WorldWideScience

Sample records for major solar central

  1. Solar thermal central receivers

    Vant-Hull, L.L.

    1993-01-01

    Market issues, environmental impact, and technology issues related to the Solar Central Receiver concept are addressed. The rationale for selection of the preferred configuration and working fluid are presented as the result of a joint utility-industry analysis. A $30 million conversion of Solar One to an external molten salt receiver would provide the intermediate step to a commercial demonstration plant. The first plant in this series could produce electricity at 11.2 cents/kWhr and the seventh at 8.2 cents/kWhr, completely competitive with projected costs of new utility plants in 1992

  2. The Marstal Central Solar Heating Plant

    Heller, Alfred; Jochen, Dahm

    1999-01-01

    The central solar heating plant in Marstal is running since 1996 and has been monitored since. The resulting data from the plant is analysed and the plant performance evaluated. A TRNSYS-model (computersimulation) id prepared and validated based on the measured data from the plant. Acceptable good...

  3. Solar heating - a major source of renewable energy

    Bosselaar, L.

    2001-01-01

    Actions that can be taken to increase the uptake of technology for solar water heaters and solar buildings are discussed. An overview of existing technology covers solar water heating, solar buildings, space heating, solar cooling, solar drying, solar desalination. Solar water heating, solar buildings and solar crop drying are discussed individually under the sub-headings of (a) the technology; (b) the market; (c) potential; (d) economics and (e) market acceleration strategies. Other subjects discussed are market acceleration, main opportunities, R and D needs and conclusions. The IEA solar heating and solar cooling programme is described

  4. Central solar heating plants with seasonal storage

    Chuard, D; Hadorn, J C; Van Gilst, J; Aranovitch, E; Hardacre, A G; Ofverholm, E [eds.

    1982-09-14

    On May 9, 1979, the Federal Department for Buildings released instructions concerning the use of alternative energies. The federal energy policy is to be as much as possible independent on oil imports. The canton Fribourg decided to equip the new maintenance and service center for the national high-road N12, with alternative energy, resources, and to apply new concepts with respect to passive and active solar energy. The project uses active solar energy with an earth-storage and heat pump. A conventional oil-heating system provides energy for peak-loads and can be operated in stand-by. A delay in the construction of the earth storage sub system was requested because it was intended to optimize the system with respect to the solar sub system, and heat pump sub system. The design work was done by SORANE which also is the coordinator for Switzerland in the I.E.A. Task VII. However, the preplanning of the project started in 1978 before the I.E.A. Task VII started. As a consequence, many design parameters were determined before 1980. The optimization of the solar collector, heat-pump etc. sub system was performed by a simulation approach developed by SORANE. The Vaulruz service center has been commissioned during the winter 1981/82.

  5. German central solar heating plants with seasonal heat storage

    Bauer, D.; Marx, R.; Nussbicker-Lux, J.; Ochs, F.; Heidemann, W. [Institute of Thermodynamics and Thermal Engineering (ITW), University of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 6, D-70550 Stuttgart (Germany); Mueller-Steinhagen, H. [Institute of Thermodynamics and Thermal Engineering (ITW), University of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 6, D-70550 Stuttgart (Germany); Institute of Technical Thermodynamics (ITT), German Aerospace Centre (DLR), Stuttgart (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    Central solar heating plants contribute to the reduction of CO{sub 2}-emissions and global warming. The combination of central solar heating plants with seasonal heat storage enables high solar fractions of 50% and more. Several pilot central solar heating plants with seasonal heat storage (CSHPSS) built in Germany since 1996 have proven the appropriate operation of these systems and confirmed the high solar fractions. Four different types of seasonal thermal energy stores have been developed, tested and monitored under realistic operation conditions: Hot-water thermal energy store (e.g. in Friedrichshafen), gravel-water thermal energy store (e.g. in Steinfurt-Borghorst), borehole thermal energy store (in Neckarsulm) and aquifer thermal energy store (in Rostock). In this paper, measured heat balances of several German CSHPSS are presented. The different types of thermal energy stores and the affiliated central solar heating plants and district heating systems are described. Their operational characteristics are compared using measured data gained from an extensive monitoring program. Thus long-term operational experiences such as the influence of net return temperatures are shown. (author)

  6. Hybrid solar central receiver for combined cycle power plant

    Bharathan, Desikan; Bohn, Mark S.; Williams, Thomas A.

    1995-01-01

    A hybrid combined cycle power plant including a solar central receiver for receiving solar radiation and converting it to thermal energy. The power plant includes a molten salt heat transfer medium for transferring the thermal energy to an air heater. The air heater uses the thermal energy to preheat the air from the compressor of the gas cycle. The exhaust gases from the gas cycle are directed to a steam turbine for additional energy production.

  7. Solar central receiver reformer system for ammonia plants

    1980-07-01

    An overview of a study to retrofit the Valley Nitrogen Producers, Inc., El Centro, California 600 ST/SD Ammonia Plant with Solar Central Receiver Technology is presented. The retrofit system consists of a solar central receiver reformer (SCRR) operating in parallel with the existing fossil fired reformer. Steam and hydrocarbon react in the catalyst filled tubes of the inner cavity receiver to form a hydrogen rich mixture which is the syngas feed for the ammonia production. The SCRR system will displace natural gas presently used in the fossil reformer combustion chamber.

  8. Solar central receiver reformer system for ammonia plants

    1980-07-01

    Details of the conceptual design, economic analysis, and development plan for a solar central receiver system for retrofitting the Valley Nitrogen Producers, Inc., El Centro, California 600 ST/SD Ammonia Plant are presented. The retrofit system consists of a solar central receiver reformer (SCRR) operating in parallel with the existing fossil fired reformer. Steam and hydrocarbon react in the catalyst filled tubes of the inner cavity receiver to form a hydrogen rich mixture which is the syngas feed for the ammonia production. The SCRR system displaces natural gas presently used in the fossil reformer combustion chamber. The solar reformer retrofit system characteristics and its interface with the existing plant are simple, incorporating state of the art components with proven technology. A northfield composed of one thousand forty second generation heliostats provides solar energy to the receiver which is positioned on top of a 90 meter high steel tower. The overall economics of this system can provide over 20% discount cash flow rate of return with proper investment and market conditions.

  9. Majority of Solar Wind Intervals Support Ion-Driven Instabilities

    Klein, K. G.; Alterman, B. L.; Stevens, M. L.; Vech, D.; Kasper, J. C.

    2018-05-01

    We perform a statistical assessment of solar wind stability at 1 AU against ion sources of free energy using Nyquist's instability criterion. In contrast to typically employed threshold models which consider a single free-energy source, this method includes the effects of proton and He2 + temperature anisotropy with respect to the background magnetic field as well as relative drifts between the proton core, proton beam, and He2 + components on stability. Of 309 randomly selected spectra from the Wind spacecraft, 53.7% are unstable when the ion components are modeled as drifting bi-Maxwellians; only 4.5% of the spectra are unstable to long-wavelength instabilities. A majority of the instabilities occur for spectra where a proton beam is resolved. Nearly all observed instabilities have growth rates γ slower than instrumental and ion-kinetic-scale timescales. Unstable spectra are associated with relatively large He2 + drift speeds and/or a departure of the core proton temperature from isotropy; other parametric dependencies of unstable spectra are also identified.

  10. Solar heating as a major source of energy for Australia

    Morse, R. N.

    1977-07-01

    Solar energy can make its most effective contribution to Australian primary energy in the form of heat for industrial applications. About 50% of all end use energy is required as heat and it is estimated that 40% of this amounting to 1 EJ/a by 2000 could be supplied by solar heat generating systems. This would be 12% of estimated primary energy requirements by that time, and could help reduce the country's increasing dependence on imported oil. Energy self-sufficiency for Australia is possible, based on coal, solar energy and natural gas as primary energy sources. The reason for the present orientation towards residential solar water heaters is that there are many places where electric power for water heating costs between 2 and 4 cents per kWh which makes a solar water heater an attractive proposition. There is also a growing interest in the solar heating of swimming pools, mostly for private homes but also in larger installations for public and institutional pools. Industrial applications, on the other hand, are inhibited by the current low energy prices in Australia, which in some cases are around 0.13 cents/MJ (.47 cents/kWh). Industry, however, uses 40% of Australian primary energy, and represents by far the greatest potential for solar heat generating systems. Demonstration plants are being planned to obtain data on capital and running costs, and at the same time build up professional design and constructional skills in this area. The first demonstration solar industrial process heating system was commissioned in December 1976 and supplies portion of the heat requirements of a soft drink plant in conjunction with the existing oil fired boiler. Integrated solar/oil fired systems of this sort ensure continuous operation of the plant and over a year can result in significant oil savings.

  11. Solar heating as a major source of energy for Australia

    Morse, R.N.

    1977-07-01

    Solar energy can make its most effective contribution to Australian primary energy in the form of heat for industrial applications. About 50% of all end use energy is required as heat and it is estimated that 40% of this amounting to 1 EJ/a by 2000 could be supplied by solar heat generating systems. This would be 12% of estimated primary energy requirements by that time, and could help reduce the country's increasing dependence on imported oil. Energy self-sufficiency for Australia is possible, based on coal, solar energy and natural gas as primary energy sources. The reason for the present orientation towards residential solar water heaters is that there are many places where electric power for water heating costs between 2 and 4 cents per kWh which makes a solar water heater an attractive proposition. There is also a growing interest in the solar heating of swimming pools, mostly for private homes but also in larger installations for public and institutional pools. Industrial applications, on the other hand, are inhibited by the current low energy prices in Australia, which in some cases are around 0.13 cents/MJ (.47 cents/kWh). Industry, however, uses 40% of Australian primary energy, and represents by far the greatest potential for solar heat generating systems. Demonstration plants are being planned to obtain data on capital and running costs, and at the same time build up professional design and constructional skills in this area. The first demonstration solar industrial process heating system was commissioned in December 1976 and supplies portion of the heat requirements of a soft drink plant in conjunction with the existing oil fired boiler. Integrated solar/oil fired systems of this sort ensure continuous operation of the plant and over a year can result in significant oil savings.

  12. Team Massachusetts & Central America Solar Decathlon 2015 Final Technical Report

    Lee, Kenneth [Western New England Univ., Springfield, MA (United States)

    2016-04-29

    Our team was Team MASSCA (Massachusetts and Central America), which was a partnership of Western New England University (WNE) located in Massachusetts USA, The Technological University of Panama (UTP), and Central American Technological University (UNITEC) of Honduras. Together we had a group of 6 faculty members and approximately 30 undergraduate students. Our house is ‘The EASI’ House, which stands for Efficient, Affordable, Solar Innovation. The EASI house is rectangular with two bedrooms and one bath, and offers a total square footage of 680. Based on competition estimates, The EASI house costs roughly $121,000. The EASI house has a 5kW solar system. Faculty and students from all three institutions were represented at the competition in Irvine California. Team MASSCA did well considering this was our first entry in the Solar Decathlon competition. Team MASSCA won the following awards: First Place – Affordability Contest Second Place – Energy Balance Contest. The competition provided a great experience for our students (and faculty as well). This competition provided leadership, endurance, and technical knowledge/skills for our students, and was the single most important hands-on experience during their undergraduate years. We are extremely pleased with the awards we received. At the same time we have learned from our efforts and would do better if we were to compete in the future. Furthermore, as a result of our team’s Inter-Americas collaborative effort, UTP and WNE have partnered to form Team PANAMASS (PANAma and MASSachusetts) and have developed The 3 SMART House for the inaugural Solar Decathlon Latin America & Caribbean competition held in Colombia.

  13. Improved high temperature solar absorbers for use in Concentrating Solar Power central receiver applications.

    Stechel, Ellen Beth; Ambrosini, Andrea; Hall, Aaron Christopher; Lambert, Timothy L.; Staiger, Chad Lynn; Bencomo, Marlene

    2010-09-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) systems use solar absorbers to convert the heat from sunlight to electric power. Increased operating temperatures are necessary to lower the cost of solar-generated electricity by improving efficiencies and reducing thermal energy storage costs. Durable new materials are needed to cope with operating temperatures >600 C. The current coating technology (Pyromark High Temperature paint) has a solar absorptance in excess of 0.95 but a thermal emittance greater than 0.8, which results in large thermal losses at high temperatures. In addition, because solar receivers operate in air, these coatings have long term stability issues that add to the operating costs of CSP facilities. Ideal absorbers must have high solar absorptance (>0.95) and low thermal emittance (<0.05) in the IR region, be stable in air, and be low-cost and readily manufacturable. We propose to utilize solution-based synthesis techniques to prepare intrinsic absorbers for use in central receiver applications.

  14. Solar Central Receiver Prototype Heliostat. Volume II. Phase II planning (preliminary)

    None

    1978-06-01

    A currently planned DOE program will develop and construct a 10 MW/sub e/ Pilot Plant to demonstrate the feasibility and operational characteristics of Solar Central Receiver Power Generation. The field of heliostats is a major element of the Solar Central Receiver Power Generation system. The primary objective of the program described is to establish and verify the manufacturability, performance, durability, and maintenance requirements of the commercial plant heliostat design. End products of the 16 month effort include: (1) design, fabrication, and test of heliostats; (2) preliminary designs of manufacturing, assembly, installation, and maintenance processes for quantity production; (3) detailed design of critical tooling or other special equipment for such processes; (4) refined cost estimates for heliostats and maintenance; and (5) an updated commercial plant heliostat preliminary design. The program management and control system is discussed. (WHK)

  15. Solar central receiver hybrid power system. Phase I study

    None

    1978-11-01

    A management plan is presented for implementation during the Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power System - Phase I study project. The project plan and the management controls that will be used to assure technically adequate, timely and cost effective performance of the work required to prepare the designated end products are described. Bechtel in-house controls and those to be used in directing the subcontractors are described. Phase I of the project consists of tradeoff studies, parametric analyses, and engineering studies leading to conceptual definition and evaluation of a commercial hybrid power system that has the potential for supplying economically competitive electric power to a utility grid in the 1985-1990 time frame. The scope also includes the preparation of a development plan for the resolution of technical uncertainties and the preparation of plans and a proposal for Phase II of the program. The technical approach will be based on a central receiver solar energy collection scheme which supplies thermal energy to a combined cycle, generating system, consisting of a gas turbine cycle combined with a steam bottoming cycle by means of a heat recovery steam generator.

  16. Leptospirosis following a major flood in Central Queensland, Australia.

    Smith, J K G; Young, M M; Wilson, K L; Craig, S B

    2013-03-01

    Throughout December 2010 and January 2011, Queensland experienced widespread flooding due to unusually protracted and heavy rainfalls. In mid-January 2011, four individuals from a small community in Central Queensland were hospitalized with leptospirosis. A further five cases were subsequently identified from around Central Queensland, bringing the total to nine. Microscopic agglutination testing found that serovar Arborea (Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Arborea) was presumptively responsible for leptospirosis in seven of nine confirmed cases. Serovars Hardjo and Australis were identified in samples from two remaining cases. All cases had exposure to flood water. No single exposure source was identified. This is the first reported outbreak of leptospirosis in Central Queensland and the first report of leptospirosis cases associated with flood water inundation in Queensland. Public health authorities should continue to promote awareness of leptospirosis in flood-affected populations. Healthcare providers must maintain a high level of suspicion for leptospirosis during and after flood events.

  17. Solar cooking and baking in Central Europe; Kochen mit der Sonne. Solar kochen und backen in Mitteleuropa

    Behringer, Rolf; Goetz, Michael

    2008-07-01

    Even in the Western and Central European climate, solar cookers can enable environment-friendly cooking and baking on about 100 to 150 days of the year. Some foods taste better when cooked more carefully, and vitamins and nutrients will be better preserved than in conventionally cooked food. After a short historical outline, the authors present some commercial solar cookers suited for our climate. This is followed by a detailed guide on how to construct a simple wooden solar cooker box from commercially available materials. Examples of solar cooking initiatives illustrate the many applications of solar cookers and parabolic trough cookers. The text is supplemented by practical hints and recipes.

  18. Large-scale use of solar energy with central receivers

    Kreith, F.; Meyer, R. T.

    1983-12-01

    The working principles of solar central receiver power plants are outlined and applications are discussed. Heliostat arrays direct sunlight into a receiver cavity mounted on a tower, heating the working fluid in the tower to temperatures exceeding 500 C. The formulation for the image plane and the geometric concentration ratio for a heliostat field are provided, noting that commercial electric power plants will require concentration ratios of 200-1000. Automated controls consider imperfections in the mirrors, tracking errors, and seasonal insolation intensity and angular variations. Membranes may be used instead of rigid heliostat mirrors to reduce costs, while trade-offs exist between the efficiencies of cavity and exterior receivers on the tower. Sensible heat storage has proved most effective for cloudy or nighttime operations. Details of the DOE Solar One 10 MW plant, which began operation in 1982, are provided, with mention given to the 33.6 continuous hours of power generation that have been achieved. Projected costs of commercial installations are $700/kWt, and possible applications include recovering and refining oil, processing natural gas, uranium ore, and sugar cane, drying gypsum board, and manufacturing ammonia.

  19. Central air conditioning based on adsorption and solar energy

    Pralon Ferreira Leite, Antonio; Belo, Francisco Antonio; Martins, Moacir Machado; Bressan Riffel, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the characterization and the pre-dimensioning of an adsorption chiller as part of a 20 kW air conditioning central unit for cooling a set of rooms that comprises an area of 110 m 2 . The system is basically made up of a cold water storage tank supplied by an activated carbon-methanol adsorption chiller, a hot water storage tank, fed by solar energy and natural gas, and a fan-coil. During an acclimatization of 8 h (9-17 h), the following parameters were obtained for dimensioning the cooling system: 504 kg of activated carbon, 180 L of methanol, 7000 L of hot water, 10,300 L of cold water with its temperature varying in the fan-coil from 1 deg. C to 14 C. Considering the mean value of the total daily irradiation in Joao Pessoa (7 o 8'S, 34 o 50'WG), and a cover of regenerating heat supplied by solar energy equivalent to 70%, the adsorption chiller's expected coefficient of performance (COP) was found to be around 0.6.

  20. CORONAL AND CHROMOSPHERIC SIGNATURES OF LARGE-SCALE DISTURBANCES ASSOCIATED WITH A MAJOR SOLAR ERUPTION

    Zong, Weiguo [Key Laboratory of Space Weather, National Center for Space Weather, China Meteorological Administration, Beijing 100081 (China); Dai, Yu, E-mail: ydai@nju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Modern Astronomy and Astrophysics (Nanjing University), Ministry of Education, Nanjing 210023 (China)

    2015-08-20

    We present both coronal and chromospheric observations of large-scale disturbances associated with a major solar eruption on 2005 September 7. In the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites/Solar X-ray Imager (SXI), arclike coronal brightenings are recorded propagating in the southern hemisphere. The SXI front shows an initially constant speed of 730 km s{sup −1} and decelerates later on, and its center is near the central position angle of the associated coronal mass ejection (CME) but away from the flare site. Chromospheric signatures of the disturbances are observed in both Mauna Loa Solar Observatory (MLSO)/Polarimeter for Inner Coronal Studies Hα and MLSO/Chromospheric Helium I Imaging Photometer He i λ10830 and can be divided into two parts. The southern signatures occur in regions where the SXI front sweeps over, with the Hα bright front coincident with the SXI front, while the He i dark front lags the SXI front but shows a similar kinematics. Ahead of the path of the southern signatures, oscillations of a filament are observed. The northern signatures occur near the equator, with the Hα and He i fronts coincident with each other. They first propagate westward and then deflect to the north at the boundary of an equatorial coronal hole. Based on these observational facts, we suggest that the global disturbances are associated with the CME lift-off and show a hybrid nature: a mainly non-wave CME flank nature for the SXI signatures and the corresponding southern chromospheric signatures, and a shocked fast-mode coronal MHD wave nature for the northern chromospheric signatures.

  1. CORONAL AND CHROMOSPHERIC SIGNATURES OF LARGE-SCALE DISTURBANCES ASSOCIATED WITH A MAJOR SOLAR ERUPTION

    Zong, Weiguo; Dai, Yu

    2015-01-01

    We present both coronal and chromospheric observations of large-scale disturbances associated with a major solar eruption on 2005 September 7. In the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites/Solar X-ray Imager (SXI), arclike coronal brightenings are recorded propagating in the southern hemisphere. The SXI front shows an initially constant speed of 730 km s −1 and decelerates later on, and its center is near the central position angle of the associated coronal mass ejection (CME) but away from the flare site. Chromospheric signatures of the disturbances are observed in both Mauna Loa Solar Observatory (MLSO)/Polarimeter for Inner Coronal Studies Hα and MLSO/Chromospheric Helium I Imaging Photometer He i λ10830 and can be divided into two parts. The southern signatures occur in regions where the SXI front sweeps over, with the Hα bright front coincident with the SXI front, while the He i dark front lags the SXI front but shows a similar kinematics. Ahead of the path of the southern signatures, oscillations of a filament are observed. The northern signatures occur near the equator, with the Hα and He i fronts coincident with each other. They first propagate westward and then deflect to the north at the boundary of an equatorial coronal hole. Based on these observational facts, we suggest that the global disturbances are associated with the CME lift-off and show a hybrid nature: a mainly non-wave CME flank nature for the SXI signatures and the corresponding southern chromospheric signatures, and a shocked fast-mode coronal MHD wave nature for the northern chromospheric signatures

  2. Combined cycle solar central receiver hybrid power system study. Final technical report. Volume II

    None

    1979-11-01

    This study develops the conceptual design for a commercial-scale (nominal 100 MWe) central receiver solar/fossil fuel hybrid power system with combined cycle energy conversion. A near-term, metallic heat pipe receiver and an advanced ceramic tube receiver hybrid system are defined through parametric and market potential analyses. Comparative evaluations of the cost of power generation, the fuel displacement potential, and the technological readiness of these two systems indicate that the near-term hybrid system has better potential for commercialization by 1990. Based on the assessment of the conceptual design, major cost and performance improvements are projected for the near-term system. Constraints preventing wide-spread use were not identified. Energy storage is not required for this system and analyses show no economic advantages with energy storage provisions. It is concluded that the solar hybrid system is a cost effective alternative to conventional gas turbines and combined cycle generating plants, and has potential for intermediate-load market penetration at 15% annual fuel escalation rate. Due to their flexibility, simple solar/nonsolar interfacing, and short startup cycles, these hybrid plants have significant operating advantages. Utility company comments suggest that hybrid power systems will precede stand-alone solar plants.

  3. Determination of incoming solar radiation in major tree species in Turkey.

    Yilmaz, Osman Yalcin; Sevgi, Orhan; Koc, Ayhan

    2012-07-01

    Light requirements and spatial distribution of major forest tree species in Turkey hasn't been analyzed yet. Continuous surface solar radiation data, especially at mountainous-forested areas, are needed to put forward this relationship between forest tree species and solar radiation. To achieve this, GIS-based modeling of solar radiation is one of the methods used in rangelands to estimate continuous surface solar radiation. Therefore, mean monthly and annual total global solar radiation maps of whole Turkey were computed spatially using GRASS GIS software "r.sun" model under clear-sky (cloudless) conditions. 147498 pure forest stand point-based data were used in the study for calculating mean global solar radiation values of all the major forest tree species of Turkey. Beech had the lowest annual mean total global solar radiation value of 1654.87 kWh m(-2), whereas juniper had the highest value of 1928.89 kWh m(-2). The rank order of tree species according to the mean monthly and annual total global solar radiation values, using a confidence level of p solar radiation values of sites and light requirements of forest trees ranked similarly.

  4. Major activities of the association ''Arbeitsgemeinschaft Solar NRW''. Decentralized energy systems development, trial and qualification

    Meliss, M.

    1996-01-01

    In North-Rhine Westphalia, the Ministry for Science and Research and the Ministry for Economic Affairs, Medium-Sized Companies and Technology (MWF) in 1991 decided to jointly establish a research and technology association called AG Solar NRW, intended to function as a central body for promotion and coordination of existing but dispersed projects and activities in North-Rhine Westphalia for research into and development of solar technology and energy systems, and for promotion of demonstration projects and training programmes supporting enhanced use of solar energy. The total budget made available for activities of the AG Solar in phase 1 (1991 - 1995) was approx. DM 60 million. The article in hand summarizes the main activities and results achieved in this first phase which was committed to decentralized energy systems, performance testing and qualification. (orig.) [de

  5. Economic analyses of central solar heating systems with seasonal storage

    Lund, P D; Keinonen, R.S.

    1986-10-01

    Economic optimization of large active community solar heating systems with annual thermal storage is discussed. The economic evaluation is based on a thermal performance simulation model employing one hour time steps and on detailed up-date data. Different system configurations and sub-system sizes have been considered. For Northern European weather conditions (60/sup 0/N) and with at least 400-500 residential units, the life-cycle cost of delivered solar heat was 6.5-7.5 c/kWh for 50% fraction of non-purchased energy. For a solar fraction of 70%, the solar energy price would be 8 c/kWh.

  6. Optimisation of Control Strategy at the Central Solar Heating Plant in Marstal, Denmark

    Heller, Alfred

    1999-01-01

    The central solar heating plant at Marstal is monitored since 1996. The data is analysed with focus on the applied constrol strategy for the solar collector field. Variable flow is applied which is not the case at the other plants compared. The project analysed the performance, compared...

  7. The Bepicolombo Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO Solar Array Design, Major Developments and Qualification

    Loehberg A.

    2017-01-01

    The MPO solar generator is composed of one wing consisting of three panels and provides an average power output up to 1800W during the nominal 1 Earth year mission around Mercury. The wing design is characterised by temperature reduction measures. The flight wing has already passed the majority of the environmental test program.

  8. A study of solar magnetic fields below the surface, at the surface, and in the solar atmosphere - understanding the cause of major solar activity

    Chintzoglou, Georgios

    2016-04-01

    Magnetic fields govern all aspects of solar activity from the 11-year solar cycle to the most energetic events in the solar system, such as solar flares and Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs). As seen on the surface of the sun, this activity emanates from localized concentrations of magnetic fields emerging sporadically from the solar interior. These locations are called solar Active Regions (ARs). However, the fundamental processes regarding the origin, emergence and evolution of solar magnetic fields as well as the generation of solar activity are largely unknown or remain controversial. In this dissertation, multiple important issues regarding solar magnetism and activities are addressed, based on advanced observations obtained by AIA and HMI instruments aboard the SDO spacecraft. First, this work investigates the formation of coronal magnetic flux ropes (MFRs), structures associated with major solar activity such as CMEs. In the past, several theories have been proposed to explain the cause of this major activity, which can be categorized in two contrasting groups (a) the MFR is formed in the eruption, and (b) the MFR pre-exists the eruption. This remains a topic of heated debate in modern solar physics. This dissertation provides a complete treatment of the role of MFRs from their genesis all the way to their eruption and even destruction. The study has uncovered the pre-existence of two weakly twisted MFRs, which formed during confined flaring 12 hours before their associated CMEs. Thus, it provides unambiguous evidence for MFRs truly existing before the CME eruptions, resolving the pre-existing MFR controversy. Second, this dissertation addresses the 3-D magnetic structure of complex emerging ARs. In ARs the photospheric fields might show all aspects of complexity, from simple bipolar regions to extremely complex multi-polar surface magnetic distributions. In this thesis, we introduce a novel technique to infer the subphotospheric configuration of emerging

  9. Tri-Lateral Noor al Salaam High Concentration Solar Central Receiver Program

    Blackmon, James B

    2008-03-31

    This report documents the efforts conducted primarily under the Noor al Salaam (“Light of Peace”) program under DOE GRANT NUMBER DE-FC36-02GO12030, together with relevant technical results from a closely related technology development effort, the U.S./Israel Science and Technology Foundation (USISTF) High Concentration Solar Central Receiver program. These efforts involved preliminary design, development, and test of selected prototype power production subsystems and documentation of an initial version of the system definition for a high concentration solar hybrid/gas electrical power plant to be built in Zaafarana, Egypt as a first step in planned commercialization. A major part of the planned work was halted in 2007 with an amendment in October 2007 requiring that we complete the technical effort by December 31, 2007 and provide a final report to DOE within the following 90 days. This document summarizes the work conducted. The USISTF program was a 50/50 cost-shared program supported by the Department of Commerce through the U.S./Israel Science and Technology Commission (USISTC). The USISTC was cooperatively developed by President Clinton and the late Prime Minister Rabin of Israel "to encourage technological collaboration" and "support peace in the Middle East through economic development". The program was conducted as a follow-on effort to Israel's Magnet/CONSOLAR Program, which was an advanced development effort to design, fabricate, and test a solar central receiver and secondary optics for a "beam down" central receiver concept. The status of these hardware development programs is reviewed, since they form the basis for the Noor al Salaam program. Descriptions are provided of the integrated system and the major subsystems, including the heliostat, the high temperature air receiver, the power conversion unit, tower and tower reflector, compound parabolic concentrator, and the master control system. One objective of the USISTF program was to conduct

  10. Timber harvesting patterns for major states in the central, northern, and mid-Atlantic hardwood regions

    William G. Luppold; Matthew S. Bumgardner

    2018-01-01

    Timber harvesting is a major disturbance agent influencing the composition and structure of eastern hardwood forests. To better understand timber harvesting practices, we examined roundwood harvesting patterns in 13 eastern states in the Central, Mid-Atlantic, and Northern regions that contained high proportional volumes of hardwood in their forest inventories. Nearly...

  11. Estimating the horizontal diffuse solar radiation over the Central Anatolia Region of Turkey

    Aras, Haydar; Balli, Ozgur; Hepbasli, Arif

    2006-01-01

    The main objective of the present study is to develop new hybrid models to predict the monthly average daily diffuse solar radiation on a horizontal surface over Turkey's Central Anatolia Region (CAR), which covers the 12 provinces (Afyon, Ankara, Cankiri, Corum, Eskisehir, Kayseri, Kirsehir, Konya, Nevsehir, Nigde, Sivas and Yozgat), as an example. The models proposed by many investigators to estimate the diffuse solar radiation were reviewed. Although the global solar radiation and sunshine duration have been measured by the Turkish State Meteorological Service (DMI) over all the country since 1964, the diffuse solar radiation has not been measured. The twelve new hybrid models for estimating the monthly average daily diffuse solar radiation on a horizontal surface in the CAR were validated, and thus, the most accurate model was selected for guiding future projects

  12. Solar Energy within the Central Valley, CA: Current Practices and Potential

    Hoffacker, M. K.; Hernandez, R. R.; Allen, M. F.

    2015-12-01

    Utility-scale solar energy (USSE, ≥ 1 megawatt [MW]) systems are rapidly being deployed in the Central Valley of California, generating clean electricity and new job opportunities. Utility-scale solar energy systems require substantial quantities of land or space, often prompting an evaluation of environmental impacts and trade-offs when selecting their placement. Utilizing salt-contaminated agricultural land (as the sodium absorption and electrical conductivity values are unsuitably high), unsuitable for food production, and lands within the built environment (developed), can serve as a co-benefit opportunity when reclamation of these lands for USSE development is prioritized. In this study, we quantify the theoretical and generation-based solar energy potential for the Central Valley according to land-cover type, crop type, and for salt-contaminated lands. Further, we utilize the Carnegie Energy and Environmental Compatibility (CEEC) model to identify and prioritize solar energy, integrating environmental resource opportunities and constraints most relevant to the Central Valley. We use the CEEC model to generate a value-based environmental compatibility output for the Central Valley. The Central Valley extends across nearly 60,000 km2 of California with the potential of generating 21,800 - 30,300 TWh y-1 and 41,600 TWh y-1 of solar energy for photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP), respectively. Pasture, hay, and cultivated crops comprise over half of the Central Valley, much of which is considered prime agriculture or of statewide or local importance for farming (28,200 km2). Together, approximately one-third of this region is salt-contaminated (16%) or developed (11%). This confers a generation-based potential of 5713 - 7891 TWh y-1 and 2770 TWh y-1 for PV and CSP, respectively. As energy, food, and land are inextricably linked, our study shows how land favorable for renewable energy systems can be used more effectively in places where land is

  13. Evaluation of major heat waves' mechanisms in EURO-CORDEX RCMs over Central Europe

    Lhotka, Ondřej; Kyselý, Jan; Plavcová, Eva

    2018-06-01

    The main aim of the study is to evaluate the capability of EURO-CORDEX regional climate models (RCMs) to simulate major heat waves in Central Europe and their associated meteorological factors. Three reference major heat waves (1994, 2006, and 2015) were identified in the E-OBS gridded data set, based on their temperature characteristics, length and spatial extent. Atmospheric circulation, precipitation, net shortwave radiation, and evaporative fraction anomalies during these events were assessed using the ERA-Interim reanalysis. The analogous major heat waves and their links to the aforementioned factors were analysed in an ensemble of EURO-CORDEX RCMs driven by various global climate models in the 1970-2016 period. All three reference major heat waves were associated with favourable circulation conditions, precipitation deficit, reduced evaporative fraction and increased net shortwave radiation. This joint contribution of large-scale circulation and land-atmosphere interactions is simulated with difficulties in majority of the RCMs, which affects the magnitude of modelled major heat waves. In some cases, the seemingly good reproduction of major heat waves' magnitude is erroneously achieved through extremely favourable circulation conditions compensated by a substantial surplus of soil moisture or vice versa. These findings point to different driving mechanisms of major heat waves in some RCMs compared to observations, which should be taken into account when analysing and interpreting future projections of these events.

  14. System design package for the solar heating and cooling central data processing system

    1978-01-01

    The central data processing system provides the resources required to assess the performance of solar heating and cooling systems installed at remote sites. These sites consist of residential, commercial, government, and educational types of buildings, and the solar heating and cooling systems can be hot-water, space heating, cooling, and combinations of these. The instrumentation data associated with these systems will vary according to the application and must be collected, processed, and presented in a form which supports continuity of performance evaluation across all applications. Overall software system requirements were established for use in the central integration facility which transforms raw data collected at remote sites into performance evaluation information for assessing the performance of solar heating and cooling systems.

  15. On the importance of Major Baltic Inflows for oxygenation of the central Baltic Sea

    Neumann, Thomas; Radtke, Hagen; Seifert, Torsten

    2017-02-01

    In December 2014, the third strongest salt water inflow into the Baltic Sea occurred since 1880. It was assumed that the inflow would turn the entire bottom water of the Baltic Sea from anoxic into oxic conditions for an extended period. However, already in late 2015, the central Eastern Baltic Sea had turned back into anoxic conditions. This rapid oxygen decline was in fact surprising since a weaker inflow in 2003 ventilated the Baltic Sea for a longer period of time. With the aid of an ecosystem model of the Baltic Sea, the two inflows in 2003 and 2014 were analyzed in detail. Although the 2014 inflow event was twice as strong as the 2003 inflow event, oxygen transport continued after the latter one, supplying about the same amount of oxygen again. In addition to the major inflow event, a series of smaller inflows in 2003 supplied the extra oxygen transport. Therefore, the strength of a major inflow event alone cannot be used to predict the oxygenation impact. Instead, it is necessary to consider smaller events, in particular those occurring just before and after a major inflow event, as well. An element tagging method showed that the share of oxygen imported across the Danish Straits on the total oxygen arriving at the central Eastern Baltic Sea is between 10% and 20%. Therefore, the oxygen concentration of the inflowing water seems to be of less importance for the oxygenation effect on the central Baltic Sea due to the strong dilution effect.

  16. Smart thermal grid with integration of distributed and centralized solar energy systems

    Yang, Libing; Entchev, Evgueniy; Rosato, Antonio; Sibilio, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    Smart thermal grids (STGs) are able to perform the same function as classical grids, but are developed in order to make better use of distributed, possibly intermittent, thermal energy resources and to provide the required energy when needed through efficient resources utilization and intelligent management. District heating (DH) plays a significant role in the implementation of future smart energy systems. To fulfil its role, DH technologies must be further developed to integrate renewable resources, create low-temperature networks, and consequently to make existing or new DH networks ready for integration into future STGs. Solar heating is a promising option for low-temperature DH systems. Thermal energy storage (TES) can make the availability of the energy supply match the demand. An integration of centralized seasonal and distributed short-term thermal storages would facilitate an efficient recovery of the solar energy. This study, through modelling and simulation, investigates the impacts of such integration on the overall performance of a community-level solar DH system. The performance analysis results show that the solar DH system with integration of distributed and centralized seasonal TESs improves system overall efficiency, and reduces DH network heat losses, primary energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, in comparison to the one without integration. - Highlights: • STG should be designed to store energy in the most efficient way at the most effective location. • Integration of centralized seasonal and distributed TESs in a solar DH system is proposed. • Performance of such integrated solar DH system is evaluated and compared to the one without. • The integration results in reduction of primary energy consumption and GHG emission. • The integration improves the overall efficiency of the total solar energy system.

  17. Preliminary design of the Carrisa Plains solar central receiver power plant. Volume I. Executive summary

    1983-12-31

    The design of the 30 MWe central receiver solar power plant to be located at Carrisa Plains, San Luis Obispo County, California, is summarized. The plant uses a vertical flat-panel (billboard) solar receiver located at the top of a tower to collect solar energy redirected by approximately 1900 heliostats located to the north of the tower. The solar energy is used to heat liquid sodium pumped from ground level from 610 to 1050/sup 0/F. The power conversion system is a non-reheat system, cost-effective at this size level, and designed for high-efficiency performance in an application requiring daily startup. Successful completion of this project will lead to power generation starting in 1986. This report also discusses plant performance, operations and maintenance, development, and facility cost estimate and economic analysis.

  18. Statistical study of spatio-temporal distribution of precursor solar flares associated with major flares

    Gyenge, N.; Ballai, I.; Baranyi, T.

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present investigation is to study the spatio-temporal distribution of precursor flares during the 24 h interval preceding M- and X-class major flares and the evolution of follower flares. Information on associated (precursor and follower) flares is provided by Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI). Flare list, while the major flares are observed by the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) system satellites between 2002 and 2014. There are distinct evolutionary differences between the spatio-temporal distributions of associated flares in about one-day period depending on the type of the main flare. The spatial distribution was characterized by the normalized frequency distribution of the quantity δ (the distance between the major flare and its precursor flare normalized by the sunspot group diameter) in four 6 h time intervals before the major event. The precursors of X-class flares have a double-peaked spatial distribution for more than half a day prior to the major flare, but it changes to a lognormal-like distribution roughly 6 h prior to the event. The precursors of M-class flares show lognormal-like distribution in each 6 h subinterval. The most frequent sites of the precursors in the active region are within a distance of about 0.1 diameter of sunspot group from the site of the major flare in each case. Our investigation shows that the build-up of energy is more effective than the release of energy because of precursors.

  19. Operation Performance of Central Solar Heating System with Seasonal Storage Water Tank in Harbin

    YE Ling; JIANG Yi-qiang; YAO Yang; ZHANG Shi-cong

    2009-01-01

    This paper presented a preliminary research on the central solar heating system with seasonal stor-age(CSHSSS)used in cold climate in China.A mathematical model of the solar energy seasonal storage water tank used in the central solar heating system was firstly developed based on energy conservation.This was fol-lowed by the simulation of the CSHSSS used in a two-floor villa in Harbin,and analysis of the impacts on storage water temperature of tank volume,solar collector area,tank burial depth,insulation thickness around the tank,etc.The results show there is a relatively economical tank volume to optimize the system efficiency,which de-creases with increasing tank volume at the constant collector area,and increases with increasing collector area at the constant tank volume.Furthermore,the insulation thickness has obvious effect on avoiding heat loss,while the tank burial depth doesn't.In addition-the relationship between the solar collector efficiency and storage wa-ter temperature is also obtained,it decreases quickly with increasing storing water temperature,and then in-creases slowly after starting space heating system.These may be helpful for relevant design and optimization in cold climates in China and all over the world.

  20. Application of solar energy in heating and cooling of residential buildings under Central Asian conditions

    Usmonov Shukhrat Zaurovich

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Solar radiation is the main source of thermal energy for almost all the processes developing in the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere. The total duration of sunshine in Tajikistan ranges from 2100 to 3170 hours per year. Solar collectors can be mounted on the roof of a house after its renovation and modernization. One square meter of surface area in Central Asia accounts for up to 1600 kW/h of solar energy gain, whilst the average gain is 1200 kW/h. Active solar thermal systems are able to collect both low- and high-temperature heat. Active systems require the use of special engineering equipment for the collection, storage, conversion and distribution of heat, while a low-grade system is based on the principle of using a flat solar collector. The collector is connected to the storage tank for storing the heated water, gas, etc. The water temperature is in the range 50-60 °C. For summer air conditioning in hot climates, absorption-based solar installations with open evaporating solution are recommended. The UltraSolar PRO system offers an opportunity to make a home independent of traditional electricity. Combining Schneider Electric power generation and innovative energy storage technology results in an independent power supply. Traditional power supply systems can be short-lived since they store energy in lead-acid batteries which have a negligible lifetime. Lead-acid batteries operate in a constant charge-discharge mode, require specific conditions for best performance and can fail suddenly. Sudden failure of lead acid batteries, especially in winter in the northern part of Tajikistan, completely disables the heating system of a building. Instead, it is recommended to use industrial lithium-ion batteries, which have a significantly longer life and reliability compared to lead-acid type. UltraSolar PRO are ideal and provide a complete package, low noise and compact lithium-ion power supply.

  1. Thermoeconomic optimization of a Kalina cycle for a central receiver concentrating solar power plant

    Modi, Anish; Kærn, Martin Ryhl; Andreasen, Jesper Graa

    2016-01-01

    with direct vapour generation and without storage. The use of the ammonia-water mixture as the power cycle working fluid with non-isothermal evaporation and condensation presents the potential to improve the overall performance of the plant. This however comes at a price of requiring larger heat exchangers...... because of lower thermal pinch and heat transfer degradation for mixtures as compared with using a pure fluid in a conventional steam Rankine cycle, and the necessity to use a complex cycle arrangement. Most of the previous studies on the Kalina cycle focused solely on the thermodynamic aspects......Concentrating solar power plants use a number of reflecting mirrors to focus and convert the incident solar energy to heat, and a power cycle to convert this heat into electricity. This paper evaluates the use of a high temperature Kalina cycle for a central receiver concentrating solar power plant...

  2. Ecotone shift and major droughts during the mid-late Holocene in the central Tibetan Plateau.

    Shen, Caiming; Liu, Kam-Biu; Morrill, Carrie; Overpeck, Jonathan T; Peng, Jinlan; Tang, Lingyu

    2008-04-01

    A well-dated pollen record from a large lake located on the meadow-steppe ecotone provides a history of ecotone shift in response to monsoonal climate changes over the last 6000 years in the central Tibetan Plateau. The pollen record indicates that the ecotone shifted eastward during 6000-4900, 4400-3900, and 2800-1600 cal. yr BP when steppes occupied this region, whereas it shifted westward during the other intervals when the steppes were replaced by meadows. The quantitative reconstruction of paleoclimate derived from the pollen record shows that monsoon precipitation fluctuated around the present level over the last 6000 years in the central Tibetan Plateau. Three major drought episodes of 5600-4900, 4400-3900, and 2800-2400 cal. yr BP are detected by pollen signals and lake sediments. Comparison of our record with other climatic proxy data from the Tibetan Plateau and other monsoonal regions shows that these episodes are three major centennial-scale monsoon weakening events.

  3. 15 Years of R&D in Central Solar Heating in Denmark

    Heller, Alfred

    2000-01-01

    Danish R&D activities during the last two decades in the field of Central Solar Heating Plants and Thermal Energy Storage Technologies are presented. The most relevant central solar heating plants (CSHPs), with and without seasonal storage, are examined and essential experiences highlighted....... The Saltum and Ry plants represent the type of CSHPs with preheating the return stream of a district heating net and no storage involved. The Marstal plant represents an alternative approach, connecting the CSHP to the delivery pipe for summer operation. Here the plant involves short-term storage...... and the application of variable flow that lead to novelties in the control strategy. The plant is described and experiences are analysed. The presented cases show that the technology, under special conditions, can be economically competitive with other heating technologies. Under normal conditions, public funding...

  4. Performance comparison of different thermodynamic cycles for an innovative central receiver solar power plant

    Reyes-Belmonte, Miguel A.; Sebastián, Andrés; González-Aguilar, José; Romero, Manuel

    2017-06-01

    The potential of using different thermodynamic cycles coupled to a solar tower central receiver that uses a novel heat transfer fluid is analyzed. The new fluid, named as DPS, is a dense suspension of solid particles aerated through a tubular receiver used to convert concentrated solar energy into thermal power. This novel fluid allows reaching high temperatures at the solar receiver what opens a wide range of possibilities for power cycle selection. This work has been focused into the assessment of power plant performance using conventional, but optimized cycles but also novel thermodynamic concepts. Cases studied are ranging from subcritical steam Rankine cycle; open regenerative Brayton air configurations at medium and high temperature; combined cycle; closed regenerative Brayton helium scheme and closed recompression supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle. Power cycle diagrams and working conditions for design point are compared amongst the studied cases for a common reference thermal power of 57 MWth reaching the central cavity receiver. It has been found that Brayton air cycle working at high temperature or using supercritical carbon dioxide are the most promising solutions in terms of efficiency conversion for the power block of future generation by means of concentrated solar power plants.

  5. Central receiver solar thermal power system, phase 1. Progress report for period ending December 31, 1975

    None

    1976-04-01

    The program objective is the preliminary design of a 10 MWe pilot solar power plant supported by major subsystem experiments. Progress is reported on the following task elements: 10 MWe pilot plant; collector subsystem design and analysis; receiver subsystem requirements; receiver subsystem design; thermal storage subsystem; electrical power generation subsystem; and pilot plant architectural engineering and support. (WDM)

  6. HOW DID A MAJOR CONFINED FLARE OCCUR IN SUPER SOLAR ACTIVE REGION 12192?

    Jiang, Chaowei; Feng, Xueshang [SIGMA Weather Group, State Key Laboratory for Space Weather, National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Wu, S. T.; Hu, Qiang [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research, The University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Yurchyshyn, Vasyl; Wang, Haiming, E-mail: cwjiang@spaceweather.ac.cn [Big Bear Solar Observatory, New Jersey Institute of Technology, 40386 North Shore Lane, Big Bear City, CA 92314 (United States)

    2016-09-01

    We study the physical mechanism of a major X-class solar flare that occurred in the super NOAA active region (AR) 12192 using data-driven numerical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modeling complemented with observations. With the evolving magnetic fields observed at the solar surface as bottom boundary input, we drive an MHD system to evolve self-consistently in correspondence with the realistic coronal evolution. During a two-day time interval, the modeled coronal field has been slowly stressed by the photospheric field evolution, which gradually created a large-scale coronal current sheet, i.e., a narrow layer with intense current, in the core of the AR. The current layer was successively enhanced until it became so thin that a tether-cutting reconnection between the sheared magnetic arcades was set in, which led to a flare. The modeled reconnecting field lines and their footpoints match well the observed hot flaring loops and the flare ribbons, respectively, suggesting that the model has successfully “reproduced” the macroscopic magnetic process of the flare. In particular, with simulation, we explained why this event is a confined eruption—the consequence of the reconnection is a shared arcade instead of a newly formed flux rope. We also found a much weaker magnetic implosion effect compared to many other X-class flares.

  7. Investigating the Magnetic Imprints of Major Solar Eruptions with SDO /HMI High-cadence Vector Magnetograms

    Sun Xudong; Hoeksema, J. Todd; Liu Yang; Chen Ruizhu [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Kazachenko, Maria, E-mail: xudong@Sun.stanford.edu [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2017-04-10

    The solar active region photospheric magnetic field evolves rapidly during major eruptive events, suggesting appreciable feedback from the corona. Previous studies of these “magnetic imprints” are mostly based on line of sight only or lower-cadence vector observations; a temporally resolved depiction of the vector field evolution is hitherto lacking. Here, we introduce the high-cadence (90 s or 135 s) vector magnetogram data set from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager, which is well suited for investigating the phenomenon. These observations allow quantitative characterization of the permanent, step-like changes that are most pronounced in the horizontal field component (B {sub h}). A highly structured pattern emerges from analysis of an archetypical event, SOL2011-02-15T01:56, where B {sub h} near the main polarity inversion line increases significantly during the earlier phase of the associated flare with a timescale of several minutes, while B {sub h} in the periphery decreases at later times with smaller magnitudes and a slightly longer timescale. The data set also allows effective identification of the “magnetic transient” artifact, where enhanced flare emission alters the Stokes profiles and the inferred magnetic field becomes unreliable. Our results provide insights on the momentum processes in solar eruptions. The data set may also be useful to the study of sunquakes and data-driven modeling of the corona.

  8. Comparison between the European Central Bank as a New Monetary Experiment and other Major - Central Banks - US Federal Reserve and Bank of Japan

    Tache I.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Our goal is to make a survey of three major central banks practices and to emphasize both the different national characteristics and the similarities derived from the global changes of financial environment. Using a descriptive methodology, the comparison will concern the central banks’ goals, the institutional and organizational structures, strategies and tools of monetary policy

  9. Solar lanterns for domestic lighting in India. Viability of central charging station model

    Chaurey, A.; Kandpal, T.C.

    2009-01-01

    About 68 million households in India rely on kerosene as a fuel for domestic lighting. Kerosene-based lighting devices, not only for poor quality of light, but also for the risks of indoor air pollution and fire hazards, etc. are not a desired option for domestic lighting purposes. Solar lantern is a better alternative in terms of its quality of illumination, durability and versatility of use. The dissemination model for solar lantern in India has so far been based on cash sales with or without the incentive of capital subsidy. This paper analyses several dissemination models including rental and fee-for-service based on centralized solar charging station concept for CFL- and LED-based designs of solar lanterns available in India. The basis of comparison is the acceptable daily costs or rental to the user as well as to the owner of the charging station. Further, the paper studies the impact of likely escalation in kerosene price on the acceptable daily rental and estimates the amount of subsidy required to make the charging station model viable for disseminating solar lanterns among rural households. (author)

  10. A simple formula for estimating global solar radiation in central arid deserts of Iran

    Sabziparvar, Ali A.

    2008-01-01

    Over the last two decades, using simple radiation models has been an interesting task to estimate daily solar radiation in arid and semi-arid deserts such as those in Iran, where the number of solar observation sites is poor. In Iran, most of the models used so far, have been validated for a few specific locations based on short-term solar observations. In this work, three different radiation models (Sabbagh, Paltridge, Daneshyar) have been revised to predict the climatology of monthly average daily solar radiation on horizontal surfaces in various cities in central arid deserts of Iran. The modifications are made by the inclusion of altitude, monthly total number of dusty days and seasonal variation of Sun-Earth distance. A new height-dependent formula is proposed based on MBE, MABE, MPE and RMSE statistical analysis. It is shown that the revised Sabbagh method can be a good estimator for the prediction of global solar radiation in arid and semi-arid deserts with an average error of less than 2%, that performs a more accurate prediction than those in the previous studies. The required data for the suggested method are usually available in most meteorological sites. For the locations, where some of the input data are not reported, an alternative approach is presented. (author)

  11. Optimization of a recompression supercritical carbon dioxide cycle for an innovative central receiver solar power plant

    Reyes-Belmonte, M.A.; Sebastián, A.; Romero, M.; González-Aguilar, J.

    2016-01-01

    Peculiar thermodynamic properties of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) when it is held at or above its critical condition (stated as supercritical CO 2 or sCO 2 ) have attracted the attention of many researchers. Its excellent thermophysical properties at medium-to-moderate temperature range have made it to be considered as the alternative working fluid for next power plant generation. Among those applications, future nuclear reactors, solar concentrated thermal energy or waste energy recovery have been shown as the most promising ones. In this paper, a recompression sCO 2 cycle for a solar central particles receiver application has been optimized, observing net cycle efficiency close to 50%. However, small changes on cycle parameters such as working temperatures, recuperators efficiencies or mass flow distribution between low and high temperature recuperators were found to drastically modify system overall efficiency. In order to mitigate these uncertainties, an optimization analysis based on recuperators effectiveness definition was performed observing that cycle efficiency could lie among 40%–50% for medium-to-moderate temperature range of the studied application (630 °C–680 °C). Due to the lack of maturity of current sCO 2 technologies and no power production scale demonstrators, cycle boundary conditions based on the solar application and a detailed literature review were chosen. - Highlights: • Mathematical modelling description for recompression sCO 2 cycle. • Split fraction and recuperators effectiveness effect into sCO 2 cycle performance. • Optimization methodology of sCO 2 cycle for an innovative solar central receiver. • Power generation using particles central receiver.

  12. The development and operation of the international solar-terrestrial physics central data handling facility

    Lehtonen, Kenneth

    1994-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) International Solar-Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) Program is committed to the development of a comprehensive, multi-mission ground data system which will support a variety of national and international scientific missions in an effort to study the flow of energy from the sun through the Earth-space environment, known as the geospace. A major component of the ISTP ground data system is an ISTP-dedicated Central Data Handling Facility (CDHF). Acquisition, development, and operation of the ISTP CDHF were delegated by the ISTP Project Office within the Flight Projects Directorate to the Information Processing Division (IPD) within the Mission Operations and Data Systems Directorate (MO&DSD). The ISTP CDHF supports the receipt, storage, and electronic access of the full complement of ISTP Level-zero science data; serves as the linchpin for the centralized processing and long-term storage of all key parameters generated either by the ISTP CDHF itself or received from external, ISTP Program approved sources; and provides the required networking and 'science-friendly' interfaces for the ISTP investigators. Once connected to the ISTP CDHF, the online catalog of key parameters can be browsed from their remote processing facilities for the immediate electronic receipt of selected key parameters using the NASA Science Internet (NSI), managed by NASA's Ames Research Center. The purpose of this paper is twofold: (1) to describe how the ISTP CDHF was successfully implemented and operated to support initially the Japanese Geomagnetic Tail (GEOTAIL) mission and correlative science investigations, and (2) to describe how the ISTP CDHF has been enhanced to support ongoing as well as future ISTP missions. Emphasis will be placed on how various project management approaches were undertaken that proved to be highly effective in delivering an operational ISTP CDHF to the Project on schedule and

  13. Zero Energy Communities with Central Solar Plants using Liquid Desiccants and Local Storage: Preprint

    Burch, J.; Woods, J.; Kozubal, E.; Boranian, A.

    2012-08-01

    The zero energy community considered here consists of tens to tens-of-thousands of residences coupled to a central solar plant that produces all the community's electrical and thermal needs. A distribution network carries fluids to meet the heating and cooling loads. Large central solar systems can significantly reduce cost of energy vs. single family systems, and they enable economical seasonal heat storage. However, the thermal distribution system is costly. Conventional district heating/cooling systems use a water/glycol solution to deliver sensible energy. Piping is sized to meet the peak instantaneous load. A new district system introduced here differs in two key ways: (i) it continuously distributes a hot liquid desiccant (LD) solution to LD-based heating and cooling equipment in each home; and (ii) it uses central and local storage of both LD and heat to reduce flow rates to meet average loads. Results for piping sizes in conventional and LD thermal communities show that the LD zero energy community reduces distribution piping diameters meeting heating loads by {approx}5X and meeting cooling loads by {approx}8X for cooling, depending on climate.

  14. Solar sources of interplanetary southward B/sub z/ events responsible for major magnetic storms (1978--1979)

    Tang, F.; Tsurutani, B.T.; Gonzalez, W.D.; Akasofu, S.I.; Smith, E.J.

    1989-01-01

    Tsurutani et al. [1988] analyzed the 10 intense interplanetary southward B/sub z/ events that led to major magnetic storms (Dst 3.0) are associated with prominence eruptions. For three of the five southward B/sub z/ events in which the driver gases are the causes of the intense southward field leading to magnetic storms, the photospheric fields of the solar sources have no dominant southward component, indicating the driver gas fields do not always result from a simple outward convection of solar magnetic fields. Finally we compare the solar events and their resulting interplanetary shocks and find that the standard solar parameters do not correlate with the strengths of the resulting shocks at 1 AU. The implications are discussed. copyright American Geophysical Union 1989

  15. Solar central receiver prototype heliostat CDRL item B. d. Final technical report, Volume 2

    Easton, C. R.

    1978-08-01

    This is volume II of a two volume report which presents the results of a study to define a low-cost approach to the production, installation, and operation of heliostats for central receiver solar thermal power plants. Performance and cost analyses are presented, and critical R and D areas are identified. Also, computer printed work sheets are included for heliostat investment, maintenance equipment investment, initial spares investment, and first years operations and maintenance for 2,500, 25,000, 250,000, and 1,000,000 units per year production. (WHK)

  16. Solar central receiver hybrid power system, Phase I. Volume 3. Appendices. Final technical report, October 1978-August 1979

    None

    1979-09-01

    A design study for a central receiver/fossil fuel hybrid power system using molten salts for heat transfer and heat storage is presented. This volume contains the appendices: (A) parametric salt piping data; (B) sample heat exchanger calculations; (C) salt chemistry and salt/materials compatibility evaluation; (D) heliostat field coordinates; (E) data lists; (F) STEAEC program input data; (G) hybrid receiver design drawings; (H) hybrid receiver absorber tube thermal math model; (I) piping stress analysis; (J) 100-MWe 18-hour storage solar central receiver hybrid power system capital cost worksheets; and (K) 500-MWe 18-hour solar central receiver hybrid power system cost breakdown. (WHK)

  17. Susceptibility of central Red Sea corals during a major bleaching event

    Furby, Kathryn A.

    2013-01-04

    A major coral bleaching event occurred in the central Red Sea near Thuwal, Saudi Arabia, in the summer of 2010, when the region experienced up to 10-11 degree heating weeks. We documented the susceptibility of various coral taxa to bleaching at eight reefs during the peak of this thermal stress. Oculinids and agaricids were most susceptible to bleaching, with up to 100 and 80 % of colonies of these families, respectively, bleaching at some reefs. In contrast, some families, such as mussids, pocilloporids, and pectinids showed low levels of bleaching (<20 % on average). We resurveyed the reefs 7 months later to estimate subsequent mortality. Mortality was highly variable among taxa, with some taxa showing evidence of full recovery and some (e. g., acroporids) apparently suffering nearly complete mortality. The unequal mortality among families resulted in significant change in community composition following the bleaching. Significant factors in the likelihood of coral bleaching during this event were depth of the reef and distance of the reef from shore. Shallow reefs and inshore reefs had a higher prevalence of bleaching. This bleaching event shows that Red Sea reefs are subject to the same increasing pressures that reefs face worldwide. This study provides a quantitative, genus-level assessment of the vulnerability of various coral groups from within the Red Sea to bleaching and estimates subsequent mortality. As such, it can provide valuable insights into the future for reef communities in the Red Sea. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  18. Indian Solar Cities Programme: An Overview of Major Activities and Accomplishments; Preprint

    Kandt, A.

    2012-05-01

    This paper details the Indian Solar City Programme, provides an overview of one city's Master Plan and implementation progress, describes NREL's support of the Indian Solar City Programme, and outlines synergies and differences between the Indian and American programs including unique challenges and opportunities India is facing.

  19. Renal Manifestation in Scrub Typhus during a Major Outbreak in Central Nepal.

    Sedhain, A; Bhattarai, G R

    2017-01-01

    Renal involvement and acute kidney injury (AKI) are common clinical manifestations seen in scrub typhus, a vector-borne tropical disease. There are no data on renal manifestation in scrub typhus in Nepal. We conducted a prospective study to analyze the incidence, urinary abnormalities, course, severity, outcome, and the predictors of AKI in patients with scrub typhus during a major outbreak in Central Nepal. Total 1398 patients admitted with acute febrile illness were subjected for Scrub Typhus Detect™ Immunoglobulin M (IgM) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test, of which 502 (35.90%) patients tested positive and were included in the study. Mean age of the patients was 30.37 ± 18.81 years (range, 1-79 years) with 26.29% in the pediatric age group. Female-to-male ratio was 1.26:1. Mean duration of fever was 6.8 ± 3.1 days. Mean IgM ELISA value for scrub typhus was 2.17 ± 1.70 without difference in AKI and non-AKI groups (2.17 ± 1.76 vs. 2.16 ± 1.62; P = 0.94). Urinary abnormalities were seen in 42.3% of patients. Mean serum creatinine was 1.37 ± 0.69 mg/dl with significant difference in two groups (1.85 ± 0.87 vs. 1.03 ± 0.17; P = 0.003). AKI was seen in 35.8% of patients with majority having Stage 1 AKI (68.3%) followed by Stage 2 (34.1%) and Stage 3 (1.2%). Hemodialysis was required for 3.94% of patients. In 54% of patients, AKI occurred in fifth and sixth day of fever. ICU admission was required for 18.73% of patients and 8.57% required ventilator support. Mortality rate was 1.79%, which was higher among patients with AKI (2.96% vs. 1.0%; P = 0.106). Multivariate analysis revealed that the presence of pneumonia, shock, and acute respiratory distress syndrome predicted the development of AKI.

  20. Renal manifestation in scrub typhus during a major outbreak in central Nepal

    A Sedhain

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal involvement and acute kidney injury (AKI are common clinical manifestations seen in scrub typhus, a vector-borne tropical disease. There are no data on renal manifestation in scrub typhus in Nepal. We conducted a prospective study to analyze the incidence, urinary abnormalities, course, severity, outcome, and the predictors of AKI in patients with scrub typhus during a major outbreak in Central Nepal. Total 1398 patients admitted with acute febrile illness were subjected for Scrub Typhus Detect™ Immunoglobulin M (IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA test, of which 502 (35.90% patients tested positive and were included in the study. Mean age of the patients was 30.37 ± 18.81 years (range, 1–79 years with 26.29% in the pediatric age group. Female-to-male ratio was 1.26:1. Mean duration of fever was 6.8 ± 3.1 days. Mean IgM ELISA value for scrub typhus was 2.17 ± 1.70 without difference in AKI and non-AKI groups (2.17 ± 1.76 vs. 2.16 ± 1.62; P = 0.94. Urinary abnormalities were seen in 42.3% of patients. Mean serum creatinine was 1.37 ± 0.69 mg/dl with significant difference in two groups (1.85 ± 0.87 vs. 1.03 ± 0.17; P = 0.003. AKI was seen in 35.8% of patients with majority having Stage 1 AKI (68.3% followed by Stage 2 (34.1% and Stage 3 (1.2%. Hemodialysis was required for 3.94% of patients. In 54% of patients, AKI occurred in fifth and sixth day of fever. ICU admission was required for 18.73% of patients and 8.57% required ventilator support. Mortality rate was 1.79%, which was higher among patients with AKI (2.96% vs. 1.0%; P = 0.106. Multivariate analysis revealed that the presence of pneumonia, shock, and acute respiratory distress syndrome predicted the development of AKI.

  1. Trends and temporal variations of major greenhouse gases at a rural site in Central Europe

    Haszpra, L.; Barcza, Z.; Hidy, D.; Szilágyi, I.; Dlugokencky, E.; Tans, P.

    In this study the trends and temporal variations of four major greenhouse gases (CO 2, CH 4, N 2O, SF 6) measured at Hegyhátsál, Hungary, are analyzed. The long term trends observed closely follow the global tendencies. The relatively small positive offset can be attributed to the European anthropogenic sources. The seasonal cycles are basically governed by that in the atmospheric mixing, however, in the case of CO 2 and N 2O it is also modulated by the temporal variation in the biological activity. A secondary maximum in SF 6 mixing ratio in summer may indicate the additional contribution of the seasonally changing circulation pattern. The daily cycles are dominated by the diurnal variation in the vertical mixing of the atmosphere. However, in the case of CO 2 the diurnal cycle in the biospheric uptake/release is the governing process, especially in the growing season. The lack of diurnal cycle in the mixing ratio of the exclusively anthropogenic SF 6 indicates that there is no notable anthropogenic activity in the influence area of the station, which also means that Hegyhátsál can be considered to be a rural monitoring site as free from direct anthropogenic pollution as it is possible in Central Europe. It is demonstrated that the diurnal covariance between the mixing ratios and the vertical mixing at a mid-continental, low elevation site has to be taken into account, and properly handled, in the dispersion models, otherwise the results may be distorted. The collocated measurement of greenhouse gases of different origin could potentially help modelers to improve the boundary layer representation and horizontal diffusion simulation in the three dimensional atmospheric transport models.

  2. Solar Ion Processing of Major Element Surface Compositions of Mature Mare Soils: Insights from Combined XPS and Analytical TEM Observations

    Christoffersen, R.; Dukes, C.; Keller, L. P.; Baragiola, R.

    2012-01-01

    Solar wind ions are capable of altering the sur-face chemistry of the lunar regolith by a number of mechanisms including preferential sputtering, radiation-enhanced diffusion and sputter erosion of space weathered surfaces containing pre-existing compositional profiles. We have previously reported in-situ ion irradiation experiments supported by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and analytical TEM that show how solar ions potentially drive Fe and Ti reduction at the monolayer scale as well as the 10-100 nm depth scale in lunar soils [1]. Here we report experimental data on the effect of ion irradiation on the major element surface composition in a mature mare soil.

  3. Financing alternatives and incentives for solar-thermal central-receiver systems

    Bos, P.B.

    1982-07-01

    As a result of various recently enacted incentive and regulatory legislation combined with the new administration policy and budgetary guidelines, the commercialization of solar thermal central receiver systems will involve financing alternatives other than conventional utility financing. This study was conducted to identify these potential financing alternatives and the associated requirements and impacts on the Department of Energy program. Based upon this analysis, it is concluded that the current alternative financing window is extremely short (through 1985), and that an extension or at the least a gradual phasing out, of the solar tax credits is necessary for the successful transfer of the central receiver technology to the private sector. Furthermore, throughout this time period, continued government support of the R and D activities is necessary to provide the necessary confidence in this technology for the private (financial) sector to underwrite this technology transfer. Consequently, even though the central receiver technology shows high promise for replacing a significant fraction of the oil/gas-fired utility industry peaking and intermediate generation, the current readiness status of this technology still requires further direct and indirect government support for a successful technology transfer. The direct government research and development support will provide the basis for a technological readiness and confidence, whereas the indirect tax incentive support serves to underwrite the extraordinary risks associated with the technology transfer. These support requirements need only be limited to and decreasing during this technology transfer phase, since as the systems approach successful full-scale commercialization, the extraordinary risks will be gradually eliminated. At the time of commercialization the system's value should be on a par with the installed system's cost.

  4. Potential application of a centralized solar water-heating system for a high-rise residential building in Hong Kong

    Chow, T.T.; Fong, K.F.; Chan, A.L.S.; Lin, Z.

    2006-01-01

    There is a growing, government-led trend of applying renewable energy in Hong Kong. One area of interest lies in the wider use of solar-energy systems. The worldwide fast development of building-integrated solar technology has prompted the design alternative of fixing the solar panels on the external facades of buildings. In Hong Kong, high-rise buildings are found everywhere in the urban districts. How to make full use of the vertical facades of these buildings to capture the most solar radiation can be an important area in the technology promotion. In this numerical study, the potential application of a centralized solar water-heating system in high-rise residence was evaluated. Arrays of solar thermal collectors, that occupied the top two-third of the south and west facades of a hypothetical high-rise residence, were proposed for supporting the domestic hot-water system. Based on typical meteorological data, it was found that the annual efficiency of the vertical solar collectors could reach 38.4% on average, giving a solar fraction of 53.4% and a payback period of 9.2 years. Since the solar collectors were able to reduce the heat transmission through the building envelope, the payback was in fact even shorter if the energy saving in air-conditioner operation was considered

  5. Seasonal Contribution of Mineral Dust and Otlher Major Components to Particulate Matter at Two Remote Sites in Central Asia

    Dust storms are significant contributors to ambient levels of particulate matter (PM) in many areas of the world. Central Asia, an area that is relatively understudied in this regard, is anticipated to be affected by dust storms due to its proximity to several major deserts that ...

  6. THE MAJOR GEOEFFECTIVE SOLAR ERUPTIONS OF 2012 MARCH 7: COMPREHENSIVE SUN-TO-EARTH ANALYSIS

    Patsourakos, S.; Nindos, A.; Kouloumvakos, A. [University of Ioannina, Department of Physics, Section of Astrogeophysics, Ioannina (Greece); Georgoulis, M. K.; Gontikakis, C.; Moraitis, K.; Syntelis, P. [Research Center for Astronomy and Applied Mathematics, Academy of Athens, Athens (Greece); Vourlidas, A. [Space Physics Division, Applied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University, Laurel, MD (United States); Sarris, T.; Anagnostopoulos, G.; Iliopoulos, A. C.; Pavlos, G.; Sarafopoulos, D. [Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Xanthi (Greece); Anastasiadis, A.; Tsironis, C. [IAASARS, National Observatory of Athens, GR-15236 Penteli (Greece); Chintzoglou, G. [School of Physics, Astronomy and Computational Sciences, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, MSN 6A2, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Daglis, I. A.; Katsavrias, C. [Department of Physics, University of Athens (Greece); Hatzigeorgiu, N. [University of California, Berkeley, Space Sciences Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Nieves-Chinchilla, T. [IACS/CUA at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Heliospheric Physics Lab, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); and others

    2016-01-20

    During the interval 2012 March 7–11 the geospace experienced a barrage of intense space weather phenomena including the second largest geomagnetic storm of solar cycle 24 so far. Significant ultra-low-frequency wave enhancements and relativistic-electron dropouts in the radiation belts, as well as strong energetic-electron injection events in the magnetosphere were observed. These phenomena were ultimately associated with two ultra-fast (>2000 km s{sup −1}) coronal mass ejections (CMEs), linked to two X-class flares launched on early 2012 March 7. Given that both powerful events originated from solar active region NOAA 11429 and their onsets were separated by less than an hour, the analysis of the two events and the determination of solar causes and geospace effects are rather challenging. Using satellite data from a flotilla of solar, heliospheric and magnetospheric missions a synergistic Sun-to-Earth study of diverse observational solar, interplanetary and magnetospheric data sets was performed. It was found that only the second CME was Earth-directed. Using a novel method, we estimated its near-Sun magnetic field at 13 R{sub ⊙} to be in the range [0.01, 0.16] G. Steep radial fall-offs of the near-Sun CME magnetic field are required to match the magnetic fields of the corresponding interplanetary CME (ICME) at 1 AU. Perturbed upstream solar-wind conditions, as resulting from the shock associated with the Earth-directed CME, offer a decent description of its kinematics. The magnetospheric compression caused by the arrival at 1 AU of the shock associated with the ICME was a key factor for radiation-belt dynamics.

  7. The 2016 Transit of Mercury Observed from Major Solar Telescopes and Satellites

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Schneider, Glenn; Gary, Dale; Chen, Bin; Sterling, Alphonse C.; Reardon, Kevin P.; Dantowitz, Ronald; Kopp, Greg A.

    2016-10-01

    We report observations from the ground and space of the 9 May 2016 transit of Mercury. We build on our explanation of the black-drop effect in transits of Venus based on spacecraft observations of the 1999 transit of Mercury (Schneider, Pasachoff, and Golub, Icarus 168, 249, 2004). In 2016, we used the 1.6-m New Solar Telescope at the Big Bear Solar Observatory with active optics to observe Mercury's transit at high spatial resolution. We again saw a small black-drop effect as 3rd contact neared, confirming the data that led to our earlier explanation as a confluence of the point-spread function and the extreme solar limb darkening (Pasachoff, Schneider, and Golub, in IAU Colloq. 196, 2004). We again used IBIS on the Dunn Solar Telescope of the Sacramento Peak Observatory, as A. Potter continued his observations, previously made at the 2006 transit of Mercury, at both telescopes of the sodium exosphere of Mercury (Potter, Killen, Reardon, and Bida, Icarus 226, 172, 2013). We imaged the transit with IBIS as well as with two RED Epic IMAX-quality cameras alongside it, one with a narrow passband. We show animations of our high-resolution ground-based observations along with observations from XRT on JAXA's Hinode and from NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory. Further, we report on the limit of the transit change in the Total Solar Irradiance, continuing our interest from the transit of Venus TSI (Schneider, Pasachoff, and Willson, ApJ 641, 565, 2006; Pasachoff, Schneider, and Willson, AAS 2005), using NASA's SORCE/TIM and the Air Force's TCTE/TIM. See http://transitofvenus.info and http://nicmosis.as.arizona.edu.Acknowledgments: We were glad for the collaboration at Big Bear of Claude Plymate and his colleagues of the staff of the Big Bear Solar Observatory. We also appreciate the collaboration on the transit studies of Robert Lucas (Sydney, Australia) and Evan Zucker (San Diego, California). JMP appreciates the sabbatical hospitality of the Division of Geosciences and

  8. The other aspect of solar energy utilization. Solar technologies export enhancement: A central European point of view

    Winter, C. J.; Nitsch, J.; Klaiss, H.; Voigt, C.

    1985-11-01

    It is shown that solar energy utilization can, on a moderate scale, supplement the indigenous energy supply of the Federal Republic of Germany. It can contribute to the prevention of fatal ecological damage, open an attractive export market and, in the long run, prepare ground for North-South compensation, where energy-poor but technology rich countries cooperate with countries of the Third World, which are often rich in raw materials and are situated in the solar belt of the world, for the benefit of the implementation of a solar industry or the production of a marketable synthetic solar energy carrier.

  9. Concentrating Solar Power Central Receiver Panel Component Fabrication and Testing FINAL REPORT

    McDowell, Michael W [Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne; Miner, Kris [Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne

    2013-03-30

    The objective of this project is to complete a design of an advanced concentrated solar panel and demonstrate the manufacturability of key components. Then confirm the operation of the key components under prototypic solar flux conditions. This work is an important step in reducing the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) from a central receiver solar power plant. The key technical risk to building larger power towers is building the larger receiver systems. Therefore, this proposed technology project includes the design of an advanced molten salt prototypic sub-scale receiver panel that can be utilized into a large receiver system. Then complete the fabrication and testing of key components of the receive design that will be used to validate the design. This project shall have a significant impact on solar thermal power plant design. Receiver panels of suitable size for utility scale plants are a key element to a solar power tower plant. Many subtle and complex manufacturing processes are involved in producing a reliable, robust receiver panel. Given the substantial size difference between receiver panels manufactured in the past and those needed for large plant designs, the manufacture and demonstration on prototype receiver panel components with representative features of a full-sized panel will be important to improving the build process for commercial success. Given the thermal flux limitations of the test facility, the panel components cannot be rendered full size. Significance changes occurred in the projects technical strategies from project initiation to the accomplishments described herein. The initial strategy was to define cost improvements for the receiver, design and build a scale prototype receiver and test, on sun, with a molten salt heat transport system. DOE had committed to constructing a molten salt heat transport loop to support receiver testing at the top of the NSTTF tower. Because of funding constraints this did not happen. A subsequent plan to

  10. Molecular epidemiology of Brucella genotypes in patients at a major hospital in central Peru

    Nöckler, Karsten; Maves, Ryan; Cepeda, David; Draeger, Angelika; Mayer-Scholl, Anne; Chacaltana, Jesus; Castañeda, María; Espinosa, Benjamin; Castillo, Rosa; Hall, Eric; Al Dahouk, Sascha; Gilman, Robert H.; Cabeza, Franco; Smits, Henk L.

    2009-01-01

    The multiple-locus variable-number repeat analysis of 90 human Brucella melitensis isolates from a large urban area in central Peru revealed variations at 4 (Bruce07, Bruce09, Bruce18, and Bruce42) out of 16 loci investigated, of which 1 (Bruce42) also is used for species identification. Ten

  11. Optimisation of a Kalina cycle for a central receiver solar thermal power plant with direct steam generation

    Modi, Anish; Haglind, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    Central receiver solar thermal power plants are regarded as one of the promising ways to generate electricity in near future. They offer the possibility of using high temperatures and pressures to achieve high efficiencies with standard power cycles. A direct steam generation approach can be used...

  12. A Review of a Successful Unsubsidized Market-Based Rural Solar Development Initiative in Laikipia District, Central Kenya

    O. Wambuguh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of renewable energy technologies (RETs in many areas far from grid-based electricity have primarily involved solar photovoltaics (SPVs which tap solar radiation to provide heat, light, hot water, electricity, and cooling for homes, businesses, and industry. A study on RETs took place in the Wiyumiririe Location of Laikipia District (north-central Kenya, a rich agricultural region. To explore this solar initiative in such a remote part of the country, a purposive randomized convenience sample of 246 households was selected and landowner interviews conducted, followed by field visits and observations. Although more than half of the households visited had SPV installations, solar energy was found to contribute only 18% of household estimated total energy needs; most residents still primarily relying on traditional energy sources. Several types of solar panels of different capacities and costs were utilized. Many landowners had at least one or two rooms using solar energy for household lighting, for appliance charging and to power radio and television. Almost all respondents appreciated that solar energy was clean renewable energy that greatly improved household living conditions; gave them some prestige; was easy to use and maintain; and was available year around. Although such significant benefits were associated with SPVs, only about 40% of residents interviewed were somehow satisfied with its development. Respondents expressed specific developmental initiatives that were closely associated with the availability of solar energy. Nevertheless, a number of challenges were raised associated with SPVs primarily investment capital and equipment costs and maintenance. As solutions to capital building will not solely rely on subsidies or individual farmer inputs, strategies must be found to mobilize the essential and tested tools for success including sustainable capital generation, building local institutions and capacities that

  13. Observations of the 12.3 micron Mg I emission line during a major solar flare

    Deming, Drake; Jennings, Donald E.; Osherovich, Vladimir; Wiedemann, Gunter; Hewagama, Tilak

    1990-01-01

    The extremely Zeeman-sensitive 12.32 micron Mg I solar emission line was observed during a 3B/X5.7 solar flare on October 24, 1989. When compared to postflare values, Mg I emission-line intensity in the penumbral flare ribbon was 20 percent greater at the peak of the flare in soft X-rays, and the 12 micron continuum intensity was 7 percent greater. The flare also excited the emission line in the umbra where it is normally absent. The umbral flare emission exhibits a Zeeman splitting 200 G less than the adjacent penumbra, suggesting that it is excited at higher altitude. The absolute penumbral magnetic field strength did not change by more than 100 G between the flare peak and postflare period. However, a change in the inclination of the field lines, probably related to the formation and development of the flare loop system, was seen.

  14. Central Asia: A major emerging energy player in the 21st century

    Dorian, James P.

    2006-01-01

    Energy is the most abundant and valuable natural resource of Central Asia and northwest China and includes oil, gas, coal, electricity, and renewables. Kazakhstan has large reserves of oil and coal. Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan have significant reserves of gas. Kyrgyzstan produces significant amounts of hydroelectric power. Xinjiang, China has significant coal resources and an uncertain, although generally promising, potential for oil in the Tarim basin. These energy reserves form the basis for future economic growth and development in the region, and energy exports are beginning to generate important foreign exchange revenues. Although Central Asia enjoys vast energy development potential, there are obstacles to exploiting these resources, including limited infrastructure for transporting energy-notably oil and gas pipelines and electric transmission lines-in the region, political turmoil, payment difficulties, and inadequate energy policies. Despite these challenges, however, with appropriate government planning Central Asia is poised to become a significant world supplier of energy, especially in the oil and gas sectors, and the region is likely to diminish OPEC's influence of the global oil market over the long term. (author)

  15. The 2015 Summer Solstice Storm: One of the Major Geomagnetic Storms of Solar Cycle 24 Observed at Ground Level

    Augusto, C. R. A.; Navia, C. E.; de Oliveira, M. N.; Nepomuceno, A. A.; Raulin, J. P.; Tueros, E.; de Mendonça, R. R. S.; Fauth, A. C.; Vieira de Souza, H.; Kopenkin, V.; Sinzi, T.

    2018-05-01

    We report on the 22 - 23 June 2015 geomagnetic storm that occurred at the summer solstice. There have been fewer intense geomagnetic storms during the current solar cycle, Solar Cycle 24, than in the previous cycle. This situation changed after mid-June 2015, when one of the largest solar active regions (AR 12371) of Solar Cycle 24 that was located close to the central meridian, produced several coronal mass ejections (CMEs) associated with M-class flares. The impact of these CMEs on the Earth's magnetosphere resulted in a moderate to severe G4-class geomagnetic storm on 22 - 23 June 2015 and a G2 (moderate) geomagnetic storm on 24 June. The G4 solstice storm was the second largest (so far) geomagnetic storm of Cycle 24. We highlight the ground-level observations made with the New-Tupi, Muonca, and the CARPET El Leoncito cosmic-ray detectors that are located within the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) region. These observations are studied in correlation with data obtained by space-borne detectors (ACE, GOES, SDO, and SOHO) and other ground-based experiments. The CME designations are taken from the Computer Aided CME Tracking (CACTus) automated catalog. As expected, Forbush decreases (FD) associated with the passing CMEs were recorded by these detectors. We note a peculiar feature linked to a severe geomagnetic storm event. The 21 June 2015 CME 0091 (CACTus CME catalog number) was likely associated with the 22 June summer solstice FD event. The angular width of CME 0091 was very narrow and measured {˜} 56° degrees seen from Earth. In most cases, only CME halos and partial halos lead to severe geomagnetic storms. We perform a cross-check analysis of the FD events detected during the rise phase of Solar Cycle 24, the geomagnetic parameters, and the CACTus CME catalog. Our study suggests that narrow angular-width CMEs that erupt in a westward direction from the Sun-Earth line can lead to moderate and severe geomagnetic storms. We also report on the strong solar proton

  16. Solar energy

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role solar energy may have in the energy future of the US. The topics discussed in the chapter include the solar resource, solar architecture including passive solar design and solar collectors, solar-thermal concentrating systems including parabolic troughs and dishes and central receivers, photovoltaic cells including photovoltaic systems for home use, and environmental, health and safety issues

  17. Centralized vs. decentralized thermal IR inspection policy: experience from a major Brazilian electric power company

    dos Santos, Laerte; da Costa Bortoni, Edson; Barbosa, Luiz C.; Araujo, Reyler A.

    2005-03-01

    Furnas Centrais Elétricas S.A is one of the greatest companies of the Brazilian electric power sector and a pioneer in using infrared thermography. In the early 70s, the maintenance policy used was a centralized approach, with only one inspection team to cover all the company"s facilities. In the early 90s, FURNAS decided to decentralize the thermography inspections creating several inspection teams. This new maintenance policy presented several advantages when compared to the previous one. However the credibility of the results obtained with the thermal inspection was frequently being questioned, in part due to the lack of a detailed planning to carry out the transition from the centralized inspection to the decentralized one. In some areas of the company it was suggested the inactivation of the thermography. This paper presents the experience of FURNAS with these different maintenance policies and details the procedures which have been taken that nowadays the infrared thermal inspection has become one of the most important techniques of predictive maintenance in the company.

  18. A study of solar and interplanetary parameters of CMEs causing major geomagnetic storms during SC 23

    C. Oprea

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyse 25 Earth-directed and strongly geoeffective interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs which occurred during solar cycle 23, using data provided by instruments on SOHO (Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, ACE (Advanced Composition Explorer and geomagnetic stations. We also examine the in situ parameters, the energy transfer into magnetosphere, and the geomagnetic indexes. We compare observed travel times with those calculated by observed speeds projected into the plane of the sky and de-projected by a simple model. The best fit was found with the projected speeds. No correlation was found between the importance of a flare and the geomagnetic Dst (disturbance storm time index. By comparing the in situ parameters with the Dst index we find a strong connection between some of these parameters (such as Bz, Bs · V and the energy transfer into the magnetosphere with the strength of the geomagnetic storm. No correlation was found with proton density and plasma temperature. A superposed epoch analysis revealed a strong dependence of the Dst index on the southward component of interplanetary magnetic field, Bz, and to the Akasofu coupling function, which evaluates the energy transfer between the ICME and the magnetosphere. The analysis also showed that the geomagnetic field at higher latitudes is disturbed before the field around the Earth's equator.

  19. Coral recovery in the central Maldives archipelago since the last major mass-bleaching, in 1998

    Pisapia, C.; Burn, D.; Yoosuf, R.; Najeeb, A.; Anderson, K. D.; Pratchett, M. S.

    2016-10-01

    Increasing frequency and severity of disturbances is causing global degradation of coral reef ecosystems. This study examined temporal changes in live coral cover and coral composition in the central Maldives from 1997 to 2016, encompassing two bleaching events, a tsunami, and an outbreak of Acanthaster planci. We also examined the contemporary size structure for five dominant coral taxa (tabular Acropora, Acropora muricata, Acropora humilis, Pocillopora spp, and massive Porites). Total coral cover increased throughout the study period, with marked increases following the 1998 mass-bleaching. The relative abundance of key genera has changed through time, where Acropora and Pocillopora (which are highly susceptible to bleaching) were under-represented following 1998 mass-bleaching but increased until outbreaks of A. planci in 2015. The contemporary size-structure for all coral taxa was dominated by larger colonies with peaked distributions suggesting that recent disturbances had a disproportionate impact on smaller colonies, or that recruitment is currently limited. This may suggest that coral resilience has been compromised by recent disturbances, and further bleaching (expected in 2016) could lead to highly protracted recovery times. We showed that Maldivian reefs recovered following the 1998 mass-bleaching event, but it took up to a decade, and ongoing disturbances may be eroding reef resilience.

  20. Major Dietary Patterns in Relation to General and Central Obesity among Chinese Adults

    Yu, Canqing; Shi, Zumin; Lv, Jun; Du, Huaidong; Qi, Lu; Guo, Yu; Bian, Zheng; Chang, Liang; Tang, Xuefeng; Jiang, Qilian; Mu, Huaiyi; Pan, Dongxia; Chen, Junshi; Chen, Zhengming; Li, Liming

    2015-01-01

    Limited evidence exists for the association between diet pattern and obesity phenotypes among Chinese adults. In the present study, we analyzed the cross-sectional data from 474,192 adults aged 30–79 years from the China Kadoorie Biobank baseline survey. Food consumption was collected by an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Three dietary patterns were extracted by factor analysis combined with cluster analysis. After being adjusted for potential confounders, individuals following a traditional southern dietary pattern had the lowest body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC); the Western/new affluence dietary pattern had the highest BMI; and the traditional northern dietary pattern had the highest WC. Compared to the traditional southern dietary pattern in multivariable adjusted logistic models, individuals following a Western/new affluence dietary pattern had a significantly increased risk of general obesity (prevalence ratio (PR): 1.06, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03–1.08) and central obesity (PR: 1.07, 95% CI: 1.06–1.08). The corresponding risks for the traditional northern dietary pattern were 1.05 (1.02–1.09) and 1.17 (1.25–1.18), respectively. In addition, the associations were modified by lifestyle behaviors, and the combined effects with alcohol drinking, tobacco smoking, and physical activity were analyzed. Further prospective studies are needed to elucidate the diet-obesity relationships. PMID:26184308

  1. Major Dietary Patterns in Relation to General and Central Obesity among Chinese Adults

    Canqing Yu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Limited evidence exists for the association between diet pattern and obesity phenotypes among Chinese adults. In the present study, we analyzed the cross-sectional data from 474,192 adults aged 30–79 years from the China Kadoorie Biobank baseline survey. Food consumption was collected by an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Three dietary patterns were extracted by factor analysis combined with cluster analysis. After being adjusted for potential confounders, individuals following a traditional southern dietary pattern had the lowest body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC; the Western/new affluence dietary pattern had the highest BMI; and the traditional northern dietary pattern had the highest WC. Compared to the traditional southern dietary pattern in multivariable adjusted logistic models, individuals following a Western/new affluence dietary pattern had a significantly increased risk of general obesity (prevalence ratio (PR: 1.06, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.03–1.08 and central obesity (PR: 1.07, 95% CI: 1.06–1.08. The corresponding risks for the traditional northern dietary pattern were 1.05 (1.02–1.09 and 1.17 (1.25–1.18, respectively. In addition, the associations were modified by lifestyle behaviors, and the combined effects with alcohol drinking, tobacco smoking, and physical activity were analyzed. Further prospective studies are needed to elucidate the diet-obesity relationships.

  2. Bony fish myelin: evidence for common major structural glycoproteins in central and peripheral myelin of trout.

    Jeserich, G; Waehneldt, T V

    1986-02-01

    Peripheral nervous system (PNS) myelin from the rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) banded at a density of 0.38 M sucrose. The main myelin proteins consisted of (1) two basic proteins, BPa and BPb (11,500 and 13,000 MW, similar to those of trout central nervous system (CNS) myelin proteins BP1 and BP2), and (2) two glycosylated components, IPb (24,400 MW) and IPc (26,200 MW). IPc comigrated with trout CNS myelin protein IP2 in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, whereas trout CNS myelin protein IP1 had a lower molecular weight (23,000). Following two-dimensional separation, however, both IPb and IPc from PNS showed two components; the more acidic component of IPc comigrated with IP2 from CNS. PNS tissue autolysis led to the formation of IPa (20,000 MW), consisting of two components in isoelectric focusing of which again the more acidic one comigrated with the CNS autolysis product IP0. Limited enzymatic digestion of isolated IP proteins from PNS and CNS led to closely similar degradation patterns, being most pronounced in the case of IP2 and IPc. Immunoblotting revealed that all IP components from trout PNS and CNS myelins reacted with antibodies to trout IP1 (CNS) and bovine P0 protein (PNS) whereas antibodies to rat PLP (CNS) were entirely unreactive. All BP components from trout PNS and CNS myelins bound to antibodies against human myelin basic protein. On the basis of these studies trout PNS and CNS myelins contain at least one common IP glycoprotein, whereas other members of the IP myelin protein family appear closely related. In the CNS myelin of trout the IP components appear to replace PLP.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Major and trace element distribution in soil and sediments from the Egyptian central Nile Valley

    Badawy, W. M.; Ghanim, E. H.; Duliu, O. G.; El Samman, H.; Frontasyeva, M. V.

    2017-07-01

    The distributions of 32 major and trace elements in 72 surface soil and sediment samples collected from the Asyut to Cairo Nile river section were determined by epithermal neutron activation analysis and compared with corresponding data for the Upper Continental Crust, North American Shale Composite, Average Soil and Average Sediment as well as suspended sediments from Congo and Upper Niger Rivers, in order to establish to which extent the Nile sedimentary material can be related to similar material all over the world as well as to local geology. Their relative distributions indicate the presence of detrital material of igneous origin, most probably resulting from weathering of the Ethiopian Highlands and transported by the Blue Nile, the Nile main tributary. The distributions of nickel, zinc, and arsenic contents suggest that the lower part of the Nile and its surroundings including the Nile Delta is not seriously polluted with heavy metals, so that, in spite of a human activity, which lasted four millennia, the Nile River continues to be less affected by any anthropogenic contamination.

  4. Feasibility assessment of a solar-powered charging station for electric vehicles in the North Central region of Bulgaria

    Ilieva Liliya Mihaylova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the topical issue related to the prospects of widespread deployment of electric vehicles and their associated infrastructure in Bulgaria. The main problems hindering the development of electric vehicle transport are summarized and the current status of charging infrastructure in the country is discussed. An approach is proposed for analysis and evaluation of the financial feasibility of investment in a solar-powered charging station for electric vehicles in North Central region of Bulgaria.

  5. Determination of the relationship between major fault and zinc mineralization using fractal modeling in the Behabad fault zone, central Iran

    Adib, Ahmad; Afzal, Peyman; Mirzaei Ilani, Shapour; Aliyari, Farhang

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study is to determine a relationship between zinc mineralization and a major fault in the Behabad area, central Iran, using the Concentration-Distance to Major Fault (C-DMF), Area of Mineralized Zone-Distance to Major Fault (AMZ-DMF), and Concentration-Area (C-A) fractal models for Zn deposit/mine classification according to their distance from the Behabad fault. Application of the C-DMF and the AMZ-DMF models for Zn mineralization classification in the Behabad fault zone reveals that the main Zn deposits have a good correlation with the major fault in the area. The distance from the known zinc deposits/mines with Zn values higher than 29% and the area of the mineralized zone of more than 900 m2 to the major fault is lower than 1 km, which shows a positive correlation between Zn mineralization and the structural zone. As a result, the AMZ-DMF and C-DMF fractal models can be utilized for the delineation and the recognition of different mineralized zones in different types of magmatic and hydrothermal deposits.

  6. Predictive Factors Associated with Solar Energy Development in Laikipia District Central Kenya

    Oscar Wambuguh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The abundance of sunlight and the availability affordable solar technologies in many areas far from grid-based electricity has sparked the development of renewable energy technologies (RETs which tap solar radiation energy to provide electricity. A study on solar photovoltaics (SPVs use and utilization took place in the Wiyumiririe Location of Kenya. A purposive randomized convenience sample of 246 households was selected and landowner interviews conducted guided by a questionnaire, followed by field surveys and observations. Although solar energy contributed less than a quarter of total household energy needs, residents specifically associated it with specific developmental initiatives. Correlation and logistic regression model analyses showed that solar power development was closely associated (and thus can be predicted from five main independent variables. The findings of the study allowed the development of a probabilistic model general enough to be applicable elsewhere in the development of alternative energy resources particularly those based on solar input.

  7. Receiver subsystem analysis report (RADL Item 4-1). The 10-MWe solar thermal central-receiver pilot plant: Solar-facilities design integration

    1982-04-01

    The results of thermal hydraulic, design for the stress analyses which are required to demonstrate that the receiver design for the Barstow Solar Pilot Plant satisfies the general design and performance requirements during the plant's design life are presented. Recommendations are made for receiver operation. The analyses are limited to receiver subsystem major structural parts (primary tower, receiver unit core support structure), pressure parts (absorber panels, feedwater, condensate and steam piping/components, flash tank, and steam mainfold) and shielding.

  8. Optimization of heliostat field layout in solar central receiver systems on annual basis using differential evolution algorithm

    Atif, Maimoon; Al-Sulaiman, Fahad A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Differential evolution optimization model was developed to optimize the heliostat field. • Five optical parameters were considered for the optimization of the optical efficiency. • Optimization using insolation weighted and un-weighted annual efficiency are developed. • The daily averaged annual optical efficiency was calculated to be 0.5023 while the monthly was 0.5025. • The insolation weighted daily averaged annual efficiency was 0.5634. - Abstract: Optimization of a heliostat field is an essential task to make a solar central receiver system effective because major optical losses are associated with the heliostat fields. In this study, a mathematical model was developed to effectively optimize the heliostat field on annual basis using differential evolution, which is an evolutionary algorithm. The heliostat field layout optimization is based on the calculation of five optical performance parameters: the mirror or the heliostat reflectivity, the cosine factor, the atmospheric attenuation factor, the shadowing and blocking factor, and the intercept factor. This model calculates all the aforementioned performance parameters at every stage of the optimization, until the best heliostat field layout based on annual performance is obtained. Two different approaches were undertaken to optimize the heliostat field layout: one with optimizing insolation weighted annual efficiency and the other with optimizing the un-weighted annual efficiency. Moreover, an alternate approach was also proposed to efficiently optimize the heliostat field in which the number of computational time steps was considerably reduced. It was observed that the daily averaged annual optical efficiency was calculated to be 0.5023 as compared to the monthly averaged annual optical efficiency, 0.5025. Moreover, the insolation weighted daily averaged annual efficiency of the heliostat field was 0.5634 for Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. The code developed can be used for any other

  9. Modeling and Zoning Solar Energy Received at the Earth's Surface in Arid and Semiarid Regions of Central Iran

    azam gholamnia

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Solar radiation (Rs energy received at the Earth's surface is measured usingclimatological variables in horizontal surface and is widely used in various fields. Domination of hot and dry climates especially in the central regions of Iran results from decreasing cloudiness and precipitation and increasing sunshine hours, which shows the high potential of solar energy in Iran. There is a reasonable climatic field and solar radiation in most of regions and seasons which have provided an essential and suitable field to use and extend new and pure energy. Materials and Methods: One of the common methods to estimate the solar energy received by the earthis usingtemperature variables in any place . An empirical model is proposed to estimate the solar energy as a function of other climatic variables (maximum temperature recorded in 50 climatological, conventional stations; this model is helpful inextending the climatological solar-energy estimation in the study area. The mean values of both measured and estimated solar energy wereobjectively mapped to fill the observation gaps and reduce the noise associated with inhomogeneous statistics and estimation errors. This analysis and the solar irradiation estimation method wereapplied to 50 different climatologicalstations in Iran for monthly data during1980–2005. The main aim of this study wasto map and estimate the solar energy received in four provinces of Yazd, Esfahan, Kerman and Khorasan-e-Jonoubi.The data used in this analysis and its processing, as well as the formulation of an empirical model to estimate the climatological incident of solar energy as a function of other climatic variables, which is complemented with an objective mapping to obtain continuous solar-energy maps. Therefore, firstly the Rswasestimated using a valid model for 50 meteorological stations in which the amounts of solar radiation weren't recorded for arid and semi-arid areas in Iran. Then, the appropriate method

  10. Combined cycle solar central receiver hybrid power system study. Volume III. Appendices. Final technical report

    None

    1979-11-01

    A design study for a 100 MW gas turbine/steam turbine combined cycle solar/fossil-fuel hybrid power plant is presented. This volume contains the appendices: (a) preconceptual design data; (b) market potential analysis methodology; (c) parametric analysis methodology; (d) EPGS systems description; (e) commercial-scale solar hybrid power system assessment; and (f) conceptual design data lists. (WHK)

  11. The centrality of DSM and non-DSM depressive symptoms in Han Chinese women with major depression.

    Kendler, Kenneth S; Aggen, Steven H; Flint, Jonathan; Borsboom, Denny; Fried, Eiko I

    2018-02-01

    We compared DSM-IV criteria for major depression (MD) with clinically selected non-DSM criteria in their ability to represent clinical features of depression. We conducted network analyses of 19 DSM and non-DSM symptoms of MD assessed at personal interview in 5952 Han Chinese women meeting DSM-IV criteria for recurrent MD. We estimated an Ising model (the state-of-the-art network model for binary data), compared the centrality (interconnectedness) of DSM-IV and non-DSM symptoms, and investigated the community structure (symptoms strongly clustered together). The DSM and non-DSM criteria were intermingled within the same symptom network. In both the DSM-IV and non-DSM criteria sets, some symptoms were central (highly interconnected) while others were more peripheral. The mean centrality of the DSM and non-DSM criteria sets did not significantly differ. In at least two cases, non-DSM criteria were more central than symptomatically related DSM criteria: lowered libido vs. sleep and appetite changes, and hopelessness versus worthlessness. The overall network had three sub-clusters reflecting neurovegetative/mood symptoms, cognitive changes and anxiety/irritability. The sample were severely ill Han Chinese females limiting generalizability. Consistent with prior historical reviews, our results suggest that the DSM-IV criteria for MD reflect one possible sub-set of a larger pool of plausible depressive symptoms and signs. While the DSM criteria on average perform well, they are not unique and may not be optimal in their ability to describe the depressive syndrome. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Performance analysis of a Kalina cycle for a central receiver solar thermal power plant with direct steam generation

    Modi, Anish; Haglind, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    Solar thermal power plants have attracted increasing interest in the past few years – with respect to both the design of the various plant components, and extending the operation hours by employing different types of storage systems. One approach to improve the overall plant efficiency is to use direct steam generation with water/steam as both the heat transfer fluid in the solar receivers and the cycle working fluid. This enables operating the plant with higher turbine inlet temperatures. Available literature suggests that it is feasible to use ammonia-water mixtures at high temperatures without corroding the equipment by using suitable additives with the mixture. The purpose of the study reported here was to investigate if there is any benefit of using a Kalina cycle for a direct steam generation, central receiver solar thermal power plant with high live steam temperature (450 °C) and pressure (over 100 bar). Thermodynamic performance of the Kalina cycle in terms of the plant exergy efficiency was evaluated and compared with a simple Rankine cycle. The rates of exergy destruction for the different components in the two cycles were also calculated and compared. The results suggest that the simple Rankine cycle exhibits better performance than the Kalina cycle when the heat input is only from the solar receiver. However, when using a two-tank molten-salt storage system as the primary source of heat input, the Kalina cycle showed an advantage over the simple Rankine cycle because of about 33 % reduction in the storage requirement. The solar receiver showed the highest rate of exergy destruction for both the cycles. The rates of exergy destruction in other components of the cycles were found to be highly dependent on the amount of recuperation, and the ammonia mass fraction and pressure at the turbine inlet. - Highlights: •Kalina cycle for a central receiver solar thermal power plant with direct steam generation. •Rankine cycle shows better plant exergy

  13. SUNSPOT ROTATION AS A DRIVER OF MAJOR SOLAR ERUPTIONS IN THE NOAA ACTIVE REGION 12158

    Vemareddy, P.; Ravindra, B. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala, Bangalore-560034 (India); Cheng, X., E-mail: vemareddy@iiap.res.in [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing-210023 (China)

    2016-09-20

    We studied the development conditions of sigmoid structure under the influence of the magnetic non-potential characteristics of a rotating sunspot in the active region (AR) 12158. Vector magnetic field measurements from the Helioseismic Magnetic Imager and coronal EUV observations from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly reveal that the erupting inverse-S sigmoid had roots at the location of the rotating sunspot. The sunspot rotates at a rate of 0°–5° h{sup −1} with increasing trend in the first half followed by a decrease. The time evolution of many non-potential parameters had a good correspondence with the sunspot rotation. The evolution of the AR magnetic structure is approximated by a time series of force-free equilibria. The non-linear force-free field magnetic structure around the sunspot manifests the observed sigmoid structure. Field lines from the sunspot periphery constitute the body of the sigmoid and those from the interior overlie the sigmoid, similar to a flux rope structure. While the sunspot was rotating, two major coronal mass ejection eruptions occurred in the AR. During the first (second) event, the coronal current concentrations were enhanced (degraded), consistent with the photospheric net vertical current; however, magnetic energy was released during both cases. The analysis results suggest that the magnetic connections of the sigmoid are driven by the slow motion of sunspot rotation, which transforms to a highly twisted flux rope structure in a dynamical scenario. Exceeding the critical twist in the flux rope probably leads to the loss of equilibrium, thus triggering the onset of the two eruptions.

  14. Preliminary design of the Carrisa Plains solar central receiver power plant. Volume III, Book 1. Design description

    1983-12-31

    The design of the 30 MWe central receiver solar power plant to be located at Carrisa Plains, San Luis Obispo County, California, is summarized. The plant uses a vertical flat-panel (billboard solar receiver located at the top of a tower to collect solar energy redirected by approximately 1900 heliostats located to the north of the tower. The solar energy is used to heat liquid sodium pumped from ground level from 610 to 1050/sup 0/F. The power conversion system is a non-reheat system, cost-effective at this size level, and designed for high-efficiency performance in an application requiring daily startup. Successful completion of this project will lead to power generation starting in 1986. This report discusses in detail the design of the collector system, heat transport system, thermal storage subsystem, heat transport loop, steam generation subsystem, electrical, instrumentation, and control systems, power conversion system, master control system, and balance of plant. The performance, facility cost estimate and economic analysis, and development plan are also discussed.

  15. Direct Heat-Flux Measurement System (MDF) for Solar central Receiver Evaluation

    Ballestrin, J.

    2001-07-01

    A direct flux measurement system, MDF, has been designed, constructed and mounted on top of the SSPS-CRS tower at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA) in addition to an indirect flux measurement system based on a CCD camera. It's one of the main future objectives to compare systematically both measurements of the concentrated solar power, increasing in this way the confidence in the estimate of this quantity. Today everything is prepared to perform the direct flux measurement on the aperture of solar receivers: calorimeter array, data acquisition system and software. the geometry of the receiver determines the operation and analysis procedures to obtain the indecent power onto the defined area. The study of previous experiences with direct flux measurement systems ha been useful to define a new simpler and more accurate system. A description of each component of the MDF system is included, focusing on the heat-flux sensors or calorimeters, which enables these measurements to be done in a few seconds without water-cooling. The incident solar power and the spatial flux distribution on the aperture of the volumetric receiver Hitrec II are supplied by the above-mentioned MDF system. The first results obtained during the evaluation of this solar receiver are presented including a sunrise-sunset test. All these measurements have been concentrated in one coefficient that describes the global behavior of the Solar Power Plant. (Author) 18 refs.

  16. Prediction and experimental verification of performance of box type solar cooker - Part I. Cooking vessel with central cylindrical cavity

    Reddy, Avala Raji; Rao, A.V. Narasimha

    2007-01-01

    The performance of conventional box type solar cookers can be improved by better designs of cooking vessels with proper understanding of the heat flow to the material to be cooked. An attempt has been made in this article to arrive at a mathematical model to understand the heat flow process to the cooking vessel and thereby to the food material. The mathematical model considers a double glazed hot box type solar cooker loaded with two different types of vessels, kept either on the floor of the cooker or on lugs. The performance of the cooking vessel with a central cylindrical cavity is compared with that of a conventional cylindrical cooking vessel. It is found from the experiments and modeling that the cooking vessel with a central cylindrical cavity on lugs results in a higher temperature of the thermic fluid than that of a conventional vessel on the floor or on lugs. The average improvement of performance of the vessel with a central cylindrical cavity kept on lugs is found to be 5.9% and 2.4% more than that of a conventional cylindrical vessel on the floor and on lugs, respectively

  17. Estimating Monthly Solar Radiation in South-Central Chile Estimación de Radiación Solar Mensual en la Zona Centro Sur de Chile

    José Álvarez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Solar radiation is a key component in process-based models. The amount of this energy depends on the location, time of the year, and atmospheric conditions. Several equations and models have been developed for different conditions using historical data from weather station networks or satellite measurements. However, solar radiation estimates are too local since they rely on weather stations or have a resolution that is too coarse when working with satellites. In this study, we estimated monthly global solar radiation for the south-central region of Chile using the r.sun model and validated it with observations from automatic weather stations. We analyzed the performance of global radiation results with the Hargreaves-Samani (HS and Bristow-Campbell (BC models. Estimates from a calibrated rsun model accounted for 89% of the variance (r² = 0.89 in monthly mean values for 15 locations in the research area. The model performed very well for a wide area and conditions in Chile when we compared it with the HS and BC models. Our estimates of global solar radiation using the rsun model could be improved through calibration of ground measurements and more precise cloudiness estimates as they become available. With additional procedures, the rsun model could be used to provide spatial estimates of daily, weekly, monthly, and yearly solar radiation.La radiación solar es un componente clave en los modelos basados en procesos. La cantidad de esta energía depende de la ubicación, época del año, y también de las condiciones atmosféricas. Varias ecuaciones y modelos han sido desarrollados para diferentes condiciones, utilizando datos históricos de las redes de estaciones meteorológicas o de las mediciones por satélite. Sin embargo, las estimaciones de la radiación solar son demasiado locales con estaciones meteorológicas, o con una resolución muy gruesa cuando se trabaja con satélites. En el presente estudio se estimó radiación solar global

  18. Line-focus solar central power systems, Phase I. Monthly technical progress report, 31 January 1979-28 February 1979

    Slemmons, A J

    1979-03-01

    The work performed during the fifth month of the Phase I study of the High Temperature Line-Focus Solar Central Power System is summarized. During the reporting period, the optical and receiver computer analysis programs and parametricized data have been combined in a computer program to give the projected annualized Bus Bar Energy Costs for a specified design. Although some of the data are incomplete or need further refinement, the program has been used to examine the sensitivity of some parameters, and to make preliminary optimizations.

  19. Major complications of central neuraxial block: report on the Third National Audit Project of the Royal College of Anaesthetists.

    Cook, T M; Counsell, D; Wildsmith, J A W

    2009-02-01

    Serious complications of central neuraxial block (CNB) are rare. Limited information on their incidence and impact impedes clinical decision-making and patient consent. The Royal College of Anaesthetists Third National Audit Project was designed to inform this situation. A 2 week national census estimated the number of CNB procedures performed annually in the UK National Health Service. All major complications of CNBs performed over 1 yr (vertebral canal abscess or haematoma, meningitis, nerve injury, spinal cord ischaemia, fatal cardiovascular collapse, and wrong route errors) were reported. Each case was reviewed by an expert panel to assess causation, severity, and outcome. 'Permanent' injury was defined as symptoms persisting for more than 6 months. Efforts were made to validate denominator (procedures performed) and numerator (complications) data through national databases. The census phase produced a denominator of 707,455 CNB. Eighty-four major complications were reported, of which 52 met the inclusion criteria at the time they were reported. Data were interpreted 'pessimistically' and 'optimistically'. 'Pessimistically' there were 30 permanent injuries and 'optimistically' 14. The incidence of permanent injury due to CNB (expressed per 100,000 cases) was 'pessimistically' 4.2 (95% confidence interval 2.9-6.1) and 'optimistically' 2.0 (1.1-3.3). 'Pessimistically' there were 13 deaths or paraplegias, 'optimistically' five. The incidence of paraplegia or death was 'pessimistically' 1.8 per 100,000 (1.0-3.1) and 'optimistically' 0.7 (0-1.6). Two-thirds of initially disabling injuries resolved fully. The data are reassuring and suggest that CNB has a low incidence of major complications, many of which resolve within 6 months.

  20. Surface transformation hardening on steels treated with solar energy in central tower and heliostats field

    Rodriguez, G.P.; Lopez, V.; de Damborenea, J.J.; Vazquez, A.J. [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas CENIM/CSIC, Madrid (Spain)

    1995-04-28

    The possibility of surface hardening on AISI 4140 steel treated with concentrated solar energy in solar installations for electricity production has been studied. The samples were slides from a 35 mm diameter steel bar and their height was 35 mm. The quenching was made in water but also was considered the possibility of self-quenching by cooling in air. The amount of the surface hardness and the different structures obtained in both cases are presented, and some discussion is made with reference to the surface hardness, the hardness profiles and the structures obtained. The heating of steel with concentrated solar energy may produce similar hardening to that obtained with more conventional techniques of surface hardening

  1. The association between serum lipid levels, suicide ideation, and central serotonergic activity in patients with major depressive disorder.

    Park, Young-Min; Lee, Bun-Hee; Lee, Seung-Hwan

    2014-04-01

    There is some evidence that low lipid levels cause suicide in depressed patients. The purpose of this study was to identify whether low serum lipid levels are associated with suicide ideation or are correlated with central serotonin function. Auditory processing for the loudness dependence of auditory evoked potentials (LDAEP) was measured in 73 outpatients with major depressive disorder. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were administered on the same day as measurement of the LDAEP. In addition, serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and triglyceride (TG) levels were measured. All subjects had received antidepressant monotherapy. The depressed subjects were divided into those with and without suicide ideation according to the score for HAMD item 3 or BDI item 9. TG levels differed significantly between the two groups, whereas body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and LDAEP did not. The scores for HAMD item 3 and BDI item 9 were negatively correlated with TG levels (p=0.045 and 0.026, respectively). The LDAEP was negatively correlated with TG levels (p=0.012). Although there was tendency toward a negative correlation between the LDAEP and serum LDL, it did not reach statistical significance (p=0.068). The cross-sectional design of this study means that baseline serum lipid levels were not measured. The findings of this study revealed a relationship between TG and suicide ideation that is independent of both BMI and body weight. Furthermore, serum lipid levels were associated with central serotonergic activity, as assessed using the LDAEP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Longitudinal study on thyroid function in patients with thalassemia major: High incidence of central hypothyroidism by 18 years

    Ashraf T Soliman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Primary hypothyroidism is one of the most frequent complications observed in-patients suffering from thalassemia. We investigated and reviewed the thyroid function in all thalassemic patients attending the Pediatric Endocrine Clinic of Hamad Medical Center, Doha, Qatar during the last 10 years of follow-up. Patients and Methods: A total of 48 patients with ί-thalassemia major between 5 years and 18 years of age. Thyroid dysfunction was defined as follows: Overt hypothyroidism (low Free thyroxine [FT4] and increased thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH] levels >5 μIU/ml; subclinical hypothyroidism (normal FT4, TSH between 5 μIU/ml and 10 μIU/ml and central (secondary hypothyroidism (low FT4 and normal or decreased TSH. Results: A total of 48 patients (22 males and 26 females completed a 12 year-period of follow-up. During this period, hypothyroidism was diagnosed in 17/48 (35% of patients. There was no significant difference in the prevalence in males 7/22 (32% versus females 10/26 (38%. Sixteen of the patients had hypothyroidism after the age of 10 years (94%. The prevalence of overt hypothyroidism had risen from 0% at the age of 7 years to 35% at the age of 18 years. None of the patients had high anti-thyroperoxidase antibody titers. Out of 17 patients, 13 patients with hypothyroidism had normal or low TSH level (not appropriately elevated indicative of defective hypothalamic pituitary response to low FT4 (central hypothyroidism. Three patients (6.3% had subclinical hypothyroidism (TSH between 5 uIU/ml and 10 uIU/ml and normal FT4. The general trend of FT4 level showed progressive decrease over the 12 years, whereas, TSH levels did not show a corresponding increase. These data suggested defective hypothalamic pituitary thyroid axis involving both TSH and FT4 sretion in patients with thalassemia major over time. There was a significant negative correlation between serum ferritin and FT4 (r = −0.39, P = 0.007, but no correlation

  3. Long-term dynamics of OH * temperatures over central Europe: trends and solar correlations

    C. Kalicinsky

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We present the analysis of annual average OH* temperatures in the mesopause region derived from measurements of the Ground-based Infrared P-branch Spectrometer (GRIPS at Wuppertal (51° N, 7° E in the time interval 1988 to 2015. The new study uses a temperature time series which is 7 years longer than that used for the latest analysis regarding the long-term dynamics. This additional observation time leads to a change in characterisation of the observed long-term dynamics. We perform a multiple linear regression using the solar radio flux F10.7 cm (11-year cycle of solar activity and time to describe the temperature evolution. The analysis leads to a linear trend of (−0.089 ± 0.055 K year−1 and a sensitivity to the solar activity of (4.2 ± 0.9 K (100 SFU−1 (r2 of fit 0.6. However, one linear trend in combination with the 11-year solar cycle is not sufficient to explain all observed long-term dynamics. In fact, we find a clear trend break in the temperature time series in the middle of 2008. Before this break point there is an explicit negative linear trend of (−0.24 ± 0.07 K year−1, and after 2008 the linear trend turns positive with a value of (0.64 ± 0.33 K year−1. This apparent trend break can also be described using a long periodic oscillation. One possibility is to use the 22-year solar cycle that describes the reversal of the solar magnetic field (Hale cycle. A multiple linear regression using the solar radio flux and the solar polar magnetic field as parameters leads to the regression coefficients Csolar = (5.0 ± 0.7 K (100 SFU−1 and Chale = (1.8 ±  0.5 K (100 µT−1 (r2 = 0.71. The second way of describing the OH* temperature time series is to use the solar radio flux and an oscillation. A least-square fit leads to a sensitivity to the solar activity of (4.1 ± 0.8 K (100 SFU−1, a period P  =  (24.8 ± 3.3 years, and

  4. Solar central receiver hybrid power system, Phase I. Volume 2. Conceptual design. Final technical report, October 1978-August 1979

    None

    1979-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop a hybrid power system design that (1) produces minimum cost electric power, (2) minimizes the capital investment and operating cost, (3) permits capacity displacement, (4) and achieves utility acceptance for market penetration. We have met the first three of these objectives and therefore believe that the fourth, utility acceptance, will become a reality. These objectives have been met by utilizing the Martin Marietta concept that combines the alternate central receiver power system design and a high-temperature salt primary heat transfer fluid and thermal storage media system with a fossil-fired nonsolar energy source. Task 1 reviewed the requirements definition document and comments and recommendations were provided to DOE/San Francisco. Task 2 consisted of a market analysis to evaluate the potential market of solar hybrid power plants. Twenty-two utilities were selected within nine regions of the country. Both written and verbal correspondence was used to assess solar hybrid power plants with respect to the utilities' future requirements and plans. The parametric analysis of Task 3 evaluated a wide range of subsystem configurations and sizes. These analyses included subsystems from the solar standalone alternate central receiver power system using high-temperature molten salt and from fossil fuel nonsolar subsystems. Task 4, selection of the preferred commerical system configuration, utilized the parametric analyses developed in Task 3 to select system and subsystem configurations for the commercial plant design. Task 5 developed a conceptual design of the selected commercial plant configuration and assessed the related cost and performance. Task 6 assessed the economics and performance of the selected configuration as well as future potential improvements or limitations of the hybrid power plants.

  5. Possible biophysical mechanism of the effect of the solar activity on the human central nervous system

    Mikhailova, G. A.; Mikhailov, Y. M.

    Numerous studies, beginning with Tchizhevsky's works, demonstrated the undeniable effect of the solar activity on the human body. A possible geophysical mechanism of the effect of the solar activity on the human body was proposed by Vladimirsky. In this mechanism solar disturbances (powerful chromospheres flares) cause "magnetosphere and plasmasphere disturbances on the Earth (sudden magnetic storms), which are accompanied by a change in the spectrum of the electromagnetic field on the Earth's surface in the extremely low frequency band. In its turn, this brings about shifts in the phisiological indices of the human body". In this model, the human body is regarded as a self-oscillating system affected by external geophysical factors. We also adhere to the main principles of this model but refine the part of this model that describes the change in the spectrum of the electromagnetic field on the Earth's surface in the extremely low frequency band. Unlike Vladimirsky model, we regard the human is not as a self-oscillating system but as one of two coupled oscillating system with discrete resonance frequencies in the human-habitat ensemble. Solar processes and their induced changes in one of the two coupled oscillating systems, specifically, the habitat play the role of an external force. Such an approach is based on the fact that the brain rhythms have the following definite frequencies: the alpha rhythm, 8-13 Hz; the beta rhythm, 14-30 Hz; the gamma rhythm, above 30 Hz; the delta rhythm, 1.5-3 Hz; and the theta rhythm, 4-7 Hz. On the other hand, the natural electromagnetic field on the Earth's surface in the extremely low frequency band also has a quite distinct resonance distribution. There are so-called Schuman resonances of the cavity formed by the Earth's surface and the lower boundary of the ionosphere (the D and E layers) at f1=10.6; f2=18.3; f3=25.9; f4=33.5; f5=41.1 Hz. These resonance frequencies are variable and most sensitive to variations of the

  6. Preliminary design of the Carrisa Plains solar central receiver power plant. Volume II. Plant specifications

    Price, R. E.

    1983-12-31

    The specifications and design criteria for all plant systems and subsystems used in developing the preliminary design of Carrisa Plains 30-MWe Solar Plant are contained in this volume. The specifications have been organized according to plant systems and levels. The levels are arranged in tiers. Starting at the top tier and proceeding down, the specification levels are the plant, system, subsystem, components, and fabrication. A tab number, listed in the index, has been assigned each document to facilitate document location.

  7. Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power Systems sodium-cooled receiver concept. Final report. Volume II, Book 2. Conceptual design, Sections 5 and 6

    None

    1980-01-01

    The overall, long-term objective of the Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power System program is to identify, characterize, and ultimately demonstrate the viability and cost effectiveness of solar/fossil, steam Rankine cycle, hybrid power systems that: (1) consist of a combined solar central receiver energy source and a nonsolar energy source at a single, common site, (2) may operate in the base, intermediate, and peaking capacity modes, (3) produce the rated output independent of variations in solar insolation, (4) provide a significant savings (50% or more) in fuel consumption, and (5) produce power at the minimum possible cost in mills/kWh. It is essential that these hybrid concepts be technically feasible and economically competitive with other systems in the near to mid-term time period (1985-1990) on a commercial scale. The program objective for Phase I is to identify and conceptually characterize solar/fossil steam Rankine cycle, commercial-scale, power plant systems that are economically viable and technically feasible. This volume contains the detailed conceptual design and cost/performance estimates and an assessment of the commercial scale solar central receiver hybrid power system. (WHK)

  8. Solar Pilot Plant, Phase I. Preliminary design report. Volume II, Book 2. Central receiver optical model users manual. CDRL item 2. [HELIAKI code

    None

    1977-05-01

    HELIAKI is a FORTRAN computer program which simulates the optical/thermal performance of a central receiver solar thermal power plant for the dynamic conversion of solar-generated heat to electricity. The solar power plant which this program simulates consists of a field of individual sun tracking mirror units, or heliostats, redirecting sunlight into a cavity, called the receiver, mounted atop a tower. The program calculates the power retained by that cavity receiver at any point in time or the energy into the receiver over a year's time using a Monte Carlo ray trace technique to solve the multiple integral equations. An artist's concept of this plant is shown.

  9. Theoretical characterization and design of small molecule donor material containing naphthodithiophene central unit for efficient organic solar cells.

    Duan, Yu-Ai; Geng, Yun; Li, Hai-Bin; Jin, Jun-Ling; Wu, Yong; Su, Zhong-Min

    2013-07-15

    To seek for high-performance small molecule donor materials used in heterojunction solar cell, six acceptor-donor-acceptor small molecules based on naphtho[2,3-b:6,7-b']dithiophene (NDT) units with different acceptor units were designed and characterized using density functional theory and time-dependent density functional theory. Their geometries, electronic structures, photophysical, and charge transport properties have been scrutinized comparing with the reported donor material NDT(TDPP)2 (TDPP  =  thiophene-capped diketopyrrolopyrrole). The open circuit voltage (V(oc)), energetic driving force(ΔE(L-L)), and exciton binding energy (E(b)) were also provided to give an elementary understanding on their cell performance. The results reveal that the frontier molecular orbitals of 3-7 match well with the acceptor material PC61 BM, and compounds 3-5 were found to exhibit the comparable performances to 1 and show promising potential in organic solar cells. In particular, comparing with 1, system 7 with naphthobisthiadiazole acceptor unit displays broader absorption spectrum, higher V(oc), lower E(b), and similar carrier mobility. An in-depth insight into the nature of the involved excited states based on transition density matrix and charge density difference indicates that all S1 states are mainly intramolecular charge transfer states with the charge transfer from central NDT unit to bilateral acceptor units, and also imply that the exciton of 7 can be dissociated easily due to its large extent of the charge transfer. In a word, 7 maybe superior to 1 and may act as a promising donor candidate for organic solar cell. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Software/firmware design specification for 10-MWe solar-thermal central-receiver pilot plant

    Ladewig, T.D.

    1981-03-01

    The software and firmware employed for the operation of the Barstow Solar Pilot Plant are completely described. The systems allow operator control of up to 2048 heliostats, and include the capability of operator-commanded control, graphic displays, status displays, alarm generation, system redundancy, and interfaces to the Operational Control System, the Data Acquisition System, and the Beam Characterization System. The requirements are decomposed into eleven software modules for execution in the Heliostat Array Controller computer, one firmware module for execution in the Heliostat Field Controller microprocessor, and one firmware module for execution in the Heliostat Controller microprocessor. The design of the modules to satisfy requirements, the interfaces between the computers, the software system structure, and the computers in which the software and firmware will execute are detailed. The testing sequence for validation of the software/firmware is described. (LEW)

  11. Hydro, wind and solar power as a base for a 100% renewable energy supply for South and Central America.

    Larissa de Souza Noel Simas Barbosa

    Full Text Available Power systems for South and Central America based on 100% renewable energy (RE in the year 2030 were calculated for the first time using an hourly resolved energy model. The region was subdivided into 15 sub-regions. Four different scenarios were considered: three according to different high voltage direct current (HVDC transmission grid development levels (region, country, area-wide and one integrated scenario that considers water desalination and industrial gas demand supplied by synthetic natural gas via power-to-gas (PtG. RE is not only able to cover 1813 TWh of estimated electricity demand of the area in 2030 but also able to generate the electricity needed to fulfil 3.9 billion m3 of water desalination and 640 TWhLHV of synthetic natural gas demand. Existing hydro dams can be used as virtual batteries for solar and wind electricity storage, diminishing the role of storage technologies. The results for total levelized cost of electricity (LCOE are decreased from 62 €/MWh for a highly decentralized to 56 €/MWh for a highly centralized grid scenario (currency value of the year 2015. For the integrated scenario, the levelized cost of gas (LCOG and the levelized cost of water (LCOW are 95 €/MWhLHV and 0.91 €/m3, respectively. A reduction of 8% in total cost and 5% in electricity generation was achieved when integrating desalination and power-to-gas into the system.

  12. Hydro, wind and solar power as a base for a 100% renewable energy supply for South and Central America.

    Barbosa, Larissa de Souza Noel Simas; Bogdanov, Dmitrii; Vainikka, Pasi; Breyer, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Power systems for South and Central America based on 100% renewable energy (RE) in the year 2030 were calculated for the first time using an hourly resolved energy model. The region was subdivided into 15 sub-regions. Four different scenarios were considered: three according to different high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission grid development levels (region, country, area-wide) and one integrated scenario that considers water desalination and industrial gas demand supplied by synthetic natural gas via power-to-gas (PtG). RE is not only able to cover 1813 TWh of estimated electricity demand of the area in 2030 but also able to generate the electricity needed to fulfil 3.9 billion m3 of water desalination and 640 TWhLHV of synthetic natural gas demand. Existing hydro dams can be used as virtual batteries for solar and wind electricity storage, diminishing the role of storage technologies. The results for total levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) are decreased from 62 €/MWh for a highly decentralized to 56 €/MWh for a highly centralized grid scenario (currency value of the year 2015). For the integrated scenario, the levelized cost of gas (LCOG) and the levelized cost of water (LCOW) are 95 €/MWhLHV and 0.91 €/m3, respectively. A reduction of 8% in total cost and 5% in electricity generation was achieved when integrating desalination and power-to-gas into the system.

  13. Renewable energy management through microgrid central controller design: An approach to integrate solar, wind and biomass with battery

    Zaheeruddin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an isolated microgrid comprising of renewable energy (RE sources like wind, solar, biogas and battery is considered. Provision of utility grid insertion is also given if total microgrid sources falls short of supplying the total load. To establish an efficient energy management strategy, a central controller takes the decision based on the status of the loads and sources. The status is obtained with the assistance of multi-agent concept (treating each source and load as an agent. The data acquisition system of these renewable sources and loads consists of multiple sensors interconnected through Low Power Radio over one of many GPRS communication. The Microgrid Central Controller (MGCC would use an embedded energy management algorithm to take decisions, which are then transmitted to the controllable RE systems to manage the utilization of their power outputs as per the load-supply power balance. A control strategy is adopted to regulate the power output from the battery in case of supply shortage, which results in a floating battery scheme in steady state.

  14. Neural computational modeling reveals a major role of corticospinal gating of central oscillations in the generation of essential tremor

    Hong-en Qu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential tremor, also referred to as familial tremor, is an autosomal dominant genetic disease and the most common movement disorder. It typically involves a postural and motor tremor of the hands, head or other part of the body. Essential tremor is driven by a central oscillation signal in the brain. However, the corticospinal mechanisms involved in the generation of essential tremor are unclear. Therefore, in this study, we used a neural computational model that includes both monosynaptic and multisynaptic corticospinal pathways interacting with a propriospinal neuronal network. A virtual arm model is driven by the central oscillation signal to simulate tremor activity behavior. Cortical descending commands are classified as alpha or gamma through monosynaptic or multisynaptic corticospinal pathways, which converge respectively on alpha or gamma motoneurons in the spinal cord. Several scenarios are evaluated based on the central oscillation signal passing down to the spinal motoneurons via each descending pathway. The simulated behaviors are compared with clinical essential tremor characteristics to identify the corticospinal pathways responsible for transmitting the central oscillation signal. A propriospinal neuron with strong cortical inhibition performs a gating function in the generation of essential tremor. Our results indicate that the propriospinal neuronal network is essential for relaying the central oscillation signal and the production of essential tremor.

  15. Neural computational modeling reveals a major role of corticospinal gating of central oscillations in the generation of essential tremor.

    Qu, Hong-En; Niu, Chuanxin M; Li, Si; Hao, Man-Zhao; Hu, Zi-Xiang; Xie, Qing; Lan, Ning

    2017-12-01

    Essential tremor, also referred to as familial tremor, is an autosomal dominant genetic disease and the most common movement disorder. It typically involves a postural and motor tremor of the hands, head or other part of the body. Essential tremor is driven by a central oscillation signal in the brain. However, the corticospinal mechanisms involved in the generation of essential tremor are unclear. Therefore, in this study, we used a neural computational model that includes both monosynaptic and multisynaptic corticospinal pathways interacting with a propriospinal neuronal network. A virtual arm model is driven by the central oscillation signal to simulate tremor activity behavior. Cortical descending commands are classified as alpha or gamma through monosynaptic or multisynaptic corticospinal pathways, which converge respectively on alpha or gamma motoneurons in the spinal cord. Several scenarios are evaluated based on the central oscillation signal passing down to the spinal motoneurons via each descending pathway. The simulated behaviors are compared with clinical essential tremor characteristics to identify the corticospinal pathways responsible for transmitting the central oscillation signal. A propriospinal neuron with strong cortical inhibition performs a gating function in the generation of essential tremor. Our results indicate that the propriospinal neuronal network is essential for relaying the central oscillation signal and the production of essential tremor.

  16. Magnetic fields, velocity fields and brightness in the central region of the Solar disk

    Tsap, T T

    1978-01-01

    The longitudinal magnetic fields, velocity fields and brightness at the center of the Solar disk are studied. Observations of the magnetic field, line-of-sight velocities and brightness have been made with the doublemagnetograph of the Crimean astrophysical observatory. It is found that the average magnetic field strength recorded in the iron line lambda 5233 A is 18 Gs for the elements of N-polarity and 23 Gs for the elements of S-polarity. The magnetic elements with the field strength more than 200 Gs are observed in some of the cases. There is a close correlation between the magnetic field distribution in the lambda 5250 A FeI and D/sub 1/ Na I lines and between the magnetic field in the lambda 5250 A and brightness in the K/sub 3/CaII line. The dimensions of the magnetic elements in the lambda and D/sub 1/NaI lines are equal. The comparison of the magnetic field with the radial velocity recorded in the lambda 5250 and 5233 A lines has shown that radial velocities are close to zero in the regions of maximum longitudinal magnetic field. The chromospheric network-like pattern is observed in the brightness distribution of ten different spectral lines.

  17. Solar-assisted central heating in Hamburg-Bramfeld; Solarunterstuetzte Nahwaermeversorgung Hamburg-Bramfeld

    Ebel, M. [HGC Hamburg Gas Consult, Hamburg (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    About 38% of the energy consumed in Germany is used for space heating. Hot water demand of old buildings accounts for approximately 10% while buildings constructed according to modern insulation standards account for 15 - 20 %. Space heating has a considerable conservation potential, which plays an important role in terms of reducing carbon dioxide pollution. More and more new technologies for conventional thermal insulation as well as for the active use of solar energy are being developed and will soon be commercially available. (orig.) [Deutsch] In der Bundesrepublik Deutschland werden ca. 38% des Energieverbrauches fuer die Waermeversorgung von Gebaeuden eingesetzt. Auf den Warmwasserbedarf entfallen davon ca. 10% bei Altbauten und 15-20% bei Wohngebaeuden nach den heute gueltigen Waermeschutzbestimmungen. Damit liegt im Bereich der Waemreversorgung von Gebaeuden ein erhebliches Einsparpotential, welches innerhalb der Diskussion ueber die CO{sub 2}-Problematik eine immer groessere Bedeutung erlangt. Neben einer Verbesserung der konventionellen Waermedaemmung der Gebaeude werden zunehmend Techniken der aktiven Solarenergienutzung zur Einsatzreife entwickelt. (orig.)

  18. The radiated energy budget of chromospheric plasma in a major solar flare deduced from multi-wavelength observations

    Milligan, Ryan O.; Mathioudakis, Mihalis; Keenan, Francis P. [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, University Road, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Kerr, Graham S.; Hudson, Hugh S.; Fletcher, Lyndsay [School of Physics and Astronomy, SUPA, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Dennis, Brian R.; Allred, Joel C.; Chamberlin, Phillip C.; Ireland, Jack, E-mail: r.milligan@qub.ac.uk [Solar Physics Laboratory (Code 671), Heliophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents measurements of the energy radiated by the lower solar atmosphere, at optical, UV, and EUV wavelengths, during an X-class solar flare (SOL2011-02-15T01:56) in response to an injection of energy assumed to be in the form of nonthermal electrons. Hard X-ray observations from RHESSI were used to track the evolution of the parameters of the nonthermal electron distribution to reveal the total power contained in flare accelerated electrons. By integrating over the duration of the impulsive phase, the total energy contained in the nonthermal electrons was found to be >2 × 10{sup 31} erg. The response of the lower solar atmosphere was measured in the free-bound EUV continua of H I (Lyman), He I, and He II, plus the emission lines of He II at 304 Å and H I (Lyα) at 1216 Å by SDO/EVE, the UV continua at 1600 Å and 1700 Å by SDO/AIA, and the white light continuum at 4504 Å, 5550 Å, and 6684 Å, along with the Ca II H line at 3968 Å using Hinode/SOT. The summed energy detected by these instruments amounted to ∼3 × 10{sup 30} erg; about 15% of the total nonthermal energy. The Lyα line was found to dominate the measured radiative losses. Parameters of both the driving electron distribution and the resulting chromospheric response are presented in detail to encourage the numerical modeling of flare heating for this event, to determine the depth of the solar atmosphere at which these line and continuum processes originate, and the mechanism(s) responsible for their generation.

  19. Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power Systems sodium-cooled receiver concept. Final report. Volume II, Book 1. Conceptual design, Sections 1 through 4

    None

    1980-01-01

    The overall, long-term objective of the Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power System program is to identify, characterize, and ultimately demonstrate the viability and cost effectiveness of solar/fossil, steam Rankine cycle, hybrid power systems that: (1) consist of a combined solar central receiver energy source and a nonsolar energy source at a single, common site, (2) may operate in the base, intermediate, and peaking capacity modes, (3) produce the rated output independent of variations in solar insolation, (4) provide a significant savings (50% or more) in fuel consumption, and (5) produce power at the minimum possible cost in mills/kWh. It is essential that these hybrid concepts be technically feasible and economically competitive with other systems in the near to mid-term time period (1985-1990) on a commercial scale. The program objective for Phase I is to identify and conceptually characterize solar/fossil steam Rankine cycle, commercial-scale, power plant systems that are economically viable and technically feasible. This volume presents in detail the market analysis, parametric analysis, and the selection process for the preferred system. (WHK)

  20. Experience with the operation of a solar central heating system in Friedrichshafen/Wiggenhausen-Sued; Betriebserfahrungen mit der solaren Nahwaermeversorgung in Friedrichshafen/Wiggenhausen-Sued

    Stanzel, B.; Gawantka, F. [Technische Werke Friedrichshafen GmbH, Friedrichshafen (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The ideas, concepts and pilot plants for solar central heating systems developed by the Institute for Thermodynamics and Thermal Engineering of Stuttgart University were implemented by the Steinbeis-Transfer Centre for Energy, Building and Solar Engineering. In order to improve the economic efficiency of solar central heating with long-term storage a pilot plant with a heat storage tank of 12,000 cubic metres was built in Wiggenhausen-Sued. The `Technische Werke Friedrichshafen` (TWF) is in charge of the project `Solar City Wiggenhausen-Sued`. This company built the plant and also operates and maintains it. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Ideen, Konzepte und erste Pilotanlagen zur solaren Nahwaerme werden seit Mitte der achtziger Jahre vom Institut fuer Thermodynamik und Waermetechnik (ITW) der Universitaet Stuttgart entwickelt und vom Steinbeis-Transferzentrum Energie-, Gebaeude- und Solartechnik umgesetzt. Um die solare Nahwaermeversorgung mit Langzeit-Waermespeicher der Wirtschaftlichkeit etwas naeher zu bringen, wurde eine Pilotanlage mit einem 12.000 m{sup 3} grossen Waermespeicher in Wiggenhausen-Sued gebaut. Mit diesem Pilotprojekt soll neben der technischen Durchfuehrbarkeit die Kostendegression durch steigende Anlagengroesse nachgewiesen werden. Als Energiedienstleistungsunternehmen hat die Technische Werke Friedrichshafen GmbH (TWF) die technische und kaufmaennische Durchfuehrung des Projektes `Solarstadt Wiggenhausen-Sued` uebernommen. Sie errichtete, betreibt und wartet die Anlage. (orig.)

  1. Evaluation of major heat waves’ mechanisms in EURO-CORDEX RCMs over Central Europe

    Lhotka, Ondřej; Kyselý, Jan; Plavcová, Eva

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 50, 11-12 (2018), s. 4249-4262 ISSN 0930-7575 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-22000S Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : heat waves * regional climate models * CORDEX * atmospheric circulation * land–atmosphere interactions * Central Europe Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 4.146, year: 2016 https://link.springer.com/article/10. 1007 /s00382-017-3873-9

  2. Land-Sparing Opportunities for Solar Energy Development in Agricultural Landscapes: A Case Study of the Great Central Valley, CA, United States.

    Hoffacker, Madison K; Allen, Michael F; Hernandez, Rebecca R

    2017-12-19

    Land-cover change from energy development, including solar energy, presents trade-offs for land used for the production of food and the conservation of ecosystems. Solar energy plays a critical role in contributing to the alternative energy mix to mitigate climate change and meet policy milestones; however, the extent that solar energy development on nonconventional surfaces can mitigate land scarcity is understudied. Here, we evaluate the land sparing potential of solar energy development across four nonconventional land-cover types: the built environment, salt-affected land, contaminated land, and water reservoirs (as floatovoltaics), within the Great Central Valley (CV, CA), a globally significant agricultural region where land for food production, urban development, and conservation collide. Furthermore, we calculate the technical potential (TWh year -1 ) of these land sparing sites and test the degree to which projected electricity needs for the state of California can be met therein. In total, the CV encompasses 15% of CA, 8415 km 2 of which was identified as potentially land-sparing for solar energy development. These areas comprise a capacity-based energy potential of at least 17 348 TWh year -1 for photovoltaic (PV) and 2213 TWh year -1 for concentrating solar power (CSP). Accounting for technology efficiencies, this exceeds California's 2025 projected electricity demands up to 13 and 2 times for PV and CSP, respectively. Our study underscores the potential of strategic renewable energy siting to mitigate environmental trade-offs typically coupled with energy sprawl in agricultural landscapes.

  3. 60,000 years of interactions between Central and Eastern Africa documented by major African mitochondrial haplogroup L2.

    Silva, Marina; Alshamali, Farida; Silva, Paula; Carrilho, Carla; Mandlate, Flávio; Jesus Trovoada, Maria; Černý, Viktor; Pereira, Luísa; Soares, Pedro

    2015-07-27

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup L2 originated in Western Africa but is nowadays spread across the entire continent. L2 movements were previously postulated to be related to the Bantu expansion, but L2 expansions eastwards probably occurred much earlier. By reconstructing the phylogeny of L2 (44 new complete sequences) we provide insights on the complex net of within-African migrations in the last 60 thousand years (ka). Results show that lineages in Southern Africa cluster with Western/Central African lineages at a recent time scale, whereas, eastern lineages seem to be substantially more ancient. Three moments of expansion from a Central African source are associated to L2: (1) one migration at 70-50 ka into Eastern or Southern Africa, (2) postglacial movements (15-10 ka) into Eastern Africa; and (3) the southward Bantu Expansion in the last 5 ka. The complementary population and L0a phylogeography analyses indicate no strong evidence of mtDNA gene flow between eastern and southern populations during the later movement, suggesting low admixture between Eastern African populations and the Bantu migrants. This implies that, at least in the early stages, the Bantu expansion was mainly a demic diffusion with little incorporation of local populations.

  4. The centrality of DSM and non-DSM depressive symptoms in Han Chinese women with major depression

    Kendler, K.S.; Aggen, S.H.; Flint, J.; Borsboom, D.; Fried, E.I.

    Introduction: We compared DSM-IV criteria for major depression (MD) with clinically selected non-DSM criteria in their ability to represent clinical features of depression. Method: We conducted network analyses of 19 DSM and non-DSM symptoms of MD assessed at personal interview in 5952 Han Chinese

  5. Simulation of the outdoor energy efficiency of an autonomous solar kit based on meteorological data for a site in Central Europe

    Bouzaki, Mohammed Moustafa, E-mail: bouzaki-physique1@yahoo.fr; Chadel, Meriem [University of Tlemcen URMER, 13000 (Algeria); Université de Lorraine, LMOPS, EA 4423, 57070 Metz (France); CentraleSupélec, LMOPS, 57070 Metz (France); Benyoucef, Boumediene [University of Tlemcen URMER, 13000 (Algeria); Petit, Pierre; Aillerie, Michel, E-mail: aillerie@metz.supelec.fr [Université de Lorraine, LMOPS, EA 4423, 57070 Metz (France); CentraleSupélec, LMOPS, 57070 Metz (France)

    2016-07-25

    This contribution analyzes the energy provided by a solar kit dedicated to autonomous usage and installed in Central Europe (Longitude 6.10°; Latitude 49.21° and Altitude 160 m) by using the simulation software PVSYST. We focused the analysis on the effect of temperature and solar irradiation on the I-V characteristic of a commercial PV panel. We also consider in this study the influence of charging and discharging the battery on the generator efficiency. Meteorological data are integrated into the simulation software. As expected, the solar kit provides an energy varying all along the year with a minimum in December. In the proposed approach, we consider this minimum as the lowest acceptable energy level to satisfy the use. Thus for the other months, a lost in the available renewable energy exists if no storage system is associated.

  6. Coral microbial community dynamics in response to anthropogenic impacts near a major city in the central Red Sea

    Ziegler, Maren; Roik, Anna Krystyna; Porter, Adam; Zubier, Khalid; Mudarris, Mohammed S.; Ormond, Rupert; Voolstra, Christian R.

    2016-01-01

    Coral-associated bacteria play an increasingly recognized part in coral health. We investigated the effect of local anthropogenic impacts on coral microbial communities on reefs near Jeddah, the largest city on the Saudi Arabian coast of the central Red Sea. We analyzed the bacterial community structure of water and corals (Pocillopora verrucosa and Acropora hemprichii) at sites that were relatively unimpacted, exposed to sedimentation & local sewage, or in the discharge area of municipal wastewaters. Coral microbial communities were significantly different at impacted sites: in both corals the main symbiotic taxon decreased in abundance. In contrast, opportunistic bacterial families, such as e.g. Vibrionaceae and Rhodobacteraceae, were more abundant in corals at impacted sites. In conclusion, microbial community response revealed a measurable footprint of anthropogenic impacts to coral ecosystems close to Jeddah, even though the corals appeared visually healthy.

  7. Coral microbial community dynamics in response to anthropogenic impacts near a major city in the central Red Sea

    Ziegler, Maren

    2016-01-04

    Coral-associated bacteria play an increasingly recognized part in coral health. We investigated the effect of local anthropogenic impacts on coral microbial communities on reefs near Jeddah, the largest city on the Saudi Arabian coast of the central Red Sea. We analyzed the bacterial community structure of water and corals (Pocillopora verrucosa and Acropora hemprichii) at sites that were relatively unimpacted, exposed to sedimentation & local sewage, or in the discharge area of municipal wastewaters. Coral microbial communities were significantly different at impacted sites: in both corals the main symbiotic taxon decreased in abundance. In contrast, opportunistic bacterial families, such as e.g. Vibrionaceae and Rhodobacteraceae, were more abundant in corals at impacted sites. In conclusion, microbial community response revealed a measurable footprint of anthropogenic impacts to coral ecosystems close to Jeddah, even though the corals appeared visually healthy.

  8. Proposal of a fluid flow layout to improve the heat transfer in the active absorber surface of solar central cavity receivers

    Montes, M.J.; Rovira, A.; Martínez-Val, J.M.; Ramos, A.

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of concentrated solar power is to increase the thermal energy of a fluid, for the fluid to be used, for example, in a power cycle to generate electricity. Such applications present the requirement of appropriately designing the receiver active absorber surface, as the incident radiation flux can be very high. Besides that, the solar image in the receiver is not uniform, so conventional boilers designs are not well suited for these purposes. That point is particularly critical in solar central receivers systems (CRS), where concentrated solar flux is usually above 500 kW/m 2 , causing thermal and mechanical stress in the absorber panels. This paper analyzes a new thermofluidynamic design of a solar central receiver, which optimizes the heat transfer in the absorber surface. This conceptual receiver presents the following characteristics: the fluid flow pattern is designed according to the radiation flux map symmetry, so more uniform fluid temperatures at the receiver outlet are achieved; the heat transfer irreversibilities are reduced by circulating the fluid from the lower temperature region to the higher temperature region of the absorber surface; the width of each pass is adjusted to the solar flux gradient, to get lower temperature differences between the side tubes of the same pass; and the cooling requirement is ensured by means of adjusting the fluid flow velocity per tube, taking into account the pressure drop. This conceptual scheme has been applied to the particular case of a molten salt single cavity receiver, although the configuration proposed is suitable for other receiver designs and working fluids. - Highlights: ► The solar receiver design proposed optimizes heat transfer in the absorber surface. ► The fluid flow pattern is designed according to the solar flux map symmetry at noon. ► The fluid circulates from the lower to the higher temperature regions. ► The width of each pass is adjusted to the solar flux gradient.

  9. DIRECT OBSERVATIONS OF TETHER-CUTTING RECONNECTION DURING A MAJOR SOLAR EVENT FROM 2014 FEBRUARY 24 TO 25

    Chen, Huadong; Zhang, Jun; Yang, Shuhong; Li, Ting [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Cheng, Xin [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Ma, Suli, E-mail: hdchen@nao.cas.cn [College of Science, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao 266580 (China)

    2014-12-20

    Using multi-wavelength data from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, we investigated two successive solar flares, a C5.1 confined flare and an X4.9 ejective flare with a halo coronal mass ejection, in NOAA active region 11990 from 2014 February 24 to 25. Before the confined flare onset, EUV brightening beneath the filament was detected. As the flare began, a twisted helical flux rope (FR) wrapping around the filament moved upward and then stopped, and in the meantime an obvious X-ray source below it was observed. Prior to the ejective X4.9 flare, some pre-existing loop structures in the active region interacted with each other, which produced a brightening region beneath the filament. Meanwhile, a small flaring loop appeared below the interaction region and some new helical lines connecting the far ends of the loop structures were gradually formed and continually added into the former twisted FR. Then, due to the resulting imbalance between the magnetic pressure and tension, the new FR, together with the filament, erupted outward. Our observations coincide well with a tether-cutting model, suggesting that the two flares probably have the same triggering mechanism, i.e., tether-cutting reconnection. To our knowledge, this is the first direct observation of tether-cutting reconnection occurring between pre-existing loops in an active region. In the ejective flare case, the erupting filament exhibited an Ω-like kinked structure and underwent an exponential rise after a slow-rise phase, indicating that the kink instability might be also responsible for the eruption initiation.

  10. Water transfer and major environmental provisions of the Central Valley Project Improvement Act: A preliminary economic evaluation

    Loomis, John B.

    1994-06-01

    Increasing block water pricing, water transfer, and wildlife refuge water supply provisions of the Central Valley Project (CVP) Improvement Act are analyzed in terms of likely farmer response and economic efficiency of these provisions. Based on a simplified partial equilibrium analysis, we estimate small, but significant water conservation savings due to pricing reform, the potential for substantial water transfers to non-CVP customers in severe drought years when the water price exceeds 110 per acre foot (1 acre foot equals 1.234 × 103 m3) and positive net benefits for implementation of the wildlife refuge water supply provisions. The high threshold water price is partly a result of requiring farmers to pay full cost on transferred water plus a surcharge of 25 per acre foot if the water is transferred to a non-CVP user. The act also sets an important precedent for water pricing reform, water transfer provisions, and environmental surcharges on water users that may find their way to other Bureau of Reclamation projects.

  11. Majority- and minority-carrier deep level traps in proton-irradiated n+/p-InGaP space solar cells

    Dharmarasu, Nethaji; Yamaguchi, Masafumi; Bourgoin, Jacques C.; Takamoto, Tatsuya; Ohshima, Takeshi; Itoh, Hisayoshi; Imaizumi, Mitsuru; Matsuda, Sumio

    2002-01-01

    We report the properties of observed defects in n + /p-InGaP solar cells created by irradiation of protons of different energies. Three majority (hole) and a minority-carrier traps, labeled respectively as HP1 (E v +0.90±0.05 eV), HP2 (E v +0.73±0.05 eV), H2 (E v +0.55 eV), and EP1 (E c -0.54 eV), were identified using deep level transient spectroscopy. All majority-carrier traps were found to act as recombination centers. While the H2 trap present in the proton-irradiated p-InGaP was found to anneal out by minority-carrier injection, the other traps were not

  12. Export of nutrients and major ionic solutes from a rain forest catchment in the Central Amazon Basin

    Lesack, Lance F. W.

    1993-03-01

    The relative roles of base flow runoff versus storm flow runoff versus subsurface outflow in controlling total export of solutes from a 23.4-ha catchment of undisturbed rain forest in the central Amazon Basin were evaluated from water and solute flux measurements performed over a 1 year period. Solutes exported via 173 storms during the study were estimated from stream water samples collected during base flow conditions and during eight storms, and by utilizing a hydrograph separation technique in combination with a mixing model to partition storm flow from base flow fluxes. Solutes exported by subsurface outflow were estimated from groundwater samples from three nests of piezometers installed into the streambed, and concurrent measurements of hydraulic conductivity and hydraulic head gradients. Base flow discharge represented 92% of water outflow from the basin and was the dominant pathway of solute export. Although storm flow discharge represented only 5% of total water outflow, storm flow solute fluxes represented up to 25% of the total annual export flux, though for many solutes the portion was less. Subsurface outflow represented only 2.5% of total water outflow, and subsurface solute fluxes never represented more than 5% of the total annual export flux. Measurement errors were relatively high for storm flow and subsurface outflow fluxes, but cumulative measurement errors associated with the total solute fluxes exported from the catchment, in most cases, ranged from only ±7% to 14% because base flow fluxes were measured relatively well. The export fluxes of most solutes are substantially less than previously reported for comparable small catchments in the Amazon basin, and these differences cannot be reconciled by the fact that storm flow and subsurface outflows were not appropriately measured in previous studies.

  13. Organic biomarkers to describe the major carbon inputs and cycling of organic matter in the central Great Barrier Reef region

    Burns, Kathryn; Brinkman, Diane

    2011-06-01

    Controversy surrounds the sources and transport of land derived pollutants in the Great Barrier Reef ecosystem because there is insufficient knowledge of the mechanism of movement of organic contaminants and the cycling of organic matter in this dynamic system. Thus a sediment and sediment trap study was used to describe the composition of resuspended and surface sediments in the south central Great Barrier Reef and its lagoon. This region is characterised by strong tides (6-8 m at Mackay) and trade winds regularly about 15-20 knots. A series of organic biomarkers detailed the cyclical processes of sediment resuspension, recolonising with marine algae and bacteria, packaging into zooplankton faecal pellets and resettlement to sediments where the organics undergo further diagenesis. With each cycle the inshore sediments are diluted with CaCO 3 reef sediments and moved further offshore with the strong ebb tide currents. This results in transport of land derived materials offshore and little storage of organic materials in the lagoon or reef sediments. These processes were detailed by inorganic measurements such as %CaCO 3 and Al/Ca ratios, and by the compositions of hydrocarbon, sterol, alcohol, and fatty acid lipid fractions. Persistent contaminants such as coal dust from a coastal loading facility can be detected in high concentration inshore and decreasing out to the shelf break at 180 m approximately 40 nautical miles offshore. The normal processes would likely be amplified during cyclonic and other storms. The lipids show the sources of carbon to include diatoms and other phytoplankton, creanaerchaeota, sulfate reducing and other bacteria, land plants including mangrove leaves, plus coal dust and other petroleum contaminants.

  14. Performance of Earthquake Early Warning Systems during the Major Events of the 2016-2017 Central Italy Seismic Sequence.

    Festa, G.; Picozzi, M.; Alessandro, C.; Colombelli, S.; Cattaneo, M.; Chiaraluce, L.; Elia, L.; Martino, C.; Marzorati, S.; Supino, M.; Zollo, A.

    2017-12-01

    Earthquake early warning systems (EEWS) are systems nowadays contributing to the seismic risk mitigation actions, both in terms of losses and societal resilience, by issuing an alert promptly after the earthquake origin and before the ground shaking impacts the targets to be protected. EEWS systems can be grouped in two main classes: network based and stand-alone systems. Network based EEWS make use of dense seismic networks surrounding the fault (e.g. Near Fault Observatory; NFO) generating the event. The rapid processing of the P-wave early portion allows for the location and magnitude estimation of the event then used to predict the shaking through ground motion prediction equations. Stand-alone systems instead analyze the early P-wave signal to predict the ground shaking carried by the late S or surface waves, through empirically calibrated scaling relationships, at the recording site itself. We compared the network-based (PRESTo, PRobabilistic and Evolutionary early warning SysTem, www.prestoews.org, Satriano et al., 2011) and the stand-alone (SAVE, on-Site-Alert-leVEl, Caruso et al., 2017) systems, by analyzing their performance during the 2016-2017 Central Italy sequence. We analyzed 9 earthquakes having magnitude 5.0 security actions. PRESTo also evaluated the accuracy of location and magnitude. Both systems well predict the ground shaking nearby the event source, with a success rate around 90% within the potential damage zone. The lead-time is significantly larger for the network based system, increasing to more than 10s at 40 km from the event epicentre. The stand-alone system better performs in the near-source region showing a positive albeit small lead-time (operational in Italy, based on the available acceleration networks, by improving the capability of reducing the lead-time related to data telemetry.

  15. Expression Analysis of Multiple Genes May Involve in Antimony Resistance among Leishmania major Clinical Isolates from Fars Province, Central Iran

    Nafiseh GHOBAKHLOO

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Treatment of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL is being faced with serious difficulties in Fars Province, due to emerging of resistance against meglumine antimonite (Glucantime®. In this context, determining some biomarkers for drug sensitivity monitoring seems to be highly essential. Different studies have been carried out to decipher the genes might be involved in antimony resistant phenotype in Leishmania spp. Here, we selected three genes: AQP (as drug transporter, TDR-1-1(as drug activator, and γ-GCS (inducing reduction environment for comparative expression analysis on clinical resistant and sensitive isolates of L. major.Methods: The clinical isolates of L. major were collected from CL patients referred to Valfajr Health Center, Shiraz from Oct 2011 to Feb 2012. The susceptibility test was performed to confirm drug sensitivity of strains in vitro as well. Then, the gene expression analysis was performed by quantitative real-time PCR using SYBR® Green.Results: By comparison of expression level between strains, up regulation of γ-GCS gene and down regulation of AQP gene were observed in resistant strains compared to the sensitive isolates; however, down regulation of AQP was not statistically specific. Analysis of TDR-1-1 gene unexpectedly showed a high level of expression in the non-responsive cases.Conclusion: The γ-GCS, at least, can be considered as a suitable molecular marker for screening antimony sensitivity in clinical isolates, although AQP and TDR-1-1gene seem not to be reliable resistant markers. 

  16. Prevalence of major depressive disorder among spouses of men who use alcohol in a rural community in Central Sri Lanka.

    Ariyasinghe, Dewasmika; Abeysinghe, Ranil; Siriwardhana, Prabhash; Dassanayake, Tharaka

    2015-05-01

    To estimate the prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) among spouses of men who use alcohol in two rural areas in Sri Lanka, and to examine whether the severity of alcohol-related problems (ARPs) in men and presence of alcohol-related domestic violence are associated with MDD among these women. In a cross-sectional study, ARPs among men were assessed using Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) questionnaire filled in by men, and domestic violence and husbands' drinking pattern data obtained from the women. MDD among the women was ascertained using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders for major depression. Using logistic regression we examined whether age, past history of depression, different indices of ARPs and domestic violence were associated with current MDD among the women. Point prevalence of MDD in the sample was 33.3% (95% CI: 25.93, 40.73%). Once adjusted for other factors, morning drinking of the spouse (odds ratio = 4.11, 95% CI: 1.25, 13.47; P = 0.019) and increasing age (odds ratio = 1.05, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.09; P = 0.003) significantly increased the odds of MDD. Being subjected to domestic violence/arguments also had a trend to be associated with MDD among women, but was not significant (odds ratio = 2.29, 95% CI: 0.95, 5.48; P = 0.062). The prevalence of MDD among spouses of men who use alcohol is markedly higher than that has been observed among Sri Lankan women in previous studies. The prevalence of MDD in women seems to increase when their husbands are morning drinkers, and with increasing age. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press.

  17. Solar India - 82: national solar energy convention

    1982-01-01

    This document is the proceedings of the Solar India - 82 conference, which was held 17-19 December 1982. The papers are organized into functional groupings which include: (1) solar radiation, (2) flat plate solar collectors and solar water heaters, (3) solar concentrators, (4) solar air heaters and dryers, (5) solar ponds and energy storage, (6) solar cookers, (7) solar stills, (8) selective coatings, (9) photovoltaics, (10) space heating and cooling, (11) bio-energy, and (12) miscellaneous papers. The vast majority of the papers describe work carried out in India, the vast majority of the papers also contain relatively readable abstracts.

  18. Effects of low-dose IV ketamine on peripheral and central pain from major limb injuries sustained in combat.

    Polomano, Rosemary C; Buckenmaier, Chester C; Kwon, Kyung H; Hanlon, Alexandra L; Rupprecht, Christine; Goldberg, Cynthia; Gallagher, Rollin M

    2013-07-01

    Examine response patterns to low-dose intravenous (IV) ketamine continuous infusions on multiple pain outcomes, and demonstrate effectiveness, safety, and tolerability of ketamine administration on general wards. Retrospective case series of consecutive patients given low-dose IV ketamine continuous infusions. Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, DC. Nineteen eligible inpatients with neuropathic pain from major limb injuries sustained in combat with inadequate pain control from multimodal analgesia. A 3-day IV infusion of ketamine at doses ≤ 120 μg/kg/h. Daily present (PPI), average (API), and worst (WPI) pain intensity (0-10), global pain relief (GPR) (1 "no relief" to 5 "complete relief"), daily assessments of adverse events, and daily opioid requirements measured during therapy. A significant reduction in PPI (P pain (PLP) (N = 10; P = 0.0436) were observed. Mean percent increase in overall GPR was better for those reporting GPR scores ≤ 3 (N = 13) in the first 24 hours of therapy (P = 0.0153). While not significant, mean opioid requirement (IV morphine equivalents) decreased from 129.9 mgs ± 137.3 on day 1 to 112.14 ± 86.3 24 hours after therapy. Low-dose ketamine infusions for complex combat injury pain were safe and effective, and demonstrated response patterns over time and by baseline pain score stratification and presence or absence of PLP. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Paleoseismology and tectonic geomorphology of the Pallatanga fault (Central Ecuador), a major structure of the South-American crust

    Baize, Stéphane; Audin, Laurence; Winter, Thierry; Alvarado, Alexandra; Pilatasig Moreno, Luis; Taipe, Mercedes; Reyes, Pedro; Kauffmann, Paul; Yepes, Hugo

    2015-05-01

    The Pallatanga fault (PF) is a prominent NNE-SSW strike-slip fault crossing Central Ecuador. This structure is suspected to have hosted large earthquakes, including the 1797 Riobamba event which caused severe destructions to buildings and a heavy death toll (more than 12,000 people), as well as widespread secondary effects like landsliding, liquefaction and surface cracking. The scope of this study is to evaluate the seismic history of the fault through a paleoseismological approach. This work also aims at improving the seismotectonic map of this part of the Andes through a new mapping campaign and, finally, aims at improving the seismic hazard assessment. We show that the PF continues to the north of the previously mapped fault portion in the Western Cordillera (Rumipamba-Pallatanga portion) into the Inter-Andean Valley (Riobamba basin). Field evidences of faulting are numerous, ranging from a clear geomorphological signature to fault plane outcrops. Along the western side of the Riobamba basin, the strike-slip component seems predominant along several fault portions, with a typical landscape assemblage (dextral offsets of valleys, fluvial terrace risers and generation of linear pressure ridges). In the core of the inter-Andean valley, the main fault portion exhibits a vertical component along the c. 100 m-high cumulative scarp. The presence of such an active fault bounding the western suburbs of Riobamba drastically increases the seismic risk for this densely inhabited and vulnerable city. To the east (Peltetec Massif, Cordillera Real), the continuation of the Pallatanga fault is suspected, but not definitely proved yet. Based on the analysis of three trenches, we state that the Rumipamba-Pallatanga section of the PF experienced 4 (maybe 5) Holocene to Historical strong events (Mw > 7). The coseismic behavior of the fault is deduced from the occurrence of several colluvial wedges and layers associated with the fault activity and interbedded within the organic

  20. Proceedings of the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project Research Forum on the Design of Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Arrays for Central Stations

    1983-01-01

    The Flat Plate Solar Array Project, focuses on advancing technologies relevant to the design and construction of megawatt level central station systems. Photovoltaic modules and arrays for flat plate central station or other large scale electric power production facilities require the establishment of a technical base that resolves design issues and results in practical and cost effective configurations. Design, qualification and maintenance issues related to central station arrays derived from the engineering and operating experiences of early applications and parallel laboratory reserch activities are investigated. Technical issues are examined from the viewpoint of the utility engineer, architect/engineer and laboratory researcher. Topics on optimum source circuit designs, module insulation design for high system voltages, array safety, structural interface design, measurements, and array operation and maintenance are discussed.

  1. Analysis of peculiar penumbral flows observed in the active region NOAA 10930 during a major solar flare

    Kumar, Brajesh; Venkatakrishnan, P; Tiwari, Sanjiv Kumar; Mathur, Savita; Garcia, R A

    2011-01-01

    It is believed that the high energetic particles and tremendous amount of energy released during the flares can induce velocity oscillations in the Sun. Using the Dopplergrams obtained by Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) telescope, we analyze the velocity flows in the active region NOAA 10930 during a major flare (of class X3.4) that occurred on 13 December 2006. We observe peculiar evolution of velocity flows in some localized portions of the penumbra of this active region during the flare. Application of Wavelet transform to these velocity flows reveals that there is major enhancement of velocity oscillations in the high-frequency regime (5-8 mHz), while there is feeble enhancement in the p mode oscillations (2-5 mHz) in the aforementioned location. It has been recently shown that flares can induce high-frequency global oscillations in the Sun. Therefore, it appears that during the flare process there might be a common origin for the excitation of local and global high-frequency oscillations in the Sun.

  2. Light-induced catalytic transformation of ofloxacin by solar Fenton in various water matrices at a pilot plant: mineralization and characterization of major intermediate products.

    Michael, I; Hapeshi, E; Aceña, J; Perez, S; Petrović, M; Zapata, A; Barceló, D; Malato, S; Fatta-Kassinos, D

    2013-09-01

    This work investigated the application of a solar driven advanced oxidation process (solar Fenton), for the degradation of the antibiotic ofloxacin (OFX) in various environmental matrices at a pilot-scale. All experiments were carried out in a compound parabolic collector pilot plant in the presence of doses of H2O2 (2.5 mg L(-1)) and at an initial Fe(2+) concentration of 2 mg L(-1). The water matrices used for the solar Fenton experiments were: demineralized water (DW), simulated natural freshwater (SW), simulated effluent from municipal wastewater treatment plant (SWW) and pre-treated real effluent from municipal wastewater treatment plant (RE) to which OFX had been spiked at 10 mg L(-1). Dissolved organic carbon removal was found to be dependent on the chemical composition of the water matrix. OFX mineralization was higher in DW (78.1%) than in SW (58.3%) at 12 mg L(-1) of H2O2 consumption, implying the complexation of iron or the scavenging of hydroxyl radicals by the inorganic ions present in SW. On the other hand, the presence of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in SWW and RE, led to lower mineralization per dose of H2O2 compared to DW and SW. The major transformation products (TPs) formed during the solar Fenton treatment of OFX, were elucidated using liquid chromatography-time of flight-mass spectrometry (LC-ToF-MS). The transformation of OFX proceeded through a defluorination reaction, accompanied by some degree of piperazine and quinolone substituent transformation while a hydroxylation mechanism occurred by attack of the hydroxyl radicals generated during the process leading to the formation of TPs in all the water matrices, seven of which were tentatively identified. The results obtained from the toxicity bioassays indicated that the toxicity originates from the DOM present in RE and its oxidation products formed during the photocatalytic treatment and not from the TPs resulted from the oxidation of OFX. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by

  3. Natural heat storage in a brine-filled solar pond in the Tully Valley of central New York

    Hayhurst, Brett; Kappel, William M.

    2014-01-01

    The Tully Valley, located in southern Onondaga County, New York, has a long history of unusual natural hydrogeologic phenomena including mudboils (Kappel, 2009), landslides (Tamulonis and others, 2009; Pair and others, 2000), landsurface subsidence (Hackett and others, 2009; Kappel, 2009), and a brine-filled sinkhole or “Solar pond” (fig. 1), which is documented in this report. A solar pond is a pool of salty water (brine) which stores the sun’s energy in the form of heat. The saltwater naturally forms distinct layers with increasing density between transitional zones (haloclines) of rapidly changing specific conductance with depth. In a typical solar pond, the top layer has a low salt content and is often times referred to as the upper convective zone (Lu and others, 2002). The bottom layer is a concentrated brine that is either convective or temperature stratified dependent on the surrounding environment. Solar insolation is absorbed and stored in the lower, denser brine while the overlying halocline acts as an insulating layer and prevents heat from moving upwards from the lower zone (Lu and others, 2002). In the case of the Tully Valley solar pond, water within the pond can be over 90 degrees Fahrenheit (°F) in late summer and early fall. The purpose of this report is to summarize observations at the Tully Valley brine-filled sinkhole and provide supplemental climate data which might affect the pond salinity gradients insolation (solar energy).

  4. Solar and Hydrogen

    Kadirgan, F.; Beyhan, S.; Oezenler, S.

    2006-01-01

    developments allowing wide spread commercialisation of this technology are more likely to come from improvements in the central PEMFC components. Currently, there are two major obstacles inhibiting the application of PEMFC namely, the low activity of anode catalysts and the phenomenon of methanol crossover through the polymer electrolyte membrane from the anode to cathode side. Efforts have been expended in developing new anode catalysts and, to some extend, methanol impermeable membranes.This paper reviews the choice of materials and main methods of manufacture of photovoltaic solar cells, modules, spectrally selective surfaces, and PEMFC components that are commercially available. The research and development works on solar and hydrogen energy systems including PEMFC components made in Istanbul Technical University also will be given.

  5. Late Cenozoic thrusting of major faults along the central segment of Longmen Shan, eastern Tibet: Evidence from low-temperature thermochronology

    Tan, Xi-Bin; Xu, Xi-Wei; Lee, Yuan-Hsi; Lu, Ren-Qi; Liu, Yiduo; Xu, Chong; Li, Kang; Yu, Gui-Hua; Kang, Wen-Jun

    2017-08-01

    The Cenozoic orogenic process of the Longmen Shan (LMS) and the kinematics of major faults along the LMS are crucial for understanding the growth history and mechanism of the eastern Tibetan Plateau. Three major faults, from west to east, are present in the central segment of the LMS: the Wenchuan-Maoxian Fault (WMF), the Beichuan-Yingxiu Fault (BYF), and the Jiangyou-Guanxian Fault (JGF). Previous researchers have placed great impetus on the Pengguan Massif, between the WMF and BYF. However, limited low-temperature thermochronology data coverage in other areas prevents us from fully delineating the tectonic history of the LMS. In this study, we collect 22 samples from vertical profiles in the Xuelongbao Massif and the range frontal area located at the hanging walls of the WMF and JGF respectively, and conduct apatite and zircon fission track analyses. New fission track data reveal that the Xuelongbao Massif has been undergoing rapid exhumation with an average rate of 0.7-0.9 mm/yr since 11 Ma, and the range frontal area began rapid exhumation at 7.5 Ma with total exhumation of 2.5-4.5 km. The exhumation histories indicate that the three major faults (WMF, BYF and JGF) in the central LMS are all reverse faults, and show a basinward in-sequence propagation from middle Miocene to present-day. Such a pattern further implies that upper crustal shortening is the primary driver for the LMS' uplift during the Late Cenozoic. Nevertheless, middle-lower crustal deformation is difficult to be constrained by the exhumation histories, and its contribution to LMS' uplift cannot be ruled out.

  6. The 10 MWe Solar Thermal Central Receiver Pilot Plant: Solar facilities design integration. Pilot-plant station manual (RADL Item 2-1). Volume 1: System description

    1982-09-01

    The complete Barstow Solar Pilot Plant is described. The plant requirements and general description are presented, the mechanical, electric power, and control and instrumentation systems as well as civil engineering and structural aspects and the station buildings are described. Included in the mechanical systems are the heliostats, receiver, thermal storage system, beam characterization system, steam, water, nitrogen, and compressed air systems, chemical feed system, fire protection system, drains, sumps and the waste disposal systems, and heating, ventilating, and air conditioning systems.

  7. User's manual for DELSOL2: a computer code for calculating the optical performance and optimal system design for solar-thermal central-receiver plants

    Dellin, T.A.; Fish, M.J.; Yang, C.L.

    1981-08-01

    DELSOL2 is a revised and substantially extended version of the DELSOL computer program for calculating collector field performance and layout, and optimal system design for solar thermal central receiver plants. The code consists of a detailed model of the optical performance, a simpler model of the non-optical performance, an algorithm for field layout, and a searching algorithm to find the best system design. The latter two features are coupled to a cost model of central receiver components and an economic model for calculating energy costs. The code can handle flat, focused and/or canted heliostats, and external cylindrical, multi-aperture cavity, and flat plate receivers. The program optimizes the tower height, receiver size, field layout, heliostat spacings, and tower position at user specified power levels subject to flux limits on the receiver and land constraints for field layout. The advantages of speed and accuracy characteristic of Version I are maintained in DELSOL2.

  8. A 10-MWe solar-thermal central-receiver pilot plant: Solar facilities design integration. Plant operating/training manual (RADL-Item 2-36)

    1982-07-01

    Plant and system level operating instructions are provided for the Barstow Solar Pilot Plant. Individual status instructions are given that identify plant conditions, process controller responsibilities, process conditions and control accuracies, operating envelopes, and operator cautions appropriate to the operating condition. Transition operating instructions identify the sequence of activities to be carried out to accomplish the indicated transition. Most transitions involve the startup or shutdown of an individual flowpath. Background information is provided on collector field operations, and the heliostat groupings and specific commands used in support receiver startup are defined.

  9. Performance analysis of a Kalina cycle for a central receiver solar thermal power plant with direct steam generation

    Modi, Anish; Haglind, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    Solar thermal power plants have attracted increasing interest in the past few years - with respect to both the design of the various plant components, and extending the operation hours by employing different types of storage systems. One approach to improve the overall plant efficiency is to use ...

  10. 10-MWe solar-thermal central-receiver pilot plant: collector subsystem foundation construction. Revision No. 1

    1979-12-18

    Bid documents are provided for the construction of the collector subsystem foundation of the Barstow Solar Pilot Plant, including invitation to bid, bid form, representations and certifications, construction contract, and labor standards provisions of the Davis-Bacon Act. Instructions to bidders, general provisions and general conditions are included. Technical specifications are provided for the construction. (LEW)

  11. Power and Efficiency Analysis of a Solar Central Receiver Combined Cycle Plant with a Small Particle Heat Exchanger Receiver

    Virgen, Matthew Miguel

    Two significant goals in solar plant operation are lower cost and higher efficiencies. To achieve those goals, a combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) system, which uses the hot gas turbine exhaust to produce superheated steam for a bottoming Rankine cycle by way of a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG), is investigated in this work. Building off of a previous gas turbine model created at the Combustion and Solar Energy Laboratory at SDSU, here are added the HRSG and steam turbine model, which had to handle significant change in the mass flow and temperature of air exiting the gas turbine due to varying solar input. A wide range of cases were run to explore options for maximizing both power and efficiency from the proposed CSP CCGT plant. Variable guide vanes (VGVs) were found in the earlier model to be an effective tool in providing operational flexibility to address the variable nature of solar input. Combined cycle efficiencies in the range of 50% were found to result from this plant configuration. However, a combustor inlet temperature (CIT) limit leads to two distinct Modes of operation, with a sharp drop in both plant efficiency and power occurring when the air flow through the receiver exceeded the CIT limit. This drawback can be partially addressed through strategic use of the VGVs. Since system response is fully established for the relevant range of solar input and variable guide vane angles, the System Advisor Model (SAM) from NREL can be used to find what the actual expected solar input would be over the course of the day, and plan accordingly. While the SAM software is not yet equipped to model a Brayton cycle cavity receiver, appropriate approximations were made in order to produce a suitable heliostat field to fit this system. Since the SPHER uses carbon nano-particles as the solar absorbers, questions of particle longevity and how the particles might affect the flame behavior in the combustor were addressed using the chemical kinetics software Chemkin

  12. An artificial vision-based control system for automatic heliostat positioning offset correction in a central receiver solar power plant

    Berenguel, M. [Universidad de Almeria, Dept. de Lenguajes y Computacion, La Canada Almeria (Spain); Rubio, F.R.; Lara, P.J.; Arahal, M.R.; Camacho, E.F.; Lopez, M. [Universidad de Sevilla, Dept. de Ingenieria de Sistemas y Automatica, Sevilla (Spain); Valverde, A. [Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA-CIEMAT), Tabernas (Almeria) (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents the development of a simplified and automatic heliostat positioning offset correction control system using artificial vision techniques and common CCD devices. The heliostats of a solar power plant reflect solar radiation onto a receiver (in this case, a volumetric receiver) placed at the top of a tower in order to provide a desired energy flux distribution correlated with the coolant flow (in this case air mass flow) through the receiver, usually in an open loop control configuration. There exist error sources that increase the complexity of the control system, some of which are systematic ones, mainly due to tolerances, wrong mirror facets alignment (optical errors), errors due to the approximations made when calculating the solar position, etc., that produce errors (offsets) in the heliostat orientation (aiming point). The approximation adopted in this paper is based on the use of a B/W CCD camera to correct these deviations in an automatic way imitating the same procedure followed by the operators. The obtained images are used to estimate the distance between the sunbeam centroid projected by the heliostats and a target placed on the tower, this distance thus is used for low accuracy offset correction purposes. Basic threshold-based image processing techniques are used for automatic correction. (Author)

  13. Demography, maternal health and the epidemiology of malaria and other major infectious diseases in the rural department Tsamba-Magotsi, Ngounie Province, in central African Gabon

    R. Zoleko Manego

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sub-Saharan Africa is undergoing an epidemiological transition from a predominance of infectious diseases to non-communicable and lifestyle related conditions. However, the pace of this transition and the pattern of disease epidemiology are uneven between affluent urban and rural poor populations. To address this question for a remote rural region located in the central African rainforest region of Gabon, this study was conducted to assess reasons for health care attendance and to characterize the epidemiology of malaria and other major infectious diseases for the department of Tsamba Magotsi. Methods Major causes for health care attendance were collected from local hospital records. Cross sectional population based surveys were performed for the assessment of local malaria epidemiology. Pregnant women attending antenatal care services were surveyed as a sentinel population for the characterization of chronic viral and parasitic infections in the community. Results Infectious diseases were responsible for 71% (7469 of a total of 10,580 consultations at the formal health care sector in 2010. Overall, malaria – defined by clinical syndrome – remained the most frequent cause for health care attendance. A cross sectional malaria survey in 840 asymptomatic individuals residing in Tsamba Magotsi resulted in a Plasmodium spp. infection prevalence of 37%. The infection rate in 2–10 year old asymptomatic children – a standard measure for malaria endemicity – was 46% (100 of 217 with P. falciparum as predominant species (79%. Infection with other plasmodial species (P. ovale and P. malariae presented most commonly as coinfections (23.2%. Prevalence of HIV, HBV, and syphilis were 6.2, 7.3, and 2.5%, respectively, in cross-sectional assessments of antenatal care visits of pregnant women. Urogenital schistosomiasis and the filarial pathogens Loa loa and Mansonella perstans are highly prevalent chronic parasitic infections

  14. Tubulointerstitial damage as the major pathological lesion in endemic chronic kidney disease among farmers in North Central Province of Sri Lanka.

    Nanayakkara, Shanika; Komiya, Toshiyuki; Ratnatunga, Neelakanthi; Senevirathna, S T M L D; Harada, Kouji H; Hitomi, Toshiaki; Gobe, Glenda; Muso, Eri; Abeysekera, Tilak; Koizumi, Akio

    2012-05-01

    Chronic kidney disease of uncertain etiology (CKDu) in North Central Province of Sri Lanka has become a key public health concern in the agricultural sector due to the dramatic rise in its prevalence and mortality among young farmers. Although cadmium has been suspected as a causative pathogen, there have been controversies. To date, the pathological characteristics of the disease have not been reported. Histopathological observations of 64 renal biopsies obtained at Anuradhapura General Hospital from October 2008 to July 2009 were scored according to Banff 97 Working Classification of Renal Allograft pathology. The correlations between the histological observations and clinical parameters were statistically analyzed. Interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy with or without nonspecific interstitial mononuclear cell infiltration was the dominant histopathological observation. Glomerular sclerosis, glomerular collapse, and features of vascular pathology such as fibrous intimal thickening and arteriolar hyalinosis were also common. Although hypertension was identified as one of the common clinical features among the cases, it did not influence the histopathological lesions in all the cases. This study concludes that tubulointerstitial damage is the major pathological lesion in CKDu. Exposure(s) to an environmental pathogen(s) should be systematically investigated to elucidate such tubulointerstitial damage in CKDu.

  15. User's guide for MIRVAL: a computer code for comparing designs of heliostat-receiver optics for central receiver solar power plants

    Leary, P L; Hankins, J D

    1979-02-01

    MIRVAL is a Monte Carlo program which simulates the heliostats and a portion of the receiver for solar energy central receiver power plants. Models for three receiver types and four kinds of heliostats are included in the code. The three receiver types modeled are an external cylinder, a cylindrical cavity with a downward-facing aperature, and a north-facing cavity. Three heliostats which track in elevation and azimuth are modeled, one of which is enclosed in a plastic dome. The fourth type consists of a rack of louvered reflective panels with the rack rotatable about a fixed horizontal axis. Phenomena whose effects are simulated are shadowing, blocking, mirror tracking, random errors in tracking and in the conformation of the reflective surface, optical figure of the reflective surface, insolation, angular distribution of incoming sun rays to account for limb darkening and scattering, attenuation of light between the mirrors and the receiver, reflectivity of the mirror surface, and mirror aiming strategy.

  16. Solar energy conversion: an analysis of impacts on desert ecosystems. Final report, June 1, 1977-December 31, 1977

    Patten, D.C.

    1978-05-01

    A research program is proposed to determine the response of desert ecosystems to the operation of various solar conversion systems. Existing solar powered irrigation pumping systems are described, as well as the 5 MW solar thermal test system at Albuquerque, the proposed 10 MW central receiver system at Barstow, and photovoltaic solar dispersed power systems. The theoretical ecological impacts of solar conversion system are described. Three major impact categories are discussed in detail: shading, wind deflection, and physical disturbance. Research needs necessary to evaluate biotic and abiotic changes in the desert ecosystem are delineated, and specific monitoring and manipulation programs for existing and proposed solar conversion sites are proposed.

  17. Ranking Of The Performance Of Some Climatological Parameters In The Easement Of Solar Radiation In The Mina Environment Central Nigeria

    Abubakar, S.Y.

    2004-01-01

    Four models each based on a single climatological factors were proposed to evaluate the strength of the performance of each parameter in estimating solar radiation in Minna. The climatological parameters are percentage of sunshine hours, temperature ratio, humidity and cloud cover. Based on the MAB and RMSE method the sunshine hours duration was found to be the most efficient parameter for predicting the monthly and annual performance of models compared with the model based on the temperature ratio closely follow the model based on sunshine data while model based on the cloud cover was found to have the worst performance. Generally the model based on the sunshine hours performed better than the rest during the rainy season while the model based on the temperature ratio outperformed the rest of the models during the harmattan season. However both models based on the sunshine hours and temperature ratio were equally found to have good performance during the dry season

  18. Preliminary design of the Carrisa Plains solar central receiver power plant. Volume III, Book 3. Appendices, Part 1

    Mouradian, E. M.

    1983-12-31

    Thermal analyses for the preliminary design phase of the Receiver of the Carrizo Plains Solar Power Plant are presented. The sodium reference operating conditions (T/sub in/ = 610/sup 0/F, T/sub out/ = 1050/sup 0/F) have been considered. Included are: Nominal flux distribution on receiver panal, Energy input to tubes, Axial temperature distribution; sodium and tubes, Sodium flow distribution, Sodium pressure drop, orifice calculations, Temperature distribution in tube cut (R-0), Backface structure, and Nonuniform sodium outlet temperature. Transient conditions and panel front face heat losses are not considered. These are to be addressed in a subsequent design phase. Also to be considered later are the design conditions as variations from the nominal reference (operating) condition. An addendum, designated Appendix C, has been included describing panel heat losses, panel temperature distribution, and tube-manifold joint thermal model.

  19. Effects of design on cost of flat-plate solar photovoltaic arrays for terrestrial central station power applications

    Tsou, P.; Stolte, W.

    1978-01-01

    The paper examines the impact of module and array designs on the balance-of-plant costs for flat-plate terrestrial central station power applications. Consideration is given to the following types of arrays: horizontal, tandem, augmented, tilt adjusted, and E-W tracking. The life-cycle cost of a 20-year plant life serves as the costing criteria for making design and cost tradeoffs. A tailored code of accounts is developed for determining consistent photovoltaic power plant costs and providing credible photovoltaic system cost baselines for flat-plate module and array designs by costing several varying array design approaches.

  20. Technical and economic feasibility of a solar-bio-powered waste utilization and treatment system in Central America.

    Aguilar Alvarez, Ronald Esteban; Bustamante Roman, Mauricio; Kirk, Dana; Miranda Chavarria, Jose Alberto; Baudrit, Daniel; Aguilar Pereira, Jose Francisco; Rodriguez Montero, Werner; Reinhold, Dawn; Liao, Wei

    2016-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to implement and evaluate a pilot-scale and closed-loop system that synergistically combines solar thermal collector, anaerobic digester, and constructed treatment wetland to simultaneously treat and utilize organic wastes. The system utilizes 863 kg of mixed animal and food wastes to generate 263 MJ renewable energy, produced 28 kg nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer, and reclaimed 550 kg water per day. The net revenue considering electricity and fertilizer was $2436 annually. The payback period for the system is estimated to be 17.8 years for a relatively dilute waste stream (i.e., 2% total solids). The implemented system has successfully demonstrated a self-efficient and flexible waste utilization and treatment system. It creates a win-win solution to satisfy the energy needs of the community and address environmental concerns of organic wastes disposal in the region. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Consumer attitudes towards domestic solar power systems

    Faiers, Adam; Neame, Charles

    2006-01-01

    The success of the UK policy to reduce carbon emissions is partly dependent on the ability to persuade householders to become more energy efficient, and to encourage installation of domestic solar systems. Solar power is an innovation in the UK but the current policy of stimulating the market with grants is not resulting in widespread adoption. This case study, using householders in central England, investigates householder attitudes towards characteristics of solar systems and identifies some of the barriers to adoption. The study utilises Diffusion of Innovations theory to identify attitudes towards system attributes, and isolates the characteristics that are preventing a pragmatic 'early majority' from adopting the technology. A group of 'early adopters', and a group of assumed 'early majority' adopters of solar power were surveyed and the results show that overall, although the 'early majority' demonstrate a positive perception of the environmental characteristics of solar power, its financial, economic and aesthetic characteristics are limiting adoption. Differences exist between the two groups showing support for the concept of a 'chasm' between adopter categories after Moore (Crossing the Chasm: Marketing and Selling High-tech Products to Mainstream Customers, second ed. Harper Perennial, New York). However, if consumers cannot identify the relative advantage of solar power over their current sources of power, which is supplied readily and cheaply through a mains system, it is unlikely that adoption will follow. Recommendations concerning the marketing and development of solar products are identified

  2. Parasubthalamic and calbindin nuclei in the posterior lateral hypothalamus are the major hypothalamic targets for projections from the central and anterior basomedial nuclei of the amygdala.

    Barbier, Marie; Chometton, Sandrine; Peterschmitt, Yvan; Fellmann, Dominique; Risold, Pierre-Yves

    2017-09-01

    The parasubthalamic nucleus (PSTN) and the ventrally adjacent calbindin nucleus (CbN) form a nuclear complex in the posterior lateral hypothalamic area (LHA), recently characterized as connected with the central nucleus of the amygdala (CEA). The aim of the present work is to analyze in detail the projections from the amygdala into the PSTN/CbN, also focusing on pathways into the LHA. After fluorogold injections into the PSTN/CbN, the medial part of the CEA (CEAm) appears to be the main supplier of projections from the CEA. Other amygdalar nuclei contribute to the innervation of the PSTN/CbN complex, including the anterior part of the basomedial nucleus (BMAa). Injections of the anterograde tracer, Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin (PHAL), into the CEAm and BMAa revealed that projections from the CEAm follow two pathways into the LHA: a dorsal pathway formed by axons that also innervate the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus, the anterior perifornical LHA and the PSTN, and a ventral pathway that runs laterally adjacent to the ventrolateral hypothalamic tract (vlt) and ends in the CbN. By contrast, the BMAa and other telencephalic structures, such as the fundus striatum project to the CbN via the ventral pathway. Confirming the microscopic observation, a semi-quantitative analysis of the density of these projections showed that the PSTN and the CbN are the major hypothalamic targets for the projections from the CEAm and the BMAa, respectively. PSTN and CbN receive these projections through distinct dorsal and ventral routes in the LHA. The ventral pathway forms a differentiated tract, named here the ventrolateral amygdalo-hypothalamic tract (vlah), that is distinct from, but runs adjacent to, the vlt. Both the vlt and the vlah had been previously described as forming an olfactory path into the LHA. These results help to better characterize the CbN within the PSTN/CbN complex and are discussed in terms of the functional organization of the network involving the

  3. A large-scale investigation of the quality of groundwater in six major districts of Central India during the 2010-2011 sampling campaign.

    Khare, Peeyush

    2017-09-01

    This paper investigates the groundwater quality in six major districts of Madhya Pradesh in central India, namely, Balaghat, Chhindwara, Dhar, Jhabua, Mandla, and Seoni during the 2010-2011 sampling campaign, and discusses improvements made in the supplied water quality between the years 2011 and 2017. Groundwater is the main source of water for a combined rural population of over 7 million in these districts. Its contamination could have a huge impact on public health. We analyzed the data collected from a large-scale water sampling campaign carried out by the Public Health Engineering Department (PHED), Government of Madhya Pradesh between 2010 and 2011 during which all rural tube wells and dug wells were sampled in these six districts. Eight hundred thirty-one dug wells and 47,606 tube wells were sampled in total and were analyzed for turbidity, hardness, iron, nitrate, fluoride, chloride, and sulfate ion concentrations. Our study found water in 21 out of the 228 dug wells in Chhindwara district unfit for drinking due to fluoride contamination while all dug wells in Balaghat had fluoride within the permissible limit. Twenty-six of the 56 dug wells and 4825 of the 9390 tube wells in Dhar district exceeded the permissible limit for nitrate while 100% dug wells in Balaghat, Seoni, and Chhindwara had low levels of nitrate. Twenty-four of the 228 dug wells and 1669 of 6790 tube wells in Chhindwara had high iron concentration. The median pH value in both dug wells and tube wells varied between 6 and 8 in all six districts. Still, a significant number of tube wells exceeded a pH of 8.5 especially in Mandla and Seoni districts. In conclusion, this study shows that parts of inhabited rural Madhya Pradesh were potentially exposed to contaminated subsurface water during 2010-2011. The analysis has been correlated with rural health survey results wherever available to estimate the visible impact. We next highlight that the quality of drinking water has enormously improved

  4. Serum BDNF levels in relation to illness severity, suicide attempts, and central serotonin activity in patients with major depressive disorder: a pilot study.

    Park, Young-Min; Lee, Bun-Hee; Um, Tae Hyun; Kim, Sollip

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are correlated with the loudness dependence of auditory evoked potentials (LDAEP). The question of whether there is a difference in BDNF levels between depressive patients according to their illness severity, history of suicide attempts, and central serotonin activity was also addressed. A sample of 51 patients who met the criteria for major depressive disorder following diagnosis using axis I of the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - text revision comprised the study subjects. The patients were stratified into two subgroups based on their illness severity, history of suicide attempts, and their LDAEP values. The LDAEP was evaluated by measuring the auditory event-related potentials, and serum BDNF was measured using blood sampling before beginning medication with serotonergic agents. There was no difference in serum BDNF levels between the two patient subgroups. The subgroup with moderate-to-severe depression (n = 16) was reanalyzed after stratifying it into two subgroups according to LDAEP and BDNF values (dichotomized at the medians into low and high). The high-LDAEP subgroup had higher serum BDNF levels and total Barratt Impulsiveness Scale score than the low-LDAEP subgroup (p = 0.03 and 0.036, respectively). Serum BDNF levels were positively correlated with LDAEP and total Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS) score (r = 0.56, p = 0.025, and r = 0.59, p = 0.016, respectively). The high-BDNF subgroup had a higher LDAEP and total BHS score than the low-BDNF subgroup (p = 0.046 and p = 0.011, respectively). This is the first study to demonstrate a relationship between the BDNF level and LDAEP in Asian depressive patients. Intriguingly, the high-BDNF subgroup (divided according to illness severity) exhibited a more severe psychopathology on some psychometric rating scales, a finding that

  5. Analysis of solar radiation and other variables for the evaluation of locations of thermo solar power stations; Analisis de radiacion solar y otras vairables para la evaluacion de emplazamientos de centrales termosolares

    Montero, I.; Miranda, M. T.; Rojas, S.; Bolinaga, B.; Tierra, C.; Pico, J. del

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents the characteristics of various measuring weather stations located in future CCP thermal plants, showing the different systems they are equipped with, among others, pyrheliometer, pyrano meter, anemometers, thermo-hygrometer and data transmission system. Some results of solar radiation and other climate variables obtained in these stations are presented and analyzed in relation to existing data in the area, taking into account different external parameters that can influence the direct radiation obtained and, therefore, the future operation of the thermal plant. (Author)

  6. Central receiver solar thermal power system, Phase 1. Annual progress report (final) for period ending September 30, 1976

    None

    1977-02-01

    The program activities since the beginning of the program in July of 1975 through September of 1976 are summarized. The primary efforts during the first portion of this period were the preparation of the Pilot Plant Preliminary Design Baseline, and the Conceptual Design of the three subsystem research experiments. The Preliminary Design Baseline for the Pilot Plant was developed from the commercial plant conceptual design that had been defined prior to the start of this program. It definitized each of the basic Pilot Plant Subsystems and provided the basis for development of the conceptual designs of the research experiments. For each of the solar peculiar subsystems, the Collector Subsystem, the Receiver Subsystem and the Thermal Storage Subsystem, a subsystem research experiment was planned. The Conceptual Design of each of these experiments was prepared and reviewed with ERDA and Sandia in order to obtain authorization for the design, build and test of these experiments. In the Collector Subsystem experiment the design was completed, the four experimental heliostats have been fabricated and erected. Initial calorimeter and radiometer data have been obtained and have demonstrated good correlation with the projected performance. The 5 megawatt thermal experiment receiver has been fabricated by Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation and is now completing erection at the Radiant Heat Test Facility at Sandia in Albuquerque, New Mexico. This testing is scheduled for the period from December 1976 through February 1977. The Thermal Storage Research Experiment fabrication and erection is nearing completion by Georgia Institute of Technology. Checkout of this experiment is scheduled for the first of December 1976 with the test program to be complete by the end of January 1977.

  7. The Performance of Major Plant Items at Calder Hall; Fonctionnement des elements principaux de la centrale de Calder Hall; Kharakteristika osnovnykh uzlov ustanovki v Kolder-Kholle; Rendimiento de los principales elementos de la central de Calder Hall

    Desbruslais, E. L. [United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Seascale, Cumberland (United Kingdom)

    1963-10-15

    For over six years Calder Hall has been operated as a base-load power station and has sustained faults similar to those experienced by conventional power plants. All the faults have occurred in the conventional plant and none in the nuclear reactors themselves. Experience has demonstrated that from a reactor safety viewpoint, reactors and major plant items, together with the Grid connections, must be treated as a whole. No significant changes have been detected which suggest that the reactor pressure vessel or the graphite moderator will limit plant life. Asymmetric temperature distribution exists round the outlet gas ducts and now limits reactor power. The initial fitting of more thermocouples, strain gauges and provision for visual examination at high stress and temperature areas is recommended. The humidriers are no longer used during normal operation and consequently a small increase in reactor power has resulted. Recommendations are made for the frequency of surveys of heat exchangers, main gas ducts and bellow units. A small increase in steam generation has resulted from reducing gas bypassing. Only minor difficulties have been experienced with the centrifugal type of gas circulators. A small loss in production occurred initially because of commutator flash overs on the highly stressed blower drive motors and generators. The provision of duplicate stand-by auxiliaries, together with the interconnection of steam and water systems, has been amply justified. The BCDG equipment has proved extremely satisfactory. Because the channel group sensitivity is higher than necessary, modifications to achieve shorter cycle times at the expense of some sensitivity are being contemplated. The, re-arrangement made to the power supplies for reactor instrumentation and safety circuits is discussed. The grading of alarms and sequence of importance and a ''first up'' feature are recommended. The two-guard-line system has proved adequate and the need for three or more is

  8. Effects of solar UVB radiation on growth, flowering and yield of central and southern European maize cultivars (Zea mays L.)

    Mark, U.; Saile-Mark, M.; Tevini, M.

    1996-01-01

    Different cultivars of maize (Zea mays L.) originating from Central and South Europe were grown from June to September 1994 for 16 weeks in two greenhouses covered with different UVB-absorbing (280-320 nm) plastic foils. Using the ambient UVB radiation level of a southern location (Portugal, 38.7 o N) in one of the greenhouses as an enhanced radiation compared to the reduced radiation in the second greenhouse, an increase of about 12% of UVB was simulated. Six of the eight cultivars examined showed significant reductions in height of up to 18.9% at all developmental stages under increased UVB. In contrast to this, the fresh and dry weight as well as the leaf area was reduced under UVB only at early developmental stages, but with ongoing development the UVB stressed plants caught up. The total content of absorbing compounds of the maize cultivars was completely unaffected by UVB. A flowering delay up to a maximum of 5 days was observed under higher UVB in several cultivars. Probably due to this delay in the cob development the yield decreased to 27.7% under higher UVB at the first harvest after 12 and 14 weeks, whereas at the second harvest after 14 and 16 weeks yield reduction levelled off. (Author)

  9. Max '91: Flare research at the next solar maximum

    Dennis, Brian; Canfield, Richard; Bruner, Marilyn; Emslie, Gordon; Hildner, Ernest; Hudson, Hugh; Hurford, Gordon; Lin, Robert; Novick, Robert; Tarbell, Ted

    1988-01-01

    To address the central scientific questions surrounding solar flares, coordinated observations of electromagnetic radiation and energetic particles must be made from spacecraft, balloons, rockets, and ground-based observatories. A program to enhance capabilities in these areas in preparation for the next solar maximum in 1991 is recommended. The major scientific issues are described, and required observations and coordination of observations and analyses are detailed. A program plan and conceptual budgets are provided.

  10. Max '91: flare research at the next solar maximum

    Dennis, B.; Canfield, R.; Bruner, M.

    1988-01-01

    To address the central scientific questions surrounding solar flares, coordinated observations of electromagnetic radiation and energetic particles must be made from spacecraft, balloons, rockets, and ground-based observatories. A program to enhance capabilities in these areas in preparation for the next solar maximum in 1991 is recommended. The major scientific issues are described, and required observations and coordination of observations and analyses are detailed. A program plan and conceptual budgets are provided

  11. Análisis del factor de rendimiento y eficiencia para centrales de generación de energía solar fotovoltaica

    Salazar Alava, Eduardo Javier

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper it shows the analysis of Performance and Efficiency for Power Generation Photovoltaic Solar Energy and Photovoltaic Systems (PV) detailed calculating the Performance Factor (PR) with variable weather conditions that directly or indirectly, changing the relationship between solar energy and electric power generation available in terminals, on the key points: the increase of temperature and its variation in the solar panel (solar cell). In addition, the PR is calculated by ...

  12. Task-related changes in degree centrality and local coherence of the posterior cingulate cortex after major cardiac surgery in older adults.

    Browndyke, Jeffrey N; Berger, Miles; Smith, Patrick J; Harshbarger, Todd B; Monge, Zachary A; Panchal, Viral; Bisanar, Tiffany L; Glower, Donald D; Alexander, John H; Cabeza, Roberto; Welsh-Bohmer, Kathleen; Newman, Mark F; Mathew, Joseph P

    2018-02-01

    Older adults often display postoperative cognitive decline (POCD) after surgery, yet it is unclear to what extent functional connectivity (FC) alterations may underlie these deficits. We examined for postoperative voxel-wise FC changes in response to increased working memory load demands in cardiac surgery patients and nonsurgical controls. Older cardiac surgery patients (n = 25) completed a verbal N-back working memory task during MRI scanning and cognitive testing before and 6 weeks after surgery; nonsurgical controls with cardiac disease (n = 26) underwent these assessments at identical time intervals. We measured postoperative changes in degree centrality, the number of edges attached to a brain node, and local coherence, the temporal homogeneity of regional functional correlations, using voxel-wise graph theory-based FC metrics. Group × time differences were evaluated in these FC metrics associated with increased N-back working memory load (2-back > 1-back), using a two-stage partitioned variance, mixed ANCOVA. Cardiac surgery patients demonstrated postoperative working memory load-related degree centrality increases in the left dorsal posterior cingulate cortex (dPCC; p < .001, cluster p-FWE < .05). The dPCC also showed a postoperative increase in working memory load-associated local coherence (p < .001, cluster p-FWE < .05). dPCC degree centrality and local coherence increases were inversely associated with global cognitive change in surgery patients (p < .01), but not in controls. Cardiac surgery patients showed postoperative increases in working memory load-associated degree centrality and local coherence of the dPCC that were inversely associated with postoperative global cognitive outcomes and independent of perioperative cerebrovascular damage. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Solar thermal

    Jones, J.

    2006-01-01

    While wind power is widely acknowledged as the most developed of the 'new' renewables, the number two technology, in terms of installed capacity functioning worldwide, is solar heating, or solar thermal. The author has investigated recent industry reports on how these markets are developing. The authors of an International Energy Agency (IEA) survey studied 41 countries in depth at the end of 2004, revealing that 141 million m 3 - corresponding to an installed capacity of 98.4 GWth - were installed in the sample countries (these nations represent 3.74 billion people, about 57% of the world's population). The installed capacity within the areas studied represents approximately 85%-90% of the solar thermal market worldwide. The use of solar heating varies greatly between countries - even close neighbours - and between economic regions. Its uptake often has more to do with policy than solar resource. There is also different uptake of technology. In China, Europe and Japan, plants with flat-plate and evacuated tube collectors are used, mainly to heat water and for space heating. Unglazed plastic collectors, used mainly for swimming pool heating, meanwhile, dominate the North American markets. Though the majority of solar heating installations today are installed on domestic rooftops, the larger-scale installations should not be overlooked. One important part of the market is the hotel sector - in particular hotels in locations that serve the seasonal summer holiday market, where solar is extremely effective. Likewise hospitals and residential homes, multi-family apartment blocks and sports centres are all good examples of places where solar thermal can deliver results. There are also a growing number of industrial applications, where solar thermal can meet the hot water needs (and possibly more) of a range of industries, such as food processing and agriculture. The ability of solar to provide a heat source for cooling is expected to become increasingly important as

  14. Solar thermal

    Jones, J.

    2006-07-15

    While wind power is widely acknowledged as the most developed of the 'new' renewables, the number two technology, in terms of installed capacity functioning worldwide, is solar heating, or solar thermal. The author has investigated recent industry reports on how these markets are developing. The authors of an International Energy Agency (IEA) survey studied 41 countries in depth at the end of 2004, revealing that 141 million m{sup 3} - corresponding to an installed capacity of 98.4 GWth - were installed in the sample countries (these nations represent 3.74 billion people, about 57% of the world's population). The installed capacity within the areas studied represents approximately 85%-90% of the solar thermal market worldwide. The use of solar heating varies greatly between countries - even close neighbours - and between economic regions. Its uptake often has more to do with policy than solar resource. There is also different uptake of technology. In China, Europe and Japan, plants with flat-plate and evacuated tube collectors are used, mainly to heat water and for space heating. Unglazed plastic collectors, used mainly for swimming pool heating, meanwhile, dominate the North American markets. Though the majority of solar heating installations today are installed on domestic rooftops, the larger-scale installations should not be overlooked. One important part of the market is the hotel sector - in particular hotels in locations that serve the seasonal summer holiday market, where solar is extremely effective. Likewise hospitals and residential homes, multi-family apartment blocks and sports centres are all good examples of places where solar thermal can deliver results. There are also a growing number of industrial applications, where solar thermal can meet the hot water needs (and possibly more) of a range of industries, such as food processing and agriculture. The ability of solar to provide a heat source for cooling is expected to become

  15. Shadow play for travellers. One of Europe's biggest integrated solar plants is in the roof of Turin central station; Schattenspiel fuer Reisende. Im Dach des Turiner Bahnhofs befindet sich eine der groessten integrierten Solaranlagen Europas

    Korn, Stefan

    2012-08-15

    The new central station building in the Italian city of turin shows how photovoltaic technology can combine 21st century aesthetics with the requirements on a modern railway station. The architects combined elements of historical railway station architecture with a modern energy concepts. Thousands of solar cells integrated in the glass roof produce electric power and also regulate lighting and shading in a sophisticated manner.

  16. The analysis and the three-dimensional, forward-fit modeling of the X-ray and the microwave emissions of major solar flares

    Kuroda, Natsuha; Wang, Haimin; Gary, Dale E.

    2017-08-01

    It is well known that the time profiles of the hard X-ray (HXR) emission and the microwave (MW) emission during the impulsive phase of the solar flare are well correlated, and that their analysis can lead to the understandings of the flare-accelerated electrons. In this work, we first studied the source locations of seven distinct temporal peaks observed in HXR and MW lightcurves of the 2011-02-15 X2.2 flare using the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) and Nobeyama Radioheliograph. We found that the seven emission peaks did not come from seven spatially distinct sites in HXR and MW, but rather in HXR we observed a sudden change in location only between the second and the third peak, with the same pattern occurring, but evolving more slowly in MW, which is consistent with the tether-cutting model of solar flares. Next, we closely examine the widely-used notion of a "common population" of the accelerated electrons producing the HXR and the MW, which has been challenged by some studies suggesting the differences in the inferred energy spectral index and emitting energies of the HXR- and MW- producing electrons. We use the Non-linear Force Free Field model extrapolated from the observed photospheric magnetogram in the three-dimensional, multi-wavelength modeling platform GX Simulator, and attempt to create a unified electron population model that can simultaneously reproduce the observed X-ray and MW observations of the 2015-06-22 M6.5 flare. We constrain the model parameters by the observations made by the highest-resolving instruments currently available in two wavelengths, the RHESSI for X-ray and the Expanded Owens Valley Solar Array for MW. The results suggest that the X-ray emitting electron population model fits to the standard flare model with the broken, hardening power-law spectrum at ~300 keV that simultaneously produces the HXR footpoint emission and the MW high frequency emission, and also reveals that there could be a

  17. Central pancreatectomy for benign pancreatic pathology/trauma: is it a reasonable pancreas-preserving conservative surgical strategy alternative to standard major pancreatic resection?

    Johnson, Maria A; Rajendran, Shanmugasundaram; Balachandar, Tirupporur G; Kannan, Devy G; Jeswanth, Satyanesan; Ravichandran, Palaniappan; Surendran, Rajagopal

    2006-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the technical feasibility, safety and outcome of central pancreatectomy (CP) with pancreaticogastrostomy or pancreaticojejunostomy in appropriately selected patients with benign central pancreatic pathology/trauma. Benign lesions/trauma of the pancreatic neck and proximal body pose an interesting surgical challenge. CP is an operation that allows resection of benign tumours located in the pancreatic isthmus that are not suitable for enucleation. Between January 2000 and December 2005, eight central pancreatectomies were carried out. There were six women and two men with a mean age of 35.7 years. The cephalic pancreatic stump is oversewn and the distal stump is anastomosed end-to-end with a Roux-en-Y jejunal loop in two and with the stomach in six patients. The indications for CP were: non-functional islet cell tumours in two patients, traumatic pancreatic neck transection in two and one each for insulinoma, solid pseudopapillary tumour, splenic artery pseudoaneurysm and pseudocyst. Pancreatic exocrine function was evaluated by a questionnaire method. Endocrine function was evaluated by blood glucose level. Morbidity rate was 37.5% with no operative mortality. Mean postoperative hospital stay was 10.5 days. Neither of the patients developed pancreatic fistula nor required reoperations or interventional radiological procedures. At a mean follow up of 26.4 months, no patient had evidence of endocrine or exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, all the patients were alive and well without clinical and imaging evidence of disease recurrence. When technically feasible, CP is a safe, pancreas-preserving pancreatectomy for non-enucleable benign pancreatic pathology/trauma confined to pancreatic isthmus that allows for cure of the disease without loss of substantial amount of normal pancreatic parenchyma with preservation of exocrine/endocrine function and without interruption of enteric continuity.

  18. Results of molten salt panel and component experiments for solar central receivers: Cold fill, freeze/thaw, thermal cycling and shock, and instrumentation tests

    Pacheco, J.E.; Ralph, M.E.; Chavez, J.M.; Dunkin, S.R.; Rush, E.E.; Ghanbari, C.M.; Matthews, M.W.

    1995-01-01

    Experiments have been conducted with a molten salt loop at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, NM to resolve issues associated with the operation of the 10MW{sub e} Solar Two Central Receiver Power Plant located near Barstow, CA. The salt loop contained two receiver panels, components such as flanges and a check valve, vortex shedding and ultrasonic flow meters, and an impedance pressure transducer. Tests were conducted on procedures for filling and thawing a panel, and assessing components and instrumentation in a molten salt environment. Four categories of experiments were conducted: (1) cold filling procedures, (2) freeze/thaw procedures, (3) component tests, and (4) instrumentation tests. Cold-panel and -piping fill experiments are described, in which the panels and piping were preheated to temperatures below the salt freezing point prior to initiating flow, to determine the feasibility of cold filling the receiver and piping. The transient thermal response was measured, and heat transfer coefficients and transient stresses were calculated from the data. Freeze/thaw experiments were conducted with the panels, in which the salt was intentionally allowed to freeze in the receiver tubes, then thawed with heliostat beams. Slow thermal cycling tests were conducted to measure both how well various designs of flanges (e.g., tapered flanges or clamp type flanges) hold a seal under thermal conditions typical of nightly shut down, and the practicality of using these flanges on high maintenance components. In addition, the flanges were thermally shocked to simulate cold starting the system. Instrumentation such as vortex shedding and ultrasonic flow meters were tested alongside each other, and compared with flow measurements from calibration tanks in the flow loop.

  19. Solar shading how to integrate solar shading in sustainable buildings

    Dolmans, Dick; Dutoo, Gonzague; Hall, Anders; Seppänen, Olli

    2010-01-01

    Solar Shading Guidebook gives a solid background on the physics of solar radiation and its behaviour in window with solar shading systems. Major focus of the Guidebook is on the effect of solar shading in the use of energy for cooling, heating and lighting. The book gives also practical guidance for selection, installation and operation of solar shading as well as future trends in integration of HVAC-systems with solar control.

  20. Concentrating solar thermal power.

    Müller-Steinhagen, Hans

    2013-08-13

    In addition to wind and photovoltaic power, concentrating solar thermal power (CSP) will make a major contribution to electricity provision from renewable energies. Drawing on almost 30 years of operational experience in the multi-megawatt range, CSP is now a proven technology with a reliable cost and performance record. In conjunction with thermal energy storage, electricity can be provided according to demand. To date, solar thermal power plants with a total capacity of 1.3 GW are in operation worldwide, with an additional 2.3 GW under construction and 31.7 GW in advanced planning stage. Depending on the concentration factors, temperatures up to 1000°C can be reached to produce saturated or superheated steam for steam turbine cycles or compressed hot gas for gas turbine cycles. The heat rejected from these thermodynamic cycles can be used for sea water desalination, process heat and centralized provision of chilled water. While electricity generation from CSP plants is still more expensive than from wind turbines or photovoltaic panels, its independence from fluctuations and daily variation of wind speed and solar radiation provides it with a higher value. To become competitive with mid-load electricity from conventional power plants within the next 10-15 years, mass production of components, increased plant size and planning/operating experience will be accompanied by technological innovations. On 30 October 2009, a number of major industrial companies joined forces to establish the so-called DESERTEC Industry Initiative, which aims at providing by 2050 15 per cent of European electricity from renewable energy sources in North Africa, while at the same time securing energy, water, income and employment for this region. Solar thermal power plants are in the heart of this concept.

  1. Nanostructured Organic Solar Cells

    Radziwon, Michal Jędrzej; Rubahn, Horst-Günter; Madsen, Morten

    Recent forecasts for alternative energy generation predict emerging importance of supporting state of art photovoltaic solar cells with their organic equivalents. Despite their significantly lower efficiency, number of application niches are suitable for organic solar cells. This work reveals...... the principles of bulk heterojunction organic solar cells fabrication as well as summarises major differences in physics of their operation....

  2. Principles of solar engineering

    Goswami, D Yogi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction to Solar Energy ConversionGlobal Energy Needs and ResourcesSolar EnergyEnergy StorageEconomics of Solar SystemsSummary of RE ResourcesForecast of Future Energy MixReferencesFundamentals of Solar RadiationThe Physics of the Sun and Its Energy TransportThermal Radiation FundamentalsSun-Earth Geometric RelationshipSolar RadiationEstimation of Terrestrial Solar RadiationModels Based on Long-Term Measured Horizontal Solar RadiationMeasurement of Solar RadiationSolar Radiation Mapping Using Satellite DataReferencesSuggested ReadingsSolar Thermal CollectorsRadiative Properties and Characteristics of MaterialsFlat-Plate CollectorsTubular Solar Energy CollectorsExperimental Testing of CollectorsConcentrating Solar CollectorsParabolic Trough ConcentratorCompound-Curvature Solar ConcentratorsCentral Receiver CollectorFresnel Reflectors and LensesSolar Concentrator SummaryReferencesSuggested ReadingThermal Energy Storage and TransportThermal Energy StorageTypes of TESDesign of Storage SystemEnergy Transport ...

  3. Solar Adaptive Optics

    Thomas R. Rimmele

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive optics (AO has become an indispensable tool at ground-based solar telescopes. AO enables the ground-based observer to overcome the adverse effects of atmospheric seeing and obtain diffraction limited observations. Over the last decade adaptive optics systems have been deployed at major ground-based solar telescopes and revitalized ground-based solar astronomy. The relatively small aperture of solar telescopes and the bright source make solar AO possible for visible wavelengths where the majority of solar observations are still performed. Solar AO systems enable diffraction limited observations of the Sun for a significant fraction of the available observing time at ground-based solar telescopes, which often have a larger aperture than equivalent space based observatories, such as HINODE. New ground breaking scientific results have been achieved with solar adaptive optics and this trend continues. New large aperture telescopes are currently being deployed or are under construction. With the aid of solar AO these telescopes will obtain observations of the highly structured and dynamic solar atmosphere with unprecedented resolution. This paper reviews solar adaptive optics techniques and summarizes the recent progress in the field of solar adaptive optics. An outlook to future solar AO developments, including a discussion of Multi-Conjugate AO (MCAO and Ground-Layer AO (GLAO will be given.

  4. Solar Adaptive Optics.

    Rimmele, Thomas R; Marino, Jose

    Adaptive optics (AO) has become an indispensable tool at ground-based solar telescopes. AO enables the ground-based observer to overcome the adverse effects of atmospheric seeing and obtain diffraction limited observations. Over the last decade adaptive optics systems have been deployed at major ground-based solar telescopes and revitalized ground-based solar astronomy. The relatively small aperture of solar telescopes and the bright source make solar AO possible for visible wavelengths where the majority of solar observations are still performed. Solar AO systems enable diffraction limited observations of the Sun for a significant fraction of the available observing time at ground-based solar telescopes, which often have a larger aperture than equivalent space based observatories, such as HINODE. New ground breaking scientific results have been achieved with solar adaptive optics and this trend continues. New large aperture telescopes are currently being deployed or are under construction. With the aid of solar AO these telescopes will obtain observations of the highly structured and dynamic solar atmosphere with unprecedented resolution. This paper reviews solar adaptive optics techniques and summarizes the recent progress in the field of solar adaptive optics. An outlook to future solar AO developments, including a discussion of Multi-Conjugate AO (MCAO) and Ground-Layer AO (GLAO) will be given. Supplementary material is available for this article at 10.12942/lrsp-2011-2.

  5. Genetic control of a central pattern generator: rhythmic oromotor movement in mice is controlled by a major locus near Atp1a2.

    John D Boughter

    Full Text Available Fluid licking in mice is a rhythmic behavior that is controlled by a central pattern generator (CPG located in a complex of brainstem nuclei. C57BL/6J (B6 and DBA/2J (D2 strains differ significantly in water-restricted licking, with a highly heritable difference in rates (h(2≥0.62 and a corresponding 20% difference in interlick interval (mean ± SEM = 116.3±1 vs 95.4±1.1 ms. We systematically quantified motor output in these strains, their F(1 hybrids, and a set of 64 BXD progeny strains. The mean primary interlick interval (MPI varied continuously among progeny strains. We detected a significant quantitative trait locus (QTL for a CPG controlling lick rate on Chr 1 (Lick1, and a suggestive locus on Chr 10 (Lick10. Linkage was verified by testing of B6.D2-1D congenic stock in which a segment of Chr 1 of the D2 strain was introgressed onto the B6 parent. The Lick1 interval on distal Chr 1 contains several strong candidate genes. One of these is a sodium/potassium pump subunit (Atp1a2 with widespread expression in astrocytes, as well as in a restricted population of neurons. Both this subunit and the entire Na(+/K(+-ATPase molecule have been implicated in rhythmogenesis for respiration and locomotion. Sequence variants in or near Apt1a2 strongly modulate expression of the cognate mRNA in multiple brain regions. This gene region has recently been sequenced exhaustively and we have cataloged over 300 non-coding and synonymous mutations segregating among BXD strains, one or more of which is likely to contribute to differences in central pattern generator tempo.

  6. Tuberculous meningitis is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in adults with central nervous system infections in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia: an observational study.

    Lee, Heng Gee; William, Timothy; Menon, Jayaram; Ralph, Anna P; Ooi, Eng Eong; Hou, Yan'an; Sessions, October; Yeo, Tsin Wen

    2016-06-16

    Central nervous system (CNS) infections are a significant contributor to morbidity and mortality globally. However, most published studies have been conducted in developed countries where the epidemiology and aetiology differ significantly from less developed areas. Additionally, there may be regional differences due to variation in the socio-economic levels, public health services and vaccination policies. Currently, no prospective studies have been conducted in Sabah, East Malaysia to define the epidemiology and aetiology of CNS infections. A better understanding of these is essential for the development of local guidelines for diagnosis and management. We conducted a prospective observational cohort study in patients aged 12 years and older with suspected central nervous system infections at Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia between February 2012 and March 2013. Cerebrospinal fluid was sent for microscopy, biochemistry, bacterial and mycobacterial cultures, Mycobacterium tuberculosis polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and multiplex and MassCode PCR for various viral and bacterial pathogens. A total of 84 patients with clinically suspected meningitis and encephalitis were enrolled. An aetiological agent was confirmed in 37/84 (44 %) of the patients. The most common diagnoses were tuberculous meningitis (TBM) (41/84, 48.8 %) and cryptococcal meningoencephalitis (14/84, 16.6 %). Mycobacterium tuberculosis was confirmed in 13/41 (31.7 %) clinically diagnosed TBM patients by cerebrospinal fluid PCR or culture. The acute case fatality rate during hospital admission was 16/84 (19 %) in all patients, 4/43 (9 %) in non-TBM, and 12/41 (29 %) in TBM patients respectively (p = 0.02). TBM is the most common cause of CNS infection in patients aged 12 years or older in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia and is associated with high mortality and morbidity. Further studies are required to improve the management and outcome of TBM.

  7. Solar engineering 1994

    Klett, D.E.; Hogan, R.E.; Tanaka, Tadayoshi

    1994-01-01

    This volume of 83 papers constitutes the Proceedings of the 1994 International Solar Energy Conference held March 27--30, 1994 in San Francisco, California. The Conference was jointly sponsored by the Solar Energy Division of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, The Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers and the Japan Solar Energy Society. This is the fourth cooperation between ASME, JSME and JSES in cosponsoring the International Solar Energy Conference. The papers cover a wide range of solar technologies from low temperature solar ponds and desalinization to high temperature concentrators for space applications and central receivers for terrestrial power generation. Other topics covered include solar detoxification of hazardous waste, dish Stirling systems, solar cooling, photovoltaics, building energy analysis and conservation, simulation, and testing and measurement techniques. All papers were indexed separately for the data base

  8. A Tool for Empirical Forecasting of Major Flares, Coronal Mass Ejections, and Solar Particle Events from a Proxy of Active-Region Free Magnetic Energy

    Barghouty, A. F.; Falconer, D. A.; Adams, J. H., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    This presentation describes a new forecasting tool developed for and is currently being tested by NASA s Space Radiation Analysis Group (SRAG) at JSC, which is responsible for the monitoring and forecasting of radiation exposure levels of astronauts. The new software tool is designed for the empirical forecasting of M and X-class flares, coronal mass ejections, as well as solar energetic particle events. Its algorithm is based on an empirical relationship between the various types of events rates and a proxy of the active region s free magnetic energy, determined from a data set of approx.40,000 active-region magnetograms from approx.1,300 active regions observed by SOHO/MDI that have known histories of flare, coronal mass ejection, and solar energetic particle event production. The new tool automatically extracts each strong-field magnetic areas from an MDI full-disk magnetogram, identifies each as an NOAA active region, and measures a proxy of the active region s free magnetic energy from the extracted magnetogram. For each active region, the empirical relationship is then used to convert the free magnetic energy proxy into an expected event rate. The expected event rate in turn can be readily converted into the probability that the active region will produce such an event in a given forward time window. Descriptions of the datasets, algorithm, and software in addition to sample applications and a validation test are presented. Further development and transition of the new tool in anticipation of SDO/HMI is briefly discussed.

  9. Thermochronometry across the Austroalpine-Pennine boundary, Central Alps, Switzerland: Orogen-perpendicular normal fault slip on a major ‘overthrust’ and its implications for orogenesis

    Price, Jason B.; Wernicke, Brian P.; Cosca, Michael A.; Farley, Kenneth A.

    2018-01-01

    Fifty‐one new and 309 published thermochronometric ages (nine systems with closure temperatures ranging from ~450 to 70°C) from the Graubünden region of the Central Alps demonstrate that a pronounced thermal mismatch between the Austroalpine allochthon (Alpine “orogenic lid”) and the Pennine zone persisted until at least 29 Ma and, allowably, until circa 18 Ma. The observed mismatch supports previous suggestions that the famous “overthrust” between the Austroalpine allochthon and the Pennine zone, historically regarded as primarily an Eocene top‐north thrust fault, is in fact primarily an Oligocene‐Miocene normal fault that has a minimum of 60 km of displacement with top‐south or top‐southeast sense of shear. Two hallmarks of Alpine geology, deposition of the foredeep Molasse and emplacement of the Helvetic nappes, appear to be coeval, peripheral manifestations of crustal thickening via the interposition of the Pennine zone as a northward intruding wedge between the Austroalpine “lid” and the European cratonic margin, with the Helvetic system (European margin) acting as the “floor” of the wedge. We presume the Penninic wedge is driven by the buoyant rise of subducted crust no longer able to remain attached to the descending slab. If so, emplacement of the Pennine wedge could have occurred mainly after Adria was juxtaposed against cratonic Europe.

  10. Thermochronometry Across the Austroalpine-Pennine Boundary, Central Alps, Switzerland: Orogen-Perpendicular Normal Fault Slip on a Major "Overthrust" and Its Implications for Orogenesis

    Price, Jason B.; Wernicke, Brian P.; Cosca, Michael A.; Farley, Kenneth A.

    2018-03-01

    Fifty-one new and 309 published thermochronometric ages (nine systems with closure temperatures ranging from 450 to 70°C) from the Graubünden region of the Central Alps demonstrate that a pronounced thermal mismatch between the Austroalpine allochthon (Alpine "orogenic lid") and the Pennine zone persisted until at least 29 Ma and, allowably, until circa 18 Ma. The observed mismatch supports previous suggestions that the famous "overthrust" between the Austroalpine allochthon and the Pennine zone, historically regarded as primarily an Eocene top-north thrust fault, is in fact primarily an Oligocene-Miocene normal fault that has a minimum of 60 km of displacement with top-south or top-southeast sense of shear. Two hallmarks of Alpine geology, deposition of the foredeep Molasse and emplacement of the Helvetic nappes, appear to be coeval, peripheral manifestations of crustal thickening via the interposition of the Pennine zone as a northward intruding wedge between the Austroalpine "lid" and the European cratonic margin, with the Helvetic system (European margin) acting as the "floor" of the wedge. We presume the Penninic wedge is driven by the buoyant rise of subducted crust no longer able to remain attached to the descending slab. If so, emplacement of the Pennine wedge could have occurred mainly after Adria was juxtaposed against cratonic Europe.

  11. Central nervous system-specific consequences of simian immunodeficiency virus Gag escape from major histocompatability complex class I-mediated control

    Beck, Sarah E.; Queen, Suzanne E.; Viscidi, Raphael; Johnson, Darius; Kent, Stephen J.; Adams, Robert J.; Tarwater, Patrick M.; Mankowski, Joseph L.

    2016-01-01

    In the fourth decade of the HIV epidemic, the relationship between host immunity and HIV central nervous system (CNS) disease remains incompletely understood. Using a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)/macaque model, we examined CNS outcomes in pigtailed macaques expressing the MHC class I allele Mane-A1*084:01 which confers resistance to SIV-induced CNS disease and induces the prototypic viral escape mutation Gag K165R. Insertion of gag K165R into the neurovirulent clone SIV/17E-Fr reduced viral replication in vitro compared to SIV/17E-Fr. We also found lower CSF, but not plasma, viral loads in macaques inoculated with SIV/17E-Fr K165R versus those inoculated with wildtype. Although escape mutation K165R was genotypically stable in plasma, it rapidly reverted to wildtype Gag KP9 in both CSF and in microglia cultures. We induced robust Gag KP9-specific CTL tetramer responses by vaccinating Mane-A*084:01-positive pigtailed macaques with a Gag KP9 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine. Upon SIV/17E-Fr challenge, vaccinated animals had lower SIV RNA in CSF compared to unvaccinated controls, but showed no difference in plasma viral loads. These data clearly demonstrate that viral fitness in the CNS is distinct from the periphery and underscores the necessity of understanding the consequences of viral escape in CNS disease with the advent of new therapeutic vaccination strategies. PMID:26727909

  12. Palaeomagnetism of the Cappadocian Volcanic Succession, Central Turkey: Major ignimbrite emplacement during two short (Miocene) episodes and Neogene tectonics of the Anatolian collage

    Piper, J. D. A.; Koçbulut, F.; Gürsoy, H.; Tatar, O.; Viereck, L.; Lepetit, P.; Roberts, A. P.; Akpınar, Z.

    2013-07-01

    The Central Anatolian Volcanic Province in Cappadocia includes 13 high volume calc-alkaline ignimbrite sheets emplaced by plinian eruptions within a succession (the Ürgüp Formation) after ~ 10 Ma recording the last phase of Neotethyan subduction and accompanying emplacement of the Tauride orogen in southern Turkey. To evaluate magnetostratigraphy in the context of recent revisions of the chronostratigraphy we have extended palaeomagnetic investigation to 32 new sites yielding significant ChRM directions. Integrated rock magnetic and palaeomagnetic investigations identify magnetic remanence residing predominantly in Ti-poor titanomagnetites although secondary processes within the ignimbrite sheets, notably post-emplacement oxidation, have locally produced hematisation expressed by composite IRM spectra and variable reduction in intensity of magnetisation. The ignimbrite sheets possess weak anisotropies of magnetic susceptibility (AMS, mostly < 5%) describing tensors with axial distributions close to bedding and minimum axes predominantly perpendicular to this plane; collectively directions show weak imbrication correlating with palaeoflow during emplacement predominantly towards the north and east away from the Erdas Dağ, an inferred topographic palaeohigh at the southern margin of the basin. The precise control provided by magnetostratigraphy and radiometric age dating now shows that the bulk of Cappadocian ignimbrite magmatism was concentrated into two short episodes. An older Cardak Centre (Kavak Group and Zelve ignimbrites) produced in excess of 200 km3 of pyroclastic deposits during polarity chron C4r.1n between 9.31 and 9.43 Ma. Subsequent activity from the Acıgöl Centre further to the south west (Cemilköy, Gelveri, Gördeles, and Kızılkaya) produced in excess of 620 km3 of pyroclastic deposits during polarity chrons between 5.3 and 7.1 Ma. The younger İncesu ignimbrite was sourced in the Sultansazlığı pull-apart basin to the east during the Gauss

  13. Adaptive servo-ventilation for central sleep apnoea in systolic heart failure: results of the major substudy of SERVE-HF.

    Cowie, Martin R; Woehrle, Holger; Wegscheider, Karl; Vettorazzi, Eik; Lezius, Susanne; Koenig, Wolfgang; Weidemann, Frank; Smith, Gillian; Angermann, Christiane; d'Ortho, Marie-Pia; Erdmann, Erland; Levy, Patrick; Simonds, Anita K; Somers, Virend K; Zannad, Faiez; Teschler, Helmut

    2018-03-01

    The SERVE-HF trial investigated the impact of treating central sleep apnoea (CSA) with adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV) in patients with systolic heart failure. A preplanned substudy was conducted to provide insight into mechanistic changes underlying the observed effects of ASV, including assessment of changes in left ventricular function, ventricular remodelling, and cardiac, renal and inflammatory biomarkers. In a subset of the 1325 randomised patients, echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (cMRI) and biomarker analysis were performed at baseline, and 3 and 12 months. In secondary analyses, data for patients with baseline and 12-month values were evaluated; 312 patients participated in the substudy. The primary endpoint, change in echocardiographically determined left ventricular ejection fraction from baseline to 12 months, did not differ significantly between the ASV and the control groups. There were also no significant between-group differences for changes in left ventricular dimensions, wall thickness, diastolic function or right ventricular dimensions and ejection fraction (echocardiography), and on cMRI (in small patient numbers). Plasma N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide concentration decreased in both groups, and values were similar at 12 months. There were no significant between-group differences in changes in cardiac, renal and systemic inflammation biomarkers. In patients with systolic heart failure and CSA, addition of ASV to guideline-based medical management had no statistically significant effect on cardiac structure and function, or on cardiac biomarkers, renal function and systemic inflammation over 12 months. The increased cardiovascular mortality reported in SERVE-HF may not be related to adverse remodelling or worsening heart failure. © 2017 The Authors. European Journal of Heart Failure © 2017 European Society of Cardiology.

  14. 'A major lobbying effort to change and unify the excise structure in six Central American countries': How British American Tobacco influenced tax and tariff rates in the Central American Common Market.

    Holden, Chris; Lee, Kelley

    2011-05-19

    Transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) may respond to processes of regional trade integration both by acting politically to influence policy and by reorganising their own operations. The Central American Common Market (CACM) was reinvigorated in the 1990s, reflecting processes of regional trade liberalisation in Latin America and globally. This study aimed to ascertain how British American Tobacco (BAT), which dominated the markets of the CACM, sought to influence policy towards it by member country governments and how the CACM process impacted upon BAT's operations. The study analysed internal tobacco industry documents released as a result of litigation in the US and available from the online Legacy Tobacco Documents Library at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/. Documents were retrieved by searching the BAT collection using key terms in an iterative process. Analysis was based on an interpretive approach involving a process of attempting to understand the meanings of individual documents and relating these to other documents in the set, identifying the central themes of documents and clusters of documents, contextualising the documentary data, and choosing representative material in order to present findings. Utilising its multinational character, BAT was able to act in a coordinated way across the member countries of the CACM to influence tariffs and taxes to its advantage. Documents demonstrate a high degree of access to governments and officials. The company conducted a coordinated, and largely successful, attempt to keep external tariff rates for cigarettes high and to reduce external tariffs for key inputs, whilst also influencing the harmonisation of excise taxes between countries. Protected by these high external tariffs, it reorganised its own operations to take advantage of regional economies of scale. In direct contradiction to arguments presented to CACM governments that affording the tobacco industry protection via high cigarette tariffs would safeguard

  15. 'A major lobbying effort to change and unify the excise structure in six Central American countries': How British American Tobacco influenced tax and tariff rates in the Central American Common Market

    Holden Chris

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transnational tobacco companies (TTCs may respond to processes of regional trade integration both by acting politically to influence policy and by reorganising their own operations. The Central American Common Market (CACM was reinvigorated in the 1990s, reflecting processes of regional trade liberalisation in Latin America and globally. This study aimed to ascertain how British American Tobacco (BAT, which dominated the markets of the CACM, sought to influence policy towards it by member country governments and how the CACM process impacted upon BAT's operations. Methods The study analysed internal tobacco industry documents released as a result of litigation in the US and available from the online Legacy Tobacco Documents Library at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/. Documents were retrieved by searching the BAT collection using key terms in an iterative process. Analysis was based on an interpretive approach involving a process of attempting to understand the meanings of individual documents and relating these to other documents in the set, identifying the central themes of documents and clusters of documents, contextualising the documentary data, and choosing representative material in order to present findings. Results Utilising its multinational character, BAT was able to act in a coordinated way across the member countries of the CACM to influence tariffs and taxes to its advantage. Documents demonstrate a high degree of access to governments and officials. The company conducted a coordinated, and largely successful, attempt to keep external tariff rates for cigarettes high and to reduce external tariffs for key inputs, whilst also influencing the harmonisation of excise taxes between countries. Protected by these high external tariffs, it reorganised its own operations to take advantage of regional economies of scale. In direct contradiction to arguments presented to CACM governments that affording the tobacco industry

  16. Thermal Environmental Design in Outdoor Space Focusing on Radiation Environment Influenced by Ground Cover Material and Solar Shading, through the Examination on the Redevelopment Buildings in Front of Central Osaka Station

    Hideki Takebayashi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The outdoor open space is used for various purposes, e.g., to walk, rest, talk, meet, study, exercise, play, perform, eat, and drink. Therefore, it is desirable to provide various thermal environments according to users’ needs and their actual conditions. In this study, the radiation environment was evaluated, focusing on ground cover materials and solar radiation shading, through the examination on the redevelopment buildings in front of Central Osaka Station. The spatial distribution of solar radiation shading was calculated using ArcGIS and building shape data. Surface temperatures on the ground and wall are calculated based on the surface heat budget equation. MRT (Mean Radiant Temperature of the human body is calculated assuming that the human body is a sphere. The most dominant factor for the radiant environment is solar radiation shielding and the next is the improvement of surface cover. It is difficult to make SET* (Standard new Effective Temperature comfortable in the afternoon by both solar radiation shielding and improved surface cover because the air temperature is too high on a typical summer day (August. However, particularly in Rooftop Gardens and Green Garden, because the areas of shade grass and water are large, there are several places where people do not feel uncomfortable.

  17. Petrogenesis and origin of the Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous magmatism in Central High Atlas (Morocco): Major, trace element and isotopic (Sr-Nd) constraints

    Essaifi, Abderrahim; Zayane, Rachid

    2018-01-01

    During an uplift phase, which lasted ca. 40 Ma, from the Late Jurassic (165 Ma) to the Early Cretaceous (125 Ma), transitional to moderately alkaline magmatic series were emplaced in the Central High Atlas. The corresponding magmatic products include basaltic lava flows erupted within wide synclines and intrusive complexes composed of layered mafic intrusions and monzonitic to syenitic dykes emplaced along narrow anticlinal ridges. The igneous rock sequence within the intrusive complexes is composed of troctolites, olivine-gabbros, oxide-gabbros, monzonites and syenites. The chemical compositions of the various intrusive rocks can be accounted for by crystal accumulation, fractional crystallization and post-magmatic remobilization. The evolution from the troctolites to the syenites was mainly controlled by a fractional crystallization process marked by early fractionation of olivine, plagioclase and clinopyroxene, followed by separation of biotite, amphibole, apatite, and Ti-magnetite. Hydrothermal activity associated with emplacement of the intrusions within the Jurassic limestones modified the elemental and the Sr isotopic composition of the hydrothermally altered rocks In particular the monzonitic to syenitic dykes underwent an alkali metasomatism marked by depletion in K and Rb and enrichment in Na and Sr. As a result, their Sr isotopic composition was shifted towards higher initial Sr isotopic ratios (0.7067-0.7075) with respect to the associated gabbros (0.7036-0.7046). On the contrary, the Nd isotopic compositions were preserved from isotope exchange with the limestones and vary in a similar range to those of the gabbros (+1.6 < εNdi < +4.1). The isotopic and the trace element ratios of the uncontaminated samples were used to constrain the source characteristics of this magmatism. The Sr-Nd isotopic data and the incompatible element ratios (e.g. La/Nb, Zr/Nb, Th/U, Ce/Pb) are consistent with generation from an enriched upper mantle similar to an ocean

  18. Estimating Aboveground Forest Carbon Stock of Major Tropical Forest Land Uses Using Airborne Lidar and Field Measurement Data in Central Sumatra

    Thapa, R. B.; Watanabe, M.; Motohka, T.; Shiraishi, T.; shimada, M.

    2013-12-01

    Tropical forests are providing environmental goods and services including carbon sequestration, energy regulation, water fluxes, wildlife habitats, fuel, and building materials. Despite the policy attention, the tropical forest reserve in Southeast Asian region is releasing vast amount of carbon to the atmosphere due to deforestation. Establishing quality forest statistics and documenting aboveground forest carbon stocks (AFCS) are emerging in the region. Airborne and satellite based large area monitoring methods are developed to compliment conventional plot based field measurement methods as they are costly, time consuming, and difficult to implement for large regions. But these methods still require adequate ground measurements for calibrating accurate AFCS model. Furthermore, tropical region comprised of varieties of natural and plantation forests capping higher variability of forest structures and biomass volumes. To address this issue and the needs for ground data, we propose the systematic collection of ground data integrated with airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data. Airborne LiDAR enables accurate measures of vertical forest structure, including canopy height and volume demanding less ground measurement plots. Using an appropriate forest type based LiDAR sampling framework, structural properties of forest can be quantified and treated similar to ground measurement plots, producing locally relevant information to use independently with satellite data sources including synthetic aperture radar (SAR). In this study, we examined LiDAR derived forest parameters with field measured data and developed general and specific AFCS models for tropical forests in central Sumatra. The general model is fitted for all types of natural and plantation forests while the specific model is fitted to the specific forest type. The study region consists of natural forests including peat swamp and dry moist forests, regrowth, and mangrove and plantation forests

  19. The Majority of Genotypes of the Virulence Gene inlA Are Intact among Natural Watershed Isolates of Listeria monocytogenes from the Central California Coast.

    Lisa Gorski

    Full Text Available Internalin A is an essential virulence gene involved in the uptake of the foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes into host cells. It is intact in clinical strains and often truncated due to Premature Stop Codons (PMSCs in isolates from processed foods and processing facilities. Less information is known about environmental isolates. We sequenced the inlA alleles and did Multi Locus Variable Number Tandem Repeat Analysis (MLVA on 112 L. monocytogenes isolates from a 3-year period from naturally contaminated watersheds near a leafy green growing area in Central California. The collection contained 14 serotype 1/2a, 12 serotype 1/2b, and 86 serotype 4b strains. Twenty-seven different inlA alleles were found. Twenty-three of the alleles are predicted to encode intact copies of InlA, while three contain PMSCs. Another allele has a 9-nucleotide deletion, previously described for a clinical strain, indicating that it is still functional. Intact inlA genes were found in 101 isolates, and 8 isolates contained the allele predicted to contain the 3-amino acid deletion. Both allele types were found throughout the 3-year sampling period. Three strains contained inlA alleles with PMSCs, and these were found only during the first 3 months of the study. SNP analysis of the intact alleles indicated clustering of alleles based on serotype and lineage with serotypes 1/2b and 4b (lineage I strains clustering together, and serotype 1/2a (lineage II strains clustering separately. The combination of serotype, MLVA types, and inlA allele types indicate that the 112 isolates reflect at least 49 different strains of L. monocytogenes. The finding that 90% of environmental L. monocytogenes isolates contain intact inlA alleles varies significantly from isolates found in processing plants. This information is important to public health labs and growers as to the varieties of L. monocytogenes that could potentially contaminate fresh produce in the field by various means.

  20. Pitfalls and major issues in the histologic diagnosis of peripheral T-cell lymphomas: results of the central review of 573 cases from the T-Cell Project, an international, cooperative study.

    Bellei, Monica; Sabattini, Elena; Pesce, Emanuela Anna; Ko, Young-Hyeh; Kim, Won Seog; Cabrera, Maria Elena; Martinez, Virginia; Dlouhy, Ivan; Paes, Roberto Pinto; Barrese, Tomas; Vassallo, Josè; Tarantino, Vittoria; Vose, Julie; Weisenburger, Dennis; Rüdiger, Thomas; Federico, Massimo; Pileri, Stefano

    2017-12-01

    Peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCLs) comprise a heterogeneous group of neoplasms that are derived from post-thymic lymphoid cells at different stages of differentiation with different morphological patterns, phenotypes and clinical presentations. PTCLs are highly diverse, reflecting the diverse cells from which they can originate and are currently sub-classified using World Health Organization (WHO) 2008 criteria. In 2006 the International T-Cell Lymphoma Project launched the T-Cell Project, building on the retrospective study previously carried on by the network, with the aim to prospectively collect accurate data to improve knowledge on this group of lymphomas. Based on previously published reports from International Study Groups it emerged that rendering a correct classification of PTCLs is quite difficult because the relatively low prevalence of these diseases results in a lack of confidence by most pathologists. This is the reason why the T-Cell Project requested the availability of diagnostic material from the initial biopsy of each patient registered in the study in order to have the initial diagnosis centrally reviewed by expert hematopathologists. In the present report the results of the review process performed on 573 cases are presented. Overall, an incorrect diagnosis was centrally recorded in 13.1% cases, including 8.5% cases centrally reclassified with a subtype eligible for the project and 4.6% cases misclassified and found to be disorders other than T-cell lymphomas; 2.1% cases were centrally classified as T-Cell disorders not included in the study population. Thus, the T-Cell Project confirmed the difficulties in providing an accurate classification when a diagnosis of PTCLs is suspected, singled out the major pitfalls that can bias a correct histologic categorization and confirmed that a centralized expert review with the application of adequate diagnostic algorithms is mandatory when dealing with these tumours. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons

  1. Environmental factors associated with larval habitats of anopheline mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in irrigation and major drainage areas in the middle course of the Rift Valley, central Ethiopia.

    Kenea, Oljira; Balkew, Meshesha; Gebre-Michael, Teshome

    2011-06-01

    Larval control is an integral part of malaria vector management in Ethiopia and elsewhere. For effective larval control, a sound understanding of the factors responsible for spatio-temporal variation in larval production is essential. A study was thus conducted to characterize larval habitats of anopheline mosquitoes in irrigation and major drainage areas between Adami Tulu and Meki towns, in the middle course of the Ethiopian Rift Valley. Aquatic habitats were sampled for anopheline larvae and the associated environmental variables (water temperature, turbidity, water current, water pH and other variables) were measured, characterized and analyzed. Microscopic identification of the late instars (III and IV) of anopheline larvae collected throughout the study period yielded nearly 47.6% Anopheles pharoensis, 32.1% An. arabiensis, 17.1% An. squamosus and only 3.2% of other species (An. coustani and An. cinereus). Larvae of the local malaria vectors, An. arabiensis and An. pharoensis were most abundantly sampled from sand pools and natural swamps, respectively. Logistic regression analysis detected four best predictor variables associated with larval abundance of malaria vector species. Thus, relative abundance of An. arabiensis larvae was significantly and inversely associated with aquatic vegetation and water current, whereas the relative abundance of An. pharoensis larvae was significantly and positively associated with water temperature and the presence of algae in the water bodies. Dry season anopheline larval habitats such as riverine sand pools that are created and maintained by perennial water bodies and their associated water development projects need to be considered in vector control operations.

  2. The Upper Toluca Pumice (10.5 kyr): Product of the last major Plinian eruption of Nevado de Toluca volcano, Central Mexico

    Arce, J. L.; Macias, J. L.

    2001-12-01

    The last Plinian eruption at Nevado de Toluca volcano occurred 10.5 kyr ago producing the Upper Toluca Pumice (UTP). The UTP consists of four widespread fallout layers, interbedded with pyroclastic flow and surge deposits. The UTP event occurred under open vent conditions starting with hydromagmatic explosions that emplaced a hot pyroclastic flow (F0) on the east and northern flanks of the volcano. This explosion decompressed the magmatic system allowing almost immediately the formation of a 21 km high Plinian column that was dispersed by predominant winds 5o to the NE (PC0), which waned after some time. The eruption recommenced with the establishment of three Plinian columns that were dispersed in a NE-E direction, reaching heights of 39, 42, and 28 km, and deposited fall layers (PC1, PC2, and PC3) respectively. These Plinian columns were interrupted several times by phreatomagmatic and collapse events that emplaced pyroclastic flows (F1, F2, and F3) and surges (S1, and S2), mainly on the eastern and northern flanks of the volcano. The juvenile components of the UTP sequence are white, gray and banded pumice and gray juvenile lithic clasts both of dacitic composition (63-66wt% SiO2), and minor accidental lithics. The fallout deposits (PC1 and PC2) covered a minimum area of 2000 km2 with a total volume of 14 km3 (ca. 6 km3 D.R.E.); a mass eruption rate ranging from 3\\times107 to 5\\times108 kg/s and a total mass of 1.2\\times1013 kg. The UTP emplaced 1.5 m of gravel-sized pumice in the modern City of Toluca region and ca. 20 cm of fine sand in the Mexico City region. A future event of this magnitude might represent a major catastrophe to the 30 million people living in these cities and their surroundings.

  3. Solar One demolition and remediation

    Wallace, G.L.

    1995-01-01

    Solar One was designed to demonstrate the feasibility of generating electrical energy from solar power using a central receiver concept. An array of heliostats focused sunlight onto a central receiver, which superheated water to produce steam. Although Solar One was successful, the oil-based Thermal Storage System (TSS), used to store heat energy for power generation at night, was not efficient. When the TSS was demolished for the installation of a more efficient molten salt system, a major effort was made to salvage or recycle all of its equipment and materials. During TSS demolition, approximately 7 tons of aluminum shielding and 205 tons of steel were salvaged as scrap metal; 200 tons of concrete was used for erosion protection along the Mohave River banks; 150,000 gallons of oil was recycled and 100 tons of equipment was salvaged for use at other facilities. During remediation, approximately 9,000 tons of oil contaminated sand, gravel and soil was recycled into approximately 10,000 tons of asphalt concrete and used to pave a nearby 5-acre parking lot at Barstow College. This not only reduced project remediation costs, but also met environmental requirements and provided a much needed community service. Of the estimated 11,864 tons of equipment and material from the TSS, less than 1% was disposed of at a landfill

  4. Consumer attitudes towards domestic solar power systems

    Faiers, Adam [Institute of Water and Environment, Cranfield University at Silsoe, Silsoe, Bedfordshire, MK45 4DT (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: a.j.faiers.so2@cranfield.ac.uk; Neame, Charles [Institute of Water and Environment, Cranfield University at Silsoe, Silsoe, Bedfordshire, MK45 4DT (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: c.neame@cranfield.ac.uk

    2006-09-15

    The success of the UK policy to reduce carbon emissions is partly dependent on the ability to persuade householders to become more energy efficient, and to encourage installation of domestic solar systems. Solar power is an innovation in the UK but the current policy of stimulating the market with grants is not resulting in widespread adoption. This case study, using householders in central England, investigates householder attitudes towards characteristics of solar systems and identifies some of the barriers to adoption. The study utilises Diffusion of Innovations theory to identify attitudes towards system attributes, and isolates the characteristics that are preventing a pragmatic 'early majority' from adopting the technology. A group of 'early adopters', and a group of assumed 'early majority' adopters of solar power were surveyed and the results show that overall, although the 'early majority' demonstrate a positive perception of the environmental characteristics of solar power, its financial, economic and aesthetic characteristics are limiting adoption. Differences exist between the two groups showing support for the concept of a 'chasm' between adopter categories after Moore (Crossing the Chasm: Marketing and Selling High-tech Products to Mainstream Customers, second ed. Harper Perennial, New York). However, if consumers cannot identify the relative advantage of solar power over their current sources of power, which is supplied readily and cheaply through a mains system, it is unlikely that adoption will follow. Recommendations concerning the marketing and development of solar products are identified.

  5. Major depression

    Depression - major; Depression - clinical; Clinical depression; Unipolar depression; Major depressive disorder ... providers do not know the exact causes of depression. It is believed that chemical changes in the ...

  6. Solar Indices - Solar Flares

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  7. Solar Indices - Solar Ultraviolet

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  8. Solar Indices - Solar Corona

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  9. Solar Indices - Solar Irradiance

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  10. Solar radiation absorbing material

    Googin, John M.; Schmitt, Charles R.; Schreyer, James M.; Whitehead, Harlan D.

    1977-01-01

    Solar energy absorbing means in solar collectors are provided by a solar selective carbon surface. A solar selective carbon surface is a microporous carbon surface having pores within the range of 0.2 to 2 micrometers. Such a surface is provided in a microporous carbon article by controlling the pore size. A thermally conductive substrate is provided with a solar selective surface by adhering an array of carbon particles in a suitable binder to the substrate, a majority of said particles having diameters within the range of about 0.2-10 microns.

  11. Central Receiver Solar Thermal Power System, Phase 1. CDRL Item 2. Pilot Plant preliminary design report. Volume III, Book 1. Collector subsystem

    Hallet, Jr., R. W.; Gervais, R. L.

    1977-10-01

    The central receiver system consists of a field of heliostats, a central receiver, a thermal storage unit, an electrical power generation system, and balance of plant. This volume discusses the collector field geometry, requirements and configuration. The development of the collector system and subsystems are discussed and the selection rationale outlined. System safety and availability are covered. Finally, the plans for collector portion of the central receiver system are reviewed.

  12. Southeast Regional Assessment Study: an assessment of the opportunities of solar electric power generation in the Southeastern United States

    None

    1980-07-01

    The objective of this study was to identify and assess opportunities for demonstration and large scale deployment of solar electric facilities in the southeast region and to define the technical, economic, and institutional factors that can contribute to an accelerated use of solar energy for electric power generation. Graphs and tables are presented indicating the solar resource potential, siting opportunities, energy generation and use, and socioeconomic factors of the region by state. Solar electric technologies considered include both central station and dispersed solar electric generating facilities. Central stations studied include solar thermal electric, wind, photovoltaic, ocean thermal gradient, and biomass; dispersed facilities include solar thermal total energy systems, wind, and photovoltaic. The value of solar electric facilities is determined in terms of the value of conventional facilities and the use of conventional fuels which the solar facilities can replace. Suitable cost and risk sharing mechanisms to accelerate the commercialization of solar electric technologies in the Southeast are identified. The major regulatory and legal factors which could impact on the commercialization of solar facilities are reviewed. The most important factors which affect market penetration are reviewed, ways to accelerate the implementation of these technologies are identified, and market entry paths are identified. Conclusions and recommendations are presented. (WHK)

  13. Solar energy conversion

    Kistler, J.

    1981-08-05

    The photovoltaic generator is the central part of all solar systems. Flat solar cells embedded in glass are preferred which can also convert diffuse solar radiation. Hybrid modules generate electrical and thermal energy simultaneously. With decreasing generator cost, the cost of energy storage becomes critical. Development activities are mostly directed on the development of stationary lead accumulator batteries and the electronic charging and protective systems. The block diagram of the current converter is presented, and applications of solar systems in domestic heating engineering, transportation technology, communications, and hydrological engineering. Solar villages are recommended which, established in bilateral cooperation with Third World authorities, may demonstrate the advantages of solar energy in heat and electric power generation.

  14. Frequency agile solar radiotelescope

    Bastian, Tim S.

    2003-02-01

    The Frequency Agile Solar Radiotelescope (FASR) is a solar-dedicated, ground based, interferometric array optimized to perform broadband imaging spectroscopy from ~ 0.1-30+ GHz. It will do so with the angular, spectral, and temporal resolution required to exploit radio emission from the Sun as a diagnostic of the wide variety of astrophysical processes that occur there. FASR represents a major advance over existing radioheliographs, and is expected to remain the world's premier solar radio instrument for two decades or more after completion. FASR will be a versatile and powerful instrument, providing unique data to a broad users community. Solar, solar-terrestrial, and space physicists will exploit FASR to attack a broad science program, including problems of fundamental interest: coronal magnetography, solar flares and particle acceleration, drivers of space weather, and the thermal structure and dynamics of the solar atmosphere. A design study and implementation planning are underway. Recent progress is reviewed here.

  15. The environmental and public health benefits of achieving high penetrations of solar energy in the United States

    Wiser, Ryan; Millstein, Dev; Mai, Trieu; Macknick, Jordan; Carpenter, Alberta; Cohen, Stuart; Cole, Wesley; Frew, Bethany; Heath, Garvin

    2016-01-01

    We estimate the environmental and public health benefits that may be realized if solar energy cost reductions continue until solar power is competitive across the U.S. without subsidies. Specifically, we model, from 2015 to 2050, solar power–induced reductions to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, air pollutant emissions, and water usage. To find the incremental benefits of new solar deployment, we compare the difference between two scenarios, one where solar costs have fallen such that solar supplies 14% of the nation's electricity by 2030 and 27% by 2050, and a baseline scenario in which no solar is added after 2014. We monetize benefits, where credible methods exist to do so. We find that under these scenarios, solar power reduces GHG and air pollutants by ∼10%, from 2015 to 2050, providing a discounted present value of $56–$789 billion (central value of ∼$250 billion, equivalent to ∼2 ¢/kWh-solar) in climate benefits and $77–$298 billion (central value of $167 billion, or ∼1.4 ¢/kWh-solar) in air quality and public health benefits. The ranges reflect uncertainty within the literature about the marginal impact of emissions of GHG and air pollutants. Solar power is also found to reduce water withdrawals and consumption by 4% and 9%, respectively, including in many drought-prone states. - Highlights: • With feasible cost reductions, solar power can provide major environmental benefits. • U.S. electric-sector modeling indicates climate benefits worth ∼2 ¢/kWh-solar. • Further modeling indicates air quality public health benefits worth 1.4 ¢/kWh-solar. • Solar could reduce power-sector water withdrawals and consumption by 4% and 9%.

  16. Solar building

    Zhang, Luxin

    2014-01-01

    In my thesis I describe the utilization of solar energy and solar energy with building integration. In introduction it is also mentioned how the solar building works, trying to make more people understand and accept the solar building. The thesis introduces different types of solar heat collectors. I compared the difference two operation modes of solar water heating system and created examples of solar water system selection. I also introduced other solar building applications. It is conv...

  17. Magnetohydrodynamic process in solar activity

    Jingxiu Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetohydrodynamics is one of the major disciplines in solar physics. Vigorous magnetohydrodynamic process is taking place in the solar convection zone and atmosphere. It controls the generating and structuring of the solar magnetic fields, causes the accumulation of magnetic non-potential energy in the solar atmosphere and triggers the explosive magnetic energy release, manifested as violent solar flares and coronal mass ejections. Nowadays detailed observations in solar astrophysics from space and on the ground urge a great need for the studies of magnetohydrodynamics and plasma physics to achieve better understanding of the mechanism or mechanisms of solar activity. On the other hand, the spectacular solar activity always serves as a great laboratory of magnetohydrodynamics. In this article, we reviewed a few key unresolved problems in solar activity studies and discussed the relevant issues in solar magnetohydrodynamics.

  18. Solar heat storages in district heating networks

    Ellehauge, K. (Ellehauge og Kildemoes, AArhus (DK)); Engberg Pedersen, T. (COWI A/S, Kgs. Lyngby (DK))

    2007-07-15

    This report gives information on the work carried out and the results obtained in Denmark on storages for large solar heating plants in district heating networks. Especially in Denmark the share of district heating has increased to a large percentage. In 1981 around 33% of all dwellings in DK were connected to a district heating network, while the percentage in 2006 was about 60% (in total 1.5 mio. dwellings). In the report storage types for short term storage and long term storages are described. Short term storages are done as steel tanks and is well established technology widely used in district heating networks. Long term storages are experimental and used in connection with solar heating. A number of solar heating plants have been established with either short term or long term storages showing economy competitive with normal energy sources. Since, in the majority of the Danish district heating networks the heat is produced in co-generation plants, i.e. plants producing both electricity and heat for the network, special attention has been put on the use of solar energy in combination with co-generation. Part of this report describes that in the liberalized electricity market central solar heating plants can also be advantageous in combination with co-generation plants. (au)

  19. Line-focus solar central power system, Phase I. Final report, 29 September 1978 to 30 April 1980. Volume II. Text

    Slemmons, A J

    1980-04-01

    The conceptual design, parametric analysis, cost and performance analysis, and a commercial assessment of a 100-MWe high-temperature line-focus central power system are presented. Parametric analyses and conceptual design of the heliostat subsystem, receiver subsystem, heat transport subsystem, energy storage subsystem, electrical power generating subsystem, and master control subsystem are included. A market analysis and development plan are given. (WHK)

  20. Meteorology ans solar physics

    Schwarz, Oliver

    When in the second half of the 19th century both solar physics and astrophysics came into existence, various solar phenomena were described by analogies encountered in the terrestrial atmosphere. For a certain time, meteorology played a central role in research on solar processes. At first glance, this may appear as a curious and old-fashioned specialty. However, solar physics owes its first insights into solar structure to various analogies in terrestrial atmospheric studies. The present investigation intends to elucidate this fact, to present details of the historical development, and to demonstrate how our present knowledge in certain fields is based on considerations which were originally taken from the description of the terrestrial atmosphere.

  1. Solar panel cleaning robot

    Nalladhimmu, Pavan Kumar Reddy; Priyadarshini, S.

    2018-04-01

    As the demand of electricity is increasing, there is need to using the renewable sources to produce the energy at present of power shortage, the use of solar energy could be beneficial to great extent and easy to get the maximum efficiency. There is an urgent in improving the efficiency of solar power generation. Current solar panels setups take a major power loss when unwanted obstructions cover the surface of the panels. To make solar energy more efficiency of solar array systems must be maximized efficiency evaluation of PV panels, that has been discussed with particular attention to the presence of dust on the efficiency of the PV panels have been highlighted. This paper gives the how the solar panel cleaning system works and designing of the cleaning system.

  2. Central American Climatology

    1985-04-01

    Central America, as where mean temperatures are relatively warm throughout the year de- so spite seasonal rainfall changes. 75 Elevation, solar angle...November 1982 Control Hidalgo Anos.1952-1963, Republica de Nicaragua, Ministerio de Formento Y O0.PP, Comision Nacional de Energia . Craig, Richard A., The

  3. Major Links.

    Henderson, Tona

    1995-01-01

    Provides electronic mail addresses for resources and discussion groups related to the following academic majors: art, biology, business, chemistry, computer science, economics, health sciences, history, literature, math, music, philosophy, political science, psychology, sociology, and theater. (AEF)

  4. Major Roads

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for major roads (interstates and trunk highways) found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. These roadways are current...

  5. Disentangling the major source areas for an intense aerosol advection in the Central Mediterranean on the basis of Potential Source Contribution Function modeling of chemical and size distribution measurements

    Petroselli, Chiara; Crocchianti, Stefano; Moroni, Beatrice; Castellini, Silvia; Selvaggi, Roberta; Nava, Silvia; Calzolai, Giulia; Lucarelli, Franco; Cappelletti, David

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we combined a Potential Source Contribution Function (PSCF) analysis of daily chemical aerosol composition data with hourly aerosol size distributions with the aim to disentangle the major source areas during a complex and fast modulating advection event impacting on Central Italy in 2013. Chemical data include an ample set of metals obtained by Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE), main soluble ions from ionic chromatography and elemental and organic carbon (EC, OC) obtained by thermo-optical measurements. Size distributions have been recorded with an optical particle counter for eight calibrated size classes in the 0.27-10 μm range. We demonstrated the usefulness of the approach by the positive identification of two very different source areas impacting during the transport event. In particular, biomass burning from Eastern Europe and desert dust from Sahara sources have been discriminated based on both chemistry and size distribution time evolution. Hourly BT provided the best results in comparison to 6 h or 24 h based calculations.

  6. Solar Energy - It's Growth, Development, and Use

    dropdown arrow Site Map A-Z Index Menu Synopsis Solar Energy Resources with Additional Information Solar has played a major role in solar energy development through previous research and ongoing activities . As a result of research and development, the "cost of solar energy has been reduced 100-fold

  7. Solar Features - Solar Flares

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A solar flare is a short-lived sudden increase in the intensity of radiation emitted in the neighborhood of sunspots. For many years it was best monitored in the...

  8. Solar storms; Tormentas solares

    Collaboration: Pereira Cuesta, S.; Pereira Pagan, B.

    2016-08-01

    Solar storms begin with an explosion, or solar flare, on the surface of the sun. The X-rays and extreme ultraviolet radiation from the flare reach the Earths orbit minutes later-travelling at light speed. The ionization of upper layers of our atmosphere could cause radio blackouts and satellite navigation errors (GPS). Soon after, a wave of energetic particles, electrons and protons accelerated by the explosion crosses the orbit of the Earth, and can cause real and significant damage. (Author)

  9. Solar thermal power plants

    Schnatbaum, L.

    2009-01-01

    The solar thermal power plant technology, the opportunities it presents and the developments in the market are outlined. The focus is on the technology of parabolic trough power plants, a proven technology for solar power generation on a large scale. In a parabolic trough power plant, trough-shaped mirrors concentrate the solar irradiation onto a pipe in the focal line of the collector. The thermal energy thus generated is used for electricity generation in a steam turbine. Parabolic trough plants can be combined with thermal storage and fossil or biomass fired heat exchangers to generate electricity even when the sun is not shining. Solar Millennium AG in Erlangen has developed the first power plant of this kind in Europe. After two years of construction the plant started operation in Southern Spain in 2008. This one and its sister projects are important steps leading the way for the whole market. The paper also covers the technological challenges, the key components used and the research and development activities concerning this technology. Solar thermal power plants are ideal for covering peak and medium loads in power grids. In hybrid operation they can also cover base-load. The Solar Chimney power plant, another striking technology for the conversion of solar into electric energy, is described briefly. The paper concludes with a look at the future - the import of solar energy from the deserts of North Africa to central Europe. (author)

  10. Sunmotor Solar Shack 120

    Jensen, E.

    2009-01-01

    This article described a solar pump that was developed by Alberta-based Sunmotor International Ltd. The prototype Solar Shack 120 was recently deployed in central Alberta for a remediation project for Devon Canada. The portable solar pump unit is well suited for environmental remediation in the oilpatch where conventional electricity is not available. The solar panels automatically run the pump whenever there is enough sunlight and there is liquid in the sump. Devon Canada wanted a system that continues to pump during cloudy weather to avoid the accumulation of effluent in the sump. The Solar Shack 120 delivers 120 volts of alternating current (vac) power. Solar panels are used to charge a bank of large sealed batteries that supply direct power (DC) to an inverter, which converts it into AC. A thermostat control was added to shut off the pumps in cold weather to avoid battery discharging. The Solar Shack unit has possibilities in countries with unreliable electricity supplies. It could provide a backup power supply that automatically kicks in whenever the power grid goes down. Sunmotor International Ltd. can supply complete remote power systems for both AC and DC electrical requirements. The systems are designed for each application to ensure customer satisfaction. The company is currently building a unit that integrates solar power with a generator backup, thereby eliminating the annoying noise of a continually running generator. 1 fig

  11. Solar solution

    Shi Zhengrong

    2009-01-01

    China is facing enormous energy challenges. Everyone seems to know that we need to increase our energy supply by the equivalent of one power plant per week to support China's economic growth, which is allowing millions of people to enjoy better standards of living. Much less is known of the extent to which China has taken steps to mitigate the impact of that growing energy demand through incentives for greater efficiency and renewable energy. Policies include: Cutting energy intensity - 20 per cent between 2005 and 2010, saving five times as much CO 2 as the EU's goals. Cutting major pollutants by 10 per cent by 2010. Setting one of the world's most aggressive renewable energy standards: 15 per cent of national energy from renewables by 2020. Setting targets of 300 megawatts of installed solar by 2010, and 1.8 gigawatts by 2020, in the 2007 National Development and Reform Commission Renewable Energy Development Plan. Dedicating $180 billion for renewable energy by 2020. Imposing energy efficiency targets for the top 1,000 companies, a measure with greater carbon savings potential than most Western initiatives. Establishing building energy codes in all regions and extensive efficiency standards for appliances, which will be particularly important as China continues to grow. Targeting new buildings in major cities like Beijing, Shanghai and Chongqing, to achieve 65 per cent greater energy efficiency than local codes require. Closing thousands of older, smaller, dirtier power plants by 2010. China understands the economic development potential in clean energy technologies. Even the noted journalist Thomas Friedman has remarked that 'China is going green in a big way,' using domestic demand for cleaner energy to build low-cost, scalable green technologies. Suntech Power Holdings - now the world's largest solar photovoltaic (PV) module manufacturer, with operations around the globe - was just one of dozens of solar companies that realised the opportunity provided by

  12. Solar opacities constrained by solar neutrinos and solar oscillations

    Cox, A.N.

    1989-01-01

    This review discusses the current situation for opacities at the solar center, the solar surface, and for the few million kelvin temperatures that occur below the convection zone. The solar center conditions are important because they are crucial for the neutrino production, which continues to be predicted about 4 times that observed. The main extinction effects there are free-free photon absorption in the electric fields of the hydrogen, helium and the CNO atoms, free electron scattering of photons, and the bound-free and bound-bound absorption of photons by iron atoms with two electrons in the 1s bound level. An assumption that the iron is condensed-out below the convection zone, and the opacity in the central regions is thereby reduced, results in about a 25 percent reduction in the central opacity but only a 5 percent reduction at the base of the convection zone. Furthermore, the p-mode solar oscillations are changed with this assumption, and do not fit the observed ones as well as for standard models. A discussion of the large effective opacity reduction by weakly interacting massive particles also results in poor agreement with observed p-mode oscillation frequencies. The much larger opacities for the solar surface layers from the Los Alamos Astrophysical Opacity Library instead of the widely used Cox and Tabor values show small improvements in oscillation frequency predictions, but the largest effect is in the discussion of p-mode stability. Solar oscillation frequencies can serve as an opacity experiment for the temperatures and densities, respectively, of a few million kelvin and between 0.1 and 10 g/cm 3 . Current oscillation frequency calculations indicate that possibly the Opacity Library values need an increase of typically 15 percent just at the bottom of the convection zone at 3 x 10 6 K. 41 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab

  13. Solar Thermal Power.

    McDaniels, David K.

    The different approaches to the generation of power from solar energy may be roughly divided into five categories: distributed collectors; central receivers; biomass; ocean thermal energy conversion; and photovoltaic devices. The first approach (distributed collectors) is the subject of this module. The material presented is designed to…

  14. The Solar Bank concept

    Eckhart, M.T.

    1999-01-01

    The Solar Bank is proposed to be established as a multinational wholesale lending institution supporting the adoption of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems by as much as 40% of the world's population. It would supply capital resources to local lending institutions such as banks, credit unions, cooperatives, and rural lending organizations in the developing countries, and to financial institutions in the developed countries. The Solar Bank is intended to be global in scope, with operations in the major countries. The Solar Bank will bring a degree of standardization to the process of making small loans to many people for the purchase of PV systems, and it will provide technical support and training to its participating financial institutions. 'Solar Bank International' is likely to be headquartered in Europe. (orig.)

  15. Solar Energy.

    Eaton, William W.

    Presented is the utilization of solar radiation as an energy resource principally for the production of electricity. Included are discussions of solar thermal conversion, photovoltic conversion, wind energy, and energy from ocean temperature differences. Future solar energy plans, the role of solar energy in plant and fossil fuel production, and…

  16. Large Scale Solar Heating

    Heller, Alfred

    2001-01-01

    The main objective of the research was to evaluate large-scale solar heating connected to district heating (CSDHP), to build up a simulation tool and to demonstrate the application of the simulation tool for design studies and on a local energy planning case. The evaluation was mainly carried out...... model is designed and validated on the Marstal case. Applying the Danish Reference Year, a design tool is presented. The simulation tool is used for proposals for application of alternative designs, including high-performance solar collector types (trough solar collectors, vaccum pipe collectors......). Simulation programs are proposed as control supporting tool for daily operation and performance prediction of central solar heating plants. Finaly the CSHP technolgy is put into persepctive with respect to alternatives and a short discussion on the barries and breakthrough of the technology are given....

  17. Solar energy

    Rapp, D.

    1981-01-01

    The book opens with a review of the patterns of energy use and resources in the United States, and an exploration of the potential of solar energy to supply some of this energy in the future. This is followed by background material on solar geometry, solar intensities, flat plate collectors, and economics. Detailed attention is then given to a variety of solar units and systems, including domestic hot water systems, space heating systems, solar-assisted heat pumps, intermediate temperature collectors, space heating/cooling systems, concentrating collectors for high temperatures, storage systems, and solar total energy systems. Finally, rights to solar access are discussed.

  18. Solar Combisystems

    Thür, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    This note first introduces what is a solar combisystem, the structure how a solar combisystem is build up and what are criteria’s to evaluate a solar combisystem concept. Further on the main components of a solar combisystem, the main characteristics and possible advantages and disadvantages...... compared to each other are described. It is not the goal of this note to explain the technical details how to design all components of a solar combisystem. This is done during other lectures of the solar course and in other basic courses as well. This note tries to explain how a solar combisystem...

  19. Lessons learned from solar energy projects in Saudi Arabia

    Huraib, F.S.; Hasnain, S.M.; Alawaji, S.H.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the lessons learned from the major RD and D activities at Energy Research Institute (ERI), King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) in the field of solar energy. Photovoltaic, solar thermal dishes, solar water heating, solar water pumping and desalination, solar hydrogen production and utilization are some of the areas studied for solar energy applications. Recommendations and guidelines for future solar energy research, development, demonstration and dissemination in Saudi Arabia are also given. (Author)

  20. Solar Systems

    1979-01-01

    The solar collectors shown are elements of domestic solar hot water systems produced by Solar One Ltd., Virginia Beach, Virginia. Design of these systems benefited from technical expertise provided Solar One by NASA's Langley Research Center. The company obtained a NASA technical support package describing the d e sign and operation of solar heating equipment in NASA's Tech House, a demonstration project in which aerospace and commercial building technology are combined in an energy- efficient home. Solar One received further assistance through personal contact with Langley solar experts. The company reports that the technical information provided by NASA influenced Solar One's panel design, its selection of a long-life panel coating which increases solar collection efficiency, and the method adopted for protecting solar collectors from freezing conditions.

  1. Measurements of Solar Vector Magnetic Fields

    Hagyard, M. J. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    Various aspects of the measurement of solar magnetic fields are presented. The four major subdivisions of the study are: (1) theoretical understanding of solar vector magnetic fields; (3) techniques for interpretation of observational data; and (4) techniques for data display.

  2. Measurements of Solar Vector Magnetic Fields

    Hagyard, M.J.

    1985-05-01

    Various aspects of the measurement of solar magnetic fields are presented. The four major subdivisions of the study are: (1) theoretical understanding of solar vector magnetic fields; (3) techniques for interpretation of observational data; and (4) techniques for data display

  3. Solar radiophysics

    McLean, D.J.; Labrum, N.R.

    1985-01-01

    This book treats all aspects of solar radioastronomy at metre wavelengths, particularly work carried out on the Australian radioheliograph at Culgoora, with which most of the authors have been associated in one way or another. After an introductory section on historical aspects, the solar atmosphere, solar flares, and coronal radio emission, the book deals with instrumentation, theory, and details of observations and interpretations of the various aspects of metrewave solar radioastronomy, including burst types, solar storms, and the quiet sun. (U.K.)

  4. In the world of solar technology

    Tomson, T.

    1993-01-01

    The paper gives a short survey of the development of solar electrical and thermal technologies. The thermal solar technology is also applicable in Estonia with the view of using our local industrial potential. The theoretical solar resource in Estonia is 977 kWh/m 2 per year, which will make it possible to build (central) heating systems with partial solar fraction by using the method of seasonal storage. The technological solar resource can be improved by using an inter medial storage and heat pump between the solar collector and the main storage in the process of charging. (author). fig., 2 refs

  5. Geodynamic control on melt production in the central Azores : new insights from major and trace elements, Sr, Nd, Pb, Hf isotopic data and K/Ar ages on the islands of Terceira, Sao Jorge and Faial

    Hildenbrand, A.; Weis, D. A.; Madureira, P.; Marques, F. O.

    2012-12-01

    dilute expression of the enriched components. In contrast, the youngest lavas (< 750 ka) erupted along the N110 main structural direction on the three islands are significantly enriched in LILE and LREE, and generally have variable but more radiogenic isotopic compositions. Such characteristics suggest low-degree partial melting and greater incorporation of fertile residual mantle anomalies during passive tectonic reactivation of pre-existing transform faults promoted by recent ridge-push at the MAR. We propose that sub-aerial volcanism over the last 1.3 Myr in the central Azores recorded a sudden change in the conditions of melt generation which most probably reveals a major reconfiguration of regional deformation accompanying the recent geodynamic reorganization of the Eurasia-Nubia plate boundary.

  6. Energetic solar particles

    Biswas, M.

    1975-01-01

    In this review, some of the important aspects of energetic solar particles and their relation to solar physics are discussed. The major aspects of solar cosmic ray studies currently under investigation are identified and attention is focussed on the problems of the physical processes in the sun which may be responsible for these phenomena. The studies of the composition and energy spectra of solar cosmic ray nuclei are related to the basic problem of particle acceleration process in sun and to the composition of elements in solar atmosphere. The composition of higher energy (>20 MeV/amu) multiply charged nuclei of He, C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si and Fe give information on the abundance of elements in the solar atmosphere. At lower energies (approximately 1-10 MeV/amu), the abundances of these elements show enhancements relative to solar abundances and these enhancements are believed to be due to particle acceleration mechanisms operative in the sun which are not fully understood at present. Studies of the relative abundances of H 2 , H 3 and He 3 isotopes and Li, Be, B nuclei in the solar cosmic rays can also be studied. The question of the relationship of the accelerated particles in the sun to the optical flare phenomena is discussed. Further studies of different aspects of these phenomena may give important clues to a wide ranging phenomena in the active sun. The observational methods employed for these studies are mentioned. (A.K.)

  7. Large-scale solar heating

    Tolonen, J.; Konttinen, P.; Lund, P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Advanced Energy Systems

    1998-10-01

    Solar heating market is growing in many European countries and annually installed collector area has exceeded one million square meters. There are dozens of collector manufacturers and hundreds of firms making solar heating installations in Europe. One tendency in solar heating is towards larger systems. These can be roof integrated, consisting of some tens or hundreds of square meters of collectors, or they can be larger centralized solar district heating plants consisting of a few thousand square meters of collectors. The increase of size can reduce the specific investments of solar heating systems, because e.g. the costs of some components (controllers, pumps, and pipes), planning and installation can be smaller in larger systems. The solar heat output can also be higher in large systems, because more advanced technique is economically viable

  8. Solar structure without computers

    Clayton, D.D.

    1986-01-01

    We derive succinctly the equations of solar structure. We first present models of objects in hydrostatic equilibrium that fail as models of the sun in order to illustrate important physical requirements. Then by arguing physically that the pressure gradient can be matched to the simple function dP/dr = -kre/sup( -r//a) 2 , we derive a complete analytic representation of the solar interior in terms of a one-parameter family of models. Two different conditions are then used to select the appropriate value of the parameter specifying the best model within the family: (1) the solar luminosity is equated to the thermonuclear power generated near the center and/or (2) the solar luminosity is equated to the radiative diffusion of energy from a central region. The two methods of selecting the parameter agree to within a few percent. The central conditions of the sun are well calculated by these analytic formulas, all without aid of a computer. This is an original treatment, yielding much the best description of the solar center to be found by methods of differential and integral calculus, rendering it an excellent laboratory for applied calculus

  9. 钙钛矿太阳电池的工作机理及性能的主要影响因素%Perovskite Solar Cells:Work Mechanism and Major Factors Affecting Their Performances

    钱柳; 丁黎明

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites were first introduced to photovoltaic community in 2009 . In subsequent years, the power conversion efficiency has increased from 3. 8% to ~20%, leaving dye-sensitized solar cells and bulk-heterojunction solar cells far behind. “Perovskite” is a crystal possessing the same crystal structure as calcium titanate, namely, ABX3 . Perovskites have unique properties, like broad absorption spec-tra, high absorption coefficient, ambipolar charge transport, long exciton lifetime and very low binding energy of exciton. Currently, the architecture of perovskite solar cells has been simplified from meso-structured solar cells to planar-heterojunction solar cells, getting closer to the low-cost, high-efficiency target for practical application. Many innovative researches are pushing the application of this new photovoltaic material to the cli-max . This review summarizes the working mechanism of perovskite solar cells and expounds several key factors affecting device performance, i. e. components, crystallization and morphology, transport layers, electrode materials and planted bulk-heterojunction. However, we should note that perovskites have some drawbacks im-peding its commercialization. Perovskites are sensitive to oxygen and water vapor, making the solar cells un-stable in the ambient;it is challenging to prepare large films because the morphology of perovskite film is diffi-cult to control;the use of the toxic metal, lead, will also undermine the credit earned by their outstanding photovoltaic performance. It is very important for us to understand those mechanism and factors affecting de-vice performance, and to find approaches to deal with instability, toxicity, and bad morphology.%本文综合评述了钙钛矿太阳电池的重要研究成果,解释了其工作机理并总结了影响电池性能的关键因素:钙钛矿化学组成、结晶与形貌、传输层、电极和体异质结等。对钙钛矿太阳电池的未来发展进行了展望。

  10. Solar energy

    Kruisheer, N.

    1992-01-01

    In five brief articles product information is given on solar energy applications with special attention to the Netherlands. After an introduction on solar energy availability in the Netherlands the developments in solar boiler techniques are dealt with. Solar water heaters have advantages for the environment, and government subsidies stimulate different uses of such water heaters. Also the developments of solar cells show good prospects, not only for developing countries, but also for the industrialized countries. In brief the developments in solar energy storage and the connection of solar equipment to the grid are discussed. Finally attention is paid to the applications of passive solar energy in the housing construction, the use of transparent thermal insulation and the developments of translucent materials. 18 figs., 18 ills

  11. Solar Imagery

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of solar photographic and illustrated datasets contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide....

  12. Solar Features

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of solar feature datasets contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide.

  13. Solar Indices

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  14. Solar Special

    Van Roekel, A.; Osborne, J.; Schroeter, S.; De Jong, R.; De Saint Jacob, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Solar power is growing much faster than most policymakers and analysts realise. As costs come down and feed-in tariffs go up across Europe, a number of countries have started in pursuit of market leader Germany. But in Germany criticism is growing of the multi-billion-euro support schemes that keep the solar industry booming. In this section of the magazine several articles are dedicated to developments in solar energy in Europe. The first article is an overview story on the strong growing global market for solar cells, mainly thanks to subsidy schemes. The second article is on the position of foreign companies in the solar market in Italy. Article number three is dedicated to the conditions for solar technology companies to establish themselves in the German state of Saxony. Also the fifth article deals with the development of solar cells in Saxony: scientists, plant manufacturers and module producers in Saxony are working on new technologies that can be used to produce solar electricity cost-effectively. The goal is to bring the price down to match that of conventionally generated electricity within the next few years. The sixth article deals with the the solar power market in Belgium, which may be overheated or 'oversubsidized'. Article seven is on France, which used to be a pioneer in solar technology, but now produces only a fraction of the solar output of market leader Germany. However, new attractive feed-in-tariffs are changing the solar landscape drastically

  15. Photovoltaic solar cell

    Nielson, Gregory N; Okandan, Murat; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Resnick, Paul J

    2013-11-26

    A photovoltaic solar cell for generating electricity from sunlight is disclosed. The photovoltaic solar cell comprises a plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions formed in a semiconductor body to receive the sunlight and generate the electicity therefrom, the plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions having a first plurality of regions having a first doping type and a second plurality of regions having a second doping type. In addition, the photovoltaic solar cell comprises a first electrical contact electrically connected to each of the first plurality of regions and a second electrical contact electrically connected to each of the second plurality of regions, as well as a passivation layer covering major surfaces and sidewalls of the photovoltaic solar cell.

  16. Solar radiation over India

    Mani, A; Rangarajan, S

    1982-01-01

    Solar radiation data, on horizontal and sloped surfaces, are provided derived from other meteorological parameters at 145 stations covering all major climatic zones of the country. Two methods were used to compute solar radiation, one using regression techniques to derive radiation from sunshine and cloudiness, the other from extra-terrestrial radiation, allowing for its depletion by absorption and scattering in the atmosphere. The methods of calculating the daily global radiation tilt factor using an anisotropic model for diffuse solar radiation are described. The results of statistical analysis of global solar radiation data recorded at 16 stations are presented. Appendices contain an extensive bibliograpny, sun path diagrams for latitudes 6/sup 0/N to 36/sup 0/N, and tables for the calculation of Local Apparent Time from Indian Standard Time.

  17. The effect of H2O gas on volatilities of planet-forming major elements. I - Experimental determination of thermodynamic properties of Ca-, Al-, and Si-hydroxide gas molecules and its application to the solar nebula

    Hashimoto, Akihiko

    1992-01-01

    The vapor pressures of Ca(OH)2(g), Al(OH)3(g), and Si(OH)4(g) molecules in equilibrium with solid calcium-, aluminum, and silicon-oxides, respectively, were determined, and were used to derive the heats of formation and entropies of these species, which are expected to be abundant under the currently postulated physical conditions in the primordial solar nebula. These data, in conjunction with thermodynamic data from literature, were used to calculate the relative abundances of M, MO(x), and M(OH)n gas species and relative volatilities of Fe, Mg, Si, Ca, and Al for ranges of temperature, total pressure, and H/O abundance ratio corresponding to the plausible ranges of physical conditions in the solar nebula. The results are used to explain how Ca and Al could have evaporated from Ca,Al-rich inclusions in carbonaceous chondrites, while Si, Mg, and Fe condensed onto them during the preaccretion alteration of CAIs.

  18. Solar Indices - Solar Radio Flux

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  19. Estudio de viabilidad económica de una central termosolar de 50 MW con y sin almacenamiento térmico = Economic feasibility study in a cylindrical-parabolic solar thermal plant of 50 MW with and without thermal storage

    Pedro José Soto Piedehierro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Este articulo trata sobre el estudio de viabilidad económica de una central termosolar cilíndrico-parabólica de 50 MW en el término municipal de Badajoz. Para ver las diferentes alternativas en el diseño y estudio económico de la instalación se han tenido en cuenta dos casos, un primer caso de la central sin almacenamiento térmico y un segundo caso de la central con almacenamiento térmico. La finalidad con la que se presenta este estudio es analizar los diferentes casos y presentar conclusiones al respecto. The aim of this study is to do an economic feasibility study in a cylindrical-parabolic solar thermal plant of 50 MW in Badajoz. Two different cases have been studied, first case the solar thermal plant without thermal storage and the other case, the solar thermal plant with thermal storage (salt tanks. The advantages and disadvantages of the use of each element have also been analyzed.

  20. Solar thermal power: the seamless solar link to the conventional power world

    Geyer, Michael; Quaschning, Volker

    2000-01-01

    This article focuses on solar thermal power generation and describes two solar thermal power concepts, namely, the parabolic trough or solar farm, and the solar central receiver or power tower. Details are given of grid-connected parabolic trough power plants in California and recent developments in collector design and absorber tubes, and the operation of power tower plants with different heat transfer media. Market issues are discussed, and solar thermal power projects under development, and application for support for solar thermal power projects under the Global Environment Facility's Operational Programme by Egypt, India, Iran, Mexico and Morocco are reported

  1. Coupled solar still, solar heater

    Davison, R R; Harris, W B; Moor, D H; Delyannis, A; Delyannis, E [eds.

    1976-01-01

    Computer simulation of combinations of solar stills and solar heaters indicates the probable economic advantage of such an arrangement in many locations if the size of the heater is optimized relative to that of the still. Experience with various low cost solar heaters is discussed.

  2. Solar Sailing

    Johnson, Les

    2009-01-01

    Solar sailing is a topic of growing technical and popular interest. Solar sail propulsion will make space exploration more affordable and offer access to destinations within (and beyond) the solar system that are currently beyond our technical reach. The lecture will describe solar sails, how they work, and what they will be used for in the exploration of space. It will include a discussion of current plans for solar sails and how advanced technology, such as nanotechnology, might enhance their performance. Much has been accomplished recently to make solar sail technology very close to becoming an engineering reality and it will soon be used by the world s space agencies in the exploration of the solar system and beyond. The first part of the lecture will summarize state-of-the-art space propulsion systems and technologies. Though these other technologies are the key to any deep space exploration by humans, robots, or both, solar-sail propulsion will make space exploration more affordable and offer access to distant and difficult destinations. The second part of the lecture will describe the fundamentals of space solar sail propulsion and will describe the near-, mid- and far-term missions that might use solar sails as a propulsion system. The third part of the lecture will describe solar sail technology and the construction of current and future sailcraft, including the work of both government and private space organizations.

  3. Solar Power System SPS - A small-scale 10 kWe solar thermal pilot power plant - Phase 5. Annual report 2003; Solar Power System SPS - Projet d'une mini-centrale pilote electro-thermo-solaire de 10 kWe - Phase 5. Rapport annuel 2003

    Giroud, P.-A.; Gay, B.; Favrat, D.

    2003-12-15

    This illustrated annual report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy reports on the development of components for a 10 kW electric solar thermal mini power plant. The concentrating solar collector is designed as an extra-flat compound parabolic collector without any evacuated component. The solar collector performance measurements are described. The results obtained with this collector prototype are disappointing. Further improvements in the collector construction are needed. A computer simulation model has been developed for this purpose. In another development the instrumentation built in the pilot power plant has been modified in order to be able to characterize the thermal performance of the heat exchangers in the thermodynamical cycle, to measure the oil fraction in the refrigerant and to test the performance of the R245fa refrigerant used instead of the R123. Finally, a new pump has been developed for the circulation of the refrigerant. This pump is mounted on the same axis as the the turbine. Special technologies and materials were required.

  4. Solar Glazing Tips for School Construction

    Smith, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Glazing can be optimized to enhance passive solar heating and daylight harvesting by exceeding the prescriptive limits of the energy code. This savings can be garnered without the high cost of external overhangs or expensive glazing products. The majority of savings from solar glazing are attributable to the increase in solar heating and…

  5. 2005 Solar Decathlon (Competition Program)

    2005-10-01

    The 2005 Solar Decathlon Competition Program is distributed to Solar Decathlon visitors, media, sponsors, and the student competitors. It contains basic facts about the Solar Decathlon: what, where, when, who, and how. It is a guide for visitors to the events and workshops. It describes the 10 contests and the technologies used in the houses. It celebrates the accomplishments of the competitors and provides an opportunity for the major sponsors to describe their roles and relay their commitment to the ideals of the Solar Decathlon.

  6. Theoretical modelling of solar dish concentrator

    Yaaseen Rafeeu; Mohd Zainal Abidin Abdul Kadir; Senan Mohamed Abdulla; Nor Mariah Adam

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies could be one of the major contributor to worlds future energy needs and which would be cheap and clean sources of energy. This would improve energy utilization, higher conversion efficiency with reliable and affordable supply of electricity to the public. The proposed approach is using different size and depth of solar dish concentrators to improve solar fraction using the aluminium foil as reflector. In this paper, different measurement of solar concentrators is investigated and aims to aims to introducing an improved methodology for solar fraction on incoming solar energy in wet climate. (author)

  7. Solar thermal utilization--an overview

    Chen Deming; Xu Gang

    2007-01-01

    Solar energy is an ideal renewable energy source and its thermal utilization is one of its most important applications. We review the status of solar thermal utilization, including: (1) developed technologies which are already widely used all over the world, such as solar assisted water heaters, solar cookers, solar heated buildings and so on; (2) advanced technologies which are still in the development or laboratory stage and could have more innovative applications, including thermal power generation, refrigeration, hydrogen production, desalination, and chimneys; (3) major problems which need to be resolved for advanced utilizaiton of solar thermal energy. (authors)

  8. Solar transit stops on Central Avenue.

    2011-02-01

    This initiative sought to demonstrate existing commercially available transportation technologies for transit customer amenities that could significantly enhance transit experience and attract more riders therefore making the Capital District Tra...

  9. Expressão do complexo de histocompatilidade principal de classe I (MHC I no sistema nervoso central: plasticidade sináptica e regeneração Expresión del complejo principal de histocompatibilidad de clase I (MHC I en el sistema nervioso central: plasticidad sináptica y regeneración Expression of class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC I in the central nervous system: role in synaptic plasticity and regeneration

    Renata Graciele Zanon

    2010-06-01

    consecuencia, con la recuperación funcional. Por consiguiente, estos nuevos aspectos sobre la función del MHC I en el SNC orientan nuevas investigaciones con miras a entender el papel del MHC I en las enfermedades neurológicas y a desarrollar nuevas estrategias terapéuticas.It has been recently demonstrated that the major histocompatibility complex of class I (MHC I expressed in the central nervous system (CNS does not only function as a molecule of the immune system, but also plays a role in the synaptic plasticity. The expression of MHC I influences the intensity and selectivity of elimination of synapses apposed to neurons that were subjected to lesion, besides influencing the reactivity of neighboring glial cells. MHC I expression and the degree of synaptic rearrangement and glial response after injury correlate with differences in the regenerative potential and functional recovery of isogenic mice strains. In this way, the new aspects regarding MHC I functions in the CNS may guide further studies aiming at searching the involvement of MCH I in neurologic disorders, as well as the development of new therapeutic strategies.

  10. Solar Photovoltaic

    Wang, Chen; Lu, Yuefeng

    2016-01-01

    In the 21st century, human demand for new energy sources is urgent, because the traditional fossil energy is unable to meet human needs, and the fossil resource will make pollution, in this situation, solar energy gradually into the vision of scientists. As science advances, humans can already extensive use of solar energy to generate electricity. Solar energy is an inexhaustible and clean energy. In the global energy crisis, environmental pollution is the growing problem of today. The us...

  11. Solar magnetohydrodynamics

    Priest, E.R.

    1982-01-01

    The book serves several purposes. First set of chapters gives a concise general introduction to solar physics. In a second set the basic methods of magnetohydrodynamics are developed. A third set of chapters is an account of current theories for observed phenomena. The book is suitable for a course in solar physics and it also provides a comprehensive review of present magnetohydrodynamical models in solar physics. (SC)

  12. Solar possibilities

    Hayes, D

    1979-01-01

    A major energy transition of some kind is inevitable. For rich lands and poor alike, the energy patterns of the past are not prologue to the future. The oil-based societies of the industrial world cannot be sustained and cannot be replicated. The huge increases in oil prices since 1973 virtually guarantee that the Third World will never derive most of its energy from petroleum. Gross world oil production is likely to peak within the next decade; per capita world oil production may have already peaked. The world thus faces an awesome discontinuity in the production and use of energy. In the past, such energy transformations invariably produced far-reaching social change. The 18th-century substitution of coal for wood and wind in Europe, for example, accelerated and refashioned the industrial revolution. Later, the shift to petroleum altered the nature of travel, shrinking the planet and reshaping its cities. The coming energy transition can be counted upon to fundamentally alter tomorrow's world. This will be as true of a solar era as of a nuclear age. Sunlight is abundant, dependable, and free. With some minor fluctuations, the sun has been bestowing its bounty on the earth for more than four billion years, and it is expected to continue to do so for several billion more. The use of photovoltaic, wind power, biomass conversion, and hydro power for energy production are also discussed.

  13. Solar constraints

    Provost, J.

    1984-01-01

    Accurate tests of the theory of stellar structure and evolution are available from the Sun's observations. The solar constraints are reviewed, with a special attention to the recent progress in observing global solar oscillations. Each constraint is sensitive to a given region of the Sun. The present solar models (standard, low Z, mixed) are discussed with respect to neutrino flux, low and high degree five-minute oscillations and low degree internal gravity modes. It appears that actually there do not exist solar models able to fully account for all the observed quantities. (Auth.)

  14. Solar Simulator

    1981-01-01

    Oriel Corporation's simulators have a high pressure xenon lamp whose reflected light is processed by an optical system to produce a uniform solar beam. Because of many different types of applications, the simulators must be adjustable to replicate many different areas of the solar radiation spectrum. Simulators are laboratory tools for such purposes as testing and calibrating solar cells, or other solar energy systems, testing dyes, paints and pigments, pharmaceuticals and cosmetic preparations, plant and animal studies, food and agriculture studies and oceanographic research.

  15. Solar System Dynamics

    Wisdom, Jack

    2002-01-01

    In these 18 years, the research has touched every major dynamical problem in the solar system, including: the effect of chaotic zones on the distribution of asteroids, the delivery of meteorites along chaotic pathways, the chaotic motion of Pluto, the chaotic motion of the outer planets and that of the whole solar system, the delivery of short period comets from the Kuiper belt, the tidal evolution of the Uranian arid Galilean satellites, the chaotic tumbling of Hyperion and other irregular satellites, the large chaotic variations of the obliquity of Mars, the evolution of the Earth-Moon system, and the resonant core- mantle dynamics of Earth and Venus. It has introduced new analytical and numerical tools that are in widespread use. Today, nearly every long-term integration of our solar system, its subsystems, and other solar systems uses algorithms that was invented. This research has all been primarily Supported by this sequence of PGG NASA grants. During this period published major investigations of tidal evolution of the Earth-Moon system and of the passage of the Earth and Venus through non-linear core-mantle resonances were completed. It has published a major innovation in symplectic algorithms: the symplectic corrector. A paper was completed on non-perturbative hydrostatic equilibrium.

  16. Solar cooking

    Over two billion people face fuel wood shortages, causing tremendous personal and environmental stress. Over 4 million people die prematurely from indoor air pollution. Solar cooking can reduce fuel wood consumption and indoor air pollution. Solar cooking has been practiced and published since th...

  17. Solar Sprint

    Tabor, Richard; Anderson, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    In the "Solar Sprint" activity, students design, test, and race a solar-powered car built with Legos. The use of ratios is incorporated to simulate the actual work of scientists and engineers. This method encourages fourth-grade students to think about multiple variables and stimulates their curiosity when an activity doesn't come out as…

  18. MHD effects of the solar wind flow around planets

    H. K. Biernat

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of the interaction of the solar wind with magnetized and unmagnetized planets forms a central topic of space research. Focussing on planetary magnetosheaths, we review some major developments in this field. Magnetosheath structures depend crucially on the orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field, the solar wind Alfvén Mach number, the shape of the obstacle (axisymmetric/non-axisymmetric, etc., the boundary conditions at the magnetopause (low/high magnetic shear, and the degree of thermal anisotropy of the plasma. We illustrate the cases of Earth, Jupiter and Venus. The terrestrial magnetosphere is axisymmetric and has been probed in-situ by many spacecraft. Jupiter's magnetosphere is highly non-axisymmetric. Furthermore, we study magnetohydrodynamic effects in the Venus magnetosheath.

  19. A survey of manufacturers of solar thermal energy systems

    Levine, N.; Slonski, M. L.

    1982-01-01

    Sixty-seven firms that had received funding for development of solar thermal energy systems (STES) were surveyed. The effect of the solar thermal technology systems program in accelerating (STES) were assessed. The 54 firms still developing STES were grouped into a production typology comparing the three major technologies with three basic functions. It was discovered that large and small firms were developing primarily central receiver systems, but also typically worked on more than one technology. Most medium-sized firms worked only on distributed systems. Federal support of STES was perceived as necessary to allow producers to take otherwise unacceptable risks. Approximately half of the respondents would drop out of STES if support were terminated, including a disproportionate number of medium-sized firms. A differentiated view of the technology, taking into account differing firm sizes and the various stages of technology development, was suggested for policy and planning purposes.

  20. Liquid metal cooling concepts in solar power application

    Deegan, P.B.; Mangus, J.D.; Whitlow, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    The thermodynamic and thermophysical properties and proven technology of a liquid sodium heat transport system provide numerous advantages and benefits for application in a central receiver solar thermal power plant concept. The major advantages of utilizing liquid sodium are: attainment of high thermodynamic cycle efficiencies, reduced relative costs, and achievement of these goals by the mid-1980's through the utilization of proven liquid metal technology developed in the power industry, without the need for extensive development programs. The utilization of liquid sodium reduces the complexity of the design of these systems, thus providing confidence in system reliability. The implementation of the proven technology in liquid metal systems also provides assurance of reliability. In addition, the ease of transition from liquid metal breeder reactor systems to solar application provides immediate availability of this technology

  1. Solar energy: photovoltaics

    Goetzberger, A.; Voss, B.; Knobloch, J.

    1994-01-01

    This textbooks covers the following topics: foundations of photovoltaics, solar energy, P-N junctions, physics of solar cells, high-efficiency solar cells, technology of Si solar cells, other solar cells, photovoltaic applications. (orig.)

  2. Materials and processes for solar fuel production

    Viswanathan, Balasubramanian; Lee, Jae Sung

    2014-01-01

    This book features different approaches to non-biochemical pathways for solar fuel production. This one-of-a-kind book addresses photovoltaics, photocatalytic water splitting for clean hydrogen production and CO2 conversion to hydrocarbon fuel through in-depth comprehensive contributions from a select blend of established and experienced authors from across the world. The commercial application of solar based systems, with particular emphasis on non-PV based devices have been discussed. This book intends to serve as a primary resource for a multidisciplinary audience including chemists, engineers and scientists providing a one-stop location for all aspects related to solar fuel production. The material is divided into three sections: Solar assisted water splitting to produce hydrogen; Solar assisted CO2 utilization to produce green fuels and Solar assisted electricity generation. The content strikes a balance between theory, material synthesis and application with the central theme being solar fuels.

  3. Solar potential in Turkey

    Soezen, Adnan; Arcaklioglu, Erol

    2005-01-01

    Most of the locations in Turkey receive abundant solar-energy, because Turkey lies in a sunny belt between 36 deg. and 42 deg. N latitudes. Average annual temperature is 18 to 20 deg. C on the south coast, falls to 14-16 deg. C on the west coat, and fluctuates between 4 and 18 deg. C in the central parts. The yearly average solar-radiation is 3.6 kW h/m 2 day, and the total yearly radiation period is ∼2610 h. In this study, a new formulation based on meteorological and geographical data was developed to determine the solar-energy potential in Turkey using artificial neural-networks (ANNs). Scaled conjugate gradient (SCG), Pola-Ribiere conjugate gradient (CGP), and Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) learning algorithms and logistic sigmoid (logsig) transfer function were used in the networks. Meteorological data for last four years (2000-2003) from 12 cities (Canakkale, Kars, Hakkari, Sakarya, Erzurum, Zonguldak, Balikesir, Artvin, Corum, Konya, Siirt, and Tekirdag) spread over Turkey were used in order to train the neural-network. Meteorological and geographical data (latitude, longitude, altitude, month, mean sunshine-duration, and mean temperature) are used in the input layer of the network. Solar-radiation is in the output layer. The maximum mean absolute percentage error was found to be less than 3.832% and R 2 values to be about 99.9738% for the selected stations. The ANN models show greater accuracy for evaluating solar-resource possibilities in regions where a network of monitoring stations has not been established in Turkey. This study confirms the ability of the ANN to predict solar-radiation values accurately

  4. Solar Newsletter | Solar Research | NREL

    more about work by this consortium, which crosses national laboratories, on new materials and designs information on NREL's research and development of solar technologies. To receive new issues by email prize, focused on solar energy technologies, and will release the prize rules and open registration

  5. Solar electricity and solar fuels

    Spiers, David J.

    1989-04-01

    The nature of solar radiation and its variation with location is described. The distribution of energy in the solar spectrum places immediate limits on the theoretical efficiency of conversion processes, since practical absorbers cannot convert all wavelengths received to useful energy. The principles of solar energy conversion methods are described. Absorption of solar energy can give rise to direct electrical generation, heating, or chemical change. Electrical generation from sunlight can be achieved by photovoltaic systems directly or by thermal systems which use solar heat to drive a heat engine and generator. The technology used and under research for promising ways of producing electricity or fuel from solar energy is described. Photovoltaic technology is established today for remote area, small power applications, and photovoltaic module sales alone are over 100 million dollars per year at present. The photovoltaic market has grown steadily since the mid-1970's, as prices have fallen continuously. Future energy options are briefly described. The merits of a sustainable energy economy, based on renewable energy resources, including solar energy, are emphasized, as this seems to provide the only hope of eliminating the problems caused by the build-up of atmospheric carbon dioxide, acid rain pollution and nuclear waste disposal. There is no doubt that clean fuels which were derived from solar energy and either did not involve carbon dioxide and used atmospheric carbon dioxide as the source dioxide as the source of carbon would be a worthy ideal. Methods described could one day achieve this.

  6. Solar magnetohydrodynamics

    Priest, E.R.

    1982-01-01

    Solar MHD is an important tool for understanding many solar phenomena. It also plays a crucial role in explaining the behaviour of more general cosmical magnetic fields and plasmas, since the Sun provides a natural laboratory in which such behaviour may be studied. While terrestrial experiments are invaluable in demonstrating general plasma properties, conclusions from them cannot be applied uncritically to solar plasmas and have in the past given rise to misconceptions about solar magnetic field behaviour. Important differences between a laboratory plasma on Earth and the Sun include the nature of boundary conditions, the energy balance, the effect of gravity and the size of the magnetic Reynolds number (generally of order unity on the Earth and very much larger on the Sun). The overall structure of the book is as follows. It begins with two introductory chapters on solar observations and the MHD equations. Then the fundamentals of MHD are developed in chapters on magnetostatics, waves, shocks, and instabilities. Finally, the theory is applied to the solar phenomena of atmospheric heating, sunspots, dynamos, flares, prominences, and the solar wind. (Auth.)

  7. Solar leaps from the shadow

    Bezat, Jean-Michel; Leplatre, Simon

    2017-01-01

    This article comments the massive development of solar energy in many countries due to a significant decrease of solar array cost, to massive investments and to environmental constraints. More than a half of production means installed in 2015 are solar ones. After 50 GW installed in 2015, 70 GW are expected for 2016. Price drop is notably due to the Chinese dominant position. If equipment is cheaper, it has also become more reliable with a longer lifetime. Emerging countries are leaders in terms of development of installations even though China, the USA and Japan still represent the majority of additional capacities in 2015. Technological advances in solar cell technology are evoked. The associated evolution of the World energy mix is also evoked as well as the threat related by recent positions of President Trump in favour of fossil energies. Chinese policy for the environment and for the development of solar energy is briefly presented

  8. Solar collectors

    Hullmann, H; Schmidt, B [Technische Univ. Hannover (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Industrialisierung des Bauens

    1976-01-01

    The utilisation possibilities of solar energy for the energy supplying of buildings are becoming increasingly more significant. Solar research at the moment aims predominantly with a high level of efficiency and therefore making accessible a significant range of applications for solar technology. Parallel to this are attempts to effect the saving of energy, be it in the demand for energy-saving constructions or in the increasing development and application of rational energy utilisation by technologists. The most important point of these activities at the moment, is still technological methods.

  9. Solar neutrinos

    Schatzman, E.

    1983-01-01

    The solar energy is produced by a series of nuclear reactions taking place in the deep interior of the sun. Some of these reactions produce neutrinos which may be detected, the proper detection system being available. The results of the Davis experiment (with 37 Cl) are given, showing a deficiency in the solar neutrino flux. The relevant explanation is either a property of the neutrino or an important change in the physics of the solar models. The prospect of a new experiment (with 71 Ga) is important as it will decide which of the two explanations is correct [fr

  10. Solar Power Tower Design Basis Document, Revision 0

    ZAVOICO,ALEXIS B.

    2001-07-01

    This report contains the design basis for a generic molten-salt solar power tower. A solar power tower uses a field of tracking mirrors (heliostats) that redirect sunlight on to a centrally located receiver mounted on top a tower, which absorbs the concentrated sunlight. Molten nitrate salt, pumped from a tank at ground level, absorbs the sunlight, heating it up to 565 C. The heated salt flows back to ground level into another tank where it is stored, then pumped through a steam generator to produce steam and make electricity. This report establishes a set of criteria upon which the next generation of solar power towers will be designed. The report contains detailed criteria for each of the major systems: Collector System, Receiver System, Thermal Storage System, Steam Generator System, Master Control System, and Electric Heat Tracing System. The Electric Power Generation System and Balance of Plant discussions are limited to interface requirements. This design basis builds on the extensive experience gained from the Solar Two project and includes potential design innovations that will improve reliability and lower technical risk. This design basis document is a living document and contains several areas that require trade-studies and design analysis to fully complete the design basis. Project- and site-specific conditions and requirements will also resolve open To Be Determined issues.

  11. Concentrating Solar Power Projects - Planta Solar 20 | Concentrating Solar

    Power | NREL 20 This page provides information on Planta Solar 20, a concentrating solar power Solar's Planta Solar 20 (PS20) is a 20-megawatt power tower plant being constructed next to the PS10 tower and increasing incident solar radiation capture will increase net electrical power output by 10

  12. Solar Water Heating with Low-Cost Plastic Systems (Brochure)

    2012-01-01

    Newly developed solar water heating technology can help Federal agencies cost effectively meet the EISA requirements for solar water heating in new construction and major renovations. This document provides design considerations, application, economics, and maintenance information and resources.

  13. Full-energy-chain analysis of greenhouse gas emissions for solar thermal electric power generation systems

    Norton, B.; Lawson, W.R.

    1997-01-01

    Technical attributes and environmental impacts of solar thermal options for centralized electricity generation are discussed. In particular, the full-energy-chain, including embodied energy and energy production, is considered in relation to greenhouse gas emission arising from solar thermal electricity generation. Central receiver, parabolic dish, parabolic trough and solar pond systems are considered. (author)

  14. The solar neutrino problem

    Zatsepin, G.

    1982-01-01

    The problem of missing solar neutrinos is reviewed and discussed. The experiments of the 70s show a solar neutrino flux to be 4 times lower than the flux predicted by the standard model of the Sun. The three possible origins of this contradiction are analysed: the cross sections of nuclear reactions going on in the internal region of the Sun must be remeasured; the unknown properties of neutrino, like neutrino oscillation or decay, must be investigated theoretically and experimentally; or the standard model of the Sun must be changed, e.g. by a periodically pulsating star model or by a model describing periodic admixtures of He-3 to the central region of the Sun. Some new models and newly proposed experiments are described. The importance of new electronic detection methods of neutrinos is underlined. (D.Gy.)

  15. Solar thermal repowering systems integration. Final report

    Dubberly, L. J.; Gormely, J. E.; McKenzie, A. W.

    1979-08-01

    This report is a solar repowering integration analysis which defines the balance-of-plant characteristics and costs associated with the solar thermal repowering of existing gas/oil-fired electric generating plants. Solar repowering interface requirements for water/steam and salt or sodium-cooled central receivers are defined for unit sizes ranging from 50 MWe non-reheat to 350 MWe reheat. Finally balance-of-plant cost estimates are presented for each of six combinations of plant type, receiver type and percent solar repowering.

  16. Solar prominences

    Engvold, Oddbjørn

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents the latest research results on solar prominences, including new developments on e.g. chirality, fine structure, magnetism, diagnostic tools and relevant solar plasma physics. In 1875 solar prominences, as seen out of the solar limb, were described by P.A. Secchi in his book Le Soleil as "gigantic pink or peach-flower coloured flames". The development of spectroscopy, coronagraphy and polarimetry brought tremendous observational advances in the twentieth century. The authors present and discuss exciting new challenges (resulting from observations made by space and ground-based telescopes in the 1990s and the first decade of the 21st century) concerning the diagnostics of prominences, their formation, their life time and their eruption along with their impact in the heliosphere (including the Earth). The book starts with a general introduction of the prominence “object” with some historical background on observations and instrumentation. In the next chapter, the various forms of promine...

  17. Solar chulha

    Jadhao, P. H. [Department of Physics J.D. Institute of Engg. & Tech. Yavatmal (India); Patrikar, S. R. [Department of Physics VNIT, Nagpur (India)

    2016-05-06

    The main goal of the proposed system is to transfer energy from sun to the cooking load that is located in the kitchen. The energy is first collected by the solar collector lens system and two curve bars of same radius of curvature are mounted parallel and adjacent to each other at different height the solar collector is clamed on this two bars such that solar collector is exactly perpendicular to sunlight. The topology includes an additional feature which is window in the wall through which the beam is collimated is directed in the of kitchen. The solar energy that is collected is directed by the mirror system into the kitchen, where it is redirected to cooking platform located in the kitchen. The special feature in this system full Indian meal can be made since cooking platform is indoors.

  18. Solar Radio

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Scientists monitor the structure of the solar corona, the outer most regions of the Sun's atmosphere, using radio waves (100?s of MHz to 10?s of GHz). Variations in...

  19. Solar Energy

    Building Design and Construction, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Describes 21 completed projects now using solar energy for heating, cooling, or electricity. Included are elementary schools in Atlanta and San Diego, a technical school in Detroit, and Trinity University in San Antonio, Texas. (MLF)

  20. Solar Pump

    Pique, Charles

    1987-01-01

    Proposed pump moves liquid by action of bubbles formed by heat of sun. Tube of liquid having boiling point of 100 to 200 degrees F placed at focal axis of cylindrical reflector. Concentrated sunlight boils liquid at focus, and bubbles of vapor rise in tube, carrying liquid along with them. Pressure difference in hot tube sufficient to produce flow in large loop. Used with conventional flat solar heating panel in completely solar-powered heat-storage system.

  1. Sensitivity Study of Atmospheric Attenuation in Tower Solar Power Plants with Radiative Trannsfer Models; Estudio de Sensibilidad de la Atenuacion Atmosferica en Centrales Termosolares de Torre con Modelos de Transferencia Radiativa

    Carmero, A.; Polo, J.

    2014-02-01

    Nowadays, solar power tower technology is showing great development and it’s placed as one of the most solar resource exploitation. According to this, it’s necessary exhaustive analysis and studies in order to allow technological progress which gives more technical security and economical reliability with the current technologies. In response to technical development this project is focused on solar attenuation which it will be a large problem in large power tower plant all over the world. This document present the results of the postgraduate work addressed by the author and tutored by Jesús Polo in the Renewable Energy Division of Ciemat.The work was presented at Carlos III University of Madrid in July 2013. (Author)

  2. Solar Schematic

    1979-01-01

    The home shown at right is specially designed to accommodate solar heating units; it has roof planes in four directions, allowing placement of solar collectors for best exposure to the sun. Plans (bottom) and complete working blueprints for the solar-heated house are being marketed by Home Building Plan Service, Portland, Oregon. The company also offers an inexpensive schematic (center) showing how a homeowner only moderately skilled in the use of tools can build his own solar energy system, applicable to new or existing structures. The schematic is based upon the design of a low-cost solar home heating system built and tested by NASA's Langley Research Center; used to supplement a warm-air heating system, it can save the homeowner about 40 percent of his annual heating bill for a modest investment in materials and components. Home Building Plan Service saved considerable research time by obtaining a NASA technical report which details the Langley work. The resulting schematic includes construction plans and simplified explanations of solar heat collection, collectors and other components, passive heat factors, domestic hot water supply and how to work with local heating engineers.

  3. A synthetic method of solar spectrum based on LED

    Wang, Ji-qiang; Su, Shi; Zhang, Guo-yu; Zhang, Jian

    2017-10-01

    A synthetic method of solar spectrum which based on the spectral characteristics of the solar spectrum and LED, and the principle of arbitrary spectral synthesis was studied by using 14 kinds of LED with different central wavelengths.The LED and solar spectrum data were selected by Origin Software firstly, then calculated the total number of LED for each center band by the transformation relation between brightness and illumination and Least Squares Curve Fit in Matlab.Finally, the spectrum curve of AM1.5 standard solar spectrum was obtained. The results met the technical indexes of the solar spectrum matching with ±20% and the solar constant with >0.5.

  4. Modelización numérica del proceso de transferencia de calor, del flujo convectivo inducido y de la potencia generada en una central eólico solar. Poster

    Hurtado, Francisco J.; Sánchez Kaiser, Antonio; Zamora Parra, Blas; Lucas Miralles, Manuel; Viedma Robles, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    La chimenea eólico solar tiene por objeto producir energía eléctrica a partir de la energía del sol. La radiación solar incide sobre el colector que, a modo de invernadero, calienta el aire que hay en su interior. El aire caliente asciende por flotación a través de la chimenea, accionando y haciendo girar mediante este movimiento ascendente la turbina que se encuentra en la base de la chimenea. Esta turbina se conecta a un generador eléctrico que produce la corriente. El sistema está...

  5. Prospects of solar energy in the coastal areas of Nigeria

    Emetere, Moses E., E-mail: moses.emetere@covenantuniversity.edu.ng; Akinyemi, Marvel L., E-mail: samuel.sanni@covenantuniversity.edu.ng [Department of Physics, Covenant University Canaan land, P.M.B 1023, Ota (Nigeria)

    2016-02-01

    The climatic factors in the coastal areas are cogent in planning a stable and functional solar farm. The experiment performed in this study entails a day-to-day solar radiation pattern in coastal areas. The results show that the solar radiation pattern in coastal region portends danger to the performance of solar photovoltaic (PV) module and its lifecycle. The efficiency of the PV module was tested in the harmattan where dust is a major hindrance. The results were related to meteorological parameters which influences the solar radiation over an area. The solar radiation pattern in coastal areas was traced to the solar sectional shading theory which was summarized and explained.

  6. Solar flares, CMEs and solar energetic particle events during solar cycle 24

    Pande, Bimal; Pande, Seema; Chandra, Ramesh; Chandra Mathpal, Mahesh

    2018-01-01

    We present here a study of Solar Energetic Particle Events (SEPs) associated with solar flares during 2010-2014 in solar cycle 24. We have selected the flare events (≥GOES M-class), which produced SEPs. The SEPs are classified into three categories i.e. weak (proton intensity ≤ 1 pfu), minor (1 pfu pfu) and major (proton intensity ≥ 10 pfu). We used the GOES data for the SEP events which have intensity greater than one pfu and SOHO/ERNE data for the SEP event less than one pfu intensity. In addition to the flare and SEP properties, we have also discussed different properties of associated CMEs.

  7. Solar Features - Solar Flares - Patrol

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The H-alpha Flare Patrol identifies time periods each day when the sun is being continuously monitored by select ground-based solar observatories.

  8. Solar Features - Solar Flares - SIDS

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Sudden Ionospheric Disturbance (SID) is any of several radio propagation anomalies due to ionospheric changes resulting from solar or geophysical events.

  9. Solar Energy Innovation Network | Solar Research | NREL

    Energy Innovation Network Solar Energy Innovation Network The Solar Energy Innovation Network grid. Text version The Solar Energy Innovation Network is a collaborative research effort administered (DOE) Solar Energy Technologies Office to develop and demonstrate new ways for solar energy to improve

  10. The Flexible Solar Utility. Preparing for Solar's Impacts to Utility Planning and Operations

    Sterling, John [Solar Electric Power Association (SEPA), Washington, DC (United States); Davidovich, Ted [Solar Electric Power Association (SEPA), Washington, DC (United States); Cory, Karlynn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Aznar, Alexandra [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McLaren, Joyce [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This paper seeks to provide a flexible utility roadmap for identifying the steps that need to be taken to place the utility in the best position for addressing solar in the future. Solar growth and the emergence of new technologies will change the electric utility of tomorrow. Although not every utility, region, or market will change in the same way or magnitude, developing a path forward will be needed to reach the Electric System of the Future in the coming decades. In this report, a series of potential future states are identified that could result in drastically different energy mixes and profiles: 1) Business as Usual, 2) Low Carbon, Centralized Generation, 3) Rapid Distributed Energy Resource Growth, 4) Interactivity of Both the Grid and Demand, and 5) Grid or Load Defection. Complicating this process are a series of emerging disruptions; decisions or events that will cause the electric sector to change. Understanding and preparing for these items is critical for the transformation to any of the future states to be successful. Predicting which future state will predominate 15 years from now is not possible; however, utilities still will need to look ahead and try to anticipate how factors will impact their planning, operations, and business models. In order to dig into the potential transformations facing the utility industry, the authors conducted a series of utility interviews, held a working session at a major industry solar conference, and conducted a quantitative survey. To focus conversations, the authors leveraged the Rapid Distributed Energy Resource (DER) Growth future to draw out how utilities would have to adapt from current processes and procedures in order to manage and thrive in that new environment. Distributed solar was investigated specifically, and could serve as a proxy resource for all distributed generation (DG). It can also provide the foundation for all DERs.

  11. Big Data and central banks

    David Bholat

    2015-01-01

    This commentary recaps a Centre for Central Banking Studies event held at the Bank of England on 2–3 July 2014. The article covers three main points. First, it situates the Centre for Central Banking Studies event within the context of the Bank’s Strategic Plan and initiatives. Second, it summarises and reflects on major themes from the event. Third, the article links central banks’ emerging interest in Big Data approaches with their broader uptake by other economic agents.

  12. The limits to solar thermal electricity

    Trainer, Ted

    2014-01-01

    The potential and limits of solar thermal power systems depend primarily on their capacity to meet electricity demand in mid-winter, and the associated cost, storage and other implications. Evidence on output and costs is analysed. Most attention is given to central receivers. Problems of low radiation levels, embodied energy costs, variability and storage are discussed and are found to set significant difficulties for large scale solar thermal supply in less than ideal latitudes and seasons. It is concluded that for solar thermal systems to meet a large fraction of anticipated global electricity demand in winter would involve prohibitive capital costs. - Highlights: • Output and capital cost data for various solar thermal technologies is examined. • Special attention is given to performance in winter. • Attention is also given to the effect of solar intermittency. • Implications for storage are considered. • It is concluded that there are significant limits to solar thermal power

  13. Solar energy – new photovoltaic technologies

    Sommer-Larsen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Solar energy technologies directly convert sunlight into electricity and heat, or power chemical reactions that convert simple molecules into synthetic chemicals and fuels. The sun is by far the most abundant source of energy, and a sustainable society will need to rely on solar energy as one...... of its major energy sources. Solar energy is a focus point in many strategies for a sustainable energy supply. The European Commission’s Strategic Energy Plan (SET-plan) envisages a Solar Europe Initiative, where photovoltaics and concentrated solar power (CSP) supply as much power as wind mills...... in the future. Much focus is directed towards photovoltaics presently. Installation of solar cell occurs at an unprecedented pace and the expectations of the photovoltaics industry are high: a total PV capacity of 40 GW by 2012 as reported by a recent study. The talk progresses from general solar energy topics...

  14. Solar Coronal Jets: Observations, Theory, and Modeling

    Raouafi, N. E.; Patsourakos, S.; Pariat, E.; Young, P. R.; Sterling, A.; Savcheva, A.; Shimojo, M.; Moreno-Insertis, F.; Devore, C. R.; Archontis, V.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Chromospheric and coronal jets represent important manifestations of ubiquitous solar transients, which may be the source of signicant mass and energy input to the upper solar atmosphere and the solar wind. While the energy involved in a jet-like event is smaller than that of nominal solar ares and Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs), jets share many common properties with these major phenomena, in particular, the explosive magnetically driven dynamics. Studies of jets could, therefore, provide critical insight for understanding the larger, more complex drivers of the solar activity. On the other side of the size-spectrum, the study of jets could also supply important clues on the physics of transients closeor at the limit of the current spatial resolution such as spicules. Furthermore, jet phenomena may hint to basic process for heating the corona and accelerating the solar wind; consequently their study gives us the opportunity to attack a broadrange of solar-heliospheric problems.

  15. Centralized mouse repositories.

    Donahue, Leah Rae; Hrabe de Angelis, Martin; Hagn, Michael; Franklin, Craig; Lloyd, K C Kent; Magnuson, Terry; McKerlie, Colin; Nakagata, Naomi; Obata, Yuichi; Read, Stuart; Wurst, Wolfgang; Hörlein, Andreas; Davisson, Muriel T

    2012-10-01

    Because the mouse is used so widely for biomedical research and the number of mouse models being generated is increasing rapidly, centralized repositories are essential if the valuable mouse strains and models that have been developed are to be securely preserved and fully exploited. Ensuring the ongoing availability of these mouse strains preserves the investment made in creating and characterizing them and creates a global resource of enormous value. The establishment of centralized mouse repositories around the world for distributing and archiving these resources has provided critical access to and preservation of these strains. This article describes the common and specialized activities provided by major mouse repositories around the world.

  16. Solar thermal electricity generation

    Gasemagha, Khairy Ramadan

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the results of modeling the thermal performance and economic feasibility of large (utility scale) and small solar thermal power plants for electricity generation. A number of solar concepts for power systems applications have been investigated. Each concept has been analyzed over a range of plant power ratings from 1 MW(sub e) to 300 MW(sub e) and over a range of capacity factors from a no-storage case (capacity factor of about 0.25 to 0.30) up to intermediate load capacity factors in the range of 0.46 to 0.60. The solar plant's economic viability is investigated by examining the effect of various parameters on the plant costs (both capital and O & M) and the levelized energy costs (LEC). The cost components are reported in six categories: collectors, energy transport, energy storage, energy conversion, balance of plant, and indirect/contingency costs. Concentrator and receiver costs are included in the collector category. Thermal and electric energy transport costs are included in the energy transport category. Costs for the thermal or electric storage are included in the energy storage category; energy conversion costs are included in the energy conversion category. The balance of plant cost category comprises the structures, land, service facilities, power conditioning, instrumentation and controls, and spare part costs. The indirect/contingency category consists of the indirect construction and the contingency costs. The concepts included in the study are (1) molten salt cavity central receiver with salt storage (PFCR/R-C-Salt); (2) molten salt external central receiver with salt storage (PFCR/R-E-Salt); (3) sodium external central receiver with sodium storage (PFCR/RE-Na); (4) sodium external central receiver with salt storage (PFCR/R-E-Na/Salt); (5) water/steam external central receiver with oil/rock storage (PFCR/R-E-W/S); (6) parabolic dish with stirling engine conversion and lead acid battery storage (PFDR/SLAB); (7) parabolic dish

  17. Solar thermal barometer

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, the European solar thermal market put on a strong spurt only to mark time in 2009 with about 4.2 million m 2 installed, which is 450000 m 2 less year-on-year. The main reasons of the decrease is the financial crisis and the low oil price, other reasons more specific to the country exist, for instance the property crisis has dragged the Spanish market down. In 2009, the solar thermal collector surface area in service in the European Union is of the magnitude of 32.6 million m 2 , equivalent to a capacity of 22.8 GWTh. The solar thermal sector is one of the renewable sectors that creates the highest number of jobs and wealth, partly because the vast majority of the system components sold in Europe are produced in Europe and partly because the sale, installation fitting and maintenance are labour-intensive. In 2009, there were 50000 direct or indirect jobs in the European solar thermal sector. The main European actors in this sector are GREENoneTEC, Bosch-Thermotechnik, Viessmann, Vaillant and Solvis. No clear recovery is expected before 2011. (A.C.)

  18. Solar energy. [New Zealand

    Benseman, R.

    1977-10-15

    The potential for solar space heating and solar water heating in New Zealand is discussed. Available solar energy in New Zealand is indicated, and the economics of solar space and water heating is considered. (WHK)

  19. Solarization soil

    Abou Ghraibe, W.

    1995-01-01

    Solar energy could be used in pest control, in soil sterilization technology. The technique consists of covering humid soils by plastic films steadily fixed to the soil. Timing must be in summer during 4-8 weeks, where soil temperature increases to degrees high enough to control pests or to produce biological and chemical changes. The technique could be applied on many pests soil, mainly fungi, bacteria, nematods, weeds and pest insects. The technique could be used in greenhouses as well as in plastic film covers or in orchards where plastic films present double benefits: soil sterilization and production of black mulch. Mechanism of soil solarization is explained. Results show that soil solarization can be used in pest control after fruit crops cultivation and could be a method for an integrated pest control. 9 refs

  20. Solar unit

    Sukhanov, A M; Trushevskiy, S N; Tveryanovich, E V

    1982-01-01

    A solar unit is proposed which contains an inclined solar collector with supply and outlet pipelines, the first of which is connected to the source of a heat carrier, while the second is connected through the valve to the tank for collecting heated heat carrier equipped with a device for recovery. In order to improve the effectiveness of heating the heat carrier, it additionally contains a concentrator of solar radiation and a device for maintaining a level of the heat carrier in the collector in the zone of the focal spot of the concentrator, while the heat pipeline is connected to the source of the heat carrier with the help of a device for maintaining the level of the heat carrier.

  1. Solar cells

    1980-01-01

    A method of producing solar cells is described which consists of producing a substantially monocrystalline tubular body of silicon or other suitable semiconductor material, treating this body to form an annular rectifying junction and then cutting it longitudinally to form a number of nearly flat ribbons from which the solar cells are fabricated. The P=N rectifying junction produced by the formation of silicon dioxide on the layers at the inner and outer surfaces of the body can be formed by ion-implantation or diffusion. (U.K.)

  2. Solar neutrinos

    Phillips, R.J.N.

    1987-09-01

    The problem with solar neutrinos is that there seem to be too few of them, at least near the top end of the spectrum, since the 37 Cl detector finds only about 35% of the standard predicted flux. Various kinds of explanation have been offered: (a) the standard solar model is wrong, (b) neutrinos decay, (c) neutrinos have magnetic moments, (d) neutrinos oscillate. The paper surveys developments in each of these areas, especially the possible enhancement of neutrino oscillations by matter effects and adiabatic level crossing. The prospects for further independent experiments are also discussed. (author)

  3. Concentrating Solar Power Projects - Nevada Solar One | Concentrating Solar

    Power | NREL Nevada Solar One This page provides information on Nevada Solar One, a concentrating solar power (CSP) project, with data organized by background, participants, and power plant configuration. Acciona Energy's Nevada Solar One is the third largest CSP plant in the world and the first plant

  4. Concentrating Solar Power Projects - Khi Solar One | Concentrating Solar

    Power | NREL Khi Solar One This page provides information on Khi Solar One, a concentrating solar power (CSP) project, with data organized by background, parcipants and power plant configuration . Status Date: February 8, 2016 Project Overview Project Name: Khi Solar One Country: South Africa Location

  5. Solar Flares and Their Prediction

    Adams, Mitzi L.

    1999-01-01

    Solar flares and coronal mass ejection's (CMES) can strongly affect the local environment at the Earth. A major challenge for solar physics is to understand the physical mechanisms responsible for the onset of solar flares. Flares, characterized by a sudden release of energy (approx. 10(exp 32) ergs for the largest events) within the solar atmosphere, result in the acceleration of electrons, protons, and heavier ions as well as the production of electromagnetic radiation from hard X-rays to km radio waves (wavelengths approx. = 10(exp -9) cm to 10(exp 6) cm). Observations suggest that solar flares and sunspots are strongly linked. For example, a study of data from 1956-1969, reveals that approx. 93 percent of major flares originate in active regions with spots. Furthermore, the global structure of the sunspot magnetic field can be correlated with flare activity. This talk will review what we know about flare causes and effects and will discuss techniques for quantifying parameters, which may lead to a prediction of solar flares.

  6. Diseño de una central solar termoeléctrica de 50 Mw con 4 horas de almacenamiento con tecnología de canales parabólicos

    Crespo Mencía, Diego

    2010-01-01

    En este proyecto, se detallan la metodología para el diseño de plantas termosolares y se calculan los principales parámetros para el diseño de la misma. El diseño tiene dos partes fundamentales. Por una parte la captación de la energía solar mediante un diseño optimizado del campo solar y por otra parte el diseño de ciclo de conversión de potencia con todos sus componentes auxiliares. La planta escogida tiene una potencia instalada de 50 MWe netos, que es el límite superior de potencia par...

  7. Solar Energy and You.

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    This booklet provides an introduction to solar energy by discussing: (1) how a home is heated; (2) how solar energy can help in the heating process; (3) the characteristics of passive solar houses; (4) the characteristics of active solar houses; (5) how solar heat is stored; and (6) other uses of solar energy. Also provided are 10 questions to…

  8. Solar cycle modulation of ENSO variability

    Kodera, Kunihiko; Thiéblemont, Rémi

    2016-04-01

    Inspired by the work of Labitzke and van Loon on solar/QBO modulation in the stratosphere, Barnett (1989) conducted an investigation on the relationship between the the biannual component of the sea surface temperature (SST) in the equatorial eastern Pacific and the solar activity. He found that the amplitude of biannual component of the SST (BO) is modulated by the 11-year solar cycle: the amplitude of the BO is large during a period of low solar activity, but small during high solar activity. More than 25-years or two solar cycle has passed since his finding, but the relationship still holds. In order to get an insight into the mechanism of the solar modulation of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), here we have revisited this problem. Solar cycle modulation of the BO in the tropical SST is discernible since the end of the 19th centuries, but the amplitude modulation is particularly clear after 1960's. The composite analysis of the SST based on the amplitude of the BO during 1958-2012, indicates that the amplitude of BO is larger when the equatorial Pacific temperature anomalies are high in the central Pacific, but low in the eastern Pacific. Central Pacific anomalies extend to the northern hemisphere, while those in the central Pacific spread toward the southern hemisphere. In short, this anomalous SST pattern is similar to the El Niño modoki. In this connection, it should be noted that the solar signal in the tropical SST also exhibits a similar pattern. This suggests that the modulation of the ENSO variability by the solar cycle originates through a modulation of the El Niño Modoki rather than the canonical El Nino.

  9. Financing Solar Thermal Power Plants

    Kistner, Rainer [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Price, Henry W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    1999-04-14

    The commercialization of concentrating solar power technology took a major step forward in the mid 1980s and early 1990s with the development of the SEGS plants in California. Over the years they have proven that parabolic trough power technologies are the most cost-effective approach for commercial scale solar power generation in the sunbelt countries of the world. However, the question must be asked why no additional solar power plants have been build following the bankruptcy of the developer of the SEGS projects, LUZ International Limited. Although many believe the SEGS projects were a success as a result of parabolic trough technology they employ, in truth, the SEGS projects were developed simply because they represented an attractive opportunity for investors. Simply stated, no additional projects have been developed because no one has been able to put together a similarly attractive financial package to potential investors. More than $1.2 billion in private capital was raised in debt and equity financing for the nine SEGS plants. Investors and bankers who make these investments are the real clients for solar power technologies. They are not interested in annual solar to electric efficiencies, but in risk, return on investments, and coverage ratios. This paper will take a look at solar power projects from the financier’s perspective. The challenge in moving forward is to attract private investors, commercial lenders, and international development agencies and to find innovative solutions to the difficult issues that investment in the global power market poses for solar power technologies.

  10. Financing Solar Thermal Power Plants

    Price, Henry W.; Kistner, Rainer

    1999-01-01

    The commercialization of concentrating solar power technology took a major step forward in the mid 1980s and early 1990s with the development of the SEGS plants in California. Over the years they have proven that parabolic trough power technologies are the most cost-effective approach for commercial scale solar power generation in the sunbelt countries of the world. However, the question must be asked why no additional solar power plants have been build following the bankruptcy of the developer of the SEGS projects, LUZ International Limited. Although many believe the SEGS projects were a success as a result of parabolic trough technology they employ, in truth, the SEGS projects were developed simply because they represented an attractive opportunity for investors. Simply stated, no additional projects have been developed because no one has been able to put together a similarly attractive financial package to potential investors. More than $1.2 billion in private capital was raised in debt and equity financing for the nine SEGS plants. Investors and bankers who make these investments are the real clients for solar power technologies. They are not interested in annual solar to electric efficiencies, but in risk, return on investments, and coverage ratios. This paper will take a look at solar power projects from the financier's perspective. The challenge in moving forward is to attract private investors, commercial lenders, and international development agencies and to find innovative solutions to the difficult issues that investment in the global power market poses for solar power technologies

  11. Financing solar thermal power plants

    Kistner, R.; Price, H.

    1999-01-01

    The commercialization of concentrating solar power technology took a major step forward in the mid 1980s and early 1990s with the development of the SEGS plants in California. Over the years they have proven that parabolic trough power technologies are the most cost-effective approach for commercial scale solar power generation in the sunbelt countries of the world. However, the question must be asked why no additional solar power plants have been built following the bankruptcy of the developer of the SEGS projects, LUZ International Limited. Although many believe the SEGS projects were a success as a result of parabolic trough technology they employ, in truth, the SEGS projects were developed simply because they represented an attractive opportunity for investors. Simply states, no additional projects have been developed because no one has been able to put together a similarly attractive financial package to potential investors. More than $1.2 billion in private capital was raised in debt and equity financing for the nine SEGS plants. Investors and bankers who make these investments are the real clients for solar power technologies. They are not interested in annual solar to electric efficiencies, but in risk, return on investments, and coverage ratios. This paper will take a look at solar power projects form the financier's perspective. The challenge in moving forward is to attract private investors, commercial lenders, and international development agencies and to find innovative solutions to the difficult issues that investment in the global power market poses for solar power technologies

  12. Solar magnetism: a new look

    Golub, L.

    1981-01-01

    With the growing evidence for the ubiquity of magnetic fields, researchers feel a growing need for an adequate theory for the generation of such fields in nature. This article looks at the sun and its magnetic fields. The fundamental property that must be explained aside from the existence of magnetic fields is the solar cycle. The traditional picture of the solar cycle has three primary components: (1) solar activity; (2) latitude migration; and (3) Hale's law and reversal of polarity. The aspects of internal motion which can generate magnetic fields and cycles of activity like those observed are discussed. There are two major elements to the flow patterns of the sun. More important than the visible differential rotation of solar surface is the belief that the sun's interior rotates faster than the surface. It is this mechanism which probably produces the magnetic fields which bubble up from interior. It's also possible to show that this mechanism can produce the migration of solar activity. The reversal of polarity is explained by convection zones and sun's rotation. Due to x-ray imaging and improved magnetic field measurements, it has been observed that enormous quantities of magnetic flux emerge from solar interior in form of very small regions. This data along with rocket data show that the rate of generation of magnetic flux does not change during a solar cycle - instead, the observed cycle represents a shift from large emerging regions to numerous small regions and back again

  13. Central Chile

    2002-01-01

    The beginning of spring in central Chile looked like this to SeaWiFS. The snow-covered Andes mark the country's eastern border, and phytoplankton blooms and river sediment plumes fill the waters off its west coast. A large eddy due west of Concepcion is highlighted by the phytoplankton it contains.

  14. Afrique Centrale

    PR BOKO

    (Afrique Centrale) : peuplement de protozoaires ciliés et macro invertébrés ... Le lac d'Obili est un écosystème aquatique situé en plein cœur de Yaoundé en ...... électrique des eaux est assez stable, autour de 200 ; ce qui suppose que la ...

  15. Gamma ray observations of the solar system

    1981-01-01

    Two general categories are discussed concerning the evolution of the solar system: the dualistic view, the planetesimal approach and the monistic view, the nebular hypothesis. The major points of each view are given and the models that are developed from these views are described. Possible applications of gamma ray astronomical observations to the question of the dynamic evolution of the solar system are discussed

  16. Gamma ray observations of the solar system

    1981-01-01

    Two general categories are discussed concerning the evolution of the solar system: the dualistic view, the planetesimal approach and the monistic view, the nebular hypothesis. The major points of each view are given and the models that are developed from these views are described. Possible applications of gamma ray astronomical observations to the question of the dynamic evolution of the solar system are discussed.

  17. Gamma ray observations of the solar system

    1981-01-01

    Two general categories are discussed concerning the evolution of the solar system: the dualistic view, the planetesimal approach; and the monistic view, the nebular hypothesis. The major points of each view are given and the models that are developed from these views are described. Possible applications of gamma ray astronomical observations to the question of the dynamic evolution of the solar system are discussed.

  18. Research on ZnO/Si heterojunction solar cells

    Chen, Li; Chen, Xinliang; Liu, Yiming; Zhao, Ying; Zhang, Xiaodan

    2017-06-01

    We put forward an n-ZnO/p-Si heterojunction solar cell model based on AFORS-HET simulations and provide experimental support in this article. ZnO:B (B-doped ZnO) thin films deposited by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) are planned to act as electrical emitter layer on p-type c-Si substrate for photovoltaic applications. We investigate the effects of thickness, buffer layer, ZnO:B affinity and work function of electrodes on performances of solar cells through computer simulations using AFORS-HET software package. The energy conversion efficiency of the ZnO:B(n)/ZnO/c-Si(p) solar cell can achieve 17.16% ({V}{oc}: 675.8 mV, {J}{sc}: 30.24 mA/cm2, FF: 83.96%) via simulation. On a basis of optimized conditions in simulation, we carry out some experiments, which testify that the ZnO buffer layer of 20 nm contributes to improving performances of solar cells. The influences of growth temperature, thickness and diborane (B2H6) flow rates are also discussed. We achieve an appropriate condition for the fabrication of the solar cells using the MOCVD technique. The obtained conversion efficiency reaches 2.82% ({V}{oc}: 294.4 mV, {J}{sc}: 26.108 mA/cm2, FF: 36.66%). Project supported by the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (Nos. 2011CBA00706, 2011CBA00707), the Tianjin Applied Basic Research Project and Cutting-Edge Technology Research Plan (No. 13JCZDJC26900), the Tianjin Major Science and Technology Support Project (No. 11TXSYGX22100), the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (No. 2013AA050302), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (No. 65010341).

  19. Sistema Solar

    Federación de Asociaciones de Astronomía Cielo de Comellas

    2011-01-01

    Lección sobre el Sistema Solar. Curso de Astronomía Básica, segunda edición, impartido por los miembros de la Federación de Asociaciones de Astronomía Cielo de Comellas. Casa de la Ciencia, sábados, del 24 de septiembre al 22 de octubre de 2011

  20. Solar Neutrinos

    V. Antonelli

    2013-01-01

    relevant indications on the fundamental interactions among particles. After reviewing the striking results of the last two decades, which were determinant to solve the long standing solar neutrino puzzle and refine the Standard Solar Model, we focus our attention on the more recent results in this field and on the experiments presently running or planned for the near future. The main focus at the moment is to improve the knowledge of the mass and mixing pattern and especially to study in detail the lowest energy part of the spectrum, which represents most of the solar neutrino spectrum but is still a partially unexplored realm. We discuss this research project and the way in which present and future experiments could contribute to make the theoretical framework more complete and stable, understanding the origin of some “anomalies” that seem to emerge from the data and contributing to answer some present questions, like the exact mechanism of the vacuum to matter transition and the solution of the so-called solar metallicity problem.

  1. Solar satellites

    Poher, C.

    1982-01-01

    A reference system design, projected costs, and the functional concepts of a satellite solar power system (SSPS) for converting sunlight falling on solar panels of a satellite in GEO to a multi-GW beam which could be received by a rectenna on earth are outlined. Electricity transmission by microwaves has been demonstrated, and a reference design system for supplying 5 GW dc to earth was devised. The system will use either monocrystalline Si or concentrator GaAs solar cells for energy collection in GEO. Development is still needed to improve the lifespan of the cells. Currently, the cell performance degrades 50 percent in efficiency after 7-8 yr in space. Each SSPS satellite would weigh either 34,000 tons (Si) or 51,000 tons (GaAs), thereby requiring the fabrication of a heavy lift launch vehicle or a single-stage-to-orbit transport in order to minimize launch costs. Costs for the solar panels have been estimated at $500/kW using the GaAs technology, with transport costs for materials to GEO being $40/kg.

  2. Solar Neutrinos

    7,81. The Chlorine experiment, located in the Homestake Gold Mine in Lead, South Dakota, was the first solar neutrino experiment to be set up. A tank of. 105 gallons of perchloroethylene in which the electron neu- trino reacts with chlorine to ...

  3. Solar satellites

    Poher, C.

    A reference system design, projected costs, and the functional concepts of a satellite solar power system (SSPS) for converting sunlight falling on solar panels of a satellite in GEO to a multi-GW beam which could be received by a rectenna on earth are outlined. Electricity transmission by microwaves has been demonstrated, and a reference design system for supplying 5 GW dc to earth was devised. The system will use either monocrystalline Si or concentrator GaAs solar cells for energy collection in GEO. Development is still needed to improve the lifespan of the cells. Currently, the cell performance degrades 50 percent in efficiency after 7-8 yr in space. Each SSPS satellite would weigh either 34,000 tons (Si) or 51,000 tons (GaAs), thereby requiring the fabrication of a heavy lift launch vehicle or a single-stage-to-orbit transport in order to minimize launch costs. Costs for the solar panels have been estimated at $500/kW using the GaAs technology, with transport costs for materials to GEO being $40/kg.

  4. Automation of solar plants

    Yebra, L.J.; Romero, M.; Martinez, D.; Valverde, A. [CIEMAT - Plataforma Solar de Almeria, Tabernas (Spain); Berenguel, M. [Almeria Univ. (Spain). Departamento de Lenguajes y Computacion

    2004-07-01

    This work overviews some of the main activities and research lines that are being carried out within the scope of the specific collaboration agreement between the Plataforma Solar de Almeria-CIEMAT (PSA-CIEMAT) and the Automatic Control, Electronics and Robotics research group of the Universidad de Almeria (TEP197) titled ''Development of control systems and tools for thermosolar plants'' and the projects financed by the MCYT DPI2001-2380-C02-02 and DPI2002-04375-C03. The research is directed by the need of improving the efficiency of the process through which the energy provided by the sun is totally or partially used as energy source, as far as diminishing the costs associated to the operation and maintenance of the installations that use this energy source. The final objective is to develop different automatic control systems and techniques aimed at improving the competitiveness of solar plants. The paper summarizes different objectives and automatic control approaches that are being implemented in different facilities at the PSA-CIEMAT: central receiver systems and solar furnace. For each one of these facilities, a systematic procedure is being followed, composed of several steps: (i) development of dynamic models using the newest modeling technologies (both for simulation and control purposes), (ii) development of fully automated data acquisition and control systems including software tools facilitating the analysis of data and the application of knowledge to the controlled plants and (iii) synthesis of advanced controllers using techniques successfully used in the process industry and development of new and optimized control algorithms for solar plants. These aspects are summarized in this work. (orig.)

  5. Solar energy apparatus with apertured shield

    Collings, Roger J. (Inventor); Bannon, David G. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A protective apertured shield for use about an inlet to a solar apparatus which includesd a cavity receiver for absorbing concentrated solar energy. A rigid support truss assembly is fixed to the periphery of the inlet and projects radially inwardly therefrom to define a generally central aperture area through which solar radiation can pass into the cavity receiver. A non-structural, laminated blanket is spread over the rigid support truss in such a manner as to define an outer surface area and an inner surface area diverging radially outwardly from the central aperture area toward the periphery of the inlet. The outer surface area faces away from the inlet and the inner surface area faces toward the cavity receiver. The laminated blanket includes at least one layer of material, such as ceramic fiber fabric, having high infra-red emittance and low solar absorption properties, and another layer, such as metallic foil, of low infra-red emittance properties.

  6. An Economic Analysis of Solar Water & Space Heating.

    Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC. Div. of Solar Energy.

    Solar system designs for 13 cities were optimized so as to minimize the life cycle cost over the assumed 20-year lifetime of the solar energy systems. A number of major assumptions were made regarding the solar system, type and use of building, financial considerations, and economic environment used in the design optimization. Seven optimum…

  7. Collecting Solar Energy. Solar Energy Education Project.

    O'Brien, Alexander

    This solar energy learning module for use with junior high school students offers a list of activities, a pre-post test, job titles, basic solar energy vocabulary, and diagrams of solar energy collectors and installations. The purpose is to familiarize students with applications of solar energy and titles of jobs where this knowledge could be…

  8. Europa central

    Karel BARTOSEK

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available La investigación francesa continúa interesándose por Europa Central. Desde luego, hay límites a este interés en el ambiente general de mi nueva patria: en la ignorancia, producto del largo desinterés de Francia por este espacio después de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, y en el comportamiento y la reflexión de la clase política y de los medios de comunicación (una anécdota para ilustrar este ambiente: durante la preparación de nuestro coloquio «Refugiados e inmigrantes de Europa Central en el movimiento antifascista y la Resistencia en Francia, 1933-1945», celebrado en París en octubre de 1986, el problema de la definición fue planteado concreta y «prácticamente». ¡Y hubo entonces un historiador eminente, para quién Alemania no formaría parte de Europa Central!.

  9. Low-cost solar electric power

    Fraas, Lewis M

    2014-01-01

    ?This book describes recent breakthroughs that promise major cost reductions in solar energy production in a clear and highly accessible manner. The author addresses the three key areas that have commonly resulted in criticism of solar energy in the past: cost, availability, and variability. Coverage includes cutting-edge information on recently developed 40? efficient solar cells, which can produce double the power of currently available commercial cells. The discussion also highlights the potentially transformative emergence of opportunities for integration of solar energy storage and natura

  10. Solar energy after Fukushima: the new deal

    Boisgibault, Louis

    2011-01-01

    This document contains a brief presentation, the preface, and the table of contents of a book which addresses the major technological, regulatory and geostrategic challenges for solar energy in the current energy context. The author outlines the strong emergence of China in this sector, but also that of new opportunities in Africa, and the need for France to strengthen European-Mediterranean collaborations in order not to definitely loose a leadership position. While referring to the environmental context, to practical examples and installations, the author explains the difficult taking off of solar energy before March 2011, why the Fukushima is a turning point for solar energy, and why solar energy will prevail

  11. More Efficient Solar Thermal-Energy Receiver

    Dustin, M. O.

    1987-01-01

    Thermal stresses and reradiation reduced. Improved design for solar thermal-energy receiver overcomes three major deficiencies of solar dynamic receivers described in literature. Concentrator and receiver part of solar-thermal-energy system. Receiver divided into radiation section and storage section. Concentrated solar radiation falls on boiling ends of heat pipes, which transmit heat to thermal-energy-storage medium. Receiver used in number of applications to produce thermal energy directly for use or to store thermal energy for subsequent use in heat engine.

  12. Polymeric materials for solar thermal applications

    Köhl, Michael; Papillon, Philippe; Wallner, Gernot M; Saile, Sandrin

    2012-01-01

    Bridging the gap between basic science and technological applications, this is the first book devoted to polymers for solar thermal applications.Clearly divided into three major parts, the contributions are written by experts on solar thermal applications and polymer scientists alike. The first part explains the fundamentals of solar thermal energy especially for representatives of the plastics industry and researchers. Part two then goes on to provide introductory information on polymeric materials and processing for solar thermal experts. The third part combines both of these fields, dis

  13. Solar-assisted low energy dwellings

    Esbensen, T V

    1980-02-01

    The Zero Energy House Group was formed as a subproject of the CCMS Solar Energy Pilot Study in 1974 by seven participating countries experimenting with solar-assisted low-energy dwellings for temperate and northern European climatic conditions. A Zero Energy House is one in which solar energy is used to meet the reduced energy needs of buildings incorporating various thermal energy conservation features. This final report of the Zero Energy House Group includes brief descriptions of 13 major low-energy dwellings in the participating CCMS countries. An overall assessment of the state-of-the-art in solar-assisted low-energy dwellings is also included.

  14. Solar one data acquisition. Interim progress report

    1976-03-25

    Solar One has been instrumented with sensors for weather data system temperatures and pressures, house electrical loads, and photovoltaic system data. An automatic data acquisition and handling system has been designed and installed to gather and then transmit data to a central computer. Programs to summarize these data and tabulate them in convenient forms have been prepared. Initial data have been obtained and analyzed to check the sensor system and to give preliminary performance characteristics of the solar system. (WDM)

  15. Solar energy in buildings: Implications for California energy policy

    Hirshberg, A. S.; Davis, E. S.

    1977-01-01

    An assessment of the potential of active solar energy systems for buildings in California is summarized. The technology used for solar heating, cooling, and water heating in buildings is discussed. The major California weather zones and the solar energy designs are described, as well as the sizing of solar energy systems and their performance. The cost of solar energy systems is given both at current prices and at prices consistent with optimistic estimates for the cost of collectors. The main institutional barriers to the wide spread use of solar energy are summarized.

  16. Radiation resistant passivation of silicon solar cells

    Swanson, R.M.; Gan, J.Y.; Gruenbaum, P.E.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a silicon solar cell having improved stability when exposed to concentrated solar radiation. It comprises a body of silicon material having a major surface for receiving radiation, a plurality of p and n conductivity regions in the body for collecting electrons and holes created by impinging radiation, and a passivation layer on the major surface including a first layer of silicon oxide in contact with the body and a polycrystalline silicon layer on the first layer of silicon oxide

  17. Concentrated solar power generation using solar receivers

    Anderson, Bruce N.; Treece, William Dean; Brown, Dan; Bennhold, Florian; Hilgert, Christoph

    2017-08-08

    Inventive concentrated solar power systems using solar receivers, and related devices and methods, are generally described. Low pressure solar receivers are provided that function to convert solar radiation energy to thermal energy of a working fluid, e.g., a working fluid of a power generation or thermal storage system. In some embodiments, low pressure solar receivers are provided herein that are useful in conjunction with gas turbine based power generation systems.

  18. Solar charge controller in solar street light

    Dong, Haibo

    2014-01-01

    Recently, with the rapid development of scientific technology, the conventional energy cannot meet the requirement of human beings. People are looking for the utilization of renew energy. Solar en-ergy as a new clean energy has attract the eyes of people. The applications of solar energy are popular to human society. Solar street light is a good example. This thesis will focus on a deeper research of the popular and ubiquitous solar street light in China. However, solar charge controll...

  19. Solar Training Network and Solar Ready Vets

    Dalstrom, Tenley Ann

    2016-09-14

    In 2016, the White House announced the Solar Ready Vets program, funded under DOE's SunShot initiative would be administered by The Solar Foundation to connect transitioning military personnel to solar training and employment as they separate from service. This presentation is geared to informing and recruiting employer partners for the Solar Ready Vets program, and the Solar Training Network. It describes the programs, and the benefits to employers that choose to connect to the programs.

  20. Solar club

    Solar club

    2013-01-01

    SOLAR CLUB Le  CERN-Solar-Club souhaite une  très bonne année 2013 à tous les Cernois et Cernoises, et remercie encore une fois  tous ceux et celles qui, fin octobre, par leur vote, nous ont permis de finir dans les 5 premiers du concours "Conforama Solidaire" et ainsi financer nôtre projet "énergie solaire et eau potable pour Kilela Balanda" en République Démocratique du Congo (voir : http://www.confo.ch/solidarite/?lang=fr). Nous vous annoncons également notre Assemblée Générale Annuelle jeudi 21 février à 18 h 00 Salle C, 1er étage, Bât. 61 Vous êtes les bienvenus si vous souhaitez en savoir un peu plus sur les énergies renouvelables.

  1. Fisica solare

    Degl’Innocenti, Egidio Landi

    2008-01-01

    Il volume è un'introduzione alla Fisica Solare che si propone lo scopo di illustrare alla persona che intende avvicinarsi a questa disciplina (studenti, dottori di ricerca, ricercatori) i meccanismi fisici che stanno alla base della complessa fenomenologia osservata sulla stella a noi più vicina. Il volume non ha la pretesa di essere esauriente (basta pensare che la fisica solare spazia su un gran numero di discipline, quali la Fisica Nucleare, la Termodinamica, L'Elettrodinamica, la Fisica Atomica e Molecolare, la Spettoscopia in tutte le bande dello spettro elettromagnetico, la Magnetoidrodinamica, la Fisica del Plasma, lo sviluppo di nuova strumentazione, l'Ottica, ecc.). Piuttosto, sono stati scelti un numero di argomenti di rilevanza fondamentale nello studio presente del Sole (soprattutto nei riguardi delle osservazioni da terra con grandi telescopi) e su tali argomenti si è cercato di dare una panoramica generale, inclusiva dell'evoluzione storica, senza scendere in soverchi dettagli. Siccome la Fis...

  2. Solar reflector

    Dvorak, J

    1983-01-15

    The reflector in the form of part of a cylindrical surface delimited by two envelopes is installed on a platform which can move on an inclined curvilinear path. The angle of inclination of the path depends on the latitude of the locality. The reflected rays are focused on the tubular absorber. One of the axes of the platform is linked to a brake controlled by a sensor for intensity of solar radiation. The sensor is a pipe filled with liquid with high value of the temperature expansion coefficient, for example alcohol. The pipe is insulated from one side and is accessible to the solar rays from the opposite. One end of the pipe is equipped with a bending end or piston. In order to expand the fluid in the sensor, the pipe acts on the brake, and the reflector is installed in a position corresponding to the maximum radiation intensity.

  3. Solar pulsations

    Zirker, J.B.

    1980-01-01

    Oscillations of the surface of the sun, with periods between 5 and 160 min, have been observed by several spectroscopic techniques, and preliminary interpretations have been offered. The 5-min oscillations are global, nonradial, acoustic standing waves in the subsurface zone. Internal differential rotation speeds have been deduced from the Doppler splitting of these waves. Oscillations with longer periods have been reported, but need confirmation. The longest periods offer a tool for investigating the solar interior

  4. Study of solar potential in Costa Rica

    Wright, Jaime

    2009-01-01

    A evaluation on the research of solar radiation in Costa Rica is performed to determine the potential as an energy source and learn how it is distributed spatially and temporally. The calculation and mapping of contours of the global solar radiation in the country are focused. Experimental values and predicted global solar radiation has been used in the contouring. The highest values were observed in the northern section of the Pacific slope and west of the Valle Central; the north and along the Caribbean coast have the lowest values. Quantitative data are not limited to the direct use of solar energy for power generation, also for other activities such as meteorological sciences, agriculture, irrigation and forest architecture. This information is important for specialists, teachers and professionals interested in harnessing solar energy. (author) [es

  5. Grid-connected distributed solar power systems

    Moyle, R.; Chernoff, H.; Schweizer, T.

    This paper discusses some important, though often ignored, technical and economic issues of distributed solar power systems: protection of the utility system and nonsolar customers requires suitable interfaced equipment. Purchase criteria must mirror reality; most analyses use life-cycle costing with low discount rates - most buyers use short payback periods. Distributing, installing, and marketing small, distributed solar systems is more costly than most analyses estimate. Results show that certain local conditions and uncommon purchase considerations can combine to make small, distributed solar power attractive, but lower interconnect costs (per kW), lower marketing and product distribution costs, and more favorable purchase criteria make large, centralized solar energy more attractive. Specifically, the value of dispersed solar systems to investors and utilities can be higher than $2000/kw. However, typical residential owners place a value of well under $1000 on the installed system.

  6. Solar Chameleons

    Brax, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    We analyse the creation of chameleons deep inside the sun and their subsequent conversion to photons near the magnetised surface of the sun. We find that the spectrum of the regenerated photons lies in the soft X-ray region, hence addressing the solar corona problem. Moreover, these back-converted photons originating from chameleons have an intrinsic difference with regenerated photons from axions: their relative polarisations are mutually orthogonal before Compton interacting with the surrounding plasma. Depending on the photon-chameleon coupling and working in the strong coupling regime of the chameleons to matter, we find that the induced photon flux, when regenerated resonantly with the surrounding plasma, coincides with the solar flux within the soft X-ray energy range. Moreover, using the soft X-ray solar flux as a prior, we find that with a strong enough photon-chameleon coupling the chameleons emitted by the sun could lead to a regenerated photon flux in the CAST pipes, which could be within the reach...

  7. Solar chameleons

    Brax, Philippe; Zioutas, Konstantin

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the creation of chameleons deep inside the Sun (R∼0.7R sun ) and their subsequent conversion to photons near the magnetized surface of the Sun. We find that the spectrum of the regenerated photons lies in the soft x-ray region, hence addressing the solar corona problem. Moreover, these back-converted photons originating from chameleons have an intrinsic difference with regenerated photons from axions: their relative polarizations are mutually orthogonal before Compton interacting with the surrounding plasma. Depending on the photon-chameleon coupling and working in the strong coupling regime of the chameleons to matter, we find that the induced photon flux, when regenerated resonantly with the surrounding plasma, coincides with the solar flux within the soft x-ray energy range. Moreover, using the soft x-ray solar flux as a prior, we find that with a strong enough photon-chameleon coupling, the chameleons emitted by the Sun could lead to a regenerated photon flux in the CAST magnetic pipes, which could be within the reach of CAST with upgraded detector performance. Then, axion helioscopes have thus the potential to detect and identify particle candidates for the ubiquitous dark energy in the Universe.

  8. Solar flares

    Kaastra, J.S.

    1985-01-01

    In this thesis an electrodynamic model for solar flares is developed. The main theoretical achievements underlying the present study are treated briefly and the observable flare parameters are described within the framework of the flare model of this thesis. The flare model predicts large induced electric fields. Therefore, acceleration processes of charged particles by direct electric fields are treated. The spectrum of the accelerated particles in strong electric fields is calculated, 3 with the electric field and the magnetic field perpendicular and in the vicinity of an X-type magnetic neutral line. An electromagnetic field configuration arises in the case of a solar flare. A rising current filament in a quiescent background bipolar magnetic field causes naturally an X-type magnetic field configuration below the filament with a strong induced electric field perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field. This field configuration drives particles and magnetic energy towards the neutral line, where a current sheet is generated. The global evolution of the fields in the flare is determined by force balance of the Lorentz forces on the filament and the force balance on the current sheet. The X-ray, optical and radio observations of a large solar flare on May 16, 1981 are analyzed. It is found that these data fit the model very well. (Auth.)

  9. Proceedings of the Canadian Solar Buildings Conference : the 31. annual conference of the Solar Energy Society of Canada Inc. and the 1. Canadian Solar Buildings Research Network conference

    Athienitis, A.; Charron, R.; Karava, P.; Stylianou, M.; Tzempelikos, A.

    2006-01-01

    The first conference organized by the newly established Canadian Solar Buildings Research Network (SBRN) was held in conjunction with the thirty-first annual conference of the Solar Energy Society of Canada Inc (SESCI). The conference was attended by top researchers from 10 Canadian Universities to promote innovative research and development in solar energy applications and to advance the awareness of solar energy in Canada. It featured special events such as trade shows, photovoltaic workshops, a course in ESP-r simulation, tours of solar houses and other events focused on the economic, environmental and socio-economic benefits of solar technology, including the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. SBRN was founded on the premise that university researchers should focus on solar energy applications for buildings. Several presentations proposed action plans to accelerate the implementation of solar energy through the use of innovative building technologies and sustainable energy policies. Other major issues of interest were also discussed, including the development of the net-zero energy solar home and grid-connection issues. The sessions of the conference were entitled: solar thermal systems; solar electricity; building integrated photovoltaic systems; design issues and tools; integrating PV and solar thermal in buildings; daylighting and solar radiation modeling; fenestration and shading; PV manufacturing and solar electricity resources. The proceedings featured 41 refereed papers and 13 poster presentations, all of which have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  10. Cheap electricity with autonomous solar cell systems

    Ouwens, C.D.

    1993-01-01

    A comparison has been made between the costs of an autonomous solar cell system and a centralized electricity supply system. In both cases investment costs are the main issue. It is shown that for households in densely populated sunny areas, the use of autonomous solar cell systems is - even with today's market prices - only as expensive or even cheaper than a grid connection, as long as efficient electric appliances are used. The modular nature of solar cell systems makes it possible to start with any number of appliances, depending on the amount of money available to be spent. (author)

  11. Solar hydrogen project - Thermochemical process design

    Allen, D.J.; Ng, L.F.; Rao, M.S.M.; Wu, S.F.; Zoschak, R.J.

    1984-08-01

    The thermochemical decomposition of water using solar energy offers an elegant way of combining solar and chemical technologies to produce a high quality fuel. The DOE has sponsored Foster Wheeler to develop a process design for a solar water-splitting process based on the sulfuric acid/iodine cycle. The study has centered around the design of a sulfuric acid decomposition reactor and the central receiver. Materials' properties impose severe constraints upon the design of decomposition reactor. In this paper, the constraints imposed on the design are specified and a reactor and receiver design is presented together with a preliminary design of the balance of plant.

  12. Impact of major coronal mass ejections on geo-space during September 7 -- 13, 2005

    Wang, Y.; Xue, X.; Shen, C.; Ye, P.; Wang, S.; Zhang, J.

    2006-05-01

    We have analyzed five major CMEs originating from NOAA active region (AR) 808 during the period of September 7 to 13, 2005, when the AR 808 rotated from the east limb to near solar meridian. Several factors that affect the probability of the CMEs' encounter with the Earth are demonstrated. The solar and interplanetary observations suggest that the 2nd and 3rd CMEs, originating from E67 and E47 respectively, encountered the Earth, while the 1st CME originating from E77 missed the Earth, and the last two CMEs, originating from E39 and E10 respectively, probably only grazed the Earth. Based on our ice-cream cone model (Xue et al. 2005a) and CME deflection model (Wang et al. 2004b), we find that the CME span angle and deflection are important for the probability of encountering. The large span angles make middle two CMEs hit the Earth, though their source locations were not close to the solar central meridian. The significant deflection makes the first CME totally missed the Earth though it also had wide span angle. The deflection may also make the last CME nearly missed the Earth though it originated close to the disk center. We suggest that, in order to effectively predict whether a CME will encounter the Earth, the factors of the CME source location, the span angle, and the interplanetary deflection should all be taken into account.

  13. central t

    Manuel R. Piña Monarrez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Dado que la Regresión Ridge (RR, es una estimación sesgada que parte de la solución de la regresión de Mínimos Cuadrados (MC, es vital establecer las condiciones para las que la distribución central t de Student que se utiliza en la prueba de hipótesis en MC, sea también aplicable a la regresión RR. La prueba de este importante resultado se presenta en este artículo.

  14. Central sleep apnea

    Sleep apnea - central; Obesity - central sleep apnea; Cheyne-Stokes - central sleep apnea; Heart failure - central sleep apnea ... Central sleep apnea results when the brain temporarily stops sending signals to the muscles that control breathing. The condition ...

  15. Solar cities

    Roaf, S.; Fuentes, M.; Gupta, R.

    2005-01-01

    Over the last decade, climate change has moved from being the concern of few to a widely recognized threat to humanity itself and the natural environment. The 1990s were the warmest decade on record, and ever-increasing atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/), could, if left unchecked lead to serious consequences globally, including increased risks of droughts, floods and storms, disruption to agriculture, rising sea levels and the spread of disease. The contribution of anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide has been recognized as the principal cause of the atmospheric changes that drive these climate trends. Globally, buildings are the largest source of indirect carbon emissions. In 2000, the UK Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution estimated that in order to stabilise carbon emissions at levels, which avoid catastrophic alterations in the climate, we would have to reduce emissions from the built environment by at least 60% by 2050 and 80% by 2100 relative to 1997 levels. Studies of the Oxford Ecohouse have demonstrated that it is not difficult to reduce carbon emissions from houses by 60% or more through energy efficiency measures, but it is only possible to reach the 90% level of reductions required by using renewable energy technologies. Solar energy technologies have been the most successfully applied of all renewable to date largely because they are the only systems that can be incorporated easily into the urban fabric. In addition, the short fossil fuel horizons that are predicted (c. 40 years left for oil and 65 years for gas) will drive the markets for solar technologies. For these reasons, the cities of the future will be powered by solar energy, to a greater or lesser extent, depending on the city form and location. In recognition of the need to move rapidly towards a renewable energy future, a group of international cities, including Oxford, have started the Solar City Network. In this paper we outline the

  16. Early solar physics

    Meadows, A J

    1970-01-01

    Early Solar Physics reviews developments in solar physics, particularly the advent of solar spectroscopy and the discovery of relationships between the various layers of the solar atmosphere and between the different forms of solar activity. Topics covered include solar observations during 1843; chemical analysis of the solar atmosphere; the spectrum of a solar prominence; and the solar eclipse of December 12, 1871. Spectroscopic observations of the sun are also presented. This book is comprised of 30 chapters and begins with an overview of ideas about the sun in the mid-nineteenth century, fo

  17. Solar energy collector

    Brin, Raymond L.; Pace, Thomas L.

    1978-01-01

    The invention relates to a solar energy collector comprising solar energy absorbing material within chamber having a transparent wall, solar energy being transmitted through the transparent wall, and efficiently absorbed by the absorbing material, for transfer to a heat transfer fluid. The solar energy absorbing material, of generally foraminous nature, absorbs and transmits the solar energy with improved efficiency.

  18. Solar Pumping : The Basics

    World Bank Group

    2018-01-01

    Solar photovoltaic water pumping (SWP) uses energy from solar photovoltaic (PV) panels to power an electric water pump. The entire process, from sunlight to stored energy, is elegant and simple. Over last seven years, the technology and price of solar pumping have evolved dramatically and hence the opportunities it presents. Solar pumping is most competitive in regions with high solar inso...

  19. Screening analysis of solar thermochemical hydrogen concepts.

    Diver, Richard B., Jr.; Kolb, Gregory J.

    2008-03-01

    A screening analysis was performed to identify concentrating solar power (CSP) concepts that produce hydrogen with the highest efficiency. Several CSP concepts were identified that have the potential to be much more efficient than today's low-temperature electrolysis technology. They combine a central receiver or dish with either a thermochemical cycle or high-temperature electrolyzer that operate at temperatures >600 C. The solar-to-hydrogen efficiencies of the best central receiver concepts exceed 20%, significantly better than the 14% value predicted for low-temperature electrolysis.

  20. Solar constant values for estimating solar radiation

    Li, Huashan; Lian, Yongwang; Wang, Xianlong; Ma, Weibin; Zhao, Liang

    2011-01-01

    There are many solar constant values given and adopted by researchers, leading to confusion in estimating solar radiation. In this study, some solar constant values collected from literature for estimating solar radiation with the Angstroem-Prescott correlation are tested in China using the measured data between 1971 and 2000. According to the ranking method based on the t-statistic, a strategy to select the best solar constant value for estimating the monthly average daily global solar radiation with the Angstroem-Prescott correlation is proposed. -- Research highlights: → The effect of the solar constant on estimating solar radiation is investigated. → The investigation covers a diverse range of climate and geography in China. → A strategy to select the best solar constant for estimating radiation is proposed.

  1. Potential of solar home systems in Pakistan

    Memon, M.; Harijan, K.; Uqaili, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    About 68% of the population of Pakistan resides in rural areas. Most of the rural households have no access to electricity and meet lighting requirements through kerosene which is a major source of indoor air pollution and other environmental and health hazards. Rural villages are scattered over a large area and located far from the main electric grids. They have low population density and requires small load. About 67% of the conventional electricity in Pakistan is generated from fossil fuels with 51% and 16% share of gas and oil respectively. The indigenous reserves of oil and gas are limited and the country heavily depends on imported oil. The oil import bill is a serious strain on the country's economy. The combustion of fossil fuels also causes serious environmental pollution. The conventional power is even not sufficient for meeting the growing demand of electricity from the existing customers. Further more the extension of existing centralized grid system to far away from grid line rural areas with very low population density and small-scattered loads are economically and technically unfeasible. Hence there are remote chances of getting grid connection to most of the rural population in the near future. This whole situation requires urgent measures on priority basis for the development of indigenous, environment friendly, renewable energy sources such as solar energy. This paper presents the assessment of potential of solar home systems (SHS) for rural electrification in Pakistan. The country lies in an excellent solar belt range and receives 16-21 MJ/m 2 per day of solar radiation as an annual mean value, with 19 MJ/m 2 per day over most areas of the country. It is estimated that about 7 million households in Pakistan do not have access to electricity (in 2004). Assuming that about 50% of the households in rural areas without electricity today would be electrified up to 2010, and only 25% of the remaining households could afford and would be willing to pay

  2. Major Sport Venues

    Department of Homeland Security — The Major Public Venues dataset is composed of facilities that host events for the National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing, Indy Racing League, Major League...

  3. Major Depression Among Adults

    ... Depressive Episode Among Adolescents Data Sources Share Major Depression Definitions Major depression is one of the most ... Bethesda, MD 20892-9663 Follow Us Facebook Twitter YouTube Google Plus NIMH Newsletter NIMH RSS Feed NIMH ...

  4. Potential Visual Impacts of Utility-Scale Solar Energy Development within Solar Energy Zones on Selected Viewpoints in Death Valley and Joshua Tree National Parks, and El Camino Real De Tierra Adentro National Historic Trail

    Sullivan, Robert G. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Abplanalp, Jennifer M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Cantwell, Brian L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Beckman, Kevin J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2013-06-01

    In connection with the Bureau of Land Management’s (BLM’s) Solar Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (Solar PEIS), Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) has conducted an extended visual impact analysis for selected key observation points (KOPs) within three National Park Service (NPS) units located within the 25-mi (40-km) viewshed of four solar energy zones (SEZs) identified in the Solar PEIS. The analysis includes only those NPS units that the Solar PEIS identified as potentially subject to moderate or strong visual contrasts associated with solar development within the SEZs. The NPS units included in the analysis are Death Valley and Joshua Tree National Parks and El Camino Real De Tierra Adentro National Historic Trail. The analysis showed that certain KOPs in each of these NPS units could potentially be subject to major visual contrast and impacts from solar development within the SEZs, but many of the KOPs would likely be subject to moderate, minor, or negligible contrasts and impacts, generally because they were relatively distant from the relevant SEZ, had views of the SEZ partially blocked by intervening terrain, and/or had very low vertical angles of view toward the SEZ. For all three NPS units, power tower facilities were found to be major contributors to potential visual contrasts, primarily because of the long-distance visibility of intensely bright reflection of light from the receivers on the central towers, but also because of the height and strong vertical line of the tower structures and the potential for night-sky impacts from FAA-mandated hazard navigation lighting.

  5. Absorption generator for solar-powered air-conditioner

    Lowen, D. J.; Murray, J. G.

    1977-01-01

    Device passes solar-heated water through coils. Hot lithium Bromide/Water solution leaves through central stand-pipe, and water vapor leaves through refrigerant outlet at top. Matching generation temperature to collector efficiency helps cut costs.

  6. Solar neutrino

    Sugimoto, D [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Coll. of General Education

    1975-01-01

    The measurement of solar neutrino was performed by using the reaction /sup 37/cl+..nu..sub(e)..-->../sup 37/Ar+e/sup -/ by Davis et al. The argon gas produced through the above mentioned reaction in a tank containing 610 ton of C/sub 2/Cl/sub 4/ was collected and measured. The rate of production of /sup 37/Ar was 0.13+-0.20/day, and the net production rate by the solar neutrino was 0.06+-0.20/day, being corrected for background. This value corresponds to 0.5+-1.0 SNU. Theoretical calculation with the model of spherically symmetric solar development gave an expected value of 5.6 SNU, which is in contradiction with the experimental value. Reason of this discrepancy was considered. The possibility of decay of neutrino to the other particles with weak interaction is very slight. Various models of the sun were investigated, but the results were still inconsistent with the experiment. The mixing of matters in the sun may cause the reduction of neutrino. If He gas comes to the center of the sun by mixing, the reaction, /sup 3/He+/sup 3/He, progresses excessively at the center, and it produces the expansion of the core of the sun. Then, the temperature drops and the neutrino is reduced. Various models which can explain the neutrino of less than ISNU have been presented. However, other theory says that the reduction of neutrino is not expected even if the mixing is considered. A problem concerning the mixing is whether the thermal instability which causes the mixing exists. (Kato, T.).

  7. Central hypothyroidism

    Vishal Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Central hypothyroidism is defined as hypothyroidism due to insufficient stimulation by thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH of an otherwise normal thyroid gland. It has an estimated prevalence of approximately 1 in 80,000 to 1 in 120,000. It can be secondary hypothyroidism (pituitary or tertiary hypothyroidism (hypothalamus in origin. In children, it is usually caused by craniopharyngiomas or previous cranial irradiation for brain tumors or hematological malignancies. In adults, it is usually due to pituitary macroadenomas, pituitary surgeries or post-irradiation. Fatigue and peripheral edema are the most specific clinical features. Diagnosis is established by the presence of normal to low-normal TSH on the background of low-normal thyroid hormones, confirmed by the thyrotropin releasing hormone stimulation test. Therapy includes use of levothyroxine titrated to improvement in symptomology and keeping free T4 in the upper limit of normal reference range.

  8. Solar energy collection by antennas

    Corkish, R.; Green, M.A.; Puzzer, T. [University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia). Centre for Advanced Silicon Photovoltaics and Photonics

    2002-12-01

    The idea of collecting solar electromagnetic radiation with antenna-rectifier (rectenna) structures was proposed three decades ago but has not yet been achieved. The idea has been promoted as having potential to achieve efficiency approaching 100% but thermodynamic considerations imply a lower limit of 85.4% for a non-frequency-selective rectenna and 86.8% for one with infinite selectivity, assuming maximal concentration in each case. This paper reviews the history and technical context of solar rectennas and discusses the major issues: thermodynamic efficiency limits, rectifier operation at optical frequencies, harmonics production and electrical noise. (author)

  9. On line profile asymmetries in a solar flare

    Prosecký, Tomáš; Kotrč, Pavel; Berlicki, A.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 1 (2006), s. 31-41 ISSN 1845-8319. [Central European Solar Physics Meeting /2./. Bairisch Kölldorf, 19.05.2005-21.05.2005] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3003203 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : sun * solar flares * spectrum Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  10. Solar Ethics: A New Paradigm for Environmental Ethics and Education?

    Peters, Michael A.; Hung, Ruyu

    2009-01-01

    This article provides grounds for a new paradigm of environmental ethics and education based on the centrality of the sun and solar system--a shift from anthropocentrism to solar systemism. The article provides some grounds for this shift from the physical sciences that considers the planet Earth as part of a wider system that is dependent upon…

  11. Solar Power Plants: Dark Horse in the Energy Stable

    Caputo, Richard S.

    1977-01-01

    Twelfth in a series of reports on solar energy, this article provides information relating to the following questions: (1) economic cost of solar-thermal-electric central power plants; (2) cost comparison with nuclear or coal plants; (3) locations of this energy source; and (4) its use and social costs. (CS)

  12. Solar Flares: Magnetohydrodynamic Processes

    Kazunari Shibata

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the current understanding of solar flares, mainly focused on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD processes responsible for producing a flare. Observations show that flares are one of the most explosive phenomena in the atmosphere of the Sun, releasing a huge amount of energy up to about 10^32 erg on the timescale of hours. Flares involve the heating of plasma, mass ejection, and particle acceleration that generates high-energy particles. The key physical processes for producing a flare are: the emergence of magnetic field from the solar interior to the solar atmosphere (flux emergence, local enhancement of electric current in the corona (formation of a current sheet, and rapid dissipation of electric current (magnetic reconnection that causes shock heating, mass ejection, and particle acceleration. The evolution toward the onset of a flare is rather quasi-static when free energy is accumulated in the form of coronal electric current (field-aligned current, more precisely, while the dissipation of coronal current proceeds rapidly, producing various dynamic events that affect lower atmospheres such as the chromosphere and photosphere. Flares manifest such rapid dissipation of coronal current, and their theoretical modeling has been developed in accordance with observations, in which numerical simulations proved to be a strong tool reproducing the time-dependent, nonlinear evolution of a flare. We review the models proposed to explain the physical mechanism of flares, giving an comprehensive explanation of the key processes mentioned above. We start with basic properties of flares, then go into the details of energy build-up, release and transport in flares where magnetic reconnection works as the central engine to produce a flare.

  13. Q2/Q3 2016 Solar Industry Update

    Feldman, David; Boff, Daniel; Margolis, Robert

    2016-10-11

    This technical presentation provides an update on the major trends that occurred in the solar industry in the Q2 and Q3 of 2016. Major topics of focus include global and U.S. supply and demand, module and system price, investment trends and business models, and updates on U.S. government programs supporting the solar industry.

  14. Q2/Q3 2017 Solar Industry Update

    Feldman, David J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hoskins, Jack [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States); Margolis, Robert M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-24

    This technical presentation provides an update on the major trends that occurred in the solar industry in Q2 and Q3 of 2017. Major topics of focus include global and U.S. supply and demand, module and system price, investment trends and business models, and updates on U.S. government programs supporting the solar industry.

  15. Q4 2016/Q1 2017 Solar Industry Update

    Margolis, Robert; Feldman, David; Boff, Daniel

    2017-05-17

    This technical presentation provides an update on the major trends that occurred in the solar industry in the fourth quarter of 2016 and the first quarter of 2017. Major topics of focus include global and U.S. supply and demand, module and system price, investment trends and business models, and updates on U.S. government programs supporting the solar industry.

  16. Q3/Q4 2016 Solar Industry Update

    Feldman, David; Boff, Daniel; Margolis, Robert

    2016-12-21

    This technical presentation provides an update on the major trends that occurred in the solar industry in the Q3 and Q4 of 2016. Major topics of focus include global and U.S. supply and demand, module and system price, investment trends and business models, and updates on U.S. government programs supporting the solar industry.

  17. Q4 2017/Q1 2018 Solar Industry Update

    Feldman, David J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hoskins, Jack [U.S. Department of Energy

    2018-05-16

    This technical presentation provides an update on the major trends that occurred in the solar industry in Q4 2017 and Q1 2018. Major topics of focus include global and U.S. supply and demand, module and system price, investment trends and business models, and updates on U.S. government programs supporting the solar industry.

  18. Q3/Q4 2017 Solar Industry Update

    Feldman, David J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hoskins, Jack [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States); Margolis, Robert M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-02-15

    This technical presentation provides an update on the major trends that occurred in the solar industry in the Q3 and Q4 of 2017. Major topics of focus include global and U.S. supply and demand, module and system price, investment trends and business models, and updates on U.S. government programs supporting the solar industry.

  19. Big Data and central banks

    David Bholat

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This commentary recaps a Centre for Central Banking Studies event held at the Bank of England on 2–3 July 2014. The article covers three main points. First, it situates the Centre for Central Banking Studies event within the context of the Bank’s Strategic Plan and initiatives. Second, it summarises and reflects on major themes from the event. Third, the article links central banks’ emerging interest in Big Data approaches with their broader uptake by other economic agents.

  20. Solar Energy Systems

    1984-01-01

    Calibrated in kilowatt hours per square meter, the solar counter produced by Dodge Products, Inc. provides a numerical count of the solar energy that has accumulated on a surface. Solar energy sensing, measuring and recording devices in corporate solar cell technology developed by Lewis Research Center. Customers for their various devices include architects, engineers and others engaged in construction and operation of solar energy facilities; manufacturers of solar systems or solar related products, such as glare reducing windows; and solar energy planners in federal and state government agencies.

  1. Mobile Solar Tracker Facility

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NIST's mobile solar tracking facility is used to characterize the electrical performance of photovoltaic panels. It incorporates meteorological instruments, a solar...

  2. Solar Club

    Solar Club

    2010-01-01

    Le CERN Solar-Club vous invite à la présentation de sa participation dans : The Cyprus Institute Solar Car Challenge du 18 au 20 juin à Chypre . en réponse à l’invitation dudit institut, dans le cadre de la demande de Chypre pour joindre le CERN . Le Club y participera avec son vénérable Photon rénové , et la Dyane E-Solaire d’un de ses membres, rénové aussi . Après la présentation, le forum est ouvert pour toutes vos questions et propositions diverses, également dans d’autres domaines des énergies renouvelables . C’est aussi l’occasion pour joindre le Club ! Où, et Quand ? Le Mercredi 7 Avril à 19 h 00, au 6ème étage du Bât. Principal, (60-6-015) à la suite de l’AG des membres du Club , à 18h00 dans...

  3. Toward an Urban Political Ecology of Energy Justice: The Case of Rooftop Solar in Tucson, AZ

    Franklin, Remington Santiago

    A central challenge of the twenty-first century is to transition to a low-carbon energy system to reduce the risks of climate change. For Pima County, Arizona, where electricity accounts for the majority of greenhouse gas emissions, this requires rapid deployment of grid-tied renewable energy resources. In light of this challenge, photovoltaic solar has emerged as an important solution, providing the top source of new US electric generating capacity installed in 2016. However, there is still no consensus about the optimal scale for solar (centralized power plants, or small, decentralized systems) and the socio-economic implications for low income households. This thesis explores the implications of rooftop solar for energy justice through empirical research about a southern Arizona electric utility rate case. Utilities argue that existing rate structures shift costs from solar owners to lower-income ratepayers, while critics say the utility's proposed rate changes are unjust and that rooftop solar benefits all ratepayers. Drawing on my empirical data and an urban political ecology (UPE) approach, I analyze competing narratives that speak to three types of justice: distributive, procedural, and recognition. While dominant justice claims revolve around the distribution of costs through rates, competing narratives emphasize procedural and recognition (in)justice. Focusing on political economy, power relations, and the materiality of the grid, I reframe the utility's cost shift argument as a strategic narrative and explain why this justice claim is ultimately validated. I propose that UPE can further an energy justice analysis by understanding procedural and recognition injustice as systemic products of rate of return regulation and the material configuration of the electric grid.

  4. Solar based water treatment technologies

    Ahmad, I.; Hyder, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    In developing countries, the quality of drinking water is so poor that reports of 80% diseases from water-related causes is no surprise (Tebbet, 90). Frequently, there are reports in press of outbreak of epidemics in cities due to the unhygienic drinking-water. The state of affairs in the rural areas can be well imagined, where majority of the people live with no piped water. This paper describes the solar-based methods of removing organic pollutants from waste-water (also called Advanced Oxidation Technologies) and solar desalination. Experimental results of a simple solar water-sterilization technique have been discussed, along with suggestions to enhance the performance of this technique. (author)

  5. Rotation of the Solar Equator

    Kotov, V. A.

    2017-06-01

    Regular measurements of the general magnetic field of the Sun, performed over about half a century at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory, the J. Wilcox Solar Observatory, and five other observatories, are considered in detail for the time 1968 - 2016. They include more than twenty-six thousand daily values of the mean line-of-sight field strength of the visible solar hemisphere. On the basis of these values, the equatorial rotation period of the Sun is found to be 26.926(9) d (synodic). It is shown that its half-value coincides within error limits with both the main period of the magnetic four-sector structure, 13.4577(25) d, and the best-commensurate period of the slow motions of the major solar system bodies, 13.479(22) d (sidereal). The probability that the two periods coincide by chance is estimated to be about 10^{-7}. The true origin of this odd resonance is unknown.

  6. Solar Innovation Infographic | Solar Research | NREL

    Innovation Infographic Solar Innovation Infographic Scientists have been working to harness power from the sun for about 200 years. Over the past 40 years, solar energy technologies have made research developments and industry milestones that helped shape our U.S. solar industry. Infographic Embed

  7. Midscale Commercial Solar Market | Solar Research | NREL

    States To help prospective solar customers understand and use the policies of their state for midsized Customers, which equips prospective solar customers with the tools necessary to understand and use the solar corporate customers (Alabama Power's Renewable Procurement Program), and a company with approval to sell

  8. Solar neutrinos and nonradial solar oscillations

    Zatsepin, G.T.; Gavryuseva, E.A.; Kopysov, Yu.S.

    1980-01-01

    The problem of origin of surface solar oscillations is considered. It is assumed that generation of oscillations is performed by the solar nucleus. The necessary excitation condition for gravitational oscillations of the solar nucleus is a sharp decrease of the oscillation amplitude outside the nucleus, where the nuclear reaction rates are small and only radiation losses are considerable. It is shown that the specific singularities of gravitational wave propagation in solar entrails permit to attain a significant reduction of the oscillation amplitude. The solar entrails can serve as an effective trap for gravitational waves, if the substance of the solar nucleus is close to the state of convectional equilibrium. In order that the g 1 quadrupole mode of the solar nucleus has a period of 2h 40 min and sharply decreases in the solar mantle, it is enough that only the external part of the solar nucleus is close to the state of convectional equilibrium. Closeness of the solar nucleus to the state of convectional equilibrium is an argument in favour of its periodic mixing. Periodic mixing of the solar nucleus can serve as a cause of a low counting rate of solar neutrinos in R.Davis chlorous detector

  9. Solar energy an introduction

    Mackay, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    Solar Energy presents an introduction to all aspects of solar energy, from photovoltaic devices to active and passive solar thermal energy conversion, giving both a detailed and broad perspective of the field. It is aimed at the beginner involved in solar energy or a related field, or for someone wanting to gain a broader perspective of solar energy technologies. A chapter considering solar radiation, basic principles applied to solar energy, semiconductor physics, and light absorption brings the reader on equal footing with the technology of either solar generated electrical current or useful heat. Details of how a solar cell works and then production of current from a photovoltaic device is discussed. Characterization of a solar cell is examined, allowing one the ability to interpret the current-voltage relation, followed by discussion of parameter extraction from this relation. This information can be used to understand what limits the performance of a given solar cell with the potential to optimize its pe...

  10. Comparison of Different Technologies for Integrated Solar Combined Cycles: Analysis of Concentrating Technology and Solar Integration

    Antonio Rovira

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the annual performance of Integrated Solar Combined Cycles (ISCCs using different solar concentration technologies: parabolic trough collectors (PTC, linear Fresnel reflectors (LFR and central tower receiver (CT. Each solar technology (i.e. PTC, LFR and CT is proposed to integrate solar energy into the combined cycle in two different ways. The first one is based on the use of solar energy to evaporate water of the steam cycle by means of direct steam generation (DSG, increasing the steam production of the high pressure level of the steam generator. The other one is based on the use of solar energy to preheat the pressurized air at the exit of the gas turbine compressor before it is introduced in the combustion chamber, reducing the fuel consumption. Results show that ISCC with DSG increases the yearly production while solar air heating reduces it due to the incremental pressure drop. However, air heating allows significantly higher solar-to-electricity efficiencies and lower heat rates. Regarding the solar technologies, PTC provides the best thermal results.

  11. Solar origins of solar wind properties during the cycle 23 solar minimum and rising phase of cycle 24

    Luhmann, Janet G.; Petrie, Gordon; Riley, Pete

    2012-01-01

    The solar wind was originally envisioned using a simple dipolar corona/polar coronal hole sources picture, but modern observations and models, together with the recent unusual solar cycle minimum, have demonstrated the limitations of this picture. The solar surface fields in both polar and low-to-mid-latitude active region zones routinely produce coronal magnetic fields and related solar wind sources much more complex than a dipole. This makes low-to-mid latitude coronal holes and their associated streamer boundaries major contributors to what is observed in the ecliptic and affects the Earth. In this paper we use magnetogram-based coronal field models to describe the conditions that prevailed in the corona from the decline of cycle 23 into the rising phase of cycle 24. The results emphasize the need for adopting new views of what is ‘typical’ solar wind, even when the Sun is relatively inactive. PMID:25685422

  12. EDITORIAL Solar harvest Solar harvest

    Demming, Anna

    2010-12-01

    The first observations of the photoelectric effect date back to the early 19th century from work by Alexandre Edmond Becquerel, Heinrich Hertz, Wilhelm Hallwachs and J J Thomson. The theory behind the phenomena was clarified in a seminal paper by Einstein in 1905 and became an archetypical feature of the wave-particle description of light. A different manifestation of quantised electron excitation, whereby electrons are not emitted but excited into the valence band of the material, is what we call the photoconductive effect. As well as providing an extension to theories in fundamental physics, the phenomenon has spawned a field with enormous ramifications in the energy industry through the development of solar cells. Among advances in photovoltaic technology has been the development of organic photovoltaic technology. These devices have many benefits over their inorganic counterparts, such as light-weight, flexible material properties, as well as versatile materials' synthesis and low-cost large-scale production—all highly advantageous for manufacturing. The first organic photovoltaic systems were reported over 50 years ago [1], but the potential of the field has escalated in recent years in terms of efficiency, largely through band offsetting. Since then, great progress has been made in studies for optimising the efficiency of organic solar cells, such as the work by researchers in Germany and the Netherlands, where investigations were made into the percentage composition and annealing effects on composites of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and the fullerene derivative [6,6]-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) [2]. Hybrid devices that aim to exploit the advantages of both inorganic and organic constituents have also proven promising. One example of this is the work reported by researchers in Tunisia and France on a systematic study for optimising the composition morphology of TiO2 nanoparticles in poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK), which also led to insights

  13. Data-driven modeling of solar-powered urban microgrids.

    Halu, Arda; Scala, Antonio; Khiyami, Abdulaziz; González, Marta C

    2016-01-01

    Distributed generation takes center stage in today's rapidly changing energy landscape. Particularly, locally matching demand and generation in the form of microgrids is becoming a promising alternative to the central distribution paradigm. Infrastructure networks have long been a major focus of complex networks research with their spatial considerations. We present a systemic study of solar-powered microgrids in the urban context, obeying real hourly consumption patterns and spatial constraints of the city. We propose a microgrid model and study its citywide implementation, identifying the self-sufficiency and temporal properties of microgrids. Using a simple optimization scheme, we find microgrid configurations that result in increased resilience under cost constraints. We characterize load-related failures solving power flows in the networks, and we show the robustness behavior of urban microgrids with respect to optimization using percolation methods. Our findings hint at the existence of an optimal balance between cost and robustness in urban microgrids.

  14. Solar flares

    Zirin, H.

    1974-01-01

    A review of the knowledge about solar flares which has been obtained through observations from the earth and from space by various methods is presented. High-resolution cinematography is best carried out at H-alpha wavelengths to reveal the structure, time history, and location of flares. The classification flares in H alpha according to either physical or morphological criteria is discussed. The study of flare morphology, which shows where, when, and how flares occur, is important for evaluating theories of flares. Consideration is given to studies of flares by optical spectroscopy, radio emissions, and at X-ray and XUV wavelengths. Research has shown where and possibly why flares occur, but the physics of the instability involved, of the particle acceleration, and of the heating are still not understood. (IAA)

  15. Hydroclimatic variability in loess δDwax records from the central Chinese Loess Plateau over the past 250 ka

    Wang, Zheng; An, Zhisheng; Liu, Zhonghui; Qiang, Xiaoke; Zhang, Fan; Liu, Weiguo

    2018-04-01

    This study reports hydrogen isotopic records from the central Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP) over the past 250 ka. After eliminating the influence of ice and local temperatures, the δDwax records extracted from two loess sites at Xifeng and Luochuan can be taken to represent arid/humid alternations in the hydrological environment in this marginal Asian Summer Monsoon (ASM) region; they also contain integrated information on summer precipitation patterns and the corresponding responses to these changes by predominant vegetation cover types. These arid/humid alternations show 100 ka, 40 ka and 20 ka cycles. An increase in precipitation in association with an enhanced summer monsoon has historically been taken to be the major factor driving a humid environment in the central CLP. However, hydroclimatic changes in δDwax records differ for the central CLP, central China and southern China. Over a 20 ka cycle, the influence of solar insolation on hydroclimatic changes can be shown to be consistent throughout the central CLP. However, changes in the relative location of the land and sea may have caused different hydroclimatic responses between southern China and the central CLP on a glacial-interglacial scale. The hydroclimatic variability in the central CLP would suggest that an enhanced summer monsoon due to climatic warming is the key to understanding decreased drought degree in this marginal monsoonal region.

  16. Central station market development strategies for photovoltaics

    1980-01-01

    Federal market development strategies designed to accelerate the market penetration of central station applications of photovoltaic energy system are analyzed. Since no specific goals were set for the commercialization of central station applications, strategic principles are explored which, when coupled with specific objectives for central stations, can produce a market development implementation plan. The study includes (1) background information on the National Photovoltaic Program, photovoltaic technology, and central stations; (2) a brief market assessment; (3) a discussion of the viewpoints of the electric utility industry with respect to solar energy; (4) a discussion of commercialization issues; and (5) strategy principles. It is recommended that a set of specific goals and objectives be defined for the photovoltaic central station program, and that these goals and objectives evolve into an implementation plan that identifies the appropriate federal role.

  17. Solar radiation at Parsons, West Virginia

    James H. Patric; Stanley Caruso

    1978-01-01

    Twelve years of solar radiation data, measured with a Kipp-Zonen pyranometer, were recorded near Parsons, West Virginia. The data agree well with calculated values of potential and average radiation for the vicinity and are applicable to the central Appalachian region.

  18. Prospects after Major Trauma

    Holtslag, H.R.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction. After patients survived major trauma, their prospects, in terms of the consequences for functioning, are uncertain, which may impact severely on patient, family and society. The studies in this thesis describes the long-term outcomes of severe injured patients after major trauma. In

  19. Optical study of solar tower power plants

    Eddhibi, F; Amara, M Ben; Balghouthi, M; Guizani, A

    2015-01-01

    The central receiver technology for electricity generation consists of concentrating solar radiation coming from the solar tracker field into a central receiver surface located on the top of the tower. The heliostat field is constituted of a big number of reflective mirrors; each heliostat tracks the sun individually and reflects the sunlight to a focal point. Therefore, the heliostat should be positioned with high precision in order to minimize optical losses. In the current work, a mathematical model for the analysis of the optical efficiency of solar tower field power plant is proposed. The impact of the different factors which influence the optical efficiency is analyzed. These parameters are mainly, the shading and blocking losses, the cosine effect, the atmospheric attenuation and the spillage losses. A new method for the calculation of blocking and shadowing efficiency is introduced and validated by open literature

  20. A low energy solar town

    Svendsen, Svend; Balocco, Carla

    1998-12-31

    The use of solar energy at large scale is necessary to support the energy savings and a more efficient energy use, like besides the quality of the ambient and the quality of the available energy sources. The solar heating systems with seasonal storage can be combined with heat from refuse incineration plants and other renewable heat sources. These systems combined with district heating are an example of the sustainable energy planning and the reduction of the environmental stress. Strategies for sustainability in the settlements can be defined by and energy model to planning that individuates development and economic and financial supports to. The aim of the work concerns the development of a small sun city with no use of fossil fuels. The new low energy solar town is an idealised urban an energy system. The studied settlement regards one thousand new low-energy houses supplied by a district heating with a central solar heating system with seasonal heat storage. The heating and ventilation demand in the studied low energy buildings are less than 40 kWh/m{sup 2}/year, the electricity demand is less than 2000 kWh per house year. The result of the work is an useful tool to the energy planning of the urban areas and it is also a necessary support to the political and energetic decisions. (EG) 58 refs.

  1. A low energy solar town

    Svendsen, Svend; Balocco, Carla

    1998-01-01

    The use of solar energy at large scale is necessary to support the energy savings and a more efficient energy use, like besides the quality of the ambient and the quality of the available energy sources. The solar heating systems with seasonal storage can be combined with heat from refuse incineration plants and other renewable heat sources. These systems combined with district heating are an example of the sustainable energy planning and the reduction of the environmental stress. Strategies for sustainability in the settlements can be defined by and energy model to planning that individuates development and economic and financial supports to. The aim of the work concerns the development of a small sun city with no use of fossil fuels. The new low energy solar town is an idealised urban an energy system. The studied settlement regards one thousand new low-energy houses supplied by a district heating with a central solar heating system with seasonal heat storage. The heating and ventilation demand in the studied low energy buildings are less than 40 kWh/m 2 /year, the electricity demand is less than 2000 kWh per house year. The result of the work is an useful tool to the energy planning of the urban areas and it is also a necessary support to the political and energetic decisions. (EG) 58 refs

  2. Research opportunities to advance solar energy utilization.

    Lewis, Nathan S

    2016-01-22

    Major developments, as well as remaining challenges and the associated research opportunities, are evaluated for three technologically distinct approaches to solar energy utilization: solar electricity, solar thermal, and solar fuels technologies. Much progress has been made, but research opportunities are still present for all approaches. Both evolutionary and revolutionary technology development, involving foundational research, applied research, learning by doing, demonstration projects, and deployment at scale will be needed to continue this technology-innovation ecosystem. Most of the approaches still offer the potential to provide much higher efficiencies, much lower costs, improved scalability, and new functionality, relative to the embodiments of solar energy-conversion systems that have been developed to date. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  3. Semiconductor quantum dot-sensitized solar cells.

    Tian, Jianjun; Cao, Guozhong

    2013-10-31

    Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have been drawing great attention recently as a material for solar energy conversion due to their versatile optical and electrical properties. The QD-sensitized solar cell (QDSC) is one of the burgeoning semiconductor QD solar cells that shows promising developments for the next generation of solar cells. This article focuses on recent developments in QDSCs, including 1) the effect of quantum confinement on QDSCs, 2) the multiple exciton generation (MEG) of QDs, 3) fabrication methods of QDs, and 4) nanocrystalline photoelectrodes for solar cells. We also make suggestions for future research on QDSCs. Although the efficiency of QDSCs is still low, we think there will be major breakthroughs in developing QDSCs in the future.

  4. Terawatt solar photovoltaics roadblocks and opportunities

    Tao, Meng

    2014-01-01

    Solar energy will undoubtedly become a main source of energy in our life by the end of this century, but how big of a role will photovoltaics play in this new energy infrastructure Besides cost and efficiency, there are other barriers for current solar cell technologies to become a noticeable source of energy in the future. Availability of raw materials, energy input, storage of solar electricity, and recycling of dead modules can all prevent or hinder a tangible impact by solar photovoltaics. This book is intended for readers with minimal technical background and aims to explore not only the fundamentals but also major issues in large-scale deployment of solar photovoltaics. Thought-provoking ideas to overcoming some of the barriers are discussed.

  5. Semi-transparent solar cells

    Sun, J; Jasieniak, J J

    2017-01-01

    Semi-transparent solar cells are a type of technology that combines the benefits of visible light transparency and light-to-electricity conversion. One of the biggest opportunities for such technologies is in their integration as windows and skylights within energy-sustainable buildings. Currently, such building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) are dominated by crystalline silicon based modules; however, the opaque nature of silicon creates a unique opportunity for the adoption of emerging photovoltaic candidates that can be made truly semi-transparent. These include: amorphous silicon-, kesterite-, chalcopyrite-, CdTe-, dye-sensitized-, organic- and perovskite- based systems. For the most part, amorphous silicon has been the workhorse in the semi-transparent solar cell field owing to its established, low-temperature fabrication processes. Excitement around alternative classes, particularly perovskites and the inorganic candidates, has recently arisen because of the major efficiency gains exhibited by these technologies. Importantly, each of these presents unique opportunities and challenges within the context of BIPV. This topic review provides an overview into the broader benefits of semi-transparent solar cells as building-integrated features, as well as providing the current development status into all of the major types of semi-transparent solar cells technologies. (topical review)

  6. Semi-transparent solar cells

    Sun, J.; Jasieniak, J. J.

    2017-03-01

    Semi-transparent solar cells are a type of technology that combines the benefits of visible light transparency and light-to-electricity conversion. One of the biggest opportunities for such technologies is in their integration as windows and skylights within energy-sustainable buildings. Currently, such building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) are dominated by crystalline silicon based modules; however, the opaque nature of silicon creates a unique opportunity for the adoption of emerging photovoltaic candidates that can be made truly semi-transparent. These include: amorphous silicon-, kesterite-, chalcopyrite-, CdTe-, dye-sensitized-, organic- and perovskite- based systems. For the most part, amorphous silicon has been the workhorse in the semi-transparent solar cell field owing to its established, low-temperature fabrication processes. Excitement around alternative classes, particularly perovskites and the inorganic candidates, has recently arisen because of the major efficiency gains exhibited by these technologies. Importantly, each of these presents unique opportunities and challenges within the context of BIPV. This topic review provides an overview into the broader benefits of semi-transparent solar cells as building-integrated features, as well as providing the current development status into all of the major types of semi-transparent solar cells technologies.

  7. Solar Energy Basics | NREL

    Solar Energy Basics Solar Energy Basics Solar is the Latin word for sun-a powerful source of energy that can be used to heat, cool, and light our homes and businesses. That's because more energy from the technologies convert sunlight to usable energy for buildings. The most commonly used solar technologies for

  8. Design and simulation of a prototype of a small-scale solar CHP system based on evacuated flat-plate solar collectors and Organic Rankine Cycle

    Calise, Francesco; D’Accadia, Massimo Dentice; Vicidomini, Maria; Scarpellino, Marco

    2015-01-01

    year, remaining always close to 10%. On the other hand, the efficiency of the solar collectors is very high in summer (>50%) and significantly lower during the coldest winter days (down to 20%). Pay-back periods are extremely attractive in case of feed-in tariffs (about 5 years), whereas the profitability of the system is scarce when no public funding is available. A sensitivity analysis was also performed, in order to determine the combination of system/design parameters able to maximize the thermo-economic performance of the system. It was found that the system may be economically feasible for the majority of locations in the Mediterranean area (pay-back periods around 10 years), whereas the profitability is unsatisfactory for Central-Europe sites

  9. A solar neutrino loophole: standard solar models

    Rouse, C A [General Atomic Co., San Diego, Calif. (USA)

    1975-11-01

    The salient aspects of the existence theorem for a unique solution to a system of linear of nonlinear first-order, ordinary differential equations are given and applied to the equilibrium stellar structure equations. It is shown that values of pressure, temperature, mass and luminosity are needed at one point - and for the sun, the logical point is the solar radius. It is concluded that since standard solar model calculations use split boundary conditions, a solar neutrino loophole still remains: solar model calculations that seek to satisfy the necessary condition for a unique solution to the solar structure equations suggest a solar interior quite different from that deduced in standard models. This, in turn, suggests a theory of formation and solar evolution significantly different from the standard theory.

  10. Centralized versus distributed propulsion

    Clark, J. P.

    1982-01-01

    The functions and requirements of auxiliary propulsion systems are reviewed. None of the three major tasks (attitude control, stationkeeping, and shape control) can be performed by a collection of thrusters at a single central location. If a centralized system is defined as a collection of separated clusters, made up of the minimum number of propulsion units, then such a system can provide attitude control and stationkeeping for most vehicles. A distributed propulsion system is characterized by more numerous propulsion units in a regularly distributed arrangement. Various proposed large space systems are reviewed and it is concluded that centralized auxiliary propulsion is best suited to vehicles with a relatively rigid core. These vehicles may carry a number of flexible or movable appendages. A second group, consisting of one or more large flexible flat plates, may need distributed propulsion for shape control. There is a third group, consisting of vehicles built up from multiple shuttle launches, which may be forced into a distributed system because of the need to add additional propulsion units as the vehicles grow. The effects of distributed propulsion on a beam-like structure were examined. The deflection of the structure under both translational and rotational thrusts is shown as a function of the number of equally spaced thrusters. When two thrusters only are used it is shown that location is an important parameter. The possibility of using distributed propulsion to achieve minimum overall system weight is also examined. Finally, an examination of the active damping by distributed propulsion is described.

  11. Socio-Cultural Dimensions of Cluster vs. Single Home Photovoltaic Solar Energy Systems in Rural Nepal

    Kimber Haddix McKay

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the socio-cultural dimensions of obstacles facing solar photovoltaic projects in two villages in rural Nepal. The study was conducted in Humla District, Nepal, one of the most remote and impoverished regions of the country. There are no roads in the district, homes lack running water and villagers’ health suffers from high levels of indoor air pollution from open cooking/heating fires and the smoky torches traditionally burned for light. The introduction of solar energy is important to these villagers, as it removes one major source of indoor air pollution from homes and provides brighter light than the traditional torches. Solar energy is preferable in many villages in the region due to the lack of suitable streams or rivers for micro-hydroelectric projects. In the villages under study in this paper, in-home solar electricity is a novel and recent innovation, and was installed within the last three years in two different geo-spatial styles, depending upon the configuration of homes in the village. In some villages, houses are grouped together, while in others households are widely dispersed. In the former, solar photovoltaic systems were installed in a “cluster” fashion with multiple homes utilizing power from a central battery store under the control of the householder storing the battery bank. In villages with widely spaced households, a single home system was used so that each home had a separate solar photovoltaic array, wiring system and battery bank. It became clear that the cluster system was the sensible choice due to the geographic layout of certain villages, but this put people into management groups that did not always work well due to caste or other differences. This paper describes the two systems and their management and usage costs and benefits from the perspective of the villagers themselves.

  12. Environmental impacts from the solar energy technologies

    Tsoutsos, Theocharis; Frantzeskaki, Niki; Gekas, Vassilis

    2005-01-01

    Solar energy systems (photovoltaics, solar thermal, solar power) provide significant environmental benefits in comparison to the conventional energy sources, thus contributing, to the sustainable development of human activities. Sometimes however, their wide scale deployment has to face potential negative environmental implications. These potential problems seem to be a strong barrier for a further dissemination of these systems in some consumers. To cope with these problems this paper presents an overview of an Environmental Impact Assessment. We assess the potential environmental intrusions in order to ameliorate them with new technological innovations and good practices in the future power systems. The analysis provides the potential burdens to the environment, which include - during the construction, the installation and the demolition phases, as well as especially in the case of the central solar technologies - noise and visual intrusion, greenhouse gas emissions, water and soil pollution, energy consumption, labour accidents, impact on archaeological sites or on sensitive ecosystems, negative and positive socio-economic effects

  13. Solar engine system

    Tan, K.K.; Bahrom Sanugi; Chen, L.C.; Chong, K.K.; Jasmy Yunus; Kannan, K.S.; Lim, B.H.; Noriah Bidin; Omar Aliman; Sahar Salehan; Sheikh Ab Rezan Sheikh A H; Tam, C.M.; Chen, Y.T.

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports the revolutionary solar engine system in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM). The solar engine is a single cylinder stirling engine driven by solar thermal energy. A first prototype solar engine has been built and demonstrated. A new-concept non-imaging focusing heliostat and a recently invented optical receiver are used in the demonstration. Second generation of prototype solar engine is described briefly. In this paper, the solar engine system development is reported. Measurement for the first prototype engine speed, temperature and specifications are presented. The benefits and potential applications for the future solar engine system, especially for the electricity generating aspect are discussed. (Author)

  14. Photovoltaic solar concentrator

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Okandan, Murat; Resnick, Paul J.; Sanchez, Carlos Anthony; Clews, Peggy J.; Gupta, Vipin P.

    2015-09-08

    A process including forming a photovoltaic solar cell on a substrate, the photovoltaic solar cell comprising an anchor positioned between the photovoltaic solar cell and the substrate to suspend the photovoltaic solar cell from the substrate. A surface of the photovoltaic solar cell opposite the substrate is attached to a receiving substrate. The receiving substrate may be bonded to the photovoltaic solar cell using an adhesive force or a metal connecting member. The photovoltaic solar cell is then detached from the substrate by lifting the receiving substrate having the photovoltaic solar cell attached thereto and severing the anchor connecting the photovoltaic solar cell to the substrate. Depending upon the type of receiving substrate used, the photovoltaic solar cell may be removed from the receiving substrate or remain on the receiving substrate for use in the final product.

  15. Solar workshops financial incentives

    None

    1979-01-01

    Ten one-day workshops were held across the United States. Information in this workbook is compiled in conjunction with those workshops. The following discussions are included: solar as a fuel (history); why alternative fuels are being sought today; the need for conservation; advantages of solar energy; the potential of solar energy; why solar energy is not more widely used; a definition of solar; how solar can help meet energy demands; Federal policies and programs; what solar technologies exist today that can be effectively utilized (thermal applications, fuels from biomass, solar electric). Additional information is presented in three attachments: Energy-Conserving Methods; Domestic Policy Review of Solar Energy; and DOE Secretary's Annual Report to Congress-Solar Section. (MCW)

  16. Solar Still Coupled With Solar Collector and Storage Tank

    Rajesh, A. M.; Bharath, K. N.

    2010-01-01

    Acute shortage of good, clean drinking water is a major problem for most developing countries of the world. In most cases, ponds, streams, wells and rivers are often polluted that they are unsafe for direct use as drinking water >.Often water sources are brackish and or contain harmful bacteria. Therefore cannot be used for drinking .In addition there are many coastal locations where sea water is abundant but potable water is not available. Solar distillation is one of the important methods o...

  17. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF SOLAR COLLECTORS USING A SOLAR SIMULATOR

    M. Norhafana; Ahmad Faris Ismail; Z. A. A. Majid

    2015-01-01

    Solar water heating systems is one of the applications of solar energy. One of the components of a solar water heating system is a solar collector that consists of an absorber. The performance of the solar water heating system depends on the absorber in the solar collector. In countries with unsuitable weather conditions, the indoor testing of solar collectors with the use of a solar simulator is preferred. Thus, this study is conducted to use a multilayered absorber in the solar collector of...

  18. Innovation in concentrating solar power technologies: A study drawing on patent data

    Braun, Frauke G.; Hooper, Elizabeth; Wand, Robert; Zloczysti, Petra

    2010-01-01

    Better understanding the innovative process of renewable energy technologies is important for tackling climate change. Though concentrating solar power is receiving growing interest, innovation studies so far have explored innovative activity in solar technologies in general, ignoring the major differences between solar photovoltaic and solar thermal technologies. This study relies on patent data to examine international innovative activity in concentrating solar power technologies. Our uniqu...

  19. Aggregation of Organic Semiconductors and Its Influence on Carrier Transport and Solar Cell Performance

    Hu, Hanlin

    2017-01-01

    Photovoltaic technology based on solution-processable organic solar cells (OSCs) provides a promising route towards a low-cost strategy to address the sharply increasing energy demands worldwide. However, up to date, the vast majority of solar cell

  20. Solution-Processed Organic Solar Cells from Dye Molecules: An Investigation of Diketopyrrolopyrrole:Vinazene Heterojunctions

    Walker, Bright; Han, Xu; Kim, Chunki; Sellinger, Alan; Nguyen, Thuc-Quyen

    2012-01-01

    Although one of the most attractive aspects of organic solar cells is their low cost and ease of fabrication, the active materials incorporated into the vast majority of reported bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells include a semiconducting polymer

  1. Solar advanced internal film receiver

    Torre Cabezas, M. de la

    1990-01-01

    In a Solar Central Internal Film Receiver, the heat absorbing fluid (a molten nitrate salt) flows in a thin film down over the non illuminated side of an absorber panel. Since the molten salt working fluid is not contained in complicated tube manifolds, the receiver design is simples than a conventional tube type-receiver resulting in a lower cost and a more reliable receiver. The Internal Film Receiver can be considered as an alternative to the Direct Absorption Receiver, in the event that the current problems of the last one can not be solved. It also describes here the test facility which will be used for its solar test, and the test plans foreseen. (Author) 17 refs

  2. The solar house that rotates

    Miloni, R.P.

    2001-01-01

    This article describes an innovative solar building in Weiz, Austria, that uses passive solar technologies, photovoltaics and a ground-coupled heat pump to cover its minimal energy requirements. The house, which follows the sun by rotating around its central axis, is described in detail, including its climatic design and its 'plus-energy' concept. Details are also given on the materials used in the house's construction and the functioning of its thermal insulation. The various operating modes of the house from the systems point of view are described for differing seasons and climatic extremes. Marketing aspects for this standardised house, featuring personal-computer-based on-line definition of facade cladding, fittings, photovoltaic power, furnishings etc. and real-time rendering of the house are also discussed

  3. Solar collector array

    Hall, John Champlin; Martins, Guy Lawrence

    2015-09-06

    A method and apparatus for efficient manufacture, assembly and production of solar energy. In one aspect, the apparatus may include a number of modular solar receiver assemblies that may be separately manufactured, assembled and individually inserted into a solar collector array housing shaped to receive a plurality of solar receivers. The housing may include optical elements for focusing light onto the individual receivers, and a circuit for electrically connecting the solar receivers.

  4. Solar heating and cooling.

    Duffie, J A

    1976-01-01

    Solar energy is discussed as an energy resource that can be converted into useful energy forms to meet a variety of energy needs. The review briefly explains the nature of this energy resource, the kinds of applications that can be made useful, and the status of several systems to which it has been applied. More specifically, information on solar collectors, solar water heating, solar heating of buildings, solar cooling plus other applications, are included.

  5. Solar active region display system

    Golightly, M.; Raben, V.; Weyland, M.

    2003-04-01

    The Solar Active Region Display System (SARDS) is a client-server application that automatically collects a wide range of solar data and displays it in a format easy for users to assimilate and interpret. Users can rapidly identify active regions of interest or concern from color-coded indicators that visually summarize each region's size, magnetic configuration, recent growth history, and recent flare and CME production. The active region information can be overlaid onto solar maps, multiple solar images, and solar difference images in orthographic, Mercator or cylindrical equidistant projections. Near real-time graphs display the GOES soft and hard x-ray flux, flare events, and daily F10.7 value as a function of time; color-coded indicators show current trends in soft x-ray flux, flare temperature, daily F10.7 flux, and x-ray flare occurrence. Through a separate window up to 4 real-time or static graphs can simultaneously display values of KP, AP, daily F10.7 flux, GOES soft and hard x-ray flux, GOES >10 and >100 MeV proton flux, and Thule neutron monitor count rate. Climatologic displays use color-valued cells to show F10.7 and AP values as a function of Carrington/Bartel's rotation sequences - this format allows users to detect recurrent patterns in solar and geomagnetic activity as well as variations in activity levels over multiple solar cycles. Users can customize many of the display and graph features; all displays can be printed or copied to the system's clipboard for "pasting" into other applications. The system obtains and stores space weather data and images from sources such as the NOAA Space Environment Center, NOAA National Geophysical Data Center, the joint ESA/NASA SOHO spacecraft, and the Kitt Peak National Solar Observatory, and can be extended to include other data series and image sources. Data and images retrieved from the system's database are converted to XML and transported from a central server using HTTP and SOAP protocols, allowing

  6. The solar-hydrogen economy: an analysis

    Reynolds, Warren D.

    2007-09-01

    The 20th Century was the age of the Petroleum Economy while the 21st Century is certainly the age of the Solar-Hydrogen Economy. The global Solar-Hydrogen Economy that is now emerging follows a different logic. Under this new economic paradigm, new machines and methods are once again being developed while companies are restructuring. The Petroleum Economy will be briefly explored in relation to oil consumption, Hubbert's curve, and oil reserves with emphasis on the "oil crash". Concerns and criticisms about the Hydrogen Economy will be addressed by debunking some of the "hydrogen myths". There are three major driving factors for the establishment of the Solar-Hydrogen Economy, i.e. the environment, the economy with the coming "oil crash", and national security. The New Energy decentralization pathway has developed many progressive features, e.g., reducing the dependence on oil, reducing the air pollution and CO II. The technical and economic aspects of the various Solar-Hydrogen energy options and combinations will be analyzed. A proposed 24-hour/day 200 MWe solar-hydrogen power plant for the U.S. with selected energy options will be discussed. There are fast emerging Solar Hydrogen energy infrastructures in the U.S., Europe, Japan and China. Some of the major infrastructure projects in the transportation and energy sectors will be discussed. The current and projected growth in the Solar-Hydrogen Economy through 2045 will be given.

  7. Major operations and activities

    Black, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the major operations and activities on the site. These operations and activities include site management, waste management, environmental restoration and corrective actions, and research and technology development.

  8. A major safety overhaul

    2003-01-01

    A redefined policy, a revamped safety course, an environmental project... the TIS (Technical Inspection and Safety) Division has begun a major safety overhaul. Its new head, Wolfgang Weingarten, explains to the Bulletin why and how this is happening.

  9. Allegheny County Major Rivers

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains locations of major rivers that flow through Allegheny County. These shapes have been taken from the Hydrology dataset. The Ohio River,...

  10. Major operations and activities

    Black, D.G.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the major operations and activities on the site. These operations and activities include site management, waste management, environmental restoration and corrective actions, and research and technology development

  11. Northeast regional assessment study for solar electric options in the period 1980-2000

    None

    1981-04-01

    Opportunities for demonstration and large scale deployment of solar electric facilities are identified and assessed. Technical, economic, and institutional factors that can contribute to an accelerated use of solar energy for electric power generation are defined. The following topics are covered: a description of the Northeast Region and its solar resources, central station applications, a dispersed user analysis, user viewpoints and institutional factors, and market potential for dispersed solar electric systems. (MHR)

  12. Solar Club

    Solar Club

    2012-01-01

      Le  CERN Solar Club tiendra son Assemblée Générale le Mercredi  4 avril, à 18h00 dans la salle C, bat.61, 1e étage de 18h00  à  19h30. Grande table ronde avec  présentations de projets concernant toute forme d’Energie  Renouvelable par des membres du club,  et… par  VOUS, nos invités. Au programme : - L’E-push : petite remorque électrique, qui pousse vôtre vélo par Robert Becker. - Le Stockage Saisonnier Sous-Lacustre d’Energie Solaire (S3LES) par  William van Sprolant. - Compte-Rendu de plusieurs conférences récentes concernant les E.R. par Jacques Dupin. - VOS  Projets ou Sujets (contactez : paul.gelissen@orange.fr). - Partie «administrative» avec rapport d’activités, rapport fina...

  13. Solar flares

    Brown, J.C.; Smith, D.F.

    1980-01-01

    The current observational and theoretical status of solar flares as a typical astrophysical problem is reviewed with especial reference to the intense and complex energy release in large flares. Observations and their diagnostic applications are discussed in three broad areas: thermal radiation at temperatures T 5 K; thermal radiation at T > approximately 10 5 K; and non-thermal radiation and particles. Particular emphasis is given to the most recent observational discoveries such as flare γ-rays, interplanetary Langmuir waves, and the ubiquitous association of soft x-ray loops with flares, and also the progress in particle diagnostics of hard x-ray and radio bursts. The theoretical problems of primary energy release are considered in terms of both possible magnetic configuration and in plasma instabilities and the question of achieving the necessary flash power discussed. The credibility of models for the secondary redistribution through the atmosphere of the primary magnetic energy released in terms of conduction, convection, radiation and particle transport is examined. Progress made in the flare problem in the past decade is assessed and some possible reasons why no convincing solution has yet been found are considered. 296 references. (U.K.)

  14. Construction of a century solar chromosphere data set for solar activity related research

    Lin, Ganghua; Wang, Xiao Fan; Yang, Xiao; Liu, Suo; Zhang, Mei; Wang, Haimin; Liu, Chang; Xu, Yan; Tlatov, Andrey; Demidov, Mihail; Borovik, Aleksandr; Golovko, Aleksey

    2017-06-01

    This article introduces our ongoing project "Construction of a Century Solar Chromosphere Data Set for Solar Activity Related Research". Solar activities are the major sources of space weather that affects human lives. Some of the serious space weather consequences, for instance, include interruption of space communication and navigation, compromising the safety of astronauts and satellites, and damaging power grids. Therefore, the solar activity research has both scientific and social impacts. The major database is built up from digitized and standardized film data obtained by several observatories around the world and covers a time span of more than 100 years. After careful calibration, we will develop feature extraction and data mining tools and provide them together with the comprehensive database for the astronomical community. Our final goal is to address several physical issues: filament behavior in solar cycles, abnormal behavior of solar cycle 24, large-scale solar eruptions, and sympathetic remote brightenings. Significant signs of progress are expected in data mining algorithms and software development, which will benefit the scientific analysis and eventually advance our understanding of solar cycles.

  15. Construction of a century solar chromosphere data set for solar activity related research

    Ganghua Lin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces our ongoing project “Construction of a Century Solar Chromosphere Data Set for Solar Activity Related Research”. Solar activities are the major sources of space weather that affects human lives. Some of the serious space weather consequences, for instance, include interruption of space communication and navigation, compromising the safety of astronauts and satellites, and damaging power grids. Therefore, the solar activity research has both scientific and social impacts. The major database is built up from digitized and standardized film data obtained by several observatories around the world and covers a timespan more than 100 years. After careful calibration, we will develop feature extraction and data mining tools and provide them together with the comprehensive database for the astronomical community. Our final goal is to address several physical issues: filament behavior in solar cycles, abnormal behavior of solar cycle 24, large-scale solar eruptions, and sympathetic remote brightenings. Significant progresses are expected in data mining algorithms and software development, which will benefit the scientific analysis and eventually advance our understanding of solar cycles.

  16. Solar Design Workbook

    Franta, G.; Baylin, F.; Crowther, R.; Dubin, F.; Grace, A., Griffith, J.W.; Holtz, M.; Kutscher, C.; Nordham, D.; Selkowitz, S.; Villecco, M.

    1981-06-01

    This Solar Design Workbook presents solar building design applications for commercial buildir^s. The book is divided into four sections. The first section describes the variety of solar applications in buildings including conservation aspects, solar fundamentals, passive systems, active systems, daylighting, and other solar options. Solar system design evaluation techniques including considerations for building energy requirements, passive systems, active systems, and economics are presented in Section II. The third section attempts to assist the designer in the building design process for energy conservation and solar applications including options and considerations for pre-design, design, and post-design phases. The information required for the solar design proee^ has not been fully developed at this time. Therefore, Section III is incomplete, but an overview of the considerations with some of the design proces elements is presented. Section IV illustrates ease studies that utilize solar applications in the building design.

  17. Computer aid in solar architecture

    Rosendahl, E W

    1982-02-01

    Among architects the question is being discussed in how far new buildings can be designed in a way to make more economical use of energy by architectural means. Solar houses in the USA are often taken as a model. As yet it is unclear how such measures will affect heat demand in the central European climate and with domestic building materials being used. A computer simulation program is introduced by which these questions can be answered as early as in the stage of planning. The program can be run on a common microcomputersystem.

  18. Introduction to solar cell production

    Kim, Gyeong Hae; Lee, Jun Sin

    2009-08-01

    This book introduces solar cell production. It is made up eight chapters, which are summary of solar cell with structure and prospect of the business, special variable of solar cell on light of the sun and factor causing variable of solar cell, production of solar cell with surface texturing, diffusion, metal printing dry and firing and edge isolation, process of solar cell on silicone wafer for solar cell, forming of electrodes, introduction of thin film solar cell on operating of solar cell, process of production and high efficiency of thin film solar cell, sorting of solar cell and production with background of silicone solar cell and thin film solar cell, structure and production of thin film solar cell and compound solar cell, introduction of solar cell module and the Industrial condition and prospect of solar cell.

  19. Solar Mosaic Inc. Mosaic Home Solar Loan SunShot 9 Final Report

    Walsh, Colin James [Solar Mosaic Inc., Oakland, CA (United States)

    2017-02-09

    The 6686 Mosaic SunShot award has helped Solar Mosaic Inc to progress from an early stage startup focused on commercial crowdfunding to a leading multi-state residential solar lender. The software platform is now used by the majority of the nation's top solar installers and offers a variety of simple home solar loans. Mosaic is has originated approximately $1Bil in solar loans to date to put solar on over 35k rooftops. The company now lends to homeowners with a wide range of credit scores across multiple states and mitigates boundaries preventing them from profiting from ownership of a home solar system. The project included milestones in 5 main categories: 1. Lending to homeowners outside of CA 2. Lending to homeowners with FICO scores under 700 3. Packaging O&M with the home solar loan 4. Allowing residential installers to process home solar loans via API 5. Lowering customer acquisition costs below $1500 This report includes a detailed review of the final results achieved and key findings.

  20. Major international sport profiles.

    Patel, Dilip R; Stier, Bernhard; Luckstead, Eugene F

    2002-08-01

    Sports are part of the sociocultural fabric of all countries. Although different sports have their origins in different countries, many sports are now played worldwide. International sporting events bring athletes of many cultures together and provide the opportunity not only for athletic competition but also for sociocultural exchange and understanding among people. This article reviews five major sports with international appeal and participation: cricket, martial arts, field hockey, soccer, and tennis. For each sport, the major aspects of physiological and biomechanical demands, injuries, and prevention strategies are reviewed.

  1. Update on a Solar Magnetic Catalog Spanning Four Solar Cycles

    Vargas-Acosta, Juan Pablo; Munoz-Jaramillo, Andres; Vargas Dominguez, Santiago; Werginz, Zachary; DeLuca, Michael D.; Longcope, Dana; Harvey, J. W.; Windmueller, John; Zhang, Jie; Martens, Petrus C.

    2017-08-01

    Bipolar magnetic regions (BMRs) are the cornerstone of solar cycle propagation, the building blocks that give structure to the solar atmosphere, and the origin of the majority of space weather events. However, in spite of their importance, there is no homogeneous BMR catalog spanning the era of systematic solar magnetic field measurements. Here we present the results of an ongoing project to address this deficiency applying the Bipolar Active Region Detection (BARD) code to magnetograms from the 512 Channel of the Kitt Peak Vaccum Telescope, SOHO/MDI, and SDO/HMI.The BARD code automatically identifies BMRs and tracks them as they are rotated by differential rotation. The output of the automatic detection is supervised by a human observer to correct possible mistakes made by the automatic algorithm (like incorrect pairings and tracking mislabels). Extra passes are made to integrate fragmented regions as well as to balance the flux between BMR polarities. At the moment, our BMR database includes nearly 10,000 unique objects (detected and tracked) belonging to four separate solar cycles (21-24).

  2. Golden Rays - July 2017 | Solar Research | Solar Research | NREL

    , subscribe to the Solar Newsletter. SUBSCRIBE Hot Topics Two solar installers secure solar panels on the roof that has the potential to improve the efficiency of solar panels while leveraging existing

  3. Status of Solar Sail Technology Within NASA

    Johnson, Les; Young, Roy; Montgomery, Edward; Alhorn, Dean

    2010-01-01

    In the early 2000s, NASA made substantial progress in the development of solar sail propulsion systems for use in robotic science and exploration of the solar system. Two different 20-m solar sail systems were produced and they successfully completed functional vacuum testing in NASA Glenn Research Center's (GRC's) Space Power Facility at Plum Brook Station, Ohio. The sails were designed and developed by ATK Space Systems and L Garde, respectively. The sail systems consist of a central structure with four deployable booms that support the sails. These sail designs are robust enough for deployment in a one-atmosphere, one-gravity environment and were scalable to much larger solar sails perhaps as large as 150 m on a side. Computation modeling and analytical simulations were also performed to assess the scalability of the technology to the large sizes required to implement the first generation of missions using solar sails. Life and space environmental effects testing of sail and component materials were also conducted. NASA terminated funding for solar sails and other advanced space propulsion technologies shortly after these ground demonstrations were completed. In order to capitalize on the $30M investment made in solar sail technology to that point, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) funded the NanoSail-D, a subscale solar sail system designed for possible small spacecraft applications. The NanoSail-D mission flew on board the ill-fated Falcon-1 Rocket launched August 2, 2008, and due to the failure of that rocket, never achieved orbit. The NanoSail-D flight spare will be flown in the Fall of 2010. This paper will summarize NASA's investment in solar sail technology to-date and discuss future opportunities

  4. Status of solar sail technology within NASA

    Johnson, Les; Young, Roy; Montgomery, Edward; Alhorn, Dean

    2011-12-01

    In the early 2000s, NASA made substantial progress in the development of solar sail propulsion systems for use in robotic science and exploration of the solar system. Two different 20-m solar sail systems were produced. NASA has successfully completed functional vacuum testing in their Glenn Research Center's Space Power Facility at Plum Brook Station, Ohio. The sails were designed and developed by Alliant Techsystems Space Systems and L'Garde, respectively. The sail systems consist of a central structure with four deployable booms that support each sail. These sail designs are robust enough for deployment in a one-atmosphere, one-gravity environment and are scalable to much larger solar sails - perhaps as large as 150 m on a side. Computation modeling and analytical simulations were performed in order to assess the scalability of the technology to the larger sizes that are required to implement the first generation of missions using solar sails. Furthermore, life and space environmental effects testing of sail and component materials was also conducted.NASA terminated funding for solar sails and other advanced space propulsion technologies shortly after these ground demonstrations were completed. In order to capitalize on the $30 M investment made in solar sail technology to that point, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center funded the NanoSail-D, a subscale solar sail system designed for possible small spacecraft applications. The NanoSail-D mission flew on board a Falcon-1 rocket, launched August 2, 2008. As a result of the failure of that rocket, the NanoSail-D was never successfully given the opportunity to achieve orbit. The NanoSail-D flight spare was flown in the Fall of 2010. This review paper summarizes NASA's investment in solar sail technology to date and discusses future opportunities.

  5. SOLAR AIRCRAFT DESIGN

    RAHMATI, Sadegh; GHASED, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Generally domain Aircraft uses conventional fuel. These fuel having limited life, high cost and pollutant. Also nowadays price of petrol and other fuels are going to be higher, because of scarcity of those fuels. So there is great demand of use of non-exhaustible unlimited source of energy like solar energy. Solar aircraft is one of the ways to utilize solar energy. Solar aircraft uses solar panel to collect the solar radiation for immediate use but it also store the remaining part ...

  6. Passive Solar still: Recent advancement in design and related Performance.

    Awasthi, Anuradha; Kumari, Kanchan; Panchal, Hitesh; Sathyamurthy, Ravishankar

    2018-05-31

    Present review paper mainly focuses on different varieties of solar stills and highlights mostly the passive solar still with advanced modifications in the design and development of material, single and multi-effect solar still with augmentation of different materials, energy absorbing, insulators, mechanisms of heat and mass transfer to improve the loss of heat and enhance the productivity of solar still. The cost-benefit analysis along with the progressive advancement for solar stills is the major highlights of this review. To increase the output of solar still nowadays, applications of advance modifications is one of the promising tools, and it is anticipated that shortly more vigor will be added in this area with the modifications in designs of solar stills.

  7. Field-Aligned Current Response to Solar Indices

    R. Edwards, Thom; Weimer, D. R.; Tobiska, W. K.

    2017-01-01

    Magnetometer data from three satellite missions have been used to analyze and identify the effects of varying solar radiation on the magnitudes and locations of field-aligned currents in the Earth's upper atmosphere. Data from the CHAMP, Ørsted, and Swarm satellite missions have been bought...... together to provide a database spanning a 15 year period. The extensive time frame has been augmented by data from the ACE satellite, as well as a number of indices of solar radiation. This data set has been sorted by a number of solar wind, interplanetary magnetic field, and solar radiation indices...... to evaluate the effects of variations in four different solar indices on the total current in different regions of the polar cap. While the solar indices do not have major influence on the total current of the polar cap when compared to solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field parameters it does appear...

  8. Major New Initiatives

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Major New Initiatives. Multi-party multi-rate video conferencing OOPS. Live Lecture OOPS. Rural ATM Machine Vortex. Finger print detection HP-IITM. Medical Diagnostic kit NeuroSynaptic. LCD projection system TeNeT. Web Terminal MeTeL Midas. Entertainment ...

  9. Major planning enquiries

    Shore, P

    1978-11-01

    This is a speech delivered by the U.K. Secretary of State for the Environment in Manchester (UK) on September 13th 1978. It outlines the Minister's views on the role and significance of major planning inquiries - such as that proposed to be held on the Commercial Demonstration Fast Reactor. (CDFR) (author).

  10. Major Biomass Conference

    Top Scientists, Industry and Government Leaders to Gather for Major Biomass Conference America, South America and Europe will focus on building a sustainable, profitable biomass business at the Third Biomass Conference of the Americas in Montreal. Scheduled presentations will cover all biomass

  11. Unity in Major Themes

    Booss-Bavnbek, Bernhelm; Davis, Philip J.

    We describe and explain the desire, common among mathematicians, both for unity and independence in its major themes. In the dialogue that follows, we express our spontaneous and considered judgment and reservations; by contrasting the development of mathematics as a goal-driven process as opposed...

  12. Using solar oscillations to probe the effects of element diffusion in the solar interior

    Guzik, J.A.; Cox, A.N.

    1993-01-01

    There is growing evidence from solar oscillation and evolution studies that the Sun's convection zone helium mass fraction has decreased by about 0.03 due to element diffusion. Evolution calculations show that diffusion also produces a steep Y and Z composition gradient below the convection zone. Comparisons between calculated and observed solar p-mode frequencies of angular degrees 5 thru 60 that are sensitive to solar structure near the convection zone bottom support this steep composition gradient, rather than one smoothed significantly by turbulent mixing. Turbulent mixing induced by convective overshoot or rotation has been the favored explanation for much of the solar surface lithium depletion by a factor of 200 from its presumed primordial value. These limits on the extent of turbulent mixing imply that either most of the solar lithium destruction occurred pre-main sequence, which is not supported by observation of young star, or that some other mechanism, for example a small amount of early main-sequence mass loss, is responsible for the low observed lithium abundance. Solar models including such mass loss as well as diffusion have a slightly steeper central density gradient. Comparisons between observed and calculated low-degree p-mode frequencies that are sensitive to the Sun's central structure can be used to probe this density gradient and constrain the possible amount of mass loss

  13. MEPSOCON project: Calibration of Radiometers for High Solar Irradiance; Proyecto MEPSOCON: Calibracion de Radiometros de Alta Irradiancia Solar

    Ballestrin, J.; Rodriguez-Alonso, M.

    2006-07-01

    The development of central receiver solar plants is a currently emerging field into renewable energies. For several years various receiver prototypes have been evaluated at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA). The measurement of the incident solar power on the receiver aperture is fundamental to the estimation of its efficiency. Many factors interfere with this measurement and consequently accuracy is very low. This uncertainty is transmitted to the design of the final solar plant and thereby to its price. The sensors used for this measurement are of small size in comparison with the receiver apertures, therefore different systems are necessary to obtain the incident solar power on the receiver aperture from the individual radiometer measurements. This report presents calibration procedures for the sensor used on the measurement of high solar irradiance and the analysis of the different factors affecting the incident power measurement to significantly reduce its uncertainty. (Author) 16 refs.

  14. Central Nervous System Vasculitis

    ... of Vasculitis / Central Nervous System (CNS) Vasculitis Central Nervous System (CNS) Vasculitis Swap out your current Facebook Profile ... Facebook personal page. Replace with this image. Central nervous system (CNS) vasculitis is inflammation of blood vessel walls ...

  15. Measurement of Solar Spectra Relating to Photosynthesis and Solar Cells: An Inquiry Lab for Secondary Science

    Ruggirello, Rachel M.; Balcerzak, Phyllis; May, Victoria L.; Blankenship, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    The process of photosynthesis is central to science curriculum at all levels. This article describes an inquiry-based laboratory investigation developed to explore the impact of light quality on photosynthesis and to connect this process to current research on harvesting solar energy, including bioenergy, artificial photosynthesis, and solar…

  16. Solar Resource Assessment

    Renne, D.; George, R.; Wilcox, S.; Stoffel, T.; Myers, D.; Heimiller, D.

    2008-02-01

    This report covers the solar resource assessment aspects of the Renewable Systems Interconnection study. The status of solar resource assessment in the United States is described, and summaries of the availability of modeled data sets are provided.

  17. Solar renovation demonstration projects

    Bruun Joergensen, O [ed.

    1998-10-01

    In the framework of the IEA SHC Programme, a Task on building renovation was initiated, `Task 20, Solar Energy in Building Renovation`. In a part of the task, Subtask C `Design of Solar Renovation Projects`, different solar renovation demonstration projects were developed. The objective of Subtask C was to demonstrate the application of advanced solar renovation concepts on real buildings. This report documents 16 different solar renovation demonstration projects including the design processes of the projects. The projects include the renovation of houses, schools, laboratories, and factories. Several solar techniques were used: building integrated solar collectors, glazed balconies, ventilated solar walls, transparent insulation, second skin facades, daylight elements and photovoltaic systems. These techniques are used in several simple as well as more complex system designs. (au)

  18. Solar Indices - Sunspot Numbers

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  19. Solar ultraviolet hazards

    Azmah Ali

    1995-01-01

    The paper discussed the following subjects: the sources of ultraviolet radiation, solar ultraviolet radiation definition, effects of over exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation, exposure limits and radiation protection of this radiation

  20. Solar Indices - Plage Regions

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  1. Solar Sail Propulsion Technology Readiness Level Database

    Adams, Charles L.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) Projects Office has been sponsoring 2 solar sail system design and development hardware demonstration activities over the past 20 months. Able Engineering Company (AEC) of Goleta, CA is leading one team and L Garde, Inc. of Tustin, CA is leading the other team. Component, subsystem and system fabrication and testing has been completed successfully. The goal of these activities is to advance the technology readiness level (TRL) of solar sail propulsion from 3 towards 6 by 2006. These activities will culminate in the deployment and testing of 20-meter solar sail system ground demonstration hardware in the 30 meter diameter thermal-vacuum chamber at NASA Glenn Plum Brook in 2005. This paper will describe the features of a computer database system that documents the results of the solar sail development activities to-date. Illustrations of the hardware components and systems, test results, analytical models, relevant space environment definition and current TRL assessment, as stored and manipulated within the database are presented. This database could serve as a central repository for all data related to the advancement of solar sail technology sponsored by the ISPT, providing an up-to-date assessment of the TRL of this technology. Current plans are to eventually make the database available to the Solar Sail community through the Space Transportation Information Network (STIN).

  2. Workshop - Solar cells and daylight. Solar cell house. House building with integrated solar cell systems; Workshop - Solceller og dagslys. Solcellehus. Boligbyggeri med integrerede solcelleanlaeg

    Schroeder, Mio; Hansen, Ellen Kathrine

    2005-04-15

    The workshop 'Solar cells and daylight' at Aarhus School of Architecture aimed at studying and developing architectural potentials of integrating solar cell systems in building components for future house building. The aim of the process was to stress that technical conditions such as energy technological component design might work as central points of support in the future shaping and organisation of qualitative and functional design of houses. (BA)

  3. Solar energy promises realized?

    Oudshoff, B.

    2010-01-01

    The US market for solar cells grew 36% in 2009. Thousands of new jobs were created, many millions are invested and new businesses see new opportunities. Optimism among investors, incentivising government policy and new technological developments all contribute to these positive developments. This article provides an update of the incentive measures and their effects and a brief overview of the three solar energy technologies: photovoltaic (PV), solar thermal and concentrated solar power (CSP) [nl

  4. Solar Retinopathy: A Multimodal Analysis

    Claudia Bruè

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Solar retinopathy is a rare clinical disturbance, for which spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT findings are not always consistent. We report on two cases of solar retinopathy and discuss its differential diagnosis. Methods. This is an observational case study. Results. A 12-year-old female was referred to ophthalmology for bilateral scotoma. Visual acuity was 20/50 in both eyes. Fundus examination was unremarkable, except for slight yellowish material in the central macula, bilaterally. SD-OCT revealed juxtafoveal microcystic cavities in the outer retina, interruption of the external limiting membrane and the inner and outer segment junctions, with disorganized material in the vitelliform space. Fundus autofluorescence showed hypoautofluorescence surrounded by a relatively hyperautofluorescent ring, bilaterally. Similar clinical and morphological findings were detected in a 27-year-old male. Conclusions. Solar retinopathy has a subtle presentation and patients often deny sun-gazing. SD-OCT and fundus autofluorescence are noninvasive and useful tools for its diagnosis.

  5. GISOT: a giant solar telescope

    Hammerschlag, Robert H.; von der Lühe, Oskar F.; Bettonvil, Felix C.; Jägers, Aswin P.; Snik, Frans

    2004-10-01

    A concept is presented for an extremely large high-resolution solar telescope with an aperture of 11 m and diffraction limited for visual wavelengths. The structure of GISOT will be transparent to wind and placed on a transparent stiff tower. For efficient wind flushing, all optics, including the primary mirror, will be located above the elevation axis. The aperture will be of the order of 11 m, not rotatively symmetrical, but of an elongated shape with dimensions 11 x 4 m. It consists of a central on-axis 4 m mirror with on both sides 3 pieces of 2 m mirrors. The optical layout will be kept simple to guarantee quality and minimize stray light. A Coudé room for instruments is planned below the telescope. The telescope will not be housed in a dome-like construction, which interferes with the open principle. Instead the telescope will be protected by a foldable tent construction with a diameter of the order of 30 m, which doesn"t form any obstruction during observations, but can withstand the severe weather circumstances on mountain sites. Because of the nature of the solar scene, extremely high resolution in only one dimension is sufficient to solve many exciting problems in solar physics and in this respect the concept of GISOT is very promising.

  6. Solar Energy Technician/Installer

    Moore, Pam

    2007-01-01

    Solar power (also known as solar energy) is solar radiation emitted from the sun. Large panels that absorb the sun's energy as the sun beats down on them gather solar power. The energy in the rays can be used for heat (solar thermal energy) or converted to electricity (photovoltaic energy). Each solar energy project, from conception to…

  7. Increase of solar radiation due to climate change and its impact on solar energy use

    Kuhnke, K.; Rahme, A.; Harling, J.; Arensmann, R.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: There is a significant change in solar radiation in Central Europe coinciding with the IPCC climate change model calculations. The increase of yearly solar radiation on the horizontal surface is about 0.38 percent/year. On the other hand, photovoltaic solar modules show an ageing effect of the same order of magnitude, i.e. a reduction of yearly energy yield between 0.3 and 0.5 percent/year. This reduction is normally taken into account in economic calculations such as payback time and internal rate of interest. As the two trends of increase in radiation and ageing of solar modules are in opposite direction to each other, they will - with their uncertainties - neutralize one another to zero. Thus, the energy production of photovoltaic systems can be calculated without any deductions due to ageing in the future. (authors)

  8. SOLAR ROTATION EFFECTS ON THE HELIOSHEATH FLOW NEAR SOLAR MINIMA

    Borovikov, Sergey N.; Pogorelov, Nikolai V.; Ebert, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    The interaction between fast and slow solar wind (SW) due to the Sun's rotation creates corotating interaction regions (CIRs), which further interact with each other creating complex plasma structures at large heliospheric distances. We investigate the global influence of CIRs on the SW flow in the inner heliosheath between the heliospheric termination shock (TS) and the heliopause. The stream interaction model takes into account the major global effects due to slow-fast stream interaction near solar minima. The fast and slow wind parameters are derived from the Ulysses observations. We investigate the penetration of corotating structures through the TS and their further propagation through the heliosheath. It is shown that the heliosheath flow structure may experience substantial modifications, including local decreases in the radial velocity component observed by Voyager 1.

  9. SunPy—Python for solar physics

    Community, The SunPy; Mumford, Stuart J; Freij, Nabil; Bennett, Samuel M; Christe, Steven; Ireland, Jack; Shih, Albert Y; Inglis, Andrew R; Pérez-Suárez, David; Liedtke, Simon; Hewett, Russell J; Mayer, Florian; Hughitt, Keith; Meszaros, Tomas; Malocha, Michael; Evans, John; Agrawal, Ankit; Leonard, Andrew J; Robitaille, Thomas P; Mampaey, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents SunPy (version 0.5), a community-developed Python package for solar physics. Python, a free, cross-platform, general-purpose, high-level programming language, has seen widespread adoption among the scientific community, resulting in the availability of a large number of software packages, from numerical computation (NumPy, SciPy) and machine learning (scikit-learn) to visualization and plotting (matplotlib). SunPy is a data-analysis environment specializing in providing the software necessary to analyse solar and heliospheric data in Python. SunPy is open-source software (BSD licence) and has an open and transparent development workflow that anyone can contribute to. SunPy provides access to solar data through integration with the Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO), the Heliophysics Event Knowledgebase (HEK), and the HELiophysics Integrated Observatory (HELIO) webservices. It currently supports image data from major solar missions (e.g., SDO, SOHO, STEREO, and IRIS), time-series data from missions such as GOES, SDO/EVE, and PROBA2/LYRA, and radio spectra from e-Callisto and STEREO/SWAVES. We describe SunPy's functionality, provide examples of solar data analysis in SunPy, and show how Python-based solar data-analysis can leverage the many existing tools already available in Python. We discuss the future goals of the project and encourage interested users to become involved in the planning and development of SunPy. (paper)

  10. Thermal solar energy

    Gonzalez, J.C.; Leal C, H.

    1998-01-01

    Some relative aspects to the development and current state of thermal solar energy are summarized, so much at domestic level as international. To facilitate the criteria understanding as the size of the facilities in thermal solar systems, topics as availability of the solar resource and its interactions with the matter are included. Finally, some perspectives for the development of this energetic alternative are presented

  11. Solar tracking system

    Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N.

    2016-07-12

    Solar tracking systems, as well as methods of using such solar tracking systems, are disclosed. More particularly, embodiments of the solar tracking systems include lateral supports horizontally positioned between uprights to support photovoltaic modules. The lateral supports may be raised and lowered along the uprights or translated to cause the photovoltaic modules to track the moving sun.

  12. Solar Research | NREL

    Research Photo of a city landscape with a sun in the background. Solar energy research at NREL includes photovoltaics, concentrating solar power, solar grid and systems integration, and market research and analysis. Photovoltaic Research Photo of a roof-mounted PV array on the NREL campus. NREL's

  13. Alternatives in solar energy

    Schueler, D. G.

    1978-01-01

    Although solar energy has the potential of providing a significant source of clean and renewable energy for a variety of applications, it is expected to penetrate the nation's energy economy very slowly. The alternative solar energy technologies which employ direct collection and conversion of solar radiation as briefly described.

  14. Solar cell concentrating system

    Garg, H.P.; Sharma, V.K.; Agarwal, R.K.

    1986-11-01

    This study reviews fabrication techniques and testing facilities for different solar cells under concentration which have been developed and tested. It is also aimed to examine solar energy concentrators which are prospective candidates for photovoltaic concentrator systems. This may provide an impetus to the scientists working in the area of solar cell technology

  15. Solar sail deployment experiment

    Shimose, Shigeru; 下瀬 滋

    2006-01-01

    Solar Sail move by receiving momentum of photons in sunlight. This paper presents results of some Spin-Stabilized Solar Sail deployment experiment. ISAS has successfully deployed, for the first time in the world, the polyimide Solar Sail taking advantage of centrifugal force in space. Based on this result, the new deployment mechanism is being developed which retracts the 50 m diameter sail.

  16. Solar Photovoltaic Cells.

    Mickey, Charles D.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews information on solar radiation as an energy source. Discusses these topics: the key photovoltaic material; the bank theory of solids; conductors, semiconductors, and insulators; impurity semiconductors; solid-state photovoltaic cell operation; limitations on solar cell efficiency; silicon solar cells; cadmium sulfide/copper (I) sulfide…

  17. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 3A: Low Levels of Synchronous Generation

    Miller, Nicholas W. [GE Energy Management, Atlanta, GA (United States); Leonardi, Bruno [GE Energy Management, Atlanta, GA (United States); D' Aquila, Robert [GE Energy Management, Atlanta, GA (United States); Clark, Kara [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-11-17

    The stability of the North American electric power grids under conditions of high penetrations of wind and solar is a significant concern and possible impediment to reaching renewable energy goals. The 33% wind and solar annual energy penetration considered in this study results in substantial changes to the characteristics of the bulk power system. This includes different power flow patterns, different commitment and dispatch of existing synchronous generation, and different dynamic behavior from wind and solar generation. The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS), sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, is one of the largest regional solar and wind integration studies to date. In multiple phases, it has explored different aspects of the question: Can we integrate large amounts of wind and solar energy into the electric power system of the West? The work reported here focused on the impact of low levels of synchronous generation on the transient stability performance in one part of the region in which wind generation has displaced synchronous thermal generation under highly stressed, weak system conditions. It is essentially an extension of WWSIS-3. Transient stability, the ability of the power system to maintain synchronism among all elements following disturbances, is a major constraint on operations in many grids, including the western U.S. and Texas systems. These constraints primarily concern the performance of the large-scale bulk power system. But grid-wide stability concerns with high penetrations of wind and solar are still not thoroughly understood. This work focuses on 'traditional' fundamental frequency stability issues, such as maintaining synchronism, frequency, and voltage. The objectives of this study are to better understand the implications of low levels of synchronous generation and a weak grid on overall system performance by: 1) Investigating the Western Interconnection under conditions of both high renewable

  18. Connectable solar air collectors

    Oestergaard Jensen, S.; Bosanac, M.

    2002-02-01

    The project has proved that it is possible to manufacture solar air collector panels, which in an easy way can be connected into large collector arrays with integrated ducting without loss of efficiency. The developed connectable solar air collectors are based on the use of matrix absorbers in the form of perforated metal sheets. Three interconnected solar air collectors of the above type - each with an transparent area of approx. 3 m{sup 2} - was tested and compared with parallel tests on two single solar air collectors also with a transparent area of approx. 3 m{sup 2} One of the single solar air collectors has an identical absorber as the connectable solar air collectors while the absorber of the other single solar air collector was a fibre cloth. The efficiency of the three solar air collectors proved to be almost identical in the investigated range of mass flow rates and temperature differences. The solar air collectors further proved to be very efficient - as efficient as the second most efficient solar air collectors tested in the IEA task 19 project Solar Air Systems. Some problems remain although to be solved: the pressure drop across especially the connectable solar air collectors is too high - mainly across the inlets of the solar air collectors. It should, however, be possible to considerably reduce the pressure losses with a more aerodynamic design of the inlet and outlet of the solar air collectors; The connectable solar air collectors are easy connectable but the air tightness of the connections in the present form is not good enough. As leakage leads to lower efficiencies focus should be put on making the connections more air tight without loosing the easiness in connecting the solar air collectors. As a spin off of the project a simple and easy way to determine the efficiency of solar, air collectors for pre-heating of fresh air has been validated. The simple method of determining the efficiency has with success been compared with an advance method

  19. Advance on solar instrumentation in China

    Yan, Yihua

    2015-08-01

    The solar observing facilities in China are introduced with the emphasis on the development in recent years and future plans for both ground and space-based solar instrumentations. The recent solar instruments are as follows: A new generation Chinese Spectral Radioreliograph (CSRH) has been constructed at Mingantu Observing Station in Zhengxiangbaiqi, inner Mongolia of China since 2013 and is in test observations now. CSRH has two arrays with 40 × 4.5 m and 60 × 2 m parabolic antennas covering 0.4-2 GHz and 2-15 GHz frequency range. CSRH is renamed as MUSER (Mingantu Ultrawide Spectral Radiheliograph) after its accomplishment. A new 1 m vacuum solar telescope (NVST) has been installed in 2010 at Fuxian lake, 60 km away from Kunming, Yunana. At present it is the best seeing place in China. A new telescope called ONSET (Optical and NIR Solar Eruption Tracer) has been established at the same site as NVST in 2011. ONSET has been put into operation since 2013. For future ground-based plans, Chinese Giant Solar Telescope (CGST) with spatial resolution equivalent to 8m and effective area of 5m full-aperture telescope has been proposed and was formally listed into the National Plans of Major Science & Technology Infrastructures in China. The pre-study and site survey for CGST have been pursued. A 1-meter mid-infrared telescope for precise measurement of the solar magnetic field has been funded by NSFC in 2014 as a national major scientific instrument development project. This project will develop the first mid-infrared solar magnetic observation instrument in the world aiming at increasing the precision of the transverse magnetic field measurement by one order of magnitude. For future ground-based plans, we promote the Deep-space Solar Observatory (DSO) with 1-m aperture telescope to be formally funded. The ASO-S (an Advanced Space-based Solar Observatory) has been supported in background phase by Space Science Program as a small mission. Other related space solar

  20. Fabrication and characterization of a slanting-type solar water ...

    The system includes four major components; a wooden basin of surface area 0.16 m2, an absorber surface, a slanting glass roof and a condensate channel. Very cheap locally available materials were used to fabricate the solar still. The solar still produced an average of 0.09 m3 of distilled water per day, and this study was ...