WorldWideScience

Sample records for major safety overhaul

  1. A major safety overhaul

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    A redefined policy, a revamped safety course, an environmental project... the TIS (Technical Inspection and Safety) Division has begun a major safety overhaul. Its new head, Wolfgang Weingarten, explains to the Bulletin why and how this is happening.

  2. Major facility overhauls at LAMPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grisham, D.L.; Lambert, J.E.; Sommer, W.F. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) is a linear proton accelerator designed to operate at 800 MeV and 1.0 mA. It has been operating at power levels above 200 microamperes since February of 1976 and now routinely operates near the design level. This paper outlines the problems encountered with the original target cell components, the repairs required since 1976, and specifically details the steps involved in the complete replacement of the vital target cell components. These components include target boxes, collimators, main beam line magnets, and the front-end magnets of the secondary beam lines. The A-2 target cell was replaced in the spring of 1983 and the A-1 target cell was replaced in the spring of 1984. Both have operated satisfactorily since their completion, with only minor difficulties. The overhaul and total component replacement in the beam stop area (A-6) was completed in early May 1985 and has just been placed in operation. The upgrade, in addition to the replacement of the beam stop and the vacuum-to-air window with state-of-the-art designs, provides a greatly increased capability of both proton and neutron irradiation of materials

  3. Overhaul of BEBC

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    The long shutdown of the SPS (from mid of June to the end of 1980) was used for a complete overhaul of the BEBC subsystems, in particular of the refrigerator. Critical features of the chamber (welds, beam windows) were examined by an official inspectorate and pronounced satisfactory. The main modification was the installation of the IPF (Internal Picket Fence) to complement the External Muon Identifier (see Annual Report 1980, p.64). This photo shows well the superinsulation screening the body of the chamber (see also photo 8012668X ).

  4. Lessons-Learned from an Event during Overhaul

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jitae [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The event frequency, also including portion of human errors, has been decreasing compared to last ten years. However, events due to human errors during overhaul occur every year. From analyzed results for human-related events during overhaul, similar problems were identified. And organizational and safety cultural factors were also identified. On the other hand, another event during overhaul is analyzed and Lessons-Learned is drawn in an aspect of the operators' situation awareness. There was an event during overhaul and the analyzed results drawn Lessons-Learned in the aspect of the operators' situation awareness. From the analysis, several alarms and variation of plant parameters during overhaul can occur due to various maintenance works and tests. And in the aspect of the situation awareness, operators can miss, neglect, or not recognize the abnormal situation due to other maintenance activities occurring simultaneously. Therefore, countermeasures such as operator education or training, development of operator support systems, and further researches should be necessary to cope with these problems.

  5. Lessons-Learned from an Event during Overhaul

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jitae

    2013-01-01

    The event frequency, also including portion of human errors, has been decreasing compared to last ten years. However, events due to human errors during overhaul occur every year. From analyzed results for human-related events during overhaul, similar problems were identified. And organizational and safety cultural factors were also identified. On the other hand, another event during overhaul is analyzed and Lessons-Learned is drawn in an aspect of the operators' situation awareness. There was an event during overhaul and the analyzed results drawn Lessons-Learned in the aspect of the operators' situation awareness. From the analysis, several alarms and variation of plant parameters during overhaul can occur due to various maintenance works and tests. And in the aspect of the situation awareness, operators can miss, neglect, or not recognize the abnormal situation due to other maintenance activities occurring simultaneously. Therefore, countermeasures such as operator education or training, development of operator support systems, and further researches should be necessary to cope with these problems

  6. Analysis for Human-related Events during the Overhaul

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Tae; Kim, Min Chull; Choi, Dong Won; Lee, Durk Hun [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    The event frequency due to human error is decreasing among 20 operating Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) excluding the NPP (Shin-Kori unit-1) in the commissioning stage since 2008. However, the events due to human error during an overhaul (O/H) occur annually (see Table I). An analysis for human-related events during the O/H was performed. Similar problems were identified for each event from the analysis and also, organizational and safety cultural factors were also identified

  7. Environment and safety: major goals for MARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maninger, R.C.

    1983-01-01

    The Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS) is a conceptual design study for a commercial fusion power reactor. One of the major goals of MARS is to develop design guidance so that fusion reactors can meet reasonable expectations for environmental health and safety. One of the first steps in the assessment of health and safety requirements was to examine what the guidelines might be for health and safety in disposal of radioactive wastes from fusion reactors. Then, using these quidelines as criteria, the impact of materials selection upon generation of radioactive wastes through neutron activation of structural materials was investigated. A conclusion of this work is that fusion power systems may need substantial engineering effort in new materials development and selection to meet the probable publicly acceptable levels of radioactivity for waste disposal in the future

  8. Hydrocarbon storage caverns overhaul: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDougall, N. [Bayer Inc., Sarnia, ON (Canada)

    1998-09-01

    Case studies of four hydrocarbon storage cavern overhauls by Bayer Inc., of Sarnia during the period 1993 to 1997 were reviewed and the lessons learned were discussed. Discussions included inspection requirements for each of the caverns, the logistics and planning plant production around the cavern outages, site and cavern preparation, including removal of the casing slips from the well heads. It was emphasized that cavern overhauls can be expensive operations, unless preceded by proper planning. The largest variable cost is likely to be rig time at about $ 2,000 per day. Planning for the unexpected with thoughtful contingencies can reduce costs and avoid expensive delays.

  9. Alemayehu Yismaw Demamu Abstract Ethiopia overhauled its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Ethiopia overhauled its arbitration laws with the enactment of the Civil Code and .... 2 United Nations Commission on International Trade Law, UNCITRAL Model Law on International Commercial ...... investment agreement between Ethiopia and Great Britain and Northern Ireland under Article 8, Ethiopia and.

  10. Aggregate overhaul and supply chain planning for rotables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, J.J.; Flapper, S.D.P.; Vernooij, K.

    2012-01-01

    We consider the problem of planning preventive maintenance and overhaul for modules that occur in a eet of assets such as trains or airplanes. Each type of module, or rotable, has its own maintenance program in which a maximum amount of time between overhauls of a module is stipulated. Overhauls are

  11. Safety culture in a major nuclear fuel cycle facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pushparaja; Abani, M.C.

    2002-01-01

    Human factor plays an important role in development of safety culture in any nuclear fuel cycle facility. This is more relevant in major nuclear facility such as a reactor or a reprocessing plant. In Indian reprocessing plants, an effective worker's training, education and certification program is in place to sensitize the worker's response to safety and safe work procedures. The methodology followed to self evaluation of safety culture and the benefits in a reprocessing plant is briefly discussed. Various indicators of safety performance and visible signs of a good safety management are also qualitatively analyzed. (author)

  12. Aggregate overhaul and supply chain planning for rotables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, J.J.; Flapper, S.D.P.

    2015-01-01

    We consider the problem of planning preventive maintenance and overhaul for modules that are used in a fleet of assets such as trains or airplanes. Each type of module, or rotable, has its own maintenance program in which a maximum amount of time/usage between overhauls of a module is stipulated.

  13. Overhaul of the heat exchanger in JRR-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouchi, Yasuhiro; Kawamata, Satoshi; Taguchi, Yuji; Kamiishi, Eigo; Koda, Nobuyuki

    2013-01-01

    In JRR-3, heat exchangers are installed in the cooling system equipment to remove the heat generated in the nuclear reactor, For the heat exchangers, overhaul inspection based on the JRR-3 reactor facility maintenance plan, as well as the inspection and maintenance based on reactor facility security provisions and JRR-3 operation guidelines are systematically conducted. Considering the results of overhaul inspection, the second overhaul inspection was applied to the primary coolant heat exchanger. The thinning of heat transfer tubes is within judgment standards with little effects of aging, which verified their soundness. From the fact that the effects of corrosion have been confirmed on the inside of the water chamber, repair work through overlay welding or the like is planned in the next overhaul. As for heavy water heat exchanger and the spent fuel pool water heat exchanger, it is planned to conduct the second overhaul inspection in FY2013 to confirm their soundness. (A.O.)

  14. Constitutional overhaul of the Assembly of the Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatmire Lumani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper is a scientific study that aims at analyzing the overhaul of the Assembly of the Republic of Macedonia in the Albanian Constitution. Assembly of the Republic of Macedonia is a representative body of citizens and the bearer of legislative power in the Republic. It is a unicameral body. Its status and its activity is regulated by the Constitution and special laws on Parliament. The Republic of Macedonia is a unitary state, with a multiethnic society. The population is made up, by two ethnic groups, Macedonians and Albanians. In the Republic of Macedonia are included the minority of Turks, Serbs, Vlachs, Romas, Bosniaks and others. As a result of many minorities and 2 ethnic groups, the structure of the Assembly of the Republic of Macedonia, which is unicameral, does not respond and fit into the actual reality of the country. Therefore, changes should be made to this regard. This reality requires also a federalization of the Republic of Macedonia by guaranteeing the freedom and the right of self-determination of both majority groups, in this case Macedonians and Albanians. It should be noted, that the Republic of Macedonia, is divided into six electoral districts, with unequal numbers of voters and in this sense, changes in the Electoral Code should be undertaken.

  15. Road safety: serious injuries remain a major unsolved problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Ben; Cameron, Peter A; Fitzgerald, Mark C; Judson, Rodney T; Teague, Warwick; Lyons, Ronan A; Gabbe, Belinda J

    2017-09-18

    To investigate temporal trends in the incidence, mortality, disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), and costs of health loss caused by serious road traffic injury. A retrospective review of data from the population-based Victorian State Trauma Registry and the National Coronial Information System on road traffic-related deaths (pre- and in-hospital) and major trauma (Injury Severity Score > 12) during 2007-2015.Main outcomes and measures: Temporal trends in the incidence of road traffic-related major trauma, mortality, DALYs, and costs of health loss, by road user type. There were 8066 hospitalised road traffic major trauma cases and 2588 road traffic fatalities in Victoria over the 9-year study period. There was no change in the incidence of hospitalised major trauma for motor vehicle occupants (incidence rate ratio [IRR] per year, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.99-1.01; P = 0.70), motorcyclists (IRR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.97-1.01; P = 0.45) or pedestrians (IRR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.97-1.02; P = 0.73), but the incidence for pedal cyclists increased 8% per year (IRR, 1.08; 95% CI; 1.05-1.10; P road traffic injuries exceeded $14 billion during 2007-2015, although the cost per patient declined for all road user groups. As serious injury rates have not declined, current road safety targets will be difficult to meet. Greater attention to preventing serious injury is needed, as is further investment in road safety, particularly for pedal cyclists.

  16. A local area network and information management system for a submarine overhaul facility

    OpenAIRE

    Bushmire, Jeffrey D

    1990-01-01

    A preliminary design of a local area network for a submarine overhaul facility is developed using System Engineering concepts. SOFLAN, the Submarine Overhaul Facility Local Area Network, is necessary to provide more timely and accurate information to submarine overhaul managers in order to decrease the overhaul time period and become more competitive. The network is a microcomputer based system following the Ethernet and IEEE 802.3 standards with a server .. client architecture. SOFLAN serves...

  17. Intranet-based safety documentation in management of major hazards and occupational health and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leino, Antti

    2002-01-01

    In the European Union, Council Directive 96/82/EC requires operators producing, using, or handling significant amounts of dangerous substances to improve their safety management systems in order to better manage the major accident potentials deriving from human error. A new safety management system for the Viikinmäki wastewater treatment plant in Helsinki, Finland, was implemented in this study. The system was designed to comply with both the new safety liabilities and the requirements of OHSAS 18001 (British Standards Institute, 1999). During the implementation phase experiences were gathered from the development processes in this small organisation. The complete documentation was placed in the intranet of the plant. Hyperlinks between documents were created to ensure convenience of use. Documentation was made accessible for all workers from every workstation.

  18. Britain's Nuclear Electric pursues a major programme to enhance safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The UK state-owned nuclear utility, Nuclear Electric, is actively pursuing a major initiative inherited from its predecessor the Central Electricity Generating Board, known as the Station Enhancement Programme. The Enhancement Programme is a multi-million pound project and covers all Nuclear Electric's stations (including relevant aspects of the de-commissioning site at Berkeley). Its fundamental objective is to enhance the arrangements, practices and attitudes on the power stations to create an overall environment likely to promote ever safer and more reliable operation, and to take full account of the best international practices. The four year programme started in the spring of 1989, and is expected to be completed in 1993. Key elements of the programme include quality assurance based management systems; improvements to site and plant material conditions; a more formal approach to training; additional resources and controls to aid the management of maintenance defects; higher profile for the feedback of operational experience; management targets; a station evaluation programme; and formal feedback of lessons learned from the IAEA operational and safety review team visit to the Oldbury-on-Severn station in 1989. (author)

  19. Major accident prevention through applying safety knowledge management approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalatpour, Omid

    2016-01-01

    Many scattered resources of knowledge are available to use for chemical accident prevention purposes. The common approach to management process safety, including using databases and referring to the available knowledge has some drawbacks. The main goal of this article was to devise a new emerged knowledge base (KB) for the chemical accident prevention domain. The scattered sources of safety knowledge were identified and scanned. Then, the collected knowledge was formalized through a computerized program. The Protégé software was used to formalize and represent the stored safety knowledge. The domain knowledge retrieved as well as data and information. This optimized approach improved safety and health knowledge management (KM) process and resolved some typical problems in the KM process. Upgrading the traditional resources of safety databases into the KBs can improve the interaction between the users and knowledge repository.

  20. Critical needs for piston engine overhaul centre in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairuddin, M. H.; Yahya, M. Y.; Johari, M. K.

    2017-12-01

    Piston engine overhaul centre (PEOC) is the branch of aviation Maintenance, Repair and Overhaul (MRO) providers, which plays a pivotal role in maintaining the fleet of business and commercial aircraft in the world. The centre typically offers three main MRO capabilities: airframe, engine and component services. Companies holding a PEOC(s) are all subjected to stringent procedures and conditions regulated and audited by the International Civil Aviation Organization. Currently, piston engine maintenance and repair for Asian countries is conducted only in Singapore. The focus of this study is to establish the needs for a PEOC in Malaysia, which will cater almost all small local aircraft companies such as transport and flying school companies.

  1. Cooling Tower Overhaul of Secondary Cooling System in HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Young Chul; Lee, Young Sub; Jung, Hoan Sung; Lim, In Chul [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    HANARO, an open-tank-in-pool type research reactor of 30 MWth power in Korea, has been operating normally since its initial criticality in February, 1995. For the last about ten years, A cooling tower of a secondary cooling system has been operated normally in HANARO. Last year, the cooling tower has been overhauled for preservative maintenance including fills, eliminators, wood support, water distribution system, motors, driving shafts, gear reducers, basements, blades and etc. This paper describes the results of the overhaul. As results, it is confirmed that the cooling tower maintains a good operability through a filed test. And a cooling capability will be tested when a wet bulb temperature is maintained about 28 .deg. C in summer and the reactor is operated with the full power.

  2. Safety of RBMK reactors: Major results and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidorenko, V.A.

    1996-01-01

    The paper considers the following issues: basic reasons for the advent of NPPs with RBMK reactors; the logic of identifying top-priority measures immediately after the accident; top-priority measures for improving the safety and reliability of NPPs with RBMK reactors; upgrading NPPs with RBMK reactors in compliance with the Norms; programmes for retrofitting and upgrading of NPPs of the ''Rosnergoatom'' Concern and progress with their implementation as of April 1996; the safety of RBMK plants and the programmes of its enhancement with regard to modern requirements in the light of national and international assessment; objective indicators of safety, reliability, and economic efficiency of NPPs with RBMK reactors; economics: rationale for continuing plants operation till the end of their design lifetime. 8 refs, 3 figs

  3. Exposure to fuel-oil ash and welding emissions during the overhaul of an oil-fired boiler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Youcheng; Woodin, Mark A; Smith, Thomas J; Herrick, Robert F; Williams, Paige L; Hauser, Russ; Christiani, David C

    2005-09-01

    The health effects of exposure to vanadium in fuel-oil ash are not well described at levels ranging from 10 to 500 microg/m(3). As part of a larger occupational epidemiologic study that assessed these effects during the overhaul of a large oil-fired boiler, this study was designed to quantify boilermakers' exposures to fuel-oil ash particles, metals, and welding gases, and to identify determinants of these exposures. Personal exposure measurements were conducted on 18 boilermakers and 11 utility workers (referents) before and during a 3-week overhaul. Ash particles < 10 microm in diameter (PM(10), mg/m(3)) were sampled over full work shifts using a one-stage personal size selective sampler containing a polytetrafluoroethylene filter. Filters were digested using the Parr bomb method and analyzed for the metals vanadium (V), nickel (Ni), iron (Fe), chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), and arsenic (As) by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) was measured with an Ogawa passive badge-type sampler and ozone (O(3)) with a personal active pump sampler.Time-weighted average (TWA) exposures were significantly higher (p < 0.05) for boilermakers than for utility workers for PM(10) (geometric mean: 0.47 vs. 0.13 mg/m(3)), V (8.9 vs. 1.4 microg/m(3)), Ni (7.4 vs. 1.8 microg/m(3)) and Fe (56.2 vs. 11.2 microg/m(3)). Exposures were affected by overhaul time periods, tasks, and work locations. No significant increases were found for O(3) or NO(2) for boilermakers or utility workers regardless of overhaul period or task group. Fuel-oil ash was a major contributor to boilermakers' exposure to PM(10) and metals. Vanadium concentrations sometimes exceeded the 2003 American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) threshold limit value.

  4. Relationships between safety and reliability in major hazard situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, F.R.

    1978-01-01

    Individual risk rates for various activities are presented and discussed. The concept of societal risk is introduced -the chance of hurting many people from one event. Major hazards present a possibility that an ensuing accident could have a very wide range of consequences from the trivial to a catastrophe. The techniques of assessing risks and consequences are being developed; these are closely related to the techniques of ensuring plant and system reliability. (author)

  5. Analysis of National Major Work Safety Accidents in China, 2003-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yunfeng; Zhang, Siheng; Rao, Jiaming; Wang, Haiqing; Li, Yang; Wang, Shengyong; Dong, Xiaomei

    2016-01-01

    This study provides a national profile of major work safety accidents in China, which cause more than 10 fatalities per accident, intended to provide scientific basis for prevention measures and strategies to reduce major work safety accidents and deaths. Data from 2003-2012 Census of major work safety accidents were collected from State Administration of Work Safety System (SAWS). Published literature and statistical yearbook were also included to implement information. We analyzed the frequency of accidents and deaths, trend, geographic distribution and injury types. Additionally, we discussed the severity and urgency of emergency rescue by types of accidents. A total of 877 major work safety accidents were reported, resulting in 16,795 deaths and 9,183 injuries. The numbers of accidents and deaths, mortality rate and incidence of major accidents have declined in recent years. The mortality rate and incidence was 0.71 and 1.20 per 10(6) populations in 2012, respectively. Transportation and mining contributed to the highest number of major accidents and deaths. Major aviation and railway accidents caused more casualties per incident, while collapse, machinery, electrical shock accidents and tailing dam accidents were the most severe situation that resulted in bigger proportion of death. Ten years' major work safety accident data indicate that the frequency of accidents and number of eaths was declined and several safety concerns persist in some segments.

  6. Analysis of National Major Work Safety Accidents in China, 2003–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    YE, Yunfeng; ZHANG, Siheng; RAO, Jiaming; WANG, Haiqing; LI, Yang; WANG, Shengyong; DONG, Xiaomei

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study provides a national profile of major work safety accidents in China, which cause more than 10 fatalities per accident, intended to provide scientific basis for prevention measures and strategies to reduce major work safety accidents and deaths. Methods: Data from 2003–2012 Census of major work safety accidents were collected from State Administration of Work Safety System (SAWS). Published literature and statistical yearbook were also included to implement information. We analyzed the frequency of accidents and deaths, trend, geographic distribution and injury types. Additionally, we discussed the severity and urgency of emergency rescue by types of accidents. Results: A total of 877 major work safety accidents were reported, resulting in 16,795 deaths and 9,183 injuries. The numbers of accidents and deaths, mortality rate and incidence of major accidents have declined in recent years. The mortality rate and incidence was 0.71 and 1.20 per 106 populations in 2012, respectively. Transportation and mining contributed to the highest number of major accidents and deaths. Major aviation and railway accidents caused more casualties per incident, while collapse, machinery, electrical shock accidents and tailing dam accidents were the most severe situation that resulted in bigger proportion of death. Conclusion: Ten years’ major work safety accident data indicate that the frequency of accidents and number of eaths was declined and several safety concerns persist in some segments. PMID:27057515

  7. Tax Policy Trends: Republicans Reveal Proposed Tax Overhaul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Bazel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available REPUBLICANS REVEAL PROPOSED TAX OVERHAUL The White House and Congressional Republicans have revealed their much-anticipated proposal for reform of the U.S. personal and corporate tax systems. The proposal titled, “UNIFIED FRAMEWORK FOR FIXING OUR BROKEN TAX CODE” outlines a number of central policy changes, which will significantly alter the U.S. corporate tax system. The proposal includes a top federal marginal rate reduction for the sole proprietorships, partnerships and S corporation—small business equivalents— from 39.6% to 25% (state income tax rates would no longer be deductible. Large corporations would also see a meaningful federal rate reduction given the proposed drop in the federal corporate income tax rate from 35% to 20%. Additionally, the proposal includes a generous temporary measure intended to stimulate investment, full capital expensing for machinery with a partial limitation of interest deductions.

  8. Major food safety episodes in Taiwan: implications for the necessity of international collaboration on safety assessment and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jih-Heng; Yu, Wen-Jing; Lai, Yuan-Hui; Ko, Ying-Chin

    2012-07-01

    The major food safety episodes that occurred in Taiwan during the past decade are briefly reviewed in this paper. Among the nine major episodes surveyed, with the exception of a U.S. beef (associated with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease)-related incident, all the others were associated with chemical toxicants. The general public, which has a layperson attitude of zero tolerance toward food safety, may panic over these food-safety-associated incidents. However, the health effects and impacts of most incidents, with the exception of the melamine incident, were essentially not fully evaluated. The mass media play an important role in determining whether a food safety concern becomes a major incident. A well-coordinated and harmonized system for domestic and international collaboration to set up standards and regulations is critical, as observed in the incidents of pork with ractopamine, Chinese hairy crab with nitrofuran antibiotics, and U.S. wheat with malathion. In the future, it can be anticipated that food safety issues will draw more attention from the general public. For unknown new toxicants or illicit adulteration of food, the establishment of a more proactive safety assessment system to monitor potential threats and provide real-time information exchange is imperative. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Optimal Overhaul-Replacement Policies for Repairable Machine Sold with Warranty

    OpenAIRE

    Soemadi, Kusmaningrum; Iskandar, Bermawi P; Taroepratjeka, Harsono

    2014-01-01

    This research deals with an overhaul-replacement policy for a repairable machine sold with Free Replacement Warranty (FRW). The machine will be used for a finite horizon, T (T <), and evaluated at a fixed interval, s (s< T). At each evaluation point, the buyer considers three alternative decisions i.e. Keep the machine, Overhaul it, or Replace it with a new identical one. An overhaul can reduce the machine age virtually, but not to a point that the machine is as good as new. If the mac...

  10. Safety culture in nuclear installations: Bangladesh perspectives and key lessons learned from major events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalil, A.; Rabbani, G.

    2002-01-01

    Steps necessary to be taken to ensure safety in nuclear installations are suggested. One of the steps suggested is enhancing the safety culture. It is necessary to gain a common understanding of the concept itself, the development stages of safety culture by way of good management practices and leadership for safety culture improvement in the long-term. International topical meetings on safety culture may serve as an important forum for exchange of experiences. From such conventions new initiatives and programmes may crop up which when implemented around the world is very likely to improve safety management and thus boost up the safety culture in nuclear installations. International co-operation and learning are to be prompted to facilitate the sharing of the achievements to face the challenges involved in the management of safety and fixing priorities for future work and identify areas of co-operations. Key lessons learned from some major events have been reported. Present status and future trend of nuclear safety culture in Bangladesh have been dealt with. (author)

  11. Aviation safety and maintenance under major organizational changes, investigating non-existing accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Ivonne A; Nordskag, Arve O; Myhre, Grete; Halvorsen, Kåre

    2009-11-01

    The objective of this paper is to discuss the following questions: Do concurrent organizational changes have a direct impact on aviation maintenance and safety, if so, how can this be measured? These questions were part of the investigation carried out by the Accident Investigation Board, Norway (AIBN). The AIBN investigated whether Norwegian aviation safety had been affected due to major organizational changes between 2000 and 2004. The main concern was the reduction in safety margins and its consequences. This paper presents a summary of the techniques used and explains how they were applied in three airlines and by two offshore helicopter operators. The paper also discusses the development of safety related indicators in the aviation industry. In addition, there is a summary of the lessons learned and safety recommendations. The Norwegian Ministry of Transport has required all players in the aviation industry to follow up the findings and recommendations of the AIBN study.

  12. Traffic safety in the U.S.: re-examining major opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivak, Michael; Luoma, Juha; Flannagan, Michael J; Bingham, C Raymond; Eby, David W; Shope, Jean T

    2007-01-01

    This article examines five major road-safety risk factors: exceeding posted speed limits, not using safety belts, driving while intoxicated, nighttime driving, and young drivers. The importance of each of these factors is documented, known effective countermeasures (both policy and technology based) are discussed, and impediments to the implementation of these countermeasures in the United States are examined. Based on current understanding of the five major risk factors, and of the available countermeasures, there appear to be a variety of opportunities to make substantial gains in road safety using existing knowledge. The limited implementation of a variety of known countermeasures therefore appears to be inconsistent with high-level, strategic goals to improve road safety. Consequently, a recommendation is made to comprehensively re-examine the balance between the countermeasures discussed in this article and economic, mobility, and privacy concerns. IMPACT ON PUBLIC SAFETY: Such a re-examination is likely to result in broad support for these countermeasures, with a consequent major improvement in road safety.

  13. Discussion on school-enterprise cooperation talent cultivation model for restaurant food safety major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-hua LI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Restaurant food safety school aims to cultivate high-skilled talents with professional ethics and professional quality for various food and beverage industries. They not only grasp basic knowledge and comprehensive vocational ability of restaurant food safety management, nutrition guidance and food matching, management and administration of catering industry but also adapt to the development of modern hotel and catering industry. Based on continuous exploration and cooperative experience with enterprises, the author attempts to provide reference basis for the establishment of restaurant food safety major.

  14. Assessing flight safety differences between the United States regional and major airlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Broderick H.

    During 2008, the U.S. domestic airline departures exceeded 28,000 flights per day. Thirty-nine or less than 0.2 of 1% of these flights resulted in operational incidents or accidents. However, even a low percentage of airline accidents and incidents continue to cause human suffering and property loss. The charge of this study was the comparison of U.S. major and regional airline safety histories. The study spans safety events from January 1982 through December 2008. In this quantitative analysis, domestic major and regional airlines were statistically tested for their flight safety differences. Four major airlines and thirty-seven regional airlines qualified for the safety study which compared the airline groups' fatal accidents, incidents, non-fatal accidents, pilot errors, and the remaining six safety event probable cause types. The six other probable cause types are mechanical failure, weather, air traffic control, maintenance, other, and unknown causes. The National Transportation Safety Board investigated each airline safety event, and assigned a probable cause to each event. A sample of 500 events was randomly selected from the 1,391 airlines' accident and incident population. The airline groups' safety event probabilities were estimated using the least squares linear regression. A probability significance level of 5% was chosen to conclude the appropriate research question hypothesis. The airline fatal accidents and incidents probability levels were 1.2% and 0.05% respectively. These two research questions did not reach the 5% significance level threshold. Therefore, the airline groups' fatal accidents and non-destructive incidents probabilities favored the airline groups' safety differences hypothesis. The linear progression estimates for the remaining three research questions were 71.5% for non-fatal accidents, 21.8% for the pilot errors, and 7.4% significance level for the six probable causes. These research questions' linear regressions are greater than

  15. Optimal Overhaul-Replacement Policies for Repairable Machine Sold with Warranty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusmaningrum Soemadi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This research deals with an overhaul-replacement policy for a repairable machine sold with Free Replacement Warranty (FRW. The machine will be used for a finite horizon, T (T <, and evaluated at a fixed interval, s (s< T. At each evaluation point, the buyer considers three alternative decisions i.e. Keep the machine, Overhaul it, or Replace it with a new identical one. An overhaul can reduce the machine age virtually, but not to a point that the machine is as good as new. If the machine fails during the warranty period, it is rectified at no cost to the buyer. Any failure occurring before and after the expiry of the warranty is restored by minimal repair. An overhaul-replacement policy is formulated for such machines by using dynamic programming approach to obtain the buyer’s optimal policy. The results show that a significant rejuvenation effect due to overhaul may extend the length of machine life cycle and delay the replacement decision. In contrast, the warranty stimulates early machine replacement and by then increases the replacement frequencies for a certain range of replacement cost. This demonstrates that to minimize the total ownership cost over T the buyer needs to consider the minimal repair cost reduction due to rejuvenation effect of overhaul as well as the warranty benefit due to replacement. Numerical examples are presented for both illustrating the optimal policy and describing the behavior of the optimal solution.

  16. Regulatory instrument review: Management of aging of LWR [light water reactor] major safety-related components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werry, E.V.

    1990-10-01

    This report comprises Volume 1 of a review of US nuclear plant regulatory instruments to determine the amount and kind of information they contain on managing the aging of safety-related components in US nuclear power plants. The review was conducted for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the NRC Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program. Eight selected regulatory instruments, e.g., NRC Regulatory Guides and the Code of Federal Regulations, were reviewed for safety-related information on five selected components: reactor pressure vessels, steam generators, primary piping, pressurizers, and emergency diesel generators. Volume 2 will be concluded in FY 1991 and will also cover selected major safety-related components, e.g., pumps, valves and cables. The focus of the review was on 26 NPAR-defined safety-related aging issues, including examination, inspection, and maintenance and repair; excessive/harsh testing; and irradiation embrittlement. The major conclusion of the review is that safety-related regulatory instruments do provide implicit guidance for aging management, but include little explicit guidance. The major recommendation is that the instruments be revised or augmented to explicitly address the management of aging

  17. A critical analysis of the majority judgment in F v Minister of Safety ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The majority judgment of Mogoeng CJ in F v Minister of Safety and Security 2012 1 ... norms now play an important role in deciding questions of vicarious liability. ... the conduct of the employee wrongdoer and the business of his employer as ...

  18. China's refiners face massive overhaul, expansion to meet demand growth, new crude slate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    China's refining industry has embarked on a massive overhaul and expansion to accommodate soaring domestic growth in refined products demand. Currently that growth in demand is being met by increasing imports of refined products, in recent years attaining triple digit growth rates and squeezing direly needed foreign exchange. The focus is on adding refining capacity of about 1.4 million b/d to the current capacity of about 3.2 million b/d by 2000. Priority for increasing capacity is being given to expanding existing refineries and participating in foreign joint venture grassroots refineries along China's booming coastal regions as well as hiking output. A major challenge for China's refineries is that country's reentry into the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), recently signed in Morocco by more than 100 nations. The accompanying reduction of tariffs on imported refined products will make it more difficult for China's marginal refineries to compete in the domestic market. The paper discusses imports and exports, LPG outlook, refining capacity, revamps needed, third party processing, China's first joint venture refinery, industry plans, and GATT challenges

  19. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: Steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-11-01

    This TECDOC is one in a series of reports on the assessment and management of ageing of the major NPP components important to safety. The reports are based on experience and practices of NPP operators, regulators, designers, manufacturers, and technical support organizations and a widely accepted Methodology for the Management of Ageing of NPP Components Important to Safety which was issued by the IAEA in 1992. They have been compiled using contributions from technical experts in typically 10 to 12 countries for each report, a feedback from a September 1994 Technical Committee Meeting attended by 53 technical experts from 21 Member States (who reviewed first drafts in specialized working groups), and review comments from invited specialists

  20. Operating performance and environmental and safety risks: A preliminary comparison of majors and independents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulsipher, A.G.; Iledare, W.O.; Baumann, R.H.; Mesyanzhinov, D.

    1995-01-01

    The objective is to compare the safety and environmental records of oil and gas companies operating on the OCS in the Gulf of Mexico over the past decade. The reason for doing so is to help inform public sector policy-makers and private sector decision-makers about the potential safety and environmental risks associated with the expected increased presence of smaller independents in the domestic oil and gas industry in general and on the federal OCS in particular. The preliminary conclusion is that although independents have had a modestly high incidence of fires and explosions than the majors, the difference is not significant statistically and is largely attributable to a few ''bad actors'' rather than demonstrably poorer practice by the group as a whole

  1. How additive manufacturing enables more sustainable end-user maintenance, repair and overhaul (MRO) strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wits, Wessel Willems; Reyes Garcia, José Roberto; Jauregui Becker, Juan Manuel

    2016-01-01

    This paper projects how Maintenance, Repair and Overhaul (MRO) strategies can be optimized to the specific needs of end-users using Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies. AM can significantly reduce the design and production times for customized parts. This leads to key advantages for MRO

  2. Nuclide analysis at domestic Nuclear Power Plant with CZT Detector during the overhaul

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Seokon; Yoon, Kanghwa; Soo, Moonjin; Lee, Byoungil; Kim, Jeongin [Radiation Health Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    AEP (American Electric Power) also introduced another type CZT detector to perform source term monitoring and they had announced the results through the ISOE (Information System on Occupational Exposure). A CZT semiconductor detector is good to monitor source terms at a NPP in that it is possible to make a portable type because it does not need any cooling system at room temperature and it has good energy resolution. To follow up global atmosphere, KHNP (Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power) has been trying to use CZT monitoring system at a domestic NPP. This study shows a result of the kinds of nuclides between Before H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and After Clean-Up process for primary reactor coolant system nearby a steam generator during the overhaul for the first time. The detected source terms were the same for all measurement conditions, but the measurement was not quantitative analysis. It needs Spectrum Analysis Program to acquire quantitative analysis and we are developing the system. If the system is set-up in the CZT monitoring system, we will be able to know detail information of nuclides more. The result of spectra was the same regardless of measurement conditions and the intensity of the major nuclides is different obviously according to the measurement points. Even though the results only give US the information of the kinds of nuclides without any other information, the meaning is very significant to US, because the measurement is performed for the first time all over country. Especially, the result of both Red Plot and Blue Plot is very interesting in that the primary coolant is (Red plot) inside the pipe whereas it is not (Blue plot) inside the steam generator. Our study will be continued to find the reasons.

  3. Nuclide analysis at domestic Nuclear Power Plant with CZT Detector during the overhaul

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Seokon; Yoon, Kanghwa; Soo, Moonjin; Lee, Byoungil; Kim, Jeongin

    2013-01-01

    AEP (American Electric Power) also introduced another type CZT detector to perform source term monitoring and they had announced the results through the ISOE (Information System on Occupational Exposure). A CZT semiconductor detector is good to monitor source terms at a NPP in that it is possible to make a portable type because it does not need any cooling system at room temperature and it has good energy resolution. To follow up global atmosphere, KHNP (Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power) has been trying to use CZT monitoring system at a domestic NPP. This study shows a result of the kinds of nuclides between Before H 2 O 2 and After Clean-Up process for primary reactor coolant system nearby a steam generator during the overhaul for the first time. The detected source terms were the same for all measurement conditions, but the measurement was not quantitative analysis. It needs Spectrum Analysis Program to acquire quantitative analysis and we are developing the system. If the system is set-up in the CZT monitoring system, we will be able to know detail information of nuclides more. The result of spectra was the same regardless of measurement conditions and the intensity of the major nuclides is different obviously according to the measurement points. Even though the results only give US the information of the kinds of nuclides without any other information, the meaning is very significant to US, because the measurement is performed for the first time all over country. Especially, the result of both Red Plot and Blue Plot is very interesting in that the primary coolant is (Red plot) inside the pipe whereas it is not (Blue plot) inside the steam generator. Our study will be continued to find the reasons

  4. Development of an evaluation method for major nuclear reactor overhaul tasks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dhong Ha [University of Suwon, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Hyeon Kyo; Kim, Dong Ha; Ko, Byung In; Jang, Tong Il [Chungbuk National Univ., Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-03-15

    Nuclear reactor preventive maintenance tasks have so many factors influencing the work performance and so many variables influencing work time. However it is not yet known how much influential those factors and variables are on the work performance and work time. It is also difficult to predict accurately how long does it take to finish preventive maintenance tasks for nuclear reactor. Due to those difficulties, at present we predict the target radiation dose only as a approximate figure, such as a ninety percent of the total dose of the previous year. We can not present any clear reason whether this type of target dose prediction is valid or not. There are two types of radiation exposure protection management influencing radiation dose, the one is radiation space protection management and the other is radiation exposure time management which is related work management. It is evident if these two types of management are done effectively total dose will be reduced. So a reasonable target dose will be the dose resulted from the situation where as efficient protection management is applied as possible. This study suggested a new method predicting a target dose. We differentiated the efficient part from the inefficient part of radiation protection management. This study showed that the target dose can be predicted by excluding a latent increment in dose due to inefficient radiation protection management from total dose.

  5. Safety and man in light of the analysis of major technical accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnino, A.

    1990-01-01

    Up to the seventies, it was not easy to admit human failure as a cause of industrial accidents. Man was considered as reliable. With the perfection of materials, technical systems and industrial processes though, man has become the weakest link in the chain of technical events. He is and stays a remarkably reliable being, with a roughly estimated average failure quota of 1:1000 manipulations. If the hypothetical risk should be kept very low, this value can become a problem. Instead of judging a mistake as a punishable crime, as the present tendency will have it, a more differentiated, systematical approach is called for. By means of an analysis of four major accidents - Chernobyl, Three Mile Island, Challenger and Bhopal - interesting parallels between the causes of such accidents can be found. Human failure, e.g. of a surgeon, is in most cases, the direct cause of an accident. A whole series of further causes, which can be assigned to different areas of influence but are usually interdependent, also play a role. While the human factor must be viewed as more or less predetermined, far reaching improvements can be made to reduce the risk of accident. Today, thanks to modern technology and new findings, it is possible to practically neutralize human error. This creates more costs and necessitates giving up short term production maximization. It also requires the willingness to give safety absolute priority. The name 'culture de surete' (safety culture) is used to describe this concept. Surprising similarities between the causes of the four mentioned major accidents were discovered. Certain circumstances, such as the time of day, played a role. The concept of a plant, resp. technical process has an essential influence, as well as company policy (importance of safety, preparation of emergency procedures, training, maintenance, company rules) and management (evaluation and realization of foreign and the company's own operation experiences and error alarms). (author) 7

  6. Practices and Exploration on Competition of Molecular Biological Detection Technology among Students in Food Quality and Safety Major

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yaning; Peng, Yuke; Li, Pengfei; Zhuang, Yingping

    2017-01-01

    With the increasing importance in the application of the molecular biological detection technology in the field of food safety, strengthening education in molecular biology experimental techniques is more necessary for the culture of the students in food quality and safety major. However, molecular biology experiments are not always in curricula…

  7. The cohort of the atomic bomb survivors major basis of radiation safety regulations

    CERN Document Server

    Rühm, W; Nekolla, E A

    2006-01-01

    Since 1950 about 87 000 A-bomb survivors from Hiroshima and Nagasaki have been monitored within the framework of the Life Span Study, to quantify radiation-induced late effects. In terms of incidence and mortality, a statistically significant excess was found for leukemia and solid tumors. In another major international effort, neutron and gamma radiation doses were estimated, for those survivors (Dosimetry System DS02). Both studies combined allow the deduction of risk coefficients that serve as a basis for international safety regulations. As an example, current results on all solid tumors combined suggest an excess relative risk of 0.47 per Sievert for an attained age of 70 years, for those who were exposed at an age of 30 years. After exposure to an effective dose of one Sievert the solid tumor mortality would thus be about 50% larger than that expected for a similar cohort not exposed to any ionizing radiation from the bombs.

  8. Efficacy and safety of venous thromboembolism prophylaxis with apixaban in major orthopedic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werth S

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Sebastian Werth, Kai Halbritter, Jan Beyer-WestendorfCenter for Vascular Medicine and Department of Medicine III, Division of Angiology, University Hospital “Carl Gustav Carus” Dresden, Dresden, GermanyAbstract: Over the last 15 years, low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs have been accepted as the “gold standard” for pharmaceutical thromboprophylaxis in patients at high risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE in most countries around the world. Patients undergoing major orthopedic surgery (MOS represent a population with high risk of VTE, which may remain asymptomatic or become symptomatic as deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism. Numerous trials have investigated LMWH thromboprophylaxis in this population and demonstrated high efficacy and safety of these substances. However, LMWHs have a number of disadvantages, which limit the acceptance of patients and physicians, especially in prolonged prophylaxis up to 35 days after MOS. Consequently, new oral anticoagulants (NOACs were developed that are of synthetic origin and act as direct and very specific inhibitors of different factors in the coagulation cascade. The most developed NOACs are dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban, all of which are approved for thromboprophylaxis in MOS in a number of countries around the world. This review is focused on the pharmacological characteristics of apixaban in comparison with other NOACs, on the impact of NOAC on VTE prophylaxis in daily care, and on the management of specific situations such as bleeding complications during NOAC therapy.Keywords: major orthopedic surgery, apixaban, dabigatran, edoxaban, rivaroxaban, deep vein thrombosis, venous thromboembolism, VTE prophylaxis

  9. Overhauling the Airborne Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance Systems Procurement Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    over 300,000 returning troops suffering from major depression or post-traumatic stress disorder and at least 320,000 brain injuries received6, the...Accessed December 31, 2010) 24 “Aviation Fuel,” linked from the U.S. Centennial of Flight Commission Home Page at “Essays,” http

  10. Managing innovation to overhaul a patient-care environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, W

    1989-01-01

    Innovation in public service organizations must be managed, just as it must be in any business. However, in older, large public organizations, specific strategies are needed. One such strategy is described in development and impact. The first step was utilizing external demands to create an atmosphere in which change was accepted as necessary. This was followed by a relaxation of top down procedural direction accompanied by persistent concentration on establishing new standards and objectives. The final major component was a management system intended to guide and shape development of innovations into an integrated program effectively addressing the new objectives and standards.

  11. Practices and exploration on competition of molecular biological detection technology among students in food quality and safety major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yaning; Peng, Yuke; Li, Pengfei; Zhuang, Yingping

    2017-07-08

    With the increasing importance in the application of the molecular biological detection technology in the field of food safety, strengthening education in molecular biology experimental techniques is more necessary for the culture of the students in food quality and safety major. However, molecular biology experiments are not always in curricula of Food quality and safety Majors. This paper introduced a project "competition of molecular biological detection technology for food safety among undergraduate sophomore students in food quality and safety major", students participating in this project needed to learn the fundamental molecular biology experimental techniques such as the principles of molecular biology experiments and genome extraction, PCR and agarose gel electrophoresis analysis, and then design the experiments in groups to identify the meat species in pork and beef products using molecular biological methods. The students should complete the experimental report after basic experiments, write essays and make a presentation after the end of the designed experiments. This project aims to provide another way for food quality and safety majors to improve their knowledge of molecular biology, especially experimental technology, and enhances them to understand the scientific research activities as well as give them a chance to learn how to write a professional thesis. In addition, in line with the principle of an open laboratory, the project is also open to students in other majors in East China University of Science and Technology, in order to enhance students in other majors to understand the fields of molecular biology and food safety. © 2017 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(4):343-350, 2017. © 2017 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  12. Major results from safety-related integral effect tests with VISTA-ITL for the SMART design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, H. S.; Min, B. Y.; Shin, Y. C.; Yi, S. J.

    2012-01-01

    A series of integral effect tests (IETs) was performed by the Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst. (KAERI) using the VISTA integral test loop (VISTA-ITL) as a small-scale IET program. Among them this paper presents major results acquired from the safety-related IETs with the VISTA-ITL facility for the SMART design. Three small-break loss-of-coolant accident (SBLOCA) tests of safety injection system (SIS) line break, shutdown cooling system (SCS) line break and pressurizer safety valve (PSV) line break were successfully performed and the transient characteristics of a complete loss of flowrate (CLOF) was simulated properly with the VISTA-ITL facility. (authors)

  13. Major update of Safety Analysis Report for Thai Research Reactor-1/Modification 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tippayakul, Chanatip [Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2013-07-01

    Thai Research Reactor-1/Modification 1 (TRR-1/M1) was converted from a Material Testing Reactor in 1975 and it had been operated by Office of Atom for Peace (OAP) since 1977 until 2007. During the period, Office of Atom for Peace had two duties for the reactor, that is, to operate and to regulate the reactor. However, in 2007, there was governmental office reformation which resulted in the separation of the reactor operating organization from the regulatory body in order to comply with international standard. The new organization is called Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology (TINT) which has the mission to promote peaceful utilization of nuclear technology while OAP remains essentially the regulatory body. After the separation, a new ministerial regulation was enforced reflecting a new licensing scheme in which TINT has to apply for a license to operate the reactor. The safety analysis report (SAR) shall be submitted as part of the license application. The ministerial regulation stipulates the outlines of the SAR almost equivalent to IAEA standard 35-G1. Comparing to the IAEA 35-G1 standard, there were several incomplete and missing chapters in the original SAR of TRR1/M1. The major update of the SAR was therefore conducted and took approximately one year. The update work included detail safety evaluation of core configuration which used two fuel element types, the classification of systems, structures and components (SSC), the compilation of detail descriptions of all SSCs and the review and evaluation of radiation protection program, emergency plan and emergency procedure. Additionally, the code of conduct and operating limits and conditions were revised and finalized in this work. A lot of new information was added to the SAR as well, for example, the description of commissioning program, information on environmental impact assessment, decommissioning program, quality assurance program and etc. Due to the complexity of this work, extensive knowledge was

  14. Seismic safety margins research program. Phase I final report - Major structure response (Project IV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benda, B.J.; Johnson, J.J.; Lo, T.Y.

    1981-08-01

    The primary task of the Major Structure Response Project within the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) was to develop detailed finite element models of the Zion Nuclear Power Plant's containment building and auxiliary-fuel-turbine (AFT) complex. The resulting models served as input to the seismic methodology analysis chain. The containment shell was modeled as a series of beam elements with the shear and bending characteristics of a circular cylindrical shell. Masses and rotary inertias were lumped at nodal points; thirteen modes were included in the analysis. The internal structure was modeled with three-dimensional finite elements, with masses again lumped at selected nodes; sixty modes were included in the analysis. The model of the AFT complex employed thin plate and shell elements to represent the concrete shear walls and floor diaphragms, and beam and truss elements to model the braced frames. Because of the size and complexity of the model, and the potentially large number of degrees of freedom, masses were lumped at a limited number of node points. These points were selected so as to minimize the effect of the discrete mass distribution on structural response. One hundred and thirteen modes were extracted. A second objective of Project IV was to investigate the effects of uncertainty and variability on structural response. To this end, four side studies were conducted. Three of them, briefly summarized in this volume, addressed themselves respectively to an investigation of sources of random variability in the dynamic response of nuclear power plant structures; formulation of a methodology for modeling and evaluating the effects of structural uncertainty on predicted modal characteristics of major nuclear power plant structures and substructures; and a preliminary evaluation of nonlinear responses in shear-wall structures. A fourth side study, reported in detail in this volume, quantified variations in dynamic characteristics and seismic

  15. 77 FR 40513 - Safety Zone; Major Motion Picture Filming, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Southport, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ... filming of a movie involving explosions and other dangerous stunts on water. The temporary safety zone is... filming of the movie, a delay in enacting this safety zone would be contrary to public interest. Under 5 U... Planning and Review This rule is not a significant regulatory action under section 3(f) of Executive Order...

  16. Diagnosis of poor safety culture as a major shortcoming in OHSAS 18001-certified companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahramani, Abolfazl

    2017-04-07

    The evaluation of safety performance in occupational health and safety assessment series (OHSAS) 18001-certified companies provides useful information about the quality of the management system. A certified organization should employ an adequate level of safety management and a positive safety culture to achieve a satisfactory safety performance. The present study conducted in six manufacturing companies: three OHSAS 18001-certified, and three non-certified to assess occupational health and safety (OHS) as well as OHSAS 18001 practices. The certified companies had a better OHS practices compared with the non-certified companies. The certified companies slightly differed in OHS and OHSAS 18001 practices and one of the certified companies had the highest activity rates for both practices. The results indicated that the implemented management systems have not developed and been maintained appropriately in the certified companies. The in-depth analysis of the collected evidence revealed shortcomings in safety culture improvement in the certified companies. This study highlights the importance of safety culture to continuously improve the quality of OHSAS 18001 and to properly perform OHS/OHSAS 18001 practices in the certified companies.

  17. The knowledge, attitude and behavior on the radiation safety management for dental hygiene major students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Yeo Reong; Cho, Pyong Kon; Kim, Yong Min; Han, Eun Ok; Jang, Hyon Chul; Ko, Jong Kyung

    2015-01-01

    This study tries to find the educational basis based on the radiation safety knowledge, attitudes and behaviors to check the level of radiation safety behavior in domestic students who study dental hygiene. The students of 3rd and 4th grades in 83 universities which have registered on the Korean University Education Council were involved, and they were given a questionnaire for this study. The questionnaire was provided via visit with 20 copies to each university (total 1660 copies), mail by post and e-mail. Among them, we analyzed only 723 copies that we can trust. The data were analyzed with frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation and Pearson’s correlation using the SPSS/WIN 15.0. As a result, there are correlations in the students’ knowledge, attitudes and behaviors regarding the radiation safety management. It means that the education which can improve the knowledge and attitudes should be applied to increase the action level of the radiation safety. In addition, the physical environment is the most closely correlated with the individual behavior, so it will be limited to improve the behavioral levels of the radiation safety if the physical environment is not prepared. Therefore, the physical environment should be supported to enhance the level of the radiation safety activity, and to increase the individual attitude level of radiation safety. The knowledge level of the radiation safety management is relatively lower than the attitudes level, and the behavior level is the lowest. Therefore, the education policy of the safety behavior must be enhanced. For domestic students, the educational intervention is necessary to improve their behavioral level of radiation safety management because they will be able to reduce the amount of radiation exposure of their patients in dental care after getting a job

  18. The knowledge, attitude and behavior on the radiation safety management for dental hygiene major students

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Yeo Reong; Cho, Pyong Kon; Kim, Yong Min [Dept. of Radiological Science, Daegu Catholic University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Han, Eun Ok [Korea Academy of Nuclear Safety, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Hyon Chul [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Suseong College, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Jong Kyung [Radiation Safety Management Commission, Daegu Health College, (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    This study tries to find the educational basis based on the radiation safety knowledge, attitudes and behaviors to check the level of radiation safety behavior in domestic students who study dental hygiene. The students of 3rd and 4th grades in 83 universities which have registered on the Korean University Education Council were involved, and they were given a questionnaire for this study. The questionnaire was provided via visit with 20 copies to each university (total 1660 copies), mail by post and e-mail. Among them, we analyzed only 723 copies that we can trust. The data were analyzed with frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation and Pearson’s correlation using the SPSS/WIN 15.0. As a result, there are correlations in the students’ knowledge, attitudes and behaviors regarding the radiation safety management. It means that the education which can improve the knowledge and attitudes should be applied to increase the action level of the radiation safety. In addition, the physical environment is the most closely correlated with the individual behavior, so it will be limited to improve the behavioral levels of the radiation safety if the physical environment is not prepared. Therefore, the physical environment should be supported to enhance the level of the radiation safety activity, and to increase the individual attitude level of radiation safety. The knowledge level of the radiation safety management is relatively lower than the attitudes level, and the behavior level is the lowest. Therefore, the education policy of the safety behavior must be enhanced. For domestic students, the educational intervention is necessary to improve their behavioral level of radiation safety management because they will be able to reduce the amount of radiation exposure of their patients in dental care after getting a job.

  19. Discussion on school-enterprise cooperation talent cultivation model for restaurant food safety major

    OpenAIRE

    Yin-hua LI; Li-ping MA

    2014-01-01

    Restaurant food safety school aims to cultivate high-skilled talents with professional ethics and professional quality for various food and beverage industries. They not only grasp basic knowledge and comprehensive vocational ability of restaurant food safety management, nutrition guidance and food matching, management and administration of catering industry but also adapt to the development of modern hotel and catering industry. Based on continuous exploration and cooperative experience with...

  20. Holiday Overhaul

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Reform has brought hope,but also concern,to workers across ChinaThe National Development and Reform Commission published a plan to change China’s golden week holiday system on November 9.The change sees the end of the three-day May Day holiday and the creation of three single-day holidays that fall on traditional Chinese festivals—the Tomb-Sweeping Day,the Dragon Boat Festival and the Mid- Autumn Festival.One day off work remains on May Day. The change increases the number of non-working daYs per year from 114 to 115. In addition,according to a newly issued paid vacation plan,workers who remain in the same company for more than one year should enjoy a paid vacation,the length of

  1. Collective statement on major nuclear safety research facilities and programmes at risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear safety research remains necessary, since nuclear power programmes are dynamic. In addition to maintaining in-depth competencies, its aim is to provide information to plant designers, operators and regulators in support of the resolution of safety issues, to strengthen confidence in their solution and their implementation, and also to anticipate problems of potential significance. New fields of research open up as a result of plant ageing, plant life extension, plant up-rating, optimisation of plant economics and the associated need to further reduce uncertainties in safety margins quantification. The safety evaluation of future reactor systems being developed or considered in several Member countries also requires new research efforts. Accordingly, Member countries are encouraged to support efforts to maintain key research data, facilities and programmes through national support of international co-operation and funding. This should be under-pinned by development of short-, medium- and long-term strategic visions of the needs of the nuclear safety research community, including a strong component of international collaboration given the international nature of nuclear safety issues. (author)

  2. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: PWR vessel internals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-10-01

    At present, there are over four hundred operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in IAEA Member States. Operating experience has shown that ineffective control of the ageing degradation of the major NPP components (e.g. caused by unanticipated phenomena and by operating, maintenance or manufacturing errors) can jeopardize plant safety and also plant life. Ageing in these NPPs must be therefore effectively managed to ensure the availability of design functions throughout the plant service life. From the safety perspective, this means controlling within acceptable limits the ageing degradation and wear-out of plant components important to safety so that adequate safety margins remain, i.e. integrity and functional capability in excess of normal operating requirements. This TECDOC is one in a series of reports on the assessment and management of ageing of the major NPP components important to safety. The reports are based on experience and practices of NPP operators, regulators, designers, manufacturers, and technical support organizations and a widely accepted Methodology for the Management of Ageing of NPP Components Important to Safety, which was issued by the IAEA in 1992. The current practices for the assessment of safety margins (fitness-for-service) and the inspection, monitoring and mitigation of ageing degradation of selected components of Canada deuterium-uranium (CANDU) reactors, boiling water reactors (BWRs), pressurized water reactors (PWRs), and water moderated, water cooled energy reactors (WWERs) are documented in the reports. These practices are intended to help all involved directly and indirectly in ensuring the safe operation of NPPs, and to provide a common technical basis for dialogue between plant operators and regulators when dealing with age related licensing issues. The guidance reports are directed at technical experts from NPPs and from regulatory, plant design, manufacturing and technical support organizations dealing with specific plant

  3. Major Results from 1-Train Passive Safety System Tests for the SMART Design with the SMART-ITL Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyun-Sik; Bae, Hwang; Ryu, Sung-Uk; Jeon, Byong-Guk; Ruy, Hyobong; Kim, Woo-Shik; Byun, Sun-Joon; Shin, Yong-Cheol; Min, Kyoung-Ho; Yi, Sung-Jae [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    To satisfy the domestic and international needs for nuclear safety improvement after the Fukushima accident, an effort to improve its safety has been studied, and a Passive Safety System (PSS) for SMART has been designed. In addition, an Integral Test Loop for the SMART design (SMART-ITL, or FESTA) has been constructed and it finished its commissioning tests in 2012. Consequently, a set of Design Base Accident (DBA) scenarios have been simulated using SMARTITL. Recently, a test program to validate the performance of the SMART PSS was launched and its scaled-down test facility was additionally installed at the existing SMART-ITL facility. In this paper, the major results from the 1-train passive safety system validation tests with the SMARTITL facility will be summarized. The acquired data will be used to validate the safety analysis code and its related models, to evaluate the performance of SMART PSS, and to provide base data during the application phase of the SDA revision and construction licensing. In this paper, the major results from the validation tests of the SMART passive safety system using a 1-train test facility were summarized. They include a dozen of SMART PSS tests using 1-train SMART PSS tests. From the test results, it was estimated that the SMART PSS has sufficient cooling capability to deal with the SBLOCA scenario of SMART. During the SBLOCA scenario, in the CMT, the water layer inventory was well stratified thermally and the safety injection water was injected efficiently into the RPV from the initial period, and cools down the RCS properly.

  4. Reliability and Maintainability Engineering - A Major Driver for Safety and Affordability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safie, Fayssal M.

    2011-01-01

    The United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is in the midst of an effort to design and build a safe and affordable heavy lift vehicle to go to the moon and beyond. To achieve that, NASA is seeking more innovative and efficient approaches to reduce cost while maintaining an acceptable level of safety and mission success. One area that has the potential to contribute significantly to achieving NASA safety and affordability goals is Reliability and Maintainability (R&M) engineering. Inadequate reliability or failure of critical safety items may directly jeopardize the safety of the user(s) and result in a loss of life. Inadequate reliability of equipment may directly jeopardize mission success. Systems designed to be more reliable (fewer failures) and maintainable (fewer resources needed) can lower the total life cycle cost. The Department of Defense (DOD) and industry experience has shown that optimized and adequate levels of R&M are critical for achieving a high level of safety and mission success, and low sustainment cost. Also, lessons learned from the Space Shuttle program clearly demonstrated the importance of R&M engineering in designing and operating safe and affordable launch systems. The Challenger and Columbia accidents are examples of the severe impact of design unreliability and process induced failures on system safety and mission success. These accidents demonstrated the criticality of reliability engineering in understanding component failure mechanisms and integrated system failures across the system elements interfaces. Experience from the shuttle program also shows that insufficient Reliability, Maintainability, and Supportability (RMS) engineering analyses upfront in the design phase can significantly increase the sustainment cost and, thereby, the total life cycle cost. Emphasis on RMS during the design phase is critical for identifying the design features and characteristics needed for time efficient processing

  5. 78 FR 73756 - Process Safety Management and Prevention of Major Chemical Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ... include certain molecular structures that have been identified as highly reactive, based on scientific... procedures for organizational changes,\\10\\ such as changes in management structure, budget cuts, or personnel...; employee training; prestartup safety reviews; evaluation of the mechanical integrity of critical equipment...

  6. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: BWR pressure vessel internals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-10-01

    At present, there are over four hundred operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in IAEA Member States. Operating experience has shown that ineffective control of the ageing degradation of the major NPP components (caused for instance by unanticipated phenomena and by operating maintenance or manufacturing errors) can jeopardize plant safety and also plant life. Ageing in these NPPs must be therefore effectively managed to ensure the availability of design functions throughout the plant service life. From the safety perspective, this means controlling, within acceptable limits, the ageing degradation and ware out of components important to safety so that adequate safety margins remain, i.e. integrity and functional capability in excess of normal operating requirements. This TECDOC is one in a series of guidance reports on the assessment and management of ageing of the major NPP components important to safety. The reports are based on experience and practices of NPP operators, regulators, designers, manufacturers, and technical support organizations and a widely accepted Methodology for the Management of Ageing of NPP Components Important to Safety, which was issued by the IAEA in 1992. Since the reports are written from a safety perspective, they do not address life or life cycle management of plant components, which involves economic considerations. The current practices for the assessment of safety margins (fitness for service) and the inspection, monitoring and mitigation of ageing degradation of selected components of heavy water moderated reactors (HWRs), boiling water reactors (BWRs), pressurized water reactors (PWRs), and water moderated, water cooled energy reactors (WWERs) are documented in the reports. These practices are intended to help all involved directly and indirectly in ensuring the safe operation of NPPs, and also to provide a common technical basis for dialogue between plant operators and regulators when dealing with age related licensing issues

  7. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: BWR pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-10-01

    At present, there are over four hundred operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in IAEA Member States. Operating experience has shown that ineffective control of the ageing degradation of the major NPP components (caused for instance by unanticipated phenomena and by operating, maintenance or manufacturing errors) can jeopardize plant safety and also plant life. Ageing in these NPPs must be therefore effectively managed to ensure the availability of design functions throughout the plant service life. From the safety perspective, this means controlling, within acceptable limits, the ageing degradation and wear out of plant components important to safety so that adequate safety margins remain, i.e. integrity and functional capability in excess of normal operating requirements. This TECDOC is one in a series of reports on the assessment and management of ageing of the major NPP components important to safety. The reports are based on experience and practices of NPP operators, regulators, designers, manufacturers and technical support organizations and a widely accepted Methodology for the Management of Ageing of NPP Components Important to Safety, which was issued by the IAEA in 1992. Since the reports are written from a safety perspective, they do not address life or life cycle management of plant components, which involves economic considerations. The current practices for the assessment of safety margins (fitness for service) and the inspection, monitoring and mitigation of ageing degradation of selected components of Canada deuterium-uranium (CANDU) reactors, boiling water reactors (BWRs), pressurized water reactors (PWRs), and water moderated, water cooled energy reactors (WWERs) are documented in the reports. These practices are intended to help all involved directly and indirectly in ensuring the safe operation of NPPs, and also to provide a common technical basis for dialogue between plant operators and regulators when dealing with age related licensing issues

  8. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety. Primary piping in PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-07-01

    At present, there are over four hundred operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in IAEA Member States. Operating experience has shown that ineffective control of the ageing degradation of the major NPP components (caused for instance by unanticipated phenomena and by operating, maintenance or manufacturing errors) can jeopardize plant safety and also plant life. Ageing in these NPPs must therefore be effectively managed to ensure the availability of design functions throughout the plant service life. From the safety perspective, this means controlling, within acceptable limits, the ageing degradation and wear out of plant components important to safety so that adequate safety margins remain, i.e. integrity and functional capability in excess of normal operating requirements. This TECDOC is one in a series of reports on the assessment and management of ageing of the major NPP components important to safety. The reports are based on experience and practices of NPP operators, regulators, designers, manufacturers, technical support organizations and a widely accepted Methodology for the Management of Ageing of NPP Components Important to Safety, which was issued by the IAEA in 1992. Since the reports are written from a safety perspective, they do not address life or life cycle management of plant components, which involves economic considerations. The current practices for the assessment of safety margins (fitness-for-service) and the inspection, monitoring and mitigation of ageing degradation of selected components of Canada deuterium-uranium (CANDU) reactors, boiling water reactors (BWRs), pressurized water reactors (PWRs), and water moderated, water cooled energy reactors (WWERs) are documented in the reports. These practices are intended to help all involved directly and indirectly in ensuring the safe operation of NPPs, and to provide a common technical basis for dialogue between plant operators and regulators when dealing with age-related licensing issues. The

  9. Major structural response methods used in the seismic safety margins research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, C.K.; Lo, T.; Vagliente, V.

    1979-01-01

    In order to evaluate the conservatisms in present nuclear power plant seismic safety requirements, a probabilistic based systems model is being developed. This model will also be used to develop improved requirements. In Phase I of the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP), this methodology will be developed for a specific nuclear power plant and used to perform probabilistic sensitivity studies to gain engineering insights into seismic safety requirements. Random variables in the structural response analysis area, or parameters which cause uncertainty in the response, are discussed and classified into three categories; i.e., material properties, structural dynamic characteristics and related modeling techniques, and analytical methods. The sensitivity studies are grouped into two categories; deterministic and probabilistic. In a system analysis, transfer functions in simple form are needed since there are too many responses which have to be calculated in a Monte Carlo simulation to use the usual straightforward calculation approach. Therefore, the development of these simple transfer functions is one of the important tasks in SSMRP. Simplified as well as classical transfer functions are discussed

  10. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: CANDU reactor assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-02-01

    At present, there are over four hundred operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in IAEA Member States. Operating experience has shown that ineffective control of the ageing degradation of the major NPP components (e.g. caused by unanticipated phenomena and by operating, maintenance, design or manufacturing errors) can jeopardize plant safety and also plant life. Ageing in these NPPs must therefore be effectively managed to ensure the availability of design functions throughout the plant service life. From the safety perspective, this means controlling within acceptable limits the ageing degradation and wearout of plant components important to safety so that adequate safety margins remain, i.e. integrity and functional capability in excess of normal operating requirements. This TECDOC is one in a series of reports on the assessment and management of ageing of the major NPP components important to safety. The reports are based on experience and practices of NPP operators, regulators, designers, manufacturers, and technical support organizations and a widely accepted Methodology for the Management of Ageing of NPP Components Important to Safety which was issued by the IAEA in 1992. The current practices for the assessment of safety margins (fitness for service) and the inspection, monitoring, and mitigation of ageing degradation of selected components of Canada deuterium-uranium (CANDU) reactors, boiling water reactors (BWRs), pressurized water reactors (PWRs) including the Soviet designed water moderated and water cooled energy reactors (WWERs), are documented in the reports. These practices are intended to help all involved directly and indirectly in ensuring the safe operation of NPPs and also to provide a common technical basis for dialogue between plant operators and regulators when dealing with age-related licensing issues. Since the reports are written from a safety perspective, they do not address life or life-cycle management of the plant components, which

  11. Assessment and Management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: PWR pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-10-01

    At present, there are over four hundred operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in IAEA Member States. Operating experience has shown that ineffective control of the ageing degradation of the major NPP components (e.g., caused by unanticipated phenomena and by operating, maintenance or manufacturing errors) can jeopardize plant safety and also plant life. Ageing in these NPPs must be therefore effectively managed to ensure the availability of design functions throughout the plant service life. From the safety perspective, this means controlling within acceptable limits the ageing degradation and wear-out of plant components important to safety so that adequate safety margins remain, i.e. integrity and functional capability in excess of normal operating requirements. This TECDOC is one in a series of reports on the assessment and management of ageing of the major NPP components important to safety. The reports are based on experience and practices of NPP operators, regulators, designers, manufacturers and technical support organizations and a widely accepted Methodology for the Management of Ageing of NPP Components Important to Safety which was issued by the IAEA in 1992. The current practices for the assessment of safety margins (fitness-for-service) and the inspection, monitoring and mitigation of ageing degradation of selected components of Canada deuterium-uranium (CANDU) reactors, boiling water reactors (BWRs), pressurized water reactors (PWRs), including water moderated, water cooled energy reactors (WWERs) are documented in the reports. These practices are intended to help all involved directly and indirectly in ensuring the safe operation of NPPs; and also to provide a common technical basis for dialogue between plant operators and regulators when dealing with age related licensing issues. Since the reports are written from a safety perspective, they do not address life or life-cycle management of the plant components, which involves the integration of

  12. Major cultural-compatibility complex: considerations on cross-cultural dissemination of patient safety programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Heon-Jae; Pham, Julius C; Kim, Minji; Engineer, Cyrus; Pronovost, Peter J

    2012-07-01

    As the importance of patient safety has been broadly acknowledged, various improvement programmes have been developed. Many of the programmes with proven efficacy have been disseminated internationally. However, some of those attempts may encounter unexpected cross-cultural obstacles and may fail to harvest the expected success. Each country has different cultural background that has shaped the behavior of the constituents for centuries. It is crucial to take into account these cultural differences in effectively disseminating these programmes. As an organ transplantation requires tissue-compatibility between the donor and the recipient, there needs to be compatibility between the country where the program was originally developed and the nation implementing the program. Though no detailed guidelines exist to predict success, small-scale pilot tests can help evaluate whether a safety programme will work in a new cultural environment. Furthermore, a pilot programme helps reveal the source of potential conflict, so we can modify the original programme accordingly to better suit the culture to which it is to be applied. In addition to programme protocols, information about the cultural context of the disseminated programme should be conveyed during dissemination. Original programme designers should work closely with partnering countries to ensure that modifications do not jeopardise the original intention of the programme. By following this approach, we might limit barriers originating from cultural differences and increase the likelihood of success in cross-cultural dissemination.

  13. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: PWR vessel internals: 2007 update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-06-01

    At present, there are over four hundred operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in IAEA Member States. Operating experience has shown that effective control of the ageing degradation of the major NPP components (e.g. caused by unanticipated phenomena and by operating, maintenance or manufacturing errors) is one of the most important issues for plant safety and also plant life. Ageing in these NPPs must be therefore effectively managed to ensure the availability of design functions throughout the plant service life. From the safety perspective, this means controlling within acceptable limits the ageing degradation and wearout of plant components important to safety so that adequate safety margins remain, i.e. integrity and functional capability in excess of normal operating requirements. IAEA-TECDOC-1119 documents ageing assessment and management practices for PWR Reactor Vessel Internals (RVIs) that were current at the time of its finalization in 1997-1998. Safety significant operating events have occurred since the finalization of the TECDOC, e.g. irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) of baffle-former bolts, which threatened the integrity of the vessel internals. In addition, concern of fretting wear of control rod guide tubes has been raised in Japan. These events led to new ageing management actions by both NPP operators and regulators. Therefore it was recognized that IAEA-TECDOC-1119 should be updated by incorporating those new events and their countermeasures. The objective of this report is to update relevant sections of the existing IAEA-TECDOC- 1119 in order to provide current ageing management guidance for PWR RVIs to all involved in the operation and regulation of PWRs and thus to help ensure PWR safety in IAEA Member States throughout their entire service life

  14. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: Metal components of BWR containment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-10-01

    At present, there are over four hundred operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in IAEA Member States. Operating experience has shown that ineffective control of the ageing degradation of the major NPP components (e.g. caused by unanticipated phenomena and by operating, maintenance or manufacturing errors) can jeopardize plant safety and also plant life. Ageing in these NPPs must therefore be effectively managed to ensure the availability of design functions throughout the plant service life. From the safety perspective, this means controlling within acceptable limits the ageing degradation and wear-out of plant components important to safety so that adequate safety margins remain, i.e. integrity and functional capability in excess of normal operating requirements. This TECDOC is one in a series of reports on the assessment and management of ageing of the major NPP components important to safety. The reports are based on experience and practices of NPP operators, regulators, designers, manufacturers, and technical support organizations and a widely accepted Methodology for the Management of Ageing of NPP Components Important to Safety, which was issued by the IAEA in 1992. The current practices for the assessment of safety margins (fitness for service) and the inspection, monitoring and mitigation of ageing degradation of selected components of Canada deuterium-uranium (CANDU) reactors, boiling water reactors (BWRs), pressurized water reactors (PWRs), and water moderated, water cooled energy reactors (WWERs) are documented in the reports. These practices are intended to help all involved directly and indirectly in ensuring the safe operation of NPPs, and to provide a common technical basis for dialogue between plant operators and regulators when dealing with age related licensing issues. The guidance reports are directed toward technical experts from NPPs and from regulatory, plant design, manufacturing and technical support organizations dealing with specific

  15. 5 CFR 532.267 - Special wage schedules for aircraft, electronic, and optical instrument overhaul and repair...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... manufacturing. 334418 Printed circuit assembly (electronic assembly) manufacturing. 334419 Other electronic..., electronic, and optical instrument overhaul and repair positions in Puerto Rico. 532.267 Section 532.267 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS...

  16. Partial Overhaul and Initial Parallel Optimization of KINETICS, a Coupled Dynamics and Chemistry Atmosphere Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Howard; Willacy, Karen; Allen, Mark

    2012-01-01

    KINETICS is a coupled dynamics and chemistry atmosphere model that is data intensive and computationally demanding. The potential performance gain from using a supercomputer motivates the adaptation from a serial version to a parallelized one. Although the initial parallelization had been done, bottlenecks caused by an abundance of communication calls between processors led to an unfavorable drop in performance. Before starting on the parallel optimization process, a partial overhaul was required because a large emphasis was placed on streamlining the code for user convenience and revising the program to accommodate the new supercomputers at Caltech and JPL. After the first round of optimizations, the partial runtime was reduced by a factor of 23; however, performance gains are dependent on the size of the data, the number of processors requested, and the computer used.

  17. Utility of melatonin to treat surgical stress after major vascular surgery--a safety study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kücükakin, Bülent; Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    of reducing oxidative damage. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the safety of various doses of melatonin administered during or after surgery and to monitor the changes in biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation during the pre-, intra-, and postoperative period. Six patients undergoing......Surgery for abdominal aortic aneurysm is associated with elevated oxidative stress. As an antioxidant in animal and human studies, melatonin has the potential of ameliorating some of this oxidative stress, but melatonin has never been administered to adults during surgery for the purpose......-reactive protein (CRP) were also measured for 4 days after surgery. Melatonin administration did not change hemodynamic parameters (mean arterial pressure or pulse rate) during surgery (P = 0.499 and 0.149, respectively), but oxidative stress parameters (MDA and AA) decreased significantly (P = 0.014 and 0...

  18. Utility of melatonin to treat surgical stress after major vascular surgery - a safety study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kücükakin, Bülent; Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    of reducing oxidative damage. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the safety of various doses of melatonin administered during or after surgery and to monitor the changes in biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation during the pre-, intra- and postoperative period. Six patients undergoing aortic......Surgery for abdominal aortic aneurysm is associated with elevated oxidative stress. As an antioxidant in animal and human studies, melatonin has the potential of ameliorating some of this oxidative stress, but melatonin has never been administered to adults during surgery for the purpose......) were also measured for four days after surgery. Melatonin administration did not change hemodynamic parameters (mean arterial pressure or pulse rate) during surgery (P=0.499 and 0.149, respectively), but oxidative stress parameters (MDA and AA) decreased significantly (P=0.014 and 0.001, respectively...

  19. Neighborhood Safety and Major Depressive Disorder in a National Sample of Black Youth; Gender by Ethnic Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard

    2017-01-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period marked by increased stress, especially among Black youth. In addition to stress related to their developmental transition, social factors such as a perceived unsafe neighborhood impose additional risks. We examined gender and ethnic differences in the association between perceived neighborhood safety and major depressive disorder (MDD) among a national sample of Black youth. We used data from the National Survey of American Life - Adolescents (NSAL-A), 2003–2004. In total, 1170 Black adolescents entered the study. This number was composed of 810 African American and 360 Caribbean Black youth (age 13 to 17). Demographic factors, perceived neighborhood safety, and MDD (Composite International Diagnostic Interview, CIDI) were measured. Logistic regressions were used to test the association between neighborhood safety and MDD in the pooled sample, as well as based on ethnicity by gender groups. In the pooled sample of Black youth, those who perceived their neighborhoods to be unsafe were at higher risk of MDD (Odds Ratio [OR] = 1.25; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 1.02-1.51). The perception that one’s neighborhood is unsafe was associated with a higher risk of MDD among African American males (OR=1.41; 95% CI = 1.03–1.93) but not African American females or Caribbean Black males and females. In conclusion, perceived neighborhood safety is not a universal psychological determinant of MDD across ethnic by gender groups of Black youth; however, policies and programs that enhance the sense of neighborhood safety may prevent MDD in male African American youth. PMID:28241490

  20. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: PWR pressure vessels. 2007 update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-06-01

    At present, there are over four hundred operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in IAEA Member States. Operating experience has shown that effective control of the ageing degradation of the major NPP components (e.g. caused by unanticipated phenomena and by operating, maintenance or manufacturing errors) is one of the most important issues for plant safety and also plant life. Ageing in these NPPs must be therefore effectively managed to ensure the availability of design functions throughout the plant service life. From the safety perspective, this means controlling within acceptable limits the ageing degradation and wear-out of plant components important to safety so that adequate safety margins remain, i.e. integrity and functional capability in excess of normal operating requirements. IAEA-TECDOC-1120 documented ageing assessment and management practices for pressurized water reactor (PWR) reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) that were current at the time of its finalization in 1997-1998. Safety significant operating events have occurred since the finalization of the TECDOC, e.g. primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) of Alloy 600 control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) penetrations and boric acid corrosion/wastage of RPV heads, which threatened the integrity of the RPV heads. These events led to new ageing management actions by both NPP operators and regulators. Therefore it was recognized that IAEA-TECDOC-1120 should be updated by incorporating those new events and their countermeasures. The objective of this report is to update IAEA-TECDOC-1120 in order to provide current ageing management guidance for PWR RPVs to all involved in the operation and regulation of PWRs and thus to help ensure PWR RPV integrity in IAEA Member States throughout their entire service life

  1. Environmental Safety of the Use of Major Surfactant Classes in North America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowan-Ellsberry, Christina; Sanderson, Hans; Belanger, Scott

    2014-01-01

    to the aquatic or sediment environments. This paper also highlights the many years of research that the surfactant and cleaning products industry has supported, as part of their environmental sustainability commitment, to improve environmental tools, approaches, and develop innovative methods appropriate...... to address environmental properties of personal care and cleaning product chemicals, many of which have become approved international standard methods.......This paper brings together over 250 published and unpublished studies on the environmental properties, fate and toxicity of the four major, high volume surfactant classes and relevant feedstocks. The surfactants and feedstocks covered include alcohol sulfate (AS), alcohol ethoxysulfate (AES...

  2. Management of a comprehensive radiation safety program in a major American University and affiliated academic medical center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshizumi, T.T.; Reiman, R.E.; Vylet, V.; Clapp, J.R.; Thomann, W.R.; Lyles, K.W.

    2000-01-01

    Duke University, which operates under eight radiation licenses issued by the State of North Carolina, consists of a leading medical center including extensive inpatient and outpatient facilities, a medical school, biomedical research labs, and an academic campus including two major accelerator facilities. The Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Oncology departments handle over 40,000 diagnostic and therapeutic procedures annually, including approximately 160 radioiodine therapeutic cases. In biomedical research labs, about 300 professors are authorized to use radioactive materials. Over 2,000 radiation workers are identified on campus. Over the past two years, we have transformed the existing radiation safety program into a more responsive and more accountable one. Simultaneously, the institutional 'culture' changed, and the Radiation Safety Division came to be viewed as a helpful ally by investigators. The purpose of this paper is to present our experiences that have made this transformation possible. Our initiatives included; (a) defining short-term and long-term goals; (b) establishing a definitive chain of authority; (c) obtaining an external review by a consultant Health Physicist; (d) improving existing radiation safety programs; (e) reorganizing the Radiation Safety Division, with creation of multidisciplinary professional staff positions; (f) implementing campus-wide radiation safety training, (g) increasing technician positions; (h) establishing monthly medical center radiation safety executive meeting. As a result progress made at the Divisional level includes; (a) culture change by recruiting professionals with academic credentials and recent college graduates; (b) implementing weekly staff meetings and monthly quality assurance meetings; (c) achieving academic prominence by publishing and presenting papers in national meetings; (d) senior staff achieving faculty appointments with academic departments; (e) senior staff participating in graduate student

  3. Assessment and Management of Ageing of Major Nuclear Power Plant Components Important to Safety: Steam Generators. 2011 Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-11-01

    At present there are over four hundred forty operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in IAEA Member States. Ageing degradation of the systems, structures of components during their operational life must be effectively managed to ensure the availability of design functions throughout the plant service life. From the safety perspective, this means controlling, within acceptable limits, the ageing degradation and wear-out of plant components important to safety so that adequate safety margins remain, i.e. integrity and functional capability in excess of normal operating requirements. This IAEA-TECDOC is one in a series of reports on the assessment and management of ageing of the major NPP components important to safety. The reports are based on experience and practices of NPP operators, regulators, designers, manufacturers, and technical support organizations. The current practices for the assessment of safety margins (fitness for service) and the inspection, monitoring and mitigation of ageing degradation of selected components of Canada deuteriumuranium (CANDU) reactor, boiling water reactor (BWR), pressurized water reactor (PWR), and water moderated, water cooled energy reactor (WWER) plants are documented in the reports. These practices are intended to help all involved directly and indirectly in ensuring the safe operation of NPPs, and also to provide a common technical basis for dialogue between plant operators and regulators when dealing with age related licensing issues. Since the reports are written from a safety perspective, they do not address life or life cycle management of the plant components, which involves the integration of ageing management and economic planning. The target audience of the reports consists of technical experts from NPPs and from regulatory, plant design, manufacturing and technical support organizations dealing with specific plant components addressed in the reports. The component addressed in the present publication is the steam

  4. Environmental Safety of the Use of Major Surfactant Classes in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan-Ellsberry, Christina; Belanger, Scott; Dorn, Philip; Dyer, Scott; McAvoy, Drew; Sanderson, Hans; Versteeg, Donald; Ferrer, Darci

    2014-01-01

    This paper brings together over 250 published and unpublished studies on the environmental properties, fate, and toxicity of the four major, high-volume surfactant classes and relevant feedstocks. The surfactants and feedstocks covered include alcohol sulfate or alcohol sulfate (AS), alcohol ethoxysulfate (AES), linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), alcohol ethoxylate (AE), and long-chain alcohol (LCOH). These chemicals are used in a wide range of personal care and cleaning products. To date, this is the most comprehensive report on these substance's chemical structures, use, and volume information, physical/chemical properties, environmental fate properties such as biodegradation and sorption, monitoring studies through sewers, wastewater treatment plants and eventual release to the environment, aquatic and sediment toxicity, and bioaccumulation information. These data are used to illustrate the process for conducting both prospective and retrospective risk assessments for large-volume chemicals and categories of chemicals with wide dispersive use. Prospective risk assessments of AS, AES, AE, LAS, and LCOH demonstrate that these substances, although used in very high volume and widely released to the aquatic environment, have no adverse impact on the aquatic or sediment environments at current levels of use. The retrospective risk assessments of these same substances have clearly demonstrated that the conclusions of the prospective risk assessments are valid and confirm that these substances do not pose a risk to the aquatic or sediment environments. This paper also highlights the many years of research that the surfactant and cleaning products industry has supported, as part of their environmental sustainability commitment, to improve environmental tools, approaches, and develop innovative methods appropriate to address environmental properties of personal care and cleaning product chemicals, many of which have become approved international standard methods. PMID

  5. Traveling by Bus Instead of Car on Urban Major Roads: Safety Benefits for Vehicle Occupants, Pedestrians, and Cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morency, Patrick; Strauss, Jillian; Pépin, Félix; Tessier, François; Grondines, Jocelyn

    2018-04-01

    Some studies have estimated fatality and injury rates for bus occupants, but data was aggregated at the country level and made no distinction between bus types. Also, injured pedestrians and cyclists, as a result of bus travel, were overlooked. We compared injury rates for car and city bus occupants on specific urban major roads, as well as the cyclist and pedestrian injuries associated with car and bus travel. We selected ten bus routes along major urban arterials (in Montreal, Canada). Passenger-kilometers traveled were estimated from vehicle counts at intersections (2002-2010) and from bus passenger counts (2008). Police accident reports (2001-2010) provided injury data for all modes. Injury rates associated with car and bus travel were calculated for vehicle occupants, pedestrians, and cyclists. Injury rate ratios were also computed. The safety benefits of bus travel, defined as the number of vehicle occupant, cyclist, and pedestrian injuries saved, were estimated for each route. Overall, for all ten routes, the ratio between car and bus occupant injury rates is 3.7 (95% CI [3.4, 4.0]). The rates of pedestrian and cyclist injuries per hundred million passenger-kilometers are also significantly greater for car travel than that for bus travel: 4.1 (95% CI [3.5, 4.9]) times greater for pedestrian injuries; 5.3 (95% CI [3.8, 7.6]) times greater for cyclist injuries. Similar results were observed for fatally and severely injured vehicle occupants, cyclists, and pedestrians. At the route level, the safety benefits of bus travel increase with the difference in injury rate associated with car and bus travel but also with the amount of passenger-kilometers by bus. Results show that city bus is a safer mode than car, for vehicle occupants but also for cyclists and pedestrians traveling along these bus routes. The safety benefits of bus travel greatly vary across urban routes; this spatial variation is most likely linked to environmental factors. Understanding the

  6. Stormy weather. Echoes of Columbia/HCA heard as Tenet overhauls management amid scrutiny of outliner payments and investor protests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloro, Vince

    2002-11-11

    What began as a small shower of questions quickly transformed into a storm of investor protest last week as Tenet Healthcare Corp. underwent a management overhaul and analysts asked questions about its fiscal future. Tenet's business strategy came under scrutiny because a large proportion of its Medicare revenue was generated by so-called outlier payments. Chairman and CEO Jeffrey Barbakow (left) says that's not how he wants to do business.

  7. Further test of new pairing scheme used in overhaul of BCS theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, X.H.; Walmsley, D.G.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Explanation of a new pairing scheme to overhaul BCS theory. • Prediction of superconductor properties from normal state resistivity. • Applications to Nb, Pb, Al, Ta, Mo, Ir and W, T c between 9.5 and 0.012 K. • High accuracy compared with measured energy gap of Nb, Pb, Al and Ta. • Prediction of energy gap for Mo, Ir and W (so far not measured). - Abstract: A new electron pairing scheme, rectifying a fundamental flaw of the BCS theory, is tested extensively. It postulates that superconductivity arises solely from residual umklapp scattering when it is not in competition for the same destination electron states with normal scattering. It reconciles a long standing theoretical discrepancy in the strength of the electron–phonon interaction between the normal and superconductive states. The new scheme is exploited to calculate the superconductive electron–phonon spectral density, α 2 F(ν), entirely on the basis of normal state electrical resistivity. This leads to first principles superconductive properties (zero temperature energy gap and tunnelling conductance) in seven metals which turn out to be highly accurate when compared with known data; in other cases experimental verification is invited. The transition temperatures involved vary over almost three orders of magnitude: from 9.5 K for niobium to 0.012 K for tungsten

  8. Categorization of Radioactive Sources. Safety Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The IAEA's Statute authorizes the Agency to establish safety standards to protect health and minimize danger to life and property - standards which the IAEA must use in its own operations, and which a State can apply by means of its regulatory provisions for nuclear and radiation safety. A comprehensive body of safety standards under regular review, together with the IAEA's assistance in their application, has become a key element in a global safety regime. In the mid-1990s, a major overhaul of the IAEA's safety standards programme was initiated, with a revised oversight committee structure and a systematic approach to updating the entire corpus of standards. The new standards that have resulted are of a high calibre and reflect best practices in Member States. With the assistance of the Commission on Safety Standards, the IAEA is working to promote the global acceptance and use of its safety standards. Safety standards are only effective, however, if they are properly applied in practice. The IAEA's safety services - which range in scope from engineering safety, operational safety, and radiation, transport and waste safety to regulatory matters and safety culture in organizations - assist Member States in applying the standards and appraise their effectiveness. These safety services enable valuable insights to be shared and I continue to urge all Member States to make use of them. Regulating nuclear and radiation safety is a national responsibility, and many Member States have decided to adopt the IAEA's safety standards for use in their national regulations. For the Contracting Parties to the various international safety conventions, IAEA standards provide a consistent, reliable means of ensuring the effective fulfilment of obligations under the conventions. The standards are also applied by designers, manufacturers and operators around the world to enhance nuclear and radiation safety in power generation, medicine, industry, agriculture, research and education

  9. Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    A brief account of activities carried out by the Nuclear power plants Jaslovske Bohunice in 1997 is presented. These activities are reported under the headings: (1) Nuclear safety; (2) Industrial and health safety; (3) Radiation safety; and Fire protection

  10. Deterministic Safety Analysis for Nuclear Power Plants. Specific Safety Guide (Spanish Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The IAEA's Statute authorizes the Agency to establish safety standards to protect health and minimize danger to life and property - standards which the IAEA must use in its own operations, and which a State can apply by means of its regulatory provisions for nuclear and radiation safety. A comprehensive body of safety standards under regular review, together with the IAEA's assistance in their application, has become a key element in a global safety regime. In the mid-1990s, a major overhaul of the IAEA's safety standards programme was initiated, with a revised oversight committee structure and a systematic approach to updating the entire corpus of standards. The new standards that have resulted are of a high calibre and reflect best practices in Member States. With the assistance of the Commission on Safety Standards, the IAEA is working to promote the global acceptance and use of its safety standards. Safety standards are only effective, however, if they are properly applied in practice. The IAEA's safety services - which range in scope from engineering safety, operational safety, and radiation, transport and waste safety to regulatory matters and safety culture in organizations - assist Member States in applying the standards and appraise their effectiveness. These safety services enable valuable insights to be shared and I continue to urge all Member States to make use of them. Regulating nuclear and radiation safety is a national responsibility, and many Member States have decided to adopt the IAEA's safety standards for use in their national regulations. For the contracting parties to the various international safety conventions, IAEA standards provide a consistent, reliable means of ensuring the effective fulfilment of obligations under the conventions. The standards are also applied by designers, manufacturers and operators around the world to enhance nuclear and radiation safety in power generation, medicine, industry, agriculture, research and education

  11. The drone as an additional risk factor due to conditions not provided for in radiological safety at major events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Gilberto de Jesus

    2015-01-01

    Major international events are potential targets of terrorist actions, seeking instant publicity that events of this magnitude provide, with the intention of causing terror and disseminate its power to a large number of people worldwide. In this context, the critical analysis of additional risk factor linked to procedures and protocols adopted on radiation safety is important. The possibility of unforeseen situations of risk, especially those resulting from the current global technological development, is a fact. Radioactive material can be used in this type of terrorism in a wide range of devices and illicit trafficking of this material is a reality that worries the International Atomic Energy Agency. In the current technological development scenario of the world, the potential occurrence of terrorist acts using drones combined with radioactive material dispersal devices, is real. The recent history of drones incidents presents cases where, despite not having been necessarily terrorist motivation, their circumstances and characteristics favor the occurrence of malicious acts. This paper proposes to alert the need of updating the current security protocols, considering the potential association of this technology with radioactive dispersal devices. (author)

  12. A Critical Analysis Of The Majority Judgment In F V Minister Of Safety And Security 2012 1 Sa 536 (Cc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Linscott

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The majority judgment of Mogoeng CJ in F v Minister of Safety and Security 2012 1 SA 536 (CC purports to be a straightforward application of the reasoning of the Constitutional Court in K v Minister of Safety and Security 2005 6 SA 419 (CC, in which the court updated and constitutionalised the "standard test" for vicarious liability in deviation cases originally set out in Minister of Police v Rabie 1986 1 SA 117 (A by holding that constitutional and other policy norms now play an important role in deciding questions of vicarious liability. However, it is respectfully submitted that a close reading of the majority judgment in F reveals that the judge misconstrues several key concepts related to the doctrine of vicarious liability. In particular, the judge seems to suggest that there are separate and different tests for vicarious liability in instances where an employee has plainly committed a delict in the course and scope of his employment, and where he has to some extent deviated from his employment duties. In fact, there is a single overarching test for vicarious liability - the course and scope rule - but various subsidiary tests are used by the courts to address difficult or borderline cases. It is also questionable whether F truly is a "typical deviation case", as the judge asserts. The judge then applies the constitutionalised test for vicarious liability originally set out in K in a manner which is subtly, but significantly, different from how it was deployed in that case. In particular, Mogoeng CJ's implication that it is not necessary for a court to consider the second leg of the Rabie test in circumstances where the employee wrongdoer has clearly subjectively intended to further the interests of his employer is undesirable and should not be supported. Furthermore, the judge identifies the question of whether or not there is an "intimate link" between the conduct of the employee wrongdoer and the business of his employer as one of the

  13. Efficacy and safety of deep transcranial magnetic stimulation for major depression: a prospective multicenter randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levkovitz, Yechiel; Isserles, Moshe; Padberg, Frank; Lisanby, Sarah H; Bystritsky, Alexander; Xia, Guohua; Tendler, Aron; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Winston, Jaron L; Dannon, Pinhas; Hafez, Hisham M; Reti, Irving M; Morales, Oscar G; Schlaepfer, Thomas E; Hollander, Eric; Berman, Joshua A; Husain, Mustafa M; Sofer, Uzi; Stein, Ahava; Adler, Shmulik; Deutsch, Lisa; Deutsch, Frederic; Roth, Yiftach; George, Mark S; Zangen, Abraham

    2015-02-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a prevalent and disabling condition, and many patients do not respond to available treatments. Deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (dTMS) is a new technology allowing non-surgical stimulation of relatively deep brain areas. This is the first double-blind randomized controlled multicenter study evaluating the efficacy and safety of dTMS in MDD. We recruited 212 MDD outpatients, aged 22-68 years, who had either failed one to four antidepressant trials or not tolerated at least two antidepressant treatments during the current episode. They were randomly assigned to monotherapy with active or sham dTMS. Twenty sessions of dTMS (18 Hz over the prefrontal cortex) were applied during 4 weeks acutely, and then biweekly for 12 weeks. Primary and secondary efficacy endpoints were the change in the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-21) score and response/remission rates at week 5, respectively. dTMS induced a 6.39 point improvement in HDRS-21 scores, while a 3.28 point improvement was observed in the sham group (p=0.008), resulting in a 0.76 effect size. Response and remission rates were higher in the dTMS than in the sham group (response: 38.4 vs. 21.4%, p=0.013; remission: 32.6 vs. 14.6%, p=0.005). These differences between active and sham treatment were stable during the 12-week maintenance phase. dTMS was associated with few and minor side effects apart from one seizure in a patient where a protocol violation occurred. These results suggest that dTMS constitutes a novel intervention in MDD, which is efficacious and safe in patients not responding to antidepressant medications, and whose effect remains stable over 3 months of maintenance treatment. © 2015 World Psychiatric Association.

  14. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    Niels Dupont

    2013-01-01

    CERN Safety rules and Radiation Protection at CMS The CERN Safety rules are defined by the Occupational Health & Safety and Environmental Protection Unit (HSE Unit), CERN’s institutional authority and central Safety organ attached to the Director General. In particular the Radiation Protection group (DGS-RP1) ensures that personnel on the CERN sites and the public are protected from potentially harmful effects of ionising radiation linked to CERN activities. The RP Group fulfils its mandate in collaboration with the CERN departments owning or operating sources of ionising radiation and having the responsibility for Radiation Safety of these sources. The specific responsibilities concerning "Radiation Safety" and "Radiation Protection" are delegated as follows: Radiation Safety is the responsibility of every CERN Department owning radiation sources or using radiation sources put at its disposition. These Departments are in charge of implementing the requi...

  15. Highlights from the literature on accident causation and system safety: Review of major ideas, recent contributions, and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleh, J.H., E-mail: jsaleh@gatech.ed [School of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology (United States); Marais, K.B. [School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Purdue University (United States); Bakolas, E.; Cowlagi, R.V. [School of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology (United States)

    2010-11-15

    This work constitutes a short guide to the extensive but fragmented literature on accident causation and system safety. After briefly motivating the interest in accident causation and discussing the notion of a safety value chain, we delve into our multi-disciplinary review with discussions of Man Made Disasters, Normal Accident, and the High Reliability Organizations (HRO) paradigm. The HRO literature intersects an extensive literature on safety culture, a subject we then briefly touch upon. Following this discussion, we note that while these social and organizational contributions have significantly enriched our understanding of accident causation and system safety, they have important deficiencies and are lacking in their understanding of technical and design drivers of system safety and accident causation. These missing ingredients, we argue, were provided in part by the development of Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA). The idea of anticipating possible accident scenarios, based on the system design and configuration, as well as its technical and operational characteristics, constitutes an important contribution of PRA, which builds on and extends earlier contributions made by the development of Fault Tree and Event Tree Analysis. We follow the discussion of PRA with an exposition of the concept of safety barriers and the principle of defense-in-depth, both of which emphasize the functions and 'safety elements [that should be] deliberately inserted' along potential accident trajectories to prevent, contain, or mitigate accidents. Finally, we discuss two ideas that are emerging as foundational in the literature on system safety and accident causation, namely that system safety is a 'control problem', and that it requires a 'system theoretic' approach to be dealt with. We clarify these characterizations and indicate research opportunities to be pursued along these directions. We conclude this work with two general recommendations

  16. Highlights from the literature on accident causation and system safety: Review of major ideas, recent contributions, and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, J.H.; Marais, K.B.; Bakolas, E.; Cowlagi, R.V.

    2010-01-01

    This work constitutes a short guide to the extensive but fragmented literature on accident causation and system safety. After briefly motivating the interest in accident causation and discussing the notion of a safety value chain, we delve into our multi-disciplinary review with discussions of Man Made Disasters, Normal Accident, and the High Reliability Organizations (HRO) paradigm. The HRO literature intersects an extensive literature on safety culture, a subject we then briefly touch upon. Following this discussion, we note that while these social and organizational contributions have significantly enriched our understanding of accident causation and system safety, they have important deficiencies and are lacking in their understanding of technical and design drivers of system safety and accident causation. These missing ingredients, we argue, were provided in part by the development of Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA). The idea of anticipating possible accident scenarios, based on the system design and configuration, as well as its technical and operational characteristics, constitutes an important contribution of PRA, which builds on and extends earlier contributions made by the development of Fault Tree and Event Tree Analysis. We follow the discussion of PRA with an exposition of the concept of safety barriers and the principle of defense-in-depth, both of which emphasize the functions and 'safety elements [that should be] deliberately inserted' along potential accident trajectories to prevent, contain, or mitigate accidents. Finally, we discuss two ideas that are emerging as foundational in the literature on system safety and accident causation, namely that system safety is a 'control problem', and that it requires a 'system theoretic' approach to be dealt with. We clarify these characterizations and indicate research opportunities to be pursued along these directions. We conclude this work with two general recommendations: (1) that more fundamental

  17. Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant Program. Task III, Demonstration plant safety, industrial hygiene, and major disaster plan (Deliverable No. 35)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-03-01

    This Health and Safety Plan has been adopted by the IFG Demonstration Plant managed by Memphis Light, Gas and Water at Memphis, Tennessee. The plan encompasses the following areas of concern: Safety Plan Administration, Industrial Health, Industrial Safety, First Aid, Fire Protection (including fire prevention and control), and Control of Safety Related Losses. The primary objective of this plan is to achieve adequate control of all potentially hazardous activities to assure the health and safety of all employees and eliminate lost work time to both the employees and the company. The second objective is to achieve compliance with all Federal, state and local laws, regulations and codes. Some thirty specific safe practice instruction items are included.

  18. Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This annual report of the Senior Inspector for the Nuclear Safety, analyses the nuclear safety at EDF for the year 1999 and proposes twelve subjects of consideration to progress. Five technical documents are also provided and discussed concerning the nuclear power plants maintenance and safety (thermal fatigue, vibration fatigue, assisted control and instrumentation of the N4 bearing, 1300 MW reactors containment and time of life of power plants). (A.L.B.)

  19. Historical evolution of process safety and major-accident hazards prevention in Spain. Contribution of the pioneer Joaquim Casal.

    OpenAIRE

    Planas Cuchi, Eulàlia; Arnaldos Viger, Josep; Darbra Roman, Rosa Maria; Muñoz Messineo, Miguel Ángel; Pastor Ferrer, Elsa; Vílchez Sánchez, Juan Antonio

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims at presenting the evolution of process safety in Spain from various points of view. In first place, a study of the accidents occurred in this country in the process industry and in the transportation of chemical substances is presented. After this, the starting point of the process safety research in Spain and its evolution during the years are explained. The importance of this topic has also been reflected in the chemical engineering studies in some Spanish universities. Ther...

  20. Overhaul of the generator of the hydroelectric central station Ingeniero Carlos Ramirez Ulloa; Rehabilitacion del generador de la unidad 2 de la central hidroelectrica ingeniero Carlos Ramirez Ulloa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles Pimentel, Edgar [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Garcia Hernandez, Javier [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    In November 1995, the failure of the Unit 2 generator at the hydroelectric central station Ingeniero Carlos Ramirez Ulloa, El Caracol, occurred. The accident forced to carry out its overhaul. Here are presented the technical problems faced during the overhaul of the generator and analyzed the implemented solutions. [Espanol] En noviembre de 1995 ocurrio la falla del generador de la unidad 2 de la central hidroelectrica Ing. Carlos Ramirez Ulloa, El Caracol. El accidente obligo a llevar a cabo su rehabilitacion. Se presentan los problemas tecnicos enfrentados durante la rehabilitacion del generador y se discuten las soluciones implementadas.

  1. Overhaul of the generator of the hydroelectric central station Ingeniero Carlos Ramirez Ulloa; Rehabilitacion del generador de la unidad 2 de la central hidroelectrica ingeniero Carlos Ramirez Ulloa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles Pimentel, Edgar [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Garcia Hernandez, Javier [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    In November 1995, the failure of the Unit 2 generator at the hydroelectric central station Ingeniero Carlos Ramirez Ulloa, El Caracol, occurred. The accident forced to carry out its overhaul. Here are presented the technical problems faced during the overhaul of the generator and analyzed the implemented solutions. [Espanol] En noviembre de 1995 ocurrio la falla del generador de la unidad 2 de la central hidroelectrica Ing. Carlos Ramirez Ulloa, El Caracol. El accidente obligo a llevar a cabo su rehabilitacion. Se presentan los problemas tecnicos enfrentados durante la rehabilitacion del generador y se discuten las soluciones implementadas.

  2. Out for blood. The newly overhauled American Red Cross is thirsty for a bigger share of the $2 billion business of supplying blood to hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, S

    1998-06-22

    The newly overhauled American Red Cross, led by President Elizabeth Dole (left), has launched an ambitious campaign to increase its piece of the more than $2 billion business of supplying blood to hospitals. Its quest for market share has sparked what some call a "blood war" with its main competitors: independent, community-governed blood banks affiliated with America's Blood Centers.

  3. Act No. 87-565 of 22 July 1987 on the organization of public safety measures, forestry protection against fires and the prevention of major risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    As defined by this Act, the objective of the public safety measures is to prevent all types of major risks and to protect persons, property and the environment, including forests, against accidents, disasters and catastrophes. It deals with the conditions for preparing preventive measures and for implementing necessary measures in case of major risks or accidents. The preparation and organization of assistance are determined within the framework of ORSEC (ORganisation des SECours) plans and emergency plans; the first assess the possibilities for facing up to disasters while the latter provide for measures and means to overcome a particular risk [fr

  4. Assessment of safety levels in operation rooms at two major tertiary care public hospitals of Karachi. Safe surgery saves life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minhas, M.S.; Muzzammil, M.; Effendi, J.

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to determine the knowledge and attitude towards surgical safety among the health care professionals including surgeons, anaesthetist, hospital administrators, and operation room personnel and raise awareness towards the importance of safe surgery. Method: A pilot cross- sectional study of 543 healthcare providers working in the operating rooms and the surgical intensive care units was conducted in two tertiary care hospitals, within a study period of one month. A structured questionnaire was constructed and an informed verbal consent was taken. The questionnaire was then distributed; data collected and analysed on SPSS 20.0. Results: A total of 543 respondents participated in the study out of which there were 375 (69%) men and 168 (31%) women. The ages ranged between 23-58 years, mean 40.5+-24.74. There were 110 (20.25%) surgeons, 58 (10.68%) anaesthetist, 132 (24.30%) trainees, 125 (23.02%) technicians, and were 118 (21.73%) nurses. The question regarding briefing operation room personnel is important for patient safety was agreed by 532 (98%) respondents. Amongst the respondents, 239 (44%) did not feel safe to be operated in their own setup. Team communication improvement through the check list implementation was agreed by 483 (89%) respondents. 514 (94.7%) opted for the checklist to be used while they are being operated. That operation room personnel frequently disregard established protocols was agreed by 374 (69%) respondents. 193 (35.54%) of the respondents stated that it is difficult for them to speak up in the or if they perceive a problem with patient care. Conclusion: Operation room personnel were not aware of several important areas related to briefing, communication, safety attitude, following standard protocols and use of WHO Surgical Safety check list. A pre-post intervention study should be conducted after formal introduction of the Checklist. Successful implementation will require taking all stake holders on board

  5. Will the energetic choices be guided by the major accidents? What are the talents used for safety?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevallier, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    The control of safety problems requires at first a good knowledge and the control of risks; this control is among other things based on the detailed exploitation of the first hand experiences and more generally on the history and the analysis of all the serious accidents occurred in the industrial sector. Moreover, the control of risks influence the regulations which evolve with the knowledge. (O.M.)

  6. Safety and efficacy of immediate postoperative feeding and bowel stimulation to prevent ileus after major gynecologic surgical procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanning, James; Hojat, Rod

    2011-08-01

    Postoperative ileus is a major complication of abdominal surgical procedures To evaluate the incidence of ileus and gastrointestinal morbidity in patients who received immediate postoperative feeding and bowel stimulation after undergoing major gynecologic surgical procedures. During a 5-year period, the authors tracked demographic, surgical outcome, and follow-up information for 707 patients who underwent major gynecologic operations. All patients received the same postoperative orders, including immediate feeding of a diet of choice and bowel stimulation with 30 mL of magnesium hydroxide (milk of magnesia) twice daily until bowel movements occurred. Of 707 patients, 6 (<1%) had postoperative ileus. No patients experienced postoperative bowel obstruction and 2 patients (0.3%) had postoperative intestinal leak. No serious adverse effects associated with bowel stimulation were reported. Immediate postoperative feeding and bowel stimulation is a safe and effective approach to preventing ileus in patients who undergo major gynecologic surgical procedures.

  7. Escitalopram for the management of major depressive disorder: a review of its efficacy, safety, and patient acceptability

    OpenAIRE

    Kirino, Eiji

    2012-01-01

    Eiji Kirino1,21Department of Psychiatry, Juntendo University Shizuoka Hospital, Shizuoka, Japan; 2Department of Psychiatry, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: Escitalopram (escitalopram oxalate; Cipralex®, Lexapro®) is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) used for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) and anxiety disorder. This drug exerts a highly selective, potent, and dose-dependent inhibitory effect on the human serotonin tr...

  8. Deterministic Safety Analysis for Nuclear Power Plants. Specific Safety Guide (Spanish Edition); Analisis determinista de seguridad para centrales nucleares. Guia de Seguridad Especifica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-12-15

    The IAEA's Statute authorizes the Agency to establish safety standards to protect health and minimize danger to life and property - standards which the IAEA must use in its own operations, and which a State can apply by means of its regulatory provisions for nuclear and radiation safety. A comprehensive body of safety standards under regular review, together with the IAEA's assistance in their application, has become a key element in a global safety regime. In the mid-1990s, a major overhaul of the IAEA's safety standards programme was initiated, with a revised oversight committee structure and a systematic approach to updating the entire corpus of standards. The new standards that have resulted are of a high calibre and reflect best practices in Member States. With the assistance of the Commission on Safety Standards, the IAEA is working to promote the global acceptance and use of its safety standards. Safety standards are only effective, however, if they are properly applied in practice. The IAEA's safety services - which range in scope from engineering safety, operational safety, and radiation, transport and waste safety to regulatory matters and safety culture in organizations - assist Member States in applying the standards and appraise their effectiveness. These safety services enable valuable insights to be shared and I continue to urge all Member States to make use of them. Regulating nuclear and radiation safety is a national responsibility, and many Member States have decided to adopt the IAEA's safety standards for use in their national regulations. For the contracting parties to the various international safety conventions, IAEA standards provide a consistent, reliable means of ensuring the effective fulfilment of obligations under the conventions. The standards are also applied by designers, manufacturers and operators around the world to enhance nuclear and radiation safety in power generation, medicine, industry, agriculture, research and education

  9. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Plagge, C. Schaefer and N. Dupont

    2013-01-01

    Fire Safety – Essential for a particle detector The CMS detector is a marvel of high technology, one of the most precise particle measurement devices we have built until now. Of course it has to be protected from external and internal incidents like the ones that can occur from fires. Due to the fire load, the permanent availability of oxygen and the presence of various ignition sources mostly based on electricity this has to be addressed. Starting from the beam pipe towards the magnet coil, the detector is protected by flooding it with pure gaseous nitrogen during operation. The outer shell of CMS, namely the yoke and the muon chambers are then covered by an emergency inertion system also based on nitrogen. To ensure maximum fire safety, all materials used comply with the CERN regulations IS 23 and IS 41 with only a few exceptions. Every piece of the 30-tonne polyethylene shielding is high-density material, borated, boxed within steel and coated with intumescent (a paint that creates a thick co...

  10. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Schaefer and N. Dupont

    2013-01-01

      “Safety is the highest priority”: this statement from CERN is endorsed by the CMS management. An interpretation of this statement may bring you to the conclusion that you should stop working in order to avoid risks. If the safety is the priority, work is not! This would be a misunderstanding and misinterpretation. One should understand that “working safely” or “operating safely” is the priority at CERN. CERN personnel are exposed to different hazards on many levels on a daily basis. However, risk analyses and assessments are done in order to limit the number and the gravity of accidents. For example, this process takes place each time you cross the road. The hazard is the moving vehicle, the stake is you and the risk might be the risk of collision between both. The same principle has to be applied during our daily work. In particular, keeping in mind the general principles of prevention defined in the late 1980s. These principles wer...

  11. Physiology and Assessment as Low-Hanging Fruit for Education Overhaul

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Sidarta; Mota, Natália Bezerra; da Rocha Fernandes, Valter; Deslandes, Andrea Camaz; Brockington, Guilherme; Copelli, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Physiology and assessment constitute major bottlenecks of school learning among students with low socioeconomic status. The limited resources and household overcrowding typical of poverty produce deficits in nutrition, sleep, and exercise that strongly hinder physiology and hence learning. Likewise, overcrowded classrooms hamper the assessment of…

  12. Physiology and assessment as low-hanging fruit for education overhaul

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Sidarta; Mota, Natalia; Fernandes, Valter R.; Deslandes, Andrea Camaz; Brockington, Guilherme; Copelli, Mauro

    2017-01-01

    Physiology and assessment constitute major bottlenecks of school learning among students with low socioeconomic status. The limited resources and household overcrowding typical of poverty produce deficits in nutrition, sleep, and exercise that strongly hinder physiology and hence learning. Likewise, overcrowded classrooms hamper the assessment of individual learning with enough temporal resolution to make individual interventions effective. Computational measurements of learnin...

  13. LPG sphere overhaul using articulated crane and ACFM; Parada de manutencao e inspecao de esfera de GLP com emprego de grua articulada e ACFM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Jose Henrique Gomes dos; Pinto, Luiz Antonio Pacheco; Goncalves, Osorio Correa; Moura, Carlos Andre Tavares de [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The present work shows the resulting benefits of the application of new techniques introduced at a maintenance and inspection overhaul recently performed on a TRANSPETRO shipping terminal. Replacement of scaffolding by articulated crane as a way of access for internal inspection and other tasks as abrasive blasting and painting provides, among other advantages, lower hazard exposition time for the workers involved in assembly activities and reduction in lost profits as a result of a shorter overhaul. The advantages resulting from the application of the ACFM (Alternating Current Field Measurement) on destructive testing for inspection of welded joints are also presented. This test has some advantages over magnetic particle inspection such as speed and the possibility to inspect without coating removal. (author)

  14. Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.M.S.

    1987-01-01

    Aspects of fission reactors are considered - control, heat removal and containment. Brief descriptions of the reactor accidents at the SL-1 reactor (1961), Windscale (1957), Browns Ferry (1975), Three Mile Island (1979) and Chernobyl (1986) are given. The idea of inherently safe reactor designs is discussed. Safety assessment is considered under the headings of preliminary hazard analysis, failure mode analysis, event trees, fault trees, common mode failure and probabalistic risk assessments. These latter can result in a series of risk distributions linked to specific groups of fault sequences and specific consequences. A frequency-consequence diagram is shown. Fatal accident incidence rates in different countries including the United Kingdom for various industries are quoted. The incidence of fatal cancers from occupational exposure to chemicals is tabulated. Human factors and the acceptability of risk are considered. (U.K.)

  15. Efficacy and safety of escitalopram versus desvenlafaxine in the treatment of major depression: A preliminary 1-year prospective randomized open label comparative trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brij Mohan Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim and Objective: To compare efficacy and safety of escitalopram with desvenlafaxine in the treatment of major depression.Materials and Methods: A total of 60 patients of depression were randomized into two groups after meeting inclusion criterion. In the first 3 weeks, escitalopram 10 mg/day was given and then 20 mg/day for the next 3 weeks in group 1 (n = 30. Desvenlafaxine in the first 3 weeks was given 50 mg/day and 100 mg/day for the next 3 weeks in group 2 (n = 30. The parameters evaluated during the study were efficacy assessments byHamilton Scale of Rating Depression (HAM-D, Hamilton Rating Scale of Anxiety (HAM-A, and Clinical Global Impression (CGI. Safety assessments were done by UKU-scale. Results: Escitalopram and desvenlafaxine significantly (P < 0.001, reduced HAM-D, HAM-A, and CGI scores from their respective base lines. However, on comparison failed show any statistical difference at 3 and 6 weeks of treatment. Escitalopram and desvenlafaxine were both found to be safe and well-tolerated and there was not much difference between the two groups as evident from UKU Scale and their effect on various biochemical parameters. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated similar efficacy and safety in reducing depression and anxiety with both escitalopram and desvenlafaxine, but clinical superiority of one drug over the other cannot be concluded due to limitations of the small sample size.

  16. Progress in Medicine: Compensation and medical negligence in India: Does the system need a quick fix or an overhaul?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghana S Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In a recent judgment on medical negligence, the Supreme Court awarded compensation amounting to Rs. 11 crore to a victim, which was to be paid by the doctors and the private hospital deemed responsible for the wrongful death of a patient. This landmark decision was by far the largest compensation award in the history of Indian medical negligence litigation. Hence, the process of calculating compensation for medical negligence has received great attention and debate, largely due to the impact that it is going to have on the practice of medicine within the country, in the near future. However, the method of calculation of compensation is unpredictable as it varies hugely across different cases, courts and tribunals resulting, in a loss of faith in the system, protracted litigation, and frequent appeals. With over 80% of India's healthcare being provided by the private sector, predictability and uniformity in the regulation of compensation in medical negligence would benefit the victims and the doctors concerned. A basic knowledge of how medical negligence compensation is calculated and adjudicated in the judicial courts of India will aid a doctor in planning his/her professional indemnity insurance, as well as in practicing his/her profession without undue worry about facing litigation for alleged medical negligence. This article addresses the merits and demerits of large compensation awards, and also discusses whether the system is broken, needs a quick fix, or a massive overhaul.

  17. Progress in Medicine: Compensation and medical negligence in India: Does the system need a quick fix or an overhaul?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Meghana S; Math, Suresh Bada

    2016-10-01

    In a recent judgment on medical negligence, the Supreme Court awarded compensation amounting to Rs. 11 crore to a victim, which was to be paid by the doctors and the private hospital deemed responsible for the wrongful death of a patient. This landmark decision was by far the largest compensation award in the history of Indian medical negligence litigation. Hence, the process of calculating compensation for medical negligence has received great attention and debate, largely due to the impact that it is going to have on the practice of medicine within the country, in the near future. However, the method of calculation of compensation is unpredictable as it varies hugely across different cases, courts and tribunals resulting, in a loss of faith in the system, protracted litigation, and frequent appeals. With over 80% of India's healthcare being provided by the private sector, predictability and uniformity in the regulation of compensation in medical negligence would benefit the victims and the doctors concerned. A basic knowledge of how medical negligence compensation is calculated and adjudicated in the judicial courts of India will aid a doctor in planning his/her professional indemnity insurance, as well as in practicing his/her profession without undue worry about facing litigation for alleged medical negligence. This article addresses the merits and demerits of large compensation awards, and also discusses whether the system is broken, needs a quick fix, or a massive overhaul.

  18. Progress in Medicine: Compensation and medical negligence in India: Does the system need a quick fix or an overhaul?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Meghana S.; Math, Suresh Bada

    2016-01-01

    In a recent judgment on medical negligence, the Supreme Court awarded compensation amounting to Rs. 11 crore to a victim, which was to be paid by the doctors and the private hospital deemed responsible for the wrongful death of a patient. This landmark decision was by far the largest compensation award in the history of Indian medical negligence litigation. Hence, the process of calculating compensation for medical negligence has received great attention and debate, largely due to the impact that it is going to have on the practice of medicine within the country, in the near future. However, the method of calculation of compensation is unpredictable as it varies hugely across different cases, courts and tribunals resulting, in a loss of faith in the system, protracted litigation, and frequent appeals. With over 80% of India's healthcare being provided by the private sector, predictability and uniformity in the regulation of compensation in medical negligence would benefit the victims and the doctors concerned. A basic knowledge of how medical negligence compensation is calculated and adjudicated in the judicial courts of India will aid a doctor in planning his/her professional indemnity insurance, as well as in practicing his/her profession without undue worry about facing litigation for alleged medical negligence. This article addresses the merits and demerits of large compensation awards, and also discusses whether the system is broken, needs a quick fix, or a massive overhaul. PMID:27891021

  19. Escitalopram for the management of major depressive disorder: a review of its efficacy, safety, and patient acceptability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirino E

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Eiji Kirino1,21Department of Psychiatry, Juntendo University Shizuoka Hospital, Shizuoka, Japan; 2Department of Psychiatry, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: Escitalopram (escitalopram oxalate; Cipralex®, Lexapro® is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI used for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD and anxiety disorder. This drug exerts a highly selective, potent, and dose-dependent inhibitory effect on the human serotonin transport. By inhibiting the reuptake of serotonin into presynaptic nerve endings, this drug enhances the activity of serotonin in the central nervous system. Escitalopram also has allosteric activity. Moreover, the possibility of interacting with other drugs is considered low. This review covers randomized, controlled studies that enrolled adult patients with MDD to evaluate the efficacy of escitalopram based on the Montgomery–Asberg Depression Rating Scale and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. The results showed that escitalopram was superior to placebo, and nearly equal or superior to other SSRIs (eg, citalopram, paroxetine, fluoxetine, sertraline and serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (eg, duloxetine, sustained-release venlafaxine. In addition, with long-term administration, escitalopram has shown a preventive effect on MDD relapse and recurrence. Escitalopram also showed favorable tolerability, and associated adverse events were generally mild and temporary. Discontinuation symptoms were milder with escitalopram than with paroxetine. In view of the patient acceptability of escitalopram, based on both a meta-analysis and a pooled analysis, this drug was more favorable than other new antidepressants. The findings indicate that escitalopram achieved high continuity in antidepressant drug therapy.Keywords: escitalopram, MDD, SSRI, allosteric action, discontinuation symptoms

  20. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: In-containment instrumentation and control cables. Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-12-01

    At present, there are over four hundred operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in IAEA Member States. Operating experience has shown that ineffective control of the ageing degradation of major NPP components (e.g. caused by unanticipated phenomena and by operating, maintenance, design or manufacturing error) can jeopardize plant safety and also plant life. Ageing in these NPPs must be therefore effectively managed to ensure the availability of design functions throughout the plant service life. From the safety perspective, this means controlling within acceptable limits the ageing degradation and wear-out of plant components important to safety so that adequate safety margins remain, i.e. integrity and functional capability in excess of normal operating requirements. This publication is one in a series of guidance reports on the assessment and management of ageing of the major NPP components important to safety. The reports are based on experience and practices of NPP operators, regulators, designers, manufacturers, and technical support organizations and a widely accepted Methodology for the Management of Ageing of NPP Components Important to Safety, which was issued by the IAEA in 1992. The current practices for the assessment of safety margins (fitness-for-service) and the inspection, monitoring and mitigation of ageing degradation of selected components of Canadian deuterium-uranium (CANDU) reactors, boiling water reactors (BWRs), pressurized water reactors (PWRs), including the Soviet designed 'water moderated and water cooled energy reactors' (WWERs), are documented in the reports. These practices are intended to help all involved directly and indirectly in ensuring the safe operation of NPPs, and to provide a common technical basis for dialogue between plant operators and regulators when dealing with age related licensing issues. The guidance reports are directed at technical experts and managers from NPPs and from regulatory, plant design, manufacturing

  1. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: In-containment instrumentation and control cables. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-12-01

    At present, there are over four hundred operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in IAEA Member States. Operating experience has shown that ineffective control of the ageing degradation of major NPP components (e.g. caused by unanticipated phenomena and by operating, maintenance, design or manufacturing error) can jeopardize plant safety and also plant life. Ageing in these NPPs must be therefore effectively managed to ensure the availability of design functions throughout the plant service life. From the safety perspective, this means controlling within acceptable limits the ageing degradation and wear-out of plant components important to safety so that adequate safety margins remain, i.e. integrity and functional capability in excess of normal operating requirements. This publication is one in a series of guidance reports on the assessment and management of ageing of the major NPP components important to safety. The reports are based on experience and practices of NPP operators, regulators, designers, manufacturers, and technical support organizations and a widely accepted Methodology for the Management of Ageing of NPP Components Important to Safety, which was issued by the IAEA in 1992. The current practices for the assessment of safety margins (fitness-for-service) and the inspection, monitoring and mitigation of ageing degradation of selected components of Canadian deuterium-uranium (CANDU) reactors, boiling water reactors (BWRs), pressurized water reactors (PWRs), including the Soviet designed 'water moderated and water cooled energy reactors' (WWERs), are documented in the reports. These practices are intended to help all involved directly and indirectly in ensuring the safe operation of NPPs, and to provide a common technical basis for dialogue between plant operators and regulators when dealing with age related licensing issues. The guidance reports are directed at technical experts and managers from NPPs and from regulatory, plant design, manufacturing

  2. Development and application of the Safe Performance Index as a risk-based methodology for identifying major hazard-related safety issues in underground coal mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinilakodi, Harisha

    The underground coal mining industry has been under constant watch due to the high risk involved in its activities, and scrutiny increased because of the disasters that occurred in 2006-07. In the aftermath of the incidents, the U.S. Congress passed the Mine Improvement and New Emergency Response Act of 2006 (MINER Act), which strengthened the existing regulations and mandated new laws to address the various issues related to a safe working environment in the mines. Risk analysis in any form should be done on a regular basis to tackle the possibility of unwanted major hazard-related events such as explosions, outbursts, airbursts, inundations, spontaneous combustion, and roof fall instabilities. One of the responses by the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) in 2007 involved a new pattern of violations (POV) process to target mines with a poor safety performance, specifically to improve their safety. However, the 2010 disaster (worst in 40 years) gave an impression that the collective effort of the industry, federal/state agencies, and researchers to achieve the goal of zero fatalities and serious injuries has gone awry. The Safe Performance Index (SPI) methodology developed in this research is a straight-forward, effective, transparent, and reproducible approach that can help in identifying and addressing some of the existing issues while targeting (poor safety performance) mines which need help. It combines three injury and three citation measures that are scaled to have an equal mean (5.0) in a balanced way with proportionate weighting factors (0.05, 0.15, 0.30) and overall normalizing factor (15) into a mine safety performance evaluation tool. It can be used to assess the relative safety-related risk of mines, including by mine-size category. Using 2008 and 2009 data, comparisons were made of SPI-associated, normalized safety performance measures across mine-size categories, with emphasis on small-mine safety performance as compared to large- and

  3. Ptaquiloside, the major carcinogen of bracken fern, in the pooled raw milk of healthy sheep and goats: an underestimated, global concern of food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgilio, Antonella; Sinisi, Annamaria; Russo, Valeria; Gerardo, Salvatore; Santoro, Adriano; Galeone, Aldo; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio; Roperto, Franco

    2015-05-20

    Bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) is a worldwide plant containing toxic substances, which represent an important chemical hazard for animals, including humans. Ptaquiloside, 1, a norsesquiterpenoid glucoside, is the major carcinogen of bracken detected in the food chain, particularly in the milk from farm animals. To date, ptaquiloside has been shown in the milk of cows feeding on a diet containing bracken fern. This is the first study that shows the systematic detection of ptaquiloside, 1, and reports its direct quantitation in pooled raw milk of healthy sheep and goats grazing on bracken. Ptaquiloside, 1, was detected by a sensitive method based on the chemical conversion of ptaquiloside, 1, into bromopterosine, 4, following gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The presence of ptaquiloside, 1, possibly carcinogenic to humans, in the milk of healthy animals is an unknown potential health risk, thus representing a harmful and potential global concern of food safety.

  4. Safety and acceptability of transcranial direct current stimulation for the acute treatment of major depressive episodes: Analysis of individual patient data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffa, Adriano H; Brunoni, André R; Fregni, Felipe; Palm, Ulrich; Padberg, Frank; Blumberger, Daniel M; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Bennabi, Djamila; Haffen, Emmanuel; Alonzo, Angelo; Loo, Colleen K

    2017-10-15

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation modality that has been increasingly used for major depressive disorder (MDD) treatment. Although studies in healthy volunteers showed that the technique is well-tolerated, tDCS safety and acceptability have not been sufficiently explored in patients with MDD. We collected individual patient data from 6 randomized clinical trials that had been previously identified in a systematic review and meta-analysis. Primary outcomes were safety (rate of adverse events) and acceptability (rate of dropouts). Secondary outcomes were clinical, demographic and treatment predictors of the primary outcomes. Dropout rates between active (8.8%) and sham (12%) groups were not significantly different (OR= 0.7, p=0.38). Adverse event rates between active (73.5%) and sham (68.3%) groups were not significantly different (OR= 1.4, p= 0.23). Higher current densities were associated with lower adverse event rates. Dropout reasons were not systematically reported and adverse events were not collected using questionnaires standardized across studies. Active tDCS is as acceptable and safe as sham tDCS, as found in randomized clinical trials of MDD. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Emergency planning and the Control of Major Accident Hazards (COMAH/Seveso II) Directive: An approach to determine the public safety zone for toxic cloud releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Mahony, Mary T.; Doolan, Donal; O'Sullivan, Alice; Hession, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The EU Control of Major Accidents Hazards Directive (Seveso II) requires an external emergency plan for each top tier site. This paper sets out a method to build the protection of public health into emergency planning for Seveso sites in the EU. The method involves the review of Seveso site details prescribed under the directive. The site safety report sets out the potential accident scenarios. The safety report's worst-case scenario, and chemical involved, is used as the basis for the external emergency plan. A decision was needed on the appropriate threshold value to use as the level of concern to protect public health. The definitions of the regulatory standards (air quality standards and occupational standards) in use were studied, how they are derived and for what purpose. The 10 min acute exposure guideline level (AEGL) for a chemical is recommended as the threshold value to inform decisions taken to protect public health from toxic cloud releases. The area delimited by AEGL 1 defines the population who may be concerned about being exposed. They need information based on comprehensive risk assessment. The area delimited by AEGL 2 defines the population for long-term surveillance when indicated and may include first responders. The area delimited by AEGL 3 defines the population who may present acutely to the medical services. It ensures that the emergency responders site themselves safely. A standard methodology facilitates discussions with plant operators and concerned public. Examples show how the methodology can be adapted to suit explosive risk and response to fire

  6. Malaria and blood transfusion: major issues of blood safety in malaria-endemic countries and strategies for mitigating the risk of Plasmodium parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Saleh; Karunamoorthi, Kaliyaperumal

    2016-01-01

    Malaria inflicts humankind over centuries, and it remains as a major threat to both clinical medicine and public health worldwide. Though hemotherapy is a life-sustaining modality, it continues to be a possible source of disease transmission. Hence, hemovigilance is a matter of grave concern in the malaria-prone third-world countries. In order to pursue an effective research on hemovigilance, a comprehensive search has been conducted by using the premier academic-scientific databases, WHO documents, and English-language search engines. One hundred two appropriate articles were chosen for data extraction, with a particular reference to emerging pathogens transmitted through blood transfusion, specifically malaria. Blood donation screening is done through microscopic examination and immunological assays to improve the safety of blood products by detection major blood-borne pathogens, viz., HIV, HBV, HCV, syphilis, and malarial parasites. Transfusion therapy significantly dwindles the preventable morbidity and mortality attributed to various illnesses and diseases, particularly AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria. Examination of thick and thin blood smears are performed to detect positivity and to identify the Plasmodium species, respectively. However, all of these existing diagnostic tools have their own limitations in terms of sensitivity, specificity, cost-effectiveness, and lack of resources and skilled personnel. Globally, despite the mandate need of screening blood and its components according to the blood-establishment protocols, it is seldom practiced in the low-income/poverty-stricken settings. In addition, each and every single phase of transfusion chain carries sizable inherent risks from donors to recipients. Interestingly, opportunities also lie ahead to enhance the safety of blood-supply chain and patients. It can be achieved through sustainable blood-management strategies like (1) appropriate usage of precise diagnostic tools/techniques, (2) promoting

  7. Safety Assessment for the Decommissioning of Facilities Using Radioactive Material. Safety Guide (Spanish Edition); Evaluacion de la seguridad para la clausura de instalaciones que utilizan materiales radiactivos. Guia De Seguridad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-08-15

    The IAEA's Statute authorizes the Agency to establish safety standards to protect health and minimize danger to life and property - standards which the IAEA must use in its own operations, and which a State can apply by means of its regulatory provisions for nuclear and radiation safety. A comprehensive body of safety standards under regular review, together with the IAEA's assistance in their application, has become a key element in a global safety regime. In the mid-1990s, a major overhaul of the IAEA's safety standards programme was initiated, with a revised oversight committee structure and a systematic approach to updating the entire corpus of standards. The new standards that have resulted are of a high calibre and reflect best practices in Member States. With the assistance of the Commission on Safety Standards, the IAEA is working to promote the global acceptance and use of its safety standards. Safety standards are only effective, however, if they are properly applied in practice. The IAEA's safety services - which range in scope from engineering safety, operational safety, and radiation, transport and waste safety to regulatory matters and safety culture in organizations - assist Member States in applying the standards and appraise their effectiveness. These safety services enable valuable insights to be shared and I continue to urge all Member States to make use of them. Regulating nuclear and radiation safety is a national responsibility, and many Member States have decided to adopt the IAEA's safety standards for use in their national regulations. For the Contracting Parties to the various international safety conventions, IAEA standards provide a consistent, reliable means of ensuring the effective fulfilment of obligations under the conventions. The standards are also applied by designers, manufacturers and operators around the world to enhance nuclear and radiation safety in power generation, medicine, industry, agriculture, research and education

  8. Mirtazapine, a sedating antidepressant, and improved driving safety in patients with major depressive disorder: a prospective, randomized trial of 28 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jianhua; Moller, Henry J; Wang, Xuehua; Chung, Sharon A; Shapiro, Gilla K; Li, Xiuying; Shapiro, Colin M

    2009-03-01

    The objectives of the study were to investigate the effects of mirtazapine, a sedating antidepressant, on driving safety in major depressive disorder (MDD) patients and to observe the effect of mirtazapine on daytime alertness. Twenty-eight patients who met the DSM-IV criteria for MDD completed the study in a university teaching hospital. Half of these patients took mirtazapine 30 mg at bedtime for 30 days. A computerized driving simulator test (DST) and the Maintenance of Wakefulness Test (MWT) were conducted at baseline and on days 2, 9, 16, and 30 after commencement of antidepressant use. Fourteen untreated depressed patients performed a DST and MWT at baseline and on days 2 and 9 to evaluate the possibility of a learning effect. Data collection was from June 2005 through January 2006. There were significant linear effects of the treatment on road position at All Trials (p = .018) and on the morning sessions at 10:00 a.m. (p < .001) and 12:00 p.m. (p = .022) and on the number of crashes at All Trials (p = .034) and the 4:00 p.m. session (p = .050) for the group on active treatment. Compared with the values at baseline, those of road position at 10:00 a.m. significantly improved on days 2 (p < .05), 9 (p < .01), 16 (p < .01) and 30 (p < .01) and road position at 12:00 p.m. significantly improved on days 16 (p < .05) and 30 (p < .05). The number of crashes significantly decreased on day 30 (p < .05). The untreated patients showed no improvement in performance in any of the measures, suggesting that the results are not due to a learning effect. A sedating antidepressant can increase driving safety in MDD patients. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00385437. ©Copyright 2009 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  9. Efficacy, safety and tolerability of escitalopram in doses up to 50 mg in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD: an open-label, pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crawford Gordon M

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Escitalopram is licensed for use at doses up to 20 mg but is used clinically at higher doses. There is limited published data at higher doses and none in the treatment of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD. Methods This open-label, pilot study was designed to investigate the efficacy, safety and tolerability of escitalopram in doses up to 50 mg in MDD. It was conducted in 60 primary care patients with MDD who had not responded to adequate treatment with citalopram. Patients were treated with escalating doses of escitalopram up to 50 mg for up to 32 weeks until they achieved remission (Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale [MADRS] ≤8 or failed to tolerate the dose. Results Forty-two patients (70% completed the study. Twenty-one patients (35% achieved remission with 8 of the 21 patients (38% needing the 50 mg dose to achieve remission. Median time to remission was 24 weeks and median dose in remission was 30 mg. No significant safety issues were identified although tolerability appeared to decline above a dose of 40 mg with 26% of patients unable to tolerate 50 mg. Twelve (20% patients had adverse events leading to discontinuation. The most common adverse events were headache (35%, nausea, diarrhoea and nasopharyngitis (all 25%. Minor mean weight gain was found during the study, which did not appear to be dose-related. Half of the patients who completed the study chose to continue treatment with escitalopram rather than taper down the dose at 32 weeks. Conclusions Dose escalation with escitalopram above 20 mg may have a useful role in the management of patients with MDD, although further studies are needed to confirm this finding. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00785434

  10. Comparative efficacy and safety of Crocus sativus L. for treating mild to moderate major depressive disorder in adults: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang XY

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Xiangying Yang,1 Xiaolu Chen,1 Yixiao Fu,2 Qinghua Luo,2 Lian Du,2 Haitang Qiu,2 Tian Qiu,2 Li Zhang,1 Huaqing Meng2 1The First Branch, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Psychiatry, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China Purpose: To investigate the efficacy and safety of saffron in the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD in comparison to placebo and synthetic antidepressants. Patients and methods: We conducted a systematic search in several electronic databases as well as manual search in bibliographies of relevant studies. We included randomized controlled trials that investigated the efficacy and safety of saffron for treating MDD in adults in comparison to either placebo or synthetic antidepressants. Primary outcome was change in scores on depressive symptoms from baseline. Secondary outcomes included remission rate, response rate, and drop-out rate for all reasons. We chose a random-effects model in order to obtain more conservative results. Standardized mean differences (SMDs and odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were estimated as the overall effect index by inverse variance models. Results: Seven studies were included in this meta-analysis. Overall quality of these included studies was moderate. As for the primary outcome, saffron showed more improvements in depression symptoms when compared with placebo, with an SMD of -1.22 (95% CI -1.94, -0.49, P=0.001. Meanwhile, saffron was as effective as synthetic antidepressants, with an SMD of 0.16 (95% CI -0.25, 0.57, P=0.44. Moderate heterogeneity existed in our analysis. Through subgroup analyses, we found that treatment dosage and duration, types of synthetic antidepressants administered in the comparison group, and outcome measures could explain most of the variance. No differences were found in remission rate, response

  11. Reliability Overhaul Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-01

    Random variables for the conditional exponential distribution are generated using the inverse transform method. C1) Generate U - UCO,i) (2) Set s - A ln...e - [(x+s - 7)/ n] 0 + [Cx-T)/n]0 c. Random variables from the conditional weibull distribution are generated using the inverse transform method. C1...using a standard normal transformation and the inverse transform method. B - 3 APPENDIX 3 DISTRIBUTIONS SUPPORTED BY THE MODEL (1) Generate Y - PCX S

  12. Preparations for a major overhaul with equipment for semiautomtic operation on pipework in regions of high radiation dose in nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoch, G.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents equipment which can be used in the field of high radiation dose on pipeline. This comprises either semi or fully automatic operating machines for the segregation of pipeline, for the treatment of pipeline terminations (weld edges attachments, internal bores), for plating and welding, and also for the testing (ultrasonic and eddy-current testing) of pipelines. (orig./HP) [de

  13. The efficacy and safety of 10 mg vortioxetine in the treatment of major depressive disorder: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li G

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Guangjian Li, Xu Wang, Dihui Ma Department of Neurology and Neuroscience Center, First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, People’s Republic of China Background: Vortioxetine is an investigational multimodal antidepressant. We conducted this meta-analysis to assess the efficacy and safety of 10 mg vortioxetine in the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD. Methods: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs published in PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and ClinicalTrials.gov were systematically reviewed to assess the treatment effects and safety profiles of patients with MDD who were treated with 10 mg vortioxetine. The outcome measures included response rate, remission rate, changes from baseline in Montgomery–Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (24-items (HAM-D24, Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S, and Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I scores. Results were expressed with risk ratio or weighted mean difference with 95% confidence intervals. Pooled results were calculated using a fixed-effects model or a random-effects model according to the heterogeneity among included trials. Results: Six RCTs with a total of 1,801 patients met the inclusion criteria and were included in this meta-analysis. The 10 mg vortioxetine dose significantly increased the response rate and remission rate in the treatment of MDD compared with placebo. Moreover, there was a statistically significant reduction from baseline in the MADRS, HAM-D24, CGI-S, and CGI-I scores with 10 mg vortioxetine vs placebo. The incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events such as nausea, vomiting, constipation, and hyperhidrosis was higher in the 10 mg vortioxetine group than in the placebo group. Conclusion: Vortioxetine 10 mg can significantly increase the response rate and remission rate, and reduce the MADRS, HAM-D24, CGI-S, and CGI-I scores in patients with MDD with an acceptable risk of treatment-emergent adverse

  14. rTMS of the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex for major depression: safety, tolerability, effectiveness, and outcome predictors for 10 Hz versus intermittent theta-burst stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Nathan; Shahab, Saba; Giacobbe, Peter; Blumberger, Daniel M; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Kennedy, Sidney H; Downar, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Conventional rTMS protocols for major depression commonly employ stimulation sessions lasting >30 min. However, recent studies have sought to improve costs, capacities, and outcomes by employing briefer protocols such as theta burst stimulation (iTBS). To compare safety, effectiveness, and outcome predictors for DMPFC-rTMS with 10 Hz (30 min) versus iTBS (6 min) protocols, in a large, naturalistic, retrospective case series. A chart review identified 185 patients with a medication-resistant major depressive episode who underwent 20-30 sessions of DMPFC-rTMS (10 Hz, n = 98; iTBS, n = 87) at a single Canadian clinic from 2011 to 2014. Clinical characteristics of 10 Hz and iTBS patients did not differ prior to treatment, aside from significantly higher age in iTBS patients. A total 7912 runs of DMPFC-rTMS (10 Hz, 4274; iTBS, 3638) were administered, without any seizures or other serious adverse events, and no significant differences in rates of premature discontinuation between groups. Dichotomous outcomes did not differ significantly between groups (Response/remission rates: Beck Depression Inventory-II: 10 Hz, 40.6%/29.2%; iTBS, 43.0%/31.0%. 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression: 10 Hz, 50.6%/38.5%; iTBS, 48.5%/27.9%). On continuous outcomes, there was no significant difference between groups in pre-treatment or post-treatment scores, or percent improvement on either measure. Mixed-effects modeling revealed no significant group-by-time interaction on either measure. Both 10 Hz and iTBS DMPFC-rTMS appear safe and tolerable at 120% resting motor threshold. The effectiveness of 6 min iTBS and 30 min 10 Hz protocols appears comparable. Randomized trials comparing 10 Hz to iTBS may be warranted. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Efficacy and safety of escitalopram versus citalopram in major depressive disorder: a 6-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, flexible-dose study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Jian-Jun; Xun, Guang-Lei; Wu, Ren-Rong; Li, Le-Hua; Fang, Mao-Sheng; Zhang, Hong-Geng; Xie, Shi-Ping; Shi, Jian-Guo; Du, Bo; Yuan, Xue-Qin; Zhao, Jing-Ping

    2011-02-01

    S-citalopram (escitalopram) is the very active moiety of citalopram. It has been shown in many studies to be an effective and safe antidepressant for treating major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of our study was to compare the efficacy and safety of escitalopram vs citalopram in Chinese MDD patients. In the double-blind study, 240 MDD patients were randomly assigned to treatment for 6 weeks either with escitalopram (10-20 mg/d) or citalopram (20-40 mg/d). The primary efficacy measurement was the change of 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17) total score from baseline to the end of study. The secondary efficacy measurements were response and remission rates. The adverse events (AEs) were recorded by the investigator. Two hundred and three (85%) patients completed the trial. The average dose was 13.9 mg/d in the escitalopram group and 27.6 mg/d in the citalopram group. No significant differences were found between the two groups in the change in HAMD-17 total score, response, and remission rate. These results were similar in severe MDD patients. No significant differences were found between the two groups in AEs. No serious AEs were observed in this study. The study suggests that escitalopram 10-20 mg/d are as effective and safe as citalopram 20-40 mg/d in the short-term treatment for Chinese MDD patients.

  16. [Safety and efficacy of oral escitalopram as continuation treatment of intravenous citalopram, in patients with major depressive disorder--the navigade switch study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, L; Arbus, C; Tonnoir, B

    2006-01-01

    suggestive of residual symptoms of depression (anxiety, 9%; insomnia, 5% of patients). In conclusion, in this study oral escitalopram (10 mg or 20 mg) was well tolerated as continuation treatment after switching from intravenous citalopram (20 mg or 40 mg). From the efficacy and safety data of this study, it can be concluded that the switch from citalopram iv to oral escitalopram (10 and 20 mg/day) is effective in decreasing depressive symptoms, and could be safely proposed in patients with major depressive disorder.

  17. Radiation protection aspects in the design of nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The IAEA's Statute authorizes the Agency to establish safety standards to protect health and minimize danger to life and property - standards which the IAEA must use in its own operations, and which a State can apply by means of its regulatory provisions for nuclear and radiation safety. A comprehensive body of safety standards under regular review, together with the IAEA's assistance in their application, has become a key element in a global safety regime. In the mid-1990s, a major overhaul of the IAEA's safety standards programme was initiated, with a revised oversight committee structure and a systematic approach to updating the entire corpus of standards. The new standards that have resulted are of a high calibre and reflect best practices in Member States. With the assistance of the Commission on Safety Standards, the IAEA is working to promote the global acceptance and use of its safety standards. Safety standards are only effective, however, if they are properly applied in practice. The IAEA's safety services - which range in scope from engineering safety, operational safety, and radiation, transport and waste safety to regulatory matters and safety culture in organizations - assist Member States in applying the standards and appraise their effectiveness. These safety services enable valuable insights to be shared and continue to urge all Member States to make use of them. Regulating nuclear and radiation safety is a national responsibility, and many Member States have decided to adopt the IAEA's safety standards for use in their national regulations. For the Contracting Parties to the various international safety conventions, IAEA standards provide a consistent, reliable means of ensuring the effective fulfilment of obligations under the conventions. The standards are also applied by designers, manufacturers and operators around the world to enhance nuclear and radiation safety in power generation, medicine, industry, agriculture, research and education

  18. Radiation protection aspects of design for nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The IAEA's Statute authorizes the Agency to establish safety standards to protect health and minimize danger to life and property - standards which the IAEA must use in its own operations, and which a State can apply by means of its regulatory provisions for nuclear and radiation safety. A comprehensive body of safety standards under regular review, together with the IAEA's assistance in their application, has become a key element in a global safety regime. In the mid-1990s, a major overhaul of the IAEA's safety standards programme was initiated, with a revised oversight committee structure and a systematic approach to updating the entire corpus of standards. The new standards that have resulted are of a high calibre and reflect best practices in Member States. With the assistance of the Commission on Safety Standards, the IAEA is working to promote the global acceptance and use of its safety standards. Safety standards are only effective, however, if they are properly applied in practice. The IAEA's safety services - which range in scope from engineering safety, operational safety, and radiation, transport and waste safety to regulatory matters and safety culture in organizations - assist Member States in applying the standards and appraise their effectiveness. These safety services enable valuable insights to be shared and continue to urge all Member States to make use of them. Regulating nuclear and radiation safety is a national responsibility, and many Member States have decided to adopt the IAEA's safety standards for use in their national regulations. For the Contracting Parties to the various international safety conventions, IAEA standards provide a consistent, reliable means of ensuring the effective fulfilment of obligations under the conventions. The standards are also applied by designers, manufacturers and operators around the world to enhance nuclear and radiation safety in power generation, medicine, industry, agriculture, research and education

  19. Public and Private Food Safety Standards: Facilitating or Frustrating Fresh Produce Growers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Mei Soon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Global private food safety and quality standards have undergone some major overhauls during the past two decades, and these will continue to evolve with the recent emphasis on harmonization. The Global Food Safety Initiative (GFSI attempts to ensure that harmonize retail standards are commendable and elegant in principle, but in practice, retailers continue to demand their own standard, whilst supporting GFSI’s benchmarking program. It is difficult to see such retailers giving up their own standards and the control they currently exert as chain captains. There is also the risk that too much harmonization will result in these standards losing their individuality and uniqueness. Amidst the struggle for private standard dominance, alternative approaches to risk management (e.g., self-assessment of risk, independent audits and risk ranking may be the way forward, similar to how insurance risks are calculated for businesses. Furthermore, this risk-based approach could also lead to the effective implementation of co-regulation, where both public and private sector compliances are addressed together—a win-win situation. This paper considers the implications and future trends of fresh produce farming, and identifies five interventions (i.e., assurance schemes, which include the do-nothing scenario to underpinning one’s brand or label with an existing scheme.

  20. Electric generator overhaul of the Ing. Carlos Ramirez Ulloa hydroelectric. Central project conclusions; Rehabilitacion de los generadores de la central hidroelectrica Ing. Carlos Ramirez Ulloa. Conclusiones del proyecto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campuzano Martinez, Ignacio Roberto; Gonzalez Vazquez, Alejandro Esteban; Robles Pimentel, Edgar Guillermo; Esparza Saucedo, Marcos; Garcia Martinez, Javier; Sanchez Flores, Ernesto; Martinez Romero, Jose Luis [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1999-12-31

    The Hydroelectric Ing. Carlos Ramirez Ulloa Power Central has three 200 MW electric generators. The Central initiated its commercial operation in 1985. The electric generators had design problems that were properly corrected in an overhaul program that was initiated in 1996, with Unit 2 electric generator and completed in 1998 with Unit 1 electric generator. This paper presents the relevant aspects of the experience accumulated in the project. [Espanol] La central hidroelectrica Ing. Carlos Ramirez Ulloa cuenta con tres generadores de 200 MW cada uno. La central inicio su operacion comercial en 1985. Los generadores tenian problemas de diseno que fueron debidamente corregidos en un programa de rehabilitacion que inicio en 1996, con el generador de la unidad 2, y culmino en 1998 con el generador de la unidad 1. En este articulo se presentan los aspectos relevantes de la experiencia acumulada en el proyecto.

  1. Electric generator overhaul of the Ing. Carlos Ramirez Ulloa hydroelectric. Central project conclusions; Rehabilitacion de los generadores de la central hidroelectrica Ing. Carlos Ramirez Ulloa. Conclusiones del proyecto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campuzano Martinez, Ignacio Roberto; Gonzalez Vazquez, Alejandro Esteban; Robles Pimentel, Edgar Guillermo; Esparza Saucedo, Marcos; Garcia Martinez, Javier; Sanchez Flores, Ernesto; Martinez Romero, Jose Luis [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    The Hydroelectric Ing. Carlos Ramirez Ulloa Power Central has three 200 MW electric generators. The Central initiated its commercial operation in 1985. The electric generators had design problems that were properly corrected in an overhaul program that was initiated in 1996, with Unit 2 electric generator and completed in 1998 with Unit 1 electric generator. This paper presents the relevant aspects of the experience accumulated in the project. [Espanol] La central hidroelectrica Ing. Carlos Ramirez Ulloa cuenta con tres generadores de 200 MW cada uno. La central inicio su operacion comercial en 1985. Los generadores tenian problemas de diseno que fueron debidamente corregidos en un programa de rehabilitacion que inicio en 1996, con el generador de la unidad 2, y culmino en 1998 con el generador de la unidad 1. En este articulo se presentan los aspectos relevantes de la experiencia acumulada en el proyecto.

  2. Schedules of Provisions of the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (2005 Ed.). Safety Guide (Spanish Edition); Listas de disposiciones del reglamento del OIEA para el transporte seguro de materiales radiactivos (Edicion de 2005 corregida)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-12-15

    The IAEA's Statute authorizes the Agency to establish safety standards to protect health and minimize danger to life and property - standards which the IAEA must use in its own operations, and which a State can apply by means of its regulatory provisions for nuclear and radiation safety. A comprehensive body of safety standards under regular review, together with the IAEA's assistance in their application, has become a key element in a global safety regime. In the mid-1990s, a major overhaul of the IAEA's safety standards programme was initiated, with a revised oversight committee structure and a systematic approach to updating the entire corpus of standards. The new standards that have resulted are of a high calibre and reflect best practices in Member States. With the assistance of the Commission on Safety Standards, the IAEA is working to promote the global acceptance and use of its safety standards. Safety standards are only effective, however, if they are properly applied in practice. The IAEA's safety services - which range in scope from engineering safety, operational safety, and radiation, transport and waste safety to regulatory matters and safety culture in organizations - assist Member States in applying the standards and appraise their effectiveness. These safety services enable valuable insights to be shared and I continue to urge all Member States to make use of them. Regulating nuclear and radiation safety is a national responsibility, and many Member States have decided to adopt the IAEA's safety standards for use in their national regulations. For the contracting parties to the various international safety conventions, IAEA standards provide a consistent, reliable means of ensuring the effective fulfilment of obligations under the conventions. The standards are also applied by designers, manufacturers and operators around the world to enhance nuclear and radiation safety in power generation, medicine, industry, agriculture, research and education

  3. ITER safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raeder, J.; Piet, S.; Buende, R.

    1991-01-01

    As part of the series of publications by the IAEA that summarize the results of the Conceptual Design Activities for the ITER project, this document describes the ITER safety analyses. It contains an assessment of normal operation effluents, accident scenarios, plasma chamber safety, tritium system safety, magnet system safety, external loss of coolant and coolant flow problems, and a waste management assessment, while it describes the implementation of the safety approach for ITER. The document ends with a list of major conclusions, a set of topical remarks on technical safety issues, and recommendations for the Engineering Design Activities, safety considerations for siting ITER, and recommendations with regard to the safety issues for the R and D for ITER. Refs, figs and tabs

  4. Major depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depression - major; Depression - clinical; Clinical depression; Unipolar depression; Major depressive disorder ... providers do not know the exact causes of depression. It is believed that chemical changes in the ...

  5. Safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The response to a previous publication by the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG), indicated a broad international interest in expansion of the concept of Safety Culture, in such a way that its effectiveness in particular cases may be judged. This report responds to that need. In its manifestation, Safety Culture has two major components: the framework determined by organizational policy and by managerial action, and the response of individuals in working within and benefiting by the framework. 1 fig

  6. Evaluation of Seismic Safety for Existing Nuclear Installations. Safety Guide (Russian Edition); Оценка сейсмической безопасности существующих ядерных установок. Руководство по безопасности

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-01-15

    The IAEA's Statute authorizes the Agency to establish safety standards to protect health and minimize danger to life and property - standards which the IAEA must use in its own operations, and which a State can apply by means of its regulatory provisions for nuclear and radiation safety. A comprehensive body of safety standards under regular review, together with the IAEA's assistance in their application, has become a key element in a global safety regime. In the mid-1990s, a major overhaul of the IAEA's safety standards programme was initiated, with a revised oversight committee structure and a systematic approach to updating the entire corpus of standards. The new standards that have resulted are of a high calibre and reflect best practices in Member States. With the assistance of the Commission on Safety Standards, the IAEA is working to promote the global acceptance and use of its safety standards. Safety standards are only effective, however, if they are properly applied in practice. The IAEA's safety services - which range in scope from engineering safety, operational safety, and radiation, transport and waste safety to regulatory matters and safety culture in organizations - assist Member States in applying the standards and appraise their effectiveness. These safety services enable valuable insights to be shared and I continue to urge all Member States to make use of them. Regulating nuclear and radiation safety is a national responsibility, and many Member States have decided to adopt the IAEA's safety standards for use in their national regulations. For the contracting parties to the various international safety conventions, IAEA standards provide a consistent, reliable means of ensuring the effective fulfilment of obligations under the conventions. The standards are also applied by designers, manufacturers and operators around the world to enhance nuclear and radiation safety in power generation, medicine, industry, agriculture, research and education

  7. Towards a new international framework for nuclear safety: Developments from Fukushima to Vienna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand-Poudret, Emma

    2015-01-01

    On 11 March 2011, the nuclear safety sector was deeply shaken by the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan. Because of this accident, 25 years of established certainties in nuclear power plant operational safety that followed the Chernobyl disaster were once again called into question. The adequacy of the international safety instruments was naturally questioned as well. The global nuclear safety framework is primarily composed of the Convention on Nuclear Safety (CNS) and the safety standards of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Should this accident have been an inducement for a comprehensive overhaul of the existing framework? The broader international community mobilised its resources in response to this event, reflecting the overriding importance of nuclear safety and the urgent need to learn lessons from the accident. A process of reviewing the effectiveness of the CNS thus began in April 2011 at the Fifth Review Meeting of the Contracting Parties to the Convention. In September 2011, the adoption of the IAEA Action Plan on Nuclear Safety encouraged the states parties to study mechanisms to enhance the effective implementation of the CNS and to consider proposals to amend the Convention. In August 2012, the Second Extraordinary Meeting of the Contracting Parties allowed certain states to table amendments, thus stimulating debate but also revealing the difficulty of obtaining the majority required for such an undertaking. In order to break the impasse, an effectiveness and transparency working group was set up with the ambitious task of reporting to the Sixth Review Meeting on 'a list of actions to strengthen the CNS and on proposals to amend, where necessary, the Convention'. Since the amendment approach appeared to be a valid solution, Switzerland took the opportunity of the Sixth Review Meeting to submit a new draft to that effect. The convening of a Diplomatic Conference under Article 32 of the CNS would then

  8. Direct comparison of the efficacy and safety of oral treatments with oleylphosphocholine (OlPC and miltefosine in a mouse model of L. major cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anny Fortin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL represents a range of skin diseases caused by infection with Leishmania parasites and associated with tissue inflammation and skin ulceration. CL is clinically widespread in both the Old and New World but lacks treatments that are well tolerated, effective and inexpensive. Oleylphosphocholine (OlPC is a new orally bioavailable drug of the alkylphosphocholine family with potent antileishmanial activity against a broad range of Leishmania species/strains.The potential of OlPC against Old World CL was evaluated in a mouse model of Leishmania (L. major infection in BALB/c mice. Initial dose-response experiments showed that an oral daily dose of 40 mg/kg of OlPC was needed to impact time to cure and lesion sizes. This dose was then used to directly compare the efficacy of OlPC to the efficacy of the antileishmanial drugs miltefosine (40 mg/kg/day, fluconazole (160 mg/kg/day and amphotericin B (25 mg/kg/day. OlPC, miltefosine and fluconazole were given orally for 21 days while amphotericin B was administered intraperitoneally for 10 days. Ulcer sizes and animal weights were followed up on a weekly basis and parasitemia was determined by means of a real-time in vivo imaging system which detects luminescence emitted from luciferase-expressing infecting L. major parasites. Amphotericin B and OlPC showed excellent efficacy against L. major lesions in terms of reduction of parasitic loads and by inducing complete healing of established lesions. In contrast, treatment with miltefosine did not significantly affect parasitemia and lesion sizes, while fluconazole was completely ineffective at the dose regimen tested.Given the data showing the outstanding efficacy and tolerability of OlPC, our results suggest that OlPC is a promising new drug candidate to improve and simplify current clinical management of L. major CL.

  9. Study of the safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of attenuated and killed Leishmania (Leishmania major vaccines in a rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta model of the human disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VF Amaral

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available We have compared the efficacy of two Leishmania (Leishmania major vaccines, one genetically attenuated (DHFR-TS deficient organisms, the other inactivated [autoclaved promastigotes (ALM with bacillus Calmete-Guérin (BCG], in protecting rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta against infection with virulent L. (L. major. Positive antigen-specific recall proliferative response was observed in vaccinees (79% in attenuated parasite-vaccinated monkeys, versus 75% in ALM-plus-BCG-vaccinated animals, although none of these animals exhibited either augmented in vitro gamma interferon (IFN-g production or positive delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH response to the leishmanin skin test prior to the challenge. Following challenge, there were significant differences in blastogenic responses (p < 0.05 between attenuated-vaccinated monkeys and naïve controls. In both vaccinated groups very low levels of antibody were found before challenge, which increased after infective challenge. Protective immunity did not follow vaccination, in that monkeys exhibited skin lesion at the site of challenge in all the groups. The most striking result was the lack of pathogenicity of the attenuated parasite, which persisted in infected animals for up to three months, but were incapable of causing disease under the conditions employed. We concluded that both vaccine protocols used in this study are safe in primates, but require further improvement for vaccine application.

  10. Iron chelation with deferasirox in adult and pediatric patients with thalassemia major: efficacy and safety during 5 years' follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappellini, M Domenica; Bejaoui, Mohamed; Agaoglu, Leyla; Canatan, Duran; Capra, Marcello; Cohen, Alan; Drelichman, Guillermo; Economou, Marina; Fattoum, Slaheddine; Kattamis, Antonis; Kilinc, Yurdanur; Perrotta, Silverio; Piga, Antonio; Porter, John B; Griffel, Louis; Dong, Victor; Clark, Joan; Aydinok, Yesim

    2011-07-28

    Patients with β-thalassemia require lifelong iron chelation therapy from early childhood to prevent complications associated with transfusional iron overload. To evaluate long-term efficacy and safety of once-daily oral iron chelation with deferasirox, patients aged ≥ 2 years who completed a 1-year, phase 3, randomized trial entered a 4-year extension study, either continuing on deferasirox (deferasirox cohort) or switching from deferoxamine to deferasirox (crossover cohort). Of 555 patients who received ≥ 1 deferasirox dose, 66.8% completed the study; 43 patients (7.7%) discontinued because of adverse events. In patients with ≥ 4 years' deferasirox exposure who had liver biopsy, mean liver iron concentration significantly decreased by 7.8 ± 11.2 mg Fe/g dry weight (dw; n = 103; P < .001) and 3.1 ± 7.9 mg Fe/g dw (n = 68; P < .001) in the deferasirox and crossover cohorts, respectively. Median serum ferritin significantly decreased by 706 ng/mL (n = 196; P < .001) and 371 ng/mL (n = 147; P < .001), respectively, after ≥ 4 years' exposure. Investigator-assessed, drug-related adverse events, including increased blood creatinine (11.2%), abdominal pain (9.0%), and nausea (7.4%), were generally mild to moderate, transient, and reduced in frequency over time. No adverse effect was observed on pediatric growth or adolescent sexual development. This first prospective study of long-term deferasirox use in pediatric and adult patients with β-thalassemia suggests treatment for ≤ 5 years is generally well tolerated and effectively reduces iron burden. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00171210.

  11. OPTIMALISASI KINERJA PERSEDIAAN SUKU CADANG UNTUK PELAKSANAAN MAINTENANCE REPAIR OVERHAUL (MRO DENGAN PENERAPAN COMPUTERIZED MAINTENANCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS (CMMS (Studi Kasus di PT. Indonesia Asahan Aluminium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutrisno Sutrisno

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available PT.Inalum is a manufacturing company engaged in the aluminum smelting industry. PT.Inalum pengendaliaan system requires an inventory of spare parts to conduct maintenance, repair and overhaul (MRO. CMMS (Computerized Maintenance Management System is a computerized maintenance system running on a LAN (Local Area Network. CMMS is influenced by three variables, namely an integrated maintenance, inventory and procurement so as to create a good maintenance should be supported by the inventory control of spare parts used in maintenance. CMMS aims to make the work more efficient and effective, especially in matters relating to maintenance. That as a benchmark to measure the performance of CMMs for spare parts inventory control is a key performance indicator (KPI. This study aims to evaluate and compare key performance indicators before and after implementation of CMMS for the implementation of MRO activities. Another goal to be achieved is to determine the factors that affect the value of the inventory of spare parts. Based on the results of data processing and analysis can be seen that by looking at a comparison of before and after implementation of CMMS on key performance indicators, it appears that there is an improvement in every parameter, one of which is the value of the inventory prior to the implementation of CMMS for $ 34,790,000.00 compared to after the application of the inventory value fell to $ 19,632,000.00. Factors that affect the value of the inventory is the inventory of spare parts, maintenance, procurement, and human resources.

  12. Role of vitamin C as an adjuvant therapy to different iron chelators in young β-thalassemia major patients: efficacy and safety in relation to tissue iron overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elalfy, Mohsen S; Saber, Maha M; Adly, Amira Abdel Moneam; Ismail, Eman A; Tarif, Mohamed; Ibrahim, Fatma; Elalfy, Omar M

    2016-03-01

    Vitamin C, as antioxidant, increases the efficacy of deferoxamine (DFO). To investigate the effects of vitamin C as an adjuvant therapy to the three used iron chelators in moderately iron-overloaded young vitamin C-deficient patients with β-thalassemia major (β-TM) in relation to tissue iron overload. This randomized prospective trial that included 180 β-TM vitamin C-deficient patients were equally divided into three groups (n = 60) and received DFO, deferiprone (DFP), and deferasirox (DFX). Patients in each group were further randomized either to receive vitamin C supplementation (100 mg daily) or not (n = 30). All patients received vitamin C (group A) or no vitamin C (group B) were followed up for 1 yr with assessment of transfusion index, hemoglobin, iron profile, liver iron concentration (LIC) and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T2*. Baseline vitamin C was negatively correlated with transfusion index, serum ferritin (SF), and LIC. After vitamin C therapy, transfusion index, serum iron, SF, transferrin saturation (Tsat), and LIC were significantly decreased in group A patients, while hemoglobin and cardiac MRI T2* were elevated compared with baseline levels or those in group B without vitamin C. The same improvement was found among DFO-treated patients post-vitamin C compared with baseline data. DFO-treated patients had the highest hemoglobin with the lowest iron, SF, and Tsat compared with DFP or DFX subgroups. Vitamin C as an adjuvant therapy possibly potentiates the efficacy of DFO more than DFP and DFX in reducing iron burden in the moderately iron-overloaded vitamin C-deficient patients with β-TM, with no adverse events. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Technology development of maintenance optimization and reliability analysis for safety features in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Woon; Choi, Seong Soo; Lee, Dong Gue; Kim, Young Il

    1999-12-01

    The reliability data management system (RDMS) for safety systems of PHWR type plants has been developed and utilized in the reliability analysis of the special safety systems of Wolsong Unit 1,2 with plant overhaul period lengthened. The RDMS is developed for the periodic efficient reliability analysis of the safety systems of Wolsong Unit 1,2. In addition, this system provides the function of analyzing the effects on safety system unavailability if the test period of a test procedure changes as well as the function of optimizing the test periods of safety-related test procedures. The RDMS can be utilized in handling the requests of the regulatory institute actively with regard to the reliability validation of safety systems. (author)

  14. Major Links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Tona

    1995-01-01

    Provides electronic mail addresses for resources and discussion groups related to the following academic majors: art, biology, business, chemistry, computer science, economics, health sciences, history, literature, math, music, philosophy, political science, psychology, sociology, and theater. (AEF)

  15. Major Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for major roads (interstates and trunk highways) found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. These roadways are current...

  16. Better Science Through Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlovich, Jack A.; Downs, Gary E.

    Following a brief description of the major components found effective in school safety programs (safety management, education, and services) and data on school accidents in Iowa, this book addresses various aspects of safety related to science instruction, emphasizing that responsibility for safety must be shared by both teacher and students.…

  17. Nuclear safety and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hho Jung

    2000-03-01

    This book contains 12 chapters, which are atom and radiation, nuclear reactor and kinds of nuclear power plant, safeguard actuation system and stability evaluation for rock foundation of nuclear power plant, nuclear safety and principle, safety analysis and classification of incident, probabilistic safety assessment and major incident, nuclear safety regulation, system of nuclear safety regulation, main function and subject of safety regulation in nuclear facilities, regulation of fuel cycle and a nuclear dump site, protection of radiation and, safety supervision and, safety supervision and measurement of environmental radioactivity.

  18. Autonomous intelligent cruise control (AICC) - a major contribution to the enhancement of comfort and active driving safety; Autonome Intelligente Geschwindigkeitsregelung (AICC) - ein Beitrag zur Steigerung des Komforts und der aktiven Fahrsicherheit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorissen, H.T.; Hoever, N.

    1996-07-01

    Within the framework of the PROMETHEUS-Project research and development work on different systems has been carried out to improve traffic efficiency, environment and safety. The Autonomous Intelligent Cruise Control has emerged as one of the projects with the brightest future. In contrast to conventional cruise control systems, the AICC system controls not only the speed of the vehicle, but also its distance to vehicles ahead. In practice this means that the driver is additionally supported by the automatic variation of the set vehicle speed according to traffic conditions. This results in a major improvement in driving comfort as well as in traffic safety. In this article, Hella describes the principal technical facts and also highlights the advantages and possible applications of the first generation of AICC. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Rahmen des PROMETHEUS-Projektes sind unterschiedliche Systeme erforscht und entwickelt worden, um den Verkehr sicherer, umweltfreundlicher und effizienter zu gestalten. Der `Autonome Intelligente Geschwindigkeitsregler` ist hieraus als eines der zukunftstraechtigsten Projekte hervorgegangen. Ein AICC-System regelt die Geschwindigkeit sowie den Abstand zu einem vorausfahrenden Fahrzeug. Im Vergleich zum konventionellen Geschwindigkeitsregler wird der Fahrer zusaetzlich durch die automatische Anpassung der Sollgeschwindigkeit an die gegebene Verkehrssituation unterstuetzt. Dies ermoeglicht eine entsprechende Verbesserung des Fahrkomforts und letztendlich auch der Verkehrssicherheit. In diesem Beitrag zeigt Hella neben den grundsaetzlichen technischen Zusammenhaengen eine moegliche Realisierung, die Vorteile und den Nutzen fuer ein AICC-System der ersten Generation auf. (orig.)

  19. Development of an Owner Engineer's independent capability in NPP safety and licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auglaire, M.; Bayart, D.; D'Eer, A.; Polet, F.; Vanhoenacker, L.; Zhang, J.

    2002-01-01

    As Owner's Engineer to Electrabel, the Belgian utility which owns and operates the 7 NPPs in Belgium, Tractebel Energy Engineering has gained considerable experience in the field of ten-yearly safety overhauls of NPPs since 1983. It has developed a methodology leading to proposing corrective actions by means of a global and integrated approach in which safety improvement costs are optimized. Safety issues addressed during those projects encompass the writing of Probabilistic Safety Assessment studies, post-TMI recommendations implementation, the installation of autocatalytic recombiners, accident studies, protection against pressurized thermal shock, impact of flooding of internal or external origin, implementation of severe accident management guidelines, re-evaluation of the environment, verification of extreme climate conditions, updating of the Safety Analysis Reports, operation review. (author)

  20. A prospective, randomised, controlled, double-blind phase I-II clinical trial on the safety of A-Part® Gel as adhesion prophylaxis after major abdominal surgery versus non-treated group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weis Christine

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postoperative adhesions occur when fibrous strands of internal scar tissue bind anatomical structures to one another. The most common cause of intra-abdominal adhesions is previous intra-abdominal surgical intervention. Up to 74% of intestinal obstructions are caused by post surgical adhesions. Although a variety of methods and agents have been investigated to prevent post surgical adhesions, the problem of peritoneal adhesions remains largely unsolved. Materials serving as an adhesion barrier are much needed. Methods/Design This is a prospective, randomised, controlled, patient blinded and observer blinded, single centre phase I-II trial, which evaluates the safety of A-Part® Gel as an adhesion prophylaxis after major abdominal wall surgery, in comparison to an untreated control group. 60 patients undergoing an elective median laparotomy without prior abdominal surgery are randomly allocated into two groups of a 1:1- ratio. Safety parameter and primary endpoint of the study is the occurrence of wound healing impairment or peritonitis within 28 (+10 days after surgery. The frequency of anastomotic leakage within 28 days after operation, occurrence of adverse and serious adverse events during hospital stay up to 3 months and the rate of adhesions along the scar within 3 months are defined as secondary endpoints. After hospital discharge the investigator will examine the enrolled patients at 28 (+10 days and 3 months (±14 days after surgery. Discussion This trial aims to assess, whether the intra-peritoneal application of A-Part® Gel is safe and efficacious in the prevention of post-surgical adhesions after median laparotomy, in comparison to untreated controls. Trial registration NCT00646412

  1. Track 2: business outlook and the significance of safety - safety of nuclear power reactor installations in a deregulated environment. Panel Discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, Stephen P.; Floyd, Stephen; Berkow, Herbert N.; Quinn, Edward L.; Hagen, Ronald E.; Esselman, Thomas C.

    2001-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Deregulation in the nuclear industry sets the stage for a new production environment with cost and profit-based competition. This not only affects the commercial reactor sector but also is a key element of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DoE's) strategy for facility deployment and commercialization. This panel is designed to explore how these transitions are being made with the assurance of the principle of safety in operations. Panelists have been assembled from industry, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and DOE to explore these challenges and opportunities in the deregulated operational environment from a variety of perspectives. Presentations by each panelist will be followed by a panel session that will explore both technical and process elements of these major transitions. Success in a deregulated environment requires both safety and economic operation of facilities. With respect to each of these attributes, competition may be expected to result in substantially higher levels of performance. This panel will examine how these expectations are likely to be set, how they will be measured, and what will constitute success. The baseline for evaluation begins with assessment of past performance. The panelists have examined this for both the commercial nuclear reactor sector, as well as for the DOE complex. The Nuclear Energy Institute and the NRC have been working over the past few years on a program to establish new performance indicators for monitoring safety of reactor operation. The session participants will first examine the effectiveness of this system as it is designed to measure performance in today's environment. Second, the panelists will project the capabilities and attributes of this system in monitoring safety in transition to a deregulated, consolidated market. Will these systems have the capability to identify trends that will be significant in this new environment? Will today's system and metrics be

  2. Major hazards onshore and offshore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This symposium continues the tradition of bringing together papers on a topic of current interest and importance in terms of process safety - in this case, Major Hazards Onshore and Offshore. Lord Cullen in his report on the Piper Alpha disaster has, in effect, suggested that the experience gained in the control of major hazards onshore during the 1980s should be applied to improve safety offshore during the 1990s. This major three-day symposium reviews what has been learned so far with regard to major hazards and considers its present and future applications both onshore and offshore. The topics covered in the programme are wide ranging and deal with all aspects of legislation, the application of regulations, techniques for evaluating hazards and prescribing safety measures in design, construction and operation, the importance of the human factors, and recent technical developments in protective measures, relief venting and predicting the consequences of fires and explosions. (author)

  3. Operational safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The PNL Safety, Standards and Compliance Program contributed to the development and issuance of safety policies, standards, and criteria; for projects in the nuclear and nonnuclear areas. During 1976 the major emphasis was on developing criteria, instruments and methods to assure that radiation exposure to occupational personnel and to people in the environs of nuclear-related facilities is maintained at the lowest level technically and economically practicable. Progress in 1976 is reported on the preparation of guidelines for radiation exposure; Pu dosimetry studies; the preparation of an environmental monitoring handbook; and emergency instrumentation preparedness

  4. The drone as an additional risk factor due to conditions not provided for in radiological safety at major events; O drone como fator adicional de risco decorrente de condicoes nao previstas na seguranca radiologica em grandes eventos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Gilberto de Jesus

    2015-07-01

    Major international events are potential targets of terrorist actions, seeking instant publicity that events of this magnitude provide, with the intention of causing terror and disseminate its power to a large number of people worldwide. In this context, the critical analysis of additional risk factor linked to procedures and protocols adopted on radiation safety is important. The possibility of unforeseen situations of risk, especially those resulting from the current global technological development, is a fact. Radioactive material can be used in this type of terrorism in a wide range of devices and illicit trafficking of this material is a reality that worries the International Atomic Energy Agency. In the current technological development scenario of the world, the potential occurrence of terrorist acts using drones combined with radioactive material dispersal devices, is real. The recent history of drones incidents presents cases where, despite not having been necessarily terrorist motivation, their circumstances and characteristics favor the occurrence of malicious acts. This paper proposes to alert the need of updating the current security protocols, considering the potential association of this technology with radioactive dispersal devices. (author)

  5. Playground Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention Fall Prevention Playground Safety Poisoning Prevention Road Traffic Safety Sports Safety Get Email Updates To receive ... at the Consumer Product Safety Commission’s Playground Safety website . References U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission. Injuries and ...

  6. Bohunice Nuclear Power Plant Safety Upgrading Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, A.; Fagula, L.

    1996-01-01

    Bohunice nuclear Power Plant generation represents almost 50% of the Slovak republic electric power production. Due to such high level of commitment to nuclear power in the power generation system, a special attention is given to safe and reliable operation of NPPs. Safety upgrading and operational reliability improvement of Bohunice V-1 NPP was carried out by the Bohunice staff continuously since the plant commissioning. In the 1990 - 1993 period extensive projects were realised. As a result of 'Small Reconstruction of the Bohunice V-1 NPP', the standards of both the nuclear safety and operational reliability have been significantly improved. The implementation of another modifications that will take place gradually during extended refuelling outages and overhauls in the course of 1996 through 1999, is referred to as the Gradual Reconstruction of the Bohunice V-1 Plant. The general goal of the V-1 NPP safety upgrading is the achievement of internationally acceptable level of nuclear safety. Extensive and financially demanding modification process of Bohunice V-2 NPP is likely to be implemented after a completion of the Gradual Reconstruction of the Bohunice V-1 NPP, since the year 1999. With this in mind, a first draft of the strategy of the Bohunice V-2 NPP upgrading program based on Probabilistic Safety assessment consideration was developed. A number of actions with a general effect on Bohunice site safety is evident. All these activities are aimed at reaching the essential objective of Bohunice NPP Management - to ensure a safe, reliable and effective electric energy and heat generation at the Bohunice site. (author)

  7. Major Refit for CERN's 400 kV Substation (Part of the new control and protection system for the 18 kV side)

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    The 400 kV substation on the Prévessin site brings in the electricity that powers CERN's accelerators and the majority of the Laboratory's installations. It was originally built in the 1970s for the SPS, and is one of only five privately owned 400 kV sub-stations in France. Three of the others belong to the national railway company, SNCF, supplying the Paris-Marseilles TGV line, the other is at the Cadarache research centre near mouth of the Rhone. After nearly thirty years of service, CERN's substation has just undergone a complete overhaul.

  8. Optimal interval for major maintenance actions in electricity distribution networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louit, Darko; Pascual, Rodrigo [Centro de Mineria, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Av. Vicuna MacKenna, 4860 Santiago (Chile); Banjevic, Dragan [Centre for Maintenance Optimization and Reliability Engineering, University of Toronto, 5 King' s College Rd., Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2009-09-15

    Many systems require the periodic undertaking of major (preventive) maintenance actions (MMAs) such as overhauls in mechanical equipment, reconditioning of train lines, resurfacing of roads, etc. In the long term, these actions contribute to achieving a lower rate of occurrence of failures, though in many cases they increase the intensity of the failure process shortly after performed, resulting in a non-monotonic trend for failure intensity. Also, in the special case of distributed assets such as communications and energy networks, pipelines, etc., it is likely that the maintenance action takes place sequentially over an extended period of time, implying that different sections of the network underwent the MMAs at different periods. This forces the development of a model based on a relative time scale (i.e. time since last major maintenance event) and the combination of data from different sections of a grid, under a normalization scheme. Additionally, extended maintenance times and sequential execution of the MMAs make it difficult to identify failures occurring before and after the preventive maintenance action. This results in the loss of important information for the characterization of the failure process. A simple model is introduced to determine the optimal MMA interval considering such restrictions. Furthermore, a case study illustrates the optimal tree trimming interval around an electricity distribution network. (author)

  9. Multimegawatt Space Reactor Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanley, M.L.

    1989-01-01

    The Multimegawatt (MMW) Space Reactor Project supports the Strategic Defense Initiative Office requirement to provide reliable, safe, cost-effective, electrical power in the MMW range. Specifically, power may be used for neutral particle beams, free electron lasers, electromagnetic launchers, and orbital transfer vehicles. This power plant technology may also apply to the electrical power required for other uses such as deep-space probes and planetary exploration. The Multimegawatt Space Reactor Project, the Thermionic Fuel Element Verification Program, and Centaurus Program all support the Multimegawatt Space Nuclear Power Program and form an important part of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) space and defense power systems activities. A major objective of the MMW project is the development of a reference flight system design that provides the desired levels of public safety, health protection, and special nuclear material (SNM) protection when used during its designated missions. The safety requirements for the MMW project are a hierarchy of requirements that consist of safety requirements/regulations, a safety policy, general safety criteria, safety technical specifications, safety design specifications, and the system design. This paper describes the strategy and philosophy behind the development of the safety requirements imposed upon the MMW concept developers. The safety organization, safety policy, generic safety issues, general safety criteria, and the safety technical specifications are discussed

  10. Auto Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Auto Safety KidsHealth / For Parents / Auto Safety What's in this ... by teaching some basic rules. Importance of Child Safety Seats Using a child safety seat (car seat) ...

  11. A Study of the Unsafe Actions of Staff in the Maintenance and Overhaul Unit at a Petrochemical Complex and the Presentation of Control Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousavipour

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Today, oil, gas, and petrochemical industries are of strategic significance in the macro-development of oil-rich countries. These industries, given the nature of the work and the technical complexity of the various processes, are hazardous and susceptible to occupational accidents. More than 90% of the accidents are related to the faults and unsafe actions of personnel, either directly or indirectly. Objectives The aim of this study is to investigate the unsafe actions of staff working in the maintenance unit of a petrochemical complex. Materials and Methods This is a descriptive and analytical study conducted on 167 morning-shift workers at the Mahshahr petrochemical complex. The data were collected based on a checklist of unsafe actions prepared through a direct observation of their activities and an analysis of work instructions, documents, and incident reports. SPSS statistical software was also used for data analysis and relevant testing. Results According to the results of this study, the mean number of unsafe actions performed by the employees was 42%. The highest number of unsafe actions achieved in the maintenance mechanical unit was 52.8%, 47.1% in repair services, and 43.8% in machinery. The highest frequency of unsafe actions were caused by indiscretion and negligence, a failure to use a face shield and goggles, and non-compliance with safety principles. Conclusions According to the findings, there has been a rise in the number of unsafe actions in machinery and maintenance service units compared to other maintenance units. As such, training courses based on the behavior-based safety principles at the beginning of employment, close monitoring of health safety environment (HSE officials on the implementation of regulations, and provision of appropriate scheduling based on weather conditions and the nature of maintenance services are recommended. In addition, a refrainment from hastiness in performing duties, enhanced

  12. Nuclear Safety Review 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-15

    The Nuclear Safety Review 2013 focuses on the dominant nuclear safety trends, issues and challenges in 2012. The Executive Overview provides crosscutting and worldwide nuclear safety information along with a summary of the major sections covered in this report. Sections A-E of this report cover improving radiation, transport and waste safety; strengthening safety in nuclear installations; improving regulatory infrastructure and effectiveness; enhancing emergency preparedness and response (EPR); and civil liability for nuclear damage. The Appendix provides details on the activities of the Commission on Safety Standards (CSS), and activities relevant to the IAEA Safety Standards. The world nuclear community has made noteworthy progress in strengthening nuclear safety in 2012, as promoted by the IAEA Action Plan on Nuclear Safety (hereinafter referred to as ''the Action Plan''). For example, an overwhelming majority of Member States with operating nuclear power plants (NPPs) have undertaken and essentially completed comprehensive safety reassessments ('stress tests') with the aim of evaluating the design and safety aspects of plant robustness to protect against extreme events, including: defence in depth, safety margins, cliff edge effects, multiple failures, and the prolonged loss of support systems. As a result, many have introduced additional safety measures including mitigation of station blackout. Moreover, the IAEA's peer review services and safety standards have been reviewed and strengthened where needed. Capacity building programmes have been built or improved, and EPR programmes have also been reviewed and improved. Furthermore, in 2012, the IAEA continued to share lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi accident with the nuclear community including through three international experts' meetings (IEMs) on reactor and spent fuel safety, communication in the event of a nuclear or radiological emergency, and protection against extreme earthquakes and tsunamis.

  13. Nuclear Safety Review 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-07-01

    The Nuclear Safety Review 2013 focuses on the dominant nuclear safety trends, issues and challenges in 2012. The Executive Overview provides crosscutting and worldwide nuclear safety information along with a summary of the major sections covered in this report. Sections A-E of this report cover improving radiation, transport and waste safety; strengthening safety in nuclear installations; improving regulatory infrastructure and effectiveness; enhancing emergency preparedness and response (EPR); and civil liability for nuclear damage. The Appendix provides details on the activities of the Commission on Safety Standards (CSS), and activities relevant to the IAEA Safety Standards. The world nuclear community has made noteworthy progress in strengthening nuclear safety in 2012, as promoted by the IAEA Action Plan on Nuclear Safety (hereinafter referred to as ''the Action Plan''). For example, an overwhelming majority of Member States with operating nuclear power plants (NPPs) have undertaken and essentially completed comprehensive safety reassessments ('stress tests') with the aim of evaluating the design and safety aspects of plant robustness to protect against extreme events, including: defence in depth, safety margins, cliff edge effects, multiple failures, and the prolonged loss of support systems. As a result, many have introduced additional safety measures including mitigation of station blackout. Moreover, the IAEA's peer review services and safety standards have been reviewed and strengthened where needed. Capacity building programmes have been built or improved, and EPR programmes have also been reviewed and improved. Furthermore, in 2012, the IAEA continued to share lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi accident with the nuclear community including through three international experts' meetings (IEMs) on reactor and spent fuel safety, communication in the event of a nuclear or radiological emergency, and protection against extreme earthquakes and tsunamis

  14. Environment, safety and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luzianovich, L.Ch.; Fardeau, J.C.; Darras, M.

    2000-01-01

    Environment, safety and health were the three topics discussed by the WOC 8 working group of the worldwide gas congress. Environment protection has become a major preoccupation and constraint for natural gas industry at the dawn of the new millennium. It is closely linked with the safety of installation and with the health of workmen who exploit or use natural gas energy: methane emissions, health and safety in gas industry, environment management and evaluation. (J.S.)

  15. Seeking a safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.

    1993-01-01

    Human organisational failure has been shown to play a significant role in major accidents world-wide in both the nuclear and non-nuclear industries. A recent report called Organising for Safety, published by The Health and Safety Commission, suggests that the nuclear industry should give organisational factors the same emphasis as it does the reduction of equipment failures and individual error. (Author)

  16. Nuclear criticality safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ro, Seong Ki; Shin, Hee Seong; Park, Seong Won; Shin, Young Joon.

    1997-06-01

    Nuclear criticality safety guide was described for handling, transportation and storage of nuclear fissile materials in this report. The major part of the report was excerpted frp, TID-7016(revision 2) and nuclear criticality safety written by Knief. (author). 16 tabs., 44 figs., 5 refs

  17. Major Refit for CERN's 400 kV Substation

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The 400 kV substation on the Prévessin site brings in the electricity that powers CERN's accelerators and the majority of the Laboratory's installations. It was originally built in the 1970s for the SPS, and is one of only five privately owned 400 kV sub-stations in France. Three of the others belong to the national railway company, SNCF, supplying the Paris-Marseilles TGV line, the other is at the Cadarache research centre near mouth of the Rhone. After nearly thirty years of service, CERN's substation has just undergone a complete overhaul. The new main 18 kV switchboard for the SPS pulsed network. The electricity supply for the original Prévessin substation was from the 400 kV EDF network, delivered through three 90 MW transformers at 18 kV to the SPS pulsed network, With the arrival of LEP, two 110 MW transformers were added to supply the new accelerator. Now, as CERN gears up for the LHC, additional pulsed power capacity is needed to supply the transfer lines carrying protons from...

  18. Nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    This book reviews the accomplishments, operations, and problems faced by the defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board. Specifically, it discusses the recommendations that the Safety Board made to improve safety and health conditions at the Department of Energy's defense nuclear facilities, problems the Safety Board has encountered in hiring technical staff, and management problems that could affect the Safety Board's independence and credibility

  19. Appendix C: safety design rationale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghose, S.

    1985-01-01

    A brief discussion of the rationale for safety design of fusion plants is presented in the main text. Further detail safety considerations are presented in this appendix in the form of charts and tables. The author present some of the major safety criteria and other criteria used in blanket selection here

  20. Drug Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... over-the-counter drug. The FDA evaluates the safety of a drug by looking at Side effects ... clinical trials The FDA also monitors a drug's safety after approval. For you, drug safety means buying ...

  1. Nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarride, Bruno

    2015-10-01

    The author proposes an overview of methods and concepts used in the nuclear industry, at the design level as well as at the exploitation level, to ensure an acceptable safety level, notably in the case of nuclear reactors. He first addresses the general objectives of nuclear safety and the notion of acceptable risk: definition and organisation of nuclear safety (relationships between safety authorities and operators), notion of acceptable risk, deterministic safety approach and main safety principles (safety functions and confinement barriers, concept of defence in depth). Then, the author addresses the safety approach at the design level: studies of operational situations, studies of internal and external aggressions, safety report, design principles for important-for-safety systems (failure criterion, redundancy, failure prevention, safety classification). The next part addresses safety during exploitation and general exploitation rules: definition of the operation domain and of its limits, periodic controls and tests, management in case of incidents, accidents or aggressions

  2. Safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keen, L.J.

    2003-01-01

    Safety culture has become a topic of increasing interest for industry and regulators as issues are raised on safety problems around the world. The keys to safety culture are organizational effectiveness, effective communications, organizational learning, and a culture that encourages the identification and resolution of safety issues. The necessity of a strong safety culture places an onus on all of us to continually question whether the safety measures already in place are sufficient, and are being applied. (author)

  3. Safety flywheel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, R.T.

    1977-01-17

    The patent application relates to an inertial energy storage device employing a safety flywheel which is made of flexible material such as a twisted rope ring. The rigidity required for such a device is achieved through centrifugal forces inherent in such a device when it is operating. A small number of the strands of the rope ring have a tensile strength that is lower than the vast majority of the strands of the rope ring whereby should any of these strands fail, they will begin to whiplash allowing such a failure to be detected and braked before a catastrophic failure occurs. This is accomplished by the inclusion of glass tubes located around the periphery of the flywheel. The tubes are in communication with a braking fluid reservoir. The flywheel and glass tubes are enclosed within a vacuum-tight housing.

  4. Reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butz, H.P.; Heuser, F.W.; May, H.

    1985-01-01

    The paper comprises an introduction into nuclear physics bases, the safety concept generally speaking, safety devices of pwr type reactors, accident analysis, external influences, probabilistic safety assessment and risk studies. It further describes operational experience, licensing procedures under the Atomic Energy Law, research in reactor safety and the nuclear fuel cycle. (DG) [de

  5. Health Risk Assessment of Women in Submarines (Phase III): Two Generation Developmental and Reproductive Safety Evaluation of Major Submarine Atmosphere Components (CO, CO2, and O2) in Rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-31

    creatinine (CREA), globulin (GLOB), glucose (GLU), total bilirubin (TBIL), triglycerides (TRIG), and major electrolyte concentrations (Na+; K+; Cl... index finger along the abdomen. The finger was removed and the latency for the pup to roll over and obtain the prone posture with all four paws on...to controls for dams exhibiting evidence of pregnancy (mating index ) and for pregnant dams producing live offspring (gestation index ) were

  6. Safety design guide for safety related systems for CANDU 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Duk Su; Chang, Woo Hyun; Lee, Nam Young [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daeduk (Korea, Republic of); Wright, A.C.D. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Toronto (Canada)

    1996-03-01

    In general, two types of safety related systems and structures exist in the nuclear plant; The one is a systems and structures which perform safety functions during the normal operation of the plant, and the other is a systems and structures which perform safety functions to mitigate events caused by failure of the normally operating systems or by naturally occurring phenomena. In this safety design guide, these systems are identified in detail, and the major events for which the safety functions are required and the major safety requirements are identified in the list. As the probabilistic safety assessments are completed during the course of the project, additions or deletions to the list may be justified. 3 tabs. (Author) .new.

  7. Safety design guide for safety related systems for CANDU 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Duk Su; Chang, Woo Hyun; Lee, Nam Young; A. C. D. Wright

    1996-03-01

    In general, two types of safety related systems and structures exist in the nuclear plant; The one is a systems and structures which perform safety functions during the normal operation of the plant, and the other is a systems and structures which perform safety functions to mitigate events caused by failure of the normally operating systems or by naturally occurring phenomena. In this safety design guide, these systems are identified in detail, and the major events for which the safety functions are required and the major safety requirements are identified in the list. As the probabilistic safety assessments are completed during the course of the project, additions or deletions to the list may be justified. 3 tabs. (Author) .new

  8. AREVA General Inspectorate 2010 Annual Report. Status of safety in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    After messages by different managers, this report proposes a description of the context for nuclear safety: group's policy in matters of nuclear safety and radiation protection, regulatory changes (in France, with respect to information, changes in administrative organization, overhaul of general technical regulations, international context). It describes the organizational changes which occurred within the company. It reports actions regarding transparency, briefly describes actions and principles aimed at improving safety, indicates and comments noteworthy nuclear events, discusses their assessment from a HOF (human and organizational factors) perspective, comments lessons learned from inspections, comments data regarding radiation protection and actions aimed at improving radiation protection. It discusses environmental impact issues. It addresses the different processes and factors which transversely appear in nuclear safety: safety management, human and organizational factors, safety in design, project management, and emergency management. Several specific risks are discussed: criticality control, nuclear materials safeguards, fire, spill prevention, transportation, radioactive waste, shutdown and dismantling, service operations, mining, and environmental liabilities. Document in French and in English

  9. Stressing the Need for Safety in Technical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defore, Jesse j.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the importance of a safety orientation program in technical education and major components of a safety-conscious working enviroment. Suggests every institution take such measures as appointment of a safety officer, maintenance of a safety posture, inclusion of safety in curricula, and application of good safety practices. (CC)

  10. Review on JMTR safety design for LEU core conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komori, Yoshihiro; Yokokawa, Makoto; Saruta, Toru; Inada, Seiji; Sakurai, Fumio; Yamamoto, Katsumune; Oyamada, Rokuro; Saito, Minoru

    1993-12-01

    Safety of the JMTR was fully reviewed for the core conversion to low enriched uranium fuel. Fundamental policies for the JMTR safety design were reconsidered based on the examination guide for safety design of test and research reactors, and safety of the JMTR was confirmed. This report describes the safety design of the JMTR from the viewpoint of major functions for reactor safety. (author)

  11. Decree no 90-918 of 11 october 1990 on exercising rights to information on major risks, in implementation of Section 21 of act no 87-565 of 22 july 1987 on the organisation of public safety measures, forestry protection against fires and prevention of major risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This Decree specifies the content and type of information to which persons likely to be exposed to major risks must have access, in accordance with the 1987 Act. These provisions apply in the communes for which a special action plan has been prepared. The information includes a description of the risks and their foreseeable consequences for persons, property and the environment, and a statement on the preventive measures to limit their effects. A summary record of this information is established [fr

  12. AGI Safety Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Everitt, Tom; Lea, Gary; Hutter, Marcus

    2018-01-01

    The development of Artificial General Intelligence (AGI) promises to be a major event. Along with its many potential benefits, it also raises serious safety concerns (Bostrom, 2014). The intention of this paper is to provide an easily accessible and up-to-date collection of references for the emerging field of AGI safety. A significant number of safety problems for AGI have been identified. We list these, and survey recent research on solving them. We also cover works on how best to think of ...

  13. Plant design and layout of the different buildings with respect to safety, operational and maintenance requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linder, C.

    1981-01-01

    Design and layout of the buildings of a nuclear power plant are governed by the safety requirements regarding nearby population as called for by government regulations as well as by operational and maintenance requirements called for by the power utilities in order to assure smooth operation and easy service conditions. The lecture will focus on the different functional circumstances to be considered, their relative importance, criteria to be applied, pertinent regulations etc. and also give examples on the solutions to the above requirements. Main topics to be covered will be those circumstances that impose the highest demands on the civil engineering layout and design: airplane impact, earthquake, loss of coolant accident, pipe whipping, fuel cask transfer, annual overhaul, leak detection etc. (orig./RW)

  14. Nuclear safety and (cyber)security at the heart of the digital revolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kueny, L.; Levesque, J.

    2017-01-01

    The on-going digital revolution implies the sharing of data beyond the company walls, the development of connected objects and the setting of more and more complex digital networks. All of this increases the risk of being attacked by cyber-criminal and the probability is all the higher because new kinds of cyber-attacks appear every year. Originally nuclear industry has a culture of safety and has implemented numerous mechanisms of physical protection that slow down cyber-attacks. The humane factor is very often an important point for the success of a cyber-attack but the automation of repetitive tasks can reduce this risk. A cyber-attack can stay undetected if regularly overhauls of computer systems are not performed or if they are not adequately monitored. The reliability of digital tools for instance digital archives is a point that hinders the implementation of a total digital certification in the nuclear industry. (A.C.)

  15. Vaccine Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... During Pregnancy Frequently Asked Questions about Vaccine Recalls Historical Vaccine Safety Concerns FAQs about GBS and Menactra ... CISA Resources for Healthcare Professionals Evaluation Current Studies Historical Background 2001-12 Publications Technical Reports Vaccine Safety ...

  16. SAFETY FIRST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Ensuring safety while peacefully utilizing nuclear energy is a top priority for China A fter a recent earthquake in Japan caused radioactive leaks at a nuclear power plant in Tokyo, the safety of nuclear energy has again aroused public attention.

  17. Water Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Water Safety KidsHealth / For Parents / Water Safety What's in ... remains your best measure of protection. Making Kids Water Wise It's important to teach your kids proper ...

  18. The safety of addition of nitrous oxide to general anaesthesia in at-risk patients having major non-cardiac surgery (ENIGMA-II): a randomised, single-blind trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myles, Paul S; Leslie, Kate; Chan, Matthew T V; Forbes, Andrew; Peyton, Philip J; Paech, Michael J; Beattie, W Scott; Sessler, Daniel I; Devereaux, P J; Silbert, Brendan; Schricker, Thomas; Wallace, Sophie

    2014-10-18

    Nitrous oxide is commonly used in general anaesthesia but concerns exist that it might increase perioperative cardiovascular risk. We aimed to gather evidence to establish whether nitrous oxide affects perioperative cardiovascular risk. We did an international, randomised, assessor-blinded trial in patients aged at least 45 years with known or suspected coronary artery disease having major non-cardiac surgery. Patients were randomly assigned via automated telephone service, stratified by site, to receive a general anaesthetic with or without nitrous oxide. Attending anaesthetists were aware of patients' group assignments, but patients and assessors were not. The primary outcome measure was a composite of death and cardiovascular complications (non-fatal myocardial infarction, stroke, pulmonary embolism, or cardiac arrest) within 30 days of surgery. Our modified intention-to-treat population included all patients randomly assigned to groups and undergoing induction of general anaesthesia for surgery. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00430989. Of 10,102 eligible patients, we enrolled 7112 patients between May 30, 2008, and Sept 28, 2013. 3543 were assigned to receive nitrous oxide and 3569 were assigned not to receive nitrous oxide. 3483 patients receiving nitrous oxide and 3509 not receiving nitrous oxide were assessed for the primary outcome. The primary outcome occurred in 283 (8%) patients receiving nitrous oxide and in 296 (8%) patients not receiving nitrous oxide (relative risk 0·96, 95% CI 0·83–1·12; p=0·64). Surgical site infection occurred in 321 (9%) patients assigned to nitrous oxide, and in 311 (9%) patients in the no-nitrous oxide group (p=0·61), and severe nausea and vomiting occurred in 506 patients (15%) assigned to nitrous oxide and 378 patients (11%) not assigned to nitrous oxide (pnitrous oxide use in major non-cardiac surgery. Nitrous oxide did not increase the risk of death and cardiovascular complications or

  19. Estonian Air to overhaul strategy / Matt Withers

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Withers, Matt

    2008-01-01

    Estonian Air on majanduslikes raskustes, mida aitaks leevendada riigipoolne toetus. Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Parts leiab, et riik peaks omama lennufirma juhatuses esimehe kohta, et mõjutada rohkem vastuvõetavaid otsuseid ja investeeringuid

  20. Magnesium Finishing for OEM and Overhaul

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    Dow 9, created in the 1940’s Chrome Manganese, created in the 1940’s Anodize Coatings Used Most Commonly for New Build Dow 17, created 1942 HAE...old castings are still  serviceable • By selecting Tagnite the Air Force was able to  eliminate  hexavalent  chromium and attain corrosion...good  and are still serviceable  • By selecting Tagnite, the Air Force was able to  eliminate  hexavalent  chromium and attain corrosion  resistance

  1. Alemayehu Yismaw Demamu Abstract Ethiopia overhauled its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and Muslims communities in Ethiopia do have their own internal dispute ... Christians offers commercial dispute resolution service involving thousands and ...... practices and decisions of these institutions heighten the quality and prestige of ..... the center spend their money to hotels, restaurants, shops and other services or.

  2. Food safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... safety URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002434.htm Food safety To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Food safety refers to the conditions and practices that preserve the quality of food. These practices prevent contamination and foodborne ...

  3. ASSESSMENT OF FOOD SAFETY PRACTICES AMONG CASSAVA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Philips Olusola

    public policies on food safety management. ... in the contemporary world and a significant factor in the reduction of productivity. There is some .... adduced to the views of the majority who considered food safety practices a big ..... Contingency.

  4. Major Sport Venues

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Major Public Venues dataset is composed of facilities that host events for the National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing, Indy Racing League, Major League...

  5. Major Depression Among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Depressive Episode Among Adolescents Data Sources Share Major Depression Definitions Major depression is one of the most ... Bethesda, MD 20892-9663 Follow Us Facebook Twitter YouTube Google Plus NIMH Newsletter NIMH RSS Feed NIMH ...

  6. Safety handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization's Safety Handbook is to outline simply the fundamental procedures and safety precautions which provide an appropriate framework for safe working with any potential hazards, such as fire and explosion, welding, cutting, brazing and soldering, compressed gases, cryogenic liquids, chemicals, ionizing radiations, non-ionising radiations, sound and vibration, as well as safety in the office. It also specifies the organisation for safety at the Lucas Heights Research Laboratories and the responsibilities of individuals and committees. It also defines the procedures for the scrutiny and review of all operations and the resultant setting of safety rules for them. ills

  7. Relationship of safety culture and process safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olive, Claire; O'Connor, T. Michael; Mannan, M. Sam

    2006-01-01

    Throughout history, humans have gathered in groups for social, religious, and industrial purposes. As the conglomeration of people interact, a set of underlying values, beliefs, and principles begins to develop that serve to guide behavior within the group. These 'guidelines' are commonly referred to as the group culture. Modern-day organizations, including corporations, have developed their own unique cultures derived from the diversity of the organizational interests and the background of the employees. Safety culture, a sub-set of organizational culture, has been a major focus in recent years. This is especially true in the chemical industry due to the series of preventable, safety-related disasters that occurred in the late seventies and eighties. Some of the most notable disasters, during this time period, occurred at Bhopal, Flixborough, and Seveso. However, current events, like the September 11th terrorist attacks and the disintegration of the Columbia shuttle, have caused an assessment of safety culture in a variety of other organizations

  8. Safety design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunitomi, Kazuhiko; Shiozawa, Shusaku

    2004-01-01

    JAERI established the safety design philosophy of the HTTR based on that of current reactors such as LWR in Japan, considering inherent safety features of the HTTR. The strategy of defense in depth was implemented so that the safety engineering functions such as control of reactivity, removal of residual heat and confinement of fission products shall be well performed to ensure safety. However, unlike the LWR, the inherent design features of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) enables the HTTR meet stringent regulatory criteria without much dependence on active safety systems. On the other hand, the safety in an accident typical to the HTGR such as the depressurization accident initiated by a primary pipe rupture shall be ensured. The safety design philosophy of the HTTR considers these unique features appropriately and is expected to be the basis for future Japanese HTGRs. This paper describes the safety design philosophy and safety evaluation procedure of the HTTR especially focusing on unique considerations to the HTTR. Also, experiences obtained from an HTTR safety review and R and D needs for establishing the safety philosophy for the future HTGRs are reported

  9. Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    In this short paper it has only been possible to deal in a rather general way with the standards of safety used in the UK nuclear industry. The record of the industry extending over at least twenty years is impressive and, indeed, unique. No other industry has been so painstaking in protection of its workers and in its avoidance of damage to the environment. Headings are: introduction; how a nuclear power station works; radiation and its effects (including reference to ICRP, the UK National Radiological Protection Board, and safety standards); typical radiation doses (natural radiation, therapy, nuclear power programme and other sources); safety of nuclear reactors - design; key questions (matters of concern which arise in the public mind); safety of operators; safety of people in the vicinity of a nuclear power station; safety of the general public; safety bodies. (U.K.)

  10. An evaluation of safety culture initiatives at BNSF Railway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Major safety culture (SC) initiatives initiated in the FRA Office of Research, Technology and Development (RT&D), such as Clear Signal for Action (CSA), the Investigation of Safety Related Occurrences Protocol (ISROP), the Participative Safety Rules ...

  11. On the road to new nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, Zoltan; Novakova, Helena; Spenlinger, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The article describes the issue of nuclear safety of nuclear power plants and major factors affecting nuclear safety, discusses the consequences of the Fukushima-Daiichi accident, and outlines the advanced concept of nuclear safety which extends the current regulatory requirements for plant safety. This new concept should be adopted globally to prevent occurrences having similar consequences worldwide. The tasks of this new nuclear safety concept are discussed. (orig.)

  12. Nuclear health and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    This report summarizes the responsiveness of DOE and contractors to findings contained in DOE technical safety appraisals and environmental surveys. These appraisals and surveys have been done at DOE facilities and sites to find out the extent of the environmental, safety, and health problems and to prioritize them for corrective action. As of January 1990, DOE computer data showed over 1,700 safety and health problems and almost 1,300 environmental problems. The majority of these problems, however, have not yet been corrected. GAO also looked at the extent to which DOE has developed a computerized tracking system to monitor the status of its environmental, safety, and health problems. GAO found that the computer system lacks important information, such as various field office and independent appraisals. Inclusion of this information would provide a more complete picture of the problems at the site

  13. Patient Safety and Healthcare Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Aikaterini Toska; Panagiotis Kyloudis; Maria Rekleiti; Maria Saridi

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Due to a variety of circumstances and world-wide research findings, patient safety andquality care during hospitalization have emerged as major issues. Patient safety deficits may burdenhealth systems as well as allocated resources. The international community has examined severalproposals covering general and systemic aspects in order to improve patient safety; several long-termprograms and strategies have also been implemented promoting the participation of health-relatedagent...

  14. Management of safety, safety culture and self assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnino, A.

    2000-01-01

    Safety management is the term used for the measures required to ensure that an acceptable level of safety is maintained throughout the life of an installation, including decommissioning. The safety culture concept and its implementation are described in part one of the paper. The principles of safety are now quite well known and are implemented worldwide. It leads to a situation where harmonization is being achieved as indicated by the entry into force of the Convention on Nuclear Safety. To go beyond the present nuclear safety levels, management of safety and safety culture will be the means for achieving progress. Recent events which took place in major nuclear power countries have shown the importance of the management and the consequences on safety. At the same time, electricity deregulation is coming and will impact on safety through reductions in staffing and in operation and maintenance cost at nuclear installations. Management of safety as well as its control and monitoring by the safety authorities become a key to the future of nuclear energy.(author)

  15. Nuclear Safety. 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    A quick review of the nuclear safety at EDF may be summarized as follows: - the nuclear safety at EDF maintains at a rather good standard; - none of the incidents that took place has had any direct impact upon safety; - the availability remained good; - initiation of the floor 4 reactor generation (N4 unit - 1450 MW) ensued without major difficulties (the Civaux 1 NPP has been coupled to the power network at 24 december 1997); - the analysis of the incidents interesting from the safety point of view presents many similarities with earlier ones. Significant progress has been recorded in promoting actively and directly a safe operation by making visible, evident and concrete the exertion of the nuclear operation responsibility and its control by the hierarchy. The report develops the following chapters and subjects: 1. An overview on 1997; 1.1. The technical issues of the nuclear sector; 1.2. General performances in safety; 1.3. The main incidents; 1.4. Wastes and radiation protection; 2. Nuclear safety management; 2.1. Dynamics and results; 2.2. Ameliorations to be consolidated; 3. Other important issues in safety; 3.1. Probabilistic safety studies; 3.2. Approach for safety re-evaluation; 3.3. The network safety; 3.4. Crisis management; 3.5. The Lifetime program; 3.6. PWR; 3.7. Documentation; 3.8. Competence; 4. Safety management in the future; 4.1. An open future; 4.2. The fast neutron NPP at Creys-Malville; 4.3. Stabilization of the PWR reference frame; 4.4. Implementing the EURATOM directive regarding the radiation protection standards; 4.5. Development of biomedical research and epidemiological studies; 4.6. New regulations concerning the liquid and gaseous effluents; 5. Visions of an open future; 5.1. Alternative views upon safety ay EDF; 5.2. Safety authority; 5.3. International considerations; 5.4. What happens abroad; 5.5. References from non-nuclear domain. Four appendices are added referring to policy of safety management, policy of human factors in NPPs

  16. Safety aspects of NPP ageing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Preparation of safety practices on assessment and management of aging of major NPP components important to safety, CRP on management of aging of concrete containment buildings, CRP on management of aging of in-containment instrumentation and control cables are outlined

  17. Simulation of a major tokamak disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.B.; Monticello, D.A.; Rosenbluth, M.N.

    1977-08-01

    It is known that the internal tokamak disruption leads to a current profile which is flattened inside the surface where the safety factor equals unity. It is shown that such a profile can lead to m = 2 magnetic islands which grow to fill a substantial part of the tokamak cross section in a time consistent with the observations of the major disruption

  18. Safety Management Practices in Small and Medium Enterprises in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Unnikrishnan

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: Competition between SMEs was found to be major reason for implementation of safety practices in the SMEs. The major contribution of the study has been awareness building on safety issues in the SMEs that participated in the project.

  19. Safety; Avertissement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This annual report of the Senior Inspector for the Nuclear Safety, analyses the nuclear safety at EDF for the year 1999 and proposes twelve subjects of consideration to progress. Five technical documents are also provided and discussed concerning the nuclear power plants maintenance and safety (thermal fatigue, vibration fatigue, assisted control and instrumentation of the N4 bearing, 1300 MW reactors containment and time of life of power plants). (A.L.B.)

  20. Visit safety

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Experiment areas, offices, workshops: it is possible to have co-workers or friends visit these places.     You already know about the official visits service, the VIP office, and professional visits. But do you know about the safety instruction GSI-OHS1, “Visits on the CERN site”? This is a mandatory General Safety Instruction that was created to assist you in ensuring safety for all your visits, whatever their nature—especially those that are non-official. Questions? The HSE Unit will be happy to answer them. Write to safety-general@cern.ch.   The HSE Unit

  1. Operating experience: safety perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piplani, Vivek; Krishnamurthy, P.R.; Kumar, Neeraj; Upadhyay, Devendra

    2015-01-01

    Operating Experience (OE) provides valuable information for improving NPP safety. This may include events, precursors, deviations, deficiencies, problems, new insights to safety, good practices, lessons and corrective actions. As per INSAG-10, an OE program caters as a fundamental means for enhancing the defence-in-depth at NPPs and hence should be viewed as ‘Continuous Safety Performance Improvement Tool’. The ‘Convention on Nuclear Safety’ also recognizes the OE as a tool of high importance for enhancing the NPP safety and its Article 19 mandates each contracting party to establish an effective OE program at operating NPPs. The lessons drawn from major accidents at Three Mile Island, Chernobyl and Fukushima Daiichi NPPs had prompted nuclear stalwarts to change their safety perspective towards NPPs and to frame sound policies on issues like safety culture, severe accident prevention and mitigation. An effective OE program, besides correcting current/potential problems, help in proactively improving the NPP design, operating and maintenance procedures, practices, training, etc., and thus plays vital role in ensuring safe and efficient operation of NPPs. Further it enhances knowledge with regard to equipment operating characteristics, system performance trends and provides data for quantitative and qualitative safety analysis. Besides all above, an OE program inculcates a learning culture in the organisation and thus helps in continuously enhancing the expertise, technical competency and knowledge base of its staff. Nuclear and Radiation Facilities in India are regulated by Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB). Operating Plants Safety Division (OPSD) of AERB is involved in managing operating experience activities. This paper provides insights about the operating experience program of OPSD, AERB (including its on-line data base namely OPSD STAR) and its utilisation in improving the regulations and safety at Indian NPPs/projects. (author)

  2. Prospects after Major Trauma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holtslag, H.R.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction. After patients survived major trauma, their prospects, in terms of the consequences for functioning, are uncertain, which may impact severely on patient, family and society. The studies in this thesis describes the long-term outcomes of severe injured patients after major trauma. In

  3. Empirical Analysis of Construction Safety Climate - A Study

    OpenAIRE

    S.V.S.RAJA PRASAD; K.P.REGHUNATH

    2010-01-01

    Safety in the construction industry has always been a major issue. Though much improvement in construction safety has been achieved, the industry still continues to lag behind most other industries with regard to safety. The safety climate of any organization consists of employee’s attitudes towards and perceptions of, health and safety behavior. Construction workers attitudes towards safety are influenced by their perceptions of risk, management, safety rulesand procedures. A measure of safe...

  4. Patient safety culture among nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammouri, A A; Tailakh, A K; Muliira, J K; Geethakrishnan, R; Al Kindi, S N

    2015-03-01

    Patient safety is considered to be crucial to healthcare quality and is one of the major parameters monitored by all healthcare organizations around the world. Nurses play a vital role in maintaining and promoting patient safety due to the nature of their work. The purpose of this study was to investigate nurses' perceptions about patient safety culture and to identify the factors that need to be emphasized in order to develop and maintain the culture of safety among nurses in Oman. A descriptive and cross-sectional design was used. Patient safety culture was assessed by using the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture among 414 registered nurses working in four major governmental hospitals in Oman. Descriptive statistics and general linear regression were employed to assess the association between patient safety culture and demographic variables. Nurses who perceived more supervisor or manager expectations, feedback and communications about errors, teamwork across hospital units, and hospital handoffs and transitions had more overall perception of patient safety. Nurses who perceived more teamwork within units and more feedback and communications about errors had more frequency of events reported. Furthermore, nurses who had more years of experience and were working in teaching hospitals had more perception of patient safety culture. Learning and continuous improvement, hospital management support, supervisor/manager expectations, feedback and communications about error, teamwork, hospital handoffs and transitions were found to be major patient safety culture predictors. Investing in practices and systems that focus on improving these aspects is likely to enhance the culture of patient safety in Omani hospitals and others like them. Strategies to nurture patient safety culture in Omani hospitals should focus upon building leadership capacity that support open communication, blame free, team work and continuous organizational learning. © 2014 International

  5. Rolls-Royce successful modernization of safety-critical Instrumentation and Control (I and C) equipment at the Dukovany VVER 440/213 Nuclear Power Plant, based on SPINLINE 3 platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebreyend, P.; Burel, J.P.; Spoc, J.; Karasek, A.

    2010-01-01

    Rolls-Royce has provided on-time delivery of a substantial safety-critical I and C overhaul for four Nuclear reactors operated by Czech Republic utility, CEZ a.s. This nine-year project is considered to be one of the largest I and C modernization projects in the world. The Dukovany VVER 440 I and C modernization project and its key success factors are profiled in this paper. The project is in the final stages with the last unit to be completed in 2009. Beginning in September 2000, the project is in compliance with the initial schedule. Rolls-Royce has been designing and manufacturing I and C solutions dedicated to the implementation of safety and safety-related functions in nuclear power plants (NPPs) for more than 30 years. Though the early solutions were non-software-based, since 1984 software-based solutions for safety I and C functions have been deployed in operating NPPs across France and 15 other countries. The Rolls-Royce platform is suitable for implementation of safety I and C functions in new NPPs, as well as in the modernization of safety equipment in existing plants. CEZ a.s. is a major electricity supplier for the national grid. At Dukovany, CEZ a.s. operates four units of VVER-440/213-type reactors producing one quarter of CEZ a.s. electricity production. The first of these units was connected to the grid in 1985. Since the year 2000, the nine-year modernization program has been underway at Dukovany, at a cost of more than 200 million Euros. The equipment replacement was implemented during regular, planned outages of the original equipment and systems. After an international bidding phase, CEZ a.s. awarded a contract to Skoda JS for general engineering and project management. Individual subcontracts were then signed between Skoda JS and a consortium between Rolls-Royce and Areva for modernization of the safety systems, including the Reactor Protection System (RPS), the Reactor Control System (RCS), and the Post-Accident Monitoring System (PAMS). Two

  6. Safety Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Grinenko

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The offered material in the article is picked up so that the reader could have a complete representation about concept “safety”, intrinsic characteristics and formalization possibilities. Principles and possible strategy of safety are considered. A material of the article is destined for the experts who are taking up the problems of safety.

  7. Safety Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halligan, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Colleges across the country are rising to the task by implementing safety programs, response strategies, and technologies intended to create a secure environment for teachers and students. Whether it is preparing and responding to a natural disaster, health emergency, or act of violence, more schools are making campus safety a top priority. At…

  8. Safety First

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taft, Darryl

    2011-01-01

    Ned Miller does not take security lightly. As director of campus safety and emergency management at the Des Moines Area Community College (DMACC), any threat requires serious consideration. As community college administrators adopt a more proactive approach to campus safety, many institutions are experimenting with emerging technologies, including…

  9. Major nuclear safety and regulatory issues in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Soon Heung

    2004-01-01

    Recently the value of nuclear energy is being re-considered due to the increase of oil price, the lack of energy supply, and the competition with renewable energy source. In Unites States, Europe, and East Asia, the prospects for continuous nuclear energy development or the policy for retaining nuclear energy have been announced. According to the nuclear energy promotion plan in Korea, there are 19 operating nuclear plants currently and more 7 plants will be constructed in the future. Until now, qualitative as well as quantitative growth is remarkable. Korean nuclear power plants achieved world-best level of capacity factor. However, because of the various nuclear industrial activities, we have a lot of regulatory issues for operating plants, building new plants, and other nuclear related facilities such as research reactors or radioactive waste storage facility. In this article, important regulatory issues which are emerging in Korea will be reviewed and the approaches to solve the issues including public acceptance will be presented. Especially, I will go into detail of two special case studies: The one is the thermal sleeve separation incident in Younggwang nuclear units 5 and 6 whose outage lasts about 80 days and 90 days respectively, which is not common in worldwide nuclear history. The other is about consensus meeting of Korea nuclear energy policy which was managed by a non-governmental organization. (author)

  10. Manufacturing and testing experience for FFTF major safety related components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peckinpaugh, C.L.

    1976-01-01

    Experience with FFTF Heat Transport System components during design, manufacturing, and prototype testing is dscussed. Specifically the special design features and the results of the testing performed to assure that the designs provide for safe operation are outlined. Particular emphasis is placed on the full size prototype testing programs and the valuable experience gained

  11. Software Safety and Security

    CERN Document Server

    Nipkow, T; Hauptmann, B

    2012-01-01

    Recent decades have seen major advances in methods and tools for checking the safety and security of software systems. Automatic tools can now detect security flaws not only in programs of the order of a million lines of code, but also in high-level protocol descriptions. There has also been something of a breakthrough in the area of operating system verification. This book presents the lectures from the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Tools for Analysis and Verification of Software Safety and Security; a summer school held at Bayrischzell, Germany, in 2011. This Advanced Study Institute was

  12. Fuel safety research 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uetsuka, Hiroshi (ed.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2000-07-01

    In April 1999, the Fuel Safety Research Laboratory was newly established as a result of reorganization of the Nuclear Safety Research Center, JAERI. The laboratory was organized by combining three laboratories, the Reactivity Accident Laboratory, the Fuel Reliability Laboratory, and a part of the Sever Accident Research Laboratory. Consequently, the Fuel Safety Research Laboratory is now in charge of all the fuel safety research in JAERI. Various types of experimental and analytical researches are conducted in the laboratory by using the unique facilities such as the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR), the Japan Material Testing Reactor (JMTR), the Japan Research Reactor 3 (JRR-3) and hot cells in JAERI. The laboratory consists of five research groups corresponding to each research fields. They are; (a) Research group of fuel behavior under the reactivity initiated accident conditions (RIA group). (b) Research group of fuel behavior under the loss-of-coolant accident conditions (LOCA group). (c) Research group of fuel behavior under the normal operation conditions (JMTR/BOCA group). (d) Research group of fuel behavior analysis (FEMAXI group). (e) Research group of FP release/transport behavior from irradiated fuel (VEGA group). This report summarizes the outline of research activities and major outcomes of the research executed in 1999 in the Fuel Safety Research Laboratory. (author)

  13. International Aspects of Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lash, T.R.

    2000-01-01

    Even though not all the world's nations have developed a nuclear power industry, nuclear safety is unquestionably an international issue. Perhaps the most compelling proof is the 1986 accident at Chornobyl nuclear power plant in what is now Ukraine. The U.S. Department of Energy conducts a comprehensive, cooperative effort to reduce risks at Soviet-designed nuclear power plants. In the host countries : Armenia, Ukraine, Russia, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Lithuania, Slovakia, and Kazakhstan joint projects are correcting major safety deficiencies and establishing nuclear safety infrastructures that will be self-sustaining.The U.S. effort has six primary goals: 1. Operational Safety - Implement the basic elements of operational safety consistent with internationally accepted practices. 2. Training - Improve operator training to internationally accepted standards. 3. Safety Maintenance - Help establish technically effective maintenance programs that can ensure the reliability of safety-related equipment. 4. Safety Systems - Implement safety system improvements consistent with remaining plant lifetimes. 5. Safety Evaluations - Transfer the capability to conduct in-depth plant safety evaluations using internationally accepted methods. 6. Legal and Regulatory Capabilities - Facilitate host-country implementation of necessary laws and regulatory policies consistent with their international treaty obligations governing the safe use of nuclear power

  14. National Chemistry Teacher Safety Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plohocki, Barbra A.

    This study evaluated the status of secondary school instructional chemistry laboratory safety using a survey instrument which focused on Teacher background Information, Laboratory Safety Equipment, Facility Safety, General Safety, and a Safety Content Knowledge Survey. A fifty question survey instrument based on recent research and questions developed by the researcher was mailed to 500 secondary school chemistry teachers who participated in the 1993 one-week Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation Chemistry Institute conducted at Princeton University, New Jersey. The data received from 303 respondents was analyzed by t tests and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The level of significance for the study was set at ~\\ performance on the Safety Content Knowledge Survey and secondary school chemistry teachers who have had undergraduate and/or graduate safety training and those who have not had undergraduate and/or graduate safety training. Secondary school chemistry teachers who attended school district sponsored safety inservices did not score higher on the Safety Content Knowledge Survey than teachers who did not attend school district sponsored safety inservice sessions. The type of school district (urban, suburban, or rural) had no significant correlation to the type of laboratory safety equipment found in the instructional chemistry laboratory. The certification area (chemistry or other type of certificate which may or may not include chemistry) of the secondary school teacher had no significant correlation to the type of laboratory equipment found in the instructional chemistry laboratory. Overall, this study indicated a majority of secondary school chemistry teachers were interested in attending safety workshops applicable to chemistry safety. Throughout this research project, many teachers indicated they were not adequately instructed on the collegiate level in science safety and had to rely on common sense and self-study in their future teaching careers.

  15. Industrial safety management with emphasis on construction safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, R.

    2016-01-01

    Safety professionals, line managers, team leaders and concerned workers today eagerly discuss to find out the best safety approach for their workplace. Some research suggested that behaviour based and comprehensive ergonomics approaches lead in average reduction of injuries. This article discusses 'the science and engineering' behind improvement in industrial safety aspects particularly at construction sites through various safety approaches. A high degree of commitment to safety by the project management and rigorous and proactive measures are essential to prevent accidents at construction sites particularly in DAE units because of its sensitivity. Persistent efforts by the project management are needed for sustainable and committed safety at work place. The number of fatalities occurring from construction work in DAE units is sometimes disturbing and fall of person from height and through openings are the major causes for serious accidents

  16. Major operations and activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the major operations and activities on the site. These operations and activities include site management, waste management, environmental restoration and corrective actions, and research and technology development.

  17. Allegheny County Major Rivers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains locations of major rivers that flow through Allegheny County. These shapes have been taken from the Hydrology dataset. The Ohio River,...

  18. Major operations and activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the major operations and activities on the site. These operations and activities include site management, waste management, environmental restoration and corrective actions, and research and technology development

  19. Standards: An international framework for nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Versteeg, J.

    2000-01-01

    The IAEA, uniquely among international organizations concerned with the use of radiation, radioactive materials and nuclear energy, has statutory functions to establish safety standards and to provide for their application in Member States. The IAEA also contributes towards another major element of the 'global safety culture', namely the establishment of legally binding international agreements on safety related issues. (author)

  20. Fundamental safety principles. Safety fundamentals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This publication states the fundamental safety objective and ten associated safety principles, and briefly describes their intent and purpose. The fundamental safety objective - to protect people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation - applies to all circumstances that give rise to radiation risks. The safety principles are applicable, as relevant, throughout the entire lifetime of all facilities and activities - existing and new - utilized for peaceful purposes, and to protective actions to reduce existing radiation risks. They provide the basis for requirements and measures for the protection of people and the environment against radiation risks and for the safety of facilities and activities that give rise to radiation risks, including, in particular, nuclear installations and uses of radiation and radioactive sources, the transport of radioactive material and the management of radioactive waste

  1. Fundamental safety principles. Safety fundamentals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This publication states the fundamental safety objective and ten associated safety principles, and briefly describes their intent and purpose. The fundamental safety objective - to protect people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation - applies to all circumstances that give rise to radiation risks. The safety principles are applicable, as relevant, throughout the entire lifetime of all facilities and activities - existing and new - utilized for peaceful purposes, and to protective actions to reduce existing radiation risks. They provide the basis for requirements and measures for the protection of people and the environment against radiation risks and for the safety of facilities and activities that give rise to radiation risks, including, in particular, nuclear installations and uses of radiation and radioactive sources, the transport of radioactive material and the management of radioactive waste

  2. Safety strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultheiss, G.F.

    1980-01-01

    The basis for safety strategy in nuclear industry and especially nuclear power plants is the prevention of radioactivity release inside or outside of the technical installation. Therefore either technical or administrative measures are combined to a general strategy concept. This introduction will explain in more detail the following topics: - basic principles of safety - lines of assurance (LOA) - defense in depth - deterministic and probabilistic methods. This presentation is seen as an introduction to the more detailed discussion following in this course, nevertheless some selected examples will be used to illustrate the aspects of safety strategy development although they might be repeated later on. (orig.)

  3. Safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drukraroff, C.

    2010-01-01

    The concept of Safety Culture was defined after Chernobyl's nuclear accident in 1986. It has not been exempt from discussion interpretations, adding riders, etc..., over the last 24 years because it has to do with human behavior and performance in the organizations. Safety Culture is not an easy task to define, assess and monitor. The proof of it is that today we still discussing and writing about it. How has been the evolution of Safety Culture at the Juzbado Factory since 1985 to today?. What is the strategy that we will be following in the future. (Author)

  4. Radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    Most of the ionizing radiation that people are exposed to in day-to-day activities comes from natural, rather than manmade, sources. The health effects of radiation - both natural and artificial - are relatively well understood and can be effectively minimized through careful safety measures and practices. The IAEA, together with other international and expert organizations, is helping to promote and institute Basic Safety Standards on an international basis to ensure that radiation sources and radioactive materials are managed for both maximum safety and human benefit

  5. Nuclear Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, E G [ed.

    1989-01-01

    This document is a review journal that covers significant developments in the field of nuclear safety. Its scope includes the analysis and control of hazards associated with nuclear energy, operations involving fissionable materials, and the products of nuclear fission and their effects on the environment. Primary emphasis is on safety in reactor design, construction, and operation; however, the safety aspects of the entire fuel cycle, including fuel fabrication, spent-fuel processing, nuclear waste disposal, handling of radioisotopes, and environmental effects of these operations, are also treated.

  6. Safety assessment and verification for nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This Safety Guide was prepared under the IAEA programme for safety standards for nuclear power plants. The present publication is a revision of the IAEA Safety Guide on Management of Nuclear Power Plants for Safe Operation issued in 1984. It supplements Section 2 of the Safety Requirements publication on Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation. Nuclear power technology is different from the customary technology of power generation from fossil fuel and by hydroelectric means. One major difference between the management of nuclear power plants and that of conventional generating plants is the emphasis that should be placed on nuclear safety, quality assurance, the management of radioactive waste and radiological protection, and the accompanying national regulatory requirements. This Safety Guide highlights the important elements of effective management in relation to these aspects of safety. The attention to be paid to safety requires that the management recognize that personnel involved in the nuclear power programme should understand, respond effectively to, and continuously search for ways to enhance safety in the light of any additional requirements socially and legally demanded of nuclear energy. This will help to ensure that safety policies that result in the safe operation of nuclear power plants are implemented and that margins of safety are always maintained. The structure of the organization, management standards and administrative controls should be such that there is a high degree of assurance that safety policies and decisions are implemented, safety is continuously enhanced and a strong safety culture is promoted and supported. The objective of this publication is to guide Member States in setting up an operating organization which facilitates the safe operation of nuclear power plants to a high level internationally. The second objective is to provide guidance on the most important organizational elements in order to contribute to a strong safety

  7. Safety assessment and verification for nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This Safety Guide was prepared under the IAEA programme for safety standards for nuclear power plants. The present publication is a revision of the IAEA Safety Guide on Management of Nuclear Power Plants for Safe Operation issued in 1984. It supplements Section 2 of the Safety Requirements publication on Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation. Nuclear power technology is different from the customary technology of power generation from fossil fuel and by hydroelectric means. One major difference between the management of nuclear power plants and that of conventional generating plants is the emphasis that should be placed on nuclear safety, quality assurance, the management of radioactive waste and radiological protection, and the accompanying national regulatory requirements. This Safety Guide highlights the important elements of effective management in relation to these aspects of safety. The attention to be paid to safety requires that the management recognize that personnel involved in the nuclear power programme should understand, respond effectively to, and continuously search for ways to enhance safety in the light of any additional requirements socially and legally demanded of nuclear energy. This will help to ensure that safety policies that result in the safe operation of nuclear power plants are implemented and that margins of safety are always maintained. The structure of the organization, management standards and administrative controls should be such that there is a high degree of assurance that safety policies and decisions are implemented, safety is continuously enhanced and a strong safety culture is promoted and supported. The objective of this publication is to guide Member States in setting up an operating organization which facilitates the safe operation of nuclear power plants to a high level internationally. The second objective is to provide guidance on the most important organizational elements in order to contribute to a strong safety

  8. Prescribing safety, negotiating expertise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolina, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    Owing to their presumed impact on the safety of high-risk installations, the interactions between regulators and the regulated are a major but seldom explored subject of research in risk management. A study by experts on human and organizational factors in nuclear safety sheds light on the various phases (and their effects) of the process whereby experts produce assessments. Light is shed on a 'negotiated expertise' typical of the French style of safety regulations in nuclear installations. It is based on an ongoing technical dialog between experts and operators ('French cooking' for Anglo-Saxons). This analysis of 'expertise' and thus of the 'logics of action' implemented by experts proposes a typology of actions that can be transposed to other sorts of risk or other fields of activity. It hands us the keys for understanding a very contemporary activity. (author)

  9. Reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneley, D.A.

    The people of Ontario have begun to receive the benefits of a low cost, assured supply of electrical energy from CANDU nuclear stations. This indigenous energy source also has excellent safety characteristics. Safety has been one of the central themes of the CANDU development program from its very beginning. A great deal of work has been done to establish that public risks are small. However, safety design criteria are now undergoing extensive review, with a real prospect of more stringent requirements being applied in the future. Considering the newness of the technology it is not surprising that a consensus does not yet exist; this makes it imperative to discuss the issues. It is time to examine the policies and practice of reactor safety management in Canada to decide whether or not further restrictions are justified in the light of current knowledge

  10. Safety first!

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Among the many duties I assumed at the beginning of the year was the ultimate responsibility for Safety at CERN: the responsibility for the physical safety of the personnel, the responsibility for the safe operation of the facilities, and the responsibility to ensure that CERN acts in accordance with the highest standards of radiation and environmental protection.   The Safety Policy document drawn up in September 2014 is an excellent basis for the implementation of Safety in all areas of CERN’s work. I am happy to commit during my mandate to help meet its objectives, not least by ensuring the Organization makes available the necessary means to achieve its Safety objectives. One of the main objectives of the HSE (Occupational Health and Safety and Environmental Protection) unit in the coming months is to enhance the measures to minimise CERN’s impact on the environment. I believe CERN should become a role model for an environmentally-aware scientific research laboratory. Risk ...

  11. Radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Priyanka

    2014-01-01

    The use of radiation sources is a privilege; in order to retain the privilege, all persons who use sources of radiation must follow policies and procedures for their safe and legal use. The purpose of this poster is to describe the policies and procedures of the Radiation Protection Program. Specific conditions of radiation safety require the establishment of peer committees to evaluate proposals for the use of radionuclides, the appointment of a radiation safety officer, and the implementation of a radiation safety program. In addition, the University and Medical Centre administrations have determined that the use of radiation producing machines and non-ionizing radiation sources shall be included in the radiation safety program. These Radiation Safety policies are intended to ensure that such use is in accordance with applicable State and Federal regulations and accepted standards as directed towards the protection of health and the minimization of hazard to life or property. It is the policy that all activities involving ionizing radiation or radiation emitting devices be conducted so as to keep hazards from radiation to a minimum. Persons involved in these activities are expected to comply fully with the Canadian Nuclear Safety Act and all it. The risk of prosecution by the Department of Health and Community Services exists if compliance with all applicable legislation is not fulfilled. (author)

  12. Major international sport profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dilip R; Stier, Bernhard; Luckstead, Eugene F

    2002-08-01

    Sports are part of the sociocultural fabric of all countries. Although different sports have their origins in different countries, many sports are now played worldwide. International sporting events bring athletes of many cultures together and provide the opportunity not only for athletic competition but also for sociocultural exchange and understanding among people. This article reviews five major sports with international appeal and participation: cricket, martial arts, field hockey, soccer, and tennis. For each sport, the major aspects of physiological and biomechanical demands, injuries, and prevention strategies are reviewed.

  13. Major New Initiatives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Major New Initiatives. Multi-party multi-rate video conferencing OOPS. Live Lecture OOPS. Rural ATM Machine Vortex. Finger print detection HP-IITM. Medical Diagnostic kit NeuroSynaptic. LCD projection system TeNeT. Web Terminal MeTeL Midas. Entertainment ...

  14. Major planning enquiries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shore, P

    1978-11-01

    This is a speech delivered by the U.K. Secretary of State for the Environment in Manchester (UK) on September 13th 1978. It outlines the Minister's views on the role and significance of major planning inquiries - such as that proposed to be held on the Commercial Demonstration Fast Reactor. (CDFR) (author).

  15. Major Biomass Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Top Scientists, Industry and Government Leaders to Gather for Major Biomass Conference America, South America and Europe will focus on building a sustainable, profitable biomass business at the Third Biomass Conference of the Americas in Montreal. Scheduled presentations will cover all biomass

  16. Unity in Major Themes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booss-Bavnbek, Bernhelm; Davis, Philip J.

    We describe and explain the desire, common among mathematicians, both for unity and independence in its major themes. In the dialogue that follows, we express our spontaneous and considered judgment and reservations; by contrasting the development of mathematics as a goal-driven process as opposed...

  17. Safety of nuclear power plants: Design. Safety requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    other reactor types, including innovative developments in future systems, some of the requirements may not be applicable, or may need some judgment in their interpretation. Various Safety Guides will provide guidance in the interpretation and implementation of these requirements. This publication is intended for use by organizations designing, manufacturing, constructing and operating nuclear power plants as well as by regulatory bodies. This publication establishes design requirements for structures, systems and components important to safety that must be met for safe operation of a nuclear power plant, and for preventing or mitigating the consequences of events that could jeopardize safety. It also establishes requirements for a comprehensive safety assessment, which is carried out in order to identify the potential hazards that may arise from the operation of the plant, under the various plant states (operational states and accident conditions). The safety assessment process includes the complementary techniques of deterministic safety analysis and probabilistic safety analysis. These analyses necessitate consideration of postulated initiating events (PlEs), which include many factors that, singly or in combination, may affect safety and which may: originate in the operation of the nuclear power plant itself; be caused by human action; be directly related to the nuclear power plant and its environment. This publication also addresses events that are very unlikely to occur, such as severe accidents that may result in major radioactive releases, and for which it may be appropriate and practicable to provide preventive or mitigatory features in the design. This publication does not address: external natural or human induced events that are extremely unlikely (such as the impact of a meteorite or an artificial satellite); conventional industrial accidents that under no circumstances could affect the safety of the nuclear power plant; or non-radiological effects arising

  18. Safety of nuclear power plants: Design. Safety requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    other reactor types, including innovative developments in future systems, some of the requirements may not be applicable, or may need some judgment in their interpretation. Various Safety Guides will provide guidance in the interpretation and implementation of these requirements. This publication is intended for use by organizations designing, manufacturing, constructing and operating nuclear power plants as well as by regulatory bodies. This publication establishes design requirements for structures, systems and components important to safety that must be met for safe operation of a nuclear power plant, and for preventing or mitigating the consequences of events that could jeopardize safety. It also establishes requirements for a comprehensive safety assessment, which is carried out in order to identify the potential hazards that may arise from the operation of the plant, under the various plant states (operational states and accident conditions). The safety assessment process includes the complementary techniques of deterministic safety analysis and probabilistic safety analysis. These analyses necessitate consideration of postulated initiating events (PlEs), which include many factors that, singly or in combination, may affect safety and which may: originate in the operation of the nuclear power plant itself. Be caused by human action. Be directly related to the nuclear power plant and its environment. This publication also addresses events that are very unlikely to occur, such as severe accidents that may result in major radioactive releases, and for which it may be appropriate and practicable to provide preventive or mitigatory features in the design. This publication does not address: external natural or human induced events that are extremely unlikely (such as the impact of a meteorite or an artificial satellite). Conventional industrial accidents that under no circumstances could affect the safety of the nuclear power plant. Or non-radiological effects arising

  19. Safety detaching hook specification.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, JD

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available hydraulic tensioning system The impactor must subject the safety detaching hook to an impact energy of 150 kJ minimum. A high speed digital imaging system, capable of recording at least 2000 full frames per second, shall be used to record video images... document compiled by the Contractor, detailing all major events in the production phase, including but not necessarily limited to inspection requirements, test procedures and acceptance/rejection criteria, sampling plans and equipment to be employed...

  20. ASN report on nuclear safety and radiation protection in France in 2006, excerpts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacoste, A.C.

    2007-01-01

    The main topics for the Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) in 2006 were the following ones. 1) the 2006-686 bill on transparency and security in the nuclear field. This law constitutes an overhaul of the legislative framework applicable to nuclear activities. It creates the Nuclear Safety Authority as an independent administrative authority and defines its tasks. It contains significant advances in terms of transparency. 2) The 2006-739 bill concerning sustainable management of radioactive materials and waste. This law clearly states that the disposal in deep geological formations is the reference solution for high-level, long-lived radioactive wastes. 3) The EPR reactor project safety in which ASN completed technical examination of the preliminary safety case. In November 2006, ASN produced to French Authorities a draft decree concerning the EPR project on the Flamanville site. 4) An international audit of ASN was performed in 2006 by IAEA in order to assess the extent to which the standards IAEA recommends are taken into account and implemented. 5) ASN has contributed to the harmonization of nuclear safety in Europe and at world scale through its contribution to the work of the WENRA association. 6) In 2005 and 2006 4 serious radiotherapy accidents were reported in France. Cancer radiotherapy is a fully justified practice that demands a vigilant supervision of ASN. 7) ASN has amplified its means for informing the public about nuclear safety and radiation protection. And 8) ASN considers that people and organizations are fundamental factors in safety and radiation protection and that significant progress is still to be made in taking into account these factors in nuclear activities. (A.C.)

  1. Waste management safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, H.

    1983-01-01

    All studies carried out by competent authors of the safety of a waste management concept on the basis of reprocessing of the spent fuel elements and storage in the deep underground of the radioactive waste show that only a minor technical risk is involved in this step. This also holds true when evaluating the accidents which have occurred in waste management facilities. To explain the risk, first the completely different safety aspects of nuclear power plants, reprocessing plants and repositories are outlined together with the safety related characteristics of these plants. Also this comparison indicates that the risk of waste management facilities is considerably lower than the, already very small, risk of nuclear power plants. For the final storage of waste from reprocessing and for the direct storage of fuel elements, the results of safety analyses show that the radiological exposure following an accident with radioactivity releases, even under conservative assumptions, is considerably below the natural radiation exposure. The very small danger to the environment arising from waste management by reprocessing clearly indicates that aspects of technical safety alone will hardly be a major criterion for the decision in favor of one or the other waste management approach. (orig.) [de

  2. SAFETY INSTRUCTION AND SAFETY NOTE

    CERN Multimedia

    TIS Secretariat

    2002-01-01

    Please note that the SAFETY INSTRUCTION N0 49 (IS 49) and the SAFETY NOTE N0 28 (NS 28) entitled respectively 'AVOIDING CHEMICAL POLLUTION OF WATER' and 'CERN EXHIBITIONS - FIRE PRECAUTIONS' are available on the web at the following urls: http://edms.cern.ch/document/335814 and http://edms.cern.ch/document/335861 Paper copies can also be obtained from the TIS Divisional Secretariat, email: TIS.Secretariat@cern.ch

  3. System safety education focused on flight safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, E.

    1971-01-01

    The measures necessary for achieving higher levels of system safety are analyzed with an eye toward maintaining the combat capability of the Air Force. Several education courses were provided for personnel involved in safety management. Data include: (1) Flight Safety Officer Course, (2) Advanced Safety Program Management, (3) Fundamentals of System Safety, and (4) Quantitative Methods of Safety Analysis.

  4. Radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Riessen, A.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Experience has shown that modem, fully enclosed, XRF and XRD units are generally safe. This experience may lead to complacency and ultimately a lowering of standards which may lead to accidents. Maintaining awareness of radiation safety issues is thus an important role for all radiation safety officers. With the ongoing progress in technology, a greater number of radiation workers are more likely to use a range of instruments/techniques - eg portable XRF, neutron beam analysis, and synchrotron radiation analysis. The source for each of these types of analyses is different and necessitates an understanding of the associated dangers as well as use of specific radiation badges. The trend of 'suitcase science' is resulting in scientists receiving doses from a range of instruments and facilities with no coordinated approach to obtain an integrated dose reading for an individual. This aspect of radiation safety needs urgent attention. Within Australia a divide is springing up between those who work on Commonwealth property and those who work on State property. For example a university staff member may operate irradiating equipment on a University campus and then go to a CSIRO laboratory to operate similar equipment. While at the University State regulations apply and while at CSIRO Commonwealth regulations apply. Does this individual require two badges? Is there a need to obtain two licences? The application of two sets of regulations causes unnecessary confusion and increases the workload of radiation safety officers. Radiation safety officers need to introduce risk management strategies to ensure that both existing and new procedures result in risk minimisation. A component of this strategy includes ongoing education and revising of regulations. AXAA may choose to contribute to both of these activities as a service to its members as well as raising the level of radiation safety for all radiation workers. Copyright (2002) Australian X-ray Analytical

  5. Safety organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, M.

    1984-06-01

    After a rapid definition of a nuclear basis installation, the national organization of nuclear safety in France is presented, as also the main organizations concerned and their functions. This report shows how the licensing procedure leading to the construction and exploitation of such installations is applied in the case of nuclear laboratories of research and development: examinations of nuclear safety problems are carried out at different levels: - centralized to define the frame out of which the installation has not to operate, - decentralized to follow in a more detailed manner its evolution [fr

  6. Nuclear safety policy statement in korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, W.S.; Kim, H.J.; Choi, K.S.; Choi, Y.S.; Park, D.K.

    2006-01-01

    fixed. It includes 5 regulatory principles such as Independence, Openness, Clarity, Efficiency and Reliability. It also stipulates 14 safety policy directions in the areas such as maintaining highest nuclear safety level, consistent development of safety standards. improving regulatory competence, promoting safety culture, etc. The government's declaration of this new statement will show the strong commitment of nuclear safety and for enhancing transparency of safety regulation and also establishing public trust and confidence in nuclear safety. Incorporating safety policy directions suggested in this new statement, measures for safety enhancement in nuclear and radiation related facilities could be effectively implemented. As this safety policy statement embraces major safety policy directions for at least next 10 years, it will be used as a good basis of enhancing nuclear safety by regulator and licensees in the future

  7. Nordic studies in reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pershagen, N.

    1993-01-01

    The Nordic Nuclear Safety Research Programme SIK programme in reactor safety is part of a major joint Nordic research effort in nuclear safety. The report summarizes the achievements of the SIK programme, which was carried out during 1990-1993 in collaboration between Nordic nuclear utilities, safety authorities, and research institutes. Three main projects were successfully completed dealing with: 1) development and application of a living PSA concept for monitoring the risk of core damage, and of safety indicators for early warning of possible safety problems; 2) review and intercomparison of severe accident codes, case studies of potential core melt accidents in nordic reactors, development of chemical models for the MAAP code, and outline of a system for computerized accident management support; 3) compilation of information about design and safety features of neighbouring reactors in Germany, Lithuania and Russia, and for naval reactors and nuclear submarines. The report reviews the state-of-the-art in each subject matter as an introduction to the individual project summaries. The main findings of each project are highlighted. The report also contains an overview of reactor safety research in the Nordic countries and a summary of fundamental reactor safety principles. (au) (69 refs.)

  8. Industrial hazard and safety handbook

    CERN Document Server

    King, Ralph W

    1979-01-01

    Industrial Hazard and Safety Handbook (Revised Impression) describes and exposes the main hazards found in industry, with emphasis on how these hazards arise, are ignored, are identified, are eliminated, or are controlled. These hazard conditions can be due to human stresses (for example, insomnia), unsatisfactory working environments, as well as secret industrial processes. The book reviews the cost of accidents, human factors, inspections, insurance, legal aspects, planning for major emergencies, organization, and safety measures. The text discusses regulations, codes of practice, site layou

  9. Safety of nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacPherson, H.G.

    1982-01-01

    Safety is the major public issue to be resolved or accommodated if nuclear power is to have a future. Probabilistic Risk Analysis (PRA) of accidental releases of low-level radiation, the spread and activity of radiation in populated areas, and the impacts on public health from exposure evolved from the earlier Rasmussen Reactor Safety Study. Applications of the PRA technique have identified design peculiarities in specific reactors, thus increasing reactor safety and establishing a quide for evaluating reactor regulations. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission and reactor vendors must share with utilities the responsibility for reactor safety in the US and for providing reasonable assurance to the public. This entails persuasive public education and information that with safety a top priority, changes now being made in light water reactor hardware and operations will be adequate. 17 references, 2 figures, 2 tables

  10. Blanket safety by GEMSAFE methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawada, Tetsuo; Saito, Masaki

    2001-01-01

    General Methodology of Safety Analysis and Evaluation for Fusion Energy Systems (GEMSAFE) has been applied to a number of fusion system designs, such as R-tokamak, Fusion Experimental Reactor (FER), and the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) designs in the both stages of Conceptual Design Activities (CDA) and Engineering Design Activities (EDA). Though the major objective of GEMSAFE is to reasonably select design basis events (DBEs) it is also useful to elucidate related safety functions as well as requirements to ensure its safety. In this paper, we apply the methodology to fusion systems with future tritium breeding blankets and make clear which points of the system should be of concern from safety ensuring point of view. In this context, we have obtained five DBEs that are related to the blanket system. We have also clarified the safety functions required to prevent accident propagations initiated by those blanket-specific DBEs. The outline of the methodology is also reviewed. (author)

  11. Safety control and risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, J.

    1987-01-01

    The acceptable probability of major accidents in nuclear power is very small, and can not be determined from direct empirical evidence. Therefore, control of the level of safety is a complex problem. The difficulty is related to the fact that a variable, 'safety', which is not accessible to direct measurement, is to be tightly controlled. Control, therefore, depends on a systematic, analytical prediction of the target state, i.e., the level of safety, from indirect evidence. From a control theoretic point of view this means that safety is controlled by a system which includes openloop as well as closed loop control paths. The aim of the paper is to take a general systems view on the complex mechanisms involved in the control of safety of industrial installations like nuclear power. From this, the role of probabilistic risk analysis is evaluated and needs for further development discussed. (author)

  12. The Ursa Major supercluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuch, N.J.

    1983-01-01

    An optical and a radio survey have been carried out. The optical observations consist of a spectroscopic survey in which redshift data for cluster galaxies and optical identifications of radio sources were obtained with the 98-inch Isaac Newton telescope at the Royal Greenwich Observatory, and the 200-inch Hale telescope; the photographic survey in B, V and R colors was made with the 48-inch Schmidt telescope at Palomar. Some results on the galaxy distribution in the Ursa Major supercluster are briefly discussed. (Auth.)

  13. Patient safety

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Page 1 .... BMJ 2012;344:e832. Table 2. Unsafe medical care. Structural factors. Organisational determinants. Structural accountability (accreditation and regulation). Safety culture. Training, education and human resources. Stress and fatigue .... for routine take-off and landing, yet doctors feel that it is demeaning to do so?

  14. Sun Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Children from the Sun? Are There Benefits to Spending Time Outdoors? The Surgeon General’s Call to Action to Prevent Skin Cancer Related Resources Sun Safety Tips for Men Tips for Families Tips for Schools Tips for Employers Tips for ...

  15. Occupational radiation protection. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Occupational exposure to ionizing radiation can occur in a range of industries, medical institutions, educational and research establishments and nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Adequate radiation protection of workers is essential for the safe and acceptable use of radiation, radioactive materials and nuclear energy. In 1996, the Agency published Safety Fundamentals on Radiation Protection and the Safety of Radiation Sources (IAEA Safety Series No. 120) and International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing, Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (IAEA Safety Series No. 115), both of which were jointly sponsored by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the IAEA, the International Labour Organisation, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, the Pan American Health Organization and the World Health Organization. These publications set out, respectively, the objectives and principles for radiation safety and the requirements to be met to apply the principles and to achieve the objectives. The establishment of safety requirements and guidance on occupational radiation protection is a major component of the support for radiation safety provided by the IAEA to its Member States. The objective of the IAEA's occupational protection programme is to promote an internationally harmonized approach to the optimization of occupational radiation protection, through the development and application of guidelines for restricting radiation exposures and applying current radiation protection techniques in the workplace. Guidance on meeting the requirements of the Basic Safety Standards for occupational protection is provided in three interrelated Safety Guides, one giving general guidance on the development of occupational radiation protection programmes and two giving more detailed guidance on the monitoring and assessment of workers' exposure due to external radiation sources and from intakes of radionuclides, respectively. These Safety

  16. Occupational radiation protection. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Occupational exposure to ionizing radiation can occur in a range of industries, medical institutions, educational and research establishments and nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Adequate radiation protection of workers is essential for the safe and acceptable use of radiation, radioactive materials and nuclear energy. In 1996, the Agency published Safety Fundamentals on Radiation Protection and the Safety of Radiation Sources (IAEA Safety Series No. 120) and International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing, Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (IAEA Safety Series No. 115), both of which were jointly sponsored by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the IAEA, the International Labour Organisation, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, the Pan American Health Organization and the World Health Organization. These publications set out, respectively, the objectives and principles for radiation safety and the requirements to be met to apply the principles and to achieve the objectives. The establishment of safety requirements and guidance on occupational radiation protection is a major component of the support for radiation safety provided by the IAEA to its Member States. The objective of the IAEA's occupational protection programme is to promote an internationally harmonized approach to the optimization of occupational radiation protection, through the development and application of guidelines for restricting radiation exposures and applying current radiation protection techniques in the workplace. Guidance on meeting the requirements of the Basic Safety Standards for occupational protection is provided in three interrelated Safety Guides, one giving general guidance on the development of occupational radiation protection programmes and two giving more detailed guidance on the monitoring and assessment of workers' exposure due to external radiation sources and from intakes of radionuclides, respectively. These Safety

  17. Occupational radiation protection. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Occupational exposure to ionizing radiation can occur in a range of industries, medical institutions, educational and research establishments and nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Adequate radiation protection of workers is essential for the safe and acceptable use of radiation, radioactive materials and nuclear energy. In 1996, the Agency published Safety Fundamentals on Radiation Protection and the Safety of Radiation Sources (IAEA Safety Series No. 120) and International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing, Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (IAEA Safety Series No. 115), both of which were jointly sponsored by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the IAEA, the International Labour Organisation, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, the Pan American Health Organization and the World Health Organization. These publications set out, respectively, the objectives and principles for radiation safety and the requirements to be met to apply the principles and to achieve the objectives. The establishment of safety requirements and guidance on occupational radiation protection is a major component of the support for radiation safety provided by the IAEA to its Member States. The objective of the IAEA's occupational protection programme is to promote an internationally harmonized approach to the optimization of occupational radiation protection, through the development and application of guidelines for restricting radiation exposures and applying current radiation protection techniques in the workplace. Guidance on meeting the requirements of the Basic Safety Standards for occupational protection is provided in three interrelated Safety Guides, one giving general guidance on the development of occupational radiation protection programmes and two giving more detailed guidance on the monitoring and assessment of workers' exposure due to external radiation sources and from intakes of radionuclides, respectively. These Safety

  18. Occupational radiation protection. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Occupational exposure to ionizing radiation can occur in a range of industries, medical institutions, educational and research establishments and nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Adequate radiation protection of workers is essential for the safe and acceptable use of radiation, radioactive materials and nuclear energy. In 1996, the Agency published Safety Fundamentals on Radiation Protection and the Safety of Radiation Sources (IAEA Safety Series No. 120) and International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing, Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (IAEA Safety Series No. 115), both of which were jointly sponsored by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the IAEA, the International Labour Organisation, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, the Pan American Health Organization and the World Health Organization. These publications set out, respectively, the objectives and principles for radiation safety and the requirements to be met to apply the principles and to achieve the objectives. The establishment of safety requirements and guidance on occupational radiation protection is a major component of the support for radiation safety provided by the IAEA to its Member States. The objective of the IAEA's occupational protection programme is to promote an internationally harmonized approach to the optimization of occupational radiation protection, through the development and application of guidelines for restricting radiation exposures and applying current radiation protection techniques in the workplace. Guidance on meeting the requirements of the Basic Safety Standards for occupational protection is provided in three interrelated Safety Guides, one giving general guidance on the development of occupational radiation protection programmes and two giving more detailed guidance on the monitoring and assessment of workers' exposure due to external radiation sources and from intakes of radionuclides, respectively. These Safety

  19. Fuel safety research 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uetsuka, Hiroshi (ed.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    In April 1999, the Fuel Safety Research Laboratory was newly established as a part of reorganization of the Nuclear Safety Research Center, JAERI. The new laboratory was organized by combining three pre-existing laboratories, Reactivity Accident Laboratory, Fuel Reliability Laboratory, and a part of Severe Accident Research Laboratory. The Fuel Safety Research Laboratory becomes to be in charge of all fuel safety research in JAERI. Various experimental and analytical researches are conducted in the laboratory by using the unique facilities such as the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR), the Japan Material Testing Reactor (JMTR), the Japan Research Reactor 3 (JRR-3) and hot cells in JAERI. The laboratory consists of following five research groups corresponding to each research fields; (a) Research group of fuel behavior under the reactivity initiated accident conditions (RIA group). (b) Research group of fuel behavior under the loss-of-coolant accident conditions (LOCA group). (c) Research group of fuel behavior under the normal operation conditions (JMTR/BOCA group). (d) Research group of fuel behavior analysis (FEMAXI group). (e) Research group of FP release/transport behavior from irradiated fuel (VEGA group). The research activities in year 2000 produced many important data and information. They are, for example, failure of high burnup BWR fuel rod under RIA conditions, data on the behavior of hydrided Zircaloy cladding under LOCA conditions and FP release data from VEGA experiments at very high temperature/pressure condition. This report summarizes the outline of research activities and major outcomes of the research executed in 2000 in the Fuel Safety Research Laboratory. (author)

  20. New perspectives on reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avery, R.

    1986-01-01

    Over the past few years a number of changes and new perspectives have come about in our approach to reactor safety. These changes have occurred over a period of time extending from as long ago as 1975, when WASH-1400 came out representing the first major application of probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) to US reactor plants. The period of change has extended from that time to the present, and includes new areas of focus such as safety goals, source term studies, and severe accident policy statement and approaches, including the IDCOR Program. It has also included a greatly increased interest in inherent safety. These areas are discussed in this paper

  1. Securing Major Events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeoef, Susanna

    2013-01-01

    When asked why the IAEA should provide nuclear security support to countries that organize large public events, Nuclear Security Officer Sophia Miaw answers quickly and without hesitation. ''Imagine any major public event such as the Olympics, a football championship, or an Expo. If a dirty bomb were to be exploded at a site where tens of thousands of people congregate, the radioactive contamination would worsen the effects of the bomb, increase the number of casualties, impede a rapid emergency response, and cause long term disruption in the vicinity,'' she said. Avoiding such nightmarish scenarios is the driving purpose behind the assistance the IAEA offers States that host major sporting or other public events. The support can range from a single training course to a comprehensive programme that includes threat assessment, training, loaned equipment and exercises. The type and scope of assistance depends on the host country's needs. ''We incorporate nuclear security measures into their security plan. We don't create anything new,'' Miaw said

  2. Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Grobler

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The treatment guideline draws on several international guidelines: (iPractice Guidelines of the American Psychiatric Association (APAfor the Treatment of Patients with Major Depressive Disorder, SecondEdition;[1](ii Clinical Guidelines for the Treatment of DepressiveDisorders by the Canadian Psychiatric Association and the CanadianNetwork for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT;[2](iiiNational Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE guidelines;[3](iv RoyalAustralian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists Clinical PracticeGuidelines Team for Depression (RANZCAP;[4](v Texas MedicationAlgorithm Project (TMAP Guidelines;[5](vi World Federation ofSocieties of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP Treatment Guideline forUnipolar Depressive Disorder;[6]and (vii British Association forPsychopharmacology Guidelines.[7

  3. Annual report on occupational safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-09-01

    A report is given on the occupational safety relating to BNFL's employees for the year 1984 and the results compared to those obtained in 1983. Data are presented for each of the Company's Sites on whole body exposures, accidental deaths and major injuries and nuclear and non-nuclear incidents. The results show that the Company average body dose continues to be less than 5mSv, there were no accidental deaths but 15 major injuries. One nuclear incident and 9 non-nuclear incidents were notified to the Health and Safety Executive. (UK)

  4. Manpower analysis in transportation safety. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, C.S.; Bowden, H.M.; Colford, C.A.; DeFilipps, P.J.; Dennis, J.D.; Ehlert, A.K.; Popkin, H.A.; Schrader, G.F.; Smith, Q.N.

    1977-05-01

    The project described provides a manpower review of national, state and local needs for safety skills, and projects future manning levels for transportation safety personnel in both the public and private sectors. Survey information revealed that there are currently approximately 121,000 persons employed directly in transportation safety occupations within the air carrier, highway and traffic safety, motor carrier, pipeline, rail carrier, and marine carrier transportation industry groups. The projected need for 1980 is over 145,000 of which over 80 percent will be in highway safety. An analysis of transportation tasks is included, and shows ten general categories about which the majority of safety activities are focused. A skills analysis shows a generally high level of educational background and several years of experience are required for most transportation safety jobs. An overall review of safety programs in the transportation industry is included, together with chapters on the individual transportation modes.

  5. Studying the Safety Impact of Autonomous Vehicles Using Simulation-Based Surrogate Safety Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Morando, Mark Mario; Tian, Qingyun; Truong, Long T.; Vu, Hai L.

    2018-01-01

    Autonomous vehicle (AV) technology has advanced rapidly in recent years with some automated features already available in vehicles on the market. AVs are expected to reduce traffic crashes as the majority of crashes are related to driver errors, fatigue, alcohol, or drugs. However, very little research has been conducted to estimate the safety impact of AVs. This paper aims to investigate the safety impacts of AVs using a simulation-based surrogate safety measure approach. To this end, safety...

  6. Disposal safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, J.W.

    International consensus does not seem to be necessary or appropriate for many of the issues concerned with the safety of nuclear waste disposal. International interaction on the technical aspects of disposal has been extensive, and this interaction has contributed greatly to development of a consensus technical infrastructure for disposal. This infrastructure provides a common and firm base for regulatory, political, and social actions in each nation

  7. Safety aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wider, H.U.

    1997-01-01

    It is assumed that in an accelerator-driven system (ADS) the same type of accidents can be envisaged as in critical reactors. After briefly describing the basic safety features of ADS, the first investigations of the behaviour of an accelerator driven fast oxide reactor during an unprotected loss-of-flow accident and the investigation of reactivity accidents in a large sodium-cooled ADS are presented

  8. Cryogenics safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reider, R.

    1977-01-01

    The safety hazards associated with handling cryogenic fluids are discussed in detail. These hazards include pressure buildup when a cryogenic fluid is heated and becomes a gas, potential damage to body tissues due to surface contact, toxic risk from breathing air altered by cryogenic fluids, dangers of air solidification, and hazards of combustible cryogens such as liquified oxygen, hydrogen, or natural gas or of combustible mixtures. Safe operating procedures and emergency planning are described

  9. Safety Checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    given prior to issuing or renewing an OF 346? 13. Are operators’ DA Forms 348 reviewed annually for— a. Safety awards? b. Expiration of permits...place oily polishing rags or waste in covered metal cans? d. Store paint in tightly closed containers? e. Warn family members to never use gasoline...15 cream or lotion on exposed skin (face, hands, feet)? 3. Avoid extended periods of unprotected exposure to the sun? Heat cramp, heat exhaustion

  10. Occupational Safety Review of High Technology Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee Cadwallader

    2005-01-31

    This report contains reviews of operating experiences, selected accident events, and industrial safety performance indicators that document the performance of the major US DOE magnetic fusion experiments and particle accelerators. These data are useful to form a basis for the occupational safety level at matured research facilities with known sets of safety rules and regulations. Some of the issues discussed are radiation safety, electromagnetic energy exposure events, and some of the more widespread issues of working at height, equipment fires, confined space work, electrical work, and other industrial hazards. Nuclear power plant industrial safety data are also included for comparison.

  11. The operator's role and safety functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corcoran, W.R.; Finnicum, D.J.; Hubbard, F.R.; Musick, C.R.; Walzer, R.F.

    1980-01-01

    A nuclear power plant can be thought of as a single system with two major subsystems: equipment and people. Both play important roles in nuclear safety. Whereas, in the past, the role of equipment had been emphasized in nuclear safety, the accident at Three Mile Island and its subsequent investigations point out the vital role of the operator. This paper outlines the operator's roles in nuclear safety and suggests how the concept of safety functions can be used to reduce economic losses and increase safety margins. (auth)

  12. Comprehensive Lifecycle for Assuring System Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, John C.; Rowanhill, Jonathan C.

    2017-01-01

    CLASS is a novel approach to the enhancement of system safety in which the system safety case becomes the focus of safety engineering throughout the system lifecycle. CLASS also expands the role of the safety case across all phases of the system's lifetime, from concept formation to decommissioning. As CLASS has been developed, the concept has been generalized to a more comprehensive notion of assurance becoming the driving goal, where safety is an important special case. This report summarizes major aspects of CLASS and contains a bibliography of papers that provide additional details.

  13. Nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The Program on Nuclear Safety comprehends Radioprotection, Radioactive Waste Management and Nuclear Material Control. These activities are developed at the Nuclear Safety Directory. The Radioactive Waste Management Department (GRR) was formally created in 1983, to promote research and development, teaching and service activities in the field of radioactive waste. Its mission is to develop and employ technologies to manage safely the radioactive wastes generated at IPEN and at its customer’s facilities all over the country, in order to protect the health and the environment of today's and future generations. The Radioprotection Service (GRP) aims primarily to establish requirements for the protection of people, as workers, contractors, students, members of the general public and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation. Furthermore, it also aims to establish the primary criteria for the safety of radiation sources at IPEN and planning and preparing for response to nuclear and radiological emergencies. The procedures about the management and the control of exposures to ionizing radiation are in compliance with national standards and international recommendations. Research related to the main activities is also performed. The Nuclear Material Control has been performed by the Safeguard Service team, which manages the accountability and the control of nuclear material at IPEN facilities and provides information related to these activities to ABACC and IAEA. (author)

  14. Hydrogen safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frazier, W.R.

    1991-01-01

    The NASA experience with hydrogen began in the 1950s when the National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics (NACA) research on rocket fuels was inherited by the newly formed National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Initial emphasis on the use of hydrogen as a fuel for high-altitude probes, satellites, and aircraft limited the available data on hydrogen hazards to small quantities of hydrogen. NASA began to use hydrogen as the principal liquid propellant for launch vehicles and quickly determined the need for hydrogen safety documentation to support design and operational requirements. The resulting NASA approach to hydrogen safety requires a joint effort by design and safety engineering to address hydrogen hazards and develop procedures for safe operation of equipment and facilities. NASA also determined the need for rigorous training and certification programs for personnel involved with hydrogen use. NASA's current use of hydrogen is mainly for large heavy-lift vehicle propulsion, which necessitates storage of large quantities for fueling space shots and for testing. Future use will involve new applications such as thermal imaging

  15. Nuclear safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    The Program on Nuclear Safety comprehends Radioprotection, Radioactive Waste Management and Nuclear Material Control. These activities are developed at the Nuclear Safety Directory. The Radioactive Waste Management Department (GRR) was formally created in 1983, to promote research and development, teaching and service activities in the field of radioactive waste. Its mission is to develop and employ technologies to manage safely the radioactive wastes generated at IPEN and at its customer’s facilities all over the country, in order to protect the health and the environment of today's and future generations. The Radioprotection Service (GRP) aims primarily to establish requirements for the protection of people, as workers, contractors, students, members of the general public and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation. Furthermore, it also aims to establish the primary criteria for the safety of radiation sources at IPEN and planning and preparing for response to nuclear and radiological emergencies. The procedures about the management and the control of exposures to ionizing radiation are in compliance with national standards and international recommendations. Research related to the main activities is also performed. The Nuclear Material Control has been performed by the Safeguard Service team, which manages the accountability and the control of nuclear material at IPEN facilities and provides information related to these activities to ABACC and IAEA. (author)

  16. Evaluation of reactor safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1960-04-15

    Although the operation of nuclear reactors has a remarkably good record of safety, the prevention of possible reactor accidents is one of the major factors that atomic planners have to contend with. At the same time, excessive caution may breed an attitude that hampers progress, either by resisting new development or by demanding unnecessarily elaborate and expensive precautions out of proportion to the actual hazards involved. The best course obviously is to determine the possible dangers and adopt adequate measures for their prevention, providing of course, for a reasonable margin of error in judging the hazards and the effectiveness of the measures. The greater the expert understanding and thoroughness with which this is done, the narrower need the margin be. This is the basic idea behind the evaluation of reactor safety

  17. Nuclear safety culture and nuclear safety supervision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai Jianshe

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the author reviews systematically and summarizes up the development process and stage characteristics of nuclear safety culture, analysis the connotation and characteristics of nuclear safety culture, sums up the achievements of our country's nuclear safety supervision, dissects the challenges and problems of nuclear safety supervision. This thesis focused on the relationship between nuclear safety culture and nuclear safety supervision, they are essential differences, but there is a close relationship. Nuclear safety supervision needs to introduce some concepts of nuclear safety culture, lays emphasis on humanistic care and improves its level and efficiency. Nuclear safety supervision authorities must strengthen nuclear safety culture training, conduct the development of nuclear safety culture, make sure that nuclear safety culture can play significant roles. (author)

  18. OSHA Laboratory Standard: Driving Force for Laboratory Safety!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Kenneth R.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA's) Laboratory Safety Standards as the major driving force in establishing and maintaining a safe working environment for teachers and students. (Author)

  19. Innovation and Safety. A prestudy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rollenhagen, Carl; Hansson, Sven Ove; Hortberg, Johan; Jakobsson, Fredrik; Zhau, Victoria Jing; Mojeri, Sara

    2010-04-01

    The project summarized in this report was initiated to explore relations between innovation and safety. The first two sections of the report discuss some previously conducted research and give a general background to the subject. It is concluded that safety research and innovation research, by and large, has developed as separate academic disciplines. The concepts of 'innovative safety culture' and 'safe innovation cultures' are suggested as two concepts that can be used to integrate research: innovative safety cultures depart from safety culture research but attempts to introduce an innovative dimension with the aim to create adaptive and innovative safety cultures that efficiently can handle risks arising from existing innovations. Safe innovation cultures have focus on innovation itself, but with the ambition to introduce concepts and methods from safety research in the innovative processes. Three subprojects conducted in the context of the present research are summarized. The first project examines how an existing organization (e.g. SKB - Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management) attempts to integrate both innovative activities and operative activities in the same organisation. Interviews with key personnel explored different views about how innovative and safety work coexists in the organisation. The second project focuses on how major retrofit projects of a nuclear power plant is managed in parallel to operative activities (e.g. operating the plant on an everyday basis). By means of an innovative technique (e.g. system groups) seminars were held to suggest improvements in the technical change process. The third project conducted a risk analysis of a major organisational change (e.g. control centres for energy distribution). Experiences from the three projects are finally discussed in terms of similarities and differences associated with the cultures for innovation and safety. Suggestions for further research are made

  20. A study on the regulatory approach of major technical issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Keun Sun; Oh, S. H.; Kang, H. J.; Kim, G. S. [Sunmoon Univ., Asan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, S. H.; Baek, W. P.; Yang, S. H.; Jeong, Y. H. [Korea Association for Nuclear Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-15

    This project is to provide the regulatory direction of 4 major technical issues for the Korean Next Generation Reactors, which are parts of major technical issues resulted from the safety regulation R and D on the KNGR. The outstanding results are are as follows : related to the classification and acceptance criteria of plant conditions, currently used classification and safety requirement were reviewed and regulatory direction was proposed. Among multiple failures, it is identified that SBO, TLOFW, multiple SGTR and ATWS are basically to be considered for additional requirements for advanced reactors. This study reviewed risk aspects, design consideration, and trends of safety requirements, and proposed fundamental safety requirements to be applied for KNGR. Multiple steam generator tube failure is a significant safety concern because of the possibility of release of radionuclides to the environment through containment bypass. Proposed safety requirement for this event can be categorized mainly as analysis requirement, design evaluation requirement and PSA requirement; For protection of containment failure, a reasonable safety position is necessary through and integrated review of possibility of severe accident occurrence, effects of sever accident mitigation features and cost effects of these design features. With this consideration safety requirements developed are the analysis requirement, provision of protective measures and survivability/availability of protective measures.

  1. Does the concept of safety culture help or hinder systems thinking in safety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiman, Teemu; Rollenhagen, Carl

    2014-07-01

    The concept of safety culture has become established in safety management applications in all major safety-critical domains. The idea that safety culture somehow represents a "systemic view" on safety is seldom explicitly spoken out, but nevertheless seem to linger behind many safety culture discourses. However, in this paper we argue that the "new" contribution to safety management from safety culture never really became integrated with classical engineering principles and concepts. This integration would have been necessary for the development of a more genuine systems-oriented view on safety; e.g. a conception of safety in which human, technological, organisational and cultural factors are understood as mutually interacting elements. Without of this integration, researchers and the users of the various tools and methods associated with safety culture have sometimes fostered a belief that "safety culture" in fact represents such a systemic view about safety. This belief is, however, not backed up by theoretical or empirical evidence. It is true that safety culture, at least in some sense, represents a holistic term-a totality of factors that include human, organisational and technological aspects. However, the departure for such safety culture models is still human and organisational factors rather than technology (or safety) itself. The aim of this paper is to critically review the various uses of the concept of safety culture as representing a systemic view on safety. The article will take a look at the concepts of culture and safety culture based on previous studies, and outlines in more detail the theoretical challenges in safety culture as a systems concept. The paper also presents recommendations on how to make safety culture more systemic. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Fuel safety research 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uetsuka, Hiroshi (ed.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2002-11-01

    The Fuel Safety Research Laboratory is in charge of research activity which covers almost research items related to fuel safety of water reactor in JAERI. Various types of experimental and analytical researches are being conducted by using some unique facilities such as the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR), the Japan Material Testing Reactor (JMTR), the Japan Research Reactor 3 (JRR-3) and the Reactor Fuel Examination Facility (RFEF) of JAERI. The research to confirm the safety of high burn-up fuel and MOX fuel under accident conditions is the most important item among them. The laboratory consists of following five research groups corresponding to each research fields; Research group of fuel behavior under the reactivity initiated accident conditions (RIA group). Research group of fuel behavior under the loss-of-coolant accident conditions (LOCA group). Research group of fuel behavior under the normal operation conditions (JMTR/BOCA group). Research group of fuel behavior analysis (FEMAXI group). Research group of radionuclides release and transport behavior from irradiated fuel under severe accident conditions (VEGA group). The research conducted in the year 2001 produced many important data and information. They are, for example, the fuel behavior data under BWR power oscillation conditions in the NSRR, the data on failure-bearing capability of hydrided cladding under LOCA conditions and the FP release data at very high temperature in steam which simulate the reactor core condition during severe accidents. This report summarizes the outline of research activities and major outcomes of the research executed in 2001 in the Fuel Safety Research Laboratory. (author)

  3. Nuclear Safety Review for 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-07-01

    The Nuclear Safety Review 2014 focuses on the dominant nuclear safety trends, issues and challenges in 2013. The Executive Overview provides general nuclear safety information along with a summary of the major issues covered in this report: strengthening safety in nuclear installations; improving radiation, transport and waste safety; enhancing emergency preparedness and response (EPR); improving regulatory infrastructure and effectiveness; and strengthening civil liability for nuclear damage. The Appendix provides details on the activities of the Commission on Safety Standards, and activities relevant to the Agency’s safety standards. The global nuclear community has made steady and continuous progress in strengthening nuclear safety in 2013, as promoted by the IAEA Action Plan on Nuclear Safety (hereinafter referred to as “the Action Plan”) and reported in Progress in the Implementation of the IAEA Action Plan on Nuclear Safety (document GOV/INF/2013/8-GC(57)/INF/5), and the Supplementary Information to that report and Progress in the Implementation of the IAEA Action Plan on Nuclear Safety (document GOV/INF/2014/2). • Significant progress continues to be made in several key areas, such as assessments of safety vulnerabilities of nuclear power plants (NPPs), strengthening of the Agency’s peer review services, improvements in EPR capabilities, strengthening and maintaining capacity building, and protecting people and the environment from ionizing radiation. The progress that has been made in these and other areas has contributed to the enhancement of the global nuclear safety framework. • Significant progress has also been made in reviewing the Agency’s safety standards, which continue to be widely applied by regulators, operators and the nuclear industry in general, with increased attention and focus on vitally important areas such as design and operation of NPPs, protection of NPPs against severe accidents, and EPR. • The Agency continued to

  4. Safety climate practice in Korean manufacturing industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Jong-Bae; Bae, Sejong; Ham, Byung-Ho; Singh, Karan P.

    2008-01-01

    Safety climate survey was sent to 642 plants in 2003 to explore safety climate practices in the Korean manufacturing plants, especially in hazardous chemical treating plants. Out of 642 plants contacted 195 (30.4%) participated in the surveys. Data were collected by e-mail using SQL-server and mail. The main objective of this study was to explore safety climate practices (level of safety climate and the underlying problems). In addition, the variables that may influence the level of safety climate among managers and workers were explored. The questionnaires developed by health and safety executive (HSE) in the UK were modified to incorporate differences in Korean culture. Eleven important factors were summarized. Internal reliability of these factors was validated. Number of employees in the company varied from less than 30 employees (9.2%) to over 1000 employees (37.4%). Both managers and workers showed generally high level of safety climate awareness. The major underlying problems identified were inadequate health and safety procedures/rules, pressure for production, and rule breaking. The length of employment was a significant contributing factor to the level of safety climate. In this study, participants showed generally high level of safety climate, and length of employment affected the differences in the level of safety climate. Managers' commitment to comply safety rules, procedures, and effective safety education and training are recommended

  5. Safety climate practice in Korean manufacturing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Jong-Bae; Bae, Sejong; Ham, Byung-Ho; Singh, Karan P

    2008-11-15

    Safety climate survey was sent to 642 plants in 2003 to explore safety climate practices in the Korean manufacturing plants, especially in hazardous chemical treating plants. Out of 642 plants contacted 195 (30.4%) participated in the surveys. Data were collected by e-mail using SQL-server and mail. The main objective of this study was to explore safety climate practices (level of safety climate and the underlying problems). In addition, the variables that may influence the level of safety climate among managers and workers were explored. The questionnaires developed by health and safety executive (HSE) in the UK were modified to incorporate differences in Korean culture. Eleven important factors were summarized. Internal reliability of these factors was validated. Number of employees in the company varied from less than 30 employees (9.2%) to over 1000 employees (37.4%). Both managers and workers showed generally high level of safety climate awareness. The major underlying problems identified were inadequate health and safety procedures/rules, pressure for production, and rule breaking. The length of employment was a significant contributing factor to the level of safety climate. In this study, participants showed generally high level of safety climate, and length of employment affected the differences in the level of safety climate. Managers' commitment to comply safety rules, procedures, and effective safety education and training are recommended.

  6. Safety climate practice in Korean manufacturing industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Jong-Bae [Department of Safety Engineering, Chungju National University, Chungju 380-702 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Sejong [Department of Biostatistics, University of North Texas Health Science Center, 3500 Camp Bowie Boulevard, Fort Worth, TX 76107 (United States)], E-mail: sbae@hsc.unt.edu; Ham, Byung-Ho [Department of Industrial Safety, Ministry of Labor (Korea, Republic of); Singh, Karan P. [Department of Biostatistics, University of North Texas Health Science Center, 3500 Camp Bowie Boulevard, Fort Worth, TX 76107 (United States)

    2008-11-15

    Safety climate survey was sent to 642 plants in 2003 to explore safety climate practices in the Korean manufacturing plants, especially in hazardous chemical treating plants. Out of 642 plants contacted 195 (30.4%) participated in the surveys. Data were collected by e-mail using SQL-server and mail. The main objective of this study was to explore safety climate practices (level of safety climate and the underlying problems). In addition, the variables that may influence the level of safety climate among managers and workers were explored. The questionnaires developed by health and safety executive (HSE) in the UK were modified to incorporate differences in Korean culture. Eleven important factors were summarized. Internal reliability of these factors was validated. Number of employees in the company varied from less than 30 employees (9.2%) to over 1000 employees (37.4%). Both managers and workers showed generally high level of safety climate awareness. The major underlying problems identified were inadequate health and safety procedures/rules, pressure for production, and rule breaking. The length of employment was a significant contributing factor to the level of safety climate. In this study, participants showed generally high level of safety climate, and length of employment affected the differences in the level of safety climate. Managers' commitment to comply safety rules, procedures, and effective safety education and training are recommended.

  7. Safety factors for neutron fluences in NPP safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demekhin, V.L.; Bukanov, V.N.; Il'kovich, V.V.; Pugach, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    In accordance with global practice and a number of existing regulations, the use of conservative approach is required for the calculations related to nuclear safety assessment of NPP. It implies the need to consider the determination of neutron fluence errors that is rather complicated. It is proposed to carry out the consideration by the way of multiplying the neutron fluences obtained with transport calculations by safety factors. The safety factor values are calculated by the developed technique based on the theory of errors, features of the neutron transport calculation code and the results obtained with the code. It is shown that the safety factor value is equal 1.18 with the confidence level of not less than 0.95 for the majority of VVER-1000 reactor places where neutron fluences are determined by MCPV code, and its maximum value is 1.25

  8. Safety significance of ATR passive safety response attributes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory was designed with some passive safety response attributes which contribute to the safety of the facility. The three passive safety attributes being evaluated in the paper are: 1) In-core and in-vessel natural convection cooling, 2) a passive heat sink capability of the ATR primary coolant system (PCS) for the transfer of decay power from the uninsulated piping to the confinement, and 3) gravity feed of emergency coolant makeup. The safety significance of the ATR passive safety response attributes is that the reactor can passively respond to most transients, given a reactor scram, to provide adequate decay power removal and a significant time for operator action should the normal active heat removal systems and their backup systems both fail. The ATR Interim Level 1 Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) models and results were used to evaluate the significance to ATR fuel damage frequency (or probability) of the above three passive response attributes. The results of the evaluation indicate that the first attribute is a major safety characteristic of the ATR. The second attribute has a noticeable but only minor safety significance. The third attribute has no significant influence on the ATR firewater injection system (emergency coolant system)

  9. The Psychology of Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Brenda Lindley

    2011-01-01

    Many studies of mishaps show that human error is a factor in a significant majority of accidents. Trying to decide how to change human behavior to be safer is generally the biggest challenge of any safety program. However, understanding the human psyche is the first step to changing behavior. Many studies focus on the before and after of an accident, but what about the thoughts of a person in the commission of an unsafe act? This is a less understood area. Examining it reveals why it is not well comprehended. This paper attempts to examine a part of the thought process, with an eye to helping influence people to less hurtful actions.

  10. Quantitative safety assessment of air traffic control systems through system control capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jingjing

    Quantitative Safety Assessments (QSA) are essential to safety benefit verification and regulations of developmental changes in safety critical systems like the Air Traffic Control (ATC) systems. Effectiveness of the assessments is particularly desirable today in the safe implementations of revolutionary ATC overhauls like NextGen and SESAR. QSA of ATC systems are however challenged by system complexity and lack of accident data. Extending from the idea "safety is a control problem" in the literature, this research proposes to assess system safety from the control perspective, through quantifying a system's "control capacity". A system's safety performance correlates to this "control capacity" in the control of "safety critical processes". To examine this idea in QSA of the ATC systems, a Control-capacity Based Safety Assessment Framework (CBSAF) is developed which includes two control capacity metrics and a procedural method. The two metrics are Probabilistic System Control-capacity (PSC) and Temporal System Control-capacity (TSC); each addresses an aspect of a system's control capacity. And the procedural method consists three general stages: I) identification of safety critical processes, II) development of system control models and III) evaluation of system control capacity. The CBSAF was tested in two case studies. The first one assesses an en-route collision avoidance scenario and compares three hypothetical configurations. The CBSAF was able to capture the uncoordinated behavior between two means of control, as was observed in a historic midair collision accident. The second case study compares CBSAF with an existing risk based QSA method in assessing the safety benefits of introducing a runway incursion alert system. Similar conclusions are reached between the two methods, while the CBSAF has the advantage of simplicity and provides a new control-based perspective and interpretation to the assessments. The case studies are intended to investigate the

  11. Safety training

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit

    2009-01-01

    Habilitation électrique A course entitled "Habilitation électrique pour personnel de laboratoire" (electrical safety qualification for laboratory personnel) will be held on 22 and 23 June. Registration by e-mail to isabelle.cusato@cern.ch. Explosion Hazards in the handling of flammable solvents and gases A course entitled "Explosion Hazards in the handling of flammable solvents and gases" given in French will be held on 18-19 June 2009. This course is obligatory for all FGSOs at CERN, and it is recommended for anyone handling flammable gas or solvents. To sign up please visit this page. For more information please contact Isabelle Cusato, tel. 73811.

  12. SAFETY NOTES

    CERN Document Server

    TIS Secretariat

    2001-01-01

    Please note that the revisions of safety notes no 3 (NS 3 Rev. 2) and no 24 (NS 24 REV.) entitled respectively 'FIRE PREVENTION FOR ENCLOSED SPACES IN LARGE HALLS' and 'REMOVING UNBURIED ELV AND LVA ELECTRIC CONDUITS' are available on the web at the following urls: http://edmsoraweb.cern.ch:8001/cedar/doc.download?document_id=322811&version=1&filename=version_francaise.pdf http://edmsoraweb.cern.ch:8001/cedar/doc.download?document_id=322861&version=2&filename=version_francaise.pdf Paper copies can also be obtained from the TIS Divisional Secretariat, email tis.secretariat@cern.ch

  13. The right scan, for the right patient, at the right time: The reorganization of major trauma service provision in England and its implications for radiologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, J.J.; West, A.T.H.

    2013-01-01

    Major trauma services in England are currently undergoing a radical overhaul with the formation of regional trauma networks and designated major trauma centres (MTCs). Radiology is scheduled to play a key role within major trauma care both in terms of 24/7 access to whole body computed tomography (WBCT) and interventional radiology (IR) services, as well as providing immediate expert imaging guidance to the trauma team. This review examines the rationale behind trauma networks, as well as drawing attention to the new Royal College of Radiologists' standards for major trauma imaging. It attempts to address radiologists' understandable concerns about the inappropriate use of WBCT, radiation dose, and intravenous contrast medium risks. Reporting whole-body CT for trauma patients is difficult, covering multiple body regions, with great pressure to provide a rapid and accurate report to the trauma team. The benefits of standardized reports, dual-radiologist reporting, and the use of organ injury severity grading are explored to aid succinct communication of findings and further guide patient management

  14. Model quality and safety studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, K.E.

    1997-01-01

    The paper describes the EC initiative on model quality assessment and emphasizes some of the problems encountered in the selection of data from field tests used in the evaluation process. Further, it discusses the impact of model uncertainties in safety studies of industrial plants. The model...... that most of these have never been through a procedure of evaluation, but nonetheless are used to assist in making decisions that may directly affect the safety of the public and the environment. As a major funder of European research on major industrial hazards, DGXII is conscious of the importance......-tain model is appropriate for use in solving a given problem. Further, the findings from the REDIPHEM project related to dense gas dispersion will be highlighted. Finally, the paper will discuss the need for model quality assessment in safety studies....

  15. Risk analysis and safety rationale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengtsson, G.

    1989-01-01

    Decision making with respect to safety is becoming more and more complex. The risk involved must be taken into account together with numerous other factors such as the benefits, the uncertainties and the public perception. Can the decision maker be aided by some kind of system, general rules of thumb, or broader perspective on similar decisions? This question has been addressed in a joint Nordic project relating to nuclear power. Modern techniques for risk assessment and management have been studied, and parallels drawn to such areas as offshore safety and management of toxic chemicals in the environment. The report summarises the finding of 5 major technical reports which have been published in the NORD-series. The topics includes developments, uncertainties and limitations in probabilistic safety assessments, negligible risks, risk-cost trade-offs, optimisation of nuclear safety and radiation protection, and the role of risks in the decision making process. (author) 84 refs

  16. Risk, fear and public safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddall, E.

    1981-04-01

    Part 1 of the paper advocates a rational approach to public safety based on unbiassed quantitative assessment of overall risks and benefits of any technological activity. It shows that improved safety should be attainable at less cost than is the case at present. Part 2 offers an explanation of why so little has been achieved in this direction and outlines the major errors in present practices. Part 3 suggests what might realistically be done towards the achievement of some of the possible benefits. Factors which are important in the study of safety and evidence supporting the arguments are discussed in six appendices. It is urged that the scientific and technological community should improve its understanding of safety as a specialization and should endeavour to lead rather than follow in our present political system

  17. Nuclear power: Siting and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Openshaw, S.

    1986-01-01

    By 2030, half, or even two-thirds, of all electricity may be generated by nuclear power. Major reactor accidents are still expected to be rare occurrences, but nuclear safety is largely a matter of faith. Terrorist attacks, sabotage, and human error could cause a significant accident. Reactor siting can offer an additional, design-independent margin of safety. Remote geographical sites for new plants would minimize health risks, protect the industry from negative changes in public opinion concerning nuclear energy, and improve long-term public acceptance of nuclear power. U.K. siting practices usually do not consider the contribution to safety that could be obtained from remote sites. This book discusses the present trends of siting policies of nuclear power and their design-independent margin of safety

  18. Batteries: Polymers switch for safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amine, Khalil

    2016-01-11

    Ensuring safety during operation is a major issue in the development of lithium-ion batteries. Coating the electrode current collector with thermoresponsive polymer composites is now shown to rapidly shut the battery down when it overheats, and to quickly resume its function when normal operating conditions return

  19. Fusion reactor safety studies, FY 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darby, J.B. Jr.

    1978-04-01

    This report reviews the technical progress in the fusion reactor safety studies performed during FY 1977 in the Fusion Power Program at the Argonne National Laboratory. The subjects reported on include safety considerations of the vacuum vessel and first-wall design for the ANL/EPR, the thermal responses of a tokamak reactor first wall, the vacuum wall electrical resistive requirements in relationship to magnet safety, and a major effort is reported on considerations and experiments on air detritiation

  20. Summary view on demonstration reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, Kazuziro; Kotake, Shoji; Tsukui, Yutaka; Inagaki, Tatsutoshi; Miura, Masanori

    1991-01-01

    This work presents a summary view on safety design approaches for the demonstration fast breeder reactor (DFBR). The safety objective of DFBR is to be at lea as safe as a LWR. Major safety issues discussed in this paper are; reduction of sodium void reactivity worth, adoption of self-actuated mechanism in the backup shutdown system, use of the direct reactor auxiliary cooling system (DRACS), provision of the containment system. (author)

  1. Safety first

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Safety is a priority for CERN. That is a message I conveyed in my New Year’s address and that I reiterated at one of the first Enlarged Directorate meetings of 2012 when I outlined five key safety objectives for the year, designed and implemented according to accepted international standards.   As we move from spring to summer, it’s time to take stock of how we are doing. Objective number one for 2012, which overarches everything else, is to limit the number of incidents in the workplace. That means systematically investigating and acting on every incident that involves work stoppage, along with all the most frequent workplace accidents: falls, trips and slips. The performance indicator we set ourselves is the percentage of investigations and follow-ups completed. Year on year, these figures are rising but we can never be complacent, and must strive to reach and sustain 100% follow-up. The second objective is to improve hazard control, with a focus in 2012 on chemical ha...

  2. The relationship between organizational leadership for safety and learning from patient safety events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Liane R; Chuang, You-Ta; Berta, Whitney Blair; Norton, Peter G; Ng, Peggy; Tregunno, Deborah; Richardson, Julia

    2010-06-01

    To examine the relationship between organizational leadership for patient safety and five types of learning from patient safety events (PSEs). Forty-nine general acute care hospitals in Ontario, Canada. A nonexperimental design using cross-sectional surveys of hospital patient safety officers (PSOs) and patient care managers (PCMs). PSOs provided data on organization-level learning from (a) minor events, (b) moderate events, (c) major near misses, (d) major event analysis, and (e) major event dissemination/communication. PCMs provided data on organizational leadership (formal and informal) for patient safety. Hospitals were the unit of analysis. Seemingly unrelated regression was used to examine the influence of formal and informal leadership for safety on the five types of learning from PSEs. The interaction between leadership and hospital size was also examined. Formal organizational leadership for patient safety is an important predictor of learning from minor, moderate, and major near-miss events, and major event dissemination. This relationship is significantly stronger for small hospitals (learning from safety events. Formal leadership support for safety is of particular importance in small organizations where the economic burden of safety programs is disproportionately large and formal leadership is closer to the front lines.

  3. Total magnetic reconnection during a tokamak major disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetz, J.A.; Dexter, R.N.; Prager, S.C.

    1990-07-01

    The safety factor within a tokamak plasma has been measured during a major disruption. During the disruption, the central safety factor jumps from below one to above one, while the total current is unchanged. This implies that total reconnection has occurred. This observation is in contract to the absence of total reconnection observed during a sawtooth oscillation in the same device. 11 refs., 6 figs

  4. Linking Safety Analysis to Safety Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kirsten Mark

    Software for safety critical systems must deal with the hazards identified by safety analysistechniques: Fault trees, event trees,and cause consequence diagrams can be interpreted as safety requirements and used in the design activity. We propose that the safety analysis and the system design use...

  5. Advantages and disadvantages by using safety culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyhrberg, Mette Bang

    2003-01-01

    Safety culture is a major issue in accident research. A recently finished ph.d.-study has evaluated the symbolic safety culture approach and found four advantages and two disadvantages. These are presented and discussed in this contribution. It is concluded that the approach can be useful...

  6. Learning from safety in other industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terwel, K.C.; Zwaard, W

    2012-01-01

    The Dutch building industry has been shocked by some major structural accidents during the last 10 years with buildings during construction as well as with delivered buildings. Several initiatives were started to improve the safety. In other industries the safety awareness seemed to be more

  7. Safety balance: Analysis of safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delage, M.; Giroux, C.

    1990-12-01

    Safety analysis, and particularly analysis of exploitation of NPPs is constantly affected by EDF and by the safety authorities and their methodologies. Periodic safety reports ensure that important issues are not missed on daily basis, that incidents are identified and that relevant actions are undertaken. French safety analysis method consists of three principal steps. First type of safety balance is analyzed at the normal start-up phase for each unit including the final safety report. This enables analysis of behaviour of units ten years after their licensing. Second type is periodic operational safety analysis performed during a few years. Finally, the third step consists of safety analysis of the oldest units with the aim to improve the safety standards. The three steps of safety analysis are described in this presentation in detail with the aim to present the objectives and principles. Examples of most recent exercises are included in order to illustrate the importance of such analyses

  8. Health and Safety First

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    At CERN, health and safety underpin everything we do. We have strict operational procedures in place, as well as health, safety and environment (HSE) requirements to make our working environment as safe as possible. It’s everyone’s responsibility to follow these procedures and requirements to keep ourselves, and our colleagues, safe. We have a very good safety and operational record at CERN stretching back almost 60 years, but there is never room for complacency.   With this very much in mind, we have developed a robust plan for implementation if something unforeseen goes wrong.  Because however careful we all are, accidents do happen, and the mark of any organisation that aspires to be among the best in the world is how quickly and efficiently it acts when they do. A small team made up of people from several departments at CERN has produced a strategic crisis management plan that we can put into action should a major incident occur.  This plan focuses on...

  9. The Microscale Inorganic Laboratory: Safety, Economy and Versatility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szafran, Zvi; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Discussed are four major advantages to the use of microscale laboratories for teaching chemistry. Included are effects on waste generation, laboratory safety, reagent variety, and laboratory efficiency. (CW)

  10. Safety for Users

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    CERN welcomes more than 8000 Users every year. The PH Department as host to these scientific associates requires the highest safety standards. The PH Safety Office has published a Safety Flyer for Users. Important safety topics and procedures are presented. Although the Flyer is intended primarily to provide safety information for Users, the PH Safety Office invites all those on the CERN sites to keep a copy of the flyer as it gives guidance in matters of safety and explains what to do in the event of an emergency. Link: http://ph-dep.web.cern.ch/ph-dep/Safety/SafetyOffice.html PH-Safety Office PH Department

  11. Safety for Users

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    CERN welcomes more than 8000 Users every year. The PH Department as host to these scientific associates requires the highest safety standards. The PH Safety Office has published a safety flyer for Users. Important safety topics and procedures are presented. Although the flyer is intended primarily to provide safety information for Users, the PH Safety Office invites all those on the CERN sites to keep a copy of the flyer as it gives guidance in matters of safety and explains what to do in the event of an emergency. The flyer is available at: http://ph-dep.web.cern.ch/ph-dep/Safety/SafetyOffice.html PH-Safety Office PH Department

  12. Health and safety manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-02-01

    The manual consists of the following chapters: general policies and administration; the Environmental Health and Safety Department; the Medical Services Department: biological hazards; chemical safety; confined space entry; cryogenic safety; electrical safety; emergency plans; engineering and construction; evacuations, trenching, and shoring; fire safety; gases, flammable and compressed; guarding, mechanical; ladders and scaffolds, work surfaces; laser safety; materials handling and storage; noise; personal protective equipment; pressure safety; radiation safety, ionizing and non-ionizing; sanitation; seismic safety; training, environmental health and safety; tools, power and hand-operated; traffic and transportation; and warning signs and devices

  13. The role of nuclear law in nuclear safety after Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardozo, Diva E. Puig

    2013-01-01

    The paper contains the following topics: nuclear law, origin and evolution, role of the legal instruments on nuclear safety, nuclear safety the impact of major nuclear accidents: Chernobyl and Fukushima. The response of the nuclear law post Fukushima. Safety and security. International framework for nuclear safety: nuclear convention joint convention on safety on spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management. The Fukushima World Conference on Nuclear Safety. Convention on Prompt Notification and Assistance in case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency. Plan of Action for Nuclear Safety. IAEA recommendations for the safety transport of radioactive material. International framework for nuclear security. Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials. International Convention for the Suppression of Acts Against Nuclear Terrorism. Resolution No. 1540 of the Security Council of United Nations (2004). Measures to strengthen international safety. Code of conduct on the safety research reactor

  14. Safety first

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvie, W.

    1997-06-01

    Expansion of international business opportunities for Canadian producers and service companies brings with it a dimension almost never considered on home base - security. It was pointed out that once abroad, safety and defence of people and equipment can become significant problems in many parts of the world. The nature of the security risks involved, and how best to deal with them, were discussed. The use of consultants, mostly foreign ones to date, and the kind of assistance they can provide, everything from written reports on the local situation to counter surveillance training, and bodyguard services, have been described. Examples of recent involvements with guerilla groups demanding `revolutionary war taxes`, kidnapping executives for ransom, due diligence investigations of potential partners, and the like, have been provided to illustrate the unique character of the problem, and the constant need for being alert, educated to risks, and being prepared to react to risk situations.

  15. Construction safety

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Rita Yi Man

    2013-01-01

    A close-to-ideal blend of suburb and city, speedy construction of towers of Babylon, the sparkling proportion of glass and steel buildings’ facade at night showcase the wisdom of humans. They also witness the footsteps, sweats and tears of architects and engineers. Unfortunately, these signatures of human civilizations are swathed in towering figures of construction accidents. Fretting about these on sites, different countries adopt different measures on sites. This book firstly sketches the construction accidents on sites, followed by a review on safety measures in some of the developing countries such as Bermuda, Egypt, Kuwait and China; as well as developed countries, for example, the United States, France and Singapore. It also highlights the enormous compensation costs with the courts’ experiences in the United Kingdom and Hong Kong.

  16. Global safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorien J. DeTombe

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Global Safety is a container concept referring to various threats such as HIV/Aids, floods and terrorism; threats with different causes and different effects. These dangers threaten people, the global economy and the slity of states. Policy making for this kind of threats often lack an overview of the real causes and the interventions are based on a too shallow analysis of the problem, mono-disciplinary and focus mostly only on the effects. It would be more appropriate to develop policy related to these issues by utilizing the approaches, methods and tools that have been developed for complex societal problems. Handling these complex societal problems should be done multidisciplinary instead of mono-disciplinary. In order to give politicians the opportunity to handle complex problems multidisciplinary, multidisciplinary research institutes should be created. These multidisciplinary research institutes would provide politicians with better approaches to handle this type of problem. In these institutes the knowledge necessary for the change of these problems can be created through the use of the Compram methodology which has been developed specifically for handling complex societal problems. In a six step approach, experts, actors and policymakers discuss the content of the problem and the possible changes. The framework method uses interviewing, the Group Decision Room, simulation models and scenario's in a cooperative way. The methodology emphasizes the exchange of knowledge and understanding by communication among and between the experts, actors and politicians meanwhile keeping emotion in mind. The Compram methodology will be further explained in relation to global safety in regard to terrorism, economy, health care and agriculture.

  17. Results of operation and current safety performance of nuclear facilities located in the Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, V. M.; Khvostova, M. S.

    2016-12-01

    After the NPP radiation accidents in Russia and Japan, a safety statu of Russian nuclear power plants causes concern. A repeated life time extension of power unit reactor plants, designed at the dawn of the nuclear power engineering in the Soviet Union, power augmentation of the plants to 104-109%, operation of power units in a daily power mode in the range of 100-70-100%, the use of untypical for NPP remixed nuclear fuel without a careful study of the results of its application (at least after two operating periods of the research nuclear installations), the aging of operating personnel, and many other management actions of the State Corporation "Rosatom", should attract the attention of the Federal Service for Ecological, Technical and Atomic Supervision (RosTekhNadzor), but this doesn't happen. The paper considers safety issues of nuclear power plants operating in the Russian Federation. The authors collected statistical information on violations in NPP operation over the past 25 years, which shows that even after repeated relaxation over this period of time of safety regulation requirements in nuclear industry and highly expensive NPP modernization, the latter have not become more safe, and the statistics confirms this. At a lower utilization factor high-power pressure-tube reactors RBMK-1000, compared to light water reactors VVER-440 and 1000, have a greater number of violations and that after annual overhauls. A number of direct and root causes of NPP mulfunctions is still high and remains stable for decades. The paper reveals bottlenecks in ensuring nuclear and radiation safety of nuclear facilities. Main outstanding issues on the storage of spent nuclear fuel are defined. Information on emissions and discharges of radioactive substances, as well as fullness of storages of solid and liquid radioactive waste, located at the NPP sites are presented. Russian NPPs stress test results are submitted, as well as data on the coming removal from operation of NPP

  18. Obtaining Valid Safety Data for Software Safety Measurement and Process Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basili, Victor r.; Zelkowitz, Marvin V.; Layman, Lucas; Dangle, Kathleen; Diep, Madeline

    2010-01-01

    We report on a preliminary case study to examine software safety risk in the early design phase of the NASA Constellation spaceflight program. Our goal is to provide NASA quality assurance managers with information regarding the ongoing state of software safety across the program. We examined 154 hazard reports created during the preliminary design phase of three major flight hardware systems within the Constellation program. Our purpose was two-fold: 1) to quantify the relative importance of software with respect to system safety; and 2) to identify potential risks due to incorrect application of the safety process, deficiencies in the safety process, or the lack of a defined process. One early outcome of this work was to show that there are structural deficiencies in collecting valid safety data that make software safety different from hardware safety. In our conclusions we present some of these deficiencies.

  19. Supporting Fernald Site Closure with Integrated Health and Safety Plans as Documented Safety Analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohler, S.; Brown, T.; Fisk, P.; Krach, F.; Klein, B.

    2004-01-01

    At the Fernald Closure Project (FCP) near Cincinnati, Ohio, environmental restoration activities are supported by Documented Safety Analyses (DSAs) that combine the required project-specific Health and Safety Plans, Safety Basis Requirements (SBRs), and Process Requirements (PRs) into single Integrated Health and Safety Plans (I-HASPs). These integrated DSAs employ Integrated Safety Management methodology in support of simplified restoration and remediation activities that, so far, have resulted in the decontamination and demolition (D and D) of over 200 structures, including eight major nuclear production plants. There is one of twelve nuclear facilities still remaining (Silos containing uranium ore residues) with its own safety basis documentation. This paper presents the status of the FCP's safety basis documentation program, illustrating that all of the former nuclear facilities and activities have now replaced. Basis of Interim Operations (BIOs) with I-HASPs as their safety basis during the closure process

  20. The assessment of risk in relation to major hazards, with particular reference to nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, F.R.

    1981-01-01

    The article concentrates mainly on the developing pattern of safety thinking and safety practices which have been brought about by, and in turn have influenced, the growth of modern industrial technology, particularly in the nuclear field. The need to minimize the chance of accidents with serious consequences led to pursuit of safety by siting, by containment and by automatic built-in safety mechanisms; these are discussed. Codes of practice and safety guidelines are becoming linked with more quantitative goals to achieve desired objectives in safety and reliability. This is particularly important in the assessment of major hazards. (author)

  1. Alternate approaches to nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crane, A.T.

    1985-01-01

    For the US nuclear power industry to expand, a greatly increased portion of the public must come to share the industry's confidence in reactor safety. Major obstacles to establishing this confidence are frequent incidents with potential safety implications and a lack of incontrovertible proof that the risk of a major accident is very low. The most important step toward overcoming these obstacles would be for each utility to operate, maintain, and evaluate its reactors according to far higher standards. With improvements in reliability and safety margins, existing plants would be a stimulus for building new ones rather than an impediment. If changes to the operation of existing plants and improvements to the design of future ones were inadequate, the only hope for a revival of the nuclear industry would be an alternative reactor so obviously safe that risk would no longer be an issue. Three possible concepts are the modular high-temperature gas reactor, the process inherent ultimate safety reactor, and the liquid-metal fast reactor. All three have inherent safety features that should make a meltdown essentially impossible. They cannot know just how great the advantage of these alternate reactors would be, but the benefits of developing one or more of the concepts appear great

  2. Global process industry initiatives to reduce major accident hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitblado, Robin [DNV Energy Houston, TX (United States). SHE Risk Management; Pontes, Jose [DNV Energy Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Americas Region; Oliveira, Luiz [DNV Energy Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Since 2000, disasters at Texas City, Toulouse, Antwerp, Buncefield, P-36 and several near total loss events offshore in Norway have highlighted that major accident process safety is still a serious issue. Hopes that Process Safety Management or Safety Case regulations would solve these issues have not proven true. The Baker Panel recommended to BP several actions mainly around leadership, incentives, metrics, safety culture and more effective implementation of PSM systems. In Europe, an approach built around mechanical integrity and safety barriers, especially relating to technical safety systems, is being widely adopted. DNV has carried out a global survey of process industry initiatives, by interview and by literature review, for both upstream and downstream activities, to identify what the industry itself is planning to implement to enhance process safety in the next 5 - 10 years. This shows that an approach combining Baker Panel and EU barrier approaches and some nuclear industry real-time risk management approaches might be the best means to achieve a factor of 3-4 improvement in process safety. (author)

  3. Safety and safety analysis. From CP1 to Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadigaroglu, George

    2012-01-01

    The safety of nuclear installations has been a serious concern starting from the days of infancy of this technology. When Fermi and co-workers built the first nuclear reactor in 1941, the Chicago Pile-1 or CP1 at the University of Chicago, some basic safety principles still in use today were already part of this very simple experiment. During the fast-growth period in the 1960ies, a number of NPP systems were conceived, tested and some of them built, mainly in the US and in the Soviet Union, but also in the UK, in France and in Canada, before just a handful of nuclear systems dominated: the LWRs conquered some 3 quarters of the world market and their dominance continues till today. The fission process has been amazingly well ''designed'' by nature: a remarkably simple to produce, self-sustained reaction that can be easily controlled, modulated and adjusted by a variety of available materials. Fission leads to large release of energy that can be easily collected and transformed into useful work. The process has only a major drawback, the inexorable production and accumulation in the core of the radioactive fission products that also produce decay heat. Criticality considerations put apart, the major goal of reactor safety is the confinement and cooling of these fission products. Although safety has been a major concern from the very first nuclear developments, feedback and actions following incidents and accidents have contributed to continuous enhancements. In particular, the three major nuclear accidents, TMI, Chernobyl and Fukushima had or will hopefully have in the future major impacts on safety improvements. Lessons learned from TMI have greatly enhanced the safety of LWRs, while Chernobyl triggered a number of radio-ecology studies and improved the readiness for radiological crisis management. It is hoped that Fukushima will be the trigger for much stronger international oversight and harmonization of safety practices, something that has already been launched

  4. Safety and safety analysis. From CP1 to Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadigaroglu, George [ASCOMP GmbH, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2012-02-15

    The safety of nuclear installations has been a serious concern starting from the days of infancy of this technology. When Fermi and co-workers built the first nuclear reactor in 1941, the Chicago Pile-1 or CP1 at the University of Chicago, some basic safety principles still in use today were already part of this very simple experiment. During the fast-growth period in the 1960ies, a number of NPP systems were conceived, tested and some of them built, mainly in the US and in the Soviet Union, but also in the UK, in France and in Canada, before just a handful of nuclear systems dominated: the LWRs conquered some 3 quarters of the world market and their dominance continues till today. The fission process has been amazingly well ''designed'' by nature: a remarkably simple to produce, self-sustained reaction that can be easily controlled, modulated and adjusted by a variety of available materials. Fission leads to large release of energy that can be easily collected and transformed into useful work. The process has only a major drawback, the inexorable production and accumulation in the core of the radioactive fission products that also produce decay heat. Criticality considerations put apart, the major goal of reactor safety is the confinement and cooling of these fission products. Although safety has been a major concern from the very first nuclear developments, feedback and actions following incidents and accidents have contributed to continuous enhancements. In particular, the three major nuclear accidents, TMI, Chernobyl and Fukushima had or will hopefully have in the future major impacts on safety improvements. Lessons learned from TMI have greatly enhanced the safety of LWRs, while Chernobyl triggered a number of radio-ecology studies and improved the readiness for radiological crisis management. It is hoped that Fukushima will be the trigger for much stronger international oversight and harmonization of safety practices, something that has

  5. Semuloparin for prevention of venous thromboembolism after major orthopedic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, M R; Fisher, W; Mouret, P

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Semuloparin is a novel ultra-low-molecular-weight heparin under development for venous thromboembolism (VTE) prevention in patients at increased risk, such as surgical and cancer patients. OBJECTIVES: Three Phase III studies compared semuloparin and enoxaparin after major orthopedic...... was to be performed between days 7 and 11. The primary efficacy endpoint was a composite of any deep vein thrombosis, non-fatal pulmonary embolism or all-cause death. Safety outcomes included major bleeding, clinically relevant non-major (CRNM) bleeding, and any clinically relevant bleeding (major bleeding plus CRNM...

  6. Fire safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keski-Rahkonen, O.; Bjoerkman, J.; Hostikka, S.; Mangs, J.; Huhtanen, R.; Palmen, H.; Salminen, A.; Turtola, A.

    1998-01-01

    According to experience and probabilistic risk assessments, fires present a significant hazard in a nuclear power plant. Fires may be initial events for accidents or affect safety systems planned to prevent accidents and to mitigate their consequences. The project consists of theoretical work, experiments and simulations aiming to increase the fire safety at nuclear power plants. The project has four target areas: (1) to produce validated models for numerical simulation programmes, (2) to produce new information on the behavior of equipment in case of fire, (3) to study applicability of new active fire protecting systems in nuclear power plants, and (4) to obtain quantitative knowledge of ignitions induced by important electric devices in nuclear power plants. These topics have been solved mainly experimentally, but modelling at different level is used to interpret experimental data, and to allow easy generalisation and engineering use of the obtained data. Numerical fire simulation has concentrated in comparison of CFD modelling of room fires, and fire spreading on cables on experimental data. So far the success has been good to fair. A simple analytical and numerical model has been developed for fire effluents spreading beyond the room of origin in mechanically strongly ventilated compartments. For behaviour of equipment in fire several full scale and scaled down calorimetric experiments were carried out on electronic cabinets, as well as on horizontal and vertical cable trays. These were carried out to supply material for CFD numerical simulation code validation. Several analytical models were developed and validated against obtained experimental results to allow quick calculations for PSA estimates as well as inter- and extrapolations to slightly different objects. Response times of different commercial fire detectors were determined for different types of smoke, especially emanating from smoldering and flaming cables to facilitate selection of proper detector

  7. Safety of Research Reactors. Safety Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this Safety Requirements publication is to provide a basis for safety and a basis for safety assessment for all stages in the lifetime of a research reactor. Another objective is to establish requirements on aspects relating to regulatory control, the management of safety, site evaluation, design, operation and decommissioning. Technical and administrative requirements for the safety of research reactors are established in accordance with these objectives. This Safety Requirements publication is intended for use by organizations engaged in the site evaluation, design, manufacturing, construction, operation and decommissioning of research reactors as well as by regulatory bodies

  8. Safety management - policy, analysis and implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, F.R.

    1993-01-01

    The nuclear industry is moving towards a period of ever increasing emphasis on business performance and profitability. Safety has, of course, always been a major concern of management in the nuclear industry and elsewhere. The civil aviation industry , for example, has had a similar concern for safety. Other industry sectors are also developing safety management as a response to events within and outside their sectors. In this paper the way that the risk management process as a whole is being addressed is looked at. Can we use risk management, initially a safety-orientated tool, to improve business performance? (author)

  9. Safety guides development process in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butragueno, J.L.; Perello, M.

    1979-01-01

    Safety guides have become a major factor in the licensing process of nuclear power plants and related nuclear facilities of the fuel cycle. As far as the experience corroborates better and better engineering methodologies and procedures, the results of these are settled down in form of standards, guides, and similar issues. This paper presents the actual Spanish experience in nuclear standards and safety guides development. The process to develop a standard or safety guide is shown. Up to date list of issued and on development nuclear safety guides is included and comments on the future role of nuclear standards in the licensing process are made. (author)

  10. Safety assessment principles for nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The present Safety Assessment Principles result from the revision of those which were drawn up following a recommendation arising from the Sizewell-B enquiry. The principles presented here relate only to nuclear safety; there is a section on risks from normal operation and accident conditions and the standards against which those risks are assessed. A major part of the document deals with the principles that cover the design of nuclear plants. The revised Safety assessment principles are aimed primarily at the safety assessment of new nuclear plants but they will also be used in assessing existing plants. (UK)

  11. CERN's new safety policy

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    The documents below, published on 29 September 2014 on the HSE website, together replace the document SAPOCO 42 as well as Safety Codes A1, A5, A9, A10, which are no longer in force. As from the publication date of these documents any reference made to the document SAPOCO 42 or to Safety Codes A1, A5, A9 and A10 in contractual documents or CERN rules and regulations shall be deemed to constitute a reference to the corresponding provisions of the documents listed below.   "The CERN Safety Policy" "Safety Regulation SR-SO - Responsibilities and organisational structure in matters of Safety at CERN" "General Safety Instruction GSI-SO-1 - Departmental Safety Officer (DSO)" "General Safety Instruction GSI-SO-2 - Territorial Safety Officer (TSO)" "General Safety Instruction GSI-SO-3 - Safety Linkperson (SLP)" "General Safety Instruction GSI-SO-4 - Large Experiment Group Leader In Matters of Safety (LEXGLI...

  12. Weaving History through the Major

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, Betty

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of including the study of the history of mathematics in the education of mathematics majors have been discussed at length elsewhere. Many colleges and universities now offer a History of Mathematics course for mathematics majors, for mathematics education majors, or for general credit. At Hood College, we emphasize our commitment to…

  13. International views on nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkhofer, A.

    2002-01-01

    Safety has always been an important objective in nuclear technology. Starting with a set of sound physical principles and prudent design approaches, safety concepts have gradually been refined and cover now a wide range of provisions related to design, quality and operation. Research, the evaluation of operating experiences and probabilistic risk assessments constitute an essential basis and international co-operation plays a significant role in that context. Concerning future developments a major objective for new reactor concepts, such as the EPR, is to practically exclude a severe core damage accident with large scale consequences outside the plant. (author)

  14. Middle East food safety perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idriss, Atef W; El-Habbab, Mohammad S

    2014-08-01

    Food safety and quality assurance are increasingly a major issue with the globalisation of agricultural trade, on the one hand, and intensification of agriculture, on the other. Consumer protection has become a priority in policy-making amongst the large economies of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries following a number of food safety incidents. To enhance food safety, it is necessary to establish markets underpinned by knowledge and resources, including analysis of international rejections of food products from MENA countries, international laboratory accreditation, improved reporting systems and traceability, continued development and validation of analytical methods, and more work on correlating sensory evaluation with analytical results. MENA countries should develop a national strategy for food safety based on a holistic approach that extends from farm-to-fork and involves all the relevant stakeholders. Accordingly, food safety should be a regional programme, raising awareness among policy- and decision-makers of the importance of food safety and quality for consumer protection, food trade and economic development. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Patient Safety and Healthcare Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aikaterini Toska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Due to a variety of circumstances and world-wide research findings, patient safety andquality care during hospitalization have emerged as major issues. Patient safety deficits may burdenhealth systems as well as allocated resources. The international community has examined severalproposals covering general and systemic aspects in order to improve patient safety; several long-termprograms and strategies have also been implemented promoting the participation of health-relatedagents, and also government agencies and non-governmental organizations.Aim: Those factors that have negative correlations with patient safety and quality healthcare weredetermined; WHO and EU programs as well as the Greek health policy were also reviewed.Method: Local and international literature was reviewed, including EU and WHO official publications,by using the appropriate keywords.Conclusions: International cooperation on patient safety is necessary in order to improvehospitalization and healthcare quality standards. Such incentives depend heavily on establishing worldwideviable and effective health programs and planning. These improvements also require further stepson safe work procedures, environment safety, hazard management, infection control, safe use ofequipment and medication, and sufficient healthcare staff.

  16. Prospects for probabilistic safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschberg, S.

    1992-01-01

    This article provides some reflections on future developments of Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) in view of the present state of the art and evaluates current trends in the use of PSA for safety management. The main emphasis is on Level 1 PSA, although Level 2 aspects are also highlighted to some extent. As a starting point, the role of PSA is outlined from a historical perspective, demonstrating the rapid expansion of the uses of PSA. In this context the wide spectrum of PSA applications and the associated benefits to the users are in focus. It should be kept in mind, however, that PSA, in spite of its merits, is not a self-standing safety tool. It complements deterministic analysis and thus improves understanding and facilitating prioritization of safety issues. Significant progress in handling PSA limitations - such as reliability data, common-cause failures, human interactions, external events, accident progression, containment performance, and source-term issues - is described. This forms a background for expected future developments of PSA. Among the most important issues on the agenda for the future are PSA scope extensions, methodological improvements and computer code advancements, and full exploitation of the potential benefits of applications to operational safety management. Many PSA uses, if properly exercised, lead to safety improvements as well as major burden reductions. The article provides, in addition, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) perspective on the topics covered, as reflected in the current PSA programs of the agency. 74 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  17. Effective safety training program design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chilton, D.A.; Lombardo, G.J.; Pater, R.F.

    1991-01-01

    Changes in the oil industry require new strategies to reduce costs and retain valuable employees. Training is a potentially powerful tool for changing the culture of an organization, resulting in improved safety awareness, lower-risk behaviors and ultimately, statistical improvements. Too often, safety training falters, especially when applied to pervasive, long-standing problems. Stepping, Handling and Lifting injuries (SHL) more commonly known as back injuries and slips, trips and falls have plagued mankind throughout the ages. They are also a major problem throughout the petroleum industry. Although not as widely publicized as other immediately-fatal accidents, injuries from stepping, materials handling, and lifting are among the leading causes of employee suffering, lost time and diminished productivity throughout the industry. Traditional approaches have not turned the tide of these widespread injuries. a systematic safety training program, developed by Anadrill Schlumberger with the input of new training technology, has the potential to simultaneously reduce costs, preserve employee safety, and increase morale. This paper: reviews the components of an example safety training program, and illustrates how a systematic approach to safety training can make a positive impact on Stepping, Handling and Lifting injuries

  18. White paper on nuclear safety in 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The measures to research, develop and utilize atomic energy in Japan have been strengthened since the Atomic Energy Act was instituted in 1955, always on the major premise of securing the safety. The Nuclear Safety Commission established in October, 1978, has executed various measures to protect the health and safety of the nation as the center of the atomic energy safety regulation administration in Japan. Now, the Nuclear Safety Commission has published this annual report on atomic energy safety, summarizing various activities for securing the safety of atomic energy since its establishment to the end of March, 1981. This report is the inaugural issue, and the course till the Nuclear Safety Commission has made its start is also described. The report is composed of general remarks, response to the TMI accident, the safety regulation and security of nuclear facilities, the treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes, the investigation of environmental radioactivity, the countermeasures for preventing disasters around nuclear power stations and others, the research on the safety of atomic energy, international cooperation, and the improvement of the basis for securing the safety. Various related materials are attached. (Kako, I.)

  19. Criticality safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, G.

    1983-01-01

    When a sufficient quantity of fissile material is brought together a self-sustaining neutron chain reaction will be started in it and will continue until some change occurs in the fissile material to stop the chain reaction. The quantity of fissile material required is the 'Critical Mass'. This is not a fixed quantity even for a given type of fissile material but varies between quite wide limits depending on a number of factors. In a nuclear reactor the critical mass of fissile material is assembled under well-defined condition to produce a controllable chain reaction. The same materials have to be handled outside the reactor in all stages of fuel element manufacture, storage, transport and irradiated fuel reprocessing. At any stage it is possible (at least in principle) to assemble a critical mass and thus initiate an accidental and uncontrollable chain reaction. Avoiding this is what criticality safety is all about. A system is just critical when the rate of production of neutrons balances the rate of loss either by escape or by absorption. The factors affecting criticality are, therefore, those which effect neutron production and loss. The principal ones are:- type of nuclide and enrichment (or isotopic composition), moderation, reflection, concentration (density), shape and interaction. Each factor is considered in detail. (author)

  20. Contractor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanton, M.L.; Montgomery, E.W.

    1991-01-01

    The recent trend in the United States and Shell Oil Company EandP has been to increase use of contractors to do specialized work. Many companies now use contractors almost exclusively for operations such as drilling, well workovers, construction, and many specialty and routine maintenance tasks. Today, approximately 75% of Shell Oil Company's actual operating work force in EandP is contract. Clearly, HSandE considerations must become an increasingly important part of the contractor selection process. This paper reports on the Shell Oil Company's evolution from a bidder selection process to a program of Matching Owner and Contractor. Well has begun to expand efforts to make better assessments of contractor's HSandE capabilities and values in pre-bid considerations. Focus is on pre-bid evaluations to select contractors that have strong HSandE commitments and values. Contractor safety performance in this industry must be brought up to the same standards as operating companies. In Shell Oil EandP is only willing to contractors who can and are willing to do that

  1. Safety analysis fundamentals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, A.C.D.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the safety analysis fundamentals in reactor design. This study includes safety analysis done to show consequences of postulated accidents are acceptable. Safety analysis is also used to set design of special safety systems and includes design assist analysis to support conceptual design. safety analysis is necessary for licensing a reactor, to maintain an operating license, support changes in plant operations

  2. Safety - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bosanski (Bosnian) PDF Fire Safety at Home - English MP3 Fire Safety at Home - bosanski (Bosnian) MP3 Fire Safety at Home - English MP4 Fire Safety ... Burmese) PDF Home Safety Checklist - myanma bhasa (Burmese) MP3 Minnesota Department of Health Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect) ( ...

  3. Do Biology Majors Really Differ from Non–STEM Majors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotner, Sehoya; Thompson, Seth; Wright, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Recent calls to action urge sweeping reform in science education, advocating for improved learning for all students—including those majoring in fields beyond the sciences. However, little work has been done to characterize the differences—if any exist—between students planning a career in science and those studying other disciplines. We describe an attempt to clarify, in broad terms, how non–STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) majors differ from life sciences majors, and how they are similar. Using survey responses and institutional data, we find that non–STEM majors are not unilaterally science averse; non–STEM majors are more likely than biology majors to hold misconceptions about the nature of science, yet they are not completely ignorant of how science works; non–STEM majors are less likely than biology majors to see science as personally relevant; and non–STEM majors populations are likely to be more diverse—with respect to incoming knowledge, perceptions, backgrounds, and skills—than a biology majors population. We encourage science educators to consider these characteristics when designing curricula for future scientists or simply for a well-informed citizenry. PMID:28798210

  4. Patient safety: Safety culture and patient safety ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Marlene Dyrløv

    2006-01-01

    ,demonstrating significant, consistent and sometimes large differences in terms of safety culture factors across the units participating in the survey. Paper 5 is the results of a study of the relation between safety culture, occupational health andpatient safety using a safety culture questionnaire survey......Patient safety - the prevention of medical error and adverse events - and the initiative of developing safety cultures to assure patients from harm have become one of the central concerns in quality improvement in healthcare both nationally andinternationally. This subject raises numerous...... challenging issues of systemic, organisational, cultural and ethical relevance, which this dissertation seeks to address through the application of different disciplinary approaches. The main focus of researchis safety culture; through empirical and theoretical studies to comprehend the phenomenon, address...

  5. Organization and Nuclear Safety: Safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin Marquinez, A.

    1998-01-01

    This book presents the experience in nuclear safety and its influence in the exploitation on nuclear power plants. The safety organization and quality management before and after Chernobylsk and three mile island accidents

  6. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This report covers the activities of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) for calendar year 1998-a year of sharp contrasts and significant successes at NASA. The year opened with the announcement of large workforce cutbacks. The slip in the schedule for launching the International Space Station (ISS) created a five-month hiatus in Space Shuttle launches. This slack period ended with the successful and highly publicized launch of the STS-95 mission. As the year closed, ISS assembly began with the successful orbiting and joining of the Functional Cargo Block (FGB), Zarya, from Russia and the Unity Node from the United States. Throughout the year, the Panel maintained its scrutiny of NASA's safety processes. Of particular interest were the potential effects on safety of workforce reductions and the continued transition of functions to the Space Flight Operations Contractor. Attention was also given to the risk management plans of the Aero-Space Technology programs, including the X-33, X-34, and X-38. Overall, the Panel concluded that safety is well served for the present. The picture is not as clear for the future. Cutbacks have limited the depth of talent available. In many cases, technical specialties are 'one deep.' The extended hiring freeze has resulted in an older workforce that will inevitably suffer significant departures from retirements in the near future. The resulting 'brain drain' could represent a future safety risk unless appropriate succession planning is started expeditiously. This and other topics are covered in the section addressing workforce. The major NASA programs are also limited in their ability to plan property for the future. This is of particular concern for the Space Shuttle and ISS because these programs are scheduled to operate well into the next century. In the case of the Space Shuttle, beneficial and mandatory safety and operational upgrades are being delayed because of a lack of sufficient present funding. Likewise, the ISS has

  7. The Prospect of Motorcycle Safety Education in Secondary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Alfred S.

    Motorcycle safety education will become a necessity in the near future due to the growing demands of secondary students for education in this area. The Motorcycle Safety Foundation is sponsored by major motorcycle industries and is involved with developing programs and materials to promote motorcycle safety education. The high rate of motorcycle…

  8. SAFETY IN THE DESIGN OF SCIENCE LABORATORIES AND BUILDING CODES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HOROWITZ, HAROLD

    THE DESIGN OF COLLEGE AND UNIVERSITY BUILDINGS USED FOR SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH AND EDUCATION IS DISCUSSED IN TERMS OF LABORATORY SAFETY AND BUILDING CODES AND REGULATIONS. MAJOR TOPIC AREAS ARE--(1) SAFETY RELATED DESIGN FEATURES OF SCIENCE LABORATORIES, (2) LABORATORY SAFETY AND BUILDING CODES, AND (3) EVIDENCE OF UNSAFE DESIGN. EXAMPLES EMPHASIZE…

  9. Integrating Occupational Health and Safety into TAFE Courses: Curriculum Topics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Bob; Mageean, Pauline

    This guide is designed to help technical and further education (TAFE) curriculum writers in Australia integrate safety education into vocational education courses. It provides a general overview of occupational health and safety from the perspective of TAFE trade training and a brief summary of the major health and safety issues that might be…

  10. The radiation safety self-assessment program of Ontario Hydro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armitage, G.; Chase, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    Ontario Hydro has developed a self-assessment program to ensure that high quality in its radiation safety program is maintained. The self-assessment program has three major components: routine ongoing assessment, accident/incident investigation, and detailed assessments of particular radiation safety subsystems or of the total radiation safety program. The operation of each of these components is described

  11. Directory of Academic Programs in Occupational Safety and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, William J., III; And Others

    This booklet describes academic program offerings in American colleges and universities in the area of occupational safety and health. Programs are divided into five major categories, corresponding to each of the core disciplines: (1) occupational safety and health/industrial hygiene, (2) occupational safety, (3) industrial hygiene, (4)…

  12. Design for safety: theoretical framework of the safety aspect of BIM system to determine the safety index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai Lin Evelyn Teo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the safety improvement drive that has been implemented in the construction industry in Singapore for many years, the industry continues to report the highest number of workplace fatalities, compared to other industries. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the theoretical framework of the safety aspect of a proposed BIM System to determine a Safety Index. An online questionnaire survey was conducted to ascertain the current workplace safety and health situation in the construction industry and explore how BIM can be used to improve safety performance in the industry. A safety hazard library was developed based on the main contributors to fatal accidents in the construction industry, determined from the formal records and existing literature, and a series of discussions with representatives from the Workplace Safety and Health Institute (WSH Institute in Singapore. The results from the survey suggested that the majority of the firms have implemented the necessary policies, programmes and procedures on Workplace Safety and Health (WSH practices. However, BIM is still not widely applied or explored beyond the mandatory requirement that building plans should be submitted to the authorities for approval in BIM format. This paper presents a discussion of the safety aspect of the Intelligent Productivity and Safety System (IPASS developed in the study. IPASS is an intelligent system incorporating the buildable design concept, theory on the detection, prevention and control of hazards, and the Construction Safety Audit Scoring System (ConSASS. The system is based on the premise that safety should be considered at the design stage, and BIM can be an effective tool to facilitate the efforts to enhance safety performance. IPASS allows users to analyse and monitor key aspects of the safety performance of the project before the project starts and as the project progresses.

  13. Independent accident investigation: a modern safety tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoop, John A.

    2004-01-01

    Historically, safety has been subjected to a fragmented approach. In the past, every department has had its own responsibility towards safety, focusing either on working conditions, internal safety, external safety, rescue and emergency, public order or security. They each issued policy documents, which in their time were leading statements for elaboration and regulation. They also addressed safety issues with tools of various nature, often specifically developed within their domain. Due to a series of major accidents and disasters, the focus of attention is shifting from complying with quantitative risk standards towards intervention in primary operational processes, coping with systemic deficiencies and a more integrated assessment of safety in its societal context. In The Netherlands recognition of the importance of independent investigations has led to an expansion of this philosophy from the transport sector to other sectors. The philosophy now covers transport, industry, defense, natural disaster, environment and health and other major occurrences such as explosions, fires, and collapse of buildings or structures. In 2003 a multi-sector covering law will establish an independent safety board in The Netherlands. At a European level, mandatory investigation agencies are recognized as indispensable safety instruments for aviation, railways and the maritime sector, for which EU Directives are in place or being progressed [Transport accident and incident investigation in the European Union, European Transport Safety Council, ISBN 90-76024-10-3, Brussel, 2001]. Due to a series of major events, attention has been drawn to the consequences of disasters, highlighting the involvement of rescue and emergency services. They also have become subjected to investigative efforts, which in return, puts demands on investigation methodology. This paper comments on an evolutionary development in safety thinking and of safety boards, highlighting some consequences for strategic

  14. EUROSAFE Forum for nuclear safety. Towards Convergence of Technical Nuclear Safety Practices in Europe. Safety Improvements - Reasons, Strategies, Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erven, Ulrich (ed.) [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, GRS mbH, Schwertnergasse 1, 50667 Koeln (Germany); Cherie, Jean-Bernard (ed.) [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, IRSN, BP 17, 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); Boeck, Benoit De (ed.) [Association Vincotte Nuclear, AVN, Rue Walcourt 148, 1070 Bruxelles (Belgium)

    2005-07-01

    The EUROSAFE Forum for Nuclear Safety is part of the EUROSAFE approach, which consists of two further elements: the EUROSAFE Tribune and the EUROSAFE Web site. The general aim of EUROSAFE is to contribute to fostering the convergence of technical nuclear safety practices in a broad European context. This is done by providing technical safety and research organisations, safety authorities, power utilities, the rest of the industry and non-governmental organisations mainly from the European Union and East-European countries, and international organisations with a platform for the presentation of recent analyses and R and D in the field of nuclear safety. The goal is to share experiences, to exchange technical and scientific opinions, and to conduct debates on key issues in the fields of nuclear safety and radiation protection. The EUROSAFE Forum on 2005 focused on Safety Improvements, Reasons - Strategies - Implementation, from the point of view of the authorities, TSOs and industry. Latest work in nuclear installation safety and research, waste management, radiation safety as well as nuclear material and nuclear facilities security carried out by GRS, IRSN, AVN and their partners in the European Union, Switzerland and Eastern Europe are presented. A high level of nuclear safety is a priority for the countries of Europe. The technical safety organisations play an important role in contributing to that objective through appropriate approaches to major safety issues as part of their assessments and research activities. The challenges to nuclear safety are international. Changes in underlying technologies such as instrumentation and control, the impact of electricity market deregulation, demands for improved safety and safety management, the ageing of nuclear facilities, waste management, maintaining and improving scientific and technical knowledge, and the need for greater transparency - these are all issues where the value of an international approach is gaining

  15. EUROSAFE Forum for nuclear safety. Towards Convergence of Technical Nuclear Safety Practices in Europe. Safety Improvements - Reasons, Strategies, Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erven, Ulrich [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, GRS mbH, Schwertnergasse 1, 50667 Koeln (Germany); Cherie, Jean-Bernard [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, IRSN, BP 17, 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); Boeck, Benoit De [Association Vincotte Nuclear, AVN, Rue Walcourt 148, 1070 Bruxelles (Belgium)

    2005-07-01

    The EUROSAFE Forum for Nuclear Safety is part of the EUROSAFE approach, which consists of two further elements: the EUROSAFE Tribune and the EUROSAFE Web site. The general aim of EUROSAFE is to contribute to fostering the convergence of technical nuclear safety practices in a broad European context. This is done by providing technical safety and research organisations, safety authorities, power utilities, the rest of the industry and non-governmental organisations mainly from the European Union and East-European countries, and international organisations with a platform for the presentation of recent analyses and R and D in the field of nuclear safety. The goal is to share experiences, to exchange technical and scientific opinions, and to conduct debates on key issues in the fields of nuclear safety and radiation protection. The EUROSAFE Forum on 2005 focused on Safety Improvements, Reasons - Strategies - Implementation, from the point of view of the authorities, TSOs and industry. Latest work in nuclear installation safety and research, waste management, radiation safety as well as nuclear material and nuclear facilities security carried out by GRS, IRSN, AVN and their partners in the European Union, Switzerland and Eastern Europe are presented. A high level of nuclear safety is a priority for the countries of Europe. The technical safety organisations play an important role in contributing to that objective through appropriate approaches to major safety issues as part of their assessments and research activities. The challenges to nuclear safety are international. Changes in underlying technologies such as instrumentation and control, the impact of electricity market deregulation, demands for improved safety and safety management, the ageing of nuclear facilities, waste management, maintaining and improving scientific and technical knowledge, and the need for greater transparency - these are all issues where the value of an international approach is gaining

  16. Flu Vaccine Safety Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Flu Vaccine Safety Information Questions & Answers Language: English (US) ... safety of flu vaccines monitored? Egg Allergy Are flu vaccines safe? Flu vaccines have good safety record. ...

  17. Bathroom safety - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Well child - bathroom safety ... be put in charge of a younger child's safety. There should be an adult in the bathroom ... sure grandparents, friends, and other caretakers follow bathroom safety guidelines. Make sure your child's daycare also follows ...

  18. Bathroom safety - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Older adult bathroom safety; Falls - bathroom safety ... You may need to have safety bars in your bathroom. These grab bars should be secured vertically or horizontally to the wall, not diagonally. DO NOT use ...

  19. Behavioral based safety approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maria Michael Raj, I.

    2009-01-01

    Approach towards the establishment of positive safety culture at Heavy Water Plant, Tuticorin includes the adoption of several important methodologies focused on human behavior and culminates with achievement of Total Safety Culture where Quality and Productivity are integrated with Safety

  20. Integrated Safety in ''SARAF'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickstein, P.; Grof, Y.; Machlev, M.; Pernick, A.

    2004-01-01

    As of the very early stages of the accelerator project at the Soreq Nuclear Research Center ''SARAF'' a safety group was established which has been an inseparable participant in the planning and design of the new facility. The safety group comprises of teams responsible for the shielding, radiation protection and general industrial safety aspects of ''SARAF''. The safety group prepared and documented the safety envelope for the accelerator, dealing with the safety requirements and guidelines for the first, pre-operational, stages of the project. The safety envelope, though based upon generic principles, took into account the accelerator features and the expected modes of operation. The safety envelope was prepared in a hierarchical structure, containing Basic Principles, Basic Guidelines, General Principles for Safety Implementation, Safety Requirements and Safety Underlining Issues. The above safety envelope applies to the entire facility, which entails the accelerator itself and the experimental areas and associated plant and equipment utilizing and supporting the production of the accelerated particle beams

  1. Animal Product Safety Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Product Safety Information Product Safety Information Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... to report adverse experiences with veterinary drugs. Additional Product Information Questions and Answers: Evanger’s Dog and Cat ...

  2. Car Seat Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Car Seat Safety KidsHealth / For Parents / Car Seat Safety ... certified child passenger safety technician.) Guidelines for Choosing Car Seats Choose a seat with a label that ...

  3. Practice Hospital Bed Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Practice Hospital Bed Safety Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... It depends on the complexity of the bed." Safety Tips CDRH offers the following safety tips for ...

  4. Safety prediction for basic components of safety critical software based on static testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, H.S.; Seong, P.H.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop a safety prediction method, with which we can predict the risk of software components based on static testing results at the early development stage. The predictive model combines the major factor with the quality factor for the components, both of which are calculated based on the measures proposed in this work. The application to a safety-critical software system demonstrates the feasibility of the safety prediction method. (authors)

  5. Nuclear safety regulation on nuclear safety equipment activities in relation to human and organizational factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Tianshu

    2013-01-01

    Based on years of knowledge in nuclear safety supervision and experience of investigating and dealing with violation events in repair welding of DFHM, this paper analyzes major faults in manufacturing and maintaining activities of nuclear safety equipment in relation to human and organizational factors. It could be deducted that human and organizational factors has definitely become key features in the development of nuclear energy and technology. Some feasible measures to reinforce supervision on nuclear safety equipment activities have also been proposed. (author)

  6. Safety prediction for basic components of safety-critical software based on static testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, H.S.; Seong, P.H.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop a safety prediction method, with which we can predict the risk of software components based on static testing results at the early development stage. The predictive model combines the major factor with the quality factor for the components, which are calculated based on the measures proposed in this work. The application to a safety-critical software system demonstrates the feasibility of the safety prediction method. (authors)

  7. Objective and character of safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aastrand, K.

    2005-01-01

    The main topics of the lecture include: (1) concepts of safety culture introduced in INSAG-4, (2) stages of development of safety culture, (3) general practises to develop organizational effectiveness as a means of implementing and improving safety culture, (4) specific practises to develop safety culture applying to all stages of a nuclear installation's life cycle, (5) suggestions on assessing the progress of development of safety culture in an organization and on evaluating the influence of major environmental and internal organizational factors on that culture, and (6) guidance on the detection of incipient weaknesses in safety culture that may be of particular interest to regulators and those responsible for self-assessment in organization

  8. IAEA programme on research reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcala, F.; Di Meglio, A.F.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the IAEA programme on research reactor safety and includes the safety related areas of conversions to the use of low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. The program is based on the IAEA statutory responsibilities as they apply to the requirements of over 320 research reactors operating around the world. The programme covers four major areas: (a) the development of safety documents; (b) safety missions to research reactor facilities; (c) support of research programmes on research reactor safety; (d) support of Technical Cooperation projects on research reactor safety issues. The demand for these activities by the IAEA member states has increased substantially in recent years especially in developing countries with increasing emphasis being placed on LEU conversion matters. In response to this demand, the IAEA has undertaken an extensive programme for each of the four areas above. (author)

  9. Nuclear safety in France in 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    This article presents the milestones of 2001 concerning nuclear safety in France: 1) the new organization of nuclear safety in France, IPSN (institute of protection and nuclear safety) and OPRI (office for protection against ionizing radiation) have merged into an independent organization: IRSN (institute of radiation protection and nuclear safety); 2) a draft bill has been proposed by the government to impose to nuclear operators new obligations concerning the transfer of information to the public; 3) nuclear safety authorities have drafted a new procedure in order to cope with the demand concerning modification of nuclear fuel management particularly the increase of the burn-up; 4) new evolutions concerning the management of a major nuclear crisis as a consequence of the terrorist attack on New-york and the accident at the AZF plant in Toulouse; 5) a point is made concerning the work of the WENRA association about the harmonization of the nuclear safety policies of its different members. (A.C.)

  10. Engineering design guidelines for nuclear criticality safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waltz, W.R.

    1988-08-01

    This document provides general engineering design guidelines specific to nuclear criticality safety for a facility where the potential for a criticality accident exists. The guide is applicable to the design of new SRP/SRL facilities and to major modifications Of existing facilities. The document is intended an: A guide for persons actively engaged in the design process. A resource document for persons charged with design review for adequacy relative to criticality safety. A resource document for facility operating personnel. The guide defines six basic criticality safety design objectives and provides information to assist in accomplishing each objective. The guide in intended to supplement the design requirements relating to criticality safety contained in applicable Department of Energy (DOE) documents. The scope of the guide is limited to engineering design guidelines associated with criticality safety and does not include other areas of the design process, such as: criticality safety analytical methods and modeling, nor requirements for control of the design process

  11. A study on the regulatory approach of major technical issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Keun Sun; Choi, J. T.; Kim, I. J. [Sunmoon Univ., Asan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, S. H.; Baek, W. P.; Yang, S. H. [Korea Association for Nuclear Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-06-15

    This project is to provide the regulatory direction of 4 major technical issues for the Korean Next Generation Reactors, which are parts of major technical issues resulted from the safety regulation R and D on the KNGR. The outstanding results are as follows : reliability of risk significant SSCs established during design stage must be maintained through the operating life of the plant, currently used classification method of plant conditions and safety requirement were reviewed, and a quantitative classification method is needed to be developed further, the basic regulatory directions are proposed for multiple failures such as SBO, TLOFW, multiple SGTR and ATWS, safety requirements are proposed for survivability/availability of severe accident mitigation design features by 5 items if basic requirements, selection of initial event, identification of available equipment and instruments, identification of environmental conditions and verification methods.

  12. Lightning Safety Tips and Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Services Careers Contact Us Glossary Safety National Program Lightning Safety Tips and Resources Weather.gov > Safety > Lightning Safety Tips and Resources Lightning Resources Lightning strikes ...

  13. Managing major chemical accidents in China: Towards effective risk information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, G.; Zhang, L.; Lu, Y.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2011-01-01

    Chemical industries, from their very inception, have been controversial due to the high risks they impose on safety of human beings and the environment. Recent decades have witnessed increasing impacts of the accelerating expansion of chemical industries and chemical accidents have become a major

  14. Integral fast reactor safety features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahalan, J.E.; Kramer, J.M.; Marchaterre, J.F.; Mueller, C.J.; Pedersen, D.R.; Sevy, R.H.; Wade, D.C.; Wei, T.Y.C.

    1988-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is an advanced liquid-metal-cooled reactor concept being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The two major goals of the IFR development effort are improved economics and enhanced safety. In addition to liquid metal cooling, the principal design features that distinguish the IFR are: (1) a pool-type primary system, (2) an advanced ternary alloy metallic fuel, and (3) an integral fuel cycle with on-site fuel reprocessing and fabrication. This paper focuses on the technical aspects of the improved safety margins available in the IFR concept. This increased level of safety is made possible by (1) the liquid metal (sodium) coolant and pool-type primary system layout, which together facilitate passive decay heat removal, and (2) a sodium-bonded metallic fuel pin design with thermal and neutronic properties that provide passive core responses which control and mitigate the consequences of reactor accidents

  15. Patient safety: break the silence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Hope L; Kimsey, Diane

    2012-05-01

    A culture of patient safety requires commitment and full participation from all staff members. In 2008, results of a culture of patient safety survey conducted in the perioperative division of the Lehigh Valley Health Network in Pennsylvania revealed a lack of patient-centered focus, teamwork, and positive communication. As a result, perioperative leaders assembled a multidisciplinary team that designed a safety training program focusing on Crew Resource Management, TeamSTEPPS, and communication techniques. The team used video vignettes and an audience response system to engage learners and promote participation. Topics included using preprocedural briefings and postprocedural debriefings, conflict resolution, and assertiveness techniques. Postcourse evaluations showed that the majority of respondents believed they were better able to question the decisions or actions of someone with more authority. The facility has experienced a marked decrease in the number of incidents requiring a root cause analysis since the program was conducted. Copyright © 2012 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Innovative technology and blood safety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begue, S; Morel, P; Djoudi, R

    2016-11-01

    If technological innovations are not enough alone to improve blood safety, their contributions for several decades in blood transfusion are major. The improvement of blood donation (new apheresis devices, RFID) or blood components (additive solutions, pathogen reduction technology, automated processing of platelets concentrates) or manufacturing process of these products (by automated processing of whole blood), all these steps where technological innovations were implemented, lead us to better traceability, more efficient processes, quality improvement of blood products and therefore increased blood safety for blood donors and patients. If we are on the threshold of a great change with the progress of pathogen reduction technology (for whole blood and red blood cells), we hope to see production of ex vivo red blood cells or platelets who are real and who open new conceptual paths on blood safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Integral fast reactor safety features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahalan, J.E.; Kramer, J.M.; Marchaterre, J.F.; Mueller, C.J.; Pedersen, D.R.; Sevy, R.H.; Wade, D.C.; Wei, T.Y.C.

    1988-01-01

    The integral fast reactor (IFR) is an advanced liquid-metal-cooled reactor concept being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The two major goals of the IFR development effort are improved economics and enhanced safety. In addition to liquid metal cooling, the principal design features that distinguish the IFR are: a pool-type primary system, and advanced ternary alloy metallic fuel, and an integral fuel cycle with on-site fuel reprocessing and fabrication. This paper focuses on the technical aspects of the improved safety margins available in the IFR concept. This increased level of safety is made possible by the liquid metal (sodium) coolant and pool-type primary system layout, which together facilitate passive decay heat removal, and a sodium-bonded metallic fuel pin design with thermal and neutronic properties that provide passive core responses which control and mitigate the consequences of reactor accidents

  18. Nuclear criticality safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruvost, N.L.; Paxton, H.C.

    1996-09-01

    This technical reference document cites information related to nuclear criticality safety principles, experience, and practice. The document also provides general guidance for criticality safety personnel and regulators

  19. Nuclear criticality safety guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruvost, N.L.; Paxton, H.C. [eds.

    1996-09-01

    This technical reference document cites information related to nuclear criticality safety principles, experience, and practice. The document also provides general guidance for criticality safety personnel and regulators.

  20. New Safety rules

    CERN Multimedia

    Safety Commission

    2008-01-01

    The revision of CERN Safety rules is in progress and the following new Safety rules have been issued on 15-04-2008: Safety Procedure SP-R1 Establishing, Updating and Publishing CERN Safety rules: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/SP-R1.htm; Safety Regulation SR-S Smoking at CERN: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/SR-S.htm; Safety Regulation SR-M Mechanical Equipment: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/SR-M.htm; General Safety Instruction GSI-M1 Standard Lifting Equipment: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/GSI-M1.htm; General Safety Instruction GSI-M2 Standard Pressure Equipment: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/GSI-M2.htm; General Safety Instruction GSI-M3 Special Mechanical Equipment: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/GSI-M3.htm. These documents apply to all persons under the Director General’s authority. All Safety rules are available at the web page: http://www.cern.ch/safety-rules The Safety Commission

  1. Interdisciplinary Project Experiences: Collaboration between Majors and Non-Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smarkusky, Debra L.; Toman, Sharon A.

    2014-01-01

    Students in computer science and information technology should be engaged in solving real-world problems received from government and industry as well as those that expose them to various areas of application. In this paper, we discuss interdisciplinary project experiences between majors and non-majors that offered a creative and innovative…

  2. Do Biology Majors Really Differ from Non-STEM Majors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotner, Sehoya; Thompson, Seth; Wright, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Recent calls to action urge sweeping reform in science education, advocating for improved learning for all students-including those majoring in fields beyond the sciences. However, little work has been done to characterize the differences-if any exist-between students planning a career in science and those studying other disciplines. We describe an attempt to clarify, in broad terms, how non-STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) majors differ from life sciences majors, and how they are similar. Using survey responses and institutional data, we find that non-STEM majors are not unilaterally science averse; non-STEM majors are more likely than biology majors to hold misconceptions about the nature of science, yet they are not completely ignorant of how science works; non-STEM majors are less likely than biology majors to see science as personally relevant; and non-STEM majors populations are likely to be more diverse-with respect to incoming knowledge, perceptions, backgrounds, and skills-than a biology majors population. We encourage science educators to consider these characteristics when designing curricula for future scientists or simply for a well-informed citizenry. © 2017 S. Cotner et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2017 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  3. Nuclear safety infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moffitt, R.L.

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of nuclear power in any country requires the early establishment of a long term nuclear safety infrastructure. This is necessary to ensure that the siting, design, construction, commissioning, operation and dismantling of the nuclear power plant and any other related installations, as well as the long term management of radioactive waste and spent fuel, are conducted in a safe and secure manner. The decision to undertake a nuclear power program is a major commitment requiring strict attention to nuclear safety. This commitment is a responsibility to not only the citizens of the country developing such a program, but also a responsibility to the international community. Nobody can take on this responsibility or make the critical decisions except the host country. It is important to make sure that the decision making process and the development activities are done in as open a manner as possible allowing interested stakeholders the opportunity to review and comment on the actions and plans. It cannot be overemphasized that everyone involved in a program to develop nuclear power carries a responsibility for ensuring safety. While it is clear that the key decisions and activities are the responsibility of the host country, it is also very important to recognize that help is available. The IAEA, OECD-NEA, WANO and other international organizations along with countries with established nuclear power programs are available to provide information and assistance. In particular, the IAEA and OECD-NEA have published several documents regarding the development of a nuclear power program and they have been and continue to support many meetings and seminars regarding the development of nuclear power programs

  4. Nuclear safety in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caro, R.

    1988-01-01

    Control and monitoring of all Spanish nuclear facilities was first carried out by the Department of Nuclear Safety of the Junta de Energia Nuclear established by the Nuclear Energy Act in 1964. Later, following the example of other Western countries, it was concluded that regulations and monitoring of nuclear energy on one hand and its promotion and development on the other should not be done by the same national body. Therefore, the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear (CSN) was created in 1980, as the sole national body responsible for controlling the safety of nuclear installations, and radiological protection. The CSN has five members, one chairman and four comissioners, required to be independent and therefore with politically objective criteria, internationally acknowledged technical capability, and free from other duties and responsibilities. For this purpose the Chairman has been given the status of Minister and the commissioners that of Secretary of State. They serve for six years, after being accepted by Parliament by a majority of at least 3/5 of the votes, and are called upon to report to Parliament at least twice a year on nuclear safety and radiological protection in the country. A complete report on those issues is presented to Parliament, becoming a politic document as from that moment. To prepare that report (basically a summary of CSN activities) and, in general, to fulfill all its tasks, the CSN has a staff of some 300, about 50% being technical. CSN activities cover: 1. Standards; 2. Licences; 3. Research; 4. Environment; 5. Information; and 6. International Relations

  5. Management of safety and safety culture at the NPPs of Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koltakov, Vladimir

    2002-01-01

    The report contains general aspects of safety and safety culture. The brief description of operational characteristics and basic indexes of atomic power plants at the Ukraine are represented. The information referring to structure of NPPs of Operation organization license-holder, safety responsibility of both Regulatory and Utility Bodies also is given. The main part of the report include seven sections: 1. Practical application of safety management models; 2. erspective on the relationship between safety management and safety culture; 3. The role of leadership in achieving high standards of safety; 4. Current and future challengers that impact on safety culture and safety management (e.g. the impact of competition, changing, economic and political circumstances, workforce demographics, etc.); 5. Key lessons learned from major events; 6. Practical applications of safety culture concepts (e.g. learning organizations, training staff communications, etc.); 7. dvance in human performance. Some of the main pending safety and safety culture problems that are necessary to achieve in the near future are mentioned

  6. Internet safety education for youth: stakeholder perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Megan A; Egan, Katie G; Bare, Kaitlyn; Young, Henry N; Cox, Elizabeth D

    2013-06-05

    Internet use is nearly ubiquitous among US youth; risks to internet use include cyberbullying, privacy violations and unwanted solicitation. Internet safety education may prevent these negative consequences; however, it is unclear at what age this education should begin and what group is responsible for teaching this topic. Surveys were distributed to key stakeholders in youth safety education including public school teachers, clinicians, parents and adolescents. Surveys assessed age at which internet safety education should begin, as well as experiences teaching and learning internet safety. Surveys of adults assessed willingness to teach internet safety. Finally, participants were asked to identify a group whose primary responsibility it should be to teach internet safety. A total of 356 participants completed the survey (93.4% response rate), including 77 teachers, 111 clinicians, 72 parents and 96 adolescents. Stakeholders felt the optimal mean age to begin teaching internet safety was 7.2 years (SD = 2.5), range 2-15. Internet safety was regularly taught by some teachers (20.8%), few clinicians (2.6%) and many parents (40.3%). The majority of teachers, clinicians and parents were willing to teach internet safety, but all groups surveyed identified parents as having primary responsibility for teaching this topic. Findings suggest agreement among key stakeholders for teaching internet safety at a young age, and for identifying parents as primary teachers of this topic. Clinicians have a unique opportunity to support parents by providing resources, guidance and support.

  7. Setting clear expectations for safety basis development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MORENO, M.R.

    2003-01-01

    DOE-RL has set clear expectations for a cost-effective approach for achieving compliance with the Nuclear Safety Management requirements (10 CFR 830, Nuclear Safety Rule) which will ensure long-term benefit to Hanford. To facilitate implementation of these expectations, tools were developed to streamline and standardize safety analysis and safety document development resulting in a shorter and more predictable DOE approval cycle. A Hanford Safety Analysis and Risk Assessment Handbook (SARAH) was issued to standardized methodologies for development of safety analyses. A Microsoft Excel spreadsheet (RADIDOSE) was issued for the evaluation of radiological consequences for accident scenarios often postulated for Hanford. A standard Site Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) detailing the safety management programs was issued for use as a means of compliance with a majority of 3009 Standard chapters. An in-process review was developed between DOE and the Contractor to facilitate DOE approval and provide early course correction. As a result of setting expectations and providing safety analysis tools, the four Hanford Site waste management nuclear facilities were able to integrate into one Master Waste Management Documented Safety Analysis (WM-DSA)

  8. Safety margins in deterministic safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viktorov, A.

    2011-01-01

    The concept of safety margins has acquired certain prominence in the attempts to demonstrate quantitatively the level of the nuclear power plant safety by means of deterministic analysis, especially when considering impacts from plant ageing and discovery issues. A number of international or industry publications exist that discuss various applications and interpretations of safety margins. The objective of this presentation is to bring together and examine in some detail, from the regulatory point of view, the safety margins that relate to deterministic safety analysis. In this paper, definitions of various safety margins are presented and discussed along with the regulatory expectations for them. Interrelationships of analysis input and output parameters with corresponding limits are explored. It is shown that the overall safety margin is composed of several components each having different origins and potential uses; in particular, margins associated with analysis output parameters are contrasted with margins linked to the analysis input. While these are separate, it is possible to influence output margins through the analysis input, and analysis method. Preserving safety margins is tantamount to maintaining safety. At the same time, efficiency of operation requires optimization of safety margins taking into account various technical and regulatory considerations. For this, basic definitions and rules for safety margins must be first established. (author)

  9. More safety by improving the safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laaksonen, J.

    1993-01-01

    In its meeting in 1986, after Chernobyl accident, the INSAG group concluded, that the most important reason for the accident was lack of safety culture. Later the group realized that the safety culture, if it is well enough, can be used as a powerful tool to assess and develop practices affecting safety in any country. A comprehensive view on the various aspects of safety culture was presented in the INSAG-4 report published in 1991. Finland was among the first nations include the concept of safety culture in its regulations. This article describes the roles of government and the regulatory body in creating a national safety culture. How safety culture is seen in the operation of a nuclear power plant is also discussed. (orig.)

  10. AEA Technology safety report 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-01

    AEA Technology is the trading name of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority. Work in support of nuclear power at home and abroad continues to be an important part of our business but as nuclear power has matured AEA Technology has looked beyond its traditional role to other markets worldwide. We are a major commercial enterprise, with an annual turnover of Pound 450 million, selling a variety of technical services and products to customers worldwide. The scope of the business lies in the closely related fields of energy, environment and safety, targeted at both nuclear and non-nuclear markets. We also have a major role in providing innovative technology solutions to assist manufacturing industry. The 1990 report on safety within the Authority is presented here. (author).

  11. AEA Technology safety report 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    AEA Technology is the trading name of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority. Work in support of nuclear power at home and abroad continues to be an important part of our business but as nuclear power has matured AEA Technology has looked beyond its traditional role to other markets worldwide. We are a major commercial enterprise, with an annual turnover of Pound 450 million, selling a variety of technical services and products to customers worldwide. The scope of the business lies in the closely related fields of energy, environment and safety, targeted at both nuclear and non-nuclear markets. We also have a major role in providing innovative technology solutions to assist manufacturing industry. The 1990 report on safety within the Authority is presented here. (author)

  12. One health and food safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wielinga, Peter; Schlundt, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    Many, if not most, of all important zoonoses relate in some way to animals in the food production chain. Therefore food becomes an important vehicle for many zoonotic pathogens. One of the major issues in food safety over the latest decades has been the lack of cross-sectoral collaboration across...... the food production chain. Major food safety events have been significantly affected by the lack of collaboration between the animal health, the food control, and the human health sector. One Health formulates clearly both the need for, and the benefit of cross-sectoral collaboration. Here we will focus...... on the human health risk related to zoonotic microorganisms present both in food animals and food derived from these animals, and typically transmitted to humans through food. Some diseases have global epidemic- or pandemic-potential, resulting in dramatic action from international organizations and national...

  13. IAEA Safety Standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-09-01

    The IAEA Safety Standards Series comprises publications of a regulatory nature covering nuclear safety, radiation protection, radioactive waste management, the transport of radioactive material, the safety of nuclear fuel cycle facilities and management systems. These publications are issued under the terms of Article III of the IAEA’s Statute, which authorizes the IAEA to establish “standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property”. Safety standards are categorized into: • Safety Fundamentals, stating the basic objective, concepts and principles of safety; • Safety Requirements, establishing the requirements that must be fulfilled to ensure safety; and • Safety Guides, recommending measures for complying with these requirements for safety. For numbering purposes, the IAEA Safety Standards Series is subdivided into General Safety Requirements and General Safety Guides (GSR and GSG), which are applicable to all types of facilities and activities, and Specific Safety Requirements and Specific Safety Guides (SSR and SSG), which are for application in particular thematic areas. This booklet lists all current IAEA Safety Standards, including those forthcoming

  14. The role of probabilistic safety assessment in the design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, A.; Ingham, E.L.

    1989-01-01

    The use of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) for Heysham 2 and Torness marked a major change in the design approach to nuclear safety within the U.K. Design Safety Guidelines incorporating probabilistic safety targets required that design justification would necessitate explicit consideration of the consequence of accidents in relation to their frequency. The paper discusses these safety targets and their implications, the integration of PSA into the design process and an outline of the methodology. The influence of PSA on the design is discussed together with its role in the overall demonstration of reactor safety. (author)

  15. Safety cases for the co-ordinated research project on improvement of safety assessment methodologies for near surface radioactive waste disposal facilities (ISAM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozak, M.W.; Torres-Vidal, C.; Kelly, E.; Guskov, A.; Blerk, J. van

    2002-01-01

    A Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) has recently been completed on the Improvement of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near-Surface Radioactive Waste Disposal Facilities (ISAM). A major aspect of the project was the use of safety cases for the practical application of safety assessment. An overview of the ISAM safety cases is given in this paper. (author)

  16. Making safety an integral part of 5S in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikuma, Laura H; Nahmens, Isabelina

    2014-01-01

    Healthcare faces major challenges with provider safety and rising costs, and many organizations are using Lean to instigate change. One Lean tool, 5S, is becoming popular for improving efficiency of physical work environments, and it can also improve safety. This paper demonstrates that safety is an integral part of 5S by examining five specific 5S events in acute care facilities. We provide two arguments for how safety is linked to 5S:1. Safety is affected by 5S events, regardless of whether safety is a specific goal and 2. Safety can and should permeate all five S's as part of a comprehensive plan for system improvement. Reports of 5S events from five departments in one health system were used to evaluate how changes made at each step of the 5S impacted safety. Safety was affected positively in each step of the 5S through initial safety goals and side effects of other changes. The case studies show that 5S can be a mechanism for improving safety. Practitioners may reap additional safety benefits by incorporating safety into 5S events through a safety analysis before the 5S, safety goals and considerations during the 5S, and follow-up safety analysis.

  17. Safety culture in nuclear installations. Management of safety and safety culture in Indian NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawal, S.C.

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear Power Corporation Of India Ltd. (NPCIL) is a company owned by Government of India and is responsible for Design, Construction, Commissioning, Operation and Decommissioning of Nuclear Power plants in India. Presently, a total of 13 Nuclear power Stations are in operation with an installed capacity of 2620 MWe and 2 VVR type PWR Units of 1000 MWe capacity each, 2 PHWR type units of 500 MWe capacity each and 4 PHWR type 220 MWe capacity each are under construction. NPPs generation capacity has been increased from 70% to 85% in the span Of last 7 years with high level of safety standards. This could be achieved through Management commitment towards building a strong Safety Culture. Safety culture is that assembly of characteristics and attitudes in organisation and individuals which establishes that as an overriding priority nuclear plant safety issues receives the attention warranted by their significance. This definition of safety culture brings out two major components in its manifestation. The framework within which individuals within the organisation works.The attitude and response of individual towards the safety issues over productivity and economics in the organisational work practices. The two attributes of safety culture are built in and upgraded in each individuals through special training at the time of entry in the organisation and later through in built procedures in the work practices, motivation and encouragement for free participation of each individuals. Individuals are encouraged to participate in Quality circle teams at the sectional level and review of safety proposal originated by individuals in Station operation Review Committee at Station level, in addition to this to continuously enhance the safety culture, refresher training courses are being organised at regular intervals. The safety related proposals are categorised in to two namely: Proposals from Operating Plants, and Proposals from projects and Design. The concept of safety

  18. Unconventional Internships for English Majors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Don H.

    After five years of research, the English department at St. Cloud (Minnesota) State University created an internship program for English majors. The philosophy behind the program is that the typical experience of the English major in college is excellent preparation for what the college graduate will be doing in most careers in business,…

  19. Do You Have Major Depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Depression Do You Have Major Depression? Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents Simple ... member may have major depression. —NIMH Types of Depression Just like other illnesses, such as heart disease, ...

  20. Confidence building in safety assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grundfelt, Bertil

    1999-01-01

    Future generations should be adequately protected from damage caused by the present disposal of radioactive waste. This presentation discusses the core of safety and performance assessment: The demonstration and building of confidence that the disposal system meets the safety requirements stipulated by society. The major difficulty is to deal with risks in the very long time perspective of the thousands of years during which the waste is hazardous. Concern about these problems has stimulated the development of the safety assessment discipline. The presentation concentrates on two of the elements of safety assessment: (1) Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis, and (2) validation and review. Uncertainty is associated both with respect to what is the proper conceptual model and with respect to parameter values for a given model. A special kind of uncertainty derives from the variation of a property in space. Geostatistics is one approach to handling spatial variability. The simplest way of doing a sensitivity analysis is to offset the model parameters one by one and observe how the model output changes. The validity of the models and data used to make predictions is central to the credibility of safety assessments for radioactive waste repositories. There are several definitions of model validation. The presentation discusses it as a process and highlights some aspects of validation methodologies

  1. Drug safety evaluation of defibrotide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Paul G; Corbacioglu, Selim; Ho, Vincent Trien-Vinh; Kernan, Nancy A; Lehmann, Leslie; Maguire, Craig; Maglio, Michelle; Hoyle, Margaret; Sardella, Marco; Giralt, Sergio; Holler, Ernst; Carreras, Enric; Niederwieser, Dietger; Soiffer, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD), also known as sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS), is a potentially life-threatening complication of chemotherapeutic conditioning used in preparation for hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (SCT). Defibrotide (DF) has been shown in Phase II and III trials to improve complete response in patients with severe VOD (sVOD). None of the articles, to date, provide a comprehensive review of the safety of DF in VOD and/or a range of other conditions. This article reviews current clinical findings on DF, primarily in terms of safety for use in treatment and prophylaxis of VOD, and relevant safety data for its use in other diseases. The literature review was conducted using a PubMed search with the fixed term 'defibrotide' in combination with ≥ 1 of 'safety', 'veno-occlusive disease' (with and without 'treatment', 'prevention'), 'oncology', 'myeloma', 'microangiopathy', 'anti-thrombotic' and 'peripheral vascular disorder'. Related articles from the EBMT and ASH conference websites were also included. DF was well tolerated in majority of the studies. The safety profile of DF is largely favourable with toxicities comparable to control populations in the setting of SCT complicated by sVOD.

  2. Some Major Issues Influencing Nuclear Energy Prospective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feretic, D.

    2012-01-01

    The presentation analyses some issues which are of particular importance for future nuclear power application. These include duration of uranium reserves and high level radioactive waste decay period in function of uranium reserves (determined, assumed and speculative) and type of fuel cycle used. Public acceptance during essential historical milestones of nuclear power use, influence of safety and compatibility evaluations, quantified risk, externalities and nuclear accidents. Short review of major accidents, causes, consequences, impact of LNT and hormesis hypothesis. Particular problem for future of nuclear power is potential shortage of experienced personnel due to long period without plants construction. To address some of problems which may face future investors a brief review of specific events experienced during construction of NPP Krsko is presented. Such events could be of interest to countries planning to construct nuclear power plant.(author).

  3. Progress on resolution of major surety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, C.R.; Boudreau, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of the major surety issues (safety, environmental protection, sageguards, reliability, quality assurance) that have been identified during Phase I of the SP-100 Program and the progress that has been made in analyzing the most important of these issues in the context of the conceptual design effort. These issues have been identified as inadvertent criticality, toxic material release and dispersion, radiation exposure following end-of-life reentry, potential diversion of special nuclear material, failure to achieve end-of-life neutronic shutdown, and structural predictability for end-of-life re-entry or boost. Because of the complexity of these issues, a simplified conservative approach was taken during Phase I. Progress on these issues has been mainly in the area of increased understanding of the issues, identification of design features to resolve the issues, and quantitative evaluations of the surety characteristics of the various design concepts

  4. Safety: Preventive Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotula, John R.; Digenakis, Anthony

    1985-01-01

    Underscores the need for community colleges to practice safety within the institutions and to instruct students in workplace safety procedures and requirements. Reviews Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) regulations and their impact on industry and education. Looks at the legal responsibilities of colleges for safety. (DMM)

  5. Safety in construction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swuste, P.H.J.J.

    2013-01-01

    The available literature on Construction Safety is not very optimistic about the chances of evidence-based safety in the construction industry exerting a positive influence. Many articles indicate that the structures and processes that are designed to ensure safety in the industry are poor. Safety

  6. On personal safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zigen

    1996-01-01

    The paper mainly expounds the personal safety culture, including the following aspects: the attitude to exploration, strict methods and the habit of exchange etc. It points out that straightening the education of safety culture and heightening the level of personal safety culture can get not only high-level safety but also high-level quality

  7. Fusion safety status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    This report includes information on a) tritium handling and safety; b) activation product generation and release; c) lithium safety; d) superconducting magnet safety; e) operational safety and shielding; f) environmental impact; g) recycling, decommissioning and waste management; and h) accident analysis. Recommendations for high priority research and development are presented, as well as the current status in each area

  8. Nuclear safety - Topical issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The following topical issues related to nuclear safety are discussed: steam generators; maintenance strategies; control rod drive nozzle cracks; core shrouds cracks; sump strainer blockage; fire protection; computer software important for safety; safety during shutdown; operational safety experience; external hazards and other site related issues. 5 figs, 5 tabs

  9. Safety Education and Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, Richard

    1980-01-01

    Safety education in the science classroom is discussed, including the beginning of safe management, attitudes toward safety education, laboratory assistants, chemical and health regulation, safety aids, and a case study of a high school science laboratory. Suggestions for safety codes for science teachers, student behavior, and laboratory…

  10. Road safety issues for bus transport management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafiso, Salvatore; Di Graziano, Alessandro; Pappalardo, Giuseppina

    2013-11-01

    Because of the low percentage of crashes involving buses and the assumption that public transport improves road safety by reducing vehicular traffic, public interest in bus safety is not as great as that in the safety of other types of vehicles. It is possible that less attention is paid to the significance of crashes involving buses because the safety level of bus systems is considered to be adequate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and perceptions of bus managers with respect to safety issues and the potential effectiveness of various technologies in achieving higher safety standards. Bus managers were asked to give their opinions on safety issues related to drivers (training, skills, performance evaluation and behaviour), vehicles (maintenance and advanced devices) and roads (road and traffic safety issues) in response to a research survey. Kendall's algorithm was used to evaluate the level of concordance. The results showed that the majority of the proposed items were considered to have great potential for improving bus safety. The data indicated that in the experience of the participants, passenger unloading and pedestrians crossing near bus stops are the most dangerous actions with respect to vulnerable users. The final results of the investigation showed that start inhibition, automatic door opening, and the materials and internal architecture of buses were considered the items most strongly related to bus passenger safety. Brake assistance and vehicle monitoring systems were also considered to be very effective. With the exception of driver assistance systems for passenger and pedestrian safety, the perceptions of the importance of other driver assistance systems for vehicle monitoring and bus safety were not unanimous among the bus company managers who participated in this survey. The study results showed that the introduction of new technologies is perceived as an important factor in improving bus safety, but a better understanding

  11. Global nuclear safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    As stated in the Nuclear Safety Review 1996, three components characterize the global nuclear safety culture infrastructure: (i) legally binding international agreements; (ii) non-binding common safety standards; and (iii) the application of safety standards. The IAEA has continued to foster the global nuclear safety culture by supporting intergovernmental collaborative efforts; it has facilitated extensive information exchange, promoted the drafting of international legal agreements and the development of common safety standards, and provided for the application of safety standards by organizing a wide variety of expert services

  12. Safety at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    Safety is an integral part of our working lives, and should be in our minds whatever job we do at CERN. Ultimately, safety is the responsibility of the Director General – your safety is my concern. That’s why I have this week appointed a new Safety Policy Committee (SAPOCO) that reflects the new Organizational structure of CERN. CERN’s Staff Rules and Regulations clearly lay out in chapter 3 the scope of safety at CERN as well as my responsibilities and yours in safety matters. At CERN, safety is considered in the broadest sense, encompassing occupational Health and Safety, environmental protection, and the safety of equipment and installations. It is my responsibility to put appropriate measures in place to ensure that these conditions are met. And it is the responsibility of us all to ensure that we are fully conversant with safety provisions applicable in our areas of work and that we comply with them. The appointment of a n...

  13. China's Work Safety Report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Jiakun

    2005-01-01

    @@ General Situation of China's Work Safety in 2004 In 2004, the national work safety situation remained stable as a whole and gained momentum to improve. The totality of accidents held the line and began to drop. The safety conditions in industrial,mining, and commercial/trading enterprises improved. Progress was made in ensuring work safety in the relevant industries and fields. The safety situation in most provinces (autonomous regions, municipalities directly under the Central Government) kept stable.

  14. Status of safety analysis reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cserhati, A.

    1999-01-01

    The safety regulation connected to both of the Atomic Acts from 1980 and 1996 requires preparation of the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) as well as Final SAR (FSAR). In this respect the licensing procedure for the construction and commissioning of Paks NPP did not formally deviate from the standards applied in developed countries; this is particularly true if comparison is made with the standards applied for commissioning NPPs in the second half of the seventies. By the time the overall development of internationally accepted safety standards and some existing deficiencies of earlier SAR made necessary a general reassessment of the plant safety (AGNES project). The carried out PSR for Paks-1 and 2 also added a valuable contribution to the SAR content, however a formal update of SAR is not made yet. A Hungarian nuclear authority decree from 1997 obligates the licensee to prepare and submit a major upgrade of FSAR until the mid of 2000, after finishing the PSR for Paks-3 and 4. From this date a periodic update of FSAR is required every year. The operational license renewal affects only the PSR but not the FSAR updating. The new Nuclear Safety Code outlines the contents of PSAR and FSAR, based on US NRC Reg. Guide 1. 70. Rev. 3. Hungary by now can fulfill the upgrading of SAR without major external technical or financial help. The AGNES project covered the safety analysis chapters of SAR. It was financed mainly by the country. In the project there have been involved in limited cases as performers the VTT (Finland), Belgatom (Belgium), GRS (Germany), etc., the IVO (Finland) fulfilled tasks of an independent reviewer for safety analysis. The AGNES had certain interconnection with the similar IAEA RER safety reassessment project for WWER-440/213. The PSR for Paks-1 and 2 have been carried out by the Paks staff from the resources of the plant. During the evaluation of several parts of Paks-3 and 4 PSR documentation the authority intends to use certain

  15. Status of safety analysis reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cserhati, A

    1999-06-01

    The safety regulation connected to both of the Atomic Acts from 1980 and 1996 requires preparation of the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) as well as Final SAR (FSAR). In this respect the licensing procedure for the construction and commissioning of Paks NPP did not formally deviate from the standards applied in developed countries; this is particularly true if comparison is made with the standards applied for commissioning NPPs in the second half of the seventies. By the time the overall development of internationally accepted safety standards and some existing deficiencies of earlier SAR made necessary a general reassessment of the plant safety (AGNES project). The carried out PSR for Paks-1 and 2 also added a valuable contribution to the SAR content, however a formal update of SAR is not made yet. A Hungarian nuclear authority decree from 1997 obligates the licensee to prepare and submit a major upgrade of FSAR until the mid of 2000, after finishing the PSR for Paks-3 and 4. From this date a periodic update of FSAR is required every year. The operational license renewal affects only the PSR but not the FSAR updating. The new Nuclear Safety Code outlines the contents of PSAR and FSAR, based on US NRC Reg. Guide 1. 70. Rev. 3. Hungary by now can fulfill the upgrading of SAR without major external technical or financial help. The AGNES project covered the safety analysis chapters of SAR. It was financed mainly by the country. In the project there have been involved in limited cases as performers the VTT (Finland), Belgatom (Belgium), GRS (Germany), etc., the IVO (Finland) fulfilled tasks of an independent reviewer for safety analysis. The AGNES had certain interconnection with the similar IAEA RER safety reassessment project for WWER-440/213. The PSR for Paks-1 and 2 have been carried out by the Paks staff from the resources of the plant. During the evaluation of several parts of Paks-3 and 4 PSR documentation the authority intends to use certain

  16. Stenting of major airway constriction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xiaomei

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the correlated issues in the stenting treatment of major airway constriction. Methods: Nineteen cases of major airway stenting procedure were studied retrospectively. The clinical choice of stents of different advantages or deficiencies were discussed. The importance of intravenous anesthesia supporting, life-parameters monitoring during the procedures and the prevention of complications were analysed. Results: Under intravenous and local anesthesia, 19 Wallstents had been successively placed and relieved 19 cases of major airway constrictions due to malignant or benign diseases (15 of tumors, 3 of tuberculosis, 1 of tracheomalacia). Intravenous anesthesia and life-parameters monitoring had made the procedures more safe and precise. Conclusions: Major airway stenting is an reliable method for relieving tracheobronchial stenosis; and intravenous anesthesia supporting and life-parameters monitoring guarantee the satisfactions of procedures

  17. A hierarchical factor analysis of a safety culture survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Christopher B; Ludwig, Timothy D; Whitaker, Brian; Roberts, D Steve

    2013-06-01

    Recent reviews of safety culture measures have revealed a host of potential factors that could make up a safety culture (Flin, Mearns, O'Connor, & Bryden, 2000; Guldenmund, 2000). However, there is still little consensus regarding what the core factors of safety culture are. The purpose of the current research was to determine the core factors, as well as the structure of those factors that make up a safety culture, and establish which factors add meaningful value by factor analyzing a widely used safety culture survey. A 92-item survey was constructed by subject matter experts and was administered to 25,574 workers across five multi-national organizations in five different industries. Exploratory and hierarchical confirmatory factor analyses were conducted revealing four second-order factors of a Safety Culture consisting of Management Concern, Personal Responsibility for Safety, Peer Support for Safety, and Safety Management Systems. Additionally, a total of 12 first-order factors were found: three on Management Concern, three on Personal Responsibility, two on Peer Support, and four on Safety Management Systems. The resulting safety culture model addresses gaps in the literature by indentifying the core constructs which make up a safety culture. This clarification of the major factors emerging in the measurement of safety cultures should impact the industry through a more accurate description, measurement, and tracking of safety cultures to reduce loss due to injury. Copyright © 2013 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Reviewing industrial safety in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-02-01

    This document contains guidance and reference materials for Operational Safety Review Team (OSART) experts, in addition to the OSART Guidelines (TECDOC-449), for use in the review of industrial safety activities at nuclear power plants. It sets out objectives for an excellent industrial safety programme, and suggests investigations which should be made in evaluating industrial safety programmes. The attributes of an excellent industrial safety programme are listed as examples for comparison. Practical hints for reviewing industrial safety are discussed, so that the necessary information can be obtained effectively through a review of documents and records, discussions with counterparts, and field observations. There are several annexes. These deal with major features of industrial safety programmes such as safety committees, reporting and investigation systems and first aid and medical facilities. They include some examples which are considered commendable. The document should be taken into account not only when reviewing management, organization and administration but also in the review of related areas, such as maintenance and operations, so that all aspects of industrial safety in an operating nuclear power plant are covered

  19. Anatomy of safety-critical computing problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swu Yih; Fan Chinfeng; Shirazi, Behrooz

    1995-01-01

    This paper analyzes the obstacles faced by current safety-critical computing applications. The major problem lies in the difficulty to provide complete and convincing safety evidence to prove that the software is safe. We explain this problem from a fundamental perspective by analyzing the essence of safety analysis against that of software developed by current practice. Our basic belief is that in order to perform a successful safety analysis, the state space structure of the analyzed system must have some properties as prerequisites. We propose the concept of safety analyzability, and derive its necessary and sufficient conditions; namely, definability, finiteness, commensurability, and tractability. We then examine software state space structures against these conditions, and affirm that the safety analyzability of safety-critical software developed by current practice is severely restricted by its state space structure and by the problem of exponential growth cost. Thus, except for small and simple systems, the safety evidence may not be complete and convincing. Our concepts and arguments successfully explain the current problematic situation faced by the safety-critical computing domain. The implications are also discussed

  20. Blueprint for nuclear safety - a nonregulatory strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    The Department of Energy operates a nuclear complex that now numbers over 250 facilities nationwide, many of which date back to the 1940s and 1950s. In 1985, Secretary Herrington moved to establish the Office of Environment, Safety and Health, give it needed resources and authorities, and begin extensive environmental protection and safety evaluations of all major DOE sites and facilities. On the nuclear safety side this necessitates an integrated program that not only strengthens oversight but also builds DOE-wide technical capabilities and promotes safety performance. This has led up to focus our attention on three areas: (1) the DOE safety oversight system -- its resources, technical capabilities, and effectiveness; (2) the safety policy development and review; and (3) the Department's capabilities to foster technical inquisitiveness and overall excellence in safety performance. The essence of this approach is found in this last term -- performance. Performance that is results-oriented; founded on realized safety enhancements and risk reduction, not merely regulation for its own sake. Performance not merely in terms of hardware fixes, but also focusing on the human part of the safety equation

  1. Liquid in the major incision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera Jaramillo, Diego Alberto; Ortega Jaramillo, Hector

    2003-01-01

    We present the case of a patient with spill pleural extending in the left major incision. In the chest thorax PA, we could observe one of the complex radiographic appearances that take the reconfiguration of fluid in this localization, being this appearance dependent of the patient's position. Some points are also discussed on the anatomy of the major incisions and some of their radiographic characteristics

  2. Architecture Level Safety Analyses for Safety-Critical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Kushal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The dependency of complex embedded Safety-Critical Systems across Avionics and Aerospace domains on their underlying software and hardware components has gradually increased with progression in time. Such application domain systems are developed based on a complex integrated architecture, which is modular in nature. Engineering practices assured with system safety standards to manage the failure, faulty, and unsafe operational conditions are very much necessary. System safety analyses involve the analysis of complex software architecture of the system, a major aspect in leading to fatal consequences in the behaviour of Safety-Critical Systems, and provide high reliability and dependability factors during their development. In this paper, we propose an architecture fault modeling and the safety analyses approach that will aid in identifying and eliminating the design flaws. The formal foundations of SAE Architecture Analysis & Design Language (AADL augmented with the Error Model Annex (EMV are discussed. The fault propagation, failure behaviour, and the composite behaviour of the design flaws/failures are considered for architecture safety analysis. The illustration of the proposed approach is validated by implementing the Speed Control Unit of Power-Boat Autopilot (PBA system. The Error Model Annex (EMV is guided with the pattern of consideration and inclusion of probable failure scenarios and propagation of fault conditions in the Speed Control Unit of Power-Boat Autopilot (PBA. This helps in validating the system architecture with the detection of the error event in the model and its impact in the operational environment. This also provides an insight of the certification impact that these exceptional conditions pose at various criticality levels and design assurance levels and its implications in verifying and validating the designs.

  3. Nuclear reactors safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barre, Francois; Seiler, Nathalie

    2008-01-01

    fuels as well as the applied methodologies. The IRSN proceeds in a relevant and independent assessment of the submitted safety reports. To achieve this goal and maintain over time an independent and relevant assessment capability, the IRSN relies on the excellence of its experts and on state of art techniques and knowledge. The IRSN contributes by its work in key area to cutting edge research and development in order to drive nuclear industry towards making the best use of scientific and technological progress for improving safety, environmental protection and health. To maintain at all times the state of the art knowledge and the operational expertise necessary to deal efficiently with major nuclear accident consequences, the IRSN carries out, on the one hand, its own research and development programs to gain accurate knowledge on still unknown phenomena for safety analysis. On the other hand, the IRSN works out its own scientific calculation methodologies involving industrial calculation chain. Concerning more particularly the 'two-phase flows' thematic, The ISRN must correctly simulate the primary fluid behavior in the reactor in normal operation as well as in accidental situations, to estimate if, in such situations, the core reactor state is fully safe and any safety risk is undergone The research and development programs launched at the ISRN on two-phase flows gather work on advanced thermohydraulic configurations encounter in various reactor states (normal operation or accidental situations), in particular: (i)The estimation of the margin to the critical heat flux in normal operation (DNBR), (ii) The pressurized thermal shock, which is due to mechanical important constraints in the reactor vessel resulting from the injection of a cold fluid in case of emergency cooling (PTS), (iii) The reactivity insertion accident (RIA), (iv) The loss of coolant accident (LOCA), (vi) The accidents in spent-fuel pools and (vii) The severe accident, which could lead to core

  4. Annual report on occupational safety 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-08-01

    The 1983 Annual Report on occupational safety at BNFL is presented. Data for whole-body radiation doses and skin and extremity doses are given for BNFL employees together with 1982 data for comparison. Similarly, accidental deaths and major injuries are recorded. Finally information on the frequency of both nuclear and non-nuclear incidents reported to the Health and Safety Executive is given. (U.K.)

  5. Major Peripheral Nerve Injuries After Elbow Arthroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Mihir J; Mithani, Suhail K; Lodha, Sameer J; Richard, Marc J; Leversedge, Fraser J; Ruch, David S

    2016-06-01

    To survey the American Society for Surgery of the Hand membership to determine the nature and distribution of nerve injuries treated after elbow arthroscopy. An online survey was sent to all members of the American Society for Surgery of the Hand under an institutional review board-approved protocol. Collected data included the number of nerve injuries observed over a 5-year period, the nature of treatment required for the injuries, and the outcomes observed after any intervention. Responses were anonymous, and results were securely compiled. We obtained 372 responses. A total of 222 nerve injuries were reported. The most injured nerves reported were ulnar, radial, and posterior interosseous (38%, 22%, and 19%, respectively). Nearly half of all patients with injuries required operative intervention, including nerve graft, tendon transfer, nerve repair, or nerve transfer. Of the patients who sustained major injuries, those requiring intervention, 77% had partial or no motor recovery. All minor injuries resolved completely. Our results suggest that major nerve injuries after elbow arthroscopy are not rare occurrences and the risk of these injuries is likely under-reported in the literature. Furthermore, patients should be counseled on this risk because most nerve injuries show only partial or no functional recovery. With the more widespread practice of elbow arthroscopy, understanding the nature and sequelae of significant complications is critically important in ensuring patient safety and improving outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The international dimensions of nuclear safety standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    The paper reviews the activities of the major international organisations in the field of nuclear safety standards; the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the Commission of the European Communities. Each organisation encourages the concept of international nuclear safety standards. After Chernobyl, there were calls for some form of binding international nuclear safety standards. Many Member States of IAEA accepted these Codes as a suitable basis for formulating their national safety standards, but the prevailing view was that voluntary compliance with the Codes was the preferred path. With few reactor vendors in a limited international market, the time may be approaching when an internationally licensable nuclear reactor is needed. Commonly accepted safety standards would be a prerequisite. The paper discusses the issues involved and the complexities of standards making in the international arena. (author)

  7. Interface between radiation protection and nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengtsson, G.; Hoegberg, L.

    1991-01-01

    Interface issues concern the character and management of overlaps between radiation protection and nuclear safety in nuclear power plants. Typical examples include the selection of inspection and maintenance volumes in order to balance occupational radiation doses versus the safety status of the plant, and the intentional release to the environment in the course of an accident in order to secure better plant control. The paper discusses whether it is desirable and possible to employ a consistent management of interface issues with trade-offs between nuclear safety and radiation protection. Illustrative examples are quoted from a major Nordic research programme on risk analysis and safety rationale. These concern for instance in-service inspections, modifications of plant systems and constructions after the plant has been taken into operation, and studies on the limitations of probabilistic safety assessment. They indicate that in general there are no simple rules for such trade-offs

  8. Occupational safety motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Louise; Kines, Pete

    2010-01-01

    Background: Motivation is one of the most important factors for safety behaviour and for implementing change in general. However, theoretical and psychometric studies of safety performance have traditionally treated safety motivation, safety compliance and safety participation unidimensionally....... At the same time many motivation questionnaire items are seldom founded on theory and/or do not account for the theories’ ontological and epistemological differences, e.g. of how knowledge, attitude and action are related. Present questionnaire items tap into occupational safety motivation in asking whether...... or not respondents ‘are’ motivated and whether they feel that safety is important or worthwhile. Another important aspect is ‘what’ motivates workers to comply to and participate in safety. The aim of this article is to introduce a new theory-based occupational safety motivation scale which is validated...

  9. Nuclear law - Nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontier, Jean-Marie; Roux, Emmanuel; Leger, Marc; Deguergue, Maryse; Vallar, Christian; Pissaloux, Jean-Luc; Bernie-Boissard, Catherine; Thireau, Veronique; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Spencer, Mary; Zhang, Li; Park, Kyun Sung; Artus, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    This book contains the contributions presented during a one-day seminar. The authors propose a framework for a legal approach to nuclear safety, a discussion of the 2009/71/EURATOM directive which establishes a European framework for nuclear safety in nuclear installations, a comment on nuclear safety and environmental governance, a discussion of the relationship between citizenship and nuclear, some thoughts about the Nuclear Safety Authority, an overview of the situation regarding the safety in nuclear waste burying, a comment on the Nome law with respect to electricity price and nuclear safety, a comment on the legal consequences of the Fukushima accident on nuclear safety in the Japanese law, a presentation of the USA nuclear regulation, an overview of nuclear safety in China, and a discussion of nuclear safety in the medical sector

  10. Balance of safety versus economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Board, J.A.; Acero, M.

    1996-01-01

    The paper looks at the strength of the case for improving safety over and above those safety standards which are currently accepted for the majority of current nuclear power plant, and assesses the cost premium that has to be paid for advanced designs with enhanced safety features. The risks associated with current nuclear plant have already been reduced to very low levels, and further preventative measures, whose cost would be out of proportion to the remaining risks, should be challenged. In this respect two issues need to be addressed: 'What is the premium to be paid for enhanced safety?' and 'How safety is safe enough?'. For a given reactor size, the premium for introducing enhanced safety in an 'advanced' reactor could be of the order of 20 %. For early plants in a series the premium would be significantly higher, due in part to the need to recover the FOAK costs. The recommendations of INSAG-3 would seem to be a good basis for defining 'What is Safe Enough' and improvements over and above these risk levels should be unnecessary unless they can be achieved at very low cost. It is concluded that the best of the current 'basic' designs are acceptably safe and the availability of 'advanced' designs should not preclude the future licensing of 'basic' designs, provided that they have introduced cost effective modifications which reflect the lessons learned from TMI and technological advances such as the use of micro-processors in control and protection systems. 'Advanced' designs have their place where the price level for electricity is higher, or become higher as environmental pressures (carbon tax) or scarcity of fossil fuels force up the price of electricity. In addition a utility may favour an 'advanced' design because they place value on its higher security of investment and the improved operational performance that has been introduced in developing the advanced designs. (authors)

  11. Implementing partnerships in nonreactor facility safety analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courtney, J.C.; Perry, W.H.; Phipps, R.D.

    1996-01-01

    Faculty and students from LSU have been participating in nuclear safety analyses and radiation protection projects at ANL-W at INEL since 1973. A mutually beneficial relationship has evolved that has resulted in generation of safety-related studies acceptable to Argonne and DOE, NRC, and state regulatory groups. Most of the safety projects have involved the Hot Fuel Examination Facility or the Fuel Conditioning Facility; both are hot cells that receive spent fuel from EBR-II. A table shows some of the major projects at ANL-W that involved LSU students and faculty

  12. NASA's Aviation Safety and Modeling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidester, Thomas R.; Statler, Irving C.

    2006-01-01

    The Aviation Safety Monitoring and Modeling (ASMM) Project of NASA's Aviation Safety program is cultivating sources of data and developing automated computer hardware and software to facilitate efficient, comprehensive, and accurate analyses of the data collected from large, heterogeneous databases throughout the national aviation system. The ASMM addresses the need to provide means for increasing safety by enabling the identification and correcting of predisposing conditions that could lead to accidents or to incidents that pose aviation risks. A major component of the ASMM Project is the Aviation Performance Measuring System (APMS), which is developing the next generation of software tools for analyzing and interpreting flight data.

  13. New requirements on safety of nuclear power plants according to the IAEA safety standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misak, J.

    2005-01-01

    In this presentation author presents new requirements on safety of nuclear power plants according to the IAEA safety standards. It is concluded that: - New set of IAEA Safety Standards is close to completion: around 40 standards for NPPs; - Different interpretation of IAEA Safety Standards at present: best world practices instead of previous 'minimum common denominator'; - A number of safety improvements required for NPPs; - Requirements related to BDBAs and severe accidents are the most demanding due to degradation of barriers: hardware modifications and accident management; - Large variety between countries in implementation of accident management programmes: from minimum to major hardware modifications; -Distinction between existing and new NPPs is essential from the point of view of the requirements; WWER 440 reactors have potential to reflect IAEA Safety Standards for existing NPPs; relatively low reactor power offers broader possibilities

  14. Simplifying documentation while approaching site closure: integrated health and safety plans as documented safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Tulanda

    2003-01-01

    At the Fernald Closure Project (FCP) near Cincinnati, Ohio, environmental restoration activities are supported by Documented Safety Analyses (DSAs) that combine the required project-specific Health and Safety Plans, Safety Basis Requirements (SBRs), and Process Requirements (PRs) into single Integrated Health and Safety Plans (I-HASPs). By isolating any remediation activities that deal with Enriched Restricted Materials, the SBRs and PRs assure that the hazard categories of former nuclear facilities undergoing remediation remain less than Nuclear. These integrated DSAs employ Integrated Safety Management methodology in support of simplified restoration and remediation activities that, so far, have resulted in the decontamination and demolition (D and D) of over 150 structures, including six major nuclear production plants. This paper presents the FCP method for maintaining safety basis documentation, using the D and D I-HASP as an example

  15. Major Decisions: Motivations for Selecting a Major, Satisfaction, and Belonging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria, Krista M.; Stebleton, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we analyzed the relationship between students' motivations for choosing academic majors and their satisfaction and sense of belonging on campus. Based on a multi-institutional survey of students who attended large, public, research universities in 2009, the results suggest that external extrinsic motivations for selecting a major…

  16. ITER-FEAT safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, C.W.; Bartels, H.-W.; Honda, T.; Raeder, J.; Topilski, L.; Iseli, M.; Moshonas, K.; Taylor, N.; Gulden, W.; Kolbasov, B.; Inabe, T.; Tada, E.

    2001-01-01

    Safety has been an integral part of the design process for ITER since the Conceptual Design Activities of the project. The safety approach adopted in the ITER-FEAT design and the complementary assessments underway, to be documented in the Generic Site Safety Report (GSSR), are expected to help demonstrate the attractiveness of fusion and thereby set a good precedent for future fusion power reactors. The assessments address ITER's radiological hazards taking into account fusion's favourable safety characteristics. The expectation that ITER will need regulatory approval has influenced the entire safety design and assessment approach. This paper summarises the ITER-FEAT safety approach and assessments underway. (author)

  17. Nuclear Safety Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    Ethics is caring about people and Safety is caring that no physical harm comes to people.Therefore Safety is a type of Ethical Behavior. Culture: is The Way We Do Things Here.Safety Culture is mixture of organization traditions, values, attitudes and behaviors modeled by Its leaders and internalized by its members that serve to make nuclear safety the overriding priority. Safety Culture is that assembly of characteristics and attitudes in Organisations and individuals which established that, as an overriding priority, nuclear plant safety issues receive the attention warranted by their significance

  18. Reactor system safety assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattson, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    The philosophy of reactor safety is that design should follow established and conservative engineering practices, there should be safety margins in all modes of plant operation, special systems should be provided for accidents, and safety systems should have redundant components. This philosophy provides ''defense in depth.'' Additionally, the safety of nuclear power plants relies on ''safety systems'' to assure acceptable response to design basis events. Operating experience has shown the need to study plant response to more frequent upset conditions and to account for the influence of operators and non-safety systems on overall performance. Defense in depth is being supplemented by risk and reliability assessment

  19. Safety- barrier diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duijm, Nijs Jan

    2008-01-01

    Safety-barrier diagrams and the related so-called 'bow-tie' diagrams have become popular methods in risk analysis. This paper describes the syntax and principles for constructing consistent and valid safety-barrier diagrams. The relation of safety-barrier diagrams to other methods such as fault...... trees and Bayesian networks is discussed. A simple method for quantification of safety-barrier diagrams is proposed. It is concluded that safety-barrier diagrams provide a useful framework for an electronic data structure that integrates information from risk analysis with operational safety management....

  20. Safety-barrier diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duijm, Nijs Jan

    2007-01-01

    Safety-barrier diagrams and the related so-called "bow-tie" diagrams have become popular methods in risk analysis. This paper describes the syntax and principles for constructing consistent and valid safety-barrier diagrams. The relation with other methods such as fault trees and Bayesian networks...... are discussed. A simple method for quantification of safety-barrier diagrams is proposed, including situations where safety barriers depend on shared common elements. It is concluded that safety-barrier diagrams provide a useful framework for an electronic data structure that integrates information from risk...... analysis with operational safety management....

  1. Beyond safety accountability

    CERN Document Server

    Geller, E Scott

    2001-01-01

    Written in an easy-to-read conversational tone, Beyond Safety Accountability explains how to develop an organizational culture that encourages people to be accountable for their work practices and to embrace a higher sense of personal responsibility. The author begins by thoroughly explaining the difference between safety accountability and safety responsibility. He then examines the need of organizations to improve safety performance, discusses why such performance improvement can be achieved through a continuous safety process, as distinguished from a safety program, and provides the practic

  2. Safety KPIs - Monitoring of safety performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Lališ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to provide brief overview of aviation safety development focusing on modern trends represented by implementation of Safety Key Performance Indicators. Even though aviation is perceived as safe means of transport, it is still struggling with its complexity given by long-term growth and robustness which it has reached today. Thus nowadays safety issues are much more complex and harder to handle than ever before. We are more and more concerned about organizational factors and control mechanisms which have potential to further increase level of aviation safety. Within this paper we will not only introduce the concept of Key Performance Indicators in area of aviation safety as an efficient control mechanism, but also analyse available legislation and documentation. Finally we will propose complex set of indicators which could be applied to Czech Air Navigation Service Provider.

  3. Personality, academic majors and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel, Anna; Thomsen, Dorthe Kirkegaard; Larsen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Personality–performance research typically uses samples of psychology students without questioning their representativeness. The present article reports two studies challenging this practice. Study 1: group differences in the Big Five personality traits were explored between students (N = 1067......) in different academic majors (medicine, psychology, law, economics, political science, science, and arts/humanities), who were tested immediately after university enrolment. Study 2: six and a half years later the students’ academic records were obtained, and predictive validity of the Big Five personality...... traits and their subordinate facets was examined in the various academic majors in relation to Grade Point Average (GPA). Significant group differences in all Big Five personality traits were found between students in different academic majors. Also, variability in predictive validity of the Big Five...

  4. Nuclear energy safety - new challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rausch, Julio Cezar; Fonseca, Renato Alves da, E-mail: jrausch@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: rfonseca@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Fukushima accident in March this year, the second most serious nuclear accident in the world, put in evidence a discussion that in recent years with the advent of the 'nuclear renaissance' has been relegated in the background: what factors influence the use safe nuclear energy? Organizational precursor, latent errors, reduction in specific areas of competence and maintenance of nuclear programs is a scenario where the guarantee of a sustainable development of nuclear energy becomes a major challenge for society. A deep discussion of factors that influenced the major accidents despite the nuclear industry use of the so-called 'lessons learned' is needed. Major accidents continue to happen if a radical change is not implemented in the focus of safety culture. (author)

  5. Nuclear energy safety - new challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rausch, Julio Cezar; Fonseca, Renato Alves da

    2011-01-01

    Fukushima accident in March this year, the second most serious nuclear accident in the world, put in evidence a discussion that in recent years with the advent of the 'nuclear renaissance' has been relegated in the background: what factors influence the use safe nuclear energy? Organizational precursor, latent errors, reduction in specific areas of competence and maintenance of nuclear programs is a scenario where the guarantee of a sustainable development of nuclear energy becomes a major challenge for society. A deep discussion of factors that influenced the major accidents despite the nuclear industry use of the so-called 'lessons learned' is needed. Major accidents continue to happen if a radical change is not implemented in the focus of safety culture. (author)

  6. Nuclear energy safety - new challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rausch, Julio Cezar; Fonseca, Renato Alves da, E-mail: jrausch@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: rfonseca@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Fukushima accident in March this year, the second most serious nuclear accident in the world, put in evidence a discussion that in recent years with the advent of the 'nuclear renaissance' has been relegated in the background: what factors influence the use safe nuclear energy? Organizational precursor, latent errors, reduction in specific areas of competence and maintenance of nuclear programs is a scenario where the guarantee of a sustainable development of nuclear energy becomes a major challenge for society. A deep discussion of factors that influenced the major accidents despite the nuclear industry use of the so-called 'lessons learned' is needed. Major accidents continue to happen if a radical change is not implemented in the focus of safety culture. (author)

  7. Safety analysis SFR 1. Long-term safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-12-15

    's properties, its environs and the biosphere. Chapter 8 Description of calculation cases. This chapter describes the calculation cases that are used to illustrate the radiological consequences of the scenarios that have been judged to be of importance in the scenario analysis. Chapter 9 Radionuclide transport and dose calculations. The results of radionuclide transport and dose calculations are reported in this chapter. Chapter 10 Assessment of risk. This chapter presents an integrated account of calculated risks and a comparison with criteria stipulated by the regulatory authorities. Chapter 11 Conclusions. The conclusions of the present safety assessment are presented in this chapter, and major changes made compared with previous safety assessments are summarized

  8. Safety analysis SFR 1. Long-term safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-12-01

    's properties, its environs and the biosphere. Chapter 8 Description of calculation cases. This chapter describes the calculation cases that are used to illustrate the radiological consequences of the scenarios that have been judged to be of importance in the scenario analysis. Chapter 9 Radionuclide transport and dose calculations. The results of radionuclide transport and dose calculations are reported in this chapter. Chapter 10 Assessment of risk. This chapter presents an integrated account of calculated risks and a comparison with criteria stipulated by the regulatory authorities. Chapter 11 Conclusions. The conclusions of the present safety assessment are presented in this chapter, and major changes made compared with previous safety assessments are summarized

  9. Safety analysis SFR 1. Long-term safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-12-15

    evolution of the repository's properties, its environs and the biosphere. Chapter 8 Description of calculation cases. This chapter describes the calculation cases that are used to illustrate the radiological consequences of the scenarios that have been judged to be of importance in the scenario analysis. Chapter 9 Radionuclide transport and dose calculations. The results of radionuclide transport and dose calculations are reported in this chapter. Chapter 10 Assessment of risk. This chapter presents an integrated account of calculated risks and a comparison with criteria stipulated by the regulatory authorities. Chapter 11 Conclusions. The conclusions of the present safety assessment are presented in this chapter, and major changes made compared with previous safety assessments are summarized

  10. Evaluation of repository safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagar, B.; Patrick, W.; Dasgupta, B.; Mohanty, S. [Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, San Antonio (United States)

    2002-07-01

    The United States high-level waste program requires evaluation of radiological safety during two distinct time intervals. The first interval, commonly referred to as the preclosure period, deals with receipt of waste at the site, transfer into disposal containers, if needed, emplacement in the underground openings, monitoring and maintenance activities, backfill and closure of the underground openings, and decontamination and decommissioning of the surface facilities of the geologic repository. The preclosure period may extend from a few tens of years to as long as a few hundred of years, depending on repository design and societal norms regarding a final decision to permanently seal the repository. During the preclosure or operational period, performance confirmation studies are conducted to provide a basis for updating and reevaluating estimates of postclosure performance and, finally, to provide a basis for a closure decision. The postclosure period during which expected repository performance must meet certain standards may range from ten thousands years, as it does in the United States, to millions of years, as it does in some European nations. Waste handling operations in the preclosure period are to be evaluated in relation to their potential effect on workers, members of general public, and the general environment. During this period, releases of radioactivity are to be monitored and appropriate actions taken whenever established limits are approached or exceeded. Preclosure safety is highly dependent on facility design, operational hardware and automated systems, operational sequences, and reliability of humans involved in operations. Preclosure safety analyses conducted before operations begin play a major role in the design process, selection of equipment, and development of operational procedures. Because of the complexity, duration, and spatial scales of the operations, analyses are conducted using mathematical models implemented in computer codes

  11. Evaluation of repository safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagar, B.; Patrick, W.; Dasgupta, B.; Mohanty, S.

    2002-01-01

    The United States high-level waste program requires evaluation of radiological safety during two distinct time intervals. The first interval, commonly referred to as the preclosure period, deals with receipt of waste at the site, transfer into disposal containers, if needed, emplacement in the underground openings, monitoring and maintenance activities, backfill and closure of the underground openings, and decontamination and decommissioning of the surface facilities of the geologic repository. The preclosure period may extend from a few tens of years to as long as a few hundred of years, depending on repository design and societal norms regarding a final decision to permanently seal the repository. During the preclosure or operational period, performance confirmation studies are conducted to provide a basis for updating and reevaluating estimates of postclosure performance and, finally, to provide a basis for a closure decision. The postclosure period during which expected repository performance must meet certain standards may range from ten thousands years, as it does in the United States, to millions of years, as it does in some European nations. Waste handling operations in the preclosure period are to be evaluated in relation to their potential effect on workers, members of general public, and the general environment. During this period, releases of radioactivity are to be monitored and appropriate actions taken whenever established limits are approached or exceeded. Preclosure safety is highly dependent on facility design, operational hardware and automated systems, operational sequences, and reliability of humans involved in operations. Preclosure safety analyses conducted before operations begin play a major role in the design process, selection of equipment, and development of operational procedures. Because of the complexity, duration, and spatial scales of the operations, analyses are conducted using mathematical models implemented in computer codes

  12. Major disruption process in tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurita, Gen-ichi; Azumi, Masafumi; Tuda, Takashi; Takizuka, Tomonori; Tsunematsu, Toshihide; Tokuda, Shinji; Itoh, Kimitaka; Takeda, Tatsuoki

    1981-11-01

    The major disruption in a cylindrical tokamak is investigated by using the multi-helicity code, and the destabilization of the 3/2 mode by the mode coupling with the 2/1 mode is confirmed. The evolution of the magnetic field topology caused by the major disruption is studied in detail. The effect of the internal disruption on the 2/1 magnetic island width is also studied. The 2/1 magnetic island is not enhanced by the flattening of the q-profile due to the internal disruption. (author)

  13. Fundamental Safety Principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelmalik, W.E.Y.

    2011-01-01

    This work presents a summary of the IAEA Safety Standards Series publication No. SF-1 entitled F UDAMENTAL Safety PRINCIPLES p ublished on 2006. This publication states the fundamental safety objective and ten associated safety principles, and briefly describes their intent and purposes. Safety measures and security measures have in common the aim of protecting human life and health and the environment. These safety principles are: 1) Responsibility for safety, 2) Role of the government, 3) Leadership and management for safety, 4) Justification of facilities and activities, 5) Optimization of protection, 6) Limitation of risks to individuals, 7) Protection of present and future generations, 8) Prevention of accidents, 9)Emergency preparedness and response and 10) Protective action to reduce existing or unregulated radiation risks. The safety principles concern the security of facilities and activities to the extent that they apply to measures that contribute to both safety and security. Safety measures and security measures must be designed and implemented in an integrated manner so that security measures do not compromise safety and safety measures do not compromise security.

  14. Safety assessments for potential exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, D.I.

    2012-04-01

    Safety Assessment of potential exposures have been carried out in major practices, namely: industrial radiography, gamma irradiators and electron accelerators used in industry and research, and radiotherapy. This paper focuses on reviewing safety assessment methodologies and using developed software to analyse radiological accidents, also review, and discuss these past accidents.The primary objective of the assessment is to assess the adequacy of planned or existing measures for protection and safety and to identify any additional measures that should be put in place. As such, both routine use of the source and the probability and magnitude of potential exposures arising from accidents or incidents should be considered. Where the assessment indicates that there is a realistic possibility of an accident affecting workers or members of the public or having consequences for the environment, the registrant or licensee should prepare a suitable emergency plan. A safety assessment for normal operation addresses all the conditions under which the radiation source operates as expected, including all phases of the lifetime of the source. Due account needs to be taken of the different factors and conditions that will apply during non-operational phases, such as installation, commissioning and maintenance. (author)

  15. Assessment of basic safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queniart, D.

    1996-01-01

    Work on the French-German common safety approach for future nuclear power plants continued in 1994 to allow for more detailed discussion of some major issues, taking into account the options provided by the industry for the EPR (European Pressurized water Reactor) project, as described in the document entitled 'Conceptual Safety Features Review File'. Seven meetings of a GPR/RSK advisory experts subgroup, six GPR/RSK plenary sessions and six meetings of the safety authorities (DFD) dealt with the following topics: design of the systems and use of probabilistic approaches, application of a 'break preclusion' approach to the main primary pipings, protection against external hazards (aircraft crashes, explosions, earthquakes), provisions with respect to accidents involving core melt and to containment design, radiological consequences of reference accidents and accidents involving core melt at low pressure. The important aspects of the joint policy are recalled in the presentation. The whole set of GPR/RSK recommendations were agreed by the French and German safety authorities during the DFD meetings of 1994 and early 1995. The utilities decided to begin the basic design phase in February, 1995. Work is now continuing to develop the common French-German approach for future nuclear power plants, in the same way as before. In 1995, this mainly covers the design of the containment and of the systems, but also new issues such as the protection against secondary side overpressurization, radiological protection of workers and radioactive wastes. (J.S.). 3 figs., 1 tab

  16. Nuclear safety in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanguy, P.

    1979-01-01

    A brief description of the main safety aspects of the French nuclear energy programme and of the general safety organization is followed by a discussion on the current thinking in CEA on some important safety issues. As far as methodology is concerned, the use of probabilistic analysis in the licensing procedure is being extensively developed. Reactor safety research is aimed at a better knowledge of the safety margins involved in the present designs of both PWRs and LMFBRs. A greater emphasis should be put during the next years in the safety of the nuclear fuel cycle installations, including waste disposals. Finally, it is suggested that further international cooperation in the field of nuclear safety should be developed in order to insure for all countries the very high safety level which has been achieved up till now. (author)

  17. Safety, risk and Harrisburg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titterton, E.

    1979-06-01

    The author discusses public attitudes to safety, industrial accidents and reactor accidents, in particular the accident at Three-Mile Island. Arguments in favour of nuclear power, including its relative safety, are presented

  18. Carbon Monoxide Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with the Media Fire Protection Technology Carbon monoxide safety outreach materials Keep your community informed about the ... KB | Spanish PDF 592 KB Handout: carbon monoxide safety Download this handout and add your organization's logo ...

  19. Farm Health and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the United States. Farms have many health and safety hazards, including Chemicals and pesticides Machinery, tools and ... inspection and maintenance can help prevent accidents. Using safety gloves, goggles and other protective equipment can also ...

  20. Fires and Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Forms FSIS United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service About FSIS District Offices Careers ... JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Fires and Food Safety Fire! Few words can strike such terror. Residential ...

  1. Swimming Pool Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Safety & Prevention Immunizations All Around At Home At Play ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Swimming Pool Safety Page Content ​What is the best way to ...

  2. Motor Vehicle Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... these crashes is one part of motor vehicle safety. Here are some things you can do to ... speed or drive aggressively Don't drive impaired Safety also involves being aware of others. Share the ...

  3. National Patient Safety Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Member Testimonials Lifetime Members Stand Up for Patient Safety Welcome Stand Up Members Stand Up e-News ... PLS Webcast Archives Stand Up Templates and Logos Patient Safety Coalition Coalition Overview Coalition Member Roster Members-Only ...

  4. Security vs. Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturgeon, Julie

    1999-01-01

    Provides administrative advice on how some safety experts have made college campuses safer and friendlier without breaking the budget. Tips on security and advice on safety management that encompasses the whole environment are highlighted. (GR)

  5. Fire Safety (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Fire Safety KidsHealth / For Parents / Fire Safety What's in ... event of a fire emergency in your home. Fire Prevention Of course, the best way to practice ...

  6. National Safety Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... work, in homes and communities, and on the road through leadership, research, education and advocacy. NSC Newsletter Sign up for our newsletter! Like Us on Facebook National Safety Council © National Safety Council. All rights reserved. Contact ...

  7. Gun Safety (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Gun Safety KidsHealth / For Kids / Gun Safety What's in ... from guns outside the home. If You Have Guns in Your Home If your parents keep guns ...

  8. General safety aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    In this part next aspects are described: (1) Priority to safety; (2) Financial and human resources;; (3) Human factor; (4) Operator's quality assurance system; (5) Safety assessment and Verification; (6) Radiation protection and (7) Emergency preparedness

  9. MICROBIOLOGICAL SAFETY BIBLIOGRAPHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    More than a thousand articles on biological safety in infectious disease laboratories are listed for the use of supervisors responsible for the safety of laboratory personnel. An author index is included.

  10. Spacecraft Fire Safety Demonstration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the Spacecraft Fire Safety Demonstration project is to develop and conduct large-scale fire safety experiments on an International Space Station...

  11. Water safety and drowning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... among people of all ages. Learning and practicing water safety is important to prevent drowning accidents. ... Water safety tips for all ages include: Learn CPR . Never swim alone. Never dive into water unless ...

  12. Major KEEP Findings, 1971 - 1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamehameha Schools, Honolulu, HI. Kamehameha Early Education Project.

    This report lists the 34 major research findings from the Kamehameha Early Education Program (KEEP) for the years 1971-1975. Each finding is accompanied by a listing of KEEP technical reports and working papers which contain information relevant to that finding. Included among areas covered in the findings are: (1) student motivation, (2) teacher…

  13. Dynamic range majority data structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmasry, Amr Ahmed Abd Elmoneim; He, Meng; Munro, J. Ian

    2011-01-01

    Given a set P of n coloured points on the real line, we study the problem of answering range α-majority (or "heavy hitter") queries on P. More specifically, for a query range Q, we want to return each colour that is assigned to more than an α-fraction of the points contained in Q. We present a ne...

  14. Understanding Business Majors' Learning Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, James; Rochford, Regina A.

    2005-01-01

    Recently, business education programs have experienced a decline in enrollment and an increase in attrition. To understand these issues and recommend solutions, the learning styles of 503 first-year business majors at an urban community college were examined. The results demonstrated that: (a) 94% of the participants were analytic learners; (b)…

  15. Epidemiology of major depressive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegenga, B.T.

    2011-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a serious health problem and will be the second leading cause of burden of disease worldwide by 2030. To be able to prevent MDD, insight into risk factors for the onset of MDD is of clear importance. On the other hand, if onset of MDD has occurred, one may argue

  16. Rediscovering Major N. Clark Smith.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Reginald T.

    1985-01-01

    Historians of American music education have yet to recognize a Black music educator as important and worthy of observation. This article discusses a candidate--Major Nathaniel Clark Smith, a little-known Black music educator, composer of more than a hundred works, businessman, humanitarian, and teacher of numerous big-name jazz musicians. (RM)

  17. Endocrinopathies in thalassemia major patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubis, D. A.; Yunir, E. M.

    2018-03-01

    Advanced in chelation therapy and regular blood transfusion have marked improvements in the life expectancy of patients with thalassemia major, however these patients still have to deal with several complications. We report a 19-year-old male, presented with multiple endocrine complication-related thalassemia; hypogonadism, short stature, osteoporosis with history of fracture, and subclinical hypothyroid.

  18. Physics momentum 'stars' draw majors

    CERN Multimedia

    Lindström, I

    2003-01-01

    Over the past decade, the number of University of Arizona students declaring physics as their major has doubled, amid a national decline. According to a recent report by the National Task Force on Undergraduate Physics, it is the university's dedication to its undergraduate physics program which draws students in (1 page).

  19. Major Depression Can Be Prevented

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Ricardo F.; Beardslee, William R.; Leykin, Yan

    2012-01-01

    The 2009 Institute of Medicine report on prevention of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders (National Research Council & Institute of Medicine, 2009b) presented evidence that major depression can be prevented. In this article, we highlight the implications of the report for public policy and research. Randomized controlled trials have shown…

  20. Dirichlet polynomials, majorization, and trumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Rajesh; Plosker, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Majorization and trumping are two partial orders which have proved useful in quantum information theory. We show some relations between these two partial orders and generalized Dirichlet polynomials, Mellin transforms, and completely monotone functions. These relations are used to prove a succinct generalization of Turgut’s characterization of trumping. (paper)