WorldWideScience

Sample records for major storage carbohydrate

  1. Frankincense tapping reduces the carbohydrate storage of Boswellia trees.

    Mengistu, Tefera; Sterck, Frank J; Fetene, Masresha; Bongers, Frans

    2013-06-01

    Carbohydrates fixed by photosynthesis are stored in plant organs in the form of starch or sugars. Starch and sugars sum to the total non-structural carbohydrate pool (TNC) and may serve as intermediate pools between assimilation and utilization. We examined the impact of tapping on TNC concentrations in stem-wood, bark and root tissues of the frankincense tree (Boswellia papyrifera (Del.) Hochst) in two natural woodlands of Ethiopia. Two tapping treatments, one without tapping (control) and the other with tapping at 12 incisions, are applied on experimental trees. Trees are tapped in the leafless dry period, diminishing their carbon storage pools. If storage pools are not refilled by assimilation during the wet season, when crowns are in full leaf, tapping may deplete the carbon pool and weaken Boswellia trees. The highest soluble sugar concentrations were in the bark and the highest starch concentrations in the stem-wood. The stem-wood contains 12 times higher starch than soluble sugar concentrations. Hence, the highest TNC concentrations occurred in the stem-wood. Moreover, wood volume was larger than root or bark volumes and, as a result, more TNC was stored in the stem-wood. As predicted, tapping reduced the TNC concentrations and pool sizes in frankincense trees during the dry season. During the wet season, these carbon pools were gradually filled in tapped trees, but never to the size of non-tapped trees. We conclude that TNC is dynamic on a seasonal time scale and offers resilience against stress, highlighting its importance for tree carbon balance. But current resin tapping practices are intensive and may weaken Boswellia populations, jeopardizing future frankincense production.

  2. Muscle glycogen storage postexercise: effect of mode of carbohydrate administration.

    Reed, M J; Brozinick, J T; Lee, M C; Ivy, J L

    1989-02-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine whether gastric emptying limits the rate of muscle glycogen storage during the initial 4 h after exercise when a carbohydrate supplement is provided. A secondary purpose was to determine whether liquid (L) and solid (S) carbohydrate (CHO) feedings result in different rates of muscle glycogen storage after exercise. Eight subjects cycled for 2 h on three separate occasions to deplete their muscle glycogen stores. After each exercise bout they received 3 g CHO/kg body wt in L (50% glucose polymer) or S (rice/banana cake) form or by intravenous infusion (I; 20% sterile glucose). The L and S supplements were divided into two equal doses and administered immediately after and 120 min after exercise, whereas the I supplement was administered continuously during the first 235 min of the 240-min recovery period. Blood samples were drawn from an antecubital vein before exercise, during exercise, and throughout recovery. Muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis immediately after and 120 and 240 min after exercise. Blood glucose and insulin declined during exercise and increased significantly above preexercise levels during recovery in all treatments. The increase in blood glucose during the I treatment, however, was three times greater than during the L or S treatments. The average insulin response of the L treatment (61.7 +/- 4.9 microU/ml) was significantly greater than that of the S treatment (47.5 +/- 4.2 microU/ml) but not that of the I (55.3 +/- 4.5 microU/ml) treatment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. The influence of nutrient and water availability on carbohydrate storage in loblolly pine

    K.H. Ludovici; H.L. Allen; T.J. Albaugh; P.M. Dougherty

    2002-01-01

    We quantified the effects of nutrient and water availability on monthly whole-tree carbohydrate budgets and determined allocation patterns of storage carbohydrates in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) to test site resource impacts on internal carbon (C) storage. A factorial combination of two nutrient and two irrigation treatments were imposed on a 7-year...

  4. Muscle glycogen storage after different amounts of carbohydrate ingestion.

    Ivy, J L; Lee, M C; Brozinick, J T; Reed, M J

    1988-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the rate of muscle glycogen storage could be enhanced during the initial 4-h period postexercise by substantially increasing the amount of the carbohydrate consumed. Eight subjects cycled for 2 h on three separate occasions to deplete their muscle glycogen stores. Immediately and 2 h after exercise they consumed either 0 (P), 1.5 (L), or 3.0 g glucose/kg body wt (H) from a 50% glucose polymer solution. Blood samples were drawn from an antecubital vein before exercise, during exercise, and throughout recovery. Muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis immediately, 2 h, and 4 h after exercise. Blood glucose and insulin declined significantly during exercise in each of the three treatments. They remained below the preexercise concentrations during recovery in the P treatment but increased significantly above the preexercise concentrations during the L and H treatments. By the end of the 4 h-recovery period, blood glucose and insulin were still significantly above the preexercise concentrations in both treatments. Muscle glycogen storage was significantly increased above the basal rate (P, 0.5 mumol.g wet wt-1.h-1) after ingestion of either glucose polymer supplement. The rates of muscle glycogen storage, however, were not different between the L and H treatments during the first 2 h (L, 5.2 +/- 0.9 vs. H, 5.8 +/- 0.7 mumol.g wet wt-1.h-1) or the second 2 h of recovery (L, 4.0 +/- 0.9 vs. H, 4.5 +/- 0.6 mumol.g wet wt-1. h-1).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens in major salivary glands

    Therkildsen, M H; Mandel, U; Thorn, J

    1994-01-01

    Simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens Tn, sialosyl-Tn and T are often markers of neoplastic transformation and have very limited expression in normal tissues. We performed an immunohistological study of simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens, including H and A variants, with well......-defined monoclonal antibodies (MAb) on frozen and paraffin-embedded normal salivary gland tissue from 22 parotid, 14 submandibular, six sublingual, and 13 labial glands to elucidate the simple mucin-type glycosylation pattern in relation to cyto- and histodifferentiation. The investigated carbohydrate structures...

  6. Seasonal carbohydrate storage and mobilization in bearing and non-bearing pistachio (Pistacia vera) trees.

    Spann, Timothy M; Beede, Robert H; Dejong, Theodore M

    2008-02-01

    We analyzed annual carbohydrate storage and mobilization of bearing ("on") and non-bearing ("off") 'Kerman' pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) trees growing on three different rootstocks. On all rootstocks, carbohydrate storage in shoots and branches of "on" and "off" trees was lowest following the spring growth flush. In "off" trees, stored carbohydrates increased and remained high after the initial growth flush. In "on" trees, stem carbohydrates increased temporarily in early summer, but were mobilized in mid-season during kernel fill, and then increased again after nut harvest. During the dormant season, the only substantial differences in carbohydrate storage between previously "on" and "off" trees were found in the roots of the weakest rootstock. The annual carbohydrate storage and mobilization pattern in canopy branches of heavily cropped pistachio trees appeared to be driven by carbohydrate demands related to nut development and untempered by tree vigor. Mobilization of carbohydrates from current-season and 1- and 2-year-old stem wood of "on" trees during the primary period of kernel fill corresponded with the period of inflorescence bud abscission. Thus, the alternate bearing pattern associated with inflorescence bud abscission in 'Kerman' pistachio may be a function of mid-season mobilization of stored carbohydrates in current-season stems resulting in stimulation of inflorescence bud abscission.

  7. Carbohydrates

    Carbohydrates are one of the main types of nutrients. They are the most important source of energy for your body. Your digestive system changes carbohydrates into glucose (blood sugar). Your body uses this ...

  8. Frankincense tapping reduces the carbohydrate storage of Boswellia trees

    Mengistu, T.; Sterck, F.J.; Fetene, M.; Bongers, F.

    2013-01-01

    Carbohydrates fixed by photosynthesis are stored in plant organs in the form of starch or sugars. Starch and sugars sum to the total non-structural carbohydrate pool (TNC) and may serve as intermediate pools between assimilation and utilization. We examined the impact of tapping on TNC

  9. Differential usage of storage carbohydrates in the CAM bromeliad Aechmea 'Maya' during acclimation to drought and recovery from dehydration.

    Ceusters, Johan; Borland, Anne M; Londers, Elsje; Verdoodt, Veerle; Godts, Christof; De Proft, Maurice P

    2009-02-01

    CAM requires a substantial investment of resources into storage carbohydrates to account for nocturnal CO(2) uptake, thereby restricting carbohydrate partitioning to other metabolic activities, including dark respiration, growth and acclimation to abiotic stress. Flexible modulation of carbon flow to the different competing sinks under changing environmental conditions is considered a key determinant for the growth, productivity and ecological success of the CAM pathway. The aim of the present study was to examine how shifts in carbohydrate partitioning could assure maintenance of photosynthetic integrity and a positive carbon balance under conditions of increasing water deprivation in CAM species. Measurements of gas exchange, leaf water relations, malate, starch and soluble sugar (glucose, fructose and sucrose) contents were made in leaves of the CAM bromeliad Aechmea 'Maya' over a 6-month period of drought and subsequently over a 2-month period of recovery from drought. Results indicated that short-term influences of water stress were minimized by elevating the level of respiratory recycling, and carbohydrate pools were maintained at the expense of export for growth while providing a comparable nocturnal carbon gain to that in well-watered control plants. Longer term drought resulted in a disproportionate depletion of key carbohydrate reserves. Sucrose, which was of minor importance for providing substrate for the dark reactions under well-watered conditions, became the major source of carbohydrate for nocturnal carboxylation as drought progressed. Flexibility in terms of the major carbohydrate source used to sustain dark CO(2) uptake is therefore considered a crucial factor in meeting the carbon and energy demands under limiting environmental conditions. Recovery from CAM-idling was found to be dependent on the restoration of the starch pool, which was used predominantly for provision of substrate for nocturnal carboxylation, while net carbon export was limited

  10. The Enzymatic Conversion of Major Algal and Cyanobacterial Carbohydrates to Bioethanol

    Al Abdallah, Qusai, E-mail: qalabdal@uthsc.edu [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN (United States); Nixon, B. Tracy [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States); Fortwendel, Jarrod R. [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2016-11-04

    The production of fuels from biomass is categorized as first-, second-, or third-generation depending upon the source of raw materials, either food crops, lignocellulosic material, or algal biomass, respectively. Thus far, the emphasis has been on using food crops creating several environmental problems. To overcome these problems, there is a shift toward bioenergy production from non-food sources. Algae, which store high amounts of carbohydrates, are a potential producer of raw materials for sustainable production of bioethanol. Algae store their carbohydrates in the form of food storage sugars and structural material. In general, algal food storage polysaccharides are composed of glucose subunits; however, they vary in the glycosidic bond that links the glucose molecules. In starch-type polysaccharides (starch, floridean starch, and glycogen), the glucose subunits are linked together by α-(1→4) and α-(1→6) glycosidic bonds. Laminarin-type polysaccharides (laminarin, chrysolaminarin, and paramylon) are made of glucose subunits that are linked together by β-(1→3) and β-(1→6) glycosidic bonds. In contrast to food storage polysaccharides, structural polysaccharides vary in composition and glycosidic bond. The industrial production of bioethanol from algae requires efficient hydrolysis and fermentation of different algal sugars. However, the hydrolysis of algal polysaccharides employs more enzymatic mixes in comparison to terrestrial plants. Similarly, algal fermentable sugars display more diversity than plants, and therefore more metabolic pathways are required to produce ethanol from these sugars. In general, the fermentation of glucose, galactose, and glucose isomers is carried out by wild-type strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zymomonas mobilis. In these strains, glucose enters glycolysis, where is it converted to pyruvate through either Embden–Meyerhof–Parnas pathway or Entner–Doudoroff pathway. Other monosaccharides must be converted to

  11. The Enzymatic Conversion of Major Algal and Cyanobacterial Carbohydrates to Bioethanol

    Al Abdallah, Qusai; Nixon, B. Tracy; Fortwendel, Jarrod R.

    2016-01-01

    The production of fuels from biomass is categorized as first-, second-, or third-generation depending upon the source of raw materials, either food crops, lignocellulosic material, or algal biomass, respectively. Thus far, the emphasis has been on using food crops creating several environmental problems. To overcome these problems, there is a shift toward bioenergy production from non-food sources. Algae, which store high amounts of carbohydrates, are a potential producer of raw materials for sustainable production of bioethanol. Algae store their carbohydrates in the form of food storage sugars and structural material. In general, algal food storage polysaccharides are composed of glucose subunits; however, they vary in the glycosidic bond that links the glucose molecules. In starch-type polysaccharides (starch, floridean starch, and glycogen), the glucose subunits are linked together by α-(1→4) and α-(1→6) glycosidic bonds. Laminarin-type polysaccharides (laminarin, chrysolaminarin, and paramylon) are made of glucose subunits that are linked together by β-(1→3) and β-(1→6) glycosidic bonds. In contrast to food storage polysaccharides, structural polysaccharides vary in composition and glycosidic bond. The industrial production of bioethanol from algae requires efficient hydrolysis and fermentation of different algal sugars. However, the hydrolysis of algal polysaccharides employs more enzymatic mixes in comparison to terrestrial plants. Similarly, algal fermentable sugars display more diversity than plants, and therefore more metabolic pathways are required to produce ethanol from these sugars. In general, the fermentation of glucose, galactose, and glucose isomers is carried out by wild-type strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zymomonas mobilis. In these strains, glucose enters glycolysis, where is it converted to pyruvate through either Embden–Meyerhof–Parnas pathway or Entner–Doudoroff pathway. Other monosaccharides must be converted to

  12. The enzymatic conversion of major algal and cyanobacterial carbohydrates to bioethanol

    Qusai Al Abdallah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The production of fuels from biomass is categorized as first-, second- or third-generation depending upon the source of raw materials, either food crops, lignocellulosic material, or algal biomass, respectively. Thus far, the emphasis has been on using food crops creating several environmental problems. To overcome these problems, there is a shift toward bioenergy production from non-food sources. Algae, which store high amounts of carbohydrates, are a potential producer of raw materials for sustainable production of bioethanol. Algae store their carbohydrates in the form of food storage sugars and structural material. In general, algal food storage polysaccharides are composed of glucose subunits, however they vary in the glycosidic bond that links the glucose molecules. In starch-type polysaccharides (starch, floridean starch, and glycogen, the glucose subunits are linked together by α-(1→4 and α-(1→6 glycosidic bonds. Laminarin-type polysaccharides (laminarin, chrysolaminarin, and paramylon are made of glucose subunits that are linked together by β-(1→3 and β-(1→6 glycosidic bonds. In contrast to food storage polysaccharides, structural polysaccharides vary in composition and glycosidic bond. The industrial production of bioethanol from algae requires efficient hydrolysis and fermentation of different algal sugars. However, the hydrolysis of algal polysaccharides employs more enzymatic mixes in comparison to terrestrial plants. Similarly, algal fermentable sugars display more diversity than plants, and therefore more metabolic pathways are required to produce ethanol from these sugars. In general, the fermentation of glucose, galactose, and glucose isomers is carried out by wild type strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zymomonas mobilis. In these strains, glucose enters glycolysis, where is it converted to pyruvate through either Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway or Entner-Doudoroff pathway. Other monosaccharides must be

  13. Carbohydrate storage and light requirements of tropical moist and dry forest tree species

    Poorter, L.; Kitajima, K.

    2007-01-01

    In many plant communities, there is a negative interspecific correlation between relative growth rates and survival of juveniles. This negative correlation is most likely caused by a trade-off between carbon allocation to growth vs. allocation to defense and storage. Nonstructural carbohydrates

  14. Dynamics of Storage Carbohydrates Metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Suarez-Mendez, C.A.

    2015-01-01

    Production of chemicals via biotechnological routes are becoming rapidly an alternative to oil-based processes. Several microorganisms including yeast, bacteria, fungi and algae can transform feedstocks into high-value molecules at industrial scale. Improvement of the bioprocess performance is a key factor for making this technology economically feasible. Despite the vast knowledge on microbial metabolism, some gaps still remain open. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, metabolism of storage carbohy...

  15. CARBOHYDRATES IN VARIETIES OF STORED POTATOES AND INFLUENCE OF STORAGE ON QUALITY OF FRIED PRODUCTS

    Ján Mareček

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The research presented in this work deals with the issue of changes in carbohydrate representation of potato tubers at 11 varieties due to their storage. Time of storage effect on starch and reducing sugars content was examined. The lowest reducing sugar content was observed at the end of the storage at the variety of Markies (0.15%. Sensory quality of the fried potato chips and French fries was assessed by the international system (Colour cards for quality evaluation of potato chips. Best varieties, that showed (even after 6 months of storage the highest sensory assessment at French fries (9, were Agria and Vladan. In case of potato chips the highest rating was 7 points (Laura, Mark, Vladan after the storage time.

  16. Adulteration of apple with pear juice: emphasis on major carbohydrates, proline, and arbutin.

    Thavarajah, Pushparajah; Low, Nicholas H

    2006-06-28

    Detection of juice-to-juice adulteration based on chemical composition studies is a common method used by government regulatory agencies and food companies. This study investigated the use of major carbohydrate (fructose, glucose and sucrose), polyol (sorbitol), proline, and phenolic profiles as indicators of pear adulteration of apple juice (PAAJ). For this work, a total of 105 authentic apple juice samples from 13 countries and 27 authentic pear juice samples from 5 countries were analyzed. Because the major carbohydrate ranges for these juices showed significant overlap their use as markers for PAAJ detection would be very limited. It was found that sorbitol and proline means for apple and pear were significantly different; however, their broad natural ranges would afford PAAJ at levels up to 30% without detection. In addition, careful selection of the pear juice used as the adulterant would further limit the usefulness of these markers for PAAJ detection. Arbutin was conclusively identified as a marker for pear juice on the basis of its presence in all 27 authentic pear samples and its absence (apple juice samples analyzed in this study. The application of the developed HPLC-PDA method for arbutin analysis to detect PAAJ at levels as low as 2% (v/v) was demonstrated. A confirmation method for the presence of arbutin in pure pear juice and apple adulterated with pear juice was introduced on the basis of the hydrolysis of arbutin to hydroquinone employing beta-glucosidase, with reactant and product monitoring by HPLC-PDA.

  17. Soluble carbohydrates in cereal (wheat, rye, triticale seed after storage under accelerated ageing conditions

    Agnieszka I. Piotrowicz-Cieślak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Germinability and the content of soluble carbohydrates were analysed in cereal seed (winter rye, cv. Warko; spring wheat, cv. Santa; hexaploid winter triticale, cv. Fidelio and cv. Woltario. Seed moisture content (mc was equilibrated over silica gel to 0.08 g H2O/g dry mass and stored in a desiccator at 20oC for up to 205 weeks or were equilibrated to mc 0.06, 0.08 or 0.10 g H2O/g dm and subjected to artificial aging at 35oC in air-tight laminated aluminium foil packages for 205 weeks. It was shown that the rate of seed aging depended on the species and seed moisture content. The fastest decrease of germinability upon storage was observed in seed with the highest moisture level. Complete germinability loss for winter rye, winter triticale cv. Fidelio, winter triticale cv. Woltario and spring wheat seed with mc 0.10 g H2O/g dm3 occurred after 81, 81, 101 and 133 weeks, respectively. Fructose, glucose, galactose, myo-inositol, sucrose, galactinol, raffinose, stachyose and verbascose were the main soluble carbohydrates found in the seed. The obtained data on the contents of specific sugars and the composition of soluble sugars fraction in seed of rye, wheat and triticale did not corroborate any profound effect of reducing sugars, sucrose and oligosaccharides on seed longevity.

  18. Single Cell Synchrotron FT-IR Microspectroscopy Reveals a Link between Neutral Lipid and Storage Carbohydrate Fluxes in S. cerevisiae

    Jamme, Frédéric; Vindigni, Jean-David; Méchin, Valérie; Cherifi, Tamazight; Chardot, Thierry; Froissard, Marine

    2013-01-01

    In most organisms, storage lipids are packaged into specialized structures called lipid droplets. These contain a core of neutral lipids surrounded by a monolayer of phospholipids, and various proteins which vary depending on the species. Hydrophobic structural proteins stabilize the interface between the lipid core and aqueous cellular environment (perilipin family of proteins, apolipoproteins, oleosins). We developed a genetic approach using heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae of the Arabidopsis thaliana lipid droplet oleosin and caleosin proteins AtOle1 and AtClo1. These transformed yeasts overaccumulate lipid droplets, leading to a specific increase in storage lipids. The phenotype of these cells was explored using synchrotron FT-IR microspectroscopy to investigate the dynamics of lipid storage and cellular carbon fluxes reflected as changes in spectral fingerprints. Multivariate statistical analysis of the data showed a clear effect on storage carbohydrates and more specifically, a decrease in glycogen in our modified strains. These observations were confirmed by biochemical quantification of the storage carbohydrates glycogen and trehalose. Our results demonstrate that neutral lipid and storage carbohydrate fluxes are tightly connected and co-regulated. PMID:24040242

  19. Single cell synchrotron FT-IR microspectroscopy reveals a link between neutral lipid and storage carbohydrate fluxes in S. cerevisiae.

    Frédéric Jamme

    Full Text Available In most organisms, storage lipids are packaged into specialized structures called lipid droplets. These contain a core of neutral lipids surrounded by a monolayer of phospholipids, and various proteins which vary depending on the species. Hydrophobic structural proteins stabilize the interface between the lipid core and aqueous cellular environment (perilipin family of proteins, apolipoproteins, oleosins. We developed a genetic approach using heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae of the Arabidopsis thaliana lipid droplet oleosin and caleosin proteins AtOle1 and AtClo1. These transformed yeasts overaccumulate lipid droplets, leading to a specific increase in storage lipids. The phenotype of these cells was explored using synchrotron FT-IR microspectroscopy to investigate the dynamics of lipid storage and cellular carbon fluxes reflected as changes in spectral fingerprints. Multivariate statistical analysis of the data showed a clear effect on storage carbohydrates and more specifically, a decrease in glycogen in our modified strains. These observations were confirmed by biochemical quantification of the storage carbohydrates glycogen and trehalose. Our results demonstrate that neutral lipid and storage carbohydrate fluxes are tightly connected and co-regulated.

  20. Learning about Carbohydrates

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Learning About Carbohydrates KidsHealth / For Kids / Learning About Carbohydrates Print en ... source of energy for the body. What Are Carbohydrates? There are two major types of carbohydrates (or ...

  1. Euglena gracilis Z and its carbohydrate storage substance relieve arthritis symptoms by modulating Th17 immunity.

    Kengo Suzuki

    Full Text Available Euglena gracilis Z is a microorganism classified as a microalga and is used as a food or nutritional supplement. Paramylon, the carbohydrate storage substance of E. gracilis Z, is reported to affect the immunological system. This study evaluated the symptom-relieving effects of E. gracilis Z and paramylon in rheumatoid arthritis in a collagen-induced arthritis mouse model. The efficacy of both substances was assessed based on clinical arthritis signs, as well as cytokine (interleukin [IL]-17, IL-6, and interferon [IFN]-γ levels in lymphoid tissues. Additionally, the knee joints were harvested and histopathologically examined. The results showed that both substances reduced the transitional changes in the visual assessment score of arthritis symptoms compared with those in the control group, indicating their symptom-relieving effects on rheumatoid arthritis. Furthermore, E. gracilis Z and paramylon significantly reduced the secretion of the cytokines, IL-17, IL-6, and IFN-γ. The histopathological examination of the control group revealed edema, inflammation, cell hyperplasia, granulation tissue formation, fibrosis, and exudate in the synovial membrane, as well as pannus formation and articular cartilage destruction in the femoral trochlear groove. These changes were suppressed in both treatment groups. Particularly, the E. gracilis Z group showed no edema, inflammation, and fibrosis of the synovial membrane, or pannus formation and destruction of articular cartilage in the femoral trochlear groove. Furthermore, E. gracilis Z and paramylon exhibited symptom-relieving effects on rheumatoid arthritis and suppressed the secretion of cytokines IL-17, IL-6, and IFN-γ. These effects were likely mediated by the regulatory activities of E. gracilis Z and paramylon on Th17 immunity. In addition, the symptom-relieving effects of both substances were comparable, which suggests that paramylon is the active component of Euglena gracilis Z.

  2. Carbohydrate Analysis

    Bemiller, James N.

    Carbohydrates are important in foods as a major source of energy, to impart crucial textural properties, and as dietary fiber which influences physiological processes. Digestible carbohydrates, which are converted into monosaccharides, which are absorbed, provide metabolic energy. Worldwide, carbohydrates account for more than 70% of the caloric value of the human diet. It is recommended that all persons should limit calories from fat (the other significant source) to not more than 30% and that most of the carbohydrate calories should come from starch. Nondigestible polysaccharides (all those other than starch) comprise the major portion of dietary fiber (Sect. 10.5). Carbohydrates also contribute other attributes, including bulk, body, viscosity, stability to emulsions and foams, water-holding capacity, freeze-thaw stability, browning, flavors, aromas, and a range of desirable textures (from crispness to smooth, soft gels). They also provide satiety. Basic carbohydrate structures, chemistry, and terminology can be found in references (1, 2).

  3. Major losses of fat, carbohydrates and energy content of preterm human milk frozen at -80°C.

    Lev, H M; Ovental, A; Mandel, D; Mimouni, F B; Marom, R; Lubetzky, R

    2014-05-01

    Long-term storage of human milk (HM) requires freezing at low temperatures, the consequences of which upon macronutrients are unclear. To test the null hypothesis that HM freezing and storage for a range of 1 to 10 weeks at -80 °C does not affect HM fat, protein, lactose and energy contents. Samples of HM were obtained from 20 mothers (60 samples) of preterm infants (25 to 35 weeks gestation), who routinely expressed their milk, every 3 h, using an electric pump, from the second to the seventh week after delivery. All samples were frozen at -80 °C for 8 to 83 days (43.8 days average). After thawing and homogenization, energy and macronutrient contents were measured using an HM analyzer. Fat, carbohydrates and energy contents were significantly lower in thawed HM than in fresh HM (fat, fresh vs thawed: 3.72±1.17 vs 3.36±1.19 g/100 ml, Pcarbohydrates, fresh vs thawed: 5.86±0.71 vs 4.09±0.96 g/100 ml, Pvs thawed: 64.93±12.97 vs 56.63±16.82 kcal/100 ml, Pvs thawed: 1.14±0.36 vs 1.15±0.37 g/100 ml, P=0.7). The decline in carbohydrates content but not in fat and energy correlated significantly with freezing duration. Freezing at -80 °C significantly decreases the energy content of HM, both from fat and carbohydrates. Since quantitatively the decrease in macronutrients was much higher than that published for HM storage at -20 °C, our results do not support freezing HM at -80 °C as the gold standard for long-term storage. We suggest that caloric intake calculations in preterm infants cannot be established based upon fresh HM data.

  4. The importance of nitrogen and carbohydrate storage for plant growth of the alpine herb Veratrum album

    Kleijn, David; Treier, Urs; Müller-Schärer, Heinz

    2005-01-01

    availability and vegetation growth were monitored. Veratrum album shoots were experimentally removed when carbohydrate reserves were at a seasonal minimum and the subsequent changes in biomass and reserves were compared with those in control plants.  Reserves did not give V. album a competitive advantage...

  5. The importance of nitrogen and carbohydrate storage for plant growth of the alpine herb Veratrum album

    Kleijn, D.; Treier, U.A.; Müller-Schärer, H.

    2005-01-01

    We examined whether nitrogen (N) and carbohydrates reserves allow Veratrum album, an alpine forb, to start spring growth earlier than the neighbouring vegetation and to survive unpredictable disturbances resulting in loss of above-ground biomass. Seasonal dynamics of plant reserves, soil N

  6. Interaction of storage carbohydrates and other cyclic fluxes with central metabolism: A quantitative approach by non-stationary 13C metabolic flux analysis.

    Suarez-Mendez, C A; Hanemaaijer, M; Ten Pierick, Angela; Wolters, J C; Heijnen, J J; Wahl, S A

    2016-12-01

    13 C labeling experiments in aerobic glucose limited cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae at four different growth rates (0.054; 0.101, 0.207, 0.307 h -1 ) are used for calculating fluxes that include intracellular cycles (e.g., storage carbohydrate cycles, exchange fluxes with amino acids), which are rearranged depending on the growth rate. At low growth rates the impact of the storage carbohydrate recycle is relatively more significant than at high growth rates due to a higher concentration of these materials in the cell (up to 560-fold) and higher fluxes relative to the glucose uptake rate (up to 16%). Experimental observations suggest that glucose can be exported to the extracellular space, and that its source is related to storage carbohydrates, most likely via the export and subsequent extracellular breakdown of trehalose. This hypothesis is strongly supported by 13 C-labeling experimental data, measured extracellular trehalose, and the corresponding flux estimations.

  7. Influence of development, postharvest handling, and storage conditions on the carbohydrate components of sweetpotato (Ipomea batatas Lam.) roots.

    Nabubuya, Agnes; Namutebi, Agnes; Byaruhanga, Yusuf; Narvhus, Judith; Wicklund, Trude

    2017-11-01

    Changes in total starch and reducing sugar content in five sweetpotato varieties were investigated weekly during root development and following subjection of the roots to different postharvest handling and storage conditions. Freshly harvested (noncured) roots and cured roots (spread under the sun for 4 days at 29-31°C and 63-65% relative humidity [RH]) were separately stored at ambient conditions (23°C-26°C and 70-80% RH) and in a semiunderground pit (19-21°C and 90-95% RH). Changes in pasting properties of flour from sweetpotato roots during storage were analyzed at 14-day intervals. Significant varietal differences ( p  < .05) in total starch, sucrose, glucose, maltose, and fructose concentrations were registered. The total starch and sucrose content of the roots did not change significantly ( p  < .05) during root development (72.4 and 7.4%, respectively), whereas the average concentrations of glucose, maltose, and fructose decreased markedly (0.46-0.18%, 0.55-0.28%, and 0.43-0.21%), respectively. Storage led to decrease in total starch content (73-47.7%) and increase in sucrose and glucose concentrations (8.1-11.2% and 0.22-1.57%, respectively). Storage also resulted in reduction in sweetpotato flour pasting viscosities. Curing resulted in increased sucrose and glucose concentrations (9.1-11.2% and 0.45-0.85%, respectively) and marked reduction ( p  < .05) in total starch content (72.9-47.6%). This resulted in low pasting viscosities compared to flour from storage of uncured roots. These findings show that significant changes occur in the carbohydrate components of sweetpotato roots during storage compared to development and present an opportunity for diverse utilization of flours from sweetpotato roots in the food industry.

  8. Effects of storage on the major constituents of raw milk

    Peter Zajác

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Milk testing and quality control should be carried out at all stages of the dairy chain. Milk can be tested for quantity, organoleptic characteristic, compositional characteristic, physical and chemical characteristics, hygienic characteristics, adulteration or drug residues. The content of the major constituents of raw milk is important for milk payment system. Enzymes naturally present in the milk can change the chemical composition of raw milk. Also, enzymes secreted by bacteria or enzymes from somatic cells can degrade the raw milk composition. Products of these degradation reactions can have undesirable effects on milk structure, smell and taste. It is very important that farm-fresh raw milk be cooled immediately to not more than 8 °C in the case of daily collection, or not more than 6 °C if collection is not daily. During transport the cold chain must be maintained. An authorized person, properly trained in the appropriate technique, shall perform sampling of bulk milk in farm. Laboratory samples should be dispatched immediately after sampling to the dairy company and consequently to the testing laboratory. The time for dispatch of the samples to the testing laboratory should be as short as possible, preferably within 24 h. Laboratory samples shall be transported and stored at temperature 1 to 5 °C. Higher temperatures may adversely affect the composition of the laboratory sample and may cause disputes between the farmer, the dairy company and the laboratory. The effect of refrigerated storage at temperature 4 °C during 24 h on the composition of raw milk were investigated in this work, because we wanted to know how the milk composition will be changed and how the laboratory results will be affected. In many cases, the samples are not preserved with chemical preservants like azidiol, bronopol, potassium dichromate or Microtabs. We found, that the composition of raw cows' milk after 24 was changed significantly (p >0.005. We found an

  9. The amount of parenchyma and living fibers affects storage of nonstructural carbohydrates in young stems and roots of temperate trees.

    Plavcová, Lenka; Hoch, Günter; Morris, Hugh; Ghiasi, Sara; Jansen, Steven

    2016-04-01

    Concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrates (NSCs) are used as proxies for the net carbon balance of trees and as indicators of carbon starvation resulting from environmental stress. Woody organs are the largest NSC-storing compartments in forest ecosystems; therefore, it is essential to understand the factors that affect the size of this important storage pool. In wood, NSC are predominantly deposited in ray and axial parenchyma (RAP); however, direct links between nutrient storage and RAP anatomy have not yet been established. Here, we tested whether the NSC storage capacity of wood is influenced by the amount of RAP. We measured NSC concentrations and RAP fractions in root and stem sapwood of 12 temperate species sampled at the onset of winter dormancy and in stem sapwood of four tropical trees growing in an evergreen lowland rainforest. The patterns of starch distribution were visualized by staining with Lugol's solution. The concentration of NSCs in sapwood of temperate trees scales tightly with the amount of RAP and living fibers (LFs), with almost all RAP and LFs being densely packed with starch grains. In contrast, the tropical species had lower NSC concentrations despite their higher RAP and LFs fraction and had considerable interspecific differences in starch distribution. The differences in RAP and LFs abundance affect the ability of sapwood to store NSC in temperate trees, whereas a more diverse set of functions of RAP might be pronounced in species growing in a tropical environment with little seasonality. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  10. Changes in the carbohydrate and organic acid contents of tomatoes as a function of radiation dose and storage time

    Kovacs, E.

    1974-01-01

    Sugars and organic acids of tomatoes, variety Original Fruehrot, in different stages of development were examined by gas chromatography after silylation. Changes in the carbohydrate and organic acid content of half-ripe and ripe tomatoes were determined after treatment with different radiation doses (5, 15, 30, 60, 250 and 500 krad). Fructose, glucose, saccharose and malic acid could be detected in the tomato samples. The saccharose and malic acid contents of half-ripe tomatoes decreased as a result of irradiation with doses above 250 krad. In ripe tomatoes, the malic acid content fell most markedly under the influence of irradiation. The sugar content tended to decrease as a function of storage time, except for samples treated with 15 krad which usually delayed decomposition of the components tested. The effect of irradiation was more extensive in half-ripe tomatoes than in ripe ones. (F.J.)

  11. Changes in the carbohydrate and organic acid contents of tomatoes as a function of radiation dose and storage time

    Kovacs, E [Kozponti Elelmiszeripari Kutato Intezet, Budapest (Hungary)

    1974-01-01

    Sugars and organic acids of tomatoes, variety Original Fruehrot, in different stages of development were examined by gas chromatography after silylation. Changes in the carbohydrate and organic acid content of half-ripe and ripe tomatoes were determined after treatment with different radiation doses (5, 15, 30, 60, 250 and 500 krad). Fructose, glucose, saccharose and malic acid could be detected in the tomato samples. The saccharose and malic acid contents of half-ripe tomatoes decreased as a result of irradiation with doses above 250 krad. In ripe tomatoes, the malic acid content fell most markedly under the influence of irradiation. The sugar content tended to decrease as a function of storage time, except for samples treated with 15 krad which usually delayed decomposition of the components tested. The effect of irradiation was more extensive in half-ripe tomatoes than in ripe ones.

  12. Single-provenance mature conifers show higher non-structural carbohydrate storage and reduced growth in a drier location.

    Piper, Frida I; Fajardo, Alex; Hoch, Günter

    2017-08-01

    Since growth is more sensitive to drought than photosynthesis, trees inhabiting dry regions are expected to exhibit higher carbohydrate storage and less growth than their conspecifics from more humid regions. However, the same pattern can be the result of different genotypes inhabiting contrasting humidity conditions. To test if reduced growth and high carbohydrate storage are environmentally driven by drought, we examined the growth and non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) concentrations in single-provenance stands of mature trees of Pinus contorta Douglas and Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex C. Lawson planted at contrasting humidity conditions (900 versus 300 mm of annual precipitation) in Patagonia, Chile. Individual tree growth was measured for each species and at each location as mean basal area increment of the last 10 years (BAI10), annual shoot elongation for the period 2011-14, and needle length for 2013 and 2014 cohorts. Additionally, needle, branch, stem sapwood and roots were collected from each sampled tree to determine soluble sugars, starch and total NSC concentrations. The two species showed lower mean BAI10 and 2013 needle length in the dry site; P. ponderosa also had lower annual shoot extension for 2011 and 2014, and lower 2014 needle length, in the dry than in the mesic site. By contrast, NSC concentrations of all woody tissues for both species were either similar or higher in the dry site when compared with the mesic site. Patterns of starch and sugars were substantially different: starch concentrations were similar between sites except for roots of P. ponderosa, which were higher in the dry site, while sugar concentrations of all woody tissues in both species were higher in the dry site. Overall, our study provides evidence that reduced growth along with carbon (C) accumulation is an environmentally driven response to drought. Furthermore, the significant accumulation of low-molecular weight sugars in the dry site is compatible with a prioritized C

  13. Switchgrass storage effects on the recovery of carbohydrates after liquid hot water pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis

    Danielle Julie Carrier

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Perennial grasses that would be used for bioenergy and bioproducts production will need to be stored for various periods of time to ensure a continual feedstock supply to a bioprocessing facility. The effects of storage practices on grass composition and the response of grasses to subsequent bioprocesses such as pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis needs to be understood to develop the most efficient storage protocols. This study examined the effect of outdoor storage of round switchgrass bales on composition before and after liquid hot water pretreatment (LHW and enzymatic hydrolysis. This study also examined the effect of washing LHW pretreated biomass prior to enzymatic hydrolysis. It was determined that switchgrass composition after baling was stable. As expected, glucan and lignin contents increased after LHW due to decreases in xylan and galactan. Washing biomass prior to enzymatic hydrolysis reduced saccharification, especially in samples from the interior of the bale, by at least 5%.

  14. Interaction of storage carbohydrates and other cyclic fluxes with central metabolism : A quantitative approach by non-stationary 13C metabolic flux analysis

    Suarez-Mendez, C. A.; Hanemaaijer, M.; ten Pierick, Angela; Wolters, J. C.; Heijnen, J.J.; Wahl, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    13C labeling experiments in aerobic glucose limited cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae at four different growth rates (0.054; 0.101, 0.207, 0.307 h-1) are used for calculating fluxes that include intracellular cycles (e.g., storage carbohydrate cycles, exchange fluxes with amino acids), which are

  15. Exercise and deficient carbohydrate storage and intake as causes of hypoglycemia.

    Field, J B

    1989-03-01

    Exercise is associated with a marked increase in glucose uptake by muscle, which is initially supported by breakdown of hepatic glycogen and subsequently by increased gluconeogenesis. If hepatic glucose production is inadequate, hypoglycemia results. During exercise there is decreased plasma insulin and increased catecholamines, glucagon, cortisol, and growth hormone, which contribute to but are not essential for the increased hepatic output of glucose. Although insulin concentrations fall, insulin sensitivity is increased. However, the augmented glucose uptake by muscle is due to other factors. The symptoms of exhaustion during exercise are not due to hypoglycemia, and prevention of hypoglycemia may not prolong the time of exercise to exhaustion. During severe caloric restriction, hepatic glucose production decreases and free fatty acids and ketone bodies become important sources of calories. Although under these circumstances hepatic gluconeogenesis is usually sufficient to prevent hypoglycemia, with very severe caloric restriction hypoglycemia can result. With starvation, insulin concentrations fall while growth hormone and glucagon increase. Frequently the usual symptoms of hypoglycemia are absent in individuals with hypoglycemia from severe caloric restriction. Hypoglycemia from severe caloric restriction has not been totally restricted to underdeveloped areas of the world. In such patients no endocrine abnormalities have been found, and hypoglycemia has persisted despite administration of large amounts of carbohydrate. Pregnancy and lactation could predispose to hypoglycemia in the face of inadequate caloric intake.

  16. Analysis of carbohydrate storage granules in the diazotrophic cyanobacterium Cyanothece sp. PCC 7822

    Welkie, David G. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Sherman, Debra M. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Chrisler, William B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Orr, Galya [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sherman, Louis A. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2013-10-19

    The unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacteria of the genus Cyanothece demonstrate oscillations in nitrogenase activity and H2 production when grown under 12h light-12h dark cycles. We established that Cyanothece sp. PCC 7822 allows for the construction of knock-out mutants and our objective was to improve the growth characteristics of this strain and to identify the nature of the intracellular storage granules. We report the physiological and morphological effects of reduction in nitrate and phosphate concentrations in BG-11 media on this strain. We developed a series of BG-11-derived growth media and monitored batch culture growth, nitrogenase activity and nitrogenase-mediated hydrogen production, culture synchronicity, and intracellular storage content. Reduction in NaNO3 and K2HPO4 concentrations from 17.6 and 0.23 mM to 4.41 and 0.06 mM, respectively, improved growth characteristics such as cell size and uniformity, and enhanced the rate of cell division. Cells grown in this low NP BG-11 were less complex, a parameter that related to the composition of the intracellular storage granules. Cells grown in low NP BG-11 had less polyphosphate, fewer polyhydroxybutyrate granules and many smaller granules became evident. Biochemical analysis and transmission electron microscopy using the histocytochemical PATO technique demonstrated that these small granules contained glycogen. The glycogen levels and the number of granules per cell correlated nicely with a 2.3 to 3.3-fold change from the minimum at L0 to the maximum at D0. The differences in granule morphology and enzymes between Cyanothece ATCC 51142 and Cyanothece PCC 7822 provide insights into the formation of large starch-like granules in some cyanobacteria.

  17. Protein aggregation in aqueous casein solution. Effect of irradiation, dose level, concentration, storage and additives (carbohydrate and lipid)

    Yousri, R M

    1980-06-01

    From the vast amount of research efforts dealing with various aspects of radiation effects on foods and food components, it is apparent up to now that much remains to be studied in depth, much may have to be added or corrected about radiation-induced physico-chemical changes in foods. A great many reactions that take place when foodstuffs are subjected to ionizing radiation are still not fully understood. The better understanding of some of the radiation-induced changes in pure proteins as such or in mixture with other food constituents could yield much data which could be meaningfully extrapolated to intact foods and consequently could help to improve the assessment of the wholesomeness of irradiated foods. It was the purpose of our investigations to elucidate some of the changes in the chemical structure of a pure protein (casein), irradiated as such or with added carbohydrate and/or lipid. The effect of subsequent storage of the irradiated solutions has been also examined. The formation of protein aggregates was studied by gel filtration technique. The application of thin-layer gel filtration, its speed and adaptability to very small samples facilitated the measurements of the extent of aggregation which occurred in protein molecules after irradiation.

  18. The effect of enzymes upon metabolism, storage, and release of carbohydrates in normal and abnormal endometria.

    Hughes, E C

    1976-07-01

    This paper presents preliminary data concerning the relationship of various components of glandular epithelium and effect of enzymes on metabolism, storage, and release of certain substances in normal and abnormal endometria. Activity of these endometrial enzymes has been compared between two groups: 252 patients with normal menstrual histories and 156 patients, all over the age of 40, with abnormal uterine bleeding. Material was obtained by endometrial biopsy or curettage. In the pathologic classification of the group of 156, 30 patients had secretory endometria, 88 patients had endometria classified as proliferative, 24 were classified as endometrial hyperplasia, and 14 were classified as adenocarcinoma. All tissue was studied by histologic, histochemical, and biochemical methods. Glycogen synthetase activity caused synthesis of glucose to glycogen, increasing in amount until midcycle, when glycogen phosphorylase activity caused the breakdown to glucose during the regressive stage of endometrial activity. This normal cyclic activity did not occur in the abnormal endometria, where activity of both enzymes continued at low constant tempo. Only the I form of glycogen synthetase increased as the tissue became more hyperplastic. With the constant glycogen content and the increased activity of both the TPN isocitric dehydrogenase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in the hyperplastic and cancerous endometria, tissue energy was created, resulting in abnormal cell proliferation. These altered biochemical and cellular activities may be the basis for malignant cell growth.

  19. Interaction of storage carbohydrates and other cyclic fluxes with central metabolism: A quantitative approach by non-stationary 13C metabolic flux analysis

    C.A. Suarez-Mendez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available 13C labeling experiments in aerobic glucose limited cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae at four different growth rates (0.054; 0.101, 0.207, 0.307 h−1 are used for calculating fluxes that include intracellular cycles (e.g., storage carbohydrate cycles, exchange fluxes with amino acids, which are rearranged depending on the growth rate. At low growth rates the impact of the storage carbohydrate recycle is relatively more significant than at high growth rates due to a higher concentration of these materials in the cell (up to 560-fold and higher fluxes relative to the glucose uptake rate (up to 16%. Experimental observations suggest that glucose can be exported to the extracellular space, and that its source is related to storage carbohydrates, most likely via the export and subsequent extracellular breakdown of trehalose. This hypothesis is strongly supported by 13C-labeling experimental data, measured extracellular trehalose, and the corresponding flux estimations. Keywords: Non-stationary 13C labeling, Flux estimation, Trehalose, Glycogen, Amino acids

  20. Drought stress release increased growth rate but did not affect levels of storage carbohydrates in Scots pine trees

    Schönbeck, Leonie; Gessler, Arthur; Rigling, Andreas; Schaub, Marcus; Li, Mai-He

    2017-04-01

    For trees, energy storage in the form of non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) plays an important role for survival and growth, especially during stress events such as drought. It is hypothesized, that tree individuals that experience long-term drought stress use up larger amounts of NSCs than trees that do not experience drought. Consequently, such drought-induced depletion might lead to a decrease in tree vigor and carbon starvation, a mechanism that is subject of intensive debates in recent literature. Hence, if carbon starvation is occurring during drought, drought stress release should again increase NSC concentrations. A long-term (13 years) irrigation experiment is being conducted in the Pfyn forest, the largest Pinus sylvestris dominated forest in Switzerland, located in the dry inner-Alpine Swiss Rhone valley (average precipitation 600 mm/year, with frequent dry spells). Water addition ( 600 mm/year) is executed every year during the growing season between April and October. Tree height, stem diameter and crown transparency are being measured since 2003. In February, July and October 2015, roots, stem sapwood and needles were harvested from 30 irrigated and 30 control trees and 5 different crown transparency classes. Shoot length, needle morphology, soluble sugars, starch concentrations, needle δ13C and δ15N were measured. Shoot and stem growth were higher in irrigated trees than in control trees. Growth decreased with increasing crown transparency in both treatments. Only in July, needle starch levels were higher in irrigated trees than in control trees but there was no treatment effect for wood and root starch concentrations. Tissue starch and sugar levels were negatively correlated with crown transparency, particularly in the roots (preduced NSC is related to reduced tree vigor under drought.

  1. Changes in soluble carbohydrates during storage of Caesalpinia echinata LAM. (Brazilwood seeds, an endangered leguminous tree from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    I. S. Garcia

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia echinata seeds stored in laboratory environmental conditions lose their viability in one month whilst under low temperatures germination is maintained for 18 months of storage. These seeds are tolerant to desiccation, keeping their viability up to 0.08 gH2O.gDW-1. Since soluble carbohydrates are believed to be involved with desiccation tolerance and seed storability, the aim of this work is to analyze the content and composition of soluble carbohydrates in C. echinata seeds during storage in paper bags (PB and glass flasks (GF at laboratory room (RT and cool (CT temperatures. In freshly harvested seeds, total soluble carbohydrates comprised approximately 10% of the dry weight, decreasing to ca. 8% over 18 months of storage at RT. In seeds stored at CT, sugars varied differently decreasing initially and being restored at the end of the analysis period. The main neutral sugars in seeds from all treatments were sucrose, fructose and glucose. Raffinose and stachyose were present as traces. Free myo-inositol and other cyclitols were also detected. The main tendency observed was the variation in levels of both glucose and fructose in relation to sucrose, the highest levels of monosaccharides which were found in seeds stored at CT. The values of glucose and fructose were practically constant in seeds stored in paper bags for 18 months at CT, decreasing consistently in the other treatments, mainly at RT. Sucrose contents remained relatively stable. Changes in soluble sugars during storage suggest that the loss of germinability of seeds of C. echinata could be associated with low levels of glucose and fructose in relation to sucrose.

  2. Chronological Lifespan in Yeast Is Dependent on the Accumulation of Storage Carbohydrates Mediated by Yak1, Mck1 and Rim15 Kinases

    Tang, Yingzhi; Quan, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Zhe; Oliver, Stephen G.; Zhang, Nianshu

    2016-01-01

    Upon starvation for glucose or any other macronutrient, yeast cells exit from the mitotic cell cycle and acquire a set of characteristics that are specific to quiescent cells to ensure longevity. Little is known about the molecular determinants that orchestrate quiescence entry and lifespan extension. Using starvation-specific gene reporters, we screened a subset of the yeast deletion library representing the genes encoding ‘signaling’ proteins. Apart from the previously characterised Rim15, Mck1 and Yak1 kinases, the SNF1/AMPK complex, the cell wall integrity pathway and a number of cell cycle regulators were shown to be necessary for proper quiescence establishment and for extension of chronological lifespan (CLS), suggesting that entry into quiescence requires the integration of starvation signals transmitted via multiple signaling pathways. The CLS of these signaling mutants, and those of the single, double and triple mutants of RIM15, YAK1 and MCK1 correlates well with the amount of storage carbohydrates but poorly with transition-phase cell cycle status. Combined removal of the glycogen and trehalose biosynthetic genes, especially GSY2 and TPS1, nearly abolishes the accumulation of storage carbohydrates and severely reduces CLS. Concurrent overexpression of GSY2 and TSL1 or supplementation of trehalose to the growth medium ameliorates the severe CLS defects displayed by the signaling mutants (rim15Δyak1Δ or rim15Δmck1Δ). Furthermore, we reveal that the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species are cooperatively controlled by Yak1, Rim15 and Mck1, and the three kinases mediate the TOR1-regulated accumulation of storage carbohydrates and CLS extension. Our data support the hypothesis that metabolic reprogramming to accumulate energy stores and the activation of anti-oxidant defence systems are coordinated by Yak1, Rim15 and Mck1 kinases to ensure quiescence entry and lifespan extension in yeast. PMID:27923067

  3. Counting carbohydrates

    Carb counting; Carbohydrate-controlled diet; Diabetic diet; Diabetes-counting carbohydrates ... Many foods contain carbohydrates (carbs), including: Fruit and fruit juice Cereal, bread, pasta, and rice Milk and milk products, soy milk Beans, legumes, ...

  4. Water stress, shoot growth and storage of non-structural carbohydrates along a tree height gradient in a tall conifer

    David R. Woodruff; Frederick C. Meinzer

    2011-01-01

    We analyzed concentrations of starch, sucrose, glucose and fructose in upper branch wood, foliage and trunk sapwood of Douglas-fir trees in height classes ranging from ~2 to ~57 m. Mean concentrations of non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) for all tissues were highest in the tallest height class and lowest in the lowest height class, and height-related trends in NSC...

  5. Major role for carbohydrate epitopes preferentially recognized by chronically infected mice in the determination of Schistosoma mansoni schistosomulum surface antigenicity

    Omer-ali, P.; Magee, A.I.; Kelly, C.; Simpson, A.J.G.

    1986-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay that makes use of whole Schistosomula and 125 I-labeled protein A has been used to characterize and to quantify the binding of antisera to the surface of 3 hr mechanically transformed schistosomula of Schistosoma mansoni. This technique facilitates the determination of epitopes on the schistosomula in addition to those detected by surface labeling and immunoprecipitation. By using this technique, it has been demonstrated that there is a much greater binding to the parasite surface of antibodies from chronically infected mice (CMS) than of antibodies from mice infected with highly irradiated cercariae (VMS), and CMS recognizes epitopes that VMS does not. Treatment of the surface of the schistosomula with trifluoromethanesulphonic acid and sodium metaperiodate has suggested that the discrepancy of the binding between the two sera is due to the recognition of a large number of additional epitopes by CMS, which are carbohydrate in nature. Some of the carbohydrate epitopes are expressed on the previously described surface glycoprotein antigens of M/sub r/ 200,000, 38,000, and 17,000

  6. Biochemical characterization of amandin, the major storage protein in almond (Prunus dulcis L.).

    Sathe, Shridhar K; Wolf, Walter J; Roux, Kenneth H; Teuber, Suzanne S; Venkatachalam, Mahesh; Sze-Tao, Kar Wai Clara

    2002-07-17

    The almond major storage protein, amandin, was prepared by column chromatography (amandin-1), cryoprecipitation (amandin-2), and isoelectric precipitation (amandin-3) methods. Amandin is a legumin type protein characterized by a sedimentation value of 14S. Amandin is composed of two major types of polypeptides with estimated molecular weights of 42-46 and 20-22 kDa linked via disulfide bonds. Several additional minor polypeptides were also present in amandin. Amandin is a storage protein with an estimated molecular weight of 427,300 +/- 47,600 Da (n = 7) and a Stokes radius of 65.88 +/- 3.21 A (n = 7). Amandin is not a glycoprotein. Amandin-1, amandin-2, and amandin-3 are antigenically related and have similar biochemical properties. Amandin-3 is more negatively charged than either amandin-1 or amandin-2. Methionine is the first essential limiting amino acid in amandin followed by lysine and threonine.

  7. Modulation of carbon and nitrogen allocation in Urtica dioica and Plantago major by elevated CO{sub 2}. Impact of accumulation of nonstructural carbohydrates and ontogenetic drift

    Hertog, J. den; Stulen, I.; Fonseca, F.; Delea, P.

    1996-10-01

    Doubling the atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration from 350 to 700 {mu} l{sup -1} increased the relative growth rate (RGR) of hydroponically grown Urtica dioica L. and Plantagomajor ssp. pleiospherma Pilger only for the first 10-14 days. Previous experiments with P. major indicated that RGR did not respond i proportion to the rate of photosynthesis. The impact of changes in leaf morphology, dry matter partitioning, dry matter chemical composition and ontogenetic drift on this discrepancy is analysed. Soon after the start of the treatment, carbohydrate concentrations were higher at elevated CO{sub 2}; largely due to starch accumulation. An increase in the percentage of leaf dry matter and decreases in the specific leaf area (SLA) and the shoot nitrogen concentration were correlated with an increase in the total nonstructural carbohydrate concentration (TNC). A combination of accumulation of soluble sugars and starch and ontogenetic drift explains the decrease in SLA at the elevated CO{sub 2} level. A similar ontogenetic effect of elevated CO{sub 2} was observed on the specific root length (SRL). Shoot nitrogen concentration and percentage leaf dry matter were not affected. The net diurnal fluctuation of the carbohydrate pool in P. major was equal for both CO{sub 2} concentrations, indicating that the growth response to elevated CO{sub 2} may be ruled by other variables such as sink strength. Elevated CO{sub 2} did not greatly influence the partitioning of nitrogen between soluble and insoluble, reduced N and nitrate, nor the allocation of dry matter between leaf, stem and root. That the root to shoot ratio (F/S) was not affected by elevated CO{sub 2} implies that, to maintain a balanced activity between roots and shoot, no shift in partitioning of dry matter upon doubling of the atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration is required. (AB)

  8. Mature forms of the major seed storage albumins in sunflower: A mass spectrometric approach.

    Franke, Bastian; Colgrave, Michelle L; Mylne, Joshua S; Rosengren, K Johan

    2016-09-16

    Seed storage albumins are abundant, water-soluble proteins that are degraded to provide critical nutrients for the germinating seedling. It has been established that the sunflower albumins encoded by SEED STORAGE ALBUMIN 2 (SESA2), SESA20 and SESA3 are the major components of the albumin-rich fraction of the common sunflower Helianthus annuus. To determine the structure of sunflowers most important albumins we performed a detailed chromatographic and mass spectrometric characterization to assess what post-translational processing they receive prior to deposition in the protein storage vacuole. We found that SESA2 and SESA20 each encode two albumins. The first of the two SESA2 albumins (SESA2-1) exists as a monomer of 116 or 117 residues, differing by a threonine at the C-terminus. The second of the two SESA2 albumins (SESA2-2) is a monomer of 128 residues. SESA20 encodes the albumin SESA20-2, which is a 127-residue monomer, whereas SESA20-1 was not abundant enough to be structurally described. SESA3, which has been partly characterized previously, was found in several forms with methylation of its asparagine residues. In contrast to other dicot albumins, which are generally matured into a heterodimer, all the dominant mature sunflower albumins SESA2, SESA20-2, SESA3 and its post-translationally modified analogue SESA3-a are monomeric. Sunflower plants have been bred to thrive in various climate zones making them favored crops to meet the growing worldwide demand by humans for protein. The abundance of seed storage proteins makes them an important source of protein for animal and human nutrition. This study explores the structures of the dominant sunflower napin-type seed storage albumins to understand what structures evolution has favored in the most abundant proteins in sunflower seed. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Viability of Timor deer stag (Cervus timorensis spermatozoa extended in tris egg yolk diluent with different sources of carbohydrate and storage at room temperature

    W. Marlene Mesang-Nalley

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The successful sperm preservation, influenced by the capability of its extender on the maintenance the sperm quality during storage. The carbohydrate such as glucose and fructose were the common sugar added on the mammalian sperm extender to support their live and motility. The sucrose was the main carbohydrate in Timor deer stag seminal plasma. The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of carbohydrates in Tris egg yolk (TEY extender on the motility and viability of stag sperm, stored in room temperature (27-28 oC. The semen was collected using electro ejaculator from five Timor deer stags at hard antler stage, 3-5 years old, body weight of 64-102 kg with normal testes. The semen was than evaluated macro-and microscopically and divided into 3 aliquots. Each of them was diluted with TEY-glucose (TEYG, TEY-fructose (TEYF and TEY-Sucrose (TEYS with the concentration of spermatozoa 100 x 106 ml-1. The extended semen was than stored at room temperature. The sperm motility and viability were evaluated every 3 hours. Result of the experiment showed that the semen volume was 2.06 ± 0.63 ml, pH 7.03±0.13, yellow white until creamy in color and the consistency ranged from normal to thick. The mass movement between ++ to +++ and the sperm motility was 68.67 ± 7.4%. The average of sperm concentration was 842.35 ± 258.14x106 ml-1, the viable sperm was 78.11 ± 3.61%, the sperm abnormality was 7.31 ± 2.98%. The percentages of sperm motility on TEYG (18.00 ± 17.63% and TEYS (21.83 ± 15.92% were higher compare to TEYF (4,00 ± 0,00% extender in 24 hours observation. The percentage of sperm viability showed the same pattern. The sperm viability in TEYG (28.17 ± 20.06 and TEYS (24.00 ± 22.59% (P<0.05 were significantly higher compare to TEYF (4.00 ± 0.00%. It is concluded that the deer stag sperm can use the three sugars for their nutrition source. The diluted sperm still can be used for artificial insemination after 12 hour storage.

  10. Carbohydrate microarrays

    Park, Sungjin; Gildersleeve, Jeffrey C; Blixt, Klas Ola

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade, carbohydrate microarrays have been core technologies for analyzing carbohydrate-mediated recognition events in a high-throughput fashion. A number of methods have been exploited for immobilizing glycans on the solid surface in a microarray format. This microarray...... of substrate specificities of glycosyltransferases. This review covers the construction of carbohydrate microarrays, detection methods of carbohydrate microarrays and their applications in biological and biomedical research....

  11. A study of different indicators of Maillard reaction with whey proteins and different carbohydrates under adverse storage conditions.

    Leiva, Graciela E; Naranjo, Gabriela B; Malec, Laura S

    2017-01-15

    This study examined different indicators of each stage of Maillard reaction under adverse storage conditions in a system with whey proteins and lactose or glucose. The analysis of lysine loss by the o-phthaldialdehyde method can be considered a good indicator of the early stage, showing considerable differences in reactivity when systems with mono and disaccharides were analyzed. Capillary electrophoresis proved to be a sensitive method for evaluating the extent of glycosylation of the native proteins, providing valuable information when the loss of lysine was not significant. The estimation of the Amadori compound from the determination of total 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfuraldehyde would have correlate well with reactive lysine content if the advanced stages of the reaction had not been reached. For assessing the occurrence of the intermediate and final stages, the measurement of free 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfuraldehyde and color, proved not to be suitable for storage conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Facultative thermogenesis induced by carbohydrate

    Astrup, A; Bülow, J; Christensen, N J

    1986-01-01

    In addition to the obligatory thermogenesis due to processing and storage, carbohydrate ingestion is accompanied by a facultative thermogenesis mediated by catecholamines via beta-adrenoceptors. The anatomical origin of facultative thermogenesis has hitherto not been determined. The possible...

  13. Central and storage carbon metabolism of the brown alga Ectocarpus siliculosus: insights into the origin and evolution of storage carbohydrates in Eukaryotes.

    Michel, Gurvan; Tonon, Thierry; Scornet, Delphine; Cock, J Mark; Kloareg, Bernard

    2010-10-01

    • Brown algae exhibit a unique carbon (C) storage metabolism. The photoassimilate D-fructose 6-phosphate is not used to produce sucrose but is converted into D-mannitol. These seaweeds also store C as β-1,3-glucan (laminarin), thus markedly departing from most living organisms, which use α-1,4-glucans (glycogen or starch). • Using a combination of bioinformatic and phylogenetic approaches, we identified the candidate genes for the enzymes involved in C storage in the genome of the brown alga Ectocarpus siliculosus and traced their evolutionary origins. • Ectocarpus possesses a complete set of enzymes for synthesis of mannitol, laminarin and trehalose. By contrast, the pathways for sucrose, starch and glycogen are completely absent. • The synthesis of β-1,3-glucans appears to be a very ancient eukaryotic pathway. Brown algae inherited the trehalose pathway from the red algal progenitor of phaeoplasts, while the mannitol pathway was acquired by lateral gene transfer from Actinobacteria. The starch metabolism of the red algal endosymbiont was entirely lost in the ancestor of Stramenopiles. In light of these novel findings we question the validity of the 'Chromalveolate hypothesis'.

  14. Energy optimization through probabilistic annual forecast water release technique for major storage hydroelectric reservoir

    Abdul Bahari Othman; Mohd Zamri Yusoff

    2006-01-01

    One of the important decisions to be made by the management of hydroelectric power plant associated with major storage reservoir is to determine the best turbine water release decision for the next financial year. The water release decision enables firm energy generated estimation for the coming financial year to be done. This task is usually a simple and straightforward task provided that the amount of turbine water release is known. The more challenging task is to determine the best water release decision that is able to resolve the two conflicting operational objectives which are minimizing the drop of turbine gross head and maximizing upper reserve margin of the reservoir. Most techniques from literature emphasize on utilizing the statistical simulations approach. Markovians models, for example, are a class of statistical model that utilizes the past and the present system states as a basis for predicting the future [1]. This paper illustrates that rigorous solution criterion can be mathematically proven to resolve those two conflicting operational objectives. Thus, best water release decision that maximizes potential energy for the prevailing natural inflow is met. It is shown that the annual water release decision shall be made in such a manner that annual return inflow that has return frequency smaller than critical return frequency (f c ) should not be considered. This criterion enables target turbine gross head to be set to the well-defined elevation. In the other words, upper storage margin of the reservoir shall be made available to capture magnitude of future inflow that has return frequency greater than or equal to f c. A case study is shown to demonstrate practical application of the derived mathematical formulas

  15. Carbohydrate Loading.

    Csernus, Marilyn

    Carbohydrate loading is a frequently used technique to improve performance by altering an athlete's diet. The objective is to increase glycogen stored in muscles for use in prolonged strenuous exercise. For two to three days, the athlete consumes a diet that is low in carbohydrates and high in fat and protein while continuing to exercise and…

  16. Planteose as a storage carbohydrate required for early stage of germination of Orobanche minor and its metabolism as a possible target for selective control

    Wakabayashi, Takatoshi; Joseph, Benesh; Yasumoto, Shuhei; Akashi, Tomoyoshi; Aoki, Toshio; Harada, Kazuo; Muranaka, Satoru; Bamba, Takeshi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Takeuchi, Yasutomo; Yoneyama, Koichi; Muranaka, Toshiya; Sugimoto, Yukihiro; Okazawa, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    Root parasitic weeds in Orobanchaceae cause serious damage to worldwide agriculture. Germination of the parasites requires host-derived germination stimulants, such as strigolactones, as indicators of host roots within reach of the parasite’s radicles. This unique germination process was focused on to identify metabolic pathways required for germination, and to design a selective control strategy. A metabolomic analysis of germinating seeds of clover broomrape, Orobanche minor, was conducted to identify its distinctive metabolites. Consequently, a galactosyl-sucrose trisaccharide, planteose (α-d-galactopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-d-fructofuranosyl-(2→1)-α-d-glucopyranoside), was identified as a metabolite that decreased promptly after reception of the germination stimulant. To investigate the importance of planteose metabolism, the effects of several glycosidase inhibitors were examined, and nojirimycin bisulfite (NJ) was found to alter the sugar metabolism and to selectively inhibit the germination of O. minor. Planteose consumption was similar in NJ-treated seeds and non-treated germinating seeds; however, NJ-treated seeds showed lower consumption of sucrose, a possible intermediate of planteose metabolism, resulting in significantly less glucose and fructose. This inhibitory effect was recovered by adding glucose. These results suggest that planteose is a storage carbohydrate required for early stage of germination of O. minor, and NJ inhibits germination by blocking the supply of essential glucose from planteose and sucrose. Additionally, NJ selectively inhibited radicle elongation of germinated seeds of Orobanchaceae plants (Striga hermonthica and Phtheirospermum japonicum). Thus, NJ will be a promising tool to develop specific herbicides to the parasites, especially broomrapes, and to improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of this unique germination. PMID:25821071

  17. Planteose as a storage carbohydrate required for early stage of germination of Orobanche minor and its metabolism as a possible target for selective control.

    Wakabayashi, Takatoshi; Joseph, Benesh; Yasumoto, Shuhei; Akashi, Tomoyoshi; Aoki, Toshio; Harada, Kazuo; Muranaka, Satoru; Bamba, Takeshi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Takeuchi, Yasutomo; Yoneyama, Koichi; Muranaka, Toshiya; Sugimoto, Yukihiro; Okazawa, Atsushi

    2015-06-01

    Root parasitic weeds in Orobanchaceae cause serious damage to worldwide agriculture. Germination of the parasites requires host-derived germination stimulants, such as strigolactones, as indicators of host roots within reach of the parasite's radicles. This unique germination process was focused on to identify metabolic pathways required for germination, and to design a selective control strategy. A metabolomic analysis of germinating seeds of clover broomrape, Orobanche minor, was conducted to identify its distinctive metabolites. Consequently, a galactosyl-sucrose trisaccharide, planteose (α-d-galactopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-d-fructofuranosyl-(2→1)-α-d-glucopyranoside), was identified as a metabolite that decreased promptly after reception of the germination stimulant. To investigate the importance of planteose metabolism, the effects of several glycosidase inhibitors were examined, and nojirimycin bisulfite (NJ) was found to alter the sugar metabolism and to selectively inhibit the germination of O. minor. Planteose consumption was similar in NJ-treated seeds and non-treated germinating seeds; however, NJ-treated seeds showed lower consumption of sucrose, a possible intermediate of planteose metabolism, resulting in significantly less glucose and fructose. This inhibitory effect was recovered by adding glucose. These results suggest that planteose is a storage carbohydrate required for early stage of germination of O. minor, and NJ inhibits germination by blocking the supply of essential glucose from planteose and sucrose. Additionally, NJ selectively inhibited radicle elongation of germinated seeds of Orobanchaceae plants (Striga hermonthica and Phtheirospermum japonicum). Thus, NJ will be a promising tool to develop specific herbicides to the parasites, especially broomrapes, and to improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of this unique germination. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental

  18. Carbohydrate malabsorption

    Rumessen, J J; Nordgaard-Andersen, I; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1994-01-01

    Previous studies in small series of healthy adults have suggested that parallel measurement of hydrogen and methane resulting from gut fermentation may improve the precision of quantitative estimates of carbohydrate malabsorption. Systematic, controlled studies of the role of simultaneous hydrogen...

  19. Effect of ultrasound irradiation on the evolution of color properties and major phenolic compounds in wine during storage.

    Zhang, Qing-An; Wang, Ting-Ting

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, the effects of ultrasound irradiation were investigated on the evolution of color properties and major phenolic compounds during wine storage. The results indicate that the changing trends of color parameters are very similar in both the ultrasonically-treated and untreated wines, meanwhile the evolutions of malvidin-3-O-glucoside, monomeric flavan-3-ols and phenolic acids also demonstrate some similar patterns in all wines during storage, respectively. In summary, the ultrasound irradiation does not only temporally influence the color characteristics and phenolic compounds of wine, but also have a longer effect on their evolutions during wine storage. Furthermore, the ultrasonically-treated wine had a quicker changing trend than that of the untreated wine regarding the studied parameters. All these results indicate that the ultrasound might be as a feasible and promising novel technology for wineries to produce more red wines with the similar quality as the traditionally-aged wine in a shorter time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Does the European natural gas market pass the competitive benchmark of the theory of storage? Indirect tests for three major trading points

    Stronzik, Marcus; Rammerstorfer, Margarethe; Neumann, Anne

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the first comparative analysis of the relationship between natural gas storage utilization and price patterns at three major European trading points. Using two indirect tests developed by that are applied in other commodity markets, we impose the no arbitrage condition to model the efficiency of the natural gas market. The results reveal that while operators of European storage facilities realize seasonal arbitrage profits, substantial arbitrage potentials remain. We suggest that the indirect approach is well suited to provide market insights for periods with limited data. We find that overall market performance differs substantially from the competitive benchmark of the theory of storage. (author)

  1. Gas-Chromatography Mass-Spectrometry (GC-MS Based Metabolite Profiling Reveals Mannitol as a Major Storage Carbohydrate in the Coccolithophorid Alga Emiliania huxleyi

    Alisdair R. Fernie

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Algae are divergent organisms having a wide variety of evolutional histories. Although most of them share photosynthetic activity, their pathways of primary carbon metabolism are rather diverse among species. Here we developed a method for gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS based metabolite profiling for the coccolithophorid alga Emiliania huxleyi, which is one of the most abundant microalgae in the ocean, in order to gain an overview of the pathway of primary metabolism within this alga. Following method optimization, twenty-six metabolites could be detected by this method. Whilst most proteogenic amino acids were detected, no peaks corresponding to malate and fumarate were found. The metabolite profile of E. huxleyi was, however, characterized by a prominent accumulation of mannitol reaching in excess of 14 nmol 106 cells−1. Similarly, the accumulation of the 13C label during short term H13CO3− feeding revealed a massive redistribution of label into mannitol as well as rapid but saturating label accumulation into glucose and several amino acids including aspartate, glycine and serine. These results provide support to previous work suggesting that this species adopts C3 photosynthesis and that mannitol functions as a carbon store in E. huxleyi.

  2. Effects of brown seaweed polyphenols, α-tocopherol, and ascorbic acid on protein oxidation and textural properties of fish mince (Pagrosomus major) during frozen storage.

    Wang, Tiantian; Li, Zhenxing; Yuan, Fangzhou; Lin, Hong; Pavase, Tushar Ramesh

    2017-03-01

    Frozen storage of minced fish is currently one of the most important techniques to maintain its functional properties. However, some deterioration does occur during frozen storage and cause quality loss. The effects of brown seaweed polyphenols, α-tocopherol, and ascorbic acid on lipid and protein oxidation and textural properties of red sea bream (Pagrosomus major) during 90 days of frozen storage at -18 °C were investigated. All added antioxidants at 1 g kg -1 resulted in significantly lower thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) compared to the control during the 45 days of frozen storage. The antioxidants were also effective in retarding protein oxidation concerning to total sulfhydryl content and protein carbonyl content. Brown seaweed polyphenols and α-tocopherol significantly retarded the inactivation of Ca 2+ -ATPase activity during the first 45 days, whereas ascorbic acid had no such effect. The antioxidant activity showed either an invariable or decrease trend after 45 days storage. Adding antioxidants had a significant effect on the breaking force of the gels during the frozen storage period. These results indicate that brown seaweed polyphenols and α-tocopherol can be used to prevent oxidative reactions and thus maintain the structure of the gel formed by fish mince during frozen storage. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Carbohydrate-Loading Diet

    ... Grape juice (12 ounces) 55 225 Lunch Milk, chocolate, reduced fat (12 ounces) 45 285 4 slices ... usual during carbohydrate loading to get the same benefits as a man does. Despite carbohydrate loading, you ...

  4. Carbohydrate Metabolism Disorders

    ... metabolic disorder, something goes wrong with this process. Carbohydrate metabolism disorders are a group of metabolic disorders. Normally your enzymes break carbohydrates down into glucose (a type of sugar). If ...

  5. Carbohydrate Microarrays in Plant Science

    Fangel, Jonatan Ulrik; Pedersen, H.L.; Vidal-Melgosa, S.

    2012-01-01

    Almost all plant cells are surrounded by glycan-rich cell walls, which form much of the plant body and collectively are the largest source of biomass on earth. Plants use polysaccharides for support, defense, signaling, cell adhesion, and as energy storage, and many plant glycans are also important...... industrially and nutritionally. Understanding the biological roles of plant glycans and the effective exploitation of their useful properties requires a detailed understanding of their structures, occurrence, and molecular interactions. Microarray technology has revolutionized the massively high...... for plant research and can be used to map glycan populations across large numbers of samples to screen antibodies, carbohydrate binding proteins, and carbohydrate binding modules and to investigate enzyme activities....

  6. Isolation and characterisation of cDNA clones representing the genes encoding the major tuber storage protein (dioscorin) of yam (Dioscorea cayenensis Lam.).

    Conlan, R S; Griffiths, L A; Napier, J A; Shewry, P R; Mantell, S; Ainsworth, C

    1995-06-01

    cDNA clones encoding dioscorins, the major tuber storage proteins (M(r) 32,000) of yam (Dioscorea cayenesis) have been isolated. Two classes of clone (A and B, based on hybrid release translation product sizes and nucleotide sequence differences) which are 84.1% similar in their protein coding regions, were identified. The protein encoded by the open reading frame of the class A cDNA insert is of M(r) 30,015. The difference in observed and calculated molecular mass might be attributed to glycosylation. Nucleotide sequencing and in vitro transcription/translation suggest that the class A dioscorin proteins are synthesised with signal peptides of 18 amino acid residues which are cleaved from the mature peptide. The class A and class B proteins are 69.6% similar with respect to each other, but show no sequence identity with other plant proteins or with the major tuber storage proteins of potato (patatin) or sweet potato (sporamin). Storage protein gene expression was restricted to developing tubers and was not induced by growth conditions known to induce expression of tuber storage protein genes in other plant species. The codon usage of the dioscorin genes suggests that the Dioscoreaceae are more closely related to dicotyledonous than to monocotyledonous plants.

  7. Carbohydrates in Supramolecular Chemistry.

    Delbianco, Martina; Bharate, Priya; Varela-Aramburu, Silvia; Seeberger, Peter H

    2016-02-24

    Carbohydrates are involved in a variety of biological processes. The ability of sugars to form a large number of hydrogen bonds has made them important components for supramolecular chemistry. We discuss recent advances in the use of carbohydrates in supramolecular chemistry and reveal that carbohydrates are useful building blocks for the stabilization of complex architectures. Systems are presented according to the scaffold that supports the glyco-conjugate: organic macrocycles, dendrimers, nanomaterials, and polymers are considered. Glyco-conjugates can form host-guest complexes, and can self-assemble by using carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions and other weak interactions such as π-π interactions. Finally, complex supramolecular architectures based on carbohydrate-protein interactions are discussed.

  8. Preservação in vitro da batata com ácido acetilsalicílico e duas fontes de carboidrato In vitro storage of potato under acetyl salicylic acid and two carbohydrate sources

    Gerson Renan de Luces Fortes

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de carboidratos e do ácido acetilsalicílico (AAS na preservação in vitro da batata (Solanum tuberosum L., cultivar Macaca. Brotações de 1,5 a 2,0 cm de comprimento foram transferidas para meio de MS, acrescido de mio-inositol (100 mg L-1 e ágar (6 g L-1. Testaram-se duas fontes de carboidrato, sacarose e manitol (87,6 mM, e cinco concentrações de AAS (0, 30, 60, 90 e 120 mg L-1. O delineamento foi em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições por tratamento e cada repetição formada por oito tubos de ensaio com uma brotação. O material foi mantido à temperatura de 25±2ºC, fotoperíodo de 16 horas e radiação de 19 miE m-2 s-1. O crescimento e o número de gemas nas hastes foram avaliados por três meses. Passados nove meses, a sobrevivência e o número de microtubérculos também foram avaliados. O uso de manitol, associado às concentrações a partir de 30 mg L-1 de AAS, proporcionou menor crescimento e formação de gemas nas hastes. No meio suplementado com sacarose, a sobrevivência e o número de microtubérculos foram maiores, independentemente das concentrações de AAS utilizadas, após nove meses de cultivo.The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of carbohydrates and acetyl salicylic acid (ASA during the in vitro storage of potato (Solanum tuberosum L., cultivar Macaca. Stems derived from in vitro cultures were cut into 1.5 to 2.0 cm segments and inoculated in a MS medium supplemented with myo-inositol (100 mg L-1 and agar (6 g L-1. Sucrose and mannitol 87.6 mM and five ASA concentrations (0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 mg L-1 were tested. The stems were cultured on 10 mL medium in test tubes (20 x 150 mm and incubated in a growth chamber at 25±2ºC, 16 hour photoperiod and 19 muE m-2 s-1 radiation. The growth and the bud number formed in the stems for a period of three months were evaluated. Nine months later the survival percentage and the number of microtubers formed

  9. Dioscorin, the major tuber storage protein of yam (Dioscorea batatas decne) with carbonic anhydrase and trypsin inhibitor activities.

    Hou, W C; Liu, J S; Chen, H J; Chen, T E; Chang, C F; Lin, Y H

    1999-05-01

    Dioscorin, the tuber storage protein of yam (Dioscorea batatas Decne), was purified successively by ammonium sulfate fractionation, DE-52 ion exchange chromatography, and Sephadex G-75 column. Two protein bands (82 and 28 kDa) were found under nonreducing conditions after SDS-PAGE; but only one band (32 kDa) was detected under reducing conditions. The first 21 amino acids in the N-terminal region of the 28 kDa form were VEDEFSYIEGNPNGPENWGNL, which was highly homologous to deductive sequence of dioscorin from cDNA of another yam species (Dioscoreacayenensis Lam) reported by Conlan et al. (Plant Mol. Biol. 1995, 28, 369-380). Hewett-Emmett and Tashian (Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 1996, 5, 50 -77) mentioned that, according to DNA alignments, dioscorin from yam (D. cayenensis) was alpha-carbonic anhydrase (alpha-CA) related. In this report, we found that the purified dioscorin showed both CA dehydration activity using sodium bicarbonate as a substrate and CA activity staining after SDS-PAGE. A polyclonal antibody, which was raised against trypsin inhibitor (TI), a storage protein of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam var. Tainong 57), cross-reacted with dioscorin, which also showed TI activity determined by both activity staining after SDS-PAGE and trypsin inhibition determination.

  10. Carbohydrates and Diabetes (For Parents)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Carbohydrates and Diabetes KidsHealth / For Parents / Carbohydrates and Diabetes ... many kids with diabetes take to stay healthy. Carbohydrates and Blood Sugar The two main forms of ...

  11. Carbohydrate production by phytoplankton and degradation in the marine microbial food web

    Alderkamp, Anne-Carlijn

    2006-01-01

    In this PhD thesis I describe studies relating to the cycling of the algal storage glucan chrysolaminaran. Chrysolaminaran is the most abundant type of storage carbohydrate in marine phytoplankton. I choose it as a model substrate to study factors influencing the cycling of carbohydrates, one of the

  12. Food-derived carbohydrates--structural complexity and functional diversity.

    Tharanathan, Rudrapatnam N

    2002-01-01

    Carbohydrates are biomolecules abundantly available in nature. They are found in bewildering types ranging from simple sugars through oligo- and polysaccharides to glycoconjugates and saccharide complexes, each exhibiting characteristic bio-physiological and/or nutritional functions both in in vivo and in vitro systems. For example, their presence or inclusion in food dictates the texture (body) and gives desirable customer appeal (satisfaction), or their inclusion in the diet offers beneficial effects of great therapeutic value. Thus, carbohydrates are integrally involved in a multitude of biological functions such as regulation of the immune system, cellular signaling (communication), cell malignancy, antiinfection responses, host-pathogen interactions, etc. If starch is considered the major energy storage carbohydrate, the gums/mucilages and other non-starch carbohydrates are of structural significance. The most investigated properties of starch are its gelatinization and melting behavior, especially during food processing. This has led to the development of the food polymer science approach, which has enabled a new interpretive and experimental frame work for the study of the plasticizing influence of simple molecules such as water, sugars, etc. on food systems that are kinetically constrained. Starch, although considered fully digestible, has been challenged, and starch is found to be partly indigestible in the GI tract of humans. This fraction of starch-resisting digestion in vivo is known as resistant starch (RS). The latter, due to its excellent fermentative capacity in the gut, especially yielding butyric acid is considered a new tool for the creation of fiber-rich foods, which are of nutraceutical importance. By a careful control of the processing conditions the content of RS, a man-made fiber, can be increased to as high as 30%. Arabinoxylans are the major endospermic cell wall polysaccharides of cereals. In wheat they are found complexed with ferulic

  13. CARBOHYDRATE-CONTAINING COMPOUNDS WHICH BIND TO CARBOHYDRATE BINDING RECEPTORS

    1995-01-01

    Carbohydrate-containing compounds which contain saccharides or derivatives thereof and which bind to carbohydrate binding receptors are useful in pharmaceutical products for treatment of inflammatory diseases and other diseases.......Carbohydrate-containing compounds which contain saccharides or derivatives thereof and which bind to carbohydrate binding receptors are useful in pharmaceutical products for treatment of inflammatory diseases and other diseases....

  14. Leaching of Major and Minor Elements during the Transport and Storage of Coal Ash Obtained in Power Plant

    Rada Krgović

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In power plant, coal ash obtained by combustion is mixed with river water and transported to the dump. Sequential extraction was used in order to assess pollution caused by leaching of elements during ash transport through the pipeline and in the storage (cassettes. A total of 80 samples of filter ash as well as the ash from active (currently filled and passive (previously filled cassettes were studied. Samples were extracted with distilled water, ammonium acetate, ammonium oxalate/oxalic acid, acidic solution of hydrogen-peroxide, and a hydrochloric acid. Concentrations of the several elements (Al, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Fe, Ba, Ca, Mg, Ni, Pb, and Zn in all extracts were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. Pattern recognition method was carried out in order to provide better understanding of the nature of distribution of elements according to their origins. Results indicate possible leaching of As, Ca, Cd, Cu, Zn, and Pb. Among these elements As, Cd, and Pb are toxicologically the most important but they were not present in the first two phases with the exception of As. The leaching could be destructive and cause negative effects on plants, water pollution, and damage to some life forms.

  15. Carbohydrates and Depression.

    Wurtman, Richard J.; Wurtman, Judith J.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the symptoms, such as appetite change and mood fluctuation, basic mechanisms, and some treatments of Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD), Carbohydrate-Craving Obesity (CCO) and Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS). Provides several tables and diagrams, and three reading references. (YP)

  16. Isocaloric carbohydrate deprivation induces protein catabolism despite a low T3-syndrome in healthy men

    Bisschop, P. H.; Sauerwein, H. P.; Endert, E.; Romijn, J. A.

    2001-01-01

    Dietary carbohydrate content is a major factor determining endocrine and metabolic regulation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relation between thyroid hormone levels and metabolic parameters during eucaloric carbohydrate deprivation. We measured thyroid hormone levels, resting energy

  17. Dietary carbohydrates and glucose metabolism in diabetic patients.

    Parillo, M; Riccardi, G

    1995-12-01

    Dietary carbohydrates represent one of the major sources of energy for the human body. However, the main (if not the only) therapy for diabetes since ancient times has been based on reducing dietary carbohydrates drastically because of their effects on blood glucose levels. The introduction of insulin in the 1920s and then of oral hypoglycaemic drugs led to various studies evaluating the biochemical characteristics of carbohydrates and their effects on glucose metabolism in diabetic patients. This review considers the role of dietary carbohydrates in the diet of diabetic patients in the light of the most recent studies and provides a short summary of the biochemistry of carbohydrates and the physiology of carbohydrate digestion.

  18. DoGlycans-Tools for Preparing Carbohydrate Structures for Atomistic Simulations of Glycoproteins, Glycolipids, and Carbohydrate Polymers for GROMACS

    Danne, Reinis; Poojari, Chetan; Martinez-Seara, Hector

    2017-01-01

    Carbohydrates constitute a structurally and functionally diverse group of biological molecules and macromolecules. In cells they are involved in, e.g., energy storage, signaling, and cell-cell recognition. All of these phenomena take place in atomistic scales, thus atomistic simulation would...... be the method of choice to explore how carbohydrates function. However, the progress in the field is limited by the lack of appropriate tools for preparing carbohydrate structures and related topology files for the simulation models. Here we present tools that fill this gap. Applications where the tools...

  19. Discovery and design of carbohydrate-based therapeutics.

    Cipolla, Laura; Araújo, Ana C; Bini, Davide; Gabrielli, Luca; Russo, Laura; Shaikh, Nasrin

    2010-08-01

    Till now, the importance of carbohydrates has been underscored, if compared with the two other major classes of biopolymers such as oligonucleotides and proteins. Recent advances in glycobiology and glycochemistry have imparted a strong interest in the study of this enormous family of biomolecules. Carbohydrates have been shown to be implicated in recognition processes, such as cell-cell adhesion, cell-extracellular matrix adhesion and cell-intruder recognition phenomena. In addition, carbohydrates are recognized as differentiation markers and as antigenic determinants. Due to their relevant biological role, carbohydrates are promising candidates for drug design and disease treatment. However, the growing number of human disorders known as congenital disorders of glycosylation that are being identified as resulting from abnormalities in glycan structures and protein glycosylation strongly indicates that a fast development of glycobiology, glycochemistry and glycomedicine is highly desirable. The topics give an overview of different approaches that have been used to date for the design of carbohydrate-based therapeutics; this includes the use of native synthetic carbohydrates, the use of carbohydrate mimics designed on the basis of their native counterpart, the use of carbohydrates as scaffolds and finally the design of glyco-fused therapeutics, one of the most recent approaches. The review covers mainly literature that has appeared since 2000, except for a few papers cited for historical reasons. The reader will gain an overview of the current strategies applied to the design of carbohydrate-based therapeutics; in particular, the advantages/disadvantages of different approaches are highlighted. The topic is presented in a general, basic manner and will hopefully be a useful resource for all readers who are not familiar with it. In addition, in order to stress the potentialities of carbohydrates, several examples of carbohydrate-based marketed therapeutics are given

  20. Who is the carbohydrate?

    Paulo Enrique Cuevas Mestanza

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Biochemistry is a complex science that studies biomolecules and their interactions in metabolic pathways in living beings. Due to the large amount of contents against the short period to apply them, only expositive classes are not enough to arouse the interest of students and solve questions. In this perspective, is very important to develop new educational tools to improve the understanding of these contents. “Who is the carbohydrate?” It is a didactic game created to review the structural and functional relationship of carbohydrates. Based on the classic “Guess who?” The objective of the player or group is to first find out the opponent's carbohydrate name.

  1. Renewable Hydrogen Carrier — Carbohydrate: Constructing the Carbon-Neutral Carbohydrate Economy

    Y.-H. Percival Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrogen economy presents an appealing energy future but its implementation must solve numerous problems ranging from low-cost sustainable production, high-density storage, costly infrastructure, to eliminating safety concern. The use of renewable carbohydrate as a high-density hydrogen carrier and energy source for hydrogen production is possible due to emerging cell-free synthetic biology technology—cell-free synthetic pathway biotransformation (SyPaB. Assembly of numerous enzymes and co-enzymes in vitro can create complicated set of biological reactions or pathways that microorganisms or catalysts cannot complete, for example, C6H10O5 (aq + 7 H2O (l à 12 H2 (g + 6 CO2 (g (PLoS One 2007, 2:e456. Thanks to 100% selectivity of enzymes, modest reaction conditions, and high-purity of generated hydrogen, carbohydrate is a promising hydrogen carrier for end users. Gravimetric density of carbohydrate is 14.8 H2 mass% if water can be recycled from proton exchange membrane fuel cells or 8.33% H2 mass% without water recycling. Renewable carbohydrate can be isolated from plant biomass or would be produced from a combination of solar electricity/hydrogen and carbon dioxide fixation mediated by high-efficiency artificial photosynthesis mediated by SyPaB. The construction of this carbon-neutral carbohydrate economy would address numerous sustainability challenges, such as electricity and hydrogen storage, CO2 fixation and long-term storage, water conservation, transportation fuel production, plus feed and food production.

  2. Carbohydrate intake and obesity

    van Dam, R M; Seidell, J C

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity has increased rapidly worldwide and the importance of considering the role of diet in the prevention and treatment of obesity is widely acknowledged. This paper reviews data on the effects of dietary carbohydrates on body fatness. Does the composition of the diet as related

  3. Weight Loss at a Cost: Implications of High-Protein, Low- Carbohydrate Diets.

    Gabel, Kathe A.; Lund, Robin J.

    2002-01-01

    Addresses three claims of high-protein, low-carbohydrate diets: weight loss is attributed to the composition of the diet; insulin promotes the storage of fat, thereby, by limiting carbohydrates, dieters will decrease levels of insulin and body fat; and weight loss is the result of fat loss. The paper examines relevant scientific reports and notes…

  4. Carbohydrates as Fat Replacers.

    Peng, Xingyun; Yao, Yuan

    2017-02-28

    The overconsumption of dietary fat contributes to various chronic diseases, which encourages attempts to develop and consume low-fat foods. Simple fat reduction causes quality losses that impede the acceptance of foods. Fat replacers are utilized to minimize the quality deterioration after fat reduction or removal to achieve low-calorie, low-fat claims. In this review, the forms of fats and their functions in contributing to food textural and sensory qualities are discussed in various food systems. The connections between fat reduction and quality loss are described in order to clarify the rationales of fat replacement. Carbohydrate fat replacers usually have low calorie density and provide gelling, thickening, stabilizing, and other texture-modifying properties. In this review, carbohydrates, including starches, maltodextrins, polydextrose, gums, and fibers, are discussed with regard to their interactions with other components in foods as well as their performances as fat replacers in various systems.

  5. Fructan as a new carbohydrate sink in transgenic potato plants.

    Meer, van der I.M.; Ebskamp, M.J.M.; Visser, R.G.F.; Weisbeek, P.J.; Smeekens, S.C.M.

    1994-01-01

    Fructans are polyfructose molecules that function as nonstructural storage carbohydrates in several plant species that are important crops. We have been studying plants for their ability to synthesize and degrade fructans to determine if this ability is advantageous. We have also been analyzing the

  6. Effects of Carbohydrate Consumption Case Study: carbohydrates in Bread

    Neacsu N.A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbohydrates perform numerous roles in living organisms; they are an important source of energy. The body uses carbohydrates to make glucose which is the fuel that gives it energy and helps keep everything going. However, excess carbohydrate consumption has negative health effects. Bread is a basic product in our nutrition and it also is a product with a high content of carbohydrates. So, it is important to find out more information on bread and on the recommended bread type best for consumption.

  7. Developing eco-friendly biofungicide for the management of major seed borne diseases of rice and assessing their physical stability and storage life.

    Naveenkumar, Ramasamy; Muthukumar, Arjunan; Sangeetha, Ganesan; Mohanapriya, Ramanathan

    2017-04-01

    Three plant oils (Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon martini, and Pelargonium graveolens) were developed as EC formulations and tested for their physical stabilities. EC formulations (10EC, 20EC and 30EC) of C. citratus, C. martini and P. graveolens had emulsion stability, spontaneity property, heat and cold stability. EC formulated plant oils were screened against the major seed borne fungi of rice such as Curvularia lunata, Fusarium moniliforme, Bipolaris oryzae, and Sarocladium oryzae. The level of inhibition varied among the concentrations of EC formulations. Among the three EC formulations, that of C. citratus oil 30EC recorded 100% inhibition on the mycelial growth of test pathogens. In the blotter paper method, rice seeds treated with a formulation of C. citratus oil 30EC controlled the infection of C. lunata, F. moniliforme, B. oryzae and S. oryzae in rice seed to the tune of 66.0%, 60.4%, 66.0% and 69.1%, respectively. Seed soaking with formulation of C. citratus oil 30EC showed the highest percentage of normal seedlings, the lowest number of abnormal seedling and fresh ungerminated seeds when tested with the roll-towel method. Seed soaking with 30EC formulation of C. citratus oil increased seed germination, shoot length, root length and vigour of rice seedlings when tested with the plastic tray method. Transmission of pathogens from seed to seedling was reduced significantly by the 30EC formulation of C. citratus oil when tested with the plastic pot method. The effect of the storage life of the 30EC formulation of C. citratus oil showed that it had retained their antifungal effect till the end of the incubation period (120 days), and is able to inhibit the mycelial growth of all test pathogens to the 100% level. Copyright © 2017 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. The case for low carbohydrate diets in diabetes management

    McFarlane Samy I

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A low fat, high carbohydrate diet in combination with regular exercise is the traditional recommendation for treating diabetes. Compliance with these lifestyle modifications is less than satisfactory, however, and a high carbohydrate diet raises postprandial plasma glucose and insulin secretion, thereby increasing risk of CVD, hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity and diabetes. Moreover, the current epidemic of diabetes and obesity has been, over the past three decades, accompanied by a significant decrease in fat consumption and an increase in carbohydrate consumption. This apparent failure of the traditional diet, from a public health point of view, indicates that alternative dietary approaches are needed. Because carbohydrate is the major secretagogue of insulin, some form of carbohydrate restriction is a prima facie candidate for dietary control of diabetes. Evidence from various randomized controlled trials in recent years has convinced us that such diets are safe and effective, at least in short-term. These data show low carbohydrate diets to be comparable or better than traditional low fat high carbohydrate diets for weight reduction, improvement in the dyslipidemia of diabetes and metabolic syndrome as well as control of blood pressure, postprandial glycemia and insulin secretion. Furthermore, the ability of low carbohydrate diets to reduce triglycerides and to increase HDL is of particular importance. Resistance to such strategies has been due, in part, to equating it with the popular Atkins diet. However, there are many variations and room for individual physician planning. Some form of low carbohydrate diet, in combination with exercise, is a viable option for patients with diabetes. However, the extreme reduction of carbohydrate of popular diets (

  9. Issues in Nutrition: Carbohydrates.

    Thompson, Margaret E; Noel, Mary Barth

    2017-01-01

    Carbohydrates include sugars, starches, and dietary fibers. Resistant starches resemble fiber in their behavior in the intestinal tract, and may have positive effects on blood glucose levels and the gut microbiome. Fibers are classified as soluble and insoluble, but most fiber-containing foods contain a mixture of soluble and insoluble fiber. Soluble fiber has been shown to lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Many artificial sweeteners and other sugar substitutes are available. Most natural sources of sweeteners also are energy sources. Many artificial sweeteners contain no kilocalories in the amounts typically used. Sugar alcohols may have a laxative effect when consumed in large amounts. Glycemic index and glycemic load are measurements that help quantify serum glucose response after ingestion of particular foods. These measurements may be affected by the combination of foods consumed in a given meal, and the glycemic index may vary among individuals eating the same meal. Eating foods with a low glycemic index may help prevent development of type 2 diabetes. There is no definitive evidence to recommend low-carbohydrate diets over low-fat diets for long-term weight loss; they are equally effective. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  10. Temporal Coordination of Carbohydrate Metabolism during Mosquito Reproduction.

    Yuan Hou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Hematophagous mosquitoes serve as vectors of multiple devastating human diseases, and many unique physiological features contribute to the incredible evolutionary success of these insects. These functions place high-energy demands on a reproducing female mosquito, and carbohydrate metabolism (CM must be synchronized with these needs. Functional analysis of metabolic gene profiling showed that major CM pathways, including glycolysis, glycogen and sugar metabolism, and citrate cycle, are dramatically repressed at post eclosion (PE stage in mosquito fat body followed by a sharply increase at post-blood meal (PBM stage, which were also verified by Real-time RT-PCR. Consistent to the change of transcript and protein level of CM genes, the level of glycogen, glucose and trehalose and other secondary metabolites are also periodically accumulated and degraded during the reproductive cycle respectively. Levels of triacylglycerols (TAG, which represent another important energy storage form in the mosquito fat body, followed a similar tendency. On the other hand, ATP, which is generated by catabolism of these secondary metabolites, showed an opposite trend. Additionally, we used RNA interference studies for the juvenile hormone and ecdysone receptors, Met and EcR, coupled with transcriptomics and metabolomics analyses to show that these hormone receptors function as major regulatory switches coordinating CM with the differing energy requirements of the female mosquito throughout its reproductive cycle. Our study demonstrates how, by metabolic reprogramming, a multicellular organism adapts to drastic and rapid functional changes.

  11. In vivo {sup 13}C MRS studies of carbohydrate metabolism

    Halliday, Jane

    2003-07-01

    The work described in this thesis was performed by the author, except where indicated, within the Magnetic Resonance Centre at the University of Nottingham during the period between October 1999 and October 2002. Although much is known about the major pathways of carbohydrate metabolism, there is still much to be learnt about the exact mechanisms of many of these pathways. Of particular interest is how these pathways are modified under different physiological conditions and in diseased states. {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy provides a non-invasive means for studying carbohydrate metabolism in vivo, and the work presented within this thesis gives two such examples of this in human subjects. Natural abundance {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy was used to measure glycogen levels in gastrocnemius muscle. The diurnal changes in response to mixed meals were measured in both type 2 diabetic subjects and age and weight matched controls. Metabolic studies were performed to complement the NMR measurements. The data obtained in these studies show the effect of the failure of muscle glucose storage upon post-prandial hyperglycaemia despite a supra-normal increase in plasma insulin in type 2 diabetes. {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy was also used to study cerebral metabolism. Accumulation of {sup 13}C label into glutamate and glutamine following infusion of [1{sup 13}C] glucose allows the determination of the rates of the TCA cycle (F{sub TCA}) and neurotransmitter cycling (F{sub cyc}). These rates were measured in the visual cortex under control and activated conditions. The increases seen in F{sub TCA} upon activation, together with the lack of label accumulation in lactate, suggest that cerebral glucose metabolism is oxidative, even during strong activation. No conclusion can be made as to whether or not a similar increase is seen in F{sub cyc} due to the large associated errors in these values. (author)

  12. In vivo 13C MRS studies of carbohydrate metabolism

    Halliday, Jane

    2003-01-01

    The work described in this thesis was performed by the author, except where indicated, within the Magnetic Resonance Centre at the University of Nottingham during the period between October 1999 and October 2002. Although much is known about the major pathways of carbohydrate metabolism, there is still much to be learnt about the exact mechanisms of many of these pathways. Of particular interest is how these pathways are modified under different physiological conditions and in diseased states. 13 C NMR spectroscopy provides a non-invasive means for studying carbohydrate metabolism in vivo, and the work presented within this thesis gives two such examples of this in human subjects. Natural abundance 13 C NMR spectroscopy was used to measure glycogen levels in gastrocnemius muscle. The diurnal changes in response to mixed meals were measured in both type 2 diabetic subjects and age and weight matched controls. Metabolic studies were performed to complement the NMR measurements. The data obtained in these studies show the effect of the failure of muscle glucose storage upon post-prandial hyperglycaemia despite a supra-normal increase in plasma insulin in type 2 diabetes. 13 C NMR spectroscopy was also used to study cerebral metabolism. Accumulation of 13 C label into glutamate and glutamine following infusion of [1 1 3 C] glucose allows the determination of the rates of the TCA cycle (F TCA ) and neurotransmitter cycling (F cyc ). These rates were measured in the visual cortex under control and activated conditions. The increases seen in F TCA upon activation, together with the lack of label accumulation in lactate, suggest that cerebral glucose metabolism is oxidative, even during strong activation. No conclusion can be made as to whether or not a similar increase is seen in F cyc due to the large associated errors in these values. (author)

  13. Impact of Dietary Carbohydrate and Protein Levels on Carbohydrate Metabolism

    Lasker, Denise Ann

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this dissertation was to investigate the impact of changing dietary carbohydrate (CARB) intakes within recommended dietary guidelines on metabolic outcomes specifically associated with glycemic regulations and carbohydrate metabolism. This research utilized both human and animal studies to examine changes in metabolism across a wide…

  14. Optical absorption of irradiated carbohydrates

    Supe, A.A.; Tiliks, Yu.E.

    1994-01-01

    The optical absorption spectra of γ-irradiated carbohydrates (glucose, lactose, sucrose, maltose, and starch) and their aqueous solutions were studied. The comparison of the data obtained with the determination of the concentrations of molecular and radical products of radiolysis allows the absorption bands with maxima at 250 and 310 nm to be assigned to the radicals trapped in the irradiated carbohydrates

  15. Catalytic Conversion of Carbohydrates

    Osmundsen, Christian Mårup

    a renewable route to aromatics. The conversion of biomass by high temperature processes is a desirable prospect due to the high volumetric production rates which can be achieved, and the ability of these types of processes to convert a wide range of substrates. Current processes however typically have rather...... with the production of commodity chemicals from the most abundantly available renewable source of carbon, carbohydrates. The production of alkyl lactates by the Lewis acid catalyzed conversion of hexoses is an interesting alternative to current fermentation based processes. A range of stannosilicates were...... to be an efficient initial conversion step in the utilization of biomass for chemicals production. The shift from an oil based chemical industry to one based on renewable resources is bound to happen sooner or later, however the environmental problems associated with the burning of fossil resources means...

  16. Myostatin and carbohydrate disturbances.

    Assyov, Yavor S; Velikova, Tsvetelina V; Kamenov, Zdravko A

    2017-05-01

    Purpose/aim of the study: Myostatin is a myokine that has been shown to inhibit muscle growth and to have potentially deleterious effects on metabolism. The aim of the current study was to compare its circulating serum levels in subjects from the whole spectrum of carbohydrate disturbances leading to diabetes. A total of 159 age-, sex-, and BMI-matched subjects participated in the study - 50 had normal glucose tolerance (NGT), 60 had prediabetes (PreDM), and 49 had type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). Oral glucose tolerance testing was used to determine glucose tolerance. Serum myostatin was quantified by means of ELISA. Circulating serum myostatin levels were highest in patients with T2D, lower in subjects with prediabetes, and lowest in subjects with normoglycemia (all p Myostatin was shown to be positively associated with fasting plasma glucose, HOMA-IR, hepatic enzymes, uric acid, and FINDRISC questionnaire scores in both sexes. ROC analyses determined circulating myostatin levels to be of value for differentiating subjects with T2D (AUC = 0.72, p = 0.002 in men; AUC = 0.70, p = 0.004 in women) in the study population. After adjustment for potential confounders, in a multiple binary logistic regression model, serum myostatin added further information to traditional risk estimates in distinguishing subjects with T2D. Serum myostatin levels are higher with deterioration of carbohydrate tolerance. Furthermore, circulating myostatin is positively associated with traditional biochemical estimates of poor metabolic health. These data add to evidence of the involvement of this myokine in the pathogenesis of T2D.

  17. Synthesis of carbohydrate-based surfactants

    Pemberton, Jeanne E.; Polt, Robin L.; Maier, Raina M.

    2016-11-22

    The present invention provides carbohydrate-based surfactants and methods for producing the same. Methods for producing carbohydrate-based surfactants include using a glycosylation promoter to link a carbohydrate or its derivative to a hydrophobic compound.

  18. Low intensity monochromatic red, blue or green light increases the carbohydrate levels and substantially extends the shelf life of fresh-cut lettuce

    Woltering, E.J.; Seifu, Y.W.

    2015-01-01

    During dark storage of fresh-cut product prepared from butterhead and iceberg lettuce the levels of carbohydrates (glucose, fructose, sucrose, starch) decrease. Carbohydrate levels were low in butterhead lettuce at the start [~20 mg/g dry matter (DW)] and levels decreased by over 50% during storage

  19. Methodological challenges in carbohydrate analyses

    Mary Beth Hall

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbohydrates can provide up to 80% of the dry matter in animal diets, yet their specific evaluation for research and diet formulation is only now becoming a focus in the animal sciences. Partitioning of dietary carbohydrates for nutritional purposes should reflect differences in digestion and fermentation characteristics and effects on animal performance. Key challenges to designating nutritionally important carbohydrate fractions include classifying the carbohydrates in terms of nutritional characteristics, and selecting analytical methods that describe the desired fraction. The relative lack of information on digestion characteristics of various carbohydrates and their interactions with other fractions in diets means that fractions will not soon be perfectly established. Developing a system of carbohydrate analysis that could be used across animal species could enhance the utility of analyses and amount of data we can obtain on dietary effects of carbohydrates. Based on quantities present in diets and apparent effects on animal performance, some nutritionally important classes of carbohydrates that may be valuable to measure include sugars, starch, fructans, insoluble fiber, and soluble fiber. Essential to selection of methods for these fractions is agreement on precisely what carbohydrates should be included in each. Each of these fractions has analyses that could potentially be used to measure them, but most of the available methods have weaknesses that must be evaluated to see if they are fatal and the assay is unusable, or if the assay still may be made workable. Factors we must consider as we seek to analyze carbohydrates to describe diets: Does the assay accurately measure the desired fraction? Is the assay for research, regulatory, or field use (affects considerations of acceptable costs and throughput? What are acceptable accuracy and variability of measures? Is the assay robust (enhances accuracy of values? For some carbohydrates, we

  20. Energy storage

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role that energy storage may have on the energy future of the US. The topics discussed in the chapter include historical aspects of energy storage, thermal energy storage including sensible heat storage, latent heat storage, thermochemical heat storage, and seasonal heat storage, electricity storage including batteries, pumped hydroelectric storage, compressed air energy storage, and superconducting magnetic energy storage, and production and combustion of hydrogen as an energy storage option

  1. Physico-chemical characterization of grain dust in storage air of Bangalore.

    Mukherjee, A K; Nag, D P; Kakde, Y; Babu, K R; Prdkash, M N; Rao, S R

    1998-06-01

    An Anderson personal cascade impactor was used to study the particle mass size distribution in the storage air of two major grain storage centers in Bangalore. Dust levels in storage air as well as the personal exposures of workers were determined along with a detailed study on the particle size distribution. Protein and carbohydrate content of the dust were also determined respectively in the phosphate buffer saline (PBS) and water extracts by using the standard analytical techniques. Personal exposures in both of the grain storage centers have been found to be much above the limit prescribed by ACGIH (1995-96). But the results of particle size analysis showed a higher particle mass distribution in the non-respirable size range. The mass median diameters (MMD) of the storage air particulate of both the centers were found to be beyond the respirable range. Presence of protein and carbohydrate in the storage air dust is indicative of the existence of glyco-proteins, mostly of membrane origin.

  2. Normal Roles for Dietary Fructose in Carbohydrate Metabolism

    Maren R. Laughlin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Although there are many well-documented metabolic effects linked to the fructose component of a very high sugar diet, a healthy diet is also likely to contain appreciable fructose, even if confined to that found in fruits and vegetables. These normal levels of fructose are metabolized in specialized pathways that synergize with glucose at several metabolic steps. Glucose potentiates fructose absorption from the gut, while fructose catalyzes glucose uptake and storage in the liver. Fructose accelerates carbohydrate oxidation after a meal. In addition, emerging evidence suggests that fructose may also play a role in the secretion of insulin and GLP-1, and in the maturation of preadipocytes to increase fat storage capacity. Therefore, fructose undergoing its normal metabolism has the interesting property of potentiating the disposal of a dietary carbohydrate load through several routes.

  3. Germination, carbohydrate composition and vigor of cryopreserved Caesalpinia echinata seeds

    Rafael Fonsêca Zanotti

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the germination and vigor of Caesalpinia echinata (Brazilwood seeds stored at negative temperatures. Recently harvested seeds were cryopreserved at -18º or -196ºC and periodically evaluated for germination, seed vigor and carbohydrate composition. The temperatures did not influence the germination percentages or vigor. The germination percentage decreased from 88% in recently harvested seeds to 60% after 730 days of storage. The different temperature and storage times tested did not affect the vigor seed germination as indicated by the measures of plant growth and survival. The different temperatures used did not cause changes in the carbohydrate composition. The tegument cell walls were rich in lignin, arabinose and xylose. The cytoplasm of the cotyledons and embryos had high levels of glucose, fructose, and sucrose. The cryopreservation technique here presented was effective in the conservation of Brazilwood seeds for the medium term.

  4. Carbohydrates of human immunodeficiency virus

    Hansen, J E

    1992-01-01

    Elucidation of the mechanism by which viral infection induces the appearance of carbohydrate neoantigens is highly important. Results from such studies could be expected to be significant for a general understanding of the regulation of glycosylation, and perhaps especially important for the unde......Elucidation of the mechanism by which viral infection induces the appearance of carbohydrate neoantigens is highly important. Results from such studies could be expected to be significant for a general understanding of the regulation of glycosylation, and perhaps especially important...... therapy with glycosylation enzyme inhibitors will, however, require the development of more specific and less toxic compounds. If carbohydrate antigens can elicit a neutralizing immune response in vivo, the possibility exists that carbohydrate neoantigens can be utilized in the construction of a vaccine...

  5. Transition metals in carbohydrate chemistry

    Madsen, Robert

    1997-01-01

    This review describes the application of transition metal mediated reactions in carbohydrate synthesis. The different metal mediated transformations are divided into reaction types and illustrated by various examples on monosaccharide derivatives. Carbon-carbon bond forming reactions are further ...

  6. Racemic carbohydrates - fact or fiction?

    Senning, Alexander Erich Eugen

    2007-01-01

    Chemical Abstracts Service has developed unsound practices in the naming and handling of simple carbohydrates such as aldopentoses 1, aldohexoses 2, and ketohexoses 3. Typically, the common name glucose is sometimes, inappropriately, interpreted as meaning DL-glucose DL-2d. Thus, a considerable...... number of CA names and registry numbers have been created for non-existing racemic carbohydrates and linked to irrelevant references which, moreover, in many cases cannot be retrieved by the SciFinder Scholar program....

  7. Complexes of natural carbohydrates with metal cations

    Alekseev, Yurii E; Garnovskii, Alexander D; Zhdanov, Yu A

    1998-01-01

    Data on the interaction of natural carbohydrates (mono-, oligo-, and poly-saccharides, amino sugars, and natural organic acids of carbohydrate origin) with metal cations are surveyed and described systematically. The structural diversity of carbohydrate metal complexes, caused by some specific features of carbohydrates as ligands, is demonstrated. The influence of complex formation on the chemical properties of carbohydrates is discussed. It is shown that the formation of metal complexes plays an important role in the configurational and conformational analysis of carbohydrates. The practical significance of the coordination interaction in the series of carbohydrate ligands is demonstrated. The bibliography includes 571 references.

  8. Carbohydrate-Based Ice Recrystallization Inhibitors Increase Infectivity and Thermostability of Viral Vectors

    Ghobadloo, Shahrokh M.; Balcerzak, Anna K.; Gargaun, Ana; Muharemagic, Darija; Mironov, Gleb G.; Capicciotti, Chantelle J.; Briard, Jennie G.; Ben, Robert N.; Berezovski, Maxim V.

    2014-07-01

    The inability of vaccines to retain sufficient thermostability has been an obstacle to global vaccination programs. To address this major limitation, we utilized carbohydrate-based ice recrystallization inhibitors (IRIs) to eliminate the cold chain and stabilize the potency of Vaccinia virus (VV), Vesicular Stomatitis virus (VSV) and Herpes virus-1 (HSV-1). The impact of these IRIs was tested on the potency of the viral vectors using a plaque forming unit assay following room temperature storage, cryopreservation with successive freeze-thaw cycles and lyophilization. Viral potency after storage with all three conditions demonstrated that N-octyl-gluconamide (NOGlc) recovered the infectivity of shelf stored VV, 5.6 Log10 PFU mL-1 during 40 days, and HSV-1, 2.7 Log10 PFU mL-1 during 9 days. Carbon-linked antifreeze glycoprotein analogue ornithine-glycine-glycine-galactose (OGG-Gal) increases the recovery of VV and VSV more than 1 Log10 PFU mL-1 after 10 freeze-thaw cycles. In VSV, cryostorage with OGG-Gal maintains high infectivity and reduces temperature-induced aggregation of viral particles by 2 times that of the control. In total, OGG-Gal and NOGlc preserve virus potency during cryostorage. Remarkably, NOGlc has potential to eliminate the cold chain and permit room temperature storage of viral vectors.

  9. Influence of radioprotectors of various chemical compounds on the dynamic performance capacity and carbohydrate metabolism

    Vladimirov, V.G.; Golubentsev, D.A.; Merkina, T.N.; Smirnova, S.M.

    1978-01-01

    Studied is the effect of the most effective radiotectors (gammaphos, cystamine and mexamine) on some factors of carbohydrate metabolism and working capacity of rats. In the effect of preparations studied great differences are established. Decrease of glycogen storage in liver and museles increase of lactate and pyruate level in blood as compared to control, decrease of animal working capacity are observed at introducing cystamine into rats when in rest and while dosed muscular loadings. Mexamine causes great shifts in carbohydrate exchange (in combination with physical loadings), and decreases animal strength. Gammaphos does not influence carbohydrate metabolism and does not decrease animal working capacity

  10. Whole-plant allocation to storage and defense in juveniles of related evergreen and deciduous shrub species.

    Wyka, T P; Karolewski, P; Żytkowiak, R; Chmielarz, P; Oleksyn, J

    2016-05-01

    In evergreen plants, old leaves may contribute photosynthate to initiation of shoot growth in the spring. They might also function as storage sites for carbohydrates and nitrogen (N). We hence hypothesized that whole-plant allocation of carbohydrates and N to storage in stems and roots may be lower in evergreen than in deciduous species. We selected three species pairs consisting of an evergreen and a related deciduous species: Mahonia aquifolium (Pursh) Nutt. and Berberis vulgaris L. (Berberidaceae), Prunus laurocerasus L. and Prunus serotina Ehrh. (Rosaceae), and Viburnum rhytidophyllum Hemsl. and Viburnum lantana L. (Adoxaceae). Seedlings were grown outdoors in pots and harvested on two dates during the growing season for the determination of biomass, carbohydrate and N allocation ratios. Plant size-adjusted pools of nonstructural carbohydrates in stems and roots were lower in the evergreen species of Berberidaceae and Adoxaceae, and the slope of the carbohydrate pool vs plant biomass relationship was lower in the evergreen species of Rosaceae compared with the respective deciduous species, consistent with the leading hypothesis. Pools of N in stems and roots, however, did not vary with leaf habit. In all species, foliage contained more than half of the plant's nonstructural carbohydrate pool and, in late summer, also more than half of the plant's N pool, suggesting that in juvenile individuals of evergreen species, leaves may be a major storage site. Additionally, we hypothesized that concentration of defensive phenolic compounds in leaves should be higher in evergreen than in deciduous species, because the lower carbohydrate pool in stems and roots of the former restricts their capacity for regrowth following herbivory and also because of the need to protect their longer-living foliage. Our results did not support this hypothesis, suggesting that evergreen plants may rely predominantly on structural defenses. In summary, our study indicates that leaf habit has

  11. Radiolysis of carbohydrates and of carbohydrate-containing foodstuffs

    Diehl, J.F.; Adam, S.; Delincee, H.; Jakubick, V.

    1978-01-01

    Toxicological evaluation of irradiated foodstuffs requires knowledge of radiation-induced chemical changes. A review of the literature reveals much information on the radiation chemistry of pure substances, e.g., dilute solutions of individual carbohydrates. Much less is known about the interactions of food constituents during irradiation. In an effort to remedy this situation, radiation effects on various compounds have been studied in systems of increasing complexity. In one approach, gas chromatography was used to investigate the radiolysis of tehalose in pure solution and in the presence of amino acids or proteins. In another approach, radiation-induced aggregation of proteins and of [ 14 C]tryptophan with proteins was studied in the absence and presence of carbohydrates (trehalose, starch), emulsified sunfower oil, and a mixture of carbohydrates and emulsified sunflower oil

  12. Carbohydrates Through Animation: Preliminary Step

    J.K. Sugai

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Methods of education are changing, so the educational tools must change too. The developmentof the systems of information and communication gave the opportunity to bring new technology tothe learning process. Modern education needs interactive programs that may be available to theacademic community, in order to ease the learning process and sharing of the knowledge. Then,an educational software on Carbohydrates is being developed using concept maps and FLASH-MXanimations program, and approached through six modules. The introduction of Carbohydrates wasmade by the module Carbohydrates on Nature, which shows the animations gures of a teacher andstudents, visiting a farm, identifying the carbohydrates found in vegetables, animals, and microor-ganisms, integrated by links containing short texts to help understanding the structure and functionof carbohydrates. This module was presented, as pilot experiment, to teachers and students, whichdemonstrated satisfaction, and high receptivity, by using animation and interactivitys program asstrategy to biochemistrys education. The present work is part of the project Biochemistry throughanimation, which is having continuity.

  13. Aminooxylated Carbohydrates: Synthesis and Applications.

    Pifferi, Carlo; Daskhan, Gour Chand; Fiore, Michele; Shiao, Tze Chieh; Roy, René; Renaudet, Olivier

    2017-08-09

    Among other classes of biomolecules, carbohydrates and glycoconjugates are widely involved in numerous biological functions. In addition to addressing the related synthetic challenges, glycochemists have invested intense efforts in providing access to structures that can be used to study, activate, or inhibit these biological processes. Over the past few decades, aminooxylated carbohydrates have been found to be key building blocks for achieving these goals. This review provides the first in-depth overview covering several aspects related to the syntheses and applications of aminooxylated carbohydrates. After a brief introduction to oxime bonds and their relative stabilities compared to related C═N functions, synthetic aspects of oxime ligation and methodologies for introducing the aminooxy functionality onto both glycofuranosyls and glycopyranosyls are described. The subsequent section focuses on biological applications involving aminooxylated carbohydrates as components for the construcion of diverse architectures. Mimetics of natural structures represent useful tools for better understanding the features that drive carbohydrate-receptor interaction, their biological output and they also represent interesting structures with improved stability and tunable properties. In the next section, multivalent structures such as glycoclusters and glycodendrimers obtained through oxime ligation are described in terms of synthetic design and their biological applications such as immunomodulators. The second-to-last section discusses miscellaneous applications of oxime-based glycoconjugates, such as enantioselective catalysis and glycosylated oligonucleotides, and conclusions and perspectives are provided in the last section.

  14. Microalgal carbohydrates. An overview of the factors influencing carbohydrates production, and of main bioconversion technologies for production of biofuels

    Markou, Giorgos; Georgakakis, Dimitris [Agricultural Univ. of Athens (Greece). Dept. of Natural Resources Management and Agricultural Engineering; Angelidaki, Irini [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of Environmental Engineering

    2012-11-15

    Microalgal biomass seems to be a promising feedstock for biofuel generation. Microalgae have relative high photosynthetic efficiencies, high growth rates, and some species can thrive in brackish water or seawater and wastewater from the food- and agro-industrial sector. Today, the main interest in research is the cultivation of microalgae for lipids production to generate biodiesel. However, there are several other biological or thermochemical conversion technologies, in which microalgal biomass could be used as substrate. However, the high protein content or the low carbohydrate content of the majority of the microalgal species might be a constraint for their possible use in these technologies. Moreover, in the majority of biomass conversion technologies, carbohydrates are the main substrate for production of biofuels. Nevertheless, microalgae biomass composition could be manipulated by several cultivation techniques, such as nutrient starvation or other stressed environmental conditions, which cause the microalgae to accumulate carbohydrates. This paper attempts to give a general overview of techniques that can be used for increasing the microalgal biomass carbohydrate content. In addition, biomass conversion technologies, related to the conversion of carbohydrates into biofuels are discussed. (orig.)

  15. Carbohydrate metabolism in catfish

    Saad, C.R.; Lovell, R.T.

    2002-01-01

    Radiolabeled (U- 14 C)-glucose was incorporated in diets and forced-fed to channel catfish and was observed for a 24 hour period. About 95% of fed labeled (U- 14 C)-glucose was absorbed by catfish, showing a high digestibility of glucose. The amounts of 14 C excreted over 24 h as carbon dioxide were 49% and amounts excreted in urine were 3.5%. The amount retained as protein, fat glycogen and other organic compounds were 8.2, 1.2, 6.5 and 32.1 % respectively, for the 24 hour period. The blood concentration of 14 C reached a maximum 2.5 hour after feeding (U- 14 C)-glucose, then gradually decreased. Based on tissue concentrations of 14 C, glycogen was an immediate storage site for absorbed glucose, but 14 C- glycogen in liver decreased rapidly. Glucose was quickly and heavily converted into triglyceride, indicating that fat is an important intermediate in the metabolism of glucose in channel catfish. 14 C-fat in the serum and liver were transferred to the adipose tissue in the muscle and mesentery about 10 hours after feeding. (Author)

  16. Energy Storage.

    Eaton, William W.

    Described are technological considerations affecting storage of energy, particularly electrical energy. The background and present status of energy storage by batteries, water storage, compressed air storage, flywheels, magnetic storage, hydrogen storage, and thermal storage are discussed followed by a review of development trends. Included are…

  17. The case for low carbohydrate diets in diabetes management.

    Arora, Surender K; McFarlane, Samy I

    2005-07-14

    A low fat, high carbohydrate diet in combination with regular exercise is the traditional recommendation for treating diabetes. Compliance with these lifestyle modifications is less than satisfactory, however, and a high carbohydrate diet raises postprandial plasma glucose and insulin secretion, thereby increasing risk of CVD, hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity and diabetes. Moreover, the current epidemic of diabetes and obesity has been, over the past three decades, accompanied by a significant decrease in fat consumption and an increase in carbohydrate consumption. This apparent failure of the traditional diet, from a public health point of view, indicates that alternative dietary approaches are needed. Because carbohydrate is the major secretagogue of insulin, some form of carbohydrate restriction is a prima facie candidate for dietary control of diabetes. Evidence from various randomized controlled trials in recent years has convinced us that such diets are safe and effective, at least in short-term. These data show low carbohydrate diets to be comparable or better than traditional low fat high carbohydrate diets for weight reduction, improvement in the dyslipidemia of diabetes and metabolic syndrome as well as control of blood pressure, postprandial glycemia and insulin secretion. Furthermore, the ability of low carbohydrate diets to reduce triglycerides and to increase HDL is of particular importance. Resistance to such strategies has been due, in part, to equating it with the popular Atkins diet. However, there are many variations and room for individual physician planning. Some form of low carbohydrate diet, in combination with exercise, is a viable option for patients with diabetes. However, the extreme reduction of carbohydrate of popular diets (<30 g/day) cannot be recommended for a diabetic population at this time without further study. On the other hand, the dire objections continually raised in the literature appear to have very little scientific

  18. Carbohydrates of human immunodeficiency virus

    Hansen, J E

    1992-01-01

    Elucidation of the mechanism by which viral infection induces the appearance of carbohydrate neoantigens is highly important. Results from such studies could be expected to be significant for a general understanding of the regulation of glycosylation, and perhaps especially important for the unde...

  19. Carbohydrates, Sugar, and Your Child

    ... carbs are: simple carbohydrates (or simple sugars): including fructose, glucose, and lactose, which also are found in nutritious ... sugar, check the ingredients list for sugar, corn syrup, or other sweeteners, such as dextrose, fructose, honey, or molasses, to name just a few. ...

  20. Qualitative Carbohydrate Analysis using Alkaline Potassium ...

    IAS Admin

    CLASSROOM. 285. RESONANCE | March 2016. Qualitative Carbohydrate Analysis using Alkaline. Potassium Ferricyanide. Keywords. Alkaline potassium ferricyanide, qualitative ... Carbohydrates form a distinct class of organic compounds often .... Laboratory Techniques: A contemporary Approach, W B Saunders Com-.

  1. Carbohydrate Microarray on Glass: a Tool for Carbohydrate-Lectin Interactions

    Tetala, K.K.R.; Giesbers, M.; Visser, G.M.; Sudhölter, E.J.R.; Beek, van T.A.

    2007-01-01

    A simple method to immobilize carbohydrates on a glass surface to obtain a carbohydrate microarray is described. The array was used to study carbohydrate-lectin interactions. The glass surface was modified with aldehyde terminated linker groups of various chain lengths. Coupling of carbohydrates

  2. Human growth hormone alters carbohydrate storage in blood and ...

    MJP

    2015-06-02

    Jun 2, 2015 ... is the key hormone to maintain the glucose ... homeostasis is tissue-specific.[3] ... Key words: Human growth hormone, blood glucose, hepatic glycogen, hypoglycaemia, ..... diabetic and glycogenolytic effect, which help.

  3. Dynamics of Storage Carbohydrates Metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Suarez-Mendez, C.A.

    2015-01-01

    Production of chemicals via biotechnological routes are becoming rapidly an alternative to oil-based processes. Several microorganisms including yeast, bacteria, fungi and algae can transform feedstocks into high-value molecules at industrial scale. Improvement of the bioprocess performance is a key

  4. Studies on soluble carbohydrates in yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L. seeds of different age

    Kazimierz Zalewski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Yellow lupin seeds cv. Juno were stored under laboratory conditions for 2 month, 4, 6 and 8 years. Eighteen soluble carbohydrates were identified in embryonic axes and cotyledons of different age seeds. The concentration of soluble carbohydrates in analysed seeds ranged from 25 to 34% of dry mass. Axes contained more carbohydrates than cotyledons. Stachyose dominated in axes, and verbascose - in cotyledons. Other detected galactosides were: galactinol, galactosyl pinitols and galactosyl chiro-inositols (fagopyritols, but their content was several-fold lower than that of RFOs (in both axes and cotyledons tissues. The concentration of soluble carbohydrates indicated, that sucrose to RFOs mass ratio, or other changes in sugars composition are not indicators of seed storage.

  5. Is carbohydrate mouth rinsing a novel approach to maintain exercise performance during Ramadan fasting?

    Ahmad Munir Che Muhamed

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available About a decade ago, carbohydrate mouth rinsing was shown to enhance endurance exercise performance. This improvement was more pronounced in a fasted compared to a fed state, suggesting that the ergogenic effect of carbohydrate mouth rinse is dependent on endogenous carbohydrate storage. Hence, indirectly highlights the potential use of carbohydrate mouth rinse as a potential strategy to mitigate the adverse effects of exercise during Ramadan fasting. To date, only one study has been carried out to explore the potential benefit of carbohydrate mouth rinse on exercise performance during Ramadan fasting. This single observation showed that a 10-km time trial performance was enhanced when performing mouth rinsing with either a carbohydrate or a placebo solution as compared with not performing mouth rinsing. While one study had acknowledged that the practice of mouth rinsing do have a positive effect on exercise performance during Ramadan fasting, future studies is warranted in order to have a better understanding on the underlying mechanisms associated with carbohydrate mouth rinsing during Ramadan fasting.

  6. Dietary carbohydrates and triacylglycerol metabolism.

    Roche, H M

    1999-02-01

    There is a growing body of scientific evidence which demonstrates that plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) concentration, especially in the postprandial state, is an important risk factor in relation to the development of CHD. Postprandial hypertriacylglycerolaemia is associated with a number of adverse metabolic risk factors, including the preponderance of small dense LDL, low HDL-cholesterol concentrations and elevated factor VII activity. Traditionally, a low-fat high-carbohydrate diet was used to prevent CHD because it effectively reduces plasma cholesterol concentrations, but this dietary regimen increases plasma TAG concentrations and reduces HDL-cholesterol concentrations. There is substantial epidemiological evidence which demonstrates that high plasma TAG and low plasma HDL concentrations are associated with an increased risk of CHD. Thus, there is reason for concern that the adverse effects of low-fat high-carbohydrate diets on TAG and HDL may counteract or negate the beneficial effect of reducing LDL-cholesterol concentrations. Although there have been no prospective studies to investigate whether reduced fat intake has an adverse effect on CHD, there is strong epidemiological evidence that reducing total fat intake is not protective against CHD. On the other hand, high-fat diets predispose to obesity, and central obesity adversely affects TAG metabolism. There is substantial evidence that in free-living situations low-fat high-carbohydrate diets lead to weight loss, which in turn will correct insulin resistance and plasma TAG metabolism. Clearly there is a need for prospective studies to resolve the issue as to whether low-fat high-carbohydrate diets play an adverse or beneficial role in relation to the development of CHD.

  7. Use of Plantago major seed mucilage as a novel edible coating incorporated with Anethum graveolens essential oil on shelf life extension of beef in refrigerated storage.

    Behbahani, Behrooz Alizadeh; Shahidi, Fakhri; Yazdi, Farideh Tabatabaei; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali; Mohebbi, Mohebbat

    2017-01-01

    In this study, Plantago major seed mucilage (PMSM) was extracted from whole seeds using hot-water extraction (HWE). The dill (D) essential oil components were identified through gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and its antioxidant properties were examined through the methods of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) and ß-carotene-linoleic acid assay (B-CL). Total phenolic content (TPC) was characterized through the Folin-Ciocalteu method and the antimicrobial effect was evaluated on 10 pathogenic microorganisms. PMSM edible coating incorporated were prepared in four different concentrations of essential oils, including 0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5% (w/w). The control and the coated beef samples were analyzed periodically for microbiological (total viable count, psychrotrophic count, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and fungi), chemical (thiobarbituric acid, peroxide value and pH), and sensory characteristics. The IC 50 , FRAP, B-CL and TPC of the dill essential oil were equal to 11.44μg/ml, 9.45mmol/g, 82.86 and 162.65μg/ml GAE, respectively. PMSM extended the microbial shelf life of beef by 3days, whereas the PMSM+0.5%D, PMSM+1%D and PMSM+1.5%D resulted in a significant shelf life extension of the beef by 6, 9 and 9days, respectively, as compared to the control samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Enhanced carbohydrate production by Southern Ocean phytoplankton in response to in situ iron fertilization

    van Oijen, T; Veldhuis, MJW; Gorbunov, MY; Nishioka, J; van Leeuwe, MA; de Baara, HJW; de Baar, H.J.W.

    2005-01-01

    Storage carbohydrates (e.g., water-extractable beta-1,3-D-glucan in diatoms) are of key importance for phytoplankton growth in a variable light climate, because they facilitate continued growth of the cells in darkness by providing energy and carbon skeletons for protein synthesis. Here, we tested

  9. Acclimatory responses of the Daphnia pulex proteome to environmental changes. I. Chronic exposure to hypoxia affects the oxygen transport system and carbohydrate metabolism

    Madlung Johannes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Freshwater planktonic crustaceans of the genus Daphnia show a remarkable plasticity to cope with environmental changes in oxygen concentration and temperature. One of the key proteins of adaptive gene control in Daphnia pulex under hypoxia is hemoglobin (Hb, which increases in hemolymph concentration by an order of magnitude and shows an enhanced oxygen affinity due to changes in subunit composition. To explore the full spectrum of adaptive protein expression in response to low-oxygen conditions, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry were used to analyze the proteome composition of animals acclimated to normoxia (oxygen partial pressure [Po2]: 20 kPa and hypoxia (Po2: 3 kPa, respectively. Results The comparative proteome analysis showed an up-regulation of more than 50 protein spots under hypoxia. Identification of a major share of these spots revealed acclimatory changes for Hb, glycolytic enzymes (enolase, and enzymes involved in the degradation of storage and structural carbohydrates (e.g. cellubiohydrolase. Proteolytic enzymes remained constitutively expressed on a high level. Conclusion Acclimatory adjustments of the D. pulex proteome to hypoxia included a strong induction of Hb and carbohydrate-degrading enzymes. The scenario of adaptive protein expression under environmental hypoxia can be interpreted as a process to improve oxygen transport and carbohydrate provision for the maintenance of ATP production, even during short episodes of tissue hypoxia requiring support from anaerobic metabolism.

  10. Sugar Lego: gene composition of bacterial carbohydrate metabolism genomic loci.

    Kaznadzey, Anna; Shelyakin, Pavel; Gelfand, Mikhail S

    2017-11-25

    Bacterial carbohydrate metabolism is extremely diverse, since carbohydrates serve as a major energy source and are involved in a variety of cellular processes. Bacterial genes belonging to same metabolic pathway are often co-localized in the chromosome, but it is not a strict rule. Gene co-localization in linked to co-evolution and co-regulation. This study focuses on a large-scale analysis of bacterial genomic loci related to the carbohydrate metabolism. We demonstrate that only 53% of 148,000 studied genes from over six hundred bacterial genomes are co-localized in bacterial genomes with other carbohydrate metabolism genes, which points to a significant role of singleton genes. Co-localized genes form cassettes, ranging in size from two to fifteen genes. Two major factors influencing the cassette-forming tendency are gene function and bacterial phylogeny. We have obtained a comprehensive picture of co-localization preferences of genes for nineteen major carbohydrate metabolism functional classes, over two hundred gene orthologous clusters, and thirty bacterial classes, and characterized the cassette variety in size and content among different species, highlighting a significant role of short cassettes. The preference towards co-localization of carbohydrate metabolism genes varies between 40 and 76% for bacterial taxa. Analysis of frequently co-localized genes yielded forty-five significant pairwise links between genes belonging to different functional classes. The number of such links per class range from zero to eight, demonstrating varying preferences of respective genes towards a specific chromosomal neighborhood. Genes from eleven functional classes tend to co-localize with genes from the same class, indicating an important role of clustering of genes with similar functions. At that, in most cases such co-localization does not originate from local duplication events. Overall, we describe a complex web formed by evolutionary relationships of bacterial

  11. A systematic study of chemogenomics of carbohydrates.

    Gu, Jiangyong; Luo, Fang; Chen, Lirong; Yuan, Gu; Xu, Xiaojie

    2014-03-04

    Chemogenomics focuses on the interactions between biologically active molecules and protein targets for drug discovery. Carbohydrates are the most abundant compounds in natural products. Compared with other drugs, the carbohydrate drugs show weaker side effects. Searching for multi-target carbohydrate drugs can be regarded as a solution to improve therapeutic efficacy and safety. In this work, we collected 60 344 carbohydrates from the Universal Natural Products Database (UNPD) and explored the chemical space of carbohydrates by principal component analysis. We found that there is a large quantity of potential lead compounds among carbohydrates. Then we explored the potential of carbohydrates in drug discovery by using a network-based multi-target computational approach. All carbohydrates were docked to 2389 target proteins. The most potential carbohydrates for drug discovery and their indications were predicted based on a docking score-weighted prediction model. We also explored the interactions between carbohydrates and target proteins to find the pathological networks, potential drug candidates and new indications.

  12. Cats and Carbohydrates: The Carnivore Fantasy?

    Adronie Verbrugghe

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The domestic cat’s wild ancestors are obligate carnivores that consume prey containing only minimal amounts of carbohydrates. Evolutionary events adapted the cat’s metabolism and physiology to this diet strictly composed of animal tissues and led to unique digestive and metabolic peculiarities of carbohydrate metabolism. The domestic cat still closely resembles its wild ancestor. Although the carnivore connection of domestic cats is well recognised, little is known about the precise nutrient profile to which the digestive physiology and metabolism of the cat have adapted throughout evolution. Moreover, studies show that domestic cats balance macronutrient intake by selecting low-carbohydrate foods. The fact that cats evolved consuming low-carbohydrate prey has led to speculations that high-carbohydrate diets could be detrimental for a cat’s health. More specifically, it has been suggested that excess carbohydrates could lead to feline obesity and diabetes mellitus. Additionally, the chances for remission of diabetes mellitus are higher in cats that consume a low-carbohydrate diet. This literature review will summarise current carbohydrate knowledge pertaining to digestion, absorption and metabolism of carbohydrates, food selection and macronutrient balancing in healthy, obese and diabetic cats, as well as the role of carbohydrates in prevention and treatment of obesity and diabetes mellitus.

  13. Physiological aspects of energy metabolism and gastrointestinal effects of carbohydrates.

    Elia, M; Cummings, J H

    2007-12-01

    The energy values of carbohydrates continue to be debated. This is because of the use of different energy systems, for example, combustible, digestible, metabolizable, and so on. Furthermore, ingested macronutrients may not be fully available to tissues, and the tissues themselves may not be able fully to oxidize substrates made available to them. Therefore, for certain carbohydrates, the discrepancies between combustible energy (cEI), digestible energy (DE), metabolizable energy (ME) and net metabolizable energy (NME) may be considerable. Three food energy systems are in use in food tables and for food labelling in different world regions based on selective interpretation of the digestive physiology and metabolism of food carbohydrates. This is clearly unsatisfactory and confusing to the consumer. While it has been suggested that an enormous amount of work would have to be undertaken to change the current ME system into an NME system, the additional changes may not be as great as anticipated. In experimental work, carbohydrate is high in the macronutrient hierarchy of satiation. However, studies of eating behaviour indicate that it does not unconditionally depend on the oxidation of one nutrient, and argue against the operation of a simple carbohydrate oxidation or storage model of feeding behaviour to the exclusion of other macronutrients. The site, rate and extent of carbohydrate digestion in, and absorption from the gut are key to understanding the many roles of carbohydrate, although the concept of digestibility has different meanings. Within the nutrition community, the characteristic patterns of digestion that occur in the small (upper) vs large (lower) bowel are known to impact in contrasting ways on metabolism, while in the discussion of the energy value of foods, digestibility is defined as the proportion of combustible energy that is absorbed over the entire length of the gastrointestinal tract. Carbohydrates that reach the large bowel are fermented to

  14. Carbohydrates

    ... such as kidney beans, black beans, pinto beans, black-eyed peas, split peas, and garbanzo beans Starchy vegetables, such as potatoes, corn, green peas, and parsnips Whole grains, such as brown rice, oats, barley, and quinoa Refined grains, such as ...

  15. Carbohydrates

    ... of the great nutrients. That's why your best bet is whole grain. Enriched products means some of ... Molasses Syrup and malt syrup If you are thinking about using a sugar substitute, you may wonder ...

  16. The effects of carbohydrate variation in isocaloric diets on glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis in healthy men

    Bisschop, P. H.; Pereira Arias, A. M.; Ackermans, M. T.; Endert, E.; Pijl, H.; Kuipers, F.; Meijer, A. J.; Sauerwein, H. P.; Romijn, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of dietary carbohydrate content on postabsorptive glucose metabolism, we quantified gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis after 11 days of high carbohydrate (85% carbohydrate), control (44% carbohydrate), and very low carbohydrate (2% carbohydrate) diets in six healthy men. Diets

  17. The effects of carbohydrate variation in isocaloric diets on glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis in healthy men

    Bisschop, PH; Arias, AMP; Ackermans, MT; Endert, E; Pijl, H; Kuipers, F; Meijer, AJ; Sauerwein, HP; Romijn, JA

    To evaluate the effect of dietary carbohydrate content on postabsorptive glucose metabolism, we quantified gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis after 11 days of high carbohydrate (85% carbohydrate), control (44% carbohydrate), and very low carbohydrate (2% carbohydrate) diets in six healthy men. Diets

  18. Microalgal carbohydrates: an overview of the factors influencing carbohydrates production, and of main bioconversion technologies for production of biofuels

    Markou, Giorgos; Angelidaki, Irini; Georgakakis, Dimitris

    2012-01-01

    in research is the cultivation of microalgae for lipids production to generate biodiesel. However, there are several other biological or thermochemical conversion technologies, in which microalgal biomass could be used as substrate. However, the high protein content or the low carbohydrate content...... of the majority of the microalgal species might be a constraint for their possible use in these technologies. Moreover, in the majority of biomass conversion technologies, carbohydrates are the main substrate for production of biofuels. Nevertheless, microalgae biomass composition could be manipulated by several......Microalgal biomass seems to be a promising feedstock for biofuel generation. Microalgae have relative high photosynthetic efficiencies, high growth rates, and some species can thrive in brackish water or seawater and wastewater from the food- and agro-industrial sector. Today, the main interest...

  19. Tritium storage

    Hircq, B.

    1990-01-01

    This document represents a synthesis relative to tritium storage. After indicating the main storage particularities as regards tritium, storages under gaseous and solid form are after examined before establishing choices as a function of the main criteria. Finally, tritium storage is discussed regarding tritium devices associated to Fusion Reactors and regarding smaller devices [fr

  20. Carbohydrate sources of microfouling material developed on aluminium and stainless steel panels

    Bhosle, N.B.; Sankaran, P.D.; Wagh, A.B.

    . pp. 151 -164 Reprints available directly from the pUblishcr Photocopying permitted by license only © 1990 Harwood Academic Publishers GmbH Printed in Great Britain CARBOHYDRATE SOURCES OF MICROFOULING MATERIAL DEVELOPED ON ALUMINIUM AND STAINLESS... plant material and grasses appear to be the major sources contributing to the carbohydrates ofthe microfouling material. KEY WORDS: Carbohydratc. microfouling. sources, aluminium, stainless steel, Arabian Sea, Bay of Hengal. INTRODUCTION Solid surfaces...

  1. Fuel storage

    Palacios, C.; Alvarez-Miranda, A.

    2009-01-01

    ENSA is a well known manufacturer of multi-system primary components for the nuclear industry and is totally prepared to satisfy future market requirements in this industry. At the same time that ENSA has been gaining a reputation world wider for the supply of primary components, has been strengthening its commitment and experience in supplying spent fuel components, either pool racks or storage and transportation casks, and offers not only fabrication but also design capabilities for its products. ENSA has supplied Spent Fuel Pool Racks, in spain, Finland, Taiwan, Korea, China, and currently it is in the process of licensing its own rack design in the United States of America for the ESBWR along with Ge-Hitachi. ENSA has supplied racks for 20 pools and 22 different reactors and it has also manufactured racks under all available technologies and developed a design known as Interlock Cell Matrix whose main features are outlined in this article. Another ENSA achievement in rack technology is the use of remote control for re-racking activities instead of using divers, which improves the ALARA requirements. Regarding casks for storage and transportation, ENSA also has al leading worldwide position, with exports prevailing over the Spanish market where ENSA has supplied 16 storage and transportation casks to the Spanish nuclear power Trillo. In some cases, ENSA acts as subcontractor for other clients. Foreign markets are still a major challenge for ENSA. ENSA-is well known for its manufacturing capabilities in the nuclear industry, but has been always involved in design activities through its engineering division, which carries out different tasks: components Design; Tooling Design; Engineering and Documentation; Project Engineering; Calculations, Design and Development Engineering. (Author)

  2. Economics of dry storage systems

    Moore, G.R.; Winders, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    This paper postulates a dry storage application suitable as a regional away-from-reactor storage (AFR), develops an economical system design concept and estimates system costs. The system discussed uses the experience gained in the dry storage research activities and attempts to present a best foot forward system concept. The major element of the system is the Receiving and Packaging Building. In this building fuel assemblies are removed from transportation casks and encapsulated for storage. This facility could be equally applicable to silo, vault, or caisson storage. However the caisson storage concept has been chosen for discussion purposes

  3. Wood adhesives containing proteins and carbohydrates

    In recent years there has been resurgent interest in using biopolymers as sustainable and environmentally friendly ingredients in wood adhesive formulations. Among them, proteins and carbohydrates are the most commonly used. In this chapter, an overview is given of protein-based and carbohydrate-...

  4. Conversion of carbohydrates to levulinic acid esters

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to the field of converting carbohydrates into levulinic acid, a platform chemical for many chemical end products. More specifically the invention relates to a method for converting carbohydrates such as mono-, di- or polysaccharides, obtained from for example biomass...

  5. Vacuum ultraviolet photoionization of carbohydrates and nucleotides

    Shin, Joong-Won, E-mail: jshin@govst.edu [Division of Science, Governors State University, University Park, Illinois 60484-0975 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523-1872 (United States); Bernstein, Elliot R., E-mail: erb@lamar.colostate.edu [Department of Chemistry, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523-1872 (United States)

    2014-01-28

    Carbohydrates (2-deoxyribose, ribose, and xylose) and nucleotides (adenosine-, cytidine-, guanosine-, and uridine-5{sup ′}-monophosphate) are generated in the gas phase, and ionized with vacuum ultraviolet photons (VUV, 118.2 nm). The observed time of flight mass spectra of the carbohydrate fragmentation are similar to those observed [J.-W. Shin, F. Dong, M. Grisham, J. J. Rocca, and E. R. Bernstein, Chem. Phys. Lett. 506, 161 (2011)] for 46.9 nm photon ionization, but with more intensity in higher mass fragment ions. The tendency of carbohydrate ions to fragment extensively following ionization seemingly suggests that nucleic acids might undergo radiation damage as a result of carbohydrate, rather than nucleobase fragmentation. VUV photoionization of nucleotides (monophosphate-carbohydrate-nucleobase), however, shows that the carbohydrate-nucleobase bond is the primary fragmentation site for these species. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicate that the removed carbohydrate electrons by the 118.2 nm photons are associated with endocyclic C–C and C–O ring centered orbitals: loss of electron density in the ring bonds of the nascent ion can thus account for the observed fragmentation patterns following carbohydrate ionization. DFT calculations also indicate that electrons removed from nucleotides under these same conditions are associated with orbitals involved with the nucleobase-saccharide linkage electron density. The calculations give a general mechanism and explanation of the experimental results.

  6. Vacuum ultraviolet photoionization of carbohydrates and nucleotides

    Shin, Joong-Won; Bernstein, Elliot R.

    2014-01-01

    Carbohydrates (2-deoxyribose, ribose, and xylose) and nucleotides (adenosine-, cytidine-, guanosine-, and uridine-5 ′ -monophosphate) are generated in the gas phase, and ionized with vacuum ultraviolet photons (VUV, 118.2 nm). The observed time of flight mass spectra of the carbohydrate fragmentation are similar to those observed [J.-W. Shin, F. Dong, M. Grisham, J. J. Rocca, and E. R. Bernstein, Chem. Phys. Lett. 506, 161 (2011)] for 46.9 nm photon ionization, but with more intensity in higher mass fragment ions. The tendency of carbohydrate ions to fragment extensively following ionization seemingly suggests that nucleic acids might undergo radiation damage as a result of carbohydrate, rather than nucleobase fragmentation. VUV photoionization of nucleotides (monophosphate-carbohydrate-nucleobase), however, shows that the carbohydrate-nucleobase bond is the primary fragmentation site for these species. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicate that the removed carbohydrate electrons by the 118.2 nm photons are associated with endocyclic C–C and C–O ring centered orbitals: loss of electron density in the ring bonds of the nascent ion can thus account for the observed fragmentation patterns following carbohydrate ionization. DFT calculations also indicate that electrons removed from nucleotides under these same conditions are associated with orbitals involved with the nucleobase-saccharide linkage electron density. The calculations give a general mechanism and explanation of the experimental results

  7. Carbohydrate epitopes on Haemonchus contortus antigens

    Schallig, H. D.; van Leeuwen, M. A.

    1996-01-01

    Extracts of infective larvae and adults of the trichostrongylid Haemonchus contortus were studied for the presence of carbohydrate moieties. Several different lectin-binding sites were demonstrated in both stages using a panel of nine lectins. The carbohydrate specificity of the lectins used

  8. Determining a carbohydrate profile for Hansenula polymorpha

    Petersen, G. R.

    1985-01-01

    The determination of the levels of carbohydrates in the yeast Hansenula polymorpha required the development of new analytical procedures. Existing fractionation and analytical methods were adapted to deal with the problems involved with the lysis of whole cells. Using these new procedures, the complete carbohydrate profiles of H. polymorpha and selected mutant strains were determined and shown to correlate favourably with previously published results.

  9. Total dissolved carbohydrate in Mahi river estuary

    Bhosle, N.B.; Rokade, M.A.; Zingde, M.D.

    Total dissolved carbohydrate varied from 4.37-15 mg l-1 and 3.71-15.95 mg l-1 in the surface and bottom samples respectively. Highest concentration of carbohydrate was observed at station 1 which decreased downward upto Station 6 which showed...

  10. Characterization of carbohydrate fractions and fermentation quality ...

    This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of adding fast-sile (FS), previous fermented juice (PFJ), sucrose (S) or fast-sile + sucrose (FS + S) on the fermentation characteristics and carbohydrates fractions of alfalfa silages by the Cornell net carbohydrates and proteins systems (CNCPS). Silages quality were well ...

  11. Carbohydrate clearance receptors in transfusion medicine

    Sørensen, Anne Louise Tølbøll; Clausen, Henrik; Wandall, Hans H

    2012-01-01

    Complex carbohydrates play important functions for circulation of proteins and cells. They provide protective shields and refraction from non-specific interactions with negative charges from sialic acids to enhance circulatory half-life. For recombinant protein therapeutics carbohydrates are espe...

  12. Abdominal ultrasonography in inheredited diseases of carbohydrate metabolism

    Pozzato, Carlo; Curti, Alessandra; Cornalba, Gianpaolo; Radaelli, Giovanni; Fiori, Laura; Rossi, Samantha; Riva, Enrica

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the usefulness of abdominal sonography in inherited diseases of carbohydrate metabolism. Materials and methods: Thirty patients (age range, 4 months to 27 years) with glycogen storage diseases, galactosemia, disorders of fructose metabolism were studied with sonography. Echogenicity of the liver, sonographic dimensions of liver, kidneys and spleen were evaluated. Plasma blood parameters (ALT, AST, total cholesterol, triglycerides) were determined. Results: Liver was enlarged in 21/22 patients (95.4%) with glycogen storage diseases, in both subjects with disorders of fructose metabolism, and in 2/6 patients (33.3%) with galactosemia. Hepatic echogenicity was increased in 20/22 patients (90.9%) with glycogen storage diseases, and in the subject with hereditary fructose intolerance. Patients with galactosemia did not show increased liver echogenicity. Both kidney were enlarged in 8/17 patients (47.0%) with glycogen storage disease type I. Subjects with increased hepatic echogenicity exhibited higher plasma concentrations of any blood parameter than the others with normal echogenicity (p [it

  13. A functional carbohydrate chip platform for analysis of carbohydrate-protein interaction

    Seo, Jeong Hyun; Kim, Chang Sup; Hwang, Byeong Hee; Cha, Hyung Joon

    2010-01-01

    A carbohydrate chip based on glass or other transparent surfaces has been suggested as a potential tool for high-throughput analysis of carbohydrate-protein interactions. Here we proposed a facile, efficient, and cost-effective method whereby diverse carbohydrate types are modified in a single step and directly immobilized onto a glass surface, with retention of functional orientation. We modified various types of carbohydrates by reductive amination, in which reducing sugar groups were coupled with 4-(2-aminoethyl)aniline, which has di-amine groups at both ends. The modified carbohydrates were covalently attached to an amino-reactive NHS-activated glass surface by formation of stable amide bonds. This proposed method was applied for efficient construction of a carbohydrate microarray to analyze carbohydrate-protein interactions. The carbohydrate chip prepared using our method can be successfully used in diverse biomimetic studies of carbohydrates, including carbohydrate-biomolecule interactions, and carbohydrate sensor chip or microarray development for diagnosis and screening.

  14. Technological aspects of functional food-related carbohydrates.

    Voragen, A.G.J.

    1998-01-01

    Carbohydrates in food occur as natural constituents or are added as ingredients or additives. The most important endogenous carbohydrates in food are starch, depolymerized starch, sucrose, lactose, glucose, fructose and sorbitol (digestible) and carbohydrates such as raffinose, stachyose, resistant

  15. The role of carbohydrate in dietary prescription for weight loss

    Astrup, Arne

    content of ad libitum diets produces weight loss in both the short-term and over periods as long as 7 years. A fat-reduced diet, combined with physical activity, reduces all risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and reduces the incidence of type 2 diabetes. The combination of reduction of dietary fat...... and energy, and increased physical activity, has been shown to reduce the incidence of diabetes by 58% in two major trials. In post hoc analyses the reduction in dietary fat (energy density) and increase in fibre were the strongest predictors of weight loss and diabetes protective effects. It remains...... to be shown whether a low-glycemic index diet provides benefits beyond this. Low-carbohydrate diets may be an option for inducing weight loss in obese patients, but a very low intake of carbohydrate-rich foods is not commensurate with a healthy and palatable diet in the long term. However, there is evidence...

  16. Phenol-Sulfuric Acid Method for Total Carbohydrates

    Nielsen, S. Suzanne

    The phenol-sulfuric acid method is a simple and rapid colorimetric method to determine total carbohydrates in a sample. The method detects virtually all classes of carbohydrates, including mono-, di-, oligo-, and polysaccharides. Although the method detects almost all carbohydrates, the absorptivity of the different carbohydrates varies. Thus, unless a sample is known to contain only one carbohydrate, the results must be expressed arbitrarily in terms of one carbohydrate.

  17. CHANGE OF BIOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF PUMPKIN FRUITS DEPENDING ON STORAGE TIME

    A. S. Karapetyan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pumpkin fruits are the source of carbohydrates, mineral salts and vitamins during wintertime. The change of the biochemical compositions of pumpkin fruits depending on storage time has been studied. The results of chemical analysis revealed that during four months of storage the content of quality indicators increased followed by its reduction after five and more month of storage

  18. IRMPD Spectroscopy Sheds New (Infrared) Light on the Sulfate Pattern of Carbohydrates.

    Schindler, B; Barnes, L; Gray, C J; Chambert, S; Flitsch, S L; Oomens, J; Daniel, R; Allouche, A R; Compagnon, I

    2017-03-16

    IR spectroscopy of gas-phase ions is proposed to resolve positional isomers of sulfated carbohydrates. Mass spectrometric fingerprints and gas-phase vibrational spectra in the near and mid-IR regions were obtained for sulfated monosaccharides, yielding unambiguous signatures of sulfated isomers. We report the first systematic exploration of the biologically relevant but notoriously challenging deprotonated state in the near IR region. Remarkably, anions displayed very atypical vibrational profiles, which challenge the well-established DFT (Density Functionnal Theory) modeling. The proposed approach was used to elucidate the sulfate patterns in glycosaminoglycans, a ubiquitous class of mammalian carbohydrates, which is regarded as a major challenge in carbohydrate structural analysis. Isomeric glycosaminoglycan disaccharides from heparin and chondroitin sources were resolved, highlighting the potential of infrared multiple photon dissociation spectroscopy as a novel structural tool for carbohydrates.

  19. The role of carbohydrate in determining the immunochemical properties of the hemagglutinin of influenza A virus

    Gitelman, A.K.; Berezin, V.A.; Kharitonenkov, I.G.

    1981-01-01

    Most of the carbohydrate was removed from influenza with MRC II (H3N2) and its purified hemagglutinin (HA) on treatment with glycosidases, including α-mannosidase, #betta#-N-acetylglucosaminidase, #betta#-galactosidase and α-fucosidase. The release of 50 per cent of the carbohydrate from intact virus particles significantly affected hemagglutinating activity. The ability of untreated and glycosidase-treated virus to inhibit the binding of antibodies directed against the hemagglutinin was almost indistinguishable by competitive radioimmunoassay (RIA). Up to 60 per cent of the carbohydrate from the purified HA of influenza virus could be removed. The antigenicity of glycosidase treated HA molecules decreased 8-fold compared to intact HAs as measured by competitive RIA. In addition, glycosidase digestion of 125 I-labeled HA resulted in a decrease in its reactivity in direct RIA. We conclude that the carbohydrate portion of the HA of influenza virus is not of major importance in defining the antigenicity of HA. (Author)

  20. Energy storage

    Kaier, U.

    1981-04-01

    Developments in the area of energy storage are characterized, with respect to theory and laboratory, by an emergence of novel concepts and technologies for storing electric energy and heat. However, there are no new commercial devices on the market. New storage batteries as basis for a wider introduction of electric cars, and latent heat storage devices, as an aid for solar technology applications, with satisfactory performance standards are not yet commercially available. Devices for the intermediate storage of electric energy for solar electric-energy systems, and for satisfying peak-load current demands in the case of public utility companies are considered. In spite of many promising novel developments, there is yet no practical alternative to the lead-acid storage battery. Attention is given to central heat storage for systems transporting heat energy, small-scale heat storage installations, and large-scale technical energy-storage systems.

  1. Effect of quarantine treatments on the carbohydrate and organic acid content of mangoes (cv. Tommy Atkins)

    Cruz, J.N.; Soares, C.A.; Fabbri, A.D.T.; Cordenunsi, B.R.; Sabato, S.F.

    2012-01-01

    Brazil is one of the largest mango producers and the third largest mango exporter worldwide. Irradiation treatment and its commercial feasibility have been studied in our country to make it possible to develop new markets and, consequently, to compete with the major exporters of mangoes, Mexico and India. This work was designed to compare irradiation treatment with the hot water dip treatment in mangoes cv. Tommy Atkins for export and to verify that the main attributes for acceptance, color and texture, as well as carbohydrate and organic acid contents, were maintained. In this study, the fruit was divided into groups: control, hot water dip-treated (46 °C for 90 min), and irradiation-treated at doses of 0.4 kGy and 1.0 kGy. The fruit was stored at low temperature (11 °C±2) for 14 days and then at room temperature (23 °C±2) until the end of the study. The results indicated that the fruit given a dose of 1.0 kGy remained in a less advanced stage of ripening (stage 3) throughout the storage period, but experienced a greater loss of texture in the beginning of the experiment. It was noted that only the control group had higher levels of citric acid and succinic acid on the last day of the experiment. There were no significant differences in the total sugar content between any treatment groups. Gamma radiation can be used as a quarantine treatment and does not interfere negatively with the quality attributes of mangoes. - Highlights: ► In Brazil, one of the largest producers and exporters of mangoes, tropical fruits are routinely treated with a hot water dip. ► Results from this study demonstrate that irradiation is a good alternative to this conventional quarantine treatment. ► Carbohydrate and organic acid results are presented for irradiation and hot water dip treatments. ► Texture measurements are shown as a function of storage time for each of these treatments.

  2. Major depression

    Depression - major; Depression - clinical; Clinical depression; Unipolar depression; Major depressive disorder ... providers do not know the exact causes of depression. It is believed that chemical changes in the ...

  3. Carbohydrate Dependence During Prolonged, Intense Endurance Exercise.

    Hawley, John A; Leckey, Jill J

    2015-11-01

    A major goal of training to improve the performance of prolonged, continuous, endurance events lasting up to 3 h is to promote a range of physiological and metabolic adaptations that permit an athlete to work at both higher absolute and relative power outputs/speeds and delay the onset of fatigue (i.e., a decline in exercise intensity). To meet these goals, competitive endurance athletes undertake a prodigious volume of training, with a large proportion performed at intensities that are close to or faster than race pace and highly dependent on carbohydrate (CHO)-based fuels to sustain rates of muscle energy production [i.e., match rates of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis with rates of resynthesis]. Consequently, to sustain muscle energy reserves and meet the daily demands of training sessions, competitive athletes freely select CHO-rich diets. Despite renewed interest in high-fat, low-CHO diets for endurance sport, fat-rich diets do not improve training capacity or performance, but directly impair rates of muscle glycogenolysis and energy flux, limiting high-intensity ATP production. When highly trained athletes compete in endurance events lasting up to 3 h, CHO-, not fat-based fuels are the predominant fuel for the working muscles and CHO, not fat, availability becomes rate limiting for performance.

  4. Utilization of carbohydrates by radiation processing

    Kume, T.; Nagasawa, N.; Yoshii, F.

    2002-01-01

    Upgrading and utilization of carbohydrates such as chitosan, sodium alginate, carrageenan, cellulose, pectin have been investigated for recycling these bio-resources and reducing the environmental pollution. These carbohydrates were easily degraded by irradiation and various kinds of biological activities such as anti-microbial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of heavy metal stress, phytoalexins induction, etc. were induced. On the other hand, some carbohydrate derivatives, carboxymethylcellulose and carboxymethylstarch, could be crosslinked under certain radiation condition and produce the biodegradable hydrogel for medical and agricultural use

  5. Neutral carbohydrate geochemistry of particulate material in the central equatorial Pacific

    Hernes, Peter J.; Hedges, John I.; Peterson, Michael L.; Wakeham, Stuart G.; Lee, Cindy

    Neutral carbohydrate compositions were determined for particulate samples from plankton net tows, shallow floating sediment traps, mid-depth and deep moored sediment traps, and sediment cores collected along a north-south transect in the central equatorial Pacific Ocean during the U.S. JGOFS EqPac program. Total neutral carbohydrate depth profiles and patterns along the transect follow essentially the same trends as bulk and organic carbon (OC) fluxes—attenuating with depth, high near the equator and decreasing poleward. OC-normalized total aldose (TCH 2,O) yields along the transect and with depth do not show any consitent patterns. Relative to a planktonic source, neutral carbohydrate compositions in sediment trap and sediment core samples reflect preferential loss of ribose and storage carbohydrates rich in glucose, and preferential preservation of structural carbohydrates rich in rhamnose, xylose, fucose, and mannose. There is also evidence for an intermediately labile component rich in galactose. It appears that compositional signatures of neutral carbohydrates in sediments are more dependent upon their planktonic source than on any particular diagenetic pathway. Relative to other types of organic matter, neutral carbohydrates are better preserved in calcareous oozes from 12°S to 5°N than in red clays at 9°N based on OC-normalized TCH 2O yields, due to either differing sources or sorption characteristics. Weight per cent glucose generally decreases with increased degradation of organic material in the central equatorial Pacific region. Based on weight per cent glucose, comparisons of samples between Survey I (El Niõn) and Survey II (non-El Niño) indicate that during Survey I, organic material in the epipelagic zone in the northern hemisphere may have undergone more degradation than organic material in the southern hemisphere.

  6. Energy storage

    2012-01-01

    After having outlined the importance of energy storage in the present context, this document outlines that it is an answer to economic, environmental and technological issues. It proposes a brief overview of the various techniques of energy storage: under the form of chemical energy (hydrocarbons, biomass, hydrogen production), thermal energy (sensitive or latent heat storage), mechanical energy (potential energy by hydraulic or compressed air storage, kinetic energy with flywheels), electrochemical energy (in batteries), electric energy (super-capacitors, superconductor magnetic energy storage). Perspectives are briefly evoked

  7. Carbohydrate plasma expanders for passive tumor targeting

    Hoffmann, Stefan; Caysa, Henrike; Kuntsche, Judith

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the suitability of carbohydrate plasma volume expanders as a novel polymer platform for tumor targeting. Many synthetic polymers have already been synthesized for targeted tumor therapy, but potential advantages of these carbohydrates include inexpen...... was characterized in human colon carcinoma xenograft bearing nude mice. A tumor specific accumulation of HES 450 was observed, which proves it’s potential as carrier for passive tumor targeting....

  8. Digestion and metabolism of carbohydrates in fish

    Abro, Rani

    2014-01-01

    This thesis deals with the digestion and metabolism of carbohydrates in Arctic charr, Eurasian perch and tilapia. Two sources of carbohydrates, native starch (wheat) and chitin (zygomycete biomass), were evaluated. Gut tissue of Arctic charr displayed significant chitinase activity, of both endo- and exo-chitinase forms. Moreover, the distribution pattern along the gastrointestinal tract of Arctic charr differed between endo-chitinase and exo-chitinase. The endo-chitinase activity in sto...

  9. The carbohydrate sequence markup language (CabosML): an XML description of carbohydrate structures.

    Kikuchi, Norihiro; Kameyama, Akihiko; Nakaya, Shuuichi; Ito, Hiromi; Sato, Takashi; Shikanai, Toshihide; Takahashi, Yoriko; Narimatsu, Hisashi

    2005-04-15

    Bioinformatics resources for glycomics are very poor as compared with those for genomics and proteomics. The complexity of carbohydrate sequences makes it difficult to define a common language to represent them, and the development of bioinformatics tools for glycomics has not progressed. In this study, we developed a carbohydrate sequence markup language (CabosML), an XML description of carbohydrate structures. The language definition (XML Schema) and an experimental database of carbohydrate structures using an XML database management system are available at http://www.phoenix.hydra.mki.co.jp/CabosDemo.html kikuchi@hydra.mki.co.jp.

  10. Carbohydrate Nutrition and Team Sport Performance.

    Williams, Clyde; Rollo, Ian

    2015-11-01

    The common pattern of play in 'team sports' is 'stop and go', i.e. where players perform repeated bouts of brief high-intensity exercise punctuated by lower intensity activity. Sprints are generally 2-4 s long and recovery between sprints is of variable length. Energy production during brief sprints is derived from the degradation of intra-muscular phosphocreatine and glycogen (anaerobic metabolism). Prolonged periods of multiple sprints drain muscle glycogen stores, leading to a decrease in power output and a reduction in general work rate during training and competition. The impact of dietary carbohydrate interventions on team sport performance have been typically assessed using intermittent variable-speed shuttle running over a distance of 20 m. This method has evolved to include specific work to rest ratios and skills specific to team sports such as soccer, rugby and basketball. Increasing liver and muscle carbohydrate stores before sports helps delay the onset of fatigue during prolonged intermittent variable-speed running. Carbohydrate intake during exercise, typically ingested as carbohydrate-electrolyte solutions, is also associated with improved performance. The mechanisms responsible are likely to be the availability of carbohydrate as a substrate for central and peripheral functions. Variable-speed running in hot environments is limited by the degree of hyperthermia before muscle glycogen availability becomes a significant contributor to the onset of fatigue. Finally, ingesting carbohydrate immediately after training and competition will rapidly recover liver and muscle glycogen stores.

  11. Changes in carbohydrate content in zucchini fruit (Cucurbita pepo L.) under low temperature stress.

    Palma, Francisco; Carvajal, Fátima; Lluch, Carmen; Jamilena, Manuel; Garrido, Dolores

    2014-03-01

    The postharvest handling of zucchini fruit includes low-temperature storage, making cold stress unavoidable. We have investigated the changes of soluble carbohydrates under this stress and its relation with weight loss and chilling injury in zucchini fruit during postharvest storage at 4 °C and 20 °C for up to 14 days. Two varieties with different degrees of chilling tolerance were compared: Natura, the more tolerant variety, and Sinatra, the variety that suffered more severe chilling-injury symptoms and weight loss. In both varieties, total soluble carbohydrates, reducing soluble carbohydrates and polyols content was generally higher during storage at 4 °C than at 20 °C, thus these parameters are related to the physiological response of zucchini fruit to cold stress. However, the raffinose content increased in Natura and Sinatra fruits during storage at 4 °C and 20 °C, although at 20 °C the increase in raffinose was more remarkable than at 4 °C in both varieties, so that the role of raffinose could be more likely related to dehydration than to chilling susceptibility of zucchini fruit. Glucose, fructose, pinitol, and acid invertase activity registered opposite trends in both varieties against chilling, increasing in Natura and decreasing in Sinatra. The increase in acid invertase activity in Natura fruit during cold storage could contribute in part to the increase of these reducing sugars, whose metabolism could be involved in the adaptation to postharvest cold storage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Carbohydrates as T-cell antigens with implications in health and disease.

    Sun, Lina; Middleton, Dustin R; Wantuch, Paeton L; Ozdilek, Ahmet; Avci, Fikri Y

    2016-10-01

    Glycosylation is arguably the most ubiquitous post-translational modification on proteins in microbial and mammalian cells. During the past few years, there has been intensive research demonstrating that carbohydrates, either in pure forms or in conjunction with proteins or lipids, evoke and modulate adaptive immune responses. We now know that carbohydrates can be directly recognized by T cells or participate in T-cell stimulation as components of T-cell epitopes. T-cell recognition of carbohydrate antigens takes place via their presentation by major histocompatibility complex pathways on antigen-presenting cells. In this review, we summarize studies on carbohydrates as T-cell antigens modulating adaptive immune responses. Through discussion of glycan-containing antigens, such as glycoproteins, glycolipids, zwitterionic polysaccharides and carbohydrate-based glycoconjugate vaccines, we will illustrate the key molecular and cellular interactions between carbohydrate antigens and T cells and the implications of these interactions in health and disease. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Complex carbohydrate utilization by the healthy human microbiome.

    Brandi L Cantarel

    Full Text Available The various ecological habitats in the human body provide microbes a wide array of nutrient sources and survival challenges. Advances in technology such as DNA sequencing have allowed a deeper perspective into the molecular function of the human microbiota than has been achievable in the past. Here we aimed to examine the enzymes that cleave complex carbohydrates (CAZymes in the human microbiome in order to determine (i whether the CAZyme profiles of bacterial genomes are more similar within body sites or bacterial families and (ii the sugar degradation and utilization capabilities of microbial communities inhabiting various human habitats. Upon examination of 493 bacterial references genomes from 12 human habitats, we found that sugar degradation capabilities of taxa are more similar to others in the same bacterial family than to those inhabiting the same habitat. Yet, the analysis of 520 metagenomic samples from five major body sites show that even when the community composition varies the CAZyme profiles are very similar within a body site, suggesting that the observed functional profile and microbial habitation have adapted to the local carbohydrate composition. When broad sugar utilization was compared within the five major body sites, the gastrointestinal track contained the highest potential for total sugar degradation, while dextran and peptidoglycan degradation were highest in oral and vaginal sites respectively. Our analysis suggests that the carbohydrate composition of each body site has a profound influence and probably constitutes one of the major driving forces that shapes the community composition and therefore the CAZyme profile of the local microbial communities, which in turn reflects the microbiome fitness to a body site.

  14. Identification and determination of 3-deoxyglucosone and glucosone in carbohydrate-rich foods.

    Ruiz-Matute, Ana I; Castro Vazquez, Lucía; Hernández-Hernández, Oswaldo; Sanz, María L; Martínez-Castro, Isabel

    2015-09-01

    α-Dicarbonyl compounds (α-DCs) such as 3-deoxyglucosone (3-DG) and glucosone are markers of both Maillard and degradation reactions of sugars and also of certain enzymatic processes. However, quantitation of these compounds is not straightforward when more abundant carbohydrates are present in real samples. Therefore in this work a GC/MS method was developed to separate monosaccharides, 3-DG and glucosone and applied to analyze them in carbohydrate-rich food products. Difructose anhydrides (DFAs), known markers of sugar degradation, were also determined. The effect of time and temperature in the production and storage of these compounds was also evaluated. Under optimized conditions, good separation between monosaccharides and α-DCs was achieved. Must syrups showed the highest concentrations of 3-DG and glucosone (average values 9.2 and 5.8 mg g(-1) respectively). Coffee substitutes based on carob, chicory and blends showed the highest content of DFAs. Heating and storage assays proved that production of 3-DG was influenced by temperature, while glucosone was more affected by storage time. The proposed method allows the rapid quantitation of 3-DG and glucosone along with carbohydrates and DFAs in different food products, which is essential to determine their degradation level. Moreover, the α-DC content in several foods is reported for the first time. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Ion mobility studies of carbohydrates as group I adducts: isomer specific collisional cross section dependence on metal ion radius.

    Huang, Yuting; Dodds, Eric D

    2013-10-15

    Carbohydrates play numerous critical roles in biological systems. Characterization of oligosaccharide structures is essential to a complete understanding of their functions in biological processes; nevertheless, their structural determination remains challenging in part due to isomerism. Ion mobility spectrometry provides the means to resolve gas phase ions on the basis of their shape-to-charge ratios, thus providing significant potential for separation and differentiation of carbohydrate isomers. Here, we report on the determination of collisional cross sections for four groups of isomeric carbohydrates (including five isomeric disaccharides, four isomeric trisaccharides, two isomeric pentasaccharides, and two isomeric hexasaccharides) as their group I metal ion adducts (i.e., [M + Li](+), [M + Na](+), [M + K](+), [M + Rb](+), and [M + Cs](+)). In all, 65 collisional cross sections were measured, the great majority of which have not been previously reported. As anticipated, the collisional cross sections of the carbohydrate metal ion adducts generally increase with increasing metal ion radius; however, the collisional cross sections were found to scale with the group I cation size in isomer specific manners. Such measurements are of substantial analytical value, as they illustrate how the selection of charge carrier influences carbohydrate ion mobility determinations. For example, certain pairs of isomeric carbohydrates assume unique collisional cross sections upon binding one metal ion, but not another. On the whole, these data suggest a role for the charge carrier as a probe of carbohydrate structure and thus have significant implications for the continued development and application of ion mobility spectrometry for the distinction and resolution of isomeric carbohydrates.

  16. The effects of whey protein with or without carbohydrates on resistance training adaptations.

    Hulmi, Juha J; Laakso, Mia; Mero, Antti A; Häkkinen, Keijo; Ahtiainen, Juha P; Peltonen, Heikki

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition intake in the context of a resistance training (RT) bout may affect body composition and muscle strength. However, the individual and combined effects of whey protein and carbohydrates on long-term resistance training adaptations are poorly understood. A four-week preparatory RT period was conducted in previously untrained males to standardize the training background of the subjects. Thereafter, the subjects were randomized into three groups: 30 g of whey proteins (n = 22), isocaloric carbohydrates (maltodextrin, n = 21), or protein + carbohydrates (n = 25). Within these groups, the subjects were further randomized into two whole-body 12-week RT regimens aiming either for muscle hypertrophy and maximal strength or muscle strength, hypertrophy and power. The post-exercise drink was always ingested immediately after the exercise bout, 2-3 times per week depending on the training period. Body composition (by DXA), quadriceps femoris muscle cross-sectional area (by panoramic ultrasound), maximal strength (by dynamic and isometric leg press) and serum lipids as basic markers of cardiovascular health, were analysed before and after the intervention. Twelve-week RT led to increased fat-free mass, muscle size and strength independent of post-exercise nutrient intake (P carbohydrate group independent of the type of RT (P carbohydrate group (P carbohydrates or combination of proteins and carbohydrates did not have a major effect on muscle size or strength when ingested two to three times a week. However, whey proteins may increase abdominal fat loss and relative fat-free mass adaptations in response to resistance training when compared to fast-acting carbohydrates.

  17. Metabolic aspects of low carbohydrate diets and exercise

    Peters Sandra

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Following a low carbohydrate diet, there is a shift towards more fat and less carbohydrate oxidation to provide energy to skeletal muscle, both at rest and during exercise. This review summarizes recent work on human skeletal muscle carbohydrate and fat metabolic adaptations to a low carbohydrate diet, focusing mainly on pyruvate dehydrogenase and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, and how these changes relate to the capacity for carbohydrate oxidation during exercise.

  18. Neutron storage

    Strelkov, A.V.

    2004-01-01

    The report is devoted to neutron storage (NS) and describes the history of experiments on the NS development. Great attention is paid to ultracold neutron (UCN) storage. The experiments on the UCN generation, transport, spectroscopy, storage and detection are described. Experiments on searching the UCN electric-dipole moment and electric charge are continued. Possible using of UCN for studying the nanoparticles is discussed [ru

  19. Energy storage

    Odru, P.

    2010-01-01

    This book proposes a broad overview of the technologies developed in the domains of on-board electricity storage (batteries, super-capacitors, flywheels), stationary storage (hydraulic dams, compressed air, batteries and hydrogen), and heat storage (sensible, latent and sorption) together with their relative efficiency, their expected developments and what advantages they can offer. Eminent specialists of this domain have participated to the redaction of this book, all being members of the Tuck's Foundation 'IDees' think tank. (J.S.)

  20. Energy storage

    Brunet, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Energy storage examines different applications such as electric power generation, transmission and distribution systems, pulsed systems, transportation, buildings and mobile applications. For each of these applications, proper energy storage technologies are foreseen, with their advantages, disadvantages and limits. As electricity cannot be stored cheaply in large quantities, energy has to be stored in another form (chemical, thermal, electromagnetic, mechanical) and then converted back into electric power and/or energy using conversion systems. Most of the storage technologies are examined: b

  1. Tritium storage

    Hircq, B.

    1989-01-01

    A general synthesis about tritium storage is achieved in this paper and a particular attention is given to practical application in the Fusion Technology Program. Tritium, storage under gaseous form and solid form are discussed (characteristics, advantages, disadvantages and equipments). The way of tritium storage is then discussed and a choice established as a function of a logic which takes into account the main working parameters

  2. Using Carbohydrate Interaction Assays to Reveal Novel Binding Sites in Carbohydrate Active Enzymes

    Cockburn, Darrell; Wilkens, Casper; Dilokpimol, Adiphol

    2016-01-01

    Carbohydrate active enzymes often contain auxiliary binding sites located either on independent domains termed carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs) or as so-called surface binding sites (SBSs) on the catalytic module at a certain distance from the active site. The SBSs are usually critical...

  3. Effect of gamma-irradiation and extended storage on chemical quality in onion (Allium cepa L.)

    Croci, C.A.; Banek, S.A.; Curzio, O.A.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of gamma-irradiation and long-term storage on the chemical quality of the Valenciana sintética 14 onion variety were determined under warehouse conditions in two sets of bulbs grown consecutively in 1988 and 1989. In both years irradiated and non-irradiated bulbs showed similar behaviour in terms of carbohydrate and ascorbic acid contents throughout the 300 days of storage. It was found that the carbohydrate content significantly decreased in irradiated and non-irradiated samples up to 180 days of storage. The storage time was found not to have a significant effect on the ascorbic acid content of bulbs. The carbohydrate and ascorbic acid contents were found to be higher in the irradiated and non-irradiated bulbs grown in 1988. Neither storage time nor gamma-irradiation nor the specific year significantly affected dry matter or acidity. Gamma-irradiation did not significantly affect flavour strength in terms of total pyruvate content

  4. Probe Storage

    Gemelli, Marcellino; Abelmann, Leon; Engelen, Johannes Bernardus Charles; Khatib, M.G.; Koelmans, W.W.; Zaboronski, Olog; Campardo, Giovanni; Tiziani, Federico; Laculo, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of probe-based data storage research over the last three decades, encompassing all aspects of a probe recording system. Following the division found in all mechanically addressed storage systems, the different subsystems (media, read/write heads, positioning, data

  5. Single tag for total carbohydrate analysis.

    Anumula, Kalyan Rao

    2014-07-15

    Anthranilic acid (2-aminobenzoic acid, 2-AA) has the remarkable property of reacting rapidly with every type of reducing carbohydrate. Reactivity of 2-AA with carbohydrates in aqueous solutions surpasses all other tags reported to date. This unique capability is attributed to the strategically located -COOH which accelerates Schiff base formation. Monosaccharides, oligosaccharides (N-, O-, and lipid linked and glycans in secretory fluids), glycosaminoglycans, and polysaccharides can be easily labeled with 2-AA. With 2-AA, labeling is simple in aqueous solutions containing proteins, peptides, buffer salts, and other ingredients (e.g., PNGase F, glycosidase, and transferase reaction mixtures). In contrast, other tags require relatively pure glycans for labeling in anhydrous dimethyl sulfoxide-acetic acid medium. Acidic conditions are known to cause desialylation, thus requiring a great deal of attention to sample preparation. Simpler labeling is achieved with 2-AA within 30-60 min in mild acetate-borate buffered solution. 2-AA provides the highest sensitivity and resolution in chromatographic methods for carbohydrate analysis in a simple manner. Additionally, 2-AA is uniquely qualified for quantitative analysis by mass spectrometry in the negative mode. Analyses of 2-AA-labeled carbohydrates by electrophoresis and other techniques have been reported. Examples cited here demonstrate that 2-AA is the universal tag for total carbohydrate analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Alternatives for water basin spent fuel storage using pin storage

    Viebrock, J.M.; Carlson, R.W.

    1979-09-01

    The densest tolerable form for storing spent nuclear fuel is storage of only the fuel rods. This eliminates the space between the fuel rods and frees the hardware to be treated as non-fuel waste. The storage density can be as much as 1.07 MTU/ft 2 when racks are used that just satisfy the criticality and thermal limitations. One of the major advantages of pin storage is that it is compatible with existing racks; however, this reduces the storage density to 0.69 MTU/ft 2 . Even this is a substantial increase over the 0.39 MTU/ft 2 that is achievable with current high capacity stainless steel racks which have been selected as the bases for comparison. Disassembly requires extensive operation on the fuel assembly to remove the upper end fitting and to extract the fuel rods from the assembly skeleton. These operations will be performed with the aid of an elevator to raise the assembly where each fuel rod is grappled. Lowering the elevator will free the fuel rod for transfer to the storage canister. A storage savings of $1510 per MTU can be realized if the pin storage concept is incorporated at a new away-from-reactor facility. The storage cost ranges from $3340 to $7820 per MTU of fuel stored with the lower cost applying to storage at an existing away-from-reactor storage facility and the higher cost applying to at-reactor storage

  7. Boronic acids for fluorescence imaging of carbohydrates.

    Sun, Xiaolong; Zhai, Wenlei; Fossey, John S; James, Tony D

    2016-02-28

    "Fluorescence imaging" is a particularly exciting and rapidly developing area of research; the annual number of publications in the area has increased ten-fold over the last decade. The rapid increase of interest in fluorescence imaging will necessitate the development of an increasing number of molecular receptors and binding agents in order to meet the demand in this rapidly expanding area. Carbohydrate biomarkers are particularly important targets for fluorescence imaging given their pivotal role in numerous important biological events, including the development and progression of many diseases. Therefore, the development of new fluorescent receptors and binding agents for carbohydrates is and will be increasing in demand. This review highlights the development of fluorescence imaging agents based on boronic acids a particularly promising class of receptors given their strong and selective binding with carbohydrates in aqueous media.

  8. Carbohydrates in pig nutrition - Recent advances

    Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Lærke, Helle Nygaard; Ingerslev, Anne Krog

    2016-01-01

    The dietary carbohydrates are a diverse group of substances with a range of chemical, physical, and physiological properties. The primary chemical classification of carbohydrates is by molecular size (degree of polymerization [DP]), the type of linkage (α or β), and composition of individual...... to their potential for digestion by endogenous enzymes. Carbohydrates are the principal substrates for energy metabolism but also exert a number of other effects throughout the gastrointestinal tract. The starch structure as well as type and levels of DF influence, to a varying degree, the rate of starch digestion...... in the small intestine. Some types of soluble NSP are found to interact with intestinal mucus and produce a layer that significantly delays the transport of lipid digestion products. Potentially, the same may be the case for proteinous compounds. The delay in the transport of the nutrients to the gut...

  9. Evidence-Based Guideline of the German Nutrition Society: Carbohydrate Intake and Prevention of Nutrition-Related Diseases

    Hauner, Hans;Bechthold, Angela;Boeing, Heiner;Brönstrup, Anja;Buyken, Anette;Leschik-Bonnet, Eva;Linseisen, Jakob;Schulze, Matthias;Strohm, Daniela;Wolfram, Günther

    2016-01-01

    The relative contribution of nutrition-related chronic diseases to the total disease burden of the society and the health care costs has risen continuously over the last decades. Thus, there is an urgent necessity to better exploit the potential of dietary prevention of diseases. Carbohydrates play a major role in human nutrition – next to fat, carbohydrates are the second biggest group of energy-yielding nutrients. Obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipoproteinaemia, hypertension, metabol...

  10. Minimally refined biomass fuel. [carbohydrate-water-alcohol mixture

    Pearson, R.K.; Hirschfeld, T.B.

    1981-03-26

    A minimally refined fluid composition, suitable as a fuel mixture and derived from biomass material, is comprised of one or more water-soluble carbohydrates such as sucrose, one or more alcohols having less than four carbons, and water. The carbohydrate provides the fuel source; water-solubilizes the carbohydrate; and the alcohol aids in the combustion of the carbohydrate and reduces the viscosity of the carbohydrate/water solution. Because less energy is required to obtain the carbohydrate from the raw biomass than alcohol, an overall energy savings is realized compared to fuels employing alcohol as the primary fuel.

  11. The influence of carbohydrate consumption on glycemic control in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes

    Asbjörnsdóttir, Björg; Akueson, Cecelia E.; Ronneby, Helle

    2017-01-01

    , as a part of routine care. The total daily carbohydrate consumption from the major sources (e.g. bread, potatoes, rice, pasta, dairy products, fruits, candy) was calculated. A dietician estimated the overall glycemic index score (scale 0–7). Results At least two days of diet recording were available in 75...

  12. Determination of yields of gaseous products of carbohydrates radiolysis by mass spectrometry method. [. gamma. rays

    Ivko, A A; Gol' din, S I; Bondarenko, N T; Markevich, S V; Sharpatii, V A [AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Khimicheskoj Fiziki

    1977-01-01

    Possible complications are treated involved in the mass spectral study of the radiolytic products of deuterated carbohydrates. A method is proposed suitable for the evaluation of hydrogen isotopes relations and the content of deuterium in water. It has been possible to identify the major gaseous radiolytic products of glucose, polyglucan and dextran, and also to assess their radiation-chemical yields.

  13. Determination of yields of gaseous products of carbohydrates radiolysis by mass spectrometry method

    Ivko, A.A.; Gol'din, S.I.; Bondarenko, N.T.; Markevich, S.V.; Sharpatyj, V.A.

    1977-01-01

    Possible complications are treated involved in the mass spectral study of the radiolytic products of deuterated carbohydrates. A method is proposed suitable for the evaluation of hydrogen isotopes relations and the content of deuterium in water. It has been possible to identify the major gaseous radiolytic products of glucose, polyglucan and dextran, and also to assess their radiation-chemical yields [ru

  14. Hepatocyte heterogeneity in the metabolism of carbohydrates.

    Jungermann, K; Thurman, R G

    1992-01-01

    Periportal and perivenous hepatocytes possess different amounts and activities of the rate-generating enzymes of carbohydrate and oxidative energy metabolism and thus different metabolic capacities. This is the basis of the model of metabolic zonation, according to which periportal cells catalyze predominantly the oxidative catabolism of fatty and amino acids as well as glucose release and glycogen formation via gluconeogenesis, and perivenous cells carry out preferentially glucose uptake for glycogen synthesis and glycolysis coupled to liponeogenesis. The input of humoral and nervous signals into the periportal and perivenous zones is different; gradients of oxygen, substrates and products, hormones and mediators and nerve densities exist which are important not only for the short-term regulation of carbohydrate metabolism but also for the long-term regulation of zonal gene expression. The specialization of periportal and perivenous hepatocytes in carbohydrate metabolism has been well characterized. In vivo evidence is provided by the complex metabolic situation termed the 'glucose paradox' and by zonal flux differences calculated on the basis of the distribution of enzymes and metabolites. In vitro evidence is given by the different flux rates determined with classical invasive techniques, e.g. in periportal-like and perivenous-like hepatocytes in cell culture, in periportal- and perivenous-enriched hepatocyte populations and in perfused livers during orthograde and retrograde flow, as well as with noninvasive techniques using miniature oxygen electrodes, e.g. in livers perfused in either direction. Differences of opinion in the interpretation of studies with invasive and noninvasive techniques by the authors are discussed. The declining gradient in oxygen concentrations, the decreasing glucagon/insulin ratio and the different innervation could be important factors in the zonal expression of the genes of carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes. While it is clear that

  15. Carbohydrates digestion and metabolism in the spiny lobster (Panulirus argus): biochemical indication for limited carbohydrate utilization.

    Rodríguez-Viera, Leandro; Perera, Erick; Montero-Alejo, Vivian; Perdomo-Morales, Rolando; García-Galano, Tsai; Martínez-Rodríguez, Gonzalo; Mancera, Juan M

    2017-01-01

    As other spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus is supposed to use preferentially proteins and lipids in energy metabolism, while carbohydrates are well digested but poorly utilized. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary carbohydrate level on digestion and metabolism in the spiny lobster P. argus . We used complementary methodologies such as post-feeding flux of nutrients and metabolites, as well as measurements of α-amylase expression and activity in the digestive tract. Lobsters readily digested and absorbed carbohydrates with a time-course that is dependent on their content in diet. Lobster showed higher levels of free glucose and stored glycogen in different tissues as the inclusion of wheat flour increased. Modifications in intermediary metabolism revealed a decrease in amino acids catabolism coupled with a higher use of free glucose as carbohydrates rise up to 20%. However, this effect seems to be limited by the metabolic capacity of lobsters to use more than 20% of carbohydrates in diets. Lobsters were not able to tightly regulate α-amylase expression according to dietary carbohydrate level but exhibited a marked difference in secretion of this enzyme into the gut. Results are discussed to highlight the limitations to increasing carbohydrate utilization by lobsters. Further growout trials are needed to link the presented metabolic profiles with phenotypic outcomes.

  16. Carbohydrates digestion and metabolism in the spiny lobster (Panulirus argus: biochemical indication for limited carbohydrate utilization

    Leandro Rodríguez-Viera

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available As other spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus is supposed to use preferentially proteins and lipids in energy metabolism, while carbohydrates are well digested but poorly utilized. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary carbohydrate level on digestion and metabolism in the spiny lobster P. argus. We used complementary methodologies such as post-feeding flux of nutrients and metabolites, as well as measurements of α-amylase expression and activity in the digestive tract. Lobsters readily digested and absorbed carbohydrates with a time-course that is dependent on their content in diet. Lobster showed higher levels of free glucose and stored glycogen in different tissues as the inclusion of wheat flour increased. Modifications in intermediary metabolism revealed a decrease in amino acids catabolism coupled with a higher use of free glucose as carbohydrates rise up to 20%. However, this effect seems to be limited by the metabolic capacity of lobsters to use more than 20% of carbohydrates in diets. Lobsters were not able to tightly regulate α-amylase expression according to dietary carbohydrate level but exhibited a marked difference in secretion of this enzyme into the gut. Results are discussed to highlight the limitations to increasing carbohydrate utilization by lobsters. Further growout trials are needed to link the presented metabolic profiles with phenotypic outcomes.

  17. Exponential increase in postprandial blood-glucose exposure with increasing carbohydrate loads using a linear carbohydrate-to-insulin ratio.

    Marran, K J; Davey, B; Lang, A; Segal, D G

    2013-04-10

    Postprandial glucose excursions contribute significantly to average blood glucose, glycaemic variability and cardiovascular risk. Carbohydrate counting is a method of insulin dosing that balances carbohydrate load to insulin dose using a fixed ratio. Many patients and current insulin pumps calculate insulin delivery for meals based on a linear carbohydrate-to-insulin relationship. It is our hypothesis that a non-linear relationship exists between the amounts of carbohydrate consumed and the insulin required to cover it. To document blood glucose exposure in response to increasing carbohydrate loads on fixed carbohydrate-to-insulin ratios. Five type 1 diabetic subjects receiving insulin pump therapy with good control were recruited. Morning basal rates and carbohydrate- to-insulin ratios were optimised. A Medtronic glucose sensor was used for 5 days to collect data for area-under-the-curve (AUC) analysis, during which standardised meals of increasing carbohydrate loads were consumed. Increasing carbohydrate loads using a fixed carbohydrate-to-insulin ratio resulted in increasing glucose AUC. The relationship was found to be exponential rather than linear. Late postprandial hypoglycaemia followed carbohydrate loads of >60 g and this was often followed by rebound hyperglycaemia that lasted >6 hours. A non-linear relationship exists between carbohydrates consumed and the insulin required to cover them. This has implications for control of postprandial blood sugars, especially when consuming large carbohydrate loads. Further studies are required to look at the optimal ratios, duration and type of insulin boluses required to cover increasing carbohydrate loads.

  18. Energy storage

    1962-07-01

    The papers on energy storage problems, given to the United Nations Conference on New Sources of Energy, Rome, 1961, are reviewed. Many aspects of the subject are discussed: comparisons between the costs of storing energy in batteries and in fuel cells; the use, efficiency and expected improvement of fuel cells; the principles involved in the chemical conversion of solar energy to chemical energy; the use of metal hydride fuel cells; the chemical conversion and storage of concentrated solar energy for which the solar furnace is used for photochemical reactions. Finally, the general costs of storing energy in any form and delivering it are analyzed with particular reference to storage batteries and fuel cells.

  19. Superconducting magnetic energy storage

    Rogers, J.D.; Boenig, H.J.

    1978-01-01

    Superconducting inductors provide a compact and efficient means of storing electrical energy without an intermediate conversion process. Energy storage inductors are under development for diurnal load leveling and transmission line stabilization in electric utility systems and for driving magnetic confinement and plasma heating coils in fusion energy systems. Fluctuating electric power demands force the electric utility industry to have more installed generating capacity than the average load requires. Energy storage can increase the utilization of base-load fossil and nuclear power plants for electric utilities. Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) systems, which will store and deliver electrical energy for load leveling, peak shaving, and the stabilization of electric utility networks are being developed. In the fusion area, inductive energy transfer and storage is also being developed by LASL. Both 1-ms fast-discharge theta-pinch and 1-to-2-s slow tokamak energy transfer systems have been demonstrated. The major components and the method of operation of an SMES unit are described, and potential applications of different size SMES systems in electric power grids are presented. Results are given for a 1-GWh reference design load-leveling unit, for a 30-MJ coil proposed stabilization unit, and for tests with a small-scale, 100-kJ magnetic energy storage system. The results of the fusion energy storage and transfer tests are also presented. The common technology base for the systems is discussed

  20. Major Links.

    Henderson, Tona

    1995-01-01

    Provides electronic mail addresses for resources and discussion groups related to the following academic majors: art, biology, business, chemistry, computer science, economics, health sciences, history, literature, math, music, philosophy, political science, psychology, sociology, and theater. (AEF)

  1. Major Roads

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for major roads (interstates and trunk highways) found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. These roadways are current...

  2. A Universal Protocol for Photochemical Covalent Immobilization of Intact Carbohydrates for the Preparation of Carbohydrate Microarrays

    Wang, Huibin; Zhang, Yiming; Yuan, Xun; Chen, Yi; Yan, Mingdi

    2010-01-01

    A universal photochemical method has been established for the immobilization of intact carbohydrates and their analogues, and for the fabrication of carbohydrate microarrays. The method features the use of perfluorophenyl azide (PFPA)-modified substrates and the photochemical reaction of surface azido groups with printed carbohydrates. Various aldoses, ketoses, non-reducing sugars such as alditols and their derivatives can be directly arrayed on the PFPA-modified chips. The lectin-recognition ability of arrayed mannose, glucose and their oligo- and polysaccharides were confirmed using surface plasmon resonance imaging and laser-induced fluorescence imaging. PMID:21138274

  3. Genetic and phenotypic analysis of carbohydrate metabolism and transport in Lactobacillus reuteri.

    Zhao, Xin; Gänzle, Michael G

    2018-05-02

    Lactobacilli derive metabolic energy mainly from carbohydrate fermentation. Homofermentative and heterofermentative lactobacilli exhibit characteristic differences in carbohydrate transport and regulation of metabolism, however, enzymes for carbohydrate transport in heterofermentative lactobacilli are poorly characterized. This study aimed to identify carbohydrate active enzymes in the L. reuteri strains LTH2584, LTH5448, TMW1.656, TMW1.112, 100-23, mlc3, and lpuph by phenotypic analysis and comparative genomics. Sourdough and intestinal isolates of L. reuteri displayed no difference in the number and type of carbohydrate-active enzymes encoded in the genome. Predicted sugar transporters encoded by genomes of L. reuteri strains were secondary carriers and most belong to the major facilitator superfamily. The quantification of gene expression during growth in sourdough and in chemically defined media corresponded to the predicted function of the transporters MalT, ScrT and LacS as carriers for maltose, sucrose, and lactose or raffinose, respectively. The genotype for sugar utilization matched the fermentation profile of 39 sugars for L. reuteri strains, and indicated preference for maltose, sucrose, raffinose and (iso)-malto-oligosaccharides, which are available in sourdough and in the upper intestine of rodents. Pentose utilization in L. reuteri species was strain-specific but independent of the origin or phylogenetic position of isolates. Two glycosyl hydrolases, licheninase (EC 3.2.1.73) and endo-1, 4-β-galactosidase (EC 3.2.1.89) were identified based on conserved domains. In conclusion, the study identified the lack of PTS systems, preference for secondary carriers for carbohydrate transport, and absence of carbon catabolite repression as characteristic features of the carbohydrate metabolism in the heterofermentative L. reuteri. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The Fermilab data storage infrastructure

    Jon A Bakken et al.

    2003-01-01

    Fermilab, in collaboration with the DESY laboratory in Hamburg, Germany, has created a petabyte scale data storage infrastructure to meet the requirements of experiments to store and access large data sets. The Fermilab data storage infrastructure consists of the following major storage and data transfer components: Enstore mass storage system, DCache distributed data cache, ftp and Grid ftp for primarily external data transfers. This infrastructure provides a data throughput sufficient for transferring data from experiments' data acquisition systems. It also allows access to data in the Grid framework

  5. Effect of gamma irradiation on total carbohydrate concentration of finger millet flour

    Lathika; Patil, Shrikant L.; Bhasker Shenoy, K.; Somashekarappa, H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Ragi or finger millet (Eleusine coracana L.) is one of the common millets in several regions of India. The effect of gamma irradiation, on ragi flour was investigated in the study. Ragi flour is procured from market. Flour samples of 50 gms were taken in triplicates in a polyethylene pouch, air sealed and subjected to gamma irradiation doses ranging from 0.25 to 10 kGy and stored in polyethylene bags and plastic containers for a period of 30 and 90 days. Within 24 hours of irradiation, the samples were tested for total carbohydrate concentration by phenol-sulphuric acid method. The same was repeated after 30 and 90 days of storage. The comparative study showed that, at 0 day, total carbohydrate concentration has decreased slightly when compared to the non-irradiated sample (0.024 mg/ml). The lowest concentration of carbohydrate is seen at 0.025 kGy (0.019mg/ml). The samples stored in polyethylene bag, after 30 days showed both increase (0.056 mg/ml at 0.025 kGy) and decrease (0.04 mg/ml at 10 kGy) in total carbohydrate concentration when compared to control (0.046 mg/ml). 90 days stored samples showed increase in carbohydrate concentration when compared to control (0.029 mg/ml). The highest carbohydrate concentration is seen in 1 kGy dose (0.037 mg/ml). The samples stored at container after 30 days showed both increase (0.045 mg/ml at 5 kGy) and decrease (0.034 mg/ml at 0.025 mg/ml) of carbohydrate concentration when compared to control (0.043 mg/ml). 90 days stored samples showed decrease in carbohydrate concentration when compared to control (0.034 mg/ml). The lowest concentration is seen at 5 kGy (0.022 mg/ml). (author)

  6. Carbohydrates and gibberellins relationship in potato tuberization

    Ševčíková, H.; Mašková, P.; Tarkowská, Danuše; Mašek, T.; Lipavská, H.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 214, JUL (2017), s. 53-63 ISSN 0176-1617 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-34792S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Carbohydrate distribution * Gibberellin * Photoautotrophic cultivation * Potato * Tuberization Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 3.121, year: 2016

  7. Accumulation pattern of total nonstructural carbohydrate in ...

    Umukoro

    1977-09-09

    Sep 9, 1977 ... 1Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria (INTA), EEA Famaillá, Argentina. 2Department of Plant Sciences, University of California Davis, CA, USA. Accepted 17 October, 2012. The pattern of total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC) accumulation in strawberry (Fragaria ananassa. Duch.) nursery ...

  8. Crystallization of carbohydrate oxidase from Microdochium nivale

    Dušková, Jarmila; Dohnálek, Jan; Skálová, Tereza; Ostergaard, L. H.; Fuglsang, C. C.; Kolenko, Petr; Štěpánková, Andrea; Hašek, Jindřich

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 6 (2009), s. 638-640 ISSN 1744-3091 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500500701; GA ČR GA305/07/1073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : carbohydrate oxidase * crystallization * data processing Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.551, year: 2009

  9. Nutrient and carbohydrate partitioning in sorghum stover

    Powell, J.M.; Hons, F.M.; McBee, G.G.

    1991-01-01

    Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] stover has been demonstrated to be a potential biomass energy source. Complete aboveground crop removal, however, can result in soil degradation. Differential dry matter, nutrient, and carbohydrate partitioning by sorghum cultivars may allow management strategies that return certain parts to the field while removing other portions for alternative uses, such as energy production. A field study was conducted to determine N,P,K, nonstructural carbohydrate, cellulose hemicellulose, and lignin distributions in stover of three diverse sorghum cultivars of differing harvest indices. Determinations were based on total vegetative biomass; total blades; total stalks; and upper middle, and lower blades and stalks. Concentrations of N and P were higher in blades than stalks and generally declines from upper to lower stover parts. Large carbohydrate and lignin concentration differences were observed on the basis of cultivar and stover part. Greater nutrient partitioning to the upper third of the intermediate and forage-type sorghum stovers was observed as compared to the conventional grain cultivar. Stover carbohydrates for all cultivars were mainly contained in the lower two-thirds of the stalk fraction. A system was proposed for returning upper stover portion to soil, while removing remaining portions for alternative uses

  10. Saturated fat, carbohydrates and cardiovascular disease

    Kuipers, R. S.; de Graaf, D. J.; Luxwolda, M. F.; Muskiet, M. H. A.; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. J.; Muskiet, F. A. J.

    The dietary intake of saturated fatty acids (SAFA) is associated with a modest increase in serum total cholesterol, but not with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Replacing dietary SAFA with carbohydrates (CHO), notably those with a high glycaemic index, is associated with an increase in CVD risk in

  11. Profiling of carbohydrate polymers in biotechnology using ...

    The analysis of carbohydrate polymers is very demanding and challenging because of the similar physical and chemical properties they possess. Enzymatic hydrolysis is employed to cleave the polymers. The use of enzymes in analytical chemistry requires an analytical system that has on-line capability, is fast, ...

  12. Radiation chemistry of carbohydrates, ch. 5

    Dauphin, J.F.; Saint-Lebe, L.R.

    1977-01-01

    The physical and chemical changes undergone by carbohydrates at irradiation are reviewed. The discussion includes the irradiation of pure sugars (low molecular weight sugars and derivatives in the solid state or in solution; polysaccharides) as well as the irradiation of simple mixtures containing a given sugar, emphasizing the irradiation of foodstuffs containing one or more sugars

  13. Carbohydrates in Colobanthus quitensis and Deschampsia antarctica

    Agnieszka I. Piotrowicz-Cieślak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Eight to nineteen ethanol-soluble carbohydrate components were identified in vegetative tissues of Colobanthus quitensis and Deschampsia antarctica. The analysed carbohydrates included: monosaccharides, cyclitols, galactosyl cyclitols, raffinose family oligosaccharides, lichnose family oligosaccharides, kestose family oligosaccharides. The analysed vegetative tissues accumulated from 447 to 139 mg/g d.m. soluble carbohydrates in Colobanthus quitensis, Deschampsia antarctica respectively. The raffinose family oligosaccharides constituted 53.3% in Colobanthus quitensis of the identified soluble carbohydrate component pool. Vegetative tissues accumulated starch in Colobanthus quitensis 20.6 mg/g d.m. and 261.6 mg/g d.m. in Deschampsia antarctica. Anatomical and ultrastructural observations of vegetative part of Colobanthus quitensis and Deschmpsia antarctica revealed the presence of various ergastic materials in intercellular spaces, cell walls and protoplasts. Various parts of these plants contain insoluble, PAS positive polysaccharides in intercellular spaces and in cell walls. Chloroplasts of analysed tissues contained starch. Less starch was visible in young, growing parts of shoots of Colobanthus quitensis and Deschmpsia antarctica, more starch appears in mature, differentiated parts.

  14. Dissolved carbohydrate in the central Arabian Sea

    Dhople, V.M.; Bhosle, N.B.

    with chlorophyll a (P 0.001) and phaeopigments (P 0.001) suggesting its release from the former and zooplankton grazing in the latter. Inverse correlations with dissolved oxygen, phosphate and nitrate indicated the possibility of the release of carbohydrate from...

  15. Accumulation pattern of total nonstructural carbohydrate in ...

    The pattern of total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC) accumulation in strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch.) nursery runner plants, cv. eCamarosaf, was determined for three growing seasons. Plant growth and fruit production patterns were also evaluated. The experiments were carried out on plants propagated in high ...

  16. STICS: surface-tethered iterative carbohydrate synthesis.

    Pornsuriyasak, Papapida; Ranade, Sneha C; Li, Aixiao; Parlato, M Cristina; Sims, Charles R; Shulga, Olga V; Stine, Keith J; Demchenko, Alexei V

    2009-04-14

    A new surface-tethered iterative carbohydrate synthesis (STICS) technology is presented in which a surface functionalized 'stick' made of chemically stable high surface area porous gold allows one to perform cost efficient and simple synthesis of oligosaccharide chains; at the end of the synthesis, the oligosaccharide can be cleaved off and the stick reused for subsequent syntheses.

  17. DETERMINATION OF CARBOHYDRATE AND β-CAROTENE ...

    DR. AMINU

    A sample of each vegetable was washed and ground to a fine pulp using pestle and mortar. The operation was done under dim light to reduce the rate of carotene oxidation contained in them. One gramme (1g) and 10g of macerated sample were weighed using Metler PT balance for carbohydrate and β-carotene analysis ...

  18. Particulate carbohydrates in the Bay of Bengal

    Bhosle, N.B.; Nandakumar, K.; Venkat, K.

    Particulate matter collected from 77 water samples over a 3000 m water column was analyzed for particulate carbohydrates (PCHO). PCHO in the surface waters ranged from 43 to 143 mu g.l-1, and below 250 m it was 16.PCHO showed large variations at all...

  19. Prediction of Pectin Yield and Quality by FTIR and Carbohydrate Microarray Analysis

    Baum, Andreas; Dominiak, Malgorzata Maria; Vidal-Melgosa, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    and carbohydrate microarray analysis were performed directly on the crude lime peel extracts during the time course of the extractions. Multivariate analysis of the data was carried out to predict final pectin yields. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was found applicable for determining the optimal...... extraction time for the enzymatic and acidic extraction processes, respectively. The combined results of FTIR and carbohydrate microarray analysis suggested major differences in the crude pectin extracts obtained by enzymatic and acid extraction, respectively. Enzymatically extracted pectin, thus, showed......, and that FTIR and carbohydrate microarray analysis have potential to be developed into online process analysis tools for prediction of pectin extraction yields and pectin features from measurements on crude pectin extracts....

  20. Cell surface carbohydrates as prognostic markers in human carcinomas

    Dabelsteen, Erik

    1996-01-01

    Tumour development is usually associated with changes in cell surface carbohydrates. These are often divided into changes related to terminal carbohydrate structures, which include incomplete synthesis and modification of normally existing carbohydrates, and changes in the carbohydrate core...... structure. The latter includes chain elongation of both glycolipids and proteins, increased branching of carbohydrates in N-linked glycoproteins, and blocked synthesis of carbohydrates in O-linked mucin-like glycoproteins. In mature organisms, expression of distinct carbohydrates is restricted to specific...... cell types; within a given tissue, variation in expression may be related to cell maturation. Tumour-associated carbohydrate structures often reflect a certain stage of cellular development; most of these moieties are structures normally found in other adult or embryonic tissues. There is no unique...

  1. Carbohydrate secretion by phototrophic communities in tidal sediments

    de Winder, B.; Staats, N.; Stal, L.J.; Paterson, D.M.

    1999-01-01

    Two different benthic phototrophic communities on tidal flats were investigated for their carbohydrate content and distribution. Carbohydrates were analysed as two operationally defined fractions, related to the difficulty of extraction from the sediment matrix. Water-soluble (colloidal) and EDTA-

  2. High throughput screening of starch structures using carbohydrate microarrays

    Tanackovic, Vanja; Rydahl, Maja Gro; Pedersen, Henriette Lodberg

    2016-01-01

    In this study we introduce the starch-recognising carbohydrate binding module family 20 (CBM20) from Aspergillus niger for screening biological variations in starch molecular structure using high throughput carbohydrate microarray technology. Defined linear, branched and phosphorylated...

  3. Mixed drink increased carbohydrate oxidation but not performance ...

    Kathryn van Boom

    ... carbohydrate intake is hypothesised to provide additional substrate for oxidation[3] ... performance is attained when a multiple carbohydrate drink is ingested. ..... and often intense exercise, such as can be seen in events such as the Tour de ...

  4. Simple vs. Complex Carbohydrate Dietary Patterns and the Global Overweight and Obesity Pandemic.

    Ferretti, Fabrizio; Mariani, Michele

    2017-10-04

    Nowadays, obesity and being overweight are among the major global health concerns. Many, diet-related diseases impose high tangible and intangible costs, and threaten the sustainability of health-care systems worldwide. In this study, we model, at the macroeconomic level, the impact of energy intake from different types of carbohydrates on the population's BMI (body mass index). We proceed in three steps. First, we develop a framework to analyse both the consumption choices between simple and complex carbohydrates and the effects of these choices on people health conditions. Second, we collect figures for 185 countries (over the period 2012-2014) regarding the shares of simple (sugar and sweetener) and complex (cereal) carbohydrates in each country's total dietary energy supply. Third, we use regression techniques to: (1) estimate the impact of these shares on the country's prevalence of obesity and being overweight; (2) compute for each country an indicator of dietary pattern based on the ratio between simple and complex carbohydrates, weighted by their estimated effects on the prevalence of obesity and being overweight; and (3) measure the elasticity of the prevalence of obesity and being overweight with respect to changes in both carbohydrate dietary pattern and income per capita. We find that unhealthy eating habits and the associated prevalence of excessive body fat accumulation tend to behave as a 'normal good' in low, medium- and high-HDI (Human Development Index) countries, but as an 'inferior good' in very high-HDI countries.

  5. Carbohydrate metabolism before and after dehiscence in the recalcitrant pollen of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.).

    Carrizo García, C; Guarnieri, M; Pacini, E

    2015-05-01

    Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) pollen is starchy, sucrose-poor and recalcitrant, features opposite to those of several model species; therefore, some differences in carbohydrate metabolism could be expected in this species. By studying pumpkin recalcitrant pollen, the objective was to provide new biochemical evidence to improve understanding of how carbohydrate metabolism might be involved in pollen functioning in advanced stages. Four stages were analysed: immature pollen from 1 day before anthesis, mature pollen, mature pollen exposed to the environment for 7 h, and pollen rehydrated in a culture medium. Pollen viability, water and carbohydrate content and activity of enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism were quantified in each stage. Pollen viability and water content dropped quickly after dehiscence, as expected. The slight changes in carbohydrate concentration and enzyme activity during pollen maturation contrast with major changes recorded with ageing and rehydration. Pumpkin pollen seems highly active and closely related to its surrounding environment in all the stages analysed; the latter is particularly evident among insoluble sucrolytic enzymes, mainly wall-bound acid invertase, which would be the most relevant for sucrose cleavage. Each stage was characterised by a particular metabolic/enzymatic profile; some particular features, such as the minor changes during maturation, fast sucrolysis upon rehydration or sharp decrease in insoluble sucrolytic activity with ageing seem to be related to the lack of dormancy and recalcitrant nature of pumpkin pollen. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  6. The impact of large-scale energy storage requirements on the choice between electricity and hydrogen as the major energy carrier in a non-fossil renewables-only scenario

    Converse, Alvin O.

    2006-01-01

    The need for large-scale storage, when the energy source is subject to periods of low-energy generation, as it would be in a direct solar or wind energy system, could be the factor which justifies the choice of hydrogen, rather than electricity, as the principal energy carrier. It could also be the 'Achilles heel' of a solar-based sustainable energy system, tipping the choice to a nuclear breeder system

  7. Chemoselective Reactions for the Synthesis of Glycoconjugates from Unprotected Carbohydrates

    Villadsen, Klaus; Martos Maldonado, Manuel Cristo; Jensen, Knud Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    Glycobiology is the comprehensive biological investigation of carbohydrates. The study of the role and function of complex carbohydrates often requires the attachment of carbohydrates to surfaces, their tagging with fluorophores, or their conversion into natural or non-natural glycoconjugates......, such as glycopeptides or glycolipids. Glycobiology and its “omics”, glycomics, require easy and robust chemical methods for the construction of these glycoconjugates. This review gives an overview of the rapidly expanding field of chemical reactions that selectively convert unprotected carbohydrates...

  8. Renewable Hydrogen Carrier - Carbohydrate: Constructing the Carbon-Neutral Carbohydrate Economy

    2011-01-31

    combinations have been investigated for the production of hydrogen from biomass carbohydrate. Chemical catalysis approaches include pyrolysis [19...temperature. High fructose corn syrup, low-cost sucrose replacement, is made by stabilized glucose isomerase, which can work at ~60 °C for even about two...gasoline, vegetable oil vs. biodiesel, corn kernels vs. ethanol [31,109]. Given a price of $0.18/kg carbohydrate (i.e., $10.6/GJ) [2,44], the hydrogen

  9. The effect of stereochemistry on carbohydrate hydration in aqueous solutions

    Galema, Saskia Alexandra

    1992-01-01

    Although-carbohydrates are widely used, not much is known about the stereochemical aspects of hydration of carbohydrates. For D-aldohexoses, for example, there are eight different stereoisomers. Just how the hydroxy topology of a carbohydrate molecule influences the hydration behaviour in water is

  10. Changes in inulin and soluble sugar concentration in artichokes (Cynara scolymus L.) during storage.

    Leroy, Gaëlle; Grongnet, Jean François; Mabeau, Serge; Corre, Daniel Le; Baty-Julien, Céline

    2010-05-01

    The artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) accumulates about 50-70 g kg(-1) of its fresh weight as inulin-type fructan. Inulin fermentation increases gas production and thereby provokes intestinal discomfort in some people. The present research focuses on the changes in carbohydrate composition occurring in artichoke heads during storage under different conditions (18 degrees C, 4 degrees C and 4 degrees C under polypropylene film packing). Carbohydrate content and composition were determined by anion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection. Storage time caused a decrease in inulin content and an average degree of polymerization, accompanied by an increase of free fructose and sucrose due to depolymerization of inulin. Higher-temperature storage and storage without packing induce strong carbohydrate changes. Thereby, eating stored artichoke leads to consumption of an inulin quantity that does not provoke unwanted symptoms related to gas production but sufficient to have a prebiotic effect.

  11. Is a Calorie Really a Calorie? Metabolic Advantage of Low-Carbohydrate Diets

    Manninen Anssi H

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The first law of thermodynamics dictates that body mass remains constant when caloric intake equals caloric expenditure. It should be noted, however, that different diets lead to different biochemical pathways that are not equivalent when correctly compared through the laws of thermodynamics. It is inappropriate to assume that the only thing that counts in terms of food consumption and energy balance is the intake of dietary calories and weight storage. Well-controlled studies suggest that calorie content may not be as predictive of fat loss as is reduced carbohydrate consumption. Biologically speaking, a calorie is certainly not a calorie. The ideal weight loss diet, if it even exists, remains to be determined, but a high-carbohydrate/low-protein diet may be unsatisfactory for many obese individuals.

  12. Occurrence and origin of carbohydrates in peat samples from a red mangrove environment as reflected by abundances of neutral monosaccharides

    Moers, M. E. C.; Baas, M.; De Leeuw, J. W.; Boon, J. J.; Schenck, P. A.

    1990-09-01

    Acid hydrolysates of fractionated red mangrove peat samples and handpicked roots and rootlets of Rhizophora mangle (red mangrove) from Jewfish Key in the Florida Everglades were analysed for neutral monosaccharides. In the peat samples two major sources of carbohydrates could be determined: (1) vascular plant carbohydrates derived from Rhizophora mangle and (2) microbially derived carbohydrates. Significant correlations exist between the relative contributions of most neutral monosaccharides and the total carbohydrate concentration. The fine-grained peat fractions yielded low total neutral monosaccharides whose distributions indicate contributions of microbial carbohydrates. The coarse-grained peat samples yielded high total neutral monosaccharides with distributions indicating major contributions of vascular plant carbohydrates. It is estimated that a substantial part of the sugars analysed in the finegrained samples originates from microorganisms ([cyano] bacteria, algae).The absence of a trend in total neutral monosaccharide concentrations with depth suggests that microbial degradation is limited to the upper levels of the peat and that the microbial sugars determined at lower peat levels are derived from nonviable or dormant microorganisms. Results from factor analysis may suggest differences in microbial populations in the various peat samples.

  13. Effect of quarantine treatments on the carbohydrate and organic acid content of mangoes (cv. Tommy Atkins)

    Cruz, J. N.; Soares, C. A.; Fabbri, A. D. T.; Cordenunsi, B. R.; Sabato, S. F.

    2012-08-01

    Brazil is one of the largest mango producers and the third largest mango exporter worldwide. Irradiation treatment and its commercial feasibility have been studied in our country to make it possible to develop new markets and, consequently, to compete with the major exporters of mangoes, Mexico and India. This work was designed to compare irradiation treatment with the hot water dip treatment in mangoes cv. Tommy Atkins for export and to verify that the main attributes for acceptance, color and texture, as well as carbohydrate and organic acid contents, were maintained. In this study, the fruit was divided into groups: control, hot water dip-treated (46 °C for 90 min), and irradiation-treated at doses of 0.4 kGy and 1.0 kGy. The fruit was stored at low temperature (11 °C±2) for 14 days and then at room temperature (23 °C±2) until the end of the study. The results indicated that the fruit given a dose of 1.0 kGy remained in a less advanced stage of ripening (stage 3) throughout the storage period, but experienced a greater loss of texture in the beginning of the experiment. It was noted that only the control group had higher levels of citric acid and succinic acid on the last day of the experiment. There were no significant differences in the total sugar content between any treatment groups. Gamma radiation can be used as a quarantine treatment and does not interfere negatively with the quality attributes of mangoes.

  14. Evaluation of heat shock protein (HSP-60) induction on accumulation of carbohydrate in Isochrysis galbana

    Olsen, H.; Wolfe, M.; Tell, J.; Tjeerdema, R.

    1995-01-01

    Primary levels of the marine food chain may play an important role in the fate of petroleum hydrocarbons in both chemically dispersed and un-dispersed oil spills. HSP-60 proteins, members of the chaperonin family of stress proteins, are induced in response to a wide variety of environmental agents, including UV light, heavy metals, and xenobiotics. Increased production and storage of carbohydrate in I. galbana has been associated with aging and stress. Thus, HSP-60 and carbohydrate storage were selected as sublethal endpoints of exposure to the primary producer, I. galbana, a golden brown, unicellular algae, and a significant component of the marine phytoplankton community. The authors have found that I. galbana cultures exposed to water-accommodated fractions (WAF) of Prudhoe Bay Crude Oil (PBCO), and PBCO/dispersant preparations efficiently induce HSP-60. Studies indicated that WAF produced a dose-related response in I. galbana, which increased as a function of time. Dispersant alone showed the greatest induction, while combined WAF-dispersant showed less induction, suggesting a possible competition between crude oil and algae for dispersant interaction. In addition, they have demonstrated that I. galbana accumulates carbohydrates in response to exposure to WAF and PBCO/dispersant preparations and therefore represents another index of stress in this organism. They were interested in determining if induction of stress proteins and HSP60 in particular represented an adaptive-mechanism, allowing this algae to better cope with exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons released in the marine environment during an oil spill. In an effort to determine if stress protein induction serves as a protective adaptive response to exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons they examined the effect of heat shock induction on the accumulation of carbohydrates by these organisms in response to exposure to WAF and dispersed oil preparations

  15. CO2 capture and geological storage: The BRGM, sixteen years of involvement in major research projects. The contribution of technical abilities and expertise in Earth Sciences to the work of national and international authorities

    2009-01-01

    This press document presents the abilities and the activities of the French BRGM (Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres, Office for geological and mining researches) in developing knowledge on storage capacities and on the behaviour of deep aquifers, in contributing to the main national and European research programs, in actively participating to European and international networks, in being an expert for the MEEDDM (the French ministry of energy, ecology, sustainable development and sea) and the ADEME (the French agency for energy conservation), and as the French representative in several international authorities

  16. Top chemical opportunities from carbohydrate biomass: a chemist's view of the Biorefinery.

    Dusselier, Michiel; Mascal, Mark; Sels, Bert F

    2014-01-01

    Cheap fossil oil resources are becoming depleted and crude oil prices are rising. In this context, alternatives to fossil fuel-derived carbon are examined in an effort to improve the security of carbon resources through the development of novel technologies for the production of chemicals, fuels, and materials from renewable feedstocks such as biomass. The general concept unifying the conversion processes for raw biomass is that of the biorefinery, which integrates biofuels with a selection of pivot points towards value-added chemical end products via so-called "platform chemicals". While the concept of biorefining is not new, now more than ever there is the motivation to investigate its true potential for the production of carbon-based products. A variety of renewable chemicals have been proposed by many research groups, many of them being categorized as drop-ins, while others are novel chemicals with the potential to displace petrochemicals across several markets. To be competitive with petrochemicals, carbohydrate-derived products should have advantageous chemical properties that can be profitably exploited, and/or their production should offer cost-effective benefits. The production of drop-ins will likely proceed in short term since the markets are familiar, while the commercial introduction of novel chemicals takes longer and demands more technological and marketing effort.Rather than describing elaborate catalytic routes and giving exhaustive lists of reactions, a large part of this review is devoted to creating a guideline for the selection of the most promising (platform) chemicals derived via chemical-catalytic reaction routes from lignocellulosic biomass. The major rationale behind our recommendations is a maximum conservation of functionality, alongside a high atom economy. Nature provides us with complex molecules like cellulose and hemicellulose, and it should be possible to transform them into chemical products while maintaining aspects of their

  17. Secure Storage Architectures

    Aderholdt, Ferrol [Tennessee Technological University; Caldwell, Blake A [ORNL; Hicks, Susan Elaine [ORNL; Koch, Scott M [ORNL; Naughton, III, Thomas J [ORNL; Pogge, James R [Tennessee Technological University; Scott, Stephen L [Tennessee Technological University; Shipman, Galen M [ORNL; Sorrillo, Lawrence [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to clarify the challenges associated with storage for secure enclaves. The major focus areas for the report are: - review of relevant parallel filesystem technologies to identify assets and gaps; - review of filesystem isolation/protection mechanisms, to include native filesystem capabilities and auxiliary/layered techniques; - definition of storage architectures that can be used for customizable compute enclaves (i.e., clarification of use-cases that must be supported for shared storage scenarios); - investigate vendor products related to secure storage. This study provides technical details on the storage and filesystem used for HPC with particular attention on elements that contribute to creating secure storage. We outline the pieces for a a shared storage architecture that balances protection and performance by leveraging the isolation capabilities available in filesystems and virtualization technologies to maintain the integrity of the data. Key Points: There are a few existing and in-progress protection features in Lustre related to secure storage, which are discussed in (Chapter 3.1). These include authentication capabilities like GSSAPI/Kerberos and the in-progress work for GSSAPI/Host-keys. The GPFS filesystem provides native support for encryption, which is not directly available in Lustre. Additionally, GPFS includes authentication/authorization mechanisms for inter-cluster sharing of filesystems (Chapter 3.2). The limitations of key importance for secure storage/filesystems are: (i) restricting sub-tree mounts for parallel filesystem (which is not directly supported in Lustre or GPFS), and (ii) segregation of hosts on the storage network and practical complications with dynamic additions to the storage network, e.g., LNET. A challenge for VM based use cases will be to provide efficient IO forwarding of the parallel filessytem from the host to the guest (VM). There are promising options like para-virtualized filesystems to

  18. Disorders of carbohydrate metabolism in clinical practice

    V.I. Pankiv

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Considering the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM, the possibility of early and rapid progress of complications, a large number of undiagnosed cases and disappointing forecasts of the World Health Organization on the prospects of DM spreading in the world, timely and accurate diagnosis of carbohydrate metabolism disorders is important. The criteria for the diagnosis of carbohydrate metabolism and DM are shown in the article. The article includes a new consensus on the staging of type 1 DM and a discussion of a proposed unifying diabetes classification scheme that focuses on β-cell dysfunction and disease stage as indicated by glucose status. Modern recommendations 2017 of the American Diabetes Association are shown in relation to the criteria of diagnostics of impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes mellitus. The value of insulin resistance and functional state of pancreatic β-cells is underlined in determination of type 2 DM duration. A plan of type 2 DM management is brought.

  19. Solubility of carbohydrates in heavy water.

    Cardoso, Marcus V C; Carvalho, Larissa V C; Sabadini, Edvaldo

    2012-05-15

    The solubility of several mono-(glucose and xylose), di-(sucrose and maltose), tri-(raffinose) and cyclic (α-cyclodextrin) saccharides in H(2)O and in D(2)O were measured over a range of temperatures. The solution enthalpies for the different carbohydrates in the two solvents were determined using the vant' Hoff equation and the values in D(2)O are presented here for the first time. Our findings indicate that the replacement of H(2)O by D(2)O remarkably decreases the solubilities of the less soluble carbohydrates, such as maltose, raffinose and α-cyclodextrin. On the other hand, the more soluble saccharides, glucose, xylose, and sucrose, are practically insensitive to the H/D replacement in water. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Role of carbohydrate metabolism in grass tetany

    Miller, J.K.; Madsen, F.C.; Lentz, D.E.; Hansard, S.L.

    1977-01-01

    Clinical hypomagnesemia is confined primarily to beef cattle in the United States but also occurs in dairy cattle in other countries, probably due to different management practices. During periods when grass tetany is likely, early vegetative temperate zone grasses are usually low in total readily available carbohydrates and magnesium but high in potassium and nitrogen. The tetany syndrome may include hypoglycemia and ketosis, suggesting an imbalance in intermediary energy metabolism. Many enzyme systems critical to cellular metabolism, including those which hydrolyze and transfer phosphate groups, are activated by Mg. Thus, by inference, Mg is required for normal glucose utilization, fat, protein, nucleic acid and coenzyme synthesis, muscle contraction, methyl group transfer, and sulfate, acetate, and formate activation. Numerous clinical and experimental studies suggest an intimate relationship between metabolism of Mg and that of carbohydrate, glucagon, and insulin. The objective is to review this literature and suggest ways in which these relationships might contribute to a chain of events leading to grass tetany.

  1. Carbohydrates and the human gut microbiota.

    Chassard, Christophe; Lacroix, Christophe

    2013-07-01

    Due to its scale and its important role in maintaining health, the gut microbiota can be considered as a 'new organ' inside the human body. Many complex carbohydrates are degraded and fermented by the human gut microbiota in the large intestine to both yield basic energy salvage and impact gut health through produced metabolites. This review will focus on the gut microbes and microbial mechanisms responsible for polysaccharides degradation and fermentation in the large intestine. Gut microbes and bacterial metabolites impact the host at many levels, including modulation of inflammation, and glucose and lipid metabolisms. A complex relationship occurs in the intestine between the human gut microbiota, diet and the host. Research on carbohydrates and gut microbiota composition and functionality is fast developing and will open opportunities for prevention and treatment of obesity, diabetes and other related metabolic disorders through manipulation of the gut ecosystem.

  2. Carbocyclic Carbohydrate Mimics as Potential Glycosidase Inhibitors

    Fanefjord, Mette; Lundt, Inge

    It has been proven that aminocyclopentanols having the aminogroup adjacent to a carbon sidechain could be potential anomer-selective glycosidase inhibitors [1]. A successful pathway for synthesising mimics to L-carbohydrates 2, by introducing nitrogen to the C6 position in compound 1, has been...... developed in our group. A similar strategy has been used for synthesising mimics of D-carbohydrates. The α,β-unsaturated lactone 3 was cyclised to compound 4 which was further transformed into 5. The nitrogen functionality in compound 7 is introduced by an Overman rearrangement of 6 and the hydroxyl...... functionalities was introduced by either epoxidation or dihydroxylation of 7. Finally, reduction of the lactone ring led to the sugar mimics 8. The synthesis of several isomers of 8 will be presented. [1] a) Kleban, M. ; Hilgers, P. ; Greul, J.N. ; Kugler, R.D. ; Li, J. ; Picasso, S. ; Vogel, P. ; Jäger, V. Chem...

  3. Effects of alkali stress on growth, free amino acids and carbohydrates metabolism in Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis).

    Zhang, Pingping; Fu, Jinmin; Hu, Longxing

    2012-10-01

    Soil alkalization is one of the most prominent adverse environmental factors limiting plant growth, while alkali stress affects amino acids and carbohydrates metabolism. The objective of this study was conducted to investigate the effects of alkali stress on growth, amino acids and carbohydrates metabolism in Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis). Seventy-day-old plants were subjected to four pH levels: 6.0 (control), 8.0 (low), 9.4 (moderate) and 10.3 (severe) for 7 days. Moderate to severe alkali stress (pH >9.4) caused a significant decline in turf quality and growth rate in Kentucky bluegrass. Soluble protein was unchanged in shoots, but decreased in roots as pH increased. The levels of amino acids was kept at the same level as control level at 4 days after treatment (DAT) in shoots, but greater at 7 DAT, when plants were subjected to severe (pH 10.3) alkali stress. The alkali stressed plants had a greater level of starch, water soluble carbohydrate and sucrose content, but lower level of fructose and glucose. Fructan and total non-structural carbohydrate (TNC) increased at 4 DAT and decreased at 7 DAT for alkali stressed plants. These results suggested that the decrease in fructose and glucose contributed to the growth reduction under alkali stress, while the increase in amino acids, sucrose and storage form of carbohydrate (fructan, starch) could be an adaptative mechanism in Kentucky bluegrass under alkali stress.

  4. Effect of irradiation on carbohydrates content

    Chantharasakul, S.

    1971-01-01

    Effect of gamma radiation on vitamin C and total acidity contents of Hom Tong banana was described. There was a slight decrease in vitamin C contents in both irradiated and non-irradiated banana during storage. No difference was detected in term of vitamin C contents between irradiated and non-irradiated banana at any storage time. The total acidity of the banana increased with increasing time of storage owing to the ripening effect of the fruit. Higher total acidity content of non-irradiated banana during storage indicated the faster rate of ripening of the fruit

  5. Analysis and validation of carbohydrate three-dimensional structures

    Lütteke, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The article summarizes the information that is gained from and the errors that are found in carbohydrate structures in the Protein Data Bank. Validation tools that can locate these errors are described. Knowledge of the three-dimensional structures of the carbohydrate molecules is indispensable for a full understanding of the molecular processes in which carbohydrates are involved, such as protein glycosylation or protein–carbohydrate interactions. The Protein Data Bank (PDB) is a valuable resource for three-dimensional structural information on glycoproteins and protein–carbohydrate complexes. Unfortunately, many carbohydrate moieties in the PDB contain inconsistencies or errors. This article gives an overview of the information that can be obtained from individual PDB entries and from statistical analyses of sets of three-dimensional structures, of typical problems that arise during the analysis of carbohydrate three-dimensional structures and of the validation tools that are currently available to scientists to evaluate the quality of these structures

  6. Energy Storage

    Bladergroen, B

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In commercial arena, the most recent developments in EES are in electrochemical storage, singling out Li-ion batteries and Vanadium Redox flow batteries, while power-to-gas/-fuels (electrolysis of water into hydrogen and subsequent methanisation...

  7. Liver Storage

    1971-10-23

    Oct 23, 1971 ... The need for whole-organ preservation has become in- cre.asingly important ... ideally fulfil the same purpose as the circulation of blood through the body, ... Hepatic hypothermia produced by the introduction of cold electrolyte ... Recently, we reported successful hypothermic immersion storage for up to 8 ...

  8. Dry storage

    Arnott, Don.

    1985-01-01

    The environmental movement has consistently argued against disposal of nuclear waste. Reasons include its irretrievability in the event of leakage, the implication that reprocessing will continue and the legitimacy attached to an expanding nuclear programme. But there is an alternative. The author here sets out the background and a possible future direction of a campaign based on a call for dry storage. (author)

  9. A rapid stereoselective synthesis of fluorinated carbohydrates

    Adam, M.J.; Neeser, J-R.; Hall, L.D.; Pate, B.D.

    1983-01-01

    Acetyl hypofluorite has been added to six unsaturated carbohydrates which contain the vinyl ether moiety. All reactions were rapid (less than 5 min.) at -78 degrees C and gave, with one exception, high yields of isomerically pure products. The hypofluorite was shown to add exclusively in a cis mode and with a strong preference for a particular 'face' of the double bond. As well as the syntheses, NMR data and preferred conformations for the fluorinated products are also discussed

  10. Hearing Loss, Dizziness, and Carbohydrate Metabolism

    Albernaz, Pedro L. Mangabeira

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Metabolic activity of the inner ear is very intense, and makes it sensitive to changes in the body homeostasis. This study involves a group of patients with inner ear disorders related to carbohydrate metabolism disturbances, including hearing loss, tinnitus, dizziness, and episodes of vertigo. Objectives To describe the symptoms of metabolic inner ear disorders and the examinations required to establish diagnoses. These symptoms are often the first to allow for an e...

  11. Impact of carbohydrates on weight regain.

    Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Müller, Manfred J

    2015-07-01

    Research on obesity treatment has shifted its focus from weight loss to weight-loss maintenance strategies. The conventional approach of a low-fat diet is challenged by insights from glycemic effects of carbohydrates on body weight regulation. Metabolic and endocrine adaptations to weight loss that contribute to weight regain involve reduced energy expenditure, increased insulin sensitivity, and enhanced orexigenic signals. This review summarizes the impact of carbohydrates on energetic efficiency, partitioning of weight regain as fat and lean mass, and appetite control. Both the amount and frequency of postprandial glycemia add to body weight regulation after weight loss and strengthen the concept of glycemic index and glycemic load. In addition, dietary fiber and slowly or poorly absorbable functional sugars modify gastrointestinal peptides involved in appetite and metabolic regulation and exert prebiotic effects. Current evidence suggests that a low-glycemic load diet with a preference for low-glycemic index foods and integration of slowly digestible, poorly absorbable carbohydrates may improve weight-loss maintenance. Future studies should investigate the health benefits of low glycemic functional sweeteners (e.g., isomaltulose and tagatose).

  12. Hearing Loss, Dizziness, and Carbohydrate Metabolism.

    Albernaz, Pedro L Mangabeira

    2016-07-01

    Metabolic activity of the inner ear is very intense, and makes it sensitive to changes in the body homeostasis. This study involves a group of patients with inner ear disorders related to carbohydrate metabolism disturbances, including hearing loss, tinnitus, dizziness, and episodes of vertigo. To describe the symptoms of metabolic inner ear disorders and the examinations required to establish diagnoses. These symptoms are often the first to allow for an early diagnosis of metabolic disorders and diabetes. Retrospective study of 376 patients with inner ear symptoms suggestive of disturbances of carbohydrate metabolism. The authors present patientś clinical symptoms and clinical evaluations, with emphasis on the glucose and insulin essays. Authors based their conclusions on otolaryngological findings, diagnostic procedures and treatment principles. They found that auditory and vestibular symptoms usually occur prior to other manifestations of metabolic changes, leading to an early diagnosis of hyperinsulinemia, intestinal sugar malabsorption or diabetes. Previously undiagnosed diabetes mellitus type II was found in 39 patients. The identification of carbohydrate metabolism disturbances is important not only to minimize the patients' clinical symptoms, but also to help maintain their general health.

  13. Hearing Loss, Dizziness, and Carbohydrate Metabolism

    Albernaz, Pedro L. Mangabeira

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Metabolic activity of the inner ear is very intense, and makes it sensitive to changes in the body homeostasis. This study involves a group of patients with inner ear disorders related to carbohydrate metabolism disturbances, including hearing loss, tinnitus, dizziness, and episodes of vertigo. Objectives To describe the symptoms of metabolic inner ear disorders and the examinations required to establish diagnoses. These symptoms are often the first to allow for an early diagnosis of metabolic disorders and diabetes. Methods Retrospective study of 376 patients with inner ear symptoms suggestive of disturbances of carbohydrate metabolism. The authors present patientś clinical symptoms and clinical evaluations, with emphasis on the glucose and insulin essays. Results Authors based their conclusions on otolaryngological findings, diagnostic procedures and treatment principles. They found that auditory and vestibular symptoms usually occur prior to other manifestations of metabolic changes, leading to an early diagnosis of hyperinsulinemia, intestinal sugar malabsorption or diabetes. Previously undiagnosed diabetes mellitus type II was found in 39 patients. Conclusions The identification of carbohydrate metabolism disturbances is important not only to minimize the patients' clinical symptoms, but also to help maintain their general health.

  14. Distributions and seasonal variations of dissolved carbohydrates in the Jiaozhou Bay, China

    Yang, Gui-Peng; Zhang, Yan-Ping; Lu, Xiao-Lan; Ding, Hai-Bing

    2010-06-01

    Surface seawater samples were collected in the Jiaozhou Bay, a typical semi-closed basin located at the western part of the Shandong Peninsula, China, during four cruises. Concentrations of monosaccharides (MCHO), polysaccharides (PCHO) and total dissolved carbohydrates (TCHO) were measured with the 2,4,6-tripyridyl- s-triazine spectroscopic method. Concentrations of TCHO varied from 10.8 to 276.1 μM C for all samples and the ratios of TCHO to dissolved organic carbon (DOC) ranged from 1.1 to 67.9% with an average of 10.1%. This result indicated that dissolved carbohydrates were an important constituent of DOC in the surface seawater of the Jiaozhou Bay. In all samples, the concentrations of MCHO ranged from 2.9 to 65.9 μM C, comprising 46.1 ± 16.6% of TCHO on average, while PCHO ranged from 0.3 to 210.2 μM C, comprising 53.9 ± 16.6% of TCHO on average. As a major part of dissolved carbohydrates, the concentrations of PCHO were higher than those of MCHO. MCHO and PCHO accumulated in January and July, with minimum average concentration in April. The seasonal variation in the ratios of TCHO to DOC was related to water temperature, with high values in January and low values in July and October. The concentrations of dissolved carbohydrates displayed a decreasing trend from the coastal to the central areas. Negative correlations between concentrations of TCHO and salinity in July suggested that riverine input around the Jiaozhou Bay had an important effect on the concentrations of dissolved carbohydrates in surface seawater. The pattern of distributions of MCHO and PCHO reported in this study added to the global picture of dissolved carbohydrates distribution.

  15. Storage Rings

    Fischer, W.

    2010-01-01

    Storage rings are circular machines that store particle beams at a constant energy. Beams are stored in rings without acceleration for a number of reasons (Tab. 1). Storage rings are used in high-energy, nuclear, atomic, and molecular physics, as well as for experiments in chemistry, material and life sciences. Parameters for storage rings such as particle species, energy, beam intensity, beam size, and store time vary widely depending on the application. The beam must be injected into a storage ring but may not be extracted (Fig. 1). Accelerator rings such as synchrotrons are used as storage rings before and after acceleration. Particles stored in rings include electrons and positrons; muons; protons and anti-protons; neutrons; light and heavy, positive and negative, atomic ions of various charge states; molecular and cluster ions, and neutral polar molecules. Spin polarized beams of electrons, positrons, and protons were stored. The kinetic energy of the stored particles ranges from 10 -6 eV to 3.5 x 10 12 eV (LHC, 7 x 10 12 eV planned), the number of stored particles from one (ESR) to 1015 (ISR). To store beam in rings requires bending (dipoles) and transverse focusing (quadrupoles). Higher order multipoles are used to correct chromatic aberrations, to suppress instabilities, and to compensate for nonlinear field errors of dipoles and quadrupoles. Magnetic multipole functions can be combined in magnets. Beams are stored bunched with radio frequency systems, and unbunched. The magnetic lattice and radio frequency system are designed to ensure the stability of transverse and longitudinal motion. New technologies allow for better storage rings. With strong focusing the beam pipe dimensions became much smaller than previously possible. For a given circumference superconducting magnets make higher energies possible, and superconducting radio frequency systems allow for efficient replenishment of synchrotron radiation losses of large current electron or positron beams

  16. Radiorespirometric study of carbohydrate metabolism in childhood liver disease

    DaCosta, H.; Shreeve, W.W.; Merchant, S.

    1976-01-01

    The need for a suitable parameter to evaluate patients with chronic liver disease has been felt for some time, especially in order to judge the response to surgical shunts and the influence of certain drugs and diets on the liver. Since the liver is a major organ for carbohydrate metabolism, it was decided to analyze the in vivo oxidation of such substrates as glucose and galactose labeled with 14 C. Moderately advanced ''Indian childhood cirrhosis'' and idiopathic fatty hepatic infiltration were selected to represent diffuse chronic liver disease. Oral administration of 14 C-U-glucose or 14 C-1-galactose was followed by analyses of 14 CO 2 in breath by liquid scintillation counting. Conversion of 14 C-glucose to 14 CO 2 was accelerated by both diseases. On the other hand, oxidation of 14 C-galactose was slowed in fatty infiltration and was markedly subnormal in Indian childhood cirrhosis

  17. Pyrolysis of Softwood Carbohydrates in a Fluidized Bed Reactor

    Dmitry Yu. Murzin

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present work pyrolysis of pure pine wood and softwood carbohydrates, namely cellulose and galactoglucomannan (the major hemicellulose in coniferous wood, was conducted in a batch mode operated fluidized bed reactor. Temperature ramping (5°C/min was applied to the heating until a reactor temperature of 460 °C was reached. Thereafter the temperature was kept until the release of non-condensable gases stopped. The different raw materials gave significantly different bio-oils. Levoglucosan was the dominant product in the cellulose pyrolysis oil. Acetic acid was found in the highest concentrations in both the galactoglucomannan and in the pine wood pyrolysis oils. Acetic acid is most likely formed by removal of O-acetyl groups from mannose units present in GGM structure.

  18. Pyrolysis of softwood carbohydrates in a fluidized bed reactor.

    Aho, Atte; Kumar, Narendra; Eränen, Kari; Holmbom, Bjarne; Hupa, Mikko; Salmi, Tapio; Murzin, Dmitry Yu

    2008-09-01

    In the present work pyrolysis of pure pine wood and softwood carbohydrates, namely cellulose and galactoglucomannan (the major hemicellulose in coniferous wood), was conducted in a batch mode operated fluidized bed reactor. Temperature ramping (5 degrees C/min) was applied to the heating until a reactor temperature of 460 degrees C was reached. Thereafter the temperature was kept until the release of non-condensable gases stopped. The different raw materials gave significantly different bio-oils. Levoglucosan was the dominant product in the cellulose pyrolysis oil. Acetic acid was found in the highest concentrations in both the galactoglucomannan and in the pine wood pyrolysis oils. Acetic acid is most likely formed by removal of O-acetyl groups from mannose units present in GGM structure.

  19. Muscle ceramide content is similar after 3 weeks’ consumption of fat or carbohydrate diet in a crossover design in patients with type 2 diabetes

    Helge, J. W.; Tobin, L.; Drachmann, Tue

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of prolonged adaptation to fat- or carbohydrate-rich diet on muscle ceramide in type 2 diabetes patients, using a longitudinal crossover study. Eleven type 2 diabetes patients consumed isocaloric fat- or carbohydrate-rich diet for 3 weeks in random order...... sensitivity, muscle glycogen, triacylglycerol and ceramide content were similar. Plasma adiponectin concentration was significantly higher after fat compared with carbohydrate-rich diet. Results indicated that following fat-rich diet intake muscle ceramide and triacylglycerol concentrations were not different...... compared with that after carbohydrate-rich diet. Furthermore, plasma adiponectin concentration was higher after fat-rich compared with carbohydrate-rich diet, but insulin sensitivity remained similar despite the major difference in dietary macronutrient composition....

  20. Underground Storage Tanks - Storage Tank Locations

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Storage Tank Location is a DEP primary facility type, and its sole sub-facility is the storage tank itself. Storage tanks are aboveground or underground, and are...

  1. Impact of advanced and basic carbohydrate counting methods on metabolic control in patients with type 1 diabetes.

    Souto, Débora Lopes; Zajdenverg, Lenita; Rodacki, Melanie; Rosado, Eliane Lopes

    2014-03-01

    Diets based on carbohydrate counting remain a key strategy for improving glycemic control in patients with type 1 diabetes. However, these diets may promote weight gain because of the flexibility in food choices. The aim of this study was to compare carbohydrate counting methods regarding anthropometric, biochemical, and dietary variables in individuals with type 1 diabetes, as well as to evaluate their knowledge about nutrition. Participants were allocated in basic or advanced groups. After 3 mo of the nutritional counseling, dietary intake, anthropometric variables, lipemia, and glycemic control were compared between groups. A questionnaire regarding carbohydrate counting, sucrose intake, nutritional knowledge, and diabetes and nutrition taboos also was administered. Ten (30%) participants had already used advanced carbohydrate counting before the nutritional counseling and these individuals had a higher body mass index (BMI) (P 1) and waist circumference (WC) (P = 0.01) than others (n = 23; 69.7%). After 3 mo of follow-up, although participants in the advanced group (n = 17; 51.52%) presented higher BMI (P 1) and WC (P = 0.03), those in the basic group (n = 16; 48.48%) showed a higher fat intake (P 1). The majority of participants reported no difficulty in following carbohydrate counting (62.5% and 88% for basic and advanced groups, respectively) and a greater flexibility in terms of food choices (>90% with both methods). Advanced carbohydrate counting did not affect lipemic and glycemic control in individuals with type 1 diabetes, however, it may increase food intake, and consequently the BMI and WC, when compared to basic carbohydrate counting. Furthermore, carbohydrate counting promoted greater food flexibility. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Meal composition and plasma amino acid ratios: Effect of various proteins or carbohydrates, and of various protein concentrations

    Yokogoshi, Hidehiko; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of meals containing various proteins and carbohydrates, and of those containing various proportions of protein (0 percent to 20 percent of a meal, by weight) or of carbohydrate (0 percent to 75 percent), on plasma levels of certain large neutral amino acids (LNAA) in rats previously fasted for 19 hours were examined. Also the plasma tryptophan ratios (the ratio of the plasma trytophan concentration to the summed concentrations of the other large neutral amino acids) and other plasma amino acid ratios were calculated. (The plasma tryptophan ratio has been shown to determine brain tryptophan levels and, thereby, to affect the synthesis and release of the neurotransmitter serotonin). A meal containing 70 percent to 75 percent of an insulin-secreting carbohydrate (dextrose or dextrin) increased plasma insulin levels and the tryptophan ratio; those containing 0 percent or 25 percent carbohydrate failed to do so. Addition of as little as 5 percent casein to a 70 percent carbohydrate meal fully blocked the increase in the plasma tryptophan ratio without affecting the secretion of insulin - probably by contributing much larger quantities of the other LNAA than of tryptophan to the blood. Dietary proteins differed in their ability to suppress the carbohydrate-induced rise in the plasma tryptophan ratio. Addition of 10 percent casein, peanut meal, or gelatin fully blocked this increase, but lactalbumin failed to do so, and egg white did so only partially. (Consumption of the 10 percent gelatin meal also produced a major reduction in the plasma tyrosine ratio, and may thereby have affected brain tyrosine levels and catecholamine synthesis.) These observations suggest that serotonin-releasing neurons in brains of fasted rats are capable of distinguishing (by their metabolic effects) between meals poor in protein but rich in carbohydrates that elicit insulin secretion, and all other meals. The changes in brain serotonin caused by carbohydrate-rich, protein

  3. Carbohydrate absorption from one serving of fruit juice in young children: age and carbohydrate composition effects.

    Nobigrot, T; Chasalow, F I; Lifshitz, F

    1997-04-01

    To test the hypotheses that: the efficiency of carbohydrate absorption in childhood increases with age, and decreased carbohydrate absorption occurs more frequently with juices containing more fructose than glucose and/or sorbitol than with juices which contain equal amounts of fructose and glucose and are sorbitol-free. One hundred and four healthy children were recruited from the Ambulatory Center at Maimonides Children's Center. They were assigned to one of three age groups: approximately 1, 3 and 5 years of age. Each child received one age-specific dose (by randomization) of one of four juices: a) pear juice which contains fructose in excess to glucose and a large amount of sorbitol; b) apple juice which is similar to pear juice in its fructose to glucose ratio but contains four times less sorbitol than pear juice; c) white grape juice or d) purple grape juice both of which contain equal amounts of fructose and glucose and are sorbitol-free. Breath hydrogen excretion (BH2) was utilized as the index of carbohydrate absorption. It was measured in fasting children and at 30-minute intervals for 3 hours after drinking the single serving of juice. Multiple breath hydrogen related parameters were quantified and results were expressed as: BH2 peak, area under the curve, and degree of carbohydrate malabsorption. After the test, parents completed a questionnaire and recorded signs and symptoms of intestinal malabsorption for 24 hours. Pear juice related BH2 levels were significantly higher among children 1 and 3 years of age as compared to the levels achieved after the other juices. Apple juice related BH2 levels were significantly higher only among the youngest age group of children. There was no significant difference in carbohydrate absorption among the 5 year old children regardless of the juice consumed. Incomplete carbohydrate absorption (BH2 peak above 20 ppm) occurred more frequently after pear juice consumption (84%) than after apple juice (41%) or grape juice

  4. Energy storage for sustainable microgrid

    Gao, David Wenzhong

    2015-01-01

    Energy Storage for Sustainable Microgrid addresses the issues related to modelling, operation and control, steady-state and dynamic analysis of microgrids with ESS. This book discusses major electricity storage technologies in depth along with their efficiency, lifetime cycles, environmental benefits and capacity, so that readers can envisage which type of storage technology is best for a particular microgrid application. This book offers solutions to numerous difficulties such as choosing the right ESS for the particular microgrid application, proper sizing of ESS for microgrid, as well as

  5. Tuber storage proteins.

    Shewry, Peter R

    2003-06-01

    A wide range of plants are grown for their edible tubers, but five species together account for almost 90 % of the total world production. These are potato (Solanum tuberosum), cassava (Manihot esculenta), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatus), yams (Dioscorea spp.) and taro (Colocasia, Cyrtosperma and Xanthosoma spp.). All of these, except cassava, contain groups of storage proteins, but these differ in the biological properties and evolutionary relationships. Thus, patatin from potato exhibits activity as an acylhydrolase and esterase, sporamin from sweet potato is an inhibitor of trypsin, and dioscorin from yam is a carbonic anhydrase. Both sporamin and dioscorin also exhibit antioxidant and radical scavenging activity. Taro differs from the other three crops in that it contains two major types of storage protein: a trypsin inhibitor related to sporamin and a mannose-binding lectin. These characteristics indicate that tuber storage proteins have evolved independently in different species, which contrasts with the highly conserved families of storage proteins present in seeds. Furthermore, all exhibit biological activities which could contribute to resistance to pests, pathogens or abiotic stresses, indicating that they may have dual roles in the tubers.

  6. Interim dry fuel storage for magnox reactors

    Bradley, N [National Nuclear Corporation, Risley, Warrington (United Kingdom); Ealing, C [GEC Energy Systems Ltd, Whetstone, Leicester (United Kingdom)

    1985-07-01

    In the UK the practice of short term buffer storage in water ponds prior to chemical reprocessing had already been established on the early gas cooled reactors in Calder Hall. Thus the choice of water pond buffer storage for MGR power plants logically followed the national policy decision to reprocess. The majority of the buffer storage period would take place at the reprocessing plant with only a nominal of 100 days targeted at the station. Since Magnox clad fuel is not suitable for long term pond storage, alternative methods of storage on future stations was considered desirable. In addition to safeguards considerations the economic aspects of the fuel cycle has influenced the conclusion that today the purchase of a MGR power plant with dry spent fuel storage and without commitment to reprocess would be a rational decision for a country initiating a nuclear programme. Dry storage requirements are discussed and two designs of dry storage facilities presented together with a fuel preparation facility.

  7. Interim dry fuel storage for magnox reactors

    Bradley, N.; Ealing, C.

    1985-01-01

    In the UK the practice of short term buffer storage in water ponds prior to chemical reprocessing had already been established on the early gas cooled reactors in Calder Hall. Thus the choice of water pond buffer storage for MGR power plants logically followed the national policy decision to reprocess. The majority of the buffer storage period would take place at the reprocessing plant with only a nominal of 100 days targeted at the station. Since Magnox clad fuel is not suitable for long term pond storage, alternative methods of storage on future stations was considered desirable. In addition to safeguards considerations the economic aspects of the fuel cycle has influenced the conclusion that today the purchase of a MGR power plant with dry spent fuel storage and without commitment to reprocess would be a rational decision for a country initiating a nuclear programme. Dry storage requirements are discussed and two designs of dry storage facilities presented together with a fuel preparation facility

  8. Comparative Ultrastructure and Carbohydrate Composition of Gastroliths from Astacidae, Cambaridae and Parastacidae Freshwater Crayfish (Crustacea, Decapoda

    Gérard Alcaraz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Crustaceans have to cyclically replace their rigid exoskeleton in order to grow. Most of them harden this skeleton by a calcification process. Some decapods (land crabs, lobsters and crayfish elaborate calcium storage structures as a reservoir of calcium ions in their stomach wall, as so-called gastroliths. For a better understanding of the cyclic elaboration of these calcium deposits, we studied the ultrastructure of gastroliths from freshwater crayfish by using a combination of microscopic and physical techniques. Because sugars are also molecules putatively involved in the elaboration process of these biomineralizations, we also determined their carbohydrate composition. This study was performed in a comparative perspective on crayfish species belonging to the infra-order Astacidea (Decapoda, Malacostraca: three species from the Astacoidea superfamily and one species from the Parastacoidea superfamily. We observed that all the gastroliths exhibit a similar dense network of protein-chitin fibers, from macro- to nanoscale, within which calcium is precipitated as amorphous calcium carbonate. Nevertheless, they are not very similar at the molecular level, notably as regards their carbohydrate composition. Besides glucosamine, the basic carbohydrate component of chitin, we evidenced the presence of other sugars, some of which are species-specific like rhamnose and galacturonic acid whereas xylose and mannose could be linked to proteoglycan components.

  9. Energy metabolism of medium-chain triglycerides versus carbohydrates during exercise.

    Décombaz, J; Arnaud, M J; Milon, H; Moesch, H; Philippossian, G; Thélin, A L; Howald, H

    1983-01-01

    Medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) are known to be rapidly digested and oxidized. Their potential value as a source of dietary energy during exercise was compared with that of maltodextrins (MD). Twelve subjects exercised for 1 h on a bicycle ergometer (60% VO2 max), 1 h after the test meal (1MJ). The metabolism of MCT was followed using 1-13C-octanoate (Oc) as tracer and U-13C-glucose (G) was added to the 13C-naturally enriched MD. After MCT ingestion no insulin peak was observed with some accumulation of ketone bodies (KB), blood levels not exceeding 1 mM. Total losses of KB during exercise in urine, sweat and as breath acetone were small (less than 0.2 mmol X h-1). Hence, the influence of KB loss and storage on gas exchange data was negligible. The partition of fat and carbohydrate utilization during exercise as obtained by indirect calorimetry was practically the same after the MCT and the CHO meals. Oxidation over the 2-h period was 30% of dose for Oc and 45% for G. Glycogen decrements in the Vastus lateralis muscle were equal. It appears that with normal carbohydrate stores, a single meal of MCT or CHO did not alter the contribution of carbohydrates during 1 h of high submaximal exercise. The moderate ketonemia after MCT, despite substantial oxidation of this fat, led to no difference in muscle glycogen sparing between the diets.

  10. Intestinal absorption of copper: influence of carbohydrates.

    Wapnir, R A; Balkman, C

    1992-02-01

    Macronutrients can modulate the intestinal absorption of trace elements by binding the metal or altering mucosal function. We investigated whether certain simple and complex carbohydrates modify copper (Cu) absorption, using an in vivo perfusion technique in the rat. Corn syrup solids, which contain a mixture of glucose polymers of diverse length, added at either 20 or 50 mosm/kg enhanced Cu absorption from a 31.5 microM (2 mg/liter) Cu solution (128 +/- 11 and 130 +/- 11 pmol/min x cm, respectively, vs 101 +/- 4 pmol/min x cm, P less than 0.05, in the absence of carbohydrate). This was concomitant with a stimulation of net water absorption (1.05 +/- 0.08 and 0.84 +/- 0.08 microliter/min x cm, respectively, vs 0.63 +/- 0.02 microliter/min x cm with no carbohydrate, P less than 0.05). Glucose, fructose, lactose, or sucrose had no influence on Cu absorption, although they altered water exchanges, an effect attributable to a reduction of the outflow component of fluid recirculation. Low concentrations of lactose resulted in a greater accumulation of Cu in the intestinal mucosa (8.75 +/- 0.71 micrograms/g vs 5.77 +/- 0.68 micrograms/g for controls, P less than 0.05). Hence, solutes that moderately stimulate mucosa-to-serosa fluid influx in a progressive manner, such as glucose polymers, may contribute to functionally increase Cu absorption. Conversely, conditions which tend to reduce water inflow or increase water outflow across the small intestinal mucosa, as may occur with high lactose diets or in cases of chronic diarrhea, may have negative effects.

  11. Carbohydrate deficient transferrin (CDT) in alcoholic cirrhosis: a kinetic study

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Grønbaek, M; Møller, Søren

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Carbohydrate deficient transferrin has been introduced as a marker of excessive alcohol intake. The present study was undertaken in order to measure the circulating level of carbohydrate deficient transferrin in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and to assess arteriovenous kinetics...... of carbohydrate deficient transferrin in liver and kidney. METHODS/RESULTS: The median value of serum carbohydrate deficient transferrin was 16.0 U/l in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis (n = 41), and this value was not significantly different from that of a normal control group (median 17.4 U/l, n = 55, ns......). Carbohydrate deficient transferrin was significantly higher in patients with cirrhosis and high current alcohol intake than in abstaining patients (20 vs. 14 U/l, p 50 g/day) had a significantly higher carbohydrate deficient transferrin...

  12. A role for carbohydrate recognition in mammalian sperm-egg binding

    Clark, Gary F.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Mammalian sperm-egg binding as a carbohydrate dependent species recognition event. • The role of carbohydrate recognition in human, mouse and pig sperm-egg binding. • Historical perspective and future directions for research focused on gamete binding. - Abstract: Mammalian fertilization usually requires three sequential cell–cell interactions: (i) initial binding of sperm to the specialized extracellular matrix coating the egg known as the zona pellucida (ZP); (ii) binding of sperm to the ZP via the inner acrosomal membrane that is exposed following the induction of acrosomal exocytosis; and (iii) adhesion of acrosome-reacted sperm to the plasma membrane of the egg cell, enabling subsequent fusion of these gametes. The focus of this review is on the initial binding of intact sperm to the mammalian ZP. Evidence collected over the past fifty years has confirmed that this interaction relies primarily on the recognition of carbohydrate sequences presented on the ZP by lectin-like egg binding proteins located on the plasma membrane of sperm. There is also evidence that the same carbohydrate sequences that mediate binding also function as ligands for lectins on lymphocytes that can inactivate immune responses, likely protecting the egg and the developing embryo up to the stage of blastocyst hatching. The literature related to initial sperm-ZP binding in the three major mammalian models (human, mouse and pig) is discussed. Historical perspectives and future directions for research related to this aspect of gamete adhesion are also presented

  13. Concentrating carbohydrates before sleep improves feeding regulation and metabolic and inflammatory parameters in mice.

    Sofer, Sigal; Eliraz, Abraham; Madar, Zecharia; Froy, Oren

    2015-10-15

    New evidance highlights the importance of food timing. Recently, we showed that a low-calorie diet with carbohydrates eaten mostly at dinner changed diurnal hormone secretion and led to greater weight loss and improved metabolic status in obese people. Herein, we set out to test whether concentrated-carbohydrates diet (CCD), in which carbohydrates are fed only before sleep, leads to an improved metabolic status in mouse hypothalamus and peripheral tissues. Diet-induced obese mice were given concentrated or distributed carbohydrate diet for 6 weeks. Obese mice fed CCD ate 8.3% less, were 9.3% leaner and had 39.7% less fat mass. Leptin, ghrelin and adiponectin displayed altered secretion. In addition, these mice exhibited an improved biochemical and inflammatory status. In the hypothalamus, anorexigenic signals were up-regulated and orexigenic signals were down-regulated. In peripheral tissues, CCD promoted adiponectin signaling, repressed gluconeogenesis, enhanced lipid oxidation and lowered inflammation, thus ameliorating the major risk factors of obesity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A role for carbohydrate recognition in mammalian sperm-egg binding

    Clark, Gary F., E-mail: clarkgf@health.missouri.edu

    2014-08-01

    Highlights: • Mammalian sperm-egg binding as a carbohydrate dependent species recognition event. • The role of carbohydrate recognition in human, mouse and pig sperm-egg binding. • Historical perspective and future directions for research focused on gamete binding. - Abstract: Mammalian fertilization usually requires three sequential cell–cell interactions: (i) initial binding of sperm to the specialized extracellular matrix coating the egg known as the zona pellucida (ZP); (ii) binding of sperm to the ZP via the inner acrosomal membrane that is exposed following the induction of acrosomal exocytosis; and (iii) adhesion of acrosome-reacted sperm to the plasma membrane of the egg cell, enabling subsequent fusion of these gametes. The focus of this review is on the initial binding of intact sperm to the mammalian ZP. Evidence collected over the past fifty years has confirmed that this interaction relies primarily on the recognition of carbohydrate sequences presented on the ZP by lectin-like egg binding proteins located on the plasma membrane of sperm. There is also evidence that the same carbohydrate sequences that mediate binding also function as ligands for lectins on lymphocytes that can inactivate immune responses, likely protecting the egg and the developing embryo up to the stage of blastocyst hatching. The literature related to initial sperm-ZP binding in the three major mammalian models (human, mouse and pig) is discussed. Historical perspectives and future directions for research related to this aspect of gamete adhesion are also presented.

  15. Impact of High-Carbohydrate Diet on Metabolic Parameters in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    Jung, Chan-Hee; Choi, Kyung Mook

    2017-01-01

    In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), whether dietary carbohydrates have beneficial or detrimental effects on cardiometabolic risk factors has drawn attention. Although a high-carbohydrate (HC) diet and a low-carbohydrate (LC) diet have gained popularity for several decades, there is scarce review focusing on the effects of HC diet on glucose, lipids and body weight in patients with T2DM. In this review, we examined recently-published literature on the effects of HC diets on metabolic parameters in T2DM. HC diets are at least as effective as LC diets, leading to significant weight loss and a reduction in plasma glucose, HbA1c and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. The major concern is that HC diets may raise serum triglyceride levels and reduce high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, these untoward effects were not a persistent consequence and may be ameliorated with the consumption of a low glycemic index (GI)/low glycemic load (GL) and high fiber. Carbohydrate intake should be individualized, and low caloric intake remains a crucial factor to improve insulin sensitivity and reduce body weight; however, an HC diet, rich in fiber and with a low GI/GL, may be recommendable in patients with T2DM. PMID:28338608

  16. DNP NMR of carbohydrate converting enzymes

    Kjeldsen, Christian; Ardenkjær-Larsen, Jan Henrik; Duus, Jens Øllgaard

    intermediate, however, this evidence is based on mutant of X-ray crystallography and simulations. As the natural substrate lactose does not have any quaternary carbon with long T1, the unnatural substrate o-nitrophenyl β-D-galactopyranoside was used (figure 1) as the quaternarypositions have T1 relaxations...... of ca. 15 s instead of hydrolysis of this substrate can be seen in figure 2, and another use of this substrate is for optimizing the conditions for a labelled substrate (figure 1), which would further increase the signal and allow monitoring of the carbohydrate...

  17. Carbohydrates/nucleosides/RNA-DNA-ligand interactions

    Kaptein, R.; McConnell, B.; Serianni, A.S.; Silks, L.A. III.

    1994-01-01

    Carbohydrate and nucleotide structural determination using modern spectroscopic techniques is dependent on our ability to label oligonucleotides and oligosaccharides with stable isotopes. Uniform Carbon 13 and Nitrogen 15 labeling of oligonucleotides is important to present-day efforts, which are focused on determining the structure of relatively small oligosaccharides and oligonucleotides, which form the elements of larger structures. Because of the relatively recent interest in three-dimensional structure, the development of techniques used to label them has lagged behind parallel techniques used to label peptides and proteins. Therefore, this group's discussion focused primarily on problems faced today in obtaining oligonucleotides labeled uniformly with carbon 13 and nitrogen 15

  18. Carbohydrates/nucleosides/RNA-DNA-ligand interactions

    Kaptein, R.; McConnell, B.; Serianni, A.S.; Silks, L.A. III

    1994-12-01

    Carbohydrate and nucleotide structural determination using modern spectroscopic techniques is dependent on our ability to label oligonucleotides and oligosaccharides with stable isotopes. Uniform Carbon 13 and Nitrogen 15 labeling of oligonucleotides is important to present-day efforts, which are focused on determining the structure of relatively small oligosaccharides and oligonucleotides, which form the elements of larger structures. Because of the relatively recent interest in three-dimensional structure, the development of techniques used to label them has lagged behind parallel techniques used to label peptides and proteins. Therefore, this group`s discussion focused primarily on problems faced today in obtaining oligonucleotides labeled uniformly with carbon 13 and nitrogen 15.

  19. Estimating the carbohydrate content of various forms of tobacco by phenol-sulfuric acid method

    Jain, Vardhaman Mulchand; Karibasappa, Gundabaktha Nagappa; Dodamani, Arun Suresh; Mali, Gaurao Vasant

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Due to consumption of various forms of tobacco in large amounts by Indian population, it has become a cause of concern for major oral diseases. In 2008, the WHO named tobacco as the world's single greatest cause of preventable death. It is also known that certain amount of carbohydrates are incorporated in processed tobacco to make it acceptable for consumption. Thus, its role in oral diseases becomes an important question at this point of time. Through this study, it is attempted...

  20. Carbohydrate modified polysiloxanes, 3 - Solution properties of carbohydrate-polysiloxane conjugates in toluene

    Loos, Katja; Jonas, Gerd; Stadler, Reimund

    2001-01-01

    High molecular weight poly(hydromethyl-co-dimethyl) siloxanes containing 0.6 and 3 mol-% of Si-H units are polar functionalized by the addition of various mono-, di- and oligosaccharides. Due to the hydrogen bond interaction between the carbohydrate moieties, the solution properties are strongly

  1. Carbohydrate-active enzymes from pigmented Bacilli: a genomic approach to assess carbohydrate utilization and degradation

    Henrissat Bernard

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spore-forming Bacilli are Gram-positive bacteria commonly found in a variety of natural habitats, including soil, water and the gastro-intestinal (GI-tract of animals. Isolates of various Bacillus species produce pigments, mostly carotenoids, with a putative protective role against UV irradiation and oxygen-reactive forms. Results We report the annotation of carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes of two pigmented Bacilli isolated from the human GI-tract and belonging to the Bacillus indicus and B. firmus species. A high number of glycoside hydrolases (GHs and carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs were found in both isolates. A detailed analysis of CAZyme families, was performed and supported by growth data. Carbohydrates able to support growth as the sole carbon source negatively effected carotenoid formation in rich medium, suggesting that a catabolite repression-like mechanism controls carotenoid biosynthesis in both Bacilli. Experimental results on biofilm formation confirmed genomic data on the potentials of B. indicus HU36 to produce a levan-based biofilm, while mucin-binding and -degradation experiments supported genomic data suggesting the ability of both Bacilli to degrade mammalian glycans. Conclusions CAZy analyses of the genomes of the two pigmented Bacilli, compared to other Bacillus species and validated by experimental data on carbohydrate utilization, biofilm formation and mucin degradation, suggests that the two pigmented Bacilli are adapted to the intestinal environment and are suited to grow in and colonize the human gut.

  2. Licensing of spent fuel dry storage and consolidated rod storage

    Bailey, W.J.

    1990-02-01

    The results of this study, performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), respond to the nuclear industry's recommendation that a report be prepared that collects and describes the licensing issues (and their resolutions) that confront a new applicant requesting approval from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for dry storage of spent fuel or for large-scale storage of consolidated spent fuel rods in pools. The issues are identified in comments, questions, and requests from the NRC during its review of applicants' submittals. Included in the report are discussions of (1) the 18 topical reports on cask and module designs for dry storage fuel that have been submitted to the NRC, (2) the three license applications for dry storage of spent fuel at independent spent fuel storage installations (ISFSIs) that have been submitted to the NRC, and (3) the three applications (one of which was later withdrawn) for large-scale storage of consolidated fuel rods in existing spent fuel storage pools at reactors that were submitted tot he NRC. For each of the applications submitted, examples of some of the issues (and suggestions for their resolutions) are described. The issues and their resolutions are also covered in detail in an example in each of the three subject areas: (1) the application for the CASTOR V/21 dry spent fuel storage cask, (2) the application for the ISFSI for dry storage of spent fuel at Surry, and (3) the application for full-scale wet storage of consolidated spent fuel at Millstone-2. The conclusions in the report include examples of major issues that applicants have encountered. Recommendations for future applicants to follow are listed. 401 refs., 26 tabs

  3. Underground storage

    1965-06-10

    A procedure is described for making an underground storage cavity in a soluble formation. Two holes are drilled, and fluid is pumped into the first hole. This fluid is a non-solute for the formation material. Then pressure is applied to the fluid until the formation is fractured in the direction of the second hole. More non-solute fluid is injected to complete the fracture between the 2 holes. A solute fluid is then circulated between the 2 holes, which results in removal of that part of the formation next to the fracture and the forming of a chamber.

  4. Pumped storage

    Strauss, P.L.

    1991-01-01

    The privately financed 1,000 MW Rocky Point Pumped Storage Project located in central Colorado, USA, will be one of the world's highest head, 2,350 feet reversible pump/turbine projects. The project will offer an economical supply of peaking power and spinning reserve power to Colorado and other southwestern states. This paper describes how the project will be made compatible with the environmental conditions in the project area and the type of terrestrial mitigation measures that are being proposed for those situations where the project impacts the environment, either temporarily or permanently

  5. The effect of dietary carbohydrate on gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    Wu, Keng-Liang; Kuo, Chung-Mou; Yao, Chih-Chien; Tai, Wei-Chen; Chuah, Seng-Kee; Lim, Chee-Sang; Chiu, Yi-Chun

    2018-01-12

    Acid changes in gastroesophageal reflux with vary component in the food have less been studied, especially carbohydrate. We plan to clarify the effect of different carbohydrate density on low esophageal acid and reflux symptoms of patients with gastroesophgeal reflux disease. Twelve patients (52 ± 12 years old; five female) with gastroesophageal reflux disease were recruited for the prospective crossover study. Each patient was invited for panendoscope, manometry and 24 h pH monitor. The two formulated liquid meal, test meal A: 500 ml liquid meal (containing 84.8 g carbohydrate) and B: same volume liquid meal (but 178.8 g carbohydrate) were randomized supplied as lunch or dinner. Reflux symptoms were recorded. There are significant statistic differences in more Johnson-DeMeester score (p = 0.019), total reflux time (%) (p = 0.028), number of reflux periods (p = 0.026) and longest reflux (p = 0.015) after high carbohydrate diet than low carbohydrate. Total reflux time and number of long reflux periods more than 5 min are significant more after high carbohydrate diet. More acid reflux symptoms are found after high carbohydrate diet. High carbohydrate diet could induce more acid reflux in low esophagus and more reflux symptoms in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. CARBOHYDRATE INTAKE CONSIDERATIONS FOR YOUNG ATHLETES

    Veronica Montfort-Steiger

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Good nutritional practices are important for exercise performance and health during all ages. Athletes and especially growing children engaged in heavy training have higher energy and nutrient requirements compared to their non-active counterparts. Scientific understanding of sports nutrition for the young athlete is lacking behind the growing number of young athletes engaged in sports. Most of the sports nutrition recommendations given to athletic children and adolescents are based on adult findings due to the deficiency in age specific information in young athletes. Therefore, this review reflects on child specific sports nutrition, particularly on carbohydrate intake and metabolism that distinguishes the child athlete from the adult athlete. Children are characterised to be in an insulin resistance stage during certain periods of maturation, have different glycolytic/metabolic responses during exercise, have a tendency for higher fat oxidation during exercise and show different heat dissipation mechanisms compared to adults. These features point out that young athletes may need different nutritional advice on carbohydrate for exercise to those from adult athletes. Sport drinks for example may need to be adapted to children specific needs. However, more research in this area is warranted to clarify sports nutrition needs of the young athlete to provide better and healthy nutritional guidance to young athletes

  7. Crystallization of carbohydrate oxidase from Microdochium nivale

    Dušková, Jarmila; Dohnálek, Jan; Skálová, Tereza; Østergaard, Lars Henrik; Fuglsang, Claus Crone; Kolenko, Petr; Štěpánková, Andrea; Hašek, Jindřich

    2009-01-01

    Industrially used carbohydrate oxidase was successfully crystallized in several forms, diffraction data suitable for structural analysis were collected. Microdochium nivale carbohydrate oxidase was produced by heterologous recombinant expression in Aspergillus oryzae, purified and crystallized. The enzyme crystallizes with varying crystal morphologies depending on the crystallization conditions. Several different crystal forms were obtained using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method, two of which were used for diffraction measurements. Hexagon-shaped crystals (form I) diffracted to 2.66 Å resolution, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 55.7, c = 610.4 Å and apparent space group P6 2 22. Analysis of the data quality showed almost perfect twinning of the crystals. Attempts to solve the structure by molecular replacement did not give satisfactory results. Recently, clusters of rod-shaped crystals (form II) were grown in a solution containing PEG MME 550. These crystals belonged to the monoclinic system C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 132.9, b = 56.6, c = 86.5 Å, β = 95.7°. Data sets were collected to a resolution of 2.4 Å. The structure was solved by the molecular-replacement method. Model refinement is currently in progress

  8. Impact of Dietary Polyphenols on Carbohydrate Metabolism

    Kati Hanhineva

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols, including flavonoids, phenolic acids, proanthocyanidins and resveratrol, are a large and heterogeneous group of phytochemicals in plant-based foods, such as tea, coffee, wine, cocoa, cereal grains, soy, fruits and berries. Growing evidence indicates that various dietary polyphenols may influence carbohydrate metabolism at many levels. In animal models and a limited number of human studies carried out so far, polyphenols and foods or beverages rich in polyphenols have attenuated postprandial glycemic responses and fasting hyperglycemia, and improved acute insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. The possible mechanisms include inhibition of carbohydrate digestion and glucose absorption in the intestine, stimulation of insulin secretion from the pancreatic b-cells, modulation of glucose release from the liver, activation of insulin receptors and glucose uptake in the insulin-sensitive tissues, and modulation of intracellular signalling pathways and gene expression. The positive effects of polyphenols on glucose homeostasis observed in a large number of in vitro and animal models are supported by epidemiological evidence on polyphenol-rich diets. To confirm the implications of polyphenol consumption for prevention of insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and eventually type 2 diabetes, human trials with well-defined diets, controlled study designs and clinically relevant end-points together with holistic approaches e.g., systems biology profiling technologies are needed.

  9. ICI optical data storage tape: An archival mass storage media

    Ruddick, Andrew J.

    1993-01-01

    At the 1991 Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies, ICI Imagedata presented a paper which introduced ICI Optical Data Storage Tape. This paper placed specific emphasis on the media characteristics and initial data was presented which illustrated the archival stability of the media. More exhaustive analysis that was carried out on the chemical stability of the media is covered. Equally important, it also addresses archive management issues associated with, for example, the benefits of reduced rewind requirements to accommodate tape relaxation effects that result from careful tribology control in ICI Optical Tape media. ICI Optical Tape media was designed to meet the most demanding requirements of archival mass storage. It is envisaged that the volumetric data capacity, long term stability and low maintenance characteristics demonstrated will have major benefits in increasing reliability and reducing the costs associated with archival storage of large data volumes.

  10. Whole-tree distribution and temporal variation of non-structural carbohydrates in broadleaf evergreen trees.

    Smith, Merryn G; Miller, Rebecca E; Arndt, Stefan K; Kasel, Sabine; Bennett, Lauren T

    2018-04-01

    Non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) form a fundamental yet poorly quantified carbon pool in trees. Studies of NSC seasonality in forest trees have seldom measured whole-tree NSC stocks and allocation among organs, and are not representative of all tree functional types. Non-structural carbohydrate research has primarily focussed on broadleaf deciduous and coniferous evergreen trees with distinct growing seasons, while broadleaf evergreen trees remain under-studied despite their different growth phenology. We measured whole-tree NSC allocation and temporal variation in Eucalyptus obliqua L'Hér., a broadleaf evergreen tree species typically occurring in mixed-age temperate forests, which has year-round growth and the capacity to resprout after fire. Our overarching objective was to improve the empirical basis for understanding the functional importance of NSC allocation and stock changes at the tree- and organ-level in this tree functional type. Starch was the principal storage carbohydrate and was primarily stored in the stem and roots of young (14-year-old) trees rather than the lignotuber, which did not appear to be a specialized starch storage organ. Whole-tree NSC stocks were depleted during spring and summer due to significant decreases in starch mass in the roots and stem, seemingly to support root and crown growth but potentially exacerbated by water stress in summer. Seasonality of stem NSCs differed between young and mature trees, and was not synchronized with stem basal area increments in mature trees. Our results suggest that the relative magnitude of seasonal NSC stock changes could vary with tree growth stage, and that the main drivers of NSC fluctuations in broadleaf evergreen trees in temperate biomes could be periodic disturbances such as summer drought and fire, rather than growth phenology. These results have implications for understanding post-fire tree recovery via resprouting, and for incorporating NSC pools into carbon models of mixed

  11. Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials

    Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

    2013-02-19

    A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

  12. Monitoring the Evolution of Major Chemical Compound in Dairy Products During Shelf-Life by FTIR

    Adriana Păucean

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy is considered to be a comprehensive and sensitive method to characterize the chemical composition and for detection of molecular changes in different samples. In this study, FTIRspectroscopy  was employed as an rapid and low-cost technique in order to characterize the FTIR spectra and identify appropriate spectral regions for dairy product fermented by a lactic culture consisting by species of Lactococcus lactis and Leuconostoc mesenteroides. A second objective was to monitore the key chemical compounds (lactose, lactic acid, flavors during fermentation and refrigerated storage (1-21 days, at 4-6°C. By FT-IR fingerprint during fermentation we identified changes of the spectra pattern with specific increasing or decreasing peaks for lactose, lactic acid, esters, aromatic compounds, aminoacids, fatty acids. Also the technique was able to identify chemical compounds involved in the microbial activity such as phosphates and phosphorylated carbohydrates during fermentation and dairy product shelf-life. All the major chemical compounds recorded significant increaments during fermentation and refrigerated storage comparing with the raw milk.

  13. Acute Effects of Carbohydrate Supplementation on Intermittent Sports Performance.

    Baker, Lindsay B; Rollo, Ian; Stein, Kimberly W; Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2015-07-14

    Intermittent sports (e.g., team sports) are diverse in their rules and regulations but similar in the pattern of play; that is, intermittent high-intensity movements and the execution of sport-specific skills over a prolonged period of time (~1-2 h). Performance during intermittent sports is dependent upon a combination of anaerobic and aerobic energy systems, both of which rely on muscle glycogen and/or blood glucose as an important substrate for energy production. The aims of this paper are to review: (1) potential biological mechanisms by which carbohydrate may impact intermittent sport performance; (2) the acute effects of carbohydrate ingestion on intermittent sport performance, including intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity, sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition; and (3) what recommendations can be derived for carbohydrate intake before/during exercise in intermittent sports based on the available evidence. The most researched intermittent sport is soccer but some sport-specific studies have also been conducted in other sports (e.g., rugby, field hockey, basketball, American football, and racquet sports). Carbohydrate ingestion before/during exercise has been shown in most studies to enhance intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity. However, studies have shown mixed results with regards to the acute effects of carbohydrate intake on sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition. In most of these studies the amount of carbohydrate consumed was ~30-60 g/h in the form of a 6%-7% carbohydrate solution comprised of sucrose, glucose, and/or maltodextrin. The magnitude of the impact that carbohydrate ingestion has on intermittent sport performance is likely dependent on the carbohydrate status of the individual; that is, carbohydrate ingestion has the greatest impact on performance under circumstances eliciting fatigue and/or hypoglycemia. Accordingly, carbohydrate ingestion before and during a game

  14. Association of carbohydrate and fat intake with metabolic syndrome.

    Kwon, Yu-Jin; Lee, Hye-Sun; Lee, Ji-Won

    2018-04-01

    In Asia, dietary pattern has been changed with increased intake of refined carbohydrates, sugar, and saturated fat, while the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is on the rise. However, it remains unclear whether a high-carbohydrate or a high-fat diet is more metabolically harmful, and the optimal amount of carbohydrates and fat has not been determined. The aim of our study was to examine the role of carbohydrate and fat intake in MetS in a Korean population. Data were obtained from a large, population-based, cross-sectional study (6737 males and 8845 females). The subjects were divided into nine groups based on carbohydrate and fat proportion, and multiple logistic regression analysis was performed after adjusting for confounding variables. Regardless of fat intake, the risk of MetS significantly increased in males with higher carbohydrate proportions (of total energy intake). In females, the risk of MetS was significantly elevated only in those with both the highest carbohydrate proportion and lowest fat proportion. A high carbohydrate proportion was associated with a higher prevalence of MetS in males, and a high carbohydrate proportion combined with a low fat proportion was associated with MetS in females. Our results indicate that reduction of excessive carbohydrate intake paired with an adequate fat intake, taking into consideration optimal types of fat, is useful for MetS prevention. Longitudinal studies are needed to clarify the optimal types and amounts of carbohydrate and fat proportions as well as the mechanism underlying these relationships. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  15. Acute Effects of Carbohydrate Supplementation on Intermittent Sports Performance

    Lindsay B. Baker

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent sports (e.g., team sports are diverse in their rules and regulations but similar in the pattern of play; that is, intermittent high-intensity movements and the execution of sport-specific skills over a prolonged period of time (~1–2 h. Performance during intermittent sports is dependent upon a combination of anaerobic and aerobic energy systems, both of which rely on muscle glycogen and/or blood glucose as an important substrate for energy production. The aims of this paper are to review: (1 potential biological mechanisms by which carbohydrate may impact intermittent sport performance; (2 the acute effects of carbohydrate ingestion on intermittent sport performance, including intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity, sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition; and (3 what recommendations can be derived for carbohydrate intake before/during exercise in intermittent sports based on the available evidence. The most researched intermittent sport is soccer but some sport-specific studies have also been conducted in other sports (e.g., rugby, field hockey, basketball, American football, and racquet sports. Carbohydrate ingestion before/during exercise has been shown in most studies to enhance intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity. However, studies have shown mixed results with regards to the acute effects of carbohydrate intake on sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition. In most of these studies the amount of carbohydrate consumed was ~30–60 g/h in the form of a 6%–7% carbohydrate solution comprised of sucrose, glucose, and/or maltodextrin. The magnitude of the impact that carbohydrate ingestion has on intermittent sport performance is likely dependent on the carbohydrate status of the individual; that is, carbohydrate ingestion has the greatest impact on performance under circumstances eliciting fatigue and/or hypoglycemia. Accordingly, carbohydrate ingestion before

  16. Simple vs. Complex Carbohydrate Dietary Patterns and the Global Overweight and Obesity Pandemic

    Fabrizio Ferretti

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, obesity and being overweight are among the major global health concerns. Many, diet-related diseases impose high tangible and intangible costs, and threaten the sustainability of health-care systems worldwide. In this study, we model, at the macroeconomic level, the impact of energy intake from different types of carbohydrates on the population’s BMI (body mass index. We proceed in three steps. First, we develop a framework to analyse both the consumption choices between simple and complex carbohydrates and the effects of these choices on people health conditions. Second, we collect figures for 185 countries (over the period 2012–2014 regarding the shares of simple (sugar and sweetener and complex (cereal carbohydrates in each country’s total dietary energy supply. Third, we use regression techniques to: (1 estimate the impact of these shares on the country’s prevalence of obesity and being overweight; (2 compute for each country an indicator of dietary pattern based on the ratio between simple and complex carbohydrates, weighted by their estimated effects on the prevalence of obesity and being overweight; and (3 measure the elasticity of the prevalence of obesity and being overweight with respect to changes in both carbohydrate dietary pattern and income per capita. We find that unhealthy eating habits and the associated prevalence of excessive body fat accumulation tend to behave as a ‘normal good’ in low, medium- and high-HDI (Human Development Index countries, but as an ‘inferior good’ in very high-HDI countries.

  17. Global microarray analysis of carbohydrate use in alkaliphilic hemicellulolytic bacterium Bacillus sp. N16-5.

    Yajian Song

    Full Text Available The alkaliphilic hemicellulolytic bacterium Bacillus sp. N16-5 has a broad substrate spectrum and exhibits the capacity to utilize complex carbohydrates such as galactomannan, xylan, and pectin. In the monosaccharide mixture, sequential utilization by Bacillus sp. N16-5 was observed. Glucose appeared to be its preferential monosaccharide, followed by fructose, mannose, arabinose, xylose, and galactose. Global transcription profiles of the strain were determined separately for growth on six monosaccharides (glucose, fructose, mannose, galactose, arabinose, and xylose and four polysaccharides (galactomannan, xylan, pectin, and sodium carboxymethylcellulose using one-color microarrays. Numerous genes potentially related to polysaccharide degradation, sugar transport, and monosaccharide metabolism were found to respond to a specific substrate. Putative gene clusters for different carbohydrates were identified according to transcriptional patterns and genome annotation. Identification and analysis of these gene clusters contributed to pathway reconstruction for carbohydrate utilization in Bacillus sp. N16-5. Several genes encoding putative sugar transporters were highly expressed during growth on specific sugars, suggesting their functional roles. Two phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase systems were identified as candidate transporters for mannose and fructose, and a major facilitator superfamily transporter was identified as a candidate transporter for arabinose and xylose. Five carbohydrate uptake transporter 1 family ATP-binding cassette transporters were predicted to participate in the uptake of hemicellulose and pectin degradation products. Collectively, microarray data improved the pathway reconstruction involved in carbohydrate utilization of Bacillus sp. N16-5 and revealed that the organism precisely regulates gene transcription in response to fluctuations in energy resources.

  18. Global Microarray Analysis of Carbohydrate Use in Alkaliphilic Hemicellulolytic Bacterium Bacillus sp. N16-5

    Song, Yajian; Xue, Yanfen; Ma, Yanhe

    2013-01-01

    The alkaliphilic hemicellulolytic bacterium Bacillus sp. N16-5 has a broad substrate spectrum and exhibits the capacity to utilize complex carbohydrates such as galactomannan, xylan, and pectin. In the monosaccharide mixture, sequential utilization by Bacillus sp. N16-5 was observed. Glucose appeared to be its preferential monosaccharide, followed by fructose, mannose, arabinose, xylose, and galactose. Global transcription profiles of the strain were determined separately for growth on six monosaccharides (glucose, fructose, mannose, galactose, arabinose, and xylose) and four polysaccharides (galactomannan, xylan, pectin, and sodium carboxymethylcellulose) using one-color microarrays. Numerous genes potentially related to polysaccharide degradation, sugar transport, and monosaccharide metabolism were found to respond to a specific substrate. Putative gene clusters for different carbohydrates were identified according to transcriptional patterns and genome annotation. Identification and analysis of these gene clusters contributed to pathway reconstruction for carbohydrate utilization in Bacillus sp. N16-5. Several genes encoding putative sugar transporters were highly expressed during growth on specific sugars, suggesting their functional roles. Two phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase systems were identified as candidate transporters for mannose and fructose, and a major facilitator superfamily transporter was identified as a candidate transporter for arabinose and xylose. Five carbohydrate uptake transporter 1 family ATP-binding cassette transporters were predicted to participate in the uptake of hemicellulose and pectin degradation products. Collectively, microarray data improved the pathway reconstruction involved in carbohydrate utilization of Bacillus sp. N16-5 and revealed that the organism precisely regulates gene transcription in response to fluctuations in energy resources. PMID:23326578

  19. Lithium ion storage between graphenes

    Chan Yue

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article, we investigate the storage of lithium ions between two parallel graphene sheets using the continuous approximation and the 6-12 Lennard-Jones potential. The continuous approximation assumes that the carbon atoms can be replaced by a uniform distribution across the surface of the graphene sheets so that the total interaction potential can be approximated by performing surface integrations. The number of ion layers determines the major storage characteristics of the battery, and our results show three distinct ionic configurations, namely single, double, and triple ion forming layers between graphenes. The number densities of lithium ions between the two graphenes are estimated from existing semi-empirical molecular orbital calculations, and the graphene sheets giving rise to the triple ion layers admit the largest storage capacity at all temperatures, followed by a marginal decrease of storage capacity for the case of double ion layers. These two configurations exceed the maximum theoretical storage capacity of graphite. Further, on taking into account the charge-discharge property, the double ion layers are the most preferable choice for enhanced lithium storage. Although the single ion layer provides the least charge storage, it turns out to be the most stable configuration at all temperatures. One application of the present study is for the design of future high energy density alkali batteries using graphene sheets as anodes for which an analytical formulation might greatly facilitate rapid computational results.

  20. ANALYSIS OF RICIN TOXIN PREPARATIONS FOR CARBOHYDRATE AND FATTY ACID ABUNDANCE AND ISOTOPE RATIO INFORMATION

    Wunschel, David S.; Kreuzer-Martin, Helen W.; Antolick, Kathryn C.; Colburn, Heather A.; Moran, James J.; Melville, Angela M.

    2009-12-01

    This report describes method development and preliminary evaluation for analyzing castor samples for signatures of purifying ricin. Ricin purification from the source castor seeds is essentially a problem of protein purification using common biochemical methods. Indications of protein purification will likely manifest themselves as removal of the non-protein fractions of the seed. Two major, non-protein, types of biochemical constituents in the seed are the castor oil and various carbohydrates. The oil comprises roughly half the seed weight while the carbohydrate component comprises roughly half of the remaining “mash” left after oil and hull removal. Different castor oil and carbohydrate components can serve as indicators of specific toxin processing steps. Ricinoleic acid is a relatively unique fatty acid in nature and is the most abundant component of castor oil. The loss of ricinoleic acid indicates a step to remove oil from the seeds. The relative amounts of carbohydrates and carbohydrate-like compounds, including arabinose, xylose, myo-inositol fucose, rhamnose, glucosamine and mannose detected in the sample can also indicate specific processing steps. For instance, the differential loss of arabinose relative to mannose and N-acetyl glucosamine indicates enrichment for the protein fraction of the seed using protein precipitation. The methods developed in this project center on fatty acid and carbohydrate extraction from castor samples followed by derivatization to permit analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Method descriptions herein include: the source and preparation of castor materials used for method evaluation, the equipment and description of procedure required for chemical derivatization, and the instrument parameters used in the analysis. Two types of derivatization methods describe analysis of carbohydrates and one procedure for analysis of fatty acids. Two types of GC-MS analysis is included in the method development, one

  1. Energy Policy Act of 2005 and Underground Storage Tanks (USTs)

    The Energy Policy Act of 2005 significantly affected federal and state underground storage tank programs, required major changes to the programs, and is aimed at reducing underground storage tank releases to our environment.

  2. Relationship between carbohydrate composition and fungal deterioration of functional strawberry juices preserved using non-thermal treatments.

    Cassani, Lucía; Quintana, Gabriel; Moreira, María R; Gómez-Zavaglia, Andrea

    2017-12-12

    The quantification of the main carbohydrates present in strawberry juices enriched with inulin and fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) and preserved by non-thermal techniques (vanillin and ultrasound) was conducted, in addition to an investigation of the evolution of these compounds and their relationship with fungal deterioration over 14 days of refrigerated storage. A simple and environmentally friendly analytical approach based on high-performance liquid chromatography with a reflection index detector was developed for simultaneous determination of inulin, FOS and mono- and disaccharides present in the juices. When analyzing the evolution of carbohydrates during storage, a direct relationship between the consumption of sucrose and the growth of yeasts and molds (main spoilage flora in strawberry) was observed, especially in untreated samples (control). By contrast, no sucrose consumption was observed during storage of the treated sample, thus demonstrating the efficiency of the non-thermal treatments for controlling yeasts and mold growth. In turn, inulin and FOS added to juices were not degraded during storage. The results obtained in the present study demonstrate that non-thermal treatments are adequate for preventing the growth of deteriorative flora in strawberry juices and that the addition of inulin and FOS can be a good strategy for functionalizing them, as well as improving their nutritional properties. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Intra-annual dynamics of non-structural carbohydrates in the cambium of mature conifer trees reflects radial growth demands.

    Simard, Sonia; Giovannelli, Alessio; Treydte, Kerstin; Traversi, Maria Laura; King, Gregory M; Frank, David; Fonti, Patrick

    2013-09-01

    The presence of soluble carbohydrates in the cambial zone, either from sugars recently produced during photosynthesis or from starch remobilized from storage organs, is necessary for radial tree growth. However, considerable uncertainties on carbohydrate dynamics and the consequences on tree productivity exist. This study aims to better understand the variation in different carbon pools at intra-annual resolution by quantifying how cambial zone sugar and starch concentrations fluctuate over the season and in relation to cambial phenology. A comparison between two physiologically different species growing at the same site, i.e., the evergreen Picea abies Karst. and the deciduous Larix decidua Mill., and between L. decidua from two contrasting elevations, is presented to identify mechanisms of growth limitation. Results indicate that the annual cycle of sugar concentration within the cambial zone is coupled to the process of wood formation. The highest sugar concentration is observed when the number of cells in secondary wall formation and lignification stages is at a maximum, subsequent to most radial growth. Starch disappears in winter, while other freeze-resistant non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) increase. Slight differences in NSC concentration between species are consistent with the differing climate sensitivity of the evergreen and deciduous species investigated. The general absence of differences between elevations suggests that the cambial activity of trees growing at the treeline was not limited by the availability of carbohydrates at the cambial zone but instead by environmental controls on the growing season duration.

  4. Carbohydrates: How Carbs Fit into a Healthy Diet

    ... obesity. Carbohydrates are an essential part of a healthy diet, and provide many important nutrients. Still, not all carbs are created equal. Here's how to make healthy carbohydrates work in a balanced diet: Emphasize fiber-rich fruits and vegetables. Aim for ...

  5. PREPARATION OF CHEMICALLY WELL-DEFINED CARBOHYDRATE DENDRIMER CONJUGATES

    2004-01-01

    A method for the synthesis of dendrimer conjugates having a well-defined chemical structure, comprising one or more carbohydrate moieties and one or more immunomodulating substances coupled to a dendrimer, is presented. First, the carbohydrate is bound to the dendrimer in a chemoselective manner...... conjugates and their use in vaccination, production of antibodies, high throughput screening, diagnostic assays and libraries....

  6. The effect of carbohydrates on alpha-amylase activity measurements

    Baks, T.; Janssen, A.E.M.; Boom, R.M.

    2006-01-01

    The Ceralpha method can be used for ¿-amylase activity measurements during the hydrolysis of starch at high substrate concentrations (>40 wt.%). However, the results are affected by the carbohydrates present in the samples. The effect of carbohydrates on the Ceralpha ¿-amylase activity

  7. Characterization of immobilized post-carbohydrate meal salivary α ...

    The effect of experimental parameters like pH, temperature and substrate concentration on the activity of the immobilized post-carbohydrate meal salivary ... of immobilized post-carbohydrate meal salivary α-amylase in this study show that immobilization had no significant effect on the enzyme and compared to kinetic ...

  8. Mixed drink increased carbohydrate oxidation but not performance ...

    ... improvement in 40 km time trial time between an isocaloric GP-only or a GP and fructose drink, and no differences in any of the measured variables other than exogenous carbohydrate oxidation at 90 minutes during the pre-time trial steady state ride. Keywords: multiple carbohydrate, cycling, endurance, glucose, fructose ...

  9. Carbohydrates in the waters of ponds of Ramanthuruthu Island, Cochin

    Sankaranarayanan, V.N.; Kumaran, S.; Balasubramanian, T.; Stephen, R.; Panampunnayil, S.U.

    carbohydrate showed high variability and the concentration varied from 0.2 to 11 mg/l. High concentration of particulate carbohydrate observed during monsoon months is believed to be due to high phytoplankton population and also to the large amount of organic...

  10. Chemical Changes in Carbohydrates Produced by Thermal Processing.

    Hoseney, R. Carl

    1984-01-01

    Discusses chemical changes that occur in the carbohydrates found in food products when these products are subjected to thermal processing. Topics considered include browning reactions, starch found in food systems, hydrolysis of carbohydrates, extrusion cooking, processing of cookies and candies, and alterations in gums. (JN)

  11. Using structure to inform carbohydrate binding module function

    Abbott, D. Wade; Lammerts van Bueren, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    Generally, non-catalytic carbohydrate binding module (CBM) specificity has been shown to parallel the catalytic activity of the carbohydrate active enzyme (CAZyme) module it is appended to. With the rapid expansion in metagenomic sequence space for the potential discovery of new CBMs in addition to

  12. Primer on lead-acid storage batteries

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This handbook was developed to help DOE facility contractors prevent accidents caused during operation and maintenance of lead-acid storage batteries. Major types of lead-acid storage batteries are discussed as well as their operation, application, selection, maintenance, and disposal (storage, transportation, as well). Safety hazards and precautions are discussed in the section on battery maintenance. References to industry standards are included for selection, maintenance, and disposal.

  13. Molecular Tools for Facilitative Carbohydrate Transporters (Gluts).

    Tanasova, Marina; Fedie, Joseph R

    2017-09-19

    Facilitative carbohydrate transporters-Gluts-have received wide attention over decades due to their essential role in nutrient uptake and links with various metabolic disorders, including diabetes, obesity, and cancer. Endeavors directed towards understanding the mechanisms of Glut-mediated nutrient uptake have resulted in a multidisciplinary research field spanning protein chemistry, chemical biology, organic synthesis, crystallography, and biomolecular modeling. Gluts became attractive targets for cancer research and medicinal chemistry, leading to the development of new approaches to cancer diagnostics and providing avenues for cancer-targeting therapeutics. In this review, the current state of knowledge of the molecular interactions behind Glut-mediated sugar uptake, Glut-targeting probes, therapeutics, and inhibitors are discussed. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Attenuation measurements in solutions of some carbohydrates

    Gagandeep; Singh, K.; Lark, B.S.; Sahota, H.S.

    2000-01-01

    The linear attenuation coefficients in aqueous solutions of three carbohydrates, glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ), maltose monohydrate (C 12 H 22 O 11 ·H 2 O), and sucrose (C 12 H 22 O 11 ), were determined at 81, 356, 511, 662, 1,173, and 1,332 keV by the gamma-ray transmission method in a good geometry setup. From the precisely measured densities of these solutions, mass attenuation coefficients were then obtained that varied systematically with the corresponding changes in the concentrations (g/cm 3 ) of these solutions. The experimental results were used in terms of effective atomic numbers and electron densities. A comparison between experimental and theoretical values of attenuation coefficients has proven that the study has a potential application for the determination of attenuation coefficients of solid solutes from their solutions without obtaining them in pure crystalline form

  15. Attenuation Measurements in Solutions of Some Carbohydrates

    Gagandeep; Singh, Kulwant; Lark, B.S.; Sahota, H.S.

    2000-01-01

    The linear attenuation coefficients in aqueous solutions of three carbohydrates, glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ), maltose monohydrate (C 12 H 22 O 11 .H 2 O), and sucrose (C 12 H 22 O 11 ), were determined at 81, 356, 511, 662, 1173, and 1332 keV by the gamma-ray transmission method in a good geometry setup. From the precisely measured densities of these solutions, mass attenuation coefficients were then obtained that varied systematically with the corresponding changes in the concentrations (g/cm 3 ) of these solutions. The experimental results were used in terms of effective atomic numbers and electron densities. A comparison between experimental and theoretical values of attenuation coefficients has proven that the study has a potential application for the determination of attenuation coefficients of solid solutes from their solutions without obtaining them in pure crystalline form

  16. Arabinogalactan proteins: focus on carbohydrate active enzymes

    Eva eKnoch

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs are a highly diverse class of cell surface proteoglycans that are commonly found in most plant species. AGPs play important roles in many cellular processes during plant development, such as reproduction, cell proliferation, pattern formation and growth, and in plant-microbe interaction. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of their function. Numerous studies using monoclonal antibodies that recognize different AGP glycan epitopes have shown the appearance of a slightly altered AGP glycan in a specific stage of development in plant cells. Therefore, it is anticipated that the biosynthesis and degradation of AGP glycan is tightly regulated during development. Until recently, however, little was known about the enzymes involved in the metabolism of AGP glycans. In this review, we summarize recent discoveries of carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZy; http://www.cazy.org/ involved in the biosynthesis and degradation of AGP glycans, and we discuss the biological role of these enzymes in plant development.

  17. Cotyledonary somatic embryos of Pinus pinaster Ait. most closely resemble fresh, maturing cotyledonary zygotic embryos: biological, carbohydrate and proteomic analyses.

    Morel, Alexandre; Trontin, Jean-François; Corbineau, Françoise; Lomenech, Anne-Marie; Beaufour, Martine; Reymond, Isabelle; Le Metté, Claire; Ader, Kevin; Harvengt, Luc; Cadene, Martine; Label, Philippe; Teyssier, Caroline; Lelu-Walter, Marie-Anne

    2014-11-01

    Cotyledonary somatic embryos (SEs) of maritime pine are routinely matured for 12 weeks before being germinated and converted to plantlets. Although regeneration success is highly dependent on SEs quality, the date of harvesting is currently determined mainly on the basis of morphological features. This empirical method does not provide any accurate information about embryo quality with respect to storage compounds (proteins, carbohydrates). We first analyzed SEs matured for 10, 12 and 14 weeks by carrying out biological (dry weight, water content) and biochemical measurements (total protein and carbohydrate contents). No difference could be found between collection dates, suggesting that harvesting SEs after 12 weeks is appropriate. Cotyledonary SEs were then compared to various stages, from fresh to fully desiccated, in the development of cotyledonary zygotic embryos (ZEs). We identified profiles that were similar using hierarchical ascendant cluster analysis (HCA). Fresh and dehydrated ZEs could be distinguished, and SEs clustered with fresh ZEs. Both types of embryo exhibited similar carbohydrate and protein contents and signatures. This high level of similarity (94.5 %) was further supported by proteome profiling. Highly expressed proteins included storage, stress-related, late embryogenesis abundant and energy metabolism proteins. By comparing overexpressed proteins in developing and cotyledonary SEs or ZEs, some (23 proteins) could be identified as candidate biomarkers for the late, cotyledonary stage. This is the first report of useful generic protein markers for monitoring embryo development in maritime pine. Our results also suggest that improvements of SEs quality may be achieved if the current maturation conditions are refined.

  18. [Specific problems posed by carbohydrate utilization in the rainbow trout].

    Bergot, F

    1979-01-01

    Carbohydrate incorporation in trout diets arises problems both at digestive and metabolic levels. Digestive utilization of carbohydrate closely depends on their molecular weight. In addition, in the case of complex carbohydrates (starches), different factors such as the level of incorporation, the amount consumed and the physical state of starch influence the digestibility. The measurement of digestibility in itself is confronted with methodological difficulties. The way the feces are collected can affect the digestion coefficient. Dietary carbohydrates actually serve as a source of energy. Nevertheless, above a certain level in the diet, intolerance phenomena may appear. The question that arises now is to establish the optimal part that carbohydrates can take in the metabolizable energy of a given diet.

  19. Structure of a streptococcal adhesion carbohydrate receptor

    Cassels, F.J.; Fales, H.M.; London, J.; Carlson, R.W.; van Halbeek, H.

    1990-01-01

    Interactions between complementary protein and carbohydrate structures on different genera of human oral bacteria have been implicated in the formation of dental plaque. The carbohydrate receptor on Streptococcus sanguis H1 that is specific for the adhesion on Capnocytophaga ochracea ATCC 33596 has been isolated from the streptococcal cell wall, purified, and structurally characterized. The hexasaccharide repeating unit of the polysaccharide was purified by reverse-phase, amino-bonded silica, and gel permeation high performance liquid chromatography. Earlier studies established that the repeating unit was a hexasaccharide composed of rhamnose, galactose, and glucose in the ration of 2:3:1, respectively. In the present study, determination of absolute configuration by gas chromatography of the trimethylsilyl (+)-2-butyl glycosides revealed that the rhamnose residues were of the L configuration while the hexoses were all D. 252Californium plasma desorption mass spectrometry of the native, the acetylated and the reduced and acetylated hexasaccharide determined that the molecular mass of the native hexasaccharide was 959, and that the 2 rhamnose residues were linked to each other at the nonreducing terminus of the linear molecule. Methylation analysis revealed the positions of the glycosidic linkages in the hexasaccharide and showed that a galactose residue was present at the reducing end. The structural characterization of the hexasaccharide was completed by one and two dimensional 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Complete 1H and 13C assignments for each glycosyl residue were established by two-dimensional (1H,1H) correlation spectroscopy, homonuclear Hartmann-Hahn, and (13C,1H) correlation experiments. The configurations of the glycosidic linkages were inferred from the chemical shifts and coupling constants of the anomeric 1H and 13C resonances

  20. Particulate carbohydrate in the euphotic zone of the Bay of Bengal

    Bhosle, N; De; Shirodkar, P.V.; Reddy, C.V.G.

    Particulate matter collected from the Bay of Bengal was analysed for carbohydrate and chlorophyll a. The distribution of chlorophyll a was different from that of carbohydrate. Chlorophyll a increased from north to south, whereas carbohydrate levels...

  1. Dietary non-digestible carbohydrates and the resistance to intestinal infections

    Bruggencate, ten S.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Non-digestible carbohydrates, prebiotics, inulin, FOS, calcium, microflora, short-chain fatty acids, mucin, intestinal permeability, salmonella, infection, rat, humanDietary non-digestible carbohydrates and the resistance to intestinal infectionsNon-digestible carbohydrates (NDC) stimulate

  2. Tree Nonstructural Carbohydrate Reserves Across Eastern US Temperate Forests

    Mantooth, J.; Dietze, M.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the roles, importance, and dynamics of tree non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) is currently an active area of research. The question of how the relationships between NSCs, growth, and mortality can be used to develop more accurate projections of forest dynamics is central to this research. To begin to address this question, we have asked an even more fundamental question: How much are trees allocating carbon to storage, in the form of NSCs, versus new growth? Ecological theory predicts that there should be trade-offs between different plant life history strategies provided that there are the carbon mass-balance constraints to enforce these trade-offs. Current data on tree NSCs lack the spatial and taxonomic extent required to properly address this question. Therefore, we established a network of forest inventory plots at ten sites across the eastern US and measured growth in adult trees using increment cores and repeat measures of diameter at breast height (DBH). Increment cores were also used to measure sapwood NSCs. We hypothesized that across the eastern US, shade tolerant species, e.g. Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum) have the largest NSC reserves and that shade intolerant species have the lowest reserves. We also hypothesized that NSC reserves increase with temperature and precipitation, as with growth, and that within species NSC reserves increase with growth rate. Initial analyses of tree NSCs indicates that trees of intermediate shade tolerance, e.g. Red Oak (Quercus rubra) have the highest concentrations of sapwood NSCs, and among the highest growth rates. Across the entire study region, NSC concentrations are positively correlated with tree size and growth rate. Within species, NSC concentrations are also positively correlated with growth rate. Across functional groups healthy individuals have significantly higher sapwood NSC concentrations than visibly stressed individuals. There are also significantly lower NSC concentrations in sapwood of

  3. Very low-carbohydrate versus isocaloric high-carbohydrate diet in dietary obese rats.

    Axen, Kathleen V; Axen, Kenneth

    2006-08-01

    The effects of a very low-carbohydrate (VLC), high-fat (HF) dietary regimen on metabolic syndrome were compared with those of an isocaloric high-carbohydrate (HC), low-fat (LF) regimen in dietary obese rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats, made obese by 8 weeks ad libitum consumption of an HF diet, developed features of the metabolic syndrome vs. lean control (C) rats, including greater visceral, subcutaneous, and hepatic fat masses, elevated plasma cholesterol levels, impaired glucose tolerance, and fasting and post-load insulin resistance. Half of the obese rats (VLC) were then fed a popular VLC-HF diet (Weeks 9 and 10 at 5% and Weeks 11 to 14 at 15% carbohydrate), and one-half (HC) were pair-fed an HC-LF diet (Weeks 9 to 14 at 60% carbohydrate). Energy intakes of pair-fed VLC and HC rats were less than C rats throughout Weeks 9 to 14. Compared with HC rats, VLC rats exhibited impaired insulin and glycemic responses to an intraperitoneal glucose load at Week 10 and lower plasma triacylglycerol levels but retarded loss of hepatic, retroperitoneal, and total body fat at Week 14. VLC, HC, and C rats no longer differed in body weight, plasma cholesterol, glucose tolerance, or fasting insulin resistance at Week 14. Progressive decreases in fasting insulin resistance in obese groups paralleled concomitant reductions in hepatic, retroperitoneal, and total body fat. When energy intake was matched, the VLC-HF diet provided no advantage in weight loss or in improving those components of the metabolic syndrome induced by dietary obesity and may delay loss of hepatic and visceral fat as compared with an HC-LF diet.

  4. Carbohydrates and thermal properties indicate a decrease in stable aggregate carbon following forest colonization of mountain grassland

    Guidi, Claudia; Cannella, David; Leifeld, Jens

    2015-01-01

    and thermally labile C showed similar patterns in bulk soil, suggesting that thermal analysis can be used to complement chemical analysis although a straightforward relationship could not be established. Following forest expansion on abandoned grassland, ratios of microbially to plant-derived carbohydrates......In mountainous areas of Europe, the abandonment of grasslands followed by forest expansion is the dominant land-use change. Labile (i.e. easily decomposable) litter represents the major source for soil microbial products, which promote soil aggregation and long-term C stabilization. Our objective...... was to investigate changes in the content and origin of soil C components involved into aggregate stabilization (i.e. carbohydrates) following forest expansion on abandoned grassland in the Alps, where only few studies have been conducted. Changes in carbohydrates and thermally labile C were assessed along a land...

  5. Binding of Human GII.4 Norovirus Virus-Like Particles to Carbohydrates of Romaine Lettuce Leaf Cell Wall Materials

    Esseili, Malak A.

    2012-01-01

    Norovirus (NoV) genogroup II genotype 4 (GII.4) strains are the dominant cause of the majority of food-borne outbreaks, including those that involve leafy greens, such as lettuce. Since human NoVs use carbohydrates of histo-blood group antigens as receptors/coreceptors, we examined the role of carbohydrates in the attachment of NoV to lettuce leaves by using virus-like particles (VLPs) of a human NoV/GII.4 strain. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that the VLPs attached to the leaf surface, especially to cut edges, stomata, and along minor veins. Binding was quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) performed on cell wall materials (CWM) from innermost younger leaves and outermost lamina of older leaves. The binding to CWM of older leaves was significantly (P lettuce CWM by utilizing multiple carbohydrate moieties. This binding may enhance virus persistence on the leaf surface and prevent effective decontamination. PMID:22138991

  6. Blood Triglycerides Levels and Dietary Carbohydrate Indices in Healthy Koreans

    Hye Sook Min

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Previous studies have obtained conflicting findings regarding possible associations between indices measuring carbohydrate intake and dyslipidemia, which is an established risk factor of coronary heart disease. In the present study, we examined cross-sectional associations between carbohydrate indices, including the dietary glycemic index (GI, glycemic load (GL, total amount of carbohydrates, and the percentage of energy from carbohydrates, and a range of blood lipid parameters. Methods: This study included 1530 participants (554 men and 976 women from 246 families within the Healthy Twin Study. We analyzed the associations using a generalized linear mixed model to control for familial relationships. Results: Levels of the Apo B were inversely associated with dietary GI, GL, and the amount of carbohydrate intake for men, but these relationships were not significant when fat-adjusted values of the carbohydrate indices were used. Triglyceride levels were positively associated with dietary GI and GL in women, and this pattern was more notable in overweight participants (body mass index [BMI] ≥25 kg/m2. However, total, low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were not significantly related with carbohydrate intake overall. Conclusions: Of the blood lipid parameters we investigated, only triglyceride levels were positively related with dietary carbohydrate indices among women participants in the Healthy Twin Study, with an interactive role observed for BMI. However, these associations were not observed in men, suggesting that the association between blood lipid levels and carbohydrate intake depends on the type of lipid, specific carbohydrate indices, gender, and BMI.

  7. Evaluation of canine adverse food reactions by patch testing with single proteins, single carbohydrates and commercial foods.

    Johansen, Cornelia; Mariani, Claire; Mueller, Ralf S

    2017-10-01

    Adverse food reaction (AFR) is an important differential diagnosis for the pruritic dog. It is usually diagnosed by feeding an elimination diet with a novel protein and carbohydrate source for eight weeks followed by subsequent food provocation. A previous study demonstrated that patch testing dogs with foods had a high sensitivity and negative predictability for selection of elimination diet ingredients. The aim of this study was to investigate patch testing with proteins, carbohydrates and dry commercial dog food in dogs to determine whether there was value in patch testing to aid the diagnosis of canine adverse food reaction. Twenty five privately owned dogs, with confirmed AFR, underwent provocation trials with selected food antigens and patch testing. For proteins, carbohydrates and dry dog food the sensitivity of patch testing was 100%, 70% and 22.2%, respectively; the negative predictive values of patch testing were 100%, 79% and 72%. The positive predictive values of patch testing for proteins and carbohydrates were 75% and 74%, respectively. This study confirmed that patch testing may be useful for the selection of a suitable protein source for an elimination diet in dogs with suspected AFR, but not as a diagnostic tool for canine AFR. Results for proteins are more reliable than for carbohydrates and the majority of positive patch test reactions were observed with raw protein. Patch testing with commercial dog food does not seem to be useful. © 2017 ESVD and ACVD.

  8. Comparative analysis of carbohydrate active enzymes in Clostridium termitidis CT1112 reveals complex carbohydrate degradation ability.

    Riffat I Munir

    Full Text Available Clostridium termitidis strain CT1112 is an anaerobic, gram positive, mesophilic, cellulolytic bacillus isolated from the gut of the wood-feeding termite, Nasutitermes lujae. It produces biofuels such as hydrogen and ethanol from cellulose, cellobiose, xylan, xylose, glucose, and other sugars, and therefore could be used for biofuel production from biomass through consolidated bioprocessing. The first step in the production of biofuel from biomass by microorganisms is the hydrolysis of complex carbohydrates present in biomass. This is achieved through the presence of a repertoire of secreted or complexed carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes, sometimes organized in an extracellular organelle called cellulosome. To assess the ability and understand the mechanism of polysaccharide hydrolysis in C. termitidis, the recently sequenced strain CT1112 of C. termitidis was analyzed for both CAZymes and cellulosomal components, and compared to other cellulolytic bacteria. A total of 355 CAZyme sequences were identified in C. termitidis, significantly higher than other Clostridial species. Of these, high numbers of glycoside hydrolases (199 and carbohydrate binding modules (95 were identified. The presence of a variety of CAZymes involved with polysaccharide utilization/degradation ability suggests hydrolysis potential for a wide range of polysaccharides. In addition, dockerin-bearing enzymes, cohesion domains and a cellulosomal gene cluster were identified, indicating the presence of potential cellulosome assembly.

  9. Investigations on Mushroom Storage and Quality Parameters

    Ömür Dündar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, researchers on storage and quality properties of mushrooms cultivated in the world and Turkey have been investigated. Mushrooms contain some important minerals and vitamins such as iron, calcium, phosphorus, potassium, copper and folate, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B, C, D and also they are a good source of carbohydrate and protein. After harvest, to extend the shelf life of mushrooms, some applications such as pre-cooling, storage in appropriate temperature, use of different types of polyethylene packaging, modified atmosphere packaging, nitric oxide and UV light applications were done on mushrooms. The effects of these applications on physical and chemical features such as like weight loss, firmness, cap opening rate, cap diameter, stem diameter, browning, colour, respiration rate, enzymatic reactions, total phenols, total sugars, aminoacid content were investigated.

  10. [Performance enhancement by carbohydrate intake during sport: effects of carbohydrates during and after high-intensity exercise].

    Beelen, Milou; Cermak, Naomi M; van Loon, Luc J C

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous carbohydrate availability does not provide sufficient energy for prolonged moderate to high-intensity exercise. Carbohydrate ingestion during high-intensity exercise can therefore enhance performance.- For exercise lasting 1 to 2.5 hours, athletes are advised to ingest 30-60 g of carbohydrates per hour.- Well-trained endurance athletes competing for longer than 2.5 hours at high intensity can metabolise up to 90 g of carbohydrates per hour, provided that a mixture of glucose and fructose is ingested.- Athletes participating in intermittent or team sports are advised to follow the same strategies but the timing of carbohydrate intake depends on the type of sport.- If top performance is required again within 24 hours after strenuous exercise, the advice is to supplement endogenous carbohydrate supplies quickly within the first few hours post-exercise by ingesting large amounts of carbohydrate (1.2 g/kg/h) or a lower amount of carbohydrate (0.8 g/kg/h) with a small amount of protein (0.2-0.4 g/kg/h).

  11. A low-carbohydrate survey: Evidence for sustainable metabolic syndrome reversal

    Mark T. Cucuzzella

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Metabolic syndrome has become a significant problem, with the American Diabetes Association estimating the cost of diabetes and pre-diabetes in the United States alone to be $322 billion per year. Numerous clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy of low-carbohydrate diets in reversing metabolic syndrome and its associated disorders. Aim: This study was designed to examine how voluntary adherents to a low-carbohydrate diet rate its effectiveness and sustainability using an online survey. Setting and methods: The 57-question survey was administered online and shared internationally via social media and ‘low-carb’ communities. Where appropriate, chi-squared tests and paired t-tests were used to analyse the responses. Results: There were 1580 respondents. The majority of respondents had consumed less than 100 g of carbohydrates per day for over a year, typically for reasons of weight loss or disease management. There was a reported decrease in waist circumference and weight with a simultaneous decrease in hunger and increase in energy level. Of those who provided laboratory values, the majority saw improvements in their HbA1c, blood glucose measurements, and lipid panel results. There was a reduction in usage of various medications, and 25% reported medication cost savings, with average monthly savings of $288 for those respondents. In particular, the usage of pain relievers and anti-inflammatories dropped with a simultaneous decreased rating of pain and increase in mobility. Conclusion: We conclude that low-carbohydrate diets are a sustainable method of metabolic syndrome reversal in a community setting.

  12. Biomarker for Glycogen Storage Diseases

    2017-07-03

    Fructose Metabolism, Inborn Errors; Glycogen Storage Disease; Glycogen Storage Disease Type I; Glycogen Storage Disease Type II; Glycogen Storage Disease Type III; Glycogen Storage Disease Type IV; Glycogen Storage Disease Type V; Glycogen Storage Disease Type VI; Glycogen Storage Disease Type VII; Glycogen Storage Disease Type VIII

  13. Differentiation of norm and pathology during selective biochemical skreening of lysosomal storage diseases with increased excretion of oligosaccharides

    N. Y. Mytsyk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Oligosaccharides are a class of polymeric carbohydrates, which are constituents of a glycoside portion of glycoprotein and glycolipid molecules. The lysosomal hydrolase dysfunction due to lysosomal storage disorders results in partial or complete failure of degradation of some glycoproteins and glycolipids, causing the accumulation of specific undegraded substrates in the lysosomes of cells, the formation of the great number of oligosaccharide chains and their increased excretion with urine. Our work was aimed at detailed study of the specificities of interpreting the results of thin-layer chromatography (TLC of urine oligosaccharides in healthy persons of different age groups with the purpose of further application of these data while differentiating the norm and pathology in the course of primary selective screening of lysosomal storage disorders. The results obtained demonstrated that TLC plates for the majority of healthy persons had insignificant excretion of a number of oligosaccharides (from monosaccharides to hexasaccharides with Rlac > 0.15, which can be characterized as physiological oligosacchariduria, conditioned by the metabolism specificities in lysosomes. Therefore while interpreting the urine samples of patients with the suspected lysosomal storage disorder it is diagnostically reasonable to examine the TLC plates for the presence of both oligosaccharide groups, absent in the samples of healthy persons, and all the fractions with Rlac < 0.15.

  14. Linking Bacillus cereus Genotypes and Carbohydrate Utilization Capacity.

    Alicja K Warda

    Full Text Available We characterised carbohydrate utilisation of 20 newly sequenced Bacillus cereus strains isolated from food products and food processing environments and two laboratory strains, B. cereus ATCC 10987 and B. cereus ATCC 14579. Subsequently, genome sequences of these strains were analysed together with 11 additional B. cereus reference genomes to provide an overview of the different types of carbohydrate transporters and utilization systems found in B. cereus strains. The combined application of API tests, defined growth media experiments and comparative genomics enabled us to link the carbohydrate utilisation capacity of 22 B. cereus strains with their genome content and in some cases to the panC phylogenetic grouping. A core set of carbohydrates including glucose, fructose, maltose, trehalose, N-acetyl-glucosamine, and ribose could be used by all strains, whereas utilisation of other carbohydrates like xylose, galactose, and lactose, and typical host-derived carbohydrates such as fucose, mannose, N-acetyl-galactosamine and inositol is limited to a subset of strains. Finally, the roles of selected carbohydrate transporters and utilisation systems in specific niches such as soil, foods and the human host are discussed.

  15. Characterization of carbohydrates in rainwater from the southeastern North Carolina.

    Mullaugh, Katherine M; Byrd, Jade N; Avery, G Brooks; Mead, Ralph N; Willey, Joan D; Kieber, Robert J

    2014-07-01

    Carbohydrates have been widely reported in atmospheric aerosols, but have not previously been quantified in rainwater. We have identified and quantified a series of 11 specific compounds including monosaccharides (glucose, fructose, arabinose, galactose and pinitol), disaccharides (sucrose and trehalose), sugar alcohols (arabitol, dulcitol and mannitol) and the anhydrosaccharide levoglucosan. Rainwater analyzed in this study includes 52 distinct precipitation events in Wilmington, NC between June 2011 and October 2012. Our analysis indicates carbohydrates typically contribute carbohydrates reached as high as 5.8 μM, with glucose and sucrose typically being the predominant species. The distribution of carbohydrates exhibited a distinct seasonal pattern, with higher concentrations of most carbohydrates, especially sucrose, in spring and summer, driven primarily by increased biogenic inputs during the growing season. Concentrations of carbohydrates were an order of magnitude higher in storms of terrestrial origin compared to marine events, further supporting a terrestrial biogenic origin of most species. Sequential sampling of Hurricane Irene showed significant quantities of carbohydrates present at the end of the storm when air mass back trajectories traversed over land. The highest level of levoglucosan, a compound associated with biomass burning, was detected in rain with an air mass back trajectory that traveled over a region affected by wildfires. When compared to aerosol concentrations reported by others, the sugar concentrations in rain demonstrate wet deposition is an important removal mechanism of this water-soluble and bioavailable fraction of atmospheric particulate organic matter. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessing Bacterial Interactions Using Carbohydrate-Based Microarrays

    Andrea Flannery

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbohydrates play a crucial role in host-microorganism interactions and many host glycoconjugates are receptors or co-receptors for microbial binding. Host glycosylation varies with species and location in the body, and this contributes to species specificity and tropism of commensal and pathogenic bacteria. Additionally, bacterial glycosylation is often the first bacterial molecular species encountered and responded to by the host system. Accordingly, characterising and identifying the exact structures involved in these critical interactions is an important priority in deciphering microbial pathogenesis. Carbohydrate-based microarray platforms have been an underused tool for screening bacterial interactions with specific carbohydrate structures, but they are growing in popularity in recent years. In this review, we discuss carbohydrate-based microarrays that have been profiled with whole bacteria, recombinantly expressed adhesins or serum antibodies. Three main types of carbohydrate-based microarray platform are considered; (i conventional carbohydrate or glycan microarrays; (ii whole mucin microarrays; and (iii microarrays constructed from bacterial polysaccharides or their components. Determining the nature of the interactions between bacteria and host can help clarify the molecular mechanisms of carbohydrate-mediated interactions in microbial pathogenesis, infectious disease and host immune response and may lead to new strategies to boost therapeutic treatments.

  17. Enzymatic regulation of glucose disposal in human skeletal muscle after a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet.

    Pehleman, Tanya L; Peters, Sandra J; Heigenhauser, George J F; Spriet, Lawrence L

    2005-01-01

    Whole body glucose disposal and skeletal muscle hexokinase, glycogen synthase (GS), pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), and PDH kinase (PDK) activities were measured in aerobically trained men after a standardized control diet (Con; 51% carbohydrate, 29% fat, and 20% protein of total energy intake) and a 56-h eucaloric, high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet (HF/LC; 5% carbohydrate, 73% fat, and 22% protein). An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; 1 g/kg) was administered after the Con and HF/LC diets with vastus lateralis muscle biopsies sampled pre-OGTT and 75 min after ingestion of the oral glucose load. The 90-min area under the blood glucose and plasma insulin concentration vs. time curves increased by 2-fold and 1.25-fold, respectively, after the HF/LC diet. The pre-OGTT fraction of GS in its active form and the maximal activity of hexokinase were not affected by the HF/LC diet. However, the HF/LC diet increased PDK activity (0.19 +/- 0.05 vs. 0.08 +/- 0.02 min(-1)) and decreased PDH activation (0.38 +/- 0.08 vs. 0.79 +/- 0.10 mmol acetyl-CoA.kg wet muscle(-1).min(-1)) before the OGTT vs. Con. During the OGTT, GS and PDH activation increased by the same magnitude in both diets, such that PDH activation remained lower during the HF/LC OGTT (0.60 +/- 0.11 vs. 1.04 +/- 0.09 mmol acetyl-CoA.kg(-1).min(-1)). These data demonstrate that the decreased glucose disposal during the OGTT after the 56-h HF/LC diet was in part related to decreased oxidative carbohydrate disposal in skeletal muscle and not to decreased glycogen storage. The rapid increase in PDK activity during the HF/LC diet appeared to account for the reduced potential for oxidative carbohydrate disposal.

  18. Regulation of metabolism by dietary carbohydrates in two lines of rainbow trout divergently selected for muscle fat content.

    Kamalam, Biju Sam; Medale, Françoise; Kaushik, Sadasivam; Polakof, Sergio; Skiba-Cassy, Sandrine; Panserat, Stephane

    2012-08-01

    Previous studies in two rainbow trout lines divergently selected for lean (L) or fat (F) muscle suggested that they differ in their ability to metabolise glucose. In this context, we investigated whether genetic selection for high muscle fat content led to a better capacity to metabolise dietary carbohydrates. Juvenile trout from the two lines were fed diets with or without gelatinised starch (17.1%) for 10 weeks, after which blood, liver, muscle and adipose tissues were sampled. Growth rate, feed efficiency and protein utilisation were lower in the F line than in the L line. In both lines, intake of carbohydrates was associated with a moderate post-prandial hyperglycaemia, a protein sparing effect, an enhancement of nutrient (TOR-S6) signalling cascade and a decrease of energy-sensing enzyme (AMPK). Gene expression of hepatic glycolytic enzymes was higher in the F line fed carbohydrates compared with the L line, but concurrently transcripts for the gluconeogenic enzymes was also higher in the F line, possibly impairing glucose homeostasis. However, the F line showed a higher gene expression of hepatic enzymes involved in lipogenesis and fatty acid bioconversion, in particular with an increased dietary carbohydrate intake. Enhanced lipogenic potential coupled with higher liver glycogen content in the F line suggests better glucose storage ability than the L line. Overall, the present study demonstrates the changes in hepatic intermediary metabolism resulting from genetic selection for high muscle fat content and dietary carbohydrate intake without, however, any interaction for an improved growth or glucose utilisation in the peripheral tissues.

  19. Sublethal effects of heavy metals on biochemical composition and their recovery in Indian major carps

    Garg, Smita; Gupta, R.K.; Jain, K.L.

    2009-01-01

    Studies were conducted to assess the effects of sublethal exposure of heavy metals cadmium, arsenic and zinc for 45 days on Indian major carps, Labeo rohita, Cirrhinus mrigala and Catla catla. Heavy metal treatments in general showed significant reduction in carbohydrate and lipid contents content in muscles as well as in gills in all the three fish species. The order of reduction of muscle and gill carbohydrate and lipid content due to different treatments was Cd + As + Zn > Cd + As > As + Zn > Cd + Zn > Cd > As > Zn. When fish were transferred to metal free water for 30 days, the level of carbohydrate and lipid contents improved considerably in all the three fish species

  20. Cerebral carbohydrate cost of physical exertion in humans

    Dalsgaard, Mads K; Ogoh, Shigehiko; Dawson, Ellen A

    2004-01-01

    Above a certain level of cerebral activation the brain increases its uptake of glucose more than that of O(2), i.e., the cerebral metabolic ratio of O(2)/(glucose + 12 lactate) decreases. This study quantified such surplus brain uptake of carbohydrate relative to O(2) in eight healthy males who...... to exhaustion (15.8 +/- 1.7 min; P carbohydrate was not substantiated...... and, consequently, exhaustive exercise involves a brain surplus carbohydrate uptake of a magnitude comparable with its glycogen content....

  1. [Soil carbohydrates: their determination methods and indication functions].

    Zhang, Wei; Xie, Hongtu; He, Hongbo; Zheng, Lichen; Wang, Ge

    2006-08-01

    Soil carbohydrates are the important component of soil organic matter, and play an important role in soil aggregation formation. Their hydrolysis methods involve sulfur acid (H2SO4), hydrochloric acid (HCl), and trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) hydrolysis, and their determination methods include colorimetry, gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) , high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and high performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAE-PAD). This paper summarized the methods of carbohydrates' hydrolysis, purification and detection, with focus on the derived methods of GLC, and briefly introduced the indication functions of carbohydrates in soil organic matter turnover.

  2. Perceived hunger is lower and weight loss is greater in overweight premenopausal women consuming a low-carbohydrate/high-protein vs high-carbohydrate/low-fat diet.

    Nickols-Richardson, Sharon M; Coleman, Mary Dean; Volpe, Joanne J; Hosig, Kathy W

    2005-09-01

    The impact of a low-carbohydrate/high-protein diet compared with a high-carbohydrate/low-fat diet on ratings of hunger and cognitive eating restraint were examined. Overweight premenopausal women consumed a low-carbohydrate/high-protein (n=13) or high-carbohydrate/low-fat diet (n=15) for 6 weeks. Fasting body weight (BW) was measured and the Eating Inventory was completed at baseline, weeks 1 to 4, and week 6. All women experienced a reduction in BW (Plow-carbohydrate/high-protein vs high-carbohydrate/low-fat group at week 6 (Plow-carbohydrate/high-protein but not in the high-carbohydrate/low-fat group from baseline to week 6. In both groups, self-rated cognitive eating restraint increased (Plow-carbohydrate/high-protein group may have contributed to a greater percentage of BW loss.

  3. Energy storage for power systems

    Ter-Gazarian, Andrei

    2011-01-01

    The supply of energy from primary sources is not constant and rarely matches the pattern of demand from consumers. Electricity is also difficult to store in significant quantities. Therefore, secondary storage of energy is essential to increase generation capacity efficiency and to allow more substantial use of renewable energy sources that only provide energy intermittently. Lack of effective storage has often been cited as a major hurdle to substantial introduction of renewable energy sources into the electricity supply network.This 2nd edition, without changing the existing structure of the

  4. Carbohydrate structure: the rocky road to automation.

    Agirre, Jon; Davies, Gideon J; Wilson, Keith S; Cowtan, Kevin D

    2017-06-01

    With the introduction of intuitive graphical software, structural biologists who are not experts in crystallography are now able to build complete protein or nucleic acid models rapidly. In contrast, carbohydrates are in a wholly different situation: scant automation exists, with manual building attempts being sometimes toppled by incorrect dictionaries or refinement problems. Sugars are the most stereochemically complex family of biomolecules and, as pyranose rings, have clear conformational preferences. Despite this, all refinement programs may produce high-energy conformations at medium to low resolution, without any support from the electron density. This problem renders the affected structures unusable in glyco-chemical terms. Bringing structural glycobiology up to 'protein standards' will require a total overhaul of the methodology. Time is of the essence, as the community is steadily increasing the production rate of glycoproteins, and electron cryo-microscopy has just started to image them in precisely that resolution range where crystallographic methods falter most. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Application of radiation degraded carbohydrates for plants

    Kume, T.; Nagasawa, N.; Yoshu, F.

    1999-01-01

    Radiation degraded carbohydrates such as chitosan, sodium alginate, carageenan, cellulose, pectin, etc. were applied for plant cultivation. Chitosan (poly-β -D-glucosamine) was easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities such as anti-microbacterial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of heavy metal stress on plants, phytoalexins induction, etc. Pectic fragments obtained from degraded pectin also induced the phytoalexins such as glyceollins in soybean and pisafin in pea. The irradiated chitosan shows the higher elicitor activity for pisafin than that of pectin. For the plant growth promotion, alginate derived from brown marine algae, chitosan and ligno-cellulosic extracts show a strong activity. The hot water and ethanol extracts from EFB and sugar cane bagasse were increased by irradiation. These extracts promoted the growth of plants and suppressed the damage on barley with salt and Zn stress. The results show that the degraded polysaccharides by radiation have the potential to induce various biological activities and the products can be use for agricultural and medical fields

  6. Potential long-term storage of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis

    Increasing the ability to store mass-reared natural enemies during periods or seasons of low demand is a critical need of the biocontrol industry. We tested the hypothesis that cryoprotectant or carbohydrate molecules can enhance long-term cold storage of a predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis At...

  7. Type IIIb glycogen storage disease associated with end-stage cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma

    Haagsma, EB; Smit, GPA; NiezenKoning, KE; Gouw, ASH; Meerman, L; Slooff, MJH

    Type III glycogen storage disease (GSD) is a disorder of carbohydrate metabolism caused by a deficiency of debranching enzyme. Different subtypes with different clinical pictures have been recognized. During childhood and early adulthood, the symptoms generally regress, and normal adulthood appears

  8. Volume 9 No. 2 2009 March 2009 678 EFFECTS OF STORAGE ...

    and storage period on the nutritional and other qualities of stored yam tubers were investigated. .... The nutritional parameters evaluated were moisture, ash, crude protein, crude fat, crude fibre, and phosphorus, calcium and carbohydrate contents. Three tubers from each ..... Asia, Africa and Latin America. 1985: 16, 55 – 58.

  9. [Sources of dissolved organic carbon and the bioavailability of dissolved carbohydrates in the tributaries of Lake Taihu].

    Ye, Lin-Lin; Wu, Xiao-Dong; Kong, Fan-Xiang; Liu, Bo; Yan, De-Zhi

    2015-03-01

    Surface water samples of Yincungang and Chendonggang Rivers were collected from September 2012 to August 2013 in Lake Taihu. Water temperature, Chlorophyll a and bacterial abundance were analyzed, as well as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations, stable carbon isotope of DOC (Δ13C(DOC)), specific UV absorbance (SUVA254 ) and dissolved carbohydrates concentrations. Δ13C(DOC) ranged from -27.03% per thousand ± 0.30% per thousand to -23.38%per thousand ± 0.20% per thousand, indicating a terrestrial source. Both the autochthonous and allochthonous sources contributed to the carbohydrates pool in the tributaries. Significant differences in PCHO (polysaccharides) and MCHO (monosaccharides) concentrations were observed between spring-summer and autumn-winter (P carbohydrates. PCHO contributed a major fraction to TCHO (total dissolved carbohydrates) in autumn and winter, which could be explained by the accumulation of undegradable PCHO limited by the low water temperature; MCHO contributed a major fraction to TCHO in spring and summer, which might be caused by the transformation from PCHO by microbes at high water temperature.

  10. Effects of Alkali and Counter Ions in Sn-Beta Catalyzed Carbohydrate Conversion

    Elliot, Samuel G.; Tolborg, Søren; Madsen, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Alkali ions have been shown to strongly influence the catalytic behavior of stannosilicates in the conversion of carbohydrates. An effect of having alkali ions present is a pronounced increase in selectivity towards methyl lactate. Mechanistic details of this effect have remained obscure and are ......Alkali ions have been shown to strongly influence the catalytic behavior of stannosilicates in the conversion of carbohydrates. An effect of having alkali ions present is a pronounced increase in selectivity towards methyl lactate. Mechanistic details of this effect have remained obscure...... and are herein addressed experimentally through kinetic experiments and isotope tracking. Alkali ions have a differential effect in competing reaction pathways: they promote the rate of carbon-carbon bond breakage of carbohydrate substrates, but decrease the rates of competing dehydration pathways. Further...... addition of alkali inhibits activity of Sn-Beta in all major reaction pathways. The alkali effects on product distributions and on rates of product formation are similar, thus pointing to a kinetic reaction control and to irreversible reaction steps in the main pathways. Additionally, an effect...

  11. Pretreatment of Sugar Beet Pulp with Dilute Sulfurous Acid is Effective for Multipurpose Usage of Carbohydrates.

    Kharina, M; Emelyanov, V; Mokshina, N; Ibragimova, N; Gorshkova, T

    2016-05-01

    Sulfurous acid was used for pretreatment of sugar beet pulp (SBP) in order to achieve high efficiency of both extraction of carbohydrates and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of the remaining solids. The main advantage of sulfurous acid usage as pretreatment agent is the possibility of its regeneration. Application of sulfurous acid as hydrolyzing agent in relatively low concentrations (0.6-1.0 %) during a short period of time (10-20 min) and low solid to liquid ratio (1:3, 1:6) allowed effective extraction of carbohydrates from SBP and provided positive effect on subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis. The highest obtained concentration of reducing substances (RS) in hydrolysates was 8.5 %; up to 33.6 % of all carbohydrates present in SBP could be extracted. The major obtained monosaccharides were arabinose and glucose (9.4 and 7.3 g/l, respectively). Pretreatment of SBP with sulfurous acid increased 4.6 times the yield of glucose during subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of remaining solids with cellulase cocktail, as compared to the untreated SBP. Total yield of glucose during SBP pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis amounted to 89.4 % of the theoretical yield. The approach can be applied directly to the wet SBP. Hydrolysis of sugar beet pulp with sulfurous acid is recommended for obtaining of individual monosaccharides, as well as nutritional media.

  12. One-pot multienzyme (OPME) systems for chemoenzymatic synthesis of carbohydrates.

    Yu, Hai; Chen, Xi

    2016-03-14

    Glycosyltransferase-catalyzed enzymatic and chemoenzymatic syntheses are powerful approaches for the production of oligosaccharides, polysaccharides, glycoconjugates, and their derivatives. Enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of sugar nucleotide donors can be combined with glycosyltransferases in one pot for efficient production of the target glycans from simple monosaccharides and acceptors. The identification of enzymes involved in the salvage pathway of sugar nucleotide generation has greatly facilitated the development of simplified and efficient one-pot multienzyme (OPME) systems for synthesizing major glycan epitopes in mammalian glycomes. The applications of OPME methods are steadily gaining popularity mainly due to the increasing availability of wild-type and engineered enzymes. Substrate promiscuity of these enzymes and their mutants allows OPME synthesis of carbohydrates with naturally occurring post-glycosylational modifications (PGMs) and their non-natural derivatives using modified monosaccharides as precursors. The OPME systems can be applied in sequence for synthesizing complex carbohydrates. The sequence of the sequential OPME processes, the glycosyltransferase used, and the substrate specificities of the glycosyltransferases define the structures of the products. The OPME and sequential OPME strategies can be extended to diverse glycans in other glycomes when suitable enzymes with substrate promiscuity become available. This Perspective summarizes the work of the authors and collaborators on the development of glycosyltransferase-based OPME systems for carbohydrate synthesis. Future directions are also discussed.

  13. Carbohydrate distribution and 14C-photosynthates uptake in the curved fruits of cucumber

    Kanahama, K. [Yamagata univ., Tsuruoka (Japan); Saito, T.

    1988-12-15

    The major carbohydrates in cucumber fruit were reducing sugars, which increased to the highest concentration of about 2.0% of fresh weight at harvest for fresh fruit, that is, 6-8 days after flowering and 73-116g in fresh weight. Starch was highest in concentration at flowering although it was negligible as compared with sugars. Reducing sugar concentration was higher in the core (septum and placenta) than in the flesh (receptacle and pericarp). Moreover, it was higher outside than inside the curvature at the curvature increasing stage, while the reverse was true at the curvature decreasing stage. Labelled carbon was fed to the single leaf on the same node as the fruit. Twenty hours after feeding, {sup 14}C-activity was higher in carpel II (outside the curvature and opposite to the tendril) than in carpels I (facing the stem) and III (inside the curvature and facing the tendril) when fed at the curvature increasing stage. When fed at the curvature decreasing stage after the curvature maximum stage had been attained, {sup 14}C-activity was higher in carpel III than in carpels I and II. From these results, it was suggested that the curvature of cucumber fruit occurred due to the competition among the carpels, in uptake of carbohydrates under limited photosynthesis. Each carpel is presumed to be different in sink activity according to its congenital developmental order and stages. Differential carbohydrate translocation due to localization of vascular bundle connections between leaves and fruit is improbable.

  14. Glycosylation of dengue virus glycoproteins and their interactions with carbohydrate receptors: possible targets for antiviral therapy.

    Idris, Fakhriedzwan; Muharram, Siti Hanna; Diah, Suwarni

    2016-07-01

    Dengue virus, an RNA virus belonging to the genus Flavivirus, affects 50 million individuals annually, and approximately 500,000-1,000,000 of these infections lead to dengue hemorrhagic fever or dengue shock syndrome. With no licensed vaccine or specific antiviral treatments available to prevent dengue infection, dengue is considered a major public health problem in subtropical and tropical regions. The virus, like other enveloped viruses, uses the host's cellular enzymes to synthesize its structural (C, E, and prM/M) and nonstructural proteins (NS1-5) and, subsequently, to glycosylate these proteins to produce complete and functional glycoproteins. The structural glycoproteins, specifically the E protein, are known to interact with the host's carbohydrate receptors through the viral proteins' N-glycosylation sites and thus mediate the viral invasion of cells. This review focuses on the involvement of dengue glycoproteins in the course of infection and the virus' exploitation of the host's glycans, especially the interactions between host receptors and carbohydrate moieties. We also discuss the recent developments in antiviral therapies that target these processes and interactions, focusing specifically on the use of carbohydrate-binding agents derived from plants, commonly known as lectins, to inhibit the progression of infection.

  15. A new method for rapid determination of carbohydrate and total carbon concentrations using UV spectrophotometry.

    Albalasmeh, Ammar A; Berhe, Asmeret Asefaw; Ghezzehei, Teamrat A

    2013-09-12

    A new UV spectrophotometry based method for determining the concentration and carbon content of carbohydrate solution was developed. This method depends on the inherent UV absorption potential of hydrolysis byproducts of carbohydrates formed by reaction with concentrated sulfuric acid (furfural derivatives). The proposed method is a major improvement over the widely used Phenol-Sulfuric Acid method developed by DuBois, Gilles, Hamilton, Rebers, and Smith (1956). In the old method, furfural is allowed to develop color by reaction with phenol and its concentration is detected by visible light absorption. Here we present a method that eliminates the coloration step and avoids the health and environmental hazards associated with phenol use. In addition, avoidance of this step was shown to improve measurement accuracy while significantly reducing waiting time prior to light absorption reading. The carbohydrates for which concentrations and carbon content can be reliably estimated with this new rapid Sulfuric Acid-UV technique include: monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides with very high molecular weight. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Phosphatase Activity of Microbial Populations in Different Milk Samples in Relation to Protein and Carbohydrate Content

    Sosanka Protim SANDILYA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cattle milk is a rich source of protein, carbohydrate, vitamins, minerals and all other major and micro nutrients. At a moderate pH, milk is an excellent media for the growth of microbes and thus, intake of raw milk is precarious. In this study, attempt was made for a qualitative study of eight raw milk samples of different varieties of cow and goat milk, collected from Jorhat district of Assam, India, on the basis of nutritional value and microbial population. The highest microbial population was found in the milk collected from cross hybrid variety of cow, whereas microbial contamination was the least in Jersey cow milk. Samples of C1 (Jersey cow variety showed presence of the highest amount of protein and carbohydrate content as compared to the others. Almost all the milk samples showed positive acid and alkaline phosphatase activity. Maximum acid phosphatase activity was observed in cross hybrid cow milk, whereas local cow milk exhibited the highest alkaline phosphatase activity. Phosphatase activity did not show any co-relationship with microbial population of the milk samples. Similarly, the protein and carbohydrate content of the samples did not have any significant impact on both acid and alkaline phosphatase activity.

  17. Differential carbohydrate media and anaerobic replica plating techniques in delineating carbohydrate-utilizing subgroups in rumen bacterial populations.

    Leedle, J A; Hespell, R B

    1980-01-01

    A basal (BC) medium devoid of added carbohydrates, a complete (CC) medium containing nine carbohydrates were developed for enumerating rumen bacteria. The colony counts on the BC medium were 85 to 100% of those obtained on the CC medium. These colonies were pinpoint size (less than or equal to mm in diameter) but increased in size (2 to 5 mm in diameter) when carbohydrates were subsequently added. With the CC medium or other media tested, the colony counts were 20 to 50% higher on plates than...

  18. Synthesis of the major storage protein, hordein, in barley

    Giese, Nanna Henriette; Andersen, B.; Doll, Hans

    1983-01-01

    A liquid culture system for culturing detached spikes of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) at different nutritional levels was established. The synthesis of hordein polypeptides was studied by pulse-labeling with [14C]sucrose at different stages of development and nitrogen (N) nutrition. All polypeptides...

  19. Studies on carbohydrate metabolism in Bacillus sphaericus 1593

    AJB SERVER

    2006-10-02

    Oct 2, 2006 ... Key words: Bacillus sphaericus, carbohydrate metabolism, glycolytic enzymes. ... available in soil close to decaying plant materials. So when a medium .... citrate, isocitrate, 2-oxoglutarate, malate and acetate. The unit of.

  20. Sublethal effects of manganese on the carbohydrate metabolism of ...

    Carbohydrate metabolism provides (1) energy,. (2) precursors for synthetic reactions ... as a response to the adrenal corticotrophic hormone (ACTH) from the ... During the exposure experiments, control groups were also set-up. The control fish ...

  1. Recent Progress in Chemical and Chemoenzymatic Synthesis of Carbohydrates

    Muthana, Saddam; Cao, Hongzhi; Chen, Xi

    2011-01-01

    Summary The important roles that carbohydrates play in biological processes and their potential application in diagnosis, therapeutics, and vaccine development have made them attractive synthetic targets. Despite ongoing challenges, tremendous progresses have been made in recent years for the synthesis of carbohydrates. The chemical glycosylation methods have become more sophisticated and the synthesis of oligosaccharides has become more predictable. Simplified one-pot glycosylation strategy and automated synthesis are increasingly used to obtain biologically important glycans. On the other hand, chemoenzymatic synthesis continues to be a powerful alternative for obtaining complex carbohydrates. This review highlights recent progress in chemical and chemoenzymatic synthesis of carbohydrates with a particular focus on the methods developed for the synthesis of oligosaccharides, polysaccharides, glycolipids, and glycosylated natural products. PMID:19833544

  2. Chiral reagents in glycosylation and modification of carbohydrates.

    Wang, Hao-Yuan; Blaszczyk, Stephanie A; Xiao, Guozhi; Tang, Weiping

    2018-02-05

    Carbohydrates play a significant role in numerous biological events, and the chemical synthesis of carbohydrates is vital for further studies to understand their various biological functions. Due to the structural complexity of carbohydrates, the stereoselective formation of glycosidic linkages and the site-selective modification of hydroxyl groups are very challenging and at the same time extremely important. In recent years, the rapid development of chiral reagents including both chiral auxiliaries and chiral catalysts has significantly improved the stereoselectivity for glycosylation reactions and the site-selectivity for the modification of carbohydrates. These new tools will greatly facilitate the efficient synthesis of oligosaccharides, polysaccharides, and glycoconjugates. In this tutorial review, we will summarize these advances and highlight the most recent examples.

  3. Post-exercise ingestion of a carbohydrate and casein hydrolysate ...

    an isocaloric carbohydrate and protein supplement and ingested the assigned ..... week, and day showed that the 4-way interaction with “condition” ..... on markers of muscle recovery following soccer training: a randomized cross-over study.

  4. Comparison of diarrhea induced by ingestion of fructooligosaccharide Idolax and disaccharide lactulose: role of osmolarity versus fermentation of malabsorbed carbohydrate.

    Clausen, M R; Jørgensen, J; Mortensen, P B

    1998-12-01

    Whether carbohydrate malabsorption causes diarrhea probably depends on the balance between the osmotic force of the carbohydrate and the compensatory capacity of the colon to dispose of the carbohydrate by bacterial fermentation. The present study evaluated the specific role of the osmolarity by comparing the severity of diarrhea after ingestion of two nonabsorbable carbohydrates, the fructooligosaccharide Idolax and the disaccharide lactulose. Both carbohydrates are readily fermented by the colonic flora but differ in osmolarity, the osmotic force being twice as high for lactulose as for Idolax. Twelve subjects were given increasing doses (0, 20, 40, 80, 160 g/d) of Idolax and lactulose in a crossover design. Every dose level was administered for three days with intervals of one week. Stools were collected on the third day to determine 24-hr volume, concentrations of short-chain fatty acids, L- and D-lactate, residues of Idolax or lactulose, sodium, potassium, pH, osmolarity, and in vitro productions of organic acids. Measured by short-chain fatty acid and lactate formation in a fecal incubation system, the fermentation of Idolax and lactulose was identical and very rapid compared with a range of reference carbohydrates. A laxative effect of both Idolax and lactulose was demonstrated. The increment in fecal volume as a function of the dose administered was twice as high for lactulose (slope of the regression line = 7.3, r = 0.64, Pdiarrhea is proportional to the osmotic force of the malabsorbed saccharide, even though all or the majority of the saccharide is degraded by colonic bacteria. The capacity to modify the diarrhea varies considerably from person to person and is associated with colonic saccharide disposal, whereas the variation in response to isosmolar amounts of different saccharides is small within the same individual.

  5. Estimating the carbohydrate content of various forms of tobacco by phenol-sulfuric acid method.

    Jain, Vardhaman Mulchand; Karibasappa, Gundabaktha Nagappa; Dodamani, Arun Suresh; Mali, Gaurao Vasant

    2017-01-01

    Due to consumption of various forms of tobacco in large amounts by Indian population, it has become a cause of concern for major oral diseases. In 2008, the WHO named tobacco as the world's single greatest cause of preventable death. It is also known that certain amount of carbohydrates are incorporated in processed tobacco to make it acceptable for consumption. Thus, its role in oral diseases becomes an important question at this point of time. Through this study, it is attempted to find out the carbohydrate content of various forms of tobacco by phenol-sulfuric acid method. Tobacco products selected for the study were Nandi hookah tambakhu (A), photo brand budhaa Punjabi snuff (B), Miraj (C), Gai-chhap tambakhu (D), Hanuman-chhap Pandharpuri tambakhu (E), and Hathi-chhap Bidi (F). The samples were decoded and transported to laboratory and tested at various concentrations by phenol-sulfuric acid method followed by ultraviolet spectrophotometry to determine their absorbance. The present study showed Hathi-chhap bidi/sample F had a maximum absorbance (1.995) at 10 μg/ml which is a smoking form of tobacco followed by rest all smokeless forms of tobacco, i.e. sample C (0.452), sample B (0.253), sample D (0.077), sample E (-0.018), and sample A (-0.127), respectively. As the concentration of tobacco sample increases, their absorbance increases which in turn is suggestive of increase in its carbohydrate concentration. Carbohydrates in the form of sugars, either inherently present or added in it during manufacturing can serve as a risk factor for higher incidence of dental caries.

  6. Holographic Optical Data Storage

    Timucin, Dogan A.; Downie, John D.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Although the basic idea may be traced back to the earlier X-ray diffraction studies of Sir W. L. Bragg, the holographic method as we know it was invented by D. Gabor in 1948 as a two-step lensless imaging technique to enhance the resolution of electron microscopy, for which he received the 1971 Nobel Prize in physics. The distinctive feature of holography is the recording of the object phase variations that carry the depth information, which is lost in conventional photography where only the intensity (= squared amplitude) distribution of an object is captured. Since all photosensitive media necessarily respond to the intensity incident upon them, an ingenious way had to be found to convert object phase into intensity variations, and Gabor achieved this by introducing a coherent reference wave along with the object wave during exposure. Gabor's in-line recording scheme, however, required the object in question to be largely transmissive, and could provide only marginal image quality due to unwanted terms simultaneously reconstructed along with the desired wavefront. Further handicapped by the lack of a strong coherent light source, optical holography thus seemed fated to remain just another scientific curiosity, until the field was revolutionized in the early 1960s by some major breakthroughs: the proposition and demonstration of the laser principle, the introduction of off-axis holography, and the invention of volume holography. Consequently, the remainder of that decade saw an exponential growth in research on theory, practice, and applications of holography. Today, holography not only boasts a wide variety of scientific and technical applications (e.g., holographic interferometry for strain, vibration, and flow analysis, microscopy and high-resolution imagery, imaging through distorting media, optical interconnects, holographic optical elements, optical neural networks, three-dimensional displays, data storage, etc.), but has become a prominent am advertising

  7. APPROACHING CARBOHYDRATES AND ITS METABOLISM: AN EXPERIENCE FOR EDUCATIONAL GAMES

    Sandro Henrique Dias Ribeiro

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The study of carbohydrates, its metabolism and many other fields of biochemistry are often understood by students as a junction of chemical structures and reactions of difficult compression. However, Biochemistry should no longer be seen as an abstruse field, but a way to know the human body and its components, including molecular, structural and functional aspects. Therefore, some alternatives are being evaluated in order to assist and improve the dissemination of knowledge among them highlights are the educational games. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this work is the production of two educational games able to include the contents of carbohydrates and its metabolism in higher education. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The educational games produced were made from available materials and low cost. The games were tested in courses of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology of the Federal University of Uberlândia and the response of the students towards the activities was analyzed. The application, had the presence of trained students to instruct on the activity and correcting. DISCUSSION AND RESULTS: "What is the Carbohydrate?" and "Mastering the metabolism" are two educational games covering the content of structure and function carbohydrates and basal metabolism, respectively. "What is the Carbohydrate?" consists in unravel amid several options the carbohydrate in the hands of the others players. For this, several questions with two possible answers, “yes” or “not”, are accepted each round, and if the player find difficulty in formulating questions, there are cards tips. “Mastering the metabolism” consists in a combination of cards that simulate pieces of a domino that must be mounted following the metabolic pathway of carbohydrates, and as the game progresses, the main points of regulation of the pathway will be accompanied by surprise questions. The games showed great acceptance by students. CONCLUSION: “What is the Carbohydrate

  8. [The participation of ethanol in induction of carbohydrates metabolism disturbances].

    Orywal, Karolina; Jelski, Wojciech; Szmitkowski, Maciej

    2009-07-01

    Alcohol and products of its metabolism lead to impairment of many organs functions, what cause systemic and local carbohydrates metabolism disturbances. Abusing of alcohol induces changes in pancreatic digestive enzymes secretion, what contributes to development of chronic alcoholic pancreatitis. Alcohol can cause secondary diabetes, what is result of pancreatic beta-cells damage and is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Alcohol cause liver cells degeneration and induction of many metabolic disturbances especially carbohydrates.

  9. Metabolism of non-structural carbohydrates in ruminants

    Cañizares, G. I L [UNESP; Rodrigues, L. [UNESP; Cañizares, M. C. [UNESP

    2009-01-01

    The carbohydrates provide 50 to 80% of the dry matter of grain and roughage and can be divided into structural (cellulose, hemicellulose) and non-structural (starch, pectin and sugars). The non-structural carbohydrates are primarily digested in the rumen and its dynamic process is a sequence for the supply of nutrients to the intestine. The quality and quantity of products resulting from ruminal fermentation are dependent on the type and activity of microorganisms in the rumen influenced by t...

  10. Storage of hydrogen in metals

    Wiswall, R.

    1981-01-01

    A review is dedicated to a problem of hydrogen storage as fuel of future, that can be used under various conditions, is easily obtained with the help of other types of energy and can be transformed into them. Data on reversible metal-hydrogen systems, where hydrogen can be obtained by the way of reaction of thermal decomposition are presented. Pressure-temperature-content diagrams, information on concrete Pd-H, TiFe-H, V-N systems are presented and analyzed from the point of view of thermodynamics. A table with thermodynamical characteristics of several hydrides is presented. The majority of known solid hydrides in relation to their use for hydrogen storage are characterized. The review includes information on real or supposed uses in concrete systems: in fuel cells, for levelling of loading of electric plants, in automobile engines, in hydride engines, for heat storage [ru

  11. Validation of lignocellulosic biomass carbohydrates determination via acid hydrolysis.

    Zhou, Shengfei; Runge, Troy M

    2014-11-04

    This work studied the two-step acid hydrolysis for determining carbohydrates in lignocellulosic biomass. Estimation of sugar loss based on acid hydrolyzed sugar standards or analysis of sugar derivatives was investigated. Four model substrates (starch, holocellulose, filter paper and cotton) and three levels of acid/material ratios (7.8, 10.3 and 15.4, v/w) were studied to demonstrate the range of test artifacts. The method for carbohydrates estimation based on acid hydrolyzed sugar standards having the most satisfactory carbohydrate recovery and relative standard deviation. Raw material and the acid/material ratio both had significant effect on carbohydrate hydrolysis, suggesting the acid to have impacts beyond a catalyst in the hydrolysis. Following optimal procedures, we were able to reach a carbohydrate recovery of 96% with a relative standard deviation less than 3%. The carbohydrates recovery lower than 100% was likely due to the incomplete hydrolysis of substrates, which was supported by scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Carbohydrate Mimetic Peptides Augment Carbohydrate-Reactive Immune Responses in the Absence of Immune Pathology

    Hennings, Leah; Artaud, Cecile; Jousheghany, Fariba; Monzavi-Karbassi, Behjatolah; Pashov, Anastas; Kieber-Emmons, Thomas, E-mail: tke@uams.edu [Winthrop P. Rockefeller Cancer Institute and Department of Pathology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States)

    2011-11-11

    Among the most challenging of clinical targets for cancer immunotherapy are Tumor Associated Carbohydrate Antigens (TACAs). To augment immune responses to TACA we are developing carbohydrate mimetic peptides (CMPs) that are sufficiently potent to activate broad-spectrum anti-tumor reactivity. However, the activation of immune responses against terminal mono- and disaccharide constituents of TACA raises concerns regarding the balance between “tumor destruction” and “tissue damage”, as mono- and disaccharides are also expressed on normal tissue. To support the development of CMPs for clinical trial testing, we demonstrate in preclinical safety assessment studies in mice that vaccination with CMPs can enhance responses to TACAs without mediating tissue damage to normal cells expressing TACA. BALB/c mice were immunized with CMPs that mimic TACAs reactive with Griffonia simplicifolia lectin 1 (GS-I), and tissue reactivity of serum antibodies were compared with the tissue staining profile of GS-I. Tissues from CMP immunized mice were analyzed using hematoxylin and eosin stain, and Luxol-fast blue staining for myelination. Western blots of membranes from murine mammary 4T1 cells, syngeneic with BALB/c mice, were also compared using GS-I, immunized serum antibodies, and naive serum antibodies. CMP immunization enhanced glycan reactivities with no evidence of pathological autoimmunity in any immunized mice demonstrating that tissue damage is not an inevitable consequence of TACA reactive responses.

  13. Carbohydrate Mimetic Peptides Augment Carbohydrate-Reactive Immune Responses in the Absence of Immune Pathology

    Hennings, Leah; Artaud, Cecile; Jousheghany, Fariba; Monzavi-Karbassi, Behjatolah; Pashov, Anastas; Kieber-Emmons, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Among the most challenging of clinical targets for cancer immunotherapy are Tumor Associated Carbohydrate Antigens (TACAs). To augment immune responses to TACA we are developing carbohydrate mimetic peptides (CMPs) that are sufficiently potent to activate broad-spectrum anti-tumor reactivity. However, the activation of immune responses against terminal mono- and disaccharide constituents of TACA raises concerns regarding the balance between “tumor destruction” and “tissue damage”, as mono- and disaccharides are also expressed on normal tissue. To support the development of CMPs for clinical trial testing, we demonstrate in preclinical safety assessment studies in mice that vaccination with CMPs can enhance responses to TACAs without mediating tissue damage to normal cells expressing TACA. BALB/c mice were immunized with CMPs that mimic TACAs reactive with Griffonia simplicifolia lectin 1 (GS-I), and tissue reactivity of serum antibodies were compared with the tissue staining profile of GS-I. Tissues from CMP immunized mice were analyzed using hematoxylin and eosin stain, and Luxol-fast blue staining for myelination. Western blots of membranes from murine mammary 4T1 cells, syngeneic with BALB/c mice, were also compared using GS-I, immunized serum antibodies, and naive serum antibodies. CMP immunization enhanced glycan reactivities with no evidence of pathological autoimmunity in any immunized mice demonstrating that tissue damage is not an inevitable consequence of TACA reactive responses

  14. Flywheel energy storage workshop

    O`Kain, D.; Carmack, J. [comps.

    1995-12-31

    Since the November 1993 Flywheel Workshop, there has been a major surge of interest in Flywheel Energy Storage. Numerous flywheel programs have been funded by the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), by the Department of Energy (DOE) through the Hybrid Vehicle Program, and by private investment. Several new prototype systems have been built and are being tested. The operational performance characteristics of flywheel energy storage are being recognized as attractive for a number of potential applications. Programs are underway to develop flywheels for cars, buses, boats, trains, satellites, and for electric utility applications such as power quality, uninterruptible power supplies, and load leveling. With the tremendous amount of flywheel activity during the last two years, this workshop should again provide an excellent opportunity for presentation of new information. This workshop is jointly sponsored by ARPA and DOE to provide a review of the status of current flywheel programs and to provide a forum for presentation of new flywheel technology. Technology areas of interest include flywheel applications, flywheel systems, design, materials, fabrication, assembly, safety & containment, ball bearings, magnetic bearings, motor/generators, power electronics, mounting systems, test procedures, and systems integration. Information from the workshop will help guide ARPA & DOE planning for future flywheel programs. This document is comprised of detailed viewgraphs.

  15. Underground storage tank program

    Lewis, M.W.

    1994-01-01

    Underground storage tanks, UST'S, have become a major component of the Louisville District's Environmental Support Program. The District's Geotechnical and Environmental Engineering Branch has spear-headed an innovative effort to streamline the time, effort and expense for removal, replacement, upgrade and associated cleanup of USTs at military and civil work installations. This program, called Yank-A-Tank, creates generic state-wide contracts for removal, remediation, installation and upgrade of storage tanks for which individual delivery orders are written under the basic contract. The idea is to create a ''JOC type'' contract containing all the components of work necessary to remove, reinstall or upgrade an underground or above ground tank. The contract documents contain a set of generic specifications and unit price books in addition to the standard ''boiler plate'' information. Each contract requires conformance to the specific regulations for the state in which it is issued. The contractor's bid consists of a bid factor which in the multiplier used with the prices in the unit price book. The solicitation is issued as a Request for Proposal (RPP) which allows the government to select a contractor based on technical qualification an well as bid factor. Once the basic contract is awarded individual delivery orders addressing specific areas of work are scoped, negotiated and awarded an modifications to the original contract. The delivery orders utilize the prepriced components and the contractor's factor to determine the value of the work

  16. Cause of impaired carbohydrate metabolism in hyperthyroidism

    Foeldes, J.; Megyesi, K.; Koranyi, L.

    1984-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism (HT) affects glucose metabolism in various ways. The role of insulin, glucagon and growth-hormone (GH) was determined. After glucose loading the insulin response is weaker in HT than in euthyroid subjects. Enhanced degradation of insulin has been reported. It is suggested that in HT the serum insulin concentration declines at a slightly accelerated rate. In HT the deranged carbohydrate metabolism might be a consequence of altered tissue sensitivity to insulin. To elucidate this problem insulin receptors on erythrocytes obtained from hyperthyroid women were investigated. The maximal specific binding of 125 I-insulin to RBC of hyperthyroid patients was decreased and the analysis refers to a decreased receptor concentration in RBC. The nature of glucagon secretion and its influence on glucose metabolism in HT was investigated. The basal plasma glucagon is elevated in hyperthyroid patients. The suppression of glucagon secretion induced by an oral glucose loading was of significantly lesser degree in hyperthyroid patients than in controls. Applying the erythrocyte receptor assay a decreased specific binding of 125 I-glucagon to RBC of hyperthyroid patients has been found and data indicate a significantly less glucagon receptor concentration in thyrotoxicosis. Physiological elevations of serum GH levels led to a significant impairment of glucose metabolism. Beside the GH-RH and somatostatin, the dopaminergic neurotransmitter system participates in the regulation of GH secretion too. It has been demonstrated that after administration of the dopamine agonist l-dopa the GH response was weaker in HT than in controls. This indicates that in thyrotoxicosis the GH secretion can not be stimulated in such a degree as in euthyroidism. (author)

  17. Cause of impaired carbohydrate metabolism in hyperthyroidism

    Foeldes, J.; Megyesi, K.; Koranyi, L. (Semmelweis Orvostudomanyi Egyetem, Budapest (Hungary))

    1984-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism (HT) affects glucose metabolism in various ways. The role of insulin, glucagon and growth-hormone (GH) was determined. After glucose loading the insulin response is weaker in HT than in euthyroid subjects. Enhanced degradation of insulin has been reported. It is suggested that in HT the serum insulin concentration declines at a slightly accelerated rate. In HT the deranged carbohydrate metabolism might be a consequence of altered tissue sensitivity to insulin. To elucidate this problem insulin receptors on erythrocytes obtained from hyperthyroid women were investigated. The maximal specific binding of /sup 125/I-insulin to RBC of hyperthyroid patients was decreased and the analysis refers to a decreased receptor concentration in RBC. The nature of glucagon secretion and its influence on glucose metabolism in HT was investigated. The basal plasma glucagon is elevated in hyperthyroid patients. The suppression of glucagon secretion induced by an oral glucose loading was of significantly lesser degree in hyperthyroid patients than in controls. Applying the erythrocyte receptor assay a decreased specific binding of /sup 125/I-glucagon to RBC of hyperthyroid patients has been found and data indicate a significantly less glucagon receptor concentration in thyrotoxicosis. Physiological elevations of serum GH levels led to a significant impairment of glucose metabolism. Beside the GH-RH and somatostatin, the dopaminergic neurotransmitter system participates in the regulation of GH secretion too. It has been demonstrated that after administration of the dopamine agonist l-dopa the GH response was weaker in HT than in controls. This indicates that in thyrotoxicosis the GH secretion can not be stimulated in such a degree as in euthyroidism.

  18. Modified carbohydrate-chitosan compounds, methods of making the same and methods of using the same

    Venditti, Richard A; Pawlak, Joel J; Salam, Abdus; El-Tahlawy, Khaled Fathy

    2015-03-10

    Compositions of matter are provided that include chitosan and a modified carbohydrate. The modified carbohydrate includes a carbohydrate component and a cross linking agent. The modified carbohydrate has increased carboxyl content as compared to an unmodified counterpart carbohydrate. A carboxyl group of the modified carbohydrate is covalently bonded with an amino group of chitosan. The compositions of matter provided herein may include cross linked starch citrate-chitosan and cross linked hemicellulose citrate-chitosan, including foams thereof. These compositions yield excellent absorbency and metal chelation properties. Methods of making cross linked modified carbohydrate-chitosan compounds are also provided.

  19. Effects of silicon deficiency on lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in the diatom Cyclotella cryptica

    Roessler, P.G.

    1987-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that silicon deficiency induces lipid accumulation in certain diatom species. The nature of the lipids produced under these conditions was not investigated, however, and the biochemical mechanisms which underlie this phenomenon were not determined. Research was carried out in order to increase our knowledge concerning the aspects of lipid accumulation in diatoms. The first phase of this project indicated that the diatoms C. cryptica, Cylindrotheca fusiformis, and Thalassiosira pseudonana accumulated storage lipids when grown under silicon-limiting conditions. The ratio of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids to polyunsaturated fatty acids in C. cryptica cells increased markedly after 24 hours of silicon deficiency. Tracer experiments with [ 14 C]bicarbonate suggested that lipid accumulation in silicon-limited C. cryptica cells was due to two distinct processes: (1) an increase in the amount of newly photoassimilated carbon partitioned into lipids, and (2) a slow conversion of non-lipid compounds (carbohydrates and presumably proteins) into lipids

  20. The effect of a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet versus a low-glycemic index diet on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Mavropoulos John C

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Dietary carbohydrate is the major determinant of postprandial glucose levels, and several clinical studies have shown that low-carbohydrate diets improve glycemic control. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that a diet lower in carbohydrate would lead to greater improvement in glycemic control over a 24-week period in patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Research design and methods Eighty-four community volunteers with obesity and type 2 diabetes were randomized to either a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet (1c. Results Forty-nine (58.3% participants completed the study. Both interventions led to improvements in hemoglobin A1c, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and weight loss. The LCKD group had greater improvements in hemoglobin A1c (-1.5% vs. -0.5%, p = 0.03, body weight (-11.1 kg vs. -6.9 kg, p = 0.008, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (+5.6 mg/dL vs. 0 mg/dL, p Conclusion Dietary modification led to improvements in glycemic control and medication reduction/elimination in motivated volunteers with type 2 diabetes. The diet lower in carbohydrate led to greater improvements in glycemic control, and more frequent medication reduction/elimination than the low glycemic index diet. Lifestyle modification using low carbohydrate interventions is effective for improving and reversing type 2 diabetes.

  1. Impact of carbohydrate supplementation during endurance training on glycogen storage and performance

    Nybo, Lars; Pedersen, K.; Christensen, B.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Aim: Glucose ingestion may improve exercise endurance, but it apparently also influences the transcription rate of several metabolic genes and it alters muscle metabolism during an acute exercise bout. Therefore, we investigated how chronic training responses are affected by glucose...... improvements in maximal oxygen uptake and peak power output during incremental cycling (both parameters elevated by 17% on average) and both groups lost approximately 3 kg of fat mass during the 8 weeks of training. An equal reduction in respiratory exchange ratio (0.02 units) during submaximal exercise.......05), while resting muscle glycogen increased (P influences various muscular training adaptations, but improvements...

  2. Mass storage technology in networks

    Ishii, Katsunori; Takeda, Toru; Itao, Kiyoshi; Kaneko, Reizo

    1990-08-01

    Trends and features of mass storage subsystems in network are surveyed and their key technologies spotlighted. Storage subsystems are becoming increasingly important in new network systems in which communications and data processing are systematically combined. These systems require a new class of high-performance mass-information storage in order to effectively utilize their processing power. The requirements of high transfer rates, high transactional rates and large storage capacities, coupled with high functionality, fault tolerance and flexibility in configuration, are major challenges in storage subsystems. Recent progress in optical disk technology has resulted in improved performance of on-line external memories to optical disk drives, which are competing with mid-range magnetic disks. Optical disks are more effective than magnetic disks in using low-traffic random-access file storing multimedia data that requires large capacity, such as in archive use and in information distribution use by ROM disks. Finally, it demonstrates image coded document file servers for local area network use that employ 130mm rewritable magneto-optical disk subsystems.

  3. Effects of Carbohydrate Source on Genetic Competence in Streptococcus mutans.

    Moye, Zachary D; Son, Minjun; Rosa-Alberty, Ariana E; Zeng, Lin; Ahn, Sang-Joon; Hagen, Stephen J; Burne, Robert A

    2016-08-01

    The capacity to internalize and catabolize carbohydrates is essential for dental caries pathogens to persist and cause disease. The expression of many virulence-related attributes by Streptococcus mutans, an organism strongly associated with human dental caries, is influenced by the peptide signaling pathways that control genetic competence. Here, we demonstrate a relationship between the efficiency of competence signaling and carbohydrate source. A significant increase in the activity of the promoters for comX, comS, and comYA after exposure to competence-stimulating peptide (CSP) was observed in cells growing on fructose, maltose, sucrose, or trehalose as the primary carbohydrate source, compared to cells growing on glucose. However, only cells grown in the presence of trehalose or sucrose displayed a significant increase in transformation frequency. Notably, even low concentrations of these carbohydrates in the presence of excess glucose could enhance the expression of comX, encoding a sigma factor needed for competence, and the effects on competence were dependent on the cognate sugar:phosphotransferase permease for each carbohydrate. Using green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter fusions, we observed that growth in fructose or trehalose resulted in a greater proportion of the population activating expression of comX and comS, encoding the precursor of comX-inducing peptide (XIP), after addition of CSP, than growth in glucose. Thus, the source of carbohydrate significantly impacts the stochastic behaviors that regulate subpopulation responses to CSP, which can induce competence in S. mutans The signaling pathways that regulate development of genetic competence in Streptococcus mutans are intimately intertwined with the pathogenic potential of the organism, impacting biofilm formation, stress tolerance, and expression of known virulence determinants. Induction of the gene for the master regulator of competence, ComX, by competence-stimulating peptide (CSP

  4. Effects of Carbohydrate Source on Genetic Competence in Streptococcus mutans

    Moye, Zachary D.; Son, Minjun; Rosa-Alberty, Ariana E.; Zeng, Lin; Ahn, Sang-Joon

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The capacity to internalize and catabolize carbohydrates is essential for dental caries pathogens to persist and cause disease. The expression of many virulence-related attributes by Streptococcus mutans, an organism strongly associated with human dental caries, is influenced by the peptide signaling pathways that control genetic competence. Here, we demonstrate a relationship between the efficiency of competence signaling and carbohydrate source. A significant increase in the activity of the promoters for comX, comS, and comYA after exposure to competence-stimulating peptide (CSP) was observed in cells growing on fructose, maltose, sucrose, or trehalose as the primary carbohydrate source, compared to cells growing on glucose. However, only cells grown in the presence of trehalose or sucrose displayed a significant increase in transformation frequency. Notably, even low concentrations of these carbohydrates in the presence of excess glucose could enhance the expression of comX, encoding a sigma factor needed for competence, and the effects on competence were dependent on the cognate sugar:phosphotransferase permease for each carbohydrate. Using green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter fusions, we observed that growth in fructose or trehalose resulted in a greater proportion of the population activating expression of comX and comS, encoding the precursor of comX-inducing peptide (XIP), after addition of CSP, than growth in glucose. Thus, the source of carbohydrate significantly impacts the stochastic behaviors that regulate subpopulation responses to CSP, which can induce competence in S. mutans. IMPORTANCE The signaling pathways that regulate development of genetic competence in Streptococcus mutans are intimately intertwined with the pathogenic potential of the organism, impacting biofilm formation, stress tolerance, and expression of known virulence determinants. Induction of the gene for the master regulator of competence, ComX, by competence

  5. Fructose and Sucrose Intake Increase Exogenous Carbohydrate Oxidation during Exercise

    Trommelen, Jorn; Fuchs, Cas J.; Beelen, Milou; Lenaerts, Kaatje; Jeukendrup, Asker E.; Cermak, Naomi M.; van Loon, Luc J. C.

    2017-01-01

    Peak exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates typically reach ~1 g·min−1 during exercise when ample glucose or glucose polymers are ingested. Fructose co-ingestion has been shown to further increase exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of fructose co-ingestion provided either as a monosaccharide or as part of the disaccharide sucrose on exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates during prolonged exercise in trained cyclists. Ten trained male cyclists (VO2peak: 65 ± 2 mL·kg−1·min−1) cycled on four different occasions for 180 min at 50% Wmax during which they consumed a carbohydrate solution providing 1.8 g·min−1 of glucose (GLU), 1.2 g·min−1 glucose + 0.6 g·min−1 fructose (GLU + FRU), 0.6 g·min−1 glucose + 1.2 g·min−1 sucrose (GLU + SUC), or water (WAT). Peak exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates did not differ between GLU + FRU and GLU + SUC (1.40 ± 0.06 vs. 1.29 ± 0.07 g·min−1, respectively, p = 0.999), but were 46% ± 8% higher when compared to GLU (0.96 ± 0.06 g·min−1: p exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates during the latter 120 min of exercise were 46% ± 8% higher in GLU + FRU or GLU + SUC compared with GLU (1.19 ± 0.12, 1.13 ± 0.21, and 0.82 ± 0.16 g·min−1, respectively, p exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates during prolonged exercise in trained cyclists. PMID:28230742

  6. Long-term plutonium storage: Design concepts

    Wilkey, D.D.; Wood, W.T.; Guenther, C.D.

    1994-01-01

    An important part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Weapons Complex Reconfiguration (WCR) Program is the development of facilities for long-term storage of plutonium. The WCR design goals are to provide storage for metals, oxides, pits, and fuel-grade plutonium, including material being held as part of the Strategic Reserve and excess material. Major activities associated with plutonium storage are sorting the plutonium inventory, material handling and storage support, shipping and receiving, and surveillance of material in storage for both safety evaluations and safeguards and security. A variety of methods for plutonium storage have been used, both within the DOE weapons complex and by external organizations. This paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of proposed storage concepts based upon functional criteria. The concepts discussed include floor wells, vertical and horizontal sleeves, warehouse storage on vertical racks, and modular storage units. Issues/factors considered in determining a preferred design include operational efficiency, maintenance and repair, environmental impact, radiation and criticality safety, safeguards and security, heat removal, waste minimization, international inspection requirements, and construction and operational costs

  7. Predicting water-soluble carbohydrates and ethanol-soluble carbohydrates in cool-season grasses with near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    Grazing animals may require a high or low total nonstructural carbohydrate diet for optimal health and production. Understanding how nonstructural carbohydrates fluctuate in Kentucky pastures and being able to quantify and monitor nonstructural carbohydrates in a timely manner will greatly aid in m...

  8. Analysis of electron spin resonance spectra of irradiated gingers: Organic radical components derived from carbohydrates

    Yamaoki, Rumi; Kimura, Shojiro; Ohta, Masatoshi

    2010-01-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectral characterizations of gingers irradiated with electron beam were studied. Complex asymmetrical spectra (near g=2.005) with major spectral components (line width=2.4 mT) and minor signals (at 6 mT apart) were observed in irradiated gingers. The spectral intensity decreased considerably 30 days after irradiation, and continued to decrease steadily thereafter. The spectra simulated on the basis of characteristics of free radical components derived from carbohydrates in gingers are in good agreement with the observed spectra. Analysis showed that shortly after irradiation the major radical components of gingers were composed of radical species derived from amylose and cellulose, and the amylose radicals subsequently decreased considerably. At 30 days after irradiation, the major radical components of gingers were composed of radical species derived from cellulose, glucose, fructose or sucrose.

  9. Assessment of the Nutritional Value of Plant-Based Diets in Relation to Human Carbohydrates: A Preliminary Study

    A. Aberoumand; S.S. Deokule

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate which plant foods are suitable for high temperature foodprocesses. Plant foods are the only sources of dietary fiber. Carbohydrates are the major nutrients of fruits andvegetables and human nutrition. Sugars are determined in the combined extracts using high-performance liquidchromatography (HPLC) with a universal evaporative light scattering detector. Results showed that thatfructose, glucose, sucrose contents were high in Cordia myxa (9.38, 12.75, 29.09%)...

  10. Ocean carbon uptake and storage

    Tilbrook, Bronte

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The ocean contains about 95% of the carbon in the atmosphere, ocean and land biosphere system, and is of fundamental importance in regulating atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. In the 1990s an international research effort involving Australia was established to determine the uptake and storage of anthropogenic C02 for all major ocean basins. The research showed that about 118 of the 244 + 20 billion tons of the anthropogenic carbon emitted through fossil fuel burning and cement production has been stored in the ocean since preindustrial times, thus helping reduce the rate of increase in atmospheric C02. The research also showed the terrestrial biosphere has been a small net source of C02 (39 ± 28 billion tons carbon) to the atmosphere over the same period. About 60% of the total ocean inventory of the anthropogenic C02 was found in the Southern Hemisphere, with most in the 30 0 S to 50 0 S latitude band. This mid-latitude band is where surface waters are subducted as Mode and Intermediate waters, which is a major pathway controlling ocean C02 uptake. High storage (23% of the total) also occurs in the North Atlantic, associated with deep water formation in that basin. The ocean uptake and storage is expected to increase in the coming decades as atmospheric C02 concentrations rise. However, a number of feedback mechanisms associated with surface warming, changes in circulation, and biological effects are likely to impact on the uptake capacity. The accumulation or storage-of the C02 in the ocean is also the major driver of ocean acidification with potential to disrupt marine ecosystems. This talk will describe the current understanding of the ocean C02 uptake and storage and a new international research strategy to detect how the ocean uptake and storage will evolve on interannual through decadal scales. Understanding the ocean response to increasing atmospheric C02 will be a key element in managing future C02 increases and establishing

  11. Effect of Carbohydrate, Caffeine, and Carbohydrate + Caffeine Mouth Rinsing on Intermittent Running Performance in Collegiate Male Lacrosse Athletes.

    Dolan, Patrick; Witherbee, Kyle E; Peterson, Kimi M; Kerksick, Chad M

    2017-09-01

    Dolan, P, Witherbee, KE, Peterson, KM, and Kerksick, CM. Effect of carbohydrate, caffeine, and carbohydrate + caffeine mouth rinsing on intermittent running performance in collegiate male lacrosse athletes. J Strength Cond Res 31(9): 2473-2479, 2017-Recently, an interest has developed in the potential to rinse the oral cavity with key nutrients to impact various types of exercise and presumably sporting performance. Although multiple studies examining carbohydrate mouth rinsing have been completed, conflicting evidence surrounding caffeine mouth rinsing persists, and no research has explored its ability to impact high-intensity, intermittent running performance. This study investigated the independent and synergistic ability of carbohydrate and caffeine mouth rinsing to improve intermittent running performance. The Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test-Level 1 (Yo-Yo Level 1) was completed in 10 collegiate (National Collegiate Athletic Association [NCAA] Division II) male lacrosse players after a 10-second mouth rinse with a solution of either carbohydrate (CHO), caffeine (CAF), carbohydrate + caffeine (CHO + CAF), placebo (H2O), or a no rinse control (CON). No significant improvements in Yo-Yo IRT-1 performance were found (p > 0.05). Perceptual indications of effort (i.e., rating of their perceived exertion [RPE]) were significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05) in CHO and CHO + CAF when compared with CON after speed level 11. Interestingly, RPE levels were nonsignificantly lower in all but one level of the Yo-Yo Level 1 for CHO in comparison with other groups. Carbohydrate and caffeine mouth rinsing seems to exert no impact on running performance before maximal intermittent running in a group of male collegiate lacrosse players.

  12. Physiochemical Characteristics and Molecular Structures for Digestible Carbohydrates of Silages.

    Refat, Basim; Prates, Luciana L; Khan, Nazir A; Lei, Yaogeng; Christensen, David A; McKinnon, John J; Yu, Peiqiang

    2017-10-18

    The main objectives of this study were (1) to assess the magnitude of differences among new barley silage varieties (BS) selected for varying rates of in vitro neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility (ivNDFD; Cowboy BS with higher ivNDFD, Copeland BS with intermediate ivNDFD, and Xena BS with lower ivNDFD) with regard to their carbohydrate (CHO) molecular makeup, CHO chemical fractions, and rumen degradability in dairy cows in comparison with a new corn silage hybrid (Pioneer 7213R) and (2) to quantify the strength and pattern of association between the molecular structures and digestibility of carbohydrates. The carbohydrate-related molecular structure spectral data was measured using advanced vibrational molecular spectroscopy (FT/IR). In comparison to BS, corn silage showed a significantly (P carbohydrates were significantly (P carbohydrate content of the silages. In conclusion, the univariate approach with only one-factor consideration (ivNDFD) might not be a satisfactory method for evaluating and ranking BS quality. FT/IR molecular spectroscopy can be used to evaluate silage quality rapidly, particularly the digestible fiber content.

  13. Pharmaceutical, cosmeceutical, and traditional applications of marine carbohydrates.

    Ahmed, Abdul Bakrudeen Ali; Adel, Mohaddeseh; Karimi, Pegah; Peidayesh, Mahvash

    2014-01-01

    Marine carbohydrates are most important organic molecules made by photosynthetic organisms. It is very essential for humankind: the role in being an energy source for the organism and they are considered as an important dissolve organic compound (DOC) in marine environment's sediments. Carbohydrates found in different marine environments in different concentrations. Polysaccharides of carbohydrates play an important role in various fields such as pharmaceutical, food production, cosmeceutical, and so on. Marine organisms are good resources of nutrients, and they are rich carbohydrate in sulfated polysaccharide. Seaweeds (marine microalgae) are used in different pharmaceutical industries, especially in pharmaceutical compound production. Seaweeds have a significant amount of sulfated polysaccharides, which are used in cosmeceutical industry, besides based on the biological applications. Since then, traditional people, cosmetics products, and pharmaceutical applications consider many types of seaweed as an important organism used in food process. Sulfated polysaccharides containing seaweed have potential uses in the blood coagulation system, antiviral activity, antioxidant activity, anticancer activity, immunomodulating activity, antilipidepic activity, etc. Some species of marine organisms are rich in polysaccharides such as sulfated galactans. Various polysaccharides such as agar and alginates, which are extracted from marine organisms, have several applications in food production and cosmeceutical industries. Due to their high health benefits, compound-derived extracts of marine polysaccharides have various applications and traditional people were using them since long time ago. In the future, much attention is supposed to be paid to unraveling the structural, compositional, and sequential properties of marine carbohydrate as well. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Phosphorous Nutritional Level, Carbohydrate Reserves and Flower Quality in Olives.

    Ran Erel

    Full Text Available The olive tree is generally characterized by relatively low final fruit set consequential to a significant rate of undeveloped pistils, pistil abortion, and flower and fruitlet abscission. These processes are acknowledged to be governed by competition for resources between the developing vegetative and reproductive organs. To study the role of phosphorus (P nutritional level on reproductive development, trees were grown under four levels of P for three years in large containers. Phosphorus nutritional level was positively related to rate of reproductive bud break, inflorescence weight, rate of hermaphrodite flowers, pistil weight, fruitlet persistence, fruit set and the consequential total number of fruits. The positive impact of P nutrition on the productivity parameters was not related to carbohydrate reserves or to carbohydrate transport to the developing inflorescence. Phosphorous deficient trees showed significant impairment of assimilation rate, and yet, carbohydrates were accumulated in inflorescences at levels comparable to or higher than trees receiving high P. In contrast to female reproductive organs, pollen viability was consistently higher in P deficient trees, possibly due to the enhanced carbohydrate availability. Overall, the positive effect of P on female reproductive development was found to be independent of the total carbohydrate availability. Hence, P is speculated to have a direct influence on reproductive processes.

  15. Phosphorous Nutritional Level, Carbohydrate Reserves and Flower Quality in Olives.

    Erel, Ran; Yermiyahu, Uri; Yasuor, Hagai; Cohen Chamus, Dan; Schwartz, Amnon; Ben-Gal, Alon; Dag, Arnon

    2016-01-01

    The olive tree is generally characterized by relatively low final fruit set consequential to a significant rate of undeveloped pistils, pistil abortion, and flower and fruitlet abscission. These processes are acknowledged to be governed by competition for resources between the developing vegetative and reproductive organs. To study the role of phosphorus (P) nutritional level on reproductive development, trees were grown under four levels of P for three years in large containers. Phosphorus nutritional level was positively related to rate of reproductive bud break, inflorescence weight, rate of hermaphrodite flowers, pistil weight, fruitlet persistence, fruit set and the consequential total number of fruits. The positive impact of P nutrition on the productivity parameters was not related to carbohydrate reserves or to carbohydrate transport to the developing inflorescence. Phosphorous deficient trees showed significant impairment of assimilation rate, and yet, carbohydrates were accumulated in inflorescences at levels comparable to or higher than trees receiving high P. In contrast to female reproductive organs, pollen viability was consistently higher in P deficient trees, possibly due to the enhanced carbohydrate availability. Overall, the positive effect of P on female reproductive development was found to be independent of the total carbohydrate availability. Hence, P is speculated to have a direct influence on reproductive processes.

  16. The statolith compartment in Chara rhizoids contains carbohydrate and protein

    Wang-Cahill, F.; Kiss, J. Z.

    1995-01-01

    In contrast to higher plants, the alga Chara has rhizoids with single membrane-bound compartments that function as statoliths in gravity perception. Previous work has demonstrated that these statoliths contain barium sulfate crystals. In this study, we show that statoliths in Chara rhizoids react with a Coomassie Brilliant Blue cytochemical stain for proteins. While statoliths did not react with silver methenamine carbohydrate cytochemistry, the monoclonal antibody CCRC-M2, which is against a carbohydrate (sycamore-maple rhamnogalacturonan I), labeled the statolith compartment. These results demonstrate that in addition to barium sulfate, statoliths in Chara rhizoids have an organic matrix that consists of protein and carbohydrate moieties. Since the statoliths were silver methenamine negative, the carbohydrate in this compartment could be a 3-linked polysaccharide. CCRC-M2 also labeled Golgi cisternae, Golgi-associated vesicles, apical vesicles, and cell walls in the rhizoids. The specificity of CCRC-M2 immunolabeling was verified by several control experiments, including the demonstration that labeling was abolished when the antibody was preabsorbed with its antigen. Since in this and a previous study (John Z. Kiss and L. Andrew Staehelin, American Journal of Botany 80: 273-282, 1993) antibodies against higher plant carbohydrates crossreacted with cell walls of Chara in a specific manner, Characean algae may be a useful model system in biochemical and molecular studies of cell walls.

  17. Impact of Carbohydrate Restriction on Healthy Adolescent Development.

    Richmond, Hannah M; Duriancik, David M

    2017-09-01

    Carbohydrate-restricted diets are known for their impact on weight loss; however, research is still required to determine if low-carbohydrate diets are safe for adolescents. Carbohydrates directly stimulate an insulin response, and studies have recently shown that insulin and binding to respective insulin receptors (IRs) are critical in Kisspeptin (Kiss1) neuronal development. These neurons directly stimulate gonadotropin-releasing hormone, which activates the pituitary-gonadal axis during puberty. This information suggests that carbohydrate restriction may delay pubertal development in adolescents due to the impact on insulin and Kiss1 transcription. Studies have observed disturbed insulin metabolism in Type I Diabetics leading to delayed puberty, along with overfeeding stimulating early pubertal onset. Additionally, recent clinical trials bred female mice with IR deletions on Kiss1 neurons and observed delayed vaginal opening and estrus. Current animal research suggests low carbohydrate intake may delay pubertal onset, however additional research is required to determine outcome in human subjects. Copyright© of YS Medical Media ltd.

  18. Carbohydrate digestion in Lutzomyia longipalpis' larvae (Diptera - Psychodidae).

    Vale, Vladimir F; Moreira, Bruno H; Moraes, Caroline S; Pereira, Marcos H; Genta, Fernando A; Gontijo, Nelder F

    2012-10-01

    Lutzomyia longipalpis is the principal species of phlebotomine incriminated as vector of Leishmania infantum, the etiological agent of visceral leishmaniasis in the Americas. Despite its importance as vector, almost nothing related to the larval biology, especially about its digestive system has been published. The objective of the present study was to obtain an overview of carbohydrate digestion by the larvae. Taking in account that phlebotomine larvae live in the soil rich in decaying materials and microorganisms we searched principally for enzymes capable to hydrolyze carbohydrates present in this kind of substrate. The principal carbohydrases encountered in the midgut were partially characterized. One of them is a α-amylase present in the anterior midgut. It is probably involved with the digestion of glycogen, the reserve carbohydrate of fungi. Two other especially active enzymes were present in the posterior midgut, a membrane bound α-glucosidase and a membrane bound trehalase. The first, complete the digestion of glycogen and the other probably acts in the digestion of trehalose, a carbohydrate usually encountered in microorganisms undergoing hydric stress. In a screening done with the use of p-nitrophenyl-derived substrates other less active enzymes were also observed in the midgut. A general view of carbohydrate digestion in L. longipalpis was presented. Our results indicate that soil microorganisms appear to be the main source of nutrients for the larvae. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evolution of spent fuel dry storage

    Standring, Paul Nicholas [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria). Div. of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Technology; Takats, Ferenc [TS ENERCON KFT, Budapest (Hungary)

    2016-11-15

    Around 10,000 tHM of spent fuel is discharged per year from the nuclear power plants in operation. Whilst the bulk of spent fuel is still held in at reactor pools, 24 countries have developed storage facilities; either on the reactor site or away from the reactor site. Of the 146 operational AFR storage facilities about 80 % employ dry storage; the majority being deployed over the last 20 years. This reflects both the development of dry storage technology as well as changes in politics and trading relationships that have affected spent fuel management policies. The paper describes the various approaches to the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle for power reactor fuels and provides data on deployed storage technologies.

  20. Fuel assembly storage pool

    Hiranuma, Hiroshi.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To remove limitation of the number of storage of fuel assemblies to increase the number of storage thereof so as to relatively reduce the water depth required for shielding radioactive rays. Structure: Fuel assembly storage rack containers for receiving a plurality of spent fuel assembly racks are stacked in multi-layer fashion within a storage pool filled with water for shielding radioactive rays and removing heat. (Furukawa, Y.)

  1. Heat transport and storage

    Despois, J.

    1977-01-01

    Recalling the close connections existing between heat transport and storage, some general considerations on the problem of heat distribution and transport are presented 'in order to set out the problem' of storage in concrete form. This problem is considered in its overall plane, then studied under the angle of the different technical choices it involves. The two alternatives currently in consideration are described i.e.: storage in a mined cavity and underground storage as captive sheet [fr

  2. Storage in Europe

    Cabanes, J.M.; Rottenberg, J.; Abiad, A.; Caudron, S.; Girault, Ph.

    2007-01-01

    Storage represents one of the key elements among the different modulation tools. How the problem of storage is put forward in Europe in front of the increasing uncertainty of the gas demand and prices? What are the policies implemented by storage facility operators? To what extend storage can amortize gas prices volatility or allow the market actors to take the best profit of this volatility? These are the questions debated at this workshop by four specialists of this domain. (J.S.)

  3. Pit Water Storage Ottrupgaard

    Heller, Alfred

    2000-01-01

    The pit water storage, a seasonal thermal storage, was built in 1993 with floating lid and hybrid clay-polymer for pit lining. The storage was leaking severe and solutions were to be found. In the paper solutions for pit lining and floating lids are discussed, cost estimations given and coming...

  4. Digestion kinetics of carbohydrate fractions of citrus by-products

    Lashkari, Saman; Taghizadeh, Akbar

    2015-01-01

    The present experiment was carried out to determine the digestion kinetics of carbohydrate fractions of citrus by-products. Grapefruit pulp (GP), lemon pulp (LE), lime pulp (LI) and orange pulp (OP) were the test feed. Digestion kinetic of whole citrus by-products and neutral detergent fiber (NDF......) fraction and acid detergent fiber (ADF) fractions of citrus by-products were measured using the in vitro gas production technique. Fermentation kinetics of the neutral detergent soluble carbohydrates (NDSC) fraction and hemicelluloses were calculated using a curve subtraction. The fermentation rate...... of whole was the highest for the LE (p by-products lag time was longer for hemicellulose than other carbohydrate fractions. There was no significant difference among potential gas production (A) volumes of whole test feeds (p

  5. Glucuronoyl esterase--novel carbohydrate esterase produced by Schizophyllum commune.

    Spániková, Silvia; Biely, Peter

    2006-08-21

    The cellulolytic system of the wood-rotting fungus Schizophyllum commune contains an esterase that hydrolyzes methyl ester of 4-O-methyl-d-glucuronic acid. The enzyme, called glucuronoyl esterase, was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity from a cellulose-spent culture fluid. Its substrate specificity was examined on a number of substrates of other carbohydrate esterases such as acetylxylan esterase, feruloyl esterase and pectin methylesterase. The glucuronoyl esterase attacks exclusively the esters of MeGlcA. The methyl ester of free or glycosidically linked MeGlcA was not hydrolysed by other carbohydrate esterases. The results suggest that we have discovered a new type of carbohydrate esterase that might be involved in disruption of ester linkages connecting hemicellulose and lignin in plant cell walls.

  6. Separation of carbohydrates using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography.

    Fu, Qing; Liang, Tu; Li, Zhenyu; Xu, Xiaoyong; Ke, Yanxiong; Jin, Yu; Liang, Xinmiao

    2013-09-20

    A strategy was developed to rapidly evaluate chromatographic properties of hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) columns for separating carbohydrates. Seven HILIC columns (Silica, Diol, TSK Amide-80, XAmide, Click Maltose, Click β-CD, and Click TE-Cys columns) were evaluated by using three monosaccharide and seven disaccharides as probes. The influence of column temperature on the peak shape and tautomerization of carbohydrates, as well as column selectivity were investigated. The influence of surface charge property on the retention was also studied by using glucose, glucuronic acid, and glucosamine, which indicated that buffer salt concentration and pH value in mobile phase was necessary to control the ionic interactions between ionic carbohydrates and HILIC columns. According to evaluation results, the XAmide column was selected as an example to establish experimental schemes for separation of complex mixtures of oligosaccharide. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of polymeric carbohydrates on growth and development

    Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    , metabolized and net energy); available energy relative to protein is crucial for performance and carcass quality; second, the proportion of starch to NSP will influence rate and type of metabolites (glucose vs. SCFA) deriving from carbohydrate assimilation, and finally, type of starch (types A, B, and C......The main objective of the presentation is to provide insight into the role of polymeric carbohydrates in growth and development of pigs. Polymeric carbohydrates—starch and non-starch polysaccharides (NSP)—quantitatively represent the largest portion of the diets for pigs and are therefore...... at a slower and more constant rate and with SCFA being absorbed by passive diffusion. Type and levels of polymeric carbohydrates influence growth and development through different mechanisms; first, the proportion of starch to NSP plays an important role for the content of available energy (digestible...

  8. A low-protein, high-carbohydrate diet increases browning in perirenal adipose tissue but not in inguinal adipose tissue.

    Pereira, Mayara P; Ferreira, Laís A A; da Silva, Flávia H S; Christoffolete, Marcelo A; Metsios, George S; Chaves, Valéria E; de França, Suélem A; Damazo, Amílcar S; Flouris, Andreas D; Kawashita, Nair H

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the browning and origin of fatty acids (FAs) in the maintenance of triacylglycerol (TG) storage and/or as fuel for thermogenesis in perirenal adipose tissue (periWAT) and inguinal adipose tissue (ingWAT) of rats fed a low-protein, high-carbohydrate (LPHC) diet. LPHC (6% protein, 74% carbohydrate) or control (C; 17% protein, 63% carbohydrate) diets were administered to rats for 15 d. The tissues were stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histologic analysis. The content of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) was determined by immunofluorescence. Levels of T-box transcription factor (TBX1), PR domain containing 16 (PRDM16), adipose triacylglycerol lipase (ATGL), hormone-sensitive lipase, lipoprotein lipase (LPL), glycerokinase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), glucose transporter 4, β 3 -adrenergic receptor (AR), β 1 -AR, protein kinase A (PKA), adenosine-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and phospho-AMPK were determined by immunoblotting. Serum fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) was measured using a commercial kit (Student's t tests, P diet increased FGF21 levels by 150-fold. The presence of multilocular adipocytes, combined with the increased contents of UCP1, TBX1, and PRDM16 in periWAT of LPHC-fed rats, suggested the occurrence of browning. The contents of β 1 -AR and LPL were increased in the periWAT. The ingWAT showed higher ATGL and PEPCK levels, phospho-AMPK/AMPK ratio, and reduced β 3 -AR and PKA levels. These findings suggest that browning occurred only in the periWAT and that higher utilization of FAs from blood lipoproteins acted as fuel for thermogenesis. Increased glycerol 3-phosphate generation by glyceroneogenesis increased FAs reesterification from lipolysis, explaining the increased TG storage in the ingWAT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Digestible and indigestible carbohydrates: interactions with postprandial lipid metabolism.

    Lairon, Denis; Play, Barbara; Jourdheuil-Rahmani, Dominique

    2007-04-01

    The balance between fats and carbohydrates in the human diet is still a matter of very active debate. Indeed, the processing of ordinary mixed meals involves complex processes within the lumen of the upper digestive tract for digestion, in the small intestine mucosa for absorption and resecretion, and in peripheral tissues and in the circulation for final handling. The purpose of this review is to focus on available knowledge on the interactions of digestible or indigestible carbohydrates with lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in the postprandial state. The observations made in humans after test meals are reported and interpreted in the light of recent findings on the cellular and molecular levels regarding possible interplays between carbohydrates and lipid moieties in some metabolic pathways. Digestible carbohydrates, especially readily digestible starches or fructose, have been shown to exacerbate and/or delay postprandial lipemia, whereas some fiber sources can lower it. While interactions between dietary fibers and the process of lipid digestion and absorption have been studied mainly in the last decades, recent studies have shown that dietary carbohydrate moieties (e.g., glucose) can stimulate the intestinal uptake of cholesterol and lipid resecretion. In addition to the well-known glucose/fructose transporters, a number of transport proteins have recently been involved in intestinal lipid processing, whose implications in such interactions are discussed. The potential importance of postprandial insulinemia in these processes is also evaluated in the light of recent findings. The interactions of carbohydrates and lipid moieties in the postprandial state may result from both acute and chronic effects, both at transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels.

  10. Wind turbine storage systems

    Ibrahim, H.; Ilinca, A.; Perron, J.

    2005-01-01

    Electric power is often produced in locations far from the point of utilization which creates a challenge in stabilizing power grids, particularly since electricity cannot be stored. The production of decentralized electricity by renewable energy sources offers a greater security of supply while protecting the environment. Wind power holds the greatest promise in terms of environmental protection, competitiveness and possible applications. It is known that wind energy production is not always in phase with power needs because of the uncertainty of wind. For that reason, energy storage is the key for the widespread integration of wind energy into the power grids. This paper proposed various energy storage methods that can be used in combination with decentralized wind energy production where an imbalance exists between electricity production and consumption. Energy storage can play an essential role in bringing value to wind energy, particularly if electricity is to be delivered during peak hours. Various types of energy storage are already in use or are being developed. This paper identified the main characteristics of various electricity storage techniques and their applications. They include stationary or embarked storage for long or short term applications. A comparison of characteristics made it possible to determine which types of electricity storage are best suited for wind energy. These include gravity energy; thermal energy; compressed air energy; coupled storage with natural gas; coupled storage with liquefied gas; hydrogen storage for fuel cells; chemical energy storage; storage in REDOX batteries; storage by superconductive inductance; storage in supercondensers; and, storage as kinetic energy. 21 refs., 21 figs

  11. Fuel storage tank

    Peehs, M.; Stehle, H.; Weidinger, H.

    1979-01-01

    The stationary fuel storage tank is immersed below the water level in the spent fuel storage pool. In it there is placed a fuel assembly within a cage. Moreover, the storage tank has got a water filling and a gas buffer. The water in the storage tank is connected with the pool water by means of a filter, a surge tank and a water purification facility, temperature and pressure monitoring being performed. In the buffer compartment there are arranged catalysts a glow plugs for recombination of radiolysis products into water. The supply of water into the storage tank is performed through the gas buffer compartment. (DG) [de

  12. Effect of drought stress and subsequent recovery on protein, carbohydrate contents, catalase and peroxidase activities in three chickpea (Cicer arietinum) cultivars

    Mafakheri, A.; Siosemardeh, A.; Bahramnejad, B.; Struik, P.C.; Sohrabi, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Drought stress is one of the major abiotic stresses in agriculture worldwide. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of drought stress and subsequent recovery on protein, carbohydrate content, catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POX) activities in three varieties of chickpea (drought

  13. Determination of carbohydrates in juices by capillary electrophoresis, high-performance liquid chromatography, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry

    Cabálková, Jana; Žídková, Jitka; Přibyla, Lubomír; Chmelík, Josef

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 3 (2004), s. 487-493 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/03/1182 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919 Keywords : capillary electrophoresis with indirect detection * juices * major carbohydrate profile Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.743, year: 2004

  14. Continuous fermentation of carbohydrate-containing liquids to alcohol

    Moldenhauer, O; Lechner, R

    1955-08-25

    Rate of alcohol fermentation depends mostly on the biological state of the yeast. The process described avoids retardation during the final fermentation phase by increasing the concentration of yeast as the fermentation proceeds. The method is especially suitable for dilute carbohydrate solutions. Thus, to a solution containing 4% carbohydrates, 66 g pressed yeast was added. This mash was passed continuously through several fermentation vessels. The temperature was adjusted to 29 to 35 degrees according to the type of yeast. Before entering the next vessel, another portion of pressed yeast (66 g/1 of mash) is added. The yeast is recovered from the fermented mash by means of a yeast separator.

  15. Continuous fermentation of carbohydrate-containing liquids to alcohol

    Moldenhauer, O; Lechner, R

    1955-08-29

    Rate of alcohol fermentation depends mostly on the biological state of the yeast. The process described avoids retardation during the final fermentation phase by increasing the concentration of yeast as the fermentation proceeds. The method is especially suitable for dilute carbohydrate solutions. Thus, to a solution containing 4% carbohydrates, 66 g pressed yeast was added. This mash was passed continuously through several fermentation vessels. The temperature was adjusted to 29 to 35/sup 0/ according to the type of yeast. Before entering the next vessel, another portion of pressed yeast (66 g/l of mash) is added. The yeast is recovered from the fermented mash by means of a yeast separator.

  16. Diagnosing and Treating Intolerance to Carbohydrates in Children

    Roberto Berni Canani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Intolerance to carbohydrates is relatively common in childhood, but still poorly recognized and managed. Over recent years it has come to the forefront because of progresses in our knowledge on the mechanisms and treatment of these conditions. Children with intolerance to carbohydrates often present with unexplained signs and symptoms. Here, we examine the most up-to-date research on these intolerances, discuss controversies relating to the diagnostic approach, including the role of molecular analysis, and provide new insights into modern management in the pediatric age, including the most recent evidence for correct dietary treatment.

  17. Diagnosing and Treating Intolerance to Carbohydrates in Children.

    Berni Canani, Roberto; Pezzella, Vincenza; Amoroso, Antonio; Cozzolino, Tommaso; Di Scala, Carmen; Passariello, Annalisa

    2016-03-10

    Intolerance to carbohydrates is relatively common in childhood, but still poorly recognized and managed. Over recent years it has come to the forefront because of progresses in our knowledge on the mechanisms and treatment of these conditions. Children with intolerance to carbohydrates often present with unexplained signs and symptoms. Here, we examine the most up-to-date research on these intolerances, discuss controversies relating to the diagnostic approach, including the role of molecular analysis, and provide new insights into modern management in the pediatric age, including the most recent evidence for correct dietary treatment.

  18. Interactions of polyphenols with carbohydrates, lipids and proteins.

    Jakobek, Lidija

    2015-05-15

    Polyphenols are secondary metabolites in plants, investigated intensively because of their potential positive effects on human health. Their bioavailability and mechanism of positive effects have been studied, in vitro and in vivo. Lately, a high number of studies takes into account the interactions of polyphenols with compounds present in foods, like carbohydrates, proteins or lipids, because these food constituents can have significant effects on the activity of phenolic compounds. This paper reviews the interactions between phenolic compounds and lipids, carbohydrates and proteins and their impact on polyphenol activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cell surface carbohydrate changes during embryonic and fetal skin development

    Dabelsteen, Erik; Holbrook, K; Clausen, H

    1986-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies to four type 2 chain carbohydrate antigens were used for immunohistochemical studies of embryonic and fetal skin. The antibodies detected N-acetyllactosamine and 3 fucosyl substitutes of this, blood group antigen H, Lex, and Ley. Periderm consistently stained for N-acetyllac......Monoclonal antibodies to four type 2 chain carbohydrate antigens were used for immunohistochemical studies of embryonic and fetal skin. The antibodies detected N-acetyllactosamine and 3 fucosyl substitutes of this, blood group antigen H, Lex, and Ley. Periderm consistently stained for N...

  20. Simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens in pleomorphic adenomas

    Therkildsen, M H; Mandel, U; Christensen, M

    1993-01-01

    Simple mucin-type carbohydrate structures, T, Tn and sialosyl-Tn, are regarded as general markers of carcinomas in several epithelial tissues as a result of incomplete synthesis with precursor accumulation. The structures have a very limited distribution in normal tissues and secretions, including...... saliva and salivary glands. The expression of simple mucin-type carbohydrate structures and ABH(O) variants was studied in paraffin-embedded and frozen tissue sections from 37 pleomorphic adenomas with associated normal parotid tissue, using immunohistology and a panel of MAbs with well...

  1. Importance of low carbohydrate diets in diabetes management

    Hall RM

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Rosemary M Hall, Amber Parry Strong, Jeremy D KrebsCentre for Endocrine, Diabetes and Obesity Research, Capital and Coast District Health Board, Wellington, New Zealand Abstract: Dietary strategies are fundamental in the management of diabetes. Historically, strict dietary control with a low carbohydrate diet was the only treatment option. With increasingly effective medications, the importance of dietary change decreased. Recommendations focused on reducing dietary fat to prevent atherosclerotic disease, with decreasing emphasis on the amount and quality of carbohydrate. As the prevalence of obesity and diabetes escalates, attention has returned to the macronutrient composition of the diet. Very low carbohydrate diets (VLCD's have demonstrated effective initial weight loss and improvement in glycemic control, but difficult long-term acceptability and worsening lipid profile. Modifications to the very low carbohydrate (VLC have included limiting saturated fat and increasing carbohydrate (CHO and protein. Reducing saturated fat appears pivotal in reducing low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol and may mitigate adverse effects of traditional VLCD's. Increased dietary protein enhances satiety, reduces energy intake, and improves glycemic homeostasis, but without sustained improvements in glycemic control or cardiovascular risk over and above the effect of weight loss. Additionally, recent studies in type 1 diabetes mellitus suggest promising benefits to diabetes control with low carbohydrate diets, without concerning effects on ketosis or hypoglycemia. Dietary patterns may highlight pertinent associations. For example, Mediterranean-style and paleolithic-type diets, low in fat and carbohydrate, are associated with reduced body weight and improved glycemic and cardiovascular outcomes in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. A feature of these dietary patterns is low refined CHO and sugar and higher fiber, and it is possible that increasing sugar

  2. Does caffeine alter muscle carbohydrate and fat metabolism during exercise?

    Graham, Terry E; Battram, Danielle S; Dela, Flemming

    2008-01-01

    and carbohydrate metabolism. While caffeine certainly mobilizes fatty acids from adipose tissue, rarely have measures of the respiratory exchange ratio indicated an increase in fat oxidation. However, this is a difficult measure to perform accurately during exercise, and small changes could be physiologically...... important. The few studies examining human muscle metabolism directly have also supported the fact that there is no change in fat or carbohydrate metabolism, but these usually have had a small sample size. We combined the data from muscle biopsy analyses of several similar studies to generate a sample size...

  3. Action of ionizing radiation on the carbohydrate metabolism enzymes

    Cherkasova, L.S.; Mironova, T.M.

    1976-01-01

    It follows from data reported in literature and those obtained in our laboratory that ionizing radiation does not drastically change the activity of enzymes of the carbohydrate metabolism in tissues of an animal organism. The data are reported on the effect of a whole-body single, fractionated or continuous irradiation of the enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism and the accompanying interrelated co-operative redistributions within the processes of aerobic and anaerobic glycolysis, and the pentose route of their conversion. The dependence of the postirradiation changes in the activity of enzymes on the neuroendocrine system response to irradiation has been demonstrated

  4. Assessing storage adequacy

    Amirault, P.

    2004-01-01

    Government policy encourages the use of natural gas. It is expected that liquefied natural gas (LNG) and Arctic gas will make up 20 to 25 per cent of supply. This presentation provided an outlook of storage value based on a technical analysis by the National Petroleum Counsel (NPC) report. A moderately robust growth is expected in the residential and commercial load which may be partially offset by robust growth in electricity. The net result is an increase in storage requirements. It was concluded that there is a strong case for growth in storage demand but a lack of good sites for additional capacity. This will lead to higher storage values. The NPC sees the need for 1 Tcf more storage use by 2025, of which 700 Bcf will need to come from new storage. In particular, current storage levels may not be sufficient to meet a colder than normal winter, and deliverability is affected by field inventory. Most storage capacity was built before 1985, mostly by regulated entities. It is expected that only 250 to 400 Bcf will be added over the next 25 years in North America. If storage becomes scarce, prices will move to the marginal cost of new additions, and the upper limit on price will be determined by salt cavern storage. An increase of $1.00 in the price of leasing storage would add about $0.11 to the average price of consumed gas. tabs., figs

  5. Spent fuel storage rack

    Morikawa, Matsuo; Uchiyama, Yuichi.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the safety and facilitate the design by limiting the relative displacement in a storage rack. Constitution: The outer wall of a storage rack disposed in water within a fuel pool, the pool wall opposing to the storage rack and the structure between the opposing storages racks are made as a space for confining the pool water or a structure formed with a slight gap, for example, a combination of a recessed structure and a protruded structure. In such a constitution, a space for confirming the pool water is established and the pool water thus confined forms a flow resistance when the storage rack vibrates upon earthquakes, serves as a damper and significantly reduces the responsivity. Furthermore, the relative displacement in the storage rack is limited to inhibit excess earthquake forces to exert on setting bolts and rack clamping bolts of the storage rack. (Sekiya, K.)

  6. Carbohydrate restriction improves the features of Metabolic Syndrome. Metabolic Syndrome may be defined by the response to carbohydrate restriction.

    Volek, Jeff S; Feinman, Richard D

    2005-11-16

    Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) represents a constellation of markers that indicates a predisposition to diabetes, cardiovascular disease and other pathologic states. The definition and treatment are a matter of current debate and there is not general agreement on a precise definition or, to some extent, whether the designation provides more information than the individual components. We consider here five indicators that are central to most definitions and we provide evidence from the literature that these are precisely the symptoms that respond to reduction in dietary carbohydrate (CHO). Carbohydrate restriction is one of several strategies for reducing body mass but even in the absence of weight loss or in comparison with low fat alternatives, CHO restriction is effective at ameliorating high fasting glucose and insulin, high plasma triglycerides (TAG), low HDL and high blood pressure. In addition, low fat, high CHO diets have long been known to raise TAG, lower HDL and, in the absence of weight loss, may worsen glycemic control. Thus, whereas there are numerous strategies for weight loss, a patient with high BMI and high TAG is likely to benefit most from a regimen that reduces CHO intake. Reviewing the literature, benefits of CHO restriction are seen in normal or overweight individuals, in normal patients who meet the criteria for MetS or in patients with frank diabetes. Moreover, in low fat studies that ameliorate LDL and total cholesterol, controls may do better on the symptoms of MetS. On this basis, we feel that MetS is a meaningful, useful phenomenon and may, in fact, be operationally defined as the set of markers that responds to CHO restriction. Insofar as this is an accurate characterization it is likely the result of the effect of dietary CHO on insulin metabolism. Glucose is the major insulin secretagogue and insulin resistance has been tied to the hyperinsulinemic state or the effect of such a state on lipid metabolism. The conclusion is probably not

  7. Carbohydrate restriction improves the features of Metabolic Syndrome. Metabolic Syndrome may be defined by the response to carbohydrate restriction

    Feinman Richard D

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Metabolic Syndrome (MetS represents a constellation of markers that indicates a predisposition to diabetes, cardiovascular disease and other pathologic states. The definition and treatment are a matter of current debate and there is not general agreement on a precise definition or, to some extent, whether the designation provides more information than the individual components. We consider here five indicators that are central to most definitions and we provide evidence from the literature that these are precisely the symptoms that respond to reduction in dietary carbohydrate (CHO. Carbohydrate restriction is one of several strategies for reducing body mass but even in the absence of weight loss or in comparison with low fat alternatives, CHO restriction is effective at ameliorating high fasting glucose and insulin, high plasma triglycerides (TAG, low HDL and high blood pressure. In addition, low fat, high CHO diets have long been known to raise TAG, lower HDL and, in the absence of weight loss, may worsen glycemic control. Thus, whereas there are numerous strategies for weight loss, a patient with high BMI and high TAG is likely to benefit most from a regimen that reduces CHO intake. Reviewing the literature, benefits of CHO restriction are seen in normal or overweight individuals, in normal patients who meet the criteria for MetS or in patients with frank diabetes. Moreover, in low fat studies that ameliorate LDL and total cholesterol, controls may do better on the symptoms of MetS. On this basis, we feel that MetS is a meaningful, useful phenomenon and may, in fact, be operationally defined as the set of markers that responds to CHO restriction. Insofar as this is an accurate characterization it is likely the result of the effect of dietary CHO on insulin metabolism. Glucose is the major insulin secretagogue and insulin resistance has been tied to the hyperinsulinemic state or the effect of such a state on lipid metabolism. The

  8. Comments on the reactions of carbohydrate peroxy radicals in relation to the lyoluminescent behaviour of irradiated carbohydrates

    Baugh, P.J.; Mahjani, M.G.

    1977-01-01

    Reference is made to recent work on lyoluminescence: the emission of visible light from irradiated tissue equivalent solids such as carbohydrates when dissolved in aqueous solutions (Atari et al., Radiat. Effects; 17:45(1973); and ibid.; 20: 135 (1973); and Baugh et al., Int.J.Radiat.Phys. Chem.(in press)). In the present communication the consequences of the fast elimination of the hydroperoxy radicals from carbohydrate peroxy radicals are considered in a further study of the chemical reactions involved. (U.K.)

  9. Possibilities of rationalizing gas storage in hydrocarbon deposits

    Stricker; Gilch; Kretzschmar

    1990-01-01

    A number of criteria on the utilization of gas fields for storage and major methods for rationalizing such storage reservoirs (such as pressure optimization and increase of well performance) are indicated. The pressure reduction/ pressure increase conducted in phases and the investigations involved are discussed in detail. In particular, experiences and results for fixing the maximum allowable storage pressures are analyzed critically. Problems of gas blending in case of different compositions of residual gas and storage gas are dealt with. Finally, some recommendations are given for the necessary investigations to increase efficiency in the conversion of depleted hydrocarbon deposits to gas storage. 3 figs

  10. Glucose homeostasis in rainbow trout fed a high-carbohydrate diet: metformin and insulin interact in a tissue-dependent manner.

    Polakof, S; Moon, T W; Aguirre, P; Skiba-Cassy, S; Panserat, S

    2011-01-01

    Carnivorous fish species such as the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) are considered to be "glucose intolerant" because of the prolonged hyperglycemia experienced after intake of a carbohydrate-enriched meal. In the present study, we use this species to study glucose homeostasis in fish chronically infused with the hypoglycemic agents, insulin, and metformin, and fed with a high proportion of carbohydrates (30%). We analyzed liver, skeletal muscle, and white adipose tissue (WAT), which are insulin- and metformin-specific targets at both the biochemical and molecular levels. Trout infused with the combination of insulin and metformin can effectively utilize dietary glucose at the liver, resulting in lowered glycemia, increased insulin sensitivity, and glucose storage capacity, combined with reduced glucose output. However, in both WAT and skeletal muscle, we observed decreased insulin sensitivity with the combined insulin + metformin treatment, resulting in the absence of changes at the metabolic level in the skeletal muscle and an increased potential for glucose uptake and storage in the WAT. Thus, the poor utilization by rainbow trout of a diet with a high proportion of carbohydrate can at least be partially improved by a combined treatment with insulin and metformin, and the glucose intolerance observed in this species could be, in part, due to some of the downstream components of the insulin and metformin signaling pathways. However, the predominant effects of metformin treatment on the action of insulin in these three tissues thought to be involved in glucose homeostasis remain exclusive in this species.

  11. Soft material for optical storage

    Lucchetti, L.; Simoni, F.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of transforming electronic networking into optical networking is producing a major effort in studying all optical processing and as a consequence in investigating the nonlinear optical properties of materials for this purpose. In this research area soft materials like polymers and liquid crystals are more and more attractive because they are cheap and they are more easily integrated in microcircuits hardware with respect to the well-known highly nonlinear crystals. Since optical processing spans a too wide field to be treated in one single paper, the authors will focus on one specific subject within this field and give a review of the most recent advances in studying the soft-materials properties interesting for the storage of optical information. The efforts in research of new materials and techniques for optical storage are motivated by the need to store and retrieve large amounts of data with short access time and high data rate at a competitive cost

  12. Co-occurrence of carbohydrate malabsorption and primary epiploic appendagitis

    Schnedl, Wolfgang J; Kalmar, Peter; Mangge, Harald; Krause, Robert; Wallner-Liebmann, Sandra J

    2015-01-01

    Unspecific abdominal complaints including bloating and irregular bowel movements may be caused by carbohydrate malabsorption syndromes, e.g., lactose and fructose malabsorption. These symptoms were investigated with hydrogen (H2) breath tests and correlated to carbohydrate malabsorption. During performing these H2-breath tests the patient presented with an acute, localized, non-migratory pain in the left lower abdominal quadrant. Primary epiploic appendagitis is a rare cause of abdominal acute or subacute complaints and diagnosis of primary epiploic appendagitis (PEA) is made when computed tomography reveals a characteristic lesion. We report on a patient with co-occurrence of lactose and fructose malabsorption, which was treated successfully with a diet free of culprit carbohydrates, with PEA recovering without medication or surgical treatment within few days. Since the abdominal unspecific symptoms had been present for months, they appeared not to be correlated to the acute localized abdominal pain, therefore we speculate on a random co-occurrence of combined carbohydrate malabsorption and PEA. PMID:26401090

  13. The solvation of carbohydrates in dimethylsulfoxide and water

    Berger, S.; Diaz, M.D.; Horwat, Ch.

    1999-01-01

    The solvation of sucrose and other carbohydrates in DMSO and water is probed by intermolecular NOE measurements. The NOE effects are interpreted in terms of specific binding of the solvent to certain sites of the molecules. It is shown that DMSO attaches to specific sites of the sucrose molecule, whereas for water such a clear differentiation cannot be proven. (author)

  14. Carbohydrates – Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition, Chapter 5

    Working group for developing the guidelines for parenteral nutrition of The German Association for Nutritional Medicine

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The main role of carbohydrates in the human body is to provide energy. Carbohydrates should always be infused with PN (parenteral nutrition in combination with amino acids and lipid emulsions to improve nitrogen balance. Glucose should be provided as a standard carbohydrate for PN, whereas the use of xylite is not generally recommended. Fructose solutions should not be used for PN. Approximately 60% of non-protein energy should be supplied as glucose with an intake of 3.0–3.5 g/kg body weight/day (2.1–2.4 mg/kg body weight/min. In patients with a high risk of hyperglycaemia (critically ill, diabetes, sepsis, or steroid therapy an lower initial carbohydrate infusion rate of 1–2 g/kg body weight/day is recommended to achieve normoglycaemia. One should aim at reaching a blood glucose level of 80–110 mg/dL, and at least a glucose level <145 mg/dL should be achieved to reduce morbidity and mortality. Hyperglycaemia may require addition of an insulin infusion or a reduction (2.0–3.0 g/kg body weight/day or even a temporary interruption of glucose infusion. Close monitoring of blood glucose levels is highly important.

  15. Terrestrial carbohydrates support freshwater zooplankton during phytoplankton deficiency.

    Taipale, Sami J; Galloway, Aaron W E; Aalto, Sanni L; Kahilainen, Kimmo K; Strandberg, Ursula; Kankaala, Paula

    2016-08-11

    Freshwater food webs can be partly supported by terrestrial primary production, often deriving from plant litter of surrounding catchment vegetation. Although consisting mainly of poorly bioavailable lignin, with low protein and lipid content, the carbohydrates from fallen tree leaves and shoreline vegetation may be utilized by aquatic consumers. Here we show that during phytoplankton deficiency, zooplankton (Daphnia magna) can benefit from terrestrial particulate organic matter by using terrestrial-origin carbohydrates for energy and sparing essential fatty acids and amino acids for somatic growth and reproduction. Assimilated terrestrial-origin fatty acids from shoreline reed particles exceeded available diet, indicating that Daphnia may convert a part of their dietary carbohydrates to saturated fatty acids. This conversion was not observed with birch leaf diets, which had lower carbohydrate content. Subsequent analysis of 21 boreal and subarctic lakes showed that diet of herbivorous zooplankton is mainly based on high-quality phytoplankton rich in essential polyunsaturated fatty acids. The proportion of low-quality diets (bacteria and terrestrial particulate organic matter) was <28% of the assimilated carbon. Taken collectively, the incorporation of terrestrial carbon into zooplankton was not directly related to the concentration of terrestrial organic matter in experiments or lakes, but rather to the low availability of phytoplankton.

  16. A 100-year review: Carbohydrates - characterization, digestion, and utilization

    Our knowledge of the role of carbohydrates in dairy cattle nutrition has advanced substantially during the 100 years in which the Journal of Dairy Science has been published. In this review, we traced the history of scientific investigation and discovery from crude fiber, nitrogen-free extract, and ...

  17. Carbohydrates – Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition, Chapter 5

    Bolder, U.; Ebener, C.; Hauner, H.; Jauch, K. W.; Kreymann, G.; Ockenga, J.; Traeger, K.

    2009-01-01

    The main role of carbohydrates in the human body is to provide energy. Carbohydrates should always be infused with PN (parenteral nutrition) in combination with amino acids and lipid emulsions to improve nitrogen balance. Glucose should be provided as a standard carbohydrate for PN, whereas the use of xylite is not generally recommended. Fructose solutions should not be used for PN. Approximately 60% of non-protein energy should be supplied as glucose with an intake of 3.0–3.5 g/kg body weight/day (2.1–2.4 mg/kg body weight/min). In patients with a high risk of hyperglycaemia (critically ill, diabetes, sepsis, or steroid therapy) an lower initial carbohydrate infusion rate of 1–2 g/kg body weight/day is recommended to achieve normoglycaemia. One should aim at reaching a blood glucose level of 80–110 mg/dL, and at least a glucose level <145 mg/dL should be achieved to reduce morbidity and mortality. Hyperglycaemia may require addition of an insulin infusion or a reduction (2.0–3.0 g/kg body weight/day) or even a temporary interruption of glucose infusion. Close monitoring of blood glucose levels is highly important. PMID:20049080

  18. Radiation degradation of carbohydrates and their biological activities for plants

    Kume, T.; Nagasawa, N.; Matsuhashi, S.

    2000-01-01

    Radiation effects on carbohydrates such as chitosan, sodium alginate, carrageenan, cellulose, pectin have been investigated to improve the biological activities. These carbohydrates were easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities such as anti-bacterial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of heavy metal stress, phytoalexins induction. Pectic fragments obtained from degraded pectin induced the phytoalexins such as glyceollins in soybean and pisatin in pea. The irradiated chitosan shows the higher elicitor activity for pisatin than that of pectin. For the plant growth promotion, alginate derived from brown marine algae, chitosan and ligno-cellulosic extracts show a strong activity. Kappa and iota carrageenan derived from red marine algae can promote growth of rice and the highest effect was obtained with kappa irradiated at 100 kGy. Some radiation degraded carbohydrates suppressed the damage of heavy metals on plants. The effects of irradiated carbohydrates on transportation of heavy metals have been investigated by PETIS (Positron Emitting Tracer Imaging System) and autoradiography using 48 V and 62 Zn. (author)

  19. Science Study Aids 3: Carbohydrates - Nature's Energy Source.

    McConnell, Bill

    This publication is the third of a series of seven supplementary investigative materials for use in secondary science classes providing up-to-date research-related investigations. This unit is structured for grade levels 7 through 12. It is concerned with the role of carbohydrates as important nutrients for consumers. This guide will enable…

  20. Method Development in the Regioselective Glycosylation of Unprotected Carbohydrates

    Niedbal, Dominika Alina

    and the glycosylations were promoted by tetrabutylammonium bromide. The couplings were completely selective and gave rise to a number of 1,6-linked disaccharides with 1,2- cis-linked orientation. Project 2: Boron-mediated glycosylation of unprotected carbohydrates Boron-mediated regioselective Koenigs...

  1. Click-generated triazole based ferrocene-carbohydrate bioconjugates

    carbohydrate bioconjugates, 2,. C46H56O20N6Fe and 3, C28H33O10N3Fe were designed and synthesized in good yields. Both the compounds,. 2 and 3, behave as very selective and sensitive chromogenic and electrochemical chemosensor for Cu2+ ...

  2. Defining carbohydrate binding of glucan phosphatases via Affinity gel electrophoresis

    Auger, Kyle; Raththagala, Madushi; Wilkens, Casper

    2016-01-01

    was to determine a technique to measure carbohydrate binding quickly and efficiently. We established a protocol to reproducibly and quantitatively measure the binding of the enzymes to glucans utilizing Affinity Gel Electrophoresis (AGE). The results show that the various glucan phosphatases possess differing...

  3. Linking Bacillus cereus Genotypes and Carbohydrate Utilization Capacity

    Warda, Alicja K.; Siezen, Roland J.; Boekhorst, Jos; Wells-Bennik, Marjon H.J.; Jong, de Anne; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Nierop Groot, Masja N.; Abee, Tjakko

    2016-01-01

    We characterised carbohydrate utilisation of 20 newly sequenced Bacillus cereus strains isolated from food products and food processing environments and two laboratory strains, B. cereus ATCC 10987 and B. cereus ATCC 14579. Subsequently, genome sequences of these strains were analysed together with

  4. Effect of salinity and inoculation with Azosprillium on carbohydrate ...

    The measured parameters were chlorophyll fluorescence, photosynthesis (Ps) rates, carbohydrates, nitrate, ammonium and protein content, nitrogenase activity, yield and yield components. The results showed that salinity decreased plant height and grain yield (GY) in all levels. GY reduction in the inoculated treatment was ...

  5. Sulfated N-linked carbohydrate chains in porcine thyroglobulin

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Kamerling, J.P.; Rijkse, I.; Maas, A.A.M.; Kuik, J.A. van

    1988-01-01

    N-linked carbohydrate chains of porcine thyroglobulin were released by the hydrazinolysis procedure. The resulting mixture of oligosaccharide-alditols was fractionated by high-voltage paper electrophoresis, the acidic fractions were further separated by high-performance liquid chromatography on

  6. CONSIDERATIONS IN UTILIZING BY-PRODUCT CARBOHYDRATES IN RUMINANT NUTRITION

    By-product feeds provide a variety of carbohydrates that can vary greatly in their content, digestibility, and physical effects. Variation in the composition and quality of by-product feeds needs to be evaluated to assess whether the variation poses an acceptable risk for inclusion of small or larg...

  7. Differential effects of carbohydrates on arabidopsis pollen germination

    Hirsche, J.; Fernández, J. M. G.; Stabentheiner, E.; Großkinsky, D.K.; Roitsch, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 4 (2017), s. 691-701 ISSN 0032-0781 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Arabidopsis thaliana * Carbohydrates * Metabolic regulation * Pollen germination * Signaling * Structure-function relationship Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Cell biology Impact factor: 4.760, year: 2016

  8. Long-term salt stress responsive growth, carbohydrate metabolism ...

    We investigated the long-term responses of tobacco tissues to salt stress, with a particular interest for growth parameters, proline (Pro) accumulation, and carbohydrate metabolism. Exposure of 17-day-old tobacco plants to 0.2 M NaCl was followed by a higher decrease in dry matter in roots than shoots with a decrease of ...

  9. Brain serotonin content - Increase following ingestion of carbohydrate diet.

    Fernstrom, J. D.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1971-01-01

    In the rat, the injection of insulin or the consumption of carbohydrate causes sequential increases in the concentrations of tryptophan in the plasma and the brain and of serotonin in the brain. Serotonin-containing neurons may thus participate in systems whereby the rat brain integrates information about the metabolic state in its relation to control of homeostasis and behavior.

  10. Transporter’s evolution and carbohydrate metabolic clusters

    Plantinga, Titia H.; Does, Chris van der; Driessen, Arnold J.M.

    2004-01-01

    The yiaQRS genes of Escherichia coli K-12 are involved in carbohydrate metabolism. Clustering of homologous genes was found throughout several unrelated bacteria. Strikingly, all four bacterial transport protein classes were found, conserving transport function but not mechanism. It appears that

  11. Maximizing Immune Response to Carbohydrate Antigens on Breast Tumors

    2005-08-01

    immunological mimicry of peptide ten- to apopiosis. J. CeILl Phvisiol 200: 223--234- niotopes of Lewis carbohydrate antigens. Mol. lmrrtunol. 35. 865- 879. 32...Serial, 5 pm sections were mounted on glass (4-6 weeks old, female) were obtained fiom Taconic Farms slides. Every fifth section was stained with H&E and

  12. Molar extinction coefficients of some carbohydrates in aqueous ...

    of plants and animals, both as structural elements and in the maintenance of functional ... In this paper we report the molar extinction coefficient ε, of carbohydrates ... as the area, which has to be hit by the photons in order to cause interaction.

  13. Effects of polymeric carbohydrates on growth and development in pigs

    Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2011-01-01

    carbohydrates influence growth and development through different mechanisms. First, the proportion of starch to NSP plays an important role for the content of available energy (i.e., DE, ME, and NE); available energy relative to protein is crucial for performance and carcass quality. Second, the proportion...

  14. Dietary fiber content influences soluble carbohydrate levels in ruminal fluids.

    Pinder, R S; Patterson, J A; O'Bryan, C A; Crandall, P G; Ricke, S C

    2012-01-01

    The soluble carbohydrate concentration of ruminal fluid, as affected by dietary forage content (DFC) and/or ruminally undegradable intake protein content (UIPC), was determined. Four ruminally cannulated steers, in a 4 × 4 Latin square design, were offered diets containing high (75 % of DM) or low (25 % of DM) DFC and high (6 % of DM) or low (5 % of DM) UIPC, in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Zinc-treated SBM was the primary UIP source. Soluble hexose concentration (145.1 μM) in ruminal fluid (RF) of steers fed low DFC diets exhibited a higher trend (P = 0.08) than that (124.5 μM) of steers fed high DFC diets. UIPC did not modulate (P = 0.54) ruminal soluble hexose concentrations. Regardless of diet, soluble hexose concentration declined immediately after feeding and did not rise until 3 h after feeding (P ruminal fluid could not be determined. However, unsubstituted xylose and arabinose were excluded. These data indicate that: (i) soluble carbohydrate concentrations remain in ruminal fluid during digestion and fermentation; (ii) slight diurnal changes began after feeding; (iii) DFC influences the soluble carbohydrate concentration in RF; and (iv) UIPC of these diets does not affect the soluble carbohydrate concentration of RF.

  15. Carbohydrate availability of arroz caldo with lambda-carrageenan.

    Dumelod, B D; Ramirez, R P; Tiangson, C L; Barrios, E B; Panlasigui, L N

    1999-07-01

    Total available carbohydrate (sugars and starches) and total dietary fiber (soluble and insoluble) make up the total carbohydrate content of a food. Soluble fiber decreases the availability of glucose by delaying its absorption in the proximal small intestine, thus reducing the postprandial glucose levels (Jenkins et al., 1978; Schneeman, 1987a). Carrageenan, a seaweed extract, is a good source of soluble fiber (Montaño et al., 1985). This study aimed to determine the effect of carrageenan incorporation into arroz caldo on carbohydrate availability by monitoring the postprandial blood glucose levels of normal subjects. Control and experimental arroz caldo samples were prepared and subjected to proximate analysis and feeding studies. The total dietary fiber (TDF) content of the experimental (2.03%) was about thrice that of the control (0.68%). Using randomized crossover design, preweighed 55 g available carbohydrate serving portions of control and experimental arroz caldo samples, with 3.45 and 14.84 g TDF, respectively, were fed to ten fasting normal subjects then their postprandial blood glucose levels were determined at 15, 30, 45, 60 and 90 min intervals. Results of the short-term in vivo study showed that the mean postprandial glycaemic responses of subjects after consuming the experimental sample were significantly lower than the levels after consuming the control at 15, 45, and 90 min (P arroz caldo than control (147.29 +/- 53.34). The hypoglycaemic effect of carrageenan may prove useful in the prevention and management of metabolic conditions such as diabetes.

  16. Carcass glycogen repletion on carbohydrate re-feeding after starvation.

    Cox, D J; Palmer, T N

    1987-01-01

    In mice, the response of carcass glycogen to glucose re-feeding after starvation is biphasic. The initial repletive phase is followed by partial (greater than 50%) glycogen mobilization. This turnover of carcass glycogen in response to carbohydrate re-feeding may play an important role in the provision of C3 precursors for hepatic glycogen synthesis.

  17. Martini Coarse-Grained Force Field : Extension to Carbohydrates

    Lopez, Cesar A.; Rzepiela, Andrzej J.; de Vries, Alex H.; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert; Huenenberger, Philippe H.; Marrink, Siewert J.

    2009-01-01

    We present an extension of the Martini coarse-grained force field to carbohydrates. The parametrization follows the same philosophy as was used previously for lipids and proteins, focusing on the reproduction of partitioning free energies of small compounds between polar and nonpolar phases. The

  18. Non-structural carbohydrates in woody plants compared among laboratories

    Quentin, Audrey G.; Pinkard, Elizabeth A.; Ryan, Michael G.; Tissue, David T.; Baggett, Scott L.; Adams, Henry D.; Maillard, Pascale; Marchand, Jacqueline; Landhäusser, Simon M.; Lacointe, André; Gibon, Yves; Anderegg, William R.L.; Asao, Shinichi; Atkin, Owen K.; Bonhomme, Marc; Claye, Caroline; Chow, Pak S.; Clément-Vidal, Anne; Davies, Noel W.; Dickman, Turin L.; Dumbur, Rita; Ellsworth, David S.; Falk, Kristen; Galiano, Lucía; Grünzweig, José M.; Hartmann, Henrik; Hoch, Günter; Hood, Sharon; Jones, Joanna E.; Koike, Takayoshi; Kuhlmann, Iris; Lloret, Francisco; Maestro, Melchor; Mansfield, Shawn D.; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi; Maucourt, Mickael; McDowell, Nathan G.; Moing, Annick; Muller, Bertrand; Nebauer, Sergio G.; Niinemets, Ülo; Palacio, Sara; Piper, Frida; Raveh, Eran; Richter, Andreas; Rolland, Gaëlle; Rosas, Teresa; Joanis, Brigitte Saint; Sala, Anna; Smith, Renee A.; Sterck, Frank; Stinziano, Joseph R.; Tobias, Mari; Unda, Faride; Watanabe, Makoto; Way, Danielle A.; Weerasinghe, Lasantha K.; Wild, Birgit; Wiley, Erin; Woodruff, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) in plant tissue are frequently quantified to make inferences about plant responses to environmental conditions. Laboratories publishing estimates of NSC of woody plants use many different methods to evaluate NSC. We asked whether NSC estimates in the recent

  19. Expression of an expansin carbohydrate-binding module affects ...

    Expansins are believed to be involved in disrupting the non-covalent adhesion of cellulose to matrix polysaccharides, thereby promoting wall creep. We have targeted a putative potato expansin (EXPA) carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) to the cell walls of tobacco plants. Histological examinations and electron ...

  20. Affinity Electrophoresis for Analysis of Catalytic Module-Carbohydrate Interactions

    Cockburn, Darrell; Wilkens, Casper; Svensson, Birte

    2017-01-01

    Affinity electrophoresis has long been used to study the interaction between proteins and large soluble ligands. The technique has been found to have great utility for the examination of polysaccharide binding by proteins, particularly carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs). In recent years, carbohy...

  1. Dietary carbohydrate composition can change waste production and biofilter load in recirculating aquaculture systems

    Meriac, A.; Eding, E.H.; Schrama, J.W.; Kamstra, A.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of dietary carbohydrate composition on the production, recovery and degradability of fecal waste from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). Dietary carbohydrate composition was altered by substituting starch with non-starch

  2. [Systematic evaluation of retention behavior of carbohydrates in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography].

    Fu, Qing; Wang, Jun; Liang, Tu; Xu, Xiaoyong; Jin, Yu

    2013-11-01

    A systematic evaluation of retention behavior of carbohydrates in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) was performed. The influences of mobile phase, stationary phase and buffer salt on the retention of carbohydrates were investigated. According to the results, the retention time of carbohydrates decreased as the proportion of acetonitrile in mobile phase decreased. Increased time of carbohydrates was observed as the concentration of buffer salt in mobile phase increased. The retention behavior of carbohydrates was also affected by organic solvent and HILIC stationary phase. Furthermore, an appropriate retention equation was used in HILIC mode. The retention equation lnk = a + blnC(B) + cC(B) could quantitatively describe the retention factors of carbohydrates of plant origin with good accuracy: the relative error of the predicted time to actual time was less than 0.3%. The evaluation results could provide guidance for carbohydrates to optimize the experimental conditions in HILIC method development especially for carbohydrate separation

  3. Acceptability of Carbohydrate Gels During a 5-Day US Marine Corps Basic Officer Course Field Exercise

    Tharion, William

    2001-01-01

    ...). Low carbohydrate availability negatively affects physical performance (8,10). Soldiers may experience unnecessary loss of muscle mass and other problems due to inadequate carbohydrate intake when exercising vigorously (<300 g/d) (4,6,8,9,11...

  4. Fate of Carbohydrates and Lignin during Composting and Mycelium Growth of Agaricus bisporus on Wheat Straw Based Compost

    Jurak, Edita; Punt, Arjen M.; Arts, Wim; Kabel, Mirjam A.; Gruppen, Harry

    2015-01-01

    In wheat straw based composting, enabling growth of Agaricus bisporus mushrooms, it is unknown to which extent the carbohydrate-lignin matrix changes and how much is metabolized. In this paper we report yields and remaining structures of the major components. During the Phase II of composting 50% of both xylan and cellulose were metabolized by microbial activity, while lignin structures were unaltered. During A. bisporus’ mycelium growth (Phase III) carbohydrates were only slightly consumed and xylan was found to be partially degraded. At the same time, lignin was metabolized for 45% based on pyrolysis GC/MS. Remaining lignin was found to be modified by an increase in the ratio of syringyl (S) to guaiacyl (G) units from 0.5 to 0.7 during mycelium growth, while fewer decorations on the phenolic skeleton of both S and G units remained. PMID:26436656

  5. Storage of platelets: effects associated with high platelet content in platelet storage containers.

    Gulliksson, Hans; Sandgren, Per; Sjödin, Agneta; Hultenby, Kjell

    2012-04-01

    A major problem associated with platelet storage containers is that some platelet units show a dramatic fall in pH, especially above certain platelet contents. The aim of this study was a detailed investigation of the different in vitro effects occurring when the maximum storage capacity of a platelet container is exceeded as compared to normal storage. Buffy coats were combined in large-volume containers to create primary pools to be split into two equal aliquots for the preparation of platelets (450-520×10(9) platelets/unit) in SSP+ for 7-day storage in two containers (test and reference) with different platelet storage capacity (n=8). Exceeding the maximum storage capacity of the test platelet storage container resulted in immediate negative effects on platelet metabolism and energy supply, but also delayed effects on platelet function, activation and disintegration. Our study gives a very clear indication of the effects in different phases associated with exceeding the maximum storage capacity of platelet containers but throw little additional light on the mechanism initiating those negative effects. The problem appears to be complex and further studies in different media using different storage containers will be needed to understand the mechanisms involved.

  6. Randomized controlled trial of changes in dietary carbohydrate/fat ratio and simple vs complex carbohydrates on body weight and blood lipids: the CARMEN study. The Carbohydrate Ratio Management in European National diets.

    Saris, W H; Astrup, A; Prentice, A M; Zunft, H J; Formiguera, X; Verboeket-van de Venne, W P; Raben, A; Poppitt, S D; Seppelt, B; Johnston, S; Vasilaras, T H; Keogh, G F

    2000-10-01

    To investigate the long-term effects of changes in dietary carbohydrate/fat ratio and simple vs complex carbohydrates. Randomized controlled multicentre trial (CARMEN), in which subjects were allocated for 6 months either to a seasonal control group (no intervention) or to one of three experimental groups: a control diet group (dietary intervention typical of the average national intake); a low-fat high simple carbohydrate group; or a low-fat high complex carbohydrate group. Three hundred and ninety eight moderately obese adults. The change in body weight was the primary outcome; changes in body composition and blood lipids were secondary outcomes. Body weight loss in the low-fat high simple carbohydrate and low-fat high complex carbohydrate groups was 0.9 kg (P Fat mass changed by -1.3kg (Plow-fat high simple carbohydrate, low-fat high complex carbohydrate and control diet groups, respectively. Changes in blood lipids did not differ significantly between the dietary treatment groups. Our findings suggest that reduction of fat intake results in a modest but significant reduction in body weight and body fatness. The concomitant increase in either simple or complex carbohydrates did not indicate significant differences in weight change. No adverse effects on blood lipids were observed. These findings underline the importance of this dietary change and its potential impact on the public health implications of obesity.

  7. Storage of energies - Translating potential into actions

    Signoret, Stephane; Mary, Olivier; Petitot, Pauline; Dejeu, Mathieu; De Santis, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    In this set of articles, a first one evokes issues discussed during a colloquium held in Paris by the European association for storage of energy, the possibilities mentioned about energy storage development in the French bill project for energy transition, and the importance of non-interconnected areas in the development of energy storage. A second article proposes an overview of developments and advances in energy storage in California which adopted suitable laws. The German situation is then briefly described: needs are still to be defined and a road map has been published in 2014, as technologies are expensive and the legal framework is still complex. The next article outlines the conditions of development of the power-to-gas sector (as a process of valorisation of excess electricity). An article gives an overview of technological developments in the field of electrochemical energy storage (batteries). The results of the PEPS study (a study on the potential of energy storage) in Europe are commented. An interview with a member of the French BRGM (Bureau of Mines) outlines the major role which underground storage could play in energy transition. The Seti project for an intelligent thermal energy storage and a better use of renewable energies is then presented. An article comments how to use foodstuff cold to make consumption cut-offs. A last article comments how superconductors could be used in the future for batteries. Few examples are briefly presented: a molten salt-based storage by Areva, a local production of green hydrogen in France, an innovating project of solar energy storage in Switzerland, and the Toucan solar plant in French Guyana

  8. Transcriptional regulation of the carbohydrate utilization network in Thermotoga maritima

    Dmitry A Rodionov

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Hyperthermophilic bacteria from the Thermotogales lineage can produce hydrogen by fermenting a wide range of carbohydrates. Previous experimental studies identified a large fraction of genes committed to carbohydrate degradation and utilization in the model bacterium Thermotoga maritima. Knowledge of these genes enabled comprehensive reconstruction of biochemical pathways comprising the carbohydrate utilization network. However, transcriptional factors (TFs and regulatory mechanisms driving this network remained largely unknown. Here, we used an integrated approach based on comparative analysis of genomic and transcriptomic data for the reconstruction of the carbohydrate utilization regulatory networks in 11 Thermotogales genomes. We identified DNA-binding motifs and regulons for 19 orthologous TFs in the Thermotogales. The inferred regulatory network in T. maritima contains 181 genes encoding TFs, sugar catabolic enzymes and ABC-family transporters. In contrast to many previously described bacteria, a transcriptional regulation strategy of Thermotoga does not employ global regulatory factors. The reconstructed regulatory network in T. maritima was validated by gene expression profiling on a panel of mono- and disaccharides and by in vitro DNA-binding assays. The observed upregulation of genes involved in catabolism of pectin, trehalose, cellobiose, arabinose, rhamnose, xylose, glucose, galactose, and ribose showed a strong correlation with the UxaR, TreR, BglR, CelR, AraR, RhaR, XylR, GluR, GalR, and RbsR regulons. Ultimately, this study elucidated the transcriptional regulatory network and mechanisms controlling expression of carbohydrate utilization genes in T. maritima. In addition to improving the functional annotations of associated transporters and catabolic enzymes, this research provides novel insights into the evolution of regulatory networks in Thermotogales.

  9. Streptococcus oralis Neuraminidase Modulates Adherence to Multiple Carbohydrates on Platelets

    Singh, Anirudh K.; Woodiga, Shireen A.; Grau, Margaret A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Adherence to host surfaces is often mediated by bacterial binding to surface carbohydrates. Although it is widely appreciated that some bacterial species express glycosidases, previous studies have not considered whether bacteria bind to multiple carbohydrates within host glycans as they are modified by bacterial glycosidases. Streptococcus oralis is a leading cause of subacute infective endocarditis. Binding to platelets is a critical step in disease; however, the mechanisms utilized by S. oralis remain largely undefined. Studies revealed that S. oralis, like Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus sanguinis, binds platelets via terminal sialic acid. However, unlike those organisms, S. oralis produces a neuraminidase, NanA, which cleaves terminal sialic acid. Further studies revealed that following NanA-dependent removal of terminal sialic acid, S. oralis bound exposed β-1,4-linked galactose. Adherence to both these carbohydrates required Fap1, the S. oralis member of the serine-rich repeat protein (SRRP) family of adhesins. Mutation of a conserved residue required for sialic acid binding by other SRRPs significantly reduced platelet binding, supporting the hypothesis that Fap1 binds this carbohydrate. The mechanism by which Fap1 contributes to β-1,4-linked galactose binding remains to be defined; however, binding may occur via additional domains of unknown function within the nonrepeat region, one of which shares some similarity with a carbohydrate binding module. This study is the first demonstration that an SRRP is required to bind β-1,4-linked galactose and the first time that one of these adhesins has been shown to be required for binding of multiple glycan receptors. PMID:27993975

  10. Streptococcus oralis Neuraminidase Modulates Adherence to Multiple Carbohydrates on Platelets.

    Singh, Anirudh K; Woodiga, Shireen A; Grau, Margaret A; King, Samantha J

    2017-03-01

    Adherence to host surfaces is often mediated by bacterial binding to surface carbohydrates. Although it is widely appreciated that some bacterial species express glycosidases, previous studies have not considered whether bacteria bind to multiple carbohydrates within host glycans as they are modified by bacterial glycosidases. Streptococcus oralis is a leading cause of subacute infective endocarditis. Binding to platelets is a critical step in disease; however, the mechanisms utilized by S. oralis remain largely undefined. Studies revealed that S. oralis , like Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus sanguinis , binds platelets via terminal sialic acid. However, unlike those organisms, S. oralis produces a neuraminidase, NanA, which cleaves terminal sialic acid. Further studies revealed that following NanA-dependent removal of terminal sialic acid, S. oralis bound exposed β-1,4-linked galactose. Adherence to both these carbohydrates required Fap1, the S. oralis member of the serine-rich repeat protein (SRRP) family of adhesins. Mutation of a conserved residue required for sialic acid binding by other SRRPs significantly reduced platelet binding, supporting the hypothesis that Fap1 binds this carbohydrate. The mechanism by which Fap1 contributes to β-1,4-linked galactose binding remains to be defined; however, binding may occur via additional domains of unknown function within the nonrepeat region, one of which shares some similarity with a carbohydrate binding module. This study is the first demonstration that an SRRP is required to bind β-1,4-linked galactose and the first time that one of these adhesins has been shown to be required for binding of multiple glycan receptors. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  11. PC-Cluster based Storage System Architecture for Cloud Storage

    Yee, Tin Tin; Naing, Thinn Thu

    2011-01-01

    Design and architecture of cloud storage system plays a vital role in cloud computing infrastructure in order to improve the storage capacity as well as cost effectiveness. Usually cloud storage system provides users to efficient storage space with elasticity feature. One of the challenges of cloud storage system is difficult to balance the providing huge elastic capacity of storage and investment of expensive cost for it. In order to solve this issue in the cloud storage infrastructure, low ...

  12. Whey or Casein Hydrolysate with Carbohydrate for Metabolism and Performance in Cycling.

    Oosthuyse, T; Carstens, M; Millen, A M E

    2015-07-01

    The protein type most suitable for ingestion during endurance exercise is undefined. This study compared co-ingestion of either 15 g/h whey or casein hydrolysate with 63 g/h fructose: maltodextrin (0.8:1) on exogenous carbohydrate oxidation, exercise metabolism and performance. 2 h postprandial, 8 male cyclists ingested either: carbohydrate-only, carbohydrate-whey hydrolysate, carbohydrate-casein hydrolysate or placebo-water in a crossover, double-blind design during 2 h of exercise at 60%W max followed by a 16-km time trial. Data were evaluated by magnitude-based inferential statistics. Exogenous carbohydrate oxidation, measured from (13)CO2 breath enrichment, was not substantially influenced by co-ingestion of either protein hydrolysate. However, only co-ingestion of carbohydrate-casein hydrolysate substantially decreased (98% very likely decrease) total carbohydrate oxidation (mean±SD, 242±44; 258±47; 277±33 g for carbohydrate-casein, carbohydrate-whey and carbohydrate-only, respectively) and substantially increased (93% likely increase) total fat oxidation (92±14; 83±27; 73±19 g) compared with carbohydrate-only. Furthermore, only carbohydrate-casein hydrolysate ingestion resulted in a faster time trial (-3.6%; 90% CI: ±3.2%) compared with placebo-water (95% likely benefit). However, neither protein hydrolysate enhanced time trial performance when compared with carbohydrate-only. Under the conditions of this study, ingesting carbohydrate-casein, but not carbohydrate-whey hydrolysate, favourably alters metabolism during prolonged moderate-strenuous cycling without substantially altering cycling performance compared with carbohydrate-only. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Evaluation of feed value of a by-product of pickled radish for ruminants: analyses of nutrient composition, storage stability, and in vitro ruminal fermentation.

    Jeon, Seoyoung; Sohn, Keun-Nam; Seo, Seongwon

    2016-01-01

    By-products of pickled radish (BPR) are considered food waste. Approximately 300 g/kg of the total mass of raw materials becomes BPR. Production of pickled radish has grown continuously and is presently about 40,000 metric tons annually in Korea. The objective of the present study was thus to explore the possibility of using BPR as a ruminant feed ingredient. BPR contained a large amount of moisture (more than 800 g/kg) and ash, and comprised mostly sodium (103 g/kg DM) and chloride (142 g/kg DM). On a dry matter basis, the crude protein (CP) and ether extract (EE) levels in BPR were 75 g/kg and 7 g/kg, respectively. The total digestible nutrient (TDN) level was 527 g/kg and the major portion of digestible nutrients was carbohydrate; 88 % organic matter (OM) was carbohydrate and 65 % of total carbohydrate was soluble or degradable fiber. The coefficient of variation (CV) of nutrient contents among production batches ranged from 4.65 to 33.83 %. The smallest CV was observed in OM, and the largest, in EE. The variation in CP content was relatively small (10.11 %). The storage stability test revealed that storage of BPR at 20 °C (room temperature) might not cause spoilage for 4 d, and possibly longer. If BPR is refrigerated, spoilage can be deferred for 21 d and longer. The in vitro ruminal fermentation study showed that substitution of annual ryegrass straw with BPR improved ruminal fermentation, as evidenced by an increase in VFA concentration, DM degradability, and total gas production. The major portion of nutrients in BPR is soluble or degradable fiber that can be easily fermented in the rumen without adverse effects, to provide energy to ruminant animals. Although its high sodium chloride content needs to be considered when formulating a ration, BPR can be successfully used as a feed ingredient in a ruminant diet, particularly if it is one component of a total mixed ration.

  14. Large mass storage facility

    Peskin, A.M.

    1978-01-01

    The report of a committee to study the questions surrounding possible acquisition of a large mass-storage device is presented. The current computing environment at BNL and justification for an online large mass storage device are briefly discussed. Possible devices to meet the requirements of large mass storage are surveyed, including future devices. The future computing needs of BNL are prognosticated. 2 figures, 4 tables

  15. Evaluation of certain crop residues for carbohydrate and protein fractions by cornell net carbohydrate and protein system

    Venkateswarulu Swarna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Four locally available crop residues viz., jowar stover (JS, maize stover (MS, red gram straw (RGS and black gram straw (BGS were evaluated for carbohydrate and protein fractions using Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein (CNCP system. Lignin (% NDF was higher in legume straws as compared to cereal stovers while Non-structural carbohydrates (NSC (% DM followed the reverse trend. The carbohydrate fractions A and B1 were higher in BGS while B2 was higher in MS as compared to other crop residues. The unavailable cell wall fraction (C was higher in legume straws when compared to cereal stovers. Among protein fractions, B1 was higher in legume straws when compared to cereal stovers while B2 was higher in cereal stovers as compared to legume straws. Fraction B3 largely, bypass protein was highest in MS as compared to other crop residues. Acid detergent insoluble crude protein (ADICP (% CP or unavailable protein fraction C was lowest in MS and highest in BGS. It is concluded that MS is superior in nutritional value for feeding ruminants as compared to other crop residues.

  16. Structural basis of carbohydrate recognition by lectin II from Ulex europaeus, a protein with a promiscuous carbohydrate-binding site.

    Loris, R; De Greve, H; Dao-Thi, M H; Messens, J; Imberty, A; Wyns, L

    2000-08-25

    Protein-carbohydrate interactions are the language of choice for inter- cellular communication. The legume lectins form a large family of homologous proteins that exhibit a wide variety of carbohydrate specificities. The legume lectin family is therefore highly suitable as a model system to study the structural principles of protein-carbohydrate recognition. Until now, structural data are only available for two specificity families: Man/Glc and Gal/GalNAc. No structural data are available for any of the fucose or chitobiose specific lectins. The crystal structure of Ulex europaeus (UEA-II) is the first of a legume lectin belonging to the chitobiose specificity group. The complexes with N-acetylglucosamine, galactose and fucosylgalactose show a promiscuous primary binding site capable of accommodating both N-acetylglucos amine or galactose in the primary binding site. The hydrogen bonding network in these complexes can be considered suboptimal, in agreement with the low affinities of these sugars. In the complexes with chitobiose, lactose and fucosyllactose this suboptimal hydrogen bonding network is compensated by extensive hydrophobic interactions in a Glc/GlcNAc binding subsite. UEA-II thus forms the first example of a legume lectin with a promiscuous binding site and illustrates the importance of hydrophobic interactions in protein-carbohydrate complexes. Together with other known legume lectin crystal structures, it shows how different specificities can be grafted upon a conserved structural framework. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  17. Method for the direct determination of available carbohydrates in low-carbohydrate products using high-performance anion exchange chromatography.

    Ellingson, David; Potts, Brian; Anderson, Phillip; Burkhardt, Greg; Ellefson, Wayne; Sullivan, Darryl; Jacobs, Wesley; Ragan, Robert

    2010-01-01

    An improved method for direct determination of available carbohydrates in low-level products has been developed and validated for a low-carbohydrate soy infant formula. The method involves modification of an existing direct determination method to improve specificity, accuracy, detection levels, and run times through a more extensive enzymatic digestion to capture all available (or potentially available) carbohydrates. The digestion hydrolyzes all common sugars, starch, and starch derivatives down to their monosaccharide components, glucose, fructose, and galactose, which are then quantitated by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with photodiode array detection. Method validation consisted of specificity testing and 10 days of analyzing various spike levels of mixed sugars, maltodextrin, and corn starch. The overall RSD was 4.0% across all sample types, which contained within-day and day-to-day components of 3.6 and 3.4%, respectively. Overall average recovery was 99.4% (n = 10). Average recovery for individual spiked samples ranged from 94.1 to 106% (n = 10). It is expected that the method could be applied to a variety of low-carbohydrate foods and beverages.

  18. Carbohydrates, uronic acids and alkali extractable carbohydrates in contrasting marine and estuarine sediments: Distribution, size fractionation and partial chemical characterization

    Khodse, V.B.; Fernandes, L.; Bhosle, N.B.; Sardessai, S.

    terrestrial plants, bacteria and phytoplankton, however, the influence of the former was relatively greater in sediments of the ME and BOB, as well as in residual sediments of ME. Approximately 11-21% of total carbohydrates could be extracted using hot alkali...

  19. Benchmarking Cloud Storage Systems

    Wang, Xing

    2014-01-01

    With the rise of cloud computing, many cloud storage systems like Dropbox, Google Drive and Mega have been built to provide decentralized and reliable file storage. It is thus of prime importance to know their features, performance, and the best way to make use of them. In this context, we introduce BenchCloud, a tool designed as part of this thesis to conveniently and efficiently benchmark any cloud storage system. First, we provide a study of six commonly-used cloud storage systems to ident...

  20. A curve fitting approach to estimate the extent of fermentation of indigestible carbohydrates

    Wang, H.; Weening, D.; Jonkers, E.; Boer, T.; Stellaard, F.; Small, A. C.; Preston, T.; Vonk, R. J.; Priebe, M. G.

    Background Information about the extent of carbohydrate digestion and fermentation is critical to our ability to explore the metabolic effects of carbohydrate fermentation in vivo. We used cooked (13)C-labelled barley kernels, which are rich in indigestible carbohydrates, to develop a method which

  1. DMPD: Sweet preferences of MGL: carbohydrate specificity and function. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Full Text Available 18249034 Sweet preferences of MGL: carbohydrate specificity and function. van Vliet....csml) Show Sweet preferences of MGL: carbohydrate specificity and function. PubmedID 18249034 Title Sweet p...references of MGL: carbohydrate specificity and function. Authors van Vliet SJ, S

  2. 21 CFR 172.866 - Synthetic glycerin produced by the hydrogenolysis of carbohydrates.

    2010-04-01

    ... of carbohydrates. 172.866 Section 172.866 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... produced by the hydrogenolysis of carbohydrates. Synthetic glycerin produced by the hydrogenolysis of carbohydrates may be safely used in food, subject to the provisions of this section: (a) It shall contain not in...

  3. Oxalic acid pretreatment of rice straw particles and loblolly pine chips : release of hemicellulosic carbohydrates

    Xianjun Li; Zhiyong Cai; Eric Horn; Jerrold E. Winandy

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of oxalic acid (OA) pretreatment on carbohydrates released from rice straw particles and wood chips. The results showed that OA treatment accelerated carbohydrates extraction from rice straw particles and wood chips. OA pretreatment dramatically increased the amount of carbohydrates extracted, up to 24 times for wood...

  4. Sports Nutrition for the Primary Care Physician: The Importance of Carbohydrate.

    Wheeler, Keith B.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the relationship between nutrition and fatigue and how carbohydrates and timing of carbohydrate consumption can affect fatigued athletes. Nutrition plays a significant role in successful training and competition. Key concerns are the specific needs of athletes for carbohydrates before, during, and after exercise. (Author/SM)

  5. Structural analysis of the carbohydrate chains of glycoproteins by 500-MHz 1H-NMR spectroscopy

    Mutsaers, J.H.G.M.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis deals with the structural analysis by 500-MHz 1 H-NMR spectroscopy of carbohydrate chains obtained from glycoproteins. In the chapters 1 to 6 the structural analysis of N-glycosidically linked carbohydrate chains is described. The chapters 7 to 10 describe the structural analysis of O-glycosidically linked carbohydrate chains. 381 refs.; 44 figs.; 24 tabs.; 7 schemes

  6. A curve fitting approach to estimate the extent of fermentation of indigestible carbohydrates

    Wang, H.; Weening, D.; Jonkers, E.; Boer, T.; Stellaard, F.; Small, A. C.; Preston, T.; Vonk, R. J.; Priebe, M. G.

    2008-01-01

    Background Information about the extent of carbohydrate digestion and fermentation is critical to our ability to explore the metabolic effects of carbohydrate fermentation in vivo. We used cooked (13)C-labelled barley kernels, which are rich in indigestible carbohydrates, to develop a method which

  7. Carbohydrate metabolism and quality of life in patients after surgical treatment of insulinoma

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. T study the quality of life and status of carbohydrate metabolism in patients after surgical treatment insulinoma. Methods: The study involved 20 patients divided in two groups: the first group with a catamnesis duration of up to five years; the second group with a catamnesis duration of more than five years. We studied anthropometric parameters and carbohydrate metabolism as well as psychological questioning of patients using SF-36 questionnaire, the data was considered statistically significant at p<0.05. Results. severe combined postoperative complications were more frequent in the first group (63.6% vs. 22.2%, p=0.07, due to extend of the performed surgery. Adrenergic symptoms prior to the surgery were detected in 90.9% of cases in the first group and in 77.7% of cases in the second group. After treatment these numbers decreased to 36.4% and 11.1% respectively (p=0.039 and 0.026. Neuroglycopeniс symptoms before treatment were detected in 90.9% of cases in the first group and for all patients in the second, while after treatment persisted only in 45.5% and 33.3% of cases respectively (p=0.045 and 0.036. Carbohydrate metabolism have normalized for the majority of patients. Two patients (18.2% of the first group showed impaired glucose tolerance. Improved carbohydrate metabolism was associated with a decrease in body weight in both groups. Results of psychological questionnaires were comparable with the survey data obtained in general population in the Russian Federation. Conclusion. Surgical treatment of insulinomas is highly effective. Physical and psychological status of patients in most cases corresponds with those typical for this age-sex group of the population of the Russian Federation. Long-term treatment results do not depend on duration of the catamnesis. Complications that developed from surgical treatment have the main influence on the health of patients.

  8. Carbohydrate composition, viscosity, solubility, and sensory acceptance of sweetpotato- and maize-based complementary foods

    Amagloh, Francis Kweku; Mutukumira, Anthony N.; Brough, Louise; Weber, Janet L.; Hardacre, Allan; Coad, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Background Cereal-based complementary foods from non-malted ingredients form a relatively high viscous porridge. Therefore, excessive dilution, usually with water, is required to reduce the viscosity to be appropriate for infant feeding. The dilution invariably leads to energy and nutrient thinning, that is, the reduction of energy and nutrient densities. Carbohydrate is the major constituent of food that significantly influences viscosity when heated in water. Objectives To compare the sweetpotato-based complementary foods (extrusion-cooked ComFa, roller-dried ComFa, and oven-toasted ComFa) and enriched Weanimix (maize-based formulation) regarding their 1) carbohydrate composition, 2) viscosity and water solubility index (WSI), and 3) sensory acceptance evaluated by sub-Sahara African women as model caregivers. Methods The level of simple sugars/carbohydrates was analysed by spectrophotometry, total dietary fibre by enzymatic-gravimetric method, and total carbohydrate and starch levels estimated by calculation. A Rapid Visco™ Analyser was used to measure viscosity. WSI was determined gravimetrically. A consumer sensory evaluation was used to evaluate the product acceptance of the roller-dried ComFa, oven-toasted ComFa, and enriched Weanimix. Results The sweetpotato-based complementary foods were, on average, significantly higher in maltose, sucrose, free glucose and fructose, and total dietary fibre, but they were markedly lower in starch content compared with the levels in the enriched Weanimix. Consequently, the sweetpotato-based complementary foods had relatively low apparent viscosity, and high WSI, than that of enriched Weanimix. The scores of sensory liking given by the caregivers were highest for the roller-dried ComFa, followed by the oven-toasted ComFa, and, finally, the enriched Weanimix. Conclusion The sweetpotato-based formulations have significant advantages as complementary food due to the high level of endogenous sugars and low starch content that

  9. Effects of in ovo feeding of carbohydrates on hatchability, body weight, and energy status in domestic pigeons (Columba livia).

    Dong, X Y; Jiang, Y J; Wang, M Q; Wang, Y M; Zou, X T

    2013-08-01

    The effects of in ovo feeding of carbohydrates on hatchability, BW, yolk sac weights (YSW), pectoral muscle weights (PMW), liver and pectoral muscle glycogen concentration, serum glucose level, and hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase activity of domestic pigeons, hatched from eggs laid by a 40-wk-old breeder flock, were investigated. At 14.5 of incubation, fertile eggs were injected with 200 μL of 1.5% maltose (M) + 1.5% sucrose (S), 2.5% M + 2.5% S, 3.5% M + 3.5% S, or 4.5% M + 4.5% S in 0.75% saline, with controls not injected. Results showed that in ovo injection with 1.5% M + 1.5% S or 2.5% M + 2.5% S increased the hatchability compared with the control, whereas injection of 4.5% M + 4.5% S decreased the hatchability. The BW at hatch was quadratic, and BW was maximized by injecting 2.5% M + 2.5% S. The YSW at hatch decreased linearly by the injection with 3.5% M + 3.5% S compared with the control group. In ovo injection of 2.5% M + 2.5% S increased the PMW at hatch. There were no significant differences between any of the treatment groups for liver glycogen reserves. Serum glucose level at hatch was quadratic, and the glucose level was maximized between supplemental 2.5% M + 2.5% S and supplemental 3.5% M + 3.5% S. The pectoral muscle glycogen reserves increased quadratically as supplemental carbohydrates increased, and the response was maximized by injecting 2.5% M + 2.5% S. In conclusion, the present results demonstrate that the injected carbohydrates are available for use and storage. In ovo feeding of carbohydrates, especially at the level of 2.5% M + 2.5% S, on 14.5 d of incubation can improve the hatchability, BW, and PMW by elevating the pectoral muscle glycogen reserves in domestic pigeons at hatch. Results also suggested that in ovo injection of carbohydrates could increase the yolk sac nutrient utilization and hence might enhance the pigeon enteric development.

  10. Viability and Biochemical Content Changes in Seed Storage of Jabon Putih (Anthocephalus Cadamba (Roxb Miq.

    Naning Yuniarti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Seed deterioration is the process of deteriorated seed in view of viability that changed the physiological and chemical content. The aim of this research is to find out the effect of moisture content and storage on viability and biochemical content of jabon putih seed. Completely Randomized Design was used for decreasing moisture content based on seed drying time for 0, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 hours, and Completely Randomized Factorial Design was used for the combination of moisture content (drying time for 0, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 hours and room storage (ambient room, air-conditioned room, refrigerator. The results of this research are: (1 seed drying time and seed storage affected the change of seed viability and biochemical content, (2 seed drying time and seed storage influence significantly the value of moisture content, germination percentage, and biochemical content (lipid, carbohydrate, protein, (3 The longer time of seed drying and seed storage has decreased the seed moisture content, germination percentage, and the carbohydrate content, but it has increased the content of lipid and protein, and (4 the seeds were stored in refrigerator has better viability compared to dry cold storage and ambient room.

  11. Underground storage of natural gas in Italy

    Henking, E.

    1992-01-01

    After first relating the importance of natural gas storage to the viability of Italian industrial activities, this paper discusses the geo-physical nature of different types of underground cavities which can be used for natural gas storage. These include depleted petroleum and natural gas reservoirs, aquifers and abandoned mines. Attention is given to the geologic characteristics and physical characteristics such as porosity, permeability and pressure that determine the suitability of any given storage area, and to the techniques used to resolve problems relative to partially depleted reservoirs, e.g., the presence of oil, water and salt. A review is made of Italy's main storage facilities. This review identifies the various types of storage techniques, major equipment, operating and maintenance practices. A look is then given at Italy's plans for the development of new facilities to meet rising demand expected to reach 80 billion cubic meters/year by the turn of the century. The operating activities of the two leading participants, SNAM and AGIP, in Italy's natural gas industry are highlighted. Specific problems which contribute to the high operating costs of natural gas storage are identified and a review is made of national normatives governing gas storage. The report comes complete with a glossary of the relative terminology and units of measure

  12. Spent fuel storage for ISER plant

    Nakajima, Takasuke; Kimura, Yuzi

    1987-01-01

    ISER is an intrinsically safe reactor basing its safety only on physical laws, and uses a steel reactor vessel in order to be economical. For such a new type reactor, it is essentially important to be accepted by the society by showing that the reactor is more profitable than conventional reactors to the public in both technical and economic viewpoint. It is also important that the reactor raises no serious problem in the total fuel cycle. Reprocessing seems one of the major worldwide fuel cycle issues. Spent fuel storage is also one of the key technologies for fuel cycle back end. Various systems for ISER spent fuel storages are examined in the present report. Spent fuel specifications of ISER are similar to those of LWR and therefore, most of LWR spent fuel technologies are basically applicable to ISER spent fuel. Design requirements and examples of storage facilities are also discussed. Dry storage seems to be preferable for the relatively long cooling time spent fuel like ISER's one from economical viewpoint. Vault storage will possibly be the most advantageous for large storage capacity. Another point for discussion is the location and international collaboration for spent fuel storages: ISER expected to be a worldwide energy source and therefore, international spent fuel management seems to be fairly attractive way for an energy recipient country. (Nogami, K.)

  13. Solar heat storages in district heating networks

    Ellehauge, K. (Ellehauge og Kildemoes, AArhus (DK)); Engberg Pedersen, T. (COWI A/S, Kgs. Lyngby (DK))

    2007-07-15

    This report gives information on the work carried out and the results obtained in Denmark on storages for large solar heating plants in district heating networks. Especially in Denmark the share of district heating has increased to a large percentage. In 1981 around 33% of all dwellings in DK were connected to a district heating network, while the percentage in 2006 was about 60% (in total 1.5 mio. dwellings). In the report storage types for short term storage and long term storages are described. Short term storages are done as steel tanks and is well established technology widely used in district heating networks. Long term storages are experimental and used in connection with solar heating. A number of solar heating plants have been established with either short term or long term storages showing economy competitive with normal energy sources. Since, in the majority of the Danish district heating networks the heat is produced in co-generation plants, i.e. plants producing both electricity and heat for the network, special attention has been put on the use of solar energy in combination with co-generation. Part of this report describes that in the liberalized electricity market central solar heating plants can also be advantageous in combination with co-generation plants. (au)

  14. Liquefied natural gas storage at Ambergate

    Higton, C W; Mills, M J

    1970-08-19

    Ambergate works was planned in 1965-1966 and the decision was taken to install 4 ICI lean gas reformers using natural gas as feedstock, fuel, and enrichment. To cover the possible failure of natural gas supplies, petroleum distillate would be used as alternative feedstock and fuel. The choice for alternative enrichment lay between LPG or LNG. Since LNG would provide peak-on-peak storage facilities for either the East Midlands Board or the Gas Council when conversion was completed--and in the meantime would provide an additional source of LNG for local requirements when temporary LNG installations were used during conversion--agreement was reached with the Gas Council for it to build a 5,000-ton storage installation at Ambergate. The installation consists of 3 major sections: (1) the offloading bay and storage tank; (2) the reliquefaction system; and (3) the export system. The offloading bay and storage tank are for the reception and storage of liquefied Algerian natural gas, delivered to Ambergate by road tanker from the Canvey Is. Terminal. The reliquefaction system is to maintain the necessary storage tank conditions by reliquefying the boil-off natural gas. The export system delivers LNG from the storage tank at high pressure through a vaporization section in the national methane grid.

  15. Developmental changes in carbohydrate partitioning and translocation in celery (Apium graveolens L. )

    Davis, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    The major photoassimilates and translocated carbohydrates in celery (Apium graveolens L.) are sucrose and mannitol. /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ pulse-chase labeling studies were conducted to determine if carbon partitioning between and translocation of mannitol and sucrose change with leaf development. After a 10 min pulse and 10 min chase the proportion of /sup 14/C fixed into mannitol increased with leaf maturation whereas that in sucrose remained fairly constant. In contrast, mannitol content was high in all leaves but sucrose content rose as leaves developed. Activities of various enzymes important in sucrose and mannitol metabolism also increased with leaf maturity. After a 1 or 2 h chase, export of /sup 14/C-mannitol, relative to /sup 14/C-sucrose, was also lower in expanding leaves than older leaves, but there was more label in sucrose than mannitol in all petioles. Labeling patterns were different in the light and dark, which was investigated further by following the disappearance of soluble /sup 14/C-carbohydrates from mature leaves during an extended chase in the light or dark. Efflux curves for /sup 14/C-sucrose and /sup 14/C-mannitol from leaf discs that had been incubated with the /sup 14/C-sugars provided further evidence for both of these claims. A diurnal study revealed that mannitol and sucrose remained fairly constant in young and old leaves, but in mature leaves both exhibited diurnal fluctuations; sucrose more so than mannitol.

  16. Kinetics and mechanism of thermal degradation of pentose- and hexose-based carbohydrate polymers.

    Akbar, Jamshed; Iqbal, Mohammad S; Massey, Shazma; Masih, Rashid

    2012-10-15

    This work aims at study of thermal degradation kinetics and mechanism of pentose- and hexose-based carbohydrate polymers isolated from Plantago ovata (PO), Salvia aegyptiaca (SA) and Ocimum basilicum (OB). The analysis was performed by isoconversional method. The materials exhibited mainly two-stage degradation. The weight loss at ambient-115°C characterized by low activation energy corresponds to loss of moisture. The kinetic triplets consisting of E, A and g(α) model of the materials were determined. The major degradation stage represents a loss of high boiling volatile components. This stage is exothermic in nature. Above 340°C complete degradation takes place leaving a residue of 10-15%. The master plots of g(α) function clearly differentiated the degradation mechanism of hexose-based OB and SA polymers and pentose-based PO polymer. The pentose-based carbohydrate polymer showed D(4) type and the hexose-based polymers showed A(4) type degradation mechanism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Size-fractionated dissolved primary production and carbohydrate composition of the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi

    Borchard, C.; Engel, A.

    2015-02-01

    Extracellular release (ER) by phytoplankton is the major source of fresh dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in marine ecosystems and accompanies primary production during all growth phases. Little is known, so far, on size and composition of released molecules, and to which extent ER occurs passively, by leakage, or actively, by exudation. Here, we report on ER by the widespread and bloom-forming coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi grown under steady-state conditions in phosphorus-controlled chemostats (N:P = 29, growth rate of μ = 0.2 d-1) at present-day and high-CO2 concentrations. 14C incubations were performed to determine primary production (PP), comprised of particulate (PO14C) and dissolved organic carbon (DO14C). Concentration and composition of particulate combined carbohydrates (pCCHO) and high-molecular-weight (>1 kDa, HMW) dissolved combined carbohydrates (dCCHO) were determined by ion chromatography. Information on size distribution of ER products was obtained by investigating distinct size classes (10 kDa was significantly different, with a higher mol% of arabinose. The mol% of acidic sugars increased and that of glucose decreased with increasing size of HMW-dCCHO. We conclude that larger polysaccharides follow different production and release pathways than smaller molecules, potentially serving distinct ecological and biogeochemical functions.

  18. Developmental changes in carbohydrate partitioning and translocation in celery (Apium graveolens L.)

    Davis, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    The major photoassimilates and translocated carbohydrates in celery (Apium graveolens L.) are sucrose and mannitol. 14 CO 2 pulse-chase labeling studies were conducted to determine if carbon partitioning between and translocation of mannitol and sucrose change with leaf development. After a 10 min pulse and 10 min chase the proportion of 14 C fixed into mannitol increased with leaf maturation whereas that in sucrose remained fairly constant. In contrast, mannitol content was high in all leaves but sucrose content rose as leaves developed. Activities of various enzymes important in sucrose and mannitol metabolism also increased with leaf maturity. After a 1 or 2 h chase, export of 14 C-mannitol, relative to 14 C-sucrose, was also lower in expanding leaves than older leaves, but there was more label in sucrose than mannitol in all petioles. Labeling patterns were different in the light and dark, which was investigated further by following the disappearance of soluble 14 C-carbohydrates from mature leaves during an extended chase in the light or dark. Efflux curves for 14 C-sucrose and 14 C-mannitol from leaf discs that had been incubated with the 14 C-sugars provided further evidence for both of these claims. A diurnal study revealed that mannitol and sucrose remained fairly constant in young and old leaves, but in mature leaves both exhibited diurnal fluctuations; sucrose more so than mannitol

  19. A new storage-ring light source

    Chao, Alex [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-06-01

    A recently proposed technique in storage ring accelerators is applied to provide potential high-power sources of photon radiation. The technique is based on the steady-state microbunching (SSMB) mechanism. As examples of this application, one may consider a high-power DUV photon source for research in atomic and molecular physics or a high-power EUV radiation source for industrial lithography. A less challenging proof-of-principle test to produce IR radiation using an existing storage ring is also considered.

  20. Cost analysis methodology of spent fuel storage

    1994-01-01

    The report deals with the cost analysis of interim spent fuel storage; however, it is not intended either to give a detailed cost analysis or to compare the costs of the different options. This report provides a methodology for calculating the costs of different options for interim storage of the spent fuel produced in the reactor cores. Different technical features and storage options (dry and wet, away from reactor and at reactor) are considered and the factors affecting all options defined. The major cost categories are analysed. Then the net present value of each option is calculated and the levelized cost determined. Finally, a sensitivity analysis is conducted taking into account the uncertainty in the different cost estimates. Examples of current storage practices in some countries are included in the Appendices, with description of the most relevant technical and economic aspects. 16 figs, 14 tabs