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Sample records for major species produced

  1. Probabilistic risk assessment of veterinary medicines applied to four major aquaculture species produced in ASIA

    Rico, A.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Aquaculture production constitutes one of the main sources of pollution with veterinary medicines into the environment. About 90% of the global aquaculture production is produced in Asia and the potential environmental risks associated with the use of veterinary medicines in Asian aquaculture have

  2. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1989

    1991-01-23

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1989 is the thirteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments, with particular reference to the 23 major energy companies (the FRS companies'') required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major lines of business including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, and other energy operations. Domestic and international operations are examined separately in this report. It also traces key developments affecting the financial performance of major energy companies in 1989, as well as review of important trends.

  3. Performance profiles of major energy producers, 1991

    1992-01-01

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1991 is the fifteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments, with particular reference to the 23 major energy companies (the FRS companies) required to report annually on Form EIA-28. It also traces key developments affecting the financial performance of major energy companies in 1991, as well as reviews important trends. Financial information is reported by major lines of business including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, and other energy operations. Domestic and international operations are examined separately in this report

  4. Acute toxicity of sodium bicarbonate, a major component of coal bed natural gas produced waters, to 13 aquatic species as defined in the laboratory

    Harper, David D.; Farag, Aïda M.; Skaar, Don

    2014-01-01

    Water produced during coal bed natural gas (CBNG) extraction in the Powder River Structural Basin of Wyoming and Montana (USA) may contain concentrations of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) of more than 3000 mg/L. The authors evaluated the acute toxicity of NaHCO3, also expressed as bicarbonate (HCO3−), to 13 aquatic organisms. Of the 13 species tested, 7 had a median lethal concentration (LC50) less than 2000 mg/L NaHCO3, or 1300 mg/L HCO3−. The most sensitive species were Ceriodaphnia dubia, freshwater mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea), pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus), and shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus). The respective LC50s were 989 mg/L, 1120 mg/L, 1249 mg/L, and 1430 mg/L NaHCO3, or 699 mg/L, 844 mg/L, 831 mg/L, and 1038 mg/L HCO3−. Age affected the sensitivity of fathead minnows, even within life stage. Two days posthatch, fathead minnows were more sensitive to NaHCO3 and HCO3− compared with 4-d-old fish, even though fish up to 14 d old are commonly used for toxicity evaluations. The authors recommend that ion toxicity exposures be conducted with organisms less than 24 h posthatch to ensure that experiments document the most sensitive stage of development. The results of the present study, along with historical and current research regarding the toxicity of bicarbonate, may be useful to establish regulatory standards for HCO3−.

  5. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1992

    1994-01-01

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1992 is the sixteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments, with particular reference to the 25 major energy companies (the FRS companies) required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major lines of business, including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, and other energy operations. Domestic and international operations are examined separately in this report. The data are presented in the context of key energy market developments with a view toward identifying changing strategies of corporate development and measuring the apparent success of current ongoing operations

  6. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1994

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1994 is the eighteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments in energy markets, with particular reference to the 24 major U.S. energy companies required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major lines of business, including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, other energy operations, and nonenergy businesses. Financial and operating results are presented in the context of energy market developments with a view toward identifying changing corporate strategies and measuring the performance of ongoing operations both in the United States and abroad.

  7. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1993

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1993 is the seventeenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments in energy markets, with particular reference to the 25 major US energy companies required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major liens of business, including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, other energy operations, and nonenergy businesses. Financial and operating results are presented in the context of energy market developments with a view toward identifying changing corporate strategies and measuring the performance of ongoing operations both in the US and abroad. This year`s report analyzes financial and operating developments for 1993 (Part 1: Developments in 1993) and also reviews key developments during the 20 years following the Arab Oil Embargo of 1973--1974 (Part 2: Major Energy Company Strategies Since the Arab Oil Embargo). 49 figs., 104 tabs.

  8. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1996

    1998-01-01

    This publication examines developments in the operations of the major US e energy-producing companies on a corporate level, by major line of business, by major function within each line of business, and by geographic area. In 1996, 24 companies filed Form EIA-28. The analysis and data presented in this report represents the operations of the Financial Reporting System companies in the context of their worldwide operations and in the context of the major energy markets which they serve. Both energy and nonenergy developments of these companies are analyzed. Although the focus is on developments in 1996, important trends prior to that time are also featured. Sections address energy markets in 1996; key financial developments; oil and gas exploration, development, and production; downstream petroleum in 1996; coal and alternative energy; and foreign direct investment in US energy. 30 figs., 104 tabs

  9. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1996

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This publication examines developments in the operations of the major US e energy-producing companies on a corporate level, by major line of business, by major function within each line of business, and by geographic area. In 1996, 24 companies filed Form EIA-28. The analysis and data presented in this report represents the operations of the Financial Reporting System companies in the context of their worldwide operations and in the context of the major energy markets which they serve. Both energy and nonenergy developments of these companies are analyzed. Although the focus is on developments in 1996, important trends prior to that time are also featured. Sections address energy markets in 1996; key financial developments; oil and gas exploration, development, and production; downstream petroleum in 1996; coal and alternative energy; and foreign direct investment in US energy. 30 figs., 104 tabs.

  10. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1992

    1994-01-13

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1992 is the sixteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments, with particular reference to the 25 major energy companies (the FRS companies) required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major lines of business, including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, and other energy operations. Domestic and international operations are examined separately in this report. The data are presented in the context of key energy market developments with a view toward identifying changing strategies of corporate development and measuring the apparent success of current ongoing operations.

  11. Performance profiles of major energy producers, 1997

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    The energy industry generally and petroleum and natural gas operations in particular are frequently reacting to a variety of unsettling forces. Falling oil prices, economic upswings, currency devaluations, increasingly rigorous environmental quality standards, deregulation of electricity markets, and continued advances in exploration and production technology were among the challenges and opportunities to the industry in 1997. To analyze the extent to which these and other developments have affected energy industry financial and operating performance, strategies, and industry structure, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) maintains the Financial Reporting Systems (FRS). Through Form EIA-28, major US energy companies annually report to the FRS. Financial and operating information is reported by major lines of business, including oil and gas production (upstream), petroleum refining and marketing (downstream), other energy operations, and nonenergy business. Performance Profiles of Major Producers 1997 examines the interplays of energy markets, companies` strategies, and government policies (in 1997 and in historical context) that gave rise to the results given here. The report also analyzes other key aspects of energy company financial performance as seen through the multifaceted lens provided by the FRS data and complementary data for industry overall. 41 figs., 77 tabs.

  12. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1979

    1981-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to examine year-to-year developments in the operations of 26 major US energy companies on a corporate level and also by major line of energy business and by major functions within each line of business. The period covered is 1977 to 1979. Comparisons of income and investment flow are featured and related to functionally allocated net investment in place. The presentation seeks to identify similarities and dissimilarities in results across lines-of-business activity or by firm size

  13. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1995, January 1997

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    This publication examines developments in the operations of the major U.S. energy-producing companies on a corporate level, by major line of business, by major function within each line of business, and by geographic area.

  14. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1995, January 1997

    1997-01-01

    This publication examines developments in the operations of the major U.S. energy-producing companies on a corporate level, by major line of business, by major function within each line of business, and by geographic area

  15. Marine Vibrio Species Produce the Volatile Organic Compound Acetone

    Nemecek-Marshall, M.; Wojciechowski, C.; Kuzma, J.; Silver, G. M.; Fall, R.

    1995-01-01

    While screening aerobic, heterotrophic marine bacteria for production of volatile organic compounds, we found that a group of isolates produced substantial amounts of acetone. Acetone production was confirmed by gas chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and high-performance liquid chromatography. The major acetone producers were identified as nonclinical Vibrio species. Acetone production was maximal in the stationary phase of growth and was stimulated by addition of l-leucine...

  16. Extracellular proteolytic enzymes produced by human pathogenic Vibrio species

    Shin-Ichi eMiyoshi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria in the genus Vibrio produce extracellular proteolytic enzymes to obtain nutrients via digestion of various protein substrates. However, the enzymes secreted by human pathogenic species have been documented to modulate the bacterial virulence. Several species including Vibrio cholerae and V. vulnificus are known to produce thermolysin-like metalloproteases termed vibriolysin. The vibriolysin from V. vulnificus, a causative agent of serious systemic infection, is a major toxic factor eliciting the secondary skin damage characterized by formation of the hemorrhagic brae. The vibriolysin from intestinal pathogens may play indirect roles in pathogenicity because it can activate protein toxins and hemagglutinin by the limited proteolysis and can affect the bacterial attachment to or detachment from the intestinal surface by degradation of the mucus layer. Two species causing wound infections, V. alginolyticus and V. parahaemolyticus, produce another metalloproteases so-called collagenases. Although the detailed pathological roles have not been studied, the collagenase is potent to accelerate the bacterial dissemination through digestion of the protein components of the extracellular matrix. Some species produce cymotrypsin-like serine proteases, which may also affect the bacterial virulence potential. The intestinal pathogens produce sufficient amounts of the metalloprotease at the small intestinal temperature; however, the metalloprotease production by extra-intestinal pathogens is much higher around the body surface temperature. On the other hand, the serine protease is expressed only in the absence of the metalloprotease.

  17. Investigate Nasal Colonize Staphylococcus Species Biofilm Produced

    Cemil Demir

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: 127 S.aureus and 65 CoNS strains were isolated from patients noses%u2019. To produce a biofilm ability was investigated using three different methods. Slime-positive and negative staphylococcies%u2019 resistance were evaluated against different antibiotics. Material and Method: Swap samples puted 7% blood agar. Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS isolates biofilm produced ability were investigated using Congo Red Agar (CRA, microplates (MP and Standard Tube (ST methods. In addition to that, presence of antibiotic resistance of the staphylococcal isolates are determined agar disc diffusion method. Results: The rate of biofilm producing Staphylococcus spp strains was found to be 72.4%, 67.7%, and 62.9%, respectively with CRA, MP, and ST tests. There was no significant relationship among the tests (p>0.05. In addition, antibiotic resistance of Staphylococcus spp. against various antibiotics was also determined by the agar disk diffusion method. Resistance rates of biofilm positive (BP Staphylococcus spp for penicilin G, ampicilin, amocycilin/clavulanic acid, tetracyclin, eritromycin, gentamycin, and enrofloxacin 71.7%, 69.7%, 6.2%, 20.7%, 21.4%, 1.4%, and 0.7%, respectively. Resistance rates of biofilm negative (BN spp for 42.6%, 23.4%, 4.3%, 14.9%, 19.1%, 0.0%, 0.0% respectively. All Staphylococcus isolates were found to be susceptible to vancomycin and teicaplonin. Although BP strains antibiotic resistance rates were observed higher than BN strains. But resistance rates were not found statistically significant (p>0.05. Discussion: CRA is the reliablity and specifity method to determine Staphylococcus spp. biofilm produce ability.

  18. Melittin, the Major Pain-Producing Substance of Bee Venom.

    Chen, Jun; Guan, Su-Min; Sun, Wei; Fu, Han

    2016-06-01

    Melittin is a basic 26-amino-acid polypeptide that constitutes 40-60% of dry honeybee (Apis mellifera) venom. Although much is known about its strong surface activity on lipid membranes, less is known about its pain-producing effects in the nervous system. In this review, we provide lines of accumulating evidence to support the hypothesis that melittin is the major pain-producing substance of bee venom. At the psychophysical and behavioral levels, subcutaneous injection of melittin causes tonic pain sensation and pain-related behaviors in both humans and animals. At the cellular level, melittin activates primary nociceptor cells through direct and indirect effects. On one hand, melittin can selectively open thermal nociceptor transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor channels via phospholipase A2-lipoxygenase/cyclooxygenase metabolites, leading to depolarization of primary nociceptor cells. On the other hand, algogens and inflammatory/pro-inflammatory mediators released from the tissue matrix by melittin's pore-forming effects can activate primary nociceptor cells through both ligand-gated receptor channels and the G-protein-coupled receptor-mediated opening of transient receptor potential canonical channels. Moreover, subcutaneous melittin up-regulates Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 subunits, resulting in the enhancement of tetrodotoxin-resistant Na(+) currents and the generation of long-term action potential firing. These nociceptive responses in the periphery finally activate and sensitize the spinal dorsal horn pain-signaling neurons, resulting in spontaneous nociceptive paw flinches and pain hypersensitivity to thermal and mechanical stimuli. Taken together, it is concluded that melittin is the major pain-producing substance of bee venom, by which peripheral persistent pain and hyperalgesia (or allodynia), primary nociceptive neuronal sensitization, and CNS synaptic plasticity (or metaplasticity) can be readily induced and the molecular and cellular mechanisms

  19. New ochratoxin A producing species of Aspergillus section Circumdati

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Frank, J.M.; Houbraken, J.A.M.P.

    2004-01-01

    Aspergillus section Circumdati contains species with yellow to ochre conidia and non-black sclerotia that produce at least one of the following extrolites: ochratoxins, penicillic acids, xanthomegnins or melleins. The exception to this is A. robustus, which produces black sclerotia, phototropic...... ochratoxin A production in coffee, rice, beverages and other foodstuffs are A. ochraceus, A. westerdijkiae and A. steynii....

  20. Risk assessment for invasive species produces net bioeconomic benefits.

    Keller, Reuben P; Lodge, David M; Finnoff, David C

    2007-01-02

    International commerce in live organisms presents a policy challenge for trade globalization; sales of live organisms create wealth, but some nonindigenous species cause harm. To reduce damage, some countries have implemented species screening to limit the introduction of damaging species. Adoption of new risk assessment (RA) technologies has been slowed, however, by concerns that RA accuracy remains insufficient to produce positive net economic benefits. This concern arises because only a small proportion of all introduced species escape, spread, and cause harm (i.e., become invasive), so a RA will exclude many noninvasive species (which provide a net economic benefit) for every invasive species correctly identified. Here, we develop a simple cost:benefit bioeconomic framework to quantify the net benefits from applying species prescreening. Because invasive species are rarely eradicated, and their damages must therefore be borne for long periods, we have projected the value of RA over a suitable range of policy time horizons (10-500 years). We apply the model to the Australian plant quarantine program and show that this RA program produces positive net economic benefits over the range of reasonable assumptions. Because we use low estimates of the financial damage caused by invasive species and high estimates of the value of species in the ornamental trade, our results underestimate the net benefit of the Australian plant quarantine program. In addition, because plants have relatively low rates of invasion, applying screening protocols to animals would likely demonstrate even greater benefits.

  1. Isolation of Acremonium species producing cephalosporine C (CPC ...

    Cephalosporin C (CPC) is a major precursor of cephalosporin antibiotics which is produced by a group of deuteromycets. After biosynthesis in optimized fermentation media, CPC is recovered and converted to a variety of potent cephalosporin antibiotic drugs. This study was performed to determine the mycoflora producing ...

  2. Current reality and future perspective from a major producer

    Gauthier, P.; Cassidy, R.

    2006-01-01

    Is the hydrogen economy of the future just another fish story? Absolutely not! There have been many changes affecting the energy equation over the last 10 years and conditions have changed. In this presentation, we examined the reasons why, in the very near future, hydrogen production and distribution will be increasingly visible on many industries' radar screens. Our presentation provides an overview of the fundamental energy triangle and its myriad opportunities. We will look at the excitement being generated by gasification, GTL, and the expected availability of 'cheap' hydrogen. We will seek to confirm that experimental projects are now behind us. We will demonstrate that we are ready to move rapidly towards the pre-commercial applications that will eventually provide significant savings and other benefits to a wide variety of industries. Beyond our ability to produce and deliver hydrogen, Air Liquide is an enabler of the H 2 economy. We are actively developing the H 2 architecture and infrastructure that will allow many Canadian firms - who have already demonstrated leadership in H 2 technologies - to expand their markets and grow into highly successful organizations. Air Liquide has the strength of 104 years of scientific achievement, technical excellence, and business success. The Air Liquide Group is dedicated to devoting the necessary resources - on both sides of the Atlantic and around the world - to ensure the successful implementation of a number of innovative H 2 projects. Our presentation includes a brief description of some of these projects. We think you will be surprised at their variety and impressed by how these projects are closely related to today's energy issues. We hope to convince you that the hydrogen economy of the future is filled with promise and potential. (author)

  3. Species specificity in major urinary proteins by parallel evolution.

    Darren W Logan

    Full Text Available Species-specific chemosignals, pheromones, regulate social behaviors such as aggression, mating, pup-suckling, territory establishment, and dominance. The identity of these cues remains mostly undetermined and few mammalian pheromones have been identified. Genetically-encoded pheromones are expected to exhibit several different mechanisms for coding 1 diversity, to enable the signaling of multiple behaviors, 2 dynamic regulation, to indicate age and dominance, and 3 species-specificity. Recently, the major urinary proteins (Mups have been shown to function themselves as genetically-encoded pheromones to regulate species-specific behavior. Mups are multiple highly related proteins expressed in combinatorial patterns that differ between individuals, gender, and age; which are sufficient to fulfill the first two criteria. We have now characterized and fully annotated the mouse Mup gene content in detail. This has enabled us to further analyze the extent of Mup coding diversity and determine their potential to encode species-specific cues.Our results show that the mouse Mup gene cluster is composed of two subgroups: an older, more divergent class of genes and pseudogenes, and a second class with high sequence identity formed by recent sequential duplications of a single gene/pseudogene pair. Previous work suggests that truncated Mup pseudogenes may encode a family of functional hexapeptides with the potential for pheromone activity. Sequence comparison, however, reveals that they have limited coding potential. Similar analyses of nine other completed genomes find Mup gene expansions in divergent lineages, including those of rat, horse and grey mouse lemur, occurring independently from a single ancestral Mup present in other placental mammals. Our findings illustrate that increasing genomic complexity of the Mup gene family is not evolutionarily isolated, but is instead a recurring mechanism of generating coding diversity consistent with a species

  4. Bacteroides species produce Vibrio harveyi autoinducer 2-related molecules.

    Antunes, Luis Caetano Martha; Ferreira, Lívia Queiroz; Ferreira, Eliane Oliveira; Miranda, Karla Rodrigues; Avelar, Kátia Eliane Santos; Domingues, Regina Maria Cavalcanti Pilotto; Ferreira, Maria Candida de Souza

    2005-10-01

    Quorum sensing is a density-dependent gene regulation mechanism that has been described in many bacterial species in the last decades. Bacteria that use quorum sensing as part of their gene regulation circuits produce molecules called autoinducers that accumulate in the environment and activate target genes in a quorum-dependent way. Some specific clues led us to hypothesize that Bacteroides species can produce autoinducers and possess a quorum sensing system. First, Bacteroides are anaerobic bacteria that are frequently involved in polymicrobial infections. These infections often involve Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, two of the best understood examples of bacteria that employ quorum sensing systems as part of their pathogenesis. Also, studies have detected the presence of a quorum sensing gene involved in the production of autoinducers in Porphyromonas gingivalis, a species closely related to the Bacteroides genus. These and other evidences prompted us to investigate if Bacteroides strains could produce autoinducer molecules that could be detected by a Vibrio harveyi reporter system. In this paper, we show that supernatants of B. fragilis, B. vulgatus and B. distasonis strains are able to stimulate the V. harveyi quorum sensing system 2. Also, we were able to demonstrate that the stimulation detected is due to the production of autoinducer molecules and not the growth of reporter strains after addition of supernatant. Moreover, the phenomenon observed does not seem to represent the degradation of repressors possibly present in the culture medium used. We could also amplify bands from some of the strains tested using primers designed to the luxS gene of Escherichia coli. Altogether, our results show that B. fragilis, B. vulgatus and B. distasonis (but possibly some other species) can produce V. harveyi autoinducer 2-related molecules. However, the role of such molecules in the biology of these organisms remains unknown.

  5. Differentiation of the seven major lyssavirus species by oligonucleotide microarray.

    Xi, Jin; Guo, Huancheng; Feng, Ye; Xu, Yunbin; Shao, Mingfu; Su, Nan; Wan, Jiayu; Li, Jiping; Tu, Changchun

    2012-03-01

    An oligonucleotide microarray, LyssaChip, has been developed and verified as a highly specific diagnostic tool for differentiation of the 7 major lyssavirus species. As with conventional typing microarray methods, the LyssaChip relies on sequence differences in the 371-nucleotide region coding for the nucleoprotein. This region was amplified using nested reverse transcription-PCR primers that bind to the 7 major lyssaviruses. The LyssaChip includes 57 pairs of species typing and corresponding control oligonucleotide probes (oligoprobes) immobilized on glass slides, and it can analyze 12 samples on a single slide within 8 h. Analysis of 111 clinical brain specimens (65 from animals with suspected rabies submitted to the laboratory and 46 of butchered dog brain tissues collected from restaurants) showed that the chip method was 100% sensitive and highly consistent with the "gold standard," a fluorescent antibody test (FAT). The chip method could detect rabies virus in highly decayed brain tissues, whereas the FAT did not, and therefore the chip test may be more applicable to highly decayed brain tissues than the FAT. LyssaChip may provide a convenient and inexpensive alternative for diagnosis and differentiation of rabies and rabies-related diseases.

  6. 75 FR 67019 - Presidential Determination on Major Illicit Drug Transit or Major Illicit Drug Producing...

    2010-11-01

    ... and synthetic drugs including marijuana, MDMA, and methamphetamine are produced in Canada and... base, and crack cocaine, primarily from Bolivia; and marijuana. The United States recognizes Brazil's... high- potency marijuana that is trafficked to the United States. The frequent mixing of methamphetamine...

  7. 78 FR 58855 - Presidential Determination on Major Drug Transit or Major Illicit Drug Producing Countries for...

    2013-09-25

    ..., commercial, and economic factors that allow drugs to transit or be produced, even if a government has carried... occurs in the southern and western parts of the country, especially Helmand Province. Instability in... Afghan security and regional stability. Afghanistan has continued to take greater responsibility to...

  8. Genetic Diversity in Fusarium graminearum from a Major Wheat-Producing Region of Argentina

    Giuseppina Mulè

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC is a group of mycotoxigenic fungi that are the primary cause of Fusarium head blight (FHB of wheat worldwide. The distribution, frequency of occurrence, and genetic diversity of FGSC species in cereal crops in South America is not well understood compared to some regions of Asia, Europe and North America. Therefore, we examined the frequency and genetic diversity of a collection of 183 FGSC isolates recovered from wheat grown during multiple growing seasons and across a large area of eastern Argentina, a major wheat producing region in South America. Sequence analysis of the translation elongation factor 1−α and β-tubulin genes as well as Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP analyses indicated that all isolates were the FGSC species F. graminearum sensu stricto. AFLP analysis resolved at least 11 subgroups, and all the isolates represented different AFLP haplotypes. AFLP profile and geographic origin were not correlated. Previously obtained trichothecene production profiles of the isolates revealed that the 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol chemotype was slightly more frequent than the 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol chemotype among the isolates. These data extend the current understanding of FGSC diversity and provide further evidence that F. graminearum sensu stricto is the predominant cause of FHB in the temperate main wheat-growing area of Argentina. Moreover, two isolates of F. crookwellense and four of F. pseudograminearum were also recovered from wheat samples and sequenced. The results also suggest that, although F. graminearum sensu stricto was the only FGSC species recovered in this study, the high level of genetic diversity within this species should be considered in plant breeding efforts and development of other disease management strategies aimed at reducing FHB.

  9. The induction of mycotoxins by trichothecene producing Fusarium species.

    Lowe, Rohan; Jubault, Mélanie; Canning, Gail; Urban, Martin; Hammond-Kosack, Kim E

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, many Fusarium species have emerged which now threaten the productivity and safety of small grain cereal crops worldwide. During floral infection and post-harvest on stored grains the Fusarium hyphae produce various types of harmful mycotoxins which subsequently contaminate food and feed products. This article focuses specifically on the induction and production of the type B sesquiterpenoid trichothecene mycotoxins. Methods are described which permit in liquid culture the small or large scale production and detection of deoxynivalenol (DON) and its various acetylated derivatives. A wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) ear inoculation assay is also explained which allows the direct comparison of mycotoxin production by species, chemotypes and strains with different growth rates and/or disease-causing abilities. Each of these methods is robust and can be used for either detailed time-course studies or end-point analyses. Various analytical methods are available to quantify the levels of DON, 3A-DON and 15A-DON. Some criteria to be considered when making selections between the different analytical methods available are briefly discussed.

  10. Fish as major carbonate mud producers and missing components of the tropical carbonate factory

    Perry, Chris T.; Salter, Michael A.; Harborne, Alastair R.; Crowley, Stephen F.; Jelks, Howard L.; Wilson, Rod W.

    2011-01-01

    Carbonate mud is a major constituent of recent marine carbonate sediments and of ancient limestones, which contain unique records of changes in ocean chemistry and climate shifts in the geological past. However, the origin of carbonate mud is controversial and often problematic to resolve. Here we show that tropical marine fish produce and excrete various forms of precipitated (nonskeletal) calcium carbonate from their guts ("low" and "high" Mg-calcite and aragonite), but that very fine-grained (mostly 4 mole % MgCO3) are their dominant excretory product. Crystallites from fish are morphologically diverse and species-specific, but all are unique relative to previously known biogenic and abiotic sources of carbonate within open marine systems. Using site specific fish biomass and carbonate excretion rate data we estimate that fish produce ~6.1 x 106 kg CaCO3/year across the Bahamian archipelago, all as mud-grade (the marine carbonate factories function both today and in the past.

  11. Two novel aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus species from Argentinean peanuts

    Pildain, M.B.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Vaamonde, G.

    2008-01-01

    Two novel species from Aspergillus section Flavi from different species of Arachis (peanuts) in Argentina are described as Aspergillus arachidicola sp. nov. and Aspergillus minisclerotigenes sp. nov. Their novel taxonomic status was determined using a polyphasic taxonomic approach with phenotypic...

  12. Comparison of lignocellulose composition in four major species of ...

    By principal component analysis (PCA), the components ADF and cellulose were the PC1 that were considered the foremost for the evaluation and selection of resource in the four species. The conclusions show that lignocellulose composition contents of Miscanthus culms were different. M. floridulus was more fit to ethanol ...

  13. Lightning-produced Carbon Species in the Atmosphere of Saturn

    Delitsky, Mona; Baines, K. H.

    2010-10-01

    Recent studies by Baines et al (2009) indicate that thunderstorm-associated clouds on Saturn are spectrally dark from 0.7 to 4 um, darker than regular clouds. This darkening is found to be consistent with the presence of particles of elemental carbon, such as in the form of soot particles mixed in with spectrally bright condensates. This carbon is thought to be generated by lightning-induced dissociation of methane. Lightning on Saturn will input large amounts of energy to a narrow column of atmosphere and generate products at high energies such as radicals and ions. After the column cools down, the new chemical species recombine and are frozen into a new chemical equilibrium. Experimental studies in the literature of reactions of methane and other gases in plasma discharges (which simulate lightning) indicate that, even with high ratios of hydrogen/methane, the elemental carbon obtained will form solid dark particles that persist and have a very high C/H ratio. Basically, they are mostly pure carbon, in the form of soot, amorphous carbon, graphite, graphene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, carbon black, carbon onions, etc. Hydrogen will act as a sealant onto the particles and attach to dangling bonds on their growing surfaces. Even in experiments to form the most crystalline allotrope of carbon, that is, diamond, the presence of hydrogen does not inhibit diamond formation, even at the low pressures in the atmospheres of the Jovian planets or in the interstellar medium (Allamandola et al 1991). Therefore, some form of elemental carbon is likely produced in Saturnian storm clouds and may occur as dark particles of either amorphous carbon, PAHs or crystalline carbon in a form such as graphite. ..Refs: Baines et al., PSS 57, 1650-1658 (2009) ; Allamandola et al., Meteoritics 26, 313 (1991).

  14. Potential hydrocarbon producing species of Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India

    Augustus, G.D.P.S.; Jayabalan, M.; Rajarathinam, K. [Research Centre in Bombay, V.H.N.S.N. College, Virudhunagar (India); Ray, A.K. [Sardar Patel Univ., Anand (India). Dept. of Chemistry; Seiler, G.J. [USDA, ARS, Northern Crop Science Lab., Fargo, ND (United States)

    2002-09-01

    The decline in the world supplies of hydrocarbons has led to the search for alternate sources of fuel and chemicals. Plant species are potential sources of hydrocarbons. Large-scale screening of plants growing in the Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India was conducted to assess the hydrocarbon production and the type of isoprene compound(s) present. Three species contained more than 3% hydrocarbon. Sarcostemma brevistigma had the highest concentration of hydrocarbon with 3.6%. Seven species contained more than 2% of hydrocarbons among the plant species screened. The hydrocarbon fraction of Ficus elastica (leaf) had a gross heat value of 9834 cal/g (41.17 MJ/kg), which is close to the caloric value of fuel oil. Six hydrocarbon fractions contained gross heat values of more than 9000 cal/g (37.68 MJ/kg). Of the 13 species hydrocarbon fraction analysed, seven species contained cis-polyisoprene compounds, while two species contained trans-polyisoprenes. Cis and trans polyisoprenes are potential alternative energy sources for fuel and/or as industrial raw materials. (author)

  15. Interactions between biosurfactant-producing Pseudomonas and Phytophthora species

    Tran, H.

    2007-01-01

    Fluorescent Pseudomonas bacteria produce a wide variety of antimicrobial metabolites, including soap-like compounds referred to as biosurfactants. The results of this thesis showed that biosurfactant-producing Pseudomonas bacteria are effective in controlling Phytophthora foot rot disease of black pepper in Vietnam and promote root and shoot development of the ‘King of Spices’. Biosurfactant-producing P. fluorescens strain SS101 was also effective in controlling tomato late blight caused by P...

  16. Isolation of Acremonium species producing cephalosporine C (CPC ...

    SERVER

    2007-11-19

    Nov 19, 2007 ... selective media and Acremonium sp. were isolated. The presence of CPC antibiotic in the fermentation broths of these species was ... Penicillium sp. 28%. Alternaria sp. .... On-line high performance liquid chromatography for ...

  17. Interactions between biosurfactant-producing Pseudomonas and Phytophthora species

    Tran, H.

    2007-01-01

    Fluorescent Pseudomonas bacteria produce a wide variety of antimicrobial metabolites, including soap-like compounds referred to as biosurfactants. The results of this thesis showed that biosurfactant-producing Pseudomonas bacteria are effective in controlling Phytophthora foot rot

  18. Mycotoxins, drugs and other extrolites produced by species in Penicillium subgenus Penicillium

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Smedsgaard, Jørn; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    2004-01-01

    extrolite families are reported from the subgenus with an average of 5 extrolite families per species. This is an underestimate as several pigments, volatiles and uncharacterized extrolites are not included in this average. Several reported producers are reidentified and new producers of known extrolites...... species in Penicillium subgenus Penicillium. In most cases these extrolites are produced consistently by all isolates examined in a species. The important antibiotic penicillin is produced by all members of series Chrysogena and P. griseofulvum. The cholesterol-lowering agent compactin is produced by P...

  19. Risk analysis and evaluation of agricultural drought disaster in the major grain-producing areas, China

    Zongtang Xie; Jiuping Xu; Yanfei Deng

    2016-01-01

    The analysis and evaluation of agricultural drought risk can assist in reducing regional disasters and agricultural drought losses. Because of the uncertainties and incomplete agricultural drought information, this paper employed an information diffusion technology and information matrix to identify a drought disaster risk distribution and to quantify the relationship between the annual drought-affected rate and the grain production losses in China's major grain-producing areas. From the asse...

  20. Oil and gas technology transfer activities and potential in eight major producing states. Volume 1

    1993-07-01

    In 1990, the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (the Compact) performed a study that identified the structure and deficiencies of the system by which oil and gas producers receive information about the potential of new technologies and communicate their problems and technology needs back to the research community. The conclusions of that work were that major integrated companies have significantly more and better sources of technology information than independent producers. The majors also have significantly better mechanisms for communicating problems to the research and development (R&D) community. As a consequence, the Compact recommended analyzing potential mechanisms to improve technology transfer channels for independents and to accelerate independents acceptance and use of existing and emerging technologies. Building on this work, the Compact, with a grant from the US Department Energy, has reviewed specific technology transfer organizations in each of eight major oil producing states to identify specific R&D and technology transfer organizations, characterize their existing activities, and identify potential future activities that could be performed to enhance technology transfer to oil and gas producers. The profiles were developed based on information received from organizations,follow-up interviews, site visit and conversations, and participation in their sponsored technology transfer activities. The results of this effort are reported in this volume. In addition, the Compact has also developed a framework for the development of evaluation methodologies to determine the effectiveness of technology transfer programs in performing their intended functions and in achieving desired impacts impacts in the producing community. The results of that work are provided in a separate volume.

  1. Hopanoid-producing bacteria in the Red Sea include the major marine nitrite-oxidizers

    Kharbush, Jenan J

    2018-04-10

    Hopanoids, including the extended side chain-containing bacteriohopanepolyols (BHPs), are bacterial lipids found abundantly in the geological record and across Earth\\'s surface environments. However, the physiological roles of this biomarker remain uncertain, limiting interpretation of their presence in current and past environments. Recent work investigating the diversity and distribution of hopanoid producers in the marine environment implicated low-oxygen regions as important loci of hopanoid production, and data from marine oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) suggested that the dominant hopanoid producers in these environments are nitrite-utilizing organisms, revealing a potential connection between hopanoid production and the marine nitrogen cycle. Here we use metagenomic data from the Red Sea to investigate the ecology of hopanoid producers in an environmental setting that is biogeochemically distinct from those investigated previously. The distributions of hopanoid production and nitrite oxidation genes in the Red Sea are closely correlated, and the majority of hopanoid producers are taxonomically affiliated with the major marine nitrite oxidizers, Nitrospinae and Nitrospirae. These results suggest that the relationship between hopanoid production and nitrite oxidation is conserved across varying biogeochemical conditions in dark ocean microbial ecosystems.

  2. Hopanoid-producing bacteria in the Red Sea include the major marine nitrite-oxidizers

    Kharbush, Jenan J; Thompson, Luke R; Haroon, Mohamed; Knight, Rob; Aluwihare, Lihini I

    2018-01-01

    Hopanoids, including the extended side chain-containing bacteriohopanepolyols (BHPs), are bacterial lipids found abundantly in the geological record and across Earth's surface environments. However, the physiological roles of this biomarker remain uncertain, limiting interpretation of their presence in current and past environments. Recent work investigating the diversity and distribution of hopanoid producers in the marine environment implicated low-oxygen regions as important loci of hopanoid production, and data from marine oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) suggested that the dominant hopanoid producers in these environments are nitrite-utilizing organisms, revealing a potential connection between hopanoid production and the marine nitrogen cycle. Here we use metagenomic data from the Red Sea to investigate the ecology of hopanoid producers in an environmental setting that is biogeochemically distinct from those investigated previously. The distributions of hopanoid production and nitrite oxidation genes in the Red Sea are closely correlated, and the majority of hopanoid producers are taxonomically affiliated with the major marine nitrite oxidizers, Nitrospinae and Nitrospirae. These results suggest that the relationship between hopanoid production and nitrite oxidation is conserved across varying biogeochemical conditions in dark ocean microbial ecosystems.

  3. Analysis of potential fumonisin-producing Fusarium species in corn products from three main maize-producing areas in eastern China.

    Zhang, Liping; Wang, Jiansheng; Zhang, Chulong; Wang, Qiaomei

    2013-02-01

    Fusarium species are common fungal contaminants of maize and a number of them can produce mycotoxin fumonisins. China is one of the largest maize producers in the world. This study investigated the contamination of maize samples from three areas in eastern China by Fusarium and fumonisin-producing fungi as well as their fumonisin-producing potential. A total of 22 Fusarium strains were isolated, 19 of which were able to produce fumonisin. Among the 19 strains, 16 belonged to F. verticillioides, two to F. subglutinans and one to F. proliferatum. The majority (17/19) of the fumonisin-forming strains were high FB(1) producers, which is a potential health risk for the population in these areas. Fusarium contamination in samples from the mideastern area was the most serious (11 Fusarium strains, with nine producing fumonisin, isolated from 24 samples), followed by the northeastern area (nine Fusarium strains, with all nine producing fumonisin, isolated from 21 samples) and the southeastern area (two Fusarium strains, with one producing fumonisin, isolated from 19 samples). Although the overall levels of FBs and contamination by fumonisin-producing fungi in corn samples were not serious, the contaminating Fusarium strains possessed fairly strong toxicogenic ability and potential risk for food safety. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Risk analysis and evaluation of agricultural drought disaster in the major grain-producing areas, China

    Zongtang Xie

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The analysis and evaluation of agricultural drought risk can assist in reducing regional disasters and agricultural drought losses. Because of the uncertainties and incomplete agricultural drought information, this paper employed an information diffusion technology and information matrix to identify a drought disaster risk distribution and to quantify the relationship between the annual drought-affected rate and the grain production losses in China's major grain-producing areas. From the assessment results, provincial drought disaster risk spatial distribution maps for each major grain-producing area in China were obtained. These risk patterns showed that the probability of drought fell when the annual drought-covered rate and the annual drought-affected rate increased, and that the high risk areas were located primarily in China's northern and central provinces. These results can provide the basis for the development of effective drought mitigation strategies which would be able to inform possible drought situations and allow for easier decision-making on drought resistance strategies. The fuzzy relationship between the annual drought-affected rate and the drought-caused grain production losses provides vital information for the development of disaster compensation plans. Furthermore, the results of this study indicated that the proposed methods had superior detection stability and higher precision. We hope that by conducting such agricultural drought risk analysis, the results are able to provide the basis for the development of drought mitigation strategies to reduce future losses.

  5. Possible Impact of Climate Change on the Quality of Apples from the Major Producing Areas of China

    Zhenjiang Qu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Meteorological conditions are important environmental factors affecting apple quality. To understand the possible impact of climate change on the apple quality of the major producing areas in China and assess the quality of major apple species (e.g., Fuji, Ralls, and Golden Delicious, we studied the variation trends and abrupt change characteristics of six major climate factors affecting seven physicochemical indices of apple quality across five apple regions, including the Loess Plateau, Bohai Bay, the Old Course of the Yellow River, Southwest Highlands, and Xinjiang, using statistical methods, meteorological indices, and the ArcGIS analysis tool based on the meteorological observational data from 1961 to 2013. The results show that the spatial and temporal distributions of annual average temperature, annual sunshine duration, average summer temperature, summer diurnal temperature range, and average summer relative humidity all significantly changed (except annual precipitation and that abrupt changes occurred. The annual temperatures and average summer temperatures in the Loess Plateau apple region and the Liaoning producing region of Bohai Bay increased within optimal ranges. In addition, for high-value regions, the hours of sunshine decreased, helping to improve the fruit shape index, sugar-acid ratio, and vitamin C (VC content. Relatively high temperatures continued to increase to high values which remained lower than the optimal upper limit; the diurnal temperature range continued to decrease; and the sunshine hours significantly decreased within the optimal range, which might have worsened fruit hardness, soluble sugar, and peel anthocyanin in the producing regions of Southwest Shandong of Bohai Bay, Southeast Hebei of the Old Course of the Yellow River, Northern Anhui, and Jiangsu. In the production regions of the Yun-Gui plateau in the Southwest highlands, increased summer temperature and the diurnal temperature range were both within

  6. Country analysis briefs: 1994. Profiles of major world energy producers, consumers, and transport centers

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    Country Analysis Briefs: 1994 is a compilation of country profiles prepared by the Energy Markets and Contingency Information Division (EMCID) of the Office of Energy Markets and End Use. EMCID maintains Country Analysis Briefs (CABs) for specific countries or geographical areas that are important to world energy markets. As a general rule, CABs are prepared for all members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), major non-OPEC oil producers (i.e., the North Sea, Russia), major energy transit areas (i.e., Ukraine), and other areas of current interest to energy analysts and policy makers. As of January 1995, EMCID maintained over 40 CABs, updated on an annual schedule and subject to revision as events warrant. This report includes 25 CABs updated during 1994. All CABs contain a profile section, a map showing the country`s location, and a narrative section. The profile section includes outlines of the country`s economy, energy sector, and environment. The narrative provides further information and discussion of these topics. Some CABs also include a detailed map displaying locations of major oil and gas fields, pipelines, ports, etc. These maps were created as a result of special individual requests and so are not typically a standard feature of the CABs. They are presented here wherever available as a supplement to the information contained in the CABs.

  7. Two new aflatoxin producing species, and an overview of Aspergillus section Flavi

    Varga, J.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Samson, R. A.

    2011-01-01

    this section. The data indicate that Aspergillus section Flavi involves 22 species, which can be grouped into seven clades. Two new species, A. pseudocaelatus sp. nov. and A. pseudonomius sp. nov. have been discovered, and can be distinguished from other species in this section based on sequence data...... and extrolite profiles. Aspergillus pseudocaelatus is represented by a single isolate collected from Arachis burkartii leaf in Argentina, is closely related to the non-aflatoxin producing A. caelatus, and produces aflatoxins B & G, cyclopiazonic acid and kojic acid, while A. pseudonomius was isolated from...... insects and soil in the USA. This species is related to A. nomius, and produces aflatoxin B-1 (but not G-type aflatoxins), chrysogine and kojic acid. In order to prove the aflatoxin producing abilities of the isolates, phylogenetic analysis of three genes taking part in aflatoxin biosynthesis, including...

  8. Guild of Frugivores on three fruit-producing tree species Polyscias ...

    Guild of Frugivores on three fruit-producing tree species Polyscias fulva, Syzyguim Guineensis SUBSP. Bamensdae and Pouteria Altissima ) in Ngel Nyaki Forest Reserve, a Montane Forest Ecosystem in Nigeria.

  9. Talaromyces atroroseus, a new species efficiently producing industrially relevant red pigments

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Yilmaz, Neriman; Thrane, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    ., described in this study, produces the azaphilone biosynthetic families mitorubrins and Monascus pigments without any production of mycotoxins. Within the red pigment producing clade, T. atroroseus resolved in a distinct clade separate from all the other species in multigene phylogenies (ITS, β......Some species of Talaromyces secrete large amounts of red pigments. Literature has linked this character to species such as Talaromyces purpurogenus, T. albobiverticillius, T. marneffei, and T. minioluteus often under earlier Penicillium names. Isolates identified as T. purpurogenus have been...... reported to be interesting industrially and they can produce extracellular enzymes and red pigments, but they can also produce mycotoxins such as rubratoxin A and B and luteoskyrin. Production of mycotoxins limits the use of isolates of a particular species in biotechnology. Talaromyces atroroseus sp. nov...

  10. Talaromyces atroroseus, a new species efficiently producing industrially relevant red pigments.

    Jens C Frisvad

    Full Text Available Some species of Talaromyces secrete large amounts of red pigments. Literature has linked this character to species such as Talaromyces purpurogenus, T. albobiverticillius, T. marneffei, and T. minioluteus often under earlier Penicillium names. Isolates identified as T. purpurogenus have been reported to be interesting industrially and they can produce extracellular enzymes and red pigments, but they can also produce mycotoxins such as rubratoxin A and B and luteoskyrin. Production of mycotoxins limits the use of isolates of a particular species in biotechnology. Talaromyces atroroseus sp. nov., described in this study, produces the azaphilone biosynthetic families mitorubrins and Monascus pigments without any production of mycotoxins. Within the red pigment producing clade, T. atroroseus resolved in a distinct clade separate from all the other species in multigene phylogenies (ITS, β-tubulin and RPB1, which confirm its unique nature. Talaromyces atroroseus resembles T. purpurogenus and T. albobiverticillius in producing red diffusible pigments, but differs from the latter two species by the production of glauconic acid, purpuride and ZG-1494α and by the dull to dark green, thick walled ellipsoidal conidia produced. The type strain of Talaromyces atroroseus is CBS 133442.

  11. Achieving a Carbon Neutral Society without Industry Contraction in the Five Major Steel Producing Countries

    Kyunsuk Choi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the direct and indirect CO2 emissions of the energy-intensive basic metals industry, in particular steels, using the distributions of various energy sources, including coal/peat, oil, and electricity, from an input–output table. An analysis of five major steel producing countries indicated that direct CO2 emissions increased 1.4-fold and that indirect CO2 emissions increased by more than two-fold between 1995 and 2010. The elasticity of the CO2 emissions and the total energy costs indicated that Korea, Japan, and Germany are sensitive to energy sources from the electric power industry, whereas China and the US are more sensitive to energy sources pertaining to the coal and oil industry. Using the available forest area and photosynthesis, the potential neutralization ability of CO2 was estimated using the eco-CO2 index. The US yielded the highest CO2 neutralization ability of 66.1%, whereas Korea yielded a CO2 neutralization ability of 15%. Future trends of the 2030 eco-CO2 index revealed China and Korea will rapidly lose their neutralization ability resulting in a net negative neutralization ability if left unabated. The significant decline in the eco-CO2 index for the basic metals industry may be inhibited by utilizing bamboo wood charcoal for pulverized coal injection (PCI in the steelmaking process.

  12. The chronic toxicity of sodium bicarbonate, a major component of coal bed natural gas produced waters

    Farag, Aïda M.; Harper, David D.

    2014-01-01

    Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) is the principal salt in coal bed natural gas produced water from the Powder River Structural Basin, Wyoming, USA, and concentrations of up to 3000 mg NaHCO3/L have been documented at some locations. No adequate studies have been performed to assess the chronic effects of NaHCO3 exposure. The present study was initiated to investigate the chronic toxicity and define sublethal effects at the individual organism level to explain the mechanisms of NaHCO3 toxicity. Three chronic experiments were completed with fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), 1 with white suckers (Catostomus commersoni), 1 with Ceriodaphnia dubia, and 1 with a freshwater mussel, (Lampsilis siliquoidea). The data demonstrated that approximately 500 mg NaHCO3/L to 1000 mg NaHCO3/L affected all species of experimental aquatic animals in chronic exposure conditions. Freshwater mussels were the least sensitive to NaHCO3 exposure, with a 10-d inhibition concentration that affects 20% of the sample population (IC20) of 952 mg NaHCO3/L. The IC20 for C. dubia was the smallest, at 359 mg NaHCO3/L. A significant decrease in sodium–potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na+/K+ ATPase) together with the lack of growth effects suggests that Na+/K+ ATPase activity was shut down before the onset of death. Several histological anomalies, including increased incidence of necrotic cells, suggested that fish were adversely affected as a result of exposure to >450 mg NaHCO3/L.

  13. Spawning segregation and philopatry are major prezygotic barriers in sympatric cryptic Mugil cephalus species.

    Shen, Kang-Ning; Chang, Chih-Wei; Durand, Jean-Dominique

    2015-12-01

    The flathead mullet, Mugil cephalus, is a commercially vital fish in fisheries and aquaculture worldwide. Genetic analyses have recently revealed three cryptic species of M. cephalus in the Northwest Pacific. These species are sympatric in Taiwanese waters and specific reproductive behaviors have been suggested to be a major prezygotic barrier. Species composition was evaluated in samples of M. cephalus at different growth stages collected from various habitats (offshore spawning ground, estuarine nursery and feeding areas) over several months or years. The gonadosomatic index of adults and the body length of juveniles were recorded to determine the reproductive season and recruitment periods in estuaries. The results revealed partially temporal spawning isolation between species pairs, spatial segregation on specific spawning grounds and strong philopatry preclude hybridization. Thus, the results imply that traditional fisheries of mature fish in the Taiwan Strait target only one species, whereas aquaculture in Taiwan contain juveniles of all three species collected in estuaries. The ecological niche and demography of these species must be investigated further to estimate the impact of juvenile sources on aquaculture. Copyright © 2015 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Emericella venezuelensis, a new species with stellate ascospores producing sterigmatocystin and aflatoxin B-1

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Samson, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    Emericella venezuelensis is a new species, differing from two other species with stellate ascospores, E. variecolor and E. pluriseminata, by triangular flaps on the convex sides of the ascospores, and further from E. variecolor by producing an Aspergillus anamorph only on unconventional growth......, variecoxanthone A, B, C, isoemericellin, kojic acid, varitriol, varioxiran, dihydroterrein, 7-hydroxyemodin, avariquinone and stromemycin. E. pluriseminata produces several unknown specific extrolites. E. venezuelensis is the first organism of marine origin reported to produce aflatoxin. Aflatoxin production by E....... venezuelensis makes this species an attractive model organism for the study of the regulation of this important type of carcinogenic mycotoxins in combination with the knowledge on sterigmatocystin production by E. nidulans, soon to be whole genome sequenced. The isolates were also analyzed cladistically using...

  15. Two new aflatoxin producing species, and an overview of Aspergillus section Flavi

    Varga, J.; Frisvad, J.C.; Samson, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Aspergillus subgenus Circumdati section Flavi includes species with usually biseriate conidial heads, in shades of yellow-green to brown, and dark sclerotia. Several species assigned to this section are either important mycotoxin producers including aflatoxins, cyclopiazonic acid, ochratoxins and kojic acid, or are used in oriental food fermentation processes and as hosts for heterologous gene expression. A polyphasic approach was applied using morphological characters, extrolite data and partial calmodulin, β-tubulin and ITS sequences to examine the evolutionary relationships within this section. The data indicate that Aspergillus section Flavi involves 22 species, which can be grouped into seven clades. Two new species, A. pseudocaelatus sp. nov. and A. pseudonomius sp. nov. have been discovered, and can be distinguished from other species in this section based on sequence data and extrolite profiles. Aspergillus pseudocaelatus is represented by a single isolate collected from Arachis burkartii leaf in Argentina, is closely related to the non-aflatoxin producing A. caelatus, and produces aflatoxins B & G, cyclopiazonic acid and kojic acid, while A. pseudonomius was isolated from insects and soil in the USA. This species is related to A. nomius, and produces aflatoxin B1 (but not G-type aflatoxins), chrysogine and kojic acid. In order to prove the aflatoxin producing abilities of the isolates, phylogenetic analysis of three genes taking part in aflatoxin biosynthesis, including the transcriptional regulator aflR, norsolonic acid reductase and O-methyltransferase were also carried out. A detailed overview of the species accepted in Aspergillus section Flavi is presented. PMID:21892243

  16. The Level of Utilization of Secondary Timber Species among Furniture Producers

    Charles Antwi-Boasiako

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Inadequate supply of wood raw material is one of the major obstacles for the global furniture industry’s growth. Several secondary timbers/Lesser-Utilized-Species (LUS that could substitute the scarce traditional timbers for furniture production exist in tropical forests. However, the industry continuously faces persistent timber shortages. The extent to which manufacturers utilize LUS as alternatives is unclear, which this study sought to ascertain. Materials and Methods: Data were collected from 300 Timber Firms from Ghana primarily through questionnaires using the stratified random sampling technique. Results: Continuous decline and non-availability of preferred traditional timbers and competition from imported furniture were the main challenges confronting the furniture industry. Data obtained indicated that most manufacturers (85% hardly use any LUS; 44% of these mentioned lack of information on their properties and prospective uses and 32% attributed it to non-availability on the domestic timber markets. However, 22% of these producers rely on traditionally ‘well-known’ timbers (e.g. mixed red wood, Guarea cedrata and Tectona grandis owing to their strength properties, 20% due to their strength and durability and 14% because of their strength and aesthetic properties. Many LUS (with prospects for furniture-making available in great quantities in many tropical forests could substitute the over-dependent timbers. However, information on their properties and uses are hardly available to local producers, which affects their popularity among timber suppliers and manufacturers. Conclusion: To improve on the level of utilization of secondary timbers, wood workers must be supplied with comprehensive information about their properties and economic values. This will contribute to reducing pressure on the primary timbers, ensuring consistent supply of timber and keeping the sector operational.

  17. Flavobacterium kingsejongi sp. nov., a carotenoid-producing species isolated from Antarctic penguin faeces.

    Choi, Jun Young; Kim, Jin Ho; Lee, Pyung Cheon

    2018-03-01

    Taxonomic studies were carried out on a carotenoid-producing strain, designated WV39 T , isolated from the faeces of Antarctic penguins. Cells of strain WV39 T were Gram-stain-negative, strictly aerobic, yellow and rod-shaped. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain WV39 T was closely related to Flavobacterium qiangtangense JCM 19739 T (96.3 % similarity), Flavobacterium noncentrifugens NBRC 108844 T (95.5 %) and Flavobacterium aquatile LMG 4008 T (94.9 %). The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 3-OH and summed feature 3 (comprising iso-C15 : 0 2-OH and/or C16 : 1ω7c). Menaquinone-6 was the sole quinone identified, and the major pigment was zeaxanthin. The major polar lipid was phosphatidylethanolamine. DNA-DNA relatedness of strain WV39 T with respect to its closest phylogenetic neighbours was 41.8 % for F. qiangtangense JCM 19739 T , 25.5 % for F. aquatile LMG 4008 T and 25.2 % for F. noncentrifugens NBRC 108844 T . The DNA G+C content of strain WV39 T was 39.8 mol%. Based on the phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, strain WV39 T is concluded to represent a novel species of the genus Flavobacterium, for which the name Flavobacteriumkingsejongi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is WV39 T (=KCTC 42908 T =CECT 9085 T ).

  18. New penicillin-producing Penicillium species and an overview of section Chrysogena

    Houbraken, J.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Seifert, K. A.

    2012-01-01

    Species classified in Penicillium sect. Chrysogena are primary soil-borne and the most well-known members are P. chrysogenum and P. nalgiovense. Penicillium chrysogenum has received much attention because of its role in the production on penicillin and as a contaminant of indoor environments....... Each species produces a unique extrolite profile. The species share phenotypic characters, such as good growth on CYA supplemented with 5 % NaCl, ter- or quarterverticillate branched conidiophores and short, ampulliform phialides (colours, production of ascomata and ascospores, shape...

  19. Competency test for selecting majors to produce competitive vocational graduates in industry

    Jiwa Permana Agus Aan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available President of Indonesia, Jokowi reoriented vocational school graduate toward demand driven graduates that is graduates who have certificate and skill required by industry. The initial stage of the new student on vocational school is choosing a major. At first step, students often confuse in choosing the majors they want. The mistake of choosing a department will be a set beck to the motivation of learning and skill, later will impade students future career. Thus competence test is needed to helping them in choosing the majors according to their competence. The solution to this problem is to conduct online competency tests for new students. The Results of research with 60 responden, 78% corresponds stated that the majors they were in match with their interests. Then the remaining 22% did not match. But the result of the competency assessment of students in match with the majors of is 40% and 60% of students need counseling for selection majors.

  20. Diddensiella caesifluorescens gen. nov., sp. nov., a riboflavin-producing yeast species of the family Trichomonascaceae

    Four strains of a novel heterothallic yeast species were isolated from rotten wood collected in or near the Pilis Mountains in Hungary. The strains produced riboflavin in liquid culture. Analysis of gene sequences for the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit nuclear ribosomal RNA (rRNA), as well as an...

  1. Determination of incoming solar radiation in major tree species in Turkey.

    Yilmaz, Osman Yalcin; Sevgi, Orhan; Koc, Ayhan

    2012-07-01

    Light requirements and spatial distribution of major forest tree species in Turkey hasn't been analyzed yet. Continuous surface solar radiation data, especially at mountainous-forested areas, are needed to put forward this relationship between forest tree species and solar radiation. To achieve this, GIS-based modeling of solar radiation is one of the methods used in rangelands to estimate continuous surface solar radiation. Therefore, mean monthly and annual total global solar radiation maps of whole Turkey were computed spatially using GRASS GIS software "r.sun" model under clear-sky (cloudless) conditions. 147498 pure forest stand point-based data were used in the study for calculating mean global solar radiation values of all the major forest tree species of Turkey. Beech had the lowest annual mean total global solar radiation value of 1654.87 kWh m(-2), whereas juniper had the highest value of 1928.89 kWh m(-2). The rank order of tree species according to the mean monthly and annual total global solar radiation values, using a confidence level of p solar radiation values of sites and light requirements of forest trees ranked similarly.

  2. Purification and properties of extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) antigens produced by different mould species.

    Notermans, S; Wieten, G; Engel, H W; Rombouts, F M; Hoogerhout, P; van Boom, J H

    1987-02-01

    Extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) antigens produced by different mould species were purified and partially characterized. Purification included (NH4)2SO4 treatment, Sepharose CL-4B column chromatography and Con A-sepharose chromatography. The EPS of Penicillium digitatum, Mucor racemosus and Cladosporium cladosporioides showed high antigenic capacities. Immunologically the EPS were partially genus-specific, but cross-reactivity was observed. The EPS antigens produced by species of Penicillium, Aspergillus repens and Geotrichum candidum lost their immunological activity upon heating (100 degrees C) at pH 1.8, while the EPS antigen of M. racemosus, Rhizopus oligosporus and C. cladosporioides were stable under the same conditions. The dominant monosaccharides present in the EPS antigen were mannose, galactose and glucose. The EPS obtained from cultures of M. racemosus and R. oligosporus also contained rhamnose. In the EPS produced by Penicillium spp. and A. repens the galactose residues were determined to be immunodominant.

  3. Aspergillus species as mycotoxin producers in agricultural products in central Europe

    Kočube Šandor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus species are able to produce a range of mycotoxins, includ­ing e.g. aflatoxins, ochratoxins, fumonisins and patulin. Aflatoxins are mainly produced by members of Aspergillus section Flavi, and they contaminate various agricultural products in several parts of the world. Several recent reports have indicated that aflatoxin-producing fungi and consequently aflatoxin contamination occur in agricultural commodities in a number of European countries which have not been faced with this problem before. Indeed, recent surveys have clarified that concentrations of aflatoxins in maize products and milk has been exceeding the EU limit in several regions of Central Europe including Serbia, Slovenia, Croatia, Northern Italy and Romania. However, aflatoxin contamination and aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus species have not been identified yet in maize in Hungary. We examined the presence of potential aflatoxin-producing Aspergilli in maize samples collected in southern parts of Hungary. Several A. flavus isolates were identified, and pre­liminary results indicated that some of the isolates were able to produce aflatoxins. Con­tamination of other agricultural products with aflatoxins can also pose problems in Central Europe due to global warming. Ochratoxin contamination of grapes and grape-derived products is usually caused by black Aspergilli, especially by A. carbonarius and A. niger, although these species have been rare in Central European vineyards due to climatic fac­tors. Ochratoxin contamination of other agricultural products including spices and cereals was also observed in the region. Besides, ochratoxin producing Aspergilli are frequently isolated from imported products including coffee beans, dried fruits and spices, and ochra­toxin contamination of these samples was also observed. Fumonisins are produced mainly by Fusarium species, and by the recently identified producers Aspergillus niger and A. awamori. We examined fumonisin

  4. Rapid detection and identification of four major Schistosoma species by high-resolution melt (HRM) analysis.

    Li, Juan; Zhao, Guang-Hui; Lin, RuiQing; Blair, David; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2015-11-01

    Schistosomiasis, caused by blood flukes belonging to several species of the genus Schistosoma, is a serious and widespread parasitic disease. Accurate and rapid differentiation of these etiological agents of animal and human schistosomiasis to species level can be difficult. We report a real-time PCR assay coupled with a high-resolution melt (HRM) assay targeting a portion of the nuclear 18S rDNA to detect, identify, and distinguish between four major blood fluke species (Schistosoma japonicum, Schistosoma mansoni, Schistosoma haematobium, and Schistosoma mekongi). Using this system, the Schistosoma spp. was accurately identified and could also be distinguished from all other trematode species with which they were compared. As little as 10(-5) ng genomic DNA from a Schistosoma sp. could be detected. This process is inexpensive, easy, and can be completed within 3 h. Examination of 21 representative Schistosoma samples from 15 geographical localities in seven endemic countries validated the value of the HRM detection assay and proved its reliability. The melting curves were characterized by peaks of 83.65 °C for S. japonicum and S. mekongi, 85.65 °C for S. mansoni, and 85.85 °C for S. haematobium. The present study developed a real-time PCR coupled with HRM analysis assay for detection and differential identification of S. mansoni, S. haematobium, S. japonicum, and S. mekongi. This method is rapid, sensitive, and inexpensive. It has important implications for epidemiological studies of Schistosoma.

  5. Directional Selection from Host Plants Is a Major Force Driving Host Specificity in Magnaporthe Species.

    Zhong, Zhenhui; Norvienyeku, Justice; Chen, Meilian; Bao, Jiandong; Lin, Lianyu; Chen, Liqiong; Lin, Yahong; Wu, Xiaoxian; Cai, Zena; Zhang, Qi; Lin, Xiaoye; Hong, Yonghe; Huang, Jun; Xu, Linghong; Zhang, Honghong; Chen, Long; Tang, Wei; Zheng, Huakun; Chen, Xiaofeng; Wang, Yanli; Lian, Bi; Zhang, Liangsheng; Tang, Haibao; Lu, Guodong; Ebbole, Daniel J; Wang, Baohua; Wang, Zonghua

    2016-05-06

    One major threat to global food security that requires immediate attention, is the increasing incidence of host shift and host expansion in growing number of pathogenic fungi and emergence of new pathogens. The threat is more alarming because, yield quality and quantity improvement efforts are encouraging the cultivation of uniform plants with low genetic diversity that are increasingly susceptible to emerging pathogens. However, the influence of host genome differentiation on pathogen genome differentiation and its contribution to emergence and adaptability is still obscure. Here, we compared genome sequence of 6 isolates of Magnaporthe species obtained from three different host plants. We demonstrated the evolutionary relationship between Magnaporthe species and the influence of host differentiation on pathogens. Phylogenetic analysis showed that evolution of pathogen directly corresponds with host divergence, suggesting that host-pathogen interaction has led to co-evolution. Furthermore, we identified an asymmetric selection pressure on Magnaporthe species. Oryza sativa-infecting isolates showed higher directional selection from host and subsequently tends to lower the genetic diversity in its genome. We concluded that, frequent gene loss or gain, new transposon acquisition and sequence divergence are host adaptability mechanisms for Magnaporthe species, and this coevolution processes is greatly driven by directional selection from host plants.

  6. Major reactive species of ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and their sources in Beijing

    SHAO; Min; FU; Linlin; LIU; Ying; LU; Sihua; ZHANG; Yuanhan

    2005-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are important precursors of atmospheric chemical processes. As a whole mixture, the ambient VOCs show very strong chemical reactivity. Based on OH radical loss rates in the air, the chemical reactivity of VOCs in Beijing was calculated. The results revealed that alkenes, accounting for only about 15% in the mixing ratio of VOCs, provide nearly 75% of the reactivity of ambient VOCs and the C4 to C5 alkenes were the major reactive species among the alkenes. The study of emission characteristics of various VOCs sources indicated that these alkenes are mainly from vehicle exhaust and gasoline evaporation. The reduction of alkene species in these two sources will be effective in photochemical pollution control in Beijing.

  7. Comparative molecular cytogenetics of major repetitive sequence families of three Dendrobium species (Orchidaceae) from Bangladesh

    Begum, Rabeya; Alam, Sheikh Shamimul; Menzel, Gerhard; Schmidt, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Dendrobium species show tremendous morphological diversity and have broad geographical distribution. As repetitive sequence analysis is a useful tool to investigate the evolution of chromosomes and genomes, the aim of the present study was the characterization of repetitive sequences from Dendrobium moschatum for comparative molecular and cytogenetic studies in the related species Dendrobium aphyllum, Dendrobium aggregatum and representatives from other orchid genera. Methods In order to isolate highly repetitive sequences, a c0t-1 DNA plasmid library was established. Repeats were sequenced and used as probes for Southern hybridization. Sequence divergence was analysed using bioinformatic tools. Repetitive sequences were localized along orchid chromosomes by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Key Results Characterization of the c0t-1 library resulted in the detection of repetitive sequences including the (GA)n dinucleotide DmoO11, numerous Arabidopsis-like telomeric repeats and the highly amplified dispersed repeat DmoF14. The DmoF14 repeat is conserved in six Dendrobium species but diversified in representative species of three other orchid genera. FISH analyses showed the genome-wide distribution of DmoF14 in D. moschatum, D. aphyllum and D. aggregatum. Hybridization with the telomeric repeats demonstrated Arabidopsis-like telomeres at the chromosome ends of Dendrobium species. However, FISH using the telomeric probe revealed two pairs of chromosomes with strong intercalary signals in D. aphyllum. FISH showed the terminal position of 5S and 18S–5·8S–25S rRNA genes and a characteristic number of rDNA sites in the three Dendrobium species. Conclusions The repeated sequences isolated from D. moschatum c0t-1 DNA constitute major DNA families of the D. moschatum, D. aphyllum and D. aggregatum genomes with DmoF14 representing an ancient component of orchid genomes. Large intercalary telomere-like arrays suggest chromosomal

  8. Molecular identification of Aspergillus and Eurotium species isolated from rice and their toxin-producing ability.

    Yazdani, D; Zainal Abidin, M A; Tan, Y H; Kamaruzaman, S

    2011-01-01

    Thirty milled rice samples were collected from retailers in 4 provinces of Malaysia. These samples were evaluated for Aspergillus spp. infection by direct plating on malt extract salt agar (MESA). All Aspergillus holomorphs were isolated and identified using nucleotide sequences of ITS 1 and ITS 2 of rDNA. Five anamorphs (Aspergillus flavus, A. oryzae, A. tamarii, A. fumigatus and A. niger) and 5 teleomorphs (Eurotium rubrum, E. amstelodami, E. chevalieri, E. cristatum and E. tonophilum) were identified. The PCR-sequencing based technique for sequences of ITS 1 and ITS 2 is a fast technique for identification of Aspergillus and Eurotium species, although it doesn't work flawlessly for differentiation of Eurotium species. All Aspergillus and Eurotium isolates were screened for their ability to produce aflatoxin and ochratoxin A (OTA) by HPLC and TLC techniques. Only A. flavus isolate UPM 89 was able to produce aflatoxins B1 and B2.

  9. Two new Penicillium species Penicillium buchwaldii and Penicillium spathulatum, producing the anticancer compound asperphenamate

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Houbraken, Jos; Popma, Suuske

    2013-01-01

    Penicillium buchwaldii sp. nov. (type strain CBS 117181(T) = IBT 6005(T) = IMI 30428(T) ) and Penicillium spathulatum sp. nov. (CBS 117192(T) = IBT 22220(T) ) are described as new species based on a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Isolates of P. buchwaldii typically have terverticillate...... conidiophores with echinulate thick-walled conidia and produce the extrolites asperphenamate, citreoisocoumarin, communesin A and B, asperentin and 5'-hydroxy-asperentin. Penicillium spathulatum is unique in having restricted colonies on Czapek yeast agar (CYA) with an olive grey reverse, good growth on CYA...... supplemented with 5% NaCl, terverticillate bi- and ter-ramulate conidiophores and consistently produces the extrolites benzomalvin A and D and asperphenamate. The two new species belong to Penicillium section Brevicompacta and are phylogenetically closely related to Penicillium tularense. With exception...

  10. Contribution to the study of recoil species produced by potassium ferrocyanide neutron irradiation

    Meriadec Vernier de Byans, B.

    1969-04-01

    The chemical species produced by potassium ferrocyanide neutron irradiation were separated and identified. The study of their behaviour upon thermal annealing has allowed to establish a scheme of reaction as well as a kinetic treatment of the data. Activation energies are determined in different conditions and the effects of radiation dose, oxygen and water of crystallisation upon the activation energies were studied. Preliminary E.S.R. data and its relevance to the decomposition process is also discussed. (authors) [fr

  11. Non-Renewable Energy and Macroeconomic Efficiency of Seven Major Oil Producing Economies in Africa

    Awodumi Olabanji Benjamin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study adopted two-stage DEA to estimate the technical efficiency scores and assess the impact of the two most important components of fossil fuel associated with oil production on macroeconomic efficiency of Seven oil producing African countries during 2005-2012. Our results showed that increasing the consumption of natural gas would improve technical efficiency. Furthermore, increasing the share of fossil fuel in total energy consumption has negative effect on the efficiency of the economies of the top African oil producers. Also, we found that increasing the consumption of primary energy improves efficiency in these economies. We therefore, recommend that governments and other stakeholders in the energy industry should adopt inclusive strategies that will promote the use of natural gas in the short term. However, in the long-run, efforts should be geared towards increasing the use of primary energy, thereby reducing the percentage share of fossil fuel in total energy consumption.

  12. Evaluation of different glycoforms of honeybee venom major allergen phospholipase A2 (Api m 1) produced in insect cells

    Blank, Simon; Seismann, Henning; Plum, Melanie

    2011-01-01

    Allergic reactions to hymenoptera stings are one of the major reasons for IgE-mediated anaphylaxis. However, proper diagnosis using venom extracts is severely affected by molecular cross-reactivity. In this study recombinant honeybee venom major allergen phospholipase A2 (Api m 1) was produced......-derived recombinant Api m 1 with defined CCD phenotypes might provide further insights into hymenoptera venom IgE reactivities and contribute to an improved diagnosis of hymenoptera venom allergy....

  13. The Level of Utilization of Secondary Timber Species among Furniture Producers

    Antwi-Boasiako, Charles; Boadu, Kwadwo Boakye

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Inadequate supply of wood raw material is one of the major obstacles for the global furniture industry’s growth. Several secondary timbers/Lesser-Utilized-Species (LUS) that could substitute the scarce traditional timbers for furniture production exist in tropical forests. However, the industry continuously faces persistent timber shortages. The extent to which manufacturers utilize LUS as alternatives is unclear, which this study sought to ascertain. Materials and ...

  14. Aspergillus korhogoensis, a Novel Aflatoxin Producing Species from the Côte d’Ivoire

    Amaranta Carvajal-Campos

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Several strains of a new aflatoxigenic species of Aspergillus, A. korhogoensis, were isolated in the course of a screening study involving species from section Flavi found contaminating peanuts (Arachis hypogaea and peanut paste in the Côte d’Ivoire. Based on examination of four isolates, this new species is described using a polyphasic approach. A concatenated alignment comprised of nine genes (ITS, benA, cmdA, mcm7, amdS, rpb1, preB, ppgA, and preA was subjected to phylogenetic analysis, and resulted in all four strains being inferred as a distinct clade. Characterization of mating type for each strain revealed A. korhogoensis as a heterothallic species, since three isolates exhibited a singular MAT1-1 locus and one isolate exhibited a singular MAT1-2 locus. Morphological and physiological characterizations were also performed based on their growth on various types of media. Their respective extrolite profiles were characterized using LC/HRMS, and showed that this new species is capable of producing B- and G-aflatoxins, aspergillic acid, cyclopiazonic acid, aflavarins, and asparasones, as well as other metabolites. Altogether, our results confirm the monophyly of A. korhogoensis, and strengthen its position in the A. flavus clade, as the sister taxon of A. parvisclerotigenus.

  15. Development of a One-Step Multiplex PCR Assay for Differential Detection of Major Mycobacterium Species.

    Chae, Hansong; Han, Seung Jung; Kim, Su-Young; Ki, Chang-Seok; Huh, Hee Jae; Yong, Dongeun; Koh, Won-Jung; Shin, Sung Jae

    2017-09-01

    The prevalence of tuberculosis continues to be high, and nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infection has also emerged worldwide. Moreover, differential and accurate identification of mycobacteria to the species or subspecies level is an unmet clinical need. Here, we developed a one-step multiplex PCR assay using whole-genome analysis and bioinformatics to identify novel molecular targets. The aims of this assay were to (i) discriminate between the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and NTM using rv0577 or RD750, (ii) differentiate M. tuberculosis ( M. tuberculosis ) from MTBC using RD9, (iii) selectively identify the widespread M. tuberculosis Beijing genotype by targeting mtbk_20680 , and (iv) simultaneously detect five clinically important NTM ( M. avium , M. intracellulare , M. abscessus , M. massiliense , and M. kansasii ) by targeting IS 1311 , DT1, mass_3210 , and mkan_rs12360 An initial evaluation of the multiplex PCR assay using reference strains demonstrated 100% specificity for the targeted Mycobacterium species. Analytical sensitivity ranged from 1 to 10 pg for extracted DNA and was 10 3 and 10 4 CFU for pure cultures and nonhomogenized artificial sputum cultures, respectively, of the targeted species. The accuracy of the multiplex PCR assay was further evaluated using 55 reference strains and 94 mycobacterial clinical isolates. Spoligotyping, multilocus sequence analysis, and a commercial real-time PCR assay were employed as standard assays to evaluate the multiplex PCR assay with clinical M. tuberculosis and NTM isolates. The PCR assay displayed 100% identification agreement with the standard assays. Our multiplex PCR assay is a simple, convenient, and reliable technique for differential identification of MTBC, M. tuberculosis , M. tuberculosis Beijing genotype, and major NTM species. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  16. Reduction of time for producing and acclimatizing two bamboo species in a greenhouse

    Giovanni Aquino Gasparetto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available China has been investing in bamboo cultivation in Brazilian lands. However, there’s a significant deficit of seedling production for civil construction and the charcoal and cellulose sectors, something which compromises a part of the forestry sector. In order to contribute so that the bamboo production chain solves this problem, this study aimed to check whether the application of indole acetic acid (IAA could promote plant growth in a shorter cultivation time. In the study, Bambusa vulgaris and B. vulgaris var. vitatta stakes underwent two treatments (0.25% and 5.0% of IAA and they were grown on washed sand in a greenhouse. Number of leaves, stem growth, rooting, and chlorophyll content were investigated. There was no difference with regard to stem growth, root length, and number of leaves for both species in the two treatments (0.25% and 5% IAA. The chlorophyll content variation between the two species may constitute a quality parameter of forest seedling when compared to other bamboo species. After 43 days, the seedlings are ready for planting in areas of full sun. For the species studied here, the average time to the seedling sale is from 4 to 6 months, with no addition of auxin. Using this simple and low cost technique, several nurserymen will produce bamboo seedlings with reduced time, costs, and manpower.

  17. Comparative characteristics of grain classifications of soft wheat of Kazakhstan and major grain-producing countries

    D. A. Shaimerdenova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Soft wheat is one of the most important crops, grown in more than 130 countries. To date, one-fifth of the world's wheat, or about 150 million tons a year, is sold on international markets. In the world trade traditionally dominated by the US, Australia, Canada and Argentina. Kazakhstan, being on the 15th place in the production of wheat grain, is among the first ten exporters - in 2017 the country exported about 8 million tons to the amount of 1.5 billion dollars. USA, then, as potential export opportunities are much higher, as evidenced by annual carryover stocks at 3 million tons. According to experts, considerable differences in the classification of wheat grain used in Kazakhstan and in other countries participating in the grain market and the methods for assessing the technological dignity indicators (TDs laid down in the classifications are a significant obstacle to increasing the export potential of wheat grains. In view of this, an analysis was made of grain classifications of wheat grains used in the most important grain producing countries, TD indicators were determined, methods for their evaluation, and differences were revealed. It is established that in countries that are stable in the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of grain, an insignificant list of TD indicators is adopted, while they characterize the physical quality and state of the grain, which may indicate a general suitability for grinding. It is determined that in Russia and Kazakhstan, in determining the contamination, such an indicator as dockage is not taken into account. Comparative tests of different methods of sampling and determination of contamination have been carried out, and correlation coefficients have been established between indicators of contamination determined by different methods.

  18. Computerized screening for novel producers of Monascus-like food pigments in Penicillium species

    Mapari, Sameer Shamsuddin; Hansen, Michael Adsetts Edberg; Meyer, Anne S.

    2008-01-01

    , rubropunctamine, and citrinin. The cross hits were then manually identified on the basis of their UV-vis and mass spectra. X-hitting was found to be a good tool in the rapid screening of crude pigment extracts. Monascus pigments were discovered in the extracts of two closely related species of Penicillium...... Penicillium extracts showed the presence of citrinin. Thus, the present study brought out two novel promising sources of yellow, orange, and purple-red Monascus-like food pigments in the species of Penicillia that do not produce citrinin and opened the door to look for several more new promising sources...... that were only distantly related to the genus Monascus. Monascorubrin, xanthomonasin A, and threonine derivatives of rubropunctatin were identified in the extract of Penicillium aculeatum IBT 14263, and monascorubrin was identified in the extract of Penicillium pinophilum IBT 13104. None of the tested...

  19. Quantification of major allergen parvalbumin in 22 species of fish by SDS-PAGE.

    Kobayashi, Yukihiro; Yang, Tao; Yu, Cheng-Tao; Ume, Chiaki; Kubota, Hiroyuki; Shimakura, Kuniyoshi; Shiomi, Kazuo; Hamada-Sato, Naoko

    2016-03-01

    Fish is an important causative material of food allergy. Although the allergenicity of fish is considered to correlate with the content of parvalbumin, the major fish allergen, available information about the parvalbumin content in fish is limited. In this study, a simple and reliable quantification method for fish parvalbumin by SDS-PAGE was first established. Application of the SDS-PAGE method to 22 species of fish revealed a marked variation in parvalbumin content among fish. Furthermore, the parvalbumin content was found to be higher in dorsal white muscle than in ventral white muscle, in rostral part of white muscle than in caudal part of white muscle and in white muscle than in dark muscle. IgE reactivity of fish was roughly proportional to parvalbumin content. Interestingly, large-sized migratory fish, such as salmon, swordfish and tuna, were commonly very low in both parvalbumin content and IgE reactivity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Study of the promissory species producers of coloring in the Amazonic trapeze

    Braham, William Klinger

    1998-01-01

    During 1995 and 1996 the Universidad Distrltal Francisco Jose de Caldas, with the economic support of the national program for the transfer of agricultural technology and the active participation of the indigenous communities seated in the Amazonic trapeze, advanced the present study guided to the search of alternative of use of products different from the wood, with the purpose of giving a bigger integrally to the use of the forest, inside a mark of sustainable development. The investigation had as objectives, to identify the species producers of coloring in the Amazonic trapeze, to determine the part of the plant used in the obtaining of these colorings, the color type taken place by each species and the yields reached in its production, to identify the autochthonous technologies used in its prosecution and the uses local to the colorings, to select species potentially important and to determine them the use possibilities in the textile and cosmetic, nutritious, handmade industries and of paintings, as well as to discover basic aspects on its propagation. They were in the area of study 29 species producers of colorings that they make part of very varied families, being the most representative in their order, rubiaceae, palmae and mimoisaceae. The parts of the plants used for the obtaining of the colorings are the leaves (48.28%) the bark (27.57%), the fruits (10.34%), the perspired (6.90%) and the seeds and roots with (3.95%) each one. The range of colors is very wide, yellow, coffee, green, red and purple they are those that stand out. Most of identified species are not used as coloring by the local communities and to the few that are given this use; they are used mainly for three (3) activities, the make-up of the body, the preparation of foods and the elaboration of crafts. The work allowed to conclude that the high number of species producers of coloring existent in the Amazonic trapeze it makes think of the possibilities of an integral use of the forest that

  1. The Species Richness of Vascular Plants and Amphibia in Major Plant Communities in Temperate to Tropical Australia: Relationship with Annual Biomass Production

    Specht, R. L.; Tyler, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Aerodynamic fluxes (frictional, thermal, evaporative) in the atmosphere as it flows over and through a plant community determine the Foliage Projective Covers and eco-morphological attributes of new leaves developed annually in overstorey and understorey strata. The number of leaves produced on vertical foliage shoots depends on available soil water and nutrients, also ambient temperature, during this short growth season. Stem density (number of stems per hectare) and species richness (number of species per hectare) in the overstorey of major Floristic Groups are correlated with annual shoot growth (ASG, t ha-1) in that stratum. Species richness in the overstorey increases in the climatic gradient from the arid to the humid zone as well as with increasing air temperatures (about 10 degree C) from temperate to tropical Australia. Species richness in the understorey is highest in plant communities in temperate Australia, decreasing in the temperature gradient towards the tropics. As with other major plant and animal groups within an ecosystem, the species richness of Amphibia is correlated with the amount of solar energy fixed (per annum) by the major plant formation in the regional photosynthetic potential determined by the foliage shoots (ASG, t ha-1) produced annually in the overstorey.

  2. The Species Richness of Vascular Plants and Amphibia in Major Plant Communities in Temperate to Tropical Australia: Relationship with Annual Biomass Production

    R. L. Specht

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerodynamic fluxes (frictional, thermal, evaporative in the atmosphere as it flows over and through a plant community determine the Foliage Projective Covers and eco-morphological attributes of new leaves developed annually in overstorey and understorey strata. The number of leaves produced on vertical foliage shoots depends on available soil water and nutrients, also ambient temperature, during this short growth season. Stem density (number of stems per hectare and species richness (number of species per hectare in the overstorey of major Floristic Groups are correlated with annual shoot growth (ASG, t ha−1 in that stratum. Species richness in the overstorey increases in the climatic gradient from the arid to the humid zone as well as with increasing air temperatures (about 10oC from temperate to tropical Australia. Species richness in the understorey is highest in plant communities in temperate Australia, decreasing in the temperature gradient towards the tropics. As with other major plant and animal groups within an ecosystem, the species richness of Amphibia is correlated with the amount of solar energy fixed (per annum by the major plant formation in the region—a photosynthetic potential determined by the foliage shoots (ASG, t ha−1 produced annually in the overstorey.

  3. Signatures of selection in loci governing major colour patterns in Heliconius butterflies and related species

    Joron Mathieu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein-coding change is one possible genetic mechanism underlying the evolution of adaptive wing colour pattern variation in Heliconius butterflies. Here we determine whether 38 putative genes within two major Heliconius patterning loci, HmYb and HmB, show evidence of positive selection. Ratios of nonsynonymous to synonymous nucleotide changes (ω were used to test for selection, as a means of identifying candidate genes within each locus that control wing pattern. Results Preliminary analyses using 454 transcriptome and Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC sequences from three Heliconius species highlighted a cluster of genes within each region showing relatively higher rates of sequence evolution. Other genes within the region appear to be highly constrained, and no ω estimates exceeded one. Three genes from each locus with the highest average pairwise ω values were amplified from additional Heliconius species and races. Two selected genes, fizzy-like (HmYb and DALR (HmB, were too divergent for amplification across species and were excluded from further analysis. Amongst the remaining genes, HM00021 and Kinesin possessed the highest background ω values within the HmYb and HmB loci, respectively. After accounting for recombination, these two genes both showed evidence of having codons with a signature of selection, although statistical support for this signal was not strong in any case. Conclusions Tests of selection reveal a cluster of candidate genes in each locus, suggesting that weak directional selection may be occurring within a small region of each locus, but coding changes alone are unlikely to explain the full range of wing pattern diversity. These analyses pinpoint many of the same genes believed to be involved in the control of colour patterning in Heliconius that have been identified through other studies implementing different research methods.

  4. [Comparison of antioxidant activity between two species of chamomiles produced in Xinjiang by TLC-bioautography].

    Han, Song-Lin; Li, Xin-Xia; Mian, Qiang-Hui; Lan, Wei; Liu, Yan

    2013-01-01

    To compare the antioxidant active components from two species of chamomile-matricaria and Roman chamomile produced in Xinjiang. The TLC-bioautography was used, with 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical as the experimental model. The peak areas of various antioxidant components were obtained by TLC-scanning for analyzing antioxidant active components contained in volatile oil extracts and flavone extracts from the two species of chamomiles. The total peak area was taken as the indicator for comparing the antioxidant capacities of the two types of extracts, and comparing them with the total antioxidant activity of flavone extracts of the two species of chamomiles. According to the result of TLC-bioautography in volatile oil extracts from the two species of chamomiles, volatile oil extracts from chamomile showed four white antioxidant spots, including en-yne-dicycloether, and volatile oil extracts from Roman chamomile showed only one white antioxidant spot. The TLC-scanning result showed that the peak area of antioxidant spots of volatile oil extracts from chamomile was significantly larger than that of volatile oil extracts from Roman chamomile. According to the test on the antioxidant activity of the two species of chamomiles with ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry, the concentration of chamomile after scavenging 50% of DPPH radicals was 0.66 g x L(-1), whereas the figure for Roman chamomile was 0.33 g x L(-1). According to the result of TLC-bioautography in flavone extracts from the two species of chamomiles, flavone extracts from chamomile showed seven yellowish antioxidant spots, including apigenin and apigenin-7-glucoside, and flavone extracts of Roman chamomile showed eight yellowish antioxidant spots, including apigenin and apigenin-7-glucoside. The TLC-scanning results showed that the peak area of antioxidant spots of flavone extracts from Roman chamomile was significantly larger than that of flavone extracts from chamomile. Volatile oil extracts

  5. Discerning Silk Produced by Bombyx mori from Those Produced by Wild Species Using an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Combined with Conventional Methods.

    You, Qiushi; Li, Qingqing; Zheng, Hailing; Hu, Zhiwen; Zhou, Yang; Wang, Bing

    2017-09-06

    Recently, much interest has been paid to the separation of silk produced by Bombyx mori from silk produced by other species and tracing the beginnings of silk cultivation from wild silk exploitation. In this paper, significant differences between silks from Bombyx mori and other species were found by microscopy and spectroscopy, such as morphology, secondary structure, and amino acid composition. For further accurate identification, a diagnostic antibody was designed by comparing the peptide sequences of silks produced by Bombyx mori and other species. The results of the noncompetitive indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) indicated that the antibody that showed good sensitivity and high specificity can definitely discern silk produced by Bombyx mori from silk produced by wild species. Thus, the antibody-based immunoassay has the potential to be a powerful tool for tracing the beginnings of silk cultivation. In addition, combining the sensitive, specific, and convenient ELISA technology with other conventional methods can provide more in-depth and accurate information for species identification.

  6. Intracellular and extracellular phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate produced by Phytophthora species is important for infection.

    Lu, Shan; Chen, Linlin; Tao, Kai; Sun, Nannan; Wu, Yuren; Lu, Xiaoxue; Wang, Yuanchao; Dou, Daolong

    2013-09-01

    RxLR effectors produced by Phytophthora pathogens have been proposed to bind to phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns(3)P) to mediate their translocation into host cells and/or to increase their stability in planta. Since the levels of PtdIns(3)P in plants are low, we examined whether Phytophthora species may produce PtdIns(3)P to promote infection. We observed that PtdIns(3)P-specific GFP biosensors could bind to P. parasitica and P. sojae hyphae during infection of Nicotiana benthamiana leaves transiently secreting the biosensors, suggesting that the hyphae exposed PtdIns(3)P on their plasma membrane and/or secreted PtdIns(3)P. Silencing of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3K) genes, treatment with LY294002, or expression of PtdIns(3)P-binding proteins by P. sojae reduced the virulence of the pathogen on soybean, indicating that pathogen-synthesized PtdIns(3)P was required for full virulence. Secretion of PtdIns(3)P-binding proteins or of a PI3P-5-kinase by N. benthamiana leaves significantly increased the level of resistance to infection by P. parasitica and P. capsici. Together, our results support the hypothesis that Phytophthora species produce external PtdIns(3)P to aid in infection, such as to promote entry of RxLR effectors into host cells. Our results derived from P. sojae RxLR effector Avr1b confirm that both the N-terminus and the C-terminus of this effector can bind PtdIns(3)P.

  7. High-resolution melting analysis (HRM) for differentiation of four major Taeniidae species in dogs Taenia hydatigena, Taenia multiceps, Taenia ovis, and Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto.

    Dehghani, Mansoureh; Mohammadi, Mohammad Ali; Rostami, Sima; Shamsaddini, Saeedeh; Mirbadie, Seyed Reza; Harandi, Majid Fasihi

    2016-07-01

    Tapeworms of the genus Taenia include several species of important parasites with considerable medical and veterinary significance. Accurate identification of these species in dogs is the prerequisite of any prevention and control program. Here, we have applied an efficient method for differentiating four major Taeniid species in dogs, i.e., Taenia hydatigena, T. multiceps, T. ovis, and Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto. High-resolution melting (HRM) analysis is simpler, less expensive, and faster technique than conventional DNA-based assays and enables us to detect PCR amplicons in a closed system. Metacestode samples were collected from local abattoirs from sheep. All the isolates had already been identified by PCR-sequencing, and their sequence data were deposited in the GenBank. Real-time PCR coupled with HRM analysis targeting mitochondrial cox1 and ITS1 genes was used to differentiate taeniid species. Distinct melting curves were obtained from ITS1 region enabling accurate differentiation of three Taenia species and E. granulosus in dogs. The HRM curves of Taenia species and E .granulosus were clearly separated at Tm of 85 to 87 °C. In addition, double-pick melting curves were produced in mixed infections. Cox1 melting curves were not decisive enough to distinguish four taeniids. In this work, the efficiency of HRM analysis to differentiate four major taeniid species in dogs has been demonstrated using ITS1 gene.

  8. A mesophilic Clostridium species that produces butanol from monosaccharides and hydrogen from polysaccharides.

    Bramono, Sandhi Eko; Lam, Yuen Sean; Ong, Say Leong; He, Jianzhong

    2011-10-01

    A unique mesophilic Clostridium species strain BOH3 is obtained in this study, which is capable of fermenting monosaccharides to produce butanol and hydrolyzing polysaccharides to produce hydrogen (H(2)) and volatile fatty acids (VFAs). From 30 g/L of glucose and xylose each, batch culture BOH3 was able to produce 4.67 and 4.63 g/L of butanol. Enhancement treatments by increasing the inoculated cells improved butanol production to 7.05 and 7.41 g/L, respectively. Hydrogen production (2.47 and 1.93 mmol) was observed when cellulose and xylan (10 g/L each) were used, suggesting that strain BOH3 possesses xylanolytic and cellulolytic capabilities. These unique features reveal the strain's novelty as most wild-type solventogenic strains have not been reported to have such properties. Therefore, culture BOH3 is promising in generating butanol and hydrogen from renewable feedstock. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evolution of major milk proteins in Mus musculus and Mus spretus mouse species: a genoproteomic analysis

    Panthier Jean-Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to their high level of genotypic and phenotypic variability, Mus spretus strains were introduced in laboratories to investigate the genetic determinism of complex phenotypes including quantitative trait loci. Mus spretus diverged from Mus musculus around 2.5 million years ago and exhibits on average a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in every 100 base pairs when compared with any of the classical laboratory strains. A genoproteomic approach was used to assess polymorphism of the major milk proteins between SEG/Pas and C57BL/6J, two inbred strains of mice representative of Mus spretus and Mus musculus species, respectively. Results The milk protein concentration was dramatically reduced in the SEG/Pas strain by comparison with the C57BL/6J strain (34 ± 9 g/L vs. 125 ± 12 g/L, respectively. Nine major proteins were identified in both milks using RP-HPLC, bi-dimensional electrophoresis and MALDI-Tof mass spectrometry. Two caseins (β and αs1 and the whey acidic protein (WAP, showed distinct chromatographic and electrophoresis behaviours. These differences were partly explained by the occurrence of amino acid substitutions and splicing variants revealed by cDNA sequencing. A total of 34 SNPs were identified in the coding and 3'untranslated regions of the SEG/Pas Csn1s1 (11, Csn2 (7 and Wap (8 genes. In addition, a 3 nucleotide deletion leading to the loss of a serine residue at position 93 was found in the SEG/Pas Wap gene. Conclusion SNP frequencies found in three milk protein-encoding genes between Mus spretus and Mus musculus is twice the values previously reported at the whole genome level. However, the protein structure and post-translational modifications seem not to be affected by SNPs characterized in our study. Splicing mechanisms (cryptic splice site usage, exon skipping, error-prone junction sequence, already identified in casein genes from other species, likely explain the existence of multiple αs1-casein

  10. Sea Cucumber Glycosides: Chemical Structures, Producing Species and Important Biological Properties.

    Mondol, Muhammad Abdul Mojid; Shin, Hee Jae; Rahman, M Aminur; Islam, Mohamad Tofazzal

    2017-10-17

    Sea cucumbers belonging to echinoderm are traditionally used as tonic food in China and other Asian countries. They produce abundant biologically active triterpene glycosides. More than 300 triterpene glycosides have been isolated and characterized from various species of sea cucumbers, which are classified as holostane and nonholostane depending on the presence or absence of a specific structural unit γ(18,20)-lactone in the aglycone. Triterpene glycosides contain a carbohydrate chain up to six monosaccharide units mainly consisting of d-xylose, 3-O-methy-d-xylose, d-glucose, 3-O-methyl-d-glucose, and d-quinovose. Cytotoxicity is the common biological property of triterpene glycosides isolated from sea cucumbers. Besides cytotoxicity, triterpene glycosides also exhibit antifungal, antiviral and hemolytic activities. This review updates and summarizes our understanding on diverse chemical structures of triterpene glycosides from various species of sea cucumbers and their important biological activities. Mechanisms of action and structural-activity relationships (SARs) of sea cucumber glycosides are also discussed briefly.

  11. Sigma viruses from three species of Drosophila form a major new clade in the rhabdovirus phylogeny

    Longdon, Ben; Obbard, Darren J.; Jiggins, Francis M.

    2010-01-01

    The sigma virus (DMelSV), which is a natural pathogen of Drosophila melanogaster, is the only Drosophila-specific rhabdovirus that has been described. We have discovered two new rhabdoviruses, D. obscura and D. affinis, which we have named DObsSV and DAffSV, respectively. We sequenced the complete genomes of DObsSV and DMelSV, and the L gene from DAffSV. Combining these data with sequences from a wide range of other rhabdoviruses, we found that the three sigma viruses form a distinct clade which is a sister group to the Dimarhabdovirus supergroup, and the high levels of divergence between these viruses suggest that they deserve to be recognized as a new genus. Furthermore, our analysis produced the most robustly supported phylogeny of the Rhabdoviridae to date, allowing us to reconstruct the major transitions that have occurred during the evolution of the family. Our data suggest that the bias towards research into plants and vertebrates means that much of the diversity of rhabdoviruses has been missed, and rhabdoviruses may be common pathogens of insects. PMID:19812076

  12. Maternal effects on male weaponry: female dung beetles produce major sons with longer horns when they perceive higher population density

    Buzatto Bruno A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal effects are environmental influences on the phenotype of one individual that are due to the expression of genes in its mother, and are expected to evolve whenever females are better capable of assessing the environmental conditions that their offspring will experience than the offspring themselves. In the dung beetle Onthophagus taurus, conditional male dimorphism is associated with alternative reproductive tactics: majors fight and guard females whereas minors sneak copulations. Furthermore, variation in dung beetle population density has different fitness consequences for each male morph, and theory predicts that higher population density might select for a higher frequency of minors and/or greater expenditure on weaponry in majors. Because adult dung beetles provide offspring with all the nutritional resources for their development, maternal effects strongly influence male phenotype. Results Here we tested whether female O. taurus are capable of perceiving population density, and responding by changing the phenotype of their offspring. We found that mothers who were reared with other conspecifics in their pre-mating period produced major offspring that had longer horns across a wider range of body sizes than the major offspring of females that were reared in isolation in their pre-mating period. Moreover, our results indicate that this maternal effect on male weaponry does not operate through the amount of dung provided by females to their offspring, but is rather transmitted through egg or brood mass composition. Finally, although theory predicts that females experiencing higher density might produce more minor males, we found no support for this, rather the best fitting models were equivocal as to whether fewer or the same proportions of minors were produced. Conclusions Our study describes a new type of maternal effect in dung beetles, which probably allows females to respond to population density adaptively

  13. Seasonality of major aerosol species and their transformations in Cairo mega-city

    Favez, O.; Cachier, H.; Sciare, J.; Alfaro, S.C.; El-Araby, T.M.; Harhash, M.A.; Abdelwahab, M.M.

    2008-01-01

    Bulk aerosols sampled oil a weekly basis at two Cairo (Egypt) urban sites from January 2003 to May 2006 were analysed for their chemical composition of major aerosol species (elemental carbon, water soluble/insoluble organic carbon, nitrate, sulphate, ammonium, chloride, sodium and calcium). Data subsequently obtained constitute one of the longest and more detailed dataset related to Cairo aerosols, and offer the opportunity to investigate seasonal trends. Dust aerosols (derived from calcium measurements) displayed maximum concentrations in spring and winter, due to frequent dust storms, but also high background concentration levels (∼ 50 μgm -3 ), all year long. Within these particles, about 40% oil average of Ca 2+ was found to be associated SO 4 2- , NO 3 - and/or Cl - , pointing out 'dust anthropization' processes and their subsequent climatic impact oil a regional scale. Seasonal variations of non-dust aerosols, equally distributed between carbonaceous aerosols and ions, were also observed, with concentrations of the order of 100 μgm -3 in autumn and winter, and of 60 μgm -3 in spring and summer. High concentration levels of non-sea-salt chloride (up to 15 μg m -3 on a monthly basis), likely of industrial origin, were observed in autumn and winter. During the autumn 'Black Cloud' event, biomass burning aerosols originating front rice straw burning in the Nile Delta have shown to account for 12%, 35%, and 50% of Cairo EC, WIOC and WSOC mass concentrations, respectively. Finally, relatively low WSOC/OC ratios (similar to 1/3) were obtained all the year long, calling for more investigation oil the water-solubility of organic aerosols originating from the burning of agricultural waste, and oil that of secondary organic aerosols formed in dry urban atmospheres. (authors)

  14. Urbanization level and woodland size are major drivers of woodpecker species richness and abundance.

    Lukasz Myczko

    Full Text Available Urbanization is a process globally responsible for loss of biodiversity and for biological homogenization. Urbanization may have a direct negative impact on species behaviour and indirect effects on species populations through alterations of their habitats, for example patch size and habitat quality. Woodpeckers are species potentially susceptible to urbanization. These birds are mostly forest specialists and the development of urban areas in former forests may be an important factor influencing their richness and abundance, but documented examples are rare. In this study we investigated how woodpeckers responded to changes in forest habitats as a consequence of urbanization, namely size and isolation of habitat patches, and other within-patch characteristics. We selected 42 woodland patches in a gradient from a semi-natural rural landscape to the city centre of Poznań (Western Poland in spring 2010. Both species richness and abundance of woodpeckers correlated positively to woodland patch area and negatively to increasing urbanization. Abundance of woodpeckers was also positively correlated with shrub cover and percentage of deciduous tree species. Furthermore, species richness and abundance of woodpeckers were highest at moderate values of canopy openness. Ordination analyses confirmed that urbanization level and woodland patch area were variables contributing most to species abundance in the woodpecker community. Similar results were obtained in presence-absence models for particular species. Thus, to sustain woodpecker species within cities it is important to keep woodland patches large, multi-layered and rich in deciduous tree species.

  15. Urbanization level and woodland size are major drivers of woodpecker species richness and abundance.

    Myczko, Lukasz; Rosin, Zuzanna M; Skórka, Piotr; Tryjanowski, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Urbanization is a process globally responsible for loss of biodiversity and for biological homogenization. Urbanization may have a direct negative impact on species behaviour and indirect effects on species populations through alterations of their habitats, for example patch size and habitat quality. Woodpeckers are species potentially susceptible to urbanization. These birds are mostly forest specialists and the development of urban areas in former forests may be an important factor influencing their richness and abundance, but documented examples are rare. In this study we investigated how woodpeckers responded to changes in forest habitats as a consequence of urbanization, namely size and isolation of habitat patches, and other within-patch characteristics. We selected 42 woodland patches in a gradient from a semi-natural rural landscape to the city centre of Poznań (Western Poland) in spring 2010. Both species richness and abundance of woodpeckers correlated positively to woodland patch area and negatively to increasing urbanization. Abundance of woodpeckers was also positively correlated with shrub cover and percentage of deciduous tree species. Furthermore, species richness and abundance of woodpeckers were highest at moderate values of canopy openness. Ordination analyses confirmed that urbanization level and woodland patch area were variables contributing most to species abundance in the woodpecker community. Similar results were obtained in presence-absence models for particular species. Thus, to sustain woodpecker species within cities it is important to keep woodland patches large, multi-layered and rich in deciduous tree species.

  16. Population dynamics of the species Plantago major L. and Poa annua L. in a replacement series experiment

    Mijović A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Population dynamics of the species Plantago major L. and Poa annua L., typical representatives of ruderal vegetation, was analyzed in a replacement series experiment. The analyzed species were sown in an area with meadow vegetation, where the vegetation present had been previously removed by a total herbicide and additionally by hoeing. The objective of the experiment was to monitor growth dynamics and the effect of intra- and inter-specific interaction of the species Plantago major and Poa annua in conditions of different sowing densities and proportions. The effects of intra- and inter-specific interference and the density-dependent responses were assessed on the basis of several parameters (natality, mortality, age structure, and measures of ontogenetic changes. Based on the study results, it can be concluded that the responses of the species in the experiment were different, which is explained by different adaptive mechanisms, i.e., strategies, in the specific environmental conditions. An effect of the density dependent response was present in both species in the replacement series experiment. The response was amplified by water deficit caused by intensive evapora­tion of the bare soil. No effect of inter-specific interference was observed at the given densities of the study species on the sample plots. An effect of intra-specific interference of the species Plantago major and Poa annua was observed in the guise of a density-negative response of the rate of ontogenetic changes and fecundity.

  17. LukMF′ is the major secreted leukocidin of bovine Staphylococcus aureus and is produced in vivo during bovine mastitis

    Vrieling, Manouk; Boerhout, Eveline M.; van Wigcheren, Glenn F.; Koymans, Kirsten J.; Mols-Vorstermans, Tanja G.; de Haas, Carla J. C.; Aerts, Piet C.; Daemen, Ineke J. J. M.; van Kessel, Kok P. M.; Koets, Ad P.; Rutten, Victor P. M. G.; Nuijten, Piet J.M.; van Strijp, Jos A. G.; Benedictus, Lindert

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major human and animal pathogen and a common cause of mastitis in cattle. S. aureus secretes several leukocidins that target bovine neutrophils, crucial effector cells in the defence against bacterial pathogens. In this study, we investigated the role of staphylococcal leukocidins in the pathogenesis of bovine S. aureus disease. We show that LukAB, in contrast to the γ-hemolysins, LukED, and LukMF′, was unable to kill bovine neutrophils, and identified CXCR2 as a bovine receptor for HlgAB and LukED. Furthermore, we assessed functional leukocidin secretion by bovine mastitis isolates and observed that, although leukocidin production was strain dependent, LukMF′ was most abundantly secreted and the major toxin killing bovine neutrophils. To determine the role of LukMF′ in bovine mastitis, cattle were challenged with high (S1444) or intermediate (S1449, S1463) LukMF′-producing isolates. Only animals infected with S1444 developed severe clinical symptoms. Importantly, LukM was produced in vivo during the course of infection and levels in milk were associated with the severity of mastitis. Altogether, these findings underline the importance of LukMF′ as a virulence factor and support the development of therapeutic approaches targeting LukMF′ to control S. aureus mastitis in cattle. PMID:27886237

  18. Seasonal body size reductions with warming covary with major body size gradients in arthropod species

    Horne, Curtis R.; Hirst, Andrew G.; Atkinson, David

    2017-01-01

    experience different developmental conditions. Yet, unlike other size patterns, these common seasonal temperature–size gradients have never been collectively analysed. We undertake the largest analysis to date of seasonal temperature-size gradients in multivoltine arthropods, including 102 aquatic...... and terrestrial species from 71 global locations. Adult size declines in warmer seasons in 86% of the species examined. Aquatic species show approximately 2.5-fold greater reduction in size per °C of warming than terrestrial species, supporting the hypothesis that greater oxygen limitation in water than in air...

  19. Studies of the yields of 57Fe(II)-species produced after the EC-decay and of 60Co(II)-species produced in the (n, γ) reaction in cobalt(III) coordination compounds

    Sano, Hirotoshi; Harada, Masayuki; Endo, Kazutoyo

    1978-01-01

    The yields of 57 Fe(II)-species produced after EC-decay were compared with those of 60 Co(II)-species produced in the 59 Co(n, γ) 60 Co reaction for twelve cobalt(III) coordination compounds. The results indicate that the radiochemical yield of 60 Co(II)-species correlates with the yield of 57 Fe(II)-species except in the case of [Co(NH 3 ) 6 ] 2 (CrO 4 ) 3 . The anomalously low yield of 57 Fe(II)-species in [Co(NH 3 ) 6 ] 2 (CrO 4 ) 3 is ascribed to the reaction of chromate anions with ammine ligands initiated by the nuclear transformation in a solid. (author)

  20. Proteomic analysis of the major birch allergen Bet v 1 predicts allergenicity for 15 birch species

    Schenk, M.F.; Cordewener, J.H.G.; America, A.H.P.; Peters, J.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.

    2011-01-01

    Pollen of the European and Asian white birch (Betula pendula and B. platyphylla) causes hay fever in humans. The allergenic potency of other birch species is largely unknown. To identify birch trees with a reduced allergenicity, we assessed the immunochemical characteristics of 15 species and two

  1. Controlling Fluences of Reactive Species Produced by Multipulse DBDs onto Wet Tissue: Frequency and Liquid Thickness

    Tian, Wei; Kushner, Mark J.

    2015-09-01

    Tissue covered by a thin liquid layer treated by atmospheric pressure plasmas for biomedical applications ultimately requires a reproducible protocol for human healthcare. The outcomes of wet tissue treatment by dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) depend on the plasma dose which determines the integral fluences of radicals and ions onto the tissue. These fluences are controlled in part by frequency and liquid thickness. In this paper, we report on results from a computational investigation of multipulse DBDs interacting with wet tissue. The DBDs were simulated for 100 stationary or random streamers at different repetition rates and liquid thicknesses followed by 10 s to 2 min of afterglow. At 100 Hz, NOaq and OHaq are mixed by randomly striking streamers, although they have different rates of solvation. NOaq is nearly completely consumed by reactions with OHaq at the liquid surface. Only H2O2aq, produced through OHaq mutual reactions, survives to reach the tissue. After 100 pulses, the liquid becomes ozone-rich, in which the nitrous ion, NO2-aq, is converted to the nitric ion, NO3-aq. Reducing the pulse frequency to 10 Hz results in significant fluence of NOaq to the tissue as NOaq can escape during the interpulse period from the liquid surface where OHaq is formed. For the same reason, NO2-aq can also reach deeper into the liquid at lower frequency. Frequency and thickness of the liquid are methods to control the plasma produced aqueous species to the underlying tissue. Work supported by DOE (DE-SC0001319) and NSF (CHE-1124724).

  2. A New Species of Neotropical Carpenter Ant in the Genus Camponotus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae, Apparently without Major Workers

    William Mackay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new species of carpenter ants from Ecuador, which apparently has an obligatory relationship with the ant plants Cecropia membranacea Trécul, C. herthae Diels and C. marginalis Cuatrec. The workers are relatively small and hairy, and based on a number of collections, it does not appear to have major workers. We compare the new species to Camponotus balzani, to which it appears to be similar and which has normal major workers, and also lives in Cecropia spp.

  3. Monochloramine produces reactive oxygen species in liver by converting xanthine dehydrogenase into xanthine oxidase.

    Sakuma, Satoru; Miyoshi, Emi; Sadatoku, Namiko; Fujita, Junko; Negoro, Miki; Arakawa, Yukio; Fujimoto, Yohko

    2009-09-15

    In the present study, we assessed the influence of monochloramine (NH(2)Cl) on the conversion of xanthine dehydrogenase (XD) into xanthine oxidase (XO) in rat liver in vitro. When incubated with the partially purified cytosolic fraction from rat liver, NH(2)Cl (2.5-20 microM) dose-dependently enhanced XO activity concomitant with a decrease in XD activity, implying that NH(2)Cl can convert XD into the reactive oxygen species (ROS) producing form XO. The NH(2)Cl (5 microM)-induced XD/XO interconversion in the rat liver cytosol was completely inhibited when added in combination with an inhibitor of NH(2)Cl methionine (25 microM). A sulfhydryl reducing agent, dithiothreitol at concentrations of 0.1, 1 and 5 mM also dose-dependently reversed the NH(2)Cl (5 microM)-induced XD/XO interconversion. These imply that NH(2)Cl itself acts on the XD/XO interconversion, and that this conversion occurs at the cysteine residues in XD. Furthermore, using the fluorescent probe 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate, it was found that NH(2)Cl could increase ROS generation in the cytoplasm of rat primary hepatocyte cultures, and that this increase might be reversed by an XO inhibitor, allopurinol. These results suggest that NH(2)Cl has the potential to convert XD into XO in the liver, which in turn may induce the ROS generation in this region.

  4. Resource partitioning within major bottom fish species in a highly productive upwelling ecosystem

    Abdellaoui, Souad; El Halouani, Hassan; Tai, Imane; Masski, Hicham

    2017-09-01

    The Saharan Bank (21-26°N) is a wide subtropical continental shelf and a highly productive upwelling ecosystem. The bottom communities are dominated by octopus and sparid fish, which are the main targets of bottom-trawl fishing fleets. To investigate resource partitioning within the bottom fish community, adult fish from 14 of the most abundant species were investigated for stomach content analysis. Samples were collected during two periods: October 2003 and May 2007. The diet of the analysed species showed more variation between periods than between size classes, suggesting that temporal or spatial variability in prey availability appears to play a significant role in their diet. Multivariate analysis and subsequent clustering led to a grouping of the species within five trophic guilds. Two species were fish feeders, and the others mainly fed on benthic invertebrates, where epibenthic crustaceans, lamellibranchs and fish were the most important groups in defining trophic guilds. We found that the studied species had a high rate of overlapping spatial distributions and overlapping trophic niches. In this highly productive upwelling ecosystem, where food resources may not be a limiting factor, inter-specific competition did not appear to be an important factor in structuring bottom fish communities. For the species that showed differences in the proportions of prey categories in comparison with other ecosystems, the rise of the proportion of epibenthic crustaceans in their diet was a common feature; a possible consequence of the benthic productivity of this highly productive upwelling ecosystem.

  5. Attributing impacts to emissions traced to major fossil energy and cement producers over specific historical time periods

    Ekwurzel, B.; Frumhoff, P. C.; Allen, M. R.; Boneham, J.; Heede, R.; Dalton, M. W.; Licker, R.

    2017-12-01

    Given the progress in climate change attribution research over the last decade, attribution studies can inform policymakers guided by the UNFCCC principle of "common but differentiated responsibilities." Historically this has primarily focused on nations, yet requests for information on the relative role of the fossil energy sector are growing. We present an approach that relies on annual CH4 and CO2 emissions from production through to the sale of products from the largest industrial fossil fuel and cement production company records from the mid-nineteenth century to present (Heede 2014). Analysis of the global trends with all the natural and human drivers compared with a scenario without the emissions traced to major carbon producers over full historical versus select periods of recent history can be policy relevant. This approach can be applied with simple climate models and earth system models depending on the type of climate impacts being investigated. For example, results from a simple climate model, using best estimate parameters and emissions traced to 90 largest carbon producers, illustrate the relative difference in global mean surface temperature increase over 1880-2010 after removing these emissions from 1980-2010 (29-35%) compared with removing these emissions over 1880-2010 (42-50%). The changing relative contributions from the largest climate drivers can be important to help assess the changing risks for stakeholders adapting to and reducing exposure and vulnerability to regional climate change impacts.

  6. High prevalence of Cfr-producing Staphylococcus species in retail meat in Guangzhou, China.

    Zeng, Zhen-Ling; Wei, Hong-Kun; Wang, Jing; Lin, Da-Chuan; Liu, Xiao-Qin; Liu, Jian-Hua

    2014-06-09

    The emergence and wide distribution of the transferable gene for linezolid resistance, cfr, in staphylococci of human and animal origins is of great concern as it poses a serious threat to the public health. In the present study, we investigated the emergence and presence of the multiresistance gene, cfr, in retail meat sourced from supermarkets and free markets of Guangzhou, China. A total of 118 pork and chicken samples, collected from Guangzhou markets, were screened by PCR for cfr. Twenty-two Staphylococcus isolates obtained from 12 pork and 10 chicken samples harbored cfr. The 22 cfr-positive staphylococci isolates, including Staphylococcus equorum (n = 8), Staphylococcus simulans (n = 7), Staphylococcus cohnii (n = 4), and Staphylococcus sciuri (n = 3), exhibited 17 major SmaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns. In 14 isolates, cfr was located on the plasmids. Sequence analysis revealed that the genetic structures (including ΔtnpA of Tn558, IS21-558, ΔtnpB, and tnpC of Tn558, orf138, fexA) of cfr in plasmid pHNTLD18 of a S. sciuri strain and in the plasmid pHNLKJC2 (including rep, Δpre/mob, cfr, pre/mob and partial ermC) of a S. equorum strain were identical or similar to the corresponding regions of some plasmids in staphylococcal species of animal and human origins. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report the presence of the multiresistance gene, cfr, in animal meat. A high occurrence of cfr was observed in the tested retail meat samples. Thus, it is important to monitor the presence of cfr in animal foods in China.

  7. Diel vertical migration of major fish-species in Lake Victoria, East Africa

    Goudswaard, P.C.; Wanink, J.H.; Witte, F.; Katunzi, E.F.B.; Berger, M.R.; Postma, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    Understanding of migration patterns is essential in the interpretation of hydro-acoustic stock assessment data of partly demersal partly pelagic fish stocks. In this paper we provide this kind of information for some species that were common in the Mwanza Gulf of Lake Victoria in the 1980s, before

  8. Diel vertical migration of major fish-species in Lake Victoria, East Africa.

    Goudswaard, KPC; Wanink, JH; Witte, F; Katunzi, EFB; Berger, MR; Postma, DJ

    2004-01-01

    Understanding of migration patterns is essential in the interpretation of hydro-acoustic stock assessment data of partly demersal partly pelagic fish stocks. In this paper we provide this kind of information for some species that were common in the Mwanza Gulf of Lake Victoria in the 1980s, before

  9. Weight, Volume, and Physical Properties of Major Hardwood Species in the Upland-South

    Alexander Clark; Douglas R. Phillips; Douglas J. Frederick

    1986-01-01

    The weight, volume, and physical properties oftrees1 to 20 inchesd.b.h.were determined for sweetgum, yellow-poplar, hickory, post oak, scarlet oak, southern red oak, and white oakin northern Alabama and Mississippi, eastern Arkansas, southern Kentucky and Tennessee. Hard hardwoods, soft hardwoods, and individual species equations are presented for predicting green and...

  10. Investigation on the phytosanitary status of major ornamental hibiscus species in Italy to assess virus infection

    The genus Hibiscus (family Malvaceae) includes more than 250 species that vary from annual to perennial herbs, and shrubs to small trees that are native to tropical, sub-tropical and temperate climates. A study in 2010-2011 examined viruses associated with symptoms observed on hibiscus plants in It...

  11. The evolutionary dynamics of major regulators for sexual development among Hymenoptera species

    Matthias eBiewer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available All hymenopteran species, such as bees, wasps and ants, are characterized by the common principle of haplodiploid sex determination in which haploid males arise from unfertilized eggs and females from fertilized eggs. The underlying molecular mechanism has been studied in detail in the western honey bee Apis mellifera, in which the gene complementary sex determiner (csd acts as primary signal of the sex determining pathway, initiating female development by csd-heterozygotes. Csd arose from gene duplication of the feminizer (fem gene, a transformer (tra ortholog, and mediates in conjunction with transformer2 (tra2 sex-specific splicing of fem. Comparative molecular analyses identified fem/tra and its downstream target doublesex (dsx as conserved unit within the sex determining pathway of holometabolous insects. In this study, we aim to examine evolutionary differences among these key regulators. Our main hypothesis is that sex determining key regulators in Hymenoptera species show signs of coevolution within single phylogenetic lineages. We take advantage of several newly sequenced genomes of bee species to test this hypothesis using bioinformatic approaches. We found evidences that duplications of fem are restricted to certain bee lineages and notable amino acid differences of tra2 between Apis and non-Apis species propose structural changes in Tra2 protein affecting co-regulatory function on target genes. These findings may help to gain deeper insights into the ancestral mode of hymenopteran sex determination and support the common view of the remarkable evolutionary flexibility in this regulatory pathway.

  12. Mapping host-species abundance of three major exotic forest pests

    Randall S. Morin; Andrew M. Liebhold; Eugene R. Luzader; Andrew J. Lister; Kurt W. Gottschalk; Daniel B. Twardus

    2005-01-01

    Periodically over the last century, forests of the Eastern United States devastated by invasive pests. We used existing data to predict the geographical extent of future damage from beech bark disease (BBD), hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA), and gypsy moth. The distributions of host species of these alien pests were mapped in 1-km2 cells by interpolating host basal area/ha...

  13. Biologically Based Methods for Control of Fumonisin-Producing Fusarium Species and Reduction of the Fumonisins.

    Alberts, Johanna F; van Zyl, Willem H; Gelderblom, Wentzel C A

    2016-01-01

    Infection by the fumonisin-producing Fusarium spp. and subsequent fumonisin contamination of maize adversely affect international trade and economy with deleterious effects on human and animal health. In developed countries high standards of the major food suppliers and retailers are upheld and regulatory controls deter the importation and local marketing of fumonisin-contaminated food products. In developing countries regulatory measures are either lacking or poorly enforced, due to food insecurity, resulting in an increased mycotoxin exposure. The lack and poor accessibility of effective and environmentally safe control methods have led to an increased interest in practical and biological alternatives to reduce fumonisin intake. These include the application of natural resources, including plants, microbial cultures, genetic material thereof, or clay minerals pre- and post-harvest. Pre-harvest approaches include breeding for resistant maize cultivars, introduction of biocontrol microorganisms, application of phenolic plant extracts, and expression of antifungal proteins and fumonisin degrading enzymes in transgenic maize cultivars. Post-harvest approaches include the removal of fumonisins by natural clay adsorbents and enzymatic degradation of fumonisins through decarboxylation and deamination by recombinant carboxylesterase and aminotransferase enzymes. Although, the knowledge base on biological control methods has expanded, only a limited number of authorized decontamination products and methods are commercially available. As many studies detailed the use of natural compounds in vitro, concepts in reducing fumonisin contamination should be developed further for application in planta and in the field pre-harvest, post-harvest, and during storage and food-processing. In developed countries an integrated approach, involving good agricultural management practices, hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) production, and storage management, together with

  14. Biologically Based Methods for Control of Fumonisin-producing Fusarium species and Reduction of the Fumonisins

    Johanna Francina Alberts

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Infection by the fumonisin-producing Fusarium spp. and subsequent fumonisin contamination of maize adversely affect international trade and economy with deleterious effects on human and animal health. In developed countries high standards of the major food suppliers and retailers are upheld and regulatory controls deter the importation and local marketing of fumonisin-contaminated food products. In developing countries regulatory measures are either lacking or poorly enforced, due to food insecurity, resulting in an increased mycotoxin exposure. The lack and poor accessibility of effective and environmentally safe control methods have led to an increased interest in practical and biological alternatives to reduce fumonisin intake. These include the application of natural resources, including plants, microbial cultures, genetic material thereof or clay minerals pre- and postharvest. Pre-harvest approaches include breeding for resistant maize cultivars, introduction of biocontrol microorganisms, application of phenolic plant extracts, and expression of antifungal proteins and fumonisin degrading enzymes in transgenic maize cultivars. Postharvest approaches include the removal of fumonisins by natural clay adsorbents and enzymatic degradation of fumonisins through decarboxylation and deamination by recombinant carboxylesterase and aminotransferase enzymes. Although the knowledge base on biological control methods has expanded, only a limited number of authorized decontamination products and methods are commercially available. As many studies detailed the use of natural compounds in vitro, concepts in reducing fumonisin contamination should be developed further for application in planta and in the field pre-harvest, postharvest, and during storage and food-processing. In developed countries an integrated approach, involving good agricultural management practices, hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP production and storage management

  15. Biologically Based Methods for Control of Fumonisin-Producing Fusarium Species and Reduction of the Fumonisins

    Alberts, Johanna F.; van Zyl, Willem H.; Gelderblom, Wentzel C. A.

    2016-01-01

    Infection by the fumonisin-producing Fusarium spp. and subsequent fumonisin contamination of maize adversely affect international trade and economy with deleterious effects on human and animal health. In developed countries high standards of the major food suppliers and retailers are upheld and regulatory controls deter the importation and local marketing of fumonisin-contaminated food products. In developing countries regulatory measures are either lacking or poorly enforced, due to food insecurity, resulting in an increased mycotoxin exposure. The lack and poor accessibility of effective and environmentally safe control methods have led to an increased interest in practical and biological alternatives to reduce fumonisin intake. These include the application of natural resources, including plants, microbial cultures, genetic material thereof, or clay minerals pre- and post-harvest. Pre-harvest approaches include breeding for resistant maize cultivars, introduction of biocontrol microorganisms, application of phenolic plant extracts, and expression of antifungal proteins and fumonisin degrading enzymes in transgenic maize cultivars. Post-harvest approaches include the removal of fumonisins by natural clay adsorbents and enzymatic degradation of fumonisins through decarboxylation and deamination by recombinant carboxylesterase and aminotransferase enzymes. Although, the knowledge base on biological control methods has expanded, only a limited number of authorized decontamination products and methods are commercially available. As many studies detailed the use of natural compounds in vitro, concepts in reducing fumonisin contamination should be developed further for application in planta and in the field pre-harvest, post-harvest, and during storage and food-processing. In developed countries an integrated approach, involving good agricultural management practices, hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) production, and storage management, together with

  16. Bacterial diversity and composition in major fresh produce growing soils affected by physiochemical properties and geographic locations

    Ma, Jincai [Key Laboratory of Groundwater Resources and Environment, Ministry of Education, Jilin University, Changchun 130021 (China); USDA-ARS U. S. Salinity Laboratory, Riverside, CA 92507 (United States); Ibekwe, A. Mark, E-mail: Mark.Ibekwe@ars.usda.gov [USDA-ARS U. S. Salinity Laboratory, Riverside, CA 92507 (United States); Yang, Ching-Hong [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States); Crowley, David E. [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Microbial diversity of agricultural soils has been well documented, but information on leafy green producing soils is limited. In this study, we investigated microbial diversity and community structures in 32 (16 organic, 16 conventionally managed soils) from California (CA) and Arizona (AZ) using pyrosequencing, and identified factors affecting bacterial composition. Results of detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) and dissimilarity analysis showed that bacterial community structures of conventionally managed soils were similar to that of organically managed soils; while the bacterial community structures in soils from Salinas, California were different (P < 0.05) from those in soils from Yuma, Arizona and Imperial Valley, California. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) and artificial neural network (ANN) analysis of bacterial community structures and soil variables showed that electrical conductivity (EC), clay content, water-holding capacity (WHC), pH, total nitrogen (TN), and organic carbon (OC) significantly (P < 0.05) correlated with microbial communities. CCA based variation partitioning analysis (VPA) showed that soil physical properties (clay, EC, and WHC), soil chemical variables (pH, TN, and OC) and sampling location explained 16.3%, 12.5%, and 50.9%, respectively, of total variations in bacterial community structure, leaving 13% of the total variation unexplained. Our current study showed that bacterial community composition and diversity in major fresh produce growing soils from California and Arizona is a function of soil physiochemical characteristics and geographic distances of sampling sites. - Highlights: • Geographic distance was the most significant factor affecting microbial composition. • Physical and chemical properties significantly impacted microbial communities. • Higher numbers of OTUs were observed in organic soils than in convention soils.

  17. Bacterial diversity and composition in major fresh produce growing soils affected by physiochemical properties and geographic locations

    Ma, Jincai; Ibekwe, A. Mark; Yang, Ching-Hong; Crowley, David E.

    2016-01-01

    Microbial diversity of agricultural soils has been well documented, but information on leafy green producing soils is limited. In this study, we investigated microbial diversity and community structures in 32 (16 organic, 16 conventionally managed soils) from California (CA) and Arizona (AZ) using pyrosequencing, and identified factors affecting bacterial composition. Results of detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) and dissimilarity analysis showed that bacterial community structures of conventionally managed soils were similar to that of organically managed soils; while the bacterial community structures in soils from Salinas, California were different (P < 0.05) from those in soils from Yuma, Arizona and Imperial Valley, California. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) and artificial neural network (ANN) analysis of bacterial community structures and soil variables showed that electrical conductivity (EC), clay content, water-holding capacity (WHC), pH, total nitrogen (TN), and organic carbon (OC) significantly (P < 0.05) correlated with microbial communities. CCA based variation partitioning analysis (VPA) showed that soil physical properties (clay, EC, and WHC), soil chemical variables (pH, TN, and OC) and sampling location explained 16.3%, 12.5%, and 50.9%, respectively, of total variations in bacterial community structure, leaving 13% of the total variation unexplained. Our current study showed that bacterial community composition and diversity in major fresh produce growing soils from California and Arizona is a function of soil physiochemical characteristics and geographic distances of sampling sites. - Highlights: • Geographic distance was the most significant factor affecting microbial composition. • Physical and chemical properties significantly impacted microbial communities. • Higher numbers of OTUs were observed in organic soils than in convention soils

  18. New ochratoxin A or sclerotium producing species in Aspergillus section Nigri

    Samson, R.A.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2004-01-01

    in Costa Rica and produces large pink to greyish brown sclerotia. Aspergillus lacticoffeatus was found on coffee beans in Venezuela and Indonesia, and is an effective producer of ochratoxin A. Aspergillus piperis was isolated from black ground pepper and produces large yellow to pink brown sclerotia...

  19. Fengycin produced by Bacillus subtilis 9407 plays a major role in the biocontrol of apple ring rot disease.

    Fan, Haiyan; Ru, Jinjiang; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Qi; Li, Yan

    2017-06-01

    Apple ring rot, caused by Botryosphaeria dothidea, is a serious apple disease in China. Bacillus subtilis 9407 was isolated from healthy apples and showed strong antifungal activity against B. dothidea. To identify the primary antifungal compound of B. subtilis 9407 and determine its role in controlling apple ring rot, a transposon mutant library was constructed using TnYLB-1, and a mutant completely defective in antifungal activity was obtained. The gene inactivated in the antifungal activity mutant had 98.5% similarity to ppsB in B. subtilis subsp. subtilis str. 168, which encodes one of the five synthetases responsible for synthesizing fengycin. A markerless ppsB deletion mutant was constructed. Compared with the wild-type strain, lipopeptide crude extracts from ΔppsB showed almost no inhibition of B. dothidea mycelial growth. Furthermore, fengycin-like lipopeptides (retention factor 0.1-0.2) that exhibited antifungal activity against B. dothidea were observed in the wild-type strain by thin-layer chromatography (TLC)-bioautography analysis, but not in ΔppsB. Semipreparative reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) detection revealed that ΔppsB lost the ability to synthesize fengycin. These results suggest that ppsB is responsible for synthesizing fengycin and that fengycin is the major antifungal compound produced by B. subtilis 9407 against B. dothidea. Moreover, a biocontrol assay showed that the control efficacy of ΔppsB was reduced by half compared with the wild-type strain, indicating that fengycin plays a major role in controlling apple ring rot disease. This is the first report on the use of a B. subtilis strain as a potential biological control agent to control apple ring rot disease by the production of fengycin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Tree species is the major factor explaining C:N ratios in European forest soils

    Cools, Nathalie; Vesterdal, Lars; De Vos, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    The C:N ratio is considered as an indicator of nitrate leaching in response to high atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition. However, the C:N ratio is influenced by a multitude of other site-related factors. This study aimed to unravel the factors determining C:N ratios of forest floor, mineral soil...... mineral soil layers it was the humus type. Deposition and climatic variables were of minor importance at the European scale. Further analysis for eight main forest tree species individually, showed that the influence of environmental variables on C:N ratios was tree species dependent. For Aleppo pine...... and peat top soils in more than 4000 plots of the ICP Forests large-scale monitoring network. The first objective was to quantify forest floor, mineral and peat soil C:N ratios across European forests. Secondly we determined the main factors explaining this C:N ratio using a boosted regression tree...

  1. Characterization and zoonotic impact of Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli in some wild bird species

    Hanaa Mohamed Fadel

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Wild birds are considered silent vectors of some zoonotic water and food borne pathogens of public health significance. Owing to the importance of Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC as the most pathogenic among the emerging diarrheagenic E. coli groups that can infect man; the present study was designed to detect the occurrence of STEC among wild birds in Egypt. Materials and Methods: A total of 177 intestinal content swab samples originating from five wild bird species were investigated for the presence of E. coli and STEC by standard culture methods. Suspect STEC isolates were further characterized by serotyping, random amplified polymorphic DNA polymerase chain reaction (RAPD PCR, antimicrobial resistance pattern and PCR detection of stx1, stx2, and eae genes. Results: A total of 30 suspect STEC isolates from 30 positive birds' samples were detected and identified on STEC CHROMagar (semi-captive pigeons, 15; house crows, 8; cattle egrets, 3; moorhens, 2; and house teals, 2. 25 isolates were grouped into 13 serogroups (O:20, O:25, O:26, O:27, O:63, O:78, O:111, O:114, O:125, O:128, O:142, O:153, and O:158, while five were rough strains. The distribution of STEC virulence genes among wild birds was as follows: 16 birds carried stx1 gene only (nine pigeons [28.1%], six crows [7.1%], and one cattle egret [5.6%]. stx1 and stx2 genes together were detected in four birds (one cattle egret [5.6%], two moorhens [6.1%], and one house teal, [10%]. Only one pigeon (3.1% possessed the three alleles. Disk diffusion test results showed that cefixime was the most effective against STEC serotypes with (93.3% sensitivity, followed by gentamycin (56.7%, and amoxicillin (50%. On the other hand, all the recovered STEC isolates were resistant to cefotaxime, doxycycline, cephalothin, and sulfisoxazole. RAPD fingerprinting using primers OPA-2 and OPA-9 showed that STEC isolates were heterogeneous; they yielded 30 and 27 different clusters

  2. Spectroscopy of reactive species produced by low-energy atmospheric-pressure plasma on conductive target material surface

    Yamada, Hiromasa; Sakakita, Hajime; Kato, Susumu; Kim, Jaeho; Kiyama, Satoru; Fujiwara, Masanori; Itagaki, Hirotomo; Ikehara, Yuzuru; Okazaki, Toshiya; Ikehara, Sanae; Nakanishi, Hayao; Shimizu, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    A method for blood coagulation using low-energy atmospheric-pressure plasma (LEAPP) is confirmed as an alternative procedure to reduce tissue damage caused by heat. Blood coagulation using LEAPP behaves differently depending on working gas species; helium is more effective than argon in promoting fast coagulation. To analyse the difference in reactive species produced by helium and argon plasma, spectroscopic measurements were conducted without and with a target material. To compare emissions, blood coagulation experiments using LEAPP for both plasmas were performed under almost identical conditions. Although many kinds of reactive species such as hydroxyl radicals and excited nitrogen molecules were observed with similar intensity in both plasmas, intensities of nitrogen ion molecules and nitric oxide molecules were extremely strong in the helium plasma. It is considered that nitrogen ion molecules were mainly produced by penning ionization by helium metastable. Near the target, a significant increase in the emissions of reactive species is observed. There is a possibility that electron acceleration was induced in a local electric field formed on the surface. However, in argon plasma, emissions from nitrogen ion were not measured even near the target surface. These differences between the two plasmas may be producing the difference in blood coagulation behaviour. To control the surrounding gas of the plasma, a gas-component-controllable chamber was assembled. Filling the chamber with O 2 /He or N 2 /He gas mixtures selectively produces either reactive oxygen species or reactive nitrogen species. Through selective treatments, this chamber would be useful in studying the effects of specific reactive species on blood coagulation. (paper)

  3. Spectroscopy of reactive species produced by low-energy atmospheric-pressure plasma on conductive target material surface

    Yamada, Hiromasa; Sakakita, Hajime; Kato, Susumu; Kim, Jaeho; Kiyama, Satoru; Fujiwara, Masanori; Itagaki, Hirotomo; Okazaki, Toshiya; Ikehara, Sanae; Nakanishi, Hayao; Shimizu, Nobuyuki; Ikehara, Yuzuru

    2016-10-01

    A method for blood coagulation using low-energy atmospheric-pressure plasma (LEAPP) is confirmed as an alternative procedure to reduce tissue damage caused by heat. Blood coagulation using LEAPP behaves differently depending on working gas species; helium is more effective than argon in promoting fast coagulation. To analyse the difference in reactive species produced by helium and argon plasma, spectroscopic measurements were conducted without and with a target material. To compare emissions, blood coagulation experiments using LEAPP for both plasmas were performed under almost identical conditions. Although many kinds of reactive species such as hydroxyl radicals and excited nitrogen molecules were observed with similar intensity in both plasmas, intensities of nitrogen ion molecules and nitric oxide molecules were extremely strong in the helium plasma. It is considered that nitrogen ion molecules were mainly produced by penning ionization by helium metastable. Near the target, a significant increase in the emissions of reactive species is observed. There is a possibility that electron acceleration was induced in a local electric field formed on the surface. However, in argon plasma, emissions from nitrogen ion were not measured even near the target surface. These differences between the two plasmas may be producing the difference in blood coagulation behaviour. To control the surrounding gas of the plasma, a gas-component-controllable chamber was assembled. Filling the chamber with O2/He or N2/He gas mixtures selectively produces either reactive oxygen species or reactive nitrogen species. Through selective treatments, this chamber would be useful in studying the effects of specific reactive species on blood coagulation.

  4. Pathogenicity of fumonisin-producing and nonproducing strains of Aspergillus species in section Nigri to maize ears and seedlings

    Species of Aspergillus section Nigri are commonly associated with maize kernels, and some strains can produce fumonisin mycotoxins. However, there is little information about the extent to which these fungi contribute to fumonisin contamination in grain, the damage they cause to maize ears, or their...

  5. Shotgun proteomic analysis of Emiliania huxleyi, a marine phytoplankton species of major biogeochemical importance.

    Jones, Bethan M; Edwards, Richard J; Skipp, Paul J; O'Connor, C David; Iglesias-Rodriguez, M Debora

    2011-06-01

    Emiliania huxleyi is a unicellular marine phytoplankton species known to play a significant role in global biogeochemistry. Through the dual roles of photosynthesis and production of calcium carbonate (calcification), carbon is transferred from the atmosphere to ocean sediments. Almost nothing is known about the molecular mechanisms that control calcification, a process that is tightly regulated within the cell. To initiate proteomic studies on this important and phylogenetically remote organism, we have devised efficient protein extraction protocols and developed a bioinformatics pipeline that allows the statistically robust assignment of proteins from MS/MS data using preexisting EST sequences. The bioinformatics tool, termed BUDAPEST (Bioinformatics Utility for Data Analysis of Proteomics using ESTs), is fully automated and was used to search against data generated from three strains. BUDAPEST increased the number of identifications over standard protein database searches from 37 to 99 proteins when data were amalgamated. Proteins involved in diverse cellular processes were uncovered. For example, experimental evidence was obtained for a novel type I polyketide synthase and for various photosystem components. The proteomic and bioinformatic approaches developed in this study are of wider applicability, particularly to the oceanographic community where genomic sequence data for species of interest are currently scarce.

  6. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay for the differential detection of trichothecene- and fumonisin-producing species of Fusarium in cornmeal.

    Bluhm, B H; Flaherty, J E; Cousin, M A; Woloshuk, C P

    2002-12-01

    The genus Fusarium comprises a diverse group of fungi including several species that produce mycotoxins in food commodities. In this study, a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed for the group-specific detection of fumonisin-producing and trichothecene-producing species of Fusarium. Primers for genus-level recognition of Fusarium spp. were designed from the internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS1 and ITS2) of rDNA. Primers for group-specific detection were designed from the TRI6 gene involved in trichothecene biosynthesis and the FUM5 gene involved in fumonisin biosynthesis. Primer specificity was determined by testing for cross-reactivity against purified genomic DNA from 43 fungal species representing 14 genera, including 9 Aspergillus spp., 9 Fusarium spp., and 10 Penicillium spp. With purified genomic DNA as a template, genus-specific recognition was observed at 10 pg per reaction; group-specific recognition occurred at 100 pg of template per reaction for the trichothecene producer Fusarium graminearum and at 1 ng of template per reaction for the fumonisin producer Fusarium verticillioides. For the application of the PCR assay, a protocol was developed to isolate fungal DNA from cornmeal. The detection of F. graminearum and its differentiation from F. verticillioides were accomplished prior to visible fungal growth at cornmeal. This level of detection is comparable to those of other methods such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the assay described here can be used in the food industry's effort to monitor quality and safety.

  7. Major alterations in transcript profiles between C3-C4 and C4 photosynthesis of an amphibious species Eleocharis baldwinii.

    Chen, Taiyu; Zhu, Xin-Guang; Lin, Yongjun

    2014-09-01

    Engineering C4 photosynthetic metabolism into C3 crops is regarded as a major strategy to increase crop productivity, and clarification of the evolutionary processes of C4 photosynthesis can help the better use of this strategy. Here, Eleocharis baldwinii, a species in which C4 photosynthesis can be induced from a C3-C4 state under either environmental or ABA treatments, was used to identify the major transcriptional modifications during the process from C3-C4 to C4. The transcriptomic comparison suggested that in addition to the major differences in C4 core pathway, the pathways of glycolysis, citrate acid metabolism and protein synthesis were dramatically modified during the inducement of C4 photosynthetic states. Transcripts of many transporters, including not only metabolite transporters but also ion transporters, were dramatically increased in C4 photosynthetic state. Many candidate regulatory genes with unidentified functions were differentially expressed in C3-C4 and C4 photosynthetic states. Finally, it was indicated that ABA, auxin signaling and DNA methylation play critical roles in the regulation of C4 photosynthesis. In summary, by studying the different photosynthetic states of the same species, this work provides the major transcriptional differences between C3-C4 and C4 photosynthesis, and many of the transcriptional differences are potentially related to C4 development and therefore are the potential targets for reverse genetics studies.

  8. Characterisation of inhibitory substances produced by two Pseudoalteromonas species and the cyanobacterial strain Flo1

    Rau, Jan Erik

    2011-01-01

    In the present study the inhibitory substances of P. aurantia NCIMB 2052T and P. citrea NCIMB 1889T were investigated with respect to their substantial and functional nature, their inhibitory potential, their stability against various treatments as well as the growth phases and incubation conditions when the substances are produced. In addition, an inhibitory substance produced by strain Flo1 was examined regarding its structure, function, and inhibitory potential. Furthermore, its taxonomic ...

  9. Geographical and meteorological factors associated with isolation of Listeria species in New York State produce production and natural environments.

    Chapin, Travis K; Nightingale, Kendra K; Worobo, Randy W; Wiedmann, Martin; Strawn, Laura K

    2014-11-01

    Listeria species have been isolated from diverse environments, often at considerable prevalence, and are known to persist in food processing facilities. The presence of Listeria spp. has been suggested to be a marker for Listeria monocytogenes contamination. Therefore, a study was conducted to (i) determine the prevalence and diversity of Listeria spp. in produce production and natural environments and (ii) identify geographical and/or meteorological factors that affect the isolation of Listeria spp. in these environments. These data were also used to evaluate Listeria spp. as index organisms for L. monocytogenes in produce production environments. Environmental samples collected from produce production (n = 588) and natural (n = 734) environments in New York State were microbiologically analyzed to detect and isolate Listeria spp. The prevalence of Listeria spp. was approximately 33 and 34% for samples obtained from natural environments and produce production, respectively. Co-isolation of L. monocytogenes and at least one other species of Listeria in a given sample was recorded for 3 and 9% of samples from natural environments and produce production, respectively. Soil moisture and proximity to water and pastures were highly associated with isolation of Listeria spp. in produce production environments, while elevation, study site, and proximity to pastures were highly associated with isolation of Listeria spp. in natural environments, as determined by randomForest models. These data show that Listeria spp. were prevalent in both agricultural and nonagricultural environments and that geographical and meteorological factors associated with isolation of Listeria spp. were considerably different between the two environments.

  10. New penicillin-producing Penicillium species and an overview of section Chrysogena

    Houbraken, J.; Frisvad, J.C.; Seifert, K.A.; Overy, D.P.; Tuthill, D.M.; Valdez, J.G.; Samson, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    Species classified in Penicillium sect. Chrysogena are primary soil-borne and the most well-known members are P. chrysogenum and P. nalgiovense. Penicillium chrysogenum has received much attention because of its role in the production on penicillin and as a contaminant of indoor environments and

  11. Cyberlindnera xylolytica sp. nov., a xylitol-producing yeast species isolated from lignocellulosic materials

    Independent surveys of yeasts associated with lignocellulosic-related materials led to the discovery of a novel yeast species belonging to the Cyberlindnera clade (Saccharomycotina, Ascomycota). Analysis of the sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and the D1/D2 domains of the la...

  12. Two new Penicillium species Penicillium buchwaldii and Penicillium spathulatum, producing the anticancer compound asperphenamate

    Frisvad, J.C.; Houbraken, J.; Popma, S.; Samson, R.A.

    2013-01-01

    Penicillium buchwaldii sp. nov. (type strain CBS 117181T = IBT 6005T = IMI 30428T) and Penicillium spathulatum sp. nov. (CBS 117192T = IBT 22220T) are described as new species based on a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Isolates of P. buchwaldii typically have terverticillate conidiophores with

  13. Aspergillus korhogoensis, a novel aflatoxin producing species from the Côte d’Ivoire

    Based on examination of four isolates, this new species is described using a polyphasic approach. A concatenated alignment comprised of nine genes (ITS, benA, cmdA, mcm7, amdS, rpb1, preB, ppgA, preA) was subjected to phylogenetic analysis, and resulted in all four strains being inferred as a distin...

  14. Structural Analysis of Major Species Barriers between Humans and Palm Civets for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infections

    Li, Fang (UMM)

    2008-09-23

    It is believed that a novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), was passed from palm civets to humans and caused the epidemic of SARS in 2002 to 2003. The major species barriers between humans and civets for SARS-CoV infections are the specific interactions between a defined receptor-binding domain (RBD) on a viral spike protein and its host receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). In this study a chimeric ACE2 bearing the critical N-terminal helix from civet and the remaining peptidase domain from human was constructed, and it was shown that this construct has the same receptor activity as civet ACE2. In addition, crystal structures of the chimeric ACE2 complexed with RBDs from various human and civet SARS-CoV strains were determined. These structures, combined with a previously determined structure of human ACE2 complexed with the RBD from a human SARS-CoV strain, have revealed a structural basis for understanding the major species barriers between humans and civets for SARS-CoV infections. They show that the major species barriers are determined by interactions between four ACE2 residues (residues 31, 35, 38, and 353) and two RBD residues (residues 479 and 487), that early civet SARS-CoV isolates were prevented from infecting human cells due to imbalanced salt bridges at the hydrophobic virus/receptor interface, and that SARS-CoV has evolved to gain sustained infectivity for human cells by eliminating unfavorable free charges at the interface through stepwise mutations at positions 479 and 487. These results enhance our understanding of host adaptations and cross-species infections of SARS-CoV and other emerging animal viruses.

  15. Complete chloroplast genome sequence of a major economic species, Ziziphus jujuba (Rhamnaceae).

    Ma, Qiuyue; Li, Shuxian; Bi, Changwei; Hao, Zhaodong; Sun, Congrui; Ye, Ning

    2017-02-01

    Ziziphus jujuba is an important woody plant with high economic and medicinal value. Here, we analyzed and characterized the complete chloroplast (cp) genome of Z. jujuba, the first member of the Rhamnaceae family for which the chloroplast genome sequence has been reported. We also built a web browser for navigating the cp genome of Z. jujuba ( http://bio.njfu.edu.cn/gb2/gbrowse/Ziziphus_jujuba_cp/ ). Sequence analysis showed that this cp genome is 161,466 bp long and has a typical quadripartite structure of large (LSC, 89,120 bp) and small (SSC, 19,348 bp) single-copy regions separated by a pair of inverted repeats (IRs, 26,499 bp). The sequence contained 112 unique genes, including 78 protein-coding genes, 30 transfer RNAs, and four ribosomal RNAs. The genome structure, gene order, GC content, and codon usage are similar to other typical angiosperm cp genomes. A total of 38 tandem repeats, two forward repeats, and three palindromic repeats were detected in the Z. jujuba cp genome. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) analysis revealed that most SSRs were AT-rich. The homopolymer regions in the cp genome of Z. jujuba were verified and manually corrected by Sanger sequencing. One-third of mononucleotide repeats were found to be erroneously sequenced by the 454 pyrosequencing, which resulted in sequences of 1-4 bases shorter than that by the Sanger sequencing. Analyzing the cp genome of Z. jujuba revealed that the IR contraction and expansion events resulted in ycf1 and rps19 pseudogenes. A phylogenetic analysis based on 64 protein-coding genes showed that Z. jujuba was closely related to members of the Elaeagnaceae family, which will be helpful for phylogenetic studies of other Rosales species. The complete cp genome sequence of Z. jujuba will facilitate population, phylogenetic, and cp genetic engineering studies of this economic plant.

  16. Non-microcystin producing Microcystis wesenbergii (Komarek) Komarek (Cyanobacteria) representing a main waterbloom-forming species in Chinese waters

    Xu Yao; Wu Zhongxing; Yu Boshi; Peng Xin; Yu Gongliang; Wei Zhihong; Wang Guoxiang; Li Renhui

    2008-01-01

    It is well known that several morphospecies of Microcystis, such as Microcystis aeruginosa (Kuetzing) Lemmermann and Microcystis viridis (A. Brown) Lemmermann can produce hepatotoxic microcystins. However, previous studies gave contradictory conclusions about microcystin production of Microcystis wesenbergii (Komarek) Komarek. In the present study, ten Microcystis morphospecies were identified in waterblooms of seven Chinese waterbodies, and Microcystis wesenbergii was shown as the dominant species in these waters. More than 250 single colonies of M. wesenbergii were chosen, under morphological identification, to examine whether M. wesenbergii produce hepatotoxic microcystin by using multiplex PCR for molecular detection of a region (mcyA) of microcystin synthesis genes, and chemical analyses of microcystin content by ELISA and HPLC for 21 isolated strains of M. wesenbergii from these waters were also performed. Both molecular and chemical methods demonstrated that M. wesenbergii from Chinese waters did not produce microcystin. - Both molecular and chemical methods demonstrated that Microcystis wesenbergii was not a microcystin producer in Chinese waters

  17. HCN Producing Bacteria Enable Sensing Of Non-Bioavailable Hg Species by the Whole Cell Biosensor

    Horvat, M.; Rijavec, T.; Koron, N.; Lapanje, A.

    2015-12-01

    Bacteria play an important role in Hg transformation reactions. The production of cyanide (HCN) and other secondary metabolites seems to be key elements involved in these transformations. Current hypotheses link the role of HCN production to growth inhibition of nonHCN producing competitor organisms (role of an antimicrobial agent). Our past investigations showed that HCN production did not correlate with antimicrobial activity and since pK value of HCN is very high (pK = 9,21), it can be expected that most of the produced HCN is removed from the microenvironment. This way, the expected inhibitory concentrations can hardly be reached. Accordingly, we proposed a new concept, where the ability of complexation of transient metals by HCN served as a regulation process for the accessibility of micro-elements. In our study, we focused on the presence of HCN producing bacteria and carried it out in the Hg contaminated environment connected to the Idrija Mercury Mine, Slovenia. We characterised the isolates according to the presence of Hg resistance (HgR), level of HCN production and genetic similarities. In laboratory setups, using our merR whole cell based biosensor, we determined the transformation of low bioavailable Hg0 and HgS forms into bioavailable Hg by these HCN producing bacteria. We observed that HgR strains producing HCN had the highest impact on increased Hg bioavailability. In the proposed ecological strategy HgR HCN producing bacteria increase their competitive edge over non-HgR competitors through the increase of Hg toxicity. Due to their activity, Hg is made available to other organisms as well and thus enters into the ecosystem. Finally, using some of the characteristics of bacteria (e.g. Hg resistance genetic elements), we developed a fully automated sensing approach, combining biosensorics and mechatronics, to measure the bioavailability of Hg in situ.

  18. Dependence of Force Produced by Polypyrrole Based Artificial Muscles on Ionic Species Involved

    Careem, M.A.; Vidanapathirana, K.P.; Skaarup, Steen

    2004-01-01

    Artificial muscles have been fabricated in the form bilayer strips using an insulating polymer layer and polypyrrole (PPy) conducting polymer film, and the force produced by them during redox processes have been investigated. This study reports the effects of anions in the polymerization electrol......Artificial muscles have been fabricated in the form bilayer strips using an insulating polymer layer and polypyrrole (PPy) conducting polymer film, and the force produced by them during redox processes have been investigated. This study reports the effects of anions in the polymerization...

  19. Organic and inorganic species in produced water: Implications for water reuse

    Kharaka, Yousif K.; Rice, Cynthia A.

    2004-01-01

    Currently 20-30 billion barrels of formation water are co-produced annually in the USA with conventional oil and natural gas. The large database on the geochemistry of this produced water shows salinities that vary widely from ~5,000 to >350,000 mg/L TDS. Chloride, Na and Ca are generally the dominant ions, and concentrations of Fe, Mn, B, NH3 and dissolved organics, including, BTEX, phenols and poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may be relatively high. Hazardous concentrations of NORMs, including Ra-226 and Rn-222 have been reported in produced water from several states.Coal-bed methane (CBM) wells currently produce close to a billion barrels of water and deliver ~8% of total natural gas. The salinity of this produced water generally is lower than that of water from petroleum wells; salinity commonly is 1,000-20,000 mg/L, but ranges to150,000 mg/L TDS. Most CBM wells produce Na-HCO3-Cl type water that is low in trace metals and has no reported NORMs. This water commonly has no oil and grease and has relatively low DOC, but its organic composition has not been characterized in detail. The water is disposed of by injection into saline aquifers, through evaporation and/or percolation in disposal pits, road spreading, and surface discharge. Water that has an acceptable salinity and sodium absorption ratio (SAR) is considered acceptable for surface discharge and for injection into freshwater aquifers.As an alternative to costly disposal, low salinity produced water is being considered for reclamation, especially in the arid western USA. The cost of reclaiming this water to meet irrigation, industrial and drinking water standards was evaluated in a 10 gpm pilot field study at Placerita oil field, California. This produced water had a low salinity of ~8,000 mg/L, but high concentration of Si and organics. Removal of B, Si, NH3 and especially organics from this water proved difficult, and the estimated treatment cost was high at $0.08-$0.39/bbl for water treated for

  20. Diversity of polyketides produced by Penicillium species isolated from Melia azedarach and Murraya paniculata

    Pastre, Renata; Marinho, Andrey M.R.; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson; Souza, Antonia Q.L.; Pereira, Jose Odair

    2007-01-01

    Eight compounds comprising four groups of polyketides, the xanthone fusarindin, the mixed peptide alkaloid-polyketide GKK1032, the anthraquinones crysophanol, citreoveridin and janthinone, and the azaphylones dihydrocitrinone, citrinin and citrinin H-1, were identified in Penicillium species isolated as endophytic fungi from Melia azedarach and Murraya paniculata. The antibacterial activity of the azaphylones was tested and showed that citrinin H-1 is more active than citrinin. (author)

  1. Mitogenomes from type specimens, a genotyping tool for morphologically simple species: ten genomes of agar-producing red algae.

    Boo, Ga Hun; Hughey, Jeffery R; Miller, Kathy Ann; Boo, Sung Min

    2016-10-14

    DNA sequences from type specimens provide independent, objective characters that enhance the value of type specimens and permit the correct application of species names to phylogenetic clades and specimens. We provide mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) from archival type specimens of ten species in agar-producing red algal genera Gelidium and Pterocladiella. The genomes contain 43-44 genes, ranging in size from 24,910 to 24,970 bp with highly conserved gene synteny. Low Ka/Ks ratios of apocytochrome b and cytochrome oxidase genes support their utility as markers. Phylogenies of mitogenomes and cox1+rbcL sequences clarified classification at the genus and species levels. Three species formerly in Gelidium and Pterocladia are transferred to Pterocladiella: P. media comb. nov., P. musciformis comb. nov., and P. luxurians comb. and stat. nov. Gelidium sinicola is merged with G. coulteri because they share identical cox1 and rbcL sequences. We describe a new species, Gelidium millariana sp. nov., previously identified as G. isabelae from Australia. We demonstrate that mitogenomes from type specimens provide a new tool for typifying species in the Gelidiales and that there is an urgent need for analyzing mitogenomes from type specimens of red algae and other morphologically simple organisms for insight into their nomenclature, taxonomy and evolution.

  2. Bioactive alkaloids produced by fungi. I. Updates on alkaloids from the species of the genera Boletus, Fusarium and psilocybe.

    Mahmood, Zafar Alam; Ahmed, Syed Waseemuddin; Azhar, Iqbal; Sualeh, Mohammad; Baig, Mirza Tasawer; Zoha, Sms

    2010-07-01

    Fungi, in particular, are able in common with the higher plants and bacteria, to produce metabolites, including alkaloids. Alkaloids, along with other metabolites are the most important fungal metabolites from pharmaceutical and industrial point of view. Based on this observation, the authors of this review article have tried to provide an information on the alkaloids produced by the species of genera: Boletus, Fusarium and Psilocybef from 1981-2009. Thus the review would be helpful and provides valuable information for the researchers of the same field.

  3. Antagonistic intestinal microflora produces antimicrobial substance inhibitory to pseudomonas species and other spoilage organisms

    Hatew, B.; Delessa, T.; Zakin, V.; Gollop, N.

    2011-01-01

    Chicken intestine harbors a vast number of bacterial strains. In the present study, antimicrobial substance produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of healthy chicken was detected, characterized, and purified. Based on 16S rRNA sequencing, the bacteria were

  4. Identification of Bacillus species occurring in Kantong, an acid fermented seed condiment produced in Ghana

    Kpikpi, Elmer Nayra; Thorsen, Line; Glover, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Kantong is a condiment produced in Ghana by the spontaneous fermentation of kapok tree (Ceiba pentandra) seeds with cassava flour as an additive. Fermentation is over a 48h period followed by a drying and a kneading process. Although lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have previously been identified other...

  5. Food for thought: risks of non-native species transfer to Antarctica with fresh produce

    Hughes, K.A.; Lee, J.E.; Tsujimoto, M.; Imura, S.; Bergstrom, D.M.; Ware, C.; Lebouvier, M.; Huiskes, A.H.L.; Gremmen, N.J.M.; Frenot, Y.; Bridge, P.D.; Chown, S.L.

    2011-01-01

    To understand fully the risk of biological invasions, it is necessary to quantify propagule pressure along all introduction pathways. In the Antarctic region, importation of fresh produce is a potentially high risk, but as yet unquantified pathway. To address this knowledge gap, >11,250 fruit and

  6. Characterisation of purified parvalbumin from five fish species and nucleotide sequencing of this major allergen from Pacific pilchard, Sardinops sagax.

    Beale, Janine E; Jeebhay, Mohamed F; Lopata, Andreas L

    2009-09-01

    IgE-mediated allergic reaction to seafood is a common cause of food allergy including anaphylactic reactions. Parvalbumin, the major fish allergen, has been shown to display IgE cross-reactivity among fish species consumed predominantly in Europe and the Far East. However, cross-reactivity studies of parvalbumin from fish species widely consumed in the Southern hemisphere are limited as is data relating to immunological and molecular characterisation. In this study, antigenic cross-reactivity and the presence of oligomers and isomers of parvalbumin from five highly consumed fish species in Southern Africa were assessed by immunoblotting using purified parvalbumin and crude fish extracts. Pilchard (Sardinops sagax) parvalbumin was found to display the strongest IgE reactivity among 10 fish-allergic consumers. The cDNA sequence of the beta-form of pilchard parvalbumin was determined and designated Sar sa 1.0101 (accession number FM177701 EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases). Oligomeric forms of parvalbumin were observed in all fish species using a monoclonal anti-parvalbumin antibody and subject's sera. Isoforms varied between approximately 10-13 kDa. A highly cross-reactive allergenic isoform of parvalbumin was identified and sequenced, providing a successful primary step towards the generation of a recombinant form that could be used for diagnostic and potential therapeutic use in allergic individuals.

  7. Temporally delineated sources of major chemical species in high Arctic snow

    K. M. Macdonald

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Long-range transport of aerosol from lower latitudes to the high Arctic may be a significant contributor to climate forcing in the Arctic. To identify the sources of key contaminants entering the Canadian High Arctic an intensive campaign of snow sampling was completed at Alert, Nunavut, from September 2014 to June 2015. Fresh snow samples collected every few days were analyzed for black carbon, major ions, and metals, and this rich data set provided an opportunity for a temporally refined source apportionment of snow composition via positive matrix factorization (PMF in conjunction with FLEXPART (FLEXible PARTicle dispersion model potential emission sensitivity analysis. Seven source factors were identified: sea salt, crustal metals, black carbon, carboxylic acids, nitrate, non-crustal metals, and sulfate. The sea salt and crustal factors showed good agreement with expected composition and primarily northern sources. High loadings of V and Se onto Factor 2, crustal metals, was consistent with expected elemental ratios, implying these metals were not primarily anthropogenic in origin. Factor 3, black carbon, was an acidic factor dominated by black carbon but with some sulfate contribution over the winter-haze season. The lack of K+ associated with this factor, a Eurasian source, and limited known forest fire events coincident with this factor's peak suggested a predominantly anthropogenic combustion source. Factor 4, carboxylic acids, was dominated by formate and acetate with a moderate correlation to available sunlight and an oceanic and North American source. A robust identification of this factor was not possible; however, atmospheric photochemical reactions, ocean microlayer reaction, and biomass burning were explored as potential contributors. Factor 5, nitrate, was an acidic factor dominated by NO3−, with a likely Eurasian source and mid-winter peak. The isolation of NO3− on a separate factor may reflect its complex atmospheric

  8. The major differences in chemical composition and antibacterial activity of two closely related Leonotis species (Lamiaceae may have taxonomic value

    J.N. Eloff

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Several Leonotis species are used widely for medicinal purposes in Africa. There have been drastic changes in the taxonomic treatment of Leonotis species during the past decade. Two species, L. dysophylla and L. microphylla occurring in Pretoria have been considered as varieties of the same species and as different species by different authors. Because Leonotis species are used widely as medicinal plants inter alia against bacterial infections, we decided to compare the chemical composition and antibacterial activity of four plants from each of two populations of the species. The chemical composition of acetone extracts of finely ground leaves was determined by thin layer chromatography followed by spraying with vanillin-sulphuric acid. There were hardly any differences between plants from the same population. There were major differences between the two species in the composition of pigments separated by thin layer chromatography and for compounds visualized with the vanillin-sulphuric acid spray reagent. This supported the viewpoint that the two species should not be considered as varieties. The major differences found in chemical composition indicate that chemical parameters may play an important role in resolving taxonomic differences. Because such a small quantity of material is needed, it may be feasible to analyze one or two leaves obtained from herbarium sheets as an additional taxonomic parameter. The antibacterial activity of the acetone extracts was determined using a two-fold serial dilution microplate method with tetrazolium violet as indicator of growth. The specific strains of the four most important nosocomial bacterial pathogens suggested by the United States National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards were used: Staphylococcus aureus (American Type Culture Collection 29213, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853, Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922 and Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 21212. The minimum inhibitory activity of the

  9. Does increased salinity influence the competitive outcome of two producer species?

    Venâncio, C; Anselmo, E; Soares, A; Lopes, I

    2017-02-01

    Within the context of global climate changes, it is expected that low-lying coastal freshwater ecosystems will face seawater intrusion with concomitant increase in salinity levels. Increased salinity may provoke disruption of competitive relationships among freshwater species. However, species may be capable of acclimating to salinity, which, in turn, may influence the resilience of ecosystems. Accordingly, this work aimed at assessing the effects of multigenerational exposure to low levels of salinity in the competitive outcome of two species of green microalgae: Raphidocelis subcapitata and Chlorella vulgaris. To attain this, three specific objectives were delineated: (1) compare the toxicity of natural seawater (SW) and NaCl (as a surrogate of SW) to the two microalgae, (2) determine the capacity of the two microalgae species to acclimate to low salinity levels, and (3) assess the influence of exposure to low salinity levels in the competitive outcome of the two microalgae. Results revealed SW to be slightly less toxic than NaCl for the two microalgae. The EC 25,72 h for growth rate was 4.63 and 10.3 mS cm -1 for R. subcapitata and 6.94 and 15.4 mS cm -1 for C. vulgaris, respectively for NaCl and SW. Both algae were capable of acclimating to low levels of salinity, but C. vulgaris seemed to acclimate faster than R. subcapitata. When exposed in competition, under control conditions, the growth rates of C. vulgaris were lower than those of R. subcapitata. However, C. vulgaris was capable of acquiring competitive advantage equaling or surpassing the growth rate of R. subcapitata with the addition of NaCl or SW, respectively. The multigenerational exposure to low levels of salinity influenced the competitive outcome of the two algae both under control and salinity exposure. These results suggest that long-term exposure to low salinity stress can cause shifts in structure of algae communities and, therefore, should not be neglected since algae are at the basis

  10. Identification of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway in an antibiotic-producing actinomycete species

    Gunnarsson, Nina; Mortensen, Uffe Hasbro; Sosio, M.

    2004-01-01

    the primary metabolic pathways of the poorly characterized antibiotic-producing actinomycete Nonomuraea sp. ATCC 39727. Surprisingly, it was found that Nonomuraea sp. ATCC 39272 predominantly metabolizes glucose via the Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathway. This represents the first time that the ED pathway has been...... to design metabolic engineering strategies towards construction of more efficient producers of specific metabolites. In this context, methods that allow rapid and reliable mapping of the central carbon metabolism are valuable. In the present study, a C-13 labelling-based method was used to identify...... recognized as the main catabolic pathway in an actinomycete. The Nonomuraea genes encoding the key enzymes of the ED pathway were subsequently identified, sequenced and functionally described....

  11. Chemical and biological characterization of phytotoxins produced by Diplodia species, fungi involved in forest plants diseases

    Masi, Marco

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, numerous studies have been initiated in order to understand what are the microorganisms involved in forest plants diseases and the role played by phytotoxins produced in the pathogenesis processes. The aim of the present thesis was to study the fungi and the phytotoxins associated with canker disease of the Italian cypress (Cupressus sempervirens L.) and the branch dieback of juniper (Juniperus phoenicea L.) which are plant diseases with noteworthy social and economical impli...

  12. Plasma-Based Degradation of Mycotoxins Produced by Fusarium, Aspergillus and Alternaria Species

    Lars ten Bosch

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAPP with ambient air as working gas for the degradation of selected mycotoxins was studied. Deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, enniatins, fumonisin B1, and T2 toxin produced by Fusarium spp., sterigmatocystin produced by Aspergillus spp. and AAL toxin produced by Alternaria alternata were used. The kinetics of the decay of mycotoxins exposed to plasma discharge was monitored. All pure mycotoxins exposed to CAPP were degraded almost completely within 60 s. Degradation rates varied with mycotoxin structure: fumonisin B1 and structurally related AAL toxin were degraded most rapidly while sterigmatocystin exhibited the highest resistance to degradation. As compared to pure compounds, the degradation rates of mycotoxins embedded in extracts of fungal cultures on rice were reduced to a varying extent. Our results show that CAPP efficiently degrades pure mycotoxins, the degradation rates vary with mycotoxin structure, and the presence of matrix slows down yet does not prevent the degradation. CAPP appears promising for the decontamination of food commodities with mycotoxins confined to or enriched on surfaces such as cereal grains.

  13. Gonyaulax taylorii, a new yessotoxins-producer dinoflagellate species from Chilean waters.

    Álvarez, Gonzalo; Uribe, Eduardo; Regueiro, Jorge; Blanco, Juan; Fraga, Santiago

    2016-09-01

    In summer 2009, during a survey in Bahía Mejillones, a dense bloom of a dinoflagellate from the genus Gonyaulax was detected, as well as the presence of yessotoxin. Phytoplankton samples were analyzed in detail by light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), revealing the presence of Gonyaulax taylorii. Morphological examination showed that the cells in the bloom fit in Gonyaulax jollifei Murray et Whitting sensu Dodge, subsequently classified as Gonyaulax taylorii by Carbonell-Moore. In this context, some inconsistencies have been found in regard to the holotype; the plate 1"' appears as two plates, 1‴ and 2‴, showing a suture that does not exist in Dodge's figure of G. jollifei, from where the holotype was drawn, nor within the samples collected. Therefore, this plate has been originally described erroneously as two plates named 1"' and 2"' instead of only one named 1‴. After this correction, this species has five instead of six postcingular plates. For this reason, the description of this species must be emended. Phytoplankton net samples were found to contain yessotoxin and homoyessotoxin, with concentrations below 1pgcell -1 . The present study identifies, therefore, the dinoflagellate G. taylorii as a new source of yessotoxins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Selection of a method to produce activated charcoal using four forest species

    Herrera Builes, Jhon Fredy; Morales Yepes, Wilmar Alexander; Perez Schile, Juan David

    2004-01-01

    This investigation was conducted in the coal and of forest products laboratory of the Universidad Nacional de Colombia, sede Medellin. It was oriented towards the selection of a method to obtain activated carbon form the following forest species; pino patula (Pinus patula), chingale Jacaranda copaia) pino tecunumani (pinus tecunumani) and roble (Quercus humboldti). The wood of each was characterized determining their physical properties of density and contraction. Seven different methods were tested; chemical activation chemical-physical activation with CO 2 chemical-physical activation with CO 2 and water vapor; chemical-physical activation with water vapor; physical activation with CO 2 ; physical activation with water vapor and physical activation with CO 2 and water vapor. The variables studied were residence time and temperature. Taking as a parameter the Iodine index, the chemical-physical activation with water vapor was selected, obtaining an Iodine index of over 800 for all the species studied with the exception of roble that only attained 764 which is still acceptable for water treatment

  15. Theory of electron degradation and yields of initial molecular species produced by ionizing radiation

    Inokuti, M.; Dillon, M.A.; Kimura, M.

    1987-01-01

    Ionizing radiations generate in matter a large number of energetic electrons, which in turn collide with molecules in matter, produce ions and excited states, and thereby degrade in energy. The description of the consequences of many collision processes to the electrons and to matter is the goal of the electron degradation theory. They summarize the current understanding of this topic, which is important as a basis of radiation chemistry and biology. In addition, they present an initial report of their new work, namely, a generalization of the Spencer-Fano theory to time-dependent cases

  16. Lactobacillus apodemi sp. nov., a tannase-producing species isolated from wild mouse faeces.

    Osawa, Ro; Fujisawa, Tomohiko; Pukall, Rüdiger

    2006-07-01

    A Gram-positive, rod-shaped, non-endospore-forming bacterium, strain ASB1(T), able to degrade tannin, was isolated from faeces of the Japanese large wood mouse, Apodemus speciosus. Comparative analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that the strain could be assigned as a member of the genus Lactobacillus. The nearest phylogenetic neighbours were determined as Lactobacillus animalis DSM 20602(T) (98.9 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and Lactobacillus murinus ASF 361 (98.9 %). Subsequent polyphasic analysis, including automated ribotyping and DNA-DNA hybridization experiments, confirmed that the isolate represents a novel species, for which the name Lactobacillus apodemi sp. nov. is proposed. The DNA G+C content of the novel strain is 38.5 mol%. The cell-wall peptidoglycan is of type A4alpha L-lys-D-asp. The type strain is ASB1(T) (=DSM 16634(T)=CIP 108913(T)).

  17. EXTRACELLULAR PROTEINS PRODUCED BY DIFFERENT SPECIES OF THE FUNGUS TRICHODERMA ON SECONDARY PAPER MILL SLUDGE SUBSTRATE

    Ida Vaskova,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Kraft pulping is the most commonly used pulping process in the pulp and paper industry. In this process wood chips are chemically delignified using sodium sulfide and sodium hydroxide. Delignification is usually followed by mechanical fiberization and a bleaching process of the resulting wood pulp. In addition to lignin-free wood pulp, this process also produces waste that contains residues of used chemicals, lignin, cellulose, hemicelluloses, and small amounts of other wood components. Because of the worldwide large-scale production of paper, the sludge from paper mills contributes significantly to environmental pollution. Although there have been great efforts being made to utilize this lignin-rich material, sludge is mostly disposed in landfills or incinerated in a boiler. This research project used secondary sludge as a substrate for 7 wood-decay fungi taxonomically belonging to the genus Trichoderma. The examined fungi expressed the capability of consuming sludge components as a carbon source to produce extracellular proteins. The proteins were separated by gel electrophoresis. Before and after fungi cultivation, the sludge was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR.

  18. Study of the chemical species of fluorine 18 produced by neutron irradiation of lithium aluminate

    Jimenez-Becerril, J.

    1990-01-01

    In the present work, the chemical form of fluorine-18 obtained by means of the neutron irradiated lithium aluminate was studied, in order to know its chemical behavior and to observe if it volatilizes and adheres to the walls of a tritium distillation system; for this matter paper chromatography and high voltage electrophoresis techniques were used. Lithium aluminate was synthetized, being characterized as LiAlO 2 which was irradiated with neutrons in order to produce fluorine-18. Lithium aluminate is a non-soluble solid, therefore fluorine produced may not be extracted, unless it is dissolved or extracted through the solid. So as not affect in a drastic way the chemical form, it was submitted to extraction processes, agitating the irradiated samples with different acids and basic solutions in order to analyze fluorine-18. The best extraction agent was found to be HCl, where two forms of fluorine-18 were found, one at the point of application, probably as a complex hexafluoride-aluminate and the other as a characteristic Rf of the fluorine ion. In the tritium distillation with helium as a carrier of a sample irradiated and heated up to 220-250 o C, no volatile types of fluorine-18 were found, thus it can be considered that in commercial production of tritium by means of neutron irradiation of lithium aluminate, fluorine-18 is not a damaging pollutant of the equipment pipe system. (Author)

  19. CD4(+) T cells producing interleukin (IL)-17, IL-22 and interferon-? are major effector T cells in nickel allergy

    Dyring Andersen, Beatrice; Skov, Lone; Løvendorf, Marianne B

    2013-01-01

    the frequencies of CD4(+) , CD8(+) and γδ T cells producing IL-17, IL-22 and interferon (IFN)-γ in the blood and skin from nickel-allergic patients. Patients/materials/methods Blood samples were collected from 14 patients and 17 controls, and analysed by flow cytometry. Biopsies were taken from 5 patients and 6......-allergic patients, there was massive cellular infiltration dominated by CD4(+) T cells producing IL-17, IL-22 and IFN-γ in nickel-challenged skin but not in vehicle-challenged skin. Conclusion CD4(+) T cells producing IL-17, IL-22 and IFN-γ are important effector cells in the eczematous reactions of nickel......Background It has been suggested that interleukin (IL)-17 and IL-22 play important roles in the elicitation of human allergic contact dermatitis; however, the frequencies of T cell subtypes producing IL-17 and IL-22 in human allergic contact dermatitis are unknown. Objectives To determine...

  20. Cultivar-Based Introgression Mapping Reveals Wild Species-Derived Pm-0, the Major Powdery Mildew Resistance Locus in Squash

    Holdsworth, William L.; LaPlant, Kyle E.; Bell, Duane C.; Jahn, Molly M.; Mazourek, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Powdery mildew is a major fungal disease on squash and pumpkin (Cucurbita spp.) in the US and throughout the world. Genetic resistance to the disease is not known to occur naturally within Cucurbita pepo and only infrequently in Cucurbita moschata, but has been achieved in both species through the introgression of a major resistance gene from the wild species Cucurbita okeechobeensis subsp. martinezii. At present, this gene, Pm-0, is used extensively in breeding, and is found in nearly all powdery mildew-resistant C. pepo and C. moschata commercial cultivars. In this study, we mapped C. okeechobeensis subsp. martinezii-derived single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) alleles in a set of taxonomically and morphologically diverse and resistant C. pepo and C. moschata cultivars bred at Cornell University that, by common possession of Pm-0, form a shared-trait introgression panel. High marker density was achieved using genotyping-by-sequencing, which yielded over 50,000 de novo SNP markers in each of the three Cucurbita species genotyped. A single 516.4 kb wild-derived introgression was present in all of the resistant cultivars and absent in a diverse set of heirlooms that predated the Pm-0 introgression. The contribution of this interval to powdery mildew resistance was confirmed by association mapping in a C. pepo cultivar panel that included the Cornell lines, heirlooms, and 68 additional C. pepo cultivars and with an independent F2 population derived from C. okeechobeensis subsp. martinezii x C. moschata. The interval was refined to a final candidate interval of 76.4 kb and CAPS markers were developed inside this interval to facilitate marker-assisted selection. PMID:27936008

  1. Cultivar-Based Introgression Mapping Reveals Wild Species-Derived Pm-0, the Major Powdery Mildew Resistance Locus in Squash.

    Holdsworth, William L; LaPlant, Kyle E; Bell, Duane C; Jahn, Molly M; Mazourek, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Powdery mildew is a major fungal disease on squash and pumpkin (Cucurbita spp.) in the US and throughout the world. Genetic resistance to the disease is not known to occur naturally within Cucurbita pepo and only infrequently in Cucurbita moschata, but has been achieved in both species through the introgression of a major resistance gene from the wild species Cucurbita okeechobeensis subsp. martinezii. At present, this gene, Pm-0, is used extensively in breeding, and is found in nearly all powdery mildew-resistant C. pepo and C. moschata commercial cultivars. In this study, we mapped C. okeechobeensis subsp. martinezii-derived single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) alleles in a set of taxonomically and morphologically diverse and resistant C. pepo and C. moschata cultivars bred at Cornell University that, by common possession of Pm-0, form a shared-trait introgression panel. High marker density was achieved using genotyping-by-sequencing, which yielded over 50,000 de novo SNP markers in each of the three Cucurbita species genotyped. A single 516.4 kb wild-derived introgression was present in all of the resistant cultivars and absent in a diverse set of heirlooms that predated the Pm-0 introgression. The contribution of this interval to powdery mildew resistance was confirmed by association mapping in a C. pepo cultivar panel that included the Cornell lines, heirlooms, and 68 additional C. pepo cultivars and with an independent F2 population derived from C. okeechobeensis subsp. martinezii x C. moschata. The interval was refined to a final candidate interval of 76.4 kb and CAPS markers were developed inside this interval to facilitate marker-assisted selection.

  2. Sampling designs matching species biology produce accurate and affordable abundance indices.

    Harris, Grant; Farley, Sean; Russell, Gareth J; Butler, Matthew J; Selinger, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Wildlife biologists often use grid-based designs to sample animals and generate abundance estimates. Although sampling in grids is theoretically sound, in application, the method can be logistically difficult and expensive when sampling elusive species inhabiting extensive areas. These factors make it challenging to sample animals and meet the statistical assumption of all individuals having an equal probability of capture. Violating this assumption biases results. Does an alternative exist? Perhaps by sampling only where resources attract animals (i.e., targeted sampling), it would provide accurate abundance estimates more efficiently and affordably. However, biases from this approach would also arise if individuals have an unequal probability of capture, especially if some failed to visit the sampling area. Since most biological programs are resource limited, and acquiring abundance data drives many conservation and management applications, it becomes imperative to identify economical and informative sampling designs. Therefore, we evaluated abundance estimates generated from grid and targeted sampling designs using simulations based on geographic positioning system (GPS) data from 42 Alaskan brown bears (Ursus arctos). Migratory salmon drew brown bears from the wider landscape, concentrating them at anadromous streams. This provided a scenario for testing the targeted approach. Grid and targeted sampling varied by trap amount, location (traps placed randomly, systematically or by expert opinion), and traps stationary or moved between capture sessions. We began by identifying when to sample, and if bears had equal probability of capture. We compared abundance estimates against seven criteria: bias, precision, accuracy, effort, plus encounter rates, and probabilities of capture and recapture. One grid (49 km(2) cells) and one targeted configuration provided the most accurate results. Both placed traps by expert opinion and moved traps between capture sessions

  3. Sampling designs matching species biology produce accurate and affordable abundance indices

    Grant Harris

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Wildlife biologists often use grid-based designs to sample animals and generate abundance estimates. Although sampling in grids is theoretically sound, in application, the method can be logistically difficult and expensive when sampling elusive species inhabiting extensive areas. These factors make it challenging to sample animals and meet the statistical assumption of all individuals having an equal probability of capture. Violating this assumption biases results. Does an alternative exist? Perhaps by sampling only where resources attract animals (i.e., targeted sampling, it would provide accurate abundance estimates more efficiently and affordably. However, biases from this approach would also arise if individuals have an unequal probability of capture, especially if some failed to visit the sampling area. Since most biological programs are resource limited, and acquiring abundance data drives many conservation and management applications, it becomes imperative to identify economical and informative sampling designs. Therefore, we evaluated abundance estimates generated from grid and targeted sampling designs using simulations based on geographic positioning system (GPS data from 42 Alaskan brown bears (Ursus arctos. Migratory salmon drew brown bears from the wider landscape, concentrating them at anadromous streams. This provided a scenario for testing the targeted approach. Grid and targeted sampling varied by trap amount, location (traps placed randomly, systematically or by expert opinion, and traps stationary or moved between capture sessions. We began by identifying when to sample, and if bears had equal probability of capture. We compared abundance estimates against seven criteria: bias, precision, accuracy, effort, plus encounter rates, and probabilities of capture and recapture. One grid (49 km2 cells and one targeted configuration provided the most accurate results. Both placed traps by expert opinion and moved traps between capture

  4. Sampling designs matching species biology produce accurate and affordable abundance indices

    Farley, Sean; Russell, Gareth J.; Butler, Matthew J.; Selinger, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Wildlife biologists often use grid-based designs to sample animals and generate abundance estimates. Although sampling in grids is theoretically sound, in application, the method can be logistically difficult and expensive when sampling elusive species inhabiting extensive areas. These factors make it challenging to sample animals and meet the statistical assumption of all individuals having an equal probability of capture. Violating this assumption biases results. Does an alternative exist? Perhaps by sampling only where resources attract animals (i.e., targeted sampling), it would provide accurate abundance estimates more efficiently and affordably. However, biases from this approach would also arise if individuals have an unequal probability of capture, especially if some failed to visit the sampling area. Since most biological programs are resource limited, and acquiring abundance data drives many conservation and management applications, it becomes imperative to identify economical and informative sampling designs. Therefore, we evaluated abundance estimates generated from grid and targeted sampling designs using simulations based on geographic positioning system (GPS) data from 42 Alaskan brown bears (Ursus arctos). Migratory salmon drew brown bears from the wider landscape, concentrating them at anadromous streams. This provided a scenario for testing the targeted approach. Grid and targeted sampling varied by trap amount, location (traps placed randomly, systematically or by expert opinion), and traps stationary or moved between capture sessions. We began by identifying when to sample, and if bears had equal probability of capture. We compared abundance estimates against seven criteria: bias, precision, accuracy, effort, plus encounter rates, and probabilities of capture and recapture. One grid (49 km2 cells) and one targeted configuration provided the most accurate results. Both placed traps by expert opinion and moved traps between capture sessions, which

  5. LukMF′ is the major secreted leukocidin of bovine Staphylococcus aureus and is produced in vivo during bovine mastitis

    Vrieling, Manouk; Boerhout, Eveline M.; Van Wigcheren, Glenn F.; Koymans, Kirsten J.; Mols-Vorstermans, Tanja G.; de Haas, Carla J C; Aerts, Piet C.; Daemen, Ineke J J M; van Kessel, Kok P M; Koets, Ad P.; Rutten, Victor P M G; Nuijten, Piet J M; Van Strijp, Jos A G; Benedictus, Lindert

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major human and animal pathogen and a common cause of mastitis in cattle. S. aureus secretes several leukocidins that target bovine neutrophils, crucial effector cells in the defence against bacterial pathogens. In this study, we investigated the role of staphylococcal

  6. LukMF' is the major secreted leukocidin of bovine Staphylococcus aureus and is produced in vivo during bovine mastitis

    Vrieling, Manouk; Boerhout, Eveline M; van Wigcheren, Glenn F; Koymans, Kirsten J; Mols-Vorstermans, Tanja G; de Haas, Carla J C; Aerts, Piet C; Daemen, Ineke J J M; van Kessel, Kok P M; Koets, Ad P|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/194306992; Rutten, Victor P M G|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/092848028; Nuijten, Piet J M; van Strijp, Jos A G; Benedictus, Lindert|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/37157742X

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major human and animal pathogen and a common cause of mastitis in cattle. S. aureus secretes several leukocidins that target bovine neutrophils, crucial effector cells in the defence against bacterial pathogens. In this study, we investigated the role of staphylococcal

  7. LukMF′ is the major secreted leukocidin of bovine Staphylococcus aureus and is produced in vivo during bovine mastitis

    Vrieling, Manouk; Boerhout, Eveline M.; Wigcheren, Van Glenn F.; Koymans, Kirsten J.; Mols-Vorstermans, Tanja G.; Haas, de Carla J.C.; Aerts, Piet C.; Daemen, Ineke J.J.M.; Kessel, Van Kok P.M.; Koets, Ad P.; Rutten, Victor P.M.G.; Nuijten, Piet J.M.; Strijp, van Jos A.G.; Benedictus, Lindert

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major human and animal pathogen and a common cause of mastitis in cattle. S. aureus secretes several leukocidins that target bovine neutrophils, crucial effector cells in the defence against bacterial pathogens. In this study, we investigated the role of staphylococcal

  8. First-principles study of the formation of glycine-producing radicals from common interstellar species

    Sato, Akimasa; Kitazawa, Yuya; Ochi, Toshiro; Shoji, Mitsuo; Komatsu, Yu; Kayanuma, Megumi; Aikawa, Yuri; Umemura, Masayuki; Shigeta, Yasuteru

    2018-03-01

    Glycine, the simplest amino acid, has been intensively searched for in molecular clouds, and the comprehensive clarification of the formation path of interstellar glycine is now imperative. Among all the possible glycine formation pathways, we focused on the radical pathways revealed by Garrod (2013). In the present study, we have precisely investigated all the chemical reaction steps related to the glycine formation processes based on state-of-the-art density functional theory (DFT) calculations. We found that two reaction pathways require small activation barriers (ΔE‡ ≤ 7.75 kJ mol-1), which demonstrates the possibility of glycine formation even at low temperatures in interstellar space if the radical species are generated. The origin of carbon and nitrogen in the glycine backbone and their combination patterns are further discussed in relation to the formation mechanisms. According to the clarification of the atomic correspondence between glycine and its potential parental molecules, it is shown that the nitrogen and two carbons in the glycine can originate in three common interstellar molecules, methanol, hydrogen cyanide, and ammonia, and that the source molecules of glycine can be described by any of their combinations. The glycine formation processes can be categorized into six patterns. Finally, we discussed two other glycine formation pathways expected from the present DFT calculation results.

  9. The Impact of Commodity Price Shocks in a Major Producing Economy. The Case of Copper and Chile

    Michael Pedersen

    2015-01-01

    The present study analyzes how copper price shocks affect macroeconomic variables in Chile, which is the largest producer in the world of this commodity. It is taken into account that shocks with different sources may have different impacts and a separation is made between supply, demand, and specific copper demand shocks. The empirical analysis is based on a structural VAR model, where shocks are identified by sign restrictions, i.e. restrictions are imposed on impulse-response functions. In...

  10. Identification of Shewanella baltica as the most important H2S-producing species during iced storage of Danish marine fish.

    Fonnesbech Vogel, Birte; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Satomi, Masataka; Gram, Lone

    2005-11-01

    Shewanella putrefaciens has been considered the main spoilage bacteria of low-temperature stored marine seafood. However, psychrotropic Shewanella have been reclassified during recent years, and the purpose of the present study was to determine whether any of the new Shewanella species are important in fish spoilage. More than 500 H2S-producing strains were isolated from iced stored marine fish (cod, plaice, and flounder) caught in the Baltic Sea during winter or summer time. All strains were identified as Shewanella species by phenotypic tests. Different Shewanella species were present on newly caught fish. During the warm summer months the mesophilic human pathogenic S. algae dominated the H2S-producing bacterial population. After iced storage, a shift in the Shewanella species was found, and most of the H2S-producing strains were identified as S. baltica. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis confirmed the identification of these two major groups. Several isolates could only be identified to the genus Shewanella level and were separated into two subgroups with low (44%) and high (47%) G+C mol%. The low G+C% group was isolated during winter months, whereas the high G+C% group was isolated on fish caught during summer and only during the first few days of iced storage. Phenotypically, these strains were different from the type strains of S. putrefaciens, S. oneidensis, S. colwelliana, and S. affinis, but the high G+C% group clustered close to S. colwelliana by 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison. The low G+C% group may constitute a new species. S. baltica, and the low G+C% group of Shewanella spp. strains grew well in cod juice at 0 degrees C, but three high G+C Shewanella spp. were unable to grow at 0 degrees C. In conclusion, the spoilage reactions of iced Danish marine fish remain unchanged (i.e., trimethylamine-N-oxide reduction and H2S production); however, the main H2S-producing organism was identified as S. baltica.

  11. Population genetic structure of the major malaria vector Anopheles funestus s.s. and allied species in southern Africa

    Choi Kwang Shik

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles funestus s.s., one of the major malaria vectors in sub-Saharan Africa, belongs to a group of eleven African species that are morphologically similar at the adult stage, most of which do not transmit malaria. The population structure of An. funestus based on mitochondrial DNA data led to the description of two cryptic subdivisions, clade I widespread throughout Africa and clade II known only from Mozambique and Madagascar. In this study, we investigated five common members of the Anopheles funestus group in southern Africa in order to determine relationships within and between species. Methods A total of 155 specimens of An. funestus, An. parensis, An. vaneedeni, An. funestus-like and An. rivulorum from South Africa, Mozambique and Malawi were used for the study. The population genetic structure was assessed within and between populations using mitochondrial DNA. Results The phylogenetic trees revealed three main lineages: 1 An. rivulorum; 2 An. funestus-like clade I and An. parensis clade II; and 3 An. funestus clades I and II, An. funestus-like clade II, An. parensis clade I and An. vaneedeni clades I and II. Within An. funestus, 32 specimens from Mozambique consisted of 40.6% clade I and 59.4% clade II while all 21 individuals from Malawi were clade I. In the analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequences, there were 37 polymorphic sites and 9 fixed different nucleotides for ND5 and 21 polymorphic sites and 6 fixed different nucleotides for COI between the two An. funestus clades. The results for COI supported the ND5 analysis. Conclusion This is the first report comparing An. funestus group species including An. funestus clades I and II and the new species An. funestus-like. Anopheles funestus clade I is separated from the rest of the members of the An. funestus subgroup and An. funestus-like is distinctly distributed from the other species in this study. However, there were two clades for An. funestus-like, An

  12. A reappraisal of Aspergillus section Nidulantes with descriptions of two new sterigmatocystin-producing species

    Hubka, Vit; Nováková, Alena; Peterson, Stephen W.

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus section Nidulantes is a speciose group of microscopic fungi whose species are important in indoor air quality, food spoilage, mycotoxin production and human pathogenicity. We assembled as many species from the section as possible with either type specimens or protologues for analysis...... that both species are able to produce the mycotoxin sterigmatocystin and some additional compounds....

  13. Draft genome sequences of Escherichia coli O113:H21 strains recovered from a major produce-production region in California

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli is a foodborne and waterborne pathogen and is responsible for outbreaks of human gastroenteritis. This report documents the draft genome sequences of seven O113:H21 strains recovered from livestock, wildlife, and soil samples collected in a major agricultural r...

  14. Selection, trans-species polymorphism, and locus identification of major histocompatibility complex class IIβ alleles of New World ranid frogs

    Kiemnec-Tyburczy, Karen M.; Richmond, Jonathan Q.; Savage, Anna E.; Zamudio, Kelly R.

    2010-01-01

    Genes encoded by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) play key roles in the vertebrate immune system. However, our understanding of the evolutionary processes and underlying genetic mechanisms shaping these genes is limited in many taxa, including amphibians, a group currently impacted by emerging infectious diseases. To further elucidate the evolution of the MHC in frogs (anurans) and develop tools for population genetics, we surveyed allelic diversity of the MHC class II ??1 domain in both genomic and complementary DNA of seven New World species in the genus Rana (Lithobates). To assign locus affiliation to our alleles, we used a "gene walking" technique to obtain intron 2 sequences that flanked MHC class II?? exon 2. Two distinct intron sequences were recovered, suggesting the presence of at least two class II?? loci in Rana. We designed a primer pair that successfully amplified an orthologous locus from all seven Rana species. In total, we recovered 13 alleles and documented trans-species polymorphism for four of the alleles. We also found quantitative evidence of selection acting on amino acid residues that are putatively involved in peptide binding and structural stability of the ??1 domain of anurans. Our results indicated that primer mismatch can result in polymerase chain reaction (PCR) bias, which influences the number of alleles that are recovered. Using a single locus may minimize PCR bias caused by primer mismatch, and the gene walking technique was an effective approach for generating single-copy orthologous markers necessary for future studies of MHC allelic variation in natural amphibian populations. ?? 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  15. Palaeo-precipitation is a major determinant of palm species richness patterns across Madagascar: a tropical biodiversity hotspot

    Rakotoarinivo, Mijoro; Blach-Overgaard, Anne; Baker, William J.; Dransfield, John; Moat, Justin; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of rainforest in many regions across the Earth was strongly affected by Pleistocene ice ages. However, the extent to which these dynamics are still important for modern-day biodiversity patterns within tropical biodiversity hotspots has not been assessed. We employ a comprehensive dataset of Madagascan palms (Arecaceae) and climate reconstructions from the last glacial maximum (LGM; 21 000 years ago) to assess the relative role of modern environment and LGM climate in explaining geographical species richness patterns in this major tropical biodiversity hotspot. We found that palaeoclimate exerted a strong influence on palm species richness patterns, with richness peaking in areas with higher LGM precipitation relative to present-day even after controlling for modern environment, in particular in northeastern Madagascar, consistent with the persistence of tropical rainforest during the LGM primarily in this region. Our results provide evidence that diversity patterns in the World's most biodiverse regions may be shaped by long-term climate history as well as contemporary environment. PMID:23427173

  16. Sympatric parallel diversification of major oak clades in the Americas and the origins of Mexican species diversity.

    Hipp, Andrew L; Manos, Paul S; González-Rodríguez, Antonio; Hahn, Marlene; Kaproth, Matthew; McVay, John D; Avalos, Susana Valencia; Cavender-Bares, Jeannine

    2018-01-01

    Oaks (Quercus, Fagaceae) are the dominant tree genus of North America in species number and biomass, and Mexico is a global center of oak diversity. Understanding the origins of oak diversity is key to understanding biodiversity of northern temperate forests. A phylogenetic study of biogeography, niche evolution and diversification patterns in Quercus was performed using 300 samples, 146 species. Next-generation sequencing data were generated using the restriction-site associated DNA (RAD-seq) method. A time-calibrated maximum likelihood phylogeny was inferred and analyzed with bioclimatic, soils, and leaf habit data to reconstruct the biogeographic and evolutionary history of the American oaks. Our highly resolved phylogeny demonstrates sympatric parallel diversification in climatic niche, leaf habit, and diversification rates. The two major American oak clades arose in what is now the boreal zone and radiated, in parallel, from eastern North America into Mexico and Central America. Oaks adapted rapidly to niche transitions. The Mexican oaks are particularly numerous, not because Mexico is a center of origin, but because of high rates of lineage diversification associated with high rates of evolution along moisture gradients and between the evergreen and deciduous leaf habits. Sympatric parallel diversification in the oaks has shaped the diversity of North American forests. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  17. Prey species as possible sources of PBDE exposures for peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) nesting in major California cities.

    Park, June-Soo; Fong, Alison; Chu, Vivian; Holden, Arthur; Linthicum, Janet; Hooper, Kim

    2011-04-01

    Our earlier findings indicate that (1) peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus anatum Bonaparte) nesting in major California cities have among the highest polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) levels in the world (max ∑PBDEs=100 ppm), and (2) Big City peregrines have higher levels and proportions of the higher-brominated congeners (hepta- to deca-BDEs) than do their Coastal counterparts. In this study we classified the prey species (n =185) from the remains of prey (feathers) at 38 peregrine nest sites over 25 years (1974-1998). We grouped the prey species into 15 categories based on diet and found distinctly different prey patterns for Big City vs. Coastal peregrines. Big City peregrines had a higher (almost three times) weight percentage intake of food waste-eating birds (e.g., rock pigeons, Columba livia) than Coastal peregrines. These differing prey patterns suggest diet as a potential source of the unusually high levels and proportions of higher-brominated PBDEs in Big City peregrines. The relative contributions of diet and dust (e.g., preening) exposure to PBDE patterns in Big City peregrines will be explored in future investigations. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

  18. Characterization of Ras k 1 a novel major allergen in Indian mackerel and identification of parvalbumin as the major fish allergen in 33 Asia-Pacific fish species.

    Ruethers, T; Raith, M; Sharp, M F; Koeberl, M; Stephen, J N; Nugraha, R; Le, T T K; Quirce, S; Nguyen, H X M; Kamath, S D; Mehr, S S; Campbell, D E; Bridges, C R; Taki, A C; Swoboda, I; Lopata, A L

    2018-04-01

    Fish is a well-recognized cause of food allergy and anaphylaxis. The evolutionary and taxonomic diversity of the various consumed fish species pose a challenge in the identification and characterization of the major fish allergens critical for reliable diagnostics. Globally, fish is a rising cause of food allergy complicated by a large under-investigated variety of species as well as increasing global tourism and trade. This is the first comprehensive study on allergen profiles of heat-processed fish from Vietnam. The aim of this study was to identify the major heat-stable allergens from frequently exported Asia-Pacific freshwater and marine fish and to characterize the major allergen parvalbumin (PV) from one of the most consumed and exported fish species from Asia, the Indian mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta). Heated protein extracts from 33 fish species were separated by gel electrophoresis. PV isoforms were identified by immunoblotting utilizing 3 different PV-specific monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies and further characterized by mass spectrometry. IgE reactivity was investigated using sera from 21 patients with confirmed fish allergy. Heat-stable IgE-reactive PVs, with up to 5 isoforms per species, were identified in all 33 analysed fish species. In the Indian mackerel, 7 PV isoforms were identified by 2D-gel electrophoresis combined with mass spectrometric analyses. The amino acid sequence deduced from cDNA of the most expressed isoform showed a high identity (>90%) to PVs from 2 other mackerel species. Different PVs were identified as the major heat-stable allergens in all 33 analysed freshwater and marine fish species from Vietnam, many of which are exported world-wide and 21 species that have never been investigated before. The Indian mackerel PV represents a novel fish allergen, now officially registered as Ras k 1. Improved diagnostics for fish allergy against Asia-Pacific species should be developed with focus on PV. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. CYTOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF PREMEIOTIC VERSUS POSTMEIOTIC DEFECTS PRODUCING HYBRID MALE STERILITY AMONG SIBLING SPECIES OF THE DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER COMPLEX.

    Kulathinal, Rob; Singh, Rama S

    1998-08-01

    In accordance with Haldane's rule, hybridizations between species of the Drosophila simulans clade produce fertile females but sterile males. In this study, a comprehensive characterization was undertaken on the six types of F 1 males that were the result of the crosses between D. simulans, D. sechellia, and D. mauritiana. With the use of light and electron microscopy, it was shown that while each particular hybrid genotype exhibited a specific sterility phenotype, these phenotypes fell into two distinct classes. The two hybrid genotypes that possessed D. mauritiana X-chromosomes contained spermatogenic defects that caused arrests in premeiotic spermatogenic stages. The other four F 1 hybrids possessed postmeiotic spermatogenic defects. Nonsynchronous cell divisions, underdeveloped mitochondrial derivative-axonemal associations, and microtubule abnormalities were common to all of these hybrids. Each particular postmeiotically defective hybrid genotype demonstrated characteristically distinct profiles in sperm bundle number in addition to characteristic spermiogenic arrests in the furthest developed spermatids. These results in species hybrids contrast with the absence of significant differences in spermatogenic characters between species of this clade. In addition, by utilizing an attached-X cross, we investigated the influence of maternal effects and cytoplasmic factors on the sterility of D. simulans F 1 hybrids and found none. However, we discovered a strain of D. simulans (2119) that caused a large shift in sterility from postmeiotic to premeiotic when crossed to D. sechellia. This suggests that D. simulans is polymorphic for genes involving premeiotic and postmeiotic sterility and that the two types of sterilities between species may have a simple genetic basis. © 1998 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  20. Hybrid TiO2 -Ruthenium Nano-photosensitizer Synergistically Produces Reactive Oxygen Species in both Hypoxic and Normoxic Conditions.

    Gilson, Rebecca C; Black, Kvar C L; Lane, Daniel D; Achilefu, Samuel

    2017-08-28

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is widely used to treat diverse diseases, but its dependence on oxygen to produce cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) diminishes the therapeutic effect in a hypoxic environment, such as solid tumors. Herein, we developed a ROS-producing hybrid nanoparticle-based photosensitizer capable of maintaining high levels of ROS under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Conjugation of a ruthenium complex (N3) to a TiO 2 nanoparticle afforded TiO 2 -N3. Upon exposure of TiO 2 -N3 to light, the N3 injected electrons into TiO 2 to produce three- and four-fold more hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen peroxide, respectively, than TiO 2 at 160 mmHg. TiO 2 -N3 maintained three-fold higher hydroxyl radicals than TiO 2 under hypoxic conditions via N3-facilitated electron-hole reduction of adsorbed water molecules. The incorporation of N3 transformed TiO 2 from a dual type I and II PDT agent to a predominantly type I photosensitizer, irrespective of the oxygen content. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Kinetic and thermodynamic properties of alginate lyase and cellulase co-produced by Exiguobacterium species Alg-S5.

    Mohapatra, Bidyut R

    2017-05-01

    In an effort to screen out the alginolytic and cellulolytic bacteria from the putrefying invasive seaweed Sargassum species accumulated off Barbados' coast, a potent bacterial strain was isolated. This bacterium, which simultaneously produced alginate lyase and cellulase, was identified as Exiguobacterium sp. Alg-S5 via the phylogenetic approach targeting the 16S rRNA gene. The co-produced alginate lyase and cellulase exhibited maximal enzymatic activity at pH 7.5 and at 40°C and 45°C, respectively. The K m and V max values recorded as 0.91mg/mL and 21.8U/mg-protein, respectively, for alginate lyase, and 10.9mg/mL and 74.6U/mg-protein, respectively, for cellulase. First order kinetic analysis of the thermal denaturation of the co-produced alginate lyase and cellulase in the temperature range from 40°C to 55°C revealed that both the enzymes were thermodynamically efficient by displaying higher activation energy and enthalpy of denaturation. These enzymatic properties indicate the potential industrial importance of this bacterium in algal biomass conversion. This appears to be the first report on assessing the efficacy of a bacterium for the co-production of alginate lyase and cellulase. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Evolutionary responses by native species to major anthropogenic changes to their ecosystems: Pacific salmon in the Columbia River hydropower system.

    Waples, Robin S; Zabel, Richard W; Scheuerell, Mark D; Sanderson, Beth L

    2008-01-01

    The human footprint is now large in all the Earth's ecosystems, and construction of large dams in major river basins is among the anthropogenic changes that have had the most profound ecological consequences, particularly for migratory fishes. In the Columbia River basin of the western USA, considerable effort has been directed toward evaluating demographic effects of dams, yet little attention has been paid to evolutionary responses of migratory salmon to altered selective regimes. Here we make a first attempt to address this information gap. Transformation of the free-flowing Columbia River into a series of slack-water reservoirs has relaxed selection for adults capable of migrating long distances upstream against strong flows; conditions now favour fish capable of migrating through lakes and finding and navigating fish ladders. Juveniles must now be capable of surviving passage through multiple dams or collection and transportation around the dams. River flow patterns deliver some groups of juvenile salmon to the estuary later than is optimal for ocean survival, but countervailing selective pressures might constrain an evolutionary response toward earlier migration timing. Dams have increased the cost of migration, which reduces energy available for sexual selection and favours a nonmigratory life history. Reservoirs are a benign environment for many non-native species that are competitors with or predators on salmon, and evolutionary responses are likely (but undocumented). More research is needed to tease apart the relative importance of evolutionary vs. plastic responses of salmon to these environmental changes; this research is logistically challenging for species with life histories like Pacific salmon, but results should substantially improve our understanding of key processes. If the Columbia River is ever returned to a quasinatural, free-flowing state, remaining populations might face a Darwinian debt (and temporarily reduced fitness) as they struggle to

  3. Taxonomic classification of world map units in crop producing areas of Argentina and Brazil with representative US soil series and major land resource areas in which they occur

    Huckle, H. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The most probable current U.S. taxonomic classification of the soils estimated to dominate world soil map units (WSM)) in selected crop producing states of Argentina and Brazil are presented. Representative U.S. soil series the units are given. The map units occurring in each state are listed with areal extent and major U.S. land resource areas in which similar soils most probably occur. Soil series sampled in LARS Technical Report 111579 and major land resource areas in which they occur with corresponding similar WSM units at the taxonomic subgroup levels are given.

  4. [Distribution diversity of integrins and calcium channels on major human and mouse host cells of Leptospira species].

    Li, Cheng-xue; Zhao, Xin; Qian, Jing; Yan, Jie

    2012-07-01

    To determine the distribution of integrins and calcium channels on major human and mouse host cells of Leptospira species. The expression of β1, β2 and β3 integrins was detected with immunofluorescence assay on the surface of human monocyte line THP-1, mouse mononuclear-macrophage-like cell line J774A.1, human vascular endothelial cell line HUVEC, mouse vascular endothelial cell EOMA, human hepatocyte line L-02, mouse hepatocyte line Hepa1-6, human renal tubular epithelial cell line HEK-293, mouse glomerular membrane epithelial cell line SV40-MES13, mouse collagen blast line NIH/3T3, human and mouse platelets. The distribution of voltage gate control calcium channels Cav3.1, Cav3.2, Cav3.3 and Cav2.3, and receptor gate calcium channels P(2)X(1), P(2)2X(2), P(2)X(3), P(2)X(4), P(2)X(5), P(2)X(6) and P(2)X(7) were determined with Western blot assay. β1 integrin proteins were positively expressed on the membrane surface of J774A.1, THP-1, HUVEC, EOMA, L-02, Hepa1-6 and HEK-239 cells as well as human and mouse platelets. β2 integrin proteins were expressed on the membrane surface of J774A.1, THP-1, HUVEC, EOMA, and NIH/3T3 cells. β3 integrin proteins were expressed on the membrane surface of J774A.1, THP-1, HUVEC, EOMA, Hepa1-6, HEK-239 and NIH/3T3 cells as well as human and mouse platelets. P(2)X(1) receptor gate calcium channel was expressed on the membrane surface of human and mouse platelets, while P(2)X(5) receptor gate calcium channel was expressed on the membrane surface of J774A.1, THP-1, L-02, Hepa1-6, HEK-239 and HUVEC cells. However, the other calcium channels were not detected on the tested cell lines or platelets. There is a large distribution diversity of integrins and calcium channel proteins on the major human and mouse host cells of Leptospira species, which may be associated with the differences of leptospira-induced injury in different host cells.

  5. Practical use of chemical probes for reactive oxygen species produced in biological systems by {gamma}-irradiation

    Lee, Min Hee; Moon, Yu Ran; Chung, Byung Yeoup; Kim, Jae-Sung [Radiation Research Division for Bio-technology, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1266 Sinjeong-dong, Jeongeup-si, Jeollabuk-do 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kang-Soo [Crop Production and Technology Major, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jae-Young [Bio-environmental Science Major, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin-Hong [Radiation Research Division for Bio-technology, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1266 Sinjeong-dong, Jeongeup-si, Jeollabuk-do 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: jhongkim@kaeri.re.kr

    2009-05-15

    Application of chemical probes, for detection of reactive oxygen species (ROS), was tested during {gamma}-irradiation. The ethanol/{alpha}-(4-pyridyl-1-oxide)-N-tert-butylnitrone (4-POBN) and 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB) were structurally stable enough to detect {sup {center_dot}}OH and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, increasingly generated by {gamma}-irradiation up to 1000 Gy. Interestingly, the production rate of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, but not {sup {center_dot}}OH, during {gamma}-irradiation, was significantly different between in vitro systems of lettuce and spinach. These results suggest that 4-POBN and DAB could be utilized as a semi-quantitative probe to quantify {sup {center_dot}}OH and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, produced by {gamma}-irradiation up to 1000 Gy.

  6. Application of probabilistic event attribution in the summer heat extremes in the western US to emissions traced to major industrial carbon producers

    Mera, R. J.; Allen, M. R.; Mote, P.; Ekwurzel, B.; Frumhoff, P. C.; Rupp, D. E.

    2015-12-01

    Heat waves in the western US have become progressively more severe due to increasing relative humidity and nighttime temperatures, increasing the health risks of vulnerable portions of the population, including Latino farmworkers in California's Central Valley and other socioeconomically disadvantaged communities. Recent research has shown greenhouse gas emissions doubled the risk of the hottest summer days during the 2000's in the Central Valley, increasing public health risks and costs, and raising the question of which parties are responsible for paying these costs. It has been argued that these costs should not be taken up solely by the general public through taxation, but that additional parties can be considered, including multinational corporations who have extracted and marketed a large proportion of carbon-based fuels. Here, we apply probabilistic event attribution (PEA) to assess the contribution of emissions traced to the world's 90 largest major industrial carbon producers to the severity and frequency of these extreme heat events. Our research uses very large ensembles of regional climate model simulations to calculate fractional attribution of policy-relevant extreme heat variables. We compare a full forcings world with observed greenhouse gases, sea surface temperatures and sea ice extent to a counter-factual world devoid of carbon pollution from major industrial carbon producers. The results show a discernable fraction of record-setting summer temperatures in the western US during the 2000's can be attributed to emissions sourced from major carbon producers.

  7. Isolation, Purification, and Characterization of Xylanase Produced by a New Species of Bacillus in Solid State Fermentation

    Rajashri D. Kamble

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A thermoalkalophilic new species of Bacillus, similar to Bacillus arseniciselenatis DSM 15340, produced extracellular xylanase under solid state fermentation when wheat bran is used as carbon source. The extracellular xylanase was isolated by ammonium sulfate (80% precipitation and purified using ion exchange chromatography. The molecular weight of xylanase was ~29.8 ;kDa. The optimum temperature and pH for the enzyme activity were 50°C and pH 8.0. The enzyme was active on birchwood xylan and little active on p-nitrophenyl xylopyranoside but not on Avicel, CMC, cellobiose, and starch, showing its absolute substrate specificity. For birchwood xylan, the enzyme gave a Km 5.26 ;mg/mL and Vmax 277.7 ;μmol/min/mg, respectively. In addition, the xylanase was also capable of producing high-quality xylo-oligosaccharides, which indicated its application potential not only in pulp biobleaching processes but also in the nutraceutical industry.

  8. MALDI-TOF MS enables the rapid identification of the major molecular types within the Cryptococcus neoformans/C. gattii species complex.

    Carolina Firacative

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Cryptococcus neoformans/C. gattii species complex comprises two sibling species that are divided into eight major molecular types, C. neoformans VNI to VNIV and C. gattii VGI to VGIV. These genotypes differ in host range, epidemiology, virulence, antifungal susceptibility and geographic distribution. The currently used phenotypic and molecular identification methods for the species/molecular types are time consuming and expensive. As Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS offers an effective alternative for the rapid identification of microorganisms, the objective of this study was to examine its potential for the identification of C. neoformans and C. gattii strains at the intra- and inter-species level. METHODOLOGY: Protein extracts obtained via the formic acid extraction method of 164 C. neoformans/C. gattii isolates, including four inter-species hybrids, were studied. RESULTS: The obtained mass spectra correctly identified 100% of all studied isolates, grouped each isolate according to the currently recognized species, C. neoformans and C. gattii, and detected potential hybrids. In addition, all isolates were clearly separated according to their major molecular type, generating greater spectral differences among the C. neoformans molecular types than the C. gattii molecular types, most likely reflecting a closer phylogenetic relationship between the latter. The number of colonies used and the incubation length did not affect the results. No spectra were obtained from intact yeast cells. An extended validated spectral library containing spectra of all eight major molecular types was established. CONCLUSIONS: MALDI-TOF MS is a rapid identification tool for the correct recognition of the two currently recognized human pathogenic Cryptococcus species and offers a simple method for the separation of the eight major molecular types and the detection of hybrid strains within this

  9. Identification of Shewanella baltica as the most important H2S-producing species during iced storage of danish marine fish

    Vogel, Birte Fonnesbech; Venkateswaran, K.; Satomi, M.

    2005-01-01

    are important in fish spoilage. More than 500 H2S-producing strains were isolated from iced stored marine fish (cod, plaice, and flounder) caught in the Baltic Sea during winter or summer time. All strains were identified as Shewanella species by phenotypic tests. Different Shewanella species were present...... unchanged (i.e., trimethylamine-N-oxide reduction and H2S production); however, the main H2S-producing organism was identified as S. baltica....

  10. INSECTICIDAL ACTIVITIES OF ESSENTIAL OILS EXTRACTED FROM THREE SPECIES OF POACEAE ON ANOPHELES GAMBIAE SPP, MAJOR VECTOR OF MALARIA

    Dominique C. K. Sohounhloué

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the insecticidal activities on Anopheles gambiae spp of the essential oils (EO extracted from the dry leaves of some species collected in Benin were studied. The essential oil yields are 2.8, 1.7 and 1.4�0respectively for Cymbopogon schoanenthus (L. Spreng (CS, Cymbopogon citratus Stapf. (CC and Cymbopogon giganteus (Hochst. Chiov (CG. The GC/MS analysis showed that the EO of CS had a larger proportion in oxygenated monoterpenes (86.3�20whereas those of the sheets of CC and CG are relatively close proportions (85.5�0and 82.7�0respectively with. The piperitone (68.5�  2-carene (11.5� and -eudesmol (4.6�20are the major components of the EO of CS while trans para-mentha-1(7,8-dien-2-ol (31.9� trans para-mentha-2,8-dien-1-ol (19.6� cis para-mentha-2,8-dien-1-ol (7.2� trans piperitol (6.3�20and limonene (6.3�20prevailed in the EO of CG. The EO of CC revealed a rich composition in geranial (41.3� neral (33� myrcene (10.4� and geraniol (6.6� The biological tests have shown that these three EO induced 100�0mortality of Anopheles gambiae to 1.1, 586.58 and 1549 µg•cm-2 respectively for CC, CS and CG. These effects are also illustrated by weak lethal concentration for 50�0anopheles population (CC: 0.306; CS: 152.453 and CG: 568.327 µg•cm-2 in the same order of reactivity. The EO of CC appeared most active on two stocks (sensitive and resistant of Anopheles gambiae.

  11. Sequential chemical treatment of radium species in TENORM waste sludge produced from oil and natural gas production

    El Afifi, E.M.; Awwad, N.S.; Hilal, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is dedicated to the treatment of sludge occurring in frame of the Egyptian produced from oil and gas production. The activity levels of three radium isotopes: Ra-226 (of U-series), Ra-228 and Ra-224 (of Th-series) in the solid TENORM waste (sludge) were first evaluated and followed by a sequential treatment for all radium species (fractions) presented in TENORM. The sequential treatment was carried out based on two approaches 'A' and 'B' using different chemical solutions. The results obtained indicate that the activity levels of all radium isotopes (Ra-226, Ra-228 and Ra-224) of the environmental interest in the TENORM waste sludge were elevated with regard to exemption levels established by IAEA [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), International basic safety standards for the protection against ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources. GOV/2715/Vienna, 1994]. Each approach of the sequential treatment was performed through four steps using different chemical solutions to reduce the activity concentration of radium in a large extent. Most of the leached radium was found as an oxidizable Ra species. The actual removal % leached using approach B was relatively efficient compared to A. It is observed that the actual removal percentages (%) of Ra-226, Ra-228 and Ra-224 using approach A are 78 ± 2.8, 64.8 ± 4.1 and 76.4 ± 5.2%, respectively. Whereas in approach A, the overall removal % of Ra-226, Ra-228 and Ra-228 was increased to ∼91 ± 3.5, 87 ± 4.1 and 90 ± 6.2%, respectively

  12. Pollination Biology and Spatio-Temporal Structuring of Some Major Acacia Species (Leguminosae) of the Arabian Peninsula

    Adgaba, N.; Alghamidi, A.; Tadesse, Y.; Getachew, A.; Ansari, M. J.

    2016-01-01

    Acacias are the dominant woody plant species distributed over the vast tracts of land throughout the Arabian Peninsula. However, information on spatio-temporal structuring and pollination biology of the species is not precisely available. To determine whether any variations exist among the Acacia species in their temporal distribution, their flowering period was determined through monitoring the commencing, peaking and ending of flowering of each species. Moreover, if any variations exist in release of floral rewards among the different co-existing and co-flowering species as mechanisms of partitioning of pollinators, to minimize competition for pollination, the progress of their anthesis over time was recorded by scoring polyads to anthers ratio at different hours of a day. In addition, the amount and dynamics of nectar sugar per inflorescence (N =225/species) was determined following flower nectar sugar washing technique. Types and frequencies of flower visitors and their preferences were determined by recording the visitors 6 times a day. The current study revealed that the Acacia species of the Arabian Peninsula are spatio-temporally structured: some species co-exist yet have different flowering seasons, whereas others co-exist, flowering concurrently yet exhibit a shift in their time of peak flowering and in the time at which the peak pollen is released during the day. This study demonstrates that all Acacia species examined secrete a considerable amount of nectar (2.24+-1.72 -10.02+-4.0mg/inflorescence) which serves as a floral reward for pollinators. Insects of the Order Hymenoptera are the most prevalent visitors to Acacia species in the region. The variations in spatio-temporal structuring of the Acaciaspecies could be due to their adaptation of reducing competition for pollinators and minimizing hetero-specific pollen transfer. (author)

  13. Biosurfactant-producing microorganism Pseudomonas sp. SB assists the phytoremediation of DDT-contaminated soil by two grass species.

    Wang, Beibei; Wang, Qingling; Liu, Wuxing; Liu, Xiaoyan; Hou, Jinyu; Teng, Ying; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter

    2017-09-01

    Phytoremediation together with microorganisms may confer the advantages of both phytoremediation and microbial remediation of soils containing organic contaminants. In this system biosurfactants produced by Pseudomonas sp. SB may effectively help to increase the bioavailability of organic pollutants and thereby enhance their microbial degradation in soil. Plants may enhance the rhizosphere environment for microorganisms and thus promote the bioremediation of contaminants. In the present pot experiment study, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) residues underwent an apparent decline after soil bioremediation compared with the original soil. The removal efficiency of fertilizer + tall fescue, fertilizer + tall fescue + Pseudomonas, fertilizer + perennial ryegrass, and fertilizer + perennial ryegrass + Pseudomonas treatments were 59.4, 65.6, 69.0, and 65.9%, respectively, and were generally higher than that in the fertilizer control (40.3%). Principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) verifies that plant species greatly affected the soil bacterial community irrespective of inoculation with Pseudomonas sp. SB. Furthermore, community composition analysis shows that Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria and Actinobacteria were the three dominant phyla in all groups. In particular, the relative abundance of Pseudomonas for fertilizer + tall fescue + Pseudomonas (0.25%) was significantly greater than fertilizer + tall fescue and this was related to the DDT removal efficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Candida Species Prevalence Profile in HIV Seropositive Patients from a Major Tertiary Care Hospital in New Delhi, India

    Monika Maheshwari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Candida is a common opportunistic pathogen during the course of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV disease progression. Changes in the clinical severity of candidiasis and the Candida species prevalence profile may be a reflection of immunological changes in HIV positive patients. The aim of this study was to document the changing pattern of Candida species prevalence profile in HIV seropositive patients from a tertiary care hospital in North India. One hundred and twenty HIV seropositive subjects were recruited for Candida microbial screening. Clinical specimens including blood, oral swabs, expectorated or induced sputum/bronchoalveolar lavage specimens, and urine were collected depending on the patient’s symptoms. A total of 128 Candida isolates were obtained from 88 cases and 7 different Candida species were identified. C. albicans (50% was the most common species isolated followed by C. glabrata (17% and C. dubliniensis (12.5%. Other species isolated were C. parapsilosis (7.8%, C. krusei, C. tropicalis (4.6% each, and C. kefyr (3%. Strong clinical suspicion along with optimal sampling of an accurate diagnosis of Candida species involved would go a long way in decreasing the morbidity associated with non-albicans Candida species.

  15. Functional significance of tree species diversity and species identity on soil organic carbon, C/N ratio and pH in major European forest types

    Dawud, Seid Muhie

    Forests provide different ecosystem functions and services including soil carbon sequestration and nutrient supply to maintain growth and productivity. This PhD thesis explored tree species diversity and tree species identity (conifer proportion of basal area) effects on soil C stock and nutrient...... 8 and 12 years old common garden stands established in two contrasting bioclimatic regions. In all the studied contexts, tree species identity (confers versus broadleaves) was stronger than diversity in consistently driving variability of the examined soil properties and root characteristics......, particularly in topsoil layers. Diversity did not affect fine root characteristics of the young forests and effects on soil properties were different under the investigated contexts. Across the different European sites, diversity had no effect on C/N ratio and pH but under comparable environmental conditions...

  16. Modulation of allergic immune responses by mucosal application of recombinant lactic acid bacteria producing the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1.

    Daniel, C; Repa, A; Wild, C; Pollak, A; Pot, B; Breiteneder, H; Wiedermann, U; Mercenier, A

    2006-07-01

    Probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are able to modulate the host immune system and clinical trials have demonstrated that specific strains have the capacity to reduce allergic symptoms. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the potential of recombinant LAB producing the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 for mucosal vaccination against birch pollen allergy. Recombinant Bet v 1-producing Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactococcus lactis strains were constructed. Their immunogenicity was compared with purified Bet v 1 by subcutaneous immunization of mice. Intranasal application of the live recombinant strains was performed to test their immunomodulatory potency in a mouse model of birch pollen allergy. Bet v 1 produced by the LAB was recognized by monoclonal anti-Bet v 1 and IgE antibodies from birch pollen-allergic patients. Systemic immunization with the recombinant strains induced significantly lower IgG1/IgG2a ratios compared with purified Bet v 1. Intranasal pretreatment led to reduced allergen-specific IgE vs enhanced IgG2a levels and reduced interleukin (IL)-5 production of splenocytes in vitro, indicating a shift towards non-allergic T-helper-1 (Th1) responses. Airway inflammation, i.e. eosinophils and IL-5 in lung lavages, was reduced using either Bet v 1-producing or control strains. Allergen-specific secretory IgA responses were enhanced in lungs and intestines after pretreatment with only the Bet v 1-producing strains. Mucosal vaccination with live recombinant LAB, leading to a shift towards non-allergic immune responses along with enhanced allergen-specific mucosal IgA levels offers a promising approach to prevent systemic and local allergic immune responses.

  17. Building on IUCN regional red lists to produce lists of species of conservation priority: a model with Irish bees.

    Fitzpatrick, Una; Murray, Tomás E; Paxton, Robert J; Brown, Mark J F

    2007-10-01

    A World Conservation Union (IUCN) regional red list is an objective assessment of regional extinction risk and is not the same as a list of conservation priority species. Recent research reveals the widespread, but incorrect, assumption that IUCN Red List categories represent a hierarchical list of priorities for conservation action. We developed a simple eight-step priority-setting process and applied it to the conservation of bees in Ireland. Our model is based on the national red list but also considers the global significance of the national population; the conservation status at global, continental, and regional levels; key biological, economic, and societal factors; and is compatible with existing conservation agreements and legislation. Throughout Ireland, almost one-third of the bee fauna is threatened (30 of 100 species), but our methodology resulted in a reduced list of only 17 priority species. We did not use the priority species list to broadly categorize species to the conservation action required; instead, we indicated the individual action required for all threatened, near-threatened, and data-deficient species on the national red list based on the IUCN's conservation-actions template file. Priority species lists will strongly influence prioritization of conservation actions at national levels, but action should not be exclusive to listed species. In addition, all species on this list will not necessarily require immediate action. Our method is transparent, reproducible, and readily applicable to other taxa and regions.

  18. Comparison of phenolic acid profiles and anti-inflammatory effects of two major species of blueberries in the US

    Blueberries (BB) contain high levels of polyphenols. Among them, phenolic acids (PAs) have been recently suggested as a group of important bioactive compounds. Highbush BB (Vaccinium corymbosum) and lowbush “wild" BB (Vaccinium angustifolium) are two predominant species in North America. The first o...

  19. Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi inoculum produced on-farm and phosphorus on growth and nutrition of native woody plant species from Brazil

    Luis Claudio Goetten

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mycorrhizal fungus inoculum produced on-farm can be used during production of woody plant seedlings to reduce costs associated with purchase of commercial inoculant and fertilization. This study aimed to test the efficiency of a mycorrhizal inoculant produced on-farm to promote growth and nutrition of woody species in combination with different levels of phosphorus. Plants were submitted to different treatments of phosphorus (0, 40 and 80 mg P/dm3 and mycorrhizal inoculation (uninoculated, and inoculation with Rhizophagus clarus [Rc] or Claroideoglomus etunicatum [Ce]. Species included were Luehea divaricata, Centrolobium robustum, Schinus terebinthifolius, Garcinia gardneriana, Cedrella fissilis, and Lafoensia pacari. The inoculum was produced using the on-farm methodology. Mycorrhizal colonization of plants inoculated with Rc and Ce ranged from 44.8 to 74.8%, except forGarcinia gardneriana. Inoculation treatment increased plant height and stem diameter of Luehea divaricata, Centrolobium robustum and Cedrella fissilis while phosphorus, inoculation and the interaction affected these parameters for G. gardneriana and Lafoensia pacari. Shoot biomass increased significantly with inoculation treatment in four species. For most species, mycorrhizal fungus inoculation and the addition of phosphorus increased the shoot phosphorus content. Mycorrhizal fungus inoculum produced on-farm successfully colonized tree seedlings and improved growth and/or nutrition under nursery conditions, producing seedlings useful for revegetation of degraded lands.

  20. Reactive oxygen species produced by NADPH oxidase and mitochondrial dysfunction in lung after an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ashes

    Magnani, Natalia D.; Marchini, Timoteo; Vanasco, Virginia [Instituto de Bioquímica Medicina Molecular (IBIMOL-UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Tasat, Deborah R. [CESyMA, Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnología, Universidad Nacional de San Martín, San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Alvarez, Silvia [Instituto de Bioquímica Medicina Molecular (IBIMOL-UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Evelson, Pablo, E-mail: pevelson@ffyb.uba.ar [Instituto de Bioquímica Medicina Molecular (IBIMOL-UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2013-07-01

    Reactive O{sub 2} species production triggered by particulate matter (PM) exposure is able to initiate oxidative damage mechanisms, which are postulated as responsible for increased morbidity along with the aggravation of respiratory diseases. The aim of this work was to quantitatively analyse the major sources of reactive O{sub 2} species involved in lung O{sub 2} metabolism after an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ashes (ROFAs). Mice were intranasally instilled with a ROFA suspension (1.0 mg/kg body weight), and lung samples were analysed 1 h after instillation. Tissue O{sub 2} consumption and NADPH oxidase (Nox) activity were evaluated in tissue homogenates. Mitochondrial respiration, respiratory chain complexes activity, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and ATP production rates, mitochondrial membrane potential and oxidative damage markers were assessed in isolated mitochondria. ROFA exposure was found to be associated with 61% increased tissue O{sub 2} consumption, a 30% increase in Nox activity, a 33% increased state 3 mitochondrial O{sub 2} consumption and a mitochondrial complex II activity increased by 25%. During mitochondrial active respiration, mitochondrial depolarization and a 53% decreased ATP production rate were observed. Neither changes in H{sub 2}O{sub 2} production rate, nor oxidative damage in isolated mitochondria were observed after the instillation. After an acute ROFA exposure, increased tissue O{sub 2} consumption may account for an augmented Nox activity, causing an increased O{sub 2}{sup ·−} production. The mitochondrial function modifications found may prevent oxidative damage within the organelle. These findings provide new insights to the understanding of the mechanisms involving reactive O{sub 2} species production in the lung triggered by ROFA exposure. - Highlights: • Exposure to ROFA alters the oxidative metabolism in mice lung. • The augmented Nox activity contributes to the high tissue O{sub 2} consumption. • Exposure to ROFA

  1. Functional labeling of insulin receptor subunits in live cells. Alpha 2 beta 2 species is the major autophosphorylated form

    Le Marchand-Brustel, Y.; Ballotti, R.; Gremeaux, T.; Tanti, J.F.; Brandenburg, D.; Van Obberghen, E.

    1989-01-01

    Both receptor subunits were functionally labeled in order to provide methods allowing, in live cells and in broken cell systems, concomitant evaluation of the insulin receptor dual function, hormone binding, and kinase activity. In cell-free systems, insulin receptors were labeled on their alpha-subunit with 125I-photoreactive insulin, and on their beta-subunit by autophosphorylation. Thereafter, phosphorylated receptors were separated from the complete set of receptors by means of anti-phosphotyrosine antibodies. Using this approach, a subpopulation of receptors was found which had bound insulin, but which were not phosphorylated. Under nonreducing conditions, receptors appeared in three oligomeric species identified as alpha 2 beta 2, alpha 2 beta, and alpha 2. Mainly the alpha 2 beta 2 receptor species was found to be phosphorylated while insulin was bound to alpha 2 beta 2, alpha 2 beta, and alpha 2 forms. In live cells, biosynthetic labeling of insulin receptors was used. Receptors were first labeled with [35S]methionine. Subsequently, the addition of insulin led to receptor autophosphorylation by virtue of the endogenous ATP pool. The total amount of [35S]methionine-labeled receptors was precipitated with antireceptor antibodies, whereas with anti-phosphotyrosine antibodies, only the phosphorylated receptors were isolated. Using this approach we made the two following key findings: (1) Both receptor species, alpha 2 beta 2 and alpha 2 beta, are present in live cells and in comparable amounts. This indicates that the alpha 2 beta form is not a degradation product of the alpha 2 beta 2 form artificially generated during receptor preparation. (2) The alpha 2 beta 2 species is the prevalently autophosphorylated form

  2. Gyrinops ledermannii (Thymelaeaceae), being an agarwood-producing species prompts call for further examination of taxonomic implications in the generic delimitation between Aquilaria and Gyrinops

    Compton, J.G.S.; Zich, F.A.

    2002-01-01

    Field research conducted in Papua New Guinea (PNG) has recorded Gyrinops ledermannii Domke (Thymelaeaceae) as an agarwood-producing species for the first time. Aquilaria malaccensis Lam. (incl. A. agallocha Roxb.; Thymelaeaceae) or agarwood (also known as aloeswood, eaglewood, gaharu, and

  3. Population Dynamics Among six Major Groups of the Oryza rufipogon Species Complex, Wild Relative of Cultivated Asian Rice.

    Kim, HyunJung; Jung, Janelle; Singh, Namrata; Greenberg, Anthony; Doyle, Jeff J; Tyagi, Wricha; Chung, Jong-Wook; Kimball, Jennifer; Hamilton, Ruaraidh Sackville; McCouch, Susan R

    2016-12-01

    Understanding population structure of the wild progenitor of Asian cultivated rice (O. sativa), the Oryza rufipogon species complex (ORSC), is of interest to plant breeders and contributes to our understanding of rice domestication. A collection of 286 diverse ORSC accessions was evaluated for nuclear variation using genotyping-by-sequencing (113,739 SNPs) and for chloroplast variation using Sanger sequencing (25 polymorphic sites). Six wild subpopulations were identified, with 25 % of accessions classified as admixed. Three of the wild groups were genetically and geographically closely related to the O. sativa subpopulations, indica, aus and japonica, and carried O. sativa introgressions; the other three wild groups were genetically divergent, had unique chloroplast haplotypes, and were located at the geographical extremes of the species range. The genetic subpopulations were significantly correlated (r 2  = 0.562) with traditional species designations, O. rufipogon (perennial) and O. nivara (annual), differentiated based on morphology and life history. A wild diversity panel of 95 purified (inbred) accessions was developed for future genetic studies. Our results suggest that the cultivated aus subpopulation is most closely related to an annual wild relative, japonica to a perennial wild relative, and indica to an admixed population of diverse annual and perennial wild ancestors. Gene flow between ORSC and O. sativa is common in regions where rice is cultivated, threatening the identity and diversity of wild ORSC populations. The three geographically isolated ORSC populations harbor variation rarely seen in cultivated rice and provide a unique window into the genetic composition of ancient rice subpopulations.

  4. Circulating Cxcr5-Expressing Cd8+T-Cells are Major Producers of Il-21 and Associate with Limited Hiv Replication.

    Perdomo-Celis, Federico; Taborda, Natalia A; Rugeles, Maria T

    2018-04-10

    Despite advances made with the highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) in the control of the human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV) infection, a cure has not been achieved due to the persistence of viral reservoirs. The major HIV reservoirs remain in the lymphoid follicles due to, among other factors, the partial absence of CD8T-cells in these structures. Recently, lymphoid follicle-confined and circulating CD8T-cells expressing the C-X-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CXCR5) were described, possessing antiviral mechanisms which could help to control HIV replication. and methods: By flow cytometry, we characterized the phenotype and function of circulating CXCR5-expressing CD8T-cells in HIV-infected patients with natural or HAART-induced control of HIV replication. Circulating CXCR5-expressing CD8T-cells exhibited low or null expression of the C-C chemokine receptor type 7 (CCR7) and had a transitional memory phenotype. Particular redistributions of CXCR5-expressing CD8T-cells were found in HIV-infected patients, and they were partially restored by HAART. The frequency of CXCR5CCR7CD8T-cells was higher in spontaneous HIV controllers and negatively correlated with plasma HIV RNA levels. Total and HIV-specific CXCR5CD8T-cells were major producers of interleukin-21, and this function was positively associated with their interferon-γ production. Circulating CXCR5-expressing CD8T-cells are associated with low level HIV replication, could be novel correlates of protection and potentially useful in the eradication of HIV reservoirs.

  5. Recombinant major outer membrane protein (MOMP) of Chlamydophila abortus, Chlamydophila pecorum, and Chlamydia suis as antigens to distinguish chlamydial species-specific antibodies in animal sera.

    Hoelzle, Ludwig E; Hoelzle, Katharina; Wittenbrink, Max M

    2004-10-05

    Recombinant major outer membrane proteins (rMOMP) of Chlamydophila (Ch.) abortus, Ch. pecorum, and Chlamydia (C.) suis were used as antigens to distinguish chlamydial species-specific antibodies in (i) immune sera from six rabbits and three pigs raised against native purified elementary bodies, (ii) serum samples from 25 sows vaccinated with Ch. abortus, and (iii) 40 serum samples from four heifers experimentally infected with Ch. abortus. All post-exposition sera contained chlamydial antibodies as confirmed by strong ELISA seroreactivities against the chlamydial LPS. For the rMOMP ELISA mean IgG antibody levels were at least 5.8-fold higher with the particular rMOMP homologous to the chlamydial species used for immunisation or infection than with heterologous rMOMPs (P <0.001). Preferential rMOMP ELISA reactivities of sera were confirmed by Western blotting. The results suggest that the entire chlamydial rMOMP could provide a species-specific serodiagnostic antigen.

  6. Assessment of the significance of direct and indirect pollution inputs to a major salmon-producing river using polyethylene membrane devices.

    Moles, Adam; Holland, Larry; Andersson, Ole

    2006-08-01

    Conventional passive sampling devices for monitoring pollution input often prove to be cost-prohibitive when assessing large spatial and temporal scales. The Kenai River, a major salmon-producing river in Alaska (USA), served as the perfect laboratory to test the utility of polyethylene membrane devices for assessing chronic nonpoint-source inputs to a large riverine watershed. Comparison of the relative levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at a large number of locations over time allowed us to assess the significance and potential source of these compounds in the river. Concentrations of PAH were greatest near urban areas and peaked during the late winter, when streams flows and dilution were low. Vessel activity and PAH levels peaked in July and were heaviest in the lower 16 km of the river, where fishing activity was concentrated. Nearly one-third of the vessels observed on the river were powered by two-stroke engines, which release a higher proportion of unburned fuel into the water than the cleaner burning four-stroke engines. The low concentrations of hydrocarbons upriver of the boat traffic suggest very little remote delivery of these contaminants to the watershed. Polyethylene strips proved to be an excellent, low-cost tool for determining the PAH patterns in a large watershed.

  7. Aspergillus mulundensis sp. nov., a new species for the fungus producing the antifungal echinocandin lipopeptides, mulundocandins

    Bills, Gerald F.; Yue, Qun; Chen, Li

    2016-01-01

    The invalidly published name Aspergillus sydowii var. mulundensis was proposed for a strain of Aspergillus that produced new echinocandin metabolites designated as the mulundocadins. Reinvestigation of this strain (Y-30462=DSMZ 5745) using phylogenetic, morphological, and metabolic data indicated...

  8. Wheat cultivar-specific selection of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol-producing Pseudomonas species from resident soil populations

    Mazzola, M.; Funnell, D.L.; Raaijmakers, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    An emerging body of evidence indicates a role for plant genotype as a determinant of the species and genetic composition of the saprophytic microbial community resident to the rhizosphere. In this study, experiments were conducted to determine the capacity of five different wheat cultivars to

  9. Leishmaniasis in the major endemic region of Plurinational State of Bolivia: Species identification, phylogeography and drug susceptibility implications.

    Bilbao-Ramos, Pablo; Dea-Ayuela, M Auxiliadora; Cardenas-Alegría, Oscar; Salamanca, Efraín; Santalla-Vargas, José Antonio; Benito, Cesar; Flores, Ninoska; Bolás-Fernández, Francisco

    2017-12-01

    The Plurinational State of Bolivia is one of the Latin American countries with the highest prevalence of leishmaniasis, highlighting the lowlands of the Department of La Paz where about 50% of the total cases were reported. The control of the disease can be seriously compromised by the intrinsic variability of the circulating species that may limit the efficacy of treatment while favoring the emergence of resistance. Fifty-five isolates of Leishmania from cutaneous and mucocutaneous lesions from patients living in different provinces of the Department of La Paz were tested. Molecular characterization of isolates was carried out by 3 classical markers: the rRNA internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1), the heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and the mitochondrial cytochrome b (Cyt-b). These markers were amplified by PCR and their products digested by the restriction endonuclease enzymes AseI and HaeIII followed by subsequent sequencing of Cyt-b gene and ITS-1 region for subsequent phylogenetic analysis. The combined use of these 3 markers allowed us to assign 36 isolates (65.5%) to the complex Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, 4 isolates (7, 27%) to L. (Viannia) lainsoni. and the remaining 15 isolates (23.7%) to a local variant of L. (Leishmania) mexicana. Concerning in vitro drug susceptibility the amastigotes from all isolates where highly sensitive to Fungizone ® (mean IC 50 between 0.23 and 0.5μg/mL) whereas against Glucantime ® the sensitivity was moderate (mean IC 50 ranging from 50.84μg/mL for L. (V.) braziliensis to 18.23μg/mL for L. (L.) mexicana. L. (V.) lainsoni was not sensitive to Glucantime ® . The susceptibility to miltefosine was highly variable among species isolates, being L. (L.) mexicana the most sensitive, followed by L. (V.) braziliensis and L. (V.) lainsoni (mean IC 50 of 8.24μg/mL, 17.85μg/mL and 23.28μg/mL, respectively). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Major Burden of Severe Anemia from Non-Falciparum Malaria Species in Southern Papua: A Hospital-Based Surveillance Study

    Douglas, Nicholas M.; Lampah, Daniel A.; Kenangalem, Enny; Simpson, Julie A.; Poespoprodjo, Jeanne R.; Sugiarto, Paulus; Anstey, Nicholas M.; Price, Ric N.

    2013-01-01

    Background The burden of anemia attributable to non-falciparum malarias in regions with Plasmodium co-endemicity is poorly documented. We compared the hematological profile of patients with and without malaria in southern Papua, Indonesia. Methods and Findings Clinical and laboratory data were linked for all patients presenting to a referral hospital between April 2004 and December 2012. Data were available on patient demographics, malaria diagnosis, hemoglobin concentration, and clinical outcome, but other potential causes of anemia could not be identified reliably. Of 922,120 patient episodes (837,989 as outpatients and 84,131 as inpatients), a total of 219,845 (23.8%) were associated with a hemoglobin measurement, of whom 67,696 (30.8%) had malaria. Patients with P. malariae infection had the lowest hemoglobin concentration (n = 1,608, mean = 8.93 [95% CI 8.81–9.06]), followed by those with mixed species infections (n = 8,645, mean = 9.22 [95% CI 9.16–9.28]), P. falciparum (n = 37,554, mean = 9.47 [95% CI 9.44–9.50]), and P. vivax (n = 19,858, mean = 9.53 [95% CI 9.49–9.57]); p-value for all comparisons anemia (hemoglobin anemia (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 3.25 [95% CI 2.99–3.54]); AORs for severe anaemia associated with P. falciparum, P. vivax, and P. malariae were 2.11 (95% CI 2.00–2.23), 1.87 (95% CI 1.74–2.01), and 2.18 (95% CI 1.76–2.67), respectively, panemia was attributable to non-falciparum infections compared with 15.1% (95% CI 13.9%–16.3%) for P. falciparum monoinfections. Patients with severe anemia had an increased risk of death (AOR = 5.80 [95% CI 5.17–6.50]; panemia in early infancy, mixed P. vivax/P. falciparum infections are associated with a greater hematological impairment than either species alone, and in adulthood P. malariae, although rare, is associated with the lowest hemoglobin concentration. These findings highlight the public health importance of integrated genus-wide malaria

  11. Detection of hydrogen peroxide-producing Lactobacillus species in the vagina: a comparison of culture and quantitative PCR among HIV-1 seropositive women

    Balkus Jennifer E

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 producing Lactobacillus in the vagina may play a role in controlling genital HIV-1 shedding. Sensitive molecular methods improve our ability to characterize the vaginal microbiota; however, they cannot characterize phenotype. We assessed the concordance of H2O2-producing Lactobacillus detected by culture with quantitative PCR (qPCR detection of Lactobacillus species commonly assumed to be H2O2-producers. Methods Samples were collected as part of a prospective cohort study of HIV-1 seropositive US women. Cervicovaginal lavage specimens were tested for L. crispatus and L. jensenii using 16S rRNA gene qPCR assays. Vaginal swabs were cultured for Lactobacillus and tested for H2O2-production. We calculated a kappa statistic to assess concordance between culture and qPCR. Results Culture and qPCR results were available for 376 visits from 57 women. Lactobacilli were detected by culture at 308 (82% visits, of which 233 of 308 (76% produced H2O2. L. crispatus and/or L. jensenii were detected at 215 (57% visits. Concordance between detection of L. crispatus and/or L. jensenii by qPCR and H2O2-producing Lactobacillus by culture was 75% (kappa = 0.45. Conclusions Among HIV-1 seropositive women, there was a moderate level of concordance between H2O2-producing Lactobacillus detected by culture and the presence of L. crispatus and/or L. jensenii by qPCR. However, one-quarter of samples with growth of H2O2-producing lactobacilli did not have L. crispatus or L. jensenii detected by qPCR. This discordance may be due to the presence of other H2O2-producing Lactobacillus species.

  12. Chitosan produced from Mucorales fungi using agroindustrial by-products and its efficacy to inhibit Colletotrichum species.

    Ramos Berger, Lúcia Raquel; Montenegro Stamford, Thayza Christina; de Oliveira, Kataryne Árabe Rimá; de Miranda Pereira Pessoa, Adjane; de Lima, Marcos Antonio Barbosa; Estevez Pintado, Maria Manuela; Saraiva Câmara, Marcos Paz; de Oliveira Franco, Luciana; Magnani, Marciane; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2018-03-01

    This study evaluated corn steep liquor (CSL) and papaya peel juice (PPJ) in mixture as substrates for the cultivation (96h, 28°C, pH 5.6, 150rpm) of Mucorales fungi for chitosan production, and determined the growth-inhibitory effect of the fungal chitosan (FuCS) obtained under optimized conditions against phytopathogenic Colletotrichum species. All Mucorales fungi tested were capable of growing in CSL-PPJ medium, showing FuCS production in the range of 5.02 (Fennelomyces heterothalicus SIS 28) - 15.63mg/g (Cunninghamella elegans SIS 41). Highest FuCS production (37.25mg/g) was achieved when C. elegans was cultivated in medium containing 9.43% CSL and 42.5% PPJ. FuCS obtained under these conditions showed a deacetylation degree of 86%, viscosity of 120cP and molecular weight of 4.08×10 4 g/mol. FuCS at 5000, 7500 and 10,000ppm inhibited the growth of all Colletotrichum species tested. FuCS also induced alterations in the morphology of C. fructicola hyphae. CSL-PPJ mixtures are suitable substrates for the cultivation of Mucorales fungi for FuCS production. Chitosan from C. elegans cultivated in CSL-PPJ medium is effective in inhibiting phytopathogenic Colletotrichum species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Antimicrobial activity of Tulsi (Ocimum tenuiflorum essential oil and their major constituents against three species of bacteria

    Hanaa Abbas M Yamani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years scientists worldwide have realized that the effective life span of any antimicrobial agent is limited, due to increasing development of resistance by microorganisms. Consequently, numerous studies have been conducted to find new alternative sources of antimicrobial agents, especially from plants. The aims of this project were to examine the antimicrobial properties of essential oils distilled from Australian-grown Ocimum teniflorum (Tulsi, to quantify the volatile components present in flower spikes, leaves and the essential oil, and to investigate the compounds responsible for any activity. Broth micro-dilution was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of Tulsi essential oil against selected microbial pathogens. The oils, at concentrations of 4.5% and 2.25% completely inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus (including MRSA and Escherichia coli, while the same concentrations only partly inhibited the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Of 54 compounds identified in Tulsi leaves, flower spikes or essential oil, three are proposed to be responsible for this activity; camphor, eucalyptol and eugenol. Since S. aureus (including MRSA, P. aeruginosa and E. coli are major pathogens causing skin and soft tissue infections, Tulsi essential oil could be a valuable topical antimicrobial agent for management of skin infections caused by these organisms.

  14. First complete genome sequence of a species in the genus Microterricola, an extremophilic cold active enzyme producing bacterial strain ERGS5:02 isolated from Sikkim Himalaya.

    Himanshu; Swarnkar, Mohit Kumar; Singh, Dharam; Kumar, Rakshak

    2016-03-20

    Here, we report the first ever complete genome sequence of any species in the genus Microterricola. The bacterium Microterricola viridarii ERGS5:02 isolated from the glacial stream of Sikkim Himalaya survived at low temperature and exhibited enhanced growth upon UV treatment, in addition, it also produced cold active enzymes. The complete genome assembly of 3.7 Mb suggested for the presence of genetic elements favoring the survival of bacterium under extreme conditions of UV and low temperature besides producing amylase, lipase and protease of industrial relevance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Direct adventitious shoot bud formation on hypocotyls explants in Millettia pinnata (L.) Panigrahi- a biodiesel producing medicinal tree species.

    Nagar, Durga Singh; Jha, Suman Kumar; Jani, Jigar

    2015-04-01

    A reproducible protocol developed for in vitro regeneration of Milletia pinnata using hypocotyl segments. Multiple shoots were induced from hypocotyl explants through direct adventitious shoot bud regeneration. The proximal end of hypocotyls was responsive for shoot bud induction. Silver nitrate and adenine sulphate had a positive effect on shoot bud induction and elongation. The maximum response and number of shoot bud produced in media supplemented with 8.88 μM BAP with 108.6 μM adenine sulphate and 11.84 μM silver nitrate. Elongated shoots were harvested and successful rooting of microshoots achieved on MS media supplemented with 9.84 μM IBA, with 81.1 % rooting. Remaining shoot buds sub-cultured for further multiplication and elongation. Each subculture produced eight to nine elongated microshoots up to four subcultures. The rooted microshoots were successfully hardened and transferred to field.

  16. Betalain production is possible in anthocyanin-producing plant species given the presence of DOPA-dioxygenase and L-DOPA.

    Harris, Nilangani N; Javellana, John; Davies, Kevin M; Lewis, David H; Jameson, Paula E; Deroles, Simon C; Calcott, Kate E; Gould, Kevin S; Schwinn, Kathy E

    2012-03-12

    Carotenoids and anthocyanins are the predominant non-chlorophyll pigments in plants. However, certain families within the order Caryophyllales produce another class of pigments, the betalains, instead of anthocyanins. The occurrence of betalains and anthocyanins is mutually exclusive. Betalains are divided into two classes, the betaxanthins and betacyanins, which produce yellow to orange or violet colours, respectively. In this article we show betalain production in species that normally produce anthocyanins, through a combination of genetic modification and substrate feeding. The biolistic introduction of DNA constructs for transient overexpression of two different dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) dioxygenases (DODs), and feeding of DOD substrate (L-DOPA), was sufficient to induce betalain production in cell cultures of Solanum tuberosum (potato) and petals of Antirrhinum majus. HPLC analysis showed both betaxanthins and betacyanins were produced. Multi-cell foci with yellow, orange and/or red colours occurred, with either a fungal DOD (from Amanita muscaria) or a plant DOD (from Portulaca grandiflora), and the yellow/orange foci showed green autofluorescence characteristic of betaxanthins. Stably transformed Arabidopsis thaliana (arabidopsis) lines containing 35S: AmDOD produced yellow colouration in flowers and orange-red colouration in seedlings when fed L-DOPA. These tissues also showed green autofluorescence. HPLC analysis of the transgenic seedlings fed L-DOPA confirmed betaxanthin production. The fact that the introduction of DOD along with a supply of its substrate (L-DOPA) was sufficient to induce betacyanin production reveals the presence of a background enzyme, possibly a tyrosinase, that can convert L-DOPA to cyclo-DOPA (or dopaxanthin to betacyanin) in at least some anthocyanin-producing plants. The plants also demonstrate that betalains can accumulate in anthocyanin-producing species. Thus, introduction of a DOD and an enzyme capable of converting

  17. Betalain production is possible in anthocyanin-producing plant species given the presence of DOPA-dioxygenase and L-DOPA

    Harris Nilangani N

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carotenoids and anthocyanins are the predominant non-chlorophyll pigments in plants. However, certain families within the order Caryophyllales produce another class of pigments, the betalains, instead of anthocyanins. The occurrence of betalains and anthocyanins is mutually exclusive. Betalains are divided into two classes, the betaxanthins and betacyanins, which produce yellow to orange or violet colours, respectively. In this article we show betalain production in species that normally produce anthocyanins, through a combination of genetic modification and substrate feeding. Results The biolistic introduction of DNA constructs for transient overexpression of two different dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA dioxygenases (DODs, and feeding of DOD substrate (L-DOPA, was sufficient to induce betalain production in cell cultures of Solanum tuberosum (potato and petals of Antirrhinum majus. HPLC analysis showed both betaxanthins and betacyanins were produced. Multi-cell foci with yellow, orange and/or red colours occurred, with either a fungal DOD (from Amanita muscaria or a plant DOD (from Portulaca grandiflora, and the yellow/orange foci showed green autofluorescence characteristic of betaxanthins. Stably transformed Arabidopsis thaliana (arabidopsis lines containing 35S: AmDOD produced yellow colouration in flowers and orange-red colouration in seedlings when fed L-DOPA. These tissues also showed green autofluorescence. HPLC analysis of the transgenic seedlings fed L-DOPA confirmed betaxanthin production. Conclusions The fact that the introduction of DOD along with a supply of its substrate (L-DOPA was sufficient to induce betacyanin production reveals the presence of a background enzyme, possibly a tyrosinase, that can convert L-DOPA to cyclo-DOPA (or dopaxanthin to betacyanin in at least some anthocyanin-producing plants. The plants also demonstrate that betalains can accumulate in anthocyanin-producing species. Thus, introduction

  18. Direct adventitious shoot bud formation on hypocotyls explants in Millettia pinnata (L.) Panigrahi- a biodiesel producing medicinal tree species

    Nagar, Durga Singh; Jha, Suman Kumar; Jani, Jigar

    2015-01-01

    A reproducible protocol developed for in vitro regeneration of Milletia pinnata using hypocotyl segments. Multiple shoots were induced from hypocotyl explants through direct adventitious shoot bud regeneration. The proximal end of hypocotyls was responsive for shoot bud induction. Silver nitrate and adenine sulphate had a positive effect on shoot bud induction and elongation. The maximum response and number of shoot bud produced in media supplemented with 8.88 μM BAP with 108.6 μM adenine sul...

  19. Potential Implications of Climate Change on Aegilops Species Distribution: Sympatry of These Crop Wild Relatives with the Major European Crop Triticum aestivum and Conservation Issues.

    Ostrowski, Marie-France; Prosperi, Jean-Marie; David, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Gene flow from crop to wild relatives is a common phenomenon which can lead to reduced adaptation of the wild relatives to natural ecosystems and/or increased adaptation to agrosystems (weediness). With global warming, wild relative distributions will likely change, thus modifying the width and/or location of co-occurrence zones where crop-wild hybridization events could occur (sympatry). This study investigates current and 2050 projected changes in sympatry levels between cultivated wheat and six of the most common Aegilops species in Europe. Projections were generated using MaxEnt on presence-only data, bioclimatic variables, and considering two migration hypotheses and two 2050 climate scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5). Overall, a general decline in suitable climatic conditions for Aegilops species outside the European zone and a parallel increase in Europe were predicted. If no migration could occur, the decline was predicted to be more acute outside than within the European zone. The potential sympatry level in Europe by 2050 was predicted to increase at a higher rate than species richness, and most expansions were predicted to occur in three countries, which are currently among the top four wheat producers in Europe: Russia, France and Ukraine. The results are also discussed with regard to conservation issues of these crop wild relatives.

  20. A Five Species Cyclically Dominant Evolutionary Game with Fixed Direction: A New Way to Produce Self-Organized Spatial Patterns

    Yibin Kang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cyclically dominant systems are hot issues in academia, and they play an important role in explaining biodiversity in Nature. In this paper, we construct a five-strategy cyclically dominant system. Each individual in our system changes its strategy along a fixed direction. The dominant strategy can promote a change in the dominated strategy, and the dominated strategy can block a change in the dominant strategy. We use mean-field theory and cellular automaton simulation to discuss the evolving characters of the system. In the cellular automaton simulation, we find the emergence of spiral waves on spatial patterns without a migration rate, which suggests a new way to produce self-organized spatial patterns.

  1. Regional Models of Diameter as a Function of Individual Tree Attributes, Climate and Site Characteristics for Six Major Tree Species in Alberta, Canada

    Dan A. MacIsaac

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the relationship of stem diameter to tree, site and stand characteristics for six major tree species (trembling aspen, white birch, balsam fir, lodgepole pine, black spruce, and white spruce in Alberta (Canada with data from Alberta Sustainable Resource Development Permanent Sample Plots. Using non-linear mixed effects modeling techniques, we developed models to estimate diameter at breast height using height, crown and stand attributes. Mixed effects models (with plot as subject using height, crown area, and basal area of the larger trees explained on average 95% of the variation in diameter at breast height across the six species with a root mean square error of 2.0 cm (13.4% of mean diameter. Fixed effects models (without plot as subject including the Natural Sub-Region (NSR information explained on average 90% of the variation in diameter at breast height across the six species with a root mean square error equal to 2.8 cm (17.9% of mean diameter. Selected climate variables provided similar results to models with NSR information. The inclusion of nutrient regime and moisture regime did not significantly improve the predictive ability of these models.

  2. Prevalence of Stx-producing Shigella species isolated from French Travelers Returning from the Caribbean: An Emerging Pathogen with International Implications

    Gray, Miranda D.; Lacher, David W.; Leonard, Susan R.; Abbott, Jason; Zhao, Shaohua; Lampel, Keith A.; Prothery, Estelle; Gouali, Malika; Weill, François-Xavier; Maurelli, Anthony T.

    2015-01-01

    Shiga toxins are potent cytotoxins that inhibit host cell protein synthesis, leading to cell death. Classically, these toxins are associated with intestinal infections due to Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli or Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 and infections with these strains can lead to hemolytic uremic syndrome. Over the past decade there is increasing recognition that Shiga toxin is produced by additional Shigella species. We recently reported the presence and expression of stx genes in Shigella flexneri 2a clinical isolates. The toxin genes were carried by a new stx-encoding bacteriophage and infection with these strains correlated with recent travel to Haiti or the Dominican Republic. In this study we further explored the epidemiological link to this region by utilizing the French National Reference Center for Escherichia coli, Shigella and Salmonella collection to survey the frequency of Stx-producing Shigella species isolated from French travelers returning from the Caribbean. About 21% of the isolates tested were found to encode and produce Stx. These isolates included strains of S. flexneri 2a, S. flexneri Y, and S. dysenteriae 4. All of the travelers whom were infected with Stx-producing Shigella had recently traveled to Haiti, the Dominican Republic, or French Guiana. Furthermore, whole genome sequencing found that the toxin genes were encoded by a prophage that was highly identical to the phage we identified in our previous study. These findings demonstrate that this new stx-encoding prophage is circulating within that geographical area, has spread to other continents, and is capable of spreading to multiple Shigella serogroups. PMID:25980352

  3. Comparison of techniques of detecting immunoglobulin-binding protein reactivity to immunoglobulin produced by different avian and mammalian species.

    Justiz-Vaillant, A A; Akpaka, P E; McFarlane-Anderson, N; Smikle, M F

    2013-01-01

    The rationale of this study was to use several immunological assays to investigate the reactivity of immunoglobulin binding protein (IBP) to immunoglobulins from various avian and mammalian species. The IBP studied were Staphylococcal protein A (SpA), Streptococcal protein G (SpG), Peptostreptococcal protein L (SpL) and recombinant protein LA (SpLA). The various immunological techniques used were double immunodiffusion (Ouchterlony technique) that tested positive high protein reactivities, direct and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) that tested moderate and low positive protein binding capacities, respectively. In addition to sandwich ELISAs, immunoblot analyses and Ig-purification by SpA-affinity chromatography, which were sensitive tests and helpful in the screening and confirmatory tests were also used. The Ouchterlony technique showed that compared to the other proteins, SpLA had the highest range of reactivity with animal sera and purified immunoglobulins while SpL was least reactive. With the direct ELISA, SpL reacted with the raccoon sera, rabbit IgG and with IgY from bantam hens and pigeons. While with the direct ELISA, SpA reacted with sera from skunk, coyote, raccoon, mule, donkey and human. The sandwich ELISA revealed high reactivity of both SpG and SpLA with mammalian sera titres ranging from 1:32 (raccoon serum) to 1:1024 (mule and donkey sera). These results suggest that IBP can be used for the detection of immunoglobulin using various immunological assays and this is important for the diagnosis of infectious diseases in animal and bird populations studied and in the purification of immunoglobulins.

  4. Effect of Filling Type and Heating Method on Prevalence of Listeria species and Listeria monocytogenes in Dumplings Produced in Poland.

    Szymczak, Barbara; Dąbrowski, Waldemar

    2015-05-01

    The count of Listeria monocytogenes was determined, before and after heat treatment, in 200 samples of dumplings of 9 brands and with different types of stuffing. Analyses were conducted according to ISO 11290-1 standard and with real-time PCR method. The highest count of L. monocytogenes was found in meat dumplings (10(2) to 10(4) CFU/g), whereas products with white cheese-potato stuffing and vegetable-mushroom stuffing contained significantly less Listeria, 20 to 80 and 5 to 32 CFU/g, respectively. In cooled meat dumplings the extent of contamination depended significantly on the producer. In addition, a significant (P monocytogenes in meat dumplings. In contrast, the microwave heating applied for 2 min at 600 W only reduced the count of L. monocytogenes by 1 to 2 logs. Hence, the microwave heating failed to reduce the risk of infection with this pathogen below the level permissible in the EU regulation, especially in the most contaminated samples. In this case, the efficacy of microwave heating was significantly (P monocytogenes (rho = 0.626), then by meat content in the stuffing (0.476), and to the lowest extent--by the type of meat (0.415 to 0.425). However, no Listeria sp. and L. monocytogenes were isolated from cooked dumplings with fruits (strawberries or blueberries). © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. Corrosion behavior of 316 L stainless steel simulated by studying the influence of the species produced in the radiolysis in tritiated aqueous solutions

    Bellanger, G.

    1991-10-01

    The corrosion of 316 L stainless steel in tritiated aqueous solutions was simulated by studying the influence of species produced or present in the radiolysis in these solutions. The species studied were nitrates, fluorides, nitrites, hydrogen peroxide and components of the steel, as well as the pH. The method used was voltammetry. The corroded or passivated surfaces were examined by scanning electron microscopy and the corrosion rates were determined by measuring the electrochemical impedance. The depletion of the component elements of the stainless steel at the surface was observed by X-ray fluorescence. From our results we propose methods to limit the corrosion in an industrial tritiated water installation by controlling the pH, the oxidation-reduction potential of the water and the voltage of the installation [fr

  6. Isolation, identification and toxigenic potential of ochratoxin A-producing Aspergillus species from coffee beans grown in two regions of Thailand

    Noonim, P.; Mahakarnchanakul, W.; Nielsen, Kristian Fog

    2008-01-01

    In 2006 and 2007, 32 Thai dried coffee bean samples (Coffea arabica) from two growing sites of Chiang Mai Province, and 32 Thai dried coffee bean samples (Coffea canephora var. robusta) from two growing sites of Chumphon Province, Thailand, were collected and assessed for the distribution of fungi...... with the potential to produce ochratoxin A (OTA). The overall percentage of fungal contamination in coffee was 98% and reduced to 60% after surface disinfection. There were remarkable ecological differences in the composition of ochratoxigenic species present in these two regions. Arabica coffee bean samples from...... the North had an average of 78% incidence of colonization with Aspergillus of section Circumdati with Aspergillus westerdijkiae and A. melleus as the predominant species. Aspergillus spp. of section Nigri were found in 75% of the samples whereas A. ochraceus was not detected. Robusta coffee beans from...

  7. High Prevalence of CTX-M-15-Type ESBL-Producing E. coli from Migratory Avian Species in Pakistan.

    Mohsin, Mashkoor; Raza, Shahbaz; Schaufler, Katharina; Roschanski, Nicole; Sarwar, Fatima; Semmler, Torsten; Schierack, Peter; Guenther, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    The increased presence of clinically relevant multidrug resistant bacteria in natural environments is an emerging challenge for global health care. Little is known regarding the occurrence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Escherichia coli (ESBL- E. coli ) from environmental sentinels in Pakistan. The goal of the current study was to gain insights into the prevalence and phylogenetic relationships of ESBL- E. coli recovered from wild birds in Pakistan during winter migration. After initial screening of fecal samples on selective chromogenic agar, ESBL- E.coli were analyzed phenotypically using the Vitek-2 automated system. Genotypic characterization was performed using whole genome sequencing (WGS) followed by an in-depth in silico analysis. Of 150 birds screened, 26 (17.3%) were fecal carriers of ESBL- E. coli . Of these, 88.4% isolates exhibited multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotypes. Resistance to cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ampicillin, doxycycline, tetracycline and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (CTX-CAZ-AM-DC-TE-SXT) represented the most common pattern of MDR (76.9%). WGS data analysis found bla CTX-M-15 as the predominant ESBL genotype (92.3%). Other genes encoding resistance to sulfonamides ( sul1/sul2/sul3 ), aminoglycosides ( strA, strB, aadA1, aadA2, aadA5, aac(3)-IId-like, aac(3)-IVa-like and aph(4)-Ia) , trimethoprim (dfrA14 or dfrA17) , tetracyclines [ tet(A)/tet(B) ], and fluoroquinolones ( qnr S1) were detected commonly, often encoded on IncF-type plasmids (76.9%). ESBL- E. coli were assigned to 17 different sequence types (STs) of which ST10 and ST7097 (4 isolates each) were the most abundant followed by ST4720, ST93, and ST1139 (2 isolates each). Core-genome phylogeny of the isolates found low numbers (0-29) of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in isolates belonged to ST7097 originated from two different locations (Chashma barrage and Rasul barrage). Similar trends were found among isolates belong to ST1139. In addition, WGS

  8. Secondary Structural Models (16S rRNA of Polyhydroxyalkanoates Producing Bacillus Species Isolated from Different Rhizospheric Soil: Phylogenetics and Chemical Analysis

    Swati Mohapatra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs producing bacterial isolates are gaining more importance over the world due to the synthesis of a biodegradable polymer which is extremely desirable to substitute synthetic plastics. PHAs are produced by various microorganisms under certain stress conditions. In this study, sixteen bacterial isolates characterized previously by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing (NCBI Accession No. KF626466 to KF626481 were again stained by Nile red after three years of preservation in order to confirm their ability to accumulate PHAs. Also, phylogenetic analysis carried out in the present investigation evidenced that the bacterial species belonging to genus Bacillus are the dominant flora of the rhizospheric region, with a potentiality of biodegradable polymer (PHAs production. Again, RNA secondary structure prediction hypothesized that there is no direct correlation between RNA folding pattern stability with a rate of PHAs production among the selected isolates of genus Bacillus.

  9. The majority of genes in the pathogenic Neisseria species are present in non-pathogenic Neisseria lactamica, including those designated as 'virulence genes'

    Saunders Nigel J

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neisseria meningitidis causes the life-threatening diseases meningococcal meningitis and meningococcal septicemia. Neisseria gonorrhoeae is closely related to the meningococcus, but is the cause of the very different infection, gonorrhea. A number of genes have been implicated in the virulence of these related yet distinct pathogens, but the genes that define and differentiate the species and their behaviours have not been established. Further, a related species, Neisseria lactamica is not associated with either type of infection in normally healthy people, and lives as a harmless commensal. We have determined which of the genes so far identified in the genome sequences of the pathogens are also present in this non-pathogenic related species. Results Thirteen unrelated strains of N. lactamica were investigated using comparative genome hybridization to the pan-Neisseria microarray-v2, which contains 2845 unique gene probes. The presence of 127 'virulence genes' was specifically addressed; of these 85 are present in N. lactamica. Of the remaining 42 'virulence genes' only 11 are present in all four of the sequenced pathogenic Neisseria. Conclusion Assessment of the complete dataset revealed that the vast majority of genes present in the pathogens are also present in N. lactamica. Of the 1,473 probes to genes shared by all four pathogenic genome sequences, 1,373 hybridize to N. lactamica. These shared genes cannot include genes that are necessary and sufficient for the virulence of the pathogens, since N. lactamica does not share this behaviour. This provides an essential context for the interpretation of gene complement studies of the pathogens.

  10. Ecological Flow Assessment to Improve the Spawning Habitat for the Four Major Species of Carp of the Yangtze River: A Study on Habitat Suitability Based on Ultrasonic Telemetry

    Lixiong Yu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Four major species of Chinese carp, namely black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus, grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus, silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, are important economic freshwater fish varieties in China. They primarily inhabit and breed in the Yangtze River. Unfortunately, the construction and operation of the Gezhouba Dam and the Three Gorges Dam have dramatically changed the hydrodynamic conditions in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River, leading to a sharp decline in the reproduction rates of these carp. The egg abundance of the four species of carp downstream from the Three Gorges Dam reached 8.35 billion in 1965, but abundance during 2005–2012 was only 0.25 billion. One of the main reasons was that the hydrodynamic conditions of the spawning ground could not meet the four species’ breeding requirements. However, due to the limitations of traditional detection tools, the spawning characteristics of these four species of carp were still unclear. In this study, the ultrasonic telemetry and a three–dimensional hydrodynamic model were utilized to build the habitat suitability index (HSI curves for the four species of carp. The habitat suitability model was then built based on HSI curves to assess spawning habitat quantity under different flow conditions. Finally, the habitat suitability model in the Yidu spawning ground was validated using 32 groups of sampling data in 2015 and 2017. The statistical results showed that the most suitable velocity ranged from 0.78 m/s to 0.93 m/s. The most suitable water depth ranged from 14.56 m to 16.35 m, and the most suitable Froude number ranged from 0.049 to 0.129. The habitat suitability model simulation results indicated that when the discharge was between 15,000 m3/s and 21,300 m3/s, the weighted usable area (WUA values in both the Yidu and Zhicheng spawning grounds would remain at a high level. The validation results showed that most

  11. Prevalence and risk factors of metallo β-lactamase producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter species in burns and surgical wards in a tertiary care hospital

    Simit H Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The production of Metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs is one of the resistance mechanisms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter species. There is not much Indian data on the prevalence of MBLs in burns and surgical wards. Materials and Methods: A total of 145 non-duplicate isolates of carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter species, isolated from pus/wound swabs and endotracheal secretions from burns and surgical wards, were tested for MBL production by modified ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA disc synergy and double disc synergy tests. Results: Prevalence of MBLs was 26.9% by both the above tests. All MBL-positive isolates were multidrug resistant. Only 6.06% (2/33 P.aeruginosa and 16.67% (1/06 Acinetobacter species were susceptible to piperacillin-tazobactam and netilmycin, respectively. These patients had multiple risk factors like >8 days hospital stay, catheterization, IV lines, previous antibiotic use, mechanical ventilation, etc. Graft application and surgical intervention were significant risk factors in MBL-positive patients. Overall mortality in MBL-positive patients was 34.21%. Conclusion: Emergence of MBL-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter species in this hospital is alarming, which reflect excessive use of carbapenems and at the same time, pose a therapeutic challenge to clinicians as well as to microbiologists. Therefore, a strict antibiotic policy and implementation of proper infection control practices will go a long way to prevent further spread of MBLs. Detection of MBLs should also become mandatory in all hospitals.

  12. An abbreviated MLVA identifies Escherichia coli ST131 as the major extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing lineage in the Copenhagen area

    Nielsen, J B; Albayati, A; Jørgensen, Rikke Lind

    2013-01-01

    with multilocus sequence typing (MLST) for typing cefpodoxime-resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli). Further, we identified the causative resistance mechanisms and epidemiological type of infection for isolates producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs). A collection of E. coli resistant to cefpodoxime...... community-onset infections (COI), regardless of the ST. Patients with COI were significantly more often of female gender and younger age compared to healthcare-associated infections (HCAI) and hospital-onset infections (HOI). In conclusion, the modified MLVA is a useful tool for the rapid typing of E. coli...

  13. Suggestions for the New Social Entrepreneurship Initiative: Focus on Building a Body of Research-Proven Programs, Shown to Produce Major Gains in Education, Poverty Reduction, Crime Prevention, and Other Areas

    Coalition for Evidence-Based Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This paper outlines a possible approach to implementing the Social Entrepreneurship initiative, focused on building a body of research-proven program models/strategies, and scaling them up, so as to produce major progress in education, poverty reduction, crime prevention, and other areas. The paper summarizes the rationale for this approach, then…

  14. Some major deviations for biomass determination by indirect method and estimation based on alkali consumption. [Ratio of cell mass produced and alkali consumed; diesel fuel culture medium

    Concone, B R.V.; Doin, P A; Pinto, A G

    1978-01-01

    Some factors like the variation of the liquid volume, the variation of cellular nitrogen content and the mass of cells taken with the samples during batch cultivation of microorganisms on diesel oil, were considered for the computation of the ratio between cell mass produced and the mass of alkali consumed to maintain constant the pH of the fermentation medium. The results obtained showed that if such ratios are computed with cell concentration instead of cell mass the deviations can be of the order of 27% caused by the variation of the liquid medium volume. Otherwise, the results showed also that those ratios are variable during batch cultivation on diesel oil probably because of the variations on the nitrogen content of microorganisms. The relative difference between the mass of cells measured and the mass of cells calculated from the alkali consumption curve can be of the order of 63%.

  15. Determination of Arsenic Species in Ophiocordyceps sinensis from Major Habitats in China by HPLC-ICP-MS and the Edible Hazard Assessment.

    Guo, Lian-Xian; Zhang, Gui-Wei; Wang, Jia-Ting; Zhong, Yue-Ping; Huang, Zhi-Gang

    2018-04-26

    This study sought to determine the concentration and distribution of arsenic (As) species in Ophiocordyceps sinensis ( O. sinensis ), and to assess its edible hazard for long term consumption. The total arsenic concentrations, measured through inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), ranged from 4.00 mg/kg to 5.25 mg/kg. As determined by HPLC-ICP-MS, the most concerning arsenic species—AsB, MMA V , DMA V , As V , and As Ш —were either not detected (MMA V and DMA V ) or were detected as minor As species (AsB: 1.4⁻2.9%; As V : 1.3⁻3.2%, and As Ш : 4.1⁻6.0%). The major components were a cluster of unknown organic As (uAs) compounds with As Ш , which accounted for 91.7⁻94.0% of the As content. Based on the H₂O₂ test and the chromatography behavior, it can be inferred that, the uAs might not be toxic organic As. Estimated daily intake ( EDI) , hazard quotient ( HQ ), and cancer risk ( CR ) caused by the total As content; the sum of inorganic As (iAs) and uAs, namely i+uAs; and iAs exposure from long term O. sinensis consumption were calculated and evaluated through equations from the US Environmental Protection Agency and the uncertainties were analyzed by Monte-Carlo Simulation (MCS). EDI total As and EDI i+uAs are approximately ten times more than EDI iAs ; HQ total As and HQ i+u As > 1 while HQ i As 1 × 10 −4 while CR iAs iAs is very low.

  16. Primordial Germ Cell-Mediated Chimera Technology Produces Viable Pure-Line Houbara Bustard Offspring: Potential for Repopulating an Endangered Species

    Wernery, Ulrich; Liu, Chunhai; Baskar, Vijay; Guerineche, Zhor; Khazanehdari, Kamal A.; Saleem, Shazia; Kinne, Jörg; Wernery, Renate

    2010-01-01

    Background The Houbara bustard (Chlamydotis undulata) is a wild seasonal breeding bird populating arid sandy semi-desert habitats in North Africa and the Middle East. Its population has declined drastically during the last two decades and it is classified as vulnerable. Captive breeding programmes have, hitherto, been unsuccessful in reviving population numbers and thus radical technological solutions are essential for the long term survival of this species. The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of primordial germ cell-mediated chimera technology to produce viable Houbara bustard offspring. Methodology/Principal Findings Embryonic gonadal tissue was dissected from Houbara bustard embryos at eight days post-incubation. Subsequently, Houbara tissue containing gonadal primordial germ cells (gPGCs) was injected into White Leghorn chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) embryos, producing 83/138 surviving male chimeric embryos, of which 35 chimeric roosters reached sexual maturity after 5 months. The incorporation and differentiation of Houbara gPGCs in chimeric chicken testis were assessed by PCR with Houbara-specific primers and 31.3% (5/16) gonads collected from the injected chicken embryos showed the presence of donor Houbara cells. A total of 302 semen samples from 34 chimeric roosters were analyzed and eight were confirmed as germline chimeras. Semen samples from these eight roosters were used to artificially inseminate three female Houbara bustards. Subsequently, 45 Houbara eggs were obtained and incubated, two of which were fertile. One egg hatched as a male live born Houbara; the other was female but died before hatching. Genotyping confirmed that the male chick was a pure-line Houbara derived from a chimeric rooster. Conclusion This study demonstrates for the first time that Houbara gPGCs can migrate, differentiate and eventually give rise to functional sperm in the chimeric chicken testis. This approach may provide a promising tool for propagation

  17. Primordial germ cell-mediated chimera technology produces viable pure-line Houbara bustard offspring: potential for repopulating an endangered species.

    Ulrich Wernery

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Houbara bustard (Chlamydotis undulata is a wild seasonal breeding bird populating arid sandy semi-desert habitats in North Africa and the Middle East. Its population has declined drastically during the last two decades and it is classified as vulnerable. Captive breeding programmes have, hitherto, been unsuccessful in reviving population numbers and thus radical technological solutions are essential for the long term survival of this species. The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of primordial germ cell-mediated chimera technology to produce viable Houbara bustard offspring.Embryonic gonadal tissue was dissected from Houbara bustard embryos at eight days post-incubation. Subsequently, Houbara tissue containing gonadal primordial germ cells (gPGCs was injected into White Leghorn chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus embryos, producing 83/138 surviving male chimeric embryos, of which 35 chimeric roosters reached sexual maturity after 5 months. The incorporation and differentiation of Houbara gPGCs in chimeric chicken testis were assessed by PCR with Houbara-specific primers and 31.3% (5/16 gonads collected from the injected chicken embryos showed the presence of donor Houbara cells. A total of 302 semen samples from 34 chimeric roosters were analyzed and eight were confirmed as germline chimeras. Semen samples from these eight roosters were used to artificially inseminate three female Houbara bustards. Subsequently, 45 Houbara eggs were obtained and incubated, two of which were fertile. One egg hatched as a male live born Houbara; the other was female but died before hatching. Genotyping confirmed that the male chick was a pure-line Houbara derived from a chimeric rooster.This study demonstrates for the first time that Houbara gPGCs can migrate, differentiate and eventually give rise to functional sperm in the chimeric chicken testis. This approach may provide a promising tool for propagation and conservation of endangered avian

  18. Immunization Strategies Producing a Humoral IgG Immune Response against Devil Facial Tumor Disease in the Majority of Tasmanian Devils Destined for Wild Release

    Ruth Pye

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Devil facial tumor disease (DFTD is renowned for its successful evasion of the host immune system. Down regulation of the major histocompatabilty complex class I molecule (MHC-I on the DFTD cells is a primary mechanism of immune escape. Immunization trials on captive Tasmanian devils have previously demonstrated that an immune response against DFTD can be induced, and that immune-mediated tumor regression can occur. However, these trials were limited by their small sample sizes. Here, we describe the results of two DFTD immunization trials on cohorts of devils prior to their wild release as part of the Tasmanian Government’s Wild Devil Recovery project. 95% of the devils developed anti-DFTD antibody responses. Given the relatively large sample sizes of the trials (N = 19 and N = 33, these responses are likely to reflect those of the general devil population. DFTD cells manipulated to express MHC-I were used as the antigenic basis of the immunizations in both trials. Although the adjuvant composition and number of immunizations differed between trials, similar anti-DFTD antibody levels were obtained. The first trial comprised DFTD cells and the adjuvant combination of ISCOMATRIX™, polyIC, and CpG with up to four immunizations given at monthly intervals. This compared to the second trial whereby two immunizations comprising DFTD cells and the adjuvant combination ISCOMATRIX™, polyICLC (Hiltonol® and imiquimod were given a month apart, providing a shorter and, therefore, more practical protocol. Both trials incorporated a booster immunization given up to 5 months after the primary course. A key finding was that devils in the second trial responded more quickly and maintained their antibody levels for longer compared to devils in the first trial. The different adjuvant combination incorporating the RNAase resistant polyICLC and imiquimod used in the second trial is likely to be responsible. The seroconversion in the majority of

  19. Immunization Strategies Producing a Humoral IgG Immune Response against Devil Facial Tumor Disease in the Majority of Tasmanian Devils Destined for Wild Release

    Pye, Ruth; Patchett, Amanda; McLennan, Elspeth; Thomson, Russell; Carver, Scott; Fox, Samantha; Pemberton, David; Kreiss, Alexandre; Baz Morelli, Adriana; Silva, Anabel; Pearse, Martin J.; Corcoran, Lynn M.; Belov, Katherine; Hogg, Carolyn J.; Woods, Gregory M; Lyons, A. Bruce

    2018-01-01

    Devil facial tumor disease (DFTD) is renowned for its successful evasion of the host immune system. Down regulation of the major histocompatabilty complex class I molecule (MHC-I) on the DFTD cells is a primary mechanism of immune escape. Immunization trials on captive Tasmanian devils have previously demonstrated that an immune response against DFTD can be induced, and that immune-mediated tumor regression can occur. However, these trials were limited by their small sample sizes. Here, we describe the results of two DFTD immunization trials on cohorts of devils prior to their wild release as part of the Tasmanian Government’s Wild Devil Recovery project. 95% of the devils developed anti-DFTD antibody responses. Given the relatively large sample sizes of the trials (N = 19 and N = 33), these responses are likely to reflect those of the general devil population. DFTD cells manipulated to express MHC-I were used as the antigenic basis of the immunizations in both trials. Although the adjuvant composition and number of immunizations differed between trials, similar anti-DFTD antibody levels were obtained. The first trial comprised DFTD cells and the adjuvant combination of ISCOMATRIX™, polyIC, and CpG with up to four immunizations given at monthly intervals. This compared to the second trial whereby two immunizations comprising DFTD cells and the adjuvant combination ISCOMATRIX™, polyICLC (Hiltonol®) and imiquimod were given a month apart, providing a shorter and, therefore, more practical protocol. Both trials incorporated a booster immunization given up to 5 months after the primary course. A key finding was that devils in the second trial responded more quickly and maintained their antibody levels for longer compared to devils in the first trial. The different adjuvant combination incorporating the RNAase resistant polyICLC and imiquimod used in the second trial is likely to be responsible. The seroconversion in the majority of devils in these anti

  20. Properties of photocatalytically generated oxygen species produced by Ag2Se-graphene oxide heterojunction and its application for the visible-light degradation of ammonia

    Meng, Ze-Da; Zhao, Wei; Kim, Sukyoung

    2017-11-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can be produced by the interactions between sunlight and light-absorbing substances in aqueous environments, and these ROS are capable of destroying various organic pollutants in wastewater. In this study, the photocatalytic degradation of ammonia in petrochemical wastewater was investigated by solar light photocatalysis. We used graphene oxide modified Ag2Se nanoparticles to enhance the activity of photochemically generated oxygen (PGO) species. There was a catastrophic decrease in the surface area and pore volume of the Ag2Se-graphene oxide (Ag2Se-G) samples because of the deposition of Ag2Se. The generation of ROS was detected by the oxidation of 1,5- diphenyl carbazide (DPCI) to 1,5-diphenyl carbazone (DPCO). It was revealed that the photocurrent density and PGO effect increased with the graphene oxide modified. The experimental results indicate that this heterogeneous catalyst achieved a degradation of 88.43% under visiblelight irradiation. The NH3 degradation product was N2 and neither NO2- nor NO3- were detected.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  1. Microscopic and infrared spectroscopic comparison of the underwater adhesives produced by germlings of the brown seaweed species Durvillaea antarctica and Hormosira banksii.

    Dimartino, Simone; Savory, David M; Fraser-Miller, Sara J; Gordon, Keith C; McQuillan, A James

    2016-04-01

    Adhesives from marine organisms are often the source of inspiration for the development of glues able to create durable bonds in wet environments. In this work, we investigated the adhesive secretions produced by germlings of two large seaweed species from the South Pacific, Durvillaea antarctica, also named 'the strongest kelp in the word', and its close relative Hormosira banksii The comparative analysis was based on optical and scanning electron microscopy imaging as well as Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and principal component analysis (PCA). For both species, the egg surface presents peripheral vesicles which are released soon after fertilization to discharge a primary adhesive. This is characterized by peaks representative of carbohydrate molecules. A secondary protein-based adhesive is then secreted in the early developmental stages of the germlings. Energy dispersive X-ray, FTIR and PCA indicate that D. antarctica secretions also contain sulfated moieties, and become cross-linked with time, both conferring strong adhesive and cohesive properties. On the other hand, H. banksii secretions are complemented by the putative adhesive phlorotannins, and are characterized by a simple mechanism in which all constituents are released with the same rate and with no apparent cross-linking. It is also noted that the release of adhesive materials appears to be faster and more copious in D. antarctica than in H. banksii Overall, this study highlights that both quantity and quality of the adhesives matter in explaining the superior attachment ability of D. antarctica. © 2016 The Author(s).

  2. [Spatial-temporal pattern and obstacle factors of cultivated land ecological security in major grain producing areas of northeast China: a case study in Jilin Province].

    Zhao, Hong-Bo; Ma, Yan-Ji

    2014-02-01

    According to the cultivated land ecological security in major grain production areas of Northeast China, this paper selected 48 counties of Jilin Province as the research object. Based on the PSR-EES conceptual framework model, an evaluation index system of cultivated land ecological security was built. By using the improved TOPSIS, Markov chains, GIS spatial analysis and obstacle degree models, the spatial-temporal pattern of cultivated land ecological security and the obstacle factors were analyzed from 1995 to 2011 in Jilin Province. The results indicated that, the composite index of cultivated land ecological security appeared in a rising trend in Jilin Province from 1995 to 2011, and the cultivated land ecological security level changed from being sensitive to being general. There was a pattern of 'Club Convergence' in cultivated land ecological security level in each county and the spatial discrepancy tended to become larger. The 'Polarization' trend of cultivated land ecological security level was obvious. The distributions of sensitive level and critical security level with ribbon patterns tended to be dispersed, the general security level and relative security levels concentrated, and the distributions of security level scattered. The unstable trend of cultivated land ecological security level was more and more obvious. The main obstacle factors that affected the cultivated land ecological security level in Jilin Province were rural net income per capita, economic density, the proportion of environmental protection investment in GDP, degree of machinery cultivation and the comprehensive utilization rate of industrial solid wastes.

  3. Diversity Profile and Dynamics of Peptaibols Produced by Green Mould Trichoderma Species in Interactions with Their Hosts Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Marik, Tamás; Urbán, Péter; Tyagi, Chetna; Szekeres, András; Leitgeb, Balázs; Vágvölgyi, Máté; Manczinger, László; Druzhinina, Irina S; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Kredics, László

    2017-06-01

    Certain Trichoderma species are causing serious losses in mushroom production worldwide. Trichoderma aggressivum and Trichoderma pleuroti are among the major causal agents of the green mould diseases affecting Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus ostreatus, respectively. The genus Trichoderma is well-known for the production of bioactive secondary metabolites, including peptaibols, which are short, linear peptides containing unusual amino acid residues and being synthesised via non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs). The aim of this study was to get more insight into the peptaibol production of T. aggressivum and T. pleuroti. HPLC/MS-based methods revealed the production of peptaibols closely related to hypomurocins B by T. aggressivum, while tripleurins representing a new group of 18-residue peptaibols were identified in T. pleuroti. Putative NRPS genes enabling the biosynthesis of the detected peptaibols could be found in the genomes of both Trichoderma species. In vitro experiments revealed that peptaibols are potential growth inhibitors of mushroom mycelia, and that the host mushrooms may have an influence on the peptaibol profiles of green mould agents. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  4. Short-term administration of an aqueous extract of kalanchoe integra var. crenata (Andr.) Cuf leaves produces no major organ damage in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Asiedu-Gyekye, Isaac J; Antwi, Daniel A; Awortwe, Charles; N'guessan, Benoit Banga; Nyarko, Alexander K

    2014-02-03

    Kalanchoe intergra (Ki) leaf extract is an orally administered multipurpose plant medicine in Ghana and other parts of the world for the treatment of ulcers, pain and adenoma of the prostate gland. There is paucity of information concerning its short-term usage. The present study is aimed at conducting histopathological and biochemical studies in a 14-day sub-acute toxicity studies using female Sprague-Dawley rats. Crude extract of Ki leaves was prepared and freeze-dried. A 14-day sub-acute toxicity studies was conducted using 2 week old nulliparous and non-pregnant female Sprague-Dawley rats (120-150g). Reconstituted Ki was administered at a dosage of 900mgkg(-1) (high dose), 300mgkg(-1) with a control group receiving an equivalent volume of distilled water (as vehicle) by gastric lavage. Histopathological studies of major organs and blood chemistry analysis were performed on blood obtained via cardiac puncture into EDTA tubes after euthanisation. There was a significant decrease in urea (p<0.016) and creatinine levels (p<0.001) in both the high and low dose groups. There was an increase in ALP levels (P=0.01) in both the high and low dose groups. ALT and AST rather decreased significantly in both the high and low dose groups (p<0.0001). Histopathological results did not show any abnormalities in all the H&E stained paraffin sections. Thus the photomicrographs of the liver, kidney and heart were within histopathological limits. Ki leaf extract is non-toxic when administered by the oral route over a time period of 14 days at the above doses. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd All rights reserved.

  5. An innovative apparatus provided with a cutting auger for producing short logs for biomass energy from fast-growing tree species

    Colorio, G.; Tomasone, R.; Cedrola, C.; Pagano, M.; Pochi, D.; Fanigliulo, R.; Sperandio, G. [Council for Research in Agriculture, Agricultural Engineering Research Unit, Rome (Italy)

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a new cutting mechanism that cuts fresh wood into small pieces instead of wood chips in order to avoid the problem of fermentation that occurs in storage. The prototype cutting device performs a gradual and oblique cut. It consists of a large auger in which a knife is inserted on the outer edge of the helicoid. Tree trunks up to 20 cm in diameter are fed perpendicularly into the machine and are pushed along the axis where slices are cut off against a fixed sharp-edged counter blade. The cylinder enclosing the auger is the main frame of the machine, and is closed at one end, where a heavy flywheel delivers the energy coming from the tractor's power take-off (PTO). The wood pieces ranging in length from 4 to 19 cm exit through the opposite end. The auger is 700 mm in diameter with a 300 mm pitch spacing. The logs are pushed into the machine by counter-rotating rollers placed in the feed funnel. Tests were conducted to determine the operative performance and power requirements of the machine. The cutting method requires less power compared to wood chipping machines. Work capacity is greater when producing slices instead of chips and the system produces less noise and fewer vibrations. The auger reaches a constant velocity of 200 RPM and can easily cut fresh wood of different species.

  6. A Two-Step Method to Select Major Surge-Producing Extratropical Cyclones from a 10,000-Year Stochastic Catalog

    Keshtpoor, M.; Carnacina, I.; Yablonsky, R. M.

    2016-12-01

    Extratropical cyclones (ETCs) are the primary driver of storm surge events along the UK and northwest mainland Europe coastlines. In an effort to evaluate the storm surge risk in coastal communities in this region, a stochastic catalog is developed by perturbing the historical storm seeds of European ETCs to account for 10,000 years of possible ETCs. Numerical simulation of the storm surge generated by the full 10,000-year stochastic catalog, however, is computationally expensive and may take several months to complete with available computational resources. A new statistical regression model is developed to select the major surge-generating events from the stochastic ETC catalog. This regression model is based on the maximum storm surge, obtained via numerical simulations using a calibrated version of the Delft3D-FM hydrodynamic model with a relatively coarse mesh, of 1750 historical ETC events that occurred over the past 38 years in Europe. These numerically-simulated surge values were regressed to the local sea level pressure and the U and V components of the wind field at the location of 196 tide gauge stations near the UK and northwest mainland Europe coastal areas. The regression model suggests that storm surge values in the area of interest are highly correlated to the U- and V-component of wind speed, as well as the sea level pressure. Based on these correlations, the regression model was then used to select surge-generating storms from the 10,000-year stochastic catalog. Results suggest that roughly 105,000 events out of 480,000 stochastic storms are surge-generating events and need to be considered for numerical simulation using a hydrodynamic model. The selected stochastic storms were then simulated in Delft3D-FM, and the final refinement of the storm population was performed based on return period analysis of the 1750 historical event simulations at each of the 196 tide gauges in preparation for Delft3D-FM fine mesh simulations.

  7. Caracterização do mel produzido por espécies de Melipona Illiger, 1806 (apidae: meliponini) da região nordeste do Brasil: 1. Características físico-químicas Characterization of honey produced by species of Melipona Illiger, 1806 (apidae: meliponini) from the northeast area of Brazil: 1. Physico-chemical characteristics

    Bruno de Almeida Souza; Luís Carlos Marchini; Melissa Oda-Souza; Carlos Alfredo Lopes de Carvalho; Rogério Marcos de Oliveira Alves

    2009-01-01

    Thirty three honey samples produced by four Melipona species from different areas of the State of Bahia, were analyzed with the aim to determine their physico-chemical characteristics, contributing to the establishment of standards for quality control. The majority of the average values for physico-chemical parameters fulfilled the quality criteria established by the Brazilian and international Legislations for Apis honey, except for moisture content, which afforded higher values. Concerning ...

  8. Determination of Arsenic Species in Ophiocordyceps sinensis from Major Habitats in China by HPLC-ICP-MS and the Edible Hazard Assessment

    Lian-Xian Guo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to determine the concentration and distribution of arsenic (As species in Ophiocordyceps sinensis (O. sinensis, and to assess its edible hazard for long term consumption. The total arsenic concentrations, measured through inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS, ranged from 4.00 mg/kg to 5.25 mg/kg. As determined by HPLC-ICP-MS, the most concerning arsenic species—AsB, MMAV, DMAV, AsV, and AsШ—were either not detected (MMAV and DMAV or were detected as minor As species (AsB: 1.4–2.9%; AsV: 1.3–3.2%, and AsШ: 4.1–6.0%. The major components were a cluster of unknown organic As (uAs compounds with AsШ, which accounted for 91.7–94.0% of the As content. Based on the H2O2 test and the chromatography behavior, it can be inferred that, the uAs might not be toxic organic As. Estimated daily intake (EDI, hazard quotient (HQ, and cancer risk (CR caused by the total As content; the sum of inorganic As (iAs and uAs, namely i+uAs; and iAs exposure from long term O. sinensis consumption were calculated and evaluated through equations from the US Environmental Protection Agency and the uncertainties were analyzed by Monte-Carlo Simulation (MCS. EDItotal As and EDIi+uAs are approximately ten times more than EDIiAs; HQtotal As and HQi+uAs > 1 while HQiAs < 1; and CRtotal As and CRi+uAs > 1 × 10−4 while CRiAs < 1 × 10−4. Thus, if the uAs is non-toxic, there is no particular risk to local consumers and the carcinogenic risk is acceptable for consumption of O. sinensis because the concentration of toxic iAs is very low.

  9. Foreign travel is a major risk factor for colonization with Escherichia coli producing CTX-M-type extended-spectrum beta-lactamases: a prospective study with Swedish volunteers.

    Tängdén, Thomas; Cars, Otto; Melhus, Asa; Löwdin, Elisabeth

    2010-09-01

    Foreign travel has been suggested to be a risk factor for the acquisition of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae. To our knowledge, this has not previously been demonstrated in a prospective study. Healthy volunteers traveling outside Northern Europe were enrolled. Rectal swabs and data on potential travel-associated risk factors were collected before and after traveling. A total of 105 volunteers were enrolled. Four of them did not complete the study, and one participant carried ESBL-producing Escherichia coli before travel. Twenty-four of 100 participants with negative pretravel samples were colonized with ESBL-producing Escherichia coli after the trip. All strains produced CTX-M enzymes, mostly CTX-M-15, and some coproduced TEM or SHV enzymes. Coresistance to several antibiotic subclasses was common. Travel to India was associated with the highest risk for the acquisition of ESBLs (88%; n = 7). Gastroenteritis during the trip was an additional risk factor (P = 0.003). Five of 21 volunteers who completed the follow-up after 6 months had persistent colonization with ESBLs. This is the first prospective study demonstrating that international travel is a major risk factor for colonization with ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Considering the high acquisition rate of 24%, it is obvious that global efforts are needed to meet the emergence and spread of CTX-M enzymes and other antimicrobial resistances.

  10. Clarifying the Role of Reactive Oxygen Species and Reported Effects of Low-Dose Ionizing Radiation on Cells - Clarifying the Role of Reactive Oxygen Species in Producing the Reported Effects of Low-Dose Ionizing Radiation on Cells

    Willey, Neil J. [Centre for Research In Biosciences, University of the West of England, Coldharbour Lane, Frenchay, Bristol BS16 1QY (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    Chronic low doses of ionizing radiation (IR) to cells, such as those that occur in contaminated environments, are widely reported to produce a variety of effects, from adverse effects to no effects to positive effects. In addition, bystander effects have been reported in some studies. For only relatively few of these effects have mechanistic explanations been reported but in many of those for which they have, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and/or the anti-oxidants that help to control their effects, have often been suggested to have a role. In general, it is assumed that either radiolysis of water or stress due to IR cause an increase in ROS and/or anti-oxidant activity, and hence the observed effects. The role of ROS in producing the effects reported at chronic low doses of radiation has infrequently been tested at either a theoretical or experimental level. Here we use a dynamic model of anti-oxidant capacity in cells to test the theoretical underpinnings of the ROS hypothesis together with genomic and proteomic experiments using Arabidopsis thaliana to test the molecular effects of IR in cells. The published model we have constructed for testing the interaction of IR and anti-oxidant systems (Smith et al, 2012) first calculates the amount of ROS produced by IR. Overall, at the dose rates that occur in contaminated environments the amount of ROS produced by IR is extremely small, certainly much smaller than is routinely produced in a cell during many metabolic processes. ROS from respiration leak out of mitochondria at significant rates and in plant cells ROS also leak out of photo-synthesizing chloroplasts. Although there is a variety of anti-oxidants in many cells, the nexus of their capacity is glutathione (GSH) which ultimately derives its reducing power from NADPH. We thus modeled the anti-oxidative capacity of a cell from the activity GSH and used predicted concentrations of ROS from IR to calculate the oxidative stress that they would cause via the

  11. A survey of xerophilic Aspergillus from indoor environment, including descriptions of two new section Aspergillus species producing eurotium-like sexual states

    Visagie, Cobus M.; Yilmaz, Neriman; Renaud, Justin B.

    2017-01-01

    of 1039 strains; 296 strains belong to Aspergillus and represented 37 species. Reference sequences were generated for all species and deposited in GenBank. Aspergillus sect. Aspergillus (formerly called Eurotium) was one of the most predominant groups from house dust with nine species identified...

  12. Complementary DNA cloning of the major allergen Phl p I from timothy grass (Phleum pratense); recombinant Phl p I inhibits IgE binding to group I allergens from eight different grass species

    Laffer, S.; Valenta, R.; Vrtala, S.; Susani, M.; van Ree, R.; Kraft, D.; Scheiner, O.; Duchêne, M.

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Grass pollens, such as pollen from timothy grass (Phleum pratense), represent a major cause of type I allergy. OBJECTIVE: In this report we attempted to determine how cross-reactive allergenic components of grass pollens from different species can be represented by a minimum number of

  13. Direct multiplex PCR (dmPCR) for the identification of six Phlebotomine sand fly species (Diptera: Psychodidae), including major Leishmania vectors of the Mediterranean

    Sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae, subfamily Phlebotominae) are haematophagous insects that are known to transmit several anthroponotic and zoonotic diseases. Reliable identification of sand flies at species level is crucial for their surveillance, the detection and spread of their pathogens and the ...

  14. Gamma-irradiation produces active chlorine species (ACS) in physiological solutions: Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) scavenges ACS - A novel mechanism of DNA radioprotection.

    Mishra, Om P; Popov, Anatoliy V; Pietrofesa, Ralph A; Christofidou-Solomidou, Melpo

    2016-09-01

    Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), the main lignan in whole grain flaxseed, is a potent antioxidant and free radical scavenger with known radioprotective properties. However, the exact mechanism of SDG radioprotection is not well understood. The current study identified a novel mechanism of DNA radioprotection by SDG in physiological solutions by scavenging active chlorine species (ACS) and reducing chlorinated nucleobases. The ACS scavenging activity of SDG was determined using two highly specific fluoroprobes: hypochlorite-specific 3'-(p-aminophenyl) fluorescein (APF) and hydroxyl radical-sensitive 3'-(p-hydroxyphenyl) fluorescein (HPF). Dopamine, an SDG structural analog, was used for proton (1)H NMR studies to trap primary ACS radicals. Taurine N-chlorination was determined to demonstrate radiation-induced generation of hypochlorite, a secondary ACS. DNA protection was assessed by determining the extent of DNA fragmentation and plasmid DNA relaxation following exposure to ClO(-) and radiation. Purine base chlorination by ClO(-) and γ-radiation was determined by using 2-aminopurine (2-AP), a fluorescent analog of 6-aminopurine. Chloride anions (Cl(-)) consumed >90% of hydroxyl radicals in physiological solutions produced by γ-radiation resulting in ACS formation, which was detected by (1)H NMR. Importantly, SDG scavenged hypochlorite- and γ-radiation-induced ACS. In addition, SDG blunted ACS-induced fragmentation of calf thymus DNA and plasmid DNA relaxation. SDG treatment before or after ACS exposure decreased the ClO(-) or γ-radiation-induced chlorination of 2-AP. Exposure to γ-radiation resulted in increased taurine chlorination, indicative of ClO(-) generation. NMR studies revealed formation of primary ACS radicals (chlorine atoms (Cl) and dichloro radical anions (Cl2¯)), which were trapped by SDG and its structural analog dopamine. We demonstrate that γ-radiation induces the generation of ACS in physiological solutions. SDG treatment scavenged

  15. A survey of zoonotic nematodes of commercial key fish species from major European fishing grounds-Introducing the FP7 PARASITE exposure assessment study

    Levsen, Arne; Svanevik, Cecilie S.; Cipriani, Paolo

    2018-01-01

    Harvesting and exploiting limited fisheries resources in a sustainable manner also implies achieving maximum added value from the raw material. However, the presence of parasites in the products may adversely affect consumer perception and/or pose a direct health hazard. As a major stepping-stone...

  16. Differences in the incidence of apoptosis between in vivo and in vitro produced blastocysts of farm animal species: a comparative study

    Rubio Pomar, F.J.; Teerds, K.J.; Kidson, A.; Colenbrander, B.; Tharasanit, T.; Aguilar, B.; Roelen, B.A.J.

    2005-01-01

    The occurrence of pregnancies and births after embryo transfer (ET) of in vivo produced embryos is generally more successful compared to that of embryos produced in vitro. This difference in ET success has been observed when embryos of morphological equal (high) quality were used. The incidence of

  17. Carbapenem MICs in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella Species Producing Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases in Critical Care Patients from 2001 to 2009.

    Johnson, J Kristie; Robinson, Gwen L; Pineles, Lisa L; Ajao, Adebola O; Zhao, LiCheng; Albrecht, Jennifer S; Harris, Anthony D; Thom, Kerri A; Furuno, Jon P

    2017-04-01

    Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae strains are increasing in prevalence worldwide. Carbapenem antibiotics are used as a first line of therapy against ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae We examined a cohort of critical care patients for gastrointestinal colonization with carbapenem-resistant ESBL-producing strains (CR-ESBL strains). We cultured samples from this cohort of patients for ESBL-producing Klebsiella spp. and Escherichia coli and then tested the first isolate from each patient for susceptibility to imipenem, doripenem, meropenem, and ertapenem. Multilocus sequence typing was performed on isolates that produced an ESBL and that were carbapenem resistant. Among all patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU), 4% were positive for an ESBL-producing isolate and 0.64% were positive for a CR-ESBL strain on surveillance culture. Among the first ESBL-producing E. coli and Klebsiella isolates from the patients' surveillance cultures, 11.2% were carbapenem resistant. Sequence type 14 (ST14), ST15, ST42, and ST258 were the dominant sequence types detected in this cohort of patients, with ST15 and ST258 steadily increasing in prevalence from 2006 to 2009. Patients colonized by a CR-ESBL strain were significantly more likely to receive antipseudomonal and anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (anti-MRSA) therapy prior to ICU admission than patients colonized by carbapenem-susceptible ESBL-producing strains. They were also significantly more likely to have received a cephalosporin or a carbapenem antibiotic than patients colonized by carbapenem-susceptible ESBL-producing strains. In conclusion, in a cohort of patients residing in intensive care units within the United States, we found that 10% of the isolates were resistant to at least one carbapenem antibiotic. The continued emergence of carbapenem-resistant ESBL-producing strains is of significant concern, as infections due to these organisms are notoriously difficult to

  18. Assessment of species-specific and temporal variations of major, trace and rare earth elements in vineyard ambient using moss bags.

    Milićević, Tijana; Aničić Urošević, Mira; Vuković, Gordana; Škrivanj, Sandra; Relić, Dubravka; Frontasyeva, Marina V; Popović, Aleksandar

    2017-10-01

    Since the methodological parameters of moss bag biomonitoring have rarely been investigated for the application in agricultural areas, two mosses, Sphagnum girgensohnii (a species of the most recommended biomonitoring genus) and Hypnum cupressiforme (commonly available), were verified in a vineyard ambient. The moss bags were exposed along transects in six vineyard parcels during the grapevine season (March‒September 2015). To select an appropriate period for the reliable 'signal' of the element enrichment in the mosses, the bags were simultaneously exposed during five periods (3 × 2 months, 1 × 4 months, and 1 × 6 months). Assuming that vineyard is susceptible to contamination originated from different agricultural treatments, a wide range of elements (41) were determined in the moss and topsoil samples. The mosses were significantly enriched by the elements during the 2-month bag exposure which gradually increasing up to 6 months, but Cu and Ni exhibited the noticeable fluctuations during the grapevine season. However, the 6-month exposure of moss bags could be recommended for comparative studies among different vineyards because it reflects the ambient pollution comprising unpredictable treatments of grapevine applied during the whole season. Although higher element concentrations were determined in S. girgensohnii than H. cupressiforme, both species reflected the spatio-temporal changes in the ambient element content. Moreover, the significant correlation of the element (Cr, Cu, Sb, and Ti) concentrations between the mosses, and the same pairs of the elements correlated within the species, imply the comparable use of S. girgensohnii and H. cupressiforme in the vineyard (agricultural) ambient. Finally, both the moss bags and the soil analyses suggest that vineyard represents a dominant diffuse pollution source of As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Fe, and V. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Major depression

    Depression - major; Depression - clinical; Clinical depression; Unipolar depression; Major depressive disorder ... providers do not know the exact causes of depression. It is believed that chemical changes in the ...

  20. Evaluation of the potential effects of major oil spills on Grand Banks commercial fish species as a result of impacts on eggs and larvae

    Hurlbut, S.E.; French, D.P.; Taylor, B.J.

    1991-01-01

    The Natural Resource Damage Assessment Model for Coastal and Marine Environments (NRDAM/CME) developed by the US Department of the Interior was applied to determine potential catch losses of two commercially important species in the event of an oil spill on the Grand Banks of Newfoundland. The model is made of a generalized physical fates model and a biological effects model; a fisheries component of the model estimates the ultimate impact on future adult fish populations and their harvesting. Inputs to the model include numbers of eggs and larvae, volume and nature of spill, chemical characteristics of the crude oil, and oceanographic and meteorological information specific to the spill location. To assess the sensitivity of the model predictions, different simulations each representing a specific combination of biological and physical conditions were carried out. In each case, the number of eggs and larvae killed and subsequent total lost catch as predicted by the model were directly proportional to the assumed egg and larval abundance. The impact on cod was three times that on plaice. In a worst-case situation involving a 90-d summer blowout at the maximum daily flow rate, the totals in lost catch of cod and plaice would be 21 and 7 tonnes respectively. These represent only 0.02% of the total annual Grand Banks catch for both species. 35 refs., 18 figs., 161 tabs

  1. Caracterização do mel produzido por espécies de Melipona Illiger, 1806 (apidae: meliponini da região nordeste do Brasil: 1. Características físico-químicas Characterization of honey produced by species of Melipona Illiger, 1806 (apidae: meliponini from the northeast area of Brazil: 1. Physico-chemical characteristics

    Bruno de Almeida Souza

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty three honey samples produced by four Melipona species from different areas of the State of Bahia, were analyzed with the aim to determine their physico-chemical characteristics, contributing to the establishment of standards for quality control. The majority of the average values for physico-chemical parameters fulfilled the quality criteria established by the Brazilian and international Legislations for Apis honey, except for moisture content, which afforded higher values. Concerning the high number of samples wich did not fit the limits for reducing sugars, it is necessary to define minimum values in order to characterize Melipona honeys, as well as criteria for use of diastasic activity.

  2. Sporothrix brasiliensis produces the highest levels of oxidative stress in a murine model among the species of the Sporothrix schenckii complex

    Débora Nunes Mario

    Full Text Available Abstract INTRODUCTION: We compared indicators of oxidative stress in the tissue of mice infected with strains from Sporothrix schenckii complex. METHODS: Mice were inoculated with Sporothrix brasiliensis, Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto, Sporothrix globosa, Sporothrix mexicana or Sporothrix albicans. The activity of catalase and glutathione were accessed in the liver and spleen. RESULTS: Animals infected with S. brasiliensis exhibited splenomegaly and significant decrease in catalase activity, and protein and non-protein thiol content compared to animals infected with the other species. CONCLUSIONS: Sporothrix brasiliensis exhibits higher pathogenicity compared to other species of the Sporothrix schenckii complex by increasing oxidative stress in animal tissue.

  3. Genome sequence of M6, a diploid inbred clone of the high-glycoalkaloid-producing tuber-bearing potato species Solanum chacoense, reveals residual heterozygosity.

    Leisner, Courtney P; Hamilton, John P; Crisovan, Emily; Manrique-Carpintero, Norma C; Marand, Alexandre P; Newton, Linsey; Pham, Gina M; Jiang, Jiming; Douches, David S; Jansky, Shelley H; Buell, C Robin

    2018-05-01

    Cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is a highly heterozygous autotetraploid that presents challenges in genome analyses and breeding. Wild potato species serve as a resource for the introgression of important agronomic traits into cultivated potato. One key species is Solanum chacoense and the diploid, inbred clone M6, which is self-compatible and has desirable tuber market quality and disease resistance traits. Sequencing and assembly of the genome of the M6 clone of S. chacoense generated an assembly of 825 767 562 bp in 8260 scaffolds with an N50 scaffold size of 713 602 bp. Pseudomolecule construction anchored 508 Mb of the genome assembly into 12 chromosomes. Genome annotation yielded 49 124 high-confidence gene models representing 37 740 genes. Comparative analyses of the M6 genome with six other Solanaceae species revealed a core set of 158 367 Solanaceae genes and 1897 genes unique to three potato species. Analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms across the M6 genome revealed enhanced residual heterozygosity on chromosomes 4, 8 and 9 relative to the other chromosomes. Access to the M6 genome provides a resource for identification of key genes for important agronomic traits and aids in genome-enabled development of inbred diploid potatoes with the potential to accelerate potato breeding. © 2018 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Genome sequence of M6, a diploid inbred clone of the high glycoalkaloid-producing tuber-bearing potato species Solanum chacoense, reveals residual heterozygosity

    Background: Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is the world’s most important vegetable crop and central to global food security. Cultivated potato is a highly heterozygous autotetraploid that presents challenges in genome analyses and breeding. Numerous wild potato species serve as a resource for introgress...

  5. Background levels of some major, trace, and rare earth elements in indigenous plant species growing in Norway and the influence of soil acidification, soil parent material, and seasonal variation on these levels.

    Gjengedal, Elin; Martinsen, Thomas; Steinnes, Eiliv

    2015-06-01

    Baseline levels of 43 elements, including major, trace, and rare earth elements (REEs) in several native plant species growing in boreal and alpine areas, are presented. Focus is placed on species metal levels at different soil conditions, temporal variations in plant tissue metal concentrations, and interspecies variation in metal concentrations. Vegetation samples were collected at Sogndal, a pristine site in western Norway, and at Risdalsheia, an acidified site in southernmost Norway. Metal concentrations in the different species sampled in western Norway are compared with relevant literature data from Norway, Finland, and northwest Russia, assumed to represent natural conditions. Except for aluminium (Al) and macronutrients, the levels of metals were generally lower in western Norway than in southern Norway and may be considered close to natural background levels. In southern Norway, the levels of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in particular appear to be affected by air pollution, either by direct atmospheric supply or through soil acidification. Levels of some elements show considerable variability between as well as within plant species. Calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and potassium (K) are higher in most species at Sogndal compared to Risdalsheia, despite increased extractable concentrations in surface soil in the south, probably attributed to different buffer mechanisms in surface soil. Antagonism on plant uptake is suggested between Ca, Mg, and K on one hand and Al on the other. Tolerance among calcifuges to acid conditions and a particular ability to detoxify or avoid uptake of Al ions are noticeable for Vaccinium vitis-idaea.

  6. Increased transmission potential of Leishmania major/Leishmania infantum hybrids

    Volf, Petr; Benkova, Ivana; Myskova, Jitka; Sadlova, Jovana; Campino, Lenea; Ravel, Christophe

    2007-01-01

    Development of Leishmania infantum/Leishmania major hybrids was studied in two sand fly species. In Phlebotomus papatasi, which supported development of L. major but not L. infantum, the hybrids produced heavy late-stage infections with high numbers of metacyclic promastigotes. In the permissive vector Lutzomyia longipalpis, all Leishmania strains included in this study developed well. Hybrids were found to express L. major lipophosphoglycan, apparently enabling them to survive in P. papatasi...

  7. Identification and safety evaluation of Bacillus species occurring in high numbers during spontaneous fermentations to produce Gergoush, a traditional Sudanese bread snack

    Thorsen, Line; Abdelgadir, Warda S.; Rønsbo, Mie Hvillum

    2011-01-01

    Gergoush is a naturally fermented Sudanese Bread snack produced in three fermentation steps (primary starter, adapted starter and final dough), followed by three baking steps for a half to one hour at above 200°C. This study examines the microbiota of two sets of fermentations performed at a trad......Gergoush is a naturally fermented Sudanese Bread snack produced in three fermentation steps (primary starter, adapted starter and final dough), followed by three baking steps for a half to one hour at above 200°C. This study examines the microbiota of two sets of fermentations performed...

  8. Biodiversity of aerobic endospore-forming bacterial species occurring in Yanyanku and Ikpiru, fermented seeds of Hibiscus sabdariffa used to produce food condiments in Benin

    Agbobatinkpo, Pélagie B.; Thorsen, Line; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris

    2013-01-01

    Yanyanku and Ikpiru made by the fermentation of Malcavene bean (Hibiscus sabdariffa) are used as functional additives for Parkia biglobosa seed fermentations in Benin. A total of 355 aerobic endospore-forming bacteria (AEFB) isolated from Yanyanku and Ikpiru produced in northern and southern Benin...

  9. Promoter sequence of 3-phosphoglycerate kinase gene 1 of lactic acid-producing fungus rhizopus oryzae and a method of expressing a gene of interest in fungal species

    Gao, Johnway [Richland, WA; Skeen, Rodney S [Pendleton, OR

    2002-10-15

    The present invention provides the promoter clone discovery of phosphoglycerate kinase gene 1 of a lactic acid-producing filamentous fungal strain, Rhizopus oryzae. The isolated promoter can constitutively regulate gene expression under various carbohydrate conditions. In addition, the present invention also provides a design of an integration vector for the transformation of a foreign gene in Rhizopus oryzae.

  10. Promoter sequence of 3-phosphoglycerate kinase gene 2 of lactic acid-producing fungus rhizopus oryzae and a method of expressing a gene of interest in fungal species

    Gao, Johnway [Richland, WA; Skeen, Rodney S [Pendleton, OR

    2003-03-04

    The present invention provides the promoter clone discovery of phosphoglycerate kinase gene 2 of a lactic acid-producing filamentous fungal strain, Rhizopus oryzae. The isolated promoter can constitutively regulate gene expression under various carbohydrate conditions. In addition, the present invention also provides a design of an integration vector for the transformation of a foreign gene in Rhizopus oryzae.

  11. Colonization with extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella species in long-term care facility residents.

    Lautenbach, Ebbing; Han, Jennifer; Santana, Evelyn; Tolomeo, Pam; Bilker, Warren B; Maslow, Joel

    2012-03-01

    We describe the prevalence of and risk factors for colonization with extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-EB) in the long-term care facility (LTCF) setting. Colonization prevalence differed significantly across the 3 LTCFs evaluated in the study, with recent use of levofloxacin and fecal incontinence demonstrating borderline significant associations with ESBL-EB colonization.

  12. Identification of molecular species of polyol oils produced from soybean oil by Pseudomonas aeruginosa e03-12 nrrl b-59991

    The objective of this study is to develop a bioprocess for the production of polyol oils directly from soybean oil. We reported earlier methods for microbial screening and production of polyol oils from soybean oil (Hou and Lin, 2013). The polyol oil produced by Acinetobacter haemolyticus A01-35 (NR...

  13. Pulmonary Oxidative Stress, Inflammation and Cancer: Respirable Particulate Matter, Fibrous Dusts and Ozone as Major Causes of Lung Carcinogenesis through Reactive Oxygen Species Mechanisms

    Spyridon Loridas

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen or nitrogen species (ROS, RNS and oxidative stress in the respiratory system increase the production of mediators of pulmonary inflammation and initiate or promote mechanisms of carcinogenesis. The lungs are exposed daily to oxidants generated either endogenously or exogenously (air pollutants, cigarette smoke, etc.. Cells in aerobic organisms are protected against oxidative damage by enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant systems. Recent epidemiologic investigations have shown associations between increased incidence of respiratory diseases and lung cancer from exposure to low levels of various forms of respirable fibers and particulate matter (PM, at occupational or urban air polluting environments. Lung cancer increases substantially for tobacco smokers due to the synergistic effects in the generation of ROS, leading to oxidative stress and inflammation with high DNA damage potential. Physical and chemical characteristics of particles (size, transition metal content, speciation, stable free radicals, etc. play an important role in oxidative stress. In turn, oxidative stress initiates the synthesis of mediators of pulmonary inflammation in lung epithelial cells and initiation of carcinogenic mechanisms. Inhalable quartz, metal powders, mineral asbestos fibers, ozone, soot from gasoline and diesel engines, tobacco smoke and PM from ambient air pollution (PM10 and PM2.5 are involved in various oxidative stress mechanisms. Pulmonary cancer initiation and promotion has been linked to a series of biochemical pathways of oxidative stress, DNA oxidative damage, macrophage stimulation, telomere shortening, modulation of gene expression and activation of transcription factors with important role in carcinogenesis. In this review we are presenting the role of ROS and oxidative stress in the production of mediators of pulmonary inflammation and mechanisms of carcinogenesis.

  14. AOD Distributions and Trends of Major Aerosol Species over a Selection of the World's Most Populated Cities Based on the 1st Version of NASA's MERRA Aerosol Reanalysis

    Provencal, Simon; Kishcha, Pavel; da Silva, Arlindo M.; Elhacham, Emily; Alpert, Pinhas

    2017-01-01

    NASA recently extended the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Application (MERRA) with an atmospheric aerosol reanalysis which includes five particulate species: sulfate, organic matter, black carbon, mineral dust and sea salt. The MERRA Aerosol Reanalysis (MERRAero) is an innovative tool to study air quality issues around the world for its global and constant coverage and its distinction of aerosol speciation expressed in the form of aerosol optical depth (AOD). The purpose of this manuscript is to apply MERRAero to the study of urban air pollution at the global scale by analyzing the AOD over a period of 13 years (2003-2015) and over a selection of 200 of the world's most populated cities in order to assess the impacts of urbanization, industrialization, air quality regulations and regional transport which affect urban aerosol load. Environmental regulations and the recent global economic recession have helped to decrease the AOD and sulfate aerosols in most cities in North America, Europe and Japan. Rapid industrialization in China over the last two decades resulted in Chinese cities having the highest AOD values in the world. China has nevertheless recently implemented emission control measures which are showing early signs of success in many cities of Southern China where AOD has decreased substantially over the last 13 years. The AOD over South American cities, which is dominated by carbonaceous aerosols, has also decreased over the last decade due to an increase in commodity prices which slowed deforestation activities in the Amazon rainforest. At the opposite, recent urbanization and industrialization in India and Bangladesh resulted in a strong increase of AOD, sulfate and carbonaceous aerosols in most cities of these two countries. The AOD over most cities in Northern Africa and Western Asia changed little over the last decade. Emissions of natural aerosols, which cities in these two regions tend to be mostly composed of, don't tend to

  15. Clusters of ancestrally related genes that show paralogy in whole or in part are a major feature of the genomes of humans and other species.

    Michael B Walker

    Full Text Available Arrangements of genes along chromosomes are a product of evolutionary processes, and we can expect that preferable arrangements will prevail over the span of evolutionary time, often being reflected in the non-random clustering of structurally and/or functionally related genes. Such non-random arrangements can arise by two distinct evolutionary processes: duplications of DNA sequences that give rise to clusters of genes sharing both sequence similarity and common sequence features and the migration together of genes related by function, but not by common descent. To provide a background for distinguishing between the two, which is important for future efforts to unravel the evolutionary processes involved, we here provide a description of the extent to which ancestrally related genes are found in proximity.Towards this purpose, we combined information from five genomic datasets, InterPro, SCOP, PANTHER, Ensembl protein families, and Ensembl gene paralogs. The results are provided in publicly available datasets (http://cgd.jax.org/datasets/clustering/paraclustering.shtml describing the extent to which ancestrally related genes are in proximity beyond what is expected by chance (i.e. form paraclusters in the human and nine other vertebrate genomes, as well as the D. melanogaster, C. elegans, A. thaliana, and S. cerevisiae genomes. With the exception of Saccharomyces, paraclusters are a common feature of the genomes we examined. In the human genome they are estimated to include at least 22% of all protein coding genes. Paraclusters are far more prevalent among some gene families than others, are highly species or clade specific and can evolve rapidly, sometimes in response to environmental cues. Altogether, they account for a large portion of the functional clustering previously reported in several genomes.

  16. Study of the energy spectra of the major ion species in the ring-current region of the magnetosphere during geomagnetic storms

    Kistler, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    Using the University of Maryland/Max Planck Institute for Aeronomy Charge Energy Mass (CHEM) spectrometer on the AMPTE Charge Composition Explorer (CCE) spacecraft, the author examined the near-equatorial storm-time energy spectra of four major magnetospheric ions, H + , O + , He + , and He ++ over the energy range 1-300 keV/e in the L-range 3-6. The data were obtained during the main phase of all geomagnetic storms with minimum Dst less than -50 in the time period September 1984 to November 1985. During this period, the orbit of the CCE precessed such that the full range of local times was covered. When the spectra are organized by local time, certain features emerge. In particular, there is a dip in the spectra of all ions at 10-20 keV/e in the drawn-to-noon sector, while in the noon-to-dusk sector the proton distribution function drops off sharply below ∼5 keV. These spectra were compared with those predicted by a model of ion drift and loss in the magnetosphere. It was found that the spectra are most consistent with a Volland-Stern electric field with γ = 2 and with a rotation of the nominal dawn-to-dusk electric field eastward by two hours local time

  17. Effects of heavy metal exposure on the condition and health of nestlings of the great tit (Parus major), a small songbird species

    Janssens, Ellen; Dauwe, Tom; Pinxten, Rianne; Bervoets, Lieven; Blust, Ronny; Eens, Marcel

    2003-11-01

    Pollutants reduced nestling body mass and condition and delayed fledging time. - In this study we examined the possible effects of heavy metal exposure on the condition and health of great tit nestlings (Parus major) at four study sites along a pollution gradient near a large non-ferrous smelter in Belgium during three consecutive breeding seasons. Our results showed that nestlings were indeed exposed to large amounts of heavy metals. Excrements contained significantly higher concentrations of several heavy metals (silver, arsenic, cadmium, mercury, lead) near the pollution source than at study sites farther away. When taking into account the number of young in the nest at the time of sampling, nestling body mass and condition were significantly reduced at the most polluted site. Nestlings at the two most polluted sites fledged significantly later than at the least polluted site. We also observed growth abnormalities of the legs near the pollution source. Tarsus length, wing length and haematocrit values did not differ significantly among study sites.

  18. Effects of heavy metal exposure on the condition and health of nestlings of the great tit (Parus major), a small songbird species

    Janssens, Ellen; Dauwe, Tom; Pinxten, Rianne; Bervoets, Lieven; Blust, Ronny; Eens, Marcel

    2003-01-01

    Pollutants reduced nestling body mass and condition and delayed fledging time. - In this study we examined the possible effects of heavy metal exposure on the condition and health of great tit nestlings (Parus major) at four study sites along a pollution gradient near a large non-ferrous smelter in Belgium during three consecutive breeding seasons. Our results showed that nestlings were indeed exposed to large amounts of heavy metals. Excrements contained significantly higher concentrations of several heavy metals (silver, arsenic, cadmium, mercury, lead) near the pollution source than at study sites farther away. When taking into account the number of young in the nest at the time of sampling, nestling body mass and condition were significantly reduced at the most polluted site. Nestlings at the two most polluted sites fledged significantly later than at the least polluted site. We also observed growth abnormalities of the legs near the pollution source. Tarsus length, wing length and haematocrit values did not differ significantly among study sites

  19. Identification and differentiation of major components in three different “Sheng-ma” crude drug species by UPLC/Q-TOF-MS

    Mengxue Fan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cimicifugae Rhizoma (Sheng ma is a Ranunculaceae herb belonging to a composite family and well known in China. has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. The Pharmacopoeia of the People׳s Republic of China contains three varieties (Cimicifuga dahurica (Turcz., Cimicifuga foetida L. and Cimicifuga heracleifolia Kom. which have been used clinically as “Sheng-ma”. However, the chemical constituents of three components of “Sheng-ma” have never been documented. In this study, a rapid method for the analysis of the main components of “Sheng-ma” was developed using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS. The present study reveals the major common and distinct chemical constituents of C. dahurica, C. foetida and C. heracleifolia and also reports principal component and statistical analyses of these results. The components were identified by comparing the retention time, accurate mass, mass spectrometric fragmentation characteristic ions and matching empirical molecular formula with that of the published compounds. A total of 32 common components and 8 markers for different “Sheng-ma” components were identified. These findings provide an important basis for the further study and clinical utilities of the three “Sheng-ma” varieties.

  20. Methods for producing diterpenes

    2015-01-01

    The present invention discloses that by combining different di TPS enzymes of class I and class II different diterpenes may be produced including diterpenes not identified in nature. Surprisingly it is revealed that a di TPS enzyme of class I of one species may be combined with a di TPS enzyme...... of class II from a different species, resulting in a high diversity of diterpenes, which can be produced....

  1. Growing Azolla to produce sustainable protein feed: the effect of differing species and CO2 concentrations on biomass productivity and chemical composition.

    Brouwer, Paul; Schluepmann, Henriette; Nierop, Klaas Gj; Elderson, Janneke; Bijl, Peter K; van der Meer, Ingrid; de Visser, Willem; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Smeekens, Sjef; van der Werf, Adrie

    2018-03-24

    Since available arable land is limited and nitrogen fertilizers pollute the environment, cropping systems ought to be developed that do not rely on them. Here we investigate the rapidly growing, N 2 -fixing Azolla/Nostoc symbiosis for its potential productivity and chemical composition to determine its potential as protein feed. In a small production system, cultures of Azolla pinnata and Azolla filiculoides were continuously harvested for over 100 days, yielding an average productivity of 90.0-97.2 kg dry weight (DW) ha -1  d -1 . Under ambient CO 2 levels, N 2 fixation by the fern's cyanobacterial symbionts accounted for all nitrogen in the biomass. Proteins made up 176-208 g kg -1 DW (4.9 × total nitrogen), depending on species and CO 2 treatment, and contained more essential amino acids than protein from soybean. Elevated atmospheric CO 2 concentrations (800 ppm) significantly boosted biomass production by 36-47%, without decreasing protein content. Choice of species and CO 2 concentrations further affected the biomass content of lipids (79-100 g kg -1 DW) and (poly)phenols (21-69 g kg -1 DW). By continuous harvesting, high protein yields can be obtained from Azolla cultures, without the need for nitrogen fertilization. High levels of (poly)phenols likely contribute to limitations in the inclusion rate of Azolla in animal diets and need further investigation. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Previsão do preço dos principais grãos produzidos no Rio Grande do Sul Forcasting the price of major grains produced in Rio Grande do Sul

    Analice Marchezan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se realizar previsões para o ano de 2007, referente ao preço das principais culturas das lavouras temporárias desenvolvidas no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Os dados-base da quantidade produzida dos principais grãos analisados foram a média anual, de 1995 a 2006, as previsões de preços, de janeiro de 1995 a dezembro de 2006. Para realização das previsões do preço das culturas de soja, arroz e milho no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul foi utilizada Metodologia Box & Jenkins. Para as culturas destacadas, a metodologia captou vários modelos significativos, mas por meiodos Critérios Penalizadores, AIC, SBC e Erro Quadrado Médio, escolheu-se o melhor modelo para cada série, sendo ideal o modelo ARIMA (0,1,2(0,1,0 para a soja; o modelo SARIMA(1,1,0(1,0,1 para o arroz e o modelo ARIMA (2,1,1(0,1,0 para o milho.The aim of this research was to make predictions for 2007, referring to the price of temporary crops developed in the Rio Grande do Sul state. The data-base of the amout produced of the major grain analyzed were the annual average1995 to 2006 and price produced, from January 1995 to December 2006. To accomplish the forecasts in relation to prices of soybean, rice and sweetcorn in RS state, it was used the Box & Jenkins methodology. To such cultivations, the methodoly showed many significant models, however, through the penalizing criterias, AIC e SBC, in addition to the square average error, it was possible to choose the best model for each serie, being the model ARIMA (0,1,2(0,1,0 to soybean; the model SARIMA (1,1,0(1,0,1 to rice and the model ARIMA (2,1,1(0,1,0 to sweetcorn.

  3. Salting of dry-cured meat – A potential cause of contamination with the ochratoxin A-producing species Penicillium nordicum

    Sonjak, Silva; Ličen, Mia; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2011-01-01

    as the possible source of P. nordicum. In the present study contamination of meat products, air in the meat-processing plant and sea salt used for salting were analysed. When 50 g of salt sample from a sealed package was dissolved in sterile water and filtered, 12 colonies of P. nordicum were obtained on solid......Penicillium nordicum is a known contaminant of protein-rich foods and is primarily found on dry-cured meat products. It is an important producer of the mycotoxin ochratoxin A, which has nephrotoxic and cancerogenic activities. Recently a high number of P. nordicum strains was isolated from...... medium incubated at 15 °C, while a salt sample from an open vessel in the meat-processing area developed high, uncountable number of colonies. Amplified fragment length polymorphism analyses of P. nordicum isolates from different sources showed that contamination of meat products via salt was possible...

  4. Cancer cells growing on perfused 3D collagen model produced higher reactive oxygen species level and were more resistant to cisplatin compared to the 2D model.

    Liu, Qingxi; Zhang, Zijiang; Liu, Yupeng; Cui, Zhanfeng; Zhang, Tongcun; Li, Zhaohui; Ma, Wenjian

    2018-03-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) collagen scaffold models, due to their ability to mimic the tissue and organ structure in vivo, have received increasing interest in drug discovery and toxicity evaluation. In this study, we developed a perfused 3D model and studied cellular response to cytotoxic drugs in comparison with traditional 2D cell cultures as evaluated by cancer drug cisplatin. Cancer cells grown in perfused 3D environments showed increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production compared to the 2D culture. As determined by growth analysis, cells in the 3D culture, after forming a spheroid, were more resistant to the cancer drug cisplatin compared to that of the 2D cell culture. In addition, 3D culturing cells showed elevated level of ROS, indicating a physiological change or the formation of a microenvironment that resembles tumor cells in vivo. These data revealed that cellular response to drugs for cells growing in 3D environments are dramatically different from that of 2D cultured cells. Thus, the perfused 3D collagen scaffold model we report here might be a potentially very useful tool for drug analysis.

  5. Fusarium species and fumonisins associated with maize kernels produced in Rio Grande do Sul State for the 2008/09 and 2009/10 growing seasons

    R. Stumpf

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ear rots caused by Fusarium spp. are among the main fungal diseases that contribute to poor quality and the contamination of maize grains with mycotoxins. This study aimed to determine the visual incidence of fungal-damaged kernels (FDKs, the incidence of two main Gibberella (a teleomorph of Fusarium complexes (G. fujikuroi and G. zeae associated with maize using a seed health blotter test, and the fumonisin levels, using high performance liquid chromatography, in samples of maize grains grown across 23 municipalities during the 2008/09 and 2009/10 growing seasons. Additionally, 104 strains that were representative of all of the analysed samples were identified to species using PCR assays. The mean FDK was seven per cent, and only six of the samples had levels greater than six per cent. Fusarium spp. of the G. fujikuroi complex were present in 96% of the samples, and G. zeae was present in 18% of the samples (5/27. The mean incidence of G. fujikuroi was 58%, and the incidence of G. zeae varied from 2 to 6%. FB1 was found in 58.6%, FB2 in 37.9%, and both toxins in 37.9% of the samples. The FB1 and FB2 levels were below the quantification limits for 41.3% of the samples, and the mean FB1 levels (0.66 µg/g were higher than the mean FB2 levels (0.42 µg/g. The PCR identification separated the 104 isolates into three of the G. fujikuroi complex: F. verticillioides (76%, F. subglutinans (4% and F. proliferatum (2%; and G. zeae (anamorph = F. graminearum (18%. Our results confirmed the dominance of F. verticillioides, similar to other regions of Brazil, but they differed due to the relatively higher incidence of F. graminearum. Total fumonisin levels were below the maximum limit determined by current Brazilian regulations.

  6. Spectroscopic characterization of low power argon microwave-induced plasma with gaseous species produced from ethanol-water solutions in continuous hydride generation process

    Wlodarczyk, Magdalena; Zyrnicki, Wieslaw E-mail: zyrnicki@ichn.ch.pwr.wroc.pl

    2003-03-31

    Low power microwave-induced argon plasma generated by resonant TE{sub 101} rectangular cavity was investigated upon introduction of volatile species formed in the reaction with sodium tetraborohydrate(III) in hydrochloric acid-ethanol solution. The molecular emission bands of OH and CH were used for rotational temperature (T{sub rot}) determination, while the atomic emission lines of Ar, H and Sb were applied for excitation temperature (T{sub exc}) measurement. Assuming a Boltzmann distribution, the temperatures were calculated with the aid of the least squares method. Electron number density (n{sub e}) derived from Stark broadening of the H{sub {beta}} line was found to be between 2.5x10{sup 15} and 0.57x10{sup 15} cm{sup -3}. The detection limits (DL) were determined for Hg and Sb. The influence of ethanol concentration in analyte solution and microwave power on measured parameters, was investigated. The results showed that T{sub rot}(OH) increased from 2970 to 3820 K while T{sub rot}(CH) decreased from 6100 to 4540 K with ethanol concentration in the solution, ranging from 10 to 90%. Under the same experimental conditions the excitation temperature for Ar, H and Sb varied in the following ranges: 5670-4800, 6190-3950 and 10500-7390 K, respectively. It was observed that element DL were significantly influenced by the presence of ethanol in the sample solution. The DL values for Hg and Sb were, as follows: 0.5-11 and 5.3-35 {mu}g l{sup -1}, respectively.

  7. Major Links.

    Henderson, Tona

    1995-01-01

    Provides electronic mail addresses for resources and discussion groups related to the following academic majors: art, biology, business, chemistry, computer science, economics, health sciences, history, literature, math, music, philosophy, political science, psychology, sociology, and theater. (AEF)

  8. Major Roads

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for major roads (interstates and trunk highways) found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. These roadways are current...

  9. Genetic factors affecting sexual reproduction in toxigenic Fusarium species

    Hornok, L.; Waalwijk, C.; Leslie, J.F.

    2007-01-01

    Mycotoxin producing capability greatly varies within species. In theory, the major source of this variability is meiotic recombination. However, a number of important toxigenic species have no known sexual stage and, therefore, the origin of the intraspecific diversity in these fungi is poorly

  10. Preliminary studies on the volatile constitution of Mikania species

    Anair A. Reis

    Full Text Available Volatile oils obtained from the aerial parts of three Mikania species plants were analyzed by GC-MS and NMR. Forty-six terpenes among monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and diterpenes were identified by this methodology. The analysis classified Mikania hookriana as diterpene producer as the majority Mikania species occurring in Brazil.

  11. Cytotoxicity and Phytotoxicity of Trichothecene Mycotoxins Produced by Fusarium spp.

    Trichothecenes, a major class of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium, Myrothecium, and Stachybotrys species, are toxic to plants, causing blights, wilts and other economically-important plant diseases, and to mammals, for example feed-refusal caused by deoxynivalenol (vomitoxin). Macrocyclic trichothec...

  12. Characterization of indole acetic acid endophyte producers in ...

    This work contributes to the knowledge of the phytobacteria diversity in aquatic plants, particularly in Lemnaceae species; here the majority of the isolates have been characterized as higher indole acetic acid producers, recommended as candidates for their use as biofertilizers. Key words: Plant growth-promoting bacteria, ...

  13. - Hydroxylated Anthraquinones Produced by Geosmithia species

    Stodůlková, Eva; Kolařík, Miroslav; Křesinová, Zdena; Kuzma, Marek; Šulc, Miroslav; Man, Petr; Novák, Petr; Maršík, Petr; Landa, Přemysl; Olšovská, Jana; Chudíčková, Milada; Pažoutová, Sylvie; Černý, J.; Bella, J.; Flieger, Miroslav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 3 (2009), s. 179-187 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200200651; GA MŠk LC07017; GA MŠk 1M0506; GA ČR GP203/05/P575 Grant - others:CZ(CZ) 205/2004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510; CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : hydroxylated anthraquinones * staphylococcus aureus * mammalian cell lines Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.978, year: 2009

  14. Xylem sap nitrogen compounds of some Crotalaria species

    Vitória Angela Pierre

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen species of Crotalaria were analysed for nitrogen compounds in the xylem root bleeding sap. Amino acids were the main form of organic nitrogen found, but only traces of ureides were present. Of the four species analysed for amino acid composition, asparagine was found to be the major amino acid, accounting for over 68% of the nitrogen transported. No striking deviations from this general pattern was found between species, between vegetative and floral stages of development, or between nodulated and non-nodulated plants. It was concluded that the Crotalaria species studied here have an asparagine-based nitrogen metabolism, consistent with many other non-ureide-producing legume species.

  15. Dominance of IMP-4-Producing Enterobacter cloacae among Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Australia

    Townell, Nicola; Nimmo, Graeme R.; George, Narelle M.; Robson, Jennifer; Vohra, Renu; Davis, Louise; Heney, Claire; Paterson, David L.

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) has been increasing worldwide. blaIMP has been reported to be the predominant carbapenemase-encoding gene within Enterobacteriaceae in Australia. However, there are limited data currently available on CPE from Queensland, Australia. A total of 58 CPE isolates were isolated between July 2009 and March 2014 from Queensland hospitals. The clonality of isolates was determined by Diversilab repetitive sequence-based PCR. The isolates were investigated for the resistance mechanisms carbapenemase, extended-spectrum β-lactamase, and AmpC β-lactamase and for aminoglycoside resistance and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes by PCR. The plasmid types associated with carbapenemase-encoding genes were characterized. The majority of the CPE were Enterobacter cloacae (n = 29). The majority of Queensland CPE isolates were IMP producers and comprised 11 species (n = 48). Nine NDM-producing Enterobacteriaceae were identified. One NDM-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate coproduced OXA-48. One K. pneumoniae isolate was an OXA-181 producer. The incidence of IMP producers increased significantly in 2013. blaIMP-4 was found in all IMP-producing isolates. blaTEM, qnrB, and aacA4 were common among IMP-4 producers. The HI2 (67%) and L/M (21%) replicons were associated with blaIMP-4. All HI2 plasmids were of sequence type 1 (ST1). All but one of the NDM producers possessed blaCTX-M-15. The 16S rRNA methylase genes found among NDM producers were armA, rmtB, rmtC, and rmtF. The substantial increase in the prevalence of CPE in Queensland has been associated mainly with the emergence E. cloacae strains possessing HI2 plasmids carrying blaIMP-4 over the past 2 years. The importation of NDM producers and/or OXA-48-like producers in patients also contributed to the increased emergence of CPE. PMID:25918153

  16. Hymenoptera venom allergy: analysis of double positivity to honey bee and Vespula venom by estimation of IgE antibodies to species-specific major allergens Api m1 and Ves v5.

    Müller, U R; Johansen, N; Petersen, A B; Fromberg-Nielsen, J; Haeberli, G

    2009-04-01

    In patients with hymenoptera venom allergy diagnostic tests are often positive with honey bee and Vespula venom causing problems in selection of venoms for immunotherapy. 100 patients each with allergic reactions to Vespula or honey bee stings and positive i.e. skin tests to the respective venom, were analysed for serum IgE to bee venom, Vespula venom and crossreacting carbohydrate determinants (CCDs) by UNICAP (CAP) and ADVIA Centaur (ADVIA). IgE-antibodies to species specific recombinant major allergens (SSMA) Api m1 for bee venom and Ves v5 for Vespula venom, were determined by ADVIA. 30 history and skin test negative patients served as controls. By CAP sensitivity was 1.0 for bee and 0.91 for Vespula venom, by ADVIA 0.99 for bee and 0.91 for Vespula venom. None of the controls were positive with either test. Double positivity was observed in 59% of allergic patients by CAP, in 32% by ADVIA. slgE to Api m1 was detected in 97% of bee and 17% of Vespula venom allergic patients, slgE to Ves v5 in 87% of Vespula and 17% of bee venom allergic patients. slgE to CCDs were present in 37% of all allergic patients and in 56% of those with double positivity and were more frequent in bee than in Vespula venom allergic patients. Double positivity of IgE to bee and Vespula venom is often caused by crossreactions, especially to CCDs. IgE to both Api m1 and Ves v5 indicates true double sensitization and immunotherapy with both venoms.

  17. Contribution to the study of recoil species produced by potassium ferrocyanide neutron irradiation; Contribution a l'etude de la reactivite des especes de recul dans le ferrocyanure de potassium irradie aux neutrons thermiques

    Meriadec Vernier de Byans, B. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-04-01

    The chemical species produced by potassium ferrocyanide neutron irradiation were separated and identified. The study of their behaviour upon thermal annealing has allowed to establish a scheme of reaction as well as a kinetic treatment of the data. Activation energies are determined in different conditions and the effects of radiation dose, oxygen and water of crystallisation upon the activation energies were studied. Preliminary E.S.R. data and its relevance to the decomposition process is also discussed. (authors) [French] On a separe et identifie les differentes especes chimiques produites par irradiation neutronique de ferrocyanure de potassium. L'etude de leur comportement au cours du recuit thermique a permis l'application de differentes cinetiques et l'etablissement d'un schema de reaction. On a deterrmine la valeur des energies d'activation dans differentes conditions de recuit ainsi que l'influence de la dose de radiations, de l'oxygene et de l'eau de cristallisation sur ces energies. Une serie de mesures de resonance paramagnetique electronique a complete cette etude. (auteurs)

  18. 'Streptomyces caelicus', an antibiotic-producing species of the genus Streptomyces, and Streptomyces canchipurensis Li et al. 2015 are later heterotypic synonyms of Streptomyces muensis Ningthoujam et al. 2014.

    Wink, Joachim; Schumann, Peter; Atasayar, Ewelina; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Zaburannyi, Nestor; Westermann, Martin; Martin, Karin; Glaeser, Stefanie P; Kämpfer, Peter

    2017-04-01

    'Streptomyces caelicus' DSM 40835 was first reported as the producer of the antibiotic griselimycin by some coworkers of Rhone Poulenc in 1971. The project on isolation of the antibiotic compound was stopped because of the bad solubility and selectivity of the compound towards Mycobacteria. At Sanofi-Aventis, Germany, the project was re-evaluated in 2007 and the gene cluster of griselimycin could be identified, characterized and was patented in 2013. At this time, 'S. caelicus' was an invalid name. During the strain characterization work, it was found that 'S. caelicus' belongs to the group of species of the genus Streptomyces which show an unusual heterogeneity of the 16S rRNA gene sequences. However, high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities to Streptomyces muensis JCM 17576T and Streptomyces canchipurensis JCM 17575T were obvious. Here, we present a comparative description of 'Streptomyces caelicus' DS 9461 (=DSM 40835=NCCB 100592) with S. muensis and S. canchipurensis by use of a polyphasic taxonomy approach and additional comparison of some housekeeping genes by multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA). An emended description of Streptomyces muensis is provided as a result of this work.

  19. Red oak in southern New England and big-leaf mahogany in the Yucatan Peninsula: can mixed-species forests be sustainably managed for single-species production?

    M. Kelty; L. Camara-Cabrales; J. Grogan

    2011-01-01

    Complex mixed-species forests are the focus of conservation efforts that seek to maintain native biodiversity. However, much of this forestland is privately owned and is managed for timber income as well as for conservation. Management of these high-diversity forests is particularly difficult when only one tree species produces the majority of high-value timber. We...

  20. Producing cement

    Stone, E G

    1923-09-12

    A process and apparatus are described for producing Portland cement in which pulverized shale is successively heated in a series of inclined rotary retorts having internal stirrers and oil gas outlets, which are connected to condensers. The partially treated shale is removed from the lowermost retort by a conveyor, then fed separately or conjointly into pipes and thence into a number of vertically disposed retorts. Each of these retorts may be fitted interiorly with vertical arranged conveyors which elevate the shale and discharge it over a lip, from whence it falls to the bottom of the retorts. The lower end of each casing is furnished with an adjustable discharge door through which the spent shale is fed to a hopper, thence into separate trucks. The oil gases generated in the retorts are exhausted through pipes to condensers. The spent shale is conveyed to a bin and mixed while hot with ground limestone. The admixed materials are then ground and fed to a rotary kiln which is fired by the incondensible gases derived from the oil gases obtained in the previous retorting of the shale. The calcined materials are then delivered from the rotary kiln to rotary coolers. The waste gases from the kiln are utilized for heating the retorts in which the ground shale is heated for the purpose of extracting therefrom the contained hydrocarbon oils and gases.

  1. Grammatical Errors Produced by English Majors: The Translation Task

    Mohaghegh, Hamid; Zarandi, Fatemeh Mahmoudi; Shariati, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the frequency of the grammatical errors related to the four categories of preposition, relative pronoun, article, and tense using the translation task. In addition, the frequencies of these grammatical errors in different categories and in each category were examined. The quantitative component of the study further looked…

  2. Acrolein: An Effective Biomarker for Tissue Damage Produced from Polyamines.

    Igarashi, Kazuei; Uemura, Takeshi; Kashiwagi, Keiko

    2018-01-01

    It is thought that the major factor responsible for cell damage is reactive oxygen species (ROS), but our recent studies have shown that acrolein (CH 2 =CH-CHO) produced from spermine and spermidine is more toxic than ROS. Thus, (1) the mechanism of acrolein production during brain stroke, (2) one of the mechanisms of acrolein toxicity, and (3) the role of glutathione in acrolein detoxification are described in this chapter.

  3. STUDY ON SURGICAL SITE INFECTIONS CAUSED BY ESBL PRODUCING GRAM NEGATIVE BACTERIA

    Rambabu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Surgical site infections have been a major problem, because of the emergence of drug resistant bacteria, in particular B - lactamase producing bacteria. Extended spectrum beta lactamase producing gram negative organisms pose a great challenge in treatment o f SSI present study is aimed at determining multiple drug resistance in gram negative bacteria & to find out ESBL producers, in correlation with treatment outcome. A total of 120 wound infected cases were studied. Staphylococcus aureus was predominant bact erium - 20.Among gram negative bacteria, Pseudomonas species is predominant (14 followed by Escherichia coli (13 , Klebsiella species (12 , Proteus (9 Citrobacter (4 Providencia (2 & Acinetobacter species (2 . Out of 56 gramnegative bacteria isolated, 20 were i dentified as ESBL producers, which was statistically significant. Delay in wound healing correlated with infection by ESBL producers, which alarms the need of abstinence from antibiotic abuse

  4. Endangered Species

    EPA's Endangered Species Protection Program helps promote recovery of listed species. The ESPP determines if pesticide use in a geographic area may affect any listed species. Find needed limits on pesticide use in Endangered Species Protection Bulletins.

  5. Producers give prices a boost

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Uranium producers came alive in August, helping spot prices crack the $8.00 barrier for the first time since March. The upper end of NUKEM's price range actually finished the month at $8.20. Scrambling to fulfill their long-term delivery contracts, producers dominate the market. In the span of three weeks, five producers came out for 2 million lbs U3O8, ultimately buying nearly 1.5 million lbs. One producer accounted for over half this volume. The major factor behind rising prices was that producers required specific origins to meet contract obligations. Buyers willing to accept open origins created the lower end of NUKEM's price range

  6. Producing superhydrophobic roof tiles

    Carrascosa, Luis A M; Facio, Dario S; Mosquera, Maria J

    2016-01-01

    Superhydrophobic materials can find promising applications in the field of building. However, their application has been very limited because the synthesis routes involve tedious processes, preventing large-scale application. A second drawback is related to their short-term life under outdoor conditions. A simple and low-cost synthesis route for producing superhydrophobic surfaces on building materials is developed and their effectiveness and their durability on clay roof tiles are evaluated. Specifically, an organic–inorganic hybrid gel containing silica nanoparticles is produced. The nanoparticles create a densely packed coating on the roof tile surface in which air is trapped. This roughness produces a Cassie–Baxter regime, promoting superhydrophobicity. A surfactant, n-octylamine, was also added to the starting sol to catalyze the sol–gel process and to coarsen the pore structure of the gel network, preventing cracking. The application of ultrasound obviates the need to use volatile organic compounds in the synthesis, thereby making a ‘green’ product. It was also demonstrated that a co-condensation process effective between the organic and inorganic species is crucial to obtain durable and effective coatings. After an aging test, high hydrophobicity was maintained and water absorption was completely prevented for the roof tile samples under study. However, a transition from a Cassie–Baxter to a Wenzel state regime was observed as a consequence of the increase in the distance between the roughness pitches produced by the aging of the coating. (paper)

  7. 3 CFR - Presidential Determination on Major Illicit Drug Transit or Major Illicit Drug Producing...

    2010-01-01

    ... programs to aid Venezuela's democratic institutions and continued support for bilateral programs in Bolivia... leadership of President Karzai and key governors in the provinces, has demonstrated its ongoing commitment to...

  8. 76 FR 59495 - Presidential Determination on Major Illicit Drug Transit or Major Illicit Drug Producing...

    2011-09-26

    ... Belize are increasingly concerned about the presence of drug trafficking organizations, including Los... shows continued strengthening of illegal drug trafficking ties between South America and West Africa... dialogue with Canada to reduce the shared problem of illegal drug trafficking. The results of this...

  9. 77 FR 58915 - Presidential Determination on Major Illicit Drug Transit or Major Illicit Drug Producing...

    2012-09-24

    ... initiatives specifically intended to fight the trafficking of marijuana and synthetic drugs. As detailed in... countries. For example, Canada has taken effective steps to stem the flow of synthetic MDMA (ecstasy) across...

  10. USA coal producer perspective

    Porco, J. [Alpha Natural Resources, Latrobe, PA (US). Alpha Energy Global Marketing

    2004-07-01

    The focus is on the Central Appalachian coal industry. Alpha Natural Resources was formed in 2002 from Pittston Coal's Virginia and Coastal operations. AMCI's U.S. operations and Mears Enterprises in Pennsylvania were acquired later. The company produces 20-21 million tonnes per year and sells 20 million tonnes of steam coal and 10 million tonnes of exports, including some coal that is brokered. Foundry coke is a major product. Capital investment has resulted in increased productivity. Central Appalachia is expected to continue as a significant coal-producing region for supplying metallurgical coke. Production is expected to stabilize, but not increase; so the mines will have a longer life. 31 slides/overheads are included.

  11. Contribution of arsenic species in unicellular algae to the cycling of arsenic in marine ecosystems.

    Duncan, Elliott G; Maher, William A; Foster, Simon D

    2015-01-06

    This review investigates the arsenic species produced by and found in marine unicellular algae to determine if unicellular algae contribute to the formation of arsenobetaine (AB) in higher marine organisms. A wide variety of arsenic species have been found in marine unicellular algae including inorganic species (mainly arsenate--As(V)), methylated species (mainly dimethylarsenate (DMA)), arsenoribosides (glycerol, phosphate, and sulfate) and metabolites (dimethylarsenoethanol (DMAE)). Subtle differences in arsenic species distributions exist between chlorophyte and heterokontophyte species with As(V) commonly found in water-soluble cell fractions of chlorophyte species, while DMA is more common in heterokontophyte species. Additionally, different arsenoriboside species are found in each phyla with glycerol and phosphate arsenoribosides produced by chlorophytes, whereas glycerol, phosphate, and sulfate arsenoribosides are produced by heterokontophytes, which is similar to existing data for marine macro-algae. Although arsenoribosides are the major arsenic species in many marine unicellular algal species, AB has not been detected in unicellular algae which supports the hypothesis that AB is formed in marine animals via the ingestion and further metabolism of arsenoribosides. The observation of significant DMAE concentrations in some unicellular algal cultures suggests that unicellular algae-based detritus contains arsenic species that can be further metabolized to form AB in higher marine organisms. Future research establishing how environmental variability influences the production of arsenic species by marine unicellular algae and what effect this has on arsenic cycling within marine food webs is essential to clarify the role of these organisms in marine arsenic cycling.

  12. Isolation and identification of antimicrobial-producing lactic acid ...

    , Proteus species, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella species, Pseudomonas flourescence, P. aeruginosa, Serratia species and Pediococcus acidilactici. Of the 42 antimicrobial producing isolates characterized, 16, 12, 6 and 8 were identified ...

  13. Failed sperm development as a reproductive isolating barrier between species.

    Wünsch, Lisa K; Pfennig, Karin S

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid male sterility is a common reproductive isolating barrier between species. Yet, little is known about the actual developmental causes of this phenomenon, especially in naturally hybridizing species. We sought to evaluate the developmental causes of hybrid male sterility, using spadefoot toads as our study system. Plains spadefoot toads (Spea bombifrons) and Mexican spadefoot toads (S. multiplicata) hybridize where they co-occur in the southwestern USA. Hybrids are viable, but hybrid males suffer reduced fertility. We compared testes size and developmental stages of sperm cell maturation between hybrid males and males of each species. We found that testes of hybrid males did not differ in mean size from pure-species males. However, hybrids showed a greater range of within-individual variation in testes size than pure-species males. Moreover, although hybrids produced similar numbers of early stage sperm cells, hybrids produced significantly fewer mature spermatozoids than pure-species males. Interestingly, an introgressed individual produced numbers of live sperm comparable to pure-species males, but the majority of these sperm cells were abnormally shaped and non-motile. These results indicate that hybrid incompatibilities in late sperm development serve as a reproductive isolating barrier between species. The nature of this breakdown highlights the possibilities that hybrid males may vary in fertility and that fertility could possibly be recovered in introgressed males. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Diversity of polyketides produced by Penicillium species isolated from Melia azedarach and Murraya paniculata; Diversidade de policetideos produzidos por especies de penicillium isolados de Melia azedarach e Murraya paniculata

    Pastre, Renata; Marinho, Andrey M.R.; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: edson@dq.ufscar.br; Souza, Antonia Q.L.; Pereira, Jose Odair [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Genetica e Evolucao

    2007-07-01

    Eight compounds comprising four groups of polyketides, the xanthone fusarindin, the mixed peptide alkaloid-polyketide GKK1032, the anthraquinones crysophanol, citreoveridin and janthinone, and the azaphylones dihydrocitrinone, citrinin and citrinin H-1, were identified in Penicillium species isolated as endophytic fungi from Melia azedarach and Murraya paniculata. The antibacterial activity of the azaphylones was tested and showed that citrinin H-1 is more active than citrinin. (author)

  15. Effects of environmental parameters on the dual-species biofilms formed by Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Ralstonia insidiosa, a strong biofilm producer isolated from a fresh-cut processing plant

    Biofilm forming bacteria resident to food processing facilities are a food safety concern due to the potential of biofilms to harbor foodborne bacterial pathogens. When cultured together, Ralstonia insidiosa, a strong biofilm former frequently isolated from produce processing environments, has been ...

  16. Antibiotics produced by Streptomyces.

    Procópio, Rudi Emerson de Lima; Silva, Ingrid Reis da; Martins, Mayra Kassawara; Azevedo, João Lúcio de; Araújo, Janete Magali de

    2012-01-01

    Streptomyces is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria that grows in various environments, and its shape resembles filamentous fungi. The morphological differentiation of Streptomyces involves the formation of a layer of hyphae that can differentiate into a chain of spores. The most interesting property of Streptomyces is the ability to produce bioactive secondary metabolites, such as antifungals, antivirals, antitumorals, anti-hypertensives, immunosuppressants, and especially antibiotics. The production of most antibiotics is species specific, and these secondary metabolites are important for Streptomyces species in order to compete with other microorganisms that come in contact, even within the same genre. Despite the success of the discovery of antibiotics, and advances in the techniques of their production, infectious diseases still remain the second leading cause of death worldwide, and bacterial infections cause approximately 17 million deaths annually, affecting mainly children and the elderly. Self-medication and overuse of antibiotics is another important factor that contributes to resistance, reducing the lifetime of the antibiotic, thus causing the constant need for research and development of new antibiotics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. AOD distributions and trends of major aerosol species over a selection of the world’s most populated cities based on the 1st Version of NASA’s MERRA Aerosol Reanalysis

    Provençal, Simon; Kishcha, Pavel; da Silva, Arlindo M.; Elhacham, Emily; Alpert, Pinhas

    2018-01-01

    NASA recently extended the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Application (MERRA) with an atmospheric aerosol reanalysis which includes five particulate species: sulfate, organic matter, black carbon, mineral dust and sea salt. The MERRA Aerosol Reanalysis (MERRAero) is an innovative tool to study air quality issues around the world for its global and constant coverage and its distinction of aerosol speciation expressed in the form of aerosol optical depth (AOD). The purpose of this manuscript is to apply MERRAero to the study of urban air pollution at the global scale by analyzing the AOD over a period of 13 years (2003–2015) and over a selection of 200 of the world’s most populated cities in order to assess the impacts of urbanization, industrialization, air quality regulations and regional transport which affect urban aerosol load. Environmental regulations and the recent global economic recession have helped to decrease the AOD and sulfate aerosols in most cities in North America, Europe and Japan. Rapid industrialization in China over the last two decades resulted in Chinese cities having the highest AOD values in the world. China has nevertheless recently implemented emission control measures which are showing early signs of success in many cities of Southern China where AOD has decreased substantially over the last 13 years. The AOD over South American cities, which is dominated by carbonaceous aerosols, has also decreased over the last decade due to an increase in commodity prices which slowed deforestation activities in the Amazon rainforest. At the opposite, recent urbanization and industrialization in India and Bangladesh resulted in a strong increase of AOD, sulfate and carbonaceous aerosols in most cities of these two countries. The AOD over most cities in Northern Africa and Western Asia changed little over the last decade. Emissions of natural aerosols, which cities in these two regions tend to be mostly composed of, don’t tend

  18. What is a Species? An Endless Debate

    Srimath

    a research scholar in ... perspectives are collectively termed as Phylogenetic Species ... tors view the origin of the species they study”. ..... explosion of molecular data has been the major driving force in unearthing cryptic species, it is no ...

  19. A quantitative and qualitative comparison of illumina MiSeq and 454 amplicon sequencing for genotyping the highly polymorphic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in a non-model species.

    Razali, Haslina; O'Connor, Emily; Drews, Anna; Burke, Terry; Westerdahl, Helena

    2017-07-28

    High-throughput sequencing enables high-resolution genotyping of extremely duplicated genes. 454 amplicon sequencing (454) has become the standard technique for genotyping the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes in non-model organisms. However, illumina MiSeq amplicon sequencing (MiSeq), which offers a much higher read depth, is now superseding 454. The aim of this study was to quantitatively and qualitatively evaluate the performance of MiSeq in relation to 454 for genotyping MHC class I alleles using a house sparrow (Passer domesticus) dataset with pedigree information. House sparrows provide a good study system for this comparison as their MHC class I genes have been studied previously and, consequently, we had prior expectations concerning the number of alleles per individual. We found that 454 and MiSeq performed equally well in genotyping amplicons with low diversity, i.e. amplicons from individuals that had fewer than 6 alleles. Although there was a higher rate of failure in the 454 dataset in resolving amplicons with higher diversity (6-9 alleles), the same genotypes were identified by both 454 and MiSeq in 98% of cases. We conclude that low diversity amplicons are equally well genotyped using either 454 or MiSeq, but the higher coverage afforded by MiSeq can lead to this approach outperforming 454 in amplicons with higher diversity.

  20. Acorenone B: AChE and BChE Inhibitor as a Major Compound of the Essential Oil Distilled from the Ecuadorian Species Niphogeton dissecta (Benth. J.F. Macbr

    James Calva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the chemical composition, physical proprieties, biological activity, and enantiomeric analysis of the essential oil from the aerial parts of Niphogeton dissecta (culantrillo del cerro from Ecuador, obtained by steam distillation. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of the essential oil was realized by gas chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques (GC-MS and GC-FID. Acorenone B was identified by GC-MS and NMR experiments. The enantiomeric distribution of some constituents has been assessed by enantio-GC through the use of a chiral cyclodextrin-based capillary column. We identified 41 components that accounted for 96.46% of the total analyzed, the major components were acorenone B (41.01% and (E-β-ocimene (29.64%. The enantiomeric ratio of (+/(−-β-pinene was 86.9:13.1, while the one of (+/(−-sabinene was 80.9:19.1. The essential oil showed a weak inhibitory activity, expressed as Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC, against Enterococcus faecalis (MIC 10 mg/mL and Staphylococcus aureus (MIC 5 mg/mL. Furthermore, it inhibited butyrylcholinesterase with an IC50 value of 11.5 μg/mL. Pure acorenone B showed inhibitory activity against both acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase, with IC50 values of 40.8 μg/mL and 10.9 μg/mL, respectively.

  1. Aostra claims major oilsands breakthrough

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that Alberta Oil Sands Technology and Research Authority (Aostra) has completed a horizontal well in-situ steam injection project it calls a major breakthrough in commercially producing bitumen from the bast Athabasca oilsands deposit in Alberta. Aostra the its $71 million (Canadian) proof of concept pilot underground test facility (UTF) near Fort McMurray, achieved a 60% bitumen recovery rate, compared with less than 20% recovery typically achieved with Alberta bitumen. More than 100,000 bbl of bitumen was produced during the project

  2. Translocation heterozygosity in southern African species of Viscum

    D. Wiens

    1980-11-01

    Full Text Available Sex-associated and floating translocation complexes are characteristic of dioecious species of  Viscum,  but are virtually absent in monoecious species. The majority of dioecious species has fixed sex-associated translocation complexes with the male being the heterozygous sex. The sex-associated multivalent is usually O4 (ring-of-four or O6 , rarely O8 . Dioecious species without sex-associated translocations are much less common. Most of the dioecious species are also polymorphic for floating translocations, producing one or more additional multivalents ranging from O4 to O12. Floating translocations may be more frequent in species that do not have sex-associated translocations. Supernumerary chromosomes are also present in several species. Sex ratios are at unity in most dioecious species, but female-biased ratios may occur in some species. The high correlation between dioecy and translocation heterozygosity suggests that translocations are primarily associated with the origin and establishment of dioecy. Any róle in the maintenance of biased sex ratios through meiotic drive is probably secondary. Sex-associated translocations may serve to stabilize dioecy by bringing the sex factors into close linkage. Subsequent structural rearrangements within a sex-associated translocation complex may bring the sex factors together in one chromosome pair, releasing floating translocations. The high frequencies of floating translocation heterozygosity in some species indicate that such heterozygosity also has adaptive value.

  3. Measurement of ion species produced due to bombardment of 450 eV N{sub 2}{sup +} ions with hydrocarbons-covered surface of tungsten: Formation of tungsten nitride

    Kumar, S. [Atomic Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Bhatt, P. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India); Kumar, A. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Singh, B.K.; Singh, B.; Prajapati, S. [Atomic Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Shanker, R., E-mail: shankerorama@gmail.com [Atomic Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India)

    2016-08-01

    A laboratory experiment has been performed to study the ions that are produced due to collisions of 450 eV N{sub 2}{sup +} ions with a hydrocarbons-covered surface of polycrystalline tungsten at room temperature. Using a TOF mass spectrometry technique, the product ions formed in these collisions have been detected, identified and analyzed. Different ion–surface reaction processes, namely, neutralization, reflection, surface induced dissociation, surface induced chemical reactions and desorption are observed and discussed. Apart from the presence of desorbed aliphatic hydrocarbon and other ions, the mass spectra obtained from the considered collisions show the formation and sputtering of tungsten nitride (WN). A layer of WN on tungsten surface is known to decrease the sputtering of bulk tungsten in fusion devices more effectively than when the tungsten is bombarded with other seeding gases (He, Ar). It is further noted that there is a negligible diffusion of N in the bulk tungsten at room temperature.

  4. Major Sport Venues

    Department of Homeland Security — The Major Public Venues dataset is composed of facilities that host events for the National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing, Indy Racing League, Major League...

  5. Major Depression Among Adults

    ... Depressive Episode Among Adolescents Data Sources Share Major Depression Definitions Major depression is one of the most ... Bethesda, MD 20892-9663 Follow Us Facebook Twitter YouTube Google Plus NIMH Newsletter NIMH RSS Feed NIMH ...

  6. Natural rubber producing plants: An overview | Venkatachalam ...

    ... Hevea and also other natural rubber producing species for alternative source of latex production in the near future. Keywords: Alternative rubber sources, biotechnology, breeding, Hevea brasiliensis, Parthenium argentatum, Taraxacum koksaghyz, Ficus bengalensis, Lactuca serriola. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol.

  7. SELECCIÓN DE UN MÉTODO PARA PRODUCIR CARBÓN ACTIVADO UTILIZANDO CUATRO ESPECIES FORESTALES SELECTION OF A METHOD TO PRODUCE ACTIVATED CHARCOAL USING FOUR FOREST SPECIES

    Jhon Fredy Herrera Builes

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación se realizó en los laboratorios de Carbones y de Productos Forestales, de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Medellín. Ésta se orientó hacia la selección de un método para obtener carbón activado a partir de las especies forestales pino pátula (Pinus patula, chingalé (Jacaranda copaia, pino tecunumani (Pinus tecunumanii y roble (Quercus humboldtii. Cada una de las maderas se caracterizó, determinando sus propiedades físicas de densidades y contracciones. Se experimentaron siete métodos; activación química, activación químico - física con CO2, activación químico - física con CO2 y vapor de agua, activación químico - física con vapor de agua, activación física con CO2, activación físico con vapor de agua y activación física con CO2 y vapor de agua. Las variables que se estudiaron fueron el tiempo de residencia y la temperatura. Tomando como parámetro el índice de yodo se seleccionó el método de activación químico - física con vapor de agua, obteniéndose índices de yodo, por encima de 800 para todas las especies estudiadas, a excepción del roble que solo alcanzó 764, que aun es aceptable para el tratamiento de aguas.This investigation was conducted in the Coal and of Forest Products Laboratory of the Universidad Nacional de Colombia , Sede Medellín. It was oriented towards the selection of a method to obtain activated carbon form the following forest species; pino pátula (Pinus patula, chingalé (Jacaranda copaia, pino tecunumani (Pinus tecunumanii and roble (Quercus humboldtii. The wood of each was characterized determining their physical properties of density and contraction. Seven different methods were tested; chemical activation, chemical-physical activation with CO2, chemical-physical activation with CO2 and water vapor; chemical-physical activation with water vapor; physical activation with CO2; physical activation with water vapor, and physical activation with CO2

  8. Association between the Presence of Aminoglycoside-Modifying Enzymes and In Vitro Activity of Gentamicin, Tobramycin, Amikacin, and Plazomicin against Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase- and Extended-Spectrum-β-Lactamase-Producing Enterobacter Species.

    Haidar, Ghady; Alkroud, Ammar; Cheng, Shaoji; Churilla, Travis M; Churilla, Bryce M; Shields, Ryan K; Doi, Yohei; Clancy, Cornelius J; Nguyen, M Hong

    2016-09-01

    We compared the in vitro activities of gentamicin (GEN), tobramycin (TOB), amikacin (AMK), and plazomicin (PLZ) against 13 Enterobacter isolates possessing both Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (KPC+/ESBL+) with activity against 8 KPC+/ESBL-, 6 KPC-/ESBL+, and 38 KPC-/ESBL- isolates. The rates of resistance to GEN and TOB were higher for KPC+/ESBL+ (100% for both) than for KPC+/ESBL- (25% and 38%, respectively), KPC-/ESBL+ (50% and 17%, respectively), and KPC-/ESBL- (0% and 3%, respectively) isolates. KPC+/ESBL+ isolates were more likely than others to possess an aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme (AME) (100% versus 38%, 67%, and 5%; P = 0.007, 0.06, and 1 AME than with ≤1 AME. The presence of at least 2/3 of KPC, SHV, and TEM predicted the presence of AMEs. PLZ MICs against all isolates were ≤4 μg/ml, regardless of KPC/ESBL pattern or the presence of AMEs. In conclusion, GEN and TOB are limited as treatment options against KPC+ and ESBL+ Enterobacter PLZ may represent a valuable addition to the antimicrobial armamentarium. A full understanding of AMEs and other aminoglycoside resistance mechanisms will allow clinicians to incorporate PLZ rationally into treatment regimens. The development of molecular assays that accurately and rapidly predict antimicrobial responses among KPC- and ESBL-producing Enterobacter spp. should be a top research priority. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. A general method for identifying major hybrid male sterility genes in Drosophila.

    Zeng, L W; Singh, R S

    1995-10-01

    The genes responsible for hybrid male sterility in species crosses are usually identified by introgressing chromosome segments, monitored by visible markers, between closely related species by continuous backcrosses. This commonly used method, however, suffers from two problems. First, it relies on the availability of markers to monitor the introgressed regions and so the portion of the genome examined is limited to the marked regions. Secondly, the introgressed regions are usually large and it is impossible to tell if the effects of the introgressed regions are the result of single (or few) major genes or many minor genes (polygenes). Here we introduce a simple and general method for identifying putative major hybrid male sterility genes which is free of these problems. In this method, the actual hybrid male sterility genes (rather than markers), or tightly linked gene complexes with large effects, are selectively introgressed from one species into the background of another species by repeated backcrosses. This is performed by selectively backcrossing heterozygous (for hybrid male sterility gene or genes) females producing fertile and sterile sons in roughly equal proportions to males of either parental species. As no marker gene is required for this procedure, this method can be used with any species pairs that produce unisexual sterility. With the application of this method, a small X chromosome region of Drosophila mauritiana which produces complete hybrid male sterility (aspermic testes) in the background of D. simulans was identified. Recombination analysis reveals that this region contains a second major hybrid male sterility gene linked to the forked locus located at either 62.7 +/- 0.66 map units or at the centromere region of the X chromosome of D. mauritiana.

  10. Data Sets from Major NCI Initiaves

    The NCI Data Catalog includes links to data collections produced by major NCI initiatives and other widely used data sets, including animal models, human tumor cell lines, epidemiology data sets, genomics data sets from TCGA, TARGET, COSMIC, GSK, NCI60.

  11. Changes in population structures of the major species in selected ...

    The study was carried out in six satellite lakes by making investigations on fish collected from experimental and artisanal fisheries. The fishes were analysed for length frequencies, weight and numbers caught to determine the population structure of the fishes. Indiscriminate fishing by deploying illegal gears and increased ...

  12. Amount species of halucinogenic mushrooms contain major psychoactive alkaloid psilocybin

    Rambousek, Lukáš; Páleníček, T.; Bubeníková-Valešová, V.; Stuchlík, Aleš; Valeš, Karel

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 12, Suppl.1 (2008), s. 45-45 ISSN 1211-7579. [Česko-slovenská psychofarmakologická konference /50./. 09.01.2008-13.01.2008, Lázně Jeseník] R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NR9178; GA ČR(CZ) GA309/07/0341; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0517 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : cpo1 * psilocin * rat * memory Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  13. Alien species recorded in the United Arab Emirates: an initial list of terrestrial and freshwater species

    Pritpal Soorae

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Little is documented on the alien terrestrial and freshwater species in the United Arab Emirates. To address this, an assessment of terrestrial and freshwater alien species was conducted using various techniques such as a questionnaire, fieldwork data, networking with relevant people, and a detailed literature review. The results of the initial assessment show that there are 146 alien species recorded in the following seven major taxonomic groups: invertebrates 49 species, freshwater fish five species, amphibian one species, reptiles six species, birds 71 species, mammals six species and plants eight species. To inform decision makers a full list of the 146 species identified in this assessment is presented. 

  14. Prospects after Major Trauma

    Holtslag, H.R.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction. After patients survived major trauma, their prospects, in terms of the consequences for functioning, are uncertain, which may impact severely on patient, family and society. The studies in this thesis describes the long-term outcomes of severe injured patients after major trauma. In

  15. Major gene mutations and domestication of plants

    Ashri, A.

    1989-01-01

    From the approximately 200,000 species of flowering plants known, only about 200 have been domesticated. The process has taken place in many regions over long periods. At present there is great interest in domesticating new species and developing new uses for existing ones in order to supply needed food, industrial raw materials, etc. It is proposed that major gene mutations were important in domestication; many key characters distinguishing cultivated from related wild species are controlled by one or very few major genes. The deliberate effort to domesticate new species requires at least the following: identification of needs and potential sources, establishment of suitable niches, choice of taxa to be domesticated, specification of the desired traits and key characters to be modified, as well as the potential role of induced mutations. (author). 14 refs

  16. Mass-producing B mesons

    Aleksan, Roy; Ali, Ahmed

    1993-06-15

    Since the discovery of the upsilon resonances in 1977 the physics of the fifth quark - beauty - has played a vital role in establishing and consolidating today's Standard Model of particle physics. In recent years, a wealth of data on B particle (containing the beauty quark) has emerged from the detectors ARGUS (at the DORIS ring, DESY, Hamburg) and CLEO (at the Cornell CESR ring) as well as from CERN's LEP electron-positron collider and the proton-antiproton colliders at CERN and Fermilab. But the most challenging goal of this physics is to explore the mystery of CP violation, so far only seen in neutral kaon decays. This subtle mechanism - a disregard for the combined symmetry of particle antiparticle switching and left-right reflection - possibly moulded the evolution of the Universe after the Big Bang, providing a world dominated by matter, rather than one where matter and antimatter play comparable roles. To fully explore CP violation in the laboratory needs a dedicated machine - a particle 'factory' - to mass produce B mesons. Only when this full picture of CP violation has been revealed will physicists finally be able to solve its mysteries. As well as major proposals in the US and Japan, several ideas have been launched in Europe. Over the years, many working groups have accumulated an impressive amount of data and knowledge on the physics as well as on the machine and detectors. The spearheads of experimental B physics are the ARGUS and CLEO collaborations. Highlights include the determination of the parameters of the (Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa, CKM) quark mixing matrix, testing the consistency of the Standard Model with six quarks and three leptons, and giving the first indirect hint that the as yet unseen sixth ('top') quark is very heavy, together with initial indications of how it should decay. Valuable complementary information has come from proton-antiproton collider data and particularly from the LEP experiments at the Z resonance. Experiments at

  17. Mass-producing B mesons

    Aleksan, Roy; Ali, Ahmed

    1993-01-01

    Since the discovery of the upsilon resonances in 1977 the physics of the fifth quark - beauty - has played a vital role in establishing and consolidating today's Standard Model of particle physics. In recent years, a wealth of data on B particle (containing the beauty quark) has emerged from the detectors ARGUS (at the DORIS ring, DESY, Hamburg) and CLEO (at the Cornell CESR ring) as well as from CERN's LEP electron-positron collider and the proton-antiproton colliders at CERN and Fermilab. But the most challenging goal of this physics is to explore the mystery of CP violation, so far only seen in neutral kaon decays. This subtle mechanism - a disregard for the combined symmetry of particle antiparticle switching and left-right reflection - possibly moulded the evolution of the Universe after the Big Bang, providing a world dominated by matter, rather than one where matter and antimatter play comparable roles. To fully explore CP violation in the laboratory needs a dedicated machine - a particle 'factory' - to mass produce B mesons. Only when this full picture of CP violation has been revealed will physicists finally be able to solve its mysteries. As well as major proposals in the US and Japan, several ideas have been launched in Europe. Over the years, many working groups have accumulated an impressive amount of data and knowledge on the physics as well as on the machine and detectors. The spearheads of experimental B physics are the ARGUS and CLEO collaborations. Highlights include the determination of the parameters of the (Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa, CKM) quark mixing matrix, testing the consistency of the Standard Model with six quarks and three leptons, and giving the first indirect hint that the as yet unseen sixth ('top') quark is very heavy, together with initial indications of how it should decay. Valuable complementary information has come from proton-antiproton collider data and particularly from the LEP experiments at the

  18. Hydrothermal Disintegration and Extraction of Different Microalgae Species

    Michael Kröger

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available For the disintegration and extraction of microalgae to produce lipids and biofuels, a novel processing technology was investigated. The utilization of a hydrothermal treatment was tested on four different microalgae species (Scenedesmus rubescens, Chlorella vulgaris, Nannochloropsis oculata and Arthorspira platensis (Spirulina to determine whether it has an advantage in comparison to other disintegration methods for lipid extraction. It was shown, that hydrothermal treatment is a reasonable opportunity to utilize microalgae without drying and increase the lipid yield of an algae extraction process. For three of the four microalgae species, the extraction yield with a prior hydrothermal treatment elevated the lipid yield up to six times in comparison to direct extraction. Only Scenedesmus rubescens showed a different behaviour. Reason can be found in the different cell wall of the species. The investigation of the differences in cell wall composition of the used species indicate that the existence of algaenan as a cell wall compound plays a major role in stability.

  19. A new species of Trichoderma hypoxylon harbours abundant secondary metabolites.

    Sun, Jingzu; Pei, Yunfei; Li, Erwei; Li, Wei; Hyde, Kevin D; Yin, Wen-Bing; Liu, Xingzhong

    2016-11-21

    Some species of Trichoderma are fungicolous on fungi and have been extensively studied and commercialized as biocontrol agents. Multigene analyses coupled with morphology, resulted in the discovery of T. hypoxylon sp. nov., which was isolated from surface of the stroma of Hypoxylon anthochroum. The new taxon produces Trichoderma- to Verticillium-like conidiophores and hyaline conidia. Phylogenetic analyses based on combined ITS, TEF1-α and RPB2 sequence data indicated that T. hypoxylon is a well-distinguished species with strong bootstrap support in the polysporum group. Chemical assessment of this species reveals a richness of secondary metabolites with trichothecenes and epipolythiodiketopiperazines as the major compounds. The fungicolous life style of T. hypoxylon and the production of abundant metabolites are indicative of the important ecological roles of this species in nature.

  20. Combustion modeling and kinetic rate calculations for a stoichiometric cyclohexane flame. 1. Major reaction pathways.

    Zhang, Hongzhi R; Huynh, Lam K; Kungwan, Nawee; Yang, Zhiwei; Zhang, Shaowen

    2007-05-17

    The Utah Surrogate Mechanism was extended in order to model a stoichiometric premixed cyclohexane flame (P = 30 Torr). Generic rates were assigned to reaction classes of hydrogen abstraction, beta scission, and isomerization, and the resulting mechanism was found to be adequate in describing the combustion chemistry of cyclohexane. Satisfactory results were obtained in comparison with the experimental data of oxygen, major products and important intermediates, which include major soot precursors of C2-C5 unsaturated species. Measured concentrations of immediate products of fuel decomposition were also successfully reproduced. For example, the maximum concentrations of benzene and 1,3-butadiene, two major fuel decomposition products via competing pathways, were predicted within 10% of the measured values. Ring-opening reactions compete with those of cascading dehydrogenation for the decomposition of the conjugate cyclohexyl radical. The major ring-opening pathways produce 1-buten-4-yl radical, molecular ethylene, and 1,3-butadiene. The butadiene species is formed via beta scission after a 1-4 internal hydrogen migration of 1-hexen-6-yl radical. Cascading dehydrogenation also makes an important contribution to the fuel decomposition and provides the exclusive formation pathway of benzene. Benzene formation routes via combination of C2-C4 hydrocarbon fragments were found to be insignificant under current flame conditions, inferred by the later concentration peak of fulvene, in comparison with benzene, because the analogous species series for benzene formation via dehydrogenation was found to be precursors with regard to parent species of fulvene.

  1. Phase Two Protected Species Valuation

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Nonmarket valuation research has produced economic value estimates for a variety of threatened, endangered, and rare species around the world. Although over 40 value...

  2. Phase One Protected Species Valuation

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Nonmarket valuation research has produced economic value estimates for a variety of threatened, endangered, and rare species around the world. Although over 40 value...

  3. Major operations and activities

    Black, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the major operations and activities on the site. These operations and activities include site management, waste management, environmental restoration and corrective actions, and research and technology development.

  4. A major safety overhaul

    2003-01-01

    A redefined policy, a revamped safety course, an environmental project... the TIS (Technical Inspection and Safety) Division has begun a major safety overhaul. Its new head, Wolfgang Weingarten, explains to the Bulletin why and how this is happening.

  5. Allegheny County Major Rivers

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains locations of major rivers that flow through Allegheny County. These shapes have been taken from the Hydrology dataset. The Ohio River,...

  6. Major operations and activities

    Black, D.G.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the major operations and activities on the site. These operations and activities include site management, waste management, environmental restoration and corrective actions, and research and technology development

  7. Volatile compounds in samples of cork and also produced by selected fungi.

    Barreto, M C; Vilas Boas, L; Carneiro, L C; San Romão, M V

    2011-06-22

    The production of volatile compounds by microbial communities of cork samples taken during the cork manufacturing process was investigated. The majority of volatiles were found in samples collected at two stages: resting after the first boiling and nontreated cork disks. Volatile profiles produced by microbiota in both stages are similar. The releasable volatile compounds and 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA) produced in cork-based culture medium by five isolated fungal species in pure and mixed cultures were also analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS).The results showed that 1-octen-3-ol and esters of fatty acids (medium chain length C8-C20) were the main volatile compounds produced by either pure fungal species or their mixture. Apparently, Penicillium glabrum is the main contributor to the overall volatile composition observed in the mixed culture. The production of releasable TCA on cork cannot be attributed to any of the assayed fungal isolates.

  8. SALMONELLA SPECIES

    DR. AMINU

    ... of Salmonella species serotypes in relation to age and sex among children, ..... However, most antimicrobials show sufficient selective toxicity to be of value in ... salmonellosis should be given good attention (Barrow et al., 2007). To reduce ...

  9. Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Brookhaven Linac Isoptope Producer (BLIP)—positioned at the forefront of research into radioisotopes used in cancer treatment and diagnosis—produces commercially...

  10. Effect of metabolites produced by Trichoderma species against ...

    Metabolites released from Trichoderma viride, T. polysporum, T. hamatum and T. aureoviride were tested in culture medium against Ceratocystis paradoxa, which causes black seed rot in oil palm sprouted seeds. The Trichoderma metabolites had similar fungistatic effects on the growth of C. paradoxa except those from T.

  11. Rhamnolipid-producing thermophilic bacteria of species Thermus and Meiothermus

    Řezanka, Tomáš; Siřišťová, L.; Sigler, Karel

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 6 (2011), s. 697-709 ISSN 1431-0651 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/11/0215 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Thermus sp * T. aquaticus * Meiothermus ruber Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.941, year: 2011

  12. Penicillium subrubescens, a new species efficiently producing inulinase

    Mansouri, S.; Houbraken, J.; Samson, R.A.; Frisvad, J.C.; Christensen, M.; Tuthill, D.E.; Koutaniemi, S.; Hatakka, A.; Lankinen, P.

    2013-01-01

    Inulin is a reserve carbohydrate in about 15 % of the flowering plants and is accumulated in underground tubers of e.g. chicory, dahlia and Jerusalem artichoke. This carbohydrate consists of linear chains of β-(2,1)-linked fructose attached to a sucrose molecule. Inulinases hydrolyse inulin into

  13. Penicillium subrubescens, a new species efficiently producing inulinase

    Mansouri, S.; Houbraken, J.; Samson, R.A.

    2013-01-01

    Inulin is a reserve carbohydrate in about 15 % of the flowering plants and is accumulated in underground tubers of e.g. chicory, dahlia and Jerusalem artichoke. This carbohydrate consists of linear chains of β-(2,1)-linked fructose attached to a sucrose molecule. Inulinases hydrolyse inulin...... into fructose and glucose. To find efficient inulin degrading fungi, 126 fungal strains from the Fungal Biotechnology Culture Collection (FBCC) at University of Helsinki and 74 freshly isolated strains from soil around Jerusalem artichoke tubers were screened in liquid cultures with inulin as a sole source...... of carbon or ground Jerusalem artichoke tubers, which contains up to 19 % (fresh weight) inulin. Inulinase and invertase activities were assayed by the dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) method and a freshly isolated Penicillium strain originating from agricultural soil (FBCC 1632) was the most efficient inulinase...

  14. Reactive oxygen species produced by irradiation of some phthalocyanine derivatives

    Černý, J.; Karásková, M.; Rakušan, J.; Nešpůrek, Stanislav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 210, č. 1 (2010), s. 82-88 ISSN 1010-6030 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN400720701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : singlet oxygen * photosensitizer * phthalocyanine Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 2.243, year: 2010

  15. Biotechnological approaches for producing aryltetralin lignans from Linum species

    Malik, S.; Bíba, Ondřej; Grúz, Jiří; Arroo, R.R.J.; Strnad, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 4 (2014), s. 893-913 ISSN 1568-7767 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-19590S Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED0007/01/01 Program:ED Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : 6-Methoxypodophyllotoxin * Anticancer drugs * In vitro cultures Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology Impact factor: 2.407, year: 2014

  16. Species difference in metabolism of inhaled butadiene

    Sabourin, P.J.; Dahl, A.R.; Bechtold, W.E.; Henderson, R.F.; Burka, L.T.

    1991-01-01

    Chronic exposure of B6C3F 1 mice and Sprague-Dawley rats to butadiene (BD) produced a very high incidence of cancer in mice while the incidence in rats was much lower with different tissues affected. Studies at this institute indicate that for equivalent exposures, the blood BD epoxide concentrations in mice are 5-fold higher than in rats and > 10-fold higher than in Cynomolgus monkeys. In this study, the profiles of urinary metabolites of butadiene were determined in Cynomolgus monkeys, F344/N rats, Sprague Dawley rats, B6C3F 1 mice and Syrian hamsters, species containing widely divergent hepatic epoxide hydrolase (EH) activities. Animals were exposed for 2 hr to 8,000 ppm [ 14 C]BD and 24-hr urine samples were analyzed for metabolites. Two major urinary metabolites were identified, N-acetyl-S-(-1(or 2)-3-butene-2(or 1)-ol)cysteine (1) and N-acetyl-S-(-4-butane-1,2-diol)cysteine (2). Monkeys exposed by inhalation produced primarily metabolite 2, while rodent species produced 1-4 times as much of 1 compared to 2. The ratio of 2/1 formation was related to the hepatic epoxide hydrolase activity in different species. The high 2/1 ratio in monkeys was consistent with the lower blood epoxide levels in this species. If BD metabolism by humans is similar to that in the monkey, exposure of humans to BD may result in lower tissue concentrations of reactive metabolites than an equivalent exposure of rodents. This has important implications for assessing the risk to humans of BD exposure based on rodent studies

  17. Molecular Diagnosis of Pathogenic Sporothrix Species

    Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; de Hoog, G Sybren; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sporotrichosis is a chronic (sub)cutaneous infection caused by thermodimorphic fungi in the order, Ophiostomatales. These fungi are characterized by major differences in routes of transmission, host predilections, species virulence, and susceptibilities to antifungals. Sporothrix species

  18. Project INOVEMAR: Innovation in Sea Produce Processment

    Maria Alberta Araújo

    2014-06-01

    Following information conveyed by Docapesca, the less valued species captured in the region are different mackerel species, Atlantic horse mackerel, pout, octopus and mullet. Mackerel and Atlantic horse mackerel, due to their high subcutaneous fat were used for smoking and for the production of canned smoked fillets and patés, with different sauces.The smoking process included: washing fresh fish, 30 minutes immersion in a 80º brine, followed by dripping and drying for 48h. Smoking was carried out at 70ºC during 3h, with a final stage at 90ºC. Several paté formulations were developed with mackerel and atlantic horse mackerel, with different types and quantities of ingredients and flavourings to obtain different products. Special attention was paid to the amounts of thickeners and emulsifiers to attain a pleasant spread ability. All preparations were sterilized for 15 minutes at 121ºC. A sensory panel with 10 judges and a consumer panel with 59 consumers were used to test the developed products. The 59 consumers (17-25 years of age classified smoked products as moderately pleasant. 82% of the consumers tested expressed willingness to purchase the product. In what concerns patés, sensory judges as well as consumers rated the majority of products as very good in the several parameters under evaluation, indication that there is a great potential for these type of commodities. Several fish species are being studied for pre-cooking conservation. In all the cases studied, typical Portuguese cuisine is being used, followed by rapid chilling and packing with modified atmospheres. Preparations, preservation and subsequent consumption are being carried out at the school's canteen. The results obtained until now show that low commercial valued species can be used with success, providing some culinary expertise is added. This is a very important aspect since, transferring this technology to industry, may lead to the development of new products and help an easy flow of

  19. Producing charcoal from wastes

    Pogorelov, V.A.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental works to use wood wastes for producing charcoal are examined, which are being conducted in the Sverdlovsk assembly and adjustment administration of Soyuzorglestekhmontazh. A wasteless prototype installation for producing fine charcoal is described, along with its subsequent briqueting, which is made on the basis of units which are series produced by the factories of the country. The installation includes subassemblies for preparing and drying the raw material and for producing the charcoal briquets. In the opinion of specialists, the charcoal produced from the wastes may be effectively used in ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy and in the production of pipes.

  20. Synopsis of the Oxyethira flavicornis species group with new Japanese Oxyethira species (Trichoptera, Hydroptilidae

    Oláh, J.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A brief synopsis of the Oxyethira flavicornis species group is produced by the examination of type materials. Diagrammatic drawings with similar style were prepared for all the known and for the new species. Short description of genus Oxyethira, subgenus Oxyethira, species group of Oxyethira flavicornis are presented together with the description of five species clusters: O. datra new species cluster, O. ecornuta new species cluster, O. flavicornis new species cluster, O. hiroshima new species cluster, O. tiunovae new species cluster. Five new species are described from the O. flavicornis species group: O chitosea sp. n., O. hena sp. n., O. hiroshima sp. n., O. kakida sp. n., O. mekunna sp. n. One new species is described from the Oxyethira grisea species group: Oxyethira ozea sp. n. and two new species from the Oxyethira ramosa species group: Oxyethira miea sp. n., Oxyethira okinawa sp. n.

  1. Major international sport profiles.

    Patel, Dilip R; Stier, Bernhard; Luckstead, Eugene F

    2002-08-01

    Sports are part of the sociocultural fabric of all countries. Although different sports have their origins in different countries, many sports are now played worldwide. International sporting events bring athletes of many cultures together and provide the opportunity not only for athletic competition but also for sociocultural exchange and understanding among people. This article reviews five major sports with international appeal and participation: cricket, martial arts, field hockey, soccer, and tennis. For each sport, the major aspects of physiological and biomechanical demands, injuries, and prevention strategies are reviewed.

  2. Radiation produced biomaterials

    Rosiak, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    radiation technique. Immobilization of biologically active species in hydrogel matrices, their use as drug delivery systems and enzyme traps as well as modification of material surfaces to improve their biocompatibility and ability to bond antigens and antibodies have been the main subject of their investigations. The rising interest in the field of application of radiation to bioengineering was also recognized by the International Atoimc Energy Agency, which has initiated the international programs relating to those studies. In these lectures some directions of investigations on the formation of hydrogels and their applications for biomedical purposes have been specified. Also, some examples of commercialized products being produced by means of radiation technique have been presented

  3. 10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic Acid, the Major Lipid Component of Royal Jelly, Extends the Lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans through Dietary Restriction and Target of Rapamycin Signaling

    Honda, Yoko; Araki, Yoko; Hata, Taketoshi; Ichihara, Kenji; Ito, Masafumi; Tanaka, Masashi; Honda, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    Royal jelly (RJ) produced by honeybees has been reported to possess diverse health-beneficial properties and has been implicated to have a function in longevity across diverse species as well as honeybees. 10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA), the major lipid component of RJ produced by honeybees, was previously shown to increase the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans. The objective of this study is to elucidate signaling pathways that are involved in the lifespan extension by 10-HDA. 10-HDA f...

  4. Major commercial products from micro- and macroalgae

    Griffiths, M

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Macro- and microalgae are used in a variety of commercial products with many more in development. This chapter outlines the major products, species used, methods of production, extraction, and processing as well as market sizes and trends. Foods...

  5. Major ions in spitsbergen snow samples

    Semb, A.; Braekkan, R.; Joranger, E.

    1984-01-01

    Chemical analysis of Spitsbergen snow cores sampled in spring 1983, reveals a spatial pattern consistent with orographic deposition of major anthropogenic pollutants with air movements from southeast towards northwest. The highest concentrations of pollutant species were found at an altitude of 700 metres above sea level, and are higher than for any other recorded snow samples from the Arctic

  6. Major New Initiatives

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Major New Initiatives. Multi-party multi-rate video conferencing OOPS. Live Lecture OOPS. Rural ATM Machine Vortex. Finger print detection HP-IITM. Medical Diagnostic kit NeuroSynaptic. LCD projection system TeNeT. Web Terminal MeTeL Midas. Entertainment ...

  7. Major planning enquiries

    Shore, P

    1978-11-01

    This is a speech delivered by the U.K. Secretary of State for the Environment in Manchester (UK) on September 13th 1978. It outlines the Minister's views on the role and significance of major planning inquiries - such as that proposed to be held on the Commercial Demonstration Fast Reactor. (CDFR) (author).

  8. Major Biomass Conference

    Top Scientists, Industry and Government Leaders to Gather for Major Biomass Conference America, South America and Europe will focus on building a sustainable, profitable biomass business at the Third Biomass Conference of the Americas in Montreal. Scheduled presentations will cover all biomass

  9. Unity in Major Themes

    Booss-Bavnbek, Bernhelm; Davis, Philip J.

    We describe and explain the desire, common among mathematicians, both for unity and independence in its major themes. In the dialogue that follows, we express our spontaneous and considered judgment and reservations; by contrasting the development of mathematics as a goal-driven process as opposed...

  10. Microbial community changes in hydraulic fracturing fluids and produced water from shale gas extraction.

    Murali Mohan, Arvind; Hartsock, Angela; Bibby, Kyle J; Hammack, Richard W; Vidic, Radisav D; Gregory, Kelvin B

    2013-11-19

    Microbial communities associated with produced water from hydraulic fracturing are not well understood, and their deleterious activity can lead to significant increases in production costs and adverse environmental impacts. In this study, we compared the microbial ecology in prefracturing fluids (fracturing source water and fracturing fluid) and produced water at multiple time points from a natural gas well in southwestern Pennsylvania using 16S rRNA gene-based clone libraries, pyrosequencing, and quantitative PCR. The majority of the bacterial community in prefracturing fluids constituted aerobic species affiliated with the class Alphaproteobacteria. However, their relative abundance decreased in produced water with an increase in halotolerant, anaerobic/facultative anaerobic species affiliated with the classes Clostridia, Bacilli, Gammaproteobacteria, Epsilonproteobacteria, Bacteroidia, and Fusobacteria. Produced water collected at the last time point (day 187) consisted almost entirely of sequences similar to Clostridia and showed a decrease in bacterial abundance by 3 orders of magnitude compared to the prefracturing fluids and produced water samplesfrom earlier time points. Geochemical analysis showed that produced water contained higher concentrations of salts and total radioactivity compared to prefracturing fluids. This study provides evidence of long-term subsurface selection of the microbial community introduced through hydraulic fracturing, which may include significant implications for disinfection as well as reuse of produced water in future fracturing operations.

  11. Differentiating Botulinum Neurotoxin-Producing Clostridia with a Simple, Multiplex PCR Assay.

    Williamson, Charles H D; Vazquez, Adam J; Hill, Karen; Smith, Theresa J; Nottingham, Roxanne; Stone, Nathan E; Sobek, Colin J; Cocking, Jill H; Fernández, Rafael A; Caballero, Patricia A; Leiser, Owen P; Keim, Paul; Sahl, Jason W

    2017-09-15

    Diverse members of the genus Clostridium produce botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), which cause a flaccid paralysis known as botulism. While multiple species of clostridia produce BoNTs, the majority of human botulism cases have been attributed to Clostridium botulinum groups I and II. Recent comparative genomic studies have demonstrated the genomic diversity within these BoNT-producing species. This report introduces a multiplex PCR assay for differentiating members of C. botulinum group I, C. sporogenes , and two major subgroups within C. botulinum group II. Coding region sequences unique to each of the four species/subgroups were identified by in silico analyses of thousands of genome assemblies, and PCR primers were designed to amplify each marker. The resulting multiplex PCR assay correctly assigned 41 tested isolates to the appropriate species or subgroup. A separate PCR assay to determine the presence of the ntnh gene (a gene associated with the botulinum neurotoxin gene cluster) was developed and validated. The ntnh gene PCR assay provides information about the presence or absence of the botulinum neurotoxin gene cluster and the type of gene cluster present ( ha positive [ ha + ] or orfX + ). The increased availability of whole-genome sequence data and comparative genomic tools enabled the design of these assays, which provide valuable information for characterizing BoNT-producing clostridia. The PCR assays are rapid, inexpensive tests that can be applied to a variety of sample types to assign isolates to species/subgroups and to detect clostridia with botulinum neurotoxin gene ( bont ) clusters. IMPORTANCE Diverse clostridia produce the botulinum neurotoxin, one of the most potent known neurotoxins. In this study, a multiplex PCR assay was developed to differentiate clostridia that are most commonly isolated in connection with human botulism cases: C. botulinum group I, C. sporogenes , and two major subgroups within C. botulinum group II. Since BoNT-producing

  12. MAJOR REPOSITORY DESIGN ISSUES

    JACK N. BAILEY, DWAYNE CHESTNUT, JAMES COMPTON AND RICHARD D. SNELL

    1997-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain Project is focused on producing a four-part viability assessment in late FY98. Its four components (design, performance assessment, cost estimate, and licensing development plan) must be consistent. As a tool to compare design and performance assessment options, a series of repository pictures were developed for the sequential time phases of a repository. The boundaries of the time phases correspond to evolution in the engineered barrier system (EBS)

  13. Biologically produced sulfur

    Kleinjan, W.E.; Keizer, de A.; Janssen, A.J.H.

    2003-01-01

    Sulfur compound oxidizing bacteria produce sulfur as an intermediate in the oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to sulfate. Sulfur produced by these microorganisms can be stored in sulfur globules, located either inside or outside the cell. Excreted sulfur globules are colloidal particles which are

  14. Consumers and Producers

    E. Maira (Elisa)

    2018-01-01

    markdownabstractIn the last few decades, advances in information and communication technology have dramatically changed the way consumers and producers interact in the marketplace. The Internet and social media have torn down the information barrier between producers and consumers, leading to

  15. Producers and oil markets

    Greaves, W.

    1993-01-01

    This article attempts an assessment of the potential use of futures by the Middle East oil producers. It focuses on Saudi Arabia since the sheer size of Saudi Arabian sales poses problems, but the basic issues discussed are similar for the other Middle East producers. (Author)

  16. The Ursa Major supercluster

    Schuch, N.J.

    1983-01-01

    An optical and a radio survey have been carried out. The optical observations consist of a spectroscopic survey in which redshift data for cluster galaxies and optical identifications of radio sources were obtained with the 98-inch Isaac Newton telescope at the Royal Greenwich Observatory, and the 200-inch Hale telescope; the photographic survey in B, V and R colors was made with the 48-inch Schmidt telescope at Palomar. Some results on the galaxy distribution in the Ursa Major supercluster are briefly discussed. (Auth.)

  17. Ring species as demonstrations of the continuum of species formation

    Pereira, Ricardo José Do Nascimento; Wake, David B.

    2015-01-01

    In the mid-20th century, Ernst Mayr (1942) and Theodosius Dobzhansky (1958) championed the significance of 'circular overlaps' or 'ring species' as the perfect demonstration of the gradual nature of species formation. As an ancestral species expands its range, wrapping around a geographic barrier......? What conditions favour their formation? Modelling studies have attempted to address these knowledge gaps by estimating the biological parameters that result in stable ring species (Martins et al. 2013), and determining the necessary topographic parameters of the barriers encircled (Monahan et al. 2012......). However, any generalization is undermined by a major limitation: only a handful of ring species are known to exist in nature. In addition, many of them have been broken into multiple species presumed to be evolving independently, usually obscuring the evolutionary dynamics that generate diversity. A paper...

  18. Securing Major Events

    Loeoef, Susanna

    2013-01-01

    When asked why the IAEA should provide nuclear security support to countries that organize large public events, Nuclear Security Officer Sophia Miaw answers quickly and without hesitation. ''Imagine any major public event such as the Olympics, a football championship, or an Expo. If a dirty bomb were to be exploded at a site where tens of thousands of people congregate, the radioactive contamination would worsen the effects of the bomb, increase the number of casualties, impede a rapid emergency response, and cause long term disruption in the vicinity,'' she said. Avoiding such nightmarish scenarios is the driving purpose behind the assistance the IAEA offers States that host major sporting or other public events. The support can range from a single training course to a comprehensive programme that includes threat assessment, training, loaned equipment and exercises. The type and scope of assistance depends on the host country's needs. ''We incorporate nuclear security measures into their security plan. We don't create anything new,'' Miaw said

  19. Producing the Spielberg Brand

    Russell, J.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter looks at the manufacture of Spielberg’s brand, and the limits of its usage. Spielberg’s directorial work is well known, but Spielberg’s identity has also been established in other ways, and I focus particularly on his work as a producer. At the time of writing, Spielberg had produced (or executive produced) 148 movies and television series across a range of genres that takes in high budget blockbusters and low budget documentaries, with many more to come. In these texts, Spielber...

  20. Agricultural Producer Certificates

    Montgomery County of Maryland — A Certified Agricultural Producer, or representative thereof, is an individual who wishes to sell regionally-grown products in the public right-of-way. A Certified...

  1. Study of Charged Particle Species Produced in Association with $\\bar{B}$0, B-, and $\\bar{B}$$0\\atop{s}$ Mesons in p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at √s = 1.96-TeV

    Usynin, Denys [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The authors study the yields of charged kaons, charged pions, and protons produced in association with B mesons produced in proton-antiproton collisions at center of mass energy 1960 GeV using 355 pb-1 of data collected with the CDF detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. This is the first reported measurements of these yields at a hadron collider. The B mesons are reconstructed using their semileptonic decays: B0 → ℓ+D-X, D- → K+π-π-; B0 → ℓ+D*-X, D*- → π-$\\bar{D}$0,$\\bar{D}$0 → K+π-; B+ → ℓ+$\\bar{D}$0X, $\\bar{D}$0 → K+π-; Bs→ℓ+D$-\\atop{s}$ X, D$-\\atop{s}$ → π-Φ,Φ → K+K-. The K, π, and p are identified using the Time of Flight detector (TOF), the CDF spectrometer, and the specific ionization (dE/dx) measured in the central drift chamber (COT). The fraction of charged kaons produced in association with $\\bar{B}$$0\\atop{s}$ mesons is found to be larger than the fraction produced in association with the $\\bar{B}$$0\\atop{s}$ and B- mesons, as expected from naive models of heavy quark hadronization to mesons. The particle species yields are found to be in qualitative agreement with simulation of B meson production in hadron collisions from the PYTHIA Monte Carlo, although the yield of kaons around $\\bar{B}$$0\\atop{s}$ mesons is found to be larger in the simulation when compared to the data. These studies are important for understanding methods of identifying the flavor of $\\bar{B}$$0\\atop{s}$ mesons in measurement of $\\bar{B}$$0\\atop{s}$ flavor oscillations and charge conjugation-parity (CP) violation in $\\bar{B}$$0\\atop{s}$ meson decays.

  2. Polysaccharide-producing microalgae

    Braud, J.P.; Chaumont, D.; Gudin, C.; Thepenier, C.; Chassin, P.; Lemaire, C.

    1982-11-01

    The production of extracellular polysaccharides is studied with Nostoc sp (cyanophycus), Porphiridium cruentum, Rhodosorus marinus, Rhodella maculata (rhodophyci) and Chlamydomonas mexicana (chlorophycus). The polysaccharides produced are separated by centrifugation of the culture then precipitation with alcohol. Their chemical structure was studied by infrared spectrometry and acid hydrolysis. By their rheological properties and especially their insensitivity to temperatrure and pH variations the polysaccharides produced by Porphryridium cruentum and Rhodella maculata appear as suitable candidates for industrial applications.

  3. Major Depressive Disorder

    G Grobler

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The treatment guideline draws on several international guidelines: (iPractice Guidelines of the American Psychiatric Association (APAfor the Treatment of Patients with Major Depressive Disorder, SecondEdition;[1](ii Clinical Guidelines for the Treatment of DepressiveDisorders by the Canadian Psychiatric Association and the CanadianNetwork for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT;[2](iiiNational Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE guidelines;[3](iv RoyalAustralian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists Clinical PracticeGuidelines Team for Depression (RANZCAP;[4](v Texas MedicationAlgorithm Project (TMAP Guidelines;[5](vi World Federation ofSocieties of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP Treatment Guideline forUnipolar Depressive Disorder;[6]and (vii British Association forPsychopharmacology Guidelines.[7

  4. Invasive Species Science Update (No. 7)

    Dean Pearson; Yvette Ortega; Jack Butler

    2014-01-01

    Invasive Species Science Updates are designed to keep managers and other users up-to-date with recently completed and ongoing research by RMRS scientists, as well as highlight breaking news related to invasive species issues. The newsletter is produced by the RMRS Invasive Species Working Group (ISWG), which is a core group of scientists who volunteer to coordinate...

  5. Combining two major ATLAS inner detector components

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    The semiconductor tracker is inserted into the transition radiation tracker for the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. These make up two of the three major components of the inner detector. They will work together to measure the trajectories produced in the proton-proton collisions at the centre of the detector when the LHC is switched on in 2008.

  6. Producing high-quality slash pine seeds

    James Barnett; Sue Varela

    2003-01-01

    Slash pine is a desirable species. It serves many purposes and is well adapted to poorly drained flatwoods and seasonally flooded areas along the lower Coastal Plain of the Southeastern US. The use of high-quality seeds has been shown to produce uniform seedlings for outplanting, which is key to silvicultural success along the Coastal Plain and elsewhere. We present...

  7. Kinetics of exoglucanase and endoglucanase produced by ...

    enoh

    2012-04-05

    Apr 5, 2012 ... Zn2+, Ca2+, Mn2+ and Co2+ enhanced the crude activity of EXG and EG ... processes for producing fuels and chemicals from plant ... increasing the yield of the fruit juices, oil extraction and in ... Trichoderma, Humicola and Aspergillus species were .... observation that stability of the fungal cellulases is.

  8. Characterization of biosurfactant produced from submerged ...

    user

    interfacial tension. This work was designed to produce biosurfactants from the fermentation of .... The cashew apples were collected from. Ubogidi cashew ... and manually crushed to remove the juice using a pestle and mortar. The bagasse was ..... degradation by yeast species Trichosporon asahii isolated from petroleum ...

  9. (R)-3-hydroxyhexan-2-one is a major pheromone component of Anelaphus inflaticollis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae).

    Ray, A M; Swift, I P; Moreira, J A; Millar, J G; Hanks, L M

    2009-10-01

    We report the identification and field bioassays of a major component of the male-produced aggregation pheromone of Anelaphus inflaticollis Chemsak, an uncommon desert cerambycine beetle. Male A. inflaticollis produced a sex-specific blend of components that included (R)-3-hydroxyhexan-2-one, (S)-2-hydroxyhexan-3-one, 2,3-hexanedione, and (2R,3R)- and (2R,3S)-2,3-hexanediols. Field trials with baited bucket traps determined that the reconstructed synthetic pheromone blend and (R)-3-hydroxyhexan-2-one alone attracted adult A. inflaticollis of both sexes, with significantly more beetles being attracted to the blend. We conclude that (R)-3-hydroxyhexan-2-one is a major pheromone component of A. inflaticollis, and our results suggest that one or more of the minor components may further increase attraction of conspecifics. Scanning electron microscopy showed that male A. inflaticollis have pores on the prothorax that are consistent in structure with sex-specific pheromone gland pores in related species. Males also displayed stereotyped calling behavior similar to that observed in other cerambycine species. This study represents the first report of volatile pheromones for a cerambycine species in the tribe Elaphidiini.

  10. Diversity of the Mountain Flora of Central Asia with Emphasis on Alkaloid-Producing Plants

    Karimjan Tayjanov

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The mountains of Central Asia with 70 large and small mountain ranges represent species-rich plant biodiversity hotspots. Major mountains include Saur, Tarbagatai, Dzungarian Alatau, Tien Shan, Pamir-Alai and Kopet Dag. Because a range of altitudinal belts exists, the region is characterized by high biological diversity at ecosystem, species and population levels. In addition, the contact between Asian and Mediterranean flora in Central Asia has created unique plant communities. More than 8100 plant species have been recorded for the territory of Central Asia; about 5000–6000 of them grow in the mountains. The aim of this review is to summarize all the available data from 1930 to date on alkaloid-containing plants of the Central Asian mountains. In Saur 301 of a total of 661 species, in Tarbagatai 487 out of 1195, in Dzungarian Alatau 699 out of 1080, in Tien Shan 1177 out of 3251, in Pamir-Alai 1165 out of 3422 and in Kopet Dag 438 out of 1942 species produce alkaloids. The review also tabulates the individual alkaloids which were detected in the plants from the Central Asian mountains. Quite a large number of the mountain plants produce neurotoxic and cytotoxic alkaloids, indicating that a strong chemical defense is needed under the adverse environmental conditions of these mountains with presumably high pressure from herbivores.

  11. The significance of cellulolytic enzymes produced by Trichoderma in opportunistic lifestyle of this fungus.

    Strakowska, Judyta; Błaszczyk, Lidia; Chełkowski, Jerzy

    2014-07-01

    The degradation of native cellulose to glucose monomers is a complex process, which requires the synergistic action of the extracellular enzymes produced by cellulolytic microorganisms. Among fungi, the enzymatic systems that can degrade native cellulose have been extensively studied for species belonging to the genera of Trichoderma. The majority of the cellulolytic enzymes described so far have been examples of Trichoderma reesei, extremely specialized in the efficient degradation of plant cell wall cellulose. Other Trichoderma species, such as T. harzianum, T. koningii, T. longibrachiatum, and T. viride, known for their capacity to produce cellulolytic enzymes, have been isolated from various ecological niches, where they have proved successful in various heterotrophic interactions. As saprotrophs, these species are considered to make a contribution to the degradation of lignocellulosic plant material. Their cellulolytic potential is also used in interactions with plants, especially in plant root colonization. However, the role of cellulolytic enzymes in species forming endophytic associations with plants or in those existing in the substratum for mushroom cultivation remains unknown. The present review discusses the current state of knowledge about cellulolytic enzymes production by Trichoderma species and the encoding genes, as well as the involvement of these proteins in the lifestyle of Trichoderma. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Quality and quantity of latex which can be produced from natural vegetation in Greece

    Margaris, N.S.; Vokou, D.; Diamantopoulos, J.

    1985-01-01

    Euphorbiaceae is one of the major latex producing families very promising in terms of exploitation as energy sources. Research in the Greek areas proved that Euphorbia species are very numerous with high contribution in biomass terms in many of them. Provided are data concerning growth characteristics of E. dendroides and E. acanthothamnos to answer the question of the feasibility of harvesting. E. helioscopia is proved to be a very promising species with many ecotypes. Its occurrence and extremely increased growth in olive, almonds, and pear plantations makes it a very important species needing further research to evaluate the possibility of combined cultivation with the above mentioned trees. It is estimated the oil production that such plantations may yield.

  13. Thermally Modified Wood: Marketing Strategies of U.S. Producers

    Omar Espinoza

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Thermally-modified wood (TMW has enhanced properties and its production does not involve the use of chemicals. However, the adoption of TMW in the marketplace has been limited in the U.S. for reasons that have not yet been clearly established. In this study, the marketing practices of U.S. producers and distributors of TMW were investigated, by conducting semi-structured interviews. Topics included major products and species, markets, distribution channels, promotional strategies, perceived barriers to adoption, and the outlook for TMW markets. Results show that TMW producers in general export a significant percent of their production; that TMW is considered a high-end product; and that customers are not as sensitive to prices as in other mainstream markets. Common products sold include siding, decking, flooring, millwork, and components for musical instruments. Respondents believe that the low awareness of TMW among the American public is a major barrier to wider adoption of TMW. However, companies envision a bright future for TMW as sales and inquiries have increased at a fast rate during the last few years.

  14. Producing metallurgic coke

    Abe, T.; Isida, K.; Vada, Y.

    1982-11-18

    A mixture of power producing coals with coal briquets of varying composition is proposed for coking in horizontal chamber furnaces. The briquets are produced from petroleum coke, coal fines or semicoke, which make up less than 27 percent of the mixture to be briquetted and coals with a standard coking output of volatile substances and coals with high maximal Gizeler fluidity. The ratio of these coals in the mixture is 0.6 to 2.1 or 18 to 32 percent, respectively. Noncaking or poorly caking coals are used as the power producing coals. The hardness of the obtained coke is DJ15-30 = 90.5 to 92.7 percent.

  15. Inventory transparency for agricultural produce through IOT

    Srinivasan, S. P.; Sorna Shanthi, D.; Anand, Aashish V.

    2017-06-01

    Re-structuring the practices of traditional inventory management is becoming more essential to optimize the supply chain transparency and accuracy of agricultural produce. A flexible and transparent inventory management system is becoming the need of any agricultural commodity. It was noticed that the major setback for the farmers who are the suppliers of the farm produce is due to poor supply chain integration. The recent advent technologies and IT explosion can bring up a greater impact in the process of storing, tracking, distributing and monitoring perishable agriculture produce of day to day life. The primary focus of this paper is to integrate IoT into inventory management and other inbound logistics management of agriculture produce. The unique features of agricultural produce like a prediction of supply, demand, the location of warehouses, distribution and tracking of inventory can be integrated through IoT. This paper proposes a conceptual framework for inventory management transparency involved in the supply chain of agriculture produce.

  16. Standards and producers' liability

    Kretschmer, F.

    1979-01-01

    The author discusses the liability of producers and the diligence required, which has to come up to technical standards and the latest state of technology. The consequences of this requirement with regard to claims for damages are outlined and proposals for reforms are pointed out. (HSCH) [de

  17. Project Seahorse evolves into major marine protector | IDRC ...

    2012-10-29

    Oct 29, 2012 ... Project Seahorse evolves into major marine protector ... local people, have greatly improved the prospects of survival for threatened species. ... “We tackle issues on any political level or geographical scale, according to what ...

  18. Short Communications Strength Properties and Groups of Major ...

    Short Communications Strength Properties and Groups of Major Commercial Timbers Grown in Kenya. ... The strength groups developed revealed that most species in Kenya are suitable for heavy engineering works and building construction. ... strength properties, commercial timber, physical and mechanical properties

  19. Endangered Species Day | Endangered Species Coalition

    Annual Top 10 Report Protecting the Endangered Species Act Wildlife Voices Stand for Wolves Endangered Campaigns Wildlife Voices Protecting the Endangered Species Act Annual Top 10 Report Endangered Species Day Stand for Wolves Vanishing BOOK: A Wild Success The Endangered Species Act at 40 Endangered Species The

  20. MIB-producing cyanobacteria (Planktothrix sp.) in a drinking water reservoir: distribution and odor producing potential.

    Su, Ming; Yu, Jianwei; Zhang, Junzhi; Chen, Hui; An, Wei; Vogt, Rolf D; Andersen, Tom; Jia, Dongmin; Wang, Jingshi; Yang, Min

    2015-01-01

    The production of odorant 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) in water bodies by Planktothrix sp. have not been understood very well. Through a four-year investigation in Miyun Reservoir, a huge mesotrophic drinking water reservoir known to have the MIB episodes, we found that the Planktothrix sp. bloomed during September and October causing the high levels of MIB in the reservoir. The concentration of MIB and the biomass of MIB-producing cyanobacteria Planktothrix were measured (n = 887) at different sites and depths during different seasons. The results indicated that the shallow region of the reservoir is the major habitat for Planktothrix sp. due to that the light is able to penetrate down to the relatively high concentrations of nutrients close to the sediments. Quantile regression analysis between Planktothrix biomass and MIB concentration shows that the risk of MIB exceeding the odor threshold (15 ng L⁻¹) in water was as high as 90% when the Planktothrix density was more than 4.0 × 10⁵ cells L⁻¹, while the risk was reduced to 10% when the Planktothrix density remained below 1.6 × 10⁴ cells L⁻¹. This study will improve the understanding of the environmental behaviors of Planktothrix sp., and can provide useful information for better management of drinking water lakes/reservoirs experiencing the taste and odor (T&O) problems caused by deep living cyanobacterial species.

  1. 大气CO2浓度升高和N沉降对南亚热带主要乡土树种叶片元素含量的影响%Effects of elevated CO2 concentration and N deposition on leaf element contents of major native tree species in southern subtropical China

    李义勇; 黄文娟; 赵亮; 方熊; 刘菊秀

    2012-01-01

    大气CO2浓度升高和N沉降以及二者之间的耦合作用对陆地森林生态系统的影响是当前国际生态学界关注的热点之一.该实验运用大型开顶箱(open-top chamber,OTC)研究:1)高CO2浓度(700 μmol·mol-1)+高N沉降(100 kg N·hm-2·a-1) (CN);2)高CO2浓度(700 μmol·mol-1)和背景N沉降(CC);3)高N沉降(100 kg N·hm-2·a-1)和背景CO2浓度(NN);4)背景CO2和背景N沉降(CK)4种处理对南亚热带主要乡土树种木荷(Schima superba)、红锥(Castanopsis hystrix)、肖蒲桃(Acmena acuminatissima)、红鳞蒲桃(Syzygium hancei)、海南红豆(Ormosia pinnata)叶片元素含量的影响.研究结果表明,大气CO2浓度升高对5种乡土树种叶片元素含量有较大的影响,除海南红豆叶片的Ca含量外,其他树种的叶片元素含量在高CO2浓度处理下都显著升高(p<0.05);而在N沉降处理下,5个树种的叶片K和Ca含量都降低.大气CO2浓度升高与N沉降处理对5种乡土树种植物叶片元素含量影响的交互作用不是很明显,仅仅木荷和红鳞蒲桃的叶片Ca和Mn以及海南红豆的叶片Mn含量在大气CO2浓度上升和N沉降交互处理下显著下降,而肖蒲桃的叶片P含量在大气CO2浓度上升和N沉降交互处理下显著上升.%Aims The effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration and N deposition on terrestrial ecosystems and plants are the focus of international ecological study. Changes of nutrient element content in plants induced by atmospheric CO2 concentration and/or N deposition directly affect the productivity of forest ecosystems; however, few studies have examined this in subtropical China. Our purpose is to study the effects of elevated CO2 and N deposition on leaf element contents of major native tree species in southern subtropical China. Methods Five tree species native in southern China were planted in model forest ecosystems. The species were exposed to elevated CO2 and N deposition in open top chambers in May 2005

  2. Polyphenols produced during red wine ageing.

    Brouillard, R; George, F; Fougerousse, A

    1997-01-01

    Over the past few years, it has been accepted that a moderate red wine consumption is a factor beneficial to human health. Indeed, people of France and Italy, the two major wine-producing European countries, eat a lot of fatty foods but suffer less from fatal heart strokes than people in North-America or in the northern regions of Europe, where wine is not consumed on a regular basis. For a time, ethanol was thought to be the "good" chemical species hiding behind what is known as the "French paradox". Researchers now have turned their investigations towards a family of natural substances called "polyphenols", which are only found in plants and are abundant in grapes. It is well known that these molecules behave as radical scavengers and antioxidants, and it has been demonstrated that they can protect cholesterol in the LDL species from oxidation, a process thought to be at the origin of many fatal heart attacks. However, taken one by one, it remains difficult to demonstrate which are the best polyphenols as far as their antioxidant activities are concerned. The main obstacle in that kind of research is not the design of the chemical and biological tests themselves, but surprisingly enough, the limited access to chemically pure and structurally elucidated polyphenolic compounds. In this article, particular attention will be paid to polyphenols of red wine made from Vitis vinifera cultivars. With respect to the "French paradox", we address the following question: are wine polyphenolic compounds identical to those found in grapes (skin, pulp and seed), or are there biochemical modifications specifically taking place on the native flavonoids when a wine ages? Indeed, structural changes occur during wine conservation, and one of the most studied of those changes concerns red wine colour evolution, called "wine ageing". As a wine ages, it has been demonstrated that the initially present grape pigments slowly turn into new more stable red pigments. That phenomenon goes on

  3. Tilecal meets two major milestones

    Cavalli-Sforza, M.

    Over the last two months the Tile Calorimeter passed not one but two major milestones. In early May, the last of the 64 modules that make up one of the two Extended Barrels arrived at CERN from IFAE-Barcelona, equipped with optical components and tested. And during the Overview Week in Clermont-Ferrand, the last of the 64 Barrel modules, mechanically assembled, arrived from JINR-Dubna. Just a brief reminder: the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter is composed of 3 cylinders ("barrels") of steel, scintillating tiles and optical fibers, altogether about 12 m long, with an outer diameter of 8.4 m, and weighing about 2700 tons. The central cavity will contain the Liquid Argon cryostats, and the whole calorimetry system will measure the direction and energy of jets produced at the LHC, as well as the missing transverse energy, which as everyone knows is one of the telltale signals of new and exciting physics. Each of the three cylinders is divided azimuthally into 64 modules - much like the slices of an orange. The modules ar...

  4. [Informative predation: Towards a new species concept].

    Lherminier, Philippe

    2018-04-01

    lytochal and deuterotochal parthenogenesis of aphids, and the innumerable para- and pseudo-sexual strategies of plants opportunistically combine the two modes of asexual replication and sexual combination. However, for the majority of animals and multicellular plants that produce many gametes, numerical proliferation by descendants and informative diversity by sexuality are mutually implicated, for example in the seed. The true discovery of eukaryotes may not be the "true nucleus", as their name implies, but an orderly informative function. The field of recombinations circumscribes a class of partners genetically compatible with each other, each simultaneously prey and predator of the DNA of the other. The mythical Maxwell demon capable of tracing entropy by sorting molecules according to their state does exist: each mate is the other's Maxwell's demon. While a sexless bacterium is simply divided into two cells, two sexual parents work together to produce a single offspring a time. Added to this are the burdens involved in meiosis and crossing-over, cellular diploidy, and mating. Sex produces an information gain that is paid for by a cost of energy-material, and this barter must be fair to survive. The domains of sexual intercourse are very diverse: uniparental reproduction, alternation of asexual proliferation and sexual information, self-fertilization, endogamy, exogamy, panmixis, diffuse or structured polymorphism, fertile or sterile hybridization, horizontal transfers. Each species is a recombination field between two domains, cloning and hybridization. Multiplicative descent and informative fertilization are organically distinct, but selectively associated: the information produced by the parents' sexuality favors the predation of matter-energy and therefore the proliferation of offspring, and this proliferation in turn favors the sexed producers of information. The equation specific to each species is: enough energy to proliferate, enough information to diversify

  5. Dimuons produced by antineutrinos

    Benvenuti, A.; Cline, D.; Ford, W.T.; Imlay, R.; Ling, T.Y.; Mann, A.K.; Orr, R.; Reeder, D.D.; Rubbia, C.; Stefanski, R.; Sulak, L.; Wanderer, P.

    1975-01-01

    In a run with a predominantly phi-bar beam we have observed seven dimuon events which show clearly that dimuons are produced by phi-bar as well as by phi. Using the signature of those events we tentatively identify twelve dimuon events from earlier runs as phi-bar-induced. The characteristics of the total sample support the explanation that dimuons arise from new hadron production

  6. Magnetic nanoparticles: reactive oxygen species generation and potential therapeutic applications

    Mai, Trang; Hilt, J. Zach

    2017-07-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles have been demonstrated to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), which play a major role in various cellular pathways, via Fenton and Haber-Weiss reaction. ROS act as a double-edged sword inside the body. At normal conditions, the generation of ROS is in balance with their elimination by scavenger systems, and they can promote cell proliferation as well as differentiation. However, at an increased level, they can cause damages to protein, lead to cellular apoptosis, and contribute to many diseases including cancer. Many recent studies proposed a variety of strategies to either suppress toxicity of ROS generation or exploit the elevated ROS levels for cancer therapy.

  7. Fumonisin detection and analysis of potential fumonisin-producing Fusarium spp. in asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) in Zhejiang Province of China.

    Wang, Jiansheng; Wang, Xiaoping; Zhou, Ying; Du, Liangcheng; Wang, Qiaomei

    2010-04-15

    Fumonisins are mycotoxins produced by a number of Fusarium species, including several pathogens of asparagus plants. China is one of the largest asparagus producers in the world. In this study, we analysed the contamination of fumonisins and fumonisin-producing fungi in asparagus spear samples from Zhejiang Province, the major asparagus production province in China. The asparagus did not contain a detectable level of fumonisins. However, the recovery of Fusarium in asparagus was 72.7%, including F. proliferatum (40.9%), F. oxysporum (22.7%), F. acuminatum (4.55%) and F. equesti (4.55%). A multiplex PCR targeting the internal transcribed spacer sequence (ITS), translation elongation factor 1-alpha (TEF), and key biosynthetic genes FUM1 and FUM8, was used to simultaneously determine the identity and the biosynthetic ability of the fungal isolates. Fungal isolates containing the FUM genes also produced fumonisins in cultures, ranging from 28 to 4204 microg g(-1). F. proliferatum was the only fumonisin-producing Fusarium species in asparagus. Although no fumonisin contamination was detected in asparagus in the current survey, we found that the majority of samples contained Fusarium spp. Because F. proliferatum is a high fumonisin-producing species, potential health risks for human consumption of asparagus exist, if the appropriate environmental conditions are present for this fungus. (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Microspora floccosa; a potential biofuel producer

    Memon, A.A.S.; Pathan, A.A.

    2016-01-01

    The current study is focused on biofuel production from local specie of algae. Initially samples were observed to identify the algal specie. Afterward oil was extracted from algae by Soxhlet extraction method, retention time was optimized to improve the yield of oil at different intervals. The recovered oil from algae was subjected to qualitative analysis by Gas Chromatography. Four major peaks were appeared on GC chromatogram which correspond to methyl esters of dodecanoic acid, tetradecanoic acid, 8,11,14-Eicosadienoic acid and 9,10-dihydroxy octadecanoic. The results reflect that Microspora floccosa algae considered to be favorable for biofuel production. (author)

  9. Microspora Floccosa; A Potential Biofuel Producer

    Aisha Abdul Sattar Memon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The current study is focused on biofuel production from local specie of algae. Initially samples were observed to identify the algal specie. Afterward oil was extracted from algae by Soxhlet extraction method, retention time was optimized to improve the yield of oil at different intervals. The recovered oil from algae was subjected to qualitative analysis by Gas Chromatography. Four major peaks were appeared on GC chromatogram which correspond to methyl esters of Dodecanoic acid, Tetradecanoic acid, 8,11,14-Eicosadienoic acid and 9,10-Dihydroxy octadecanoic. The results reflect that Microspora floccosa algae considered to be favorable for biofuel production.

  10. Presence of acylated homoserine lactones (AHLs) and AHL-producing bacteria in meat and potential role of AHL in spoilage of meat

    Bruhn, Jesper Bartholin; Christensen, Allan Beck; Flodgaard, Lars

    2004-01-01

    Quorum-sensing (QS) signals (N-acyl homoserine lactones [AHLs]) were extracted and detected from five commercially produced vacuum-packed meat samples. Ninety-six AHL-producing bacteria were isolated, and 92 were identified as Enterobacteriaceae. Hafnia alvei was the most commonly identified AHL......-producing bacterium. Thin-layer chromatographic profiles of supernatants from six H. alvei isolates and of extracts from spoiling meat revealed that the major AHL species had an R-f value and shape similar to N-3-oxo-hexanoyl homoserine lactone (OHHL). Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (MS) (high-resolution MS...

  11. Prior indigenous technological species

    Wright, Jason T.

    2018-01-01

    One of the primary open questions of astrobiology is whether there is extant or extinct life elsewhere the solar system. Implicit in much of this work is that we are looking for microbial or, at best, unintelligent life, even though technological artefacts might be much easier to find. Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) work on searches for alien artefacts in the solar system typically presumes that such artefacts would be of extrasolar origin, even though life is known to have existed in the solar system, on Earth, for eons. But if a prior technological, perhaps spacefaring, species ever arose in the solar system, it might have produced artefacts or other technosignatures that have survived to present day, meaning solar system artefact SETI provides a potential path to resolving astrobiology's question. Here, I discuss the origins and possible locations for technosignatures of such a prior indigenous technological species, which might have arisen on ancient Earth or another body, such as a pre-greenhouse Venus or a wet Mars. In the case of Venus, the arrival of its global greenhouse and potential resurfacing might have erased all evidence of its existence on the Venusian surface. In the case of Earth, erosion and, ultimately, plate tectonics may have erased most such evidence if the species lived Gyr ago. Remaining indigenous technosignatures might be expected to be extremely old, limiting the places they might still be found to beneath the surfaces of Mars and the Moon, or in the outer solar system.

  12. Producing quality radiographic images

    Cullinan, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    This book gives an overview of physics, equipment, imaging, and quality assurance in the radiology department. The chapters are laid out with generous use of subheads to allow for quick reference, Points are illustrated with clear, uncluttered line diagrams and well-produced images. The accompanying explanations are miniature lessons by themselves. Inserted at various points throughout the text are important notes that highlight key concepts. The chapter ''Image Evaluation and Application of Radiographic Principles'' present a systematic approach to evaluating radiographs and contains several sample radiographs to illustrate the points made

  13. A student's guide to Einstein's major papers

    Kennedy, Robert E

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of the physical universe underwent a revolution in the early twentieth century - evolving from the classical physics of Newton, Galileo, and Maxwell to the modern physics of relativity and quantum mechanics. The dominant figure in this revolutionary change was Albert Einstein. In a single year, 1905, Einstein produced breakthrough works in three areas of physics: on the size and the effects of atoms; on the quantization of the electromagnetic field; and on the special theory of relativity. In 1916 he produced a fourth breakthrough work, the general theory of relativity. A Student's Guide to Einstein's Major Papers focuses on Einstein's contributions, setting his major works into their historical context, and then takes the reader through the details of each paper, including the mathematics. This book helps the reader appreciate the simplicity and insightfulness of Einstein's ideas and how revolutionary his work was, and locate it in the evolution of scientific thought begun by the ancient...

  14. Producing x-rays

    Mallozzi, P.J.; Epstein, H.M.; Jung, R.G.; Applebaum, D.C.; Fairand, B.P.; Gallagher, W.J.

    1977-01-01

    A method of producing x-rays by directing radiant energy from a laser onto a target is described. Conversion efficiency of at least about 3 percent is obtained by providing the radiant energy in a low-power precursor pulse of approximately uniform effective intensity focused onto the surface of the target for about 1 to 30 nanoseconds so as to generate an expanding unconfined coronal plasma having less than normal solid density throughout and comprising a low-density (underdense) region wherein the plasma frequency is less than the laser radiation frequency and a higher-density (overdense) region wherein the plasma frequency is greater than the laser radiation frequency and, about 1 to 30 nanoseconds after the precursor pulse strikes the target, a higher-power main pulse focused onto the plasma for about 10 -3 to 30 nanoseconds and having such power density and total energy that the radiant energy is absorbed in the underdense region and conducted into the overdense region to heat it and thus to produce x-rays therefrom with the plasma remaining substantially below normal solid density and thus facilitating the substantial emission of x-rays in the form of spectral lines arising from nonequilibrium ionization states

  15. Man...An Endangered Species?

    Department of the Interior, Washington, DC.

    The general theme of this 1968 yearbook is that man is a threatened species, facing overpopulation and unbridled technology - both self induced. The presentation is broad, relating to many aspects of conservation and natural resources in the United States in a descriptive, non-technical style. The yearbook is divided into major topics: Land…

  16. Acetaldehyde production by major oral microbes.

    Moritani, K; Takeshita, T; Shibata, Y; Ninomiya, T; Kiyohara, Y; Yamashita, Y

    2015-09-01

    To assess acetaldehyde (ACH) production by bacteria constituting the oral microbiota and the inhibitory effects of sugar alcohols on ACH production. The predominant bacterial components of the salivary microbiota of 166 orally healthy subjects were determined by barcoded pyrosequencing analysis of the 16S rRNA gene. Bacterial ACH production from ethanol or glucose was measured using gas chromatography. In addition, inhibition by four sugars and five sugar alcohols of ACH production was assayed. Forty-one species from 16 genera were selected as predominant and prevalent bacteria based on the following criteria: identification in ≥95% of the subjects, ≥1% of mean relative abundance or ≥5% of maximum relative abundance. All Neisseria species tested produced conspicuous amounts of ACH from ethanol, as did Rothia mucilaginosa, Streptococcus mitis and Prevotella histicola exhibited the ability to produce ACH. In addition, xylitol and sorbitol inhibited ACH production by Neisseria mucosa by more than 90%. The oral microbiota of orally healthy subjects comprises considerable amounts of bacteria possessing the ability to produce ACH, an oral carcinogen. Consumption of sugar alcohols may regulate ACH production by oral microbes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Calcitonin produces hypercalcemia in leopard sharks.

    Glowacki, J; O'Sullivan, J; Miller, M; Wilkie, D W; Deftos, L J

    1985-02-01

    Calcitonin was detected by RIA in sera from four marine species, leopard sharks (Triakis semifasciata), horn sharks (Heterodontus francisci), thornback rays (Platyrhinoides triseriata), and kelp bass (Paralabrax clathratus). These animals have levels of calcitonin and calcium higher than freshwater and terrestrial species have. The administration of salmon calcitonin to bass (4 micrograms/kg BW) produced hypocalcemia and hypophosphatemia as has been reported for other bony vertebrates. In marked contrast, calcitonin produced a prompt hypercalcemia in sharks; the average was 9.8% increase in serum calcium in nine animals with no attendant change in phosphorus. These findings demonstrate that calcitonin can increase serum calcium in sharks. Because shark skeleton is composed of cartilage, this hypercalcemic effect of calcitonin does not require a bony skeleton.

  18. The Black Aspergillus Species of Maize and Peanuts and Their Potential for Mycotoxin Production

    Palencia, Edwin R.; Hinton, Dorothy M.; Bacon, Charles W.

    2010-01-01

    The black spored fungi of the subgenera Circumdata, the section Nigri (=Aspergillus niger group) is reviewed relative to their production of mycotoxins and their effects on plants as pathogens. Molecular methods have revealed more than 18 cryptic species, of which several have been characterized as potential mycotoxin producers. Others are defined as benign relative to their ability to produce mycotoxins. However, these characterizations are based on in vitro culture and toxins production. Several can produce the ochratoxins that are toxic to livestock, poultry, and humans. The black aspergilli produce rots of grapes, maize, and numerous other fruits and grain and they are generally viewed as post-harvest pathogens. Data are review to suggest that black aspergilli, as so many others, are symptomless endophytes. These fungi and their mycotoxins contaminate several major grains, foodstuffs, and products made from them such as wine, and coffee. Evidence is presented that the black aspergilli are producers of other classes of mycotoxins such as the fumonisins, which are known carcinogenic and known prior investigations as being produced by the Fusarium species. Three species are identified in U.S. maize and peanuts as symptomless endophytes, which suggests the potential for concern as pathogens and as food safety hazards. PMID:22069592

  19. Evaluating environmental consequences of producing herbaceous crops for bioenergy

    McLaughlin, S.B.

    1995-01-01

    The environmental costs and benefits of producing bioenergy crops can be measured both in kterms of the relative effects on soil, water, and wildlife habitat quality of replacing alternate cropping systems with the designated bioenergy system, and in terms of the quality and amount of energy that is produced per unit of energy expended. While many forms of herbaceous and woody energy crops will likely contribute to future biofuels systems, The Dept. of Energy's Biofuels Feedstock Development Program (BFDP), has chosen to focus its primary herbaceous crops research emphasis on a perennial grass species, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), as a bioenergy candidate. This choice was based on its high yields, high nutrient use efficiency, and wide geographic distribution, and also on its poistive environmental attributes. The latter include its positive effects on soil quality and stabiity, its cover value for wildlife, and the lower inputs of enerty, water, and agrochemicals required per unit of energy produced. A comparison of the energy budgets for corn, which is the primary current source of bioethanol, and switchgrass reveals that the efficiency of energy production for a perennial grass system can exceed that for an energy intensive annual row crop by as much as 15 times. In additions reductions in CO 2 emission, tied to the energetic efficiency of producing transportation fuels, are very efficient with grasses. Calculated carbon sequestration rates may exceed those of annual crops by as much as 20--30 times, due in part to carbon storage in the soil. These differences have major implications for both the rate and efficiency with which fossil energy sources can be replaced with cleaner burning biofuels

  20. Evaluating environmental consequences of producing herbaceous crops for bioenergy

    McLaughlin, S.B.

    1995-12-31

    The environmental costs and benefits of producing bioenergy crops can be measured both in kterms of the relative effects on soil, water, and wildlife habitat quality of replacing alternate cropping systems with the designated bioenergy system, and in terms of the quality and amount of energy that is produced per unit of energy expended. While many forms of herbaceous and woody energy crops will likely contribute to future biofuels systems, The Dept. of Energy`s Biofuels Feedstock Development Program (BFDP), has chosen to focus its primary herbaceous crops research emphasis on a perennial grass species, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), as a bioenergy candidate. This choice was based on its high yields, high nutrient use efficiency, and wide geographic distribution, and also on its poistive environmental attributes. The latter include its positive effects on soil quality and stabiity, its cover value for wildlife, and the lower inputs of enerty, water, and agrochemicals required per unit of energy produced. A comparison of the energy budgets for corn, which is the primary current source of bioethanol, and switchgrass reveals that the efficiency of energy production for a perennial grass system can exceed that for an energy intensive annual row crop by as much as 15 times. In additions reductions in CO{sub 2} emission, tied to the energetic efficiency of producing transportation fuels, are very efficient with grasses. Calculated carbon sequestration rates may exceed those of annual crops by as much as 20--30 times, due in part to carbon storage in the soil. These differences have major implications for both the rate and efficiency with which fossil energy sources can be replaced with cleaner burning biofuels.

  1. Field Validation of Toxicity Tests to Evaluate the Potential for Beneficial Use of Produced Water

    Joseph Bidwell; Jonathan Fisher; Naomi Cooper

    2008-03-31

    This study investigated potential biological effects of produced water contamination derived from occasional surface overflow and possible subsurface intrusion at an oil production site along the shore of Skiatook Lake, Oklahoma. We monitored basic chemistry and acute toxicity to a suite of standard aquatic test species (fathead minnow-Pimephales promelas, Daphnia pulex, Daphnia magna, and Ceriodaphnia dubia) in produced water and in samples taken from shallow groundwater wells on the site. Toxicity identification evaluations and ion toxicity modeling were used to identify toxic constituents in the samples. Lake sediment at the oil production site and at a reference site were also analyzed for brine intrusion chemically and by testing sediment toxicity using the benthic invertebrates, Chironomus dilutus, and Hyallela azteca. Sediment quality was also assessed with in situ survival and growth studies with H. azteca and the Asian clam, Corbicula fluminea, and by benthic macroinvertebrate community sampling. The produced water was acutely toxic to the aquatic test organisms at concentrations ranging from 1% to 10% of the whole produced water sample. Toxicity identification evaluation and ion toxicity modeling indicated major ion salts and hydrocarbons were the primary mixture toxicants. The standardized test species used in the laboratory bioassays exhibited differences in sensitivity to these two general classes of contaminants, which underscores the importance of using multiple species when evaluating produced water toxicity. Toxicity of groundwater was greater in samples from wells near a produced water injection well and an evaporation pond. Principle component analyses (PCA) of chemical data derived from the groundwater wells indicated dilution by lake water and possible biogeochemical reactions as factors that ameliorated groundwater toxicity. Elevated concentrations of major ions were found in pore water from lake sediments, but toxicity from these ions was

  2. Producing Civil Society

    Feldt, Liv Egholm; Hein Jessen, Mathias

    Since the beginning of the 1990’s, civil society has attracted both scholarly and political interest as the ‘third sphere’ outside the state and the market not only a normatively privileged site of communication and ‘the public sphere’, but also as a resource for democratization processes...... and social cohesion, as well as a provider of welfare services from a welfare state in dire straits. However, such a view upholds a sharp distinction between the three sectors and their distinct logic. This article claims that the separation of spheres is a fundamental part of our ‘social imaginary......’ and as such dominates our way of thinking about civil society. Yet, this view hinders the understanding of how civil society is not a pre-existing or given sphere, but a sphere which is constantly produced both discursively, conceptually and practically. Through two examples; 1,the case of philanthropy in the beginning...

  3. Weaving History through the Major

    Mayfield, Betty

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of including the study of the history of mathematics in the education of mathematics majors have been discussed at length elsewhere. Many colleges and universities now offer a History of Mathematics course for mathematics majors, for mathematics education majors, or for general credit. At Hood College, we emphasize our commitment to…

  4. HACCP implementation in the production of fresh-cut produce

    The number of foodborne illness outbreaks linked to fresh produce has increased in the last few years. Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella have been implicated as major bacterial pathogens of concern to produce safety. Microbial contamination of produce may occur anytime during the prod...

  5. Do Biology Majors Really Differ from Non–STEM Majors?

    Cotner, Sehoya; Thompson, Seth; Wright, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Recent calls to action urge sweeping reform in science education, advocating for improved learning for all students—including those majoring in fields beyond the sciences. However, little work has been done to characterize the differences—if any exist—between students planning a career in science and those studying other disciplines. We describe an attempt to clarify, in broad terms, how non–STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) majors differ from life sciences majors, and how they are similar. Using survey responses and institutional data, we find that non–STEM majors are not unilaterally science averse; non–STEM majors are more likely than biology majors to hold misconceptions about the nature of science, yet they are not completely ignorant of how science works; non–STEM majors are less likely than biology majors to see science as personally relevant; and non–STEM majors populations are likely to be more diverse—with respect to incoming knowledge, perceptions, backgrounds, and skills—than a biology majors population. We encourage science educators to consider these characteristics when designing curricula for future scientists or simply for a well-informed citizenry. PMID:28798210

  6. Microbial Species Diversity, Community Dynamics, and Metabolite Kinetics of Water Kefir Fermentation

    Laureys, David

    2014-01-01

    Water kefir is a sour, alcoholic, and fruity fermented beverage of which the fermentation is started with water kefir grains. These water kefir grains consist of polysaccharide and contain the microorganisms responsible for the water kefir fermentation. In this work, a water kefir fermentation process was followed as a function of time during 192 h to unravel the community dynamics, the species diversity, and the kinetics of substrate consumption and metabolite production. The majority of the water kefir ecosystem was found to be present on the water kefir grains. The most important microbial species present were Lactobacillus casei/paracasei, Lactobacillus harbinensis, Lactobacillus hilgardii, Bifidobacterium psychraerophilum/crudilactis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Dekkera bruxellensis. The microbial species diversities in the water kefir liquor and on the water kefir grains were similar and remained stable during the whole fermentation process. The major substrate, sucrose, was completely converted after 24 h of fermentation, which coincided with the production of the major part of the water kefir grain polysaccharide. The main metabolites of the fermentation were ethanol and lactic acid. Glycerol, acetic acid, and mannitol were produced in low concentrations. The major part of these metabolites was produced during the first 72 h of fermentation, during which the pH decreased from 4.26 to 3.45. The most prevalent volatile aroma compounds were ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl octanoate, and ethyl decanoate, which might be of significance with respect to the aroma of the end product. PMID:24532061

  7. Microbial species diversity, community dynamics, and metabolite kinetics of water kefir fermentation.

    Laureys, David; De Vuyst, Luc

    2014-04-01

    Water kefir is a sour, alcoholic, and fruity fermented beverage of which the fermentation is started with water kefir grains. These water kefir grains consist of polysaccharide and contain the microorganisms responsible for the water kefir fermentation. In this work, a water kefir fermentation process was followed as a function of time during 192 h to unravel the community dynamics, the species diversity, and the kinetics of substrate consumption and metabolite production. The majority of the water kefir ecosystem was found to be present on the water kefir grains. The most important microbial species present were Lactobacillus casei/paracasei, Lactobacillus harbinensis, Lactobacillus hilgardii, Bifidobacterium psychraerophilum/crudilactis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Dekkera bruxellensis. The microbial species diversities in the water kefir liquor and on the water kefir grains were similar and remained stable during the whole fermentation process. The major substrate, sucrose, was completely converted after 24 h of fermentation, which coincided with the production of the major part of the water kefir grain polysaccharide. The main metabolites of the fermentation were ethanol and lactic acid. Glycerol, acetic acid, and mannitol were produced in low concentrations. The major part of these metabolites was produced during the first 72 h of fermentation, during which the pH decreased from 4.26 to 3.45. The most prevalent volatile aroma compounds were ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl octanoate, and ethyl decanoate, which might be of significance with respect to the aroma of the end product.

  8. Endangered Lilium Species of Turkey

    Sevim Demir

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Turkey, which is among the major gene centers of the world and has a special place in plant genetic diversity. However, many plant genetic resources, including geophytes, are under genetic erosion because of the environmental and other problems and therefore face with the danger of extinction. Lilium ciliatum is endemic to North East Anatolia. IUCN (International Union for the Conservation of Natural Resources Red List Category of this species is Endangered (EN. Lilium ciliatum naturally grown in Zigana pass, Bayburt, Trabzon, Bulancak, Giresun and Gümüşhane is endangered and major threats of L. ciliatum are road construction and human disturbance related to ecotourism and recreation. It was reported that Lilium carniolicum naturally grown in Turkey is endangered although it isn’t in the IUCN Red List. Distribution areas of L. carniolicum are Trabzon, Rize, Artvin and it is also endemic to North East Anatolia. These species have high potential for use as ornamental plants with their colorful big flowers. In addition, the bulbs of these species are also used in the cosmetic industry and medicine. These are the main properties that increase the importance of L. ciliatum and L. carniolicum species. Therefore it is very important to protect the habitats of these species, ensure the continuity of their generations. The disappearance of these endemic species from our country means to disappear from the world. This review has been given in order to give some information about the endangered Lilium species of Turkey and conservation actions on these species in Turkey flora and take attention to the issue.

  9. MAJOR OIL PLAYS IN UTAH AND VICINITY

    Chidsey, Thomas C. Jr.; Morgan, Craig D.; Bon, Roger L.

    2003-01-01

    Utah oil fields have produced over 1.2 billion barrels (191 million m 3 ). However, the 13.7 million barrels (2.2 million m 3 ) of production in 2002 was the lowest level in over 40 years and continued the steady decline that began in the mid-1980s. The Utah Geological Survey believes this trend can be reversed by providing play portfolios for the major oil producing provinces (Paradox Basin, Uinta Basin, and thrust belt) in Utah and adjacent areas in Colorado and Wyoming. Oil plays are geographic areas with petroleum potential caused by favorable combinations of source rock, migration paths, reservoir rock characteristics, and other factors. The play portfolios will include: descriptions and maps of the major oil plays by reservoir; production and reservoir data; case-study field evaluations; summaries of the state-of-the-art drilling, completion, and secondary/tertiary techniques for each play; locations of major oil pipelines; descriptions of reservoir outcrop analogs; and identification and discussion of land use constraints. All play maps, reports, databases, and so forth, produced for the project will be published in interactive, menu-driven digital (web-based and compact disc) and hard-copy formats. This report covers research activities for the third quarter of the first project year (January 1 through March 31, 2003). This work included gathering field data and analyzing best practices in the eastern Uinta Basin, Utah, and the Colorado portion of the Paradox Basin. Best practices used in oil fields of the eastern Uinta Basin consist of conversion of all geophysical well logs into digital form, running small fracture treatments, fingerprinting oil samples from each producing zone, running spinner surveys biannually, mapping each producing zone, and drilling on 80-acre (32 ha) spacing. These practices ensure that induced fractures do not extend vertically out of the intended zone, determine the percentage each zone contributes to the overall production of

  10. Differential processing and attitude change following majority versus minority arguments

    de Dreu, C.K.W.; van de Vliert, E.

    1996-01-01

    Tested the hypothesis that majority (MAJ) influence induces convergent processing, which stimulates attitude change (AC) on focal issues (FISs), whereas minority (MIN) influence produces divergent processing, which might stimulate change on related attitudes. Ss were 86 high school students. Results

  11. Differential processing and attitude change following majority versus minority arguments

    DeDreu, CKW; DeVries, NK

    This experiment tested the general hypothesis that majority influence induces convergent processing, which stimulates attitude change on focal issues, whereas minority influence sometimes produces divergent processing, which might stimulate change on related attitudes. Results of a numerical support

  12. Power Producer Production Valuation

    M. Kněžek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing developments in the electricity market, in particular the establishment of the Prague Energy Exchange (PXE and the associated transfer from campaign-driven sale to continuous trading, represent a significant change for power companies.  Power producing companies can now optimize the sale of their production capacities with the objective of maximizing profit from wholesale electricity and supporting services. The Trading Departments measure the success rate of trading activities by the gross margin (GM, calculated by subtracting the realized sales prices from the realized purchase prices and the production cost, and indicate the profit & loss (P&L to be subsequently calculated by the Control Department. The risk management process is set up on the basis of a business strategy defining the volumes of electricity that have to be sold one year and one month before the commencement of delivery. At the same time, this process defines the volume of electricity to remain available for spot trading (trading limits. 

  13. Cyclotron produced radiopharmaceuticals

    Kopicka, K.; Fiser, M.; Hradilek, P.; Hanc, P.; Lebeda, O.

    2003-01-01

    Some of the cyclotron-produced radionuclides may serve as important materials for the production of radiopharmaceuticals. This lecture deals with basic information relating to various aspects of these compounds. In comparison with radionuclides /compounds used for non-medical purposes, radiopharmaceuticals are subject to a broader scale of regulations, both from the safety and efficacy point of view; besides that, there are both radioactive and medical aspects that must be taken into account for any radiopharmaceutical. According to the regulations and in compliance with general rules of work with radioactivity, radiopharmaceuticals should only be prepared/manufactured under special conditions, using special areas and special equipment and applying special procedures (e.g. sterilisation, disinfection, aseptic work). Also, there are special procedures for cleaning and maintenance. Sometimes the requirements for the product safety clash with those for the safety of the personnel; several examples of solutions pertaining to these cases are given in the lecture. Also, the specific role of cyclotron radiopharmaceuticals is discussed. (author)

  14. Range expansion drives dispersal evolution in an equatorial three-species symbiosis.

    Guillaume Léotard

    Full Text Available Recurrent climatic oscillations have produced dramatic changes in species distributions. This process has been proposed to be a major evolutionary force, shaping many life history traits of species, and to govern global patterns of biodiversity at different scales. During range expansions selection may favor the evolution of higher dispersal, and symbiotic interactions may be affected. It has been argued that a weakness of climate fluctuation-driven range dynamics at equatorial latitudes has facilitated the persistence there of more specialized species and interactions. However, how much the biology and ecology of species is changed by range dynamics has seldom been investigated, particularly in equatorial regions.We studied a three-species symbiosis endemic to coastal equatorial rainforests in Cameroon, where the impact of range dynamics is supposed to be limited, comprised of two species-specific obligate mutualists--an ant-plant and its protective ant--and a species-specific ant parasite of this mutualism. We combined analyses of within-species genetic diversity and of phenotypic variation in a transect at the southern range limit of this ant-plant system. All three species present congruent genetic signatures of recent gradual southward expansion, a result compatible with available regional paleoclimatic data. As predicted, this expansion has been accompanied by the evolution of more dispersive traits in the two ant species. In contrast, we detected no evidence of change in lifetime reproductive strategy in the tree, nor in its investment in food resources provided to its symbiotic ants.Despite the decreasing investment in protective workers and the increasing investment in dispersing females by both the mutualistic and the parasitic ant species, there was no evidence of destabilization of the symbiosis at the colonization front. To our knowledge, we provide here the first evidence at equatorial latitudes that biological traits associated

  15. Range expansion drives dispersal evolution in an equatorial three-species symbiosis.

    Léotard, Guillaume; Debout, Gabriel; Dalecky, Ambroise; Guillot, Sylvain; Gaume, Laurence; McKey, Doyle; Kjellberg, Finn

    2009-01-01

    Recurrent climatic oscillations have produced dramatic changes in species distributions. This process has been proposed to be a major evolutionary force, shaping many life history traits of species, and to govern global patterns of biodiversity at different scales. During range expansions selection may favor the evolution of higher dispersal, and symbiotic interactions may be affected. It has been argued that a weakness of climate fluctuation-driven range dynamics at equatorial latitudes has facilitated the persistence there of more specialized species and interactions. However, how much the biology and ecology of species is changed by range dynamics has seldom been investigated, particularly in equatorial regions. We studied a three-species symbiosis endemic to coastal equatorial rainforests in Cameroon, where the impact of range dynamics is supposed to be limited, comprised of two species-specific obligate mutualists--an ant-plant and its protective ant--and a species-specific ant parasite of this mutualism. We combined analyses of within-species genetic diversity and of phenotypic variation in a transect at the southern range limit of this ant-plant system. All three species present congruent genetic signatures of recent gradual southward expansion, a result compatible with available regional paleoclimatic data. As predicted, this expansion has been accompanied by the evolution of more dispersive traits in the two ant species. In contrast, we detected no evidence of change in lifetime reproductive strategy in the tree, nor in its investment in food resources provided to its symbiotic ants. Despite the decreasing investment in protective workers and the increasing investment in dispersing females by both the mutualistic and the parasitic ant species, there was no evidence of destabilization of the symbiosis at the colonization front. To our knowledge, we provide here the first evidence at equatorial latitudes that biological traits associated with dispersal are

  16. Species composition of the international shark fin trade assessed through a retail-market survey in Hong Kong.

    Fields, Andrew T; Fischer, Gunter A; Shea, Stanley K H; Zhang, Huarong; Abercrombie, Debra L; Feldheim, Kevin A; Babcock, Elizabeth A; Chapman, Demian D

    2018-04-01

    The shark fin trade is a major driver of shark exploitation in fisheries all over the world, most of which are not managed on a species-specific basis. Species-specific trade information highlights taxa of particular concern and can be used to assess the efficacy of management measures and anticipate emerging threats. The species composition of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of China, one of the world's largest fin trading hubs, was partially assessed in 1999-2001. We randomly selected and genetically identified fin trimmings (n = 4800), produced during fin processing, from the retail market of Hong Kong in 2014-2015 to assess contemporary species composition of the fin trade. We used nonparametric species estimators to determine that at least 76 species of sharks, batoids, and chimaeras supplied the fin trade and a Bayesian model to determine their relative proportion in the market. The diversity of traded species suggests species substitution could mask depletion of vulnerable species; one-third of identified species are threatened with extinction. The Bayesian model suggested that 8 species each comprised >1% of the fin trimmings (34.1-64.2% for blue [Prionace glauca], 0.2-1.2% for bull [Carcharhinus leucas] and shortfin mako [Isurus oxyrinchus]); thus, trade was skewed to a few globally distributed species. Several other coastal sharks, batoids, and chimaeras are in the trade but poorly managed. Fewer than 10 of the species we modeled have sustainably managed fisheries anywhere in their range, and the most common species in trade, the blue shark, was not among them. Our study and approach serve as a baseline to track changes in composition of species in the fin trade over time to better understand patterns of exploitation and assess the effects of emerging management actions for these animals. © 2017 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  17. Major similarities in the bacterial communities associated with lesioned and healthy Fungiidae corals

    Apprill, Amy

    2013-03-21

    Cultivation-based studies have demonstrated that yellow-band disease (YBD), a lesion-producing ailment affecting diverse species of coral, is caused by a consortium of Vibrio spp. This study takes the first cultivation-independent approach to examine the whole bacterial community associated with YBD-like lesioned corals. Two species of Fungiidae corals, Ctenactis crassa and Herpolitha limax, displaying YBD-like lesions were examined across diverse reefs throughout the Red Sea. Using a pyrosequencing approach targeting the V1-V3 regions of the SSU rRNA gene, no major differences in bacterial community composition or diversity were identified between healthy and lesioned corals of either species. Indicator species analysis did not find Vibrio significantly associated with the lesioned corals. However, operational taxonomic units belonging to the Ruegeria genus of Alphaproteobacteria and NS9 marine group of Flavobacteria were significantly associated with the lesioned corals. The most striking trend of this dataset was that reef location was found to be the most significant influence on the coral-bacterial community. It is possible that more pronounced lesion-specific bacterial signatures might have been concealed by the strong influence of environmental conditions on coral-bacteria. Overall, this study demonstrates inconsistencies between cultivation-independent and cultivation-based studies regarding the role of specific bacteria in coral diseases. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Major similarities in the bacterial communities associated with lesioned and healthy Fungiidae corals

    Apprill, Amy; Hughen, Konrad; Mincer, Tracy

    2013-01-01

    Cultivation-based studies have demonstrated that yellow-band disease (YBD), a lesion-producing ailment affecting diverse species of coral, is caused by a consortium of Vibrio spp. This study takes the first cultivation-independent approach to examine the whole bacterial community associated with YBD-like lesioned corals. Two species of Fungiidae corals, Ctenactis crassa and Herpolitha limax, displaying YBD-like lesions were examined across diverse reefs throughout the Red Sea. Using a pyrosequencing approach targeting the V1-V3 regions of the SSU rRNA gene, no major differences in bacterial community composition or diversity were identified between healthy and lesioned corals of either species. Indicator species analysis did not find Vibrio significantly associated with the lesioned corals. However, operational taxonomic units belonging to the Ruegeria genus of Alphaproteobacteria and NS9 marine group of Flavobacteria were significantly associated with the lesioned corals. The most striking trend of this dataset was that reef location was found to be the most significant influence on the coral-bacterial community. It is possible that more pronounced lesion-specific bacterial signatures might have been concealed by the strong influence of environmental conditions on coral-bacteria. Overall, this study demonstrates inconsistencies between cultivation-independent and cultivation-based studies regarding the role of specific bacteria in coral diseases. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Rapid molecular technique to distinguish Fusarium species

    Lodolo, EJ

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear DNA (nDNA) of different isolates of three closely related, toxin-producing Fusarium species, F. moniliforme, F. nygamai and F. napiforme, was compared to ascertain the sensitivity of a molecular method to distinguish these three species...

  20. Metabolite production by differnt Ulocladium species

    Andersen, Birgitte; Hollensted, Morten

    2008-01-01

    Ulocladium, which is phylogenetically related to Alternaria, contains species that are food spoilers and plant pathogens, but also species that have potential as enzyme producers and bio-control agents. Ulocladium spp. are often found on dead vegetation, in soil, air and dust, but also on food...

  1. Novel Pestivirus Species in Pigs, Austria, 2015.

    Lamp, Benjamin; Schwarz, Lukas; Högler, Sandra; Riedel, Christiane; Sinn, Leonie; Rebel-Bauder, Barbara; Weissenböck, Herbert; Ladinig, Andrea; Rümenapf, Till

    2017-07-01

    A novel pestivirus species was discovered in a piglet-producing farm in Austria during virologic examinations of congenital tremor cases. The emergence of this novel pestivirus species, provisionally termed Linda virus, in domestic pigs may have implications for classical swine fever virus surveillance and porcine health management.

  2. A critical review of producers of small lactone mycotoxins: patulin, penicillic acid and moniliformin

    Frisvad, J.C.

    2018-01-01

    A very large number of filamentous fungi has been reported to produce the small lactone mycotoxins patulin, penicillic acid and moniliformin. Among the 167 reported fungal producers of patulin, only production by 29 species could be confirmed. Patulin is produced by 3 Aspergillus species, 3...

  3. Interdisciplinary Project Experiences: Collaboration between Majors and Non-Majors

    Smarkusky, Debra L.; Toman, Sharon A.

    2014-01-01

    Students in computer science and information technology should be engaged in solving real-world problems received from government and industry as well as those that expose them to various areas of application. In this paper, we discuss interdisciplinary project experiences between majors and non-majors that offered a creative and innovative…

  4. Prices and species diversity

    Sauer, Johannes

    of biodiversity and the appropriate incorporation in stochastic fron-tier models to achieve more realistic measures of production efficiency. We use the empirical example of tobacco production drawing from as well as affecting species diversity in the surrounding forests. We apply a shadow profit distance......In recent decades a significant amount of literature has been produced concerned with establishing a link between production efficiency and environmental efficiency with respect to quantitative modelling. This has been mainly addressed by focusing on the incorporation of undesirable outputs...... or the incorporation of environmentally det-rimental inputs. However, while the debate with respect to linear programming based DEA modelling is already at an advanced stage the corresponding one with respect to stochastic frontier modelling still needs considerable efforts. This contribution fo-cuses on the case...

  5. Translating Signs, Producing Subjects

    Brett Neilson

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper moves between two streets: Liverpool Road in the Sydney suburb of Ashfield and Via Sarpi in the Italian city of Milan. What connects these streets is that both have become important sites for businesses in the Chinese diaspora. Moreover, both are streets on which locals have expressed desires for Chinese signs to be translated into the national lingua franca. The paper argues that the cultural politics inherent in this demand for translation cannot be fully understood in the context of national debates about diversity and integration. It is also necessary to consider the emergence of the official Chinese Putonghua as global language, which competes with English but also colonizes dialects and minority languages. In the case of these dual language signs, the space between languages can neither be reduced to a contact zone of minority and majority cultures nor celebrated as a ‘third space’ where the power relations implied by such differences are subverted. At stake is rather a space characterised by what Naoki Sakai calls the schema of co-figuration, which allows the representation of translation as the passage between two equivalents that resemble each other and thus makes possible their determination as conceptually different and comparable. Drawing on arguments about translation and citizenship, the paper critically interrogates the ethos of interchangeability implied by this regime of translation. A closing argument is made for a vision of the common that implies neither civilisational harmony nor the translation of all values into a general equivalent. Primary sources include government reports, internet texts and media stories. These are analyzed using techniques of discourse analysis and interpreted with the help of secondary literature concerning globalisation, language and migration. The disciplinary matrix cuts and mixes between cultural studies, translation studies, citizenship studies, globalization studies and

  6. Variation in Quantity of Heat Produced from Charcoal of Prosopis ...

    Data were collected using the copper calorimeter, a thermometer, an air tight burner and a weight balance. The results showed a gradual decrease in the quantity of heat produced as combustion time increased from 10 40 minutes in all wood species. Significant differences (p<0.05) in the quantity of heat produced both ...

  7. Comparative embryology of eleven species of stony corals (Scleractinia.

    Nami Okubo

    Full Text Available A comprehensive understanding of coral reproduction and development is needed because corals are threatened in many ways by human activity. Major threats include the loss of their photosynthetic symbionts (Symbiodinium caused by rising temperatures (bleaching, reduced ability to calcify caused by ocean acidification, increased storm severity associated with global climate change and an increase in predators caused by runoff from human agricultural activity. In spite of these threats, detailed descriptions of embryonic development are not available for many coral species. The current consensus is that there are two major groups of stony corals, the "complex" and the "robust". In this paper we describe the embryonic development of four "complex" species, Pseudosiderastrea tayamai, Galaxea fascicularis, Montipora hispida, and Pavona Decussata, and seven "robust" species, Oulastrea crispata, Platygyra contorta, Favites abdita, Echinophyllia aspera, Goniastrea favulus, Dipsastraea speciosa (previously Favia speciosa, and Phymastrea valenciennesi (previously Montastrea valenciennesi. Data from both histologically sectioned embryos and whole mounts are presented. One apparent difference between these two major groups is that before gastrulation the cells of the complex corals thus far described (mainly Acropora species spread and flatten to produce the so-called prawn chip, which lacks a blastocoel. Our present broad survey of robust and complex corals reveals that prawn chip formation is not a synapomorphy of complex corals, as Pavona Decussata does not form a prawn chip and has a well-developed blastocoel. Although prawn chip formation cannot be used to separate the two clades, none of the robust corals which we surveyed has such a stage. Many robust coral embryos pass through two periods of invagination, separated by a return to a spherical shape. However, only the second of these periods is associated with endoderm formation. We have therefore

  8. Adapt or disperse: understanding species persistence in a changing world.

    Berg, M.P.; Kiers, E.T.; Driessen, G.J.J.; van der Heijden, M.G.A.; Kooi, B.W.; Kuenen, F.J.A.; Liefting, M.; Verhoef, H.A.; Ellers, J.

    2010-01-01

    The majority of studies on environmental change focus on the response of single species and neglect fundamental biotic interactions, such as mutualism, competition, predation, and parasitism, which complicate patterns of species persistence. Under global warming, disruption of community interactions

  9. Do Biology Majors Really Differ from Non-STEM Majors?

    Cotner, Sehoya; Thompson, Seth; Wright, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Recent calls to action urge sweeping reform in science education, advocating for improved learning for all students-including those majoring in fields beyond the sciences. However, little work has been done to characterize the differences-if any exist-between students planning a career in science and those studying other disciplines. We describe an attempt to clarify, in broad terms, how non-STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) majors differ from life sciences majors, and how they are similar. Using survey responses and institutional data, we find that non-STEM majors are not unilaterally science averse; non-STEM majors are more likely than biology majors to hold misconceptions about the nature of science, yet they are not completely ignorant of how science works; non-STEM majors are less likely than biology majors to see science as personally relevant; and non-STEM majors populations are likely to be more diverse-with respect to incoming knowledge, perceptions, backgrounds, and skills-than a biology majors population. We encourage science educators to consider these characteristics when designing curricula for future scientists or simply for a well-informed citizenry. © 2017 S. Cotner et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2017 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  10. Molecular characterization of thermophilic Campylobacter species ...

    We identified two species of thermophilic Campylobacter in companion dogs in Jos. Majority of C. jejuni were isolated from mucoid faeces while mixed infections of the two species were more common among diarrhoeic dogs. Pet owners should observe strict hand hygiene especially after handling dogs or their faeces to ...

  11. Preliminary observations on the species composition and ...

    Majority of the mushrooms appear during the rain season and are equally available during the short and long rains. This suggests that most species will grow well throughout the year whenever moisture level in the substrate is adequate irrespective of the season. Some of the species especially the Polypores (Ganoderma ...

  12. Characterization of Aspergillus species associated with ...

    About 82 triphala powder samples were analyzed for the association of different fungi. Results reveal the predominance of Aspergillus as the major genera with six predominant species namely, A. niger, A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. terreus, A. nidulans and A. amstelodami. Therefore, these six isolated Aspergillus species were ...

  13. Species concept and speciation

    Amal Y. Aldhebiani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Defining and recognizing a species has been a controversial issue for a long time. To determine the variation and the limitation between species, many concepts have been proposed. When a taxonomist study a particular taxa, he/she must adopted a species concept and provide a species limitation to define this taxa. In this paper some of species concepts are discussed starting from the typological species concepts to the phylogenetic concept. Positive and negative aspects of these concepts are represented in addition to their application. Keywords: Species concept, Species limitation, Species, Taxonomy, Classification

  14. Energy transport in laser produced plasmas

    Key, M.H.

    1989-06-01

    The study of energy transport in laser produced plasmas is of great interest both because it tests and develops understanding of several aspects of basic plasma physics and also because it is of central importance in major applications of laser produced plasmas including laser fusion, the production of intense X-ray sources, and X-ray lasers. The three sections cover thermal electrons (energy transport in one dimension, plane targets and lateral transport from a focal spot, thermal smoothing, thermal instabilities), hot electrons (preheating in one dimension, lateral transport from a focal spot) and radiation (preheating in one dimension, lateral transport and smoothing, instabilities). (author)

  15. Engineering microbes to produce biofuels.

    Wackett, Lawrence P

    2011-06-01

    The current biofuels landscape is chaotic. It is controlled by the rules imposed by economic forces and driven by the necessity of finding new sources of energy, particularly motor fuels. The need is bringing forth great creativity in uncovering new candidate fuel molecules that can be made via metabolic engineering. These next generation fuels include long-chain alcohols, terpenoid hydrocarbons, and diesel-length alkanes. Renewable fuels contain carbon derived from carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide is derived directly by a photosynthetic fuel-producing organism(s) or via intermediary biomass polymers that were previously derived from carbon dioxide. To use the latter economically, biomass depolymerization processes must improve and this is a very active area of research. There are competitive approaches with some groups using enzyme based methods and others using chemical catalysts. With the former, feedstock and end-product toxicity loom as major problems. Advances chiefly rest on the ability to manipulate biological systems. Computational and modular construction approaches are key. For example, novel metabolic networks have been constructed to make long-chain alcohols and hydrocarbons that have superior fuel properties over ethanol. A particularly exciting approach is to implement a direct utilization of solar energy to make a usable fuel. A number of approaches use the components of current biological systems, but re-engineer them for more direct, efficient production of fuels. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Scale dependence in species turnover reflects variance in species occupancy.

    McGlinn, Daniel J; Hurlbert, Allen H

    2012-02-01

    Patterns of species turnover may reflect the processes driving community dynamics across scales. While the majority of studies on species turnover have examined pairwise comparison metrics (e.g., the average Jaccard dissimilarity), it has been proposed that the species-area relationship (SAR) also offers insight into patterns of species turnover because these two patterns may be analytically linked. However, these previous links only apply in a special case where turnover is scale invariant, and we demonstrate across three different plant communities that over 90% of the pairwise turnover values are larger than expected based on scale-invariant predictions from the SAR. Furthermore, the degree of scale dependence in turnover was negatively related to the degree of variance in the occupancy frequency distribution (OFD). These findings suggest that species turnover diverges from scale invariance, and as such pairwise turnover and the slope of the SAR are not redundant. Furthermore, models developed to explain the OFD should be linked with those developed to explain species turnover to achieve a more unified understanding of community structure.

  17. Multiple mechanisms enable invasive species to suppress native species.

    Bennett, Alison E; Thomsen, Meredith; Strauss, Sharon Y

    2011-07-01

    Invasive plants represent a significant threat to ecosystem biodiversity. To decrease the impacts of invasive species, a major scientific undertaking of the last few decades has been aimed at understanding the mechanisms that drive invasive plant success. Most studies and theories have focused on a single mechanism for predicting the success of invasive plants and therefore cannot provide insight as to the relative importance of multiple interactions in predicting invasive species' success. We examine four mechanisms that potentially contribute to the success of invasive velvetgrass Holcus lanatus: direct competition, indirect competition mediated by mammalian herbivores, interference competition via allelopathy, and indirect competition mediated by changes in the soil community. Using a combination of field and greenhouse approaches, we focus on the effects of H. lanatus on a common species in California coastal prairies, Erigeron glaucus, where the invasion is most intense. We found that H. lanatus had the strongest effects on E. glaucus via direct competition, but it also influenced the soil community in ways that feed back to negatively influence E. glaucus and other native species after H. lanatus removal. This approach provided evidence for multiple mechanisms contributing to negative effects of invasive species, and it identified when particular strategies were most likely to be important. These mechanisms can be applied to eradication of H. lanatus and conservation of California coastal prairie systems, and they illustrate the utility of an integrated set of experiments for determining the potential mechanisms of invasive species' success.

  18. Unconventional Internships for English Majors.

    Otto, Don H.

    After five years of research, the English department at St. Cloud (Minnesota) State University created an internship program for English majors. The philosophy behind the program is that the typical experience of the English major in college is excellent preparation for what the college graduate will be doing in most careers in business,…

  19. Do You Have Major Depression?

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Depression Do You Have Major Depression? Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents Simple ... member may have major depression. —NIMH Types of Depression Just like other illnesses, such as heart disease, ...

  20. Are bacteria the major producers of extracellular glycolytic enzymes in aquatic environments?

    Vrba, Jaroslav; Callieri, C.; Bittl, T.; Šimek, Karel; Bertoni, R.; Filandr, P.; Hartman, Petr; Hejzlar, Josef; Macek, Miroslav; Nedoma, Jiří

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 1 (2004), s. 102-117 ISSN 1434-2944 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IBS6017004; GA ČR(CZ) GA206/99/0028; GA ČR(CZ) GA206/00/0063 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6017912 Keywords : ectoenzyme activity * diatoms * Daphnia longispina Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 0.742, year: 2004

  1. Butyricicoccus porcorum sp. nov., a butyrate-producing bacterium from swine intestinal tract.

    Trachsel, Julian; Humphrey, Samuel; Allen, Heather K

    2018-05-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, non-motile, butyrate-producing coccus was cultured from the distal ileum of swine. This organism was isolated on rumen-fluid medium, consumes acetate, and produces butyrate as its major end product when grown on mono- and di-saccharides. A phylogenetic analysis based on near full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences as well as whole-genome phylogenies suggests that this isolate is most closely related to species in the genus Butyricicoccus, with Butyricicoccus pullicaecorum being the closest named relative (93.5 % 16S similarity). The G+C content of this isolate is 54 mol%, and the major cellular fatty acids are C18 : 0 DMA, C14 : 0, C18 : 1ω9c and C16 : 0. These data indicate that this isolate represents a novel species within the genus Butyricicoccus, for which the name Butyricicoccus porcorum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Butyricicoccus porcorum is BB10 T (ATCC TSD-102 T , DSM 104997 T ).

  2. Species composition of and fumonisin production by the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex isolated from Korean cereals.

    Choi, Jung-Hye; Lee, Seolhee; Nah, Ju-Young; Kim, Hee-Kyoung; Paek, Ji-Seon; Lee, Soohyung; Ham, Hyeonheui; Hong, Sung Kee; Yun, Sung-Hwan; Lee, Theresa

    2018-02-21

    To assess the risk of fumonisin contamination in Korean cereals, we isolated colonies of the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (FFSC) from barley, maize, rice and soybean samples from 2011 to 2015. A total of 878 FFSC strains were isolated mostly from maize and rice, and species identity of the isolates were determined using the DNA sequence of the translation elongation factor 1-α (TEF-1α) and RNA polymerase II (RPB2) genes. Fusaria recovered from Korean cereals included F. fujikuroi (317 isolates and a frequency of 36%), F. proliferatum (212 isolates and 24.1%), F. verticillioides (170 isolates and 19.4%), F. concentricum (86 strains and 9.8%), F. andiyazi (56 isolates and 6.4%), F. subglutinans (28 isolates and 3.2%), F. thapsinum (5 isolates and 0.6%), and F. circinatum (2 isolates and 0.2%). The rice samples were dominated by F. fujikuroi (47.4%), F. proliferatum (27.3%), and F. concentricum (15.1%), whereas maize samples were dominated by F. verticillioides (33.9%), F. fujikuroi (25.3%), and F. proliferatum (21.1%). A phylogenetic analysis of 70 representative isolates demonstrated that each species was resolved as genealogically exclusive in the ML tree. Fumonisin production potential was evaluated using a PCR assay for the fumonisin biosynthesis gene, FUM1 in all of the isolates. Most of the isolates tested (94%) were positive for FUM1. All of the isolates assigned to F. fujikuroi, F. proliferatum, F. verticillioides and F. thapsinum were positive for FUM1 irrespective of their host origin. Seventy-seven representative isolates positive for FUM1 were examined for fumonisin production in rice medium. The majority of F. proliferatum (26/27, 96.3%), F. verticillioides (16/17, 94.1%) and F. fujikuroi (19/25, 76.0%) produced both FB 1 and FB 2 . Notably, 16 of 19 fumonisin-producing F. fujikuroi produced >1000μg/g of fumonisins (FB 1 +FB 2 ) in rice medium, which is higher than that in previous reports. These results suggest that F. fujikuroi can produce

  3. Species accounts. Chapter 4

    Margaret K. Trani; W. Mark Ford; Brian R., eds. Chapman

    2007-01-01

    Narrative accounts for each species are presented by several authors in a consistent format to convey specific information relative to that mammal. The orders are arranged phylogenetically; families and species are arranged alphabetically to facilitate finding a particular species.

  4. Producing a problem? Effects of produced water contaminants (PAHs, radium-226, barium and scale inhibitor) on the copepod Calanus finmarchicus

    Kiel Jensen, Louise [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Fram Centre, 9296 Tromsoe (Norway); Halvorsen, Elisabeth; Gammelsaeter Hallanger, Ingeborg [UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Department of Arctic and Marine Biology, P.O. box 6050 Langnes, 9037 Tromsoe (Norway); Tollefsen, Knut Erik; Brooks, Steven [Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Gaustadalleen 21, 0349 Oslo (Norway); Hansen, Bjoern Henrik [SINTEF Materials and Chemistry, Marine Environmental Technology, Brattoerkaia 17B, 7010 Trondheim (Norway)

    2014-07-01

    In the Barents Sea region new petroleum fields are discovered yearly and the extraction of petroleum products are expected to increase in the upcoming years. Despite enhanced technology and stricter governmental legislation, establishing the petroleum industry in the Barents Sea will introduce a new source of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) to the area as some discharges of produced water will be allowed. Whether the presence of produced water poses a risk to the Arctic marine life remains to be examined. We examined effects on the copepod species Calanus finmarchicus after exposure to several compounds found in produced water. A mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and alkyl phenols commonly found in produced water was used as a proxy of the organic fraction of the produced water (hereafter termed APW (Artificial Produced Water)). In addition, exposures were done using radium-226 (proxy for NORM), barium (proxy for metals) and a scale inhibitor (SI -4470, M-I SWACO, Schlumberger Norge AS). Short-term screening tests on a range of concentrations of all compounds were run to assess the hatchability of the eggs and early survival of the nauplii. Long-term experiments were carried out with exposure concentrations at realistic levels found in the vicinity of known discharge points. The copepod C. finmarchicus is considered a keystone species in the Barents Sea ecosystem as it represents the major pathway of energy transfer from lower to higher trophic levels. We have examined sub-lethal effects on early life stages and on adult females. The hatchability of the eggs was not affected by concentrations well above realistic environmental levels. However, the instant mortality of the hatched larvae increased with higher concentrations of barium, scale inhibitor and APW, though not with higher radium-226 concentration. When examining the long-term growth of the nauplii, we found that the survival was poor in the APW treatment, and in the barium

  5. Spatially Explicit Analysis of Biodiversity Loss Due to Global Agriculture, Pasture and Forest Land Use from a Producer and Consumer Perspective.

    Chaudhary, Abhishek; Pfister, Stephan; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2016-04-05

    Anthropogenic land use to produce commodities for human consumption is the major driver of global biodiversity loss. Synergistic collaboration between producers and consumers in needed to halt this trend. In this study, we calculate species loss on 5 min × 5 min grid level and per country due to global agriculture, pasture and forestry by combining high-resolution land use data with countryside species area relationship for mammals, birds, amphibians, and reptiles. Results show that pasture was the primary driver of biodiversity loss in Madagascar, China and Brazil, while forest land use contributed the most to species loss in DR Congo and Indonesia. Combined with the yield data, we quantified the biodiversity impacts of 1 m(3) of roundwood produced in 139 countries, concluding that tropical countries with low timber yield and a large presence of vulnerable species suffer the highest impact. We also calculated impacts per kg for 160 crops grown in different countries and linked it with FAO food trade data to assess the biodiversity impacts embodied in Swiss food imports. We found that more than 95% of Swiss consumption impacts rest abroad with cocoa, coffee and palm oil imports being responsible for majority of damage.

  6. Comparative analyses identified species-specific functional roles in oral microbial genomes

    Chen, Tsute; Gajare, Prasad; Olsen, Ingar; Dewhirst, Floyd E.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The advent of next generation sequencing is producing more genomic sequences for various strains of many human oral microbial species and allows for insightful functional comparisons at both intra- and inter-species levels. This study performed in-silico functional comparisons for currently available genomic sequences of major species associated with periodontitis including Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (AA), Porphyromonas gingivalis (PG), Treponema denticola (TD), and Tannerella forsythia (TF), as well as several cariogenic and commensal streptococcal species. Complete or draft sequences were annotated with the RAST to infer structured functional subsystems for each genome. The subsystems profiles were clustered to groups of functions with similar patterns. Functional enrichment and depletion were evaluated based on hypergeometric distribution to identify subsystems that are unique or missing between two groups of genomes. Unique or missing metabolic pathways and biological functions were identified in different species. For example, components involved in flagellar motility were found only in the motile species TD, as expected, with few exceptions scattered in several streptococcal species, likely associated with chemotaxis. Transposable elements were only found in the two Bacteroidales species PG and TF, and half of the AA genomes. Genes involved in CRISPR were prevalent in most oral species. Furthermore, prophage related subsystems were also commonly found in most species except for PG and Streptococcus mutans, in which very few genomes contain prophage components. Comparisons between pathogenic (P) and nonpathogenic (NP) genomes also identified genes potentially important for virulence. Two such comparisons were performed between AA (P) and several A. aphrophilus (NP) strains, and between S. mutans + S. sobrinus (P) and other oral streptococcal species (NP). This comparative genomics approach can be readily used to identify functions unique to

  7. Bacteriocin-producing Enterococci from Rabbit Meat

    Szabóová, R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Enterococci are lactic acid bacteria belonging to the division Firmicutes. They occur in different ecosystems, rabbits including. Enterococci can possess probiotic properties and produce antimicrobial substances-bacteriocins. Rabbit meat as nutritionally healthy food offers novel source to study bacteriocin-producing and/or probiotic enterococci. Methodology and results: Enterococci were detected from rabbit meat samples (42. Most of the isolates were allotted to the species Enterococcus faecium by PCR method. The isolates have possessed the structural genes for enterocins A, P, B production. The inhibitory substances produced by the isolated enterococci inhibited the growth of 12 indicators. Of 34 isolates, 15 strains have shown the antimicrobial activity against L. monocytogenes CCM 4699, 12 strains against S. aureus 3A3, 10 strains against S. aureus 5A2 as well as Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis PT4. Moreover, enterococci have tolerated 5 % bile, low pH; they have produced lactid acid in the amount from 0.740 ± 0.091 to 1.720 ± 0.095 mmol/l. The isolates were mostly sensitive to antibiotics. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: Bacteriocin-producing strain E. faecium M3a has been selected for more detail characterization of its bacteriocin and probiotic properties with the aim for its further application as an additive.

  8. Why some plant species are rare.

    Wieger Wamelink, G W; Wamelink, G W Weiger; Goedhart, Paul W; Frissel, Joep; Frissel, Josep Y

    2014-01-01

    Biodiversity, including plant species diversity, is threatened worldwide as a result of anthropogenic pressures such as an increase of pollutants and climate change. Rare species in particular are on the verge of becoming extinct. It is still unclear as to why some plant species are rare and others are not. Are they rare due to: intrinsic reasons, dispersal capacity, the effects of management or abiotic circumstances? Habitat preference of rare plant species may play an important role in determining why some species are rare. Based on an extensive data set of soil parameters we investigated if rarity is due to a narrow habitat preference for abiotic soil parameters. For 23 different abiotic soil parameters, of which the most influential were groundwater-table, soil-pH and nutrient-contents, we estimated species responses for common and rare species. Based on the responses per species we calculated the range of occurrence, the range between the 5 and 95 percentile of the response curve giving the habitat preference. Subsequently, we calculated the average response range for common and rare species. In addition, we designed a new graphic in order to provide a better means for presentation of the results. The habitat preferences of rare species for abiotic soil conditions are significantly narrower than for common species. Twenty of the twenty-three abiotic parameters showed on average significantly narrower habitat preferences for rare species than for common species; none of the abiotic parameters showed on average a narrower habitat preference for common species. The results have major implications for the conservation of rare plant species; accordingly management and nature development should be focussed on the maintenance and creation of a broad range of environmental conditions, so that the requirements of rare species are met. The conservation of (abiotic) gradients within ecosystems is particularly important for preserving rare species.

  9. Exploring Pair Programming Benefits for MIS Majors

    April H. Reed

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pair programming is a collaborative programming practice that places participants in dyads, working in tandem at one computer to complete programming assignments. Pair programming studies with Computer Science (CS and Software Engineering (SE majors have identified benefits such as technical productivity, program/design quality, academic performance, and increased satisfaction for their participants. In this paper, pair programming is studied with Management Information Systems (MIS majors, who (unlike CS and SE majors taking several programming courses typically take only one programming course and often struggle to develop advanced programming skills within that single course. The researchers conducted two pair programming experiments in an introductory software development course for MIS majors over three semesters to determine if pair programming could enhance learning for MIS students. The program results, researchers’ direct observations, and participants’ responses to a survey questionnaire were analyzed after each experiment. The results indicate that pair programming appears to be beneficial to MIS students’ technical productivity and program design quality, specifically the ability to create programs using high-level concepts. Additionally, results confirmed increased student satisfaction and reduced frustration, as the pairs worked collaboratively to produce a program while actively communicating and enjoying the process.

  10. Major Brazilian gold deposits - 1982 to 1999

    Thorman, Charles H.; DeWitt, Ed; Maron, Marcos A.; Ladeira, Eduardo A.

    2001-07-01

    Brazil has been a major but intermittent producer of gold since its discovery in 1500. Brazil led the world in gold production during the 18th and early 19th centuries. From the late 19th century to the late 20th century, total mining company and garimpeiro production was small and relatively constant at about 5 to 8 t/year. The discovery of alluvial deposits in the Amazon by garimpeiros in the 1970s and the opening of eight mines by mining companies from 1983 to 1990 fueled a major boom in Brazil's gold production, exceeding 100 t/year in 1988 and 1989. However, garimpeiro alluvial production decreased rapidly in the 1990s, to about 10 t/year by 1999. Company production increased about tenfold from about 4 t/year in 1982 to 40 t in 1992. Production from 1992 to the present remained relatively stable, even though several mines were closed or were in the process of closing and no new major mines were put into production during that period. Based on their production history from 1982-1999, 17 gold mines are ranked as major (>20 t) and minor (3-8 t) mines. From 1982-1999, deposits hosted in Archean rocks produced 66% of the gold in Brazil, whereas deposits in Paleoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic rocks accounted for 19% and 15%, respectively. Deposits in metamorphosed sedimentary rocks, especially carbonate-rich rocks and carbonate iron-formation, yielded the great bulk of the gold. Deposits in igneous rocks were of much less importance. The Archean and Paleoproterozoic terranes of Brazil largely lack base-metal-rich volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits, porphyry deposits, and polymetallic veins and sedimentary exhalative deposits. An exception to this is in the Carajás Mineral Province.

  11. Major brazilian gold deposits - 1982 to 1999

    Thorman, C.H.; Dewitt, E.; Maron, M.A.; Ladeira, E.A.

    2001-01-01

    Brazil has been a major but intermittent producer of gold since its discovery in 1500. Brazil led the world in gold production during the 18th and early 19th centuries. From the late 19th century to the late 20th century, total mining company and garimpeiro production was small and relatively constant at about 5 to 8 t/year. The discovery of alluvial deposits in the Amazon by garimpeiros in the 1970s and the opening of eight mines by mining companies from 1983 to 1990 fueled a major boom in Brazil's gold production, exceeding 100 t/year in 1988 and 1989. However, garimpeiro alluvial production decreased 'rapidly in the 1990s, to about 10 t/year by 1999. Company production increased about tenfold from about 4 t/year in 1982 to 40 t in 1992. Production from 1992 to the present remained relatively stable, even though several mines were closed or were in the process of closing and no new major mines were put into production during that period. Based on their production history from 1982-1999, 17 gold mines are ranked as major (> 20 t) and minor (3-8 t) mines. From 1982-1999, deposits hosted in Archean rocks produced 66% of the gold in Brazil, whereas deposits in Paleoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic rocks accounted for 19% and 15%, respectively. Deposits in metamorphosed sedimentary rocks, especially carbonate-rich rocks and carbonate iron-formation, yielded the great bulk of the gold. Deposits in igneous rocks were of much less importance. The Archean and Paleoproterozoic terranes of Brazil largely lack base-metal-rich volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits, porphyry deposits, and polymetallic veins and sedimentary exhalative deposits. An exception to this is in the Caraja??s Mineral Province.

  12. Secondary metabolites from Eurotium species, Aspergillus calidoustus and A. insuetus common in Canadian homes with a review of their chemistry and biological activities.

    Slack, Gregory J; Puniani, Eva; Frisvad, Jens C; Samson, Robert A; Miller, J David

    2009-04-01

    As part of studies of metabolites from fungi common in the built environment in Canadian homes, we investigated metabolites from strains of three Eurotium species, namely E. herbariorum, E. amstelodami, and E. rubrum as well as a number of isolates provisionally identified as Aspergillus ustus. The latter have been recently assigned as the new species A. insuetus and A. calidoustus. E. amstelodami produced neoechinulin A and neoechinulin B, epiheveadride, flavoglaucin, auroglaucin, and isotetrahydroauroglaucin as major metabolites. Minor metabolites included echinulin, preechinulin and neoechinulin E. E. rubrum produced all of these metabolites, but epiheveadride was detected as a minor metabolite. E. herbariorum produced cladosporin as a major metabolite, in addition to those found in E. amstelodami. This species also produced questin and neoechinulin E as minor metabolites. This is the first report of epiheveadride occurring as a natural product, and the first nonadride isolated from Eurotium species. Unlike strains from mainly infection-related samples, largely from Europe, neither ophiobolins G and H nor austins were detected in the Canadian strains of A. insuetus and A. calidoustus tested, all of which had been reported from the latter species. TMC-120 A, B, C and a sesquiterpene drimane are reported with certainty for the first time from indoor isolates, as well as two novel related methyl isoquinoline alkaloids.

  13. Strategies for a gas major

    Lay, K.L.

    1991-01-01

    Recent events in U.S. energy markets may be undermining the country's best hope for energy independence even though the most recent crisis in the Middle East underscored the nation's need to achieve a greater measure of energy self-reliance. Low natural gas prices are exacting a toll on independent producers who find the produce much of North America's natural gas, and this may leave the industry less prepared to supply gas to growing markets in the 1990s. This paper describes the nation's need for a broad base of financially strong, independent gas producers. It describes the fundamental market conditions that make company bullish on natural gas and that foster the growth of independent producers. Yet, It is noted that irrational prices may imperil the country's gas business

  14. Response of range grasses to water produced from in situ fossil fuel processing

    Skinner, Q D; Moore, T S; Sexton, J C

    1984-11-01

    In situ-produced waters collected while retorting oil shale and tar sands to produce oil, and coal to produce gas, were tested for their effects on plant growth. Basin wildrye (Elymus cinereus), western wheatgrass (Agropyron smithii) 'Rosana', alkali sacaton (Sporobolus airoides), bluebunch wheatgrass (Agropyron spicatum) and Nuttall alkaligrass (Puccinellia airoides) were utilized. Root weight, shoot weight, total dry weight, leaf area and root/shoot weight ratios were determined. All experiments were conducted under greenhouse conditions using hydroponic techniques and horticultural grade perlite for plant support. Measurements were collected after a 10-week growth period. Results show that differences in plant growth can be monitored using dry biomass, leaf area and root to shoot ratio measurements when plants are subjected to retort waters. Plant species reaction to a water may be different. Generally, alkali sacaton, basin wildrye and western wheatgrass are least susceptible to toxicity by the majority of retort waters tested. Bluebunch wheatgrass is most susceptible. Waters from different retort procedures vary in toxicity to different plant species.

  15. Aspergillus fumigatus and Related Species

    Sugui, Janyce A.; Kwon-Chung, Kyung J.; Juvvadi, Praveen R.; Latgé, Jean-Paul; Steinbach, William J.

    2015-01-01

    The genus Aspergillus contains etiologic agents of aspergillosis. The clinical manifestations of the disease range from allergic reaction to invasive pulmonary infection. Among the pathogenic aspergilli, Aspergillus fumigatus is most ubiquitous in the environment and is the major cause of the disease, followed by Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus nidulans, and several species in the section Fumigati that morphologically resemble A. fumigatus. Patients that are at risk for acquiring aspergillosis are those with an altered immune system. Early diagnosis, species identification, and adequate antifungal therapy are key elements for treatment of the disease, especially in cases of pulmonary invasive aspergillosis that often advance very rapidly. Incorporating knowledge of the basic biology of Aspergillus species to that of the diseases that they cause is fundamental for further progress in the field. PMID:25377144

  16. [Oromaxillofacial changes in thalassemia major].

    De Mattia, D; Pettini, P L; Sabato, V; Rubini, G; Laforgia, A; Schettini, F

    1996-01-01

    Sixty patients (31 male and 29 female) with thalassemia major, aged between 6 and 26 years, 18 of which were splenectomized, were observed in this study evaluating the oro-maxillo-facial alterations and correlating them to transfusion indexes, serum ferritin levels, splenectomy and age. For each patient a haematologic and odontostomatologic card was filed with a view to report the medical and clinical history regarding: the haematologic picture, the prevention of caries and parodontal disease, the facies characteristics, the odonto-stomatologic examination, the orthodontic diagnosis, the skull X-rays and the orthopantomography. Poor oral hygiene as well as misknowledge of prevention were generally observed. All the patients showed carious lesions but most of them had never seen a dentist for therapy. The disharmonious growth of splanchnocranium, with the enlargement of the jaw and of its alveolar process, induced by the bone marrow hyperplasia, produced various and serious malocclusion stages (Angle's II class, deep bite, open bite), gnathologic alterations, hypodiaphanous paranasal sinuses and orbital hypertelorism, with a typical oriental-like facies. Malocclusion and the poor oral hygienic conditions determined the occurrence of marginal gingivitis, mainly localized at the level of the lower frontal teeth. In only 3 patients the oral mucous membrane was pale and atrophic. During this investigation agenesia and dental retention were reported in 30% and in 26% of the examined cases respectively, while no patients had supernumerary teeth. Tooth volume, position and shape abnormalities rarely occurred. Only in two patients was enamel hypoplasia described. The caries frequency greatly varied in number and in degree. Only five patients did not show any carious lesions. The caries index (DMF) for the permanent teeth calculated in all the 60 subjects was 5, 12 +/- 4.76. By utilizing Spearman's rank test the number of teeth with caries in the permanent dentition (DFM

  17. Haemolytic glycoglycerolipids from Gymnodinium species.

    Parrish, C C; Bodennec, G; Gentien, P

    1998-03-01

    Glycoglycerolipids derived from microalgae can be a source of biologically active substances including toxins. Such glycolipids were analysed in two isolates of toxic marine dinoflagellates from European waters. The lipids of Gymnodinium mikimotoi contained 17% of monogalactosyl diacylglycerol (MGDG) and digalactosyl diacylglycerol (DGDG), while in Gymnodinium sp. the proportion was 35%. MGDG and DGDG from both species were haemolytic. The major unsaturated fatty acid in both algal glycolipids was 18:5 omega 3.

  18. Stenting of major airway constriction

    Wu Xiaomei

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the correlated issues in the stenting treatment of major airway constriction. Methods: Nineteen cases of major airway stenting procedure were studied retrospectively. The clinical choice of stents of different advantages or deficiencies were discussed. The importance of intravenous anesthesia supporting, life-parameters monitoring during the procedures and the prevention of complications were analysed. Results: Under intravenous and local anesthesia, 19 Wallstents had been successively placed and relieved 19 cases of major airway constrictions due to malignant or benign diseases (15 of tumors, 3 of tuberculosis, 1 of tracheomalacia). Intravenous anesthesia and life-parameters monitoring had made the procedures more safe and precise. Conclusions: Major airway stenting is an reliable method for relieving tracheobronchial stenosis; and intravenous anesthesia supporting and life-parameters monitoring guarantee the satisfactions of procedures

  19. Major hazards onshore and offshore

    1992-01-01

    This symposium continues the tradition of bringing together papers on a topic of current interest and importance in terms of process safety - in this case, Major Hazards Onshore and Offshore. Lord Cullen in his report on the Piper Alpha disaster has, in effect, suggested that the experience gained in the control of major hazards onshore during the 1980s should be applied to improve safety offshore during the 1990s. This major three-day symposium reviews what has been learned so far with regard to major hazards and considers its present and future applications both onshore and offshore. The topics covered in the programme are wide ranging and deal with all aspects of legislation, the application of regulations, techniques for evaluating hazards and prescribing safety measures in design, construction and operation, the importance of the human factors, and recent technical developments in protective measures, relief venting and predicting the consequences of fires and explosions. (author)

  20. Liquid in the major incision

    Herrera Jaramillo, Diego Alberto; Ortega Jaramillo, Hector

    2003-01-01

    We present the case of a patient with spill pleural extending in the left major incision. In the chest thorax PA, we could observe one of the complex radiographic appearances that take the reconfiguration of fluid in this localization, being this appearance dependent of the patient's position. Some points are also discussed on the anatomy of the major incisions and some of their radiographic characteristics

  1. Using various lines of evidence to identify Chironomus species (Diptera: Chironomidae) in eastern Canadian lakes.

    Proulx, Isabelle; Martin, Jon; Carew, Melissa; Hare, Landis

    2013-11-29

    Chironomus Meigen (Diptera, Chironomidae) larvae are usually the largest sediment-burrowing chironomids, and as such often constitute a major part of the freshwater infaunal biomass. However, use of this genus in ecological, environmental and paleoecological studies is hampered by the fact that Chironomus larvae are difficult to identify to species because the larvae of many species are morphologically similar. We used a combination of morphological, cytological and genetic techniques to distinguish Chironomus larvae collected from 31 water bodies located in eastern Canada, producing 17 distinguishable groupings. These groups of larvae were ultimately identified as belonging to 14 known species (C. anthracinus, C. bifurcatus, C. cucini, C. decorus-group sp. 2, C. dilutus, C. entis, C. frommeri, C. harpi, C. maturus, C. nr. atroviridis (sp. 2i), C. ochreatus, C. plumosus, C. staegeri and C. 'tigris') and three other species that remain unidentified (C. sp. NAI-III). No single approach served to delimit and identify larvae of all 17 Chironomus species that we collected. Although we expected that morphological criteria alone would be insufficient, our results suggest that DNA barcoding, using either the mitochondrial cox1 or the nuclear gb2β gene, was also inadequate for separating some Chironomus species. Thus we suggest that multiple approaches will often be needed to correctly identify Chironomus larvae to species.

  2. Molecular identification of Indian crocodile species: PCR-RFLP method for forensic authentication*.

    Meganathan, P R; Dubey, Bhawna; Haque, Ikramul

    2009-09-01

    South East Asian countries are known for illegal poaching and trade of crocodiles clandestinely, to be used in skin, medicinal, and cosmetic industries. Besides crocodiles being listed in the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, India has its Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 for conservation of crocodile species. Hitherto, lack of any rapid and reliable technique for examinations of crocodile-based crime exhibits such as skin, bones, etc. has been a major problem for an effective promulgation of law on illegal trade. DNA-based identification of species using PCR-RFLP technique for an apt identification of all the three Indian crocodile species namely, Crocodylus porosus, Crocodylus palustris and Gavialis gangeticus is presented here. A 628 bp segment of cytochrome b gene was amplified using novel primers followed by restriction digestion with three enzymes i.e., HaeIII, MboI, and MwoI, separately and in combination. The technique has produced a species-specific pattern for identifying the three crocodile species individually, which fulfills the requirement for its forensic application. It is expected that the technique will prove handy in identification of all the three Indian crocodile species and strengthen conservation efforts.

  3. Salmonella in beef and produce from honduras.

    Maradiaga, Martha; Miller, Mark F; Thompson, Leslie; Pond, Ansen; Gragg, Sara E; Echeverry, Alejandro; Garcia, Lyda G; Loneragan, Guy H; Brashears, Mindy M

    2015-03-01

    Salmonella continues to cause a considerable number of foodborne illnesses worldwide. The sources of outbreaks include contaminated meat and produce. The purpose of this study was to establish an initial investigation of the burden of Salmonella in produce and beef from Honduras by sampling retail markets and abattoirs. Retail produce samples (cantaloupes, cilantro, cucumbers, leafy greens, peppers, and tomatoes; n = 573) were purchased in three major cities of Honduras, and retail whole-muscle beef (n = 555) samples were also purchased in four major cities. Additionally, both hide and beef carcass (n = 141) samples were collected from two Honduran abattoirs. Whole-muscle beef samples were obtained using a sponge hydrated with buffered peptone water, and 10 ml of the buffered peptone water rinsate of each produce sample was collected with a dry sponge and placed in a bag to be transported back to the United States. Salmonella was detected using a commercially available, closeplatform PCR system, and positive samples were subjected to culture on selective media to obtain isolates. Overall, the prevalence of Salmonella-positive samples, based on PCR detection in Honduras (n = 555) retail beef was 10.1% (95% confidence interval = 7.8, 12.9), whereas 7.8% (n = 141) of beef carcass and hides samples were positive in both beef plants. The overall Salmonella prevalence for all produce samples (n = 573) collected was 2.1% (95% confidence interval = 1.2, 3.6). The most common serotypes identified in Honduras were Salmonella Typhimurium followed by Derby. These results provide an indication of Salmonella contamination of beef and produce in Honduras. Developing a Salmonella baseline for Latin America through an initial investigation like the one presented here contributes to a broader global understanding of the potential exposure through food, thus providing insight into the needs for control strategies.

  4. Toward a Tree-of-Life for the boas and pythons: multilocus species-level phylogeny with unprecedented taxon sampling.

    Graham Reynolds, R; Niemiller, Matthew L; Revell, Liam J

    2014-02-01

    Snakes in the families Boidae and Pythonidae constitute some of the most spectacular reptiles and comprise an enormous diversity of morphology, behavior, and ecology. While many species of boas and pythons are familiar, taxonomy and evolutionary relationships within these families remain contentious and fluid. A major effort in evolutionary and conservation biology is to assemble a comprehensive Tree-of-Life, or a macro-scale phylogenetic hypothesis, for all known life on Earth. No previously published study has produced a species-level molecular phylogeny for more than 61% of boa species or 65% of python species. Using both novel and previously published sequence data, we have produced a species-level phylogeny for 84.5% of boid species and 82.5% of pythonid species, contextualized within a larger phylogeny of henophidian snakes. We obtained new sequence data for three boid, one pythonid, and two tropidophiid taxa which have never previously been included in a molecular study, in addition to generating novel sequences for seven genes across an additional 12 taxa. We compiled an 11-gene dataset for 127 taxa, consisting of the mitochondrial genes CYTB, 12S, and 16S, and the nuclear genes bdnf, bmp2, c-mos, gpr35, rag1, ntf3, odc, and slc30a1, totaling up to 7561 base pairs per taxon. We analyzed this dataset using both maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference and recovered a well-supported phylogeny for these species. We found significant evidence of discordance between taxonomy and evolutionary relationships in the genera Tropidophis, Morelia, Liasis, and Leiopython, and we found support for elevating two previously suggested boid species. We suggest a revised taxonomy for the boas (13 genera, 58 species) and pythons (8 genera, 40 species), review relationships between our study and the many other molecular phylogenetic studies of henophidian snakes, and present a taxonomic database and alignment which may be easily used and built upon by other researchers

  5. Thousands of cold anti-atoms produced at CERN

    2002-01-01

    The antimatter factory delivers its first major results. ATHENA has just produced thousands of anti-atoms. This is the result of techniques developed by ATRAP and ATHENA, the two collaborations aiming to study antihydrogen.

  6. LAMP-based group specific detection of aflatoxin producers within Aspergillus section Flavi in food raw materials, spices, and dried fruit using neutral red for visible-light signal detection.

    Niessen, Ludwig; Bechtner, Julia; Fodil, Sihem; Taniwaki, Marta H; Vogel, Rudi F

    2018-02-02

    Aflatoxins can be produced by 21 species within sections Flavi (16 species), Ochraceorosei (2), and Nidulantes (3) of the fungal genus Aspergillus. They pose risks to human and animal health due to high toxicity and carcinogenicity. Detecting aflatoxin producers can help to assess toxicological risks associated with contaminated commodities. Species specific molecular assays (PCR and LAMP) are available for detection of major producers, but fail to detect species of minor importance. To enable rapid and sensitive detection of several aflatoxin producing species in a single analysis, a nor1 gene-specific LAMP assay was developed. Specificity testing showed that among 128 fungal species from 28 genera, 15 aflatoxigenic species in section Flavi were detected, including synonyms of A. flavus and A. parasiticus. No cross reactions were found with other tested species. The detection limit of the assay was 9.03pg of A. parasiticus genomic DNA per reaction. Visual detection of positive LAMP reactions under daylight conditions was facilitated using neutral red to allow unambiguous distinction between positive and negative assay results. Application of the assay to the detection of A. parasiticus conidia revealed a detection limit of 211 conidia per reaction after minimal sample preparation. The usefulness of the assay was demonstrated in the analysis of aflatoxinogenic species in samples of rice, nuts, raisins, dried figs, as well as powdered spices. Comparison of LAMP results with presence/absence of aflatoxins and aflatoxin producing fungi in 50 rice samples showed good correlation between these parameters. Our study suggests that the developed LAMP assay is a rapid, sensitive and user-friendly tool for surveillance and quality control in our food industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Manual for reactor produced radioisotopes

    2003-01-01

    numerous new developments that have taken place since then. Hence in this manual it was decided to focus only on reactor produced radioisotopes. This manual contains procedures for 48 important reactor-produced isotopes. These were contributed by major radioisotope producers from different parts of the world and are based on their practical experience. In case of widely used radioisotopes such as 131 I, 32 P and 99 Mo, information from more than one centre is included so that the users can compare the procedures. As in the earlier two versions, a general introductory write-up is included covering basic information on related aspects such as target irradiation, handling facilities, radiation protection and transportation, but in less detail. Relevant IAEA publications on such matters, particularly related to radiation protection and transportation, should be referred to for guidelines. Similarly, the nuclear data contained in the manual are only indicative and the relevant databases should be referred to for more authentic values. It is hoped that the manual will be a useful source of information for those working in radioisotope production laboratories as well as those intending to initiate such activities

  8. Agroforestry Species Switchboard

    Kindt, R.; John, I.; Ordonez, J.

    2016-01-01

    The current version of the Agroforestry Species Switchboard documents the presence of a total of 26,135 plant species (33,813 species including synonyms) across 19 web-based databases. When available, hyperlinks to information on the selected species in particular databases are provided. In total...

  9. ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATER; TOPICAL

    John R. Gallagher

    2001-01-01

    During the production of oil and gas, large amounts of water are brought to the surface and must be disposed of in an environmentally sensitive manner. This is an especially difficult problem in offshore production facilities where space is a major constraint. The chief regulatory criterion for produced water is oil and grease. Most facilities have little trouble meeting this criterion using conventional oil-water separation technologies. However, some operations have significant amounts of naphthenic acids in the water that behave as oil and grease but are not well removed by conventional technologies. Aerobic biological treatment of naphthenic acids in simulated-produced water has been demonstrated by others; however, the system was easily overloaded by the large amounts of low-molecular-weight organic acids often found in produced waters. The objective of this research was to determine the ability of an anaerobic biological system to treat these organic acids in a simulated produced water and to examine the potential for biodegradation of the naphthenic acids in the anaerobic environment. A small fixed-film anaerobic biological reactor was constructed and adapted to treat a simulated produced water. The bioreactor was tubular, with a low-density porous glass packing material. The inocula to the reactor was sediment from a produced-water holding pond from a municipal anaerobic digester and two salt-loving methanogenic bacteria. During start-up, the feed to the reactor contained glucose as well as typical produced-water components. When glucose was used, rapid gas production was observed. However, when glucose was eliminated and the major organic component was acetate, little gas was generated. Methane production from acetate may have been inhibited by the high salt concentrations, by sulfide, or because of the lack, despite seeding, of microbes capable of converting acetate to methane. Toluene, a minor component of the produced water (0.1 g/L) was removed in the

  10. ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATER

    John R. Gallagher

    2001-07-31

    During the production of oil and gas, large amounts of water are brought to the surface and must be disposed of in an environmentally sensitive manner. This is an especially difficult problem in offshore production facilities where space is a major constraint. The chief regulatory criterion for produced water is oil and grease. Most facilities have little trouble meeting this criterion using conventional oil-water separation technologies. However, some operations have significant amounts of naphthenic acids in the water that behave as oil and grease but are not well removed by conventional technologies. Aerobic biological treatment of naphthenic acids in simulated-produced water has been demonstrated by others; however, the system was easily overloaded by the large amounts of low-molecular-weight organic acids often found in produced waters. The objective of this research was to determine the ability of an anaerobic biological system to treat these organic acids in a simulated produced water and to examine the potential for biodegradation of the naphthenic acids in the anaerobic environment. A small fixed-film anaerobic biological reactor was constructed and adapted to treat a simulated produced water. The bioreactor was tubular, with a low-density porous glass packing material. The inocula to the reactor was sediment from a produced-water holding pond from a municipal anaerobic digester and two salt-loving methanogenic bacteria. During start-up, the feed to the reactor contained glucose as well as typical produced-water components. When glucose was used, rapid gas production was observed. However, when glucose was eliminated and the major organic component was acetate, little gas was generated. Methane production from acetate may have been inhibited by the high salt concentrations, by sulfide, or because of the lack, despite seeding, of microbes capable of converting acetate to methane. Toluene, a minor component of the produced water (0.1 g/L) was removed in the

  11. Major intrinsic proteins (MIPs) in plants: a complex gene family with major impacts on plant phenotype.

    Forrest, Kerrie L; Bhave, Mrinal

    2007-10-01

    The ubiquitous cell membrane proteins called aquaporins are now firmly established as channel proteins that control the specific transport of water molecules across cell membranes in all living organisms. The aquaporins are thus likely to be of fundamental significance to all facets of plant growth and development affected by plant-water relations. A majority of plant aquaporins have been found to share essential structural features with the human aquaporin and exhibit water-transporting ability in various functional assays, and some have been shown experimentally to be of critical importance to plant survival. Furthermore, substantial evidence is now available from a number of plant species that shows differential gene expression of aquaporins in response to abiotic stresses such as salinity, drought, or cold and clearly establishes the aquaporins as major players in the response of plants to conditions that affect water availability. This review summarizes the function and regulation of these genes to develop a greater understanding of the response of plants to water insufficiency, and particularly, to identify tolerant genotypes of major crop species including wheat and rice and plants that are important in agroforestry.

  12. Degradation of contaminants by Cu{sup +}-activated molecular oxygen in aqueous solutions: Evidence for cupryl species (Cu{sup 3+})

    Feng, Yong, E-mail: fengy@hku.hk [Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong); Lee, Po-Heng, E-mail: phlee@polyu.edu.hk [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Wu, Deli, E-mail: wudeli@tongji.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environmental Science & Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Zhou, Zhengyuan, E-mail: zzy247@hku.hk [Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong); Li, Hangkong, E-mail: hangkong@hku.hk [Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong); Shih, Kaimin, E-mail: kshih@hku.hk [Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong)

    2017-06-05

    Highlights: • Sulfadiazine and methylene blue were nearly completely degraded by Cu{sup +}-O{sub 2} oxidation. • Reaction of Cu{sup +} and hydrogen peroxide produced Cu{sup 3+} as the major active species. • 5,5-dimethyl-2-hydroxypyrrolidine-N-oxyl (DMPO-OH) was found in the reaction process. • Benzoic acid and electron paramagnetic resonance are not capable to differentiate Cu{sup 3+} and ·OH. - Abstract: Copper ions (Cu{sup 2+} and Cu{sup +}) have shown potential as Fenton-like activators for the circumneutral removal of organic contaminants from aqueous solutions. However, the major active species (cupryl species (Cu{sup 3+}) versus hydroxyl radical (·OH)) produced during the activation of hydrogen peroxide by Cu{sup +} remain unclear. In this study, Cu{sup +}-O{sub 2} oxidation, in which hydrogen peroxide is produced via the activated decomposition of dissolved molecular oxygen, was used to degrade sulfadiazine, methylene blue, and benzoic acid. The results showed that both sulfadiazine and methylene blue could be efficiently degraded by Cu{sup +}-O{sub 2} oxidation in a wide effective pH range from 2.0 to 10.0. Quenching experiments with different alcohols and the effect of Br{sup −} suggested that Cu{sup 3+} rather than ·OH was the major active species. Electron paramagnetic resonance detected 5,5-dimethyl-2-hydroxypyrrolidine-N-oxyl (DMPO-OH), which was probably produced by the oxidation of DMPO by Cu{sup 3+} or ·OH formed as a product of Cu{sup 3+} decomposition. 4-hydroxybenzoic acid was produced during the degradation of benzoic acid by Cu{sup 3+}. The findings of this study may help to explain the inconsistency regarding the dominant active species produced by the interaction of Cu{sup +} and hydrogen peroxide.

  13. Comparative genomics of the major agents of human and animal Sporotrichosis: Sporothrix schenckii and Sporothrix brasiliensis

    Teixeira, M.M.; de Almeida, L.G.P.; Kubitschek-Barreira, P.; Alves, F.L.; Kioshima, E.S.; Abadio, A.K.R.; Fernandes, L.; Derengowski, L.S.; Ferreira, K.S.; Souza, R.C.; Ruiz, J.C.; de Andrade, N.C.; Paes, H.C.; Nicola, A.M.; Albuquerque, P.; Gerber, A.L.; Martins, V.P.; Peconick, L.D.F.; Neto, A.V.; Chaucanez, C.B.; Silva, P.A.; cunha, O.L.; de Oliveira, F.F.M.; dos Santos, T.C.; Barros, A.L.N.; Soares, M.A.; de Oliveira, L.M.; Marini, M.M.; Villalobos-Duno, H.; Cunha, M.M.L.; de Hoog, S.; da Silveira, J.F.; Henrissat, B.; Niño-Vega, G.A.; Cisalpino, P.S.; Mora-Montes, H.M.; Almeida, S.R.; Stajich, J.E.; Lopes-Bezerra, L.M.; Vasconcelos, A.T.R.; Felipe, M.S.S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The fungal genus Sporothrix includes at least four human pathogenic species. One of these species, S. brasiliensis, is the causal agent of a major ongoing zoonotic outbreak of sporotrichosis in Brazil. Elsewhere, sapronoses are caused by S. schenckii and S. globosa. The major aims on

  14. Major Decisions: Motivations for Selecting a Major, Satisfaction, and Belonging

    Soria, Krista M.; Stebleton, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we analyzed the relationship between students' motivations for choosing academic majors and their satisfaction and sense of belonging on campus. Based on a multi-institutional survey of students who attended large, public, research universities in 2009, the results suggest that external extrinsic motivations for selecting a major…

  15. Multiple Origins of the Pathogenic Yeast Candida orthopsilosis by Separate Hybridizations between Two Parental Species.

    Schröder, Markus S; Martinez de San Vicente, Kontxi; Prandini, Tâmara H R; Hammel, Stephen; Higgins, Desmond G; Bagagli, Eduardo; Wolfe, Kenneth H; Butler, Geraldine

    2016-11-01

    Mating between different species produces hybrids that are usually asexual and stuck as diploids, but can also lead to the formation of new species. Here, we report the genome sequences of 27 isolates of the pathogenic yeast Candida orthopsilosis. We find that most isolates are diploid hybrids, products of mating between two unknown parental species (A and B) that are 5% divergent in sequence. Isolates vary greatly in the extent of homogenization between A and B, making their genomes a mosaic of highly heterozygous regions interspersed with homozygous regions. Separate phylogenetic analyses of SNPs in the A- and B-derived portions of the genome produces almost identical trees of the isolates with four major clades. However, the presence of two mutually exclusive genotype combinations at the mating type locus, and recombinant mitochondrial genomes diagnostic of inter-clade mating, shows that the species C. orthopsilosis does not have a single evolutionary origin but was created at least four times by separate interspecies hybridizations between parents A and B. Older hybrids have lost more heterozygosity. We also identify two isolates with homozygous genomes derived exclusively from parent A, which are pure non-hybrid strains. The parallel emergence of the same hybrid species from multiple independent hybridization events is common in plant evolution, but is much less documented in pathogenic fungi.

  16. Multiple Origins of the Pathogenic Yeast Candida orthopsilosis by Separate Hybridizations between Two Parental Species.

    Markus S Schröder

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Mating between different species produces hybrids that are usually asexual and stuck as diploids, but can also lead to the formation of new species. Here, we report the genome sequences of 27 isolates of the pathogenic yeast Candida orthopsilosis. We find that most isolates are diploid hybrids, products of mating between two unknown parental species (A and B that are 5% divergent in sequence. Isolates vary greatly in the extent of homogenization between A and B, making their genomes a mosaic of highly heterozygous regions interspersed with homozygous regions. Separate phylogenetic analyses of SNPs in the A- and B-derived portions of the genome produces almost identical trees of the isolates with four major clades. However, the presence of two mutually exclusive genotype combinations at the mating type locus, and recombinant mitochondrial genomes diagnostic of inter-clade mating, shows that the species C. orthopsilosis does not have a single evolutionary origin but was created at least four times by separate interspecies hybridizations between parents A and B. Older hybrids have lost more heterozygosity. We also identify two isolates with homozygous genomes derived exclusively from parent A, which are pure non-hybrid strains. The parallel emergence of the same hybrid species from multiple independent hybridization events is common in plant evolution, but is much less documented in pathogenic fungi.

  17. Ochratoxigenic Black Species of Aspergilli in Grape Fruits of Northern Italy Identified by an Improved PCR-RFLP Procedure

    Maria Lodovica Gullino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A collection of 356 isolates of Aspergillus spp. collected during 2006 and 2007 from grapevines in northern Italy were identified through Internal Transcribed Spacer based Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (ITS-RFLP and tested for ochratoxin A (OTA production. Restriction endonuclease digestion of the ITS products using the endonucleases HhaI, HinfI and RsaI, distinguished five different RFLPs. From each pattern, three samples were sequenced and the nucleotide sequences showed different species corresponding to Aspergillus niger, A. carbonarius, A. tubingensis, A. japonicus and A. aculeatus. By comparing the sequences of the ITS regions, also the uniseriate species A. japonicus and A. aculeatus could be differentiated by HinfI digestion of the ITS products. Among the aspergilli, A. niger was the major species associated with grapes during 2006 (57.4%, while A. carbonarius was the major species during 2007 (46.6%. All the strains of Aspergillus were tested for their ability to produce OTA on Yeast extract sucrose medium (YES, as it was tested as an optimal substrate for the evaluation of OTA production by black aspergilli. Out of 356 isolates, 63 (17.7% isolates produced OTA ranging from 0.05 to 3.0 µg mL−1. Most of the ochratoxigenic isolates were A. carbonarius (46 in both years, but also some strains of A. tubingensis (11 and A. japonicus (6 produced lower amounts of OTA.

  18. Managing Commercial Tree Species for Timber Production and Carbon Sequestration: Management Guidelines and Financial Returns

    Gary D. Kronrad

    2006-09-19

    A carbon credit market is developing in the United States. Information is needed by buyers and sellers of carbon credits so that the market functions equitably and efficiently. Analyses have been conducted to determine the optimal forest management regime to employ for each of the major commercial tree species so that profitability of timber production only or the combination of timber production and carbon sequestration is maximized. Because the potential of a forest ecosystem to sequester carbon depends on the tree species, site quality and management regimes utilized, analyses have determined how to optimize carbon sequestration by determining how to optimally manage each species, given a range of site qualities, discount rates, prices of carbon credits and other economic variables. The effects of a carbon credit market on the method and profitability of forest management, the cost of sequestering carbon, the amount of carbon that can be sequestered, and the amount of timber products produced has been determined.

  19. Major Oil Plays In Utah And Vicinity

    Thomas Chidsey

    2007-12-31

    Utah oil fields have produced over 1.33 billion barrels (211 million m{sup 3}) of oil and hold 256 million barrels (40.7 million m{sup 3}) of proved reserves. The 13.7 million barrels (2.2 million m3) of production in 2002 was the lowest level in over 40 years and continued the steady decline that began in the mid-1980s. However, in late 2005 oil production increased, due, in part, to the discovery of Covenant field in the central Utah Navajo Sandstone thrust belt ('Hingeline') play, and to increased development drilling in the central Uinta Basin, reversing the decline that began in the mid-1980s. The Utah Geological Survey believes providing play portfolios for the major oil-producing provinces (Paradox Basin, Uinta Basin, and thrust belt) in Utah and adjacent areas in Colorado and Wyoming can continue this new upward production trend. Oil plays are geographic areas with petroleum potential caused by favorable combinations of source rock, migration paths, reservoir rock characteristics, and other factors. The play portfolios include descriptions and maps of the major oil plays by reservoir; production and reservoir data; case-study field evaluations; locations of major oil pipelines; identification and discussion of land-use constraints; descriptions of reservoir outcrop analogs; and summaries of the state-of-the-art drilling, completion, and secondary/tertiary recovery techniques for each play. The most prolific oil reservoir in the Utah/Wyoming thrust belt province is the eolian, Jurassic Nugget Sandstone, having produced over 288 million barrels (46 million m{sup 3}) of oil and 5.1 trillion cubic feet (145 billion m{sup 3}) of gas. Traps form on discrete subsidiary closures along major ramp anticlines where the depositionally heterogeneous Nugget is also extensively fractured. Hydrocarbons in Nugget reservoirs were generated from subthrust Cretaceous source rocks. The seals for the producing horizons are overlying argillaceous and gypsiferous beds in

  20. Alien species on the coasts of Turkey

    M.E. CINAR

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The compilation of data on alien species reported from the Turkish coasts yielded a total of 263 species belonging to 11 systematic groups, of which Mollusca had the highest number of species (85 species, followed by Crustacea (51, fishes (43 and phytobenthos (39. The Black Sea is represented by a total of 20 alien species, the Sea of Marmara by 48 species, the Aegean Sea by 98 species and the Levantine Sea by 202 species. The majority of aliens found in the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara were transported via shipping, whereas the Levantine coast is extensively subjected to Lessepsian migration. Benthic habitats (soft and hard substrata comprise 76% of the total alien species and the pelagic environment is inhabited by thirty-nine species. Almost 50% of aliens collected from the Turkish coasts were found only at 0-10 m depth. Eight species occur at depths deeper than 100 m. The impacts of aliens on the benthic and pelagic ecosystems are presented.