and financial barriers, the awareness and information barriers then the technical barriers. For the large-scale biogas systems, the main barriers are the institution and capacity, economic, policy and awareness / information respectively. According to the project results the main actions that could be taken to overcome the barriers and make use of the available opportunities are: Economic / Financial: 1) Creation of new financial schemes for the RETs applications components and systems. 2) Reducing the taxes and duties for the components and / or materials needed for Renewable Energy (RE) systems. 3) More government-supported market incentives

  9. Implementation of renewable energy technologies - Opportunities and barriers. Egypt country study

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The project used case studies of renewable energy implementation projects to analyse the reasons for success or failure of specific projects or technologies. In particular the study aimed to identify possibilities for 'removing' the main barriers and thus 'promoting' increased implementation of (RETs), and to 'generalise' the experiences from the case studies and produce results that can be disseminated and utilized further in a planned second phase. The specific objectives for Egypt Country Study were: 1) To determine, on the basis of analysis of the past experience, the barriers against implementation of RETs in Egypt, and to identify the favourable conditions and actions required for such implementation. 2) To apply the knowledge gained and results of the analysis of past projects for a detailed analysis of barriers to a chosen set of potential RETs implementation projects with view to success. 3) To identify specific RET projects for implementation including necessary actions to overcome identified barriers. The case study revealed that; for Domestic Solar Water Heating (DSWH) the main barriers are; the economic barriers followed by the awareness / information barriers, then the Technical and Institution barriers. For the PV rural electrification, the most important barriers are; the economic and financial barriers, the awareness and information barriers then the technical barriers. For the large-scale biogas systems, the main barriers are the institution and capacity, economic, policy and awareness / information respectively. According to the project results the main actions that could be taken to overcome the barriers and make use of the available opportunities are: Economic / Financial: 1) Creation of new financial schemes for the RETs applications components and systems. 2) Reducing the taxes and duties for the components and / or materials needed for Renewable Energy (RE) systems. 3) More government-supported market incentives to encourage further

  10. Crossing the Barriers: An Analysis of Land Access Barriers to Geothermal Development and Potential Improvement Scenarios

    Levine, Aaron L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Young, Katherine R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-04

    Developers have identified many non-technical barriers to geothermal power development, including access to land. Activities required for accessing land, such as environmental review and private and public leasing can take a considerable amount of time and can delay or prevent project development. This paper discusses the impacts to available geothermal resources and deployment caused by land access challenges, including tribal and cultural resources, environmentally sensitive areas, biological resources, land ownership, federal and state lease queues, and proximity to military installations. In this analysis, we identified challenges that have the potential to prevent development of identified and undiscovered hydrothermal geothermal resources. We found that an estimated 400 MW of identified geothermal resource potential and 4,000 MW of undiscovered geothermal resource potential were either unallowed for development or contained one or more significant barriers that could prevent development at the site. Potential improvement scenarios that could be employed to overcome these barriers include (1) providing continuous funding to the U.S. Forest Service (USFS) for processing geothermal leases and permit applications and (2) the creation of advanced environmental mitigation measures. The model results forecast that continuous funding to the USFS could result in deployment of an additional 80 MW of geothermal capacity by 2030 and 124 MW of geothermal capacity by 2050 when compared to the business-as-usual scenario. The creation of advanced environmental mitigation measures coupled with continuous funding to the USFS could result in deployment of an additional 97 MW of geothermal capacity by 2030 and 152 MW of geothermal capacity by 2050 when compared to the business-as-usual scenario. The small impact on potential deployment in these improvement scenarios suggests that these 4,400 MW have other barriers to development in addition to land access. In other words, simply

  11. Major New Initiatives

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Major New Initiatives. Multi-party multi-rate video conferencing OOPS. Live Lecture OOPS. Rural ATM Machine Vortex. Finger print detection HP-IITM. Medical Diagnostic kit NeuroSynaptic. LCD projection system TeNeT. Web Terminal MeTeL Midas. Entertainment ...

  12. Major planning enquiries

    Shore, P

    1978-11-01

    This is a speech delivered by the U.K. Secretary of State for the Environment in Manchester (UK) on September 13th 1978. It outlines the Minister's views on the role and significance of major planning inquiries - such as that proposed to be held on the Commercial Demonstration Fast Reactor. (CDFR) (author).

  13. Major Biomass Conference

    Top Scientists, Industry and Government Leaders to Gather for Major Biomass Conference America, South America and Europe will focus on building a sustainable, profitable biomass business at the Third Biomass Conference of the Americas in Montreal. Scheduled presentations will cover all biomass

  14. Unity in Major Themes

    Booss-Bavnbek, Bernhelm; Davis, Philip J.

    We describe and explain the desire, common among mathematicians, both for unity and independence in its major themes. In the dialogue that follows, we express our spontaneous and considered judgment and reservations; by contrasting the development of mathematics as a goal-driven process as opposed...

  15. Tunnelling without barriers

    Lee, K.

    1987-01-01

    The evolution in flat and curved space-time of quantum fields in theories with relative flat potential and its consequences are considered. It is shown that bubble nucleation, a quantum mechanical tunnelling process, may occur in flat space-time, having a bounce solution, even if V(phi) has no barrier. It is shown that bubble nucleation can also occur in curved space-time even though there is no bounce solution in the standard formalism for the bubble nucleation rate in curved space-time. Additionally, bubbles can nucleate during the slow rolling period on the potential in flat and curved space-time, in this case also there is no bounce solution. It is known in the new inflationary scenario that energy density perturbations caused by quantum fluctuations of the scalar field can satisfy the presently observed bounds on density perturbations. Bubble nucleation during the slow rolling period also gives rise to density perturbations. For a model potential density perturbations by bubbles are calculated at the horizon reentering. By applying the bound from the almost isotropic microwave black body radiation on these density perturbations, a constraint on the model potential is obtained. Finally, some further implications on the galaxy formation and applications in more realistic potential are discussed

  16. Omnidirectional ventilated acoustic barrier

    Zhang, Hai-long; Zhu, Yi-fan; Liang, Bin; Yang, Jing; Yang, Jun; Cheng, Jian-chun

    2017-11-01

    As an important problem in acoustics, sound insulation finds applications in a great variety of situations. In the existing schemes, however, there has always been a trade-off between the thinness of sound-insulating devices and their ventilating capabilities, limiting their potentials in the control of low-frequency sound in high ventilation environments. Here, we design and experimentally implement an omnidirectional acoustic barrier with a planar profile, subwavelength thickness ( 0.18 λ ), yet high ventilation. The proposed mechanism is based on the interference between the resonant scattering of discrete states and the background scattering of continuous states which induces a Fano-like asymmetric transmission profile. Benefitting from the binary-structured design of the coiled unit and hollow pipe, it maximally simplifies the design and fabrication while ensuring the ventilation for all the non-resonant units with open tubes. The simulated and measured results agree well, showing the effectiveness of our proposed mechanism to block low frequency sound coming from various directions while allowing 63% of the air flow to pass. We anticipate our design to open routes to design sound insulators and to enable applications in traditionally unattainable cases such as those calling for noise reduction and cooling simultaneously.

  17. Mobilitet, barrierer & muligheder

    Petersen, Mimi

    2011-01-01

    stereotypering. På den ene side peger udsagn fra de unge drenge på en oplevelse af at blive kriminaliseret i kraft af deres køn (det maskuline kombineret med at have en anden hudfarve). Og de unge piger oplever, at de udover at blive kategoriseret som ”indvandrere” også bliver kategoriseret som passive, umyndige...... som en vej ud af irakiske Kurdistan, men ikke tilbage til Danmark. Drengene fra familier med bedre økonomiske ressourcer giver udtryk for, ønske om at rejse til andre lande. På grund af begrænsede sproglige kompetencer oplever hovedparten af de unge (både i Danmark og i irakiske Kurdistan) barrierer i...... har planer for at flytte fra Kurdistan. De har dansk statsborgerskab, men de vil ikke tilbage til Danmark. I de fortællinger, som afhandlingen bygger på, er det tydeligt at samspillet mellem flere sociale dimensioner, spiller ind på de unges selvforståelse, tilhørsforhold, erfaringer og deres valg af...

  18. Routledge French technical dictionary

    1994-01-01

    The French-English volume of this highly acclaimed set consists of some 100,000 keywords in both French and English, drawn from the whole range of modern applied science and technical terminology. Covers over 70 subject areas, from engineering and chemistry to packaging, transportation, data processing and much more.

  19. Technical objectives of inspection

    Sorenson, R.J.; Stewart, K.B.; Schneider, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    The various technical objectives of inspection are discussed in a very general manner. The discussion includes how the inspection function is related to the assumed threat, the various degrees of assurance and reliance on criteria, and the hierarchy of assurance which is obtained from the various types or levels of inspection

  20. NUSC Technical Publications Guide.

    1985-05-01

    Facility personnel especially that of A. Castelluzzo, E. Deland, J. Gesel , and E. Szlosek (all of Code 4343). Reviewed and Approved: 14 July 1980 D...their technical content and format. Review and approve the manual outline, the review manuscript, and the final camera - reproducible copy. Conduct in

  1. ITER EDA technical activities

    Aymar, R.

    1998-01-01

    Six years of technical work under the ITER EDA Agreement have resulted in a design which constitutes a complete description of the ITER device and of its auxiliary systems and facilities. The ITER Council commented that the Final Design Report provides the first comprehensive design of a fusion reactor based on well established physics and technology

  2. Technical basis of safeguards

    Buechler, C.

    1975-01-01

    Definition of nuclear materials control. Materials accountancy and physical control as technical possibilities. Legal possibilities and levels of responsibility: material holders, national and international authority. Detection vs. prevention. Physical security and containment surveillance. Accountancy: materials balance concept. Materials measurement: inventory taking, flow determination. IAEA safeguards; verification of operator's statement. (HP) [de

  3. Technical memory 1999

    2000-01-01

    The technical memory 1999 of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) of the Argentine Republic, compile the papers published in the subject on radiation protection and nuclear safety, safeguards and physical protection, and presented in congress or meetings of these specialities by personnel of the mentioned institution during 1999

  4. Technical Training: Places available

    Monique Duval

    2005-01-01

    The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Places are available on the following courses: LabVIEW Real-Time (F) : 7 - 9.6.2005 (3 jours) LabVIEW Migration 6 to 7: 14.6.2005 (1 day) IT3T/1 - Read your mail and more with Outlook 2003 : 14.6.2005 (IT Technical Training Tutorial, free of charge) IT3T/2 - Creating, managing and using distribution lists with Simba2 : 16.6.2005 (IT Technical Training Tutorial, free of charge) FrontPage 2003 - niveau 2 : 16 & 17.6.2005 (2 jours) Utilisation de fichiers PDF avec ACROBAT 6.0 : 20.6.2005 (1journée) Introduction to ANSYS: 21 - 24.6.2005 (4 days) IT3T/3 - Working remotely with Windows XP : 28.6.2005 (IT Technical Training Tutorial, free of charge) IT3T/4 - Editing Websites with Frontpage 2003 : 30.6.2005 (IT Technical Training Tutorial, free of charge) WORD 2003 (Short Course I) - HowTo... Work with repetitive tasks /AutoText, AutoFormat, AutoC...

  5. Final Technical Report

    John Ross

    2003-04-30

    The Final Technical Report summarizes research accomplishments and Publications in the period of 5/1/99 to 4/30/03 done on the grant. Extensive progress was made in the period covered by this report in the areas of chemical kinetics of non-linear systems; spatial structures, reaction - diffusion systems, and thermodynamic and stochastic theory of electrochemical and general systems.

  6. Materials Technical Team Roadmap

    none,

    2013-08-01

    Roadmap identifying the efforts of the Materials Technical Team (MTT) to focus primarily on reducing the mass of structural systems such as the body and chassis in light-duty vehicles (including passenger cars and light trucks) which enables improved vehicle efficiency regardless of the vehicle size or propulsion system employed.

  7. Technical Writing in Hydrogeology.

    Tinker, John R., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A project for Writing Across the Curriculum at the University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire is described as a method to relate the process of writing to the process of learning hydrology. The project focuses on an actual groundwater contamination case and is designed to improve the technical writing skills of students. (JN)

  8. Review of technical specifications

    Bedrich, M.; Scholz, D.

    1980-01-01

    The present paper deals with position and function of technical specifications before and during the manufacturing of reactor components, their structure and reasons for specific regulations due to safety philosophy and explains the cooperation of supplier, manufacturer, utilities and supervisory organizations. (RW)

  9. PISA 2009 Technical Report

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    The "PISA 2009 Technical Report" describes the methodology underlying the PISA 2009 survey. It examines additional features related to the implementation of the project at a level of detail that allows researchers to understand and replicate its analyses. The reader will find a wealth of information on the test and sample design,…

  10. PISA 2012 Technical Report

    OECD Publishing, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The "PISA 2012 Technical Report" describes the methodology underlying the PISA 2012 survey, which tested 15-year-olds' competencies in mathematics, reading and science and, in some countries, problem solving and financial literacy. It examines the design and implementation of the project at a level of detail that allows researchers to…

  11. New usable technical specifications

    Webster, S.A.; Tomasi, L.T.; Bernier, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    After 2 yr of preparation, 1988 finally saw the nuclear industry writing operator-oriented technical specifications. This effort is a continuation of previous efforts to develop improved and usable standard technical specifications (STSs), and is being conducted by the four nuclear steam supply system vendor owners' groups under the auspices of the Nuclear Management Resources Council. Each participant is currently preparing a set of improved STSs based on a writer's guide that was developed through a combined industry effort. In May of 1987, a Human Factors Improvements to Technical Specifications (HFITS) task group was formed to prepare a writer's guide for improved, industrywide STSs. This task group was composed of two representatives from each owners' group, one with a human factors background and one with some operations background. Two documents were prepared in 6 months, a human factors report laying the groundwork for the considerations to go into technical specifications and a writer's guide for their preparation. This paper reports on the application of this writer's guide to the writing of improved STS

  12. Making connections: Case studies of interconnection barriers and their impact on distributed power projects

    Alderfer, B.; Eldridge, M.; Starrs, T.

    2000-07-25

    Distributed power is modular electric generation or storage located close to the point of use. Based on interviews of distributed generation project proponents, this report reviews the barriers that distributed generators of electricity are encountering when attempting to interconnect to the electrical grid. Descriptions of 26 of 65 case studies are included in the report. The survey found and the report describes a wide range of technical, business-practice, and regulatory barriers to interconnection. An action plan for reducing the impact of these barriers is also included.

  13. Human research ethics committees in technical universities.

    Koepsell, David; Brinkman, Willem-Paul; Pont, Sylvia

    2014-07-01

    Human research ethics has developed in both theory and practice mostly from experiences in medical research. Human participants, however, are used in a much broader range of research than ethics committees oversee, including both basic and applied research at technical universities. Although mandated in the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, and Australia, non-medical research involving humans need not receive ethics review in much of Europe, Asia, Latin America, and Africa. Our survey of the top 50 technical universities in the world shows that, where not specifically mandated by law, most technical universities do not employ ethics committees to review human studies. As the domains of basic and applied sciences expand, ethics committees are increasingly needed to guide and oversee all such research regardless of legal requirements. We offer as examples, from our experience as an ethics committee in a major European technical university, ways in which such a committee provides needed services and can help ensure more ethical studies involving humans outside the standard medical context. We provide some arguments for creating such committees, and in our supplemental article, we provide specific examples of cases and concerns that may confront technical, engineering, and design research, as well as outline the general framework we have used in creating our committee. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. The Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) Software Toolbox Capabilities in Assessing the Degradation of Cementitious Barriers - 13487

    Flach, G.P.; Burns, H.H.; Langton, C.; Smith, F.G. III [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Site, Aiken SC 29808 (United States); Brown, K.G.; Kosson, D.S.; Garrabrants, A.C.; Sarkar, S. [Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Van der Sloot, H. [Hans Van der Sloot Consultancy (Netherlands); Meeussen, J.C.L. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, Petten (Netherlands); Samson, E. [SIMCO Technologies Inc., 1400, boul. du Parc-Technologique, Suite 203, Quebec (Canada); Mallick, P.; Suttora, L. [United States Department of Energy, 1000 Independence Ave. SW, Washington, DC (United States); Esh, D.W.; Fuhrmann, M.J.; Philip, J. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) Project is a multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional collaboration supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE) Office of Tank Waste and Nuclear Materials Management. The CBP program has developed a set of integrated tools (based on state-of-the-art models and leaching test methods) that help improve understanding and predictions of the long-term structural, hydraulic and chemical performance of cementitious barriers used in nuclear applications. Tools selected for and developed under this program have been used to evaluate and predict the behavior of cementitious barriers used in near-surface engineered waste disposal systems for periods of performance up to 100 years and longer for operating facilities and longer than 1000 years for waste disposal. The CBP Software Toolbox has produced tangible benefits to the DOE Performance Assessment (PA) community. A review of prior DOE PAs has provided a list of potential opportunities for improving cementitious barrier performance predictions through the use of the CBP software tools. These opportunities include: 1) impact of atmospheric exposure to concrete and grout before closure, such as accelerated slag and Tc-99 oxidation, 2) prediction of changes in K{sub d}/mobility as a function of time that result from changing pH and redox conditions, 3) concrete degradation from rebar corrosion due to carbonation, 4) early age cracking from drying and/or thermal shrinkage and 5) degradation due to sulfate attack. The CBP has already had opportunity to provide near-term, tangible support to ongoing DOE-EM PAs such as the Savannah River Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) by providing a sulfate attack analysis that predicts the extent and damage that sulfate ingress will have on the concrete vaults over extended time (i.e., > 1000 years). This analysis is one of the many technical opportunities in cementitious barrier performance that can be addressed by the DOE-EM sponsored CBP

  15. The Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) Software Toolbox Capabilities In Assessing The Degradation Of Cementitious Barriers

    Flach, G. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Burns, H. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Langton, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Smith, F. G. III [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Brown, K. G. [Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Kosson, D. S. [Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Garrabrants, A. C. [Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Sarkar, S. [Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); van der Sloot, H. [Hans van der Sloot Consultancy (The Netherlands); Meeussen, J. C.L. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, Petten (The Netherlands); Samson, E. [SIMCO Technologies Inc. , 1400, boul. du Parc - Technologique , Suite 203, Quebec (Canada); Mallick, P. [United States Department of Energy, 1000 Independence Ave. SW , Washington, DC (United States); Suttora, L. [United States Department of Energy, 1000 Independence Ave. SW , Washington, DC (United States); Esh, D. W. [U .S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission , Washington, DC (United States); Fuhrmann, M. J. [U .S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission , Washington, DC (United States); Philip, J. [U .S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission , Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-01-11

    The Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) Project is a multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional collaboration supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE) Office of Tank Waste and Nuclear Materials Management. The CBP program has developed a set of integrated tools (based on state-of-the-art models and leaching test methods) that help improve understanding and predictions of the long-term structural, hydraulic and chemical performance of cementitious barriers used in nuclear applications. Tools selected for and developed under this program have been used to evaluate and predict the behavior of cementitious barriers used in near-surface engineered waste disposal systems for periods of performance up to 100 years and longer for operating facilities and longer than 1000 years for waste disposal. The CBP Software Toolbox has produced tangible benefits to the DOE Performance Assessment (PA) community. A review of prior DOE PAs has provided a list of potential opportunities for improving cementitious barrier performance predictions through the use of the CBP software tools. These opportunities include: 1) impact of atmospheric exposure to concrete and grout before closure, such as accelerated slag and Tc-99 oxidation, 2) prediction of changes in Kd/mobility as a function of time that result from changing pH and redox conditions, 3) concrete degradation from rebar corrosion due to carbonation, 4) early age cracking from drying and/or thermal shrinkage and 5) degradation due to sulfate attack. The CBP has already had opportunity to provide near-term, tangible support to ongoing DOE-EM PAs such as the Savannah River Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) by providing a sulfate attack analysis that predicts the extent and damage that sulfate ingress will have on the concrete vaults over extended time (i.e., > 1000 years). This analysis is one of the many technical opportunities in cementitious barrier performance that can be addressed by the DOE-EM sponsored CBP software

  16. Barriers to Banking - Towards an Inclusive Banking Environment in South Africa.

    Martinson, Estelle; Martinson, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    A recent study in South Africa on the barriers to banking which involved customers in three disability groups namely mobility, hearing and vision has highlighted that currently banking in South Africa is not accessible. Customers with a disability are unable to independently use banking services across a wide range of channels. Exclusion from something as fundamental as managing their own financial affairs raise serious human rights concerns and requires committed action from decision-makers to address this. The fact that solutions to all of the identified barriers have been successfully implemented in banks in other parts of the world for many years emphasize that this is not a technical challenge. While some solutions require complex or expensive changes such as removing physical access barriers and ensuring that digital channels meet internationally accepted standards of accessibility, there are many simple and low-cost solutions which can be implemented immediately and would make a world of difference to these customers and their experience of banking. One key barrier which emerged in all the focus groups and surveys is attitudinal barriers - staff who are unwilling to assist, impatient, interact with the customer's assistant instead of directly with them and lack basic skills on how to interact with someone who has a disability. A comprehensive framework of banking was used to identify a wide range of barriers. The barriers were classified as attitudinal, barriers to physical access, digital access barriers, barriers to information, communication barriers and some generic concerns such as safe evacuation during emergencies and alternative authentication. Both the barriers and the solutions where ranked by participants. From a theoretical perspective, the benefit of a customer-centric approach to understanding these barriers and the innovation potential of a Universal Design approach is affirmed by this study.

  17. Barriers affecting adherence to radiation treatment and strategies to overcome those barriers.

    Rangarajan, R; Jayaraman, K

    2017-01-01

    The WHO defines adherence as the extent to which a patient's behavior coincides with recommendations from a health-care provider. Nonadherence to cancer treatment has a major impact on the therapeutic outcome. To assess the prevalence of nonadherence to radiation regimen and to analyze the factors that affect adherence to cancer treatment. Patients receiving radiation treatment in our hospital were screened for adherence to appointment keeping and to the prescribed radiation regimen and patients who had unplanned treatment breaks during treatment were interviewed. Between January and July 2013, we identified 61 patients who had unplanned breaks during treatment. We analyzed the social, emotional, educational, economic, and therapeutic barriers that led to nonadherence. Of the 61 patients who had unplanned breaks during treatment, 54% were males and 46% were females. Fifty-seven percent of patients had head and neck cancers and 25% had gynecological cancers. Seventy-one percent of patients were planned for concurrent chemoradiation. The number of days of unplanned treatment breaks ranged from 3 to 27 days. Social and therapeutic barriers were found to be the most common factor that led to nonadherence in these patients. Identification of barriers that lead to nonadherence, designing strategies to overcome such barriers and effective communication becomes imperative to ensure uninterrupted treatment. Based on the above analysis, we have designed several strategies to improve adherence to treatment among our patients.

  18. Differences in perceived communication barriers among nurses and elderly patients in China.

    Ruan, Jing; Lambert, Vickie A

    2008-06-01

    In China, limited information exists about nurses' and elderly patients' perceptions of barriers to the communication process. Therefore, the purposes of this study were to identify the major communication barriers (nurse-related, patient-related, and environment-related) perceived both by nurses and elderly patients and to determine the perceived differences in the level of importance of the communication barriers between nurses and elderly patients. The sample consisted of 84 nurses and 75 elderly patients who completed a demographic questionnaire and a communication barriers questionnaire. The findings suggested that the nurses and elderly patients often selected similar barriers related to the communication process. The nurses tended to assign higher values to the communication barriers that were found to be significantly different from those of the elderly patients. The study findings provide information about which type of barriers nurses need to address so as to facilitate effective communication with elderly patients.

  19. Perceived barriers to physical activity among Nigerian stroke survivors.

    Idowu, Opeyemi Ayodiipo; Adeniyi, Ade Fatai; Ogwumike, Omoyemi Olubunmi; Fawole, Henrietta Oluwafunmilola; Akinrolie, Olayinka

    2015-01-01

    Benefits of physical activity in the prevention and management of stroke are well documented in the literature. There is increasing evidence that stroke survivors in South-West Nigeria are physically inactive. Data on barriers to the achievement of the recommended physical activity levels including its differences along socio-demographic characteristics among stroke survivors in South-West Nigeria are needed. The Exercise Benefits and Barrier Scale and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire were administered on 121 stroke survivors to determine their perceived barriers to physical activity and physical activity levels respectively. Information on socio-demographic data and clinical variables were also collected. The sample included 70.2% males, with majority of the participants reporting low physical activity levels (80.2%) and high perceived barriers (Mean = 48.13, SD = 7.88). The four most reported common barriers among stroke survivors were access to exercise facilities (95.0%), being embarrassed to exercise (94.2%), economic cost demands of exercise (94.2%) and notion that people in exercise clothes look funny (94.2%) respectively. There were no significant differences found in barriers to physical activity between gender (U = 1471.00, P = 0.74) and across each of: occupational status (H = 4.37, P = 0.22), age group (H = 0.82, P = 0.84) and educational levels (H = 4.56, P = 0.33). Significant difference however existed in perceived barriers across marital status categories (H = 12.87, P = 0.05). Stroke survivors indicated high perceived barriers to physical activity and these barriers were associated with marital status.

  20. Collective Phenomena In Volume And Surface Barrier Discharges

    Kogelschatz, U.

    2010-07-01

    Barrier discharges are increasingly used as a cost-effective means to produce non-equilibrium plasmas at atmospheric pressure. This way, copious amounts of electrons, ions, free radicals and excited species can be generated without appreciable gas heating. In most applications the barrier is made of dielectric material. In laboratory experiments also the use of resistive, ferroelectric and semiconducting materials has been investigated, also porous ceramic layers and dielectric barriers with controlled surface conductivity. Major applications utilizing mainly dielectric barriers include ozone generation, surface cleaning and modification, polymer and textile treatment, sterilization, pollution control, CO2 lasers, excimer lamps, plasma display panels (flat TV screens). More recent research efforts are also devoted to biomedical applications and to plasma actuators for flow control. Sinu- soidal feeding voltages at various frequencies as well as pulsed excitation schemes are used. Volume as well as surface barrier discharges can exist in the form of filamentary, regularly patterned or laterally homogeneous discharges. Reviews of the subject and the older literature on barrier discharges were published by Kogelschatz (2002, 2003), by Wagner et al. (2003) and by Fridman et al. (2005). A detailed discussion of various properties of barrier discharges can also be found in the recent book "Non-Equilibrium Air Plasmas at Atmospheric Pressure" by Becker et al. (2005). The physical effects leading to collective phenomena in volume and surface barrier discharges will be discussed in detail. Special attention will be given to self-organization of current filaments. Main similarities and differences of the two types of barrier discharges will be elaborated.

  1. Tritium/hydrogen barrier development

    Hollenberg, G.W.; Simonen, E.P.; Kalinen, G.; Terlain, A.

    1994-06-01

    A review of hydrogen permeation barriers that can be applied to structural metals used in fusion power plants is presented. Both implanted and chemically available hydrogen isotopes must be controlled in fusion plants. The need for permeation barriers appears strongest in Li17-Pb blanket designs, although barriers also appear necessary for other blanket and coolant systems. Barriers that provide greater than a 1000 fold reduction in the permeation of structural metals are desired. In laboratory experiments, aluminide and titanium ceramic coatings provide permeation reduction factors, PRFS, from 1000 to over 100,000 with a wide range of scatter. The rate-controlling mechanism for hydrogen permeation through these barriers may be related to the number and type of defects in the barriers. Although these barriers appear robust and resistant to liquid metal corrosion, irradiation tests which simulate blanket environments result in very low PRFs in comparison to laboratory experiments, i.e., <150. It is anticipated from fundamental research activities that the REID enhancement of hydrogen diffusion in oxides may contribute to the lower permeation reduction factors during in-reactor experiments

  2. Enershield : energy saving air barriers

    Hallihan, D. [Enershield Industries Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Enershield Industries is a leader in air barrier technology and provides solution for the Canadian climate. This presentation described the advantages of air barriers and the impact of rising energy costs. An air barrier is used to separate areas of differing environments and makes existing building systems more efficient. This presentation discussed how an air barrier works. It also identified how Enershield Industries calculates energy savings. It described air barrier applications and those who use barrier technology. These include the commercial and industrial sector as well as the personnel and retail sector. Barrier technology can be used for cold storage; vehicle and equipment washes; food processing; and environmental separation. Features and benefits such as the ability to create seal, acoustic insulation, and long term durability were also discussed. Last, the presentation addressed model selection and design criteria issues. Design criteria that were presented included a discussion of acoustic installation, articulating nozzles, scroll cased fans, and structural frame. Other design criteria presented were galvanized frames, telescopic sliders, and off the shelf parts. It was concluded that the ability to reduce energy consumption and enhance employee/client comfort is beneficial to the employer as well as to the employee. figs.

  3. Assessment, Problems and Ways of Improvement of Technical Regulation of Foreign Economic Activity (FEA in the World

    Steblyanko Maryna D.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the state of technical regulation of FEA in the world and Ukraine and identifies main problems and ways of increase of efficiency of certification. It considers the system of technical regulation of EU and provides examples of application of technical barriers by some countries for ensuring security of goods in the domestic market. The article offers to develop a strategy of development of the national system of information provision of technical regulation and suspend transition from the system of mandatory certification to the system of assessment of correspondence with requirements of technical orders of business.

  4. Benefits and Barriers of University Industry Collaborations from a Researcher's Perspective

    Kilian, Thomas; Schubert, Petra; Bjørn-Andersen, Niels

    2015-01-01

    parsimonious formative measures for the benefits and barriers of UIC and we found that academic and economic benefits positively influence the intention to conduct UIC in the future, while economic barriers negatively influence the intention to engage in UIC. A cluster analysis found five clusters (groups...... of researchers) that differ in their perception of benefits and barriers and the future intention to conduct UIC. However, the majority of the researchers have a very high intention to conduct UIC in the future....

  5. Penetration through the Skin Barrier

    Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Benfeldt, Eva; Holmgaard, Rikke

    2016-01-01

    The skin is a strong and flexible organ with barrier properties essential for maintaining homeostasis and thereby human life. Characterizing this barrier is the ability to prevent some chemicals from crossing the barrier while allowing others, including medicinal products, to pass at varying rates......-through diffusion cells) as well as in vivo methods (microdialysis and microperfusion). Then follows a discussion with examples of how different characteristics of the skin (age, site and integrity) and of the penetrants (size, solubility, ionization, logPow and vehicles) affect the kinetics of percutaneous...

  6. Vehicle barrier with access delay

    Swahlan, David J; Wilke, Jason

    2013-09-03

    An access delay vehicle barrier for stopping unauthorized entry into secure areas by a vehicle ramming attack includes access delay features for preventing and/or delaying an adversary from defeating or compromising the barrier. A horizontally deployed barrier member can include an exterior steel casing, an interior steel reinforcing member and access delay members disposed within the casing and between the casing and the interior reinforcing member. Access delay members can include wooden structural lumber, concrete and/or polymeric members that in combination with the exterior casing and interior reinforcing member act cooperatively to impair an adversarial attach by thermal, mechanical and/or explosive tools.

  7. Big Data as Information Barrier

    Victor Ya. Tsvetkov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The article covers analysis of ‘Big Data’ which has been discussed over last 10 years. The reasons and factors for the issue are revealed. It has proved that the factors creating ‘Big Data’ issue has existed for quite a long time, and from time to time, would cause the informational barriers. Such barriers were successfully overcome through the science and technologies. The conducted analysis refers the “Big Data” issue to a form of informative barrier. This issue may be solved correctly and encourages development of scientific and calculating methods.

  8. On the problem of creation of antifiltration barriers on the basis of cavelast.; K voprosu sozdaniya protivofil`tratsionnykh bar`erov na osnove kavehlasta.

    Borodin, L P; Kovalenko, V N; Dekhta, A A [Naukovo-Tekhnyichnij Tsentr z dezaktivatsyiyi ta kompleksnogo povodzhennya z radyioaktivnimi vyidkhodami, Zhovtyi Vodi (Ukraine)

    1994-12-31

    Characteristics of cavelast properties, brief results of the laboratory tests, technical decisions and technico-economical comparison of variants on application of cavelast to create antifiltration and water-proof barriers are described.

  9. Scientific and technical basis for the near surface disposal of low and intermediate level waste

    2002-01-01

    This report presents an overview of the scientific and technical basis for the disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste in near surface repositories. The focus is on basic principles, approaches, methodologies and technical criteria that can be used to develop and assess the performance of a disposal facility, and for building confidence in repository safety. This includes consideration of the multiple barrier concept, the performance of engineered barriers, the role of natural barriers and the development of a safety case. The emphasis is on defining the conditions relevant to the containment of the radionuclides in the repository and the processes that may affect the integrity of the engineered barriers. Both generic and specific data requirements for repository development and the assurance of safety are addressed. A large number of bibliographical references are given to support the information provided in this report

  10. Extracorporeal photopheresis: Review of technical aspects.

    Arora, Satyam; Setia, Rasika

    2017-01-01

    Extracorporeal photochemotherapy (ECP) is considered as an immune modulating therapy majorly targeting the T cells of the Immune system. ECP induces an anti-inflammatory condition with tolerogenic responses without inducing a global immunosuppression state which is a typical feature of other therapeutic options such as steroids. Clinical indication of ECP has grown over time since its initial applications. Our review discusses the technical aspects of the concept of photopheresis with the available methods for its clinical applications.

  11. Technical Insights for Saltstone PA Maintenance

    Flach, G.; Sarkar, S.; Mahadevan, S.; Kosson, D.

    2011-07-20

    The Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) is a collaborative program sponsored by the US DOE Office of Waste Processing. The objective of the CBP is to develop a set of computational tools to improve understanding and prediction of the long-term structural, hydraulic, and chemical performance of cementitious barriers and waste forms used in nuclear applications. CBP tools are expected to better characterize and reduce the uncertainties of current methodologies for assessing cementitious barrier performance and increase the consistency and transparency of the assessment process, as the five-year program progresses. In September 2009, entering its second year of funded effort, the CBP sought opportunities to provide near-term tangible support to DOE Performance Assessments (PAs). The Savannah River Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) was selected for the initial PA support effort because (1) cementitious waste forms and barriers play a prominent role in the performance of the facility, (2) certain important long-term behaviors of cementitious materials composing the facility are uncertain, (3) review of the SDF PA by external stakeholders is ongoing, and (4) the DOE contractor responsible for the SDF PA is open to receiving technical assistance from the CBP. A review of the current (SRR Closure & Waste Disposal Authority 2009) and prior Saltstone PAs (e.g., Cook et al. 2005) suggested five potential opportunities for improving predictions. The candidate topics considered were (1) concrete degradation from external sulfate attack, (2) impact of atmospheric exposure to concrete and grout before closure, such as accelerated slag and Tc-99 oxidation, (3) mechanistic prediction of geochemical conditions, (4) concrete degradation from rebar corrosion due to carbonation, and (5) early age cracking from drying and/or thermal shrinkage. The candidate topics were down-selected considering the feasibility of addressing each issue within approximately six months, and

  12. Technical Insights for Saltstone PA Maintenance

    Flach, G.; Sarkar, S.; Mahadevan, S.; Kosson, D.

    2011-01-01

    The Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) is a collaborative program sponsored by the US DOE Office of Waste Processing. The objective of the CBP is to develop a set of computational tools to improve understanding and prediction of the long-term structural, hydraulic, and chemical performance of cementitious barriers and waste forms used in nuclear applications. CBP tools are expected to better characterize and reduce the uncertainties of current methodologies for assessing cementitious barrier performance and increase the consistency and transparency of the assessment process, as the five-year program progresses. In September 2009, entering its second year of funded effort, the CBP sought opportunities to provide near-term tangible support to DOE Performance Assessments (PAs). The Savannah River Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) was selected for the initial PA support effort because (1) cementitious waste forms and barriers play a prominent role in the performance of the facility, (2) certain important long-term behaviors of cementitious materials composing the facility are uncertain, (3) review of the SDF PA by external stakeholders is ongoing, and (4) the DOE contractor responsible for the SDF PA is open to receiving technical assistance from the CBP. A review of the current (SRR Closure and Waste Disposal Authority 2009) and prior Saltstone PAs (e.g., Cook et al. 2005) suggested five potential opportunities for improving predictions. The candidate topics considered were (1) concrete degradation from external sulfate attack, (2) impact of atmospheric exposure to concrete and grout before closure, such as accelerated slag and Tc-99 oxidation, (3) mechanistic prediction of geochemical conditions, (4) concrete degradation from rebar corrosion due to carbonation, and (5) early age cracking from drying and/or thermal shrinkage. The candidate topics were down-selected considering the feasibility of addressing each issue within approximately six months, and

  13. The Status of Industrial Ecology in Australia: Barriers and Enablers

    Glen D. Corder

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on current international industrial ecology thinking and experiences with Australian initiatives, this article critically overviews the current status of industrial ecology in Australia and examines the barriers and potential strategies to realise greater uptake and application of the concept. The analysis is conducted across three categories: heavy industrial areas (including Kwinana and Gladstone, mixed industrial parks (Wagga Wagga and Port Melbourne, and waste exchange networks, and identifies the past and future significance of seven different types of barriers—regulation, information, community, economic, technical, cooperation and trust, commitment to sustainable development—for each of the three categories. The outcomes from this analysis highlight that regulation, information, and economic barriers for heavy industrial area and mixed industrial parks, and economic and technical barriers for waste exchange networks are the current and future focus for industrial ecology applications in Australia. These findings appear to be consistent with recently published frameworks and learnings. The authors propose key questions that could enhance greater adoption of industrial ecology applications in Australia and acknowledge that international research and experiences, while partly providing answers to these questions, need to be adapted and refined for the Australian context.

  14. Conceptual Barriers to Progress Within Evolutionary Biology.

    Laland, Kevin N; Odling-Smee, John; Feldman, Marcus W; Kendal, Jeremy

    2009-08-01

    In spite of its success, Neo-Darwinism is faced with major conceptual barriers to further progress, deriving directly from its metaphysical foundations. Most importantly, neo-Darwinism fails to recognize a fundamental cause of evolutionary change, "niche construction". This failure restricts the generality of evolutionary theory, and introduces inaccuracies. It also hinders the integration of evolutionary biology with neighbouring disciplines, including ecosystem ecology, developmental biology, and the human sciences. Ecology is forced to become a divided discipline, developmental biology is stubbornly difficult to reconcile with evolutionary theory, and the majority of biologists and social scientists are still unhappy with evolutionary accounts of human behaviour. The incorporation of niche construction as both a cause and a product of evolution removes these disciplinary boundaries while greatly generalizing the explanatory power of evolutionary theory.

  15. Barriers to Climate Change Adaptation Among Farming Households ...

    Climate change is perhaps the most serious environmental threat to the fight against hunger, malnutrition, disease and poverty in Africa, essentially because of its impact on agricultural productivity. The objective of this paper was to identify the major barriers to climate change adaptation among smallholder farmers of ...

  16. Breaking Down Blaine Amendments' Indefensible Barrier to Education Choice

    Burke, Lindsey M.; Stepman, Jarrett

    2014-01-01

    Though school choice has proven to be popular, barriers remain in some states as a result of so-called Blaine Amendments and similar policies to prevent education funding from following students to religious schools as a part of school choice options. If left to stand, these ignoble 19th century amendments will remain major impediments to the…

  17. Household Barriers to Effective Malaria Prevention and Control in a ...

    Background: Malaria is endemic throughout Nigeria. Majority of Nigerians live in rural areas where subsistence farming is their main occupation. Most of them live below poverty line, earning less than $1.25 a day. In rural communities, many household factors constitute barriers to effective malaria prevention and control.

  18. Bioethics for Technical Experts

    Asano, Shigetaka

    Along with rapidly expanding applications of life science and technology, technical experts have been implicated more and more often with ethical, social, and legal problems than before. It should be noted that in this background there are scientific and social uncertainty elements which are inevitable during the progress of life science in addition to the historically-established social unreliability to scientists and engineers. In order to solve these problems, therefore, we should establish the social governance with ‘relief’ and ‘reliance’ which enables for both citizens and engineers to share the awareness of the issues, to design social orders and criterions based on hypothetical sense of values for bioethics, to carry out practical use management of each subject carefully, and to improve the sense of values from hypothetical to universal. Concerning these measures, the technical experts can learn many things from the present performance in the medical field.

  19. Sources of technical assistance

    Laue, H.J.

    1977-01-01

    This paper shows examples of technical assistance programmes within bilateral cooperation agreements between the Federal Republic of Germany and a number of developing countries of very different characteristics and summarizes the possibilities of technical assistance granted by international organizations, such as IAEA, UNDP, etc. A basic requirement for a successful transfer of technology is a high knowledge level of the indigenous scientists and engineers. Therefore, programmes for training and education and for information exchange are presented. Based on these, the means and methods of planning, performance and quality assurance are explained by practical examples and are related to the progress achieved in the use of nuclear energy and in establishing a national industry in the developing countries. (orig.) [de

  20. Technical Training: Places available

    Monique Duval

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Places are available in the following courses: The Joint PVSS JCOP Framework: 14 - 18.6.2004 (5 days) EXCEL 2003 - niveau 2 : 17 & 18.6.2004 (2 jours) MAGNE-04 : Magnétisme pour l'électrotechnique : 6 au 8.7.2004 (3 jours) Technical Training Monique Duval - Tel.74924 technical.training@cern.ch

  1. Understanding Socio Technical Modularity

    Thuesen, Christian Langhoff; Kudsk, Anders; Hvam, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Modularity has gained an increasing popularity as a central concept for exploring product structure, process structure, organization structure and supply chain structure. With the offset in system theory the predominant understanding of modularity however faces difficulties in explaining the social...... dimension of modularity like irrational behaviors, cultural differences, learning processes, social organization and institutional influences on modularity. The paper addresses this gab offering a reinterpretation of the modularity concept from a socio-technical perspective in general and Actor Network...... Theory in particular. By formulating modularity from an ANT perspective covering social, material and process aspects, the modularity of a socio-technical system can be understood as an entanglement of product, process, organizational and institutional modularity. The theoretical framework is illustrated...

  2. Seeking Help in Domestic Violence Among Muslim Women in Muslim-Majority and Non-Muslim-Majority Countries: A Literature Review.

    Afrouz, Rojan; Crisp, Beth R; Taket, Ann

    2018-01-01

    Women from different backgrounds and cultures are at risk of domestic violence. Disclosing the abusive experience and seeking help is not straightforward and easy and might be a complicated and long-term process. Muslim women, like other groups of women, may face various barriers to disclose abusive relationships and for seeking help. Some of the barriers may be common for the majority of Muslim women in different contexts, while others might be related to women's situations and the wider society they live. To identify these barriers and make recommendations for future studies, this article reviews related papers conducted in both Muslim-majority and non-Muslim-majority countries. A critical systematic review of the literature was conducted for identifying Muslim women's barriers in disclosing abuse and seeking help. Twenty-one studies met the inclusion criteria. The main identified barriers are discussed into under four themes: social context, family context, individual factors, and expectations of service providers. Although the researchers tried to investigate various barriers in seeking help, many of them have not focused on structural obstacles. Besides, in many Muslim-majority countries, the issue has not been explored. Therefore, the results of the current article will not apply to those countries. Recommendation for future research comprises more qualitative research compatible with the women's cultures and backgrounds in different societies, focusing more on structural and cultural factors to explore and find women's barriers to seek help.

  3. Technical approach document

    1989-12-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, Public Law 95-604 (PL95-604), grants the Secretary of Energy the authority and responsibility to perform such actions as are necessary to minimize radiation health hazards and other environmental hazards caused by inactive uranium mill sites. This Technical Approach Document (TAD) describes the general technical approaches and design criteria adopted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in order to implement remedial action plans (RAPS) and final designs that comply with EPA standards. It does not address the technical approaches necessary for aquifer restoration at processing sites; a guidance document, currently in preparation, will describe aquifer restoration concerns and technical protocols. This document is a second revision to the original document issued in May 1986; the revision has been made in response to changes to the groundwater standards of 40 CFR 192, Subparts A--C, proposed by EPA as draft standards. New sections were added to define the design approaches and designs necessary to comply with the groundwater standards. These new sections are in addition to changes made throughout the document to reflect current procedures, especially in cover design, water resources protection, and alternate site selection; only minor revisions were made to some of the sections. Sections 3.0 is a new section defining the approach taken in the design of disposal cells; Section 4.0 has been revised to include design of vegetated covers; Section 8.0 discusses design approaches necessary for compliance with the groundwater standards; and Section 9.0 is a new section dealing with nonradiological hazardous constituents. 203 refs., 18 figs., 26 tabs

  4. Technical Leadership Development Program

    2010-12-13

    the traditional tenets of leadership and management , systems thinking, understanding SOS issues, and thinking and acting holistically. Our research...international element 2.0 Enterprise Leadership and Management UNCLASSIFIED Contract Number: H98230-08-D-0171 DO 002. TO002, RT 004 Report No...mechanisms for leadership of the overall technical effort, for systems engineering, for requirements, management , and for systems integration. o Develop

  5. Fusion barrier characteristics of actinides

    Manjunatha, H. C.; Sridhar, K. N.

    2018-03-01

    We have studied fusion barrier characteristics of actinide compound nuclei with atomic number range 89 ≤ Z ≤ 103 for all projectile target combinations. After the calculation of fusion barrier heights and positions, we have searched for their parameterization. We have achieved the empirical formula for fusion barrier heights (VB), positions (RB), curvature of the inverted parabola (ħω) of actinide compound nuclei with atomic number range 89 ≤ Z ≤ 103 for all projectile target combinations (6 projectile target combinations. The values produced by the present formula are also compared with experiments. The present pocket formula produces fusion barrier characteristics of actinides with the simple inputs of mass number (A) and atomic number (Z) of projectile-targets.

  6. Transport barrier in Helical system

    Ida, Katsumi

    1998-01-01

    Experiments on the transport barrier in Helical plasmas are reviewed. There are two mechanisms of transport improvement, that results in the formation of the transport barrier. One is the improvement of neoclassical transport by reducing the ripple loss with radial electric field, which exist only in helical plasma. The other is the improvement of anomalous transport due to the suppression of fluctuations associated with a radial electric field shear both in tokamak and helical plasma. The formation of the transport barrier can be triggered by the radial electric field shear associated with the transition of the radial electric field (L/H transition or ion-electron root transition) or the peaked density or the optimization of magnetic field shear. The mechanisms of transport barrier formation are also discussed. (author). 60 refs

  7. Coastal Structures and Barriers 2012

    California Natural Resource Agency — This dataset is a compilation of the UCSC Sand Retention Structures, MC Barriers, and USACE Coastal Structures. UCSC Sand Retention Structures originate from a...

  8. Engineered barriers: current status 1989

    Atkinson, A.; Marsh, G.B.

    1989-06-01

    This report summarises the current state of research relevant to assessing the performance of engineered barriers made of steel and concrete in radioactive waste repositories. The objective of these barriers is to contain substantially the radionuclides within them by providing both physical and chemical impediment to their release. The physical barriers are of most value for highly soluble isotopes with relatively short half-lives (eg 137 Cs), since they can provide a measure of containment until a large fraction of the activity has decayed. In addition they can facilitate retrievability for some period after disposal. The chemical barriers operate by beneficial conditioning of the near field groundwater and providing sites for sorption of radionuclides. Both of these reduce the aqueous concentration of radionuclides in the near field. (author)

  9. Numerical simulation of flood barriers

    Srb, Pavel; Petrů, Michal; Kulhavý, Petr

    This paper deals with testing and numerical simulating of flood barriers. The Czech Republic has been hit by several very devastating floods in past years. These floods caused several dozens of causalities and property damage reached billions of Euros. The development of flood measures is very important, especially for the reduction the number of casualties and the amount of property damage. The aim of flood control measures is the detention of water outside populated areas and drainage of water from populated areas as soon as possible. For new flood barrier design it is very important to know its behaviour in case of a real flood. During the development of the barrier several standardized tests have to be carried out. Based on the results from these tests numerical simulation was compiled using Abaqus software and some analyses were carried out. Based on these numerical simulations it will be possible to predict the behaviour of barriers and thus improve their design.

  10. The Ursa Major supercluster

    Schuch, N.J.

    1983-01-01

    An optical and a radio survey have been carried out. The optical observations consist of a spectroscopic survey in which redshift data for cluster galaxies and optical identifications of radio sources were obtained with the 98-inch Isaac Newton telescope at the Royal Greenwich Observatory, and the 200-inch Hale telescope; the photographic survey in B, V and R colors was made with the 48-inch Schmidt telescope at Palomar. Some results on the galaxy distribution in the Ursa Major supercluster are briefly discussed. (Auth.)

  11. Technical training - Places available

    2012-01-01

    If you would like more information on a course, or for any other inquiry/suggestions, please contact Technical.Training@cern.ch Valeria Perez Reale, Learning Specialist, Technical Programme Coordinator (Tel.: 62424) Eva Stern and Elise Romero, Technical Training Administration (Tel.: 74924) HR Department Electronic Design Next Session Duration Language Availability Comprehensive VHDL for FPGA Design 08-Oct-12 to 12-Oct-12 5 days English 4 places Electrostatique / Protection ESD 28-Sep-12 to 28-Sep-12 3 hours French 25 places Impacts de la suppression du plomb (RoHS) en électronique 26-Oct-12 to 26-Oct-12 8 hours French 14 places Introduction to VHDL 10-Oct-12 to 11-Oct-12 2 days English 9 places LabVIEW Real Time and FPGA 13-Nov-12 to 16-Nov-12 5 days French 5 places LabVIEW for Experts 24-Sep-12 to 28-Sep-12 5 days English 6 places LabVIEW for beginners 15-Oct-12 to 17-...

  12. Technical Assistance Needs Assessments (TANAs)

    The Technical Assistance Needs Assessment (TANA) is a process to identify whether a community requires additional support from EPA in order to understand technical information and have meaningful participation in the Superfund decision-making process.

  13. El Salvador - Formal Technical Education

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — With a budget of nearly $20 million, the Formal Technical Education Sub-Activity was designed to strengthen technical and vocational educational institutions in the...

  14. A technical solution to a difficult problem - An update

    Asselstine, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    A goal of the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor Program (RERTR) established by the U.S. Department of Energy is to develop the technical means needed to utilize LEU instead of HEU fuels in research and test reactors and to do so without operational penalties and without affecting safety characteristics. This goal has been pursued now for seven years in cooperation with many of you who are participants in this conference. The program has made significant progress in the development, demonstration and application of new LEU research reactor fuels. According to recent projections, the percentage of HEU fuel in international commerce which is technically replaceable with LEU fuels has been growing steadily as research continues. There appears to be no technical barrier to eventual replacement of HEU fuel with LEU fuel in research and test reactors. While there are many politically complex and technically difficult issues involved in nonproliferation, I conclude that the use of highly enriched weapons grade uranium as a fuel in civilian research reactors stands out as one problem which has a straight forward technical solution. The technical solution is the effort you in the RERTR program are embarked on. Once that solution is in hand, the operators of research reactors are urged to take political and legal initiatives to make the conversion happen. By effecting this conversion they will help minimize the trade in highly enriched uranium and make the world a little safer

  15. A technical solution to a difficult problem - An update

    Asselstine, J K

    1985-07-01

    A goal of the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor Program (RERTR) established by the U.S. Department of Energy is to develop the technical means needed to utilize LEU instead of HEU fuels in research and test reactors and to do so without operational penalties and without affecting safety characteristics. This goal has been pursued now for seven years in cooperation with many of you who are participants in this conference. The program has made significant progress in the development, demonstration and application of new LEU research reactor fuels. According to recent projections, the percentage of HEU fuel in international commerce which is technically replaceable with LEU fuels has been growing steadily as research continues. There appears to be no technical barrier to eventual replacement of HEU fuel with LEU fuel in research and test reactors. While there are many politically complex and technically difficult issues involved in nonproliferation, I conclude that the use of highly enriched weapons grade uranium as a fuel in civilian research reactors stands out as one problem which has a straight forward technical solution. The technical solution is the effort you in the RERTR program are embarked on. Once that solution is in hand, the operators of research reactors are urged to take political and legal initiatives to make the conversion happen. By effecting this conversion they will help minimize the trade in highly enriched uranium and make the world a little safer.

  16. Securing Major Events

    Loeoef, Susanna

    2013-01-01

    When asked why the IAEA should provide nuclear security support to countries that organize large public events, Nuclear Security Officer Sophia Miaw answers quickly and without hesitation. ''Imagine any major public event such as the Olympics, a football championship, or an Expo. If a dirty bomb were to be exploded at a site where tens of thousands of people congregate, the radioactive contamination would worsen the effects of the bomb, increase the number of casualties, impede a rapid emergency response, and cause long term disruption in the vicinity,'' she said. Avoiding such nightmarish scenarios is the driving purpose behind the assistance the IAEA offers States that host major sporting or other public events. The support can range from a single training course to a comprehensive programme that includes threat assessment, training, loaned equipment and exercises. The type and scope of assistance depends on the host country's needs. ''We incorporate nuclear security measures into their security plan. We don't create anything new,'' Miaw said

  17. Material Barriers to Diffusive Mixing

    Haller, George; Karrasch, Daniel

    2017-11-01

    Transport barriers, as zero-flux surfaces, are ill-defined in purely advective mixing in which the flux of any passive scalar is zero through all material surfaces. For this reason, Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCSs) have been argued to play the role of mixing barriers as most repelling, attracting or shearing material lines. These three kinematic concepts, however, can also be defined in different ways, both within rigorous mathematical treatments and within the realm of heuristic diagnostics. This has lead to a an ever-growing number of different LCS methods, each generally identifying different objects as transport barriers. In this talk, we examine which of these methods have actual relevance for diffusive transport barriers. The latter barriers are arguably the practically relevant inhibitors in the mixing of physically relevant tracers, such as temperature, salinity, vorticity or potential vorticity. We demonstrate the role of the most effective diffusion barriers in analytical examples and observational data. Supported in part by the DFG Priority Program on Turbulent Superstructures.

  18. Economic alternatives for containment barriers

    Nicholson, P.J.; Jasperse, B.H.; Fisher, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    Fixation, barriers, and containment of existing landfills and other disposal areas are often performed by insitu auger type soil mixing and jet grouting. Cement or other chemical reagents are mixed with soil to form both vertical and horizontal barriers. Immobilization of contaminants can be economically achieved by mixing soil and the contaminants with reagents that solidify or stabilize the contaminated area. Developed in Japan, and relatively new to the United States, the first large scale application was for a vertical barrier at the Jackson Lake Dam project in 1986. This technology has grown in both the civil and environmental field since. The paper describes current United States practice for Deep Soil Mixing (over 12 meters in depth), and Shallow Soil Mixing for vertical barriers and stabilization/solidification, and Jet Grouting for horizontal and vertical barriers. Creating very low permeability barriers at depth with minimal surface return often makes these techniques economical when compared to slurry trenches. The paper will discuss equipment, materials, soil and strength parameters, and quality control

  19. Air barrier systems: Construction applications

    Perrault, J.C

    1989-01-01

    An examination is presented of how ordinary building materials can be used in an innovative manner to design, detail, and construct effective air barrier systems for common types of walls. For residential construction, the air drywall approach uses the interior gypsum board as the main component of the wall air barrier system. Joints between the gypsum board and adjacent materials or assemblies are sealed by gaskets. In commercial construction, two different techniques are employed for using gypsum board as air barrier material: the accessible drywall and non-accessible drywall approaches. The former is similar to the air drywall approach except that high performance sealants are used instead of gaskets. In the latter approach, exterior drywall sheathing is the main component of the air barrier system; joints between boards are taped and joints between boards and other components are sealed using elastomeric membrane strips. For various types of commercial and institutional buildings, metal air barrier systems are widely used and include pre-engineered curtain walls or sheet metal walls. Masonry wall systems are regarded as still the most durable, fireproof, and soundproof wall type available but an effective air barrier system has typically been difficult to implement. Factory-made elastomeric membranes offer the potential to provide airtightness to masonry walls. These membranes are applied on the entire masonry wall surface and are used to make airtight connections with other building components. Two types of product are available: thermofusible and peel-and-stick membranes. 5 figs.

  20. Barriers to oral health care utilization in Ibadan, South West Nigeria ...

    Background: Barriers to oral health utilization are many, but those that are significant for our environment are not yet clear. The current study was designed ... Fear of dental injection, cost of treatment, feeling of insecurity when the dentist is operating and disturbing noise from dental drill were the major barriers. There was a ...